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Sample records for albino mice showed

  1. Metabolic rate and thermal insulation in albino and hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Mount, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    1. Rates of oxygen consumption of albino and hairless mice were measured in a metabolism chamber during periods of approximately 5 or 24 hr. Rectal temperature was measured before and after each period. The chamber temperatures used were 22, 30 and 32° C for both albino and hairless, and in addition 34 and 36° C for the hairless mice. 2. The mean age and body weight of the albino mice were 102 days and 34·6 g; the corresponding values for the hairless mice were 87 days and 32·8 g. 3. The mean minimum rates of oxygen consumption (ml./kg.min) were 31·0 for the albino and 38·8 for the hairless mouse; the corresponding estimated critical temperatures were in the ranges 30-32° C for the albino mouse and 32-34° C for the hairless mouse. 4. The mean values for core-ambient thermal insulation (° C.m2.hr/kcal) were 0·418 and 0·328 for the albino mouse, and 0·275 and 0·221 for the hairless mouse, at 22 and 30° C respectively in each case. PMID:5097602

  2. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  3. Retinal compensatory changes after light damage in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Montalbán-Soler, Luis; Alarcón-Martínez, Luis; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrízio; García-Ayuso, Diego; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the anatomic and functional changes triggered by light exposure in the albino mouse retina and compare them with those observed in the albino rat. Methods BALB/c albino mice were exposed to 3,000 lx of white light during 24 h and their retinas analyzed from 1 to 180 days after light exposure (ALE). Left pupil mydriasis was induced with topical atropine. Retinal function was analyzed by electroretinographic (ERG) recording. To assess retinal degeneration, hematoxylin and eosin staining, the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique, and quantitative immunohistofluorescence for synaptophysin and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) were used in cross sections. Intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase and Fluoro-Gold™ tracing were used in whole-mounted retinas to study the retinal vasculature and the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) population, respectively. Results Light exposure caused apoptotic photoreceptor death in the central retina. This death was more severe in the dorsal than in the ventral retina, sparing the periphery. Neither retinal vascular leakage nor retinal ganglion cell death was observed ALE. The electroretinographic a-wave was permanently impaired, while the b-wave decreased but recovered gradually by 180 days ALE. The scotopic threshold responses, associated with the inner retinal function, diminished at first but recovered completely by 14 days ALE. This functional recovery was concomitant with the upregulation of protein kinase Cα and synaptophysin. Similar results were obtained in both eyes, irrespective of mydriasis. Conclusions In albino mice, light exposure induces substantial retinal damage, but the surviving photoreceptors, together with compensatory morphological/molecular changes, allow an important restoration of the retinal function. PMID:22509098

  4. Effect of Atorvastatin on Memory in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    M.C., Das; Rao A.S.R., Srinivasa; Kadali, SLDV Ramana Murty

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim and objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on learning and memory in albino mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty Swiss albino mice were divided into 5groups (n=6). In group2, group4 and group5 hyperlipidemia was induced by high fat diet (HFD) orally for 28days. Atrorvastatin was given to group3, group4 and group5 orally for 14 d. Learning and memory was evaluated with Hebb Williams’s maze, Elevated plus maze, Y maze and Step through latency. Continuous data were analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Scheffe multiple range test, discrete data were analyzed by Kruskal - Wallis test. The level of significance was 5% (p ≤ 0.05). Result and Conclusion: HFD treatment had shown significant increase in body weight, significant impairment in learning and memory (p < 0.05). Only atorvastatin treated group had shown better learning and memory in comparison to HFD group. Atorvastatin 10mg/kg and 20 mg/kg had reversed the HFD induced impairment of learning and memory but there was no significant difference between the doses (p > 0.05). PMID:25584244

  5. Distribution of melanopsin positive neurons in pigmented and albino mice: evidence for melanopsin interneurons in the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Valiente-Soriano, Francisco J.; García-Ayuso, Diego; Ortín-Martínez, Arturo; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Villegas-Pérez, Maria Paz; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Vugler, Anthony A.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Here we have studied the population of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in adult pigmented and albino mice. Our data show that although pigmented (C57Bl/6) and albino (Swiss) mice have a similar total number of ipRGCs, their distribution is slightly different: while in pigmented mice ipRGCs are more abundant in the temporal retina, in albinos the ipRGCs are more abundant in superior retina. In both strains, ipRGCs are located in the retinal periphery, in the areas of lower Brn3a+RGC density. Both strains also contain displaced ipRGCs (d-ipRGCs) in the inner nuclear layer (INL) that account for 14% of total ipRGCs in pigmented mice and 5% in albinos. Tracing from both superior colliculli shows that 98% (pigmented) and 97% (albino) of the total ipRGCs, become retrogradely labeled, while double immunodetection of melanopsin and Brn3a confirms that few ipRGCs express this transcription factor in mice. Rather surprisingly, application of a retrograde tracer to the optic nerve (ON) labels all ipRGCs, except for a sub-population of the d-ipRGCs (14% in pigmented and 28% in albino, respectively) and melanopsin positive cells residing in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) of the retina. In the CMZ, between 20% (pigmented) and 24% (albino) of the melanopsin positive cells are unlabeled by the tracer and we suggest that this may be because they fail to send an axon into the ON. As such, this study provides the first evidence for a population of melanopsin interneurons in the mammalian retina. PMID:25477787

  6. Reproductive toxic potential of panmasala in male Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Kumari, A; Mojidra, Bn; Gautam, Ak; Verma, Y; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-09-01

    Some ingredients of panmasala have the ability to penetrate the blood-testis barrier but the reproductive toxic potential of panmasala has not been studied. This study is aimed to assess the possible damage caused by panmasala to male reproductive system in mice. Swiss albino male mice were randomly divided into 7 groups receiving either standard control diet or panmasala-containing diet. Three doses (0.5%, 1.5% and 3%) of panmasala plain (PMP) as well as panmasala with tobacco (PMT)-gutkha were given for a period of 6 months. Assessment of organ weight, sperm count and morphology, spermatid count, sperm production, testicular 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activity and histology were conducted. A nonsignificant decrease in absolute and relative weight of testis and epididymis was observed. Spermatid count, sperm count and production were significantly decreased and 17β-HSD activity was found considerably declined at 3% of both PMP- and PMT-treated groups as compared to control. The histological observations revealed panmasala induced testicular damage. Abnormal morphology of sperm head shape was significantly elevated in higher doses of both types of panmasala-treated groups than control. The results suggests that panmasala has reproductive toxic potential and more alteration is seen with gutkha as compared to panmasala plain, indicating that similar effects might also be possible in humans. PMID:21343226

  7. Capsaicin provokes apoptosis and restricts benzo(a)pyrene induced lung tumorigenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Anandakumar, P; Kamaraj, S; Jagan, S; Ramakrishnan, G; Devaki, T

    2013-10-01

    Capsaicin (CAP), a constituent of red chilli and red pepper is exposed to exert compelling anticarcinogenic effects. In the present study, we examined the anti-tumorigenic potential of CAP on benzo(a)pyrene-induced mice lung tumorigenesis by analyzing the markers of apoptosis. Intraperitoneal administration of CAP (10mg/kg body weight) to Swiss albino mice suppressed the development of lung carcinoma by amending the protein expressions of apoptotic regulators p53, Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-3. The apoptotic-inducing nature of CAP was further confirmed by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, transmission electron microscopic study and ethidium bromide/acridine orange staining. The results obtained from the present study show that CAP inhibits the development of mice lung carcinogenesis through its ability to induce apoptosis. Our present findings provide the basis for further clinical exploration of CAP as an anti-carcinogenic compound against lung carcinogenesis. PMID:23747734

  8. Multi walled carbon nano tubes induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Kumud Kant; John, P J; Awasthi, Anjali; Awasthi, Kamlendra

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) were synthesized using chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. Swiss albino mice were orally administered with single dose of 60 and 100 mg/kg body weight of purified and functionalized MWCNTs suspended in water. The mice were autopsied on 7, 14, 21 and 28 days post exposure. Liver was taken out and part of it fixed in Bouin's solution for histopathological examinations. The remaining part was immersed in cold saline, blotted dry, weighed quickly and homogenized in ice cold buffer. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) was immediately measured in the supernatant. The MWCNTs in liver led to pathological changes, including injury to macrophages, cellular swelling, unspecific inflammation, spot necrosis and blood coagulation. Estimation of SOD and CAT showed altered levels in the experimental groups as compared to controls. Therefore, MWCNTs from manufactured and combustion sources in the environment can have adverse effects on human health. PMID:23000350

  9. Anti-seizure activity of flower extracts of Nepeta bractaeta in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Aslam, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid; Nizami, Qudsia; Khanam, Razia; Siddiqui, Aisha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupts the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethno pharmacological information of the plant, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bractaeta was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bracteata were observed for their antiepileptic activity by increased current Electroshock seizures (ICES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in ICES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. In ICES model, NBAE at higher dose showed 16.7 % and NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure and in PTZ model, NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure. From the experiments performed, it can be said that Nepeta bractaeta does possess anticonvulsant property.

  10. Anti-seizure activity of flower extracts of Nepeta bractaeta in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Aslam, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid; Nizami, Qudsia; Khanam, Razia; Siddiqui, Aisha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupts the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethno pharmacological information of the plant, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bractaeta was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bracteata were observed for their antiepileptic activity by increased current Electroshock seizures (ICES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in ICES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. In ICES model, NBAE at higher dose showed 16.7 % and NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure and in PTZ model, NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure. From the experiments performed, it can be said that Nepeta bractaeta does possess anticonvulsant property. PMID:27540346

  11. Experimental transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi through the genitalia of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Herrera, L; Urdaneta-Morales, S

    2001-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is usually transmitted by contact with the excreta of infected Triatominae; among non-vectorial infections, direct transmission through coitus has been proposed. We investigated this possibility by instilling, through the external meatus of the vagina and the penis of previously anesthetized NMRI albino mice, blood of mice infected with strains isolated from Didelphis marsupialis (opossum, strain CO57), Rattus rattus (rat, strain CO22) and human (strain EP). Some animals were allowed to copulate the same day of the instillation. In other experiments, the strains were inoculated in the scrotum. To determine the effect of immunosuppression, some mice were treated with cyclophosphamide 30 days post-instillation. Controls were instilled orally and ocularly. Vaginal instillation with strain CO22 produced systemic infection with tropism to the heart, skeletal muscle, skin, duodenum, pancreas, ovary and sternum. Scrotal inoculation with strain EP likewise invaded liver, spleen, lung, lymph nodes and urogenital organs; while strain CO57 invaded skeletal and cardiac muscle, pancreas, testis, and vas deferens. Penile infection with strain CO22 was detected by xenodiagnosis. Immunosuppression did not increase parasitemia of vaginally infected mice or controls. Mating did not produce infection. Our results show that contact of blood trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with genital mucosa can produce blood and tissue infections. These results are discussed in relation to reports of frequent experimental tropism of T. cruzi toward urogenital organs. PMID:11500777

  12. Antiplasmodial Effect of Anthocleista vogelii on Albino Mice Experimentally Infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei (NK 65)

    PubMed Central

    Gboeloh, Lebari Barine; Okon, Okpok Eta; Udoh, Samuel Effiong

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the antiplasmodial effect of the ethanolic stem bark extract of Anthocleista vogelii at different doses in albino mice infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei (NK 65). Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Five groups (B1–B3, D, and G) were infected with Plasmodium berghei berghei parasitized red blood cells. Groups D, H, and G served as the controls. Six days after infection, mice in groups B1, B2, and B3 were treated orally with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight of Anthocleista vogelii, respectively, for six executive days. Group D was treated with 5 mg/kg body weight of chloroquine while Group G was given distilled water. Group H was not infected and was not treated. It served as the normal control. The extracts exhibited significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent chemosuppression of P. berghei. The extract exhibited average chemosuppressive effects of 48.5%, 78.5%, and 86.6% at dose levels of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of saponins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, terpenes, alkaloids, and steroid. The acute toxicity (LD50) of the plant was estimated to be 3162 mg/kg body weight. It showed that the stem bark of A. vogelii possesses antiplasmodial property. PMID:24900913

  13. Anticonvulsant activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Melissa parviflora in experimentally induced Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Nizami, Qudsia; Asiaf, Asia; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Aslam, Mohammad; Khanam, Razia; Mujeeb, Mohammad; Umar, Sadiq; Siddiqi, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of whole plant extracts of Melissa parviflora using MES and PTZ induced seizures models. The dried whole plant was subjected to extraction in methanol and water. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical tests and the carbohydrate, flavonols, coumarins, glycosides and steroid were found to be present. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant of Melissa parviflora were observed for their anticonvulsant activity by Maximal Electroshock seizures (MES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in MES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. From the literature surveys as well experiments performed, it can be said that Melissa parviflora does pose anticonvulsant property. PMID:27298604

  14. Bioassay of Eucalyptus extracts for anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (eac) cells in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farhadul; Khatun, Hasina; Ghosh, Soby; Ali, MM; Khanam, JA

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antineoplastic activity of Eucalyptus extract (EuE) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods Preliminary examination of four plant extracts (namely Eucalyptus, Costus, Azadirachta, Feronia) has been done by observing the reduction ability of number of EAC cells in previously inoculated Swiss albino mice. Among them as EuE showed maximum capability, the whole study has been conducted with EuE only. Important parameters viz. enhancement of life span, reduction of average tumor weight etc. have been studied. In addition the effects of EuE on hematological parameters in both normal and EAC inoculated mice have been measured. Effect of EuE on normal peritoneal cells has also been studied. Results : EuE reduced tumor burden remarkably. It reduced the tumor growth rate and enhanced the life span of EAC bearing mice noticeably. It reversed back the hematological parameters towards normal, reduced the trasplantability of EAC cells and enhanced the immunomodulatory effects in mice. The host toxic effect of EuE in mice is minimum and mostly reversible with time. All such data have been compared with those obtained by running parallel experiments with bleomycin at dose 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusions The Eucalyptus extract may be considered as a potent anticancer agent for advanced researches. PMID:23569937

  15. Development of dog mammary tumor xenograft in immunosuppressed Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Rajmani, R S; Singh, Prafull Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, G Ravi; Sahoo, Aditya P; Santra, Lakshman; Saxena, Shikha; Singh, Lakshya Veer; Chaturvedi, Uttara; Saxena, Lovleen; Desai, G S; Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Jadon, N S; Tiwari, Ashok K

    2014-10-01

    Development and study of dog mammary tumour xenograft in immunosuppressed Swiss Albino Mice adds a new dimension in cancer research as dog tumors have many similarities with human tumors regarding progression, histopathology, molecular mechanism, immune response and therapy. Failure of the immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells leads to cancer progression and the fight between immune cells and cancer cells has a great role in understanding the mechanism of cancer progression and elimination. Rejection and acceptance of tumour xenograft depends on efficiency of CD4+, CD8+ and NK cell populations. In the present investigation, dog mammary tumor xenograft in cyclosporine-A and gamma-irradiated, immunosuppressed Swiss Albino mice was developed and the immune cell status of graft accepted and rejected mice was assessed. It was observed that all the major immune cells (CD4+, CD8+ and NK cells) play an equal role in tumour rejection. PMID:25345242

  16. Effect of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves extracts on thioacetamide induced hepatic cirrhosis in male albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.; Alrobai, Ali A.; Almalki, Daklallah A.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves extracts and their combination on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic cirrhosis were investigated in male albino mice. One hundred sixty mice were used in this study and were randomly distributed into eight groups of 20 each. Mice of group 1 served as controls. Mice of group 2 were treated with TAA. Mice of group 3 were exposed to TAA and supplemented with O. oleaster leaves extracts. Mice of group 4 were treated with TAA and supplemented with J. procera leaves extracts. Mice of group 5 were subjected to TAA and supplemented with O. oleaster and J. procera leaves extracts. Mice of groups 6, 7 and 8 were supplemented with O. oleaster, J. procera, and O. oleaster and J. procera leaves extracts respectively. Administration of TAA for six and twelve weeks resulted in a decline in body weight gain and increased the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Histopathological evaluations of hepatic sections from mice treated with TAA showed severe alterations including increase of fibrogenesis processes with structural damage. Treatment of mice with these extracts showed a pronounced attenuation in TAA induced hepatic cirrhosis associated with physiological and histopathological alterations. Finally, this study suggests that the supplementation of these extracts may act as antioxidant agents and could be an excellent adjuvant support in the therapy of hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:27081362

  17. Effect of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves extracts on thioacetamide induced hepatic cirrhosis in male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Attar, Atef M; Alrobai, Ali A; Almalki, Daklallah A

    2016-05-01

    The effect of Olea oleaster and Juniperus procera leaves extracts and their combination on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatic cirrhosis were investigated in male albino mice. One hundred sixty mice were used in this study and were randomly distributed into eight groups of 20 each. Mice of group 1 served as controls. Mice of group 2 were treated with TAA. Mice of group 3 were exposed to TAA and supplemented with O. oleaster leaves extracts. Mice of group 4 were treated with TAA and supplemented with J. procera leaves extracts. Mice of group 5 were subjected to TAA and supplemented with O. oleaster and J. procera leaves extracts. Mice of groups 6, 7 and 8 were supplemented with O. oleaster, J. procera, and O. oleaster and J. procera leaves extracts respectively. Administration of TAA for six and twelve weeks resulted in a decline in body weight gain and increased the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin. Histopathological evaluations of hepatic sections from mice treated with TAA showed severe alterations including increase of fibrogenesis processes with structural damage. Treatment of mice with these extracts showed a pronounced attenuation in TAA induced hepatic cirrhosis associated with physiological and histopathological alterations. Finally, this study suggests that the supplementation of these extracts may act as antioxidant agents and could be an excellent adjuvant support in the therapy of hepatic cirrhosis. PMID:27081362

  18. Radiomodulatory influence of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) leaf extract in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Maharwal, J; Samarth, R M; Saini, M R

    2003-12-01

    Radiomodulatory effect of Rajgira leaf extract against 6, 8 and 10 Gy gamma radiation has been evaluated by 30 day survival of Swiss albino mice. Animals of control groups (untreated irradiated) showed diarrhoea, ruffled hairs, epilation, facial edema and consistent decrease in body weight. These signs were less severe/absent in experimental groups (Rajgira treated irradiated), and recovery in body weight was also early and faster. Thirty day survivability was 66 per cent in control group, exposed to 6 Gy, whereas no animal survived beyond 14 and 10 days after irradiation with 8 and 10 Gy gamma rays respectively. However, 100, 60 and 25 percent survivability was observed in experimental groups at 6, 8 and 10 Gy respectively. Regression analysis of survival data showed that the LD50/30 values were 6.33 and 8.62 Gy for control and experimental animals respectively. The dose reduction factor (DRF) was computed as 1.36. A significant decrease in GSH content and increase in LPO level was observed in control animals, whereas in Rajgira pretreated irradiated animals the level of GSH was recorded significantly higher but LPO level decreased significantly. The results from the present study suggest that Rajgira pretreatment provide protection against gamma irradiation in mice. PMID:14669247

  19. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity of Xanthium indicum stem extract in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthium indicum stem is used in folk medicine of Bangladesh to control sugar in diabetic patients and to alleviate pain. The objective of the study was to evaluate antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Xanthium indicum stems (XISE) in mice. Methods Antihyperglycemic activity was measured by oral glucose tolerance tests in glucose-loaded Swiss albino mice. Antinociceptive activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal constrictions in acetic acid-induced gastric pain model in mice. Results The methanol extract of stems showed dose-dependent and statistically significant antihyperglycemic activity at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight (p values, respectively, < than 0.01, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.01). Highest reduction in blood glucose level (31.2%) was observed with the highest dose (400 mg) of the extract. A standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, reduced blood glucose levels by 46.2%, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight. In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract when administered at the afore-mentioned four doses, reduced the number of abdominal constrictions in mice, respectively, by 41.7, 50.0, 54.2, and 61.0%. In comparison, a standard antinociceptive drug, aspirin, when administered at a dose of 200 mg per kg body weight, reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 37.5%. Conclusion The experimental results obtained in the present study validate the use of X. indicum stems in folk medicines of Bangladesh to lower blood sugar in diabetic patients and to alleviate pain. PMID:24171758

  20. Neuropharmacological activities of Taxus wallichiana bark in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Hitender; Garg, Munish

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The bark of Taxus wallichiana is widely used for preparing a decoction and consumed as a tea by several tribal communities of the Indian subcontinent. The sedative, motor coordination, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of T. wallichiana bark and its ethylacetate fraction were evaluated in mice models of behavior analysis. Materials and Methods: The effects were evaluated on diazepam-induced sleeping time, elevated plus maze and light and dark box, and on the forced swimming test. General locomotor activity and motor coordination effects were evaluated in the actophotmeter and rota-rod tests respectively. Statistical Analysis: Results are expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA, followed by post-hoc Dunnett's test. *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 were considered as significant. Results: Both the hydroalcoholic extract and ethylacetate fraction showed a marked decrease in latency of sleep onset, prolonged the diazepam-induced sleeping time, decreased spontaneous locomotor activity; whereas ethylacetate fraction produced anxiolytic and antidepressant activity. Conclusions: Both hydroalcoholic extract and its ethylacetate fraction of the bark of T. wallichiana have bioactive principles, which induce neuropharmacological changes. PMID:26069368

  1. [EFFICACY OF A NEW MEBENDAZOLE FORMULATION FOR EXPERIMENTAL ECHINOCOCCUS GRANULOSUS LARVAL INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, F P; Kukhaleva, I V; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, G Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The problem of echinococcosis has acquired special urgency in Russia in the last 10 years. The dramatically worse epidemiological situation of echinococcosis in the country is suggested by just frequent cases of cystic echinococcosis in the indigenous population of Moscow and its region, including children. Currently, albendazole that is less toxic than mebendazole remains the drug of choice, However, some authors note that E. granulosus larval cysts are moresusceptible to mebendazole than to albendazole. Both drugs mainly show parasitological activity and have no larvicidal effect particularly in larval alveococcosis. Analysis of the results of chemotherapy, with a group of benzimidazole carbamates for echinococcosis in 6 clinical centers from 5 European countries (Italy, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, and Turkey) over the past 30 years showed that the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness was overestimated; thus, 40% of all parasitic larval cysts that were considered dead became active again after, 2 years after the treatment. The original oil micronized mebendazole suspension tested by us in albino mice with late-stage larval cystic echinococcosis showed the properties of a highly effective and safe systemic larvicide that caused prompt death in the entire parasite population in the treated animals even in extreme hyperinvasion when the baseline parasite weight was greater than the host's one. PMID:26827585

  2. Antispermatogenic and androgenic activities of various extracts of Hibiscus rosa sinesis in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Reddy, C M; Murthy, D R; Patil, S B

    1997-11-01

    The benzene chloroform and alcoholic extracts of the flowers of H.r.sinensis were administered (i.p.) at two different dose levels of 125 and 250 mg/kg body weight to adult male albino mice for 20 days. The results have shown decrease in the spermatogenic elements of testis and epididymal sperm count. High content of testicular cholesterol may be due to lowered androgen synthesis. The increase in the weight of accessory reproductive organs indicates the androgenicity of the plant extract itself, which is proved in the present study by testing the benzene extract in immature mice. PMID:9567744

  3. Simple generation of albino C57BL/6J mice with G291T mutation in the tyrosinase gene by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Seiya; Dinh, Tra Thi Huong; Kato, Kanako; Mizuno-Iijima, Saori; Tanimoto, Yoko; Daitoku, Yoko; Hoshino, Yoshikazu; Ikawa, Masahito; Takahashi, Satoru; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Yagami, Ken-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Single nucleotide mutations (SNMs) are associated with a variety of human diseases. The CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing system is expected to be useful as a genetic modification method for production of SNM-induced mice. To investigate whether SNM-induced mice can be generated by zygote microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 vector and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) donor, we attempted to produce albino C57BL/6J mice carrying the Tyr gene SNM (G291T) from pigmented C57BL/6J zygotes. We first designed and constructed a CRISPR/Cas9 expression vector for the Tyr gene (px330-Tyr-M). DNA cleavage activity of px330-Tyr-M at the target site of the Tyr gene was confirmed by the EGxxFP system. We also designed an ssDNA donor for homology-directed repair (HDR)-mediated gene modification. The px330-Tyr-M vector and ssDNA donor were co-microinjected into the pronuclei of 224 one-cell-stage embryos derived from C57BL/6J mice. We obtained 60 neonates, 28 of which showed the ocular albinism and absence of coat pigmentation. Genomic sequencing analysis of the albino mice revealed that the target of SNM, G291T in the Tyr gene, occurred in 11 mice and one founder was homozygously mutated. The remaining albino founders without Tyr G291T mutation also possessed biallelic deletion and insertion mutants adjacent to the target site in the Tyr locus. Simple production of albino C57BL/6J mice was provided by C57BL/6J zygote microinjection with px330-Tyr-M DNA vector and mutant ssDNA (G291T in Tyr) donor. A combination of CRISPR/Cas9 vector and optional mutant ssDNA could be expected to efficiently produce novel SNM-induced mouse models for investigating human diseases. PMID:24879364

  4. Dietary Yucca schidigera supplementation reduces arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Turkmen, Ruhi; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Sever, Emine

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera (Ys) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in arsenic-exposed mice. Forty Swiss albino male mice were divided into five equal groups. Group I (control group) was given normal diet and tap water for 28 days. Group II (arsenic group) was given normal diet and 100 mg/L arsenic along with drinking water for 28 days. Groups III-V were given three different doses of Ys (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in supplemented diet and arsenic (100 mg/L) along with drinking water throughout the entire period of 28 days. The arsenic significantly increased serum biochemical parameters and malondialdehyde levels in blood and tissue. However, arsenic significantly decreased tissue glutathione concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, dietary supplementation of Ys, in a dose-dependent manner, resulted in reversal of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, LPO and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, Ys also exhibited protective action against the arsenic-induced focal gliosis and hyperemi in brain, necrosis and degeneration in liver, degeneration and dilatation in Bowman's capsule of kidney and hyaline degeneration in heart tissue of mice. Consequently, our results demonstrate that Ys especially high-dose supplementation in diet decreases arsenic-induced oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerate of tissues in Swiss albino mice. PMID:22609855

  5. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    PubMed

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice. PMID:26823062

  6. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal properties of Manilkara zapota leaves in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Kumar Saha, Sajal; Abdur Rahman, S M

    2016-08-01

    Context Manilkara zapota (L.). P. Royen. (Sapotaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat pain, diarrhoea, inflammation, arthralgia, and other disorders. Objective Screening of Manilkara zapota leaves ethanol extract and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities in Swiss albino mice. Materials and methods The extract and various fractions (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) were tested for peripheral and central antinociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick method, respectively; castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model was used to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity at both doses. All the samples were administered once in a day and the duration of study was approximately 5 h. Results Ethanol extract (400 mg/kg), petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg), and ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) showed significant peripheral antinociceptive activity having 59.89, 58.24, and 46.7% (p < 0.001) of writhing inhibition, respectively, which is comparable with that of standard diclofenac (59.34% inhibition). The ethanol extract (400 mg/kg) and petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg) also showed promising central analgesic activity having 74.15 and 82.15% (p < 0.001) elongation of reaction time, respectively, at 90 min after administration of sample which is also similar to that obtained by morphine (85.84% elongation). In antidiarrhoeal activity screening, ethanol extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of defecation by 53.57 and 60.71%, respectively (p < 0.001) compared with that of loperamide (71.42%). Discussion and conclusion The findings of the studies demonstrated antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities of M. zapota leaves which could be the therapeutic option against pain and diarrhoeal disease. PMID:26799747

  7. Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; Bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

    2010-10-01

    The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil. PMID:21455447

  8. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A.M.; Ramnarayan, K.; Nalini, K.; Bairy, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001) reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia. PMID:21844991

  9. Anti hyperalgesic potentials of Laggera aurita in Swiss Albino mice.

    PubMed

    Olurishe, Temidayo Olutoyin; Mati, Fatima Guiet

    2014-01-01

    The ethnomedical uses of Laggera aurita (LA), including its anti-nociceptive properties have been documented in literature. This study evaluated the anti-hyperalgesic effects of the methanolic extract of LA (MELA) using chemically and mechanically induced hyperalgesia models. Acute toxicity and preliminary phytochemical screening were also conducted. The intraperitoneal median lethal dose was found to be 3807.88 mg/kg, while saponins, tannins and carbohydrates were found to be present in the plant material. MELA exhibited significant analgesic activity in the acetic acid induced writhing and Randall-Siletto tests. The 400 mg/kg dose of MELA exhibited a significant (p<0.001) analgesic activity which offered 19.75% inhibition above piroxicam in the acetic acid test. At 200 and 400 mg/kg MELA demonstrated comparative analgesia with pentazocine in the Randall-Siletto test. The study shows that MELA possesses anti-nociceptive principles and the presence of saponins, tannins and carbohydrates which have been previously associated with anti-hyperalgesia may be responsible for the pharmacological actions, thus authenticating the ethnomedical rationale for its anti-nociceptive uses. PMID:24374444

  10. Neuroprotective Effect of Lercanidipine- A Novel Calcium Channel Blocker in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adhimoolam, Mangaiarkkarasi; Perumal, Deepa Kameswari; Rajamohammed, Meher Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background The available conventional antiepileptics do not afford cure or prophylactic treatment and henceforth there is always a quest to explore new targets for management of convulsions. In this perspective, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers have been investigated in various animal models of epilepsy. Lercanidipine, a newer dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, is a potential candidate with its favourable lipid profile and longer duration of action. Objective (1) To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of lercanidipine alone and in combination with standard drug in adult male Swiss albino mice. (2) To evaluate the muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity of lercanidipine in adult male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30g were used to study the anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity using electroconvulsometer, rotarod and actophotometer apparatus respectively. The mice were divided into six groups of six animals in each group. Group 1 and 2 served as control (vehicle treated) and standard group respectively. Standard drug used to evaluate anticonvulsant effect is phenytoin sodium 25 mg/kg I.P. whereas muscle relaxant activity and locomotor activity is diazepam 4 mg/kg I.P., Group 3 and 4 received lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg I.P., respectively. Anticonvulsant models included group 5 and 6 and they were given combination of phenytoin sodium 12.5 mg/kg I.P., with lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg i.p, respectively. Abolition or reduction of tonic hind limb extension was considered as index of anticonvulsant activity whereas the balancing time of the animals in rod was recorded to asses muscle relaxant activity. The locomotor activity was recorded for 5 minutes. The data were analysed with one-way Analysis of Variance followed by post-hoc ‘Dunnett t-test’. Results Lercanidipine given alone in a dose of 1 and 3 mg/kg had significantly reduced the tonic hind limb extension

  11. Generating Chimeric Mice by Using Embryos from Nonsuperovulated BALB/c Mice Compared with Superovulated BALB/c and Albino C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Esmail, Michael Y; Qi, Peimin; Connor, Aurora Burds; Fox, James G; García, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    The reliable generation of high-percentage chimeras from gene-targeted C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells has proven challenging, despite optimization of cell culture and microinjection techniques. To improve the efficiency of this procedure, we compared the generation of chimeras by using 3 different inbred, albino host, embryo-generating protocols: BALB/cAnNTac (BALB/c) donor mice superovulated at 4 wk of age, 12-wk-old BALB/c donor mice without superovulation, and C57BL/6NTac-Tyr(tm1Arte) (albino B6) mice superovulated at 4 wk of age. Key parameters measured included the average number of injectable embryos per donor, the percentage of live pups born from the total number of embryos transferred to recipients, and the number of chimeric pups with high embryonic-stem-cell contribution by coat color. Although albino B6 donors produced significantly more injectable embryos than did BALB/c donors, 12-wk-old BALB/c donor produced high-percentage (at least 70%) chimeras more than 2.5 times as often as did albino B6 mice and 20 times more efficiently than did 4-wk-old BALB/c donors. These findings clearly suggest that 12-wk-old BALB/c mice be used as blastocyst donors to reduce the number of mice used to generate each chimera, reduce the production of low-percentage chimeras, and maximize the generation of high-percentage chimeras from C57BL/6 embryonic stem cells. PMID:27423145

  12. Antitumour effect of Diospyros cordifolia bark on Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-bearing Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudipta; Bhattacharya, Sanjib; Pramanik, Goutam; Haldar, Pallab Kanti

    2012-01-01

    Diospyros cordifolia Roxb. (Ebenaceae), commonly known as Indian ebony, is used traditionally for several medicinal purposes. In this study, the methanol extract of D. cordifolia bark (MEDC) was evaluated for its antitumour effect against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing Swiss albino mice. Twenty-four hours after intraperitoneal inoculation of tumour (EAC) cells in mice, MEDC was administered intraperitoneally at 25 and 50 mg kg⁻¹ bodyweight for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, half of the mice were sacrificed to determine the tumour volume, viable and non-viable tumour cell counts, and rest were kept alive for the assessment of median survival time and increase in life span. Haematological profiles were also determined. MEDC exhibited a marked decrease in tumour growth parameters and increased the survival rate of EAC-bearing animals. MEDC normalised the haematological parameters as compared with the EAC control mice. Therefore, this study demonstrated that D. cordifolia bark possessed remarkable antitumour efficacy. PMID:21985607

  13. Vetiver oil (Java) attenuates cisplatin-induced oxidative stress, nephrotoxicity and myelosuppression in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Sonali; Jothiramajayam, Manivannan; Ghosh, Manosij; Jana, Aditi; Chatterji, Urmi; Mukherjee, Anita

    2015-07-01

    Clinical efficacy of the widely used anticancer drug cisplatin is limited due to its adverse side effects in normal tissues mediated by oxidative stress. This study was aimed to investigate the protective effects of vetiver acetate oil, Java (VO) against cisplatin-induced toxicity in Swiss albino mice. The ameliorating potential was evaluated by orally priming the animals with VO at doses 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg bw for 7 days prior to cisplatin treatment. Acute toxicity in mice was induced by injecting cisplatin (3 mg/kg bw) intraperitoneally for 5 consecutive days. Significant attenuation of renal toxicity was confirmed by histopathological examination, lowered levels of serum blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and reduced DNA damage. VO also compensated deficits in the renal antioxidant system. VO intervention significantly inhibited DNA damage, clastogenic effects, and cell cycle arrest in the bone marrow cells of mice. Hematological parameters indicated attenuation of cisplatin-induced myelosuppression. Overall, this study provides for the first time that VO has a protective role in the abatement of cisplatin-induced toxicity in mice which may be attributed to its antioxidant activity. PMID:25910835

  14. Antitumor and antioxidant status of Terminalia catappa against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Naitik B.; Tigari, Prakash; Dupadahalli, Kotresha; Kamurthy, Hemalatha; Nadendla, Rama Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antitumor and antioxidant status of ethanol extract of Terminalia catappa leaves against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The leaves powder was extracted with Soxhlet apparatus and subjected to hot continuous percolation using ethanol (95% v/v). Tumor bearing animals was treated with 50 and 200 mg/kg of ethanol extract. EAC induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells 1 × 106 cells/mice. The study was assed using life span of EAC-bearing hosts, hematological parameters, volume of solid tumor mass and status of antioxidant enzymes such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were also determined. Results: Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were found 354.02 and 51.67 mg/g extract. Oral administration of ethanol extract of T. catappa (50 and 200 mg/kg) increased the life span (27.82% and 60.59%), increased peritoneal cell count (8.85 ± 0.20 and 10.37 ± 0.26) and significantly decreased solid tumor mass (1.16 ± 0.14 cm2) at 200 mg/kg as compared with EAC-tumor bearing mice (P < 0.01). Hematological profile including red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin (11.91 ± 0.47 % g) and protein estimation were found to be nearly normal levels in extract-treated mice compared with tumor bearing control mice. Treatment with T. catappa significantly decreased levels of LPO and GSH, and increased levels of SOD and CAT activity (P < 0.01). Conclusion: T. catappa exhibited antitumor effect by modulating LPO and augmenting antioxidant defense systems in EAC bearing mice. The phenolic and flavonoid components in this extract may be responsible for antitumor activity. PMID:24130380

  15. Evaluation of radioprotective effects of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) extract in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Anita; Kumar, Ashok

    2005-06-01

    The radioprotective efficacy of aqueous extract of Rajgira (Amaranthus paniculatus) leaves against whole body gamma radiation was studied in Swiss albino mice. The oral administration of Rajgira extract at 800 mg/kg body weight/day for 15 consecutive days before whole body exposure to radiation was found to be effective with the LD50/30 values of 6.33 and 8.62 Gy for irradiation alone and Rajgira+irradiation group, respectively, giving a dose reduction factor of 1.36. This effect of Rajgira accompanied the increased endogenous spleen colonies and the spleen weight without any side effect or toxicity, as well as the modulation of the radiation-induced decrease of reduced glutathione and the radiation-induced increase in lipid peroxidation assessed in the liver and the blood. PMID:15988142

  16. Differential effects of retinal degeneration on sleep and wakefulness responses to short light-dark cycles in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, F-C; Liao, Y-H; Tsai, L-L

    2013-09-17

    This study characterizes the different response patterns of sleep and wakefulness (W) to short light-dark (LD) cycles in albino mice and examines whether retinal degeneration resulting from prolonged bright light treatment and/or rd/rd mutation alters such response patterns. Eight young male Institute for Cancer Research (ICR) mice with normal eyes, seven young male rd/rd Friend Virus B type (FVB) mice, six young ICR and five young rd/rd FVB mice receiving 48-h bright light treatment, and five older rd/rd FVB mice were implanted with skull and muscle electrodes to record sleep and W. All the mice were maintained in 12-h-12-h LD cycles at baseline and received 2 days of short LD cycle treatment, which included 5-min-5-min LD cycles for a total of 24 cycles presented 4h after lights-on and again 4h after lights-off. All the five mouse groups maintained photo-entrainment of sleep and W rhythms at the baseline and showed a preference for paradoxical sleep (PS) occurrence in the 5-min dark period and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) in the 5-min light period and a brief alerting effect of light onset on experimental days. Retinal degeneration rising from bright light treatment and/or genetic mutation failed to eliminate or reduce the response of PS and NREMS to short LD cycles, although it enhanced the LD contrast of W, i.e., bright light treatment prolonged the alerting effect of light and the rd mutation increased the suppressing effect of the dark on W. These results suggest that sleep responses to short LD cycles and the brief alerting effect of light were independent of the photoreceptors in the outer retina. Furthermore, the residual photoreceptors in the outer retina and/or the photosensitive cells in the inner retina may actively modulate the effect of light and dark signals on W. PMID:23811394

  17. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1(st), 2(nd), 4(th), 5(th), 7(th), and 10(th) weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  18. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 10th weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  19. Ameliorative Effects of Curcumin on Artesunate-Induced Subchronic Toxicity in Testis of Swiss Albino Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rajput, Dhrupadsinh K.; Patel, Pragnesh B.; Highland, Hyacinth N.

    2015-01-01

    India is one of the endemic areas where control of malaria has become a formidable task. Artesunate is the current antimalarial drug used to treat malaria, especially chloroquine resistant. The objective of the present study was to investigate the dose-dependent effect of oral administration of artesunate on the oxidative parameters in testes of adult male Swiss albino mice and ameliorative efficacy of curcumin, a widely used antioxidant. An oral dose of 150 mg/kg body weight (bwt; low dose) and 300 mg/kg bwt (high dose) of artesunate was administered for a period of 45 days to male mice, and ameliorative efficacy of curcumin was also assessed. The results revealed that artesunate caused significant alteration in oxidative parameters in dose-dependent manner. Administration of artesunate brought about significant decrease in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, whereas lipid peroxidation and glutathione-S-transferase activity were found to be significantly increased. The results obtained show that oxidative insult is incurred upon the intracellular antioxidant system of testis tissue by artesunate treatment. Further, administration of curcumin at the dose level of 80 mg/kg bwt along with both doses of artesunate attenuated adverse effects in male mice. PMID:26673878

  20. Histopathological evaluation of gastro protective effect of Berberis vulgaris (Zereshk) seeds against aspirin induced ulcer in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Wafa; Aslam, Bilal; Javed, Ijaz; Khaliq, Tanweer; Muhammad, Faqir; Ali, Asghar; Raza, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antiulcer activity of Berberis vulgaris (Zereshk) seeds in albino mice. After acclimatization, animals were divided into six equal groups. Aspirin 150 mg/kg was used to induce gastric ulcer in all groups except normal control. Omeprazole 20mg/kg was used as synthetic anti ulcer drug in study. Three dose levels of B. vulgaris seed powder 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg were used respectively orally. Histopathological analysis was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of B. vulgaris seed powder. Results of the study showed that in case of aspirin treated mice gastric luminal mucosa villi were decreased in height or were absent. In the glandular region there was connective tissue proliferation and also infiltration of cells. Similar infiltration of cells was present on muscularis mucosa. In esophageal region tumor cells were present. However three dose levels of B. vulgaris significantly reduced the tissue proliferation, infiltration of cells and sloughing induced by aspirin. Highest dose of B. vulgaris (900 mg/kg) showed similar results as synthetic antiulcer drug omeprazole. PMID:26639472

  1. Assessment of Immunotoxicity of Dextran Coated Ferrite Nanoparticles in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Syama, Santhakumar; Gayathri, Viswanathan; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2015-01-01

    In this study, dextran coated ferrite nanoparticles (DFNPs) of size <25 nm were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and oxidative stress by in vitro and in vivo methods. Cytotoxicity was performed in vitro using splenocytes with different concentrations of DFNPs. Gene expression of selected cytokines (IL-1, IL-10, and TNF β) secretion by splenocytes was evaluated. Also, 100 mg of DFNPs was injected intraperitoneally to 18 albino mice for immunological stimulations. Six animals each were sacrificed at the end of 7, 14, and 21 days. Spleen was subjected to immunotoxic response and liver was analyzed for antioxidant parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase). The results indicated that DFNPs failed to induce any immunological reactions and no significant alternation in antioxidant defense mechanism. Also, mRNA expression of the cytokines revealed an increase in IL-10 expression and subsequent decreased expression of IL-1 and TNF β. Eventually, DNA sequencing of liver actin gene revealed base alteration in nonconserved regions (10–20 bases) of all the treated groups when compared to control samples. Hence, it can be concluded that the DFNPs were nontoxic at the cellular level and nonimmunotoxic when exposed intraperitoneally to mice. PMID:26576301

  2. In vivo DNA damaging and apoptotic potential of silver nanoparticles in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Al Gurabi, Mohammed A; Ali, Daoud; Alkahtani, Saad; Alarifi, Saud

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles can potentially cause adverse effects on organs, tissue, cell levels, and protein levels because of their physicochemical properties. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are being used on a wide scale in world consumer markets; their potential hazards for humans remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the intraperitoneal toxicity of AgNPs (26 mg per kg of body weight, 52 mg per kg of body weight, and 78 mg per kg of body weight) over 72 hours in Swiss albino mice. AgNPs induced a significant increase in serum liver injury markers including alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Induction of DNA damage was also studied in mice injected with AgNPs. Apoptosis (detected by using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphatase nick end labeling assay method) in liver tissue and DNA strand breaks (detected by using the comet assay method) in lymphocytes revealed that a concentration of 78 mg of AgNPs per kg body weight can cause significant apoptosis and DNA damage. The DNA damage and apoptosis raise the concern about the safety associated with application of the AgNPs. Significantly more alterations were induced in the hepatocytes of animals exposed to AgNP doses than in the control animals. The induced histological and apoptotic changes may be due to AgNP toxicity. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural of AgNP. PMID:25674004

  3. Patulin in apple juice and its risk assessments on albino mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Hazmi, Mansour A

    2014-07-01

    The contamination of apple juice with patulin mycotoxin is a major risk factor in food safety. This study focuses to assess the biochemical and histopathological effects of patulin in apple juice samples collected from different outlets retailing in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. On the basis of the selected dose level, 152.5 ppb patulin/ml was administered daily orally for up to 6 weeks to male albino mice. The exposure to contaminated samples revealed significant elevation of all the studied blood parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities as well as creatinine, urea and uric acid contents). On the other hand, and with regard to the accumulated neuronal toxicity of the tested dose level, the toxic signs were recorded as significant increase in the aggressive and locomotor behavioral changes. In addition, the brain areas monoamines concentration revealed variable increased changes. The potential maximal changes in norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin5-hydroxytryptamine levels attained in cortex, hypothalamus, striatum, hippocampus, midbrain and pons and medulla were assessed. Moreover, the histological examination revealed degeneration and necrosis in liver tissues and degenerated glomeruli and hemorrhage between the tubules of the cortical region in kidney tissues. The study declared that patulin-contaminated (152.5 ppb) apple juice exhibited liver, kidney and neurotoxicological effects in 6 weeks orally administered mice. PMID:23012343

  4. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Bark of Psidium Guajava in Albino Rats and Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. Aim: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Materials and Methods: Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. Conclusion: AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:25386462

  5. Inhibition of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by Manilkara zapota L. stem bark in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Osman, M Abu; Rashid, M Mamunur; Aziz, M Abdul; Habib, M Rowshahul; karim, M Rezaul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antitumor activity of Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) L. stem bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods The in vivo antitumour activity of the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. (EASM) was evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw against EAC using mean survival time. After administration of the extract of M. zapota, viable EAC cell count and body weight in the EAC tumour hosts were observed. The animal was also observed for improvement in the haematological parameters (e.g., heamoglobin content, red and white blood cells count and differential cell count) after EASM treatment. Results Intraperitoneal administration of EASM reduced viable EAC cells, increased the survival time, and restored altered haematological parameters. Significant efficacy was observed for EASM at 100 mg/kg dose (P<0.05). Conclusions It can be concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. possesses significant antitumour activity. PMID:23569811

  6. Clastogenic Effects of Glyphosate in Bone Marrow Cells of Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Sahdeo; Srivastava, Smita; Singh, Madhulika; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2009-01-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, C3H8NO5P), a herbicide, used to control unwanted annual and perennial plants all over the world. Nevertheless, occupational and environmental exposure to pesticides can pose a threat to nontarget species including human beings. Therefore, in the present study, genotoxic effects of the herbicide glyphosate were analyzed by measuring chromosomal aberrations (CAs) and micronuclei (MN) in bone marrow cells of Swiss albino mice. A single dose of glyphosate was given intraperitoneally (i.p) to the animals at a concentration of 25 and 50 mg/kg b.wt. Animals of positive control group were injected i.p. benzo(a)pyrene (100 mg/kg b.wt., once only), whereas, animals of control (vehicle) group were injected i.p. dimethyl sulfoxide (0.2 mL). Animals from all the groups were sacrificed at sampling times of 24, 48, and 72 hours and their bone marrow was analyzed for cytogenetic and chromosomal damage. Glyphosate treatment significantly increases CAs and MN induction at both treatments and time compared with the vehicle control (P < .05). The cytotoxic effects of glyphosate were also evident, as observed by significant decrease in mitotic index (MI). The present results indicate that glyphosate is clastogenic and cytotoxic to mouse bone marrow. PMID:20107585

  7. Tuftsin Augments Antitumor Efficacy of Liposomized Etoposide against Fibrosarcoma in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Arif; Khan, Aijaz A; Dwivedi, Varun; Ahmad, Manzoor G; Hakeem, Seema; Owais, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Anticancer drugs are generally plagued by toxic manifestations at doses necessary for control of various forms of cancer. Incorporating such drugs into liposomes not only reduces toxicity but also enhances the therapeutic index. Some antioxidants and potent immunomodulators have also been shown to impart significant antitumor activity presumably by nonspecific activation of the host immune system. In the present study, we evaluated augmentation of the antitumor activity of etoposide (ETP) by the immunomodulator tuftsin in Swiss albino mice with fibrosarcoma. The efficacies of the free form of ETP, liposomized ETP (Lip-ETP), and tuftsin-bearing liposomized ETP (Tuft-Lip-ETP) formulations were evaluated on the basis of tumor regression, effect on expression level of p53wt and p53mut, and survival of the treated animals. Tuft-Lip-ETP, when administered at a dosage of 10 mg/kg body weight/day for five days, significantly reduced tumor volume, delayed tumor growth, and also up-regulated the expression of p53wt. In contrast, although Lip-ETP delayed tumor growth, it did not decrease tumor size. The results of the present study suggest that tuftsin incorporation in drug-loaded liposomes is a promising treatment strategy for various forms of cancers, including fibrosarcoma. PMID:17622310

  8. [Comparative efficacy of albendazole and mebendazole oily suspensions in albino mice with experimental larval alveococcosis].

    PubMed

    Kovalenko, F P; Kukhaleva, I V; Shkoliar, N A; Legon'kov, Iu A

    2013-01-01

    The comparative efficacy of albendazole and mebendazole oily suspensions (AOS and MOS) was studied in an experimental model of experimental larval alveococcosis in albino mice. The animals were intragastrically injected with the agents once daily for 40 days on day 35 after intraperitoneal inoculation with E. multilocularis acephalocysts. They were dissected 29 days after treatment termination (103 days following inoculation) and the rate of infestation and viability and the degree of maturity of developed alveococcosis larvocysts (AL) were determined. The AOS and MOS efficiency estimated by the mean mass of AL per animal was 83.3 and 98.1%, respectively; whereas the similar indicator calculated by one largest AL weight per animal found among all the animals in the compared groups was equal to 57.7 and 96.9%, respectively. Under the equal conditions of solubilization in vegetable oil, the biological activity and bioavailability of mebendazole were shown to increase to a much greater extent than those of albendazole. The findings suggest that the use of mebendazole is promising for designing new vegetable oil-based formulations of the agent. PMID:24003516

  9. Ganoderma lucidum total triterpenes attenuate DLA induced ascites and EAC induced solid tumours in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Smina, T P; Mathew, J; Janardhanan, K K

    2016-01-01

    G. lucidum total triterpenes were assessed for its apoptosis-inducing and anti-tumour activities. The ability of the total triterpenes to induce apoptosis was evaluated in Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cell lines. Total triterpenes were found to be highly cytotoxic to DLA and EAC cell lines with IC50 values 5 ± 0.32 and 7.9 ± 0.2 µg/ml respectively. Total triterpenes induced apoptosis in both cell lines which is evident from the DNA fragmentation assay. Anti-tumour activity was accessed using DLA induced solid and EAC induced ascites tumour models in Swiss albino mice. Administration of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes showed 11.86, 27.27 and 40.57% increase in life span of animals in ascites tumour model. Treatment with 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg b. wt. total triterpenes exhibited 76.86, 85.01 and 91.03% inhibition in tumour volume and 67.96, 72.38 and 77.90% inhibition in tumour weight respectively in the solid tumour model. The study reveals the significant dose-dependent anti-tumour activity of total triterpenes in both models. Total triterpenes were more active against the solid tumour than the ascites tumour. The anti-oxidant potential and ability to induce cell-specific apoptosis could be contributing to its anti-tumour activities. PMID:27188870

  10. Delineating the antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic potentials of 4-methylimidazole against ethyl methanesulfonate toxicity in bone marrow cell of swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Norizadeh Tazehkand, M; Topaktas, M; Yilmaz, M B; Hajipour, O; Valipour, E

    2016-01-01

    4-Methylimidazole (4-MEI) is mostly used in beverages and coloring food, dark beers and common brands of cola drinks, which may contain more than 100 μg of this compound per 12-ounce serving. This study was aimed to investigate the antigenotoxic and anticytotoxic effects of 4-MEI (100, 130 and 160 mg/kg) against ethyl methanesulfonate (240 mg/kg) using chromosome aberrations (CAs) and Mitotic index (MI) tests in bone marrow cells of Swiss Albino Mice at 12 h and 24 h treatment periods. So, the t-test was used for the statistical analysis.In this research, 4-MEI at all concentrations for 12 h treatment period reduced chromosomal aberrations and at 130 and 160 mg/kg concentrations for 24 h treatment period increased chromosomal aberrations induced by EMS (240 mg/kg), but th ese reductions and increases were not significant. Also, intraperitoneal injection of 4-MEI at doses of 100, 130 and 160 mg/kg combined with EMS (240 mg/kg) showed that the mitotic index was decreased at 100 and 130 mg/kg for 12h and 130 mg/kg for 24 h treatment periods, when compared to positive sample (EMS), but did not show any statistically difference from the EMS treated group. It can be concluded that 4-MEI might not be antigenotoxic and protective effects in bone marrow cells of Swiss Albino Mice, because 4-MEI could not reduce the chromosomal aberrations induced by EMS. PMID:27215965

  11. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Artemisia afra on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Issa, Idris Ahmed; Hussen Bule, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome that causes disability, early death, and many other complications. Currently insulin and many synthetic drugs are used in diabetes treatment. However, these pharmaceutical drugs are too expensive particularly for sub-Saharan population in addition to their undesirable side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect and toxicity level of Artemisia afra which was collected from its natural habitat in Bale Zone, around Goba town, 455 km southeast of Addis Ababa. Air dried aerial parts of Artemisia afra were separately extracted with both distilled water and 95% methanol. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted on healthy Swiss albino mice. Antidiabetic effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Artemisia afra was separately evaluated on alloxan induced diabetic mice at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/Kg body weight orally. The results indicate that mean lethal dose (LD50) for aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was 9833.4 mg/Kg. Blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 24% (p < 0.005) and 56.9% (p < 0.0004) in groups that received aqueous extract of Artemisia afra at dose of 500 mg/Kg and 750 mg/Kg, respectively. The methanolic extract of Artemisia afra also significantly lowered blood glucose by 49.8% (p < 0.0001) at doses of 1000 mg/kg on the 5th hr. Aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was regarded as nontoxic and safe since its LD50 was found above 5000 mg/Kg. Aqueous extract showed higher effect at relatively lower dose as compared to methanolic extract. The aqueous extract was screened positive for phytochemicals like flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins that were reported to have antioxidant activity. PMID:26345313

  12. Hypoglycemic Effect of Aqueous and Methanolic Extract of Artemisia afra on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Idris Ahmed; Hussen Bule, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is metabolic syndrome that causes disability, early death, and many other complications. Currently insulin and many synthetic drugs are used in diabetes treatment. However, these pharmaceutical drugs are too expensive particularly for sub-Saharan population in addition to their undesirable side effects. The present study was aimed to evaluate antidiabetic effect and toxicity level of Artemisia afra which was collected from its natural habitat in Bale Zone, around Goba town, 455 km southeast of Addis Ababa. Air dried aerial parts of Artemisia afra were separately extracted with both distilled water and 95% methanol. Oral acute toxicity test was conducted on healthy Swiss albino mice. Antidiabetic effect of the aqueous and methanolic extracts of Artemisia afra was separately evaluated on alloxan induced diabetic mice at doses of 500, 750, and 1000 mg/Kg body weight orally. The results indicate that mean lethal dose (LD50) for aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was 9833.4 mg/Kg. Blood glucose level was significantly decreased by 24% (p < 0.005) and 56.9% (p < 0.0004) in groups that received aqueous extract of Artemisia afra at dose of 500 mg/Kg and 750 mg/Kg, respectively. The methanolic extract of Artemisia afra also significantly lowered blood glucose by 49.8% (p < 0.0001) at doses of 1000 mg/kg on the 5th hr. Aqueous extract of Artemisia afra was regarded as nontoxic and safe since its LD50 was found above 5000 mg/Kg. Aqueous extract showed higher effect at relatively lower dose as compared to methanolic extract. The aqueous extract was screened positive for phytochemicals like flavonoids, polyphenols, and tannins that were reported to have antioxidant activity. PMID:26345313

  13. An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Effect of Memantine in Animal Models of Anxiety in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    AK, Afzal Khan; Shivaramegowda, Rekha M

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the adverse effects produced by the present conventional medicines for anxiety disorders, research for newer drugs is still desirable. From the literature it is evident that NMDA receptors play a key role in animal models of anxiety. Aim The present study is done to evaluate the antianxiety effect of memantine in swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods The experimental study was conducted from November 2014 to January 2015. Animals were divided into four groups. Twelve mice were randomly allotted in each group. Animals in the first group received normal saline as a control 10ml/kg, lorazepam 0.5mg/kg was administered to second group, memantine 3mg/kg as a test drug was given to the third group and memantine 3mg/kg + lorazepam 0.5mg/kg was administered to the fourth group. All the drugs were given for 7 consecutive days by intraperitoneal route. Results Results were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Post-hoc Tukey’s test. On the 1st day, memantine treated group did not show statistical significant anxiolytic effect in both the behavioural paradigms when compared to control group. On the 8th day, the animals showed significant decrease p<0.001 in step down latency period in shock free zone (185.4±3.87 Vs 278.3±5.49), significant increase p<0.001 in step down errors (6.8±0.78 Vs 1.4±0.19) and significant increase p<0.001 in total time spent in shock zone (32.1±2.22 Vs 5.6±0.6). In open field test, on 8th day the animals treated with memantine when compared to control group, showed significant increase p<0.001 in number of squares crossed (112.7± 2.69 Vs 83.2±2.96), time spent in central square (11.5±1.26 Vs 3.4±0.65), no. of rearings (32.4±2.61 Vs 17±1.81) and significant decrease p<0.001 in freezing time (15.2±1.12 Vs 20.2±2.29). Memantine showed synergistic antianxiety effect when combined with lorazepam. Conclusion Memantine showed significant anxiolytic effect in open field and passive avoidance response tests which are

  14. Oral supplementation of Ocimum basilicum has the potential to improves the locomotory, exploratory, anxiolytic behavior and learning in adult male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Zahra, K; Khan, M A; Iqbal, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project was to determine the effect of 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of Ocimum basilicum leaf extract on neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory, locomotory and short-term memory formation in male albino mice. Five weeks old, male albino mice were used as the experimental animals in order to demonstrate the effect of O. basilicum's extract on learning and memory. Each male albino mouse was weighted and orally treated either with 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of O. basilicum leaf extract or with commercially available saline solution (Otsuka, Pakistan) for 7 days. Behavioral observations were made by applying a series of neurological tests (Elevated plus maze, Light and dark box, Open field and Rota rod). Dose supplementation continued during neurological testing. It was observed that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract improves neuromuscular co-ordination and male albino mouse performance in open field, light dark box and during novel object test when compared with control group. We concluded that 100 mg/ml solvent/kg body weight of leaf extract has the potential to improve neuromuscular co-ordination, exploratory behavior, object recognition ability and transfer latency in male albino mice and can be safely administrated orally. PMID:25082078

  15. Histopathological studies of acute and chronic effects of Calliandra portoricensis leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas of adult Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Ofusori, David A; Adejuwon, Adebomi O

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the consequence of oral administration of Calliandra portoricensis (C. portoricensis) leaf extract on the stomach and pancreas in Swiss albino mice. Methods Three groups of mice (B, C and D) were treated with 4 mg/kg of C. portoricensis extract. Group A was the control and received an equivalent volume of distilled water. Group B received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 7 days, Group C received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 14 days, and Group D received C. portoricensis leaf extract for 28 days. At different stages in the study, the mice were sacrificed and the stomach and pancreas were excised and fixed in 10% formol saline for histological analysis. Results The result showed a normal microstructural outline in groups B and C as compared with the control. However, animals in group D showed disorganization of the mucosa and discontinuation of epithelial lining of the stomach while the islets of Langerans in the pancreas were at various degree of degeneration as compared with the control mice. Conclusions The present finding suggests that chronic administration (28 days as seen in this study) of C. portoricensis leaf extract may inhibit the proper function of the stomach and pancreas. PMID:23569755

  16. Comparison of the acute ultraviolet photoresponse in congenic albino hairless C57BL/6J mice relative to outbred SKH1 hairless mice.

    PubMed

    Konger, Raymond L; Derr-Yellin, Ethel; Hojati, Delaram; Lutz, Cathleen; Sundberg, John P

    2016-09-01

    Hairless albino Crl:SKH1-Hr(hr) mice are commonly utilized for studies in which hair or pigmentation would introduce an impediment to observational studies. Being an outbred strain, the SKH1 model suffers from key limitations that are not seen with congenic mouse strains. Inbred and congenic C57BL/6J mice are commonly utilized for modified genetic mouse models. We compare the acute UV-induced photoresponse between outbred SKH1 mice and an immune competent, hairless, albino C57BL/6J congenic mouse line [B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J]. Histologically, B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J skin is indistinguishable from that of SKH1 mice. The skin of both SKH1 and B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J mice exhibited a reduction in hypodermal adipose tissue, the presence of utricles and dermal cystic structures, the presence of dermal granulomas and epidermal thickening. In response to a single 1500 J/m(2) ultraviolet B dose, the oedema and apoptotic responses were equivalent in both mouse strains. However, B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J mice exhibited a more robust delayed sunburn reaction, with an increase in epidermal erosion, scab formation and myeloperoxidase activity relative to SKH1 mice. Compared with SKH1 mice, B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J also exhibited an aberrant proliferative response to this single UV exposure. Epidermal Ki67 immunopositivity was significantly suppressed in B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J mice at 24 h post-UV. A smaller non-significant reduction in Ki67 labelling was observed in SKH1 mice. Finally, at 72 h post-UV, SKH1 mice, but not B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J mice, exhibited a significant increase in Ki67 immunolabelling relative to non-irradiated controls. Thus, B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J mice are suitable for photobiology experiments. PMID:27095432

  17. [THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF MICRONIZED MEBENDAZOLE IN THE MUSCULAR PHASE OF EXPERIMENTAL TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    PubMed

    Kukhaleva, I V; Kovalenko, F P; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, A Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of trichinosis in Russia was 0.07 per 100,000 population in 2014, which was 2.9-fold higher than that in 2013. Two WHO recommended medications mebendazole and albendazole are now used to treat humari trichinosis. The drugs are active against only mature helminths and non-encysted muscle larvae. The original oil suspension of micronized mebendazole was.found to have 100% efficacy against trichinosis in albino mice in the late muscular phase (encysted larvae) of hyperinvasion after intensive therapy under lifetime diagnostic guidance during and after a treatment cycle. The lifetime diagnostic method used to evaluate the larvicidal activity of anti-trichinosis agents in animals with experimental trichinosis revealed the signs of viaility, established a trend for deatih of Trichinella larvae, and determined their destructive changes. PMID:26827586

  18. Evaluation of antitussive potential of Jussiaea suffruticosa linn. extract in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Murugesan, T; Ghosh, L; Mukherjee, P K; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    2000-11-01

    The antitussive activity of a methanol extract of Jussiaea suffruticosa Linn. (MEJS) (family Onagraceae) leaves has been evaluated for its potential on a cough induced by sulphur dioxide (SO(2)) gas model in mice. The extract (MEJS) showed significant antitussive activity in a dose dependent manner. The antitussive potential of MEJS was comparable to that of codeine phosphate (10 mg/kg), a standard drug. The extract (MEJS) at a dose level of 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. showed appreciable inhibition on the cough reflex by 48.52% and 59.8% respectively during 120 min of the experiment. PMID:11054846

  19. Squaraine PDT induces oxidative stress in skin tumor of swiss albino mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibin, T. R.; Gayathri, Devi D.; Ramaiah, D.; Abraham, Annie

    2010-02-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) using a sensitizing drug is recognized as a promising medical technique for cancer treatment. It is a two step process that requires the administration of a photosensitizer followed by light exposure to treat a disease. Following light exposure the photosensitizer is excited to a higher energy state which generates free radicals and singlet oxygen. The present study was carried out to assess the oxidative damage induced by bis (3, 5-diiodo-2, 4, 6- trihydroxyphenyl) squaraine in skin tumor tissues of mice with/ without light treatment. Skin tumor was induced using 7, 12-Dimethyl Benz(a)anthracene and croton oil. The tumor bearing mice were given an intraperitoneal injection with the squaraine dye. After 24h, the tumor area of a few animals injected with the dye, were exposed to visible light from a 1000 W halogen lamp and others kept away from light. All the mice were sacrificed one week after the PDT treatment and the oxidative profile was analyzed (TBARS, SOD, catalase, GSH, GPx and GR) in tumor/ skin tissues. The dye induces oxidative stress in the tumor site only on illumination and the oxidative status of the tumor tissue was found to be unaltered in the absence of light. The results of the study clearly shows that the tumor destruction mediated by PDT using bis (3, 5-diiodo-2, 4, 6-trihydroxyphenyl) squaraine as a photosensitizer is due to the generation of reactive oxygen species, produced by the light induced changes in the dye.

  20. Effects of 10-GHz microwaves on hematological parameters in Swiss albino mice and their modulation by Prunus avium.

    PubMed

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Rifat, Faiza; Sharma, Archana; Srivastava, Preeti; Sharma, K

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the modulatory role of Prunus avium fruit extract (PAE) on several blood parameters after exposure to 10-GHz microwaves. Swiss albino mice from an inbred colony were selected and divided into 3 groups. Mice in group I served as the control; they were placed in a Plexiglas cage (without energizing the system) for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Group II mice were exposed to 10-GHz microwaves for 2 hours/day for 30 consecutive days. Mice in group III received PAE (500 mg/kg/body weight) orally once daily 1 hour before exposure to 10-GHz microwaves (2 hours/day) for 30 consecutive days. After 30 days of treatment, blood samples were collected from mice in all groups and analyzed. Hemoglobin, monocytes, packed cell volume, red blood cells, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration declined significantly (P ≤ 0.01), whereas white blood cells, lymphocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and mean corpuscular volume increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01) compared to the control group (group I). Cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, and lipid peroxidation also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.01). Depletion in blood sugar, total protein, acid phosphatase, and glutathione levels was noted after microwave exposure compared with levels in the sham-exposed (control) mice. Histopathological alterations in blood cells also were seen. Signs of improvements in the hematological, biochemical, and histopathological parameters were recorded in group III, where PAE was supplemented before exposure. Exposure to microwaves influences hematological parameters, which could be ameliorated by the supplementation of PAE. PMID:24266407

  1. Antiplasmodial activity of eco-friendly synthesized palladium nanoparticles using Eclipta prostrata extract against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Rajakumar, Govindasamy; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Chung, Ill-Min; Kirthi, Arivarasan Vishnu; Marimuthu, Sampath; Anbarasan, Karunanithi

    2015-04-01

    Malaria is an infectious disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite that continues to be a health issue for humans. It is one of the most common pathogenic factors of morbidity and mortality. Palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) have been used as target antimicrobial compounds, as a catalyst to manufacture pharmaceuticals, degrade harmful environmental pollutants, and as sensors for the detection of various analyses. The aim of this study was to investigate the antiplasmodial activity of synthesized Pd NPs by using leaf aqueous extract of Eclipta prostrata against Plasmodium berghei in Swiss albino mice. The synthesized Pd NPs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and High-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) with the Selected area (electron) diffraction (SAED). The XRD peaks appeared at 35.61°, 44.27°, 56.40°, and 74.51°, which correspond to (111), (200), (220), and (311) planes for palladium, respectively. The FTIR spectra that were carried out to identify the potential biomolecule of synthesized Pd NPs showed the peaks at 3361, 1540, 1399, 1257, 1049, and 659 in the region of 4000-500 cm(-1). The SEM images showed aggregation of NPs with an average size of 63 ± 1.4. The HRTEM images of the precipitated solid phase obtained after termination of the reaction of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract were in the range from 18 to 64 nm with an average size of 27 ± 1.3 nm. The in vivo antiplasmodial assay was carried out as per Peters' 4-day suppressive test, and the synthesized Pd NP-treated mice group showed reduction of parasitemia by 78.13% with an inhibitory concentration (IC)50 value of 16.44 mg/kg/body weight. The growth inhibition of E. prostrata aqueous leaf extract, palladium acetate, and synthesized Pd NPs showed the IC20, IC50, and IC90 values of 1.90, 10.29, and 64.11; 4.49, 9.84, and 23.04; and 4.34, 8

  2. Functional and morphological effects of laser-induced ocular hypertension in retinas of adult albino Swiss mice

    PubMed Central

    Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Alarcón-Martínez, Luis; Valiente-Soriano, Francisco Javier; Ortín-Martínez, Arturo; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Villegas-Pérez, María Paz; de la Villa, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effects of laser photocoagulation (LP)-induced ocular hypertension (OHT) on the survival and retrograde axonal transport of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), as well as on the function of retinal layers. Methods Adult albino Swiss mice (35–45 g) received laser photocoagulation of limbal and episcleral veins in the left eye. Mice were sacrificed at 8, 17, 35, and 63 days. Intraocular pressure (IOP) in both eyes was measured with a Tono-Lab before LP and at various days after LP. Flash electroretinogram (ERG) scotopic threshold response (STR) and a- and b-wave amplitudes were recorded before LP and at various times after LP. RGCs were labeled with 10% hydroxystilbamidine methanesulfonate (OHSt) applied to both superior colliculi before sacrifice and in some mice, with dextran tetramethylrhodamine (DTMR) applied to the ocular stump of the intraorbitally transected optic nerve. Retinas were immunostained for RT97 or Brn3a. Retinas were prepared as whole-mounts and photographed under a fluorescence microscope. Labeled RGCs were counted using image analysis software, and an isodensity contour plot was generated for each retina. Results IOP increased to twice its basal values by 24 h and was maintained until day 5, after which IOP gradually declined to reach basal values by 1 wk. Similar IOP increases were observed in all groups. The mean total number of OHSt+ RGCs was 13,428±6,295 (n=12), 10,456±14,301 (n=13), 12,622±14,174 (n=21), and 10,451±13,949 (n=13) for groups I, II, III, and IV, respectively; these values represented 28%, 23%, 26%, and 22% of the values found in their contralateral fellow retinas. The mean total population of Brn3a+ RGCs was 24,343±5,739 (n=12) and 10,219±8,887 (n=9), respectively, for groups I and III; these values represented 49% and 20%, respectively, of the values found in their fellow eyes. OHT retinas showed an absence of OHSt+ and DTMR+ RGCs in both focal wedge-shaped and diffuse regions of the retina. By 1

  3. Toxicity and inflammatory response in Swiss albino mice after intraperitoneal and oral administration of polyurethane nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Silva, Adny H; Locatelli, Claudriana; Filippin-Monteiro, Fabíola B; Martin, Philip; Liptrott, Neill J; Zanetti-Ramos, Betina G; Benetti, Luana C; Nazari, Evelize M; Albuquerque, Cláudia A C; Pasa, André A; Owen, Andrew; Creczynski-Pasa, Tânia B

    2016-03-30

    In this work in vivo experiments were conducted in order to characterize the biocompatibility of polyurethane nanoparticles (PU-NPs) after intraperitoneal (i.p.) and oral administration. Additionally, ex vivo assays were performed to assess human blood compatibility as well as in vitro assays to assess protein binding. Our results indicated that administration of three different concentrations of PU-NPs induced a significant increase in visceral fat accumulation after oral dosing. In addition, fat tissue of mice intraperitoneally treated with the highest concentration of nanoparticles showed diffuse mononuclear inflammatory infiltrate in the fat tissue. Histopathological assessment showed inflammatory infiltrate and hepatocyte vacuolization in the liver, inflammatory infiltration and vascular congestion in the lung and glomerular necrosis in the kidney. Hepatic enzymes related with liver function were significantly increased in both groups of mice treated with PU-NPs. The PU-NPs did not affect the human blood cells number as well as coagulation time but showed a susceptibility to bind in proteins commonly found in the blood stream. In addition, increased amounts of pro inflammatory cytokines in vivo, as well as ex vivo in human cells were observed. Further studies to establish the consequences of long-term exposure to PU-NPs are warranted. PMID:26820842

  4. Effect of helium-neon laser irradiation on hair follicle growth cycle of Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shukla, S; Sahu, K; Verma, Y; Rao, K D; Dube, A; Gupta, P K

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a study carried out to investigate the effect of helium-neon (He-Ne) laser (632.8 nm) irradiation on the hair follicle growth cycle of testosterone-treated and untreated mice. Both histology and optical coherence tomography (OCT) were used for the measurement of hair follicle length and the relative percentage of hair follicles in different growth phases. A positive correlation (R = 0.96) was observed for the lengths of hair follicles measured by both methods. Further, the ratios of the lengths of hair follicles in the anagen and catagen phases obtained by both methods were nearly the same. However, the length of the hair follicles measured by both methods differed by a factor of 1.6, with histology showing smaller lengths. He-Ne laser irradiation (at approximately 1 J/cm(2)) of the skin of both the control and the testosterone-treated mice was observed to lead to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in % anagen, indicating stimulation of hair growth. The study also demonstrates that OCT can be used to monitor the hair follicle growth cycle, and thus hair follicle disorders or treatment efficacy during alopecia. PMID:20016249

  5. Inhibition of Hep G2 hepatic cancer cell growth and CCl₄ induced liver cytotoxicity in Swiss albino mice by Mahua extract.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sudipta; Murmu, Nabendu; Adhikari, Jyotirmay; Bhattacharyya, Sayantan; Adhikari, Sumanto; Banerjee, Samir

    2014-01-01

    Mahua flower extract may provide protective effects against hepatotoxicity. The effect of Mahua flower extract (ME) was investigated on Hep G2 cell line and carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damages in Swiss albino mice. To investigate its cytotoxic effect in liver cancer, Hep G2 cells were treated with different doses of ME, and cell proliferation as well as colony formation assays demonstrated dose-dependent cytotoxicity of ME towards Hep G2 cells in tissue culture. Further gene expression studies showed significant down-regulation of AKT1/2/3, p-AKT, and COX-2 proteins including up-regulation of active caspase-3 in ME treated Hep G2 cells. In in vivo experiments, the mice were pretreated with ME for 15 days. On the 16th day CCl4 was injected intraperitoneally and after 24 h all mice were sacrificed. The antioxidant enzyme activities were measured in liver homogenates. CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was evidenced by significant increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in activities of antioxidant enzymes such as GST, GSH, SOD, CAT, and GPx. Histological studies showed CCl4-induced centrilobular necrosis and formation of fatty vacuoles in cirrhotic mice liver. Treatment with ME at a dose of 2 mg and 4 mg/kg exhibited the potential to prevent significant liver toxicity. The expression of active caspase-3 protein was down-regulated in ME treated groups compared to CCl4 exposed animals. This study demonstrated ME mediated antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effects; therefore it could be used in the future for treating hepatic disorders including liver cancer, especially in combination with chemotherapeutics. PMID:25404377

  6. Electron microscopic ultrastructural study on the toxicological effects of AgNPs on the liver, kidney and spleen tissues of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mohammad Azam; Shukla, Arun Kumar; Oves, Mohammad; Khan, Haris M

    2016-06-01

    The present study deals with the intraperitoneal administration of 500, 1000, 3000, and 5000mg/kg of AgNPs in albino mice for 28 days to evaluate the potential toxicological effects of AgNPs on blood biochemical parameters and to investigate the light and electron microscopic histopathological alterations on three major targets organs i.e., liver, kidney and spleen. The AgNPs was well tolerated and no mortality was observed even at the highest dose i.e., 5000mg/kg. Mice treated with 500 and 1000mg/kg AgNPs did not show significant behavioral, biochemical and ultrastructural pathological changes. Mice treated with 1000mg/kg AgNPs produces little ultrastructural alteration in liver, kidney and spleen. However, mice treated with 3000 and 5000mg/kg AgNPs revealed significant changes in biochemical parameters. Electron microscopic ultrastructural investigation of liver and kidney shows that the administration of 3000 and 5000mg/kg AgNPs revealed irregularity in the nuclear membrane, nuclear chromatin condensations, degenerated hepatocytes, swollen and pleomorphic mitochondria with distorted cristae, extensive dilation of rough endoplasmic reticulum, destructed cytoplasm, hypertrophied and fused podocytes and thickened basement membrane in the endothelial cells of the proximal tubules. The spleen sections at 3000 and 5000mg/kg AgNPs revealed megakaryocytes hyperplasia, lobulations, invaginations and folding of nuclei and nuclear membrane. The present research indicates that AgNPs were well tolerated at the lower doses, but significant alterations in liver, kidney and spleen were observed at the higher doses tested. It is, therefore, suggested that further studies are needed for the minimization of the observed side effects, especially at higher doses before AgNPs being applied in pharmaceutical application. PMID:27100208

  7. Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Jae Hyung Smiley, Mark A.; Lovering, Richard M.; Margolis, Frank L.

    2007-11-16

    Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca{sup 2+}/CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration.

  8. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Premna serratifolia L. leaf and its anticancer activity in CCl4-induced hepato-cancerous Swiss albino mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arockia John Paul, J.; Karunai Selvi, B.; Karmegam, N.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the ethanolic leaf powder extract of Premna serratifolia L. and its anticancer activity in carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice (Balb/c). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses. The Debye-Scherrer equation was used to calculate particle size and the average size of silver nanoparticles synthesized from P. serratifolia leaf extract was 22.97 nm. The typical pattern revealed that the sample contained cubic structure of silver nanoparticles. FTIR analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles is due to reduction by capping material of the plant extract. The silver nanoparticles of P. serratifolia leaf extract were effective in treating liver cancer in Swiss albino mice when compared with P. serratifolia leaf extract with isoleucine.

  9. A comparison of the phototumorigenic potential of 8-MOP and 5-MOP in hairless albino mice exposed to solar simulated radiation.

    PubMed

    Young, A R; Magnus, I A; Davies, A C; Smith, N P

    1983-05-01

    Hairless albino mice have been treated with topically applied 8-methoxypsoralen and 5-methoxypsoralen at two concentrations and exposed to solar simulated radiation. Both these compounds significantly increased the incidence of cutaneous tumours when compared with controls irradiated after treatment with vehicle. This effect was related to psoralen concentration and at the two concentrations investigated there was no significant difference between the compounds. PMID:6849820

  10. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    PubMed

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions. PMID:24556450

  11. Antiproliferative and antioxidant potential of hesperetin against benzo(a)pyrene-induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bodduluru, Lakshmi Narendra; Kasala, Eshvendar Reddy; Barua, Chandana C; Karnam, Kalyani Chowdary; Dahiya, Vicky; Ellutla, Maheswara

    2015-12-01

    Lung cancer is the foremost cause of cancer mortality and is a growing economic burden worldwide. Chemoprevention, employing the use of natural, dietary or synthetic agents has become an appealing strategy to combat the increasing cases of cancers worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanism-based chemopreventive nature of hesperetin (HSP) against B[a]P induced lung carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. We analyzed the chemopreventive potential of HSP by estimating the status of lipid peroxidation (LPO), enzymic (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GST), nonenzymic antioxidants (GSH, Vit C and Vit E), proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-α), western blotting (CYP1A1, PCNA, Nrf2 and NF-κB expression) and histopathology of lung tissues of control and experimental mice. Administration of B[a]P (50 mg/kg, p.o.) resulted in an increase in lung weight, LPO with concomitant decrease in body weight, enzymic (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GST) and non-enzymic (GSH, Vit C and Vit E) antioxidants. Histological examination of lungs revealed severe alveolar and bronchiolar damages in B[a]P-induced mice. Further, elevated levels of TNF-α along with activated expression of NF-κB, PCNA and CYP1A1, and downregulation of Nrf2 was observed in B[a]P intoxicated animals. Pre- and post-treatment with HSP effectively suppressed B[a]P induced lung carcinoma and the associated preneoplastic lesions by alleviating LPO, modulating antioxidants and decreasing the expression of NF-κB, PCNA and CYP1A1. These findings demonstrate that HSP possesses a potential chemopreventive activity against B[a]P induced lung cancer and this is attributed to its free radical scavenging, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative properties. PMID:26546711

  12. Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl4 intoxicated male albino mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The current practice of ingesting phytochemicals for supporting the immune system or fighting infections is based on centuries-old tradition. Macrophages are involved at all the stages of an immune response. The present study focuses on the immunostimulant properties of Tinospora cordifolia extract that are exerted on circulating macrophages isolated from CCl4 (0.5 ml/kg body weight) intoxicated male albino mice. Methods Apart from damaging the liver system, carbon tetrachloride also inhibits macrophage functions thus, creating an immunocompromised state, as is evident from the present study. Such cell functions include cell morphology, adhesion property, phagocytosis, enzyme release (myeloperoxidase or MPO), nitric oxide (NO) release, intracellular survival of ingested bacteria and DNA fragmentation in peritoneal macrophages isolated from these immunocompromised mice. T. cordifolia extract was tested for acute toxicity at the given dose (150 mg/kg body weight) by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay. Results The number of morphologically altered macrophages was increased in mice exposed to CCl4. Administration of CCl4 (i.p.) also reduced the phagocytosis, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release properties of circulating macrophages of mice. The DNA fragmentation of peritoneal macrophages was observed to be higher in CCl4 intoxicated mice. The bacterial killing capacity of peritoneal macrophages was also adversely affected by CCl4. However oral administration of aqueous fraction of Tinospora cordifolia stem parts at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight (in vivo) in CCl4 exposed mice ameliorated the effect of CCl4, as the percentage of morphologically altered macrophages, phagocytosis activity, cell adhesion, MPO release, NO release, DNA fragmentation and intracellular killing capacity of CCl4 intoxicated peritoneal macrophages came closer to those of the control group. No acute toxicity was identified in oral administration of the aqueous extract of Tinospora

  13. Influences of crude extract of tea leaves, Camellia sinensis, on streptozotocin diabetic male albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.; Zari, Talal A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural remedies from medicinal plants are considered to be effective and safe alternative treatment for diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to investigate the hypoglycemic activity of the crude tea leaves extract on streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. The average body weight of animals with diabetes and their percentage changes of body weight gain after 15 and 30 days were significantly lower than that of the normal control mice. In diabetic mice, supplementation with tea leaves extract decreased the loss of body weight. After 15 and 30 days, significant increases in the levels of serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, creatinine, urea, uric acid, glutamic pyruvic acid transaminase (GPT) and glutamic oxaloacetic acid transaminase (GOT) were noted in STZ-diabetic mice fed with normal diet. Also, the values of total protein in this group were statistically declined after 15 and 30 days. The levels of serum glucose and GPT were significantly elevated after 15 and 30 days in diabetic mice supplemented with tea leaves extract. Moreover, the level of serum GOT was notably increased after 30 days. Insignificant alterations were observed in the levels of serum triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, creatinine, urea and uric acid in diabetic mice supplemented with tea leaves extract. Thus, the present results have shown that tea leaves extract has the antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic, and antihyperproteinemic effects and consequently may alleviate liver and kidney damage associated with STZ-induced diabetes in mice. PMID:23961092

  14. Caveolin-2-deficient mice show increased sensitivity to endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Cecilia J; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K; Jasmin, Jean-François; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Sotgia, Federica; Frank, Philippe G

    2011-01-01

    Caveolin proteins are structural components of caveolae and are involved in the regulation of many biological processes. Recent studies have shown that caveolin-1 modulates inflammatory responses and is important for sepsis development. In the present study, we show that caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 have opposite roles in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis using caveolin-deficient (Cav-1-/- and Cav-2-/-) mice for each of these proteins. While Cav-1-/- mice displayed delayed mortality following challenge with LPS, Cav-2-/- mice were more sensitive to LPS compared to wild-type (WT). With Cav-2-/- mice, this effect was associated with increased intestinal injury and increased intestinal permeability. This negative outcome was also correlated with enhanced expression of iNOS in intestinal epithelial cells, and enhanced production of nitric oxide (NO). By contrast, Cav-1-/- mice demonstrated a decrease in iNOS expression with decreased NO production, but no alteration in intestinal permeability. The differential expression of iNOS was associated with a significant increase in STAT-1 activation in these mice. Intestinal cells of Cav-2-/- mice showed increased phosphorylation of STAT-1 at tyrosine 701 compared to wild-type. However, Cav-1-/- mice-derived intestinal cells showed decreased levels of phosphorylation of STAT-1 at tyrosine 701. Since caveolin-2 is almost completely absent in Cav-1-/- mice, we conclude that it is not just the absence of caveolin-2 that is responsible for the observed effects, but that the balance between caveolin-1 and caveolin-2 is important for iNOS expression and ultimately for sepsis outcome. PMID:21670588

  15. Evaluation of anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet (A compound Ayurvedic formulation) in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Deole, Yogesh S.; Chavan, Sulakshan S.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Thakar, A. B.; Chandola, H. M.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, many Ayurvedic formulations are being researched to provide an effective antidepressant and anxiolytic drug in the field of psycho-pharmacology. The present study was planned to evaluate the anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet comprising three herbs Guduchi (Tinospora cordifolia Miers), Aamalaki (Emblica officinalis Garten) (RGT) and Gokshura (Tribulus terrestris Linn). Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups of six animals each, comprising of both male and female in each group. Group I received water served as normal control (WC), group II received vehicle and served as vehicle control (VC), group III received Rasayana Ghana tablet and group IV received standard drug diazepam (2 mg/kg) for anxiolytic study in elevated plus maze and standard antidepressant imipramine (5 mg/kg) for anti-depressant activity in behavior despair test. Rasayana Ghana tablet along with ghee and honey as vehicle is found to be having antidepressant and anxiolytic activity in experimental animals. Thus, this formulation can be used in prevention and treatment of depression and anxiety. PMID:22529654

  16. Antioxidative effect of Rajgira leaf extract in liver of Swiss albino mice after exposure to different doses of gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Maharwal, J; Samarth, R M; Saini, M R

    2005-08-01

    The radioprotective effect of Rajgira leaf extract (800 mg/kg b.wt.) was studied in the liver of Swiss albino mice at various post-irradiation intervals between day 1 and 30 after its oral administration for 15 consecutive days prior to whole body gamma irradiation with 6, 8 and 10 Gy of gamma rays. In this study, abnormal and binucleated hepatocytes were counted in both the control and experimental sets because these hepatocytes are good indicators of radiation-induced damage. In the experimental (RLE + irradiation) sets, the percentage of abnormal and binucleated hepatocytes was lower compared with their respective control (irradiation alone) sets at each autopsy interval with all three radiation doses studied. The increase in the percentage of these hepatocytes was also found to be dose-dependent in the control as well as in the RLE treated (experimental) sets. Thus, Rajgira leaf extract (RLE) treatment given before irradiation protects mouse liver against radiation-induced lesions by increasing the GSH content and decreasing the LPO level. PMID:16177977

  17. Assessment of chromosomal aberration in the bone marrow cells of Swiss Albino mice treated by 4-methylimidazole.

    PubMed

    Norizadeh Tazehkand, Mostafa; Topaktas, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Mehmet Bertan

    2016-07-01

    4-Methylimidazole (4-MEI) is formed during the production of certain caramel coloring agents used in many food and drink products. It may also be formed during the cooking, roasting, or other processing of some foods and beverages. So it was unintentionally consumed in worldwide. This study was aimed to investigate the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of 4-MEI using chromosome aberration (CA) and mitotic index (MI) in Swiss Albino mice. In this research, CA and MI of the mouse bone marrow cells were analyzed after treating the animals with 4-MEI (100, 130 and 160 mg/kg) for 12 h and 24 h treatment times. All data were analyzed using statistical methods. 4-MEI significantly increased the percentage of CAs at all concentrations for 12 h and at highest concentration for 24 h treatment periods. 4-MEI at highest concentration for 12 h and at all concentrations for 24 h decreased the MI in comparison with control. Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of 4-MEI at 24 h treatment periods were concentration dependent. Consequently, it can be said that 4-MEI have genotoxic and cytotoxic effect in mouse. PMID:26634952

  18. The effect of mycotoxins found in some herbal plants on biochemical parameters in blood of female albino mice.

    PubMed

    Alwakeel, Suaad S

    2009-04-15

    In this study, twenty five samples ofwell-known herbs in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia were collected and analyzed for Total Fungi Count (TFC). Mycotoxins were extracted and screened using SMKY liquid medium. One hundred and thirty adult female albino mice were grouped into three wherein one group (n = 110) was fed with an aqueous extract from herbal plants. The second group (n = 15) was fed with an aqueous extract of the isolated fungal species. The third group comprised the control group which was given water only (n = 5). All mice were fed with mice breeding diet by Pillsbury, UK. After 5 weeks, mice were fasted and blood was withdrawn for biochemical analysis including alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT), serum creatinine and urea. Calligonum comosum with 2 x 10(5) cfu g(-1) fungus spore, grained mixed herbs (24 x 10(3) cfu g(-1)) and Salvia officinalis (23 x 10(3) cfu g(-1)) were the most contaminated samples. The genus Aspergillus was the most dominant genus recovered (142 isolates) followed by Penicillium (14 isolates) and these two genera were found in 85.0 and 11.0% of the samples analyzed. Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus were the most dominant and frequently isolated (47.3, 46.5 and 18.1%, respectively), followed by Aspergillus citrinum (11.0%). Aspergillus ochraceus had 21.7 microg kg(-1) of Aflatoxin B2 and 7.25 microg kg(-1) of ochratoxin A, whereas Aspergillus flavus had 7.45 microg kg(-1) of Aflatoxin B2 and Aspergillus fumigatus had 3.5 microg kg(-1) of Aflatoxin B2 and 3.8 microg kg(-1) of ochratoxin A. Mean creatinine, urea, ALT, AST and GGT were higher in mice fed or treated with herbal and fungal extracts group than the control group. This study confirms previous studies demonstrating the predominance of Aspergillus species in herbal and medicinal plants and its capability in the production of aflatoxin with induction of nephrotoxicity and hepatoxicity in

  19. Honey bee is a potential antioxidant against cyclophosphamide-induced genotoxicity in albino male mice.

    PubMed

    Zoheir, Khairy Mohamed Abdallah; Harisa, Gamaleldin Ibrahim; Abo-Salem, Osama Mohamed; Ahmad, Sheikh Fayaz

    2015-05-01

    The protective effects of honey bee (HB) and pollen grains against cyclophosphamide (CPM) -induced cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in mice were investigated. This was achieved through study the effects of CPM and HB on oxidative status, chromosomal aberrations and gene expression of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL1β), interleukin 17A (IL-17A) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in mice. In addition, the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde were determined. The results of this study revealed that CPM decrease in GSH level and increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the liver and kidney tissues. Moreover, CPM induced sperm abnormality, chromosomal aberrations and down regulated the expression of the studied cytokine genes. HB treatment in association with CPM ameliorates GSH, MDA, chromosomal aberrations and regulated the expression of IL-1-β, IL-17A, IL-6, TNF-α and IFN-γ. Thus, HB inhibits the cytotoxic and genotoxic risks associated with CPM treatment in mice. PMID:26004732

  20. Attenuation of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in diabetes STZ-induced type 1 by biotin in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Aldahmash, Badr Abdullah; El-Nagar, Doaa Mohamed; Ibrahim, Khalid Elfakki

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the major health problems. This study was designed to investigate the effect of biotin to regulate blood glucose level, reduced toxicity and oxidative stress in liver of diabetic mice STZ-induced type 1. Male mice were divided into three groups, the first one served as the control group, the second and the third groups received single ip dose of 150 mg/kg of STZ, the second group served as the untreated diabetic group, the third group received daily oral dose of 15 mg/kg of biotin, livers and liver index showed insignificant difference among groups. Blood glucose level showed a significant decrease in treated diabetic mice compared to untreated diabetic mice. Biochemical analysis showed a significant decrease in liver enzymes AST and ALT compared to the control group. Histopathological examination showed severe changes in untreated diabetic liver tissue manifested by dilated portal vein, leukocytic infiltration, fatty degeneration and moderate to severe histopathological score, whereas, treated diabetic mice with biotin showed reduction in hepatotoxicity represented by appearance of relative healthy hepatocytes and normal histopathological score. Immunohistochemistry of acrolein showed intense immunoreactions in liver section of untreated diabetic mice and faint immunoreactions in treated diabetic mice with biotin as evidence to oxidative stress reduction. PMID:26981014

  1. Adaptogenic Activity of Lyophilized Hydroethanol Extract of Pandanus odoratissimus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Adkar, Prafulla P; Jadhav, Pranita P; Ambavade, Shirishkumar D; Bhaskar, V H; Shelke, Tushar

    2014-01-01

    Background. The leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn have been widely used in Ayurveda to treat a variety of common and stress related disorders. In the present investigation, hydroethanol extract of leaves of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn (LEPO) were evaluated for antistress activity in normal and stress induced mice. Furthermore, the extract was studied for nootropic (adaptogenic) activity in mice and in vitro antioxidant potential to correlate with its adaptogenic and antistress activity. LEPO (100 and 200 mg/kg p.o) was evaluated against forced swimming endurance stress test, anoxia stress tolerance and immobilization stress and chronic cold resistant stress tests, and biomarkers (serum glucose, Corticosterone, WBC, RBC, and DLC count) to assess the antistress activity in mice. Withania somnifera (WS) (100 mg/kg p.o) was selected as reference standard. The parameters like anoxia stress tolerance time were recorded in anoxia stress and estimation of biochemical marker levels and determination of organs weight were carried out in immobilization stress models. Results. Concomitant treatment with LEPO 200 mg/kg significantly increased in anoxia stress tolerance time. Dose dependent significant reduction in serum glucose, corticosterone, and WBC, RBC, and DLC was observed in immobilisation stress model as compared to stressed group. LEOP 200 mg/kg and WS 100 mg/kg significantly reversed/inhibited the stress induced changes in these parameters. The results from the present study indicate that these values also express that dose dependent significant adaptogenic activity in stressed animals. Conclusion. The present study provides scientific support for the antistress (adaptogenic) and nootropic activities of lyophilized hydroethanol extract of Pandanus odoratissimus Linn and substantiate the traditional claims for the usage of Pandanus in stress induced disorders. PMID:27379263

  2. Anti-neoplastic activities of sepia officinalis ink and coelatura aegyptiaca extracts against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M; Fahmy, Sohair R; El-Abied, Salma A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With the development of sophisticated instruments for the isolation and elucidation of natural products structures from marine and freshwater organisms, major advances have been made in the discovery of aquatic derived therapeutics. Present investigations were carried out to evaluate cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink extract (IE) and freshwater clam (Coelatura aegyptiaca) extract (CE) for their anticancer and antioxidant activities as compared to 5-flurouracil (5-Fu), in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Methods: Sixty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 12). All groups except group I received EAC cells (5 × 106 cells/mouse i.p.) and this was taken as the 0th day. Group I served as saline control (5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl w/v p.o). Group II served as EAC control. Rats of groups III, IV and V received IE, CE (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and reference drug (5-Fu, 20 mg/kg body weight i.p.), respectively. Results: The reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor cell counts and increase in median survival time and percentage increase in life span in treated animals were observed. There was a significant increase in RBC count; Hb content in treated animals and reduction in total WBC count. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and liver MDA levels and increase in GSH, SOD and NO levels were observed in all treated animals. Conclusion: Both IE and CE were effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic tumor models. The biochemical, antioxidants and histopathological studies were also supported their antitumor properties. PMID:26097537

  3. Amelioration of lead-induced hepatotoxicity by Allium sativum extracts in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Arti; Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena

    2010-01-01

    Lead is a blue–gray and highly toxic divalent metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust and is spread throughout the environment by various human activities. The efficacy of garlic (Allium sativum) to reduce hepatotoxicity induced by lead nitrate was evaluated experimentally in male mice. Oral treatment with lead nitrate at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight daily for 40 days (1/45 of LD50) induced a significant increase in the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, and lead nitrate. In parallel, hepatic protein levels in lead-exposed mice were significantly depleted. Lead nitrate exposure also produced detrimental effects on the redox status of the liver indicated by a significant decline in the levels of liver antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione. After exposure to lead nitrate (50 mg/kg body weight for 10 days), the animals received aqueous garlic extract (250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight) and ethanolic garlic extract (100 mg/kg body weight and 250 mg/kg body weight), and partially restored the deranged parameters significantly. Histological examination of the liver also revealed pathophysiological changes in lead nitrate-exposed group and treatment with garlic improved liver histology. Our data suggest that garlic is a phytoantioxidant that can counteract the deleterious effects of lead nitrate. PMID:21483544

  4. Acute inhalation toxicity of smoke of fentanyl and its 1-substituted analogs in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Yadav, S K; Swami, D; Kumar, P; Meena, M K; Maurya, C K; Gupta, P K; Ganesan, K; Jain, A K; Bhattacharya, R

    2014-01-01

    Fentanyl (N-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidinyl)propionanilide) is a synthetic, potent narcotic analgesic agent. However, it is known to have several side effects, which led to synthesis and evaluation of its new analogs for the management of pain. We have earlier reported the comparative bioassay of fentanyl and its eight 1-substituted analogs (1-8) in mice. Three compounds, viz., N-(1-(2-phenoxyethyl)-4-piperidinyl)propionanilide (2), N-isopropyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (5), and N-t-butyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (6) were found to be more effective and less toxic compared to fentanyl. The present study reports the comparative acute inhalation toxicity of smoke of fentanyl and its three analogs, viz., 2, 5, and 6 in mice. Animals were exposed to different concentrations of smoke generated by heating the compounds. Exposure was performed in a head only all glass static exposure assembly for 15 min to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50). The breathing pattern and various respiratory parameters of the animals were also monitored online using a polygraph. Out of three compounds tested, analog 5 was found to be most toxic (LC50 = 2820 mg/m3) while 2 was least toxic (LC50 = >8000 mg/m3). All the compounds caused long lasting respiratory depression in a dose-dependent manner, which did not completely resolve even after discontinuation of exposure. Aerodynamic median diameter and geometric standard deviation of smoke particles was determined employing eight-stage Andersen sampler. The particles were found to be within the respirable range. The study, however, concludes that due to possible decomposition of the compounds by heating or its poor absorption by the alveolar surface, the present inhalation technique cannot be employed to generate smoke of fentanyl and its analogs for any medical or surreptitious use. PMID:25208041

  5. Biochemical and histopathological responses of the Swiss albino mice treated with uranyl nitrate and its recovery.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha Vijayan, P; Rekha, P D; Dinesh, U; Arun, A B

    2016-06-01

    Uranium is a radioactive heavy metal ubiquitous in the natural environment. In its chemical form, it is known to induce nephrotoxicity both in human and in animals. Its toxicity is dose and time dependent, also varies with form of uranium. In the present study, we assessed the nephrotoxicity induced by a single dose of uranyl nitrate (UN) in mice at different time intervals and recovery from its toxicity. Two doses of 2 and 4 mg/kg body weight of uranyl nitrate was injected intraperitoneally and animals were sacrificed after 1, 3, 5, 14, and 28 d of administration. Histopathological and biochemical alterations of post-UN dosing in comparison to control were evaluated. Tubular damage to about 75% was observed after 3 d (4 mg/kg) and the biochemical parameters such as serum creatinine, urea, and blood urea nitrogen levels were also significantly increased. Progression of tubular damage was not found after 5 d. Dose-dependent recovery of uranyl nitrate-treated animals was observed after 14 and 28 d of dosing. The concentration of uranium retained in kidney correlates with biochemical and histopathological analysis. PMID:26984368

  6. Chemopreventive effects of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.) on chemically induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Qiblawi, Samir; Al-Hazimi, Awdah; Al-Mogbel, Mohammed; Hossain, Ashfaque; Bagchi, Debasis

    2012-06-01

    The chemopreventive potential of cardamom was evaluated on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-initiated and croton oil-promoted mouse skin papillomagenesis. A significant reduction in the values of tumor incidence, tumor burden, and tumor yield and the cumulative number of papillomas was observed in mice treated orally with 0.5 mg of cardamom powder in suspension continuously at pre-, peri-, and post-initiational stages of papillomagenesis compared with the control group. The average weight and diameter of tumors recorded were also comparatively lower in the cardamom-treated mouse group. Treatment of cardamom suspension by oral gavage for 15 days resulted in a significant decrease in the lipid peroxidation level of the liver (P < .01). In addition, the reduced glutathione level was significantly elevated in comparison with the control group (P < .05) following cardamom suspension treatment. Taken together, these findings indicate the potential of cardamom as a chemopreventive agent against two-stage skin cancer. PMID:22404574

  7. Effect of prenatal lead toxicity on surface ultrastructural features, elemental composition and infrared absorption characteristics of the skin of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Dey, S; Arjun, J; Das, M; Bhattacharjee, C R; Dkhar, P S

    2001-01-01

    The epidermis and dermis of albino mice born to females receiving oral sublethal doses of lead during pregnancy developed several abnormalities. These included perforations, tissue damage, cell deformity, and disordered organization of collagen bundles, as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. An increase in the concentrations of zinc, iron, magnesium, calcium and a decrease in that of copper was evident from atomic absorption spectroscopical analysis, when entire skin tissues were examined. Infrared spectroscopy revealed the occurrence of split bands in the spectra at 1,200-1,000 cm(-1), suggesting a reduction in the symmetry of the sulphate group (glycosaminoglycans) of skin probably caused by covalent bonding of it with lead. PMID:11545451

  8. Synthesis and biological evaluation of some novel 1-substituted fentanyl analogs in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Shiv Kumar; Maurya, Chandra Kant; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Jain, Ajai Kumar; Ganesan, Kumaran

    2014-01-01

    Fentanyl [N-(1-phenethyl-4-piperidinyl)propionanilide] is a potent opioid analgesic agent, but a has narrow therapeutic index. We reported earlier on the synthesis and bioefficacy of fentanyl and its 1-substituted analogs (1–4) in mice. Here we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of four additional analogs, viz. N-isopropyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (5), N-t-butyl-3-(4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl)propanamide (6), isopropyl 2-[4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl]propionate (7) and t-butyl 2-[4-(N-phenylpropionamido)piperidin-1-yl]propionate (8). The median lethal dose (LD50) determined by intravenous, intraperitoneal and oral routes suggests these analogs to be comparatively less toxic than fentanyl. On the basis of observational assessment on spontaneous activities of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, all the analogs were found to be similar to fentanyl. Naloxone hydrochloride abolished the neurotoxic effects of these analogs, thereby ascertaining their opioid receptor-mediated effects. All the analogs displayed significant analgesic effects, measured by formalin-induced hind paw licking and tail immersion tests at their respective median effective dose (ED50). They also exhibited 8–12 fold increase in therapeutic index over fentanyl. However, 5 and 6 alone produced lower ED50 (20.5 and 21.0 µg/kg, respectively) and higher potency ratio (1.37 and 1.33, respectively) compared to fentanyl. They could thus be considered for further studies on pain management. PMID:26109885

  9. Mice Lacking Endoglin in Macrophages Show an Impaired Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda-Fernández, Luisa; Recio-Poveda, Lucía; Aristorena, Mikel; Lastres, Pedro; Blanco, Francisco J.; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Gallardo-Vara, Eunate; de las Casas-Engel, Mateo; Corbí, Ángel; Arthur, Helen M.; Bernabeu, Carmelo; Botella, Luisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Endoglin is an auxiliary receptor for members of the TGF-β superfamily and plays an important role in the homeostasis of the vessel wall. Mutations in endoglin gene (ENG) or in the closely related TGF-β receptor type I ACVRL1/ALK1 are responsible for a rare dominant vascular dysplasia, the Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT), or Rendu-Osler-Weber syndrome. Endoglin is also expressed in human macrophages, but its role in macrophage function remains unknown. In this work, we show that endoglin expression is triggered during the monocyte-macrophage differentiation process, both in vitro and during the in vivo differentiation of blood monocytes recruited to foci of inflammation in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. To analyze the role of endoglin in macrophages in vivo, an endoglin myeloid lineage specific knock-out mouse line (Engfl/flLysMCre) was generated. These mice show a predisposition to develop spontaneous infections by opportunistic bacteria. Engfl/flLysMCre mice also display increased survival following LPS-induced peritonitis, suggesting a delayed immune response. Phagocytic activity is impaired in peritoneal macrophages, altering one of the main functions of macrophages which contributes to the initiation of the immune response. We also observed altered expression of TGF-β1 target genes in endoglin deficient peritoneal macrophages. Overall, the altered immune activity of endoglin deficient macrophages could help to explain the higher rate of infectious diseases seen in HHT1 patients. PMID:27010826

  10. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation during critical windows of gestation influences immune phenotype in Swiss albino mice offspring.

    PubMed

    Himaja, N; Hemalatha, R; Narendra Babu, K; Shujauddin, M

    2016-03-11

    Probiotic supplementation during critical windows of gestation might have a significant influence on the infant's immune phenotype. Swiss albino mice (F0 generation) aged 31 days were supplemented orally with probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG); and the supplementation was continued throughout mating, gestation and lactation. The pups (F1 generation) born to them were separated post weaning and received either the same probiotic supplementation as their mothers or were denied supplementation postnatally. Neutrophil phagocytic ability, splenocyte proliferation, immunoglobulins and cytokines were determined in both F0 and F1 pups. In addition, antibody response against hepatitis-B surface antigen (HBsAg) was determined in F1 pups. Probiotic supplementation had no effect on the neutrophil phagocytic ability and splenocyte proliferation index. The serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and secretory IgA (s-IgA) among the probiotic supplemented group of F0 generation were significantly (P<0.05) higher compared to the controls. Similarly, the mean concentration of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17 and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) among F0 probiotic group were significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to the control. Prenatal and postnatal probiotic supplementation in F1 pups led to similar results as F0 dams. Prenatal probiotic supplementation in F1 pups led to significantly (P<0.05) higher serum IgG (55.15±1.35 ng/ml) and intestinal s-IgA (77.9 ± 2.86 ng/mg protein) concentration when compared to the control. Similarly, IFN-γ concentration increased (P<0.05) with prenatal probiotic supplementation compared to the control. However, IL-10 and IL-17 concentrations of prenatal probiotic supplemented F1 pups were comparable to the control. As for the antibody response to HBsAg, prenatal probiotic supplementation led to enhanced HBsAg antibody response (471.4±3.97 U/ml) compared to the control. LGG affected the immune regulation and immune responses favourably in mothers and offspring

  11. Croton grewioides Baill. (Euphorbiaceae) Shows Antidiarrheal Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Anne Dayse Soares; de Melo e Silva, Karoline; Neto, José Clementino; Costa, Vicente Carlos de Oliveira; Pessôa, Hilzeth de Luna F.; Tavares, Josean Fechine; da Silva, Marcelo Sobral; Cavalcante, Fabiana de Andrade

    2016-01-01

    Based on chemotaxonomy, we decided to investigate the possible antidiarrheal activity in mice of a crude ethanolic extract obtained from aerial parts of Croton grewioides (CG-EtOH). We tested for any possible toxicity in rat erythrocytes and acute toxicity in mice. Antidiarrheal activity was assessed by determining the effect of CG-EtOH on defecation frequency, liquid stool, intestinal motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females. CG-EtOH produced a significant and equipotent antidiarrheal activity, both in defecation frequency (ED50 = 106.0 ± 8.1 mg/kg) and liquid stools (ED50 = 105.0 ± 9.2 mg/kg). However, CG-EtOH (125 mg/kg) decreased intestinal motility by only 22.7% ± 4.4%. Moreover, extract markedly inhibited the castor oil-induced intestinal contents (ED50 = 34.6 ± 5.4 mg/kg). We thus conclude that CG-EtOH is not orally lethal and contains active principles with antidiarrheal activity, and this effect seems to involve mostly changes in intestinal secretion. SUMMARY CG-EtOH showed no in vitro cytotoxicity and was not orally lethal. In contrast, the extract given intraperitoneally (at 2000 mg/kg) was lethal, but only in females.CG-EtOH probably contains active metabolites with antidiarrheal activity.CG-EtOH reduced the frequency and number of liquid stools.Metabolites presents in the CG-EtOH act mainly by reducing intestinal fluid and, to a lesser extent, reducing intestinal motility. Abbreviations Used: CG-EtOH: crude ethanolic extract obtained from the aerial parts of C. grewioides; WHO: World Health Organization; ED50: dose of a drug that produces 50% of its maximum effect; Emax: maximum effect PMID:27365990

  12. Effect of benzene extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis on the estrous cycle and ovarian activity in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Murthy, D R; Reddy, C M; Patil, S B

    1997-07-01

    The benzene extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis flowers was administered intraperitoneally at the dose levels of 125 and 250 mg/kg body weight to adult mice and resulted in an irregular estrous cycle with prolonged estrus and metestrus. An increase in the atretic follicles and the absence of corpora lutea indicate the antiovulatory effect of the extract. The extract also showed estrogenic activity in immature mice by early opening of the vagina, premature cornification of the vaginal epithelium and an increase in uterine weight. Therefore the antiovulatory effect may be due to an imbalance in the hormonal environment, as there may be an increase in the endogenous secretion of estrogen by atretic follicles, and also to the estrogenicity of the flower extract. PMID:9255415

  13. [Effects of a new derivative of 5-alkyl-3N-furanones on the colonization resistance of the intestine in albino mice].

    PubMed

    Tomnikov, A Iu; Shub, G M

    1990-05-01

    By its antagonistic function normal microflora provides the intestine with resistance to colonization with exogenic opportunistic and pathogenic microorganisms. The drug was effective in inducing a decrease in the intestine colonization resistance which in its turn leads to filling of free ecological niches with exogenic microflora. In this connection the suggestion that specification of a new chemical agent should include along with other criteria its effect on colonization resistance is valid. It was shown with the use of indicator microorganisms that when administered per os in doses of 40 and 80 mg/kg daily for 3 and 6 days, respectively, a new original compound 1929, a derivative of 5-alkyl-3H-furanones, with high antimicrobial activity induced no significant or more pronounced changes in the colonization resistance of the gastrointestinal tract of noninbred albino mice than furagin used as the reference drug. PMID:2200373

  14. Influence of environmental enrichment vs. time-of-day on behavioral repertoire of male albino Swiss mice.

    PubMed

    Loss, Cássio Morais; Binder, Luisa Bandeira; Muccini, Eduarda; Martins, Wagner Carbolin; de Oliveira, Paulo Alexandre; Vandresen-Filho, Samuel; Prediger, Rui Daniel; Tasca, Carla Inês; Zimmer, Eduardo R; Costa-Schmidt, Luiz Ernesto; de Oliveira, Diogo Losch; Viola, Giordano Gubert

    2015-11-01

    Environmental enrichment (EE) is a non-pharmacological manipulation that promotes diverse forms of benefits in the central nervous system of captive animals. It is thought that EE influences animal behavior in a specie-(strain)-specific manner. Since rodents in general present different behaviors during distinct periods of the day, in this study we aimed to investigate the influence of time-of-day on behavioral repertoire of Swiss mice that reared in EE. Forty male Swiss mice (21days old) were housed in standard (SC) or enriched conditions (EC) for 60days. Behavioral assessments were conducted during the light phase (in presence of light) or dark phase (in absence of light) in the following tasks: open field, object recognition and elevated plus maze. First, we observed that the locomotor and exploratory activities are distinct between SC and EC groups only during the light phase. Second, we observed that "self-protective behaviors" were increased in EC group only when mice were tested during the light phase. However, "less defensive behaviors" were not affected by both housing conditions and time-of-day. Third, we showed that the performance of EE animals in object recognition task was improved in both light and dark conditions. Our findings highlight that EE-induced alterations in exploratory and emotional behaviors are just evident during light conditions. However, EE-induced cognitive benefits are remarkable even during dark conditions, when exploratory and emotional behaviors were similar between groups. PMID:26247375

  15. Vitamin E attenuates liver injury induced by exposure to lead, mercury, cadmium and copper in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2011-01-01

    Water pollution is the contamination of water resources by harmful wastes or toxins. Both community and private sources of drinking water are susceptible to a myriad of chemical contaminants. Heavy metals pollution of surface water can create health risks. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin E supplementation on male mice exposed to a mixture of some heavy metals (lead, mercury, cadmium and copper) in their drinking water for seven weeks. Significant increases of blood alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) were detected in heavy metals-treated mice. Histopathologically, the liver sections from heavy metals-treated mice showed severe changes including disarrangement of hepatic strands, rupture in hepatocytes, advanced hepatocellular necrosis, dilation and congestion of blood vessels with hemorrhage, dense lymphocytic infiltration round the central vein and dark stained hepatocytic nuclei indicating cell pycnosis. Administration of vitamin E at a dose of 50 IU/kg body weight, five times weekly improved the observed biochemical and histopathological changes induced by these heavy metals intoxication. Hence, the results of this study suggest that vitamin E protects against these heavy metals-induced liver injury and the attenuating effect of vitamin E may be due to its antioxidant activity. PMID:23961152

  16. Protective role of diet supplements Spirulina and Tamarind fruit pulp on kidney in sodium fluoride exposed Swiss albino mice: Histological and biochemical indices.

    PubMed

    Yadav, N; Sharma, Shweta; Sharma, K p; Pandey, A; Pareek, P; Sharma, Subhasini

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride toxicity through potable water, particularly ground water, is not uncommon in countries such as India, China, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, parts of Africa and Afghanistan. Kidney being the main organ involved in fluoride removal, it accumulates considerable amount of fluoride. Here, we report toxic effects of oral exposure of Swiss albino mice to fluoride (sub-acute: 190 mg/kg body wt. for 7 days; and sub-chronic: 94 mg/kg body wt. for 90 days) and recovery of sub-chronic fluoride exposed mice after 90 days of sodium fluoride (NaF) withdrawal. The role of diet supplements (Spirulina and tamarind fruit pulp @ 230 mg/kg body wt. independently as well as in combination) in amelioration of fluoride toxicity has also been screened. Compared with controls, feed intake decreased from 3-43%, body wt. 4-18%, and kidney wt. 5-12% in treated mice (except diet supplement groups of sub-chronic exposure) while their water intake increased from 4-43%. Histopathological changes in the cortical region of kidney in fluoride treated mice were as follows: dilation of bowman's capsule and thickening of its parietal and visceral layer; alterations in glomeruli size and their sclerotization; increase in bowman's space; proliferation of mesangial cells; reduction in podocyte counts; and dilation of proximal and distal tubules. Fluoride exposure altered tissue biochemistry (protein, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase content) and increased urea (23-58%) and creatinine content (14-127%) in the serum. Sub-acute exposure was found more toxic. The diet modulation not only reduced fluoride toxicity but also led to better recovery of treated mice after withdrawal, especially in combination. PMID:26891552

  17. Chemopreventive Effect of Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum L.) Against Benzo(α)Pyrene-Induced Forestomach Papillomagenesis in Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Qiblawi, Samir; Dhanarasu, Sasikumar; Faris, Mo'ez Al-Islam

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of cancer through dietary intervention has recently gained significant recognition. Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum), a dietary phytoproduct, is a popular spice that is regularly used as a flavoring agent in various cuisines, and is much valued for its medicinal properties. In the present study, the cancer chemopreventive potential of cardamom was investigated against benzo(α)pyrene [B(α)P]-induced forestomach papillomagenesis in mice. Results showed that treatment with cardamom [(B(α)P + cardamom] reduced tumor incidence and multiplicity significantly (P<0.001) by 41.67% and 74.55%, respectively, compared to that of the B(α)P control group. Biochemical assays revealed a significant enhancement in the hepatic activities of glutathione-S-transferases (P<0.01), superoxide dismutase (P<0.01), glutathione peroxidase (P<0.001), and catalase (P<0.001) in mice treated with cardamom compared with the control. Furthermore, the nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione was significantly (P<0.001) increased in the cardamom-treated group, whereas the lipid peroxidation level along with lactate dehydrogenase activity exhibited a significant (P<0.01) reduction with cardamom treatment compared to the control. These results suggest that cardamom has the potential to become a pivotal chemopreventive agent against forestomach cancer. PMID:26081028

  18. Methyl parathion inhibits the nuclear maturation, decreases the cytoplasmic quality in oocytes and alters the developmental potential of embryos of Swiss albino mice

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, Ramya; Singh, Vikram Jeet; Salian, Sujith Raj; Kalthur, Sneha Guruprasad; D'Souza, Antony Sylvan; Shetty, Pallavi K.; Mutalik, Srinivas; Kalthur, Guruprasad; Adiga, Satish Kumar

    2014-09-15

    Methyl parathion (MP) is one of the most commonly used and extremely toxic organophosphorous group of pesticide. A large number of studies in the literature suggest that it has adverse effects on the male reproductive system. However, there is limited information about its toxicity to the female reproductive system. In the present study we report the toxic effects of methyl parathion on the female reproductive system using Swiss albino mice as the experimental model. The female mice were administered orally with 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg of MP. One week later, the mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to study the quality of the oocytes, spindle organization, developmental potential of early embryos and the DNA integrity in blastocysts. MP exposure resulted in a non-significant decrease in the number of primordial follicles and increased DNA damage in granulosa cells. Though MP did not have any effect on the ovulation it had a significant inhibitory effect on the nuclear maturity of oocytes which was associated with spindle deformity. In addition, the oocytes had higher cytoplasmic abnormalities with depleted glutathione level. Even though it did not have any effect on the fertilization and blastocyst rate at lower doses, at 20 mg/kg MP it resulted in a significant decrease in blastocyst hatching, decrease in cell number and high DNA damage. While low body weight gain was observed in F1 generation from 5 mg/kg group, at higher dose, the body weight in F1 generation was marginally higher than control. Post-natal death in F1 generation was observed only in mice treated with 20 mg/kg MP. In conclusion, we report that MP has adverse effects on the oocyte quality, developmental potential of the embryo and reproductive outcome. - Highlights: • Methyl parathion induces severe cytoplasmic abnormalities in oocytes. • Inhibits nuclear maturation and spindle damage • Poor blastocyst quality and high DNA

  19. Anticancer and antimutagenic properties of Acacia nilotica (Linn.) on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced skin papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Meena, Punar Dutt; Kaushik, Pallavi; Shukla, Shalini; Soni, Anil Kumar; Kumar, Manish; Kumar, Ashok

    2006-01-01

    We report the chemopreventive activity of Acacia nilotica (Linn.) gum, flower and leaf aqueous extracts, on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced skin papillomagenesis in male Swiss albino mice. Animals were divided into following groups: Group I (Controls) given DMBA and croton oil, with no extract ; Group II (treatment) animals treated with Acacia nilotica gum (Group II-a) (800 mg/kg body weight), flowers (Group II-b) (800 mg/kg body weight), or leaves (Group II-c) (800 mg/kg body weight) during the peri- and post initiation periods of DMBA and croton oil application. A significant reduction in the values of tumor burden, tumor incidence and cumulative number of papillomas was observed in mice treated by oral gavage with the Acacia nilotica gum, flower and leaf extracts as compared with the control group. The latency period in treatment Group-II (b) and Group-II (c) was significantly increased as compared with the control group. A significant reduction in the frequency of micronuclei was also observed in mice treated by oral gavage with the aqueous extracts, along with significant decrease in total chromosomal aberrations in the form of chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks, centric rings, dicentrics, acentric fragments and exchange. Treatment with Acacia nilotica flower (Group II-B) and leaf (Group II-C) aqueous extracts by oral gavage for 15 days resulted in a highly significant decrease in the lipid peroxidation (LPO) level in the liver, but this was less evident with the gum (Group II-A) . Conversely, reduced glutathione (GSH) content was observed to be significantly elevated as compared with the control group with leaves (Group II-C) and flowers (Group II-B). The chemopreventive and antimutagenic activity of the leaf extract of Acacia nilotica was most significant followed by the flower extract and then by gum. PMID:17250441

  20. Lipopolysaccharide Cross-Tolerance Delays Platelet-Activating Factor-Induced Sudden Death in Swiss Albino Mice: Involvement of Cyclooxygenase in Cross-Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Shancy Petsel; Lakshmikanth, Chikkamenahalli Lakshminarayana; Chaithra, Vyala Hanumanthareddy; Kumari, Titus Ruth Shantha; Chen, Chu-Huang; McIntyre, Thomas M.; Marathe, Gopal Kedihitlu

    2016-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling through Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many infectious diseases. Some believe that TLR-mediated pathogenicity is due, in part, to the lipid pro-inflammatory mediator platelet-activating factor (PAF), but this has been questioned. To test the direct contribution of PAF in endotoxemia in murine models, we injected PAF intraperitoneally into Swiss albino mice in the presence and absence of LPS. PAF alone (5 μg/mouse) caused death within 15–20 min, but this could be prevented by pretreating mice with PAF-receptor (PAF-R) antagonists or PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH). A low dose of LPS (5 mg/kg body wt) did not impair PAF-induced death, whereas higher doses (10 or 20 mg/kg body wt) delayed death, probably via LPS cross-tolerance. Cross-tolerance occurred only when PAF was injected simultaneously with LPS or within 30 min of LPS injection. Tolerance does not appear to be due to an abundant soluble mediator. Histologic examination of lungs and liver and measurement of circulating TNF-α and IL-10 levels suggested that the inflammatory response is not diminished during cross-tolerance. Interestingly, aspirin, a non-specific cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, partially blocked PAF-induced sudden death, whereas NS-398, a specific COX-2 inhibitor, completely protected mice from the lethal effects of PAF. Both COX inhibitors (at 20 mg/kg body wt) independently amplified the cross-tolerance exerted by higher dose of LPS, suggesting that COX-derived eicosanoids may be involved in these events. Thus, PAF does not seem to have a protective role in endotoxemia, but its effects are delayed by LPS in a COX-sensitive way. These findings are likely to shed light on basic aspects of the endotoxin cross-tolerance occurring in many disease conditions and may offer new opportunities for clinical intervention. PMID:27064683

  1. Narp knockout mice show normal reactivity to novelty but attenuated recovery from neophobia.

    PubMed

    Blouin, Ashley M; Lee, Jongah J; Tao, Bo; Smith, Dani R; Johnson, Alexander W; Baraban, Jay M; Reti, Irving M

    2013-11-15

    Narp knockout (KO) mice demonstrate cognitive inflexibility and addictive behavior, which are associated with abnormal reactivity to a novel stimulus. To assess reactivity to novelty, we tested Narp KO and wild-type (WT) mice on a neophobia procedure. Both Narp KO and WT mice showed a similar decrease in consumption upon initial exposure to a novel flavor, but Narp KO mice did not increase consumption with subsequent exposures to the novel flavor like the WT mice. Therefore, Narp KO mice do not have abnormal reactivity to novelty but show deficits in adapting behavior to reflect the updated value of a stimulus. PMID:24120400

  2. Efficacy of Spirulina platensis in improvement of the reproductive performance and easing teratogenicity in hyperglycemic albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Pankaj, Pranay Punj

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluates the therapeutic efficacy of cell suspension of Spirulina platensis (SP) on estrous cycle, fetal development and embryopathy in alloxan (AXN) induced hyperglycemic mice. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by intra-peritoneal administration of AXN. Mice with blood glucose level above 200 mg/dl were divided into Group I (control), Group II (diabetic control), Group III (diabetic control mice fed with SP), and Group IV (control mice fed with SP). Litter counts, estrous cycles, percent survival of litter, and gestation length were recorded. Results: In hyperglycemic mice, a significant (P < 0.05) increase in duration of diestrus (14.48%), estrus (84.21%), and metestrus (164.15%) with concomitant decrease in proestrus phase by 26.13% was recorded when compared with control. Reduction in litter count and survival of litter was 68.67% and 88.38%, respectively, whereas gestation length increased to 14.51% day in diabetic mice, but recovery in these parameters was observed (P < 0.05) when subjected to SP treatment. SP resulted in increased fertility rate from 77.5% to 82.5% and dropped off resorption of the fetus to 33.73% while the survival rate of offspring of diabetic mice went up to 88.89% from 83.61%. Conclusions: These findings suggest that SP is effective in improving the reproductive performance and easing teratogenic effects in diabetic mice and hence warrants further detailed dose-dependent studies to understand its mechanism of action. PMID:26285837

  3. In Vivo Antiplasmodial and Analgesic Effect of Crude Ethanol Extract of Piper guineense Leaf Extract in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kabiru, A. Y.; Ibikunle, G. F.; Innalegwu, D. A.; Bola, B. M.; Madaki, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Antiplasmodial and analgesic effects of crude ethanol extract of Piper guineense was investigated in mice. The antiplasmodial and analgesic efficacy of the extract was judged on its ability to reduce parasitemia and writhing, respectively, in mice. The antiplasmodial screening involved treating infected mice with 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg body weight of extract while the positive control group was given standard artesunate drug. The analgesic test was carried out by administering 1000, 1500, and 2000 mg/kg body weight of extract to three groups of healthy mice, respectively, after induction of pain with 0.75% acetic acid. The positive control group was given aspirin drug. Parasitemia was reduced by 28.36%, 43.28%, and 62.69% in a dose-dependent pattern in the curative test which was significantly different (P < 0.05) from 96.03% of the standard drug. The reduction of writhing by mice given the extract was also dose-dependent (36.29, 45.43, and 59.07%). Aspirin drug was however more effective (86.36%). The extract was safe at 2000 mg/kg body weight. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of flavonoids, tannins, phlobatannins, terpenoids, and coumarins. Result obtained in this study demonstrated the efficacy of ethanol extract of Piper guineense as an antiplasmodial and analgesic agent. PMID:27446637

  4. Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) enhances the carcinogenic potential of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) and accelerates the onset of tumor development in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Suhail, Nida; Bilal, Nayeem; Hasan, Shirin; Ahmad, Ausaf; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Banu, Naheed

    2015-11-01

    Social stressors evolving from individual and population interactions produce stress reactions in many organisms (including humans), influencing homeostasis, altering the activity of the immunological system, and thus leading to various pathological states including cancer and their progression. The present study sought to validate the effectiveness of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) in cancer promotion and to assess oxidative stress outcomes in terms of various in vivo biochemical parameters, oxidative stress markers, DNA damage, and the development of skin tumors in Swiss albino mice. Animals were randomized into different groups based on their exposure to CUS alone, 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) alone (topical), and DMBA-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) (topical) and exposure to CUS prior to DMBA or DMBA-TPA treatments and sacrificed after 16 weeks of treatment. Prior exposure to CUS significantly increased the pro-oxidant effect of carcinogen, depicted by compromised levels of antioxidants in the circulation and skin, accompanied by enhanced lipid peroxidation, plasma corticosterone, and marker enzymes as compared to DMBA-alone or DMBA-TPA treatments. DNA damage results corroborated the above biochemical outcomes. Also, the development of skin tumors (in terms of their incidence, tumor yield, and tumor burden) in mice in the presence and absence of stress further strongly supported our above biochemical measurements. CUS may work as a promoter of carcinogenesis by enhancing the pro-oxidant potential of carcinogens. Further studies may be aimed at the development of interventions for disease prevention by identifying the relations between psychological factors and DNA damage. PMID:26272695

  5. The course of experimental staphylococcus infection in albino mice during action of certain factors of space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhorov, V. Y.; Shilov, V. M.; Borman, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the effect of certain factors of space flight, acceleration and hypokinesia, on the course of experimental staphylococcus infection in mice. Combined action of hypokinesia and acceleration caused a marked depression of the phagocytic activity of leukocytes and formation of a considerable amount of alpha toxin.

  6. The in vivo genotoxicity of cisplatin, isoflurane and halothane evaluated by alkaline comet assay in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Brozovic, Gordana; Orsolic, Nada; Knezevic, Fabijan; Horvat Knezevic, Anica; Benkovic, Vesna; Sakic, Katarina; Borojevic, Nikola; Dikic, Domagoj

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxicity of repeated exposure to isoflurane or halothane and compare it with the genotoxicity of repeated exposure to cisplatin. We also determined the genotoxicity of combined treatment with inhalation anaesthetics and cisplatin on peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL), brain, liver and kidney cells of mice. The mice were divided into six groups as follows: control, cisplatin, isoflurane, cisplatin-isoflurane, halothane and cisplatin-halothane, and were exposed respectively for three consecutive days. The mice were treated with cisplatin or exposed to inhalation anaesthetic; the combined groups were exposed to inhalation anaesthetic after treatment with cisplatin. The alkaline comet assay was performed. All drugs had a strong genotoxicity (P<0.05 vs. control group) in all of the observed cells. Isoflurane caused stronger DNA damage on the PBL and kidney cells, in contrast to halothane, which had stronger genotoxicity on brain and liver cells. The combination of cisplatin and isoflurane induced lower genotoxicity on PBL than isoflurane alone (P<0.05). Halothane had the strongest effect on brain cells, but in the combined treatment with cisplatin, the effect decreased to the level of cisplatin alone. Halothane also induced the strongest DNA damage of the liver cells, while the combination with cisplatin increased its genotoxicity even more. The genotoxicity of cisplatin and isoflurane on kidney cells were nearly at the same level, but halothane caused a significantly lower effect. The combinations of inhalation anaesthetics with cisplatin had stronger effects on kidney cells than inhalation anaesthetics alone. The observed drugs and their combinations induced strong genotoxicity on all of the mentioned cells. PMID:21509577

  7. Analysis of bacopaside I in biomatrices using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Pharmacokinetics and brain distribution in Swiss-albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhateria, Manisha; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Puttrevu, Santosh Kumar; Singh, Rajbir; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2016-06-01

    Bacopaside I (BP-I) is the major pseudojujubogenin glycoside of Bacopa monniera (BM) extract which has been widely used as a nerve tonic to improve the memory and intellect of human beings from ancient times. A selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of BP-I in mouse plasma and brain homogenate has been developed and validated. All biosamples were processed by liquid-liquid extraction and chromatographed on C18- reversed phase column using mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate (10mM, pH 4) - acetonitrile (10:90, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5mL/min. The detection was performed in negative electrospray ionization mode and the precursor/product ion transitions of BP-I and internal standard (IS) hydrochlorothiazide were quantified in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using QTRAP-5500 MS/MS. The linearity was established over the concentration range of 0.5-2000ng/mL (r(2)>0.990), with lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.5ng/mL in both plasma and brain matrix. Within- and between-run precision and accuracy were well within the acceptable limits of variation. Consistent and reproducible recovery (>70%) was obtained with insignificant matrix effect for BP-I and IS. The method fulfilled US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) guidelines for bioanalytical method validation in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, matrix effect, dilution integrity, carry-over effect and stability. Further, the method was successfully applied to execute the plasma pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of BP-I in Swiss-albino mice following intravenous administration at a dose of 5mg/kg. PMID:27017568

  8. The preventive effect of linalool on acute and chronic UVB-mediated skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Gunaseelan, Srithar; Balupillai, Agilan; Govindasamy, Kanimozhi; Muthusamy, Ganesan; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan; Shanmugam, Mohana; Prasad, N Rajendra

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we evaluated the role of linalool in acute ultraviolet-B (UVB; 280-320 nm) radiation-induced inflammation and chronic UVB-mediated photocarcinogenesis in mouse skin. Acute UVB-irradiation (180 mJ cm(-2)) causes hyperplasia, edema formation, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant depletion, and overexpression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in mouse skin. Topical or intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment of linalool prevented acute UVB-induced hyperplasia, edema formation, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant depletion in mouse skin. Further, linalool treatment prevented UVB-induced overexpression of COX-2 and ODC in mouse skin. In the chronic study, mice were subjected to UVB-exposure thrice weekly for 30 weeks. Chronic UVB-exposure induced tumor incidence and expression of proliferative markers such as NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-6, COX-2, VEGF, TGF-β1, Bcl-2 and mutated p53 in mouse skin. Treatment with linalool before each UVB-exposure significantly prevented the expression of these proliferative markers and subsequently decreased the tumor incidence in mice skin. Histopathological studies confirmed the development of dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the chronic UVB-exposed mouse skin; and this was prevented by both topical and i.p. linalool treatment. Therefore, linalool may be considered as a photochemopreventive agent against UVB radiation induced skin carcinogenesis. PMID:27251985

  9. Female mice heterozygous for creatine transporter deficiency show moderate cognitive deficits.

    PubMed

    Hautman, Emily R; Kokenge, Amanda N; Udobi, Kenea C; Williams, Michael T; Vorhees, Charles V; Skelton, Matthew R

    2014-01-01

    Creatine transporter (CrT) deficiency (CTD) is an X-linked disorder characterized by intellectual disability and speech delay. There have been reports that show female carriers have clinical symptoms. We have created CrT knockout (CrT(-/y)) mice in which males show severe cognitive deficits as a model of this disorder. The purpose of this study was to examine if the female carrier mice show cognitive deficits. Reductions in Cr levels as well as CrT transcript were observed in the brains of the female CrT(+/-) mice. CrT(+/-) mice show hyperactivity and increased latency to find the cued platform in the Morris water maze (MWM). CrT(+/-) female mice showed deficits in MWM hidden platform acquisition but not during reversal testing. Memory deficits on probe trials were observed during both phases. Novel object recognition memory and contextual fear memory were not affected in female CrT(+/-) mice. Female CrT(+/-) mice show moderate cognitive deficits, which is consistent with some of the human data. Female CrT(+/-) mice could prove to be beneficial in further understanding CTD and testing therapeutic approaches. PMID:23716276

  10. Nano gold conjugation, anti-arthritic potential and toxicity studies of snake Naja kaouthia (Lesson, 1831) venom protein toxin NKCT1 in male albino rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Saha, Partha Pratim; Bhowmik, Tanmoy; Dasgupta, Anjan Kumar; Gomes, Antony

    2014-08-01

    Nanoscience and Nanotechnology have found their way in the fields of pharmacology and medicine. The conjugation of drug to nanoparticles combines the properties of both. In this study, gold nanoparticle (GNP) was conjugated with NKCT1, a cytotoxic protein toxin from Indian cobra venom for evaluation of anti-arthritic activity and toxicity in experimental animal models. GNP conjugated NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) synthesized by NaBH4 reduction method was stable at room temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C), pH 7.2. Hydrodynamic size of GNP-NKCT1 was 68-122 nm. Arthritis was developed by Freund's complete adjuvant induction in male albino rats and treatment was done with NKCT1/GNP-NKCT1/standard drug. The paw/ankle swelling, urinary markers, serum markers and cytokines were changed significantly in arthritic control rats which were restored after GNP-NKCT1 treatment. Acute toxicity study revealed that GNP conjugation increased the minimum lethal dose value of NKCT1 and partially reduced the NKCT1 induced increase of the serum biochemical tissue injury markers. Histopathological study showed partial restoration of toxic effect in kidney tissue after GNP conjugation. Normal lymphocyte count in culture was in the order of GNP-NKCT1 > NKCT1 > Indomethacine treatment. The present study confirmed that GNP conjugation increased the antiarthritic activity and decreased toxicity profile of NKCT1. PMID:25141538

  11. Ultraviolet emission and excitation fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of DMBA-treated Swiss Albino mice skin carcinogenesis for measuring tissue transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aruna, Prakasa R.; Hemamalini, Srinivasan; Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2002-05-01

    The ultraviolet fluorescence emission spectra of skin tissues under different pathological conditions were measured at 280nm excitation. At this excitation wavelength, the normal skin showed a primary peak emission at 352nm and this primary peak emission from neoplastic skin shows a blue shift with respect to normal tissue. This blue shift increases as the stage of abnormality increases and it is maximum (19nm) for well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. This alteration is further confirmed from fluorescence excitation spectra of the tissues for 340nm emission. The study concludes that the change in the emission of tryptophan around 340nm may be due to partial unfolding of protein.

  12. [Protective activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms against Herpes simplex virus type-2 on albino mice model].

    PubMed

    Razumov, I A; Kazachinskaia, E I; Puchkova, L I; Kosogorova, T A; Gorbunova, I A; Loktev, V B; Tepliakova, T V

    2013-01-01

    Toxicity and antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from higher mushrooms such as Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler (shiitake), Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.) P. Kumm. (oyster), Inonotus obliquus (Ach. ex Pers.) Pilát (chaga), Hydnellum compactum (Pers.) P. Karst. (compact tooth) were studied. In doses of 0.8 to 4.0 mg (dry weight) per mouse administered orally or intraperitoneally the extracts showed no acute toxicity. When the dose of the chaga extract was increased to 20 mg per mouse, a half of the animals died. Intraperitoneal administration of the aqueous extracts in a dose of 0.4-2 mg per mouse prior to the contamination by a single LD50 of Herpes simplex type 2 provided 100-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Lentinula edodes or Pleurotus ostreatus extracts and 90-percent survival of the animals exposed to the Inonotus obliquus or Hydnellum compactum extracts. PMID:24738237

  13. Assessment of hepatoprotective potential of N. indicum leaf on haloalkane xenobiotic induced hepatic injury in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Dey, Priyankar; Dutta, Somit; Sarkar, Mousumi Poddar; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2015-06-25

    CCl4 is a potent environmental toxin which cause liver damage through free radical mediated inflammatory processes. In this study, hepatoprotective capacity of Nerium indicum leaf extract (NILE) was evaluated on CCl4 induced acute hepatotoxicity in murine model. Animals were divided into 5 groups and treated as following: control group (received only normal saline), CCl4 group (received only CCl4), silymarin group (received CCl4 and 100mg/kg silymarin), NILE low group (received CCl4 and 50mg/kg NILE) and NILE high group (received CCl4 and 200mg/kg NILE). After 10 consecutive days of treatment, the levels of hepatic biochemical markers, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, peroxidase and catalase activities were measured as well as histopathological study was performed. Furthermore, liver explant cultures were set up as following: control (no treatment), CCl4 group (contained 25 μl/ml CCl4), silymarin group (contained 25 μl/ml CCl4 and 100 μg/ml silymarin), NILE low group (contained 25 μl/ml CCl4 and 25 μg/ml NILE) and NILE high group (contained 25 μl/ml CCl4 and 100 μg/ml NILE). Hepatic transaminases and phosphatases, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression, nitric oxide (NO) release and cell viability were studied on the explant cultures. Phytochemical fingerprinting of NILE was performed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that the biochemical parameters were overexpressed due to CCl4 administration, which were significantly normalized by NILE treatment. The findings were further supported by histopathological evidences showing less hepatocellular necrosis, inflammation and fibrosis in NILE and silymarin treated groups, compared to CCl4 group. GC-MS analysis revealed presence of different bioactive phytochemicals with hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties. Therefore, the present study indicate that NILE possesses potent hepatoprotective capacity to ameliorate haloalkane xenobiotic induced injured liver in murine model

  14. Mice overexpressing corticotropin-releasing factor show brain atrophy and motor dysfunctions

    PubMed Central

    Goebel, Miriam; Fleming, Sheila M.; Million, Mulugeta; Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette; Wang, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    Chronic stress and persistently high glucocorticoid levels can induce brain atrophy. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-overexpressing (OE) mice are a genetic model of chronic stress with elevated brain CRF and plasma corticosterone levels and Cushing’s syndrome. The brain structural alterations in the CRF-OE mice, however, are not well known. We found that adult male and female CRF-OE mice had significantly lower whole brain and cerebellum weights than their wild type (WT) littermates (347.7 ± 3.6 vs. 460.1 ± 4.3 and 36.3 ± 0.8 vs. 50.0 ± 1.3 mg, respectively) without sex-related difference. The epididymal/parametrial fat mass was significantly higher in CRF-OE mice. The brain weight was inversely correlated to epididymal/parametrial fat weight, but not to body weight. Computerized image analysis system in Nissl stained brain sections of female mice showed that the anterior cingulate and sensorimotor cortexes of CRF-OE mice were significantly thinner, and the volumes of the hippocampus, hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus and amygdala were significantly reduced compared to WT, while the locus coeruleus showed a non-significant increase. Motor functions determined by beam crossing and gait analysis showed that CRF-OE mice took longer time and more steps to traverse a beam with more errors, and displayed reduced stride length compared to their WT littermates. These data show that CRF-OE mice display brain size reduction associated with alterations of motor coordination and an increase in visceral fat mass providing a novel animal model to study mechanisms involved in brain atrophy under conditions of sustained elevation of brain CRF and circulating glucocorticoid levels. PMID:20132869

  15. Vesicular acetylcholine transporter knock-down mice show sexual dimorphism on memory.

    PubMed

    Capettini, Suellem B; Moraes, Márcio F D; Prado, Vânia F; Prado, Marco A M; Pereira, Grace S

    2011-04-25

    The key neural substrates involved in memory and cognitive tasks have been reported to receive important modulation from ovarian hormones. In fact, neurochemical systems associated with cognitive functions, such as the cholinergic system, are, at least in part, under modulation of estrogens. Here we show that vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) mutant mice, which express lower levels of the VAChT (VAChT KD) and reduced acetylcholine release, present sexual dimorphism on memory. We evaluate short- and long-term object recognition memories (STM and LTM) in both sexes. We have showed previously, and confirm here, that VAChT KDHET male mice present deficits in both STM and LTM object recognition memories in comparison with WT. In contrast, VAChT KDHET female mice present deficit in LTM, but not in STM. To test if the female hormones levels could be a determinant factor on sexual dimorphism observed, we submitted female mice to ovariectomy (OVX) or sham-surgery. After 1 week (1 w), we evaluate STM. Female hormone deprivation promotes STM impairment in VAChT KDHET, but not in WT female mice. Our results strongly suggest that the sexual dimorphism observed in VAChT KDHET mice on STM is due to modulation of cholinergic system by ovarian hormones. PMID:21329745

  16. Transgenic mice over-expressing carbonic anhydrase I showed aggravated joint inflammation and tissue destruction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have demonstrated that carbonic anhydrase I (CA1) stimulates calcium salt precipitation and cell calcification, which is an essential step in new bone formation. Our study had reported that CA1 encoding gene has a strong association with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS), two rheumatic diseases with abnormal new bone formation and bone resorption in joints. This study investigated the effect of CA1 on joint inflammation and tissue destruction in transgenic mice that over-express CA1 (CA1-Tg). Methods CA1-Tg was generated with C57BL/6J mice by conventional methods. CA1-Tg was treated with collagen-II to induce arthritis (CIA). Wild-type mice, CA1-Tg treated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and transgenic mice over-expressing PADI4 (PADI4-Tg), a gene known to be involved in rheumatoid arthritis, were used as controls. Histochemistry and X-ray radiographic assay were used to examine joint destruction. Western blotting and real time-PCR were used to examine CA1 expression. Results CIA was observed in 60% of CA1-Tg, 20% of PADI4-Tg and 20% of wild-type mice after collagen injections. No CIA was found in CA1-Tg mice that received injections of BSA. The arthritic score was 5.5 ± 0.84 in the CA1-Tgs but the score was less than 2 in the injected wild-type mice and the PADI4-Tgs. The thickness of the hind paws in the CA1-Tgs was 3.46 ± 0.11 mm, which was thicker than that of PADI4-Tgs (2.23 ± 0.08 mm), wild-type mice (2.08 ± 0.06 mm) and BSA-treated CA1-Tgs (2.04 ± 0.07 mm). Histochemistry showed obvious inflammation, synovial hyperplasia and bone destruction in the joints of CA1-Tg that was not detected in PADI4-Tgs or wild-type mice. X-ray assays showed bone fusion in the paws and spines of CA1-Tg mice. Conclusion Over-expression of CA1 may aggravate joint inflammation and tissue destruction in the transgenic mice. PMID:23256642

  17. Potential O-acyl-substituted (-)-Epicatechin gallate prodrugs as inhibitors of DMBA/TPA-induced squamous cell carcinoma of skin in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Sandeep; Manon, Benu; Vir Singh, Tej; Dev Sharma, Pritam; Sharma, Manu

    2011-04-01

    (-)-Epicatechin-3-gallate (1) is one of the principal catechins of green tea and exhibits cancer-preventive activities in various animal models. However, this compound is unstable in neutral or alkaline medium and, therefore, has a poor bioavailability. To improve its stability, O-acyl derivatives of 1 were prepared by isolating the partially purified tea catechin fraction from green tea extract and treating it with a variety of acylating agents. The resulting derivatives, compounds 2-6, were screened for their antitumor potential against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced squamous cell carcinogenesis of skin in mice. The results showed that the antitumor activity decreased with the increase in size of the chain length of the acyl groups, i.e., from compound 2, derivative with an Ac group, to compound 6, possessing a valeryl group. Moreover, the C(4) derivative with a branched acyl chain, 5, had a lower activity than the linear C(4) derivative 4. This reduction in the inhibitory activity may be due to the steric hindrance by the two Me groups. Moreover, significant increases in the protein levels analyzed by ELISA of c-Jun, p65, and p53 were observed in the skin of DMBA/TPA treated mice, whereas mice treated with 2 and DMBA/TPA had a similar expression of these transcription factors than the control mice. The prodrug potential of the O-acyl derivatives 2-6 showed that they were adequately stable to be absorbed intact from the intestine, more stable at gastric pH, and suitable for oral administration. PMID:21480506

  18. BALB/c Mice Show Impaired Hepatic Tolerogenic Response Following AAV Gene Transfer to the Liver

    PubMed Central

    Breous, Ekaterina; Somanathan, Suryanarayan; Wilson, James M

    2010-01-01

    Following adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene transfer to the liver, both C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice show long-term expression of nonself transgene antigens along with the absence of a transgene-specific immune response. However, in this study, we report that despite the equal ability to induce T-cell tolerance to vector-encoded antigens, the underlying mechanisms are entirely different in these two strains. We have previously shown that in C57BL/6 mice, cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses to systemic AAV-delivered antigens are suppressed by combined actions of hepatic regulatory T cells (Tregs), Kupffer cells, and hepatic suppressive cytokines. In stark contrast, our present findings reveal that such tolerogenic response is not induced in the liver of BALB/c mice systemically administered with AAV. As a result, these mice fail to suppress a transgene-specific CTL response induced by a strong immunogenic challenge and express dramatically reduced levels of AAV-encoded antigen. Interestingly, there was active B-cell tolerance to the transgene antigen, which was mediated by splenic Tregs. We conclude that lack of tolerance induction in the liver renders BALB/c mice susceptible to CTL-mediated clearance of transduced hepatocytes. PMID:20068550

  19. Irxl1 mutant mice show reduced tendon differentiation and no patterning defects in musculoskeletal system development.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Wataru; Machii, Masashi; Xue, XiaoDong; Sultana, Nishat; Hikosaka, Keisuke; Sharkar, Mohammad T K; Uezato, Tadayoshi; Matsuda, Masashi; Koseki, Haruhiko; Miura, Naoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Irxl1 (Iroquois-related homeobox like-1) is a newly identified three amino-acid loop extension (TALE) homeobox gene, which is expressed in various mesoderm-derived tissues, particularly in the progenitors of the musculoskeletal system. To analyze the roles of Irxl1 during embryonic development, we generated mice carrying a null allele of Irxl1. Mice homozygous for the targeted allele were viable, fertile, and showed reduced tendon differentiation. Skeletal morphology and skeletal muscle weight in Irxl1-knockout mice appeared normal. Expression patterns of several marker genes for cartilage, tendon, and muscle progenitors in homozygous mutant embryos were unchanged. These results suggest that Irxl1 is required for the tendon differentiation but dispensable for the patterning of the musculoskeletal system in development. PMID:21254332

  20. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus) Brain.

    PubMed

    Allam, Ahmed A; Maodaa, Salah N; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha; Ajarem, Jamaan

    2016-01-01

    Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd) to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum) at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication); Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns. PMID:26966507

  1. Protective Effect of Parsley Juice (Petroselinum crispum, Apiaceae) against Cadmium Deleterious Changes in the Developed Albino Mice Newborns (Mus musculus) Brain

    PubMed Central

    Allam, Ahmed A.; Maodaa, Salah N.; Abo-Eleneen, Rasha; Ajarem, Jamaan

    2016-01-01

    Parsley was used as a probe of the current experiment to prevent the behavioral, morphological and biochemical changes in the newborn brain following the administration of cadmium (Cd) to the pregnant mice. The nonanesthetized pregnant mice were given daily parsley juice (Petroselinum crispum) at doses of 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg. Pregnant mothers were given Cd at a dose of 30 mg/kg divided into 3 equal times. The newborns have been divided into 6 groups: Group A, mothers did not take treatment; Groups B and C, mothers were treated with low and high dose of parsley, respectively; Group D, mothers were treated only with Cd (perinatal intoxication); Groups E and F, mothers were treated with Cd doses and protected by low and high doses of parsley, respectively. Light microscopy showed that Cd-induced neuronal degeneration by chromatolysis and pyknosis in the brain regions. The low dose of parsley 10 g/kg/day exhibited significant effects in neutralizing and reducing the deleterious changes due to Cd exposure during pregnancy on the behavioral activities, neurotransmitters, oxidative stress, and brain neurons morphology of the mice newborns. PMID:26966507

  2. Mice deficient in dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase show increased vulnerability to mitochondrial toxins

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lichuan; Shi, Qingli; Ho, Daniel J.; Starkov, Anatoly A.; Wille, Elizabeth J.; Xu, Hui; Chen, HL; Zhang, Steven; Stack, Cliona M.; Calingasan, Noel Y.; Gibson, Gary E.; Beal, M. Flint

    2013-01-01

    The activity of a key mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (KGDHC), declines in many neurodegenerative diseases. KGDHC consists of three subunits. The dihydrolipoyl succinyltransferase (DLST) component is unique to KGDHC. DLST+/- mice showed reduced mRNA and protein levels and decreased brain mitochondrial KGDHC activity. Neurotoxic effects of mitochondrial toxins were exacerbated in DLST+/- mice. MPTP produced a significantly greater reduction of striatal dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta of DLST+/- mice. DLST deficiency enhanced the severity of lipid peroxidation in the substantia nigra after MPTP treatment. Striatal lesions induced by either malonate or 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP) were significantly larger in DLST+/- mice than in wildtype controls. DLST deficiency enhanced the 3-NP inhibition of mitochondria enzymes, and 3-NP induced protein and DNA oxidations. These observations support the hypothesis that reductions in KGDHC may impair the adaptability of the brain and contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:19660549

  3. Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum extract in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity. PMID:25362605

  4. Ghrelin O-acyltransferase knockout mice show resistance to obesity when fed high-sucrose diet.

    PubMed

    Kouno, Tetsuya; Akiyama, Nobuteru; Ito, Takahito; Okuda, Tomohiko; Nanchi, Isamu; Notoya, Mitsuru; Oka, Shogo; Yukioka, Hideo

    2016-02-01

    Ghrelin is an appetite-stimulating hormone secreted from stomach. Since the discovery that acylation of the serine-3 residue by ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) is essential for exerting its functions, GOAT has been regarded as an therapeutic target for attenuating appetite, and thus for the treatment of obesity and diabetes. However, contrary to the expectations, GOAT-knockout (KO) mice have not shown meaningful body weight reduction, under high-fat diet. Here, in this study, we sought to determine whether GOAT has a role in body weight regulation and glucose metabolism with a focus on dietary sucrose, because macronutrient composition of diet is important for appetite regulation. We found that peripherally administered acylated-ghrelin, but not unacylated one, stimulated sucrose consumption in a two-bottle-drinking test. The role of acylated-ghrelin in sucrose preference was further supported by the finding that GOAT KO mice consumed less sucrose solution compared with WT littermates. Then, we investigated the effect of dietary composition of sucrose on food intake and body weight in GOAT KO and WT mice. As a result, when fed on high-fat diet, food intake and body weight were similar between GOAT KO and WT mice. However, when fed on high-fat, high-sucrose diet, GOAT KO mice showed significantly reduced food intake and marked resistance to obesity, leading to amelioration of glucose metabolism. These results suggest that blockade of acylated-ghrelin production offers therapeutic potential for obesity and metabolic disorders caused by overeating of palatable food. PMID:26645250

  5. Comparative hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of sodium arsenite and three petroleum products in experimental Swiss Albino Mice: the modulatory effects of Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Gbadegesin, Michael A; Odunola, Oyeronke A; Akinwumi, Kazeem A; Osifeso, Olabode O

    2009-10-01

    Petroleum products (PPs) consist of complex chemical mixtures, mainly hydrocarbons. Their composition varies considerably with source and use. Inappropriate manual handling and use of PPs, in countries like Nigeria, results in excessive skin contact with the possibility of hazard to health. There has been inadequate evidence to classify diesel, kerosene and hydraulic oil as human carcinogens and there is limited evidence for their toxicity and carcinogenicity in experimental animals. We compared the hepatotoxicity and clastogenicity of diesel, petrol or hydraulic oil with that of sodium arsenite (Na(2)AsO(2)) in mice. Our findings showed that these PPs are capable of inducing gamma-glutamyl transferase (gammaGT) activity in the serum and liver to levels comparable with that induced by Na(2)AsO(2). Mice treated with individual PPs have elevated mean liver and serum gammaGT at levels that are significantly different from the values observed for the negative control group. Also, the individual PPs alone have micronuclei formation induction activity similar to Na(2)AsO(2). We found that treatment with Aloe vera gel before the PPs significantly reduced mean liver and serum gammaGT, and the mean number of micronuclei scored when compared with groups administered each of the PPs alone, supporting the presence of hepatoprotective components in Aloe vera. PMID:19583991

  6. Cyclooxygenase-1 null mice show reduced neuroinflammation in response to β-amyloid

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang-Ho; Bosetti, Francesca

    2009-01-01

    Several independent epidemiological studies indicate that chronic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), supporting the inflammatory cascade hypothesis. Although the first clinical trial with indomethacin, a preferential cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 inhibitor, showed beneficial effects, subsequent large clinical trials, mostly using COX-2 inhibitors, failed to show any beneficial effect in AD patients with mild to severe cognitive impairment. These combined data suggest that either an early treatment is crucial to stop the mechanisms underlying the disease before the onset of the symptoms, or that preferential COX-1 inhibition, rather than COX-2, is beneficial. Therefore, a full understanding of the physiological, pathological, and/or neuroprotective role of COX isoforms may help to develop better therapeutic strategies for the prevention or treatment of AD. In this study, we examined the effect of COX-1 genetic deletion on the inflammatory response and neurodegeneration induced by β-amyloid. β-amyloid (Aβ1-42) was centrally injected in the lateral ventricle of COX-1-deficient (COX-1-/-) and their respective wild-type (WT) mice. In COX-1-/- mice, Aβ1-42-induced inflammatory response and neuronal damage were attenuated compared to WT mice, as shown by Fluoro-Jade B and nitrotyrosine staining. These results indicate that inhibition of COX-1 activity may be valid therapeutic strategy to reduce brain inflammatory response and neurodegeneration. PMID:20157512

  7. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    PubMed Central

    Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics. PMID:27114883

  8. Interaction of (+)-amphetamine with cerebral dopaminergic neurones in two strains of mice, that show different temperature responses to this drug

    PubMed Central

    Caccia, S.; Cecchetti, G.; Garattini, S.; Jori, A.

    1973-01-01

    1. (+)-Amphetamine sulphate elicits a dose-dependent hyperthermia in NMRI mice but it does not significantly increase the body temperature of C3H mice. 2. When low doses of (+)-amphetamine are given, the body temperature of C3H mice decreases. 3. (+)-Amphetamine decreases the noradrenaline concentration in the brain-stem and increases the homovanillic acid concentration (HVA) in the striatum of NMRI mice, but only slightly reduces the noradrenaline concentration and does not change the HVA concentration in the brains of C3H mice. 4. The two strains appear to show a difference in the metabolism of dopamine in the striatum. The rates at which dopamine disappears from the tissue after blocking catecholamine synthesis with α-methyltyrosine and the rates at which HVA accumulates after blocking the active transport of this metabolite out of the brain with probenecid suggest that the turnover of dopamine is lower in C3H mice than in NMRI mice. PMID:4777703

  9. Pretargeting in tumored mice with radiolabeled morpholino oligomer showing low kidney uptake.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guozheng; He, Jiang; Dou, Shuping; Gupta, Suresh; Vanderheyden, Jean-Luc; Rusckowski, Mary; Hnatowich, Donald J

    2004-03-01

    We have recently shown that accumulation in mouse kidneys of technetium-99m labeled phosphorodiamidate morpholinos (MORFs) increases with the number of cytosines in the base sequence. To improve tumor/kidney ratios in tumored mice, pretargeting studies were performed with a cytosine-free MORF. An 18-mer MORF (5'-TCTTCTACTTCACAACTA) was conjugated to the anti-CEA antibody MN14 (Immunomedics) and administered to nude mice bearing LS174T tumors. Thereafter, the (99m)Tc-labeled cytosine-free cMORF (5'-TAGTTGTGAAGTAGAAGA-amide-MAG(3)) was administered. For comparison, the identical study was repeated but with our original pair of 18-mer MORFs (5'-GGGTGTACGTCACAACTA-conjugated MN14 and (99m)Tc-labeled 5'-TAGTTGTGACGTACACCC-amide-MAG(3)). Surface plasmon resonance was used to show that the hybridization affinities of the original and the modified pair of MORFs were essentially equal. Hybridization of the cytosine-free cMORF-(99m)Tc to MN14-MORF was demonstrated in vitro by size-exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography. At 3 h, kidney levels in normal mice were 2.0%ID/organ for the modified cMORF vs. 4.1%ID/organ for the original cMORF sequence, while at 24 h, these values were 0.9% vs 1.8%ID/organ. Pretargeting studies in tumored mice receiving 25 microg of conjugated antibody, 0.5 microg of labeled cMORF 48 h later, followed by imaging and sacrifice at 3 h showed that kidney levels were reduced using the cytosine-free cMORF. Moreover, tumor accumulation was about 3.6%ID/g and was independent of sequence. The whole-body images clearly reflected the improved tumor to kidney ratios. By choosing a cytosine-free base sequence for pretargeting studies, kidney accumulation of cMORF-(99m)Tc was reduced without adversely influencing tumor accumulation. The lowering of kidney radioactivity levels in this way may be important to reduce toxicity to this organ in connection with pretargeting radiotherapy studies. PMID:14691611

  10. Spatiotemporal features of early neuronogenesis differ in wild-type and albino mouse retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rachel, Rivka A.; Dolen, Gul; Hayes, Nancy L.; Lu, Alice; Erskine, Lynda; Nowakowski, Richard S.; Mason, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    In albino mammals, lack of pigment in the retinal pigment epithelium is associated with retinal defects, including poor visual acuity from a photoreceptor deficit in the central retina and poor depth perception from a decrease in ipsilaterally projecting retinal fibers. Possible contributors to these abnormalities are reported delays in neuronogenesis (Ilia and Jeffery, 1996) and retinal maturation (Webster and Rowe, 1991). To further determine possible perturbations in neuronogenesis and/or differentiation, we used cell-specific markers and refined birth dating methods to examine these events during retinal ganglion cell (RGC) genesis in albino and pigmented mice from embryonic day 11 (E11) to E18. Our data indicate that relative to pigmented mice, more ganglion cells are born in the early stages of neuronogenesis in the albino retina, although the initiation of RGC genesis in the albino is unchanged. The cellular organization of the albino retina is perturbed as early as E12. In addition, cell cycle kinetics and output along the nasotemporal axis differ in retinas of albino and pigmented mice, both absolutely, with the temporal aspect of the retina expanded in albino, and relative to the position of the optic nerve head. Finally, blocking melanin synthesis in pigmented eyecups in culture leads to an increase in RGC differentiation, consistent with a role for melanin formation in regulating RGC neuronogenesis. These results point to spatiotemporal defects in neuronal production in the albino retina, which could perturb expression of genes that specify cell fate, number, and/or projection phenotype.

  11. Mice lacking brain-type creatine kinase activity show defective thermoregulation

    PubMed Central

    Streijger, Femke; Pluk, Helma; Oerlemans, Frank; Beckers, Gaby; Bianco, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Miriam O.; Wieringa, Bé; Van der Zee, Catharina E.E.M.

    2010-01-01

    The cytosolic brain-type creatine kinase and mitochondrial ubiquitous creatine kinase (CK-B and UbCKmit) are expressed during the prepubescent and adult period of mammalian life. These creatine kinase (CK) isoforms are present in neural cell types throughout the central and peripheral nervous system and in smooth muscle containing tissues, where they have an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. Here, we report on the coupling of CK activity to body temperature rhythm and adaptive thermoregulation in mice. With both brain-type CK isoforms being absent, the body temperature reproducibly drops ~1.0°C below normal during every morning (inactive) period in the daily cycle. Facultative non-shivering thermogenesis is also impaired, since CK−−/−− mice develop severe hypothermia during 24 h cold exposure. A relationship with fat metabolism was suggested because comparison of CK−−/−− mice with wildtype controls revealed decreased weight gain associated with less white and brown fat accumulation and smaller brown adipocytes. Also, circulating levels of glucose, triglycerides and leptin are reduced. Extensive physiological testing and uncoupling protein1 analysis showed, however, that the thermogenic problems are not due to abnormal responsiveness of brown adipocytes, since noradrenaline infusion produced a normal increase of body temperature. Moreover, we demonstrate that the cyclic drop in morning temperature is also not related to altered rhythmicity with reduced locomotion, diminished food intake or increased torpor sensitivity. Although several integral functions appear altered when CK is absent in the brain, combined findings point into the direction of inefficient neuronal transmission as the dominant factor in the thermoregulatory defect. PMID:19419668

  12. Evaluation of lemon fruit extract as an antioxidant agent against histopathological changes induced by cyclophosphamide in the testes of albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Quita, Salwa Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of lemon fruit extracts (LFE) against histopathological changes induced in the testes of male mice treated with cyclophosphamide (CP). Methods Thirty male mice were divided evenly into six groups: 1) group 1: the controls, 2) group 2: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg b wt.), 3) group 3: treated with CP (10 mg/kg b wt.), 4) group 4: treated with CP (20 mg/kg b wt.), 5) group 5: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg) + CP (10 mg/kg), 6) group 6: treated with LFE (10 ml/kg) + CP (20 mg/kg). Results Histological examination of the testes of mice treated with CP revealed histopathological changes, such as atrophy, degeneration, incomplete spermatogenic series in most seminiferous tubules, and spermatogenic necrosis with pyknotic nuclei. Advanced degree of improvement was seen in testes of mice treated with LFE co-administered with CP. Most of the seminiferous tubules restored their normal structure and spermatogenic layers appeared semi-normal with complete spermatogenic series. Conclusion Lemon fruit extract in conjunction with drug treatment protects the testicular tissue against CP-induced testicular injury in mice. PMID:26955455

  13. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuehai; Lu, Huixia; Huang, Ziyang; Lin, Huili; Lei, Zhenmin; Tang, Mengxiong; Gao, Fei; Dong, Mei; Li, Rongda; Lin, Ling

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • The spleen weights and glomerular areas were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • Expressions of IgG and C3 in glomeruli were similar in ApoE{sup −/−} and Fas{sup −/−} mice. • IgG, C3 and macrophage infiltration in aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. - Abstract: Background: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup −/−}) mice is a classic model of atherosclerosis. We have found that ApoE{sup −/−} mice showed splenomegaly, higher titers of serum anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-dsDNA antibody compared with C57B6/L (B6) mice. However, whether ApoE{sup −/−} mice show autoimmune injury remains unclear. Methods and results: Six females and six males in each group, ApoE{sup −/−}, Fas{sup −/−} and B6 mice, were used in this study. The titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein were measured by ELISA after 4 months of high-fat diet. The spleen weight and the glomerular area were determined. The expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in kidney and atherosclerotic plaque were detected by immunostaining followed by morphometric analysis. Similar to the characteristics of Fas{sup −/−} mice, a model of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), ApoE{sup −/−} mice, especially female, displayed significant increases of spleen weight and glomerular area when compared to B6 mice. Also, elevated titers of serum ANA, anti-dsDNA antibody and creatinine and urine protein. Moreover, the expressions of IgG, C3 and macrophage in glomeruli and aortic plaques were found in ApoE{sup −/−} mice. In addition, the IgG and C3 expressions in glomeruli and plaques significantly increased (or a trend of increase) in female ApoE{sup −/−} mice compared with males. Conclusions: Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice on high-fat diet show autoimmune injury on kidney and aorta.

  14. Ultrasonic Vocalizations of Male Mice Differ among Species and Females Show Assortative Preferences for Male Calls

    PubMed Central

    Musolf, Kerstin; Meindl, Stefanie; Larsen, Angela L.; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C.; Penn, Dustin J.

    2015-01-01

    Male house mice (Mus musculus) emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during courtship, which attract females, and we aimed to test whether females use these vocalizations for species or subspecies recognition of potential mates. We recorded courtship USVs of males from different Mus species, Mus musculus subspecies, and populations (F1 offspring of wild-caught Mus musculus musculus, Mus musculus domesticus (and F1 hybrid crosses), and Mus spicilegus), and we conducted playback experiments to measure female preferences for male USVs. Male vocalizations contained at least seven distinct syllable types, whose frequency of occurrence varied among species, subspecies, and populations. Detailed analyses of multiple common syllable types indicated that Mus musculus and Mus spicilegus could be discriminated based on spectral and temporal characteristics of their vocalizations, and populations of Mus musculus were also distinctive regardless of the classification model used. Females were able to discriminate USVs from different species, and showed assortative preferences for conspecific males. We found no evidence that females discriminate USVs of males from a different subspecies or separate populations of the same species, even though our spectral analyses identified acoustic features that differ between species, subspecies, and populations of the same species. Our results provide the first comparison of USVs between Mus species or between Mus musculus subspecies, and the first evidence that male USVs potentially facilitate species recognition. PMID:26309246

  15. Long-Lived αMUPA Mice Show Attenuation of Cardiac Aging and Leptin-Dependent Cardioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Esther; Kornowski, Ran; Gavrieli, Reut; Fratty, Ilana; Greenberg, Gabriel; Waldman, Maayan; Birk, Einat; Shainberg, Asher; Akirov, Amit; Miskin, Ruth; Hochhauser, Edith

    2015-01-01

    αMUPA transgenic mice spontaneously consume less food compared with their wild type (WT) ancestors due to endogenously increased levels of the satiety hormone leptin. αMUPA mice share many benefits with mice under caloric restriction (CR) including an extended life span. To understand mechanisms linked to cardiac aging, we explored the response of αMUPA hearts to ischemic conditions at the age of 6, 18, or 24 months. Mice were subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) in vivo and to ischemia/reperfusion ex vivo. Compared to WT mice, αMUPA showed functional and histological advantages under all experimental conditions. At 24 months, none of the WT mice survived the first ischemic day while αMUPA mice demonstrated 50% survival after 7 ischemic days. Leptin, an adipokine decreasing under CR, was consistently ~60% higher in αMUPA sera at baseline. Leptin levels gradually increased in both genotypes 24h post MI but were doubled in αMUPA. Pretreatment with leptin neutralizing antibodies or with inhibitors of leptin signaling (AG-490 and Wortmannin) abrogated the αMUPA benefits. The antibodies also reduced phosphorylation of the leptin signaling components STAT3 and AKT specifically in the αMUPA myocardium. αMUPA mice did not show elevation in adiponectin, an adipokine previously implicated in CR-induced cardioprotection. WT mice treated for short-term CR exhibited cardioprotection similar to that of αMUPA, however, along with increased adiponectin at baseline. Collectively, the results demonstrate a life-long increased ischemic tolerance in αMUPA mice, indicating the attenuation of cardiac aging. αMUPA cardioprotection is mediated through endogenous leptin, suggesting a protective pathway distinct from that elicited under CR. PMID:26673217

  16. Eya1-deficient mice lack ears and kidneys and show abnormal apoptosis of organ primordia.

    PubMed

    Xu, P X; Adams, J; Peters, H; Brown, M C; Heaney, S; Maas, R

    1999-09-01

    Haploinsufficiency for human EYA1, a homologue of the Drosophila melanogaster gene eyes absent (eya), results in the dominantly inherited disorders branchio-oto-renal (BOR) syndrome and branchio-oto (BO) syndrome, which are characterized by craniofacial abnormalities and hearing loss with (BOR) or without (BO) kidney defects. To understand the developmental pathogenesis of organs affected in these syndromes, we inactivated the gene Eya1 in mice. Eya1 heterozygotes show renal abnormalities and a conductive hearing loss similar to BOR syndrome, whereas Eya1 homozygotes lack ears and kidneys due to defective inductive tissue interactions and apoptotic regression of the organ primordia. Inner ear development in Eya1 homozygotes arrests at the otic vesicle stage and all components of the inner ear and specific cranial sensory ganglia fail to form. In the kidney, Eya1 homozygosity results in an absence of ureteric bud outgrowth and a subsequent failure of metanephric induction. Gdnf expression, which is required to direct ureteric bud outgrowth via activation of the c-ret Rtk (refs 5, 6, 7, 8), is not detected in Eya1-/- metanephric mesenchyme. In Eya1-/- ear and kidney development, Six but not Pax expression is Eya1 dependent, similar to a genetic pathway elucidated in the Drosophila eye imaginal disc. Our results indicate that Eya1 controls critical early inductive signalling events involved in ear and kidney formation and integrate Eya1 into the genetic regulatory cascade controlling kidney formation upstream of Gdnf. In addition, our results suggest that an evolutionarily conserved Pax-Eya-Six regulatory hierarchy is used in mammalian ear and kidney development. PMID:10471511

  17. B-Cell-Deficient Mice Show an Exacerbated Inflammatory Response in a Model of Chlamydophila abortus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Buendía, Antonio J.; Del Río, Laura; Ortega, Nieves; Sánchez, Joaquín; Gallego, María C.; Caro, María R.; Navarro, Jose A.; Cuello, Francisco; Salinas, Jesús

    2002-01-01

    The resolution of Chlamydophila abortus (Chlamydia psittaci serotype 1) infection is dependent on gamma interferon and CD8+ T cells, and classically, B cells have been considered to play a minimal role in host defense. The role of B cells in the immune response was studied by using a model of infection in mice with genetically modified immunoglobulin M transmembrane domains (μMT). In the absence of B cells, infection with C. abortus leads to an acute severe fatal disease that involves a disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome. μMT mice displayed an increased level of proinflammatory cytokines in serum, and an increased number of neutrophils was observed in the lesions. The possible deleterious role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of disease in μMT mice was determined by depletion of the neutrophils with the monoclonal antibody RB6-8C5. This led to an enhancement of the bacterial burden and early mortality in both μMT and wild-type mice, while necrotic lesions remained. Analysis of the presence of immunoregulatory cytokines showed significantly lower levels of transforming growth factor β in the sera of μMT mice. However, mice lacking mature B cells were able to establish a specific immune response that protected them from a secondary challenge. Taken together, these data suggest an immunomodulatory role for B cells in the early events of C. abortus primary infection that can protect mice against an exaggerated inflammatory response. PMID:12438369

  18. IL-1 receptor-antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout mice show anxiety-like behavior by aging.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Chisato; Numakawa, Tadahiro; Odaka, Haruki; Ooshima, Yoshiko; Kiyama, Yuji; Manabe, Toshiya; Kunugi, Hiroshi; Iwakura, Yoichiro

    2015-07-10

    Interleukin 1 (IL-1) plays a critical role in stress responses, and its mRNA is induced in the brain by restraint stress. Previously, we reported that IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout (KO) mice, which lacked IL-1Ra molecules that antagonize the IL-1 receptor, showed anti-depression-like behavior via adrenergic modulation at the age of 8 weeks. Here, we report that IL-1Ra KO mice display an anxiety-like phenotype that is induced spontaneously by aging in the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test. This anxiety-like phenotype was improved by the administration of diazepam. The expression of the anxiety-related molecule glucocorticoid receptor (GR) was significantly reduced in 20-week-old but not in 11-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) littermates. The expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was not altered between IL-1Ra KO mice and WT littermates at either 11 or 20 weeks old. Analysis of monoamine concentration in the hippocampus revealed that tryptophan, the serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), and the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) were significantly increased in 20-week-old IL-1Ra KO mice compared to littermate WT mice. These findings strongly suggest that the anxiety-like behavior observed in older mice was caused by the complicated alteration of monoamine metabolism and/or GR expression in the hippocampus. PMID:26002078

  19. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice show increased titers of serum anti-nuclear and anti-dsDNA antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yuehai; Huang, Ziyang; Lu, Huixia; Lin, Huili; Wang, Zhenhua; Chen, Xiaoqing; Ouyang, Qiufang; Tang, Mengxiong; Hao, Panpan; Ni, Jingqin; Xu, Dongming; Zhang, Mingxiang; Zhang, Qunye; Lin, Ling; and others

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibodies were higher in ApoE{sup -/-} than C57B6/L mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spleen was greater and splenocyte apoptosis lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Level of TLR4 was lower in spleen tissue of ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in maintaining the balance of splenocyte apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TLR4 pathway may participate in antibody production in spleen tissue. -- Abstract: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE{sup -/-}) mice, atherosclerosis-prone mice, show an autoimmune response, but the pathogenesis is not fully understood. We investigated the pathogenesis in female and male ApoE{sup -/-} mice. The spleens of all ApoE{sup -/-} and C57BL/6 (B6) mice were weighed. The serum IgG level and titers of anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibody were assayed by ELISA. Apoptosis of spleen tissue was evaluated by TUNEL. TLR4 level in spleen tissue was tested by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Levels of MyD88, p38, phosphorylated p38 (pp38), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) in spleen tissue were detected by Western blot analysis. We also survey the changes of serum autoantibodies, spleen weight, splenocyte apoptosis and the expressions of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue in male ApoE{sup -/-} mice after 4 weeks of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), Toll-like receptor 4 ligand, administration. ApoE{sup -/-} mice showed splenomegaly and significantly increased serum level of IgG and titers of ANA and anti-dsDNA antibody as compared with B6 mice. Splenocyte apoptosis and the expression of TLR4, MyD88, pp38, IRF3 and Bax in spleen tissue were significantly lower in ApoE{sup -/-} than B6 mice. The expression of TLR4, MyD88, IRF3, pp38, and Bax differed by sex in ApoE{sup -/-} spleen tissue. The

  20. Mice lacking the Parkinson's related GPR37/PAEL receptor show non-motor behavioral phenotypes: age and gender effect.

    PubMed

    Mandillo, S; Golini, E; Marazziti, D; Di Pietro, C; Matteoni, R; Tocchini-Valentini, G P

    2013-06-01

    Non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been often described at different stages of the disease but they are poorly understood. We observed specific phenotypes related to these symptoms in mice lacking the PD-associated GPR37/PAEL receptor. GPR37 is an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in the mammalian central nervous system. It is a substrate of parkin and it is involved in the pathogenesis of PD. GPR37 interacts with the dopamine transporter (DAT), modulating nigro-striatal dopaminergic signaling and behavioral responses to amphetamine and cocaine. GPR37 knockout (KO) mice are resistant to MPTP and exhibit several motor behavioral abnormalities related to altered dopaminergic system function. To evaluate non-motor behavioral domains, adult and aged, male and female GPR37 KO mice and their wild-type (WT) littermates were analyzed in a series of cross-sectional studies. Aged GPR37 KO female mice showed mild improvements in olfactory function, while anxiety and depression-like behaviors appeared to be significantly increased. A reduction of the startle response to acoustic stimuli was observed only in adult GPR37 KO mice of both genders. Furthermore, HPLC analysis of major neurotransmitter levels revealed gender differences in the striatum, hippocampus and olfactory bulb of mutant mice. The absence of GPR37 receptor could have a neuroprotective effect in an age and gender-dependent manner, and the study of this receptor could be valuable in the search for novel therapeutic targets. PMID:23574697

  1. Female mice lacking Xist RNA show partial dosage compensation and survive to term.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Kirby, James E; Sunwoo, Hongjae; Lee, Jeannie T

    2016-08-01

    X-chromosome inactivation (XCI) compensates for differences in X-chromosome number between male and female mammals. XCI is orchestrated by Xist RNA, whose expression in early development leads to transcriptional silencing of one X chromosome in the female. Knockout studies have established a requirement for Xist with inviability of female embryos that inherit an Xist deletion from the father. Here, we report that female mice lacking Xist RNA can, surprisingly, develop and survive to term. Xist-null females are born at lower frequency and are smaller at birth, but organogenesis is mostly normal. Transcriptomic analysis indicates significant overexpression of hundreds of X-linked genes across multiple tissues. Therefore, Xist-null mice can develop to term in spite of a deficiency of dosage compensation. However, the degree of X-autosomal dosage imbalance was less than anticipated (1.14-fold to 1.36-fold). Thus, partial dosage compensation can be achieved without Xist, supporting the idea of inherent genome balance. Nevertheless, to date, none of the mutant mice has survived beyond weaning stage. Sudden death is associated with failure of postnatal organ maturation. Our data suggest Xist-independent mechanisms of dosage compensation and demonstrate that small deviations from X-autosomal balance can have profound effects on overall fitness. PMID:27542829

  2. Mice with selective elimination of striatal acetylcholine release are lean, show altered energy homeostasis and changed sleep/wake cycle.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Monica S; De Jaeger, Xavier; Drangova, Maria; Prado, Marco A M; Gros, Robert; Prado, Vania F

    2013-03-01

    Cholinergic neurons are known to regulate striatal circuits; however, striatal-dependent physiological outcomes influenced by acetylcholine (ACh) are still poorly under;?>stood. Here, we used vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT)(D2-Cre-flox/flox) mice, in which we selectively ablated the vesicular acetylcholine transporter in the striatum to dissect the specific roles of striatal ACh in metabolic homeostasis. We report that VAChT(D) (2-Cre-flox/flox) mice are lean at a young age and maintain this lean phenotype with time. The reduced body weight observed in these mutant mice is not attributable to reduced food intake or to a decrease in growth rate. In addition, changed activity could not completely explain the lean phenotype, as only young VAChT(D) (2-Cre-flox/flox) mice showed increased physical activity. Interestingly, VAChT(D) (2-Cre-flox/flox) mice show several metabolic changes, including increased plasma levels of insulin and leptin. They also show increased periods of wakefulness when compared with littermate controls. Taken together, our data suggest that striatal ACh has an important role in the modulation of metabolism and highlight the importance of striatum cholinergic tone in the regulation of energy expenditure. These new insights on how cholinergic neurons influence homeostasis open new avenues for the search of drug targets to treat obesity. PMID:23240572

  3. TAp73 knockout mice show morphological and functional nervous system defects associated with loss of p75 neurotrophin receptor.

    PubMed

    Niklison-Chirou, Maria Victoria; Steinert, Joern R; Agostini, Massimiliano; Knight, Richard A; Dinsdale, David; Cattaneo, Antonio; Mak, Tak W; Melino, Gerry

    2013-11-19

    Total and N-terminal isoform selective p73 knockout mice show a variety of central nervous system defects. Here we show that TAp73 is a transcriptional activator of p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)) and that p75(NTR) mRNA and protein levels are strongly reduced in the central and peripheral nervous systems of p73 knockout mice. In parallel, primary cortical neurons from p73 knockout mice showed a reduction in neurite outgrowth and in nerve growth factor-mediated neuronal differentiation, together with reduced miniature excitatory postsynaptic current frequencies and behavioral defects. p73 null mice also have impairments in the peripheral nervous system with reduced thermal sensitivity, axon number, and myelin thickness. At least some of these morphological and functional impairments in p73 null cells can be rescued by p75(NTR) re-expression. Together, these data demonstrate that loss of p75(NTR) contributes to the neurological phenotype of p73 knockout mice. PMID:24190996

  4. Behavioral phenotyping of heterozygous acetylcholinesterase knockout (AChE+/-) mice showed no memory enhancement but hyposensitivity to amnesic drugs.

    PubMed

    Espallergues, Julie; Galvan, Laurie; Sabatier, Florence; Rana-Poussine, Vanessa; Maurice, Tangui; Chatonnet, Arnaud

    2010-01-20

    Decrease in the expression or activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzymatic activity results in increased cholinergic tonus in the brain and periphery, with concomitant regulations of nicotinic and muscarinic receptors expression. We generated AChE knockout mice and characterized the behavioral phenotype of heterozygous animals, focusing on learning and memory functions. Male and female, AChE+/- and AChE+/+ littermate controls (129 sv strain) were tested at 5-9 weeks of age. AChE activity was significantly decreased in the hippocampus and cortex of AChE+/- mice, but butyrylcholinesterase activity was preserved. AChE+/- mice failed to show any difference in terms of locomotion, exploration and anxiety parameters in the open-field test. Animals were then tested for place learning in the water-maze. They were trained using a 'sustained acquisition' protocol (3 swim trials per day) or a 'mild acquisition' protocol (2 swim trials per day) to locate an invisible platform in fixed position (reference memory procedure). Then, during 3 days, they were trained to locate the platform in a variable position (working memory procedure). Learning profiles and probe test performances were similar for AChE+/- and AChE+/+ mice. Mice were then treated with the muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine (0.5, 5 mg/kg) 20 min before each training session. Scopolamine impaired learning at both doses in AChE+/+ mice, but only at the highest dose in AChE+/- mice. Moreover, the intracerebroventricular injection of amyloid-beta25-35 peptide, 9 nmol, 7 days before water-maze acquisition, failed to induce learning deficits in AChE+/- mice, but impaired learning in AChE+/+ controls. The peptide failed to be toxic in forebrain structures of AChE+/- mice, since an increase in lipid peroxidation levels was measured in the hippocampus of AChE+/+ but not AChE+/- mice. We conclude that the increase in cholinergic tonus observed in AChE+/- mice did not result in increased memory functions but

  5. Female, but not male, mice show delayed cutaneous wound healing following aspirin administration.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Jeanine S; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa

    2013-02-01

    Cyclo-oxygenase (COX) is an enzyme that participates in the wound healing process. Aspirin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, simultaneously inhibits the aromatase activity of COX-1 and COX-2 isoforms, which is needed for prostaglandin synthesis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether aspirin, and thus COX inhibition, distinctly affects cutaneous wound healing in female and male mice. Female and male BALB/c mice were treated with aspirin (25 mg/kg per day) for 16 days until they were killed. The control group received vehicle (saline) only. A full-thickness excisional lesion was made on the back, 2 days after aspirin administration started, and macroscopic, histological and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Sections were stained and immunostained for microscopic analysis. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, hydroxyproline quantity and the protein expression of von Willebrand factor (vWF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were also determined. Female control and aspirin-treated groups exhibited delayed wound closure and re-epithelization compared with the male control and aspirin-treated groups, respectively. The female control group exhibited reduced MPO activity and a decreased number of macrophage inhibitory factor-positive cells compared with the male control group. In the female aspirin-treated group, MPO activity and the number of F4/80-positive macrophages was higher than in the control group. Collagen was reduced only in the female aspirin-treated group. The expression of vWF and VEGF protein was increased in the female aspirin-treated group. In conclusion, aspirin administration impaired the wound healing process in BALB/c female, but not male, mice. PMID:23240590

  6. A new, albino-beige mouse: giant granules in retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Robison, W G; Kuwabara, T

    1978-04-01

    Albino-beige mice were produced in order to combine two experimentally useful characteristics, albinism and lysosomal dysfunction, in the same animal. The retinal pigment epithelium of albino-beige mice formed giant intracellular granules. Exposure of albino-beige mice to white light of 150 foot-candles for 3 to 10 hr induced marked phagocytosis of rod outer segment fragments by the retinal pigment epithelium, resulting in intracellular accumulations of undigested disk membranes within the giant granules. Additional, incompletely processed membranes accumulated as the mice aged or were exposed to 150 foot-candle light for longer periods. Such accumulations of ingested membranes were not observed in the pigment epithelium of exposed or aging albino mice heterozygous for the beige gene. Because of its altered processing of ingested outer segment membranes, this new albino mouse should be useful for studying the possible roles of the retinal pigment epithelium in the maintenance of photoreceptor cells and in their recovery from light damage and other insults. PMID:640784

  7. Novel repetitive sequence families showing size and frequency polymorphism in the genomes of mice.

    PubMed

    Kominami, R; Urano, Y; Mishima, Y; Muramatsu, M; Moriwaki, K; Yoshikura, H

    1983-04-01

    A middle repetitive sequence, PR1, originally found in mouse rDNA appeared as satellite-like bands when EcoRI and BglII digests of genomic DNA were subjected to Southern blot hybridization using PR1 as probe. The copy number and sizes of PR1-related satellite-like bands, designated as PR1 families, differed remarkably among the subspecies and laboratory strains of mice when the EcoRI digests of genomic DNAs were compared. These bands were not detected in rat and human DNAs. A unit of PR1 sequence was determined by examining cloned EcoRI 3.5 kb (kb, 10(3) bases) fragment and 6.6 kb rDNA by cross-hybridization and sequence analysis: 3.5 kb and 6.6 kb DNAs are composed of homologous PR1 regions and the flanking non-homologous sequences. The results indicate that amplification of different sequences containing PR1 has occurred in different subspecies and strains of mice, and that the segments of satellite-like bands are likely to have been created by recombination of the PR1 sequence with other DNA segments before amplification. The chromosomal distribution of the 3.5 kb PR1 family was studied by back-crossing the female F1 between BALB/c and DDD/1 to male DDD/1. The segregation data strongly suggest that most, if not all, of this family are located on a single chromosome. The stability of these PR1 families in the genomes of cultured cells of a given strain was also examined. An extra band homologous to PR1 appeared in their genomes, but was not detected in other tissues, indicating that some PR1 families may change even during cell propagation. PMID:6302286

  8. Synthesis, Structure, Electrochemistry, and Spectral Characterization of Bis-Isatin Thiocarbohydrazone Metal Complexes and Their Antitumor Activity Against Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sathisha, M. P.; Revankar, V. K.; Pai, K. S. R.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis, structure, electrochemistry, and biological studies of Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Zn(II) complexes of thiocarbohydrazone ligand are described. The ligand is synthesized starting from thiocarbohydrazide and isatin. It is evident from the IR data that in all the complexes, only one part of the ligand is coordinated to the metal ion resulting mononuclear complexes. The ligand coordinates essentially through the carbonyl oxygen of the isatin fragment, the nitrogen atom of the azomethine group, and sulfur atom after deprotonation to give five membered rings. H1 NMR spectrum of the ligand shows only one set of signals for the aromatic protons, while the NH of isatin and NH of hydrazone give rise to two different singlets in the 11–14 ppm range. The formulations, [Cu(L)Cl]·2H2O, [Cu(L)(CH3COO)]·2H2O, [Ni(L)Cl], [Ni(L)(CH3COO)], [Co(L2)], and [Zn(L2)]·2H2O are in accordance with elemental analyses, physical, and spectroscopic measurements. The complexes are soluble in organic solvents. Molar conductance values in DMF indicate the nonelectrolytic nature of the complexes. Copper complex displays quasireversible cyclic voltametric responses with Ep near −0.659 v and 0.504 v Vs Ag/AgCl at the scan rate of 0.1 V/s. Copper(II) complexes show a single line EPR signals. For the observed magnetic moment and electronic spectral data possible explanation has been discussed. From all the available data, the probable structures for the complexes have been proposed. The compounds synthesized in present study have shown promising cytotoxic activity when screened using the in vitro method and at the same time were shown to have good activity when tested using the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model. The antimicrobial screening showed that the cobalt complex possesses enhanced antimicrobial activity towards fungi. PMID:18320020

  9. Mice with mutant Inf2 show impaired podocyte and slit diaphragm integrity in response to protamine-induced kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Balajikarthick; Sun, Hua; Yan, Paul; Charoonratana, Victoria T; Higgs, Henry N; Wang, Fang; Lai, Ka-Man V; Valenzuela, David M; Brown, Elizabeth J; Schlöndorff, Johannes S; Pollak, Martin R

    2016-08-01

    Mutations in the INF2 (inverted formin 2) gene, encoding a diaphanous formin family protein that regulates actin cytoskeleton dynamics, cause human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). INF2 interacts directly with certain other mammalian diaphanous formin proteins (mDia) that function as RhoA effector molecules. FSGS-causing INF2 mutations impair these interactions and disrupt the ability of INF2 to regulate Rho/Dia-mediated actin dynamics in vitro. However, the precise mechanisms by which INF2 regulates and INF2 mutations impair glomerular structure and function remain unknown. Here, we characterize an Inf2 R218Q point-mutant (knockin) mouse to help answer these questions. Knockin mice have no significant renal pathology or proteinuria at baseline despite diminished INF2 protein levels. INF2 mutant podocytes do show impaired reversal of protamine sulfate-induced foot process effacement by heparin sulfate perfusion. This is associated with persistent podocyte cytoplasmic aggregation, nephrin phosphorylation, and nephrin and podocin mislocalization, as well as impaired recovery of mDia membrane localization. These changes were partially mimicked in podocyte outgrowth cultures, in which podocytes from knockin mice show altered cellular protrusions compared to those from wild-type mice. Thus, in mice, normal INF2 function is not required for glomerular development but normal INF2 is required for regulation of the actin-based behaviors necessary for response to and/or recovery from injury. PMID:27350175

  10. Coumarin compounds of Biebersteinia multifida roots show potential anxiolytic effects in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional preparations of the root of Biebersteinia multifida DC (Geraniaceae), a native medicinal plant of Irano-Turanian floristic region, have been used for the treatment of phobias as anxiolytic herbal preparation. Methods We utilized the phobic behavior of mice in an elevated plus-maze as a model to evaluate the anxiolytic effect of the plant extract and bio-guided fractionation was applied to isolate the active compounds. Total root extract, alkaline and ether fraction were administered to mice at different doses 30 and 90 min prior to the maze test. Saline and diazepam were administered as negative and positive controls, respectively. The time spent in open and closed arms, an index of anxiety behavior and entry time, was measured as an index of animal activity. Results The total root extract exhibited anxiolytic effect which was comparable to diazepam but with longer duration. This sustained effect of the crude extract was sustained for 90 min and was even more after injection of 45 mg/kg while the effect of diazepam had been reduced by 90 min. The anxiolytic effect factor was only present in the alkaline fraction and displayed its effect at lower doses than diazepam while pure vasicinone as the previously known alkaloid did not shown anxiolytic effect. The effect of the alkaline fraction was in a dose dependent manner starting at 0.2 mg/kg with a maximum at 1.0 mg/kg. Bio-guided fractionation using a variety of chromatographic methods led to isolation and purification of three coumarin derivatives from the bioactive fraction, including umbelliferone, scopoletin, and ferulic acid. Conclusion For the first time, bio-guided fractionation of the root extract of B. multifida indicates significant sustained anxiolytic effects which led to isolation of three coumarin derivatives with well-known potent MAO inhibitory and anti-anxiety effects. These data contribute to evidence-based traditional use of B. multifida root for anxiety disorders. PMID

  11. Mice doubly-deficient in lysosomal hexosaminidase A and neuraminidase 4 show epileptic crises and rapid neuronal loss.

    PubMed

    Seyrantepe, Volkan; Lema, Pablo; Caqueret, Aurore; Dridi, Larbi; Bel Hadj, Samar; Carpentier, Stephane; Boucher, Francine; Levade, Thierry; Carmant, Lionel; Gravel, Roy A; Hamel, Edith; Vachon, Pascal; Di Cristo, Graziella; Michaud, Jacques L; Morales, Carlos R; Pshezhetsky, Alexey V

    2010-09-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is a severe lysosomal disorder caused by mutations in the HexA gene coding for the α-subunit of lysosomal β-hexosaminidase A, which converts G(M2) to G(M3) ganglioside. Hexa(-/-) mice, depleted of β-hexosaminidase A, remain asymptomatic to 1 year of age, because they catabolise G(M2) ganglioside via a lysosomal sialidase into glycolipid G(A2), which is further processed by β-hexosaminidase B to lactosyl-ceramide, thereby bypassing the β-hexosaminidase A defect. Since this bypass is not effective in humans, infantile Tay-Sachs disease is fatal in the first years of life. Previously, we identified a novel ganglioside metabolizing sialidase, Neu4, abundantly expressed in mouse brain neurons. Now we demonstrate that mice with targeted disruption of both Neu4 and Hexa genes (Neu4(-/-);Hexa(-/-)) show epileptic seizures with 40% penetrance correlating with polyspike discharges on the cortical electrodes of the electroencephalogram. Single knockout Hexa(-/-) or Neu4(-/-) siblings do not show such symptoms. Further, double-knockout but not single-knockout mice have multiple degenerating neurons in the cortex and hippocampus and multiple layers of cortical neurons accumulating G(M2) ganglioside. Together, our data suggest that the Neu4 block exacerbates the disease in Hexa(-/-) mice, indicating that Neu4 is a modifier gene in the mouse model of Tay-Sachs disease, reducing the disease severity through the metabolic bypass. However, while disease severity in the double mutant is increased, it is not profound suggesting that Neu4 is not the only sialidase contributing to the metabolic bypass in Hexa(-/-) mice. PMID:20862357

  12. Otx1 null mutant mice show partial segregation of sensory epithelia comparable to lamprey ears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritzsch, B.; Signore, M.; Simeone, A.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the development of inner ear innervation in Otx1 null mutants, which lack a horizontal canal, between embryonic day 12 (E12) and postnatal day 7 (P7) with DiI and immunostaining for acetylated tubulin. Comparable to control animals, horizontal crista-like fibers were found to cross over the utricle in Otx1 null mice. In mutants these fibers extend toward an area near the endolymphatic duct, not to a horizontal crista. Most Otx1 null mutants had a small patch of sensory hair cells at this position. Measurement of the area of the utricular macula suggested it to be enlarged in Otx1 null mutants. We suggest that parts of the horizontal canal crista remain incorporated in the utricular sensory epithelium in Otx1 null mutants. Other parts of the horizontal crista appear to be variably segregated to form the isolated patch of hair cells identifiable by the unique fiber trajectory as representing the horizontal canal crista. Comparison with lamprey ear innervation reveals similarities in the pattern of innervation with the dorsal macula, a sensory patch of unknown function. SEM data confirm that all foramina are less constricted in Otx1 null mutants. We propose that Otx1 is not directly involved in sensory hair cell formation of the horizontal canal but affects the segregation of the horizontal canal crista from the utricle. It also affects constriction of the two main foramina in the ear, but not their initial formation. Otx1 is thus causally related to horizontal canal morphogenesis as well as morphogenesis of these foramina.

  13. Mice lacking Asic3 show reduced anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus maze and reduced aggression.

    PubMed

    Wu, W-L; Lin, Y-W; Min, M-Y; Chen, C-C

    2010-08-01

    Sensing external stimulation is crucial for central processing in the brain and subsequent behavioral expression. Although sensory alteration or deprivation may result in behavioral changes, most studies related to the control of behavior have focused on central mechanisms. Here we created a sensory deficit model of mice lacking acid-sensing ion channel 3 (Asic3(-/-)) to probe behavioral alterations. ASIC3 is predominately distributed in the peripheral nervous system. RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry used to examine the expression of Asic3 in the mouse brain showed near-background mRNA and protein levels of ASIC3 throughout the whole brain, except for the sensory mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus. Consistent with the expression results, Asic3 knockout had no effect on synaptic plasticity of the hippocampus and the behavioral tasks of motor function, learning and memory. In anxiety behavior tasks, Asic3(-/-) mice spent more time in the open arms of an elevated plus maze than did their wild-type littermates. Asic3(-/-) mice also displayed less aggressiveness toward intruders but more stereotypic repetitive behaviors during resident-intruder testing than did wild-type littermates. Therefore, loss of ASIC3 produced behavioral changes in anxiety and aggression in mice, which suggests that ASIC3-dependent sensory activities might relate to the central process of emotion modulation. PMID:20497234

  14. Recombinant murine toxin from Yersinia pestis shows high toxicity and β-adrenergic blocking activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yanxiao; Zhou, Yazhou; Feng, Na; Wang, Qiong; Tian, Guang; Wu, Xiaohong; Liu, Zizhong; Bi, Yujing; Yang, Ruifu; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2016-05-01

    Yersinia pestis murine toxin (Ymt) encoded on pMT1 is a 61-kDa protein, a member of the phospholipase D superfamily, which is found in all the domains of life. It is considered to be an intracellular protein required for the survival of Y. pestis in the midgut of the flea, but the exact role of Ymt in the pathogenesis of Y. pestis has not been clarified. Purified Ymt is highly toxic to mice and rats, but the exact mechanism of the animals' death is unclear. Here, we prepared a recombinant Ymt in Escherichia coli BL21 cells, and determined its toxicity and activity. We demonstrated that recombinant Ymt was as toxic to mice as the native protein when administered via the intraperitoneal or intravenous route, and inhibited the elevation of blood sugar caused by adrenaline. We also demonstrated that recombinant Ymt was highly toxic to mice when administered via the muscular or subcutaneous route. We also show that the multiple organ congestion or hemorrhage caused by Ymt poisoning may explain the death of the mice. PMID:26774329

  15. AhrdCyp1a2(−/−) mice show increased susceptibility to PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Christine Perdan; Altenhofen, Emily; Ashworth, Amy; Brown, Austin; Kamau-Cheggeh, Cellestine; Curran, Melinda; Evans, Amber; Floyd, Rikki; Fowler, Jocelyn; Garber, Helen; Hays, Breann; Kraemer, Sarah; Lang, Anna; Mynhier, Andrea; Samuels, Ashton; Strohmaier, Carly

    2012-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are developmental neurotoxicants that produce cognitive and behavioral changes in children exposed during gestation and lactation. Coplanar PCBs bind the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and can be sequestered in liver by cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2). The AHR is a ligand-activated transcription factor which increases expression of the CYP1 family, including CYP1A2. Our previous work examining genetic susceptibility to developmental PCB neurotoxicity showed that AhrbCyp1a2(−/−) mice with the high-affinity Ahrb allele and lacking CYP1A2 were most susceptible while AhrbCyp1a2(+/+) and poor-affinity AhrdCyp1a2(+/+) mice were resistant. To follow up, a fourth line of mice was generated with the AhrdCyp1a2(−/−) genotype and compared with the background strain AhrbCyp1a2(+/+). Dams received a PCB mixture or the corn oil vehicle at gestational day 10 (GD10) and postnatal day 5 (PND5). Offspring were tested at PND60 in open field locomotor, acoustic startle with pre-pulse inhibition (PPI), novel object recognition and Morris water maze. Locomotor activity was increased in PCB-treated AhrbCyp1a2(+/+) mice, but no differences were seen in control v. PCB-treated AhrdCyp1a2(−/−) mice. PCB-treated AhrdCyp1a2(−/−) mice had a higher baseline startle response and significantly reduced pre-pulse inhibition at the 74dB level compared with corn oil-treated controls (P<0.05). PCB-treated AhrdCyp1a2(−/−) mice had impairments in novel objective recognition (P<0.05) and during all three hidden platform phases of Morris water maze (P<0.01). Combined with our previous findings, these results indicate Cyp1a2 genotype is more important in susceptibility to PCB-induced deficits in learning and memory, but Ahr genotype appears more important when assessing acoustic startle-PPI and locomotor activity. PMID:22935098

  16. Mice devoid of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) show normal expression of type I interferon genes.

    PubMed Central

    Reis, L F; Ruffner, H; Stark, G; Aguet, M; Weissmann, C

    1994-01-01

    The transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) binds tightly to the interferon (IFN)-beta promoter and has been implicated in the induction of type I IFNs. We generated mice devoid of functional IRF-1 by targeted gene disruption. As reported by others, IRF-1-deficient mice showed a discrete phenotype: the CD4/CD8 ratio was increased and IFN-gamma-induced levels of macrophage iNO synthase mRNA were strongly diminished. However, type I IFN induction in vivo by virus or double-stranded RNA was unimpaired, as evidenced by serum IFN titers and IFN mRNA levels in spleen, liver and lung. There was also no impairment in the response of type I IFN-inducible genes. Therefore, IRF-1 is not essential for these processes in vivo. Images PMID:7957048

  17. Mice with Deficient BK Channel Function Show Impaired Prepulse Inhibition and Spatial Learning, but Normal Working and Spatial Reference Memory

    PubMed Central

    Azzopardi, Erin; Ruettiger, Lukas; Ruth, Peter; Schmid, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Genetic variations in the large-conductance, voltage- and calcium activated potassium channels (BK channels) have been recently implicated in mental retardation, autism and schizophrenia which all come along with severe cognitive impairments. In the present study we investigate the effects of functional BK channel deletion on cognition using a genetic mouse model with a knock-out of the gene for the pore forming α-subunit of the channel. We tested the F1 generation of a hybrid SV129/C57BL6 mouse line in which the slo1 gene was deleted in both parent strains. We first evaluated hearing and motor function to establish the suitability of this model for cognitive testing. Auditory brain stem responses to click stimuli showed no threshold differences between knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Despite of muscular tremor, reduced grip force, and impaired gait, knockout mice exhibited normal locomotion. These findings allowed for testing of sensorimotor gating using the acoustic startle reflex, as well as of working memory, spatial learning and memory in the Y-maze and the Morris water maze, respectively. Prepulse inhibition on the first day of testing was normal, but the knockout mice did not improve over the days of testing as their wild-type littermates did. Spontaneous alternation in the y-maze was normal as well, suggesting that the BK channel knock-out does not impair working memory. In the Morris water maze knock-out mice showed significantly slower acquisition of the task, but normal memory once the task was learned. Thus, we propose a crucial role of the BK channels in learning, but not in memory storage or recollection. PMID:24303038

  18. Heterozygous caveolin-3 mice show increased susceptibility to palmitate-induced insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Talukder, M A Hassan; Preda, Marilena; Ryzhova, Larisa; Prudovsky, Igor; Pinz, Ilka M

    2016-03-01

    Insulin resistance and diabetes are comorbidities of obesity and affect one in 10 adults in the United States. Despite the high prevalence, the mechanisms of cardiac insulin resistance in obesity are still unclear. We test the hypothesis that the insulin receptor localizes to caveolae and is regulated through binding to caveolin-3 (CAV3). We further test whether haploinsufficiency forCAV3 increases the susceptibility to high-fat-induced insulin resistance. We used in vivo and in vitro studies to determine the effect of palmitate exposure on global insulin resistance, contractile performance of the heart in vivo, glucose uptake in the heart, and on cellular signaling downstream of theIR We show that haploinsufficiency forCAV3 increases susceptibility to palmitate-induced global insulin resistance and causes cardiomyopathy. On the basis of fluorescence energy transfer (FRET) experiments, we show thatCAV3 andIRdirectly interact in cardiomyocytes. Palmitate impairs insulin signaling by a decrease in insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt that corresponds to an 87% decrease in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake inHL-1 cardiomyocytes. Despite loss of Akt phosphorylation and lower glucose uptake, palmitate increased insulin-independent serine phosphorylation ofIRS-1 by 35%. In addition, we found lipid induced downregulation ofCD36, the fatty acid transporter associated with caveolae. This may explain the problem the diabetic heart is facing with the simultaneous impairment of glucose uptake and lipid transport. Thus, these findings suggest that loss ofCAV3 interferes with downstream insulin signaling and lipid uptake, implicatingCAV3 as a regulator of theIRand regulator of lipid uptake in the heart. PMID:27033451

  19. The APOE4 allele shows opposite sex bias in microbleeds and Alzheimer's disease of humans and mice.

    PubMed

    Cacciottolo, Mafalda; Christensen, Amy; Moser, Alexandra; Liu, Jiahui; Pike, Christian J; Smith, Conor; LaDu, Mary Jo; Sullivan, Patrick M; Morgan, Todd E; Dolzhenko, Egor; Charidimou, Andreas; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Wiberg, Maria Kristofferson; Shams, Sara; Chiang, Gloria Chia-Yi; Finch, Caleb E

    2016-01-01

    The apolipoprotein APOE4 allele confers greater risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) for women than men, in conjunction with greater clinical deficits per unit of AD neuropathology (plaques, tangles). Cerebral microbleeds, which contribute to cognitive dysfunctions during AD, also show APOE4 excess, but sex-APOE allele interactions are not described. We report that elderly men diagnosed for mild cognitive impairment and AD showed a higher risk of cerebral cortex microbleeds with APOE4 allele dose effect in 2 clinical cohorts (ADNI and KIDS). Sex-APOE interactions were further analyzed in EFAD mice carrying human APOE alleles and familial AD genes (5XFAD (+/-) /human APOE(+/+)). At 7 months, E4FAD mice had cerebral cortex microbleeds with female excess, in contrast to humans. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy, plaques, and soluble Aβ also showed female excess. Both the cerebral microbleeds and cerebral amyloid angiopathy increased in proportion to individual Aβ load. In humans, the opposite sex bias of APOE4 allele for microbleeds versus the plaques and tangles is the first example of organ-specific, sex-linked APOE allele effects, and further shows AD as a uniquely human condition. PMID:26686669

  20. HIV-1 Nef mutations abrogating downregulation of CD4 affect other Nef functions and show reduced pathogenicity in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hanna, Zaher . E-mail: Zaher.Hanna@ircm.qc.ca; Priceputu, Elena; Hu, Chunyan; Vincent, Patrick; Jolicoeur, Paul

    2006-03-01

    HIV-1 Nef has the ability to downmodulate CD4 cell surface expression. Several studies have shown that CD4 downregulation is required for efficient virus replication and high infectivity. However, the pathophysiological relevance of this phenomenon in vivo, independently of its role in sustaining high virus loads, remains unclear. We studied the impact of the CD4 downregulation function of Nef on its pathogenesis in vivo, in the absence of viral replication, in the CD4C/HIV transgenic (Tg) mouse model. Two independent Nef mutants (RD35/36AA and D174K), known to abrogate CD4 downregulation, were tested in Tg mice. Flow cytometry analysis showed that downregulation of murine CD4 was severely decreased or abrogated on Tg T cells expressing respectively Nef{sup RD35/36AA} and Nef{sup D174K}. Similarly, the severe depletion of double-positive CD4{sup +}CD8{sup +} and of single-positive CD4{sup +}CD8{sup -} thymocytes, usually observed with Nef{sup Wt}, was not detected in Nef{sup RD35/36AA} and Nef{sup D174K} Tg mice. However, both mutant Tg mice showed a partial depletion of peripheral CD4{sup +} T cells. This was accompanied, as previously reported for Net{sup Wt} Tg mice, by the presence of an activated/memory-like phenotype (CD69{sup +}, CD25{sup +}, CD44{sup +}, CD45RB{sup Low}, CD62{sup Low}) of CD4{sup +} T cells expressing Nef{sup RD35/36AA} and to a lesser extent Nef{sup D174K}. In addition, both mutants retained the ability to block CD4{sup +} T cell proliferation in vitro after anti-CD3 stimulation, but not to enhance apoptosis/death of CD4{sup +} T cells. Therefore, it appears that Nef-mediated CD4 downregulation is associated with thymic defects, but segregates independently of the activated/memory-like phenotype, of the partial depletion and of the impaired in vitro proliferation of peripheral CD4{sup +} T cells. Histopathological assessment revealed the total absence of or decrease severity and frequency of organ AIDS-like diseases (lung, heart and kidney

  1. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells From Diabetic Mice Show Impaired Vascular Stabilization in a Murine Model of Diabetic Retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cronk, Stephen M.; Kelly-Goss, Molly R.; Ray, H. Clifton; Mendel, Thomas A.; Hoehn, Kyle L.; Bruce, Anthony C.; Dey, Bijan K.; Guendel, Alexander M.; Tavakol, Daniel N.; Herman, Ira M.; Yates, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is characterized by progressive vascular dropout with subsequent vision loss. We have recently shown that an intravitreal injection of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can stabilize the retinal microvasculature, enabling repair and regeneration of damaged capillary beds in vivo. Because an understanding of ASC status from healthy versus diseased donors will be important as autologous cellular therapies are developed for unmet clinical needs, we took advantage of the hyperglycemic Akimba mouse as a preclinical in vivo model of diabetic retinopathy in an effort aimed at evaluating therapeutic efficacy of adipose-derived stem cells (mASCs) derived either from healthy, nondiabetic or from diabetic mice. To these ends, Akimba mice received intravitreal injections of media conditioned by mASCs or mASCs themselves, subsequent to development of substantial retinal capillary dropout. mASCs from healthy mice were more effective than diabetic mASCs in protecting the diabetic retina from further vascular dropout. Engrafted ASCs were found to preferentially associate with the retinal vasculature. Conditioned medium was unable to recapitulate the vasoprotection seen with injected ASCs. In vitro diabetic ASCs showed decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis compared with healthy mASCs. Diabetic ASCs also secreted less vasoprotective factors than healthy mASCs, as determined by high-throughput enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our findings suggest that diabetic ASCs are functionally impaired compared with healthy ASCs and support the utility of an allogeneic injection of ASCs versus autologous or conditioned media approaches in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy. PMID:25769654

  2. Chidamide and 5-flurouracil show a synergistic antitumor effect on human colon cancer xenografts in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, L; Qiu, S; Liu, Y; Liu, Z; Zheng, Y; Su, X; Chen, B; Chen, H

    2016-01-01

    Chidamide is a novel histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor that increases the acetylation of histone H3 by inhibiting the activity of HDAC1 and HDAC2. We previously found that treatment of human colon cancer cells with chidamide led to cell apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/1 phase in vitro. The present study extended the observations in vivo and explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. In nude mice bearing human colon cancer LoVo cell xenografts, chidamide alone or in combination with 5-flurouracil (5-Fu) reduced the expression of HDAC1 and HDAC2, accompanied with increased acetylation of histone H3. Chidamide alone inhibited the tumor growth and induce cell apoptosis in tumor-bearing mice. Combined treatment of chidamide with 5-Fu enhanced the anti-tumor activity of 5-Fu. Western blotting analysis showed that chidamide alone or in combination with 5-Fu upregulated the expressions of cleaved Caspase-3 and cleaved poly-ADP (adenosine diphosphate)-ribose polymerase (PARP). In addition, chidamide alone or in combination with 5-Fu increased the p53, phosphorylated-p53 (p-p53), p21 and γH2AX levels, but suppressed cyclin dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) expression in tumor cells. Chidamide alone or in combination with 5-Fu down regulated the expressions of p-AKT, p-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), p-p70S6K, p-Raf, and p44/42 mitogen activated protein kinase (Erk1/2), indicating the blockage of these signaling pathways. The results demonstrated that chidamide alone or in combination with 5-Fu exerted anti-tumor activity in nude mice bearing human colon cancer LoVo cell xenografts, and several signaling pathways might be involved in the chidamide-induced tumor growth inhibition and tumor cell apoptosis. PMID:26774139

  3. Atf3 mutant mice show reduced axon regeneration and impaired regeneration-associated gene induction after peripheral nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Gey, Manuel; Wanner, Renate; Schilling, Corinna; Pedro, Maria T; Sinske, Daniela; Knöll, Bernd

    2016-08-01

    Axon injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) induces a regeneration-associated gene (RAG) response. Atf3 (activating transcription factor 3) is such a RAG and ATF3's transcriptional activity might induce 'effector' RAGs (e.g. small proline rich protein 1a (Sprr1a), Galanin (Gal), growth-associated protein 43 (Gap43)) facilitating peripheral axon regeneration. We provide a first analysis of Atf3 mouse mutants in peripheral nerve regeneration. In Atf3 mutant mice, facial nerve regeneration and neurite outgrowth of adult ATF3-deficient primary dorsal root ganglia neurons was decreased. Using genome-wide transcriptomics, we identified a neuropeptide-encoding RAG cluster (vasoactive intestinal peptide (Vip), Ngf, Grp, Gal, Pacap) regulated by ATF3. Exogenous administration of neuropeptides enhanced neurite growth of Atf3 mutant mice suggesting that these molecules might be effector RAGs of ATF3's pro-regenerative function. In addition to the induction of growth-promoting molecules, we present data that ATF3 suppresses growth-inhibiting molecules such as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2. In summary, we show a pro-regenerative ATF3 function during PNS nerve regeneration involving transcriptional activation of a neuropeptide-encoding RAG cluster. ATF3 is a general injury-inducible factor, therefore ATF3-mediated mechanisms identified herein might apply to other cell and injury types. PMID:27581653

  4. Atf3 mutant mice show reduced axon regeneration and impaired regeneration-associated gene induction after peripheral nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Gey, Manuel; Wanner, Renate; Schilling, Corinna; Pedro, Maria T.; Sinske, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Axon injury in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) induces a regeneration-associated gene (RAG) response. Atf3 (activating transcription factor 3) is such a RAG and ATF3's transcriptional activity might induce ‘effector’ RAGs (e.g. small proline rich protein 1a (Sprr1a), Galanin (Gal), growth-associated protein 43 (Gap43)) facilitating peripheral axon regeneration. We provide a first analysis of Atf3 mouse mutants in peripheral nerve regeneration. In Atf3 mutant mice, facial nerve regeneration and neurite outgrowth of adult ATF3-deficient primary dorsal root ganglia neurons was decreased. Using genome-wide transcriptomics, we identified a neuropeptide-encoding RAG cluster (vasoactive intestinal peptide (Vip), Ngf, Grp, Gal, Pacap) regulated by ATF3. Exogenous administration of neuropeptides enhanced neurite growth of Atf3 mutant mice suggesting that these molecules might be effector RAGs of ATF3's pro-regenerative function. In addition to the induction of growth-promoting molecules, we present data that ATF3 suppresses growth-inhibiting molecules such as chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2. In summary, we show a pro-regenerative ATF3 function during PNS nerve regeneration involving transcriptional activation of a neuropeptide-encoding RAG cluster. ATF3 is a general injury-inducible factor, therefore ATF3-mediated mechanisms identified herein might apply to other cell and injury types. PMID:27581653

  5. Galanin 3 receptor-deficient mice show no alteration in the oxazolone-induced contact dermatitis phenotype.

    PubMed

    Botz, Bálint; Brunner, Susanne M; Kemény, Ágnes; Pintér, Erika; McDougall, Jason J; Kofler, Barbara; Helyes, Zsuzsanna

    2016-09-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is an inflammatory skin disease induced by allergen exposure and characterized by erythema, oedema and immune cell infiltration. The sensory peptide galanin (GAL) and its three receptors (GAL1-3 ) are involved in regulating inflammation. As GAL and its receptors are expressed in human and murine skin and GAL expression is increased in oxazolone-induced contact allergy, it could play a role in dermatitis. As GAL reduces neurogenic plasma extravasation in the mouse skin via GAL3 activation, the role of GAL3 in the oxazolone-induced dermatitis model was explored. Following topical challenge with oxazolone, GAL3 gene-deficient mice showed a trend towards reduced ear thickness. Plasma extravasation and neutrophil infiltration increased considerably upon oxazolone challenge in both GAL3 knockout animals and wild-type controls without any observable effect of the gene deletion. We conclude that a lack of GAL3 does not influence oxazolone-induced ACD. PMID:27121264

  6. Protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (PTP alpha) knockout mice show deficits in Morris water maze learning, decreased locomotor activity, and decreases in anxiety.

    PubMed

    Skelton, Matthew R; Ponniah, Sathivel; Wang, Dennis Z-M; Doetschman, Thomas; Vorhees, Charles V; Pallen, Catherine J

    2003-09-12

    Receptor PTPalpha is a widely expressed transmembrane enzyme enriched in brain. PTPalpha knockout (PTPalpha(-/-)) mice are viable and display no gross abnormalities. Brain and embryo derived fibroblast src and fyn activity is reduced to <50% in PTPalpha(-/-) mice. These protein kinases are implicated in multiple aspects of neuronal development and function. However, the effect of the loss of function of the PTPalpha gene on behavior has yet to be investigated. PTPalpha(-/-) and WT mice were tested for anxiety, swimming ability, spatial learning, cued learning, locomotor activity, and novel object recognition (NOR). PTPalpha(-/-) mice were indistinguishable from WT in swimming ability, cued learning and novel object recognition. Knockout mice showed decreased anxiety without an increase in head dips and stretch-attend movements. During Morris water maze (MWM) learning, PTPalpha(-/-) mice had increased latencies to reach the goal compared to WT on acquisition, but no memory deficit on probe trials. On reversal learning, knockout mice showed no significant effects. PTPalpha(-/-) mice showed decreased exploratory locomotor activity, but responded normally to a challenge dose of D-methamphetamine. The data suggest that PTPalpha serves a regulatory function in learning and other forms of neuroplasticity. PMID:12932834

  7. Construction and characterization of an infectious clone of coxsackievirus A6 that showed high virulence in neonatal mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lisheng; Li, Shuxuan; Liu, Yajing; Hou, Wangheng; Lin, Qiaona; Zhao, Huan; Xu, Longfa; He, Delei; Ye, Xiangzhong; Zhu, Hua; Cheng, Tong; Xia, Ningshao

    2015-12-01

    Atypical hand, foot, and mouth disease (aHFMD) outbreaks have been frequently reported worldwide in recent years. It is believed that coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) is the major pathogen for aHFMD. Studies regarding CA6 infection are limited and the genetic mechanism for the high pathogenicity of some new CA6 variants is still unclear. Infectious clones are powerful tools for studying the genetic mechanisms of RNA viruses. In this study, we describe the construction of a full-length cDNA clone of CA6 strain TW-2007-00141. The whole genome of CA6 was amplified in a single step and ligated into a plasmid vector through an efficient cloning method, Gibson assembly. The whole genome sequence of CA6 strain TW-2007-00141 was determined and phylogenetic analysis indicated that it shared a high degree of similarity (≥94%) with the CA6 strains found in Taiwan in 2009. The infectious clone of CA6 viruses were recovered by transfection into 293FT cells and showed similar biological properties to the parental virus. Viral particles were purified by CsCl isopycnic centrifugation, and two types of viral particles were observed under transmission electron microscopy. The rescued virus showed high virulence in one-day-old suckling mice. This clone may be useful for establishing animal models for the evaluation of CA6 vaccine efficiency in future. PMID:26272672

  8. Aged neuronal nitric oxide knockout mice show preserved olfactory learning in both social recognition and odor-conditioning tasks

    PubMed Central

    James, Bronwen M.; Li, Qin; Luo, Lizhu; Kendrick, Keith M.

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence for both neurotoxic and neuroprotective roles of nitric oxide (NO) in the brain and changes in the expression of the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (nNOS) gene occur during aging. The current studies have investigated potential support for either a neurotoxic or neuroprotective role of NO derived from nNOS in the context of aging by comparing olfactory learning and locomotor function in young compared to old nNOS knockout (nNOS−/−) and wildtype control mice. Tasks involving social recognition and olfactory conditioning paradigms showed that old nNOS−/− animals had improved retention of learning compared to similar aged wildtype controls. Young nNOS−/− animals showed superior reversal learning to wildtypes in a conditioned learning task, although their performance was weakened with age. Interestingly, whereas young nNOS−/− animals were impaired in long term memory for social odors compared to wildtype controls, in old animals this pattern was reversed, possibly indicating beneficial compensatory changes influencing olfactory memory may occur during aging in nNOS−/− animals. Possibly such compensatory changes may have involved increased NO from other NOS isoforms since the memory deficit in young nNOS−/− animals could be rescued by the NO-donor, molsidomine. Both nNOS−/− and wildtype animals showed an age-associated decline in locomotor activity although young nNOS−/− animals were significantly more active than wildtypes, possibly due to an increased interest in novelty. Overall our findings suggest that lack of NO release via nNOS may protect animals to some extent against age-associated cognitive decline in memory tasks typically involving olfactory and hippocampal regions, but not against declines in reversal learning or locomotor activity. PMID:25870540

  9. Clustered epitopes within a new poly-epitopic HIV-1 DNA vaccine shows immunogenicity in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Jafarpour, Nazli; Memarnejadian, Arash; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Kohram, Fatemeh; Aghababa, Haniyeh; Khoramabadi, Nima; Mahdavi, Mehdi

    2014-08-01

    Despite a huge number of studies towards vaccine development against human immunodeficiency virus-1, no effective vaccine has been approved yet. Thus, new vaccines should be provided with new formulations. Herein, a new DNA vaccine candidate encoding conserved and immunogenic epitopes from HIV-1 antigens of tat, pol, gag and env is designed and constructed. After bioinformatics analyses to find the best epitopes and their tandem, nucleotide sequence corresponding to the designed multiepitope was synthesized and cloned into pcDNA3.1+ vector. Expression of pcDNA3.1-tat/pol/gag/env plasmid was evaluated in HEK293T cells by RT-PCR and western-blotting. Seven groups of BALB/c mice were intramuscularly immunized three times either with 50, 100, 200 µg of plasmid in 2-week intervals or with similar doses of insert-free plasmid. Two weeks after the last injection, proliferation of T cells and secretion of IL4 and IFN-γ cytokines were evaluated using Brdu and ELISA methods, respectively. Results showed the proper expression of the plasmid in protein and mRNA levels. Moreover, the designed multiepitope plasmid was capable of induction of both proliferation responses as well as IFN-γ and IL-4 cytokine production in a considerable level compared to the control groups. Overall, our primary data warranted further detailed studies on the potency of this vaccine. PMID:24842263

  10. Electroencephalographic changes in albino rats subjected to stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercier, J.; Assouline, G.; Fondarai, J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty one albino Wistar rats were subjected to stress for 7 hours. There was a significant difference in the slopes of regression lines for 7 nonulcerous rats and those for 14 ulcerous rats. Nonulcerous rats subjected to stress showed greater EEG curve synchronization than did ulcerous rats. If curve synchronization can be equated to a relaxed state, it may therefore be possible to explain the protective action of hypnotics, tranquilizers and analgesics on ulcers.

  11. Transgenic mice overexpressing glia maturation factor-β, an oxidative stress inducible gene, show premature aging due to Zmpste24 down-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hanai, Jun-ichi; Takenaka, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    Glia Maturation Factor-β (GMF), a brain specific protein, is induced by proteinuria in renal tubules. Ectopic GMF overexpression causes apoptosis in vitro via cellular vulnerability to oxidative stress. In order to examine the roles of GMF in non-brain tissue, we constructed transgenic mice overexpressing GMF (GMF-TG). The GMF-TG mice exhibited appearance phenotypes associated with premature aging. The GMF-TG mice also demonstrated short lifespans and reduced hair regrowth, suggesting an accelerated aging process. The production of an abnormal lamin A, a nuclear envelope protein, plays a causal role in both normal aging and accelerated aging diseases, known as laminopathies. Importantly, we identified the abnormal lamin A (prelamin A), accompanied by a down-regulation of a lamin A processing enzyme (Zmpste24) in the kidney of the GMF-TG mice. The GMF-TG mice showed accelerated aging in the kidney, compared with wild-type mice, showing increased TGF-β1, CTGF gene and serum creatinine. The gene expression of p21/waf1 was increased at an earlier stage of life, at 10 weeks, which was in turn down-regulated at a later stage, at 60 weeks. In conclusion, we propose that GMF-TG mice might be a novel mouse model of accelerated aging, due to the abnormal lamin A. PMID:26232943

  12. Transgenic mice overexpressing glia maturation factor-β, an oxidative stress inducible gene, show premature aging due to Zmpste24 down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Imai, Rika; Asai, Kanae; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Takenaka, Masaru

    2015-07-01

    Glia Maturation Factor-β (GMF), a brain specific protein, is induced by proteinuria in renal tubules. Ectopic GMF overexpression causes apoptosisin vitro via cellular vulnerability to oxidative stress. In order to examine the roles of GMF in non-brain tissue, we constructed transgenic mice overexpressing GMF (GMF-TG). The GMF-TG mice exhibited appearance phenotypes associated with premature aging. The GMF-TG mice also demonstrated short lifespans and reduced hair regrowth, suggesting an accelerated aging process. The production of an abnormal lamin A, a nuclear envelope protein, plays a causal role in both normal aging and accelerated aging diseases, known as laminopathies. Importantly, we identified the abnormal lamin A (prelamin A), accompanied by a down-regulation of a lamin A processing enzyme (Zmpste24) in the kidney of the GMF-TG mice. The GMF-TG mice showed accelerated aging in the kidney, compared with wild-type mice, showing increased TGF-β1, CTGF gene and serum creatinine. The gene expression of p21/waf1 was increased at an earlier stage of life, at 10 weeks, which was in turn down-regulated at a later stage, at 60 weeks. In conclusion, we propose that GMF-TG mice might be a novel mouse model of accelerated aging, due to the abnormal lamin A. PMID:26232943

  13. Mice Abundant in Muricholic Bile Acids Show Resistance to Dietary Induced Steatosis, Weight Gain, and to Impaired Glucose Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, Ylva; Eggertsen, Gösta; Rudling, Mats

    2016-01-01

    High endogenous production of, or treatment with muricholic bile acids, strongly reduces the absorption of cholesterol. Mice abundant in muricholic bile acids may therefore display an increased resistance against dietary induced weight gain, steatosis, and glucose intolerance due to an anticipated general reduction in lipid absorption. To test this hypothesis, mice deficient in steroid 12-alpha hydroxylase (Cyp8b1-/-) and therefore abundant in muricholic acids were monitored for 11 weeks while fed a high fat diet. Food intake and body and liver weights were determined, and lipids in liver, serum and feces were measured. Further, responses during oral glucose and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance tests were evaluated. On the high fat diet, Cyp8b1-/- mice displayed less weight gain compared to wildtype littermates (Cyp8b1+/+). In addition, liver enlargement with steatosis and increases in serum LDL-cholesterol were strongly attenuated in Cyp8b1-/- mice on high fat diet. Fecal excretion of cholesterol was increased and there was a strong trend for doubled fecal excretion of free fatty acids, while excretion of triglycerides was unaltered, indicating dampened lipid absorption. On high fat diet, Cyp8b1-/- mice also presented lower serum glucose levels in response to oral glucose gavage or to intraperitoneal insulin injection compared to Cyp8b1+/+. In conclusion, following exposure to a high fat diet, Cyp8b1-/- mice are more resistant against weight gain, steatosis, and to glucose intolerance than Cyp8b1+/+ mice. Reduced lipid absorption may in part explain these findings. Overall, the results suggest that muricholic bile acids may be beneficial against the metabolic syndrome. PMID:26824238

  14. The therapeutic effect of curcumin in male albino rats and its putative mechanisms on cerebral microvascular flow.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jie; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Qi-Mei; Zheng, Zheng; Han, Zhong-Mou

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of curcumin on hypertension and its putative mechanisms in the cerebral microcirculation. The surgical preparation was made to generate a cranial window for observation of the capillary network in the cerebral cortex region. Digital image processing, intravital videomicroscopy, and laser Doppler flow meter were used in this investigation. The number of open capillaries, arterial blood pressure, red cell velocity, microvascular diameter, circulating endothelial cells, relative blood flow and frequency were determined. Control rats showed severe dysfunction in the microcirculation with increased blood pressure. In curcumin treated mice, the blood pressure significantly reduced compared to their respective controls. Curcumin significantly increased blood velocity and LDF flow in hypertensive and normotensive rats. Curcumin significantly altered the circulating endothelial cells and open capillaries number in the male albino rats. Our results suggested that the curcumin exerts its therapeutic effect in male albino rats by regulating vasomotion function, increasing blood perfusion, releasing the peripheral resistance and opening efficiently capillaries. Taking all these data together, it is concluded that the curcumin might be useful in the regulation of the cerebral microcirculatory function and hypertension. PMID:27017961

  15. Mice lacking Programmed cell death-1 show a role for CD8(+) T cells in long-term immunity against blood-stage malaria.

    PubMed

    Horne-Debets, Joshua M; Karunarathne, Deshapriya S; Faleiro, Rebecca J; Poh, Chek Meng; Renia, Laurent; Wykes, Michelle N

    2016-01-01

    Even after years of experiencing malaria, caused by infection with Plasmodium species, individuals still have incomplete immunity and develop low-density parasitemia on re-infection. Previous studies using the P. chabaudi (Pch) mouse model to understand the reason for chronic malaria, found that mice with a deletion of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1KO) generate sterile immunity unlike wild type (WT) mice. Here we investigated if the mechanism underlying this defect during acute immunity also impacts on long-term immunity. We infected WT and PD-1KO mice with Pch-malaria and measured protection as well as immune responses against re-infections, 15 or 20 weeks after the original infection had cleared. WT mice showed approximately 1% parasitemia compared to sterile immunity in PD-1KO mice on re-infection. An examination of the mechanisms of immunity behind this long-term protection in PD-1KO mice showed a key role for parasite-specific CD8(+) T cells even when CD4(+) T cells and B cells responded to re-infection. These studies indicate that long-term CD8(+) T cell-meditated protection requires consideration for future malaria vaccine design, as part of a multi-cell type response. PMID:27217330

  16. Mice lacking Programmed cell death-1 show a role for CD8+ T cells in long-term immunity against blood-stage malaria

    PubMed Central

    Horne-Debets, Joshua M.; Karunarathne, Deshapriya S.; Faleiro, Rebecca J.; Poh, Chek Meng; Renia, Laurent; Wykes, Michelle N.

    2016-01-01

    Even after years of experiencing malaria, caused by infection with Plasmodium species, individuals still have incomplete immunity and develop low-density parasitemia on re-infection. Previous studies using the P. chabaudi (Pch) mouse model to understand the reason for chronic malaria, found that mice with a deletion of programmed cell death-1 (PD-1KO) generate sterile immunity unlike wild type (WT) mice. Here we investigated if the mechanism underlying this defect during acute immunity also impacts on long-term immunity. We infected WT and PD-1KO mice with Pch-malaria and measured protection as well as immune responses against re-infections, 15 or 20 weeks after the original infection had cleared. WT mice showed approximately 1% parasitemia compared to sterile immunity in PD-1KO mice on re-infection. An examination of the mechanisms of immunity behind this long-term protection in PD-1KO mice showed a key role for parasite-specific CD8+ T cells even when CD4+ T cells and B cells responded to re-infection. These studies indicate that long-term CD8+ T cell-meditated protection requires consideration for future malaria vaccine design, as part of a multi-cell type response. PMID:27217330

  17. The combination therapy of α-galactosylceramide and 5-fluorouracil showed antitumor effect synergistically against liver tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Aketa, Hiroshi; Tatsumi, Tomohide; Kohga, Keisuke; Tsunematsu, Hinako; Aono, Satoshi; Shimizu, Satoshi; Kodama, Takahiro; Nawa, Takatoshi; Shigekawa, Minoru; Hikita, Hayato; Sakamori, Ryotaro; Hosui, Atsushi; Miyagi, Takuya; Hiramatsu, Naoki; Kanto, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Norio; Takehara, Tetsuo

    2013-09-01

    α-Galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) has been reported to be therapeutic against metastatic liver tumors in mice. However, little is known regarding the efficacy of combined chemo-immunotherapy using α-GalCer and anticancer drugs. In this study, we evaluated the antitumor effect of the combination therapy of α-GalCer and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) against liver tumors of MC38 colon cancer cells. The liver weights of tumor-bearing mice treated with the combination were significantly lower than those of nontreated mice and of mice treated with 5-FU or α-GalCer alone. No toxic effects on the liver and renal functions were observed in any of the treatment groups. α-GalCer treatment induced significant activation of liver NK cells in vivo, but 5-FU treatment did not. 5-FU treatment resulted in a significant upregulation of NKG2D activating molecules (Rae-1 and H60) and DNAM-1 ligands (CD112 and CD155) on MC38 cells, but α-GalCer did not. The cytolytic activity of α-GalCer-activated liver mononuclear cells against 5-FU-treated MC38 cells was significantly higher than that against nontreated cells. The increase of the cytolytic activity induced by 5-FU partially depended on NKG2D-Rae-1 or H60 signals. Depletion of NK cells significantly inhibited the antitumor efficacy of 5-FU against MC38 liver tumors, which suggested that the antitumor effect of 5-FU partially depended on the cytolytic activity of NK cells. These results demonstrated that the combination therapy of α-GalCer and 5-FU produced synergistic antitumor effects against liver tumors by increasing the expression of NK activating molecules on cancer cells. This study suggests a promising new chemo-immunotherapy against metastatic liver cancer. PMID:23420533

  18. LRRTM1-deficient mice show a rare phenotype of avoiding small enclosures—A tentative mouse model for claustrophobia-like behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Laakso, T.; Lauren, J.; Strittmatter, S.M.; Airaksinen, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    The LRRTM family proteins have been shown to act as synaptogenic cell adhesion molecules via interaction with presynaptic neurexins and are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders. LRRTM1-knockout mice have subtle morphological deficits in excitatory hippocampal synapses and were suggested to have impaired cognitive function. Here we report that LRRTM1-knockout mice exhibit an extraordinary phenotype of avoiding small enclosures. In the light–dark box, the knockout mice escape to dark through a standard opening as quickly as wild-type littermates but avoid escaping through a small doorway. While all wild-type mice spontaneously enter a small tube, most knockout mice do not. This apparent aversion to enter narrow space may explain other abnormalities such as increased time in open arms in the elevated plus maze and less visits through a tunnel in the IntelliCage. Moreover, LRRTM1-knockout mice show increased social interaction, reduced nest building and MK801-induced locomotion, and slower swim speed but normal water maze learning. Since LRRTM1 is predominantly expressed in thalamus, hippocampus and limbic cortex, specific synaptic defects in those areas presumably cause these behavioural abnormalities. PMID:23089646

  19. γδ T-cell-deficient mice show alterations in mucin expression, glycosylation, and goblet cells but maintain an intact mucus layer.

    PubMed

    Kober, Olivia I; Ahl, David; Pin, Carmen; Holm, Lena; Carding, Simon R; Juge, Nathalie

    2014-04-01

    Intestinal homeostasis is maintained by a hierarchy of immune defenses acting in concert to minimize contact between luminal microorganisms and the intestinal epithelial cell surface. The intestinal mucus layer, covering the gastrointestinal tract epithelial cells, contributes to mucosal homeostasis by limiting bacterial invasion. In this study, we used γδ T-cell-deficient (TCRδ(-/-)) mice to examine whether and how γδ T-cells modulate the properties of the intestinal mucus layer. Increased susceptibility of TCRδ(-/-) mice to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis is associated with a reduced number of goblet cells. Alterations in the number of goblet cells and crypt lengths were observed in the small intestine and colon of TCRδ(-/-) mice compared with C57BL/6 wild-type (WT) mice. Addition of keratinocyte growth factor to small intestinal organoid cultures from TCRδ(-/-) mice showed a marked increase in crypt growth and in both goblet cell number and redistribution along the crypts. There was no apparent difference in the thickness or organization of the mucus layer between TCRδ(-/-) and WT mice, as measured in vivo. However, γδ T-cell deficiency led to reduced sialylated mucins in association with increased gene expression of gel-secreting Muc2 and membrane-bound mucins, including Muc13 and Muc17. Collectively, these data provide evidence that γδ T cells play an important role in the maintenance of mucosal homeostasis by regulating mucin expression and promoting goblet cell function in the small intestine. PMID:24503767

  20. Enzyme-treated Asparagus officinalis extract shows neuroprotective effects and attenuates cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takuya; Ito, Tomohiro; Wakame, Koji; Kitadate, Kentaro; Arai, Takashi; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Kizaki, Takako; Sato, Shogo; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Akagawa, Kimio; Ishida, Hitoshi; Ohno, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Increases in the number of patients with dementia involving Alzheimer's disease (AD) are seen as a grave public health problem. In neurodegenerative disorders involving AD, biological stresses, such as oxidative and inflammatory stress, induce neural cell damage. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a popular vegetable, and an extract prepared from this reportedly possesses various beneficial biological activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) on neuronal cells and early cognitive impairment of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. The expression of mRNAs for factors that exert cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic functions, such as heat-shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1, was upregulated in NG108-15 neuronal cells by treatment with ETAS. Moreover, when release of lactate dehydrogenase from damaged NG108-15 cells was increased for cells cultured in medium containing either the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside or the hypoxia mimic reagent cobalt chloride, ETAS significantly attenuated this cell damage. Also, when contextual fear memory, which is considered to be a hippocampus-dependent memory, was significantly impaired in SAMP8 mice, ETAS attenuated the cognitive impairment. These results suggest that ETAS produces cytoprotective effects in neuronal cells and attenuates the effects on the cognitive impairment of SAMP8 mice. PMID:24660475

  1. Mice Over-Expressing the Myocardial Creatine Transporter Develop Progressive Heart Failure and Show Decreased Glycolytic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Darci; Hove, Michiel ten; Schneider, Jurgen E.; Wu, Colin O.; Sebag-Montefiore, Liam; Aponte, Angel M.; Lygate, Craig A.; Wallis, Julie; Clarke, Kieran; Watkins, Hugh; Balaban, Robert S.; Neubauer, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic phenotype of the failing heart includes a decrease in phosphocreatine and total creatine concentration [Cr], potentially contributing to contractile dysfunction. Surprisingly, in 32 week old mice over-expressing the myocardial creatine transporter (CrT-OE), we previously demonstrated that elevated [Cr] correlates with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and failure. The aim of this study was to determine the temporal relationship between elevated [Cr] and the onset of cardiac dysfunction and to screen for potential molecular mechanisms. CrT-OE mice were compared with wild-type (WT) littermate controls longitudinally using cine-MRI to measure cardiac function and single-voxel 1H-MRS to measure [Cr] in vivo at 6, 16, 32, and 52 weeks of age. CrT-OE mice had elevated [Cr] at 6 weeks (mean 1.9-fold), which remained constant throughout life. Despite this increased [Cr], LV dysfunction was not apparent until 16 weeks and became more pronounced with age. Additionally, LV tissue from 12 to 14 week old CrT-OE mice was compared to WT using 2D difference in-gel electrophoresis (DIGE). These analyses detected a majority of the heart’s metabolic enzymes and identified 7 proteins that were differentially expressed between groups. The most pronounced protein changes were related to energy metabolism: α- and β-enolase were selectively decreased (p<0.05), while the remaining enzymes of glycolysis were unchanged. Consistent with a decrease in enolase content, its activity was significantly lower in CrT-OE hearts (in WT, 0.59±0.02 μmol ATP produced/μg protein/min; CrT-OE, 0.31±0.06; p<0.01). Additionally, anaerobic lactate production was decreased in CrT-OE mice (in WT, 102±3 μmol/g wet myocardium; CrT-OE, 78±13; p=0.02), consistent with decreased glycolytic capacity. Finally, we found that enolase may be regulated by increased expression of the β-enolase repressor transcription factor, which was significantly increased in CrT-OE hearts. This study

  2. Mice Homozygous for a Deletion in the Glaucoma Susceptibility Locus INK4 Show Increased Vulnerability of Retinal Ganglion Cells to Elevated Intraocular Pressure.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shan; Jakobs, Tatjana C

    2016-04-01

    A genomic region located on chromosome 9p21 is associated with primary open-angle glaucoma and normal tension glaucoma in genome-wide association studies. The genomic region contains the gene for a long noncoding RNA called CDKN2B-AS, two genes that code for cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors 2A and 2B (CDKN2A/p16(INK4A) and CDKN2B/p15(INK4B)) and an additional protein (p14(ARF)). We used a transgenic mouse model in which 70 kb of murine chromosome 4, syntenic to human chromosome 9p21, are deleted to study whether this deletion leads to a discernible phenotype in ocular structures implicated in glaucoma. Homozygous mice of this strain were previously reported to show persistent hyperplastic primary vitreous. Fundus photography and optical coherence tomography confirmed that finding but showed no abnormalities for heterozygous mice. Optokinetic response, eletroretinogram, and histology indicated that the heterozygous and mutant retinas were normal functionally and morphologically, whereas glial cells were activated in the retina and optic nerve head of mutant eyes. In quantitative PCR, CDKN2B expression was reduced by approximately 50% in the heterozygous mice and by 90% in the homozygous mice, which suggested that the CDKN2B knock down had no deleterious consequences for the retina under normal conditions. However, compared with wild-type and heterozygous animals, the homozygous mice are more vulnerable to retinal ganglion cell loss in response to elevated intraocular pressure. PMID:26883755

  3. Cyclophilin D Knock-Out Mice Show Enhanced Resistance to Osteoporosis and to Metabolic Changes Observed in Aging Bone

    PubMed Central

    White, Noelle S; Nadtochiy, Sergiy M.; Bentley, Karen L. de Mesy; Brookes, Paul S; Jonason, Jennifer H.; Eliseev, Roman A.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenic factors associated with aging, such as oxidative stress and hormone depletion converge on mitochondria and impair their function via opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). The MPTP is a large non-selective pore regulated by cyclophilin D (CypD) that disrupts mitochondrial membrane integrity. MPTP involvement has been firmly established in degenerative processes in heart, brain, and muscle. Bone has high energy demands and is therefore expected to be highly sensitive to mitochondrial dysfunction. Despite this, the role of mitochondria and the MPTP in bone maintenance and bone pathology has not been elucidated. Our goal was to determine whether mitochondria are impaired in aging bone and to see if protecting mitochondria from MPTP opening via CypD deletion protects against bone loss. We found that bone mass, strength, and formation progressively decline over the course of 18 months in C57BL/6J mice. Using metabolomics and electron microscopy, we determined that oxidative metabolism is impaired in aging bone leading to a glycolytic shift, imbalance in nucleotides, and decreased NAD+/NADH ratio. Mitochondria in osteocytes appear swollen which is a major marker of MPTP opening. CypD deletion by CypD knockout mouse model (CypD KO) protects against bone loss in 13- and 18-month-old mice and prevents decline in bone formation and mitochondrial changes observed in wild type C57BL/6J mice. Together, these data demonstrate that mitochondria are impaired in aging bone and that CypD deletion protects against this impairment to prevent bone loss. This implicates CypD-regulated MPTP and mitochondrial dysfunction in the impairment of bone cells and in aging-related bone loss. Our findings suggest mitochondrial metabolism as a new target for bone therapeutics and inhibition of CypD as a novel strategy against bone loss. PMID:27183225

  4. Mistletoes and mutant albino shoots on woody plants as mineral nutrient traps

    PubMed Central

    Lo Gullo, M. A.; Glatzel, G.; Devkota, M.; Raimondo, F.; Trifilò, P.; Richter, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Potassium, sulphur and zinc contents of mistletoe leaves are generally higher than in their hosts. This is attributed to the fact that chemical elements which are cycled between xylem and phloem in the process of phloem loading of sugars are trapped in the mistletoe, because these parasites do not feed their hosts. Here it is hypothesized that mutant albino shoots on otherwise green plants should behave similarly, because they lack photosynthesis and thus cannot recycle elements involved in sugar loading. Methods The mineral nutrition of the mistletoe Scurrula elata was compared with that of albino shoots on Citrus sinensis and Nerium oleander. The potential for selective nutrient uptake by the mistletoe was studied by comparing element contents of host leaves on infected and uninfected branches and by manipulation of the haustorium–shoot ratio in mistletoes. Phloem anatomy of albino leaves was compared with that of green leaves. Key Results Both mistletoes and albino leaves had higher contents of potassium, sulphur and zinc than hosts or green leaves, respectively. Hypothetical discrimination of nutrient elements during the uptake by the haustorium is not supported by our data. Anatomical studies of albino leaves showed characteristics of release phloem. Conclusions Both albino shoots and mistletoes are traps for elements normally recycled between xylem and phloem, because retranslocation of phloem mobile elements into the mother plant or the host is low or absent. It can be assumed that the lack of photosynthetic activity in albino shoots and thus of sugars needed in phloem loading is responsible for the accumulation of elements. The absence of phloem loading is reflected in phloem anatomy of these abnormal shoots. In mistletoes the evolution of a parasitic lifestyle has obviously eliminated substantial feeding of the host with photosynthates produced by the mistletoe. PMID:22442343

  5. The albino chick as a model for studying ocular developmental anomalies, including refractive errors, associated with albinism.

    PubMed

    Rymer, Jodi; Choh, Vivian; Bharadwaj, Shrikant; Padmanabhan, Varuna; Modilevsky, Laura; Jovanovich, Elizabeth; Yeh, Brenda; Zhang, Zhan; Guan, Huanxian; Payne, W; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2007-10-01

    Albinism is associated with a variety of ocular anomalies including refractive errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ocular development of an albino chick line. The ocular development of both albino and normally pigmented chicks was monitored using retinoscopy to measure refractive errors and high frequency A-scan ultrasonography to measure axial ocular dimensions. Functional tests included an optokinetic nystagmus paradigm to assess visual acuity, and flash ERGs to assess retinal function. The underlying genetic abnormality was characterized using a gene microarray, PCR and a tyrosinase assay. The ultrastructure of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was examined using transmission electron microscopy. PCR confirmed that the genetic abnormality in this line is a deletion in exon 1 of the tyrosinase gene. Tyrosinase gene expression in isolated RPE cells was minimally detectable, and there was minimal enzyme activity in albino feather bulbs. The albino chicks had pink eyes and their eyes transilluminated, reflecting the lack of melanin in all ocular tissues. All three main components, anterior chamber, crystalline lens and vitreous chamber, showed axial expansion over time in both normal and albino animals, but the anterior chambers of albino chicks were consistently shallower than those of normal chicks, while in contrast, their vitreous chambers were longer. Albino chicks remained relatively myopic, with higher astigmatism than the normally pigmented chicks, even though both groups underwent developmental emmetropization. Albino chicks had reduced visual acuity yet the ERG a- and b-wave components had larger amplitudes and shorter than normal implicit times. Developmental emmetropization occurs in the albino chick but is impaired, likely because of functional abnormalities in the RPE and/or retina as well as optical factors. In very young chicks the underlying genetic mutation may also contribute to refractive error and eye shape abnormalities

  6. Not all water mazes are created equal: cyclin D2 knockout mice with constitutively suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis do show specific spatial learning deficits

    PubMed Central

    Garthe, A; Huang, Z; Kaczmarek, L; Filipkowski, R K; Kempermann, G

    2014-01-01

    Studies using the Morris water maze to assess hippocampal function in animals, in which adult hippocampal neurogenesis had been suppressed, have yielded seemingly contradictory results. Cyclin D2 knockout (Ccnd2−/−) mice, for example, have constitutively suppressed adult hippocampal neurogenesis but had no overt phenotype in the water maze. In other paradigms, however, ablation of adult neurogenesis was associated with specific deficits in the water maze. Therefore, we hypothesized that the neurogenesis-related phenotype might also become detectable in Ccnd2−/− mice, if we used the exact setup and protocol that in our previous study had revealed deficits in mice with suppressed adult neurogenesis. Ccnd2−/− mice indeed learned the task and developed a normal preference for the goal quadrant, but were significantly less precise for the exact goal position and were slower in acquiring efficient and spatially more precise search strategies. Upon goal reversal (when the hidden platform was moved to a new position) Ccnd2−/− mice showed increased perseverance at the former platform location, implying that they were less flexible in updating the previously learned information. Both with respect to adult neurogenesis and behavioral performance, Ccnd2+/− mice ranged between wild types and knockouts. Importantly, hippocampus-dependent learning was not generally impaired by the mutation, but specifically functional aspects relying on precise and flexible encoding were affected. Whether ablation of adult neurogenesis causes a specific behavioral phenotype thus also depends on the actual task demands. The test parameters appear to be important variables influencing whether a task can pick up a contribution of adult neurogenesis to test performance. PMID:24602283

  7. Mice with mutations of Dock7 have generalized hypopigmentation and white-spotting but show normal neurological function.

    PubMed

    Blasius, Amanda L; Brandl, Katharina; Crozat, Karine; Xia, Yu; Khovananth, Kevin; Krebs, Philippe; Smart, Nora G; Zampolli, Antonella; Ruggeri, Zaverio M; Beutler, Bruce A

    2009-02-24

    The classical recessive coat color mutation misty (m) arose spontaneously on the DBA/J background and causes generalized hypopigmentation and localized white-spotting in mice, with a lack of pigment on the belly, tail tip, and paws. Here we describe moonlight (mnlt), a second hypopigmentation and white-spotting mutation identified on the C57BL/6J background, which yields a phenotypic copy of m/m coat color traits. We demonstrate that the 2 mutations are allelic. m/m and mnlt/mnlt phenotypes both result from mutations that truncate the dedicator of cytokinesis 7 protein (DOCK7), a widely expressed Rho family guanine nucleotide exchange factor. Although Dock7 is transcribed at high levels in the developing brain and has been implicated in both axon development and myelination by in vitro studies, we find no requirement for DOCK7 in neurobehavioral function in vivo. However, DOCK7 has non-redundant role(s) related to the distribution and function of dermal and follicular melanocytes. PMID:19202056

  8. Mice with different susceptibility to tick-borne encephalitis virus infection show selective neutralizing antibody response and inflammatory reaction in the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The clinical course of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), a disease caused by TBE virus, ranges from asymptomatic or mild influenza-like infection to severe debilitating encephalitis or encephalomyelitis. Despite the medical importance of this disease, some crucial steps in the development of encephalitis remain poorly understood. In particular, the basis of the disease severity is largely unknown. Methods TBE virus growth, neutralizing antibody response, key cytokine and chemokine mRNA production and changes in mRNA levels of cell surface markers of immunocompetent cells in brain were measured in mice with different susceptibilities to TBE virus infection. Results An animal model of TBE based on BALB/c-c-STS/A (CcS/Dem) recombinant congenic mouse strains showing different severities of the infection in relation to the host genetic background was developed. After subcutaneous inoculation of TBE virus, BALB/c mice showed medium susceptibility to the infection, STS mice were resistant, and CcS-11 mice were highly susceptible. The resistant STS mice showed lower and delayed viremia, lower virus production in the brain and low cytokine/chemokine mRNA production, but had a strong neutralizing antibody response. The most sensitive strain (CcS-11) failed in production of neutralizing antibodies, but exhibited strong cytokine/chemokine mRNA production in the brain. After intracerebral inoculation, all mouse strains were sensitive to the infection and had similar virus production in the brain, but STS mice survived significantly longer than CcS-11 mice. These two strains also differed in the expression of key cytokines/chemokines, particularly interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2) in the brain. Conclusions Our data indicate that the genetic control is an important factor influencing the clinical course of TBE. High neutralizing antibody response might be crucial for preventing host fatality, but high

  9. Transgenic mice ectopically expressing HOXA5 in the dorsal spinal cord show structural defects of the cervical spinal cord along with sensory and motor defects of the forelimb.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Karin E; Abbott, Matthew A; Joksimovic, Milan; Lueth, Paul A; Sonea, Ioana M; Jeannotte, Lucie; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2004-06-21

    Mutation of murine Hoxa5 has shown that HOXA5 controls lung, gastrointestinal tract and vertebrae development. Hoxa5 is also expressed in the spinal cord, yet no central nervous system phenotype has been described in Hoxa5 knockouts. To identify the role of Hoxa5 in spinal cord development, we developed transgenic mice that express HOXA5 in the dorsal spinal cord in the brachial region. Using HOXA5-specific antibodies, we show this expression pattern is ectopic as the endogenous protein is expressed only in the ventral spinal cord at this anterio-posterior level. This transgenic line (Hoxa5SV2) also displays forelimb-specific motor and sensory defects. Hoxa5SV2 transgenic mice cannot support their body weight in a forelimb hang, and forelimb strength is decreased. However, Rotarod performance was not impaired in Hoxa5SV2 mice. Hoxa5SV2 mice also show a delayed forelimb response to noxious heat, although hindlimb response time was normal. Administration of an analgesic significantly reduced the hang test defect and decreased the transgene effect on forelimb strength, indicating that pain pathways may be affected. The morphology of transgenic cervical (but not lumbar) spinal cord is highly aberrant. Nissl staining indicates superficial laminae of the dorsal horn are severely disrupted. The distribution of cells and axons immunoreactive for substance P, neurokinin-B, and their primary receptors were aberrant only in transgenic cervical spinal cord. Further, we see increased levels of apoptosis in transgenic spinal cord at embryonic day 13.5. Our evidence suggests apoptosis due to HOXA5 misexpression is a major cause of loss of superficial lamina cells in Hoxa5SV2 mice. PMID:15158076

  10. Analysis of anti-depressant potential of curcumin against depression induced male albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xue-Run; Wang, Li; Li, Jing; Wu, Dian-Shui

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the antidepressant potential of curcumin in olfactory bulbectomy and forced swimming test models of depression in male albino rats under chronic treatment. The experimental animals were divided into four groups, and curcumin was administered for 45 days. Our results showed that the curcumin significantly reduced olfactory bulbectomy-induced behavioral abnormalities including deficits in step-down passive avoidance, increased activity in the open area and immobility time. Chronic administration of curcumin significantly reversed levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus region of male albino rats. Also, curcumin normalizes the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the frontal cortex of rats. Taking all these results together, it may suggest that curcumin is potent compound acting against the depression in the male albino rats. PMID:26972530

  11. [Phase morphometric differences among Locusta migratoria cinerascens, Locusta migratoria migratorioides, and their mutant albinos (Orthoptera)].

    PubMed

    Rakotondrainibe, K; Nicolas, G; Fuzeau-Braesch, S

    1975-12-22

    A first canonical variate analysis (factor analysis) of two geographic strains of L. m. shows that the same axes distinguish crowded from isolated animals as well as their geographical origins. Two other analyses between normal and albino strains of both localities show no differences for one strain; however for the other strain, the pigmentary mutation coincides with a solitary tendency. PMID:816517

  12. [Evaluation of the biological effects of chemical substances on albino rat offspring].

    PubMed

    Rukavishnikov, V S; Sosedova, L M; Kapustina, E A

    2011-01-01

    The paper provides the results of experimental studies of the impact of vinyl chloride or sublimate intoxication in male albino rats on the functional state of the nervous system of their offspring. Retarded sensorimotor development was revealed in the neonatal offspring. The pubertal offspring showed behavioral pattern disintegrity that was characterized by changes in motor activity and orientative-exploratory responses and by anxiety. There was abnormal impulse conduction in the neuromuscular apparatus of the hind legs of albino rats and morphological changes in the structure of nervous tissue. PMID:22250396

  13. Cerebellar Nuclei Neurons Show Only Small Excitatory Responses to Optogenetic Olivary Stimulation in Transgenic Mice: In Vivo and In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Huo; Yang, Bo; Jaeger, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    To study the olivary input to the cerebellar nuclei (CN) we used optogenetic stimulation in transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in olivary neurons. We obtained in vivo extracellular Purkinje cell (PC) and CN recordings in anesthetized mice while stimulating the contralateral inferior olive (IO) with a blue laser (single pulse, 10–50 ms duration). Peri-stimulus histograms (PSTHs) were constructed to show the spike rate changes after optical stimulation. Among 29 CN neurons recorded, 15 showed a decrease in spike rate of variable strength and duration, and only 1 showed a transient spiking response. These results suggest that direct olivary input to CN neurons is usually overridden by stronger PC inhibition triggered by climbing fiber responses. To further investigate the direct input from the climbing fiber collaterals we also conducted whole cell recordings in brain slices, where we used local stimulation with blue light. Due to the expression of ChR2 in PC axons as well as the IO in our transgenic line, strong inhibitory responses could be readily triggered with optical stimulation (13 of 15 neurons). After blocking this inhibition with GABAzine, only in 5 of 13 CN neurons weak excitatory responses were revealed. Therefore our in vitro results support the in vivo findings that the excitatory input to CN neurons from climbing fiber collaterals in adult mice is masked by the inhibition under normal conditions. PMID:27047344

  14. Two of a Kind or a Full House? Reproductive Suppression and Alloparenting in Laboratory Mice.

    PubMed

    Garner, Joseph P; Gaskill, Brianna N; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R

    2016-01-01

    Alloparenting, a behavior in which individuals other than the actual parents act in a parental role, is seen in many mammals, including house mice. In wild house mice, alloparental care is only seen when familiar sibling females simultaneously immigrate to a male's territory, so in the laboratory, when a pair of unfamiliar female wild mice are mated with a male, alloparenting does not occur because one female will typically be reproductively suppressed. In contrast, laboratory mice are assumed to alloparent regardless of familiarity or relatedness and are therefore routinely trio bred to increase productivity. Empirical evidence supporting the presence of alloparental care in laboratory mice is lacking. Albino and pigmented inbred mice of the strain C57BL/6NCrl (B6) and outbred mice of the stock Crl:CF1 (CF1) were used to investigate alloparenting in laboratory mice since by mating pigmented and albino females with albino males of the same stock or strain, maternal parentage was easily determined. We housed pairs (M:F) or trios (M:2F) of mice in individually ventilated cages containing nesting material and followed reproductive performance for 16 weeks. Females in trios were tested to determine dominance at the start of the experiment, and again 5 days after the birth of a litter to determine if a female's dominance shifted with the birth of pups. Results showed a significant and expected difference in number of offspring produced by B6 and CF1 (p < 0.0001). Pigmented mice nursed and nested with albino pups and vice-versa, confirming empirical observations from many that group nesting and alloparenting occurs in unrelated laboratory mice. When overall production of both individual mice and cages was examined, reproductive suppression was seen in trio cages. Dominance testing with the tube test did not correlate female reproduction with female dominance in a female-female dyad. Due to the reproductive suppression noted in trios, on a per-mouse basis, pair mating

  15. Two of a Kind or a Full House? Reproductive Suppression and Alloparenting in Laboratory Mice

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Joseph P.; Gaskill, Brianna N.

    2016-01-01

    Alloparenting, a behavior in which individuals other than the actual parents act in a parental role, is seen in many mammals, including house mice. In wild house mice, alloparental care is only seen when familiar sibling females simultaneously immigrate to a male’s territory, so in the laboratory, when a pair of unfamiliar female wild mice are mated with a male, alloparenting does not occur because one female will typically be reproductively suppressed. In contrast, laboratory mice are assumed to alloparent regardless of familiarity or relatedness and are therefore routinely trio bred to increase productivity. Empirical evidence supporting the presence of alloparental care in laboratory mice is lacking. Albino and pigmented inbred mice of the strain C57BL/6NCrl (B6) and outbred mice of the stock Crl:CF1 (CF1) were used to investigate alloparenting in laboratory mice since by mating pigmented and albino females with albino males of the same stock or strain, maternal parentage was easily determined. We housed pairs (M:F) or trios (M:2F) of mice in individually ventilated cages containing nesting material and followed reproductive performance for 16 weeks. Females in trios were tested to determine dominance at the start of the experiment, and again 5 days after the birth of a litter to determine if a female’s dominance shifted with the birth of pups. Results showed a significant and expected difference in number of offspring produced by B6 and CF1 (p < 0.0001). Pigmented mice nursed and nested with albino pups and vice-versa, confirming empirical observations from many that group nesting and alloparenting occurs in unrelated laboratory mice. When overall production of both individual mice and cages was examined, reproductive suppression was seen in trio cages. Dominance testing with the tube test did not correlate female reproduction with female dominance in a female-female dyad. Due to the reproductive suppression noted in trios, on a per-mouse basis, pair mating

  16. Recovery of Green Plantlets from Albino Shoot Primordia Derived from Anther Culture of Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Abul Kashem Md.; Karim, Nilufer Hye; Sultana, Shahanaz; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2011-01-01

    A simple method was developed to permit albino plant regeneration from anther culture of Hobigonj Boro (Hbj B) IV and Hbj B VI, two local varieties of aromatic indica rice from Bangladesh. Three crucial factors were identified for the albino shoot primordia to change into green plantlets in culture; components of M10 induction medium, callus size (range 0.2–0.4 cm long) and height of shoot primordia (range 2–3 mm). Immediate transfer of shoot primordia (2–3 mm) from M10 medium to regeneration medium followed by continuous incubation under fluorescent light (100-lux, 25±1°C) triggered albino shoot primordia to turn green in 2–3 days. Callus size did not show any effect on the change. Albino plantlets derived from anther callus cultured in KA, KB, KC, KD and KE media did not recover in both the varieties. Transfer of albino shoot primordia shorter or longer than 2–3 mm from the above 5 cultures to regeneration medium did not cause the shoot primordia to turn green. 100% albino shoot primordia initiated from Hbj B VI and 79% from Hbj B IV in M10 medium changed to green plantlets upon transfer to regeneration medium. Subsequent culture and subculture of green plantlets showed rapid formation of many new green plantlets. PMID:24575205

  17. Adolescent mice show anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior and the reduction of long-term potentiation in mossy fiber-CA3 synapses after neonatal maternal separation.

    PubMed

    Shin, S Y; Han, S H; Woo, R-S; Jang, S H; Min, S S

    2016-03-01

    Exposure to maternal separation (MS) during early life is an identified risk factor for emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression later in life. This study investigated the effects of neonatal MS on the behavior and long-term potentiation (LTP) as well as basic synaptic transmission at hippocampal CA3-CA1 and mossy fiber (MF)-CA3 synapses in adolescent mice for 19days. When mice were adolescents, we measured depression, learning, memory, anxious and aggressive behavior using the forced swimming test (FST), Y-maze, Morris water maze (MWM), elevated plus maze (EPM), three consecutive days of the open field test, the social interaction test, the tube-dominance test and the resident-intruder test. The results showed that there was no difference in FST, Y-maze, and MWM performance. However, MS mice showed more anxiety-like behavior in the EPM test and aggressive-like behavior in the tube-dominance and resident-intruder tests. In addition, the magnitude of LTP and release probability in the MF-CA3 synapses was reduced in the MS group but not in the CA3-CA1 synapse. Our results indicate that early life stress due to MS may induce anxiety- and aggressive-like behavior during adolescence, and these effects are associated with synaptic plasticity at the hippocampal MF-CA3 synapses. PMID:26733385

  18. Dual Infections with Pigmented and Albino Strains of Cryptococcus neoformans in Patients with or without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in India

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Piyali; Banerjee, Uma; Casadevall, Arturo; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

    2005-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus of worldwide distribution. Melanin production is an important virulence factor of C. neoformans. We report the identification of distinct cryptococcal isolates with either pigmented or white colony phenotypes on l-dihydroxyphenylalanine agar plates in three patients who presented with meningitis to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in India. Two of the patients were also infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Biochemical studies, India ink analysis, immunofluorescence with antibodies specific to capsular antigen, and serotyping confirmed that the melanotic and albino strains were C. neoformans serotypes A and D, respectively. Genotyping with M13 and [GACA]4 primers revealed that all the C. neoformans isolates were genetically different. The CNLAC1 gene associated with melanin production was identified in all the strains by PCR. Standard MIC testing revealed that the strains had similar susceptibilities to amphotericin B, but time-kill assays with the antifungal showed reduced susceptibility in melanin-producing strains. Infection studies with A/Jcr mice showed that the melanin-lacking yeast were less virulent than melanin-producing isolates. These findings indicate that these patients had dual infections with pigmented and albino strains of C. neoformans that were phenotypically and biologically different. Continued surveillance of primary isolates from patients with cryptococcosis by analyzing phenotypic differences and by molecular methods may reveal that mixed infections occur more commonly than is currently realized. PMID:16145139

  19. Viable RNaseH1 knockout mice show RNaseH1 is essential for R loop processing, mitochondrial and liver function

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Walt F.; Murray, Heather M.; Damle, Sagar S.; Hart, Christopher E.; Hung, Gene; De Hoyos, Cheryl Li; Liang, Xue-Hai; Crooke, Stanley T.

    2016-01-01

    Viable constitutive and tamoxifen inducible liver-specific RNase H1 knockout mice that expressed no RNase H1 activity in hepatocytes showed increased R-loop levels and reduced mitochondrial encoded DNA and mRNA levels, suggesting impaired mitochondrial R-loop processing, transcription and mitochondrial DNA replication. These changes resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction with marked changes in mitochondrial fusion, fission, morphology and transcriptional changes reflective of mitochondrial damage and stress. Liver degeneration ensued, as indicated by apoptosis, fibrosis and increased transaminase levels. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) designed to serve as substrates for RNase H1 were inactive in the hepatocytes from the RNase H1 knockout mice and in vivo, demonstrating that RNase H1 is necessary for the activity of DNA-like ASOs. During liver regeneration, a clone of hepatocytes that expressed RNase H1 developed and partially restored mitochondrial and liver function. PMID:27131367

  20. Viable RNaseH1 knockout mice show RNaseH1 is essential for R loop processing, mitochondrial and liver function.

    PubMed

    Lima, Walt F; Murray, Heather M; Damle, Sagar S; Hart, Christopher E; Hung, Gene; De Hoyos, Cheryl Li; Liang, Xue-Hai; Crooke, Stanley T

    2016-06-20

    Viable constitutive and tamoxifen inducible liver-specific RNase H1 knockout mice that expressed no RNase H1 activity in hepatocytes showed increased R-loop levels and reduced mitochondrial encoded DNA and mRNA levels, suggesting impaired mitochondrial R-loop processing, transcription and mitochondrial DNA replication. These changes resulted in mitochondrial dysfunction with marked changes in mitochondrial fusion, fission, morphology and transcriptional changes reflective of mitochondrial damage and stress. Liver degeneration ensued, as indicated by apoptosis, fibrosis and increased transaminase levels. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) designed to serve as substrates for RNase H1 were inactive in the hepatocytes from the RNase H1 knockout mice and in vivo, demonstrating that RNase H1 is necessary for the activity of DNA-like ASOs. During liver regeneration, a clone of hepatocytes that expressed RNase H1 developed and partially restored mitochondrial and liver function. PMID:27131367

  1. Ttll9-/- mice sperm flagella show shortening of doublet 7, reduction of doublet 5 polyglutamylation and a stall in beating.

    PubMed

    Konno, Alu; Ikegami, Koji; Konishi, Yoshiyuki; Yang, Hyun-Jeong; Abe, Manabu; Yamazaki, Maya; Sakimura, Kenji; Yao, Ikuko; Shiba, Kogiku; Inaba, Kazuo; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2016-07-15

    Nine outer doublet microtubules in axonemes of flagella and cilia are heterogeneous in structure and biochemical properties. In mammalian sperm flagella, one of the factors to generate the heterogeneity is tubulin polyglutamylation, although the importance of the heterogeneous modification is unclear. Here, we show that a tubulin polyglutamylase Ttll9 deficiency (Ttll9(-/-)) causes a unique set of phenotypes related to doublet heterogeneity. Ttll9(-/-) sperm axonemes had frequent loss of a doublet and reduced polyglutamylation. Intriguingly, the doublet loss selectively occurred at the distal region of doublet 7, and reduced polyglutamylation was observed preferentially on doublet 5. Ttll9(-/-) spermatozoa showed aberrant flagellar beating, characterized by frequent stalls after anti-hook bending. This abnormal motility could be attributed to the reduction of polyglutamylation on doublet 5, which probably occurred at a position involved in the switching of bending. These results indicate that mammalian Ttll9 plays essential roles in maintaining the normal structure and beating pattern of sperm flagella by establishing normal heterogeneous polyglutamylation patterns. PMID:27257088

  2. YAC128 Huntington's disease transgenic mice show enhanced short-term hippocampal synaptic plasticity early in the course of the disease.

    PubMed

    Ghilan, Mohamed; Bostrom, Crystal A; Hryciw, Brett N; Simpson, Jessica M; Christie, Brian R; Gil-Mohapel, Joana

    2014-09-18

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the gene encoding the protein huntingtin. The disease progresses over decades, but often patients develop cognitive impairments that precede the onset of the classical motor symptoms. Similar to the disease progression in humans, the yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) 128 HD mouse model also exhibits cognitive dysfunction that precedes the onset of the neuropathological and motor impairments characteristic of HD. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate whether short- and long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus, two related biological models of learning and memory processes, were altered in YAC128 mice in early stages of disease progression. We show that the YAC128 hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) displays marked reductions in paired-pulse depression both at 3 and 6 months of age. In addition, significantly enhanced post-tetanic and short-term potentiation are apparent in YAC128 mice after high-frequency stimulation at this time. Early and late forms of long-term plasticity were not altered at this stage. Together these findings indicate that there may be elevated neurotransmitter release in response to synaptic stimulation in YAC128 mice during the initial phase of disease progression. These abnormalities in short-term plasticity detected at this stage in YAC128 HD transgenic mice indicate that aberrant information processing at the level of the synapses may contribute, at least in part, to the early onset of cognitive deficits that are characteristic of this devastating neurodegenerative disorder. PMID:24949563

  3. Isolation and sequence of a cDNA clone for human tyrosinase that maps at the mouse c-albino locus

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, B.S.; Haq, A.K.; Pomerantz, S.H.; Halaban, R.

    1987-11-01

    Screening of a lambdagt11 human melanocyte cDNA library with antibodies against hamster tyrosinase resulted in the isolation of 16 clones. The cDNA inserts from 13 of the 16 clones cross-hybridized with each other, indicating that they were form related mRNA species. One of the cDNA clones, Pmel34, detected one mRNA species with an approximate length of 2.4 kilobases that was expressed preferentially in normal and malignant melanocytes but not in other cell types. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence showed that the putative human tyrosinase is composed of 548 amino acids with a molecular weight of 62,610. The deduced protein contains glycosylation sites and histidine-rich sites that could be used for copper binding. Southern blot analysis of DNA derived from newborn mice carrying lethal albino deletion mutations revealed that Pmel34 maps near or at the c-albino locus, the position of the structural gene for tyrosinase.

  4. Genetic and developmental studies of albino chorus frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Albino (amelanic) adult chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) occurred with frequencies of 7 percent in 1981 and 12 percent in 1982 in breeding aggregations at a pond in the foothills of the Colorado Front Range. Laboratory matings and examination of albino egg masses suggest that the absence of melanin is due to a recessive allele. The albino phenotype displayed no deficiencies in survival of embryos, rates of embryo or larval development, or rates of growth of juvenile frogs. The absence of abnormalities in development or growth suggests that the a allele in P. triseriata has an action different from albino alleles studied previously in anurans.

  5. 55P0110, a Novel Synthetic Compound Developed from a Plant Derived Backbone Structure, Shows Promising Anti-Hyperglycaemic Activity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Brunmair, Barbara; Lehner, Zsuzsanna; Stadlbauer, Karin; Adorjan, Immanuel; Frobel, Klaus; Scherer, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Bauer, Leonhardt; Fürnsinn, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Starting off with a structure derived from the natural compound multiflorine, a derivatisation program aimed at the discovery and initial characterisation of novel compounds with antidiabetic potential. Design and discovery of the structures was guided by oral bioactivities obtained in oral glucose tolerance tests in mice. 55P0110, one among several new compounds with distinct anti-hyperglycaemic activity, was further examined to characterise its pharmacology and mode of action. Whereas a single oral dose of 55P0110 did not affect basal glycaemia, it markedly improved the glucose tolerance of healthy and diabetic mice (peak blood glucose in glucose tolerance test, mmol/l: healthy mice with 90 mg/kg 55P0110, 17.0 ± 1.2 vs. 10.1 ± 1.1; diabetic mice with 180 mg/kg 55P0110, 23.1 ± 0.9 vs. 11.1 ± 1.4; p<0.001 each). Closer examination argued against retarded glucose resorption from the gut, increased glucose excretion in urine, acute insulin-like or insulin sensitising properties, and direct inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 as the cause of glucose lowering. Hence, 55P0110 seems to act via a target not exploited by any drug presently approved for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Whereas the insulinotropic sulfonylurea gliclazide (16 mg/kg) distinctly increased the circulating insulin-per-glucose ratio under basal conditions, 55P0110 (90 mg/kg) lacked such an effect (30 min. after dosing, nmol/mol: vehicle, 2.49 ± 0.27; 55P0110, 2.99 ± 0.35; gliclazide, 8.97 ± 0.49; p<0.001 each vs. gliclazide). Under an exogenous glucose challenge, however, 55P0110 increased this ratio to the same extent as gliclazide (20 min. after glucose feeding: vehicle, 2.53 ± 0.41; 55P0110, 3.80 ± 0.46; gliclazide, 3.99 ± 0.26; p<0.05 each vs. vehicle). By augmenting the glucose stimulated increase in plasma insulin, 55P0110 thus shows distinct anti-hyperglycaemic action in combination with low risk for fasting hypoglycaemia in mice. In summary, we have discovered a novel class of

  6. 55P0110, a Novel Synthetic Compound Developed from a Plant Derived Backbone Structure, Shows Promising Anti-Hyperglycaemic Activity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Brunmair, Barbara; Lehner, Zsuzsanna; Stadlbauer, Karin; Adorjan, Immanuel; Frobel, Klaus; Scherer, Thomas; Luger, Anton; Bauer, Leonhardt; Fürnsinn, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Starting off with a structure derived from the natural compound multiflorine, a derivatisation program aimed at the discovery and initial characterisation of novel compounds with antidiabetic potential. Design and discovery of the structures was guided by oral bioactivities obtained in oral glucose tolerance tests in mice. 55P0110, one among several new compounds with distinct anti-hyperglycaemic activity, was further examined to characterise its pharmacology and mode of action. Whereas a single oral dose of 55P0110 did not affect basal glycaemia, it markedly improved the glucose tolerance of healthy and diabetic mice (peak blood glucose in glucose tolerance test, mmol/l: healthy mice with 90 mg/kg 55P0110, 17.0±1.2 vs. 10.1±1.1; diabetic mice with 180 mg/kg 55P0110, 23.1±0.9 vs. 11.1±1.4; p<0.001 each). Closer examination argued against retarded glucose resorption from the gut, increased glucose excretion in urine, acute insulin-like or insulin sensitising properties, and direct inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 as the cause of glucose lowering. Hence, 55P0110 seems to act via a target not exploited by any drug presently approved for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Whereas the insulinotropic sulfonylurea gliclazide (16 mg/kg) distinctly increased the circulating insulin-per-glucose ratio under basal conditions, 55P0110 (90 mg/kg) lacked such an effect (30 min. after dosing, nmol/mol: vehicle, 2.49±0.27; 55P0110, 2.99±0.35; gliclazide, 8.97±0.49; p<0.001 each vs. gliclazide). Under an exogenous glucose challenge, however, 55P0110 increased this ratio to the same extent as gliclazide (20 min. after glucose feeding: vehicle, 2.53±0.41; 55P0110, 3.80±0.46; gliclazide, 3.99±0.26; p<0.05 each vs. vehicle). By augmenting the glucose stimulated increase in plasma insulin, 55P0110 thus shows distinct anti-hyperglycaemic action in combination with low risk for fasting hypoglycaemia in mice. In summary, we have discovered a novel class of fully synthetic

  7. Effect of carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide on ICR mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC(50) values were determined for male ICR mice exposed to different concentration of carbon monoxide for 30 min and of nitrogen dioxide for 10 min in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The data indicate that ICR mice are more resistant to these two toxicants than Swiss albino mice. The carbon monoxide LC(50) for a 30-min exposure was about 8,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to 3,570 ppm for Swiss albino mice. The nitrogen dioxide LC(50) for a 10-min exposure was above 2,000 ppm for ICR mice compared to about 1,000 ppm for Swiss albino mice.

  8. Mice repeatedly exposed to Group-A β-Haemolytic Streptococcus show perseverative behaviors, impaired sensorimotor gating, and immune activation in rostral diencephalon.

    PubMed

    Macrì, Simone; Ceci, Chiara; Onori, Martina Proietti; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Bartolini, Erika; Altabella, Luisa; Canese, Rossella; Imperi, Monica; Orefici, Graziella; Creti, Roberta; Margarit, Immaculada; Magliozzi, Roberta; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Repeated exposure to Group-A β-Haemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) may constitute a vulnerability factor in the onset and course of pediatric motor disturbances. GAS infections/colonization can stimulate the production of antibodies, which may cross the blood brain barrier, target selected brain areas (e.g. basal ganglia), and exacerbate motor alterations. Here, we exposed developing SJL male mice to four injections with a GAS homogenate and evaluated the following domains: motor coordination; general locomotion; repetitive behaviors; perseverative responses; and sensorimotor gating (pre-pulse inhibition, PPI). To demonstrate that behavioral changes were associated with immune-mediated brain alterations, we analyzed, in selected brain areas, the presence of infiltrates and microglial activation (immunohistochemistry), monoamines (HPLC), and brain metabolites (in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy). GAS-exposed mice showed increased repetitive and perseverative behaviors, impaired PPI, and reduced concentrations of serotonin in prefrontal cortex, a brain area linked to the behavioral domains investigated, wherein they also showed remarkable elevations in lactate. Active inflammatory processes were substantiated by the observation of infiltrates and microglial activation in the white matter of the anterior diencephalon. These data support the hypothesis that repeated GAS exposure may elicit inflammatory responses in brain areas involved in motor control and perseverative behavior, and result in phenotypic abnormalities. PMID:26304458

  9. Mice repeatedly exposed to Group-A β-Haemolytic Streptococcus show perseverative behaviors, impaired sensorimotor gating, and immune activation in rostral diencephalon

    PubMed Central

    Macrì, Simone; Ceci, Chiara; Onori, Martina Proietti; Invernizzi, Roberto William; Bartolini, Erika; Altabella, Luisa; Canese, Rossella; Imperi, Monica; Orefici, Graziella; Creti, Roberta; Margarit, Immaculada; Magliozzi, Roberta; Laviola, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Repeated exposure to Group-A β-Haemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) may constitute a vulnerability factor in the onset and course of pediatric motor disturbances. GAS infections/colonization can stimulate the production of antibodies, which may cross the blood brain barrier, target selected brain areas (e.g. basal ganglia), and exacerbate motor alterations. Here, we exposed developing SJL male mice to four injections with a GAS homogenate and evaluated the following domains: motor coordination; general locomotion; repetitive behaviors; perseverative responses; and sensorimotor gating (pre-pulse inhibition, PPI). To demonstrate that behavioral changes were associated with immune-mediated brain alterations, we analyzed, in selected brain areas, the presence of infiltrates and microglial activation (immunohistochemistry), monoamines (HPLC), and brain metabolites (in vivo Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy). GAS-exposed mice showed increased repetitive and perseverative behaviors, impaired PPI, and reduced concentrations of serotonin in prefrontal cortex, a brain area linked to the behavioral domains investigated, wherein they also showed remarkable elevations in lactate. Active inflammatory processes were substantiated by the observation of infiltrates and microglial activation in the white matter of the anterior diencephalon. These data support the hypothesis that repeated GAS exposure may elicit inflammatory responses in brain areas involved in motor control and perseverative behavior, and result in phenotypic abnormalities. PMID:26304458

  10. Islets of Langerhans from prohormone convertase-2 knockout mice show α-cell hyperplasia and tumorigenesis with elevated α-cell neogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Huw B; Reens, Jaimini; Brocklehurst, Simon R; Betts, Catherine J; Bickerton, Sue; Bigley, Alison L; Jenkins, Richard P; Whalley, Nicky M; Morgan, Derrick; Smith, David M

    2014-01-01

    Antagonism of the effects of glucagon as an adjunct therapy with other glucose-lowering drugs in the chronic treatment of diabetes has been suggested to aggressively control blood glucose levels. Antagonism of glucagon effects, by targeting glucagon secretion or disabling the glucagon receptor, is associated with α-cell hyperplasia. We evaluated the influence of total glucagon withdrawal on islets of Langerhans using prohormone convertase-2 knockout mice (PC2-ko), in which α-cell hyperplasia is present from a young age and persists throughout life, in order to understand whether or not sustained glucagon deficit would lead to islet tumorigenesis. PC2-ko and wild-type (WT) mice were maintained drug-free, and cohorts of these groups sampled at 3, 12 and 18 months for plasma biochemical and morphological (histological, immunohistochemical, electron microscopical and image analytical) assessments. WT mice showed no islet tumours up to termination of the study, but PC2-ko animals displayed marked changes in islet morphology from α-cell hypertrophy/hyperplasia/atypical hyperplasia, to adenomas and carcinomas, these latter being first encountered at 6–8 months. Islet hyperplasias and tumours primarily consisted of α-cells associated to varying degrees with other islet endocrine cell types. In addition to substantial increases in islet neoplasia, increased α-cell neogenesis associated primarily with pancreatic duct(ule)s was present. We conclude that absolute blockade of the glucagon signal results in tumorigenesis and that the PC2-ko mouse represents a valuable model for investigation of islet tumours and pancreatic ductal neogenesis. PMID:24456331

  11. Targeting the annulus fibrosus of the intervertebral disc: Col1a2-Cre(ER)T mice show specific activity of Cre recombinase in the outer annulus fibrosus.

    PubMed

    Bedore, Jake; Quesnel, Katherine; Quinonez, Diana; Séguin, Cheryle A; Leask, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Degeneration of the intervertebral disc (IVD) is a major underlying contributor to back pain-the single leading cause of disability worldwide. However, we possess a limited understanding of the etiology underlying IVD degeneration. To date, there are a limited number of mouse models that have been used to target proteins in specific compartments of the IVD to explore their functions in disc development, homeostasis and disease. Furthermore, the majority of reports exploring the composition and function of the outer encapsulating annulus fibrosus (AF) of the IVD have considered it as one tissue, without considering the numerous structural and functional differences existing between the inner and outer AF. In addition, no mouse models have yet been reported that enable specific targeting of genes within the outer AF. In the current report, we discuss these issues and demonstrate the localized activity of Cre recombinase in the IVD of Col1a2-Cre(ER)T;ROSA26mTmG mice possessing a tamoxifen-dependent Cre recombinase driven by a Cola2 promoter and distal enhancer and the mTmG fluorescent reporter. Following tamoxifen injection of 3-week-old Col1a2-Cre(ER)T;ROSA26mTmG mice, we show Cre activity specifically in the outer AF of the IVD, as indicated by expression of the GFP reporter. Thus, Col1a2-Cre(ER)T;ROSA26mTmG mice may prove to be a valuable tool in delineating the function of proteins in this unique compartment of the IVD, and in further exploring the compositional differences between the inner and outer AF in disc homeostasis, aging and disease. PMID:27173473

  12. Retinal image degradation by optical aberrations and light scatter in normal and albino chick eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yibin; Shieh, Kevin; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2007-02-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of retinal image quality requires that light scatter as well as optical aberrations be considered. In investigating how retinal image degradation affects eye growth in the chick model of myopia, we developed a simple method based on Shack-Hartmann images for evaluating the effects of both monochromatic aberrations and light scatter on retinal image quality. We further evaluated our method in the current study by applying it to data collected from both normal chick eyes and albino eyes that were expected to show increased intraocular light scatter. To analyze light scatter in our method, each Shack-Hartmann dot is treated as a local point spread function (PSF) that is the convolution of a local scatter PSF and a lenslet diffraction PSF. The local scatter PSF is obtained by de-convolution, and is fitted with a circularly symmetric Gaussian function using nonlinear regressions. A whole-eye scatter PSF also can be derived from the local scatter PSFs for the analyzed pupil. Aberrations are analyzed using OSA standard Zernike polynomials, and aberration-related PSF calculated from reconstructed wavefront using fast Fourier transform. Modulation transfer functions (MTFs) are computed separately for aberration and scatter PSFs, and a whole-eye MTF is derived as the product of the two. This method was applied to 4 normal and 4 albino eyes. Compared to normal eyes, albino eyes were more aberrated and showed greater light scatter. As a result, overall retinal image degradation was much greater in albino eyes than in normal eyes, with the relative contribution to retinal image degradation of light scatter compared to aberrations also being greater for albino eyes.

  13. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants.

    PubMed

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Laffray, Sophie; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca(2+) homeostasis. The low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms) play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca(2+) channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations. PMID:24672455

  14. Artificial sweetener neohesperidin dihydrochalcone showed antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis effects against paraquat-induced liver injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Qiong; Song, Xiufang; Fu, Juanli; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2015-12-01

    The present study evaluated the protective effect of artificial sweetener neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) against paraquat (PQ)-induced acute liver injury in mice. A single dose of PQ (75mg/kg body weight, i.p.) induced acute liver toxicity with the evidences of increased liver damage biomarkers, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) activities in serum. Consistently, PQ decreased the antioxidant capacity by reducing glutathione peroxidase (GP-X), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) activities, glutathione (GSH) level and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), as well as increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels. Histopathological examination revealed that PQ induced numerous changes in the liver tissues. Immunochemical staining assay indicated the upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expressions. However, NHDC ameliorates PQ-induced hepatic toxicity in mice by reversing these parameters. Additionally, NHDC significantly inhibited PQ-induced nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) expression and mitochondrial-driven apoptotic signaling. TUNEL assay confirmed that PQ-induced apoptosis was relieved by NHDC. In conclusion, these findings suggested that NHDC showed potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects against PQ-induced acute liver damage. PMID:26362205

  15. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Male Ox1r−/− Mice Showed Implication of Orexin Receptor-1 in Mood, Anxiety, and Social Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Md. G.; Shoji, Hirotaka; Soya, Shingo; Hondo, Mari; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi; Sakurai, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Neuropeptides orexin A and orexin B, which are exclusively produced by neurons in the lateral hypothalamic area, play an important role in the regulation of a wide range of behaviors and homeostatic processes, including regulation of sleep/wakefulness states and energy homeostasis. The orexin system has close anatomical and functional relationships with systems that regulate the autonomic nervous system, emotion, mood, the reward system, and sleep/wakefulness states. Recent pharmacological studies using selective antagonists have suggested that orexin receptor-1 (OX1R) is involved in physiological processes that regulate emotion, the reward system, and autonomic nervous system. Here, we examined Ox1r−/− mice with a comprehensive behavioral test battery to screen additional OX1R functions. Ox1r−/− mice showed increased anxiety-like behavior, altered depression-like behavior, slightly decreased spontaneous locomotor activity, reduced social interaction, increased startle response, and decreased prepulse inhibition. These results suggest that OX1R plays roles in social behavior and sensory motor gating in addition to roles in mood and anxiety. PMID:26696848

  16. T-type calcium channel Cav3.2 deficient mice show elevated anxiety, impaired memory and reduced sensitivity to psychostimulants

    PubMed Central

    Gangarossa, Giuseppe; Laffray, Sophie; Bourinet, Emmanuel; Valjent, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    The fine-tuning of neuronal excitability relies on a tight control of Ca2+ homeostasis. The low voltage-activated (LVA) T-type calcium channels (Cav3.1, Cav3.2 and Cav3.3 isoforms) play a critical role in regulating these processes. Despite their wide expression throughout the central nervous system, the implication of T-type Cav3.2 isoform in brain functions is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigate the effect of genetic ablation of this isoform in affective disorders, including anxiety, cognitive functions as well as sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Using a wide range of behavioral assays we show that genetic ablation of the cacna1h gene results in an anxiety-like phenotype, whereas novelty-induced locomotor activity is unaffected. Deletion of the T-type channel Cav3.2 also triggers impairment of hippocampus-dependent recognition memories. Acute and sensitized hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and cocaine are dramatically reduced in T-type Cav3.2 deficient mice. In addition, the administration of the T-type blocker TTA-A2 prevented the expression of locomotor sensitization observed in wildtype mice. In conclusion, our data reveal that physiological activity of this specific Ca2+ channel is required for affective and cognitive behaviors. Moreover, our work highlights the interest of T-type channel blockers as therapeutic strategies to reverse drug-associated alterations. PMID:24672455

  17. Caveolin-3 null mice show a loss of caveolae, changes in the microdomain distribution of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex, and t-tubule abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Galbiati, F; Engelman, J A; Volonte, D; Zhang, X L; Minetti, C; Li, M; Hou, H; Kneitz, B; Edelmann, W; Lisanti, M P

    2001-06-15

    Caveolin-3, a muscle-specific caveolin-related protein, is the principal structural protein of caveolae membrane domains in striated muscle cells. Recently, we identified a novel autosomal dominant form of limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD-1C) in humans that is due to mutations within the coding sequence of the human caveolin-3 gene (3p25). These LGMD-1C mutations lead to an approximately 95% reduction in caveolin-3 protein expression, i.e. a caveolin-3 deficiency. Here, we created a caveolin-3 null (CAV3 -/-) mouse model, using standard homologous recombination techniques, to mimic a caveolin-3 deficiency. We show that these mice lack caveolin-3 protein expression and sarcolemmal caveolae membranes. In addition, analysis of skeletal muscle tissue from these caveolin-3 null mice reveals: (i) mild myopathic changes; (ii) an exclusion of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex from lipid raft domains; and (iii) abnormalities in the organization of the T-tubule system, with dilated and longitudinally oriented T-tubules. These results have clear mechanistic implications for understanding the pathogenesis of LGMD-1C at a molecular level. PMID:11259414

  18. Study of antidepressant drugs in GPR39 (zinc receptor⁻/⁻) knockout mice, showing no effect of conventional antidepressants, but effectiveness of NMDA antagonists.

    PubMed

    Młyniec, Katarzyna; Gaweł, Magdalena; Nowak, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    The monoamine-based antidepressants that are currently used generate many side effects, and more than 30% of depressed patients do not respond to this therapy. Glutamate-based antidepressants seem to play an important role in therapy for depression, but there is still an extensive search for safe drugs. An antagonist of the glutamatergic NMDA receptor - namely, zinc - plays a part in maintaining homeostasis between glutamate and GABA via the GPR39 receptor, which has been found to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. In this study we investigated the behavioral response resulting from chronic or acute treatment with monoamine-based antidepressants, such as imipramine, escitalopram or reboxetine, and from glutamate-based MK-801 or ketamine, as measured by the forced swim test (FST) in GPR39 knockout (GPR39 KO, -/-) mice versus wild-type (WT, +/+) controls. All the tested agents reduced the immobility time in the FST in the wild-type animals. However, only chronic or acute administration of MK-801 and ketamine (but not monoamine-based antidepressants) were active in the FST in GPR39 KO mice. Our results show for the first time that GPR39 is required for the antidepressant effect of monoamine-based antidepressants. PMID:25827929

  19. The environmental chemical tributyltin chloride (TBT) shows both estrogenic and adipogenic activities in mice which might depend on the exposure dose

    SciTech Connect

    Penza, M.; Jeremic, M.; Marrazzo, E.; Maggi, A.; Ciana, P.; Rando, G.; Grigolato, P.G.; Di Lorenzo, D.

    2011-08-15

    Exposure during early development to chemicals with hormonal action may be associated with weight gain during adulthood because of altered body homeostasis. It is known that organotins affect adipose mass when exposure occurs during fetal development, although no knowledge of effects are available for exposures after birth. Here we show that the environmental organotin tributyltin chloride (TBT) exerts adipogenic action when peripubertal and sexually mature mice are exposed to the chemical. The duration and extent of these effects depend on the sex and on the dose of the compound, and the effects are relevant at doses close to the estimated human intake (0.5 {mu}g/kg). At higher doses (50-500 {mu}g/kg), TBT also activated estrogen receptors (ERs) in adipose cells in vitro and in vivo, based on results from acute and longitudinal studies in ERE/luciferase reporter mice. In 3T3-L1 cells (which have no ERs), transiently transfected with the ERE-dependent reporter plus or minus ER{alpha} or ER{beta}, TBT (in a dose range of 1-100 nM) directly targets each ER subtype in a receptor-specific manner through a direct mechanism mediated by ER{alpha} in undifferentiated preadipocytic cells and by ER{beta} in differentiating adipocytes. The ER antagonist ICI-182,780 inhibits this effect. In summary, the results of this work suggest that TBT is adipogenic at all ages and in both sexes and that it might be an ER activator in fat cells. These findings might help to resolve the apparent paradox of an adipogenic chemical being also an estrogen receptor activator by showing that the two apparently opposite actions are separated by the different doses to which the organism is exposed. - Research Highlights: > The environmental organotin tributyltin chloride shows dose-dependent estrogenic and adipogenic activities in mice. > The duration and extent of these effects depend on the sex and the dose of the compound. > The estrogenic and adipogenic effects of TBT occur at doses closed to

  20. Ommochrome genesis in an albino strain of a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Y; Negishi, S; Naito, J; Ikeda, R; Hasegawa, H; Nagamura, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1999-01-01

    The contents of tryptophan (Trp) metabolites and the activities of the enzymes involved in ommochrome biosynthesis were measured in an albino strain of a terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. There was little difference between the Trp content in the albino mutant and that in the wild type, although the contents of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OH-Kyn), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OH-AA) and xanthommatin in the albino were significantly lower than those in the wild type. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) activity in the albino was extremely low, while the activities of Kyn-3-hydroxylase and kynureninase did not differ significantly between the two phenotypes. The extremely low activity of TDO is probably one of main reasons why almost no ommochrome pigment is produced in the albino mutant. PMID:10721113

  1. Tolerance of an albino fish to ultraviolet-B radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabacher, D.L.; Little, E.E.; Ostrander, G.K.

    1999-01-01

    We exposed albino and pigmented medaka Oryzias latipes to simulated solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to determine if albino medaka were less tolerant of UVB radiation than medaka pigmented with melanin. There was no difference in the number of albino and pigmented medaka that died during the exposure period. Spectrophotometric analyses of the outer dorsal skin layers from albino and pigmented medaka indicated that, prior to exposure, both groups of fish had similar amounts of an apparent colorless non-melanin photoprotective substance that appears to protect other fish species from UVB radiation. Our results indicate that albino medaka were as tolerant of UVB radiation as pigmented medaka because they had similar amounts of this photoprotective substance in the outer layers of the skin.

  2. Expression of distinct α1-adrenoceptor phenotypes in the iris of pigmented and albino rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, I; Suzuki, F; Nishimune, A; Anisuzzaman, ASM; Yoshiki, H; Su, T-H; Chang, C-K; Morishima, S

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The expression of multiple pharmacological phenotypes including α1L-adrenoceptor has recently been reported for α1-adrenoceptors. The purpose of the present study was to identify α1-adrenoceptor phenotypes in the irises of pigmented and albino rabbits. Experimental approach: Radioligand binding and functional bioassay experiments were performed in segments or strips of iris of pigmented and albino rabbits, and their pharmacological profiles were compared. Key results: [3H]-silodosin at subnanomolar concentrations bound to intact segments of iris of pigmented and albino rabbits at similar densities (approximately 240 fmol·mg−1 protein). The binding sites in the iris of a pigmented rabbit were composed of a single component showing extremely low affinities for prazosin, hydrochloride [N-[2-(2-cyclopropylmethoxyphenoxy)ethyl]-5-chloro-α,α-dimethyl-1H-indole-3-ethamine hydrochloride (RS-17053)] and 5-methylurapidil, while two components with high and low affinities for prazosin, RS-17053 and 5-methylurapidil were identified in irises from albino rabbits. In contrast, specific binding sites for [3H]-prazosin were not clearly detected because a high proportion of non-specific binding and/or low affinity for prazosin occurred. Contractile responses of iris dilator muscle to noradrenaline were antagonized by the above ligands, and their antagonist affinities were consistent with the binding estimates at low-affinity sites identified in both strains of rabbits. Conclusions and implications: A typical α1L phenotype with extremely low affinity for prazosin is exclusively expressed in the iris of pigmented rabbits, while two distinct phenotypes (α1A and α1L) with high and moderate affinities for prazosin are co-expressed in the iris of albino rabbits. This suggests that a significant difference in the expression of phenotypes of the α1-adrenoceptor occurs in the irises between the two strains of rabbits. PMID:19466984

  3. Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Prajapati, P. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.

    2010-01-01

    The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741

  4. Myristoylation negative msbB-mutants of probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 retain tumor specific colonization properties but show less side effects in immunocompetent mice.

    PubMed

    Stritzker, Jochen; Hill, Philip J; Gentschev, Ivaylo; Szalay, Aladar A

    2010-01-01

    Specific colonization of solid tumors by bacteria opens the way to novel approaches in both tumor diagnosis and therapy. However, even non-pathogenic bacteria induce responses by the immune system, which could be devastating for a tumor bearing patient. As such effects are caused e.g., by the lipid A moiety of the lipopolysaccharide, a msbB-mutant of the probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 strain was investigated. Bacteria of the mutant strain did not show any growth defects in culture media when compared to wild-type E. coli Nissle 1917 but were unable to myristoylate lipid A, had less toxic effects on immunocompetent BALB/c mice, and were still able to specifically colonize tumors. Therefore, the modification of lipid A could result in bacterial strains that might be better suited for diagnosis and therapy of tumors than the corresponding wild-type strains, even if those are not considered pathogenic or are of probiotic background. PMID:21326939

  5. Myristoylation negative msbB-mutants of probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 retain tumor specific colonization properties but show less side effects in immunocompetent mice

    PubMed Central

    Stritzker, Jochen; Hill, Philip J; Gentschev, Ivaylo

    2010-01-01

    Specific colonization of solid tumors by bacteria opens the way to novel approaches in both tumor diagnosis and therapy. However, even non-pathogenic bacteria induce responses by the immune system, which could be devastating for a tumor bearing patient. As such effects are caused e.g., by the lipid A moiety of the lipopolysaccharide, a msbB-mutant of the probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 strain was investigated. Bacteria of the mutant strain did not show any growth defects in culture media when compared to wild-type E. coli Nissle 1917 but were unable to myristoylate lipid A, had less toxic effects on immunocompetent BALB/c mice, and were still able to specifically colonize tumors. Therefore, the modification of lipid A could result in bacterial strains that might be better suited for diagnosis and therapy of tumors than the corresponding wild-type strains, even if those are not considered pathogenic or are of probiotic background. PMID:21326939

  6. How do albino fish hear?

    PubMed

    Lechner, W; Ladich, F

    2011-03-01

    Pigmentation disorders such as albinism are occasionally associated with hearing impairments in mammals. Therefore, we wanted to investigate whether such a phenomenon also exists in non-mammalian vertebrates. We measured the hearing abilities of normally pigmented and albinotic specimens of two catfish species, the European wels Silurus glanis (Siluridae) and the South American bronze catfish Corydoras aeneus (Callichthyidae). The non-invasive auditory evoked potential (AEP) recording technique was utilized to determine hearing thresholds at 10 frequencies from 0.05 to 5 kHz. Neither auditory sensitivity nor shape of AEP waveforms differed between normally pigmented and albinotic specimens at any frequency tested in both species. Silurus glanis and C. aeneus showed the best hearing between 0.3 and 1 kHz; the lowest thresholds were 78.4 dB at 0.5 kHz in S. glanis (pigmented), 75 dB at 1 kHz in S. glanis (albinotic), 77.6 dB at 0.5 kHz in C. aeneus (pigmented) and 76.9 dB at 1 kHz in C. aeneus (albinotic). This study indicates no association between albinism and hearing ability. Perhaps because of the lack of melanin in the fish inner ear, hearing in fishes is less likely to be affected by albinism than in mammals. PMID:21552308

  7. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action.

    PubMed

    Currie, Richard A; Peffer, Richard C; Goetz, Amber K; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Goodman, Jay I

    2014-07-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  8. Proteus mirabilis isolates of different origins do not show correlation with virulence attributes and can colonize the urinary tract of mice.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Vanessa; Schlapp, Geraldine; Zunino, Pablo

    2006-07-01

    Proteus mirabilis has been described as an aetiological agent in a wide range of infections, playing an important role in urinary tract infections (UTIs). In this study, a collection of P. mirabilis isolates obtained from clinical and non-clinical sources was analysed in order to determine a possible correlation between origin, virulence factors and in vivo infectivity. Isolates were characterized in vitro, assessing several virulence properties that had been previously associated with P. mirabilis uropathogenicity. Swarming motility, urease production, growth in urine, outer-membrane protein patterns, ability to grow in the presence of different iron sources, haemolysin and haemagglutinin production, and the presence and expression of diverse fimbrial genes, were analysed. In order to evaluate the infectivity of the different isolates, the experimental ascending UTI model in mice was used. Additionally, the Dienes test and the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC)-PCR assay were performed to assess the genetic diversity of the isolates. The results of the present study did not show any correlation between distribution of the diverse potential urovirulence factors and isolate source. No significant correlation was observed between infectivity and the origin of the isolates, since they all similarly colonized the urinary tract of the challenged mice. Finally, all isolates showed unique ERIC-PCR patterns, indicating that the isolates were genetically diverse. The results obtained in this study suggest that the source of P. mirabilis strains cannot be correlated with pathogenic attributes, and that the distribution of virulence factors between isolates of different origins may correspond to the opportunistic nature of the organism. PMID:16804188

  9. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  10. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk. PMID:23569832

  11. Antiarthritic effects of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth. in acute and chronic models of arthritis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Gautam, Raju; Jachak, Sanjay M; Saklani, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antiarthritic activity of Ajuga bracteosa using albino rats. Methods The antiarthritic activity of 70% ethanolic extract of Ajuga bracteosa (EEAB) was evaluated against turpentine oil- and formaldehyde- induced acute non immunological and complete freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic immunological arthritis in albino rats. Results EEAB showed a significant (P<0.05) and dose dependent inhibitory effect against acute and chronic models of arthritis. EEAB exhibited better antiarthritic activity than the standard aspirin. Conclusions EEAB exhibits a significant and promising antiarthritic activity against acute and chronic arthritis and supports the traditional use of Ajuga bracteosa for rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:23569895

  12. Effects of dietary creatine supplementation for 8 weeks on neuromuscular coordination and learning in male albino mouse following neonatal hypoxic ischemic insult.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Shahid; Ali, Muhammad; Akbar, Atif; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-05-01

    Creatine monohydrate (Cr) is a dietary supplement known to improve cognitive functions and has positive therapeutic results under various clinical conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 2 % Cr supplementation on learning, memory formation, neuromuscular coordination, exploratory and locomotory in male albino mice following hypoxic ischemic insult. At postnatal day, 10 male albino mice pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation followed by 8 % hypoxia for 25 min. On postnatal day 20, male mice were separated from the litter and divided into two groups on the basis of special diet supplementation. One group was supplemented with 2 % Cr in diet while the other group was raised on ordinary rodent chow for 8 weeks. Behavioral observations were made during rota rod, open field and Morris water maze test for both treatments. It was observed that supplementation with 2 % Cr for 8 weeks following neonatal brain damage resulted in enhanced muscular strength, neuromuscular coordination and improved body weight. In Morris water maze test, it was observed that Cr supplementation significantly improved mean swimming speed and mice on 2 % Cr diet covered more distance but the spatial memory was not improved significantly following hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy (HIE). Open field parameters and percentage of infarct volume remained unaffected following Cr supplementation. We concluded that 2 % dietary Cr supplementation has a potential to improve the muscle strength and body weight in male albino mice following (HIE) and should be considered for the treatment of neurological ailments. PMID:25511980

  13. Acute and subacute oral toxicity study on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ekeanyanwu, Raphael Chukwuma; Njoku, Obioma Uzoma

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed on the haematology, histopathology and liver profile of Wistar albino rats. Methods Toxicity study was investigated on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia in rats administered different concentrations orally for 28 d using standard laboratory procedures. Results The LD50 of the flavonoid rich fraction was found to be above 5 000 mg/kg body weight in mice observed for 48 h. After the Day 14, biochemical markers of liver injury such as serum alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly (P<0.05 at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight and P<0.01 at 400 mg/kg) while serum alkaline phosphatase increased non-significantly (P>0.05). There was non-significant (P>0.05) effect observed across the groups in the levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine. The result of histological examination showed various degrees of peribiliary hepatitis after the Day 14 which fizzled out after the Day 28. Conclusions The result therefore suggests that the seed extract is potentially safe. PMID:25182437

  14. Mice transgenic for a soluble form of murine CTLA-4 show enhanced expansion of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells and defective antibody production in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ronchese, F; Hausmann, B; Hubele, S; Lane, P

    1994-03-01

    CD4+ T cell responses were analyzed in transgenic mice expressing a soluble form of murine CTLA-4, mCTLA4-H gamma 1, which blocks the interaction of the T cell activation molecules CD28 and CTLA-4 with their costimulatory ligands. Consistent with previous reports (Linsley, P. S., P. M. Wallace, J. Johnson, M. G. Gibson, J. L. Greene, J. A. Ledbetter, C. Singh, and M. A. Tepper. 1992. Science (Wash. DC). 257:792), T cell-dependent antibody production was profoundly inhibited in mCTLA4-H gamma 1 transgenic mice immunized with a protein antigen. Surprisingly, however, transgenic mice could generate quantitatively and qualitatively normal primary T cell responses, as measured by limiting dilution assays and lymphokine production. In addition, in vivo expansion of antigen-specific T cells after secondary or tertiary immunization was enhanced in mCTLA4-H gamma 1 transgenics as compared with normal mice. Although unable to deliver cognate help to B cells in vivo, T cells from mCTLA4-H gamma 1 transgenic mice were not anergic as they could help B cells to produce specific antibodies when adoptively transferred into nude hosts. Taken together, these data suggest that the engagement of CD28 and/or CTLA-4 may not be required for the induction of T cell responses, as is currently understood, but rather for the expression of T cell effector function such as the delivery of T cell help to B cells. PMID:8113677

  15. Infection of mice with oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii by oral route showed differences of virulence from Brazilian RFLP genotypes BrI and BrIII.

    PubMed

    Chiebao, Daniela Pontes; Pena, Hilda Fátima de Jesus; Cabral, Aline Diniz; Rocca, Mayra Pereira; Lopes, Estela Gallucci; Valadas, Samantha Yuri Oshiro Branco; Keid, Lara Borges; Grisi Filho, José Henrique Hildebrand; Soares, Rodrigo Martins

    2016-08-01

    South American strains of Toxoplasma gondii present higher genetic diversity than classical European strains. We compared the virulence of two non-archetypal Brazilian genotypes of T. gondii to mice. Oocysts of four isolates, two genotype BrI (TgCatBr71 and TgShBr11) and two BrIII (TgCatBr74 and TgCatBr60) were obtained from cats fed experimentally infected mice. After sporulation, 5.0×10(1) and 1.0×10(2) oocysts were orally administrated to Swiss albine mice in Experiments #1 and #2, respectively (4-10 mice/group). Humoral response from dead and surviving mice was analyzed on days 9 to 35 post-infection. Microscopic observations of lungs and brains were performed for tachyzoites and cysts visualization in fresh preparations. Negative results were tested by PCR. Virulence after infection with oocysts is dose dependent for genotype BrIII isolates, but not for BrI. Differences in mortality were observed among isolates from genotype BrIII on Experiment #1. Intra-genotype phenotypic variation related to the parasite stage of infection was demonstrated and this characteristic should be further studied and may influence future work regarding the role of virulence amid hosts. PMID:27474004

  16. ILDR1 null mice, a model of human deafness DFNB42, show structural aberrations of tricellular tight junctions and degeneration of auditory hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Morozko, Eva L.; Nishio, Ayako; Ingham, Neil J.; Chandra, Rashmi; Fitzgerald, Tracy; Martelletti, Elisa; Borck, Guntram; Wilson, Elizabeth; Riordan, Gavin P.; Wangemann, Philine; Forge, Andrew; Steel, Karen P.; Liddle, Rodger A.; Friedman, Thomas B.; Belyantseva, Inna A.

    2015-01-01

    In the mammalian inner ear, bicellular and tricellular tight junctions (tTJs) seal the paracellular space between epithelial cells. Tricellulin and immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1, also referred to as angulin-2) localize to tTJs of the sensory and non-sensory epithelia in the organ of Corti and vestibular end organs. Recessive mutations of TRIC (DFNB49) encoding tricellulin and ILDR1 (DFNB42) cause human nonsyndromic deafness. However, the pathophysiology of DFNB42 deafness remains unknown. ILDR1 was recently reported to be a lipoprotein receptor mediating the secretion of the fat-stimulated cholecystokinin (CCK) hormone in the small intestine, while ILDR1 in EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro was shown to recruit tricellulin to tTJs. Here we show that two different mouse Ildr1 mutant alleles have early-onset severe deafness associated with a rapid degeneration of cochlear hair cells (HCs) but have a normal endocochlear potential. ILDR1 is not required for recruitment of tricellulin to tTJs in the cochlea in vivo; however, tricellulin becomes mislocalized in the inner ear sensory epithelia of ILDR1 null mice after the first postnatal week. As revealed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, ILDR1 contributes to the ultrastructure of inner ear tTJs. Taken together, our data provide insight into the pathophysiology of human DFNB42 deafness and demonstrate that ILDR1 is crucial for normal hearing by maintaining the structural and functional integrity of tTJs, which are critical for the survival of auditory neurosensory HCs. PMID:25217574

  17. ILDR1 null mice, a model of human deafness DFNB42, show structural aberrations of tricellular tight junctions and degeneration of auditory hair cells.

    PubMed

    Morozko, Eva L; Nishio, Ayako; Ingham, Neil J; Chandra, Rashmi; Fitzgerald, Tracy; Martelletti, Elisa; Borck, Guntram; Wilson, Elizabeth; Riordan, Gavin P; Wangemann, Philine; Forge, Andrew; Steel, Karen P; Liddle, Rodger A; Friedman, Thomas B; Belyantseva, Inna A

    2015-02-01

    In the mammalian inner ear, bicellular and tricellular tight junctions (tTJs) seal the paracellular space between epithelial cells. Tricellulin and immunoglobulin-like (Ig-like) domain containing receptor 1 (ILDR1, also referred to as angulin-2) localize to tTJs of the sensory and non-sensory epithelia in the organ of Corti and vestibular end organs. Recessive mutations of TRIC (DFNB49) encoding tricellulin and ILDR1 (DFNB42) cause human nonsyndromic deafness. However, the pathophysiology of DFNB42 deafness remains unknown. ILDR1 was recently reported to be a lipoprotein receptor mediating the secretion of the fat-stimulated cholecystokinin (CCK) hormone in the small intestine, while ILDR1 in EpH4 mouse mammary epithelial cells in vitro was shown to recruit tricellulin to tTJs. Here we show that two different mouse Ildr1 mutant alleles have early-onset severe deafness associated with a rapid degeneration of cochlear hair cells (HCs) but have a normal endocochlear potential. ILDR1 is not required for recruitment of tricellulin to tTJs in the cochlea in vivo; however, tricellulin becomes mislocalized in the inner ear sensory epithelia of ILDR1 null mice after the first postnatal week. As revealed by freeze-fracture electron microscopy, ILDR1 contributes to the ultrastructure of inner ear tTJs. Taken together, our data provide insight into the pathophysiology of human DFNB42 deafness and demonstrate that ILDR1 is crucial for normal hearing by maintaining the structural and functional integrity of tTJs, which are critical for the survival of auditory neurosensory HCs. PMID:25217574

  18. A pseudotype baculovirus expressing the capsid protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus and a T-Cell immunogen shows enhanced immunogenicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of livestock which causes severe economic loss in cloven-hoofed animals. Vaccination is still a major strategy in developing countries to control FMD. Currently, inactivated vaccine of FMDV has been used in many countries with limited success and safety concerns. Development of a novel effective vaccine is must. Methods In the present study, two recombinant pseudotype baculoviruses, one expressing the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) under the control of a cytomegalovirus immediate early enhancer/promoter (CMV-IE), and the other the caspid plus a T-cell immunogen coding region under a CAG promoter were constructed, and their expression was characterized in mammalian cells. In addition, their immunogenicity in a mouse model was investigated. The humoral and cell-mediated immune responses induced by pseudotype baculovirus were compared with those of inactivated vaccine. Results Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and indirect sandwich-ELISA (IS-ELISA) showed both recombinant baculoviruses (with or without T-cell epitopes) were transduced efficiently and expressed target proteins in BHK-21 cells. In mice, intramuscular inoculation of recombinants with 1 × 109 or 1 × 1010 PFU/mouse induced the production of FMDV-specific neutralizing antibodies and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Furthermore, recombinant baculovirus with T-cell epitopes had better immunogenicity than the recombinant without T-cell epitopes as demonstrated by significantly enhanced IFN-γ production (P < 0.01) and higher neutralizing antibody titer (P < 0.05). Although the inactivated vaccine produced the highest titer of neutralizing antibodies, a lower IFN-γ expression was observed compared to the two recombinant pseudotype baculoviruses. Conclusions These results indicate that pseudotype baculovirus-mediated gene delivery could be a alternative strategy to develop a new generation of vaccines against FMDV infection

  19. PrP0\\0 mice show behavioral abnormalities that suggest PrPC has a role in maintaining the cytoskeleton.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Introduction. PrPC is highly conserved among mammals, but its natural function is unclear. Prnp ablated mice (PrP0/0) appear to develop normally and are able to reproduce. These observations seem to indicate that the gene is not essential for viability, in spite of it being highly conse...

  20. RAG2−/−γc−/− Mice Transplanted with CD34+ Cells from Human Cord Blood Show Low Levels of Intestinal Engraftment and Are Resistant to Rectal Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus▿

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Ursula; Baenziger, Stefan; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Schlaepfer, Erika; Gehre, Nadine; Regenass, Stephan; Brunner, Thomas; Speck, Roberto F.

    2008-01-01

    Rectal transmission is one of the main routes of infection by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). To efficiently study transmission mechanisms and prevention strategies, a small animal model permissive for rectal transmission of HIV is mandatory. We tested the susceptibility of RAG2−/−γc−/− mice transplanted with human cord blood hematopoietic stem cells to rectal infection with HIV. We rectally exposed these humanized mice to cell-free and cell-associated HIV. All mice remained HIV negative as assessed by plasma viral load. The same mice infected intraperitoneally showed high levels of HIV replication. In the gut-associated lymphatic tissue, we found disproportionately smaller numbers of human cells than in other lymphoid organs. This finding may explain the observed resistance to rectal transmission of HIV. To increase the numbers of local HIV target cells and the likelihood of HIV transmission, we treated mice with different proinflammatory stimuli: local application of interleukin-1β, addition of seminal plasma to the inoculum, or induction of colitis with dextran sodium sulfate. These procedures attracted some human leukocytes, but the transmission rate was still very low. The humanized mice showed low levels of human engraftment in the intestinal tract and seem to be resistant to rectal transmission of HIV, and thus they are an unsuitable model for this application. PMID:18842716

  1. Sterilizing Immunity Elicited by Neisseria meningitidis Carriage Shows Broader Protection than Predicted by Serum Antibody Cross-Reactivity in CEACAM1-Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    McCaw, Shannon E.; Strobel, Lea; Frosch, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis asymptomatically colonizes the human upper respiratory tract but is also the cause of meningitis and severe septicemia. Carriage or disease evokes an immune response against the infecting strain. Hitherto, we have known little about the breadth of immunity induced by natural carriage of a single strain or its implications for subsequent infectious challenge. In this study, we establish that transgenic mice expressing human CEACAM1 support nasal colonization by a variety of strains of different capsular types. Next, we nasally challenged these mice with either of the N. meningitidis strains H44/76 (serogroup B, ST-32) and 90/18311 (serogroup C, ST-11), while following the induction of strain-specific immunoglobulin. When these antisera were tested for reactivity with a diverse panel of N. meningitidis strains, very low levels of antibody were detected against all meningococcal strains, yet a mutually exclusive “fingerprint” of high-level cross-reactivity toward certain strains became apparent. To test the efficacy of these responses for protection against subsequent challenge, CEACAM1-humanized mice exposed to strain 90/18311 were then rechallenged with different N. meningitidis strains. As expected, the mice were immune to challenge with the same strain and with a closely related ST-11 strain, 38VI, while H44/76 (ST-32) could still colonize these animals. Notably, however, despite the paucity of detectable humoral response against strain 196/87 (ST-32), this strain was unable to colonize the 90/18311-exposed mice. Combined, our data suggest that current approaches may underestimate the actual breadth of mucosal protection gained through natural exposure to N. meningitidis strains. PMID:25368118

  2. In Utero and Lactational Exposure to PCBs in Mice: Adult Offspring Show Altered Learning and Memory Depending on Cyp1a2 and Ahr Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Curran, Christine P.; Genter, Mary Beth; Patel, Krishna V.; Schaefer, Tori L.; Skelton, Matthew R.; Williams, Michael T.; Vorhees, Charles V.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Both coplanar and noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit neurotoxic effects in animal studies, but individual congeners do not always produce the same effects as PCB mixtures. Humans genetically have > 60-fold differences in hepatic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2)-uninduced basal levels and > 12-fold variability in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR)affinity; because CYP1A2 is known to sequester coplanar PCBs and because AHR ligands include coplanar PCBs, both genotypes can affect PCB response. Objectives: We aimed to develop a mouse paradigm with extremes in Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes to explore genetic susceptibility to PCB-induced developmental neurotoxicity using an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs. Methods: We developed a mixture of eight PCBs to simulate human exposures based on their reported concentrations in human tissue, breast milk, and food supply. We previously characterized specific differences in PCB congener pharmacokinetics and toxicity, comparing high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(+/+)], poor-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 wild-type [Ahrd_Cyp1a2(+/+)], and high-affinity–AHR Cyp1a2 knockout [Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–)] mouse lines [Curran CP, Vorhees CV, Williams MT, Genter MB, Miller ML, Nebert DW. 2011. In utero and lactational exposure to a complex mixture of polychlorinated biphenyls: toxicity in pups dependent on the Cyp1a2 and Ahr genotypes. Toxicol Sci 119:189–208]. Dams received a mixture of three coplanar and five noncoplanar PCBs on gestational day 10.5 and postnatal day (PND) 5. In the present study we conducted behavioral phenotyping of exposed offspring at PND60, examining multiple measures of learning, memory, and other behaviors. Results: We observed the most significant deficits in response to PCB treatment in Ahrb1_Cyp1a2(–/–) mice, including impaired novel object recognition and increased failure rate in the Morris water maze. However, all PCB-treated genotypes showed significant differences on

  3. Swim-exercised mice show a decreased level of protein O-GlcNAcylation and expression of O-GlcNAc transferase in heart.

    PubMed

    Belke, Darrell D

    2011-07-01

    Swim-training exercise in mice leads to cardiac remodeling associated with an improvement in contractile function. Protein O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAcylation) is a posttranslational modification of serine and threonine residues capable of altering protein-protein interactions affecting gene transcription, cell signaling pathways, and general cell physiology. Increased levels of protein O-GlcNAcylation in the heart have been associated with pathological conditions such as diabetes, ischemia, and hypertrophic heart failure. In contrast, the impact of physiological exercise on protein O-GlcNAcylation in the heart is currently unknown. Swim-training exercise in mice was associated with the development of a physiological hypertrophy characterized by an improvement in contractile function relative to sedentary mice. General protein O-GlcNAcylation was significantly decreased in swim-exercised mice. This effect was mirrored in the level of O-GlcNAcylation of individual proteins such as SP1. The decrease in protein O-GlcNAcylation was associated with a decrease in the expression of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and glutamine-fructose amidotransferase (GFAT) 2 mRNA. O-GlcNAcase (OGA) activity was actually lower in swim-trained than sedentary hearts, suggesting that it did not contribute to the decreased protein O-GlcNAcylation. Thus it appears that exercise-induced physiological hypertrophy is associated with a decrease in protein O-GlcNAcylation, which could potentially contribute to changes in gene expression and other physiological changes associated with exercise. PMID:21493720

  4. Novel dual agonist peptide analogues derived from dogfish glucagon show promising in vitro insulin releasing actions and antihyperglycaemic activity in mice.

    PubMed

    O'Harte, F P M; Ng, M T; Lynch, A M; Conlon, J M; Flatt, P R

    2016-08-15

    The antidiabetic potential of thirteen novel dogfish glucagon derived analogues were assessed in vitro and in acute in vivo studies. Stable peptide analogues enhanced insulin secretion from BRIN-BD11 β-cells (p < 0.001) and reduced acute glycaemic responses following intraperitoneal glucose (25 nmol/kg) in healthy NIH Swiss mice (p < 0.05-p<0.001). The in vitro insulinotropic actions of [S2a]dogfish glucagon, [S2a]dogfish glucagon-exendin-4(31-39) and [S2a]dogfish glucagon-Lys(30)-γ-glutamyl-PAL, were blocked (p < 0.05-p<0.001) by the specific GLP-1 and glucagon receptor antagonists, exendin-4(9-39) and (desHis(1)Pro(4)Glu(9))glucagon amide but not by (Pro(3))GIP, indicating lack of GIP receptor involvement. These analogues dose-dependently stimulated cAMP production in GLP-1 and glucagon (p < 0.05-p<0.001) but not GIP-receptor transfected cells. They improved acute glycaemic and insulinotropic responses in high-fat fed diabetic mice and in wild-type C57BL/6J and GIPR-KO mice (p < 0.05-p<0.001), but not GLP-1R-KO mice, confirming action on GLP-1 but not GIP receptors. Overall, dogfish glucagon analogues have potential for diabetes therapy, exerting beneficial metabolic effects via GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. PMID:27179756

  5. d-amino acid oxidase knockout (Dao(-/-) ) mice show enhanced short-term memory performance and heightened anxiety, but no sleep or circadian rhythm disruption.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, David; Hasan, Sibah; Tam, Shu K E; Engle, Sandra J; Brandon, Nicholas J; Sharp, Trevor; Foster, Russell G; Harrison, Paul J; Bannerman, David M; Peirson, Stuart N

    2015-05-01

    d-amino acid oxidase (DAO, DAAO) is an enzyme that degrades d-serine, the primary endogenous co-agonist of the synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. Convergent evidence implicates DAO in the pathophysiology and potential treatment of schizophrenia. To better understand the functional role of DAO, we characterized the behaviour of the first genetically engineered Dao knockout (Dao(-/-) ) mouse. Our primary objective was to assess both spatial and non-spatial short-term memory performance. Relative to wildtype (Dao(+/+) ) littermate controls, Dao(-/-) mice demonstrated enhanced spatial recognition memory performance, improved odour recognition memory performance, and enhanced spontaneous alternation in the T-maze. In addition, Dao(-/-) mice displayed increased anxiety-like behaviour in five tests of approach/avoidance conflict: the open field test, elevated plus maze, successive alleys, light/dark box and novelty-suppressed feeding. Despite evidence of a reciprocal relationship between anxiety and sleep and circadian function in rodents, we found no evidence of sleep or circadian rhythm disruption in Dao(-/-) mice. Overall, our observations are consistent with, and extend, findings in the natural mutant ddY/Dao(-) line. These data add to a growing body of preclinical evidence linking the inhibition, inactivation or deletion of DAO with enhanced cognitive performance. Our results have implications for the development of DAO inhibitors as therapeutic agents. PMID:25816902

  6. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via drinking water for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas’s examination at the end of the experiment. Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase (PON) in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. Results: In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, (ALT), and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups. Conclusions: In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters. PMID:26221269

  7. Reproductive activities of Heliotropium indicum isolate against Helopeltis theivora and toxicity evaluation in mice.

    PubMed

    Dolui, A K; Debnath, Manabendra; De, B; Kumar, Atul

    2012-05-01

    A new compound E was isolated from the methanolic extract of the leaves of Heliotropium indicum by chromatographic fractionation. In the present study, the effect of the compound E on reproduction of Helopeltis theivora has been evaluated. The acute toxicity study (LD50) and sub-acute toxicity studies (haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters) in albino Swiss mice were carried out to evaluate the safety aspect of the compound E. The compound showed significant inhibitory effect on the reproductive life of H. theivora. The oviposition period, fecundity and hatching percentage of H. theivora were found to be 15.67 days, 39.33 and 28.00% respectively after treatment with 2% compound E, whereas the control value were found to be 20.33 days, 77.67 and 77.33% respectively. The LD50 of the compound was found to be 780 mg kg(-1) in Swiss albino female mice. The compound did not show any toxicity in mice at sub-lethal dose treatment (78 mg kg(-1) b. wt., once daily) for 21 days as evident from different haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters in compound E treated group when compared with control. PMID:23029910

  8. Analysis of the Albino-Locus Region of the Mouse. I. Origin and Viability

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Liane B.; Russell, W. L.; Kelly, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    Numerous specific-locus experiments designed to test the mutagenic effect of external radiation have yielded, in over 3,600,000 animals observed, altogether 119 presumed mutations involving the c locus. Of these, 55 were viable and albino (cav), 13 were viable and of various intermediate pigment types (cxv), four were subvital (cas and cxs), seven were neonatally lethal albinos (cal), 28 prenatally lethal albinos (cal); 12 died untested. All of the prenatally lethal and at least one of the neonatally lethal c-locus mutations (cal classes) are probably deficiencies that we have analyzed extensively in other experiments. Since absence of the locus mimics albino in phenotype, the intermediates (cxv and cxs groups) probably resulted from intragenic changes. The class of viable albino mutants (cav) might include, in addition to intragenic changes, some extremely small deficiencies.—The effects on viability of c-locus lethals (cal's) in heterozygous condition are not drastic enough to be perceived in stocks of mixed genetic background except in the case of the two longest known deficiencies and a few others.—Analysis of the relation between radiation treatment and type of c-locus mutants obtained shows that the relative frequency of viable mutations, for each germ-cell type, is greater for low-LET than for neutron irradiation; however, the difference for any individual cell type is not significant. The majority (66.7%) of mutations derived from X- or γ-ray irradiated spermatogonia are viable, and the proportion of "intermediates" among these viables is similar to that among presumed spontaneous c-locus mutations. No significant dose-rate effect on the proportion of lethals could be demonstrated within the set of mutants induced by low-LET irradiation of spermatogonia. Although sets from other germ-cell stages are too small for statistical tests, the results for oocytes are similar, as far as they go. Furthermore, most of the c-locus mutations induced in

  9. The brainstem efferent acoustic chiasm in pigmented and albino rats.

    PubMed

    Reuss, Stefan; Closhen-Gabrisch, Stefanie; Closhen, Christina

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether structural peculiarities in the brain-efferent pathway to the organ of Corti may underlie functional differences in hearing between pigmented and albino individuals of the same mammalian species. Pigmented Brown-Norway rats and albino Wistar rats received unilateral injections of an aqueous solution of the retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) into the scala tympani of the cochlea to identify olivocochlear neurons (OCN) in the brainstem superior olivary complex. After five days, brains were perfusion-fixed and brainstem sections were cut and analyzed with respect to retrogradely labeled neurons. Intrinsic neurons of the lateral system were located exclusively in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO) in both groups. Shell neurons surrounding the LSO and in periolivary regions, which made up only 5-8% of all OCN, were more often contralaterally located in albino than in pigmented animals. A striking difference was observed in the laterality of neurons of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, which provided more than one third of all OCN. These neurons, located in the rostral periolivary region and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, were observed contralateral to 45% in pigmented and to 68% in albino animals. Our study, the first to compare the origin of the olivocochlear bundle in pigmented and albino rats, provides evidence for differences in the crossing pattern of the olivocochlear pathway. These were found predominantly in the MOC system providing the direct efferent innervation of cochlear outer hair cells. Our findings may account for the alterations in auditory perception observed in albino mammals including man. PMID:26657095

  10. Cancer-Prone Mice Expressing the Ki-rasG12C Gene Show Increased Lung Carcinogenesis after CT Screening Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Munley, Michael T.; Moore, Joseph E.; Walb, Matthew C.; Isom, Scott P.; Olson, John D.; Zora, J. Gregory; Kock, Nancy D.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Miller, Mark Steven

    2011-01-01

    A >20-fold increase in X-ray computed tomography (CT) use during the last 30 years has caused considerable concern because of the potential carcinogenic risk from these CT exposures. Estimating the carcinogenic risk from high-energy, single high-dose exposures obtained from atomic bomb survivors and extrapolating these data to multiple low-energy, low-dose CT exposures using the Linear No-Threshold (LNT) model may not give an accurate assessment of actual cancer risk. Recently, the National Lung Cancer Screening Trial (NLST) reported that annual CT scans of current and former heavy smokers reduced lung cancer mortality by 20%, highlighting the need to better define the carcinogenic risk associated with these annual CT screening exposures. In this study, we used the bitransgenic CCSP-rtTA/Ki-ras mouse model that conditionally expresses the human mutant Ki-rasG12C gene in a doxycycline-inducible and lung-specific manner to measure the carcinogenic risk of exposure to multiple whole-body CT doses that approximate the annual NLST screening protocol. Irradiated mice expressing the Ki-rasG12C gene in their lungs had a significant (P = 0.01) 43% increase in the number of tumors/mouse (24.1 ± 1.9) compared to unirradiated mice (16.8 ± 1.3). Irradiated females had significantly (P < 0.005) more excess tumors than irradiated males. No tumor size difference or dose response was observed over the total dose range of 80–160 mGy for either sex. Irradiated bitransgenic mice that did not express the Ki-rasG12C gene had a low tumor incidence (≤0.1/mouse) that was not affected by exposure to CT radiation. These results suggest that (i) estimating the carcinogenic risk of multiple CT exposures from high-dose carcinogenesis data using the LNT model may be inappropriate for current and former smokers and (ii) any increased carcinogenic risk after exposure to fractionated low-dose CT-radiation may be restricted to only those individuals expressing cancer susceptibility genes in

  11. Image chorioretinal vasculature in albino rats using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Tan; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhang, Hao F.

    2014-01-01

    We imaged the microvascular network in both the retina and the choroid in an albino rat eye using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy guided by optical coherence tomography. Relying on optical absorption and ultrasonic detection, photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy can image both retinal and choroidal vessel networks with high contrast. PMID:24744503

  12. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  13. Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus in Chimeric Mice by Short Synthetic Hairpin RNAs: Sequence Analysis of Surviving Virus Shows Added Selective Pressure of Combination Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dallas, Anne; Ilves, Heini; Ma, Han; Chin, Daniel J.; MacLachlan, Ian; Klumpp, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT We have recently shown that a cocktail of two short synthetic hairpin RNAs (sshRNAs), targeting the internal ribosome entry site of hepatitis C virus (HCV) formulated with lipid nanoparticles, was able to suppress viral replication in chimeric mice infected with HCV GT1a by up to 2.5 log10 (H. Ma et al., Gastroenterology 146:63–66.e5, http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2013.09.049) Viral load remained about 1 log10 below pretreatment levels 21 days after the end of dosing. We have now sequenced the HCV viral RNA amplified from serum of treated mice after the 21-day follow-up period. Viral RNA from the HCV sshRNA-treated groups was altered in sequences complementary to the sshRNAs and nowhere else in the 500-nucleotide sequenced region, while the viruses from the control group that received an irrelevant sshRNA had no mutations in that region. The ability of the most commonly selected mutations to confer resistance to the sshRNAs was confirmed in vitro by introducing those mutations into HCV-luciferase reporters. The mutations most frequently selected by sshRNA treatment within the sshRNA target sequence occurred at the most polymorphic residues, as identified from an analysis of available clinical isolates. These results demonstrate a direct antiviral activity with effective HCV suppression, demonstrate the added selective pressure of combination therapy, and confirm an RNA interference (RNAi) mechanism of action. IMPORTANCE This study presents a detailed analysis of the impact of treating a hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected animal with synthetic hairpin-shaped RNAs that can degrade the virus's RNA genome. These RNAs can reduce the viral load in these animals by over 99% after 1 to 2 injections. The study results confirm that the viral rebound that often occurred a few weeks after treatment is due to emergence of a virus whose genome is mutated in the sequences targeted by the RNAs. The use of two RNA inhibitors, which is more effective than use of either

  14. Temperature-sensitive albino gene TCD5, encoding a monooxygenase, affects chloroplast development at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Jianhui; Shi, Xiaoliang; Peng, Yu; Li, Ping; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun; Teng, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Chloroplasts are essential for photosynthesis and play critical roles in plant development. In this study, we characterized the temperature-sensitive chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant tcd5, which develops albino leaves at low temperatures (20 °C) and normal green leaves at high temperatures (32 °C). The development of chloroplasts and etioplasts is impaired in tcd5 plants at 20 °C, and the temperature-sensitive period for the albino phenotype is the P4 stage of leaf development. The development of thylakoid membranes is arrested at the mid-P4 stage in tcd5 plants at 20 °C. We performed positional cloning of TCD5 and then complementation and knock-down experiments, and the results showed that the transcript LOC_Os05g34040.1 from the LOC_Os05g34040 gene corresponded to the tcd5 phenotype. TCD5 encodes a conserved plastid-targeted monooxygenase family protein which has not been previously reported associated with a temperature-sensitive albino phenotype in plants. TCD5 is abundantly expressed in young leaves and immature spikes, and low temperatures increased this expression. The transcription of some genes involved in plastid transcription/translation and photosynthesis varied in the tcd5 mutant. Although the phenotype and temperature dependence of the TCD5 orthologous mutant phenotype were different in rice and Arabidopsis, OsTCD5 could rescue the phenotype of the Arabidopsis mutant, suggesting that TCD5 function is conserved between monocots and dicots. PMID:27531886

  15. Temperature-sensitive albino gene TCD5, encoding a monooxygenase, affects chloroplast development at low temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yufeng; Zhang, Jianhui; Shi, Xiaoliang; Peng, Yu; Li, Ping; Lin, Dongzhi; Dong, Yanjun; Teng, Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Chloroplasts are essential for photosynthesis and play critical roles in plant development. In this study, we characterized the temperature-sensitive chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant tcd5, which develops albino leaves at low temperatures (20 °C) and normal green leaves at high temperatures (32 °C). The development of chloroplasts and etioplasts is impaired in tcd5 plants at 20 °C, and the temperature-sensitive period for the albino phenotype is the P4 stage of leaf development. The development of thylakoid membranes is arrested at the mid-P4 stage in tcd5 plants at 20 °C. We performed positional cloning of TCD5 and then complementation and knock-down experiments, and the results showed that the transcript LOC_Os05g34040.1 from the LOC_Os05g34040 gene corresponded to the tcd5 phenotype. TCD5 encodes a conserved plastid-targeted monooxygenase family protein which has not been previously reported associated with a temperature-sensitive albino phenotype in plants. TCD5 is abundantly expressed in young leaves and immature spikes, and low temperatures increased this expression. The transcription of some genes involved in plastid transcription/translation and photosynthesis varied in the tcd5 mutant. Although the phenotype and temperature dependence of the TCD5 orthologous mutant phenotype were different in rice and Arabidopsis, OsTCD5 could rescue the phenotype of the Arabidopsis mutant, suggesting that TCD5 function is conserved between monocots and dicots. PMID:27531886

  16. Genetic and Physical Interaction Studies Reveal Functional Similarities between ALBINO3 and ALBINO4 in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Trösch, Raphael; Töpel, Mats; Flores-Pérez, Úrsula; Jarvis, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ALBINO3 (ALB3) is a well-known component of a thylakoid protein-targeting complex that interacts with the chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) and the cpSRP receptor, chloroplast filamentous temperature-sensitive Y (cpFtsY). Its protein-inserting function has been established mainly for light-harvesting complex proteins, which first interact with the unique chloroplast cpSRP43 component and then are delivered to the ALB3 integrase by a GTP-dependent cpSRP-cpFtsY interaction. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a subsequently discovered ALB3 homolog, ALB4, has been proposed to be involved not in light-harvesting complex protein targeting, but instead in the stabilization of the ATP synthase complex. Here, however, we show that ALB3 and ALB4 share significant functional overlap, and that both proteins are required for the efficient insertion of cytochrome f and potentially other subunits of pigment-bearing protein complexes. Genetic and physical interactions between ALB4 and ALB3, and physical interactions between ALB4 and cpSRP, suggest that the two ALB proteins may engage similar sets of interactors for their specific functions. We propose that ALB4 optimizes the insertion of thylakoid proteins by participating in the ALB3-cpSRP pathway for certain substrates (e.g. cytochrome f and the Rieske protein). Although ALB4 has clearly diverged from ALB3 in relation to the partner-recruiting C-terminal domain, our analysis suggests that one putative cpSRP-binding motif has not been entirely lost. PMID:26265777

  17. Enhancement of Neuromuscular Activity by Natural Specimens and Cultured Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, K P; Meena, H S; Negi, P S

    2014-09-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of natural specimen and laboratory cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis on neuromuscular activity in mice. The powder of natural specimen and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis was orally administered at the dose rate of 100, 300 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days. Natural specimen and in vitro propagated Cordyceps sinensis showed significant (P<0.05) enhancement in neuromuscular endurance and antidepressant activity at 300 and 500 mg/kg as compared to the control group. However, the fungus did not proved to be as effective as fluoxetine in exhibiting antidepressant action. Muscular endurance was determined on a Rota rod apparatus while antidepressant (mood elevating) activity was measured on a photoactometer in Swiss albino mice. The effects produced by both natural specimens and laboratory cultured Cordyceps sinensis were comparable and showed almost equal potency. PMID:25425763

  18. Clinicopathological investigations on mice envenomed with scorpion venom (Androctonus amoreuxi).

    PubMed

    Hamedy, A F; Kilany, Omnia E; Mohallal, Mahmoud E; Soliman, Belal A; Shoukry, Nahla M; Khaled, Howayda S

    2012-12-01

    The present study assessed the toxicity of Androctonus amoreuxi crude venom on blood and biochemical serum parameters of mice. Adult male Albino mice were divided into three groups, in the control group mice were injected S.C. with saline solution. The second group and the third were injected with the venom S.C. in mice in the following doses 1/4 and 1/2 dose of LD50 respectively. Blood and serum samples were taken after 3 hours, 6 hours, 9 hours, 12 hours, 4 days and 7 days. Hematocrit (Ht), red blood cells (RBC) count, hemoglobin, MCV, MCH & MCHC were performed. Serum biochemical parameters, the levels of total proteins, albumin, globulin, glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, ALT, AST, ALP, creatinine, uric acid and urea were measured. RBCs, Hob, PCV, MCV, MCH & MCHC showed significant increase, and increase in total protein, albumin and globulin within the experiment. Glucose and cholesterol levels were significantly increase from the beginning. Triglycerides showed significant decrease after 6 hours. Liver enzymes and kidney functions revealed significant changes post-injection. PMID:23469627

  19. New Hippocampal Neurons Are Not Obligatory for Memory Formation; Cyclin D2 Knockout Mice with No Adult Brain Neurogenesis Show Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaholkowski, Piotr; Kiryk, Anna; Jedynak, Paulina; Abdallah, Nada M. Ben; Knapska, Ewelina; Kowalczyk, Anna; Piechal, Agnieszka; Blecharz-Klin, Kamilla; Figiel, Izabela; Lioudyno, Victoria; Widy-Tyszkiewicz, Ewa; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M.; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Filipkowski, Robert K.

    2009-01-01

    The role of adult brain neurogenesis (generating new neurons) in learning and memory appears to be quite firmly established in spite of some criticism and lack of understanding of what the new neurons serve the brain for. Also, the few experiments showing that blocking adult neurogenesis causes learning deficits used irradiation and various drugs…

  20. Novel Hypomorphic Alleles of the Mouse Tyrosinase Gene Induced by CRISPR-Cas9 Nucleases Cause Non-Albino Pigmentation Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Boitet, Evan R.; Turner, Ashley N.; Johnson, Larry W.; Kennedy, Daniel; Downs, Ethan R.; Hymel, Katherine M.; Gross, Alecia K.; Kesterson, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Mutations in the gene encoding tyrosinase (Tyr) cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1) in humans. Alleles of the Tyr gene have been useful in studying pigment biology and coat color formation. Over 100 different Tyr alleles have been reported in mice, of which ≈24% are spontaneous mutations, ≈60% are radiation-induced, and the remaining alleles were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and gene targeting. Therefore, most mutations were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we targeted two distinct regions of exon 1 to induce pigmentation changes and used an in vivo visual phenotype along with heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA) as readouts of CRISPR-Cas9 activity. Most of the mutant alleles result in complete loss of tyrosinase activity leading to an albino phenotype. In this study, we describe two novel in-frame deletion alleles of Tyr, dhoosara (Sanskrit for gray) and chandana (Sanskrit for sandalwood). These alleles are hypomorphic and show lighter pigmentation phenotypes of the body and eyes. This study demonstrates the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific in-frame deletions and helps gain further insights into structure-function of Tyr gene. PMID:27224051

  1. Novel Hypomorphic Alleles of the Mouse Tyrosinase Gene Induced by CRISPR-Cas9 Nucleases Cause Non-Albino Pigmentation Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Challa, Anil K; Boitet, Evan R; Turner, Ashley N; Johnson, Larry W; Kennedy, Daniel; Downs, Ethan R; Hymel, Katherine M; Gross, Alecia K; Kesterson, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosinase is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis. Mutations in the gene encoding tyrosinase (Tyr) cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1) in humans. Alleles of the Tyr gene have been useful in studying pigment biology and coat color formation. Over 100 different Tyr alleles have been reported in mice, of which ≈24% are spontaneous mutations, ≈60% are radiation-induced, and the remaining alleles were obtained by chemical mutagenesis and gene targeting. Therefore, most mutations were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, we targeted two distinct regions of exon 1 to induce pigmentation changes and used an in vivo visual phenotype along with heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA) as readouts of CRISPR-Cas9 activity. Most of the mutant alleles result in complete loss of tyrosinase activity leading to an albino phenotype. In this study, we describe two novel in-frame deletion alleles of Tyr, dhoosara (Sanskrit for gray) and chandana (Sanskrit for sandalwood). These alleles are hypomorphic and show lighter pigmentation phenotypes of the body and eyes. This study demonstrates the utility of CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific in-frame deletions and helps gain further insights into structure-function of Tyr gene. PMID:27224051

  2. Generation of albino Xenopus tropicalis using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Takase, Minoru; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2012-12-01

    To generate albino lines of Xenopus tropicalis, we injected fertilized eggs with mRNAs encoding zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) targeting the tyrosinase coding region. Surprisingly, vitiligo was observed on the skin of F0 frogs that had been injected with ZFN mRNAs, indicating that both tyrosinase genes in the genome were disrupted in all melanocytes within the vitiligo patches. Mutation analysis using genomic DNA from the skin revealed that two mosaic F0 frogs underwent spatially complex tyrosinase gene mutations. The data implies that the ZFN-induced tyrosinase gene ablations occurred randomly over space and time throughout the entire body, possibly until the young tadpole stage, and that melanocyte precursors lacking functional tyrosinase proliferated and formed vitiligo patches. Several albino X. tropicalis, which are compound heterozygotes for biallelic tyrosinase mutations, were obtained by mating the mosaic F0 frogs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the albino vertebrates generated by the targeted gene knockout. PMID:23106502

  3. Effect of alcohol and kolanut interaction on brain sodium pump activity in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Obochi, G O; Abara, A E; Malu, S P; Obi-Abang, M; Edu, F E; Eteng, M U; Umoh, I B

    2007-01-01

    Effect of alcohol-kolanut interaction on sodium pump activity in wistar albino rats was studied. Thirty wistar albino rats were divided into six groups of five (5) rats per group and used for the study. The control group (1) received via oral route a placebo (4 ml of distilled water). Groups 2 to 6 were treated for a period of 21 days, with (10% v/v) of alcohol (group 2), 50mg/kg body weight of kolanut (group 3), 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine (group 4), 4 ml of 10% v/v of alcohol and 50 mg/kg body weight kolanut (group 5), 4 ml of 10% v/v of alcohol and 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine in 4.0 ml of the vehicle via gastric intubation respectively. A day after the final exposure, the brain of each rat was harvested and processed to examine several biochemical parameters, i.e., total ATpase, ouabain-insensitive ATpase, ouabain sensitive ATpase (Na(+)-K(+)ATPase), non-enzymatic breakdown of ATP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) released. The results showed that the essential enzyme of the brain responsible for neuronal function, Na(+)-K(+)ATPase, was inhibited by alcohol-kolanut co-administration relative to control, resulting in a decrease in Na(+)-K(+)ATPase activity, ATP production, ion transport and action potential, leading to loss of neuronal activities. PMID:18379627

  4. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Saber Abdelruhman; Zoil, Mohamed El-said; El-shafey, Samraa Samy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components. PMID:23836512

  5. Evaluation of skeletal muscle relaxant activity of aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Tirumalasetti, Jayasree; Patel, Maulik; Shaikh, Ubedulla; Harini, K.; Shankar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Nerium oleander is traditionally used in various diseases because of its medicinal properties. One of its uses is in musculoskeletal disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the skeletal muscle relaxant activity of the aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers (AENOF) in albino rats in comparison with diazepam. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 Swiss albino rats aged 6–7 weeks, of either sex, weighing about 100–150 g, were taken, and after acute toxicity studies two different doses were selected. The animals were divided into four different groups. The first group was kept as the control (normal saline), second as the standard (diazepam) and the remaining two groups as Test I and Test II, and given different doses of the AENOF. Skeletal muscle relaxant activity (motor coordination) on Rotarod and locomotor activity on photoactometer was performed. Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison tests. Results: The result from the Actophotometer test and Rotarod test showed that the extract of AENOF significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the motor coordination of the tested animals. Conclusions: Our data indicates that AENOF possesses skeletal muscle relaxant activities. PMID:26288474

  6. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  7. Aggression as Positive Reinforcement in Mice under Various Ratio- and Time-Based Reinforcement Schedules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Michael E.; Kennedy, Craig H.

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence suggesting aggression may be a positive reinforcer in many species. However, only a few studies have examined the characteristics of aggression as a positive reinforcer in mice. Four types of reinforcement schedules were examined in the current experiment using male Swiss CFW albino mice in a resident-intruder model of aggression…

  8. YOHIMBINE ATTENUATES THE DELAYED LETHALITY INDUCED IN MICE BY AMITRAZ, A FORMAMIDINE PESTICIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have found that a single dose of amitraz, a formamidine pesticide, produces death in mice which begins about two days after dosing and continues for up to 5 more days. To further examine the phenomenon, adult albino mice of both sexes were treated with either yohimbin...

  9. In-vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Manilkara zapota leaves in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Rahman, SM Abdur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen ethanolic extracts of Manilkara zapota leaves (Family: Sapotaceae) and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic activities in experimental albino Wistar rats. Methods Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema method; anti-pyretic potential was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia method in albino Wistar rats. Results In evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity the crude ethanolic (300 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (300 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of paw edema by 91.98% and 92.41% (P<0.001) respectively at 4th h compared to standard diclofenac (86.08% inhibition). In anti-pyretic study by yeast-induced pyrexia in albino Wistar rats, the ethanol extract (300 mg/kg) reduced temperature from 37.90 °C to 37.41 °C (P<0.01) and 37.07 °C (P<0.001) in 3rd and 4th h respectively. Similarly, both petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited significant anti-pyretic property (P<0.001). The maximum body temperature lowering effect (36.86 °C) was noticed by petroleum ether fraction. Conclusions The findings of the studies demonstrated both anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of the leaves of Manilkara zapota which could be the therapeutic option against inflammatory disease and pyrexia.

  10. Histopathology effects of nickel nanoparticles on lungs, liver, and spleen tissues in male mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajdari, Marziyeh; Ziaee Ghahnavieh, Marziyeh

    2014-09-01

    Because of the classification of the nickel compounds as carcinogenic substances, there is a need for in vivo tests to nickel nanoparticles (NiNPs) for observing their effects on health experimentally. Spherical NiNPs with 10 nm in diameter and 75 ppm concentration were applied for investigating their toxicities within male albino mice as an in vivo model. We randomly made sham group, control group, and 75 ppm group (with five animals in each group). Then, the nanoparticles were injected into mice intraperitonealy for 7 days and after that their lungs, liver, and spleen were removed for histopathological observations. At the end of the test, section microscopic observations of liver, spleen, and lung in sham and control groups showed normal tissues but these tissues underwent significant abnormal effects in 75 ppm group. NiNPs can cause undesirable effects in lungs, liver, and spleen tissues with same condition of this study.

  11. Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats

    PubMed Central

    Nadal-Nicolás, Francisco M.; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Villegas-Pérez, María P.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2014-01-01

    We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs) and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs) in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC) or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/or that express any of the three Brn3 isoforms or melanopsin. The total number of RGCs (oRGCs+dRGCs) is 84,706 ± 1249 in albino and 90,440 ± 2236 in pigmented, out of which 2383 and 2428 are melanopsin positive (m-RGCs), respectively. Regarding dRGCs: i/ albino rats have a significantly lower number of dRGCs than pigmented animals (0.5% of the total number of RGCs vs. 2.5%, respectively), ii/ dRGCs project massively to the contralateral SC, iii/ the percentage of ipsilaterality is higher for dRGCs than for oRGCs, iv/ a higher proportion of ipsilateral dRGCs is observed in albino than pigmented animals, v/ dRGC topography is very specific, they predominate in the equatorial temporal retina, being densest where the oRGCs are densest, vi/ Brn3a detects all dRGCs except half of the ipsilateral ones and those that express melanopsin, vii/ the proportion of dRGCs that express Brn3b or Brn3c is slightly lower than in the oRGC population, viii/ a higher percentage of dRGCs (13% albino, 9% pigmented) than oRGCs (2.6%) express melanopsin, ix/ few m-RGCs (displaced and orthotopic) project to the ipsilateral SC, x/ the topography of m-dRGCs does not resemble the general distribution of dRGCs, xi/ The soma size in m-oRGCs ranges from 10 to 21 μm and in m-dRGCs from 8 to 15 μm, xii/ oRGCs and dRGCs have the same susceptibility to axonal injury and ocular hypertension. Although the role of mammalian dRGCs remains to be determined, our data suggest that they are not misplaced by an

  12. Fossil mice and rats show isotopic evidence of niche partitioning and change in dental ecomorphology related to dietary shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L; Cerling, Thure E; Uno, Kevin T; Ferguson, Kurt M; Flynn, Lawrence J; Patnaik, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ(13)C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible. PMID:23936324

  13. Fossil Mice and Rats Show Isotopic Evidence of Niche Partitioning and Change in Dental Ecomorphology Related to Dietary Shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L.; Cerling, Thure E.; Uno, Kevin T.; Ferguson, Kurt M.; Flynn, Lawrence J.; Patnaik, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ13C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible. PMID:23936324

  14. Toxicity study of Lauha Bhasma (calcined iron) in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Namrata; Dash, Manoj Kumar; Dwivedi, Laxmikant; Khilnani, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lauha Bhasma (LB) is a complex herbomineral preparation widely used as an Ayurvedic hematinic agent. It is an effective remedy for chronic fever (jīrṇa jvara), phthisis (kṣaya), Breathlessness (śvāsa) etc., and possesses vitality enhancing (vājīkara), strength promoting and anti aging (rasāyana) properties. Objectives: The present work was conducted to establish the safety aspects of the use of Lauha bhasma. Setting and Design: LB was prepared by Ayurvedic procedures of purification (śodhana), sun drying (bhānupāka), sthālīpāka, followed by repeated calcination (māraṇa) and “nectarization” (amṛtīkaraṇa). The resultant product was subjected to acute and sub acute toxicity studies. Materials and Methods: Acute and subacute toxicity study of LB was conducted in albino rats. Criteria for assessment included ponderal changes, change in biochemical parameters viz., LFT and KFT and hematological parameters. Histopathological studies of different organs including liver, kidney, spleen, testis etc., were also conducted to observe pathological changes if any. Results: In the acute toxicity study, the animal group did not manifest any signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed up to 100 times the therapeutic dose (TD). Significant increase in blood urea (27.83%, P < 0.01), serum creatinine (30.92%, P < 0.05), Aspartate aminotransferase (15.09%, P < 0.05), and serum alkaline phosphatase (27.5%, P < 0.01) was evident in group IV (10 TD). A significant increase in serum total protein (6.04%, P < 0.05) level was observed in group III (5 TD). Histopathological examination of livers in group IV (10 TD) showed mild inflammation in terms of bile stasis, peri-portal hepatic inflammation and sinusoidal congestion; lymphocyte infiltration in kidney and intracellular deposits in the splenic tissue. Conclusion: Lauha Bhasma was found to be safe at the therapeutic dose and also at five times the therapeutic dose levels. However, alteration in

  15. Functional and biochemical indicators of pneumoconiosis in mice: comparison with rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, G.E.; Raub, J.A.; Graham, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Mice were injected intratracheally with silica or Mt. St. Helens volcanic ash (0.2 mg/g body weight) and examined 6 months later for changes in pulmonary function, histology, and hydroxyproline content. Results were compared with a similar study using rats. Mice injected with volcanic ash showed significant changes only in wet lung weights. Those injected with silica showed an approximate doubling of lung wet weight and dry weight and hydroxyproline content. Larger increases in lung weight were seen if lymph nodes were left attached. Lung compliance, total lung capacity, and the shape of the pressure-volume curves of the lung were changed as much as 22% in the silica-treated mice. A mild degree of fibrosis with no dense lung consolidation was noted microscopically in silica-treated mice. In contrast, silica-treated rats showed dense lung consolidation, threefold to fivefold increases in both wet and dry lung weights and hydroxyproline content, and up to 40% reductions in pulmonary function measurements. It is concluded that Swiss albino mice developed a milder degree of fibrosis than similarly treated Sprague-Dawley rats and that both biochemical and functional indicators are effective in detecting pneumoconiosis in these species. 32 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  16. Success in Mice Shows Zika Vaccine 'Feasible'

    MedlinePlus

    ... can cause a devastating birth defect known as microcephaly, where an infant is born with an abnormally ... thousands of babies have already been born with microcephaly, and health officials are scrambling to help prevent ...

  17. Success in Mice Shows Zika Vaccine 'Feasible'

    MedlinePlus

    ... aegypti mosquito. But, transmission of the virus through sex is more common than previously thought, World Health Organization officials have said. Women of child-bearing age who live in an active Zika ...

  18. Identification of the gregarization-associated dark-pigmentotropin in locusts through an albino mutant

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Amer I.; Tanaka, Seiji; De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane; Baggerman, Geert; Waelkens, Etienne; Derua, Rita; Milner, Yoram; Yerushalmi, Yoram; Pener, M. Paul

    1999-01-01

    In response to crowding, locusts develop characteristic black patterns that are well discernible in the gregarious phase at outbreaks. We report here a dark-color-inducing neuropeptide (dark-pigmentotropin) from the corpora cardiaca of two plague locusts, Schistocerca gregaria and Locusta migratoria. The chromatographic isolation of this neuropeptide was monitored by using a bioassay with an albino mutant of L. migratoria. The neurohormone, consisting of 11 amino acids, is identical to [His7] corazonin, previously isolated from corpora cardiaca of another acridid without known function. The present results show that even in isolated (solitary) nymphs, [His7] corazonin induces gregarious black patterns. Its primary structure shows some similarity with the vertebrate melanophore stimulating hormone. PMID:10359842

  19. Salty solutions: their effects on thermal set points in behavioral repertoires of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Aker, R; Howard, S W; Jones, W M; Kimball, M W; Quinn, J M

    1994-08-01

    Salt (sodium chloride) has been linked to increased blood pressure and a rise in core body temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate the role played by salt in altering behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats. Different doses of sodium chloride were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold Skinner Box. Three Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement in a repeated-measures reversal design. Friedman's non-parametric test showed significant differences among sodium chloride doses and physiologically normal saline. Post hoc sign tests showed that all doses of NaCl suppressed operant behavior for heat except 60 mg/kg. The hypothesis that sodium chloride lowers hypothalamic set point for heat was partially supported. PMID:7991311

  20. Optical properties of mice skin for optical therapy relevant wavelengths: influence of gender and pigmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabino, C. P.; Deana, A. M.; Silva, D. F. T.; França, C. M.; Yoshimura, T. M.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2015-03-01

    Red and near-infrared light have been widely employed in optical therapies. Skin is the most common optical barrier in non-invasive techniques and in many cases it is the target tissue itself. Consequently, to optimize the outcomes brought by lightbased therapies, the optical properties of skin tissue must be very well elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the dorsal skin optical properties of albino (BALB/c) and pigmented (C57BL/6) mice using the Kubelka-Munk photon transport model. We evaluated samples from male and female young mice of both strains. Analysis was performed for wavelengths at 630, 660, 780, 810 and 905 nm due to their prevalent use in optical therapies, such as low-level light (or laser) and photodynamic therapies. Spectrophotometric measurements of diffuse transmittance and reflectance were performed using a single integrating sphere coupled to a proper spectrophotometer. Statistic analysis was made by two-way ANOVA, with Tukey as post-test and Levenne and Shapiro-Wilks as pre-tests. Statistical significance was considered when p<0.05. Our results show only a slight transmittance increment (<10 %) as wavelengths are increased from 630 to 905 nm, and no statistical significance was observed. Albino male mice present reduced transmittance levels for all wavelengths. The organization and abundance of skin composing tissues significantly influence its scattering optical properties although absorption remains constant. We conclude that factors such as subcutaneous adiposity and connective tissue structure can have statistically significant influence on mice skin optical properties and these factors have relevant variations among different gender and strains.

  1. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  2. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  3. Fumosorinone, a novel PTP1B inhibitor, activates insulin signaling in insulin-resistance HepG2 cells and shows anti-diabetic effect in diabetic KKAy mice

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Zhi-Qin; Liu, Ting; Chen, Chuan; Li, Ming-Yan; Wang, Zi-Yu; Chen, Ruo-song; Wei, Gui-xiang; Wang, Xiao-yi; Luo, Du-Qiang

    2015-05-15

    Insulin resistance is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is characterized by defects in insulin signaling. Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is a key negative regulator of the insulin signaling pathways, and its increased activity and expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Therefore, the inhibition of PTP1B is anticipated to become a potential therapeutic strategy to treat T2DM. Fumosorinone (FU), a new natural product isolated from insect fungi Isaria fumosorosea, was found to inhibit PTP1B activity in our previous study. Herein, the effects of FU on insulin resistance and mechanism in vitro and in vivo were investigated. FU increased the insulin-provoked glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, and also reduced blood glucose and lipid levels of type 2 diabetic KKAy mice. FU decreased the expression of PTP1B both in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells and in liver tissues of diabetic KKAy mice. Furthermore, FU increased the phosphorylation of IRβ, IRS-2, Akt, GSK3β and Erk1/2 in insulin-resistant HepG2 cells, as well as the phosphorylation of IRβ, IRS-2, Akt in liver tissues of diabetic KKAy mice. These results showed that FU increased glucose uptake and improved insulin resistance by down-regulating the expression of PTP1B and activating the insulin signaling pathway, suggesting that it may possess antidiabetic properties. - Highlights: • Fumosorinone is a new PTP1B inhibitor isolated from insect pathogenic fungi. • Fumosorinone attenuated the insulin resistance both in vitro and in vivo. • Fumosorinone decreased the expression of PTP1B both in vitro and in vivo. • Fumosorinone activated the insulin signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo.

  4. Oral toxicity of Madhuca butyracea Macb. saponins to albino rats.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, T; Vishwanatha, S; Venkataraman, L V

    1990-07-01

    Saponins, isolated from M. butyracea, were assessed for their acute and subacute oral toxicity in albino rats. Acute doses of saponins caused mortalities and LD50 and LD90 values were 330 and 430 mg/kg body wt respectively. Severe diarrhoea, restlessness and histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney. Diets containing saponins at 0,250,500 and 1000 ppm for 14 weeks did not affect food intake, growth or organ weights, but induced mild histological changes in liver and kidney and altered the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol and proteins, particularly in female rats. PMID:2272650

  5. Mice trisomic for a bacterial artificial chromosome with the single-minded 2 gene (Sim2) show phenotypes similar to some of those present in the partial trisomy 16 mouse models of Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chrast, R; Scott, H S; Madani, R; Huber, L; Wolfer, D P; Prinz, M; Aguzzi, A; Lipp, H P; Antonarakis, S E

    2000-07-22

    The Drosophila single-minded (sim) transcription factor, is a master regulator of fruitfly neurogenesis. Recently, we have cloned and mapped a human homolog of sim, SIM2, to chromosome 21 in the so-called 'Down syndrome chromosomal region'. Three copies of SIM2 may contribute to some Down syndrome (DS) phenotypes because of the mapping position function as transcriptional repressor, temporal and spatial expression pattern of mouse Sim2, and the potentially analogous role of human SIM2 to that of Drosophila sim during neurogenesis. In order to validate this hypothesis in vivo, we have created the first bacterial artificial chromosome transgenic mice overexpressing a gene possibly involved in DS with only one or two additional copies of mouse Sim2. The transgene was shown to be expressed in the same spatial pattern as the endogenous gene. The mice develop normally, are fertile and do not show detectable histopathological abnormalities. However, detailed analysis of their behavior revealed anxiety-related/reduced exploratory behaviour and sensitivity to pain, phenotypes similar to those also present in other partial trisomy 16 mouse models of DS. Our data therefore suggest that overexpression of SIM2 contributes to some of the complex DS phenotypes. PMID:10915774

  6. Neuropathologic findings in an aged albino gorilla.

    PubMed

    Márquez, M; Serafin, A; Fernández-Bellon, H; Serrat, S; Ferrer-Admetlla, A; Bertranpetit, J; Ferrer, I; Pumarola, M

    2008-07-01

    Pallido-nigral spheroids associated with iron deposition have been observed in some aged clinically normal nonhuman primates. In humans, similar findings are observed in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation diseases, which, in some cases, show associated mutations in pantothenate kinase 2 gene (PANK2). Here we present an aged gorilla, 40 years old, suffering during the last 2 years of life from progressive tetraparesis, nystagmus, and dyskinesia of the arms, hands, and neck, with accompanying abnormal behavior. The postmortem neuropathologic examination revealed, in addition to aging-associated changes in the brain, numerous corpora amylacea in some brain areas, especially the substantia nigra, and large numbers of axonal spheroids associated with iron accumulation in the internal globus pallidus. Sequencing of the gorilla PANK2 gene failed to detect any mutation. The clinical, neuropathologic, and genetic findings in this gorilla point to an age-related pallido-nigral degeneration that presented PKAN-like neurologic deficits. PMID:18587101

  7. Multiple antigen peptide consisting of B- and T-cell epitopes of F1 antigen of Y. pestis showed enhanced humoral and mucosal immune response in different strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Ali, Riyasat; Kumar, Sudhir; Naqvi, Raza Ali; Sheikh, Ishfaq Ahmed; Rao, D N

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is a causative agent of plague. F1 and V antigen based vaccines have shown remarkable protection in experimental animals. In order to develop epitope based immunogen, three B and one T-cell epitopes of F1 antigen with palmitate residue at amino terminal were assembled on a lysine backbone as multiple antigen peptide (MAP or F1-MAP). MAP was characterized by SDS-PAGE, immunoblot and immunoreactivity with anti F1 sera. MAP was entrapped in PLGA (polylactide-co-glycolide) microparticles and humoral, mucosal immune responses were studied after intranasal immunization with/without CpG ODN 1826 (CpG)/murabutide in different strains of mice. Serum and mucosal washes were measured for MAP specific IgG, IgA, sIgA and IgG subclasses in three strains of mice. F1-MAP showed high serum antibody and mucosal IgG and IgA peak antibody titers. MAP with CpG showed significantly high (p<0.001) peak antibody titer ranging from 102,400 to 204,800 for IgG and 6400 to 12,800 for IgA. High mucosal sIgA and its secretary component detection confirmed generation of mucosal response in intestinal and lung washes. MAP antisera also showed significant immunoreactivity with individual peptides. Moreover, antibody specific activity (IgG, IgA and sIgA) positively correlates with peak antibody titers. Predominantly IgG2a/IgG2b subclass was observed with CpG formulation but in other formulation a mixed IgG1 and IgG2a response was observed. The present study highlights the importance of multiple antigen peptide approach of F1-antigen with CpG as an alternative approach for subunit vaccine. PMID:23174507

  8. Study on the diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis Buch.-Ham. in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, B. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.; Shukla, V. J.; Ravishankar, B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis root powder in Wistar strain albino rats. Randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. The root powder was suspended in distilled water and administered orally at a dose of 90 mg/kg therapeutically equivalent dose (TED) and 180 mg/kg (TED × 02) to overnight fasted rats. The diuretic activity was evaluated by determination of urine volume and urinary electrolyte concentrations. Test drug showed significant increase in urine volume and urinary electrolyte excretion in a dose-dependant manner. Thus, from this study, it can be concluded that roots of E. fusiformis possess diuretic activity. PMID:22529656

  9. Impact of acute and chronic stress hormone on male albino rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Han, Li-Li; Chen, Ling; Dong, Zhi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to evaluate the acute and chronic effect of stress (stress hormone) in male albino rat brain. Nor-epinephrine was used for the treatment and saline used for the control. Nor-epinephrine was dissolved in the saline and administered orally to the rats. Following nor-epinephrine administration, the brain was removed surgically at 6 h, 12 h and 45 days. Alanine tansaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly altered in the rats. Lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA), showed altered lipid peroxidation. Hematological markers such as packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocytes and hemoglobin were significantly altered compared to controls. Altered serum biochemical and hematological markers, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities leads to adverse effect in the cellular metabolism and physiological activities of rats. PMID:26261571

  10. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-10-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

  11. Determination of the antiulcer properties of sodium cromoglycate in pylorus-ligated albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vivek; Viswanathaswamy, A.H.M.; Mohan, Govind

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To study the ulcer protective property of sodium cromoglycate in pylorusligated rats and the biochemical role in ulcer protection by various biochemical tests. Materials and Methods: The ulcer protective effect of sodium cromoglycate was studied using a Pyloric Ligation Model using Wistar albino rats. The antiulcer effect of sodium cromoglycate 40 mg/kg b.w., i.p., was compared with the reference drug ranitidine 27 mg/kg b.w., i.p. The ulcer index was calculated and other biochemical parameters like free acidity, total acidity, pH, mucin, pepsin and volume of gastric juice were determined. Results: Pylorus ligation showed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index as compared to the control. Conclusion: Sodium cromoglycate has activity equipotent to ranitidine. PMID:20871772

  12. [Thoracic duct valves in man and albino rat].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, V M; Kruglov, S V

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the number, structure and position of valves along the whole length of thoracic duct in man and albino rat. The study was performed using the material obtained from 30 human corpses of men and women aged 17 to 60 years with no history of cardiovascular pathology and from 60 outbred albino rats of both sexes aged 5 to 12 months. Material was fixed in 10% neutral formalin. Anterior wall of thoracic duct was longitudinally dissected. Thoracic duct of 30 rats was stained with gallocyanin-chrome alum, in the remaining animals it was studied after its injection with blue Gerota's mass. In most cases, the valves consisted of two semilunar cusps. Thoracic duct was found to contain on the average 14.7+/-0.2 valves in man and 11.9+/-0.2 valves in rat. Most of all valves were found in the upper (anterior) 1/3 of the thoracic duct, least--in its middle part. This seems to be determined by anatomo-topographic features of the different parts of thoracic duct. PMID:15839250

  13. 6-gingerol ameliorates gentamicin induced renal cortex oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Ahmed M S; Mosaed, Mohammed M; Elshafey, Saad H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-06-01

    Ginger or Zingiber officinale which is used in traditional medicine has been found to possess antioxidant effect that can control the generation of free radicals. Free radicals are the causes of renal cell degeneration that leads to renal failure in case of gentamicin induced toxicity. This study was done to evaluate the possible protective effects of 6-gingerol as natural antioxidant on gentamicin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and were randomly divided into four groups, control group; 6-gingerol treated group; gentamicin treated group and protected group (given simultaneous 6-gingerol and gentamicin). At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn for biochemical study. Kidney sections were processed for histological, and immunohistochemical examination for caspase-3 to detect apoptosis and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) to detect oxidative damage. Gentamicin treated rats revealed a highly significant increase in renal function tests, tubular dilatation with marked vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of cells, interstitial hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Immunohistochemically, gentamicin treated rats showed a strong positive immunoreaction for caspase-3 and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). Protected rats showed more or less normal biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical pictures. In conclusion, co-administration of 6-gingerol during gentamicin 'therapy' has a significant reno-protective effect in a rat model of gentamicin-induced renal damage. It is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections. PMID:27036327

  14. Addition of Propolis to Irinotecan Therapy Prolongs Survival in Ehrlich Ascites Tumor-Bearing Mice

    PubMed Central

    Lisičić, Duje; Đikić, Domagoj; Blažević, Ana Sofia; Mihaljević, Josipa; Oršolić, Nada; Knežević, Anica Horvat

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We investigated possible synergistic action of anticancer drug Irinotecan (IRI) combined with ethanolic (EEP) and water-soluble (WSDP) derivate of propolis on Swiss albino mice injected with Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT). For survival analysis mice were administered WSDP and EEP (100 mg/kg) daily for 3 consecutive days, beginning on 3rd day after EAT cell (1×106) injection. IRI was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg on days 1, 13, and 19. We simultaneously studied peripheral white blood cell count, cell types washed from the peritoneal cavity, functional activity of macrophages from peritoneal cavity, and the level of primary DNA damage in leukocytes, kidney, and liver cells using the alkaline comet assay. Three out of 9 mice per group survived the entire duration of the experiment (90 days) in groups treated with IRI combined with WSDP and EEP. All test components increased survival of mice by 7.53% to 231.54%. Combined treatment with IRI and/or WSDP and EEP significantly decreased percentage of tumor cells in the peritoneal cavity as compared to nontreated EAT-injected mice. All treated animals had significantly higher percentage of neutrophils in the peritoneal cavity in comparison to nontreated EAT-injected mice. We observed significantly higher value of DNA damage in leukocytes of mice treated with IRI and combination of IRI and/or WSDP and EEP as compared to nontreated EAT-injected mice, while the same treatment decreased DNA damage in kidney. Our results showed that addition of propolis to IRI treatment enhanced antitumor activity of IRI and prolongs survival in EAT-bearing mice, which definitely deserve further studies to clarify the possible mechanisms of antitumor actions of combined herb–drug treatments. PMID:24383762

  15. Notch intracellular domain overexpression in adipocytes confers lipodystrophy in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chartoumpekis, Dionysios V.; Palliyaguru, Dushani L.; Wakabayashi, Nobunao; Khoo, Nicholas K.H.; Schoiswohl, Gabriele; O'Doherty, Robert M.; Kensler, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Notch family of intermembrane receptors is highly conserved across species and is involved in cell fate and lineage control. Previous in vitro studies have shown that Notch may inhibit adipogenesis. Here we describe the role of Notch in adipose tissue by employing an in vivo murine model which overexpresses Notch in adipose tissue. Methods Albino C57BL/6J RosaNICD/NICD::Adipoq-Cre (Ad-NICD) male mice were generated to overexpress the Notch intracellular domain (NICD) specifically in adipocytes. Male RosaNICD/NICD mice were used as controls. Mice were evaluated metabolically at the ages of 1 and 3 months by assessing body weights, serum metabolites, body composition (EchoMRI), glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance. Histological sections of adipose tissue depots as well as of liver were examined. The mRNA expression profile of genes involved in adipogenesis was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. Results The Ad-NICD mice were heavier with significantly lower body fat mass compared to the controls. Small amounts of white adipose tissue could be seen in the 1-month old Ad-NICD mice, but was almost absent in the 3-months old mice. The Ad-NICD mice also had higher serum levels of glucose, insulin, triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acids. These differences were more prominent in the older (3-months) than in the younger (1-month) mice. The Ad-NICD mice also showed severe insulin resistance along with a steatotic liver. Gene expression analysis in the adipose tissue depots showed a significant repression of lipogenic (Fasn, Acacb) and adipogenic pathways (C/ebpα, C/ebpβ, Pparγ2, Srebf1). Conclusions Increased Notch signaling in adipocytes in mice results in blocked expansion of white adipose tissue which leads to ectopic accumulation of lipids and insulin resistance, thus to a lipodystrophic phenotype. These results suggest that further investigation of the role of Notch signaling in adipocytes could lead to the manipulation of this pathway for

  16. Evaluation of antitussive activity of formulations with herbal extracts in sulphur dioxide (SO2) induced cough model in mice.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Y K; Katyal, Jatinder; Kumar, Gajendra; Mehla, Jogender; Katiyar, C K; Sharma, Naveen; Yadav, Satpal

    2009-01-01

    Cough is the most common symptom of respiratory diseases. When cough becomes serious, opioids are effective, but they have side effects like sedation, constipation, some addiction liability and also compromise the respiratory function. Therefore, there is need to have effective anti-tussive agent which do not have respiratory suppressant activity. The present study was carried out to evaluate anti-tussive activity of combination of herbal drugs as formulations in sulphur dioxide (SO2)-induced cough model in mice. Albino mice of either sex, weighing 25-30 g were divided into eight groups, (n = 6). Group 1 served as normal control, group 2 mice were given distilled water, group 3 was positive control and received codeine sulphate (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and group 4, 5, 6, 7 received coded 1 formulations 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively at a dose of 0.3 ml/mice, orally, while group VIII was the vehicle control. Thirty minutes later, the mice were exposed to sulphur dioxide again for 45 sec. The mice were then placed in an observation chamber for counting of cough bouts, by two independent observers, for five minutes. All the formulations used showed significant antitussive activity in sulphur dioxide induced cough model. Thus, these formulations can prove to be useful for alleviating cough. PMID:19810578

  17. The antioxidant effects of silver, gold, and zinc oxide nanoparticles on male mice in in vivo condition

    PubMed Central

    Negahdary, Masoud; Chelongar, Reyhaneh; Zadeh, Shahrzad Kabiri; Ajdary, Marziyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: We studied the effects of different doses of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs), and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) on oxidative stress markers including glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and catalase (CAT) on male mice. Materials and Methods: Male albino mice of Wistar strain (N = 60), weighing 17-32 g, were used for this study. The mice were randomly assigned to three classes such that in each class, there were four groups of which one was control and the other three groups were fed with ZnONPs and AgNPs at 500, 250, and 125 ppm concentration and AuNPs at 100, 50, and 25 ppm concentration for 15 days. The heart blood was taken to measure GPX and CAT enzyme activities at the end of the treatment. Results: In male mice treated with AgNPs, the GPX and CAT activities were significantly increased, while significant decreases were seen in the GPX and CAT activities in mice treated with ZnONPs (P < 0.05) and in mice treated with AuNPs (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study showed that AuNPs and ZnONPs caused decreased antioxidant enzyme activities, while nanosilver had the reverse effect and increased the antioxidant enzyme activities and caused decreased stress oxidative. PMID:25878994

  18. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Induced Diabetic Keratopathy in Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zickri, Maha Baligh; Ahmad, Nagwa Abdel Wahab; Maadawi, Zeinab Mohamad El; Mohamady, Yasmin Kamal; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent disorder. Diabetic keratopathy is a well-known ocular complication secondary to type 2 DM. Topical insulin application did not affect apoptosis and necrosis levels in corneal epithelium. Autologous cell transplantation is not a viable option for diabetic patients with bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. The present study aimed at assessing the possible effect of hemopoeitic stem cell (HSC) therapy on induced diabetic keratopathy in albino rat. Methods and Results: Fifteen male albino rats were divided into control group of 2 rats, diabetic group of 8 rats receiving single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). 3 animals were sacrificed 6 weeks following confirmation of diabetes to confirm keratopathy and 5 rats were sacrificed 4 weeks following confirmation of keratopathy. SC therapy group included 5 rats injected with HSCs 6 weeks following confirmation of diabetes and sacrificed 4 weeks following SC therapy. Cord blood collection, stem cells isolation and labeling were performed. Eye specimens were subjected to histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, morphometric and statistical studies. In diabetic group, the central cornea showed multiple cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and dark nuclei, focal epithelial discontinuity, reduced corneal thickness and less number of layers of corneal and conjunctival epithelia. In stem cell therapy group, few cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and dark nuclei were found in the corneal and conjunctival epithelia with more number of epithelial layers. Conclusions: A definite ameliorating effect of HSC therapy was detected on diabetic keratopathy. The therapeutic cells were effective in limiting corneal epithelial changes. PMID:24298355

  19. Duration sensitivity of neurons in the primary auditory cortex of albino mouse.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Qi, Qiaozhen; Huang, Caifei; Chomiak, Taylor; Luo, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Many neurons in the central auditory system of a number of species have been found to be sensitive to the duration of sound stimuli. While previous studies have shown that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibitory input is important for duration sensitivity in the inferior colliculus (IC), it is still unknown whether (GABA)-ergic inhibitory input plays an important role in generating duration sensitivity in the cortex. Using free-field sound stimulation and in vivo extracellular recording, we investigated duration sensitivity in primary auditory cortical (AI) neurons of the Nembutal anesthetized albino mouse (Mus musculus, Km) and examined the effect of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline on AI neuron duration sensitivity. A total of 63 duration tuning curves were measured in AI neurons. Of these, 44% (28/63) exhibited duration sensitive responses, while 43% (27/63) lacked duration sensitivity. The remaining 13% (8/63) exhibited long-pass properties likely reflecting both duration sensitive and insensitive features. We found that duration sensitive neurons had shorter first spike latency (FSL) and longer firing duration (FD) when stimulated with best duration (p < 0.05), while duration insensitive neurons had invariable FSL and FD at different sound durations (p>0.05). Furthermore, 60% (6/10) of duration sensitive neurons and 75% (3/4) long-pass neurons lost duration sensitivity following bicuculline application. Taken together, our results show that cortical neurons in the albino mouse are sensitive to sound duration, and that GABAergic inhibition may play an important role in the formation of de novo duration sensitivity in AI. The possible mechanism and behavioral significance of duration sensitivity in AI neurons is discussed. PMID:26529681

  20. Using the Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino Zebrafish Line to Characterize In Vivo Expression of neurod

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer L.; Ochocinska, Margaret J.; Hitchcock, Peter F.; Thummel, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used a newly-created transgenic zebrafish, Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino, to further characterize the expression of neurod in the developing and adult retina and to determine neurod expression during adult photoreceptor regeneration. We also provide observations regarding the expression of neurod in a variety of other tissues. In this line, EGFP is found in cells of the developing and adult retina, pineal gland, cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, midbrain, hindbrain, neural tube, lateral line, inner ear, pancreas, gut, and fin. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we compare the expression of the nrd:egfp transgene to that of endogenous neurod and to known retinal cell types. Consistent with previous data based on in situ hybridizations, we show that during retinal development, the nrd:egfp transgene is not expressed in proliferating retinal neuroepithelium, and is expressed in a subset of retinal neurons. In contrast to previous studies, nrd:egfp is gradually re-expressed in all rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration in adult zebrafish, in situ hybridization reveals that neurod is not expressed in Müller glial-derived neuronal progenitors, but is expressed in photoreceptor progenitors as they migrate to the outer nuclear layer and differentiate into new rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration, expression of the nrd:egfp matches that of neurod. We conclude that Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino is a good representation of endogenous neurod expression, is a useful tool to visualize neurod expression in a variety of tissues and will aid investigating the fundamental processes that govern photoreceptor regeneration in adults. PMID:22235264

  1. Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Induced Weight Changes: A Dose and Duration Dependent Study on Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jethani, S.L.; Rohatgi, R.K.; Kalra, Juhi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most significant and safe drugs among the antidepressants. Fluoxetine is the prototype drug of SSRIs. Various clinical studies showed that SSRI causes change in body weight in patients. This study was conducted to know the extent of weight change with different doses for different durations. Aim The aim of this study was to find out whether fluoxetine causes weight gain or weight loss, and to deduce the comparative weight change after intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine for different duration and doses. Materials and Methods Present study was conducted on 72 adult (36 males and 36 females) albino rats, in 3 phases of 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 12 weeks duration. Each phase consisted of 24 (12 males and 12 females) albino rats. These 24 rats were further randomly subdivided into 4 Groups of 6 albino rats each (3 males & 3 females). Group 1(Control) received normal saline (vehicle). Rest 18 rats of each phase were experimental rats, of Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 (6 rats each). Group 2, group 3 and group 4 experimental rats received 10mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 40mg/kg of intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine respectively. All rats were weighed on each day for growth monitoring. Data was subjected to statistical analysis (Mean, standard deviation and Student’s t-Test). Results All experimental group rats which received fluoxetine showed decrease of body weight. Rats which received high doses of fluoxetine could not tolerate the drug for more than two weeks and died due to excessive body weight loss, loose stools and muscle twitching. Conclusion Present study conclude that SSRIs can cause weight change in the form of decrease of body weight. This property of SSRIs can be used clinically by prescribing these drugs to obese psychiatric patient without any fear of withdrawal of drug. PMID:27134853

  2. The 'evil albino' stereotype: an impediment to the right to equality.

    PubMed

    Mswela, Maureen

    2013-03-01

    This article address the 'evil albino' plot device or albino bias as portrayed in films and explores how such labelling stimulates societal intolerance and discrimination against People Living With Albinism. The article reveals how media perpetuates stereotypes of albinism through their portrayal of role players and argues that the continued existence of such stereotypes is a failure to see albinism for what it is: a medical condition. The article further discusses Albinism related stigma and discrimination against the backdrop of the 'evil albino' plot device. PMID:23781766

  3. Oral immunization of mice against Schistosoma mansoni using drinking water from trays containing Biomphalaria alexandrina infected with Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Noureldin, M S

    1999-01-01

    Water collected from trays containing Biomphalaria alexandrina infected with Schistosoma mansoni at the time of cercariae shedding (SmISW) and trays containing clean, non-infected, B. alexandrina (NISW) and underground water (UW), were filtered used as a drinking water for 3 groups of albino mice males. After two months, blood samples were collected from the 3 groups and serum was tested for anti-cercarial IgG, then mice were infected with 150 S. mansoni cercariae. Eight weeks after infection, mice were perfused and adult S. mansoni worms were counted. Anti-cercarial IgG was positive in 23 (82.1%) out of the 28 samples collected from mice drinking SmISW and only in 2 (9.5%) out of the 21 samples collected from mice drinking NISW, while all samples collected from mice drinking UW were negative for anti-cercarial IgG (X2=45.897; P<0.001). Worm load was significantly lower in the group of mice drinking SmISW than mice drinking NISW (P=0.032) and mice drinking UW (P=0.02). In mice drinking SmISW, adult worm count showed significant negative correlation with anti-cercarial IgG concentration (Kendall's taub =-0.325 and P=0.018). The results indicate that antigens present in drinking water stimulate a level of immunity against schistosomiasis, (inhabitants of endemic areas) resulting in a lower intensity and severity of infection. Also, it may reduce the specificity of serological tests used for diagnosis of Schistosoma infection, based on antibody determination. PMID:12561896

  4. Gastroprotective activity of ginger zingiber officinale rosc., in albino rats.

    PubMed

    al-Yahya, M A; Rafatullah, S; Mossa, J S; Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Tariq, M

    1989-01-01

    The cytoprotective and gastric anti-ulcer studies of ginger have been carried out in albino rats. Cytodestruction was produced by 80% ethanol, 0.6M HC1, 0.2M NaOH and 25% NaCl. Whereas gastric ulcers were produced by ulcerogenic agents including indomethacin, aspirin and reserpine, beside hypothermic restraint stress and by pylorus ligated Shay rat technique. The results of this study demonstrate that the extract in the dose of 500 mg/kg orally exert highly significant cytoprotection against 80% ethanol, 0.6M HC1, 0.2M NaOH and 25% NaCl induced gastric lesions. The extract also prevented the occurrence of gastric ulcers induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hypothermic restraint stress. These observations suggest cytoprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effect of the ginger. PMID:2589236

  5. Protective effects of ginger toward cadmium-induced testes and kidney lipid peroxidation and hematological impairment in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Onwuka, Frank C; Erhabor, Osaro; Eteng, M U; Umoh, I B

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral dietary supplementation with ginger on cadmium-induced toxic effects on biochemical, hematological, and pathophysiological indices of albino rats. The effect of cadmium and cadmium/ginger treatment on lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in testes and kidney; serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme were investigated alongside hematological indices. The results showed that cadmium induces a significant increase in both testicular and kidney MDA, whereas cadmium/ginger treatment produced a significant reversal of the effect of lipid peroxidation (P=.004). Cadmium treatment induced 75%, 78%, and 22% increases in activities of ACP, PAP, and ALP, respectively, whereas the cadmium/ginger-treated group reversed these values for enzyme activities (P=.001). Results of organ weight and hematological indices analysis in the cadmium-treated rats showed a decrease in organ weight and distortion of the hemopoietic features, whereas the cadmium/ginger-treated rats showed an improvement in organ weight and hematological indices (P=.04 and .001, respectively). The reversal of the toxic effects of cadmium in the cadmium/ginger-treated albino rats heralds the antioxidant potency of ginger toward cadmium toxicity-associated oxidative stress. PMID:21476888

  6. Attenuating Effect of Ginkgo biloba Leaves Extract on Liver Fibrosis Induced by Thioacetamide in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Al-Attar, Atef M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of Ginkgo biloba leaves extract on experimental liver fibrosis induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in male albino mice. The experimental mice were divided into four groups. The mice of the first group were served as control. The experimental animals of the second group were given 150 mg/kg body weight of TAA by intraperitoneal injection, twice weekly, for 9 weeks. The mice of the third group were exposed to TAA and supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The animals of the fourth group were supplemented with G. biloba leaves extract. The levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides, cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were statistically increased while the levels of plasma total protein, albumin, glucose, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were significantly decreased. The levels of liver superoxide dismutase, glutathione, glycogen and total protein were notably declined, whereas the level of total lipid was increased in mice of the second group. Furthermore, microscopic examination of liver sections from mice treated with TAA showed an abnormal morphology characterized by nodular transformations in liver parenchyma which surrounded by fibrous septa. Administration of G. biloba leaves extract reduced extent and development of fibrous septa, liver cells change, and biochemical alterations in mice exposed to TAA. This study showed that G. biloba leaves extract has a potential activity against TAA-induced liver fibrosis and suggested that the chemical constituents of G. biloba are effective in modulation of oxidative stress induced by TAA. PMID:23091357

  7. Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Baker's Yeast, suppresses the growth of Ehrlich carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Ghoneum, Mamdooh; Badr El-Din, Nariman K; Noaman, Eman; Tolentino, Lucilene

    2008-04-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and mechanisms of anti-tumor activity of Baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in immunocompetent mice. Swiss albino mice were inoculated intramuscularly in the right thigh with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cells. At day 8, mice bearing Solid Ehrlich Carcinoma tumor (SEC) were intratumorally (IT) injected with killed S. cerevisiae (10 x 10(6) and 20 x 10(6) cells) for 35 days. Histopathology of yeast-treated mice showed extensive tumor degeneration, apoptosis, and ischemic (coagulative) and liquefactive necrosis. These changes are associated with a tumor growth curve that demonstrates a significant antitumor response that peaked at 35 days. Yeast treatment (20 x 10(6) cells) three times a week resulted in a significant decrease in tumor volume (TV) (67.1%, P < 0.01) as compared to PBS-treated mice. The effect was determined to be dependent on dose and frequency. Yeast administered three and two times per week induced significant decrease in TV as early as 9 and 25 days post-treatment, respectively. Administration of yeast significantly enhanced the recruitment of leukocytes, including macrophages, into the tumors and triggered apoptosis in SEC cells as determined by flow cytometry (78.6%, P < 0.01) at 20 x 10(6) cells, as compared to PBS-treated mice (42.6%). In addition, yeast treatment elevated TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma plasma levels and lowered the elevated IL-10 levels. No adverse side effects from the yeast treatment were observed, including feeding/drinking cycle and life activity patterns. Indeed, yeast-treated mice showed significant final body weight gain (+21.5%, P < 0.01) at day 35. These data may have clinical implications for the treatment of solid cancer with yeast, which is known to be safe for human consumption. PMID:17891396

  8. Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swarnamoni; Kanodia, Lalit; Mukherjee, Apurba; Hakim, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida (EEPF) was prepared by percolation method. Acute toxicity test was done by using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines. Albino rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. Groups A and B received 3% gum acacia. Groups C and D received EEPF 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 5-aminosalisylic acid 100 mg/kg BW respectively. Colitis was induced by transrectal administration of 4% acetic acid on 5th day. All animals were sacrificed after 48 h of colitis induction and distal 10 cm of the colon was dissected. Colon was weighed for disease activity index (DAI) and scored macroscopically and microscopically. Biochemical assessment of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was done in colonic tissue homogenate and malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated in serum. Results: P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in DAI, macroscopic and microscopic lesion score as well as significant (P < 0.05) improvement in MPO, MDA, CAT, and SOD level as compared to Group B. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of leaves of P. foetida showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property. PMID:24130378

  9. Effects of composite root extract on histological structures of graffian follicle and endometrial epithelium in albino rat.

    PubMed

    Sarma, H N; Mahanta, H C

    2000-05-01

    This study attempted in vivo testing of a group of plant root extracts in composite form on the reproductive organs of the female albino rat. These roots in composite form have been used by the folk women of Assam to prevent pregnancy. Firsthand knowledge revealed that the dry powder of these roots in composite form can induce sterility in women temporarily (reversible) or permanently which is dose-dependent when taken through oral route. The study revealed that administration of ethanolic crude extract of these composite roots in a dose of 1000 mg/kg/day, consecutively for 12 days, can modulate histological changes in the structures of ovary and uterus. This dose has previously been detected as the threshold dose to induce sterility (reversible) in albino rat. The ovarian follicle showed structural disparity in thecal cells and granulosa cells, and formation of zona pellucida. In the uterus, the endometrial epithelium on the luminal surface showed pseudostratification, vacuolation of the cells, and irregular desquamation from the stroma. Infiltration of a large number of polymorphs in the endometrial stroma and necrosis of endometrial gland tissues indicated structural and functional aberrations of the uterus. PMID:10906505

  10. Determination of quality constituents in the young leaves of albino tea cultivars.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Gao, Ming-Jun; Hou, Ru-Yan; Hu, Xiao-Yi; Zhang, Liang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2014-07-15

    Albino tea has received increased attention due to its brisk flavour. To identify changes in the key chemical constituents conveying important qualities to albino tea, the metabolite profiles of four albino cultivars and one green tea cultivar were analysed. Compared to the green tea control, significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll (Chl) (p<0.01), total carotenoids (p<0.05), caffeine (p<0.01), and total catechins (p<0.05) were found in albino tea leaves with a few exceptions, whereas increases were noted in the Chl a/b ratio and the contents of both zeaxanthin and free amino acids, including theanine. Multivariate analysis identified catechins and carotenoids as the most important contributors to the metabolic profile variance between the albino and green tea cultivars. High levels of amino acids, along with low levels of chlorophylls, catechins and caffeine, contribute to the qualities of albino tea, which include reduced astringency and bitterness, along with a strong umami taste. PMID:24594160

  11. Termination of Nutrient Import and Development of Vein Loading Capacity in Albino Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Robert

    1984-01-01

    The sink-source conversion in developing leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was studied to determine whether import termination is caused by the onset of export or is related to achievement of positive carbon balance. Albino shoots were grown in vitro and grafted to detopped stems of green tobacco plants. Termination of import was studied by providing mature leaves of the stock plant with 14CO2 and detecting the presence of labeled nutrient in developing albino leaves by whole-leaf autoradiography. In albino leaves, import terminated progressively in the basipetal direction at the same stage of development as in leaves of green shoots. Starch was not present in the plastids of mesophyll cells of mature albino leaves but starch was synthesized when discs were cut from these leaves and incubated on 3 millimolar sucrose. Import ceased progressively in developing green leaves even when photosynthesis was prevented by darkening. It was concluded that cessation of import does not require achievement of positive carbon balance and is not the direct result of export initiation. To determine whether vein loading capacity develops in albino leaves, discs were cut from mature leaves and floated on [14C]sucrose solution. Uptake of label into the veins was detected by autoradiography and this uptake was sensitive to the phloem loading inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. However, the amount of label taken up by veins in albino leaves was less than that taken up by veins of mature green leaves. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663820

  12. Effect of Croatian propolis on diabetic nephropathy and liver toxicity in mice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the present study, we examined the antioxidant effect of water soluble derivative of propolis (WSDP) and ethanolic (EEP) extract of propolis on renal and liver function in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. In addition, we examined whether different extract of propolis could prevent diabetic nephropathy and liver toxicity by inhibiting lipid peroxidation in vivo. Methods Diabetes was induced in Swiss albino mice with a single intravenous injection of alloxan (75 mg kg-1). Two days after alloxan injection, propolis preparations (50 mg kg-1 per day) were given intraperitoneally for 7 days in diabetic mice. Survival analysis and body weights as well as hematological and biochemical parameters were measured. The renal and liver oxidative stress marker malonaldehyde levels and histopathological changes were monitored in the liver and kidney of treated and control mice. Results Administration of propolis to diabetic mice resulted in a significant increase of body weight, haematological and immunological parameters of blood as well as 100% survival of diabetic mice. Alloxan-injected mice showed a marked increase in oxidative stress in liver and kidney homogenate, as determined by lipid peroxidation. Histopathological observation of the liver sections of alloxan-induced diabetic mice showed several lesions including cellular vacuolization, cytoplasmic eosinophilia and lymphocyte infiltrations, but with individual variability.Treatment of diabetic mice with propolis extracts results in decreased number of vacuolized cells and degree of vacuolization; propolis treatment improve the impairment of fatty acid metabolism in diabetes. Renal histology showed corpuscular, tubular and interstitial changes in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. Test components did not improve renal histopathology in diabetic mice. Conclusions Propolis preparations are able to attenuate diabetic hepatorenal damage, probably through its anti-oxidative action and its detoxification

  13. Methanol Extract of Euchelus asper Prevents Bone Resorption in Ovariectomised Mice Model

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Babita; Chiplunkar, Shubhada Vivek; Indap, Madhavi Manohar

    2014-01-01

    Marine molluscs are widely distributed throughout the world and many bioactive compounds exhibiting antiviral, antitumor, antileukemic, and antibacterial activity have been reported worldwide. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of methanol extract of Euchelus asper (EAME) on estrogen deficiency induced osteoporosis in ovariectomised mice model. Forty-two female Swiss albino mice were randomly assigned into Sham operated (Sham) group and six ovariectomised (OVX) subgroups such as OVX with vehicle (OVX); OVX with estradiol (2 mg/kg/day); OVX with EAME of graded doses (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg/day). Bone turnover markers like serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), serum acid phosphatase (ACP), serum calcium, and histological investigations of tibia and uterus were analysed. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur bone was also studied. Antiosteoclastogenic activity of EAME was examined. Administration of EAME was able to reduce the increased bone turnover markers in the ovariectomised mice. Histomorphometric analysis revealed an increase in bone trabeculation and restoration of trabecular separation by EAME treatment. Metaphyseal DNA content of the femur of the OVX mice was increased by EAME administration. EAME also showed a potent antiosteoclastogenic behaviour. Thus, the present study reveals that EAME was able to successfully reduce the estrogen deficiency induced bone loss. PMID:24995144

  14. Damascenine induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice and in vitro assessed human erythrocyte toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Khettal, Bachra; Tir, Lydia; Boudrioua, Souad

    2015-01-01

    Nigella damascena seed is characterized by the presence of the major alkaloid, damascenine and its related metabolites. To our knowledge, no detailed subchronic toxicological assessment of damascenine (DA) has been reported. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of DA in vivo after sub-chronic intraperitoneal (i.p) administration in mice and in vitro following human erythrocyte hemolysis. In vivo, a total of 48 adult male and female Swiss albino mice were used in a sub-chronic toxicity study. The mice received intraperitoneally two doses of DA (20 and 100 mg/kg) for 28 days. Food intake, body weight and central body temperature were measured during the experiment. After completion of drug treatment, biochemical and histological analyses were performed. No mortality was observed in any of the treatment groups of mice, showing no toxic effects during the study. Neither were biochemical parameters altered; no significant differences were observed concerning glucose, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, and creatinine parameters. No histopathological alterations were found in kidney and liver structures. In vitro, we focused on the human erythrocyte hemolytic process in the presence of several concentrations of DA. High level concentration of 1 000 μg/ml of DA revealed normal cell shapes and absence of hemolysis and deformation. PMID:27486370

  15. Ultrastructural Changes of Caudate Nucleus in Mice Chronically Treated with Manganese.

    PubMed

    Villalobos, Virginia; Hernández-Fonseca, Juan Pablo; Bonilla, Ernesto; Medina-Leendertz, Shirley; Mora, Marylu; Mosquera, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is able to cross the blood-brain barrier and induces functional and structural alterations during the intoxication by this metal. Therefore, the effects of chronic administration of Mn in the caudate nucleus of mice were evaluated by electron microscopy. Male albino mice were injected intraperitoneally with MnCl2 (5 mg/kg/d) 5 d per week during 9 weeks. The control group received only 0.9% of NaCl solution. The caudate nuclei were extracted and subsequently processed to be observed on a conventional transmission electron microscope at 2, 4, 6, and 9 weeks after treatment. A high percentage of vacuolated and swollen mitochondria were found throughout all the analyzed periods. Myelin disarrangement and ultrastructural alterations related to edema were observed increased in Mn-treated mice at week 9. Granular degeneration of myelin at week 9 accompanied with deposition of electron dense granules in the neuropil was also observed. Edema in neuropil and glial cells was detected from week 2 to week 9 accompanied by swollen mitochondria. Neuronal bodies, synaptic terminals, and perivascular cells were found swollen. Decreased electron density in postsynaptic areas and decreased and dispersed synaptic vesicles in presynaptic areas were noted in Mn-treated animals. Some neurons from Mn-treated mice showed cisternae dilation of the Golgi apparatus. These results suggest that Mn-treatment produces structural alterations in the caudate nucleus that could be responsible for some of the neurotoxic effects of this metal. PMID:25569534

  16. Damascenine induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity in mice and in vitro assessed human erythrocyte toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bouguezza, Yacine; Khettal, Bachra; Tir, Lydia; Boudrioua, Souad

    2015-09-01

    Nigella damascena seed is characterized by the presence of the major alkaloid, damascenine and its related metabolites. To our knowledge, no detailed subchronic toxicological assessment of damascenine (DA) has been reported. The present study evaluated the potential toxicity of DA in vivo after sub-chronic intraperitoneal (i.p) administration in mice and in vitro following human erythrocyte hemolysis. In vivo, a total of 48 adult male and female Swiss albino mice were used in a sub-chronic toxicity study. The mice received intraperitoneally two doses of DA (20 and 100 mg/kg) for 28 days. Food intake, body weight and central body temperature were measured during the experiment. After completion of drug treatment, biochemical and histological analyses were performed. No mortality was observed in any of the treatment groups of mice, showing no toxic effects during the study. Neither were biochemical parameters altered; no significant differences were observed concerning glucose, bilirubin, aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), urea, and creatinine parameters. No histopathological alterations were found in kidney and liver structures. In vitro, we focused on the human erythrocyte hemolytic process in the presence of several concentrations of DA. High level concentration of 1 000 μg/ml of DA revealed normal cell shapes and absence of hemolysis and deformation. PMID:27486370

  17. Attenuation coefficient of the light in skin of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, C. R.; Camargo, C. F. M.; Aureliano, D. P.; De Pretto, L. R.; Freitas, A. Z.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2015-06-01

    Optical properties of the biological tissue play an important role to a correct use of optical techniques for therapy and diagnosis. The mice skin presents morphological differences due to characteristics such as gender, body mass and age. Murine models are frequently used in pre-clinical trials in optical therapy and diagnosis. Therefore, the assessment of the skin tissue in animal models is needed for a proper understanding of how light interacts with skin. Noninvasive techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT) have been used to obtain optical information of the tissue, as the attenuation coefficient, with the advantage of obtaining sectional images in real time. In this study, eight female BALB/c albino mice (twenty-four weeks old) and eight male C57BL/6 black mice (eight weeks old) were used to measure the attenuation coefficient of the light in the skin, utilizing the OCT technique, aiming to check for influence of the aging process. Two moments were assessed twenty-two weeks apart from each other. Our data show that the aging process significantly affects the light attenuation coefficient in mice skin. Twenty-two weeks after, statistical significant differences were observed between groups within a same strain. We conclude that light attenuation coefficient of mice skin may be influenced by factors such as disorganization of the dermis. Morphological aspects of skin should be taken into account in studies that involve optical strategies in murine models.

  18. Incidence of plutonium-induced bone cancer in neutered mice

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, G.N.; Gardner, P.; Mays, C.W.; Wrenn, M.E.; Charrier, K.

    1981-03-01

    The incidence of bone cancer, after a single i.p. injection of monomeric /sup 239/Pu citrate, is significantly higher in female than in male mice. To evaluate the role of the gonads in this sex-related difference, male and female C57BL/Do (albino) mice were castrated at 40 days of age. Fifty days later, they were given injections of /sup 239/Pu. After castration, the frequency of bone sarcomas in the two sexes was approximately equal. This resulted from an increased incidence in the castrated males and a decreased incidence in the ovariectomized females as compared to the intact plutonium-treated mice.

  19. Zinc sulphate and vitamin E alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium sulphate in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rawi, Sayed M; Seif Al Nassr, Fatma M

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of aluminium sulphate and the therapeutic effects of administration of zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination against the toxic effect caused by aluminium (Al) in male albino rats. The animals were divided into five groups: group 1 received distilled water and served as control; group 2 received only aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)); group 3 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) plus zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.); group 4 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (15 mg/kg b.w.); group 5 received aluminium sulphate plus a combination of zinc sulphate and vitamin E in similar doses as above. Doses were administered orally once daily for 45 consecutive days. The results revealed that aluminium sulphate induced significant decrease in body weight gain and testis weight and significant increase in Al level in both serum and testes of male rats. Biochemical analysis showed significant decrease in serum total protein and phospholipids levels, while serum total lipid was significantly elevated post Al treatment. In addition, significant decrease in total protein, phospholipids and cholesterol levels in the testes of Al-treated rats was recorded. The data also showed significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in the level of serum prolactin in Al-intoxicated rats. Moreover, histological examination showed that aluminium sulphate caused apparent alterations in the testicular structure of the treated animals. Treatment with zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination ameliorated the harmful effects of Al, which was proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testicular tissues. We can conclude that the tested dose of aluminium sulphate induced toxic effect on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the treatment with

  20. Probiotic Pediococcus pentosaceus strain GS4 alleviates azoxymethane-induced toxicity in mice.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Vinay; Ghosh, Asit R; Bishayee, Kausik; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur R

    2015-10-01

    Probiotic treatment has been gaining attention due to its remarkable effects in alleviating toxicity and carcinogenesis. The novel strain Pediococcus pentosaceus GS4 has been reported for probiotic, survivability in simulated gastrointestinal fluid, and antioxidative and biohydrogenation properties. Therefore, we hypothesize that this specific strain might be able to assuage the effect of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced toxicity in mice. Twenty-eight Swiss albino mice were divided into 4 groups and were studied for 32 weeks. Azoxymethane (10 mg/kg body weight) was administered intraperitoneally twice (0th and 14th days), and probiotic GS4 (1.1 × 10(9) colony-forming unit/mL) was given orally for the respective groups. Mice who served as the normal control received only normal saline. GS4-intervened AOM-induced mice showed marked improvement at the histopathologic level, in the liver and kidney. Moreover, probiotic GS4 intervention in AOM-induced mice exhibited a significant reduction in the liver function biomarker when compared with the AOM-induced mice. Probiotic GS4 intervention reduced the intestinal structural deformities as evident from the elevated brush border membrane-associated disaccharidases (sucrase, lactase) and intestinal alkaline phosphatase activities, which were found disrupted by AOM intoxication. Fecal bacterial load was found to be reduced in AOM-induced mice which were subsequently replenished by the probiotic GS4 intervention as apparent from the enhanced fecal bacterial load. There were no adverse effects observed in the probiotic control group. Conclusively, novel probiotic strain GS4 exhibited safe and beneficial effects against the toxicity threats posed by AOM. Thus, GS4 could be considered as a potential food supplement/additive for therapeutic purposes in gastrointestinal disorders related to inflammation and cancer. PMID:26319614

  1. An experimental study of the effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on cutaneous burn wound healing in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Jarrahi, Morteza

    2008-03-20

    Previous studies conducted on the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract led us to study the effect of topical chamomile extract on burn wound healing in albino rats. Thirty male albino rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Second-degree burning was induced in 20% of whole surface area of animal body by placing the back of animal into boiling water for 8s. Animals of control group received no treatment. Animals of vehicle and treatment groups were treated topically by olive oil and extract dissolved in olive oil twice a day respectively from the first day of burn induction to complete wound healing. The percentage of wound healing was calculated weekly. The results showed that there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between vehicle and treatment groups. So we concluded that the chamomile extract in the form of rubbing oil had a good potential for acceleration of burn wound healing in rats. PMID:18404562

  2. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer. PMID:26877094

  3. Endocytosis and transcytosis of albumin gold through mice peritoneal mesothelium.

    PubMed

    Gotloib, L; Shostak, A

    1995-05-01

    The present transmission electron microscopy (TEM) study was designed to investigate whether mesothelial cells of mice diaphragmatic, parietal and mesenteric peritoneum are actively coupled to the mechanisms involved in the transerosal absorption of albumin gold complexes (Alb-Au). Five albino mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 ml of a suspension of Alb-Au. In three animals, in vivo fixation was done 10 minutes after injection of Alb-Au, whereas in the remaining two, fixation was performed 45 minutes after injection of the tracer. At both time intervals, a substantial part of Alb-Au complexes was observed within plasmalemmal and coated vesicles, mainly attached to the luminal aspect of the internal luminal membranes. The amount of Alb-Au contained in plasmalemmal vesicles was significantly higher than that detected in intermesothelial junctions. Plasmalemmal vesicles were observed discharging Alb-Au complexes in the submesothelial interstitium, showing a significantly higher proportion of the tracer associated with non-junctional areas. Evidence presented in this study supports the idea of local degradation of Alb-Au in mesothelial cells after endocytosis, and that of a continuously transcytotic mechanism transporting polymerized albumin across the mesothelial layer. In this sense, transcytotic vesicles could represent the large pore equivalent. PMID:7637257

  4. Baclofen prevents the elevated plus maze behavior and BDNF expression during naloxone precipitated morphine withdrawal in male and female mice.

    PubMed

    Pedrón, Valeria T; Varani, André P; Balerio, Graciela N

    2016-05-01

    In previous studies we have shown that baclofen, a selective GABAB receptor agonist, prevents the somatic expression and reestablishes the dopamine and μ-opioid receptors levels, modified during naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal syndrome in male and female mice. There are no previous reports regarding sex differences in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and the expression of BDNF in morphine-withdrawn mice. The present study analyses the behavioral and biochemical variations during morphine withdrawal in mice of both sexes, and whether these variations are prevented with baclofen. Swiss-Webster albino prepubertal mice received morphine (2 mg/kg, i.p.) twice daily, for 9 consecutive days. On the 10th day, one group of morphine-treated mice received naloxone (opioid receptor antagonist; 6 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h after the last dose of morphine to precipitate withdrawal. A second group received baclofen (2 mg/kg, i.p.) before naloxone administration. The EPM behavior was measured during 15 min after naloxone injection. The expression of BDNF-positive cells was determined by immunohistochemistry. Withdrawn male mice showed a higher percentage of time spent and number of entries to the open arms compared to withdrawn female mice. Baclofen prevented this behavior in both sexes. BDNF expression decreased in the AcbC, BNST, CeC, and CA3 of the hippocampus while increased in the BLA of morphine withdrawn male. Baclofen pretreatment prevented the BDNF expression observed in morphine withdrawn male mice in all the brain areas studied except in the CeC. Baclofen prevention of the EPM behavior associated to morphine withdrawal could be partially related to changes in BDNF expression. PMID:26789010

  5. Evaluation of Diuretic Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Roots of Cissampelos Pareira in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khanwelkar, Chitra C.; Nimmagadda, Venkat Rao; Dasi, Jeevan Mani Babu; Chavan, Vasant R.; Kutani, Aruna; Kotagiri, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Background: In congestive heart failure, nephritis, toxemia of pregnancy, premenstrual tension and hypertension associated with oedema diuretic compounds are much helpful to relieve these conditions. Aims: To study the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by Lipschitz method in albino rats. Methods and Material: Five groups of Albino rats were used to evaluate the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by using metabolic cages. The group I serves as normal control received vehicle (2% CMC in normal saline), group II with Furosemide (10 mg/Kg, p.o), Groups III, IV and V with low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira respectively. Immediately after the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treatment all the rats were hydrated with saline (15 ml/kg, p.o) and 2 animals placed in each metabolic cage, kept at 21°C±0.5°C. No food and water was made available to animals for 5 hour. The total volume of urine collected with each metabolic cage was measured at the end of 5 hour. Various parameters like total urine volume and concentration of different ions i.e.; Sodium, Potassium , Chloride in the urine were measured. Results: In this model when compared to control group the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treated groups at different dose levels (100,200 and 400 mg/kg) have noted with significant increase in the urine volume and also significantly enhanced the excretion of Sodium, Potassium and Chloride ions in urine. Conclusion: Results showed that single dose administration of standard Furosemide and alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira significantly (p<0.05*, p<0.01**, p<0.001***) increased the urine output along with an increase in elimination of Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride ions. Alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira 400 mg/Kg produced a comparable diuretic activity with

  6. Antioxidant properties of Pelargonium graveolens L’Her essential oil on the reproductive damage induced by deltamethrin in mice as compared to alpha-tocopherol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin has been demonstrated to exert a wide range of effects on non-targeted organisms. The beneficial effects of geranuim essential oil (EO) as an antioxidant has been assessed in deltamethrin (DL) orally administered mice by studying whether the reprotoxicity caused by deltamethrin can be effectively combated with the geranium oil and the effects were compared to vitamin E, as the standard reference drug. Result Sixty male albino mice were divided into six equal groups: a control group, a group of mice was given deltamethrin (5 mg/kg b.w.), two groups were administered deltamethrin after having given geranium essential oil (67 mg/kg b.w.) or vitamin E (Vit E) (100 mg/kg b.w.), and two groups received only EO of geranium or Vit E. When compared to control, a dose of deltamethrin 5 mg/kg/day causes a decrease in the epididymal sperm count motility and viability and an increase in the number of abnormal morphology in spermatozoa. DL-exposed mice showed a significant increase of lipid peroxidation (LPP) in the testis compared to control animals. Conclusion Essential oil of geranium prevented testicular oxidative damage explored by reduced LPP and improved total sperm motility, viability and morphology in mice spermatozoa. Our study showed a positive influence of geranium essential oil in the animal male reproductive system similar than that of Vit E. PMID:23496944

  7. Neuroprotective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium toxicity in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Tarras, Adel El-Sayed; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Soliman, Mohammed Mohamed; El Awady, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Amin, Adnan Abelghani

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium toxicity can disturb brain chemistry leading to depression, anxiety, and weakened immunity. Cadmium disturbs the neurotransmitter dopamine, resulting in low energy, lack of motivation, and depression, which are predisposing factors for violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the brain of 40 male albino rats after exposure to cadmium chloride (Cd) toxicity. The rats were separated into either the control group, the Cd group, the GSE group, or the GSE and Cd mixture (treated) group. The cerebrum showed evidence of degeneration of some nerve fibers and cells. Fibrosis, vacuolations, and congestion in the blood vessels were demonstrated. Satelletosis was located in the capsular cells. Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was strongly positive in the Cd group and decreased in the treated group. These histopathological changes were decreased in the brain tissue of the treated group, but a few blood vessels still had evidence of congestion. Cadmium administration increased the level of MDA and decreased MAO-A, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione reductase (GR), while the treatment with GSE affected the alterations in these parameters. In addition, cadmium downregulated the mRNA expression levels of GST and GPx, while GSE treatment normalized the transcript levels. The expression of both dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter was downregulated in the rats administered cadmium and the addition of GSE normalized the expression of these aggression associated genes. PMID:27271977

  8. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  9. Possible Therapeutic Effect of Stem Cell in Atherosclerosis in Albino Rats. A Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Kawi, Samraa H; Hashem, Khalid S

    2015-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide. there are no effective approaches to regressing atherosclerosis due to not fully understood mechanisms. Recently, stem cell-based therapies have held promises to various diseases, including vascular diseases. Aim The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on atherosclerosis. Material and Methods Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into control group (I), atherogenic group (II): subjected to high cholesterol fed diet (200~300 mg/kg body weight) for 12 weeks and 1.8 million units of vitamin D / kg of diet for 6 weeks. Stem cell therapy group (III): injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of atherosclerosis. Histological, Immunohistochemical and morphometric studies were performed were conducted. Results Atherogenic group (II) showed increased aortic thickness, intimal proliferation, smooth muscle proliferation and migration. Increased area % of collagen fibers, iNOS and vimentin immunoreactions were recorded and proved morphometrically. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusion A definite therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells was found on atherosclerosis. PMID:26634068

  10. The genome sequencing of an albino Western lowland gorilla reveals inbreeding in the wild

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The only known albino gorilla, named Snowflake, was a male wild born individual from Equatorial Guinea who lived at the Barcelona Zoo for almost 40 years. He was diagnosed with non-syndromic oculocutaneous albinism, i.e. white hair, light eyes, pink skin, photophobia and reduced visual acuity. Despite previous efforts to explain the genetic cause, this is still unknown. Here, we study the genetic cause of his albinism and making use of whole genome sequencing data we find a higher inbreeding coefficient compared to other gorillas. Results We successfully identified the causal genetic variant for Snowflake’s albinism, a non-synonymous single nucleotide variant located in a transmembrane region of SLC45A2. This transporter is known to be involved in oculocutaneous albinism type 4 (OCA4) in humans. We provide experimental evidence that shows that this amino acid replacement alters the membrane spanning capability of this transmembrane region. Finally, we provide a comprehensive study of genome-wide patterns of autozygogosity revealing that Snowflake’s parents were related, being this the first report of inbreeding in a wild born Western lowland gorilla. Conclusions In this study we demonstrate how the use of whole genome sequencing can be extended to link genotype and phenotype in non-model organisms and it can be a powerful tool in conservation genetics (e.g., inbreeding and genetic diversity) with the expected decrease in sequencing cost. PMID:23721540

  11. A role for the outer retina in development of the intrinsic pupillary light reflex in mice.

    PubMed

    Vugler, A; Semo, M; Ortín-Martínez, A; Rojanasakul, A; Nommiste, B; Valiente-Soriano, F J; García-Ayuso, D; Coffey, P; Vidal-Sanz, M; Gias, C

    2015-02-12

    Mice do not require the brain in order to maintain constricted pupils. However, little is known about this intrinsic pupillary light reflex (iPLR) beyond a requirement for melanopsin in the iris and an intact retinal ciliary marginal zone (CMZ). Here, we study the mouse iPLR in vitro and examine a potential role for outer retina (rods and cones) in this response. In wild-type mice the iPLR was absent at postnatal day 17 (P17), developing progressively from P21-P49. However, the iPLR only achieved ∼ 30% of the wild-type constriction in adult mice with severe outer retinal degeneration (rd and rdcl). Paradoxically, the iPLR increased significantly in retinal degenerate mice >1.5 years of age. This was accompanied by an increase in baseline pupil tone in the dark to levels indistinguishable from those in adult wild types. This rejuvenated iPLR response was slowed by atropine application, suggesting the involvement of cholinergic neurotransmission. We could find no evidence of an increase in melanopsin expression by quantitative PCR in the iris and ciliary body of aged retinal degenerates and a detailed anatomical analysis revealed a significant decline in melanopsin-positive intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in rdcl mice >1.5 years. Adult mice lacking rod function (Gnat1(-/-)) also had a weak iPLR, while mice lacking functional cones (Cpfl5) maintained a robust response. We also identify an important role for pigmentation in the development of the mouse iPLR, with only a weak and transient response present in albino animals. Our results show that the iPLR in mice develops unexpectedly late and are consistent with a role for rods and pigmentation in the development of this response in mice. The enhancement of the iPLR in aged degenerate mice was extremely surprising but may have relevance to behavioral observations in mice and patients with retinitis pigmentosa. PMID:25433236

  12. Histopathological changes in liver of mice after experimental envenomation with Androctonus amoreuxi scorpion venom.

    PubMed

    Fetaih, Hamdy A; Shoukry, Nahla M; Soliman, Belal A; Mohallal, Mahmoud E; Khaled, Howayda S

    2013-08-01

    A total of 78 adult male Albino mice were divided into thirteen groups (6 mice in each). One served as a control group and the other twelve groups were venom treated groups. The mice of treated groups were injected with 0.1 ml saline solution in which a particular amount of scorpion venom. The first 6 groups were subcutaneously injected with 1/2 LD50 (0.05 microg/g body weight), while the other 6 groups were injected with 1/4 LD 50 (0.025 microg/g body weight) by the same route. The animals from each group were anesthetized with ethyl ether and sacrificed at different time intervals (3, 6, 9, 12 hrs, 4 & 7days post toxin administration). The microscopic examination of liver tissue obtained from envenomed animals showed variable histopathological changes being severely increased with the time interval of envenoming. The most obvious changes in the liver were acute cellular swelling, hydropic degeneration, congestion of central veins and portal blood vessels. Besides, extramedullary hematopoiesis and invaginations in nuclei of hepatic cells, with formation of intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusions were observed. PMID:24260823

  13. Modulating Effects of Spirulina platensis against Tilmicosin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Abdelaziz E.; Abdel-Daim, Mohamed Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Objective Tilmicosin (TIL) is a long-acting macrolide antibiotic used to treat cattle for pathogens that cause bovine respiratory disease. However, overdoses of this medication have been reported to induce cardiac damage. Our experimental objective was to evaluate the protective effects of Spirulina platensis (SP) administration against TIL-induced cardiotoxicity in mice. Materials and Methods Our experimental in vivo animal study used 40 male albino mice that were divided into five groups of eight mice per group. The first group served as a control group and was injected with saline. The second group received SP at dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight for five days. The third group received a single dose of TIL (75 mg/kg, subcutaneously). Groups 4 and 5 were given SP at doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for five consecutive days just before administration of TIL at the same dose and regimen used for group 3. Results TIL treated animals showed a significant increase in serum cardiac injury biomarkers as well as cardiac lipid peroxidation, however they had evidence of an inhibition in antioxidant biomarkers. SP normalized elevated serum levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB. Furthermore, SP reduced TIL-induced lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion Administration of SP minimized the toxic effects of TIL by its free radicalscavenging and potent antioxidant activity. PMID:25870843

  14. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON IMMUNOBLOT VERSUS PCR IN DIAGNOSIS OF SCHISTOSOMIASIS MANSONI IN EXPERIMENTAL INFECTED MICE.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Mousa A M; Mousa, Wahed Mohammed Ali; Abu-Sarea, Enas Yahia; Basyouni, Maha M A; Mohammed, Samah Sayed

    2016-04-01

    This study compared PCR and Western blot techniques in diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni. Forty Swiss albino mice were used, thirty two mice were infected with cercariae of S. mansoni and eight mice were kept uninfected which were used as a control. Blood was obtained from four infected mice weekly beginning from the 1st week to the 8th week post infection. The study found that PCR was positive from the first week post infection, while Western blot technique was positive from the second week post infection. Thus, PCR diagnosed schistosomiasis mansoni earlier than Western blot technique, but both were able to diagnose. PMID:27363045

  15. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment. PMID:16357948

  16. Hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity of Triphalādi granules in mice

    PubMed Central

    Gunjal, Ankush; Walunj, Manisha; Aghera, Hetal; Nariya, Mukesh; Goyal, Mandip R.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Triphalādi kvātha is well known herbal Ayurvedic formulation used in Prameha (~type 2 diabetes mellitus). In the present study, kvātha was converted into granules and assessed for its hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic effects in albino mice. Materials and Methods: Triphalādi granules (650 mg/kg, p.o.) were administered in normal albino mice for assessment of hypoglycemic activity. Anti-hyperglycemic activity of Triphalādi granules was assessed in glucose (5 g/kg, p.o.) solution overloaded mice. The blood sugar level (BSL) was measured with the help of one touch easy glucometer. Results: Triphalādi granules produced significant decrease in blood glucose level after one hour in comparison to initial values while decreasing BSL by 27.92% in comparison to control group in normal albino mice. In hyperglycemic study, Triphalādi granules produced significant decrease the BSL after 2 hr. of administration compared to control group. Conclusion: Triphalādi granules have significant hypoglycemic and anti-hyperglycemic activity in mice with minimal effect on BSL below normal range. The studies suggest the potential role of Triphalādi granules as an alternative adjuvant therapy in diabetic individuals for the control of the blood glucose level. PMID:27621517

  17. Exploring Bhavana samskara using Tinospora cordifolia and Phyllanthus emblica combination for learning and memory in mice

    PubMed Central

    Malve, Harshad Onkarrao

    2015-01-01

    Background: Current medications for dementia and enhancement of learning and memory are limited hence we need to explore traditional medicinal systems like Ayurveda to investigate agents that can improve learning and enhance memory. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate effects and mechanisms of Ayurveda drug formulations, Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) and Phyllanthus emblica (Pe) with and without Bhavana samskara on learning and memory of mice. Materials and Methods: After approval of Animal Ethics Committee, Swiss albino mice were divided into seven groups, administered orally: Distilled water, Rivastigmine (2.4 mg/kg), Tc (100 mg/kg), Pe (300 mg/kg), 1 formulation (Tc + Pe: 400 mg/kg) and formulation 2 (Tc + Pe + Ocimum sanctum: 400 mg/kg) daily for 15 days. Piracetam (200 mg/kg) was injected daily intraperitoneally for 8 days. The mice underwent a learning session using elevated plus maze. Memory was tested 24 hours later. Results: Mice pretreated with all the drugs showed a trend toward reducing transfer latencies but values were comparable to vehicle control. In all drug-treated groups, a significant reduction in transfer latency was observed after 24 h. Improvement in learning and memory by both formulations were comparable to individual plant drugs, Tc and Pe. Conclusion: The plant drugs showed improvements in learning and memory. The fixed-dose formulations with Bhavana samskara, showed encouraging results as compared to individual agents but the difference was not statistically significant. Hence, the concept of Bhavana samskara could not be explored in the present study. However, these drugs showed comparable or better effects than the modern medicinal agents thus, their therapeutic potential as nootropics needs to be explored further. PMID:26834422

  18. Effects of photosensitizer (hematoporphyrin derivative-HPD) and light dose on vascular targets in the albino mouse ear

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, R.K.; Davis, K.; Straight, R.C.; Waner, M.

    1988-01-01

    Photodynamic damage to normal tissues, including skin, appears to occur by photooxidative damage to the normal microvasculature as the primary target sensitized by HPD bound to the vascular wall or endothelial cell. Initial damage to the microvasculature was measured by the increase in vascular permeability (VP) as measured by Evans Blue dye (EB) extravasation as a function of HPD and laser light (632 nm) dose. Albino, Swiss-Webster mice (female 122-25 g, 5 mice per group) were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with incremental doses of HPD (1, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/kg). After 48 hours the left ear of each mouse was masked as a control and the right ear was irradiated at 632 nm using the Aurora-Lexel Argon-dye laser with an intensity of 50 mW/cm2 and light doses of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 J/cm2 directed to a 3-mm spot on the mouse ear. No EB leakage occurred in the absence of HPD at any light dose or in the absence of light at any HPC dose. Vascular permeability increased as a function of HPD dose up to 30 mg/kg. AT 50 mg/kg HPD, there was a decrease in VP. At each HPD dose above 10 mg/kg, the VP increased as a function of light dose up to 75 J/cm2. Further increase in light dose was without effect. The amount of HPD porphyrin recovered from irradiated ears decreased as a function of light dose. There appeared to be an irreversible photo destruction of the porphyrin exposed to light.

  19. Ostracism of an Albino Individual by a Group of Pigmented Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual’s exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics. PMID:26018869

  20. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

    PubMed

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics. PMID:26018869

  1. Generation of Albino Cynops pyrrhogaster by Genomic Editing of the tyrosinase Gene.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Albino animals are useful for in situ hybridization experiments that demonstrate gene expression in embryos and organs, for the immunological rejection of skin grafts transplanted to host animals, and to identify tissues with regenerative ability during limbs and retina regeneration processes. Cynops pyrrhogaster has extensive regenerating capacities. To facilitate regenerative research, in the present study, we produced albino C. pyrrhogaster using genomic editing. The DNA fragment containing part of the tyrosinase gene from C. pyrrhogaster was amplified using degenerate primers corresponding to evolutionarily conserved nucleotide sequences among several species, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. We designed a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) that targets a candidate of the C. pyrrhogaster tyrosinase gene. Fertilized eggs were injected with TALEN mRNA, and albinos of C. pyrrhogaster were obtained. The results of the present study demonstrated that TALEN can be used effectively for genomic editing in C. pyrrhogaster and that the candidates of the tyrosinase gene that were cloned by us are essential for melanin synthesis. The albino newts created in the present study can be used as versatile experimental material. PMID:27268983

  2. Hypoglycaemic and Tissue-Protective Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Persea Americana Seeds on Alloxan-Induced Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    EZEJIOFOR, Anthonet Ndidi; OKORIE, Abednego; ORISAKWE, Orish Ebere

    2013-01-01

    Background: The tissue-protective potential of Persea americana necessitated a look into the histopathological effects of the plant extract on the pancreas, liver, and kidneys. This study was conceived and designed based on the gaps in the research that has been performed and what is known about the plant. The hypoglycaemic and tissue-protective effects of hot aqueous Persea americana (avocado pear) seed extracts on alloxan-induced albino rats were investigated. Methods: Persea americana seeds were extracted using hot water, and different concentrations of the extract were prepared. The effects of different concentrations (20, 30, 40 g/L) of the hot aqueous P. americana seed extract on alloxan-induced Wistar albino rats were compared with those of a reference drug, glibenclamide. The glucose level of the rats was measured daily, and the weight of the animal was monitored on a weekly basis for 21 days. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, and the histopathologies of the liver, kidneys, and pancreas were investigated. Phytochemical analysis of P. americana seed extracts indicated the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and alkaloids. Results: The results showed that the extract possessed a significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.05) effect and reversed the histopathological damage that occurred in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, comparable to the effects glibenclamide. The seeds of P. americana also had anti-diabetic and protective effects on some rat tissues such as the pancreas, kidneys, and liver. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study provides a pharmacological basis for the folkloric use of the hot-water extract of P. americana seeds in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24643349

  3. Evidences for the Involvement of Monoaminergic and GABAergic Systems in Antidepressant-like Activity of Tinospora cordifolia in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dhingra, D.; Goyal, P. K.

    2008-01-01

    The present study was taken up to investigate the effect of petroleum ether extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Wild.) Miers, on depression in mice. The extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered for 14 successive days to Swiss young albino mice (either sex) and evaluated for antidepressant-like activity using tail suspension test and forced swim test. Petroleum ether extract at all three doses produced significant antidepressant-like effect in tail suspension test as well as in forced swim test and their efficacies were found to be comparable to imipramine (15 mg/kg, p.o.) and sertraline (20 mg/kg, p.o.). The extract at a dose of 50 mg/kg showed most potent effect and did not show any significant change in locomotor functions of mice as compared to control. The antidepressant-like effect of the extract was significantly reversed by pretreatment of animals with prazosin (a α1-adrenoceptor antagonist), sulpiride (a selective dopamine D2-receptor antagonist), p-CPA (a serotonin synthesis inhibitor) and baclofen (GABA-B agonist), when tested in tail suspension test. Moreover, petroleum ether extract also reduced the mouse whole brain monoamine oxidase (MAO-A and MAO-B) activities as compared to control, resulting in increase in the levels of brain monoamines. Therefore, the extract may have potential therapeutic value for the management of depressive disorders. PMID:21369437

  4. Histological and histochemical observations on the testis and epididymis of the albino rat treated with ACTH 1-39 and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, A; Ricciardi, M P

    1983-01-01

    We analysed the modifications induced in the testis and epididymis of the adult male albino rat by drugs stimulating (ACTH) and inhibiting (dexamethasone) the steroidogenesis of the adrenal cortex. After stopping treatment, observations were continued for several days in order to follow up the possible long-term effects of these drugs. Morphological examination showed that the greatest damage in the testis was produced a few days after suspension of treatment by small doses of ACTH and that, with dexamethasone, the testis and epididymis were damaged, especially after discontinuing treatment. No noteworthy histochemical modifications were observed. PMID:6305865

  5. Behavioral and Biochemical Evidences for Antidepressant-Like Activity of Celastrus Paniculatus Seed Oil in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Valecha, Rekha; Dhingra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Celastrus paniculatus seed oil, commonly known as Malkangni or Jyotishmati, was in use from time immemorial to treat brain related disorders. Celastrus paniculatus seed oil has significant antidepressant-like activity in chronic unpredictable stressed mice. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antidepressant-like effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil in unstressed mice and to explore its mechanism of action. Methods: The seed oil (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, PO) and fluoxetine per se were administered for 14 successive days to Swiss young albino mice. On the 14th day, 60 min after drug administration, animals were subjected to Tail Suspension Test (TST) and Forced Swim Test (FST). The mechanism of action was also studied. Results: The oil significantly decreased immobility period of mice in both tail suspension test and forced swim test, indicating its significant antidepressant-like activity. The efficacy was found to be comparable to fluoxetine (P<0.0001). ED50 value of celastrus seed oil using FST and TST were 17.38 and 31.62 mg/kg, respectively. The oil did not show any significant effect on locomotor activity. It significantly inhibited brain MAO–A activity and decreased plasma corticosterone levels. Sulpiride (selective D2-receptor antagonist), p-CPA (tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor), and baclofen (GABAB agonist) significantly attenuated the oil-induced antidepressant-like effect, when assessed during TST. Discussion: Celastrus paniculatus seed oil produced significant antidepressant-like effect in mice possibly through interaction with dopamine D2, serotonergic, and GABAB receptors; as well as inhibition of MAO–A activity and decrease in plasma corticosterone levels. PMID:27303599

  6. Hazardous effects of fried potato chips on the development of retina in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I; Sakr, Saber A; Badawy, Gamal M; Afify, Hanaa S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hazardous effects of fried potato chips upon the retina of two developmental stages of the albino rats aged 7 and 14 days from parturition. Methods Pregnant rats were arranged into two groups: control pregnant rats and consequently their delivered newborns until reaching 7 and 14 days old from parturition and fried potato chips group in which pregnant rats at the 6th day of gestation maintained on diet formed of fried potato chips supplied from the market mixed with standard diet at a concentration of 50% per each till 7 and 14 post-partum. Three fold integrated approaches were adopted, namely, histological, ultrastructural and proteomic analysis. Results Histological examination of the retina of the experimental offsprings revealed many histopathological changes, including massive degeneration, vacuolization and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, as well as general reduction in retinal size. At the ultrastructural level, the retina of experimental offsprings exhibited number of deformities, including ill differentiated and degenerated nuclear layer, malformed and vacuolated pigment epithelium with vesiculated and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as swollen choriocapillaris and loss of neuronal cells. Proteomic analysis of retina of the two experimental developmental stages showed variations in the expressed proteins as a result of intoxication which illustrated the adverse toxic effects of fried potato chips upon the retina. Conclusions It can be concluded that the effect of fried potato chips on the development of retina in rats may be due to the presence of acrylamide or its metabolite. PMID:23569770

  7. Effects of Different Concentrations of Fluoride in Oral Mucosal Cells in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, P.Ajay; Rao, T.Madhusudhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride has been described to be physiologically essential for the normal development and growth of human beings. However, it is well known that excessive fluoride causes skeletal, nonskeletal and dental complications. Therefore, outlining the cytogenetic effects induced by fluorosis is necessary. Objectives To evaluate the cytomorphology of exfoliated oral mucosal cells among various concentrations of fluoride. Study design: Study group comprised of 12 Albino Wistar rats, categorized into A,B and C groups (fed with 25 ppm,50 ppm and 100 ppm concentration of NaF), each group consisting of 4 rats, with 4 controls (fed with 1ppm concentration of NaF in distilled water). Each group was fed for a period of 42 days. Materials and Methods Cytological smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of each group after 42 days of fluoride administration. The samples were stained with the papanicolaou method and assessed for Cytomorphometrical changes in maximum diameter of nucleus, minimum diameter of nucleus, perimeter of the nucleus, maximum diameter of the cell, minimum diameter of the cell and perimeter of the cell by image analysis software and the results were statistically analysed using SPSS software. Results Mean values of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the nucleus increased in fluoride induced study groups when compared to controls and the results showed that p-value was statistically significant (p-value: 0.000, 0.001). Mean value of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the cell decreased in fluoride induced subjects when compared with controls which were statistically not significant (p-value: 0.791, 0.600 & 0.719). A continuous increase in the nuclear size and decrease in the cell size was identified in fluoride induced groups as compared to controls. Conclusion The observations of our present study revealed that cellular changes occur with severity of fluorosis. These cellular morphological changes may possibly

  8. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Haggag, Mohammad El-Sayed Yassin El-Sayed; Elsanhoty, Rafaat Mohamed; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r: 0.743; P<0.001) and between blood MDA and liver MDA (r: 0.897; P<0.001). The results showed also negative correlations between blood MDA on one hand and SOD, GPx, vitamin E and TAC on the other hand. Conclusions The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage. PMID:24144131

  9. Synthesis and psychobiological evaluation of modafinil analogs in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background and the purpose of the study Modafinil, a novel wake-promoting agent with low potential for abuse and dependence, has a reliable structure to find some novel derivatives with better activity and lower potential for abuse and risk of dependency. This study was designed to evaluate psychobiological activity of some novel N-aryl modafinil derivatives. Methods Seven novel N-aryl modafinil derivatives were synthesized through three reactions: a) preparation of benzhydrylsulfanyl acetic acid through reaction of benzhydrol with thioglycolic acid, b) formation of desired amide by adding the substituted aniline to activated acid with EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethyl amino propyl) carbodiimide). This reaction was catalyzed by HOBt (N- hydroxylbenzotriazole), and c) oxidation of sulfur to sulfoxide group with H2O2. Then, their psychobiological effect on the performance of male albino mice were compared to that of modafinil as following: wakefulness by determining the effects of derivatives on phenobarbital-induced loss of the righting reflex (LOPR); exploratory activity by measuring activity in the open field test (OFT); depression by measuring immobility time (IT) during forced swimming test (FST) and the anxiogenic and anxiolytic like effects by using elevated plus-maze test (EPM). All tests were videotaped and analyzed for the frequency and duration of the behaviors during the procedures. Conclusions 2-(Benzhydrylsulfonyl)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)acetamide (4c) showed comparable result in LOPR test. However, all analogs were found to be stimulant except 2-(benzhydrylsulfinyl)-N-phenylacetamide (4a). Also 4c led the most exploratory activity in mice among derivatives. FST results showed that 4a had the longest IT while modafinil, 2-(benzhydrylsulfinyl)-N-(3-chlorophenyl) acetamide (4b) and 2-(benzhydrylsulfinyl)-N-(4-ethylphenyl) acetamide (4d) had the shortest IT. In EPM, all derivatives showed anxiogenic-like behavior since they decreased open arms time and open arms

  10. Parkia pendula seed lectin: potential use to treat cutaneous wounds in healthy and immunocompromised mice.

    PubMed

    Coriolano, Marília Cavalcanti; de Melo, Cristiane Moutinho Lagos; Silva, Flávio de Oliveira; Schirato, Giuliana Viegas; Porto, Camila Souza; dos Santos, Paulo Jorge Parreira; Correia, Maria Tereza dos Santos; Porto, Ana Lúcia Figueiredo; Carneiro-Leão, Ana Maria dos Anjos; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso

    2014-03-01

    Parkia pendula seed lectin was used to treat cutaneous wounds of normal and immunocompromised mice, inducing cicatrization. Methotrexate (0.8 mg/kg/week) was used as immunosuppressive drug. Wounds were produced in the dorsal region (1 cm(2)) of female albino Swiss mice (Mus musculus), health and immunocompromised. Wounds were daily topically treated with 100 μL of the following solutions: (1) control (NaCl 0.15 M), (2) control Im (0.15 M NaCl), (3) P. pendula seed lectin (100 μg/mL), and (4) P. pendula seed lectin Im (100 μg/mL). Clinical evaluation was performed during 12 days. Biopsies for histopathology analysis and microbiological examinations were carried out in the second, seventh, and 12th days. The presence of edema and hyperemia was observed in all groups during inflammatory period. The first crust was detected from the second day, only in the groups treated with P. pendula seed lectin. Microbiological analysis of wounds from day 0 to day 2 did not show bacterium at P. pendula seed lectin group; however, Staphylococcus sp. was detected every day in the other groups. The lectin markedly induced a total wound closing at P. pendula seed lectin and P. pendula seed lectin Im groups on 11th day of evolution. The present study suggests that P. pendula seed lectin is a biomaterial potential to show pharmacological effect in the repair process of cutaneous wounds. PMID:24425299

  11. Acute and repeated doses (28 days) oral toxicity study of glycosides based standardized fenugreek seed extract in laboratory mice.

    PubMed

    Kandhare, Amit D; Bodhankar, Subhash L; Mohan, V; Thakurdesai, Prasad A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present work was to study acute and subacute (28-days repeated dose) oral toxicity effect of glycosides based standardized fenugreek seed extract (SFSE-G) in vivo. SFSE-G was prepared by resin-based chromatography and standardized to glycosides namely trigoneoside Ib (76%) and vicenin 1 (15%). The acute oral toxicity (AOT) and subacute toxicity studies were performed in Swiss albino mice (5 mice/sex/group) as per OECD 425 (up-and-down procedure) and OCED 407 guidelines respectively. Acute oral administration of 5000mg/kg of SFSE-G showed 40% mortality with no mortality in lower dosages. The subacute oral administration of SFSE-G did not show observational or toxicological effects on the body or organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmic effects, locomotor activity, hematology, blood biochemistry, urinalysis, or histopathology at dose 250mg/kg. However, SFSE-G (1000mg/kg) showed mortality and minor alterations to body weight, relative liver weights, hematology and blood chemistry parameters related to treatment but it was within normal laboratory ranges. In conclusion, SFSE-G showed median lethal dose (LD50) more than 4350mg/kg and no-observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) of 250mg/kg for both sexes during AOT and sub-acute toxicity study, respectively. PMID:25979642

  12. Benzophenone guttiferone A from Garcinia achachairu Rusby (Clusiaceae) Presents Genotoxic Effects in Different Cells of Mice

    PubMed Central

    Terrazas, Peterson Menezes; de Souza Marques, Eduardo; Mariano, Luisa Nathália Bolda; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo; Andrade, Sergio Faloni; Maistro, Edson Luis

    2013-01-01

    Benzophenones from natural sources and those of synthetic analogues present several reports of potent biological properties, and Guttiferone A represents a promising medicinal natural compound with analgesic and gastroprotective profiles. Considering that there are no reports that assess the genetic toxicity of Guttiferone A, the present study was undertaken to investigate the genotoxic potential of this benzophenone isolated from seeds of Garcinia achachairu in terms of DNA damage in different cells of Swiss albino mice using the comet assay, and its clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow cells in vivo by the micronucleus test. Cytotoxicity was assessed by scoring polychromatic (PCE) and normochromatic (NCE) erythrocytes ratio. Guttiferone A was administered by oral gavage at doses of 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg. The results showed that Guttiferone A produced genotoxic effects in leukocytes, liver, bone marrow, brain and testicle cells and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in bone marrow erythrocytes of mice. The PCE/NCE ratio indicated no cytotoxicity. Since guttiferone A is harmful to the genetic material we suggest caution in its use by humans. PMID:24250785

  13. Prophylactic efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) on testis of lead-exposed mice.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Veena; Kansal, Leena; Sharma, Arti

    2010-09-01

    Lead poisoning is a worldwide health problem, and its treatment is under investigation. The aim of this study was to access the efficacy of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) in reducing lead-induced changes in mice testis. Animal exposed to lead nitrate showed significant decrease in testicular SOD, CAT, GSH, total protein, and tissue lead level. This was accompanied by simultaneous increase in the activities of LPO, AST, ALT, ACP, ALP, and cholesterol level. Serum testosterone level and sperm density were suppressed in lead-treated group compared with the control. These influences of lead were prevented by concurrent daily administration of C. sativum extracts to some extent. Treating albino mice with lead-induced various histological changes in the testis and treatment with coriander led to an improvement in the histological testis picture. The results thus led us to conclude that administration of C. sativum significantly protects against lead-induced oxidative stress. Further work need to be done to isolate and purify the active principle involved in the antioxidant activity of this plant. PMID:19902160

  14. Precipitating antibody against Aeromonas salmonicida in serums of inbred albino Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Douglas P.; Klontz, George W.

    1970-01-01

    Precipitins in albino rainbow trout serums were demonstrated by gel diffusion after a single parenteral exposure to the soluble antigens of Aeromonas salmonicida. The fraction of the serum containing antibody activity against the presented antigens was shown by immunoelectrophoresis to be in the nonmigrating region. This corresponded to the beta-2 fraction of rabbit serum. An antibody-containing component comparable with rabbit gamma globulin was not detected.

  15. Beliefs and practices concerning twins, hermaphrodites, and albinos among the Bamana and Maninka of Mali.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Pascal James

    2006-06-01

    The Bamana and Maninka of Mali greatly value twins, and have elaborated a range of cultural beliefs and practices to assure their survival. Rates of twinning among these two ethnic groups average from 15.2/1000 to 17.9/1000 births compared to 10.5/1000 births (without assisted reproduction) in the United States and Great Britain. Twins (flaniw) are regarded as extraordinary beings with unusual powers, and as a gift from the supreme deity. A small altar (sinzin) is maintained in the home of twins, and periodic sacrifices of chicken blood, kola nuts, millet paste and millet beer regularly made to assure their protection. Albinos (yéfeguéw) and true and pseudo-hermaphrodites (tyéténousotéw) are also considered twin beings. However, they are believed to be the result of aberrant parental social behavior. The Bamana and Maninka believe that all four groups (twins, albinos, hermaphrodites, and pseudo-harmaphrodites) are closely linked to Faro, an androgynous supernatural being who provides equilibrium in the world. Faro is the original albino and hermaphrodite who gave birth to the first pair of twins after self-impregnation. Whenever a twin dies, a small wooden statue is sculpted called a flanitokélé (twin that remains). This commemorative figure is kept close to the surviving twin, reflecting a belief in the inseparability of twins. Eventually, the surviving twin takes responsibility for the figure. When a surviving twin marries, another figure is often sculpted in the opposite sex from the deceased twin, and placed with the original sculpture. Such commemorative sculptures are not created upon the death of those who are albinos, hermaphrodites, or pseudo-hermaphrodites. In recent years, transformational belief patterns have evolved as increasing numbers of Bamana and Maninka embrace Islam. Traditional beliefs are often given Islamic myths of origin. However, even in this Islamic context, many practices that assure twin survival are maintained. PMID:16830507

  16. Evaluation of Musa (Paradisiaca Linn. cultivar)--"Puttubale" stem juice for antilithiatic activity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Prasad, K V; Bharathi, K; Srinivasan, K K

    1993-10-01

    The fresh juice of Musa stem (Puttubale) was tested for its antilithiatic activity. Zinc discs were implanted in the urinary bladder of albino rats to induce urolithiasis. The stones formed were mainly of magnesium ammonium phosphate with traces of calcium oxalate. Musa stem juice (3 mL/rat/day orally) was found to be effective in reducing the formation and also in dissolving the pre-formed stones. PMID:8112813

  17. A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Wild and Albino Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoting; Shi, Zechao; Lin, Li; Ouyang, Gang; Zhang, Guirong; Zheng, Huan; Wei, Kaijian; Ji, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Body colours are important and striking features for individual survival and reproductive success, in particular in vertebrates where mating behaviour and mate preference may be strongly influenced by non-normal phenotypes. Pigmentation disorders may be generated by disruption of one or many independent genes as well as by environmental factors. The first discovery of albino yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) with golden skin colour from fish farms in China provides us valuable material to study the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormalities of pigmentation. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of fin tissues corresponding to the distinct body colours, wild type and mutant albino yellow catfish, were performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Based on next-generation sequencing technology and de novo assembly, we generated a transcriptome of P. fulvidraco. A number of genes differentially expressed between the wild types and albinos were identified, suggesting their contribution to the different phenotypes and fitness. However, non-synonymous mutations result from single nucleotide substitutions residing in coding regions may not contribute to such differences. Based on the high-throughput expression data generated for the two different types of P. fulvidraco, we found that alterations of expression pattern may be more common than non-synonymous mutations. The transcriptome of P. fulvidraco will be an invaluable resource for subsequent comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of this economically important fish. PMID:26114548

  18. A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Wild and Albino Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    PubMed

    Zou, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoting; Shi, Zechao; Lin, Li; Ouyang, Gang; Zhang, Guirong; Zheng, Huan; Wei, Kaijian; Ji, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Body colours are important and striking features for individual survival and reproductive success, in particular in vertebrates where mating behaviour and mate preference may be strongly influenced by non-normal phenotypes. Pigmentation disorders may be generated by disruption of one or many independent genes as well as by environmental factors. The first discovery of albino yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) with golden skin colour from fish farms in China provides us valuable material to study the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormalities of pigmentation. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of fin tissues corresponding to the distinct body colours, wild type and mutant albino yellow catfish, were performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Based on next-generation sequencing technology and de novo assembly, we generated a transcriptome of P. fulvidraco. A number of genes differentially expressed between the wild types and albinos were identified, suggesting their contribution to the different phenotypes and fitness. However, non-synonymous mutations result from single nucleotide substitutions residing in coding regions may not contribute to such differences. Based on the high-throughput expression data generated for the two different types of P. fulvidraco, we found that alterations of expression pattern may be more common than non-synonymous mutations. The transcriptome of P. fulvidraco will be an invaluable resource for subsequent comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of this economically important fish. PMID:26114548

  19. Effect of amlodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, on gonadal steroid of male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Onwuka, FC; wuanyanwu, KC Patrick-I; Nnodu, CK; Erhabor, O

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of prolonged intake of calcium-channel blocker amlodipine, an antihypertensive drug on gonadal steroid hormone (testosterone) of male albino rats. Three different concentrations of amlodipine (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three different groups (B, C, and D) of experimental male Wistar albino rats (n = 8) for six weeks. Group A rats were fed normal diet without amlodipine (n = 8) served as the control. The administration of amlodipine significantly reduced testosterone level in the following order, group A (0.22 ± 0.01) > B (0.18 ± 0.01) > C (0.14 ± 0.01) > D (0.10 ± 0.01). The reduction in testosterone levels corresponded with an increase in the concentration of amlodipine administered to male Wistar albino rats. The observation in this study reveals that long-term treatment of male Wistar rats with calcium-channel blocker and antihypertensive (amlodipine) produces a significant reduction in the level of testosterone a hormone associated with decreased ability of men to enjoy sex and to develop good quality erections. There is the need for a large scale study to investigate the potential effect of long-term antihypertensive therapy with amlodipine on sexual dysfunction in men.

  20. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of Basella alba in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Saibal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjib; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate possible hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Basella alba in comparison with silymarin in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Six groups of six albino rats each received orally for 6 weeks, vehicle, paracetamol (2 g/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus silymarin (50 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (60 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (80 mg/kg/day) and paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (100 mg/kg/day). Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by comparing serum bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, proteins, alkaline phosphatase and liver histopathology. Results were represented as mean ± SEM. One-way ANOVA was done followed by post hoc Tukey's test with a highly significance level of P < 0.001. Aqueous leaf extracts of B. alba 100 mg/kg/day orally had significant hepatoprotective effect in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The results were well comparable and even in some respects superior to standard drug silymarin. PMID:25347929

  1. Method of identification and isolation of organs of endocrine secretion in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kashirina, N.K.

    1987-10-01

    The authors describe a procedure based on electron autoradiography for isolating and determining the morphology of the adrenal, pituitary, and thyroid glands in albino mice, and use the procedure to give a description, in this paper, of the configuration, location, and physiological interaction of these glands relative to the other organs in these laboratory animals. The procedure overcomes the difficulties encountered in such determinations owing to factors such as smallness.

  2. Protective Assessment of Euphorbia neriifolia and its Isolated Flavonoid Against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced Hepatic Carcinogenesis in Male Mice: A Histopathological Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Veena; Janmeda, Pracheta

    2014-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to examine the impacts of N-nitrosodiethylamine (DENA), a potent environment carcinogen on liver tissue of mice which was attenuated by isolated flavonoid and hydro-ethanolic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia (HEEN) leaves. Materials and Methods: Carcinogenicity was induced in albino mice by a single oral administration of DENA (50 mg/kg body weight). The HEEN (150 and 400 mg/kg body weight), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA; 0.5 and 1%) and E. neriifolia flavonoid (ENF; 50 mg/kg body weight) were estimated to examine the possible anti-cancer potential. Results: DENA exposed animals showed alterations in normal hepatic histo-architecture, which comprised of necrosis (N), dilated sinusoids and vacuolization of the cells. Mice treated with E. neriifolia lower (ENL) and higher (ENH) dose and ENF before intoxicated with DENA showed that the liver cells were normal, with very little necrosis (Day 31). On the other hand, BHA higher (BHAH) and lower (BHAL) dose failed to diminish the abnormalities caused by the DENA. Conclusion: Results of the present study suggests that the ENH and ENF protects the hepatic tissue against DENA-induced hepatic carcinoma. The results could also be expressed in the order of ENH> ENF> ENL> BHAH> BHAL. PMID:24748733

  3. Effect of water-in-oil microemulsions and lamellar liquid crystalline systems on the precorneal tear film of albino New Zealand rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Judy; Maghraby, Gamal M El; Craig, Jennifer P; Alany, Raid G

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of phase transition water-in-oil (w/o) microemulsions (ME) and liquid crystalline systems (LC) on the precorneal tear film (PCTF). The study used six albino NZ rabbits and monitored the integrity and stability of the PCTF before and after instillation of test formulations. The effects were evaluated by assessment of the PCTF lipid layer using interferometry, tear evaporation rate measurements, and indirect estimation of tear volume. Ocular application of test formulations changed the appearance of the PCTF lipid layer, indicating lipid layer disruption. The recovery time was longer in case of ME compared with an aqueous solution (SOL). The tear evaporation rate was increased after application of both ME and LC systems compared with the SOL, with the LC system showing the greatest effect. Tear volume measurement results revealed minimal changes associated with the instillation of both ME systems. Whilst phase transition w/o ME systems can interact with the PCTF lipid layer in albino New Zealand rabbits, their effect on the volume of resident tears was found to be minimal. PMID:19668396

  4. Lethality, accumulation and toxicokinetics of aluminum in some tissues of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rawy, Sayed M; Morsy, Gamal M; Elshibani, Majda M

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, the lethality percentiles including median lethal doses (LD50), accumulation, distribution and toxicokinetics of aluminum in the liver, kidney, intestine, brain and serum of male albino rats, following a single oral administration were studied throughout 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The estimated LD50 at 24 h was 3.45 g Al/kg body weight (b.wt.). The utilized dose of Al was 1/50 LD50 (0.07 g Al/kg b.wt.). Aluminum residues, in Al-treated rats, were significantly decreased in response to the experimental periods and were negatively correlated with time. In addition, the hepatic, renal, intestinal, brain and serum Al contents were significantly higher than the corresponding controls at all experimental periods, except the brain that showed significant depletion when compared with its corresponding control after 28 days. Kinetically, the highest average of Al area under concentration - time curves (AUCtotal, μg/g day) and area under moment concentration - time curves (AUMCtotal, µg/g day(2)) recorded in the brain followed by kidney, serum, intestine and liver. The longest elimination half-life time (t 1/2, day) and the mean residence time (MRT, day) were recorded in the brain followed by the liver, kidney, serum and intestine. On the other hand, the slowest clearance rates (Cls, L/day) of Al, in order, were recorded in brain, kidney, serum, intestine and the liver. The elimination rate constant (Lz, day(-) (1)) of Al from the brain was less than that in the intestine and serum was less than that in the liver and kidney. The computed maximum concentrations (C max) of Al in the intestine > kidney > serum > brain > liver were recorded after 3, 3.8, 2.2, 5.4 and 3.8 days, respectively. The computed starting concentration (C 0, μg) of Al in serum was higher than its level in the intestine followed by the brain, kidney and liver. PMID:22317823

  5. Studies on fate and toxicity of nanoalumina in male albino rats: Lethality, bioaccumulation and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Gamal M; El-Ala, Kawther S Abou; Ali, Atef A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to follow-up the distribution, lethality percentile doses (LDs) and bioaccumulation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3-NPs, average diameter 9.83 ± 1.61 nm) in some tissues of male albino rats, and to evaluate its genotoxicity to the brain tissues, during acute and sublethal experiments. The LDs of Al2O3-NPs, including median lethal dose (LD50), were estimated after intraperitoneal injection. The computed LD50 at 24 and 48 h were 15.10 and 12.88 g/kg body weight (b.w.), respectively. For acute experiments, the bioaccumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, liver, kidneys, intestine and spleen was estimated after 48 h of injection with a single acute dose (3.9, 6.4 and 8.5 g/kg b.w.), while for sublethal experiments it was after 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days of injection with 1.3 g/kg b.w. once in 2 days. Multi-way analysis of variance affirmed that Al uptake, in acute experiments, was significantly affected by the injected doses, organs (brain, liver, kidneys, intestine and spleen) and their interactions, while for sublethal experiments an altogether effect based on time (1, 3, 7, 14, 28 days), doses (0 and 1.3 g), organs and their interactions was reported. In addition, Al accumulated in the brain, liver, kidney, intestine and spleen of rats administered with Al2O3-NPs were significantly higher than the corresponding controls, during acute and sublethal experiments. The uptake of Al by the spleen of rats injected with acute doses was greater than that accumulated by kidney>brain>intestine>liver, whereas the brain of rats injected with sublethal dose accumulated lesser amount of Al followed by the kidney

  6. Modulatory effect of whey proteins in some cytokines involved in wound healing in male diabetic albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Bahaa Kenawy Abuel-Hussien

    2014-10-01

    The anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necroses factor-alpha (TNF-α)) have important functions in wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with whey protein could enhance normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats. In this study, male albino rats were divided into a wounded control group, a wounded diabetic group, and a wounded diabetic group supplemented with whey protein orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Tested rats showed increasing wound closure in rats treated with whey protein. In addition, after 4 days of wound, modulation in IL-4, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were detected. Statistical analysis of data showed significant difference between the whey-protein-treated group and either control or diabetic groups (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with whey protein enhances the normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats by modulating the levels of some anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24760706

  7. Antioxidative Role of Hatikana (Leea macrophylla Roxb.) Partially Improves the Hepatic Damage Induced by CCl4 in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Samina; Rahman, Md. Atiar; Aklima, Jannatul; Hasan, Md. Rakibul; Hasan Chowdhury, J. M. Kamirul

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the protective role of Leea macrophylla extract on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) crude extract were subjected to analysis for antioxidative effects. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal control, hepatic control, and reference control (silymarin) group and treatment group. Evaluations were made for the effects of the fractions on serum enzymes and biochemical parameters of CCl4-induced albino rat. Histopathological screening was also performed to evaluate the changes of liver tissue before and after treatment. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla showed very potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing effect, superoxide scavenging effect, and iron chelating effect. Carbon tetrachloride induction increased the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. In contrast, treatment of Leea macrophylla reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as biochemical parameters activities. L. macrophylla partially restored the lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. Histopathology showed the treated liver towards restoration. Results evidenced that L. macrophylla can be prospective source of hepatic management in liver injury. PMID:26221590

  8. Adverse health effects due to arsenic exposure: Modification by dietary supplementation of jaggery in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Nrashant; Kumar, D.; Lal, Kewal; Raisuddin, S.; Sahu, Anand P.

    2010-02-01

    Populations of villages of eastern India and Bangladesh and many other parts of the world are exposed to arsenic mainly through drinking water. Due to non-availability of safe drinking water they are compelled to depend on arsenic-contaminated water. Generally, poverty level is high in those areas and situation is compounded by the lack of proper nutrition. The hypothesis that the deleterious health effects of arsenic can be prevented by modification of dietary factors with the availability of an affordable and indigenous functional food jaggery (sugarcane juice) has been tested in the present study. Jaggery contains polyphenols, vitamin C, carotene and other biologically active components. Arsenic as sodium-m-arsenite at low (0.05 ppm) and high (5 ppm) doses was orally administered to Swiss male albino mice, alone and in combination with jaggery feeding (250 mg/mice), consecutively for 180 days. The serum levels of total antioxidant, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase were substantially reduced in arsenic-exposed groups, while supplementation of jaggery enhanced their levels in combined treatment groups. The serum levels of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha were significantly increased in arsenic-exposed groups, while in the arsenic-exposed and jaggery supplemented groups their levels were normal. The comet assay in bone marrow cells showed the genotoxic effects of arsenic, whereas combination with jaggery feeding lessened the DNA damage. Histopathologically, the lung of arsenic-exposed mice showed the necrosis and degenerative changes in bronchiolar epithelium with emphysema and thickening of alveolar septa which was effectively antagonized by jaggery feeding. These results demonstrate that jaggery, a natural functional food, effectively antagonizes many of the adverse effects of arsenic.

  9. Efficiency of calcium phosphate composite nanoparticles in targeting Ehrlich carcinoma cells transplanted in mice

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Gawad, Eman I.; Hassan, Amal I.; Awwad, Sameh A.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the mode of action of nano-CaPs in vivo as a therapy for solid tumor in mice. To achieve this goal, Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) was transplanted into 85 Swiss male albino mice. After nine days, the mice were divided into 9 groups. Groups 1 and 2 were allocated as the EAC control. Groups 3 and 4 were injected once intratumorally (IT) by nano-calcium phosphate (nano-CaP). Groups 5 and 6 received once intraperitoneal injection (IP) of nano-CaP. Groups 7, 8, and 9 received nano-CaP (IP) weekly. Blood samples and thigh skeletal muscle were collected after three weeks from groups 1, 3, 5, and 7 and after four weeks from groups 2, 4, 6, and 8. On the other hand, group 9 received nano-CaP (IP) for four weeks and lasted for three months to follow up the recurrence of tumor and to ensure the safety of muscle by histopathological analysis. Tumor growth was monitored twice a week throughout the experiment. DNA fragmentation of tumor cells was evaluated. In thigh tissue, noradrenaline, dopamine, serotonin (5HT), and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were measured. In serum, 8-Hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHDG), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were analyzed. Histopathological and biochemical results showed a significant therapeutic effect of nano-CaP on implanted solid tumor and this effect was more pronounced in the animals treated IP for four weeks. This improvement was evident from the repair of fragmented DNA, the significant decrease of caspase-3, 8-OHDG, myosin, and VEGF, and the significant increase of neurotransmitters (NA, DA, 5HT, and GABA). Additionally, histopathological examination showed complete recovery of cancer cells in the thigh muscle after three months. PMID:26843980

  10. Effects of Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) larvae on the degranulation of dermal mast cells in mice; an electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Yusuf; Kalender, Suna; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Ogutcu, Ayşe; Açikgoz, Fatma

    2004-01-01

    The pine caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa (Lepidoptera: Thaumetopoeidae) is found in pine woods. Hairs of the T. pityocampa caterpillar cause a cutaneous reaction in humans and animals. Mast cells are responsible for allergic reactions in mammals. In this study male swiss albino mice were divided into two groups: 5 mice in the control group and 25 mice in the experimental group. The dorsal skin of mice was shaved. The mice in the experimental group and T. pityocampa larvae (fifth instar, approximately n=100) were put in the same cage. Dermal mast cells of mice exposed to T. pityocampa were examined with a transmission electron microscope and compared to the control group 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hours after exposure. Dermal mast cell degranulation in mice was observed 12 and 24 hours after exposure. PMID:15521642

  11. White versus blue: Does the wild 'albino' bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) differ in fruit quality compared to the blue one?

    PubMed

    Zorenc, Zala; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Koron, Darinka; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2016-11-15

    Wild albino and blue bilberry fruit were analyzed to compare different fruit characteristics linked to the composition of primary and secondary metabolites. Compounds were identified using HPLC-MS and standard quality parameters were determined. Albino berries were significantly smaller, accumulated less water and were characterized by 23% higher dry weight. Soluble solids content and pH value were higher in albino bilberry and their surface was lighter and characterized by a yellow hue. Both bilberry forms accumulated identical individual sugars and organic acids; however, the albino form had 33% higher content of total sugars and 9% higher content of total organic acids compared to the blue type. Fifteen anthocyanins were identified in both forms, but in albino bilberries, individual anthocyanins were only detected in traces. Blue bilberry contained 1.6-fold higher levels of flavanols, 2.1-fold higher levels of flavonols, 2.5-fold higher levels of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives and consequently, 4.6-fold higher total phenolic content. PMID:27283708

  12. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  13. A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Dipali J; Vyas, Hitesh A; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

    2012-07-01

    Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya. PMID:23723655

  14. Garlic and alpha lipoic supplementation enhance the immune system of albino rats and alleviate implications of pesticides mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Darwish, Nevine S; Shokry, Dina A; El-Aal, Aly GE Abd; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, Abd-Alhamed; Ziada, Reem M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate age dependent immune-system response versus exposure to different doses of mixture of (chlorpyrifos, profenofose, and fenitrothion) and/or combined with 60 and 250 mg kg-1 alpha lipoic acid and garlic, respectively. 120 males of albino rats were divided to two groups according to age; weaning group (2 months age and 60-80 gm.), adult (6 months and 180-200 gm). Each age was divided into 6 subgroups treated orally for 3 months , G1 (control), G2 high dose (HDPM) CPF10 mg kg-1, PRO 3 mg kg-1, FEN 6 mg kg-1, G3 low dose (LDPM) CPF 1 mg kg-1, PFN 0.3 mg kg-1 and FEN 0.6 mg kg-1, G4 AOX (alpha lipoic + Garlic), G5 HDPM + AOX and G6 LDPM + AOX. Results showed significant inhibition in serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE), elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) concurrent with reduction in total reduced glutathione (GSH) in both ages was recorded as well as, decrease in IGG, IGM, Lymphocyte transformation and Phagocytosis humeral and cellular immunity confirmed by alteration in lymph nodes architecture. This study was concluded that the supplementation with alpha lipoic acid and garlic improved previous alternations slightly to be more or less near the control level in both adult and weaning rats. It seems that, immune-responses of both adult and weaning rats were slightly similar. PMID:26221319

  15. Effect of different doses of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats: a histological study

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Hanaa A; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2015-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a major flavor enhancer used as a food additive. The present study investigates the effects of different doses of MSG on the morphometric and histological changes of the thyroid gland. 28 male albino rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups: group I control, group II, III and IV treated with MSG (0.25 g/kg, 3 g/kg, 6 g/kg daily for one month) respectively. The thyroid glands were dissected out and prepared for light and electron microscopic examination. Light microscopic examination of thyroid gland of group II revealed increase in follicular epithelial height. Groups III & IV showed decrease in the follicular diameter and irregularity in the shape of some follicles with discontinuity of basement membrane. Follicular hyperplasia was detected in some follicles with appearance of multiple pyknotic nuclei in follicular and interfollicular cells and multiple exfoliated cells in the colloid. In addition, areas of loss of follicular pattern were appeared in group IV. Immunohistochemical examination of BCL2 immunoexpression of the thyroid glands of groups III & IV reveals weak positive reaction in the follicular cells cytoplasm. Ultrathin sections examination of groups III & IV revealed follicular cells with irregular hyperchromatic nuclei, marked dilatation of rER and increased lysosomes with areas of short or lost apical microvilli. In addition, vacuolation of mitochondria was detected in group IV. The results displayed that MSG even at low doses is capable of producing alterations in the body weights and thyroid tissue function and histology. PMID:26884820

  16. Effect of vitamins a, C, and e supplementation in the treatment of metabolic syndrome in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Bilbis, L S; Muhammad, S A; Saidu, Y; Adamu, Y

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress seems to be involved in the path physiology of cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome. In this study we investigated the effects of vitamins A, C, and E in the management of metabolic syndrome traits condition in albino rats fed with high salt diet. The rats were placed on 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and then supplemented with these vitamins for additional 4 weeks in the presence of salt diet. Supplementation with vitamins significantly (P < 0.01 ) decreased blood pressure of the rats as compared with the control. Supplementation also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total antioxidant status as compared with untreated group. The percentage protection of the supplemented groups against atherogenesis indicated 55.50 ± 3.75%. Percentage weight gain indicated significant positive correlation with triglyceride, insulin resistance, and malondialdehyde while total antioxidant status and nitric oxide showed significant negative correlation. Salt diet significantly (P < 0.05) induced features of metabolic syndrome. The result, therefore, indicated strong relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome and underscores the role of these vitamins in the management of metabolic syndrome. PMID:22953063

  17. Immunotherapy toxic in obese mice.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    New research shows immunotherapy can cause lethal inflammation in both young and aged mice that are obese. Restricting calories in aged mice protected them from toxicity, and giving young obese mice a drug for autoimmune disease prevented the fatal reactions. PMID:25583780

  18. Royal jelly modulates oxidative stress and tissue injury in gamma irradiated male Wister Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Khaled Shaaban; Bashandy, Mohamed; Salem, Mahmoud; Ahmed, Osama; Tawfik, Zaki; Helal, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Background: Royal jelly is a nutritive secretion produced by the worker bees, rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Aim: The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of royal jelly against radiation induced oxidative stress, hematological, biochemical and histological alterations in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wister albino rats were exposed to a fractionated dose of gamma radiation (2 Gy every 3 days up to 8 Gy total doses). Royal jelly was administrated (g/Kg/day) by gavages 14 days before exposure to the 1st radiation fraction and the treatment was continued for 15 days after the 1st irradiation fraction till the end of the experiment. The rats were sacrificed 3rd, equivalent to 3rd post 2nd irradiation fraction, and equivalent to 3rd day post last irradiation fraction. Results: In the present study, gamma- irradiation induced hematological, biochemical and histological effects in male Wister albino rats. In royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable decrease recorded in thiobarbituric reactive substances concentration when compared to γ-irradiated group. Also, the serum nitric oxide concentration was significantly improved. The administration of royal jelly to irradiated rats according to the current experimental design significantly ameliorates the changes induced in serum lipid profile. Moreover, in royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable amelioration recorded in all hematological parameters along the three experimental intervals. The microscopic examination of cardiac muscle of royal jelly treated irradiated rats demonstrated structural amelioration, improved nuclei and normal features of capillaries and veins in endomysium when compared to gamma-irradiated rats. Conclusion: It was suggested that the biochemical, hematological and histological amelioration observed in royal jelly (g/Kg/day) treated irradiated rats might be due to the antioxidant

  19. Effects of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Anethum Graveolens Seed on Pentylenetetrazol-induced Seizure in Adult Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rostampour, Mohammad; Ghaffari, Arghavan; Salehi, Peyman; Saadat, Farshid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Regarding chronic nature of epilepsy and its side effects and to access the effective treatment procedures, herbal medicine has received remarkable interest. The aim of this study was to determine the anticonvulsant effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) -induced seizure in male mice. Methods Fifty-six albino male mice were divided randomly into seven groups including the negative control (saline), positive control (Phenobarbital) and treatment groups using different doses of hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed (50, 100, 300, 500 and 1000 mg/ kg). To provoke convulsion, PTZ was injected to all groups and initiation time of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures as well as surveillance after 24 h were measured. Results The results indicated that hydro-alcoholic extract of Anethum graveolens seed (AGS) delayed the initiation time of myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures in comparison with saline group. The latency was considerable for myoclonic and tonic-clonic seizures at all above mentioned doses of AGS extract except for the lowest one. Moreover, the protective effect of AGS extract against mortality was statistically significant at all doses except for 50 mg/kg. Discussion As the hydro-alcoholic extract of AGS showed an appropriate response in experimental model of convulsion, it might be considered as an adjuvant therapy with other traditional antiepileptic medications. PMID:25337380

  20. The antioxidant effect of astaxanthin is higher in young mice than aged: a region specific study on brain.

    PubMed

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Akhter, Samiha; Hasan, Ahmed Tasdid; Alam, Tanzir; Nageeb Hasan, S M; Saifullah, A R M; Shohel, Mohammad

    2015-10-01

    Astaxanthin is a potential antioxidant which shows neuroprotective property. We aimed to investigate the age-dependent and region-specific antioxidant effects of astaxanthin in mice brain. Animals were divided into 4 groups; treatment young (3 months, n = 6) (AY), treatment old (16 months, n = 6) (AO), placebo young (3 months, n = 6) (PY) and placebo old (16 months, n = 6) (PO) groups. Treatment group was given astaxanthin (2 mg/kg/day, body weight), and placebo group was given 100 μl of 0.9% normal saline orally to the healthy Swiss albino mice for 4 weeks. The level of non-enzymatic oxidative markers namely malondialdehyde (MDA); nitric oxide (NO); advanced protein oxidation product (APOP); glutathione (GSH) and the activity of enzymatic antioxidants i.e.; catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined from the isolated brain regions. Treatment with astaxanthin significantly (p < 0.05) reduces the level of MDA, APOP, NO in the cortex, striatum, hypothalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum in both age groups. Astaxanthin markedly (p < 0.05) enhances the activity of CAT and SOD enzymes while improves the level of GSH in the brain. Overall, improvement of oxidative markers was significantly greater in the young group than the aged animal. In conclusion, we report that the activity of astaxanthin is age-dependent, higher in young in compared to the aged brain. PMID:26116165

  1. In vivo antitumor activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa as a nanofactory in DAL induced mice model.

    PubMed

    Antony, Jacob Joe; Sithika, Mohamed Ali Ayisha; Joseph, Thomas Amal; Suriyakalaa, Udhayaraj; Sankarganesh, Arunachalam; Siva, Durairaj; Kalaiselvi, Seenivasan; Achiraman, Shanmugam

    2013-08-01

    Ficus religiosa leaf extract was chosen as a reducing agent to fabricate silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by a simple, cost-effective and eco-friendly process with the aim of treating Dalton's ascites lymphoma (DAL) in mice model. The formation of synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible analysis (UV-vis), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and zeta potential analyses. A peak at 431nm indicated the surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. FTIR studies indicated polyphenols and proteins as possible encapsulates. TEM analysis showed particles size in the range of 5-35nm. Healthy Swiss Albino mice (30-35g) were intraperitoneally induced with DAL cells and treated with F. religiosa derived AgNPs at a dose of 50μg/ml. Blood and liver tissues were collected subsequent to dissection and subjected to hematological, biochemical and anticancer assays. Hematological and biochemical analyses revealed revival after treating with F. religiosa derived AgNPs. Antioxidant activity results further proved supportive evidence. The apoptosis inducing effect of AgNPs was observed through acridine orange staining (AO and EB) and DNA fragmentation assay. Anti- angiogenic activity was confirmed by observing vessel development. All these observations indicate that the AgNPs were effective in treatment of DAL. PMID:23537836

  2. Activation of the Albino Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Eggs by UV-Irradiated Bester Hybrid Spermatozoa to Provide Gynogenetic Progeny.

    PubMed

    Fopp-Bayat, D; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-08-01

    Meiotic gynogenesis was induced in the albino form of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus by activation of eggs with UV-irradiated bester (Huso huso x Acipenser ruthenus) spermatozoa followed by inhibition of the second meiotic division performed by a heat shock. Obtained putative gynogenetic progeny were all albinos. The genetic verification based on three microsatellite DNA markers confirmed the only maternal inheritance of the progeny from the gynogenetic experimental groups. Cytogenetic analysis proved the gynogenetic sterlets were diploids. Application of the albino phenotype together with the molecular and the cytogenetic diagnostic approaches enabled to evaluate the efficiency of the spermatozoa irradiation and application of the heat shock to restore diploid state in the gynogenetic zygotes. PMID:25858073

  3. The Wordpath Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Alice

    The Intertribal Wordpath Society is a nonprofit educational corporation formed to promote the teaching, status, awareness, and use of Oklahoma Indian languages. The Society produces "Wordpath," a weekly 30-minute public access television show about Oklahoma Indian languages and the people who are teaching and preserving them. The show aims to…

  4. Maternal milk as methylmercury source for suckling mice: neurotoxic effects involved with the cerebellar glutamatergic system.

    PubMed

    Manfroi, C B; Schwalm, F D; Cereser, V; Abreu, F; Oliveira, A; Bizarro, L; Rocha, J B T; Frizzo, M E S; Souza, D O; Farina, M

    2004-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a highly neurotoxic compound and several studies have reported intoxication signs in children whose mothers were exposed to this environmental toxicant. Although it is well established that the in utero exposure to MeHg causes neurological deficits in animals and humans, there is no evidence of the exclusive contribution of lactational exposure to MeHg as a possible cause of neurotoxicity in the offspring. In this study, we investigated the exclusive contribution of MeHg exposure through maternal milk on biochemical parameters related to the glutamatergic homeostasis (glutamate uptake by slices) and to the oxidative stress (total and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, nonprotein hydroperoxides, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities) in the cerebellum of suckling mice (Swiss albino). The same parameters were also evaluated in the cerebellum of mothers. Our results showed, for the first time, that lactational exposure to MeHg caused a high percent of inhibition (50%) on glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices in pups. Contrarily, this effect was not observed in mothers, which were submitted to a direct oral exposure to MeHg (15 mg/l in drinking water). In addition, behavioral/functional changes were observed in the weaning mice exposed to MeHg. It was observed an increase in the levels of nonprotein hydroperoxides in cerebellum, and this increase was negatively correlated to the glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices. This study indicates that (1) the exposure of lactating mice to MeHg causes inhibition of the glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices in the offspring; (2) this inhibitory effect seems to be related to increased levels of hydroperoxide. PMID:15201443

  5. Effect of histamine H1 and H2 receptor antagonists, microinjected into cerebellar vermis, on emotional memory consolidation in mice.

    PubMed

    Gianlorenço, A C L; Serafim, K R; Canto-de-Souza, A; Mattioli, R

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of histamine H1 or H2 receptor antagonists on emotional memory consolidation in mice submitted to the elevated plus maze (EPM). The cerebellar vermis of male mice (Swiss albino) was implanted using a cannula guide. Three days after recovery, behavioral tests were performed in the EPM on 2 consecutive days (T1 and T2). Immediately after exposure to the EPM (T1), animals received a microinjection of saline (SAL) or the H1 antagonist chlorpheniramine (CPA; 0.016, 0.052, or 0.16 nmol/0.1 µL) in Experiment 1, and SAL or the H2 antagonist ranitidine (RA; 0.57, 2.85, or 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL) in Experiment 2. Twenty-four hours later, mice were reexposed to the EPM (T2) under the same experimental conditions but they did not receive any injection. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Duncan test. In Experiment 1, mice microinjected with SAL and with CPA entered the open arms less often (%OAE) and spent less time in the open arms (%OAT) in T2, and there was no difference among groups. The results of Experiment 2 demonstrated that the values of %OAE and %OAT in T2 were lower compared to T1 for the groups that were microinjected with SAL and 2.85 nmol/0.1 µL RA. However, when animals were microinjected with 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL RA, they did not show a reduction in %OAE and %OAT. These results demonstrate that CPA did not affect behavior at the doses used in this study, while 5.7 nmol/0.1 µL RA induced impairment of memory consolidation in the EPM. PMID:24519129

  6. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  7. Chemopreventive Role of Euphorbia neriifolia (Linn) and its Isolated Flavonoid Against N-Nitrosodiethylamine-induced Renal Histopathological Damage in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Veena; Janmeda, Pracheta

    2013-01-01

    Aims: This study is an attempt to evaluate the tissue protective efficacy of isolated flavonoid and hydro-ethanolic extract of Euphorbia neriifolia (HEEN) leaves against N-nitrosodiethylamine (DENA) induced renal carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Carcinogenicity was induced in Albino mice by oral administration of DENA (50 mg/kg body weight). The HEEN (150 and 400 mg/kg body weight), Butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA; 0.5 and 1%), and Euphorbia neriifolia flavonoid (ENF; 50 mg/kg body weight) were evaluated for their possible tissue carcinogenesis protective potential. Results: DENA treated animals showed alterations in normal renal histo-architecture, which comprised of necrosis (N) and vacuolization of the cells. On the other hand, the mice treated with Euphorbia neriifolia lower (ENL) and higher (ENH) dose and ENF before intoxicated with DENA showed that the renal cells were normal (Day 31). Whereas, BHA higher (BHAH) and lower (BHAL) dose failed to diminish the abnormalities caused by DENA. Conclusions: The findings of the present study Suggested that ENH and ENF showed highest renal-protective activity among all the pretreatments. The results could also be expressed in the order of ENH > ENF > ENL > BHAH > BHAL. PMID:23833445

  8. Fluvoxamine alleviates seizure activity and downregulates hippocampal GAP-43 expression in pentylenetetrazole-kindled mice: role of 5-HT3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Alhaj, Momen W; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2015-06-01

    Epilepsy has been documented to lead to many changes in the nervous system including cell loss and mossy fiber sprouting. Neuronal loss and aberrant neuroplastic changes in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus have been identified in the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling model. Antiseizure activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been reported in several studies. In the current study, the protective effect of fluvoxamine against PTZ-kindling was investigated in terms of seizure scores, neuronal loss, and regulation of hippocampal neuroplasticity. Further, the role of 5-HT3 receptors was determined. Kindling was induced by repeated injections of PTZ (35 mg/kg) thrice weekly, for a total of 13 injections. One hundred male albino mice were allocated into 10 groups: (1) saline, (2) PTZ, (3) diazepam (1 mg/kg)+PTZ, (4-6) fluvoxamine (5, 10 or 20 mg/kg)+PTZ, (7) ondansetron+fluvoxamine (20 mg/kg)+PTZ, (8) ondansetron+PTZ group, (9) ondansetron (2 mg/kg, i.p.)+saline, and (10) fluvoxamine (20 mg/kg)+saline. PTZ-kindled mice showed high seizure activity, hippocampal neuronal loss, and expression of growth-associated phosphoprotein (GAP-43) compared with saline-treated mice. Repeated administration of fluvoxamine (20 mg/kg) in PTZ-kindled mice suppressed seizure scores, protected against hippocampal neuronal loss, and downregulated GAP-43 expression, without producing any signs of the 5-HT syndrome in healthy rats. Importantly, pretreatment with a selective 5-HT3 receptor blocker (ondansetron) attenuated the aforementioned effects of fluvoxamine. In conclusion, the ameliorating effect of fluvoxamine on hippocampal neurons and neuroplasticity in PTZ-kindled mice was, at least in part, dependent on enhancement of hippocampal serotoninergic transmission at 5-HT3 receptors. PMID:25590967

  9. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  10. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  11. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  12. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  13. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  14. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  15. Molecular analyses of a tyrosinase-negative albino family

    SciTech Connect

    Park, K.C.; Chintamaneni, C.D.; Kwon, B.S. ); Halaban, R. ); Witkop, C.J. Jr. )

    1993-02-01

    Sequence analysis of the tyrosinase coding region from an individual with tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism revealed that the patient was a compound heterozygote. One allele carried a C[r arrow]A single-base substitution in codon 355 of exon 3, and the other carried a two-nucleotide deletion in exon 1. The nucleotide substitution caused a putative amino acid change from threonine (ACA) to lysine (AAA), abolishing a signal for N-glycosylation. The two base-pair deletion caused a frameshift, creating a putative premature termination signal at codon 226. The melanocytes from the proband and her affected brother were amelanotic and devoid of measurable tyrosinase activity. Moreover, gel electrophoretic analysis of the immunoprecipitated proband tyrosinase showed that the protein was no processed to the mature glycosylated form, confirming the predicted consequence of the amino acid change. The two-base deletion on the homologous allele was detected only by sequencing genomic DNA. The transcript of this allele was not represented in the cDNA library and could not be detected by PCR mRNA, and the putative truncated protein ([approximately]25 kDa) was not present in immunoprecipitates, suggesting that the allele with the missense mutation may be preferentially expressed. 29 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Acetaminophen effects on behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Kaiser, G A; Maranto, D L; Blake, S E; Storey, T M; McPherson, K P; Luper, S L

    1999-02-01

    Acetaminophen (N-Acetyl-p-aminophenol) was administered intraperitoneally to 15 Sprague-Dawley rats partitioned into 3 studies (5 rats per study) using a within subjects, repeated-measures reversal design. Behavioral thermoregulation was assessed in a cold Skinner Box using 5-sec. exposures of microwave radiation [Specific Absorption Rate = 0.34 Watts/kg/(mW/cm2)] as reinforcing stimuli under a fixed-interval 2-min. schedule of positive reinforcement. Doses of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/kg (in solutions of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%) acetaminophen showed stable rates of operant responding for heat compared with significant changes in rates for comparable doses of aspirin in a 1993 study by Vitulli, et al. Weight reductions and temperature increases varied significantly with before-session and after-session measures, respectively. 1994-95 biochemical data of Murphy, et al. from humans following aspirin or acetaminophen ingestion which affect thermoregulation and sleep patterns are discussed in conjunction with behavioral data from rats. PMID:10214655

  17. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by abamectin and Bacillus thuringiensis in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Eissa, F I; Zidan, N A

    2010-03-01

    The renal- and hepato-toxicity induced by abamectin pesticide (Vertimec) and a commercial form of a bio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Agerin) in male albino rats were evaluated. Blood picture and blood glucose level were investigated. Male albino rats were administered dietary doses each equivalent to 1/10 or 1/100 of the LD50 values of each toxicant for 30 consecutive days. Abamectin was found to pose risks of renal- and hepato-toxicity in rats, since the biochemical parameters of liver function (i.e. aspartate aminotransferase activity, alanine aminotransferase activity, acid phosphatase activity, albumin, and total protein levels) and kidney function (uric acid and creatinine concentration) were severely affected. These effects were verified by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. Likewise, some haematological indices (i.e. erythrocyte count, leukocyte count and haemoglobin concentration) were also influenced; in addition abamectin might cause hypoglycaemia. On the other hand, the above-mentioned lesions were less pronounced in the case of Bacillus thuringiensis -treated rats. PMID:20194097

  18. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  19. Antihyperglycaemic Effect of Tetracarpidium Conophorum Nuts in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Female Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onwuli, Donatus Onukwufor; Brown, Holy; Ozoani, Harrison Anaezichukwuolu

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycaemic activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) was investigated in albino rats. A total of 20 albino rats were used for the study. The rats were divided into five groups (A–E) of four rats each. Diabetes were induced in the rats except four which served as the positive control group A. Groups B (negative control), C, D, and E contain diabetic rats each with blood sugar level ≥17.00 mmol/L. Groups A and B were fed on 85.2 g of top feed grower over the test period. Test groups C, D, and E were fed on 21.3 g, 42.6 g, and 85.2 g of walnuts, respectively, and their fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels were checked on daily basis. Fasting blood glucose levels of the test groups were significantly lower than negative control P < 0.05, for 3rd, 7th, and 10th days of the test. There were also significant increase in the body weight and hemoglobin concentration and a decreased urine output of the test group compared with the controls. These results indicate that Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) has an antihyperglycemic effect in diabetic rats. PMID:24944826

  20. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Amiodarone Induced Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease in Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zaglool, Somaya Saad; Zickri, Maha Baligh; Abd El Aziz, Dalia Hussein; Mabrouk, Doaa; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The fibrosing forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. ILD may be idiopathic, secondary to occupational, infection, complicate rheumatic diseases or drug induced. Efficacy of antifibrotic agents is as far as, limited and uncertain. No effective treatment was confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis except lung transplantation. The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of human cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on fibrosing ILD. This was accomplished by using amiodarone as a model of induced lung damage in albino rat. Methods and Results: Seventeen adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Rats of amiodarone group were given 30 mg/kg of amiodarone orally 6 days/ week for 6 weeks. Rats of stem cell therapy group were injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of lung damage and left for 4 weeks before sacrifice. Obstructed bronchioles, thickened interalveolar septa and thickened wall of pulmonary vessels were found and proved morphometrically. Reduced type I pneumocytes and increased area% of collagen fibers were recorded. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusions: Cord blood MSC therapy proved definite amelioration of fibrosing interstitial lung disease provided therapy starts early in the development of the pathogenesis. PMID:24298346

  1. Nephroprotection of lacidipine against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Sahar

    2010-01-01

    Aim Gentamycin, a widely-used aminoglycoside antibiotic, is recognized as possessing significant nephrotoxic potential in human beings. Gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity is suggested to be mediated via reactive oxygen species. The present study investigated the possible antioxidant nephroprotective effect of lacidipine as a calcium-channel blocker in a gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity model in albino rats. Methods Albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 received normal saline. Group 2 received gentamycin 80 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 14 days. Group 3 received lacidipine 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally 3 days before and 14 days concurrently with gentamycin. This dose does not affect the blood pressure of rats, as evidenced in the pilot study. Results Gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity was evidenced by a marked reduction in creatinine clearance. Treatment with lacidipine improved creatinine clearance compared to the gentamycin-treated group. In addition, it reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, as an index of lipid peroxidation, with significant increases in superoxide dismutase enzyme in erythrocyte lysates and kidney catalase enzyme activities. Conclusion This study recommends the use of lacidipine in prophylaxis against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  2. Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappan, V.; Shree, K. Sakthi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days). After the treatment period of 45th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg) produced significant reduction (P < 0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days). However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:21189912

  3. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  4. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  5. Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, R K; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, V K

    2008-08-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. PMID:18478241

  6. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extracton lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sailaja, K V; Shivaranjani, V Leela; Poornima, H; Rahamathulla, S B Md; Devi, K Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dose of 85 mg/kg body weight for two consecutive days intraperitoneally at an interval of 24 h. ISO induced myocardial infarction (MI) was confirmed by disturbances in serum lipid profile, heart tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum total cholesterol (32.60 %), triglycerides (41.30 %), very low density lipoproteins (81.81 %), low density lipoproteins (84%) and phospholipids (38.88 %) and a significant decrease in the levels of high density lipoproteins (33.33 %) in the ISO control group when compared to normal controls. Additionally, there is a significant decrease in the levels of heart tissue antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and depletion of reduced glutathione, which indicates enhanced lipid peroxidation(172 %). Pretreatment with extract significantly showed a protective effect against ISO altered lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. The present study showed therapeutic effect of TTFAEt on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in experimental rats. PMID:26417233

  7. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  8. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  9. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chang-ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber. PMID:26707782

  10. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kaksha J.; Panchasara, Ashwin K.; Barvaliya, Manish J.; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Baxi, Seema N.; Vadgama, Vishal K.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  11. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kaksha J; Panchasara, Ashwin K; Barvaliya, Manish J; Purohit, Bhargav M; Baxi, Seema N; Vadgama, Vishal K; Tripathi, C B

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  12. Gender Difference in the Role of Posterodorsal Amygdala on the Regulation of Food Intake, Adiposity and Immunological Responses in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lalitha, Venugopal; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Parija, Subash Chandra; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Lesion of posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) has been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in animal models. However, the influence of gender on food intake (FI), body weight (BW) and immunological parameters following PDA lesion is not yet known. The present work was carried out to study the effect of gender on the regulation of FI, BW and immunological parameters following lesions of PDA in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-four albino Wistar rats were divided equally into 2 groups - PDA group and control group - with 6 male and 6 female rats in each. In the experimental group, bilateral electrolytic lesion of the respective nuclei was performed by stereotaxy and post-lesion parameters were recorded. In the control group, sham lesion was made. Male-female difference in each parameter was determined. Following PDA lesion, FI increased significantly in both male (p < 0.001) and female rats (p < 0.01) but the percentage increase in FI was significantly more in female rats (p < 0.001). BW also increased in both the sexes but the increase in BW was significant only in male rats (p < 0.05). Both male and female rats showed increase in the concentration of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), but the significant increase in CD4 concentration (p < 0.01) was seen only in male rats. CD8 concentration increased significantly in male rats (p < 0.05). The liver weight-BW ratio was significantly greater in female rats (p < 0.001) following PDA lesions. Lesion of PDA results in accentuation of FI and BW gain and activation of immunity. There is a gender difference in the inhibitory control of PDA on FI, BW and immunity.

  13. Radiation induced oxidative stress: I. Studies in Ehrlich solid tumor in mice.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, A; Choudhary, D; Upreti, M; Rath, P C; Kale, R K

    2001-07-01

    Understanding the response of tumors to ionizing radiation might potentially lead to improvement in tumor control and patient morbidity. Since the antioxidant status is likely to be linked to radioresponse, its modulation needs to be examined. Therefore, Swiss albino male mice (7-8 weeks old) with Ehrlich solid tumors were irradiated with different doses of gamma rays (0-9 Gy) at a dose rate of 0.0153 Gy/s; and enzymes involved in antioxidant functions were determined in the tumors. Radiation effects in terms of oxidative damage, LDH, nitric oxide and DNA fragmentation were also examined. In tumors, the specific activity of SOD was increased with dose but declined 6 Gy onwards. GST, DTD and GSH showed an almost progressive increase. These enhanced activities might have resulted from the increased protein expression. This possibility was supported by the Western Blot analysis for GST protein. These changes might be closely linked to the radiation-induced oxidative stress as reflected by the enhanced levels of peroxidative damage, DNA fragmentation, LDH activity and nitric oxide levels. These findings may have relevance to radiation therapy of cancer as the elevated antioxidant status of irradiated tumors is likely to limit the effectiveness of radiation dose and adversely affect the therapeutic gain. PMID:11681724

  14. The Combination of Antidepressant Duloxetine with Piracetam in Mice does not Produce Enhancement of Nootropic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Pravin Popatrao; Sarkar, Amrita; Patel, Sonam; Savai, Jay

    2014-01-01

    There is a strong association between depression and memory impairment. The present study aims to assess the nootropic activity of duloxetine and piracetam combination. Male Swiss Albino mice were divided randomly into 4 groups. Treatment of normal saline (10 ml/kg), duloxetine (10 mg/kg), piracetam (100 mg/kg), and duloxetine (5 mg/kg) plus piracetam (50 mg/kg) were given through intra-peritoneal route to group I-IV, respectively. Transfer latency in elevated plus maze (EPM) and time spent in target quadrant in Morris water maze (MWM) were recorded. Estimation of brain monoamines in hippocampus, cerebral cortex, and whole brain were done using HPLC with fluorescence detector. Piracetam treated group showed significant decrease in transfer latency in EPM and increase in time spent in target quadrant recorded in MWM. Combination treated group failed to produce statistically significant nootropic effect in both EPM and MWM. Combination treated group failed to increase brain monoamine levels when compared against duloxetine and piracetam treated groups, separately. But there was exception of significant increase in norepinephrine levels in hippocampi when compared against duloxetine treated group. Results indicate no cognitive benefits with piracetam plus duloxetine combination. These findings can be further probed with the aim of understanding the interaction between duloxetine and piracetam as a future endeavor. PMID:25258569

  15. Astaxanthin ameliorates aluminum chloride-induced spatial memory impairment and neuronal oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Al-Amin, Md Mamun; Reza, Hasan Mahmud; Saadi, Hasan Mahmud; Mahmud, Waich; Ibrahim, Abdirahman Adam; Alam, Musrura Mefta; Kabir, Nadia; Saifullah, A R M; Tropa, Sarjana Tarannum; Quddus, A H M Ruhul

    2016-04-15

    Aluminum chloride induces neurodegenerative disease in animal model. Evidence suggests that aluminum intake results in the activation of glial cells and generation of reactive oxygen species. By contrast, astaxanthin is an antioxidant having potential neuroprotective activity. In this study, we investigate the effect of astaxanthin on aluminum chloride-exposed behavioral brain function and neuronal oxidative stress (OS). Male Swiss albino mice (4 months old) were divided into 4 groups: (i) control (distilled water), (ii) aluminum chloride, (iii) astaxanthin+aluminum chloride, and (iv) astaxanthin. Two behavioral tests; radial arm maze and open field test were conducted, and OS markers were assayed from the brain and liver tissues following 42 days of treatment. Aluminum exposed group showed a significant reduction in spatial memory performance and anxiety-like behavior. Moreover, aluminum group exhibited a marked deterioration of oxidative markers; lipid peroxidation (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH) and advanced oxidation of protein products (AOPP) in the brain. To the contrary, co-administration of astaxanthin and aluminum has shown improved spatial memory, locomotor activity, and OS. These results indicate that astaxanthin improves aluminum-induced impaired memory performances presumably by the reduction of OS in the distinct brain regions. We suggest a future study to determine the underlying mechanism of astaxanthin in improving aluminum-exposed behavioral deficits. PMID:26927754

  16. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  17. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  18. Opiate System Mediate the Antinociceptive Effects of Coriandrum sativum in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Taherian, Abbas Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Ameri, Javad

    2012-01-01

    Our previous study showed that Coriandrum sativum (CS) has antinociceptive effects, but the mechanisms that mediate this effect are not clear. The present study was designed to test the role of opiate system in the antinociceptive effects of CS on acute and chronic pain in mice using Hot Plate (HP), Tail Flick (TF) and Formalin (FT) tests and also to compare its effect with dexamethasone (DEX) and stress (ST). Young adult male albino mice (25-30 g) in 33 groups (n = 8 in each group) were used in this study. CS (125 250, 500 and 1000 mg/Kg IP), DEX (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/Kg IP), vehicle (VEH) or swim stress were used 30 min before the pain evaluation tests. Acute and chronic pain was assessed by HP, TF and FT models. In addition, Naloxone (NAL, 2 mg/Kg, IP) was injected 15 min before the CS extract administration in order to assess the role of opiate system in the antinociception of CS. Results indicated that CS, DEX and ST have analgesic effects (p < 0.01) in comparison with the control group and higher dose of CS was more effective (p < 0.001). Besides, pretreatment of NAL modulates the antinociceptive effects of CS in all models (p < 0.001). The above findings showed that CS, DEX and ST have modulator effects on pain. These findings further indicate that the CS extract has more analgesic effects than DEX and ST and also provides the evidence for the existence of an interaction between antinociceptive effects of CS and opiate system. PMID:24250493

  19. Stem cell factor rescues dark epidermal pigmentation in discreet anatomic locations in albino and fair-skinned mice

    PubMed Central

    Vanover, Jillian C.; Spry, Malinda L.; Hamilton, Laura; Wakamatsu, Kazumasa; Ito, Shosuke; D’Orazio, John A.

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported a transgenic animal model of variant pigmentation based on epidermal expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and well-characterized coat color genes bred into the C57Bl/6 background. In this system, constitutive expression of SCF by epidermal keratinocytes results in the maintenance of epidermal melanocytes in the interfollicular basal epidermal layer and subsequent pigmentation of the epidermis itself. In this report, we describe extending this animal model by developing a compound mutant transgenic amelanotic animal defective at both the melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) and tyrosinase (Tyr) loci. We have observed SCF-dependent pigment deposition in specific anatomic regions regardless of tyrosinase (Tyr) or Mc1r genetic status. Thus, in the presence of K14-Scf, tyrosinase-null animals (previously thought incapable of synthesizing melanin) exhibited progressive robust epidermal pigmentation with age in the ears and tails. Furthermore, in the presence of the K14-Scf transgene, Tyr-defective animals demonstrated tyrosinase activity, suggesting that the c2j Tyr promoter defect is leaky and that Tyr expression can be rescued in part by SCF in the ears and tail. Lastly, we found that UV sensitivity of K14-Scf congenic animals differing only at the Mc1r or Tyr loci depended mainly on the amount of eumelanin present in the skin. These findings suggest that c-kit signaling can overcome the c2j Tyr promoter mutation in the ears and tails of aging animals but that UV resistance depends on accumulation of epidermal eumelanin. PMID:19682281

  20. Stress relaxant and antioxidant activities of acid glycoside from Spondias mangifera fruit against physically and chemically challenged albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Arif, Muhammad; Fareed, Sheeba; Rahman, Md. Azizur

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Stress relaxant and antioxidant activities of ethanolic extract of fruit Spondias mangifera (EEFSM) and its isolated compound (Sm-01) were evaluated. The structure of Sm-01 was also elucidated. Materials and Methods: EEFSM at two different doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg (bw)/day and Sm-01 at dose of 10 mg/kg (bw)/day were screened for in vivo stress relaxant activity using anoxia stress tolerance, swimming endurance and cyclophosphamide-induced immune suppression model and in vitro antioxidant activity using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) model. The levels of Hb, red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) along with organ and body weights suppressed by cyclophosphamide were estimated. The structure of Sm-01 was elucidated by spectroscopy (ultraviolet, infrared, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance [NMR],13 C-NMR and mass spectrometry) and chemical analyses. Results: Sm-01 was structurally elucidated as propan-1,2-dioic acid-3-carboxyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(6’→1”)-β-D-glucofuranoside. It was found that EEFSM and Sm-01 significantly increased the anoxia stress tolerance, swimming endurance and duration of stay on rotarod and normalized the levels of Hb, RBC, and WBC along with altered organ and body weights suppressed by cyclophosphamide. EEFSM and Sm-01 also exhibited significant antioxidant activity against DPPH free radical at the concentrations of 0.05, 0.5, and 1.0 mg/mL with obtained IC50 of 0.32 and 0.15 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: These findings demonstrated that extract and Sm-01 both possess significant stress relaxant and antioxidant activities favoring its use as adaptogens. The activities of the extract may be due to the Sm-01. PMID:26957871

  1. Enhancement of Hippocampal CA3 Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract Treatment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Kosuri Kalyan; Avadhani, Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been in clinical use for centuries. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the role of aqueous extract of root of Gg treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal Cornu Ammonis area three (CA3) neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory, in 1- month- old male Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally in four doses (75, 150, 225 and 300 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. After the treatment period, all experimental animals were subjected to spatial learning (Morris water maze, Hebb-William's maze and elevated plus maze) tests. At the end of the spatial memory tests, the rats were deeply anesthetized with Pentobarbitone and killed their brains were removed rapidly and fixed in rapid Golgi fixative. Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic arborization and intersections were quantified. These data were compared to those of age-matched control rats. Results: The aqueous root extract of Gg in the dose of 150 and 225 mg/kg/p.o showed a significant (P < 0.01) enhancement of dendritic arborization (dendritic branching points) and dendritic intersections along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in hippocampal (CA3) pyramidal neurons is comparable to control. Conclusion: Based on our results obtained, we conclude that constituents present in aqueous root extract of Gg have neuronal dendritic growth stimulating properties. PMID:24678192

  2. Antiobesity, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Achyranthes aspera seed saponins in high cholesterol fed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naveed; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Reich, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numerous herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of different diseases. Achyranthes aspera, Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae), popularly known as Charchitta or Pitpapra, is commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of fever, malaria, dysentery, asthma, arterial hypertension, pneumonia, and diabetes. The root extract is well reputed for its insect molting hormonal activity. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of saponins from Achyranthes aspera seeds on the serum lipid profile of albino rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Material and methods Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of these saponins were tested as described previously. To determine the mechanism underlying the observed effects, serum antioxidant status was assessed according to ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), superoxide dismutase and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays in saponin-treated hyperlipidemic animals. Liver enzyme levels were determined to reveal any possible hepatotoxicity. Results Four-week oral administration of A. aspera seed saponins produced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease of total cholesterol, total triglycerides and LDL-C and a significant increase of HDL-C level in hyperlipidemic rats. Treatment with A. aspera seed saponins also showed a significant (p < 0.01) improvement of serum antioxidant status in tested animals. No significant hepatotoxicity was produced by such treatment as the serum liver enzyme activity remained unaltered. Conclusions Saponins from A. aspera seeds possess antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties which might lead to improvement of serum lipid profile and blood antioxidant status. Our findings support the folkloric use of this indigenous plant in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, its exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. PMID:26788089

  3. Survival of some photoreceptor cells in albino rats following long-term exposure to continuous light.

    PubMed

    La Vail, M M

    1976-01-01

    Fischer albino rats, seven weeks of age, were exposed to continuous light at 65 foot-candle incident illuminance for up to 264 days. Other Fischer rats, seven months of age, were exposed to continuous light at 140 foot-candle incident illuminance for up to 147 days. In all cases, a small percentage of the photoreceptors survived. The identification of the surviving cells as photoreceptors was made by light microscopy on the basis of nuclear heterochromatin pattern and staining and by electron microscopy by the presence of ribbon synapses and ciliary basal bodies with ciliary filaments. No outer segment membranes were observed. The percentage of cones progressively increased from the normal 1.5 per cent to about 60 per cent with increasing exposure time, indicating that cone cells are more resistant than rods to destruction by constant light. PMID:1245384

  4. Anti-ulcer activity of ethanol extract of Terminaliapallida Brandis. in Swiss albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, U K; Manikandan, L; Bhattacharya, S; Senthilkumar, G P; Suresh, R

    2005-02-28

    Ethanol extract of Terminalia pallida Brandis. (EETP) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity against various models of ulcers, such as drug-induced ulcers, histamine-induced ulcers and ethanol-induced ulcers in Swiss albino rats. The EETP at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per os (p.o.) exhibited significant protection against ulcers produced by indomethacin, histamine and the effect was comparable to that of the reference drug famotidine (30 mg/kg b.w) orally. The extract also afforded significant protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. Meanwhile, EETP significantly lowered the elevated lipid peroxide level (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and restored the altered glutathione level in ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. The present investigation revealed that the EETP exhibited significant anti-ulcer activity by enhancing antioxidant potential of the gastric mucosa, thereby reducing mucosal damage. PMID:15707782

  5. Contraceptive studies of isolated fractions of Cuminum cyminum in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Poonam; Gupta, Rajnish; Gupta, R S

    2015-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy of Cuminum cyminum isolated fractions (CcFr) in male albino rats was investigated. Oral dose of CcFr at 50 mg/rat/day for 60 days revealed no significant changes in body weight, while marked abnormalities in spermatogenesis were observed with decreased counts (P ≤ 0.001) in round spermatids, preleptotene spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as number of mature Leydig cell were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Testicular as well as accessory sex organ biochemical parameters were significantly changed (P ≤ 0.001). Sperm motility, density and morphology were resulted in 100% negative fertility. Testosterone levels were declined significantly. In conclusion, Cuminum cyminum inhibited spermatogenesis in rats, indicating the possibility of developing an herbal male contraceptive. PMID:25675391

  6. Albino Leaf1 That Encodes the Sole Octotricopeptide Repeat Protein Is Responsible for Chloroplast Development.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zemin; Tan, Jianjie; Shi, Zhenying; Xie, Qingjun; Xing, Yi; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Qiaoling; Zhu, Haitao; Wang, Jiang; Zhang, Jingliu; Zhang, Guiquan

    2016-06-01

    Chloroplast, the photosynthetic organelle in plants, plays a crucial role in plant development and growth through manipulating the capacity of photosynthesis. However, the regulatory mechanism of chloroplast development still remains elusive. Here, we characterized a mutant with defective chloroplasts in rice (Oryza sativa), termed albino leaf1 (al1), which exhibits a distinct albino phenotype in leaves, eventually leading to al1 seedling lethality. Electronic microscopy observation demonstrated that the number of thylakoids was reduced and the structure of thylakoids was disrupted in the al1 mutant during rice development, which eventually led to the breakdown of chloroplast. Molecular cloning revealed that AL1 encodes the sole octotricopeptide repeat protein (RAP) in rice. Genetic complementation of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rap mutants indicated that the AL1 protein is a functional RAP. Further analysis illustrated that three transcript variants were present in the AL1 gene, and the altered splices occurred at the 3' untranslated region of the AL1 transcript. In addition, our results also indicate that disruption of the AL1 gene results in an altered expression of chloroplast-associated genes. Consistently, proteomic analysis demonstrated that the abundance of photosynthesis-associated proteins is altered significantly, as is that of a group of metabolism-associated proteins. More specifically, we found that the loss of AL1 resulted in altered abundances of ribosomal proteins, suggesting that RAP likely also regulates the homeostasis of ribosomal proteins in rice in addition to the ribosomal RNA. Taken together, we propose that AL1, particularly the AL1a and AL1c isoforms, plays an essential role in chloroplast development in rice. PMID:27208287

  7. Ulcerogenic and intestinal motility/transit stimulating actions of nevirapine in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Umoren, Elizabeth Bassey; Obembe, Agona Odeh; Osim, Eme Effiom

    2013-09-01

    The antiretroviral is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of nevirapine (NVP) administration on gastric acid secretion, pepsin secretion, mucosal secretion, intestinal motility, and transit using apparently healthy albino Wistar rats. Eighty albino Wistar rats (50-125 g body weight) from the start of the experiment were used for the study. Rats in the control group were fed normal rodent chow, while the NVP group was fed by gavage NVP (0.4 mg/kg body weight) two times daily (07:00 and 18:00 hours) in addition to normal rodent chow for 12 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. Mean basal gastric output and peak acid output following histamine administration in the NVP-treated group were significantly higher (p < 0.001, respectively) compared to the control. Following cimetidine administration, there was significant decrease (p < 0.001) in peak acid output in the NVP-treated group compared to the control. The concentration of gastric pepsin, adherent mucus secretion, and mean value for ulcer score were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to their control group, respectively. There were significant increases (p < 0.05, respectively) in intestinal motility and basal contraction (p < 0.05) and increase in intestinal transit of the ileum of NVP-treated rats compared to their control, respectively. Results of the study suggest that NVP administration might provoke gastric ulceration in rats which may be caused by high pepsin, high basal acid output, and increased intestinal motility and transit. PMID:23536414

  8. Intermediate rough Brucella abortus S19Δper mutant is DIVA enable, safe to pregnant guinea pigs and confers protection to mice.

    PubMed

    Lalsiamthara, Jonathan; Gogia, Neha; Goswami, Tapas K; Singh, R K; Chaudhuri, Pallab

    2015-05-21

    Brucella abortus S19 is a smooth strain used as live vaccine against bovine brucellosis. Smooth lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is responsible for its residual virulence and serological interference. Rough mutants defective of LPS are more attenuated but confers lower level of protection. We describe a modified B. abortus S19 strain, named as S19Δper, which exhibits intermediate rough phenotype with residual O-polysaccharide (OPS). Deletion of perosamine synthetase gene resulted in substantial attenuation of S19Δper mutant without affecting immunogenic properties. It mounted strong immune response in Swiss albino mice and conferred protection similar to S19 vaccine. Immunized mice produced higher levels of IFN-γ, IgG2a and thus has immune response inclined towards Th1 cell mediated immunity. Sera from immunized animals did not show agglutination reaction with RBPT antigen and thus could serve as DIVA (Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals) vaccine. S19Δper mutant displayed more susceptibility to serum complement mediated killing and sensitivity to polymyxin B. Pregnant guinea pigs injected with S19Δper mutant completed full term of pregnancy and did not cause abortion, still birth or birth of weak offspring. S19Δper mutant with intermediate rough phenotype displayed remarkable resemblance to S19 vaccine strain with improved properties of safety, immunogenicity and DIVA capability for control of bovine brucellosis. PMID:25869887

  9. Obestatin and Nt8U influence glycerolipid metabolism and PPAR gamma signaling in mice.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, ShreeRanga; Raghavan, Angad V; Rao, Sudha N; Manjappara, Uma V

    2014-08-01

    Obestatin, its N-terminal fragment and the N-terminal fragment analog Nt8U were previously shown to reduce food intake, gain in body weight and triglyceride levels in albino mice. To establish their mode of action, mRNA profiling of the epididymal adipose tissue of mice treated with these peptides were performed. The differential expressions were markedly indicative of their involvement in lipid metabolism. Obestatin showed a significant upregulation of the genes patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3, diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2, monoglyceride lipase, aldo-keto reductase family 1, member 7 which are involved in glycerolipid metabolism. It also upregulated peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, retinoid X receptor gamma, cluster of differentiation 36, adiponectin, C1Q and collagen domain containing, angiopoietin-like 4, lipoprotein lipase, stearoyl-coenzyme A and desaturase 3 involved in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling pathway. Nt8U upregulated genes implicated in the same two pathways but with lesser significance and also upregulated APOL2. The N-terminal fragment though differentially regulated a small subset of the genes differentially regulated by obestatin and Nt8U, no conclusive evidence was obtained as to assign a specific pathway for its mode of action. We hypothesize that reduced food intake brought about by obestatin and Nt8U triggers lipid catabolism. The free fatty acids and lysophosphatidic acid thus produced in turn activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and the genes involved in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor signaling. All of them together lead to reduction in gain in bodyweight, stored fat and circulating lipids. These results also correlate well with the observed efficacy of the peptides. PMID:24937751

  10. Tissue accumulation kinetics of ciclesonide-active metabolite and budesonide in mice.

    PubMed

    Mårs, Ulla; d'Argy, Roland; Hallbeck, Karin; Miller-Larsson, Anna; Edsbäcker, Staffan

    2013-06-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are mainstay treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, highly lipophilic ICS accumulate in systemic tissues, which may lead to adverse systemic effects. The accumulation of a new, highly lipophilic ICS, ciclesonide and its active metabolite (des-CIC) has not yet been reported. Here, we have compared tissue accumulation of des-CIC and an ICS of a moderate lipophilicity, budesonide (BUD), after 14 days of once-daily treatment in mice. Single, three or 14 daily doses of [(3) H]-des-CIC or [(3) H]-BUD were administered subcutaneously to male CD1 albino mice, which were killed at 4 hr, 24 hr or 5 days after the last dose. Distribution of tissue concentration of radioactivity was studied by quantitative whole-body autoradiography. Pattern of radioactivity distribution across most tissues was similar for both corticosteroids after a single as well as after repeated dosing. However, tissue concentration of radioactivity differed between des-CIC and BUD. After a single dose, concentrations of radioactivity for both corticosteroids were low for most tissues but increased over 14 days of daily dosing. The tissue radioactivity of des-CIC at 24 hr and 5 days after the 14th dose was 2-3 times higher than that of BUD in majority of tissues. Tissue accumulation, assessed as concentration of tissue radioactivity 5 days after the 14th versus 3rd dose, showed an average ratio of 5.2 for des-CIC and 2.7 for BUD (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, des-CIC accumulated significantly more than BUD. Systemic accumulation may lead to increased risk of adverse systemic side effects during long-term therapy. PMID:23256845

  11. Impact of pre-exposure of tail suspension on behavioural parameters like locomotion, exploration, and anxiety in mice.

    PubMed

    Kale, Pravin Popatrao; Addepalli, Veeranjaneyulu; Ghadawale, Shalaka Ramesh

    2013-09-01

    The tail suspension test (TST) is a valid tool for assessing antidepressant activity. Association between depression and lower locomotion and exploration activities is also reported. In the present study, photoactometer, hole board and elevated plus maze tests were performed to evaluate locomotion, exploration and anxiety activities on animals of first and second set, however animals of second set were pre-exposed to TST. The comparison between these two sets will help in understanding the impact of pre-exposure to TST on behavioural parameters. In both sets, swiss albino mice were treated with caffeine (10 mg/kg, ip), bupropion (10 mg/kg, ip), duloxetine (10 mg/kg, ip), nicotine (0.8 mg/kg, sc) and normal saline. Control group of second set showed significant decrease in locomotion, exploration and increase in anxiety when compared against control group of first set. In second set, duloxetine, bupropion, and nicotine treated groups showed significant increase in locomotion when compared against control group of same set. Overall, pre-exposure to TST leads to significant decrease in locomotion, exploration activities and increase in anxiety level. Further studies demonstrating it's time bound impact on brain monoamine levels with correlation to behavioural paradigms may help to validate these outcomes. PMID:24377133

  12. Co-infection with Plasmodium berghei and Trypanosoma brucei increases severity of malaria and trypanosomiasis in mice.

    PubMed

    Ademola, Isaiah Oluwafemi; Odeniran, Paul Olalekan

    2016-07-01

    Individuals in natural populations may be infected with multiple different parasites at a time. These parasites may interact with each other or act independently in the host, and this may result to varying outcomes on host health and survival. This study therefore aimed at investigating the health impact of co-infection of mice with Plasmodium berghei and Trypanosoma brucei. Forty Swiss albino mice (14-17g) were divided into four groups of ten. Mice in groups A and B received 10(6)P. berghei and groups B and C 10(5)T. brucei, while group D were uninfected. The co-infected mice had higher P. berghei and T. brucei parasitaemia, compared with the mono-infected mice. The co-infected mice had significantly (p<0.05) lower survival rate compared with the mono-infected mice. Co-infection of mice with P. berghei and T. brucei resulted in rapid P. berghei and T. brucei development and increased parasitaemia. The leukocyte numbers significantly (p<0.05) reduced on days 12 and 15 post infection among P. berghei infected mice, in the presence or absence of T. brucei. Anaemia and hypoglycaemia was more severe in the co-infected mice. Therefore, co-infection of mice with P. berghei and T. brucei may increase pathologic impact to the host by increasing parasitaemia. PMID:27021269

  13. Changes in the blood lipid profile after administration of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) leaves in the normal albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, A; Lavania, S C; Pandey, D N; Pant, M C

    1994-10-01

    Administration of fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) mixed as 1 g and 2 g in 100 gms of diet given for four weeks, brought about significant changes in the lipid profile of normal albino rabbits. This resulted in significant lowering in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid and LDL-cholesterol levels and significant increase in the HDL-cholesterol and total faecal sterol contents. PMID:7883302

  14. Vitronectin absorbed on nanoparticles mediate cell viability/proliferation and uptake by 3T3 Swiss albino mouse fibroblasts: in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Rosso, F; Marino, G; Grimaldi, A; Cafiero, G; Chiellini, E; Chiellini, F; Barbarisi, M; Barbarisi, A

    2013-01-01

    We study the interaction of 3T3 Swiss albino mouse fibroblasts with polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) and investigate cellular behaviour in terms of viability/cytotoxicity, cell cycle, NPs uptake, MAP kinase (ERK1/2), and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation. After incubation of NPs with cell culture media, western blot analysis showed that Vitronectin is retained by NPs, while Fibronectin is not detected. From cytotoxicity studies (MTT and BrdU methods) an LD50 of about 1.5 mg/mL results for NPs. However, NPs in the range 0.01-0.30 mg/mL are able to trigger a statistically significant increase in proliferation and cell cycle progression in dose and time depending manner. Also, biochemical evaluation of ERK1/2 and FAK clearly shows an increasing phosphorylation in a dose and time depending manner. Finally, we found by transmission electron microscopy that NPs are internalised by cells. Competitively blocking VN-integrin receptors with echistatin (1 μg/mL) results in a decrease of viability/proliferation, cell cycle progression, cellular uptake, and FAK/ERK activation showing the involvement of Vitronectin receptors in signal transduction. In conclusion, our results show that cell surface NPs interactions are mediated by absorbed plasma proteins (i.e., Vitronectin) that represent an external stimuli, switched to the nucleus by FAK enzyme, which in turn modulate fibroblasts viability/proliferation. PMID:23710450

  15. Premature Ejaculation – Dose and Duration Dependent Effect of Fluoxetine: A Histological Study on Seminal Vesicle of Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jethani, SL; Rohatagi, RK; Kalra, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fluoxetine is a prototype drug of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Its active demethylated metabolite has a half life of 7-10 d. Fluoxetine is used to treat depression and is also prescribed in premature ejaculation. Aim: In the present study dose and duration dependent effects of Fluoxetine on histology of seminal vesicle of the albino rats were observed. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 36 adult male albino rats. Fluoxetine was administered intraperitoneally for 2 wk, 4 wk and 12 wk with mild (10mg/kg/day), moderate (20mg/kg/day) and severe doses (40mg/kg/day). Histological slides of Seminal vesicle were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Results: On examination through the light microscope, the proliferation of primary, secondary and tertiary villi, increased crypt/alveoli, increased thickness of lamina propria, decreased epithelial cell height, metaplasia, changes in the amount of luminal eosinophilic secretory material in the form of scanty secretion in lumen of seminal vesicle. Conclusion: Low doses for long duration and high doses for short duration of Fluoxetine produce histological changes in seminal vesicle of albino rats. PMID:25386416

  16. Study of Foeniculum vulgare Effect on Folliculogenesis in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Khazaei, Mozafar; Montaseri, Azadeh; Khazaei, Mohammad Rasool; Khanahmadi, Masumeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Foeniculum vulgare (FVE) is used in traditional medicine for its antiseptic, palliative and anti-inflammatory effects. Traditionally, FVE is utilized for treating female infertility. The present study aims to investigate the effects of FVE extract on folliculogenesis in female albino mice. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 20 female albino mice were divided into four groups. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental) received FVE alcoholic extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (BW)/day for five days. Group 3 (negative control) received ethanol and group 4 (positive control) was administered normal saline, in the same doses as the experimental groups. Animals in all groups were sacrificed on the sixth day of the study; their ovaries were dissected out and prepared for histological examinations. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained microscopic slides were evaluated and the numbers of ovarian follicles were compared between groups. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Results: The total follicle numbers were 26.5 ± 5.24 for group 1 (100 mg/kg FVE), 27.2 ± 4.1 for group 2 (200 mg/kg FVE), 10.1 ± 2.53 for group 3 (ethanol control) and 17.2 ± 3.9 for the saline control group (group 4). The numbers of graffian, antral and multilaminar follicles increased significantly in both experimental groups when compared with the control groups (p<0.05), however there were no significant differences in follicle numbers among the experimental groups. The number of unilaminar primary follicles did not significantly change between all groups. GCMS analysis of FVE extract identified the presence of diosgenin, an estrogenic compound. Conclusion: FVE induced folliculogenesis in female mice ovary and increased the number of growing ovarian follicles. The estrogenic component of FVE, diosgenin, may exert this effect. PMID:25101154

  17. Vertebral muscles of the back and tail of the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus).

    PubMed

    Brink, E E; Pfaff, D W

    1980-01-01

    The dorsal and ventral vertebral muscles of the back and the tail of the albino Norway rat are described and discussed. These muscles were analyzed because they are undoubtably used during the sexual posturing, lordosis, of the female rat, as well as participating in a variety of other behaviors. The muscles are described by region (thoracic-lumbar or sacrocaudal), and the classifications of Vallois are followed where possible. Of the epaxial (dorsal) muscles, the three longitudinal systems of muscles, the transversospinalis, the longissimus, and the iliocostalis systems, can be identified in the albino rat. Muscles of the transversospinalis system are fused in the lumbar region, distinct and specialized in the thoracic region, and form the tail muscle extensor caudae medialis caudally. The iliocostalis system of the lumbar region is fused with one component of the lumbar longissimus system to form lateral longissimus. Anteriorly, iliocostalis thoracis and cervicis represent the iliocostalis system. The lumbar longissimus system is represented by the longissimus component of lateral longissimus, medial longissimus, and a short-fiber component. Longissimus dorsi is the anterior continuation of the longissimus portion of the lateral longissimus. The short-fiber component also continues into the thoracic region, where it becomes difficult to separate out from longissimus dorsi. Medial longissimus represents the excursion into the lumbar region of the long, tendinous, tailbase-tail muscle, longissimus caudae; the caudal portion of this muscle is extensor caudae lateralis. The remaining dorsal muscle described is the tail muscle, abductor caudae dorsalis. The hyposomal (ventral) muscles described are quadratus lumborum and the intertransversarii, present in the lumbar region; the muslces iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus and coccygeus which arise from the medial face of the pelvis and insert onto the proximal tail; the long, tendinous, tail muscles, flexor caudae brevis and

  18. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nfambi, Joshua; Bbosa, Godfrey S.; Sembajwe, Lawrence Fred; Gakunga, James; Kasolo, Josephine N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, Moringa oleifera is used by different communities to treat various ailments including modulation of the immune system though with limited scientific evidence. Aim To study the immunomodulatory activity of M. oleifera methanolic leaf extract in Wistar albino rats. Methods An experimental laboratory-based study was done following standard methods and procedures. Nine experimental groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX) each comprising of six animals were used. Group I received normal saline. Groups II to IX received 200 mg/kg bwt cyclophosphamide at the beginning of the study. Group III received 50 mg/kg bwt of an immunostimulatory drug levamisole. Groups IV to IX were dosed daily for 14 days with extract at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bwt, respectively, using an intragastric tube. Complete blood count (CBC), delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), neutrophil adhesion test, and hemagglutination antibody titer were determined using standard methods and procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad prism 5.0a Software. Results There was an increment in WBC, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts at a dose of 1000 mg/kg bwt similar to the levamisole-positive control group. The neutrophil adhesion was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for treatment groups that received 1000 mg/kg bwt (29.94%) and 500 mg/kg bwt at 17.28%. The mean percentage increment in footpad thickness was highest (26.9%) after 8 h of injection of antigen in the footpad of rats dosed 500 mg/kg bwt and this later reduced to 25.6% after 24 h. There was a dose-dependent increment in the mean hemagglutination antibody titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) from 10.73±0.57 HA units/μL for the 250 mg/kg bwt to 26.22±1.70 HA units/μL for the 1000 mg/kg bwt. Conclusions Methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera caused a significant immunostimulatory effect on both the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems in the Wistar albino rats. PMID:26103628

  19. Effect of methanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley fruits on marble-burying behavior in mice: Implications for obsessive–compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Prajapati, R. P.; Kalaria, M. V.; Karkare, V. P.; Parmar, S. K.; Sheth, N. R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is the fourth most common mental disorder and is diagnosed nearly as often as asthma and diabetes mellitus. Over the last decade, the inhibition of burying of glass marbles by mice has been used as an index of anti-OCD drug action in the so-called marble-burying test. Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standley (LS), commonly known as “bottle gourd” (English), possesses several medicinal properties; little is known about its action as a nerve tonic. Objective: The purpose of this study was to characterize the anti-OCD (anti-compulsive) activity of the methanolic extract of the fruits of L. siceraria (Molina) Standley (LS) using the marble-burying behavior in mice. Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted in specific animal models of Swiss albino mice to evaluate marble-burying behavior. Results and Conclusions: Intraperitonial administration of 25 and 50 mg/kg of LS extract significantly (P < 0.001) decreased the total number of buried marbles. The effect was comparable to that of the fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Fluoxetine and LS fruit extract do not produce any overt motor dysfunction. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of LS showed the presence of flavonoids, saponins, sterols, proteins, tannins and carbohydrates. The results of the study for the first time show that the plant possesses anti-compulsive (anti-OCD) activity, confirming the traditional claims. Future research should focus on the identification and the mechanism of action of the constituents from this plant. PMID:21731398

  20. Effects of male social status on reproductive success and on behavior in mice (Mus musculus).

    PubMed

    D'Amato, F R

    1988-06-01

    Differences in reproduction as well as in behavior in the presence of females were evaluated according to dominant and subordinate male rank in albino mice, in the temporary absence of each male's antagonist. Dominant males reproduced more successfully than subordinate males. Subordinate males were generally inactive, except for displacement activities, during the first 15 min they were exposed to female partners. These findings suggest that mechanisms other than male-male interference or mating order may be operating or influencing behavior and reproductive results. PMID:3396312

  1. Effect of Trichodesma indicum extract on cough reflex induced by sulphur dioxide in mice.

    PubMed

    Srikanth, K; Murugesan, T; Kumar, Ch Anil; Suba, V; Das, A K; Sinha, S; Arunachalam, G; Manikandan, L

    2002-01-01

    The effect of methanol extract of whole plants of Trichodesma indicum R. Br. has been investigated on sulphur dioxide (SO2) induced cough reflex in Swiss albino mice. The extract has demonstrated significant (p < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of cough in all the tested doses when compared with untreated control group. The effect persisted up to 90 min of its oral administration and also comparable to that of the effect exhibited by the standard drug (Codeine phosphate). This study confirmed the traditional use of this plant in the treatment of cough. Determination of underlying mechanism of beneficial effect is major topic requiring further comprehensive investigation. PMID:11924768

  2. Anti-obesity activity of chloroform-methanol extract of Premna integrifolia in mice fed with cafeteria diet

    PubMed Central

    Mali, Prashant Y.; Bigoniya, Papiya; Panchal, Shital S.; Muchhandi, Irrappa S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study: Aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-obesity activity of chloroform:methanol extract of P. integrifolia (CMPI) in mice fed with cafeteria diet. Materials and Methods: Female Swiss Albino mice were divided into six groups, which received normal and cafeteria diet, standard drug simvastatin (10 mg/kg) and CMPI (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) daily for 40 days. Parameters such as body weight, body mass index (BMI), Lee index of obesity (LIO), food consumption, locomotor behavior, serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), atherogenic index, organ weight and organ fat pad weight were studied for evaluating the anti-obesity activity of P. integrifolia. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint profile of chloroform-methanol extract was also studied using quercetin as the reference standard. Results: There was a significant increase in body weight, BMI, LIO, food consumption, organ weight (liver and small intestine), organ fat pad weight (mesenteric and peri-renal fat pad) and in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL and VLDL with a significant decrease in locomotor behavior (ambulation, rearing, grooming) and HDL level in cafeteria diet group. Animals treated with CMPI showed dose dependent activity. P. integrifolia (200 mg/kg) supplementation attenuated all the above alterations, which indicates the anti-obesity activity. HPLC fingerprint profile of CMPI showed two peaks in the solvent system of 50 mm potassium diphosphate (pH-3 with ortho phosphoric acid): Methanol (30:70 v/v) at 360 nm. Conclusion: Present findings suggest that, CMPI possessed anti-obesity activity that substantiated its ethno-medicinal use in the treatment of obesity. PMID:24082700

  3. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Poonam; Tandan, Neeraj; Singh, Neera; Kumar, Divyansh; Kumar, Monu

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE) in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw) of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides), lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity. PMID:25254057

  4. Microspore embryogenesis: assignment of genes to embryo formation and green vs. albino plant production.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Amatriaín, M; Svensson, J T; Castillo, A M; Close, T J; Vallés, M P

    2009-08-01

    Plant microspores can be reprogrammed from their normal pollen development to an embryogenic route in a process termed microspore embryogenesis or androgenesis. Stress treatment has a critical role in this process, inducing the dedifferentiation of microspores and conditioning the following androgenic response. In this study, we have used three barley doubled haploid lines with similar genetic background but different androgenic response. The Barley1 GeneChip was used for transcriptome comparison of these lines after mannitol stress treatment, allowing the identification of 213 differentially expressed genes. Most of these genes belong to the functional categories "cell rescue, defense, and virulence"; "metabolism"; "transcription"; and "transport". These genes were grouped into clusters according to their expression profiles among lines. A principal component analysis allowed us to associate specific gene expression clusters to phenotypic variables. Genes associated with the ability of microspores to divide and form embryos were mainly involved in changes in the structure and function of membranes, efficient use of available energy sources, and cell fate. Genes related to stress response, transcription and translation regulation, and degradation of pollen-specific proteins were associated with green plant production, while expression of genes related to plastid development was associated with albino plant regeneration. PMID:19229567

  5. The acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of caffeine in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Richard H

    2016-10-01

    An acute LD50 is a statistically derived amount of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of the animals when given by a specified route as a single dose and the animals observed for a specified time period. Although conducting routine acute toxicity testing in rodents has been criticized, it can serve useful functions and also have practical implications. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) will reflect the acute toxicity of a substance and may require workers to wear protective gear, if appropriate, based on the LD50. There is no information in the scientific published literature which calculates a mean LD50 and standard deviation for caffeine administered orally to rats, using studies performed under good laboratory practice (GLP) or equivalent. This report does that and should be useful to manufacturers, packagers, transporters and regulators of this material. Using data from studies that are reproducible and reliable, the most accurate estimate of the acute LD50 of caffeine administered orally in male albino rats is hereby reported to be 367/mg/kg. PMID:27461039

  6. Maturation of convulsogenic activity induced by leptazol in the albino rat

    PubMed Central

    De Casrilevitz, Mira; Engelhardt, E.; Esbérard, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    1. Maturation of the excitatory and inhibitory neuromechanisms at various levels of the central nervous system was demonstrated by the convulsogenic activity induced by leptazol in the developing albino rat. 2. The somatomotor end points considered (myoclonic jerk, myoclonic seizure, tonic seizure and catalepsy) were not observed in all age groups. Tonic seizure was seen at birth, myoclonic jerks at 2 weeks of age, myoclonic seizure and catalepsy at 3 weeks of age. 3. The convulsive sequences described presented three different patterns, defining three age groups: the infant pattern (infant group: newborn-1 week old animals); the transitional pattern (transitional group: 2 week old animals); and the adult pattern (adult group: 3 week old-adult animals). 4. Effective doses were determined for the three types of convulsive sequence: MJ50 for the myoclonic major sequence (maximal end point: myoclonic jerk), MS50 for the myoclonic major sequence (maximal end point: myoclonic seizure) and the TS50 for the myoclonic-tonic-clonic sequence (maximal end point: tonic seizure). 5. The correlation of the convulsive patterns with the dose and latency variations suggests that: (a) the neuromechanisms responsible for the tonic seizure and clonic seizure, located at brainstem and spinal cord levels, function at birth and reach maturity at 3 weeks of age; (b) the neuromechanisms responsible for the myoclonic manifestations and for catalepsy, located at the striato-thalamocortical level, start functioning at 2-3 weeks of age, indicating the later maturation of the more cephalic structures. PMID:5104003

  7. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K.; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  8. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  9. Ameliorating effect of Allium Sativum on high-fat diet induced fatty liver in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Aisha; Usmani, Ambreen; Waqar, Humera; Siddiqui, Asma; Kumar, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect provided by fresh garlic on fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at BMSI, JPMC from October to November 2008. Thirty adult albino rats, 200-240 gram weight, were divided into three groups. Group A received control diet, Group B received high-fat diet (20 mg butter/100 gm diet) and Group C received high-fat diet with fresh garlic (20 mg butter with 6 gm fresh garlic/100 gm diet). The groups were further divided on the basis of duration of treatment, four weeks and eight weeks respectively. The rats were sacrificed, liver removed, weighed and relative liver weight calculated. Hepatic tissue was processed and tissue slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Results: There was significant increase in relative liver weight in group B animals as compared to the control animals, which decreased significantly in group C. Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections revealed ballooned hepatocytes having vesicular appearance with pyknotic nuclei in high-fat group which were preserved to a great extent in group C animals. Conclusion: This study has shown that use of fresh garlic along with high-fat diet prevents its damaging effects on liver to a great extent. PMID:27182249

  10. Antispermatogenic Activity of the Benzothiazoline Ligand and Corresponding Organoantimony(V) Derivative in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pankaj K.; Rehwani, H.; Rai, A. K.; Gupta, R. S.; Singh, Y. P.

    2006-01-01

    Triphenylantimony(V) derivative, Ph3Sb(OPri) [SC6H4N : C(CH3)CH2C(O)CH3], 1b, and the corresponding benzothiazoline ligand [1, 2], HNC6H4SC⎴(CH3)CH2C(O)CH3, 1a, have been tested for their effects on the reproductive system of male albino rats. The oral administration of both 1a and 1b at the dose level of 10 mg/rat/day produced significant reduction in the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate. Significant decrease in sperm motility as well as in sperm density resulted in 100% sterility. Significant (P < .01) alterations were also found in biochemical parameters of reproductive organs in treated male rats as compared to the control group. Production of preleptotene, pachytene, and secondary spermatocytes was decreased by 42%, 43%, 39%, and by 44%, 49%, 55% in the ligand, 1a, and organoantimony(V) derivative, 1b, treated rats, respectively. These results indicate that both compounds 1a and 1b are antispermatogenic in nature and on oral administration in male rats, and finally caused sterility. A comparison indicates that the organoantimony(V) derivative 1b is more effective pertaining to its antispermatogenic activity than the corresponding ligand 1a. PMID:17496999

  11. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P < 0.001), decrease in the period for epithelialization (P < 0.01), high skin breaking strength (P < 0.001), and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect. PMID:27018126

  12. Autoradiographic localization of tritiated dihydrotestosterone in the flank organ of the albino hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Lucky, A.W.; Eisenfeld, A.J.; Visintin, I.

    1985-02-01

    In the hamster flank organ, the growth of hair and growth of sebaceous glands are androgen-dependent functions. Although dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is known to be a potent stimulator of flank organ growth, there is no information about localization of DHT receptor sites in this organ. The purpose of this study was to use steroid autoradiography to localize DHT receptors in the hamster flank organ. Because steroid hormones are functional when translocated to nuclear receptors, nuclear localization by autoradiography defines receptor sites. In order to be able to visualize autoradiographic grains from radiolabeled androgens around hair follicles, albino hamsters were studied to avoid confusion between the grains and pigment granules which are abundant in the more common Golden Syrian hamster. Mature male hamsters castrated 24 hours earlier were given tritium-labeled dihydrotestosterone ( (/sup 3/H)DHT). Using the technique of thaw-mount steroid autoradiography, 4-micron unfixed frozen sections were mounted in the dark onto emulsion-coated glass slides and allowed to develop for 4-6 months. (/sup 3/H)DHT was found to be concentrated over sebocyte nuclei. The label was present peripherally as well as in differentiating sebocytes. There was no nuclear localization of (/sup 3/H)DHT in animals pretreated with excessive quantities of unlabeled DHT. Steroid metabolites of (/sup 3/H) DHT were assessed by thin-layer chromatography in paired tissue samples. Most of the label remained with DHT. Uptake was inhibited in the flank organ of hamsters pretreated with unlabeled DHT.

  13. Learning and memory impairment in albino rats after potassium ethylxanthogenate. Effects of nootropic agents.

    PubMed

    Genkova-Papasova, M; Lazarova-Bakarova, M

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the nootropic agents piracetam, aniracetam, meclofenoxate and fipexide on the cognitive functions impaired after potassium ethylxanthogenate, inhibitor of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, were tested in experiments on albino rats. The changes in learning and memory were traced by the active conditioned avoidance method with negative reinforcement (shuttle-box) and the passive avoidance method (step-down). Potassium ethylxanthogenate, injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 100 mg/kg, markedly impaired learning and memory with both methods used. Piracetam (600 mg/kg), aniracetam (50 mg/kg), meclofenoxate (100 mg/kg) and fipexide (10 mg/kg), administered orally five days before and five days during shuttle-box training, as well as five days before step-down training, completely prevented the impairing effect of potassium ethylxanthogenate on the cognitive processes. The role of the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system and of other brain transmitter systems for memory disturbances caused by potassium ethylxanthogenate, as well as the protective effect of the nootropic drugs used, are discussed. PMID:1668136

  14. Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Lambert, J K; Brown, S W; Quinn, J M

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the "local" satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement. PMID:3438124

  15. Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vitulli, W.F.; Lambert, J.K.; Brown, S.W.; Quinn, J.M.

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the local satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement.

  16. Studies on fate and toxicity of nanoalumina in male albino rats: Some haematological, biochemical and histological aspects.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Gamal M; El-Ala, Kawther S Abou; Ali, Atef A

    2016-04-01

    The work aimed to evaluate the nanoalumina toxicity on the histological architecture, some haematological and biochemical aspects in male albino rats, during acute and sublethal experiments. Rats, in acute experiments, were injected with a single-acute dose of 3.9 g or 6.4 g or 8.5 g of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) kg(-) (1), whereas those of sublethal were injected with 1.3 g of Al2O3 kg(-) (1)2 days(-) (1) One-way analysis of variance indicated that injected doses and the experimental periods were significantly affected by haemoglobin (Hb) content; haematocrit value (Hct); white blood cell (WBC) count; blood platelet (Plt) count; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) and MCH concentration (MCHC). In acute experiments, Hct, WBC count, MCV and Plt were significantly higher than the corresponding controls, whereas Hb, MCH and MCHC markedly decreased. In comparison with the related controls after 1, 3 and 7 days post-injection, red blood cell count, Hb, Hct, WBC count, Plt and MCV were significantly increased, but begun to decrease after 14 or/and 28 days and were associated with a marked decrease in MCH and MCHC. In serum of rats injected with acute or sublethal dose, the concentrations of total protein (TP) and total lipid (TL) were significantly lesser than the corresponding controls, whereas the levels of urea, uric acid, creatinine and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased. The injected doses were directly proportional with all the studied biochemical parameter, except the TL and TP that exhibited a negative correlation. Histologically, the highest acute and sublethal doses of nanoalumina caused hepatic irregular disarray, necrosis to the hepatic and Kupffer cells that are associated with congested blood sinusoids. The renal tissues characterized by the appearance of inter-tubular congestion that is accompanied by the dilation of the vascular glomeruli that completely occupied Bowman

  17. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Suresh; Selvaraj, Senthil Velan; Velayutham, Suresh; Natesan, Senthil Kumar; Palaniswamy, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Gastric lesions were induced in rats by oral administration of absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) and stress induced by water immersion. The antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) was compared with standard drugs. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. Result: Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr showed a dose dependent curative ratio compared to ulcer control groups. The extract at 400 mg/kg showed significant anti ulcer activity which is almost equal to that of the standard drug in both models. The volume of acid secretion, total and free acidity was decreased and pH of the gastric juice was increased compared to ulcer control group. Conclusions: The present study indicates that Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark extracts have potential anti ulcer activity. PMID:22022006

  18. Profiling and comparison of color body wall transcriptome of normal juvenile sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) and those produced by crossing albino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Deyou; Yang, Hongsheng; Sun, Lina

    2014-12-01

    Sea cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) is one of the most important aquaculture animals in China. Usually its normal body color is black that fits its living environment. The juvenile individuals obtained by crossing albino sea cucumber segregated in body color. To document the transcriptome difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control, we sequenced their transcriptomes with RNA-seq. Approximately, 4.790 million (M) and 4.884 M reads, 200 nt in length, were generated from the body wall of albino associating sea cucumber and the control, respectively, from them, 9550 (46.81%) putative genes were identified. In total, 583 genes were found to express differentially between albino associating sea cucumber and the control. Of these differentially expressed genes (DEGs), 4.8% changed more than five-folds. The expression levels of eight DEGs were confirmed with real-time PCR. The changing trend of these DEGs detected with real-time PCR agreed well with that detected with RNA-seq, although the change degree of some DEGs was different. Four significantly enriched pathways were identified for DEGs, which included phagocytosis, Staphylococcus aureus infection, ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion. These pathways were helpful for understanding the physiological difference between albino associating sea cucumber and the control.

  19. Ameliorative Effects of Tinospora Cordifolia Root Extract on Histopathological and Biochemical Changes Induced by Aflatoxin-B1 in Mice Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Rekha; Sharma, Veena

    2011-01-01

    The present study was planned to investigate the ability of the Tinospora cordifolia to scavenge free radicals generated during aflatoxicosis. A total no. of 48 male Swiss albino mice (30 ± 5 g) were exposed to Aflatoxin B1(AFB1) (2 μg/30 g b.wt, orally) either individually or in combination with T. cordifolia (50, 100, 200 mg/kg, orally) once daily for 25 days. AFB1 exposure led to significant rise in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and fall in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbic acid, and protein content. T. cordifolia was found to show protective effect by lowering down the content of TBARS and enhancing the GSH, ascorbic acid, protein, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes viz., SOD, CAT, glutathione peroxidase, GST, and GR in kidney. Histopathological analysis of kidney samples also confirmed the protective values and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of herb. T. cordifolia showed protection against aflatoxin-induced nephrotoxicity due to the presence of alkaloids such as a choline, tinosporin, isocolumbin, palmatine, tetrahydropalmatine, and magnoflorine. PMID:21976812

  20. Effect of Anacyclus pyrethrum on pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling, spatial memory, oxidative stress and rho-kinase II expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Pahuja, Monika; Mehla, Jogender; Reeta, K H; Tripathi, Manjari; Gupta, Yogendra Kumar

    2013-03-01

    Anacyclus pyrethrum (A. pyrethrum) has been reported to exhibit anticonvulsant activity. In the present study, the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of A. pyrethrum root (HEAP) on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling, spatial memory, oxidative stress and rho kinase (ROCK II) was assessed. Male albino mice (25-30 g) were used in the study. PTZ (35 mg/kg, i.p. on alternate days) was injected to induce kindling and PTZ (70 mg/kg, i.p) challenge was given 7 days post-kindling. HEAP was administered orally daily in the doses of 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg along with PTZ injections during the kindling process and continued till PTZ challenge post kindling. Spatial memory was assessed using Morris water maze test. Oxidative stress parameters [malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH)] and ROCK II expression were estimated in whole brain at the end of the study. Pre-treatment with HEAP (250 and 500 mg/kg) showed significant increase in the myoclonic jerk latency and delay in the development of kindling. A significant decrease in mortality was observed at higher doses of HEAP (250 and 500 mg/kg). Pre-treatment with HEAP significantly increased the number of platform crossings and decreased the escape latency, as opposed to the PTZ group, thus showing protection against memory deficit. HEAP pre-treatment also attenuated the oxidative stress induced by PTZ kindling. PTZ induced kindling increased the ROCK II expression whereas, HEAP pre-treatment attenuated the increase in ROCK II expression. To conclude, HEAP pre-treatment showed antiepileptic effect and also showed protection against cognitive impairment by decreasing oxidative stress and ROCK II expression in PTZ kindled mice. PMID:23242789

  1. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in open arm duration in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed in catalase activity in group IV and V when compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicates that 4 weeks exposure to electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats. PMID:26546224

  2. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. against DEN and Fe NTA Induced Liver Necrosis in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in rats. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tabernaemontana divaricata at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and 5-fluorouracil (standard drug) was orally administered to male Wistar Albino rats once daily for 24 weeks, simultaneously treated with the carcinogen DEN and Fe NTA. In simultaneously treated animals, the plant extract significantly decreased the levels of uric acid, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and increased the levels of liver marker enzymes in liver. Treatment with the extracts resulted in a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants accompanied by a marked reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde when compared to DEN and Fe NTA treated group. When compared with 200 mg/kg bw rats, 400 mg/kg bw rats and 5-fluorouracil treated rats showed better results in all the parameters. The histopathological studies confirmed the protective effects of extract against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis. Thus, it could be concluded that the use of Tabernaemontana divaricata extract in the treatment of carcinogen induced hepatic necrosis. PMID:25136566

  3. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on certain pathogenic microorganisms, therefore we prepared crude aqueous extracts of black pepper, ginger and thyme and carried out an in vitro study by measuring antimicrobial activity of these extracts using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 50 adult healthy male albino rats which were divided into 5 groups, 10 rats each. Group 1: negative control group which received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 2: Positive control group, injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S.aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis, then received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension, then received 100 mg/kg/day black pepper extract intragastrically; Group 4: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day ginger extract intragastrically. Group 5: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day thyme extract intragastrically. All groups were sacrificed after either 1 or 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozyme activity estimation using agarose lysoplate, measurement of nitric oxide production, and lymphocyte transformation test as well as for counting both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirm the efficacy of these extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggest the possibility of using them in treatment procedures. PMID:25572733

  4. [Blood flow changes in the optic nerve head of albino rabbits following intravenous administration of brovincamine fumarate, an improver of cerebral circulation and metabolism].

    PubMed

    Nirei, M

    1996-02-01

    The blood flow changes in the optic nerve head in adult albino rabbits following intravenous administration of brovincamine fumarate, an improver of cerebral circulation and metabolism, were investigated employing the hydrogen clearance method. In the brovincamine fumarate (0.1 mg/kg)-administered group, the blood flow in the optic nerve head increased soon after injection and reached the maximal value of 124.2 +/- 7.3% against the value before injection, at 20 minutes after injection, followed by a gradual decrease in the blood flow. Statistical analysis showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) in the blood flow at 10 to 40 minutes after injection, compared with the value before injection in the brovincamine fumarate (0.1 mg/kg)-administered group, but no significant increases in the blood flow were observed in either the brovincamine fumarate (0.5 mg/kg)-administered group or the control group given no brovincamine fumarate throughout the course. No significant changes in the mean values of the blood pressure in the femoral artery, pulse rate, respiratory rate or rectal temperature were observed in any group through the experiment. To learn the mechanism of the different efficacy of the two doses, further studies are needed in light of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) changes induced by brovincamine fumarate administration or in light of the receptor responsiveness to the drug concentration. PMID:8851150

  5. Protective effect of ethanolic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in Wistar Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Poornima, Kannappan; Chella Perumal, Palanisamy; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan

    2014-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in rats. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tabernaemontana divaricata at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and 5-fluorouracil (standard drug) was orally administered to male Wistar Albino rats once daily for 24 weeks, simultaneously treated with the carcinogen DEN and Fe NTA. In simultaneously treated animals, the plant extract significantly decreased the levels of uric acid, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and increased the levels of liver marker enzymes in liver. Treatment with the extracts resulted in a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants accompanied by a marked reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde when compared to DEN and Fe N