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Sample records for albino rats materials

  1. Pulmonary toxicity of beryllium in albino rat

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, K.A.; Agrawal, V.P.; Garg, V.

    1980-01-01

    Arsenic compounds, if chronically exposed to human beings, significantly increase incidences of epidermoid carcinomas of the skin and lung. Nickel has been considered to be an important metallic carcinogen. Regarding beryllium, different opinions are held so far as its carcinogenic nature is concerned. While it is reported that there is an equivocal increase in the incidences of respiratory cancers in patients with chronic pulmonary berylliosis, investigation shows no increase in the incidence of respiratory cancer. Among experimental animals, intravenous injections of suspensions of beryllium salts to rabbits have been shown to induce osteogenic sarcomas. This abstract deals with the histopathological and enzymological study of lungs of albino rats after prolonged beryllium treatment.

  2. Photoperiodicity in the male albino laboratory rat.

    PubMed

    Wallen, E P; Turek, F W

    1981-01-29

    Animals inhabiting areas where there are drastic changes in the environment often reproduce only during limited time periods to ensure that young are raised in optimal environmental conditions. The lack of a well defined breeding season in many domesticated animals, presumably because the selective pressures for seasonal breeding have been minimized, suggests that the neuroendocrine events controlling seasonal cyclicity have been bred out of these animals. Little is known about the underlying neuroendocrine changes which may occur during the evolution of a species from a seasonal to a nonseasonal breeder. Whereas the changing photoperiod is the primary environmental cue which initiates and/or terminates the reproductive season in many animals, this is not so in the albino rat Rattus norvegicus, a model nonseasonal breeder. Nevertheless, daylength can influence various reproductive parameters in laboratory rats, suggesting that some of the neuroendocrine components that controlled seasonal breeding previously are still extant in this species. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the effect of daylength on the responsiveness of the neuroendocrine--gonadal axis to the negative-feedback effects of testosterone. This paradigm was chosen because of the important role played by photic-induced changes in steroid feedback sensitivity in the control of seasonal reproduction. We report here that although daylength has very little effect on neuroendocrine--gonadal function in the intact male laboratory rat, it seems that some component(s) of a photoperiodic system involving the pineal gland has been preserved.

  3. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system. PMID:26862277

  4. Electroencephalographic changes in albino rats subjected to stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercier, J.; Assouline, G.; Fondarai, J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty one albino Wistar rats were subjected to stress for 7 hours. There was a significant difference in the slopes of regression lines for 7 nonulcerous rats and those for 14 ulcerous rats. Nonulcerous rats subjected to stress showed greater EEG curve synchronization than did ulcerous rats. If curve synchronization can be equated to a relaxed state, it may therefore be possible to explain the protective action of hypnotics, tranquilizers and analgesics on ulcers.

  5. Origins of albino and hooded rats: implications from molecular genetic analysis across modern laboratory rat strains.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, Takashi; Nakanishi, Satoshi; Ochiai, Masako; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Voigt, Birger; Serikawa, Tadao

    2012-01-01

    Albino and hooded (or piebald) rats are one of the most frequently used laboratory animals for the past 150 years. Despite this fact, the origin of the albino mutation as well as the genetic basis of the hooded phenotype remained unclear. Recently, the albino mutation has been identified as the Arg299His missense mutation in the Tyrosinase gene and the hooded (H) locus has been mapped to the ∼460-kb region in which only the Kit gene exists. Here, we surveyed 172 laboratory rat strains for the albino mutation and the hooded (h) mutation that we identified by positional cloning approach to investigate possible genetic roots and relationships of albino and hooded rats. All of 117 existing laboratory albino rats shared the same albino missense mutation, indicating they had only one single ancestor. Genetic fine mapping followed by de novo sequencing of BAC inserts covering the H locus revealed that an endogenous retrovirus (ERV) element was inserted into the first intron of the Kit gene where the hooded allele maps. A solitary long terminal repeat (LTR) was found at the same position to the ERV insertion in another allele of the H locus, which causes the so called Irish (h(i)) phenotype. The ERV and the solitary LTR insertions were completely associated with the hooded and Irish coat patterns, respectively, across all colored rat strains examined. Interestingly, all 117 albino rat strains shared the ERV insertion without any exception, which strongly suggests that the albino mutation had originally occurred in hooded rats.

  6. Image chorioretinal vasculature in albino rats using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Tan; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhang, Hao F.

    2011-12-01

    We imaged the microvascular network in both the retina and the choroid in an albino rat eye using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy guided by optical coherence tomography. Relying on optical absorption and ultrasonic detection, photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy can image both retinal and choroidal vessel networks with high contrast.

  7. The brainstem efferent acoustic chiasm in pigmented and albino rats.

    PubMed

    Reuss, Stefan; Closhen-Gabrisch, Stefanie; Closhen, Christina

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether structural peculiarities in the brain-efferent pathway to the organ of Corti may underlie functional differences in hearing between pigmented and albino individuals of the same mammalian species. Pigmented Brown-Norway rats and albino Wistar rats received unilateral injections of an aqueous solution of the retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) into the scala tympani of the cochlea to identify olivocochlear neurons (OCN) in the brainstem superior olivary complex. After five days, brains were perfusion-fixed and brainstem sections were cut and analyzed with respect to retrogradely labeled neurons. Intrinsic neurons of the lateral system were located exclusively in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO) in both groups. Shell neurons surrounding the LSO and in periolivary regions, which made up only 5-8% of all OCN, were more often contralaterally located in albino than in pigmented animals. A striking difference was observed in the laterality of neurons of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, which provided more than one third of all OCN. These neurons, located in the rostral periolivary region and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, were observed contralateral to 45% in pigmented and to 68% in albino animals. Our study, the first to compare the origin of the olivocochlear bundle in pigmented and albino rats, provides evidence for differences in the crossing pattern of the olivocochlear pathway. These were found predominantly in the MOC system providing the direct efferent innervation of cochlear outer hair cells. Our findings may account for the alterations in auditory perception observed in albino mammals including man.

  8. Bile secretion in albino rat following chronic honey intake.

    PubMed

    Alagwu, E A; Nneli, R O; Okwari, O O; Osim, E E

    2009-12-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of honey intake on bile secretion, bile electrolytes, bilirubin and cholesterol levels including plasma cholesterol in albino rats. 20 male albino rats (200-210 g) were used in the study. The rats were assigned randomly into 2 groups (control and honey-fed groups), each group containing 10 rats. The control was fed on normal rat feed and water while the test group was fed on normal rat feed with honey added to its drinking water (1 ml of honey to every initial 10 ml of water) for 22 weeks. After 22 weeks the animals were starved for 12 hrs before the experiment, weighed and anaesthetized with sodium thiopentone (6 mg/100 mg body weight) intraperitoneally. The common bile duct was cannulated and bile collected for 3 hrs. The rate of bile flow was noted, the concentrations of bile electrolytes and bilirubin, bile and plasma cholesterol levels were determined in the control and test groups. The results obtained showed a significant [P<0.05] decrease in the rate of bile flow in the test (0.30+/-0.03 ml/hr) compared with the control groups (0.45+/-0.04 ml/hr). There were no significant differences in the concentration of bile electrolytes and bilirubin in the two groups. However, there was a significant [P<0.05] increase in the bile cholesterol and decrease in plasma cholesterol levels in the test rats compared with the control. It is therefore concluded that chronic consumption of unprocessed Nigerian honey resulted in decrease bile flow, increase bile cholesterol and decrease plasma cholesterol in albino rats.

  9. Effect of chronic cyanide intoxication on memory in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Mathangi, D C; Namasivayam, A

    2000-01-01

    Cyanide is a chemical widely used in industry, and is a major environmental pollutant. Its toxicity is caused by inhibition of cytochrome oxidase resulting in histotoxic hypoxia. The effect of sublethal doses of cyanide on memory and hippocampal neurotransmitters was studied in male Wistar strain albino rats. Cyanide reduced the memory along with reduction in the levels of dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the hippocampus. Pre-existing malnutrition in the animals exaggerated these effects.

  10. Study on Neuromuscular Blockade Action of Verapamil in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagaral, Jayashree; GH, Shashikala; K, Jagadeesh; Kumar K, Sharath; GS, Jayanth; PK, Chennaveerappa; Patil, Rajani

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calcium Channel Blockers (CCBs) are now widely employed in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and peri operative hypertension. It has been reported that calcium channel blockers inhibit neuromuscular transmission. They have been shown to increase the neuromuscular blockade produced by neuromuscular blocking agents in in-vitro muscle nerve preparations. The present study is undertaken to demonstrate the effect of calcium channel blocker, verapamil on neuromuscular transmission in albino rats. Objectives: To study the neuromuscular blockade action of verapamil in albino rats. Methods: Twenty four albino rats of either sex weigh 150-250gms are selected and are randomly divided into 4 equal groups. The experimental rats are divided into four groups of 6 rats each and they are given the following treatment. Group 1(Control) - Normal saline (1ml/ kg), Group 2 (Standard) - Pancuronium (0.04 mg/kg) Group 3-Verapamil (2.5mg/kg), Group 4-given Verapamil (10mg/kg). The time of onset of hind limb paralysis and total duration of recovery are noted using inclined screen method. Results: Analysis of the results of group 3 that was received 2.5mg/kg of Verapamil, there was no onset of paralysis, in group 4 that received injection Verapamil 10mg/kg, showed neuromuscular blockade activity. The mean onset of hind limb paralysis was delayed compared to standard group and the mean duration of hind limb paralysis was shorter than standard group. It was statistically significant (P≤ 0.05). Interpretation and conclusion: It is generally held that external calcium is not necessary for the contraction of mammalian skeletal muscle, the demonstration of inward calcium currents that can be abolished by CCBs in these muscles prompted to re-examine the effect of Verapamil on the neuromuscular transmission. The present study allows us to determine the neuromuscular blockade activity of Verapamil. PMID:24086855

  11. Histopathology of kidney of albino rat poisoned with uranyl nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, K.A.; Garg, V.K.; Garg, V.

    1980-01-01

    Heavy metals input into the media either terrestrial or aquatic is an important aspect of environmental pollution. Heavy metals are known to produce toxic effects on the different tissues of various terrestrial and aquatic animals. Some of these are highly toxic at even very low concentrations and they alter the cellular architecture of many organs including the kidney. Little has been done on the effect of rare earth metals, particularly that of uranium on the kidney of animals. In the present paper histopathological changes produced by uranium on the kidney of albino rats are discussed.

  12. Royal jelly modulates oxidative stress and tissue injury in gamma irradiated male Wister Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Khaled Shaaban; Bashandy, Mohamed; Salem, Mahmoud; Ahmed, Osama; Tawfik, Zaki; Helal, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Background: Royal jelly is a nutritive secretion produced by the worker bees, rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Aim: The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of royal jelly against radiation induced oxidative stress, hematological, biochemical and histological alterations in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wister albino rats were exposed to a fractionated dose of gamma radiation (2 Gy every 3 days up to 8 Gy total doses). Royal jelly was administrated (g/Kg/day) by gavages 14 days before exposure to the 1st radiation fraction and the treatment was continued for 15 days after the 1st irradiation fraction till the end of the experiment. The rats were sacrificed 3rd, equivalent to 3rd post 2nd irradiation fraction, and equivalent to 3rd day post last irradiation fraction. Results: In the present study, gamma- irradiation induced hematological, biochemical and histological effects in male Wister albino rats. In royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable decrease recorded in thiobarbituric reactive substances concentration when compared to γ-irradiated group. Also, the serum nitric oxide concentration was significantly improved. The administration of royal jelly to irradiated rats according to the current experimental design significantly ameliorates the changes induced in serum lipid profile. Moreover, in royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable amelioration recorded in all hematological parameters along the three experimental intervals. The microscopic examination of cardiac muscle of royal jelly treated irradiated rats demonstrated structural amelioration, improved nuclei and normal features of capillaries and veins in endomysium when compared to gamma-irradiated rats. Conclusion: It was suggested that the biochemical, hematological and histological amelioration observed in royal jelly (g/Kg/day) treated irradiated rats might be due to the antioxidant

  13. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk. PMID:23569832

  14. Gastric cytoprotection and honey intake in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Alagwu, E A; Nneli, R O; Egwurugwu, J N; Osim, E E

    2011-11-23

    Beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly on wound healings, gastrointestinal disorders and as antibacterial agent. However, there is paucity of report on its cytoprotective effect on the gastric mucosa despite its common usage worldwide including Nigeria. This study was therefore carried out to evaluate the effect of this widely consumed substance on gastric mucosa using animal model and also to explore possible mechanism of its action on the gastric mucosa .Twenty male adult albino rats of Wistar strain, weighing between 210-220g were used in the experiment. They were randomly assigned into two groups, the control group and the honey-fed (test) group, each containing ten rats. The Control group was fed on normal rat feed and water while the test group was fed on normal rat feed with honey added to its drinking water (1ml of honey for every initial 10ml of water for each rat daily) for twenty two weeks. After twenty two weeks the rats were weighed after being starved overnight. They were anaesthetized with urethane (0.6ml/100g body weight). Gastric ulceration was induced using 1.5ml acid-alcohol prepared from equivolume of 0.1NHCl and 70% methanol introduced into the stomach via a portex cannula tied and left in place following an incision made on the antral-pyloric junction of the stomach. The acid-alcohol was allowed to stay for 1hr. After 1hr, laparatomy was performed and the stomach isolated, cut open along the greater curvature, rinsed with normal saline and fastened in place with pins on a dissecting board for ulcer examination and scores. The result obtained showed mean ulcer scores of 14.5+/-0.70 for the control group and 1.6+/-0.11 for the test group. The result showed that honey significantly reduced ulcer scores as well as caused scanty haemorrhage in the test group compared with increased ulcer scores and multiple haemorrhage in the control group. It is therefore concluded that honey intake offered cytoprotection on the gastric

  15. Toxicity study of Lauha Bhasma (calcined iron) in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Namrata; Dash, Manoj Kumar; Dwivedi, Laxmikant; Khilnani, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lauha Bhasma (LB) is a complex herbomineral preparation widely used as an Ayurvedic hematinic agent. It is an effective remedy for chronic fever (jīrṇa jvara), phthisis (kṣaya), Breathlessness (śvāsa) etc., and possesses vitality enhancing (vājīkara), strength promoting and anti aging (rasāyana) properties. Objectives: The present work was conducted to establish the safety aspects of the use of Lauha bhasma. Setting and Design: LB was prepared by Ayurvedic procedures of purification (śodhana), sun drying (bhānupāka), sthālīpāka, followed by repeated calcination (māraṇa) and “nectarization” (amṛtīkaraṇa). The resultant product was subjected to acute and sub acute toxicity studies. Materials and Methods: Acute and subacute toxicity study of LB was conducted in albino rats. Criteria for assessment included ponderal changes, change in biochemical parameters viz., LFT and KFT and hematological parameters. Histopathological studies of different organs including liver, kidney, spleen, testis etc., were also conducted to observe pathological changes if any. Results: In the acute toxicity study, the animal group did not manifest any signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed up to 100 times the therapeutic dose (TD). Significant increase in blood urea (27.83%, P < 0.01), serum creatinine (30.92%, P < 0.05), Aspartate aminotransferase (15.09%, P < 0.05), and serum alkaline phosphatase (27.5%, P < 0.01) was evident in group IV (10 TD). A significant increase in serum total protein (6.04%, P < 0.05) level was observed in group III (5 TD). Histopathological examination of livers in group IV (10 TD) showed mild inflammation in terms of bile stasis, peri-portal hepatic inflammation and sinusoidal congestion; lymphocyte infiltration in kidney and intracellular deposits in the splenic tissue. Conclusion: Lauha Bhasma was found to be safe at the therapeutic dose and also at five times the therapeutic dose levels. However, alteration in

  16. Circadian rhythm of outside-nest activity in wild (WWCPS), albino and pigmented laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Stryjek, Rafał; Modlińska, Klaudia; Turlejski, Krzysztof; Pisula, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    The domestication process of the laboratory rat has been going on for several hundred generations in stable environmental conditions, which may have affected their physiological and behavioural functions, including their circadian system. Rats tested in our ethological experiments were laboratory-bred wild Norway rats (WWCPS), two strains of pigmented laboratory rats (Brown Norway and Long Evans), and two strains of albino rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar). Rats were placed in purpose-built enclosures and their cycle of activity (time spent actively outside the nest) has been studied for one week in standard light conditions and for the next one in round-the-clock darkness. The analysis of circadian pattern of outside-nest activity revealed differences between wild, pigmented laboratory, and albino laboratory strains. During daytime, albino rats showed lower activity than pigmented rats, greater decrease in activity when the light was turned on and greater increase in activity when the light was switched off, than pigmented rats. Moreover albino rats presented higher activity during the night than wild rats. The magnitude of the change in activity between daytime and nighttime was also more pronounced in albino rats. Additionaly, they slept outside the nest more often during the night than during the day. These results can be interpreted in accordance with the proposition that intense light is an aversive stimulus for albino rats, due to lack of pigment in their iris and choroid, which reduces their ability to adapt to light. Pigmented laboratory rats were more active during lights on, not only in comparison to the albino, but also to the wild rats. Since the difference seems to be independent of light intensity, it is likely to be a result of the domestication process. Cosinor analysis revealed a high rhythmicity of circadian cycles in all groups.

  17. Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappan, V.; Shree, K. Sakthi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days). After the treatment period of 45th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg) produced significant reduction (P < 0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days). However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:21189912

  18. Evaluation of Wound Healing Effect of Topical Phenytoin on Excisional Wound in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hasamnis, AA; Mohanty, BK; Muralikrishna; Patil, S

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Wound healing is a significant healthcare problem in today’s medical practice. Despite extensive treatment modalities that are supposed to hasten the wound healing process, the outcomes of existing methods are far from optimal. One such agent that has been tried previously and found controversial in wound healing is phenytoin. In this study, the wound-healing efficacy of phenytoin was investigated in albino rats. Materials and Methods: 20 male Wistar albino rats were subjected to excisional wounds measuring 500 mm2 on the back and then randomized to two groups (n = 10): Control group (A) and treatment group (B). The control group received no drug treatment till the end of the study. 1% Phenytoin cream was applied to the wounds of rats in the group B and continued till the 16th day of the study. The areas of wounds were measured on the Days 4, 8, 12, and 16 of the experiment. The percentages of the healing wounds were calculated by Walker formula after measurement of the wound area. The total number of days required for complete epithelization of wounds was noted in each group. Results: Statistically significant reduction (P < 0.05) in average wound area was seen in Group B (P value=0.0017, 0.0001, 0.0001, 0.0001), respectively, on Days 4, 8, 12, and 16 of the experiment in comparison to Group A. The average number of days required for complete epithelization of wound area was less in Group B as compared to Group A (P=0.0120). The difference was statically significant Conclusion: In the present study, topical phenytoin accelerated healing of excisional wound in albino rats. PMID:21331193

  19. Querectin Alleviates Zinc Oxide Nanoreprotoxicity in Male Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Mohamed M A; Ali, Haytham A; Saadeldin, Islam M; Ahmed, Mona M

    2016-10-01

    Zinc oxide nanopartciles (ZnONPs) involved in advanced technologies, and their wide-scale use in consumer market makes human beings more prone to the exposure to ZnONPs. The present study was undertaken to evaluate amelioration of ZnONP-induced toxicities with querectin in male albino rats. ZnONPs-treated rats showed a significant decrease in sperm cell count, sperm motility, live and normal sperms, as well as serum testosterone level. Severe histopathological damage with a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and a decrease in antioxidant enzymes activity and the GSH level were observed in the affected testis. Relative quantitative polymerase chain reaction results showed a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) and a significant decrease in 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD, and Nr5A1 transcripts. Rats-administered querectin along with ZnONPs showed less toxic effects on all studied reproductive traits and mRNA transcripts. Our results suggest that querectin is beneficial for preventing or ameliorating ZnONP reproductive toxicities in males.

  20. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via drinking water for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas’s examination at the end of the experiment. Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase (PON) in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. Results: In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, (ALT), and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups. Conclusions: In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters. PMID:26221269

  1. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Bark of Psidium Guajava in Albino Rats and Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. Aim: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Materials and Methods: Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. Conclusion: AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:25386462

  2. The effect of lead on the process of spermatogenesis in sex glands of male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Shubina, Olga Sergeevna; Dudenkova, Natalia Anatolievna

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the morphological and functional features of the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male albino rats when exposed to lead acetate. Materials and Methods: Using histological, morphometric and statistical methods explored the effects of lead acetate on the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male albino rats. Investigations were carried out using a digital microscope Axio Imager. M2 and automatic cell counter Countess™. Results: It is shown that when exposed to lead acetate a decrease in the production of all populations of spermatogenic cells, decreased spermatogenesis index and an index of relaxation (tension spermatogenesis), the increase in the index of ripening, index meiotic activity and germinative index, which indicates a decrease in the functional activity of the testes. On preparations, it is possible to see that after the influence of acetate of lead the head of spermatozoa becomes more roundish, breaks of tails observed. Conclusion: Lead acetate reduces the productivity of the seminal glands, which leads to the decrease of the concentration of spermatozoa, and their viability. The results of the studies suggest a negative impact of lead acetate in the course of the process of spermatogenesis in the testes of male white rats. PMID:27847424

  3. Diuretic Activity of Ethanolic Root Extract of Mimosa Pudica in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    SL, Shruthi; PS, Vaibhavi; VH, Pushpa; AM, Satish; Sibgatullah, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Introducation Diuretics are the drugs which increase the urine output. This property is useful in various pathological conditions of fluid overload. The presently available diuretics have lot of adverse effects. Our study has evaluated the diuretic activity of ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica as an alternative/new drug which may induce diuresis. Aim To evaluate the diuretic activity of ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudicaa in albino rats. Materials and Methods Ethanolic root extract of Mimosa pudica (EEMP) was prepared using soxhlet’s apparatus. Albino rats were divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each. Group-I (Control) received distilled water 25ml/kg orally. Group-II (Standard) received Furosemide 20mg/kg orally. Group-III received EEMP 100 mg/kg, Group-IV received EEMP 200 mg/kg and Group-V received EEMP 400 mg/kg. The urine samples were collected for all the groups upto 5 hours after dosing and urine volume was measured. Urine was analysed for electrolytes (Na+, K+ and Cl-). ANOVA, Dunnet’s test and p-values were measured and data was analysed. Results EEMP exhibited significant diuretic activity by increasing urine volume and also by enhancing elimination of Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+) and Chloride (Cl-) at doses of 100 and 200mg/kg. Conclusion EEMP possesses significant diuretic activity and has a beneficial role in volume overload conditions. PMID:26870704

  4. Evaluation of Cholesterol-lowering Activity of Standardized Extract of Mangifera indica in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gururaja, G. M.; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Kumar, A. Senthil; Dethe, Shekhar Michael; Allan, J. Joshua; Agarwal, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cholesterol lowering activity of Mangifera indica L. has been determined by earlier researchers and kernel, leaf and bark have shown significant activity. However, the specific cholesterol lowering activity of leaf methanol extract has not been determined. Materials and Methods: The present study involved evaluation of cholesterol lowering potential of methanol extract of M. indica leaves using high cholesterol diet model in albino Wistar rats. The acute oral toxicity at a dose of 5000 mg/ kg body weight was also determined in female albino Wistar rats. Phytoconstituents Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were quantified in methanol extracts of different varieties of mango leaves using high performance liquid chromatography. Results and Discussion: Significant cholesterol lowering activity was observed with methanol extract of M. indica leaves, at dose of 90 mg/kg body weight in rats and it was also found to be safe at dose of 5000 mg/kg rat body. Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin were found to be in the range of 1.2 to 2.8% w/w and 3.9 to 4.6% w/w, respectively which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity of mango leaves extract. Conclusions: The phytosterols rich extract of Mangifera indica leaves is a good source of nutraceutical ingredient that have the potential to lower serum cholesterol levels. SUMMARY The Mangifera indica leaves methanolic extract showed significant cholesterol lowering activity in high cholesterol diet induced hypercholesterolaemia model in rats when evaluated at a dose of 90 mg/kg rat body weight. The extract was found to contain Iriflophenone 3-C-β-D-glucoside and mangiferin which along with 3 β taraxerol and other sterols could be contributing to the cholesterol lowering activity. PMID:28250649

  5. Chronic alcoholism-mediated metabolic disorders in albino rat testes

    PubMed Central

    Bondarenko, Larysa B.; Matvienko, Anatoliy V.; Kovalenko, Valentina M.

    2014-01-01

    There is good evidence for impairment of spermatogenesis and reductions in sperm counts and testosterone levels in chronic alcoholics. The mechanisms for these effects have not yet been studied in detail. The consequences of chronic alcohol consumption on the structure and/or metabolism of testis cell macromolecules require to be intensively investigated. The present work reports the effects of chronic alcoholism on contents of free amino acids, levels of cytochrome P450 3A2 (CYP3A2) mRNA expression and DNA fragmentation, as well as on contents of different cholesterol fractions and protein thiol groups in rat testes. Wistar albino male rats were divided into two groups: I – control (intact animals), II – chronic alcoholism (15% ethanol self-administration during 150 days). Following 150 days of alcohol consumption, testicular free amino acid content was found to be significantly changed as compared with control. The most profound changes were registered for contents of lysine (–53%) and methionine (+133%). The intensity of DNA fragmentation in alcohol-treated rat testes was considerably increased, on the contrary CYP3A2 mRNA expression in testis cells was inhibited, testicular contents of total and etherified cholesterol increased by 25% and 45% respectively, and protein SH-groups decreased by 13%. Multidirectional changes of the activities of testicular dehydrogenases were detected. We thus obtained complex assessment of chronic alcoholism effects in male gonads, affecting especially amino acid, protein, ATP and NADPH metabolism. Our results demonstrated profound changes in testes on the level of proteome and genome. We suggest that the revealed metabolic disorders can have negative implication on cellular regulation of spermatogenesis under long-term ethanol exposure. PMID:26109895

  6. Determination of the antiulcer properties of sodium cromoglycate in pylorus-ligated albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vivek; Viswanathaswamy, A.H.M.; Mohan, Govind

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To study the ulcer protective property of sodium cromoglycate in pylorusligated rats and the biochemical role in ulcer protection by various biochemical tests. Materials and Methods: The ulcer protective effect of sodium cromoglycate was studied using a Pyloric Ligation Model using Wistar albino rats. The antiulcer effect of sodium cromoglycate 40 mg/kg b.w., i.p., was compared with the reference drug ranitidine 27 mg/kg b.w., i.p. The ulcer index was calculated and other biochemical parameters like free acidity, total acidity, pH, mucin, pepsin and volume of gastric juice were determined. Results: Pylorus ligation showed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index as compared to the control. Conclusion: Sodium cromoglycate has activity equipotent to ranitidine. PMID:20871772

  7. Evaluation of skeletal muscle relaxant activity of aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Tirumalasetti, Jayasree; Patel, Maulik; Shaikh, Ubedulla; Harini, K.; Shankar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Nerium oleander is traditionally used in various diseases because of its medicinal properties. One of its uses is in musculoskeletal disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the skeletal muscle relaxant activity of the aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers (AENOF) in albino rats in comparison with diazepam. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 Swiss albino rats aged 6–7 weeks, of either sex, weighing about 100–150 g, were taken, and after acute toxicity studies two different doses were selected. The animals were divided into four different groups. The first group was kept as the control (normal saline), second as the standard (diazepam) and the remaining two groups as Test I and Test II, and given different doses of the AENOF. Skeletal muscle relaxant activity (motor coordination) on Rotarod and locomotor activity on photoactometer was performed. Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison tests. Results: The result from the Actophotometer test and Rotarod test showed that the extract of AENOF significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the motor coordination of the tested animals. Conclusions: Our data indicates that AENOF possesses skeletal muscle relaxant activities. PMID:26288474

  8. Impact on behavioral changes due to chronic use of sertraline in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Shatavisa; Sen, Sukanta; Biswas, Arunava; Barman, Tapan Kumar; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Despite having better tolerability and a wide range of clinical applications over other antidepressants, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are also known to be associated with serious adverse effects like suicidal ideation on chronic use. The present study had explored the impact of the chronic use of sertraline, an SSRI, on the behavioral changes in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 Wistar albino rats of either sex; divided into five groups. Four groups were subjected to chronic mild stress induced by using various stressors randomly scheduled in a week and continued for a period of 3 weeks. The stressed rodents were subjected to sertraline treatment for 9 weeks in different human therapeutic doses extrapolated to animal doses. Behavioral changes were monitored, assessed, and evaluated throughout the treatment phase with the help of tests such as locomotor activity test, forced swim test, tail suspension test, antianxiety test, and sucrose preference test (SPT). Results: All tests except SPT, demonstrated significant (P < 0.05) reduction in depressive-like activity in the stressed rodents by the mid-treatment phase, followed by an abrupt onset of the depressive state by the end of the treatment phase. SPT showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in sucrose consumption throughout the treatment phase. Conclusion: Behavioral changes following chronic sertraline administration conferred gradual remission of depression state on initial treatment phase, followed by a reversal of effect on chronic use. PMID:26729959

  9. Analysis of anti-depressant potential of curcumin against depression induced male albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xue-Run; Wang, Li; Li, Jing; Wu, Dian-Shui

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the antidepressant potential of curcumin in olfactory bulbectomy and forced swimming test models of depression in male albino rats under chronic treatment. The experimental animals were divided into four groups, and curcumin was administered for 45 days. Our results showed that the curcumin significantly reduced olfactory bulbectomy-induced behavioral abnormalities including deficits in step-down passive avoidance, increased activity in the open area and immobility time. Chronic administration of curcumin significantly reversed levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus region of male albino rats. Also, curcumin normalizes the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the frontal cortex of rats. Taking all these results together, it may suggest that curcumin is potent compound acting against the depression in the male albino rats.

  10. The Effect of Carvedilol on Blood Glucose Levels In Normal Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    R.N., Suresha; V., Ashwini; B., Pragathi; H.L., Kalabharathi; A.M., Satish; V.H., Pushpa; M.K., Jayanthi; P., Snehalatha

    2013-01-01

    Background: Carvedilol is a commonly used drug in hypertension, congestive heart failure in diabetics. It has moderate calcium channel blocking property in addition to α1 and non selective β antagonistic activity. Though some studies bring forth the beneficial effects of Carvedilol in cardiovascular comorbidities in diabetes, there is no consensus on its effects on glycaemic levels. Aims: To evaluate the effect of oral Carvedilol administration for 5 days on blood glucose levels in normal albino rats through Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. Material and Methods: Twelve adult albino rats of either sex weighing between 150 – 200 g were selected from central animal facility and randomly divided into 2 groups – Control [Distilled water (1ml/rat orally)] and Test (0.8mg/kg body weight orally) and the respective drugs were administered over 5 days. Following overnight fasting, on the fifth day 1 hour after the last dose of the respective drug, OGTT was performed. The CBG (Capillary Blood Glucose) levels were measured at 0 min, glucose (2g/kg body weight) dissolved in water was administered to all the rats orally. The blood sample from tail vein (obtained by tail snipping) at 60 and 150 minutes were analysed for CBG levels using a standardized glucometer. Statistical Analysis: Data was presented as Mean ± SEM. One way ANOVA, independent samples t-test, non–parametric tests, percentages and cross tabs were used in the analysis of data within the same group and between different groups when required. Results: Carvedilol group showed higher CBG levels at all time intervals of OGTT as compared to the Control group i.e., 0, 60 and 150 minutes, the highest being (103.8±5.029 )mg/dl at 60 minutes and was statistically significant. Carvedilol group however showed lesser inter–interval variation compared to the Control group at the same time intervals respectively but was statistically insignificant. Conclusions: Carvedilol has hyperglycaemic potential when given orally

  11. Premature Ejaculation – Dose and Duration Dependent Effect of Fluoxetine: A Histological Study on Seminal Vesicle of Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jethani, SL; Rohatagi, RK; Kalra, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fluoxetine is a prototype drug of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Its active demethylated metabolite has a half life of 7-10 d. Fluoxetine is used to treat depression and is also prescribed in premature ejaculation. Aim: In the present study dose and duration dependent effects of Fluoxetine on histology of seminal vesicle of the albino rats were observed. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 36 adult male albino rats. Fluoxetine was administered intraperitoneally for 2 wk, 4 wk and 12 wk with mild (10mg/kg/day), moderate (20mg/kg/day) and severe doses (40mg/kg/day). Histological slides of Seminal vesicle were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Results: On examination through the light microscope, the proliferation of primary, secondary and tertiary villi, increased crypt/alveoli, increased thickness of lamina propria, decreased epithelial cell height, metaplasia, changes in the amount of luminal eosinophilic secretory material in the form of scanty secretion in lumen of seminal vesicle. Conclusion: Low doses for long duration and high doses for short duration of Fluoxetine produce histological changes in seminal vesicle of albino rats. PMID:25386416

  12. Role of ginger against the reproductive toxicity of aluminium chloride in albino male rats.

    PubMed

    Moselhy, W A; Helmy, N A; Abdel-Halim, B R; Nabil, T M; Abdel-Hamid, M I

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate reproductive disorders concomitant with aluminium chloride (AlCl(3) ) toxicity in Albino male rats. Attention was also directed to study the protective influence of ginger against this toxicity. Forty-five mature Albino Wistar male rats were equally divided into three groups; the first group was served as control group while those of the second group (AlCl(3) ) were daily treated with 34 mg/kg bw. AlCl(3) orally. The third group (AlCl(3)  + ginger) was treated daily with AlCl(3) as in group 2 in combination with ginger (40 mg/kg bw), which started 2 weeks prior to AlCl(3) . Five animals from each group were sacrificed on days 30, 45 and 60 of treatment. AlCl(3) administration significantly decreased serum testosterone levels, increased testicular homogenate malondialdehyde and deteriorated semen picture with increased testicular DNA fragmentation. Histopathological examination revealed degenerative changes of the seminiferous tubules with focal areas of necrosed spermatogenic cells, marked degeneration and desquamation of the lining epithelial cells of epididymis as well as multiple calcified material in prostate gland following 60 days of aluminium treatment. Ginger treatment started to improve significantly all studied parameters after 60 days as compared with AlCl(3) -treated group. In the current study, it was concluded that AlCl(3) had a destructive effect on all the studied reproductive parameters. Treatment with ginger has an ameliorating effect against AlCl(3) toxicity after 60 days post-treatment.

  13. Antiulcer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Salvadora indica (W.) Leaves on Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Priyadarshini, D.; Soundarya, G.; Kumar, Ch. Kishore; Rani, K. Usha

    2016-01-01

    Background Ulcer can be developed inside the inner lining of the stomach (gastric ulcer) or the small intestine (duodenal ulcer). Both the ulcers are also cumulatively referred as peptic ulcers. It affects nearly 10% of world population. Aim To investigate the antiulcer activity of ethanolic extract of Salvadora indica W. leaves (ESIL) on albino rats. Materials and Methods The present study was carried by pylorus ligation, ethanol and cysteamine induced ulcer models in albino rats. The antiulcer activity of ESIL (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg p.o. for 7 days) was compared with standard drugs (Ranitidine). In pyloric ligation induced ulcer model, the studied parameters were gastric volume, pH, total acidity, free acidity, and ulcer index whereas in ethanol and cysteamine induced ulcer model, the ulcer index was determined for severity of ulcers. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. Results In pyloric ligation model; the volume of gastric content, total/free acidity and pepsin activity was significantly decreased at p<0.05 and p<0.01 and pH of the gastric juice was significantly increased at p<0.05 and p<0.01 in ESIL treated groups as compared to control group. All the doses of ESIL showed dose dependent antiulcer effect as well as significant (p<0.05 and p<0.01) reduction in the ulcer index as compared to control group in all the experimental models. Conclusion The results of the study indicate that the ESIL have better potential against ulcer which supports the traditional claims in folklore medicine. PMID:27790462

  14. Individual and combined effect of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin on reproductive system of adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Alaa-Eldin, Eman Ahmad; El-Shafei, Dalia Abdallah; Abouhashem, Nehal S

    2017-01-01

    Commercial mixtures of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin pesticides are widely used to enhance the toxic effects of cypermethrin on target insects. So, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the individual and combined toxic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and cypermethrin (CYP) on reproductive system of adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were randomized into main four groups: group I (control group) included 16 rats, subdivided into negative and positive control; group II (eight rats) received chlorpyrifos 6.75 mg/kg b.w./orally∕daily); group III (eight rats) (received cypermethrin 12.5 mg/kg b.w./orally∕daily); and group IV (eight rats) (received chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin at the same previously mentioned doses). All treatments were given by oral gavage for 12 weeks. We found that single CPF and CYP exposures significantly have adverse effects on reproductive function of adult male albino rats manifested by reduced testicular weight, decreased sperm count, motility and viability, significantly increased percent of morphologically abnormal spermatozoa, and significant increments in sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) with respect to control group. Furthermore, serum follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, and testosterone levels were decreased significantly compared to control group. This was accompanied with histopathological changes in the testis of rats such as necrosis, degeneration, decreasing number of spermatogenic cells in some seminiferous tubules, edema, congested blood vessels, and exudate in interstitial tissue of the testis. Notably, all these changes were exaggerated in rats treated concomitantly with chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin rendering the mixture more toxic than the additive effects of each compound and causing greater damage on the reproductive system of male albino rats than the individual pesticides.

  15. A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Arav, V I; Slesarev, S M; Slesareva, E V

    2008-09-01

    A method for extirpation of the pineal gland in albino rats and other rodents (e. g., ground squirrels) is proposed. Epiphysectomy is carried out by resection of a fragment of the bone with the underlying pineal gland. Using this method, many animals can be operated within a short period; the method is reliable and simple, which recommends it for chronobiological studies.

  16. Effect of Diallyl Disulphide on Diabetes Induced Dyslipidemia in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kashinath, R.T.; Ambekar, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes Mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder which may lead to various complications, the important being dyslipidemia leading to Coronary Heart Disorders (CHD), the major cause for morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. Diabetes Mellitus could be treated by nutritional therapy/drug therapy and others. But the drug therapy would have its own limitations and side effects. To overcome from this an herbal extract is recommended, such as Diallyl Disulphide (DADS) a principle compound of Garlic oil. Aim To assess the hypolipidemic effect of Diallyl Disulphide (DADS) in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods Healthy adult wistar strain male albino rats weighing around 100-150 grams were randomly selected from the animal house at BLDE University’s Shri B.M.Patil Medical College, Hospital and Research Centre, Bijapur, India. Diabetes was induced using alloxan and was treated with DADS. After a stipulated time the rats were anesthetised and sacrificed to collect the blood and liver tissue. Various Lipid parameters, HMG CoA Reductase, Fecal bile acids were estimated in the blood, feces and homogenised liver tissue using standard procedures. Statiscal Analysis One-way ANOVA followed by post-hoc t-test is done. Result There was significant decrease in the blood and liver tissue lipid parameters of DADS treated alloxan induced diabetic rats when compared to the alloxan induced diabetic rats. Conclusion From this study it can be concluded that the DADS a principle compound of garlic, definitely has the hypolipidemic effect in diabetic rats, which is reducing the morbidity in diabetic cases due to dyslipidemia without the adverse effects. PMID:26023549

  17. The acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of caffeine in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Richard H

    2016-10-01

    An acute LD50 is a statistically derived amount of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of the animals when given by a specified route as a single dose and the animals observed for a specified time period. Although conducting routine acute toxicity testing in rodents has been criticized, it can serve useful functions and also have practical implications. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) will reflect the acute toxicity of a substance and may require workers to wear protective gear, if appropriate, based on the LD50. There is no information in the scientific published literature which calculates a mean LD50 and standard deviation for caffeine administered orally to rats, using studies performed under good laboratory practice (GLP) or equivalent. This report does that and should be useful to manufacturers, packagers, transporters and regulators of this material. Using data from studies that are reproducible and reliable, the most accurate estimate of the acute LD50 of caffeine administered orally in male albino rats is hereby reported to be 367/mg/kg.

  18. Evaluation of Musa (Paradisiaca Linn. cultivar)--"Puttubale" stem juice for antilithiatic activity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Prasad, K V; Bharathi, K; Srinivasan, K K

    1993-10-01

    The fresh juice of Musa stem (Puttubale) was tested for its antilithiatic activity. Zinc discs were implanted in the urinary bladder of albino rats to induce urolithiasis. The stones formed were mainly of magnesium ammonium phosphate with traces of calcium oxalate. Musa stem juice (3 mL/rat/day orally) was found to be effective in reducing the formation and also in dissolving the pre-formed stones.

  19. Delayed nootropic effects of arginine vasopressin after early postnatal chronic administration to albino rat pups.

    PubMed

    Kim, P A; Voskresenskaya, O G; Kamensky, A A

    2009-06-01

    Intranasal administration of arginine vasopressin (10 microg/kg) to albino rat pups had a strong nootropic effect during training with positive and negative reinforcement. This effect was different in animals of various age groups: training with positive reinforcement was improved in "adolescent" rats and pubertal animals, while during training with negative reinforcement, the nootropic effect of the peptide was more prolonged and persisted also in adult animals.

  20. Hymenolepiosis in a group of albino rats (Rattus albus): a study.

    PubMed

    Sreedevi, C; Ravi Kumar, P; Jyothisree, Ch

    2015-06-01

    A study was carried out on adult albino Wistar laboratory rats to know the incidence of hymenolepiosis, a zoonotic disease which were brought for experiment purpose. Faecal samples of 95 rats examined for parasitic infection by simple floatation technique in which 32 were positive (33.68 %) for hymenolepiosis. Identification of species of Hymenolepis was done based on morphology of egg. The highest prevalence of Hymenolepis diminuta (23.15 %) was recorded followed by Hymenolepis nana (10.52 %). Heavy infection with Hymenolepis in rats draws attention in view of public health importance in contact persons.

  1. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram; Mahajan, Arun Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of Ipomoea digitata (ID) based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P < 0.01) along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis-à-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of β-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. PMID:26401398

  2. CNS depressive role of aqueous extract of Spinacia oleracea L. leaves in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Sutapa; Guha, Debjani

    2008-03-01

    Treatment with Spinacia oleracea extract (SO; 400 mg/kg body weight) decreased the locomotor activity, grip strength, increased pentobarbitone induced sleeping time and also markedly altered pentylenetetrazole induced seizure status in Holtzman strain adult male albino rats. SO increased serotonin level and decreased both norepinephrine and dopamine levels in cerebral cortex, cerebellum, caudate nucleus, midbrain and pons and medulla. Result suggests that SO exerts its CNS depressive effect in PTZ induced seizure by modulating the monoamines in different brain areas.

  3. PHARMACOLOGICAL VALIDATION OF Musa paradisiaca BHASMA FOR ANTIULCER ACTIVITY IN ALBINO RATS - A PRELIMINARY STUDY.

    PubMed

    Vadivelan, R; Elango, K; Suresh, B; Ramesh, B R

    2006-01-01

    Siddha system of medicine is one of the ancient systems of medicine in India. According to Siddhars, peptic ulcer is known as Valigunmam with its signs and symptoms as detailed in Siddha literature matching modern terminology of peptic ulcer. Bhasma refers to calcinated metals and minerals. During this study the Bhasma of Musa paradisiaca Linn, is prepared and evaluated for its antiulcer effect in albino wistar rats which could not be attempted by researchers earlier.

  4. Destructive and regenerative changes in the albino rat kidney during mercuric chloride necrotizing nephrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, V.P.

    1985-08-01

    This paper describes the results of a morphological analysis of destructive and regenerative changes observed during a study of serial semithin sections of the kidneys of albino rats with mercuric chloride necrotizing nephrosis. The results of this investigation indicate that injury to the epithelium of the urinary tubules by mercuric chloride is heterogenous in depth, and this has a substantial influence on the viability of the animals and on the subsequent process of repair of the damage.

  5. Nicotine alters male reproductive hormones in male albino rats: The role of cessation

    PubMed Central

    Oyeyipo, Ibukun P; Raji, Yinusa; Bolarinwa, Adeyombo F

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The use of nicotine through smoking remains a serious health problem. It has been associated with reduced fertility, although the mechanism responsible is still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether nicotine-induced infertility is associated with altered male reproductive hormones in male albino rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty male rats were divided equally into five groups and treated orally for thirty days. Group I, which served as the control received 0.2 ml/kg normal saline, Group II and III received 0.5 mg/kg (low dose) and 1.0 mg/kg (high dose) body weight of nicotine, respectively. The fourth and fifth groups were gavaged with 0.5 mg/kg and 1.0 mg/kg body weight of nicotine but were left untreated for another 30 days. These groups served as the recovery groups. Serum was analyzed for testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormones (FSH), and prolactin using radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Results showed that nicotine administration significantly decreased (P < 0.05) testosterone in the low and high treated groups and FSH in the high dose treated group when compared with the control group. There was a significant increase (P < 0.05) in mean LH and prolactin level in the high dose treated group when compared with the control. However, the values of the recovery groups were comparable with the control. CONCLUSION: The findings in this study suggest that nicotine administration is associated with distorted reproductive hormones in male rats although ameliorated by nicotine cessation. It is plausible that the decreased testosterone level is associated with testicular dysfunction rather than a pituitary disorder. PMID:23869150

  6. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  7. Evaluation of the aphrodisiac activity of Tribulus terrestris Linn. in sexually sluggish male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Surender; Nair, Vinod; Gupta, Yogendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effect of acute and repeated dose administration of lyophilized aqueous extract of the dried fruits of Tribulus terrestris (LAET) on sexual function in sexually sluggish male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Aphrodisiac activity of the test drug was evaluated in terms of exhibited sexual behavior. In order to assess the effect of chronic T. terrestris exposure on the hypothalamus--pituitary--gonadal axis, testosterone level estimation and sperm count were carried out. Twenty-eight-day oral toxicity studies were carried out to evaluate the long-term effects of the LAET administration on different body systems. Results: A dose-dependent improvement in sexual behavior was observed with the LAET treatment as characterized by an increase in mount frequency, intromission frequency, and penile erection index, as well as a decrease in mount latency, intromission latency, and ejaculatory latency. The enhancement of sexual behavior was more prominent on chronic administration of LAET. Chronic administration of LAET produced a significant increase in serum testosterone levels with no significant effect on the sperm count. No overt body system dysfunctions were observed in 28-day oral toxicity study. Conclusions: Findings of the present study validate the traditional use of T. terrestris as a sexual enhancer in the management of sexual dysfunction in males. PMID:22368416

  8. Lead Induced Hepato-renal Damage in Male Albino Rats and Effects of Activated Charcoal

    PubMed Central

    Offor, Samuel J.; Mbagwu, Herbert O. C.; Orisakwe, Orish E.

    2017-01-01

    Lead is a multi-organ toxicant implicated in various cancers, diseases of the hepatic, renal, and reproductive systems etc. In search of cheap and readily available antidote this study has investigated the role of activated charcoal in chronic lead exposure in albino rats. Eighteen mature male albino rats were used, divided into three groups of six rats per group. Group 1 (control rats) received deionised water (10 ml/kg), group 2 was given lead acetate solution 60 mg/kg and group 3 rats were given lead acetate (60 mg/kg) followed by Activated charcoal, AC (1000 mg/kg) by oral gavage daily for 28 days. Rats in group 2 showed significant increases in serum Aspartate aminotransferase, Alkaline phosphatase, Alanine aminotransferase, urea, bilirubin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein, Very Low Density Lipoproteins, Total White Blood Cell Counts, Malondialdehyde, Interleukin-6, and decreases in Packed Cell Volume, hemoglobin concentration, Red blood cell count, total proteins, albumins, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and total glutathione. Co-administration of AC significantly decreased these biomarkers with the exception of the sperm parameters. Histopathology of liver and kidney also confirmed the protective effective of AC against lead induced hepato-renal damage. AC may be beneficial in chronic lead induced liver and kidney damage. PMID:28352230

  9. Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum extract in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity.

  10. Effects of Different Concentrations of Fluoride in Oral Mucosal Cells in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, P.Ajay; Rao, T.Madhusudhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride has been described to be physiologically essential for the normal development and growth of human beings. However, it is well known that excessive fluoride causes skeletal, nonskeletal and dental complications. Therefore, outlining the cytogenetic effects induced by fluorosis is necessary. Objectives To evaluate the cytomorphology of exfoliated oral mucosal cells among various concentrations of fluoride. Study design: Study group comprised of 12 Albino Wistar rats, categorized into A,B and C groups (fed with 25 ppm,50 ppm and 100 ppm concentration of NaF), each group consisting of 4 rats, with 4 controls (fed with 1ppm concentration of NaF in distilled water). Each group was fed for a period of 42 days. Materials and Methods Cytological smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of each group after 42 days of fluoride administration. The samples were stained with the papanicolaou method and assessed for Cytomorphometrical changes in maximum diameter of nucleus, minimum diameter of nucleus, perimeter of the nucleus, maximum diameter of the cell, minimum diameter of the cell and perimeter of the cell by image analysis software and the results were statistically analysed using SPSS software. Results Mean values of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the nucleus increased in fluoride induced study groups when compared to controls and the results showed that p-value was statistically significant (p-value: 0.000, 0.001). Mean value of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the cell decreased in fluoride induced subjects when compared with controls which were statistically not significant (p-value: 0.791, 0.600 & 0.719). A continuous increase in the nuclear size and decrease in the cell size was identified in fluoride induced groups as compared to controls. Conclusion The observations of our present study revealed that cellular changes occur with severity of fluorosis. These cellular morphological changes may possibly

  11. Biochemical Effects of Energy Drinks Alone or in Combination with Alcohol in Normal Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the biochemical effects of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol in normal albino rats. Methods: Twenty male albino rats weighing 160-180g were assigned into groups A-E of four rats per group. Group A and B rats were given low and high doses of ED, respectively, groups C and D were administered low and high doses of EDmA, respectively while group E rats were given distilled water and served as control. The treatment lasted for 30 days after which the animals were killed and their blood collected for laboratory analyses using standard methods. Results: There were no significant differences in body weight, packed cell volume and haemoglobin concentration with either administration of ED or EDmA in comparison to the control. Energy drink alone or EDmA has significant effects on total white blood cell count, plasma potassium, calcium, renal functions, liver enzymes and plasma triglycerides, with EDmA having more effects than ED alone, except for body weight where the energy drink alone has higher effect. Conclusion: Consumption of energy drink alone or in combination with alcohol is associated with significant alterations in some biochemical parameters. Caution should be exercised while consuming either of them. Public health education is urgently needed to correct the wrong impression already formed by the unsuspecting consumers, especially the youths. PMID:24409412

  12. Neuroprotective effects of Withania somnifera Dunn. in hippocampal sub-regions of female albino rat.

    PubMed

    Jain, S; Shukla, S D; Sharma, K; Bhatnagar, M

    2001-09-01

    The neuroprotective effects of W. somnifera were studied on stressed adult female Swiss albino rats. Experimental rats were subjected to immobilization stress for 14 h and were treated with a root powder extract of W. somnifera available as Stresscom capsules (Dabur India Ltd). Control rats were maintained in completely, non stressed conditions. Thionin stained serial coronal sections (7 microm) of brain passing through the hippocampal region of stressed rats (E(1) group) demonstrated 85% degenerating cells (dark cells and pyknotic cells) in the CA(2) and CA(3) sub-areas. Treatment with W. somnifera root powder extract significantly reduced (80%) the number of degenerating cells in both the areas. The study thus demonstrates the antistress neuroprotective effects of W. somnifera.

  13. Effect of chronic exposure to aspartame on oxidative stress in the brain of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Iyyaswamy, Ashok; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at investigating the chronic effect of the artificial sweetener aspartame on oxidative stress in brain regions of Wistar strain albino rats. Many controversial reports are available on the use of aspartame as it releases methanol as one of its metabolite during metabolism. The present study proposed to investigate whether chronic aspartame (75 mg/kg) administration could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain. To mimic the human methanol metabolism, methotrexate (MTX)-treated rats were included to study the aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally and studied along with controls and MTX-treated controls. The blood methanol level was estimated, the animal was sacrificed and the free radical changes were observed in brain discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein thiol levels. It was observed that there was a significant increase in LPO levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, GPx levels and CAT activity with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Moreover, the increases in some of these enzymes were region specific. Chronic exposure of aspartame resulted in detectable methanol in blood. Methanol per se and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions.

  14. Effect of fenugreek seed extract on adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Saber A; Abo-El-Yazid, Samah M

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek seeds against hepatotoxicity induced in albino rats by the anticancer drug adriamycin (ADR). Animals were given single dose of ADR (10 mg/kg body weight) and were killed after 2 and 4 weeks. Liver of ADR-treated animals showed histopathological and biochemical alterations. The histopathological changes include hepatic tissue impairment, cytoplasmic vacuolization of the hepatocytes, congestion of blood vessels, leucocytic infiltrations and fatty infiltration. Moreover, the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen was increased in ADR-treated rats. The liver enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT) and alanine aminotransferase (AST) were increased in the sera of treated rats. Moreover, ADR significantly increased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in hepatic tissue. Treating animals with ADR and aqueous extract of fenugreek (0.4 g/kg body weight) seeds led to an improvement in histological and biochemical alterations induced by ADR. The biochemical results showed that AST and ALT appeared normal together with reduction in the level of MDA (lipid peroxidation marker) and increase in SOD and CAT activities. It was concluded from this study that the aqueous extract fenugreek seeds has a beneficial impact on ADR-induced hepatotoxicity due to its antioxidant effect in albino rats.

  15. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by abamectin and Bacillus thuringiensis in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Eissa, F I; Zidan, N A

    2010-03-01

    The renal- and hepato-toxicity induced by abamectin pesticide (Vertimec) and a commercial form of a bio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Agerin) in male albino rats were evaluated. Blood picture and blood glucose level were investigated. Male albino rats were administered dietary doses each equivalent to 1/10 or 1/100 of the LD50 values of each toxicant for 30 consecutive days. Abamectin was found to pose risks of renal- and hepato-toxicity in rats, since the biochemical parameters of liver function (i.e. aspartate aminotransferase activity, alanine aminotransferase activity, acid phosphatase activity, albumin, and total protein levels) and kidney function (uric acid and creatinine concentration) were severely affected. These effects were verified by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. Likewise, some haematological indices (i.e. erythrocyte count, leukocyte count and haemoglobin concentration) were also influenced; in addition abamectin might cause hypoglycaemia. On the other hand, the above-mentioned lesions were less pronounced in the case of Bacillus thuringiensis -treated rats.

  16. Phytochemical analysis and a study on the antiestrogenic antifertility effect of leaves of Piper betel in female albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Biswal, Sasmita

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of graded doses of the aqueous and methanolic extract of the leaves of Piper betel (PB) Linn (PBL) on the estrous cycle of female albino rats. Materials and Methods: Both the extracts were tested for their effect on the estrous cycle at three dose levels of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg/day and the vaginal smears were examined daily microscopically for the different phases of the estrous cycle for a period of 30 days. Result: The estrous cycle was irregular and prolonged in the treated groups indicating anestrus condition, which would result in infertility. Both types of the extract showed a significant decrease in the duration of proestrus and estrus with a prolonged diestrus at 1000 mg/kg/day and 1500 mg/kg/day doses as compared with control. However, no change was seen in the metestrus phase. The rats treated with PB showed a significant (P < 0.05), dose-dependent decrease in the estrus phase, in comparison to the control group, the effect was more with the methanolic extract. Large, cornified cells appeared after proestrus phase with decreased number of cornified cells. There was a significant reduction in the number of the estrous cycle, in the PBL treated group. Anestrus phase appeared in all the rats treated with the aqueous and methanolic PB extract, which was not observed in the control group. However, the aqueous extract at a dose of 500 mg/kg/day had no effect either on the estrous cycle or on its different phases. The observed effect of PB leaves could be due to the flavonoids and saponin contents, which also contributes to its antiestrogenic mechanism of action. Conclusion: Both the aqueous and methanolic extract of PBL possesses antifertility effect in female albino rats. PMID:25737606

  17. Acetaminophen effects on behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Kaiser, G A; Maranto, D L; Blake, S E; Storey, T M; McPherson, K P; Luper, S L

    1999-02-01

    Acetaminophen (N-Acetyl-p-aminophenol) was administered intraperitoneally to 15 Sprague-Dawley rats partitioned into 3 studies (5 rats per study) using a within subjects, repeated-measures reversal design. Behavioral thermoregulation was assessed in a cold Skinner Box using 5-sec. exposures of microwave radiation [Specific Absorption Rate = 0.34 Watts/kg/(mW/cm2)] as reinforcing stimuli under a fixed-interval 2-min. schedule of positive reinforcement. Doses of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/kg (in solutions of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%) acetaminophen showed stable rates of operant responding for heat compared with significant changes in rates for comparable doses of aspirin in a 1993 study by Vitulli, et al. Weight reductions and temperature increases varied significantly with before-session and after-session measures, respectively. 1994-95 biochemical data of Murphy, et al. from humans following aspirin or acetaminophen ingestion which affect thermoregulation and sleep patterns are discussed in conjunction with behavioral data from rats.

  18. Subchronic toxicity of cannabis leaves on male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Yassa, Heba A; Dawood, Abd El Wahab A; Shehata, Manal M; Abdel-Hady, Randa H; Aal, Khaled M Abdel

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug in the world. In Egypt, the Anti Narcotic General Administration showed that the narcotics problem costs the Egyptian economy approximately 800 million dollars annually. LD(50), lethal dose that kills 50% of the treated animals, of the bango was determined and then selected groups of rats were given tenth of LD(50) for 90 days. The histopathological effects were determined. All the studied organs were affected markedly in the form of shrunken cells in brain. The liver cells were affected in the form of rarefaction of the cytoplasm, kidneys were with severe congestion. The testicles were with disruption of the spermatogenic cells from the membrane.

  19. Haematological evaluation of ethanolic extract of Allium ascalonicum in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Owoyele, B V; Alabi, O T; Adebayo, J O; Soladoye, A O; Abioye, A I R; Jimoh, S A

    2004-06-01

    The haematological effect of ethanolic extract of Allium ascalonicum was evaluated in male albino rats during a 21 day administration at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg b.w, orally. Parameters evaluated include the serum lipids, red and white cell indices. The results showed that the extract administered decreased most of the parameters relating to red cell and increased most of those parameters relating to white cells. It also decreased the total cholesterol (TCH), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) with no significant effect on the triglyceride levels.

  20. The neurotoxic effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the retinal ganglion cells of the albino rat.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, C M; Marani, E; Rietveld, W J

    1986-07-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) administered postnatally to the albino rat causes extensive destruction of the retina. This MSG effect does not result in complete blindness. Ganglion cells surviving the MSG treatment are healthy and functional. Using retrogradely transported HRP and Nissl staining in whole mounted retinas, it was found that the ganglion cells left after MSG treatment are not smaller than those in controls, that these cells do not belong to one cell size group, and that no cells size group is selectively missed. The results explain why photic entrainment of MSG treated animals is still possible.

  1. Electrostimulation and morphologic study of the nerves to the bone marrow of the albino rat.

    PubMed

    DePace, D M; Webber, R H

    1975-01-01

    The innervation of the bone marrow of the albino rat was investigated by electrostimulation and morphological methods. Stimulation of the lumbar sympathetic trunks resulted in the release of reticulocytes and neutrophils into the circulating blood. The effects of stimulation on other cell types in the bone marrow could not be definitely established. It was concluded that the nerve fibers to the bone marrow were distributed to the arteries. It is postulated that the transmitter substance released at the autonomic nerve endings may have an effect upon the permeability of the venous sinusiods and the mobility of the blood cells in the marrow parenchyma resulting in their release into the circulating blood.

  2. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  3. Evaluation of wound healing activity of cow urine ark in diabetic Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Hirapara, Hiren N.; Ghori, Vishal M.; Anovadiya, Ashish P.; Tripathi, Chandrabhanu R.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate wound healing activity of cow urine ark in diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 6). Three groups - diabetic control, active control (glibenclamide), and treatment (cow urine ark) were operated for excision wounds (EWs). Rats in these groups received distilled water 1 ml/day, glibenclamide 0.5 mg/kg body weight/day, and cow urine ark 5.5 ml/kg body weight/day orally till complete healing of the EWs. EWs were evaluated for wound contraction on 3rd, 7th, and 11th day and for reepithelization on 11th day. The other three groups were operated for incision wounds (IW) as well as dead space wounds (DW) in the same animal which received the above agents orally for 11 days. IWs were analyzed for wound breaking strength and DWs were analyzed for dry weight, hydroxyproline content, and histology of granulation tissue. Results: EWs showed significantly increased wound closure in the treatment group as compared to the diabetic as well as active control groups at 3rd (P < 0.001) and 11th (P < 0.05) post-wounding day and to the only diabetic control group at 7th (P < 0.01) post-wounding day. IWs showed significant improvement in wound breaking strength in the treatment as compared to diabetic (P < 0.001) and active control (P < 0.01) groups. DWs showed significant increase in hydroxyproline content of granulation tissue in the treatment as compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001) and active control (P < 0.001) groups. Wound breaking strength and hydroxyproline content also significantly increased in the active control group compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Granulation tissue dry weight was significantly increased in treatment and active control groups as compared to diabetic control (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Cow urine ark increases granulation tissue formation as well as collagen content. Wound contraction was also significantly

  4. Contraceptive studies of isolated fractions of Cuminum cyminum in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Poonam; Gupta, Rajnish; Gupta, R S

    2015-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy of Cuminum cyminum isolated fractions (CcFr) in male albino rats was investigated. Oral dose of CcFr at 50 mg/rat/day for 60 days revealed no significant changes in body weight, while marked abnormalities in spermatogenesis were observed with decreased counts (P ≤ 0.001) in round spermatids, preleptotene spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as number of mature Leydig cell were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Testicular as well as accessory sex organ biochemical parameters were significantly changed (P ≤ 0.001). Sperm motility, density and morphology were resulted in 100% negative fertility. Testosterone levels were declined significantly. In conclusion, Cuminum cyminum inhibited spermatogenesis in rats, indicating the possibility of developing an herbal male contraceptive.

  5. Analyzing LED-induced haemal fluorescent spectra on laboratory small albino rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Shumei; Luo, Xiaosen; Lan, Xiufeng; Jiao, Fangxiang; Lu, Jian; Ni, Xiaowu; Xu, Jiaying; Lu, Shiyue; Shen, Jian; Liu, Jiangang

    2002-04-01

    Native fluorescence spectral characteristics of red blood cells were studied in the visible region in this paper. Blood samples were collected from normal small albino rats. Native fluorescence spectra of the erythrocyte were induced using Light Emitting Diode (LED) at yellow wavelength about 570+/- 16 nm ((Delta) (lambda) 0.5approximately equals 32nm). As the rat's erythrocyte content of in physiological water is increasing, the fluorescent primary emission peak is red shifted from 588 nm to above 615 nm. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensity at about 600 nm was found to be maximal while the rat's erythrocyte consistence is 1%. Moreover, it is shown in large numbers of experiments that LED-induced fluorescence spectra of the erythrocyte are similar with the whole blood. It may make sense for low- intensity light therapy.

  6. Salty solutions: their effects on thermal set points in behavioral repertoires of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Aker, R; Howard, S W; Jones, W M; Kimball, M W; Quinn, J M

    1994-08-01

    Salt (sodium chloride) has been linked to increased blood pressure and a rise in core body temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate the role played by salt in altering behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats. Different doses of sodium chloride were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold Skinner Box. Three Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement in a repeated-measures reversal design. Friedman's non-parametric test showed significant differences among sodium chloride doses and physiologically normal saline. Post hoc sign tests showed that all doses of NaCl suppressed operant behavior for heat except 60 mg/kg. The hypothesis that sodium chloride lowers hypothalamic set point for heat was partially supported.

  7. Aspartame's effects on behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; McAleer, J E; Rockwell, A C; Granade, C R; Parman, D L; Benoit, C; Quinn, J M

    1996-08-01

    Aspartame (L-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine methyl ester) was administered intraperitoneally to 9 Sprague-Dawley rats partitioned into 2 studies (4 in Study 1 and 5 for a replication in Study 2) over a two-year period using a within-subjects, repeated-measures reversal design. Behavioral thermoregulation was assessed in a cold Skinner Box using 5-sec. exposures of microwave radiation [Specific Absorption Rate = 0.34 Watts/kg/(mW/cm2)] as reinforcing stimuli under a fixed-interval 2-min. schedule of positive reinforcement. Two factorial analyses of variance [5 (doses) x 8 (hours)] indicated that the main effect for the doses of aspartame (2, 4, 8, 16 mg/kg, and saline control) was not significant; yet, the interaction (dose x hours) was significant (p < .05). Tentatively, aspartame should not cause an uncomfortable rise in body temperature (as sugar can do) when consumed in common substances such as soft drinks, yogurt, tea, coffee, etc., in doses commensurate with "hedonic" sweetness.

  8. Hepato- and nephrotoxicity in male albino rats exposed to malathion and spinosad in stored wheat grains.

    PubMed

    Zidan, Nour El-Hoda A

    2015-06-01

    Adult male albino rats were fed on stored wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) treated with malathion and spinosad at both 8 and 16 ppm for 90 consecutive days to evaluate their hepatic and renal toxicity. The activity of serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was decreased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both tested pesticides. Biochemical parameters of liver functions [i.e., aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, as well as total protein, albumin, bilirubin and cholesterol levels] were severely affected especially at higher concentration. Malathion and spinosad elevated the activity of ALT, AST, ALP and ACP in rats treated with the higher concentration. Also, total and direct bilirubin levels increased in rats treated with the higher concentration of both pesticides. On the contrary, both pesticides decreased total protein and albumin levels in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, malathion was found to be hyperglycemic. Kidney function parameters (i.e., urea and creatinine levels) were increased in treated rats in a concentration-dependent manner. The above mentioned effects were supported by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. The obtained results indicated also that malathion was able to cause a more pronounced hepato- and renal toxicity in rats than spinosad.

  9. Protective effects of Eruca sativa (rocket) on abamectin insecticide toxicity in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Meligi, Noha M; Hassan, Hanaa Fawzy

    2017-03-01

    The extensive use of insecticides has hazardous effects since they can damage human health as well as the environment. Abamectin has been widely used in veterinary medicine and as a pesticide in agriculture. It is considered as one of the most commonly used insecticides in Egypt. The focus of the present study is to examine the toxic effects of sublethal dose (1 mg/kg b.wt.) of abamectin (Crater 3.37% EC) in male albino rats and to evaluate the efficiency of Eruca sativa suspension to ameliorate the abamectin toxicity. The present study was achieved using 18 male albino rats. Rats were divided into three groups: normal control group, abamectin-treated group, and abamectin + E. sativa-treated group. Rats of the third group were orally administrated a mixture of sublethal dose of abamectin (1 mg/kg b.wt.) and E. sativa suspension (5 g/kg b.wt.) three times a week for 28 days. At the end of the study period, blood samples were collected from all groups to measure the various hematological and biochemical parameters. The results revealed that rats, after abamectin exposure, exhibited general signs of toxicity and disturbance in the hematological and biochemical parameters. In addition, administration of E. sativa suspension ameliorated the hematological and biochemical parameters. These findings suggested that the exposure to abamectin might be responsible for hypertension, liver and kidney dysfunction, lipid profile disturbance, and oxidative stress, reflected in hematological and biochemical parameters. It was also found that the administration of E. sativa suspension reduced the detrimental impact of abamectin on some hematological and biochemical parameters.

  10. Protective effects of erdosteine against nephrotoxicity caused by gamma radiation in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Elkady, A A; Ibrahim, I M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was focused on investigating the possible protective effect of erdosteine against gamma radiation-induced renal lesions in male albino rats. Twenty-eight albino rats were divided into four equal groups as follows: control group, irradiated group (animals subjected to whole-body gamma irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy), treated group (each rat received 100 mg/kg body weight once daily, orally by gastric tube, erdosteine for 1 week), and treated irradiated group (each rat received 100 mg/kg body weight once daily, orally by gastric tube, erdosteine for 1 week, then exposed to whole-body gamma irradiation at a dose of 5 Gy). The results revealed that the administration of erdosteine to rats before irradiation significantly ameliorated the changes occurred in kidney function (creatinine and urea) compared with irradiated group. Also the changes in serum tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, and interleukin 6 activities were markedly improved compared with the corresponding values of irradiated group. Kidney catalase and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and reduced glutathione concentration showed approximately normal level when compared with the irradiated group. The histopathological results showed distinctive pattern of renal lesions in irradiated group, while in treated irradiated group the renal tissues showed relatively well-preserved architecture. Erdosteine acts in the kidney as a potent scavenger of free radicals to prevent or ameliorate the toxic effects of gamma irradiation as shown in the biochemical and histopathological changes and might provide substantial protection against radiation-induced inflammatory damage.

  11. Physiological, biochemical and histological alterations induced by administration of imidacloprid in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vohra, Prerna; Khera, Kuldeep Singh; Sangha, Gurinder Kaur

    2014-03-01

    Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid the newest class of major insecticide has outstanding potency and systemic action for crop protection against piercing and sucking insects pests and also highly effective for control of flea on cats and dogs. The effect of oral administration of two doses of imidacloprid 10 and 20mg/kg/day for 60 days on biochemical parameters, histopathology and protein profile of female albino rat was assessed. Average feed intake was significantly reduced (P<0.01) at 20mg/kg/day. Relative weight of heart and spleen decreased significantly (P<0.05) at higher dose level. Non significant increase in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity was observed in both the imidacloprid treated groups. There was significant decrease (P<0.01, P<0.05) in acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) activity in plasma and brain of both the imidacloprid treated groups. Microscopically, liver tissue of rats treated with higher dose of imidacloprid showed marked dilation and congestion of central vein and degeneration of hepatocytes. The exposure to imidacloprid produced histopathological changes that could be correlated with changes in the biochemical profile of female albino rats. The blood plasma proteins were examined by SDS PAGE. There was no diagnostic difference in the pattern of plasma protein profile of control and treated rats. Based on the present physiological, biochemical and histological studies it is evident that imidacloprid did not produce any significant effects at 10mg/kg/day dose but induced toxicological effects at 20mg/kg/day to female rats.

  12. Effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Saber A; El-Gamal, Ezz M

    2016-01-01

    Amiodarone is a potent antiarrhythmic drug that is used to treat ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. The present work studied the effect of amiodarone on the kidney of albino rats and the possible ameliorative role of grapefruit juice. Administration of amiodarone by gastric intubation (18 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), daily for 5 weeks) caused many histological alterations including intertubular leucocytic infiltrations, degeneration of the renal tubules, and atrophy of the glomeruli. Amiodarone caused marked elevation in serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Histochemical examination of the renal tubules revealed depletion of glycogen and total proteins. Besides, animals administered with amiodarone showed an increase of apoptotic bands as detected by gel electrophoresis. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice (27 ml/kg b.w.) caused an improvement in histological and histochemical appearance of the kidney together with decrease of serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. Moreover, the apoptosis was decreased. It is concluded from the obtained results that grapefruit juice ameliorates the nephrotoxicity of amiodarone in albino rats and this may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components.

  13. Wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana) in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Amutha, Kuppusamy; Selvakumari, Ulagesan

    2016-10-01

    This study is designed to explore the phytochemical, antibacterial and wound healing activity of methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. (Banana). The phytochemical analysis was performed for the methanolic stem extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. Results indicates that the Musa paradisiaca Linn. was rich in glucosides, tannins and alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids and phenols were present in moderate quantities. The extract shows antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus with the zone of inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 21 mm and Staphylococcus aureus was 19 mm at concentration of 500 µg/disc. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was also evaluated for the extract. Wistar albino rats were selected for wound healing activity. The burn wound was created by using red hot steel rod from above the hind limb region. The methanolic extract was applied on the wound and the progressive changes were monitored every day. The wound contraction rate was absorbed based on the histopathological examination. It was concluded that the methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca Linn. showed greater healing activity compared to control in Wistar albino rats.

  14. Evaluation of the Hepato and Nephron-Protective Effect of a Polyherbal Mixture using Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Adebesin, Olumide Adedapo; Okpuzor, Joy

    2014-01-01

    Aim: A polyherbal formulation prepared from a mixture of leaves of Gongronema latifolia, Ocimum gratissimum and Vernonia amygdalina (GOV) was evaluated for hepato-nephro protective properties against acetaminophen-induced toxicity in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Normal Wistar albino rats were orally treated with different doses of GOV extract (2, 4 and 8 g/kg b. wt), distilled water and some standard hepatoprotective drugs such as Liv 52 and silymarin for 14 days. However, a day prior to the 14th day, 3 g/kg body weight dose of Acetaminophen (APAP) was administered p.o. 1h before GOV and the standard drugs to induce hepatic and renal damage. The normal control was setup which received only distilled water. The serum levels of liver marker enzymes, biochemical analytes, antioxidant enzymes and hematological parameters were monitored. Results: The results showed that pretreatment of experimental animals with a different doses of the polyherbal formulation dose dependently caused a significant (p≤0.05) increase in the levels of most of the measured hematological parameters but significantly (p≤0.05) reduced the levels of MCV and monocytes when compared to the APAP induced toxin control group. Rats pretreated with GOV exhibited significant (p < 0.05) increase in serum levels of ALP, ALT, AST, GGT, LDH, Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Urea and a subsequent decrease in Albumin, Creatine and Total protein when compared to the normal rats. This trend in enzyme and biochemical analytes levels were significantly (p < 0.05) reversed when compared to toxin control group. GOV significantly (p < 0.05) and dose dependently increased the serum, kidney and hepatic CAT, GPx, GSH, GST, SOD and total protein activity in APAP induced damage in rats compared to the toxin control groups. Conclusion: The data from this study suggest that the polyherbal formulation possess hepato and nephron-protective potential against acetaminophen induced hepatotoxicity in rats, thus

  15. Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Utuk, Ikponoabasi Ibanga

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility issues have been linked to the effect of oxidative reaction in the reproductive system. This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, on fertility parameters of male albino Wistar rats was studied. Materials and Methods: Eighteen albino Wistar rats weighed between 178 g and 241 g were used, randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 was the control group; oral gavaged 5 ml of distilled water; Groups 2 and 3 were administered medium dose (250 mg/kg) and high dose of ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg), respectively; twice daily for 21 days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture, and blood serum was obtained for hormonal assay, and the testes were harvested for sperm analysis. Results: Follicle stimulating hormone levels significantly increased in the high-dose group as compared to both the control and medium dose groups. Luteinizing hormone levels in the medium dose group decreased significantly as compared to the control group. Testosterone significantly increased in both the medium- and high-dose groups as compared to the control group. Sperm motility increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to both control and medium-dose groups. Percentage sperm concentration decreased significantly in the medium-dose group when compared to the control and increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to the medium-dose group. For percentage normal morphology, there was a dose-dependent increase in the test groups when compared to control group. Conclusion: These results are indicative of a positive influence of ascorbic acid on male fertility modulators and may therefore, serve as a potential adjuvant treatment for male infertility cases. PMID:27185976

  16. Amelioration of excision wounds by topical application of green synthesized, formulated silver and gold nanoparticles in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Kumari, P Lakshmi; Das, Raunak Kumar; Sivakumar, A; Patil, Sagar Hindurao; Andhalkar, Vaibhav Vilas

    2016-05-01

    Wound healing, a complex biological process, has attained a lot of attention as dermatologists are primarily interested in stimulated wound closure without formation of scar or a faint scar. The recent upsurgence of nanotechnology has provided novel therapeutic materials in the form of silver and gold nanoparticles which accelerate the wound healing process. The effect of formulated nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract (green synthesized) has been tried out for ameliorating full thickness excision wounds in albino Wistar male rats. The evaluation of in vivo activity of nanoparticles in wound healing was carried out on open wounds made by excision on the dorsal sides of albino Wistar rats under anesthesia, and the healing of the wounds was assessed. Histological aspects of the healing process were studied by a HE (Hematoxylin and Eosin) staining method to assess various degrees of re-epithelialization and the linear alignment of the granulation tissue whereas Van Gieson's histochemical staining was performed to observe collagen fibers. The healing action shown by the formulated nanoparticles was remarkable during the early stages of wound healing, which resulted in the substantial reduction of the whole healing period. Topical application of formulated gold nanoparticles was found to be more effective in suppressing inflammation and stimulating re-epithelialization compared to silver nanoparticles during the healing process. The results throw light on the amelioration of excision wounds using nanoparticles which could be a novel therapeutic way of improving wound healing in clinical practice. The mechanism of advanced healing action of both types of nanoparticles could be due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  17. Hepatoprotective effects of Solanum nigrum Linn fruits against cadmium chloride toxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahim, Emam A; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E; Ali, Rhaam F; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2014-09-01

    The present work is aimed to investigate the toxicity of 1/20 LD50 of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) on male albino rats by oral ingestion and to determine the hepatoprotective effect of Solanum nigrum Linn (SN) dried fruits and their ethanolic extract against CdCl2 toxicity using biochemical parameters. Rats were divided into six groups; the first group is control, second group is CdCl2-intoxicated rats, third group is fed with a semi-modified diet with S. nigrum fruits, fourth group rats ingested with dried extract, and intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) were treated with fruits and ethanolic extract of S. nigrum, respectively. The results showed that rats exposed to CdCl2 induced remarkable decrease in body weight gain, feed efficiency, and Hb, Hct, RBC, and WBC count and MCHC, but increase in MCV and MCH values. In the case of plasma enzymes, there were significant stimulations observed in ALT and AST, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and LDH activities of CdCl2-intoxicated rats (group 2) compared to control (group 1). Plasma protein profile showed decreases in total soluble protein and albumin; also globulin content was decreased by CdCl2 ingestion. Under the same condition, plasma total bilirubin and glucose levels were increased in group 2. In addition, lipid peroxidation and antioxidative system (GSH, catalase, and SOD) of liver were harmed by CdCl2 ingestion. Whereas, normal rats treated with SN showed insignificant changes in groups 3 and 4 as compared to control (group 1). The treatment with dried fruits and their ethanolic extract in CdCl2-intoxicated rats (groups 5 and 6) ameliorated and improved these harmful effects in all above parameters either for blood or liver. The results of this study suggest the protective effect of S. nigrum against liver injury happened by CdCl2 which may be attributed to its hepatoprotective activity and thereby.

  18. Pathological and biochemical effects of therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses of celecoxib in Wistar albino male rats.

    PubMed

    Koçkaya, Evrim A; Selmanoğlu, Güldeniz; Kismet, Kemal; Akay, M Turan

    2010-10-01

    Celecoxib is intended for acute pain, menstrual cramps, pain, and inflammation of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of celecoxib (10 and 50 mg/kg/day) treatment on rats orally for 28 days. We examined effects on some biochemical parameters and kidney and liver tissues of celecoxib-treated Wistar albino male rats. At the end of the study, hepatic and renal function tests were performed and liver and kidney of rats were microscopically examined to detect systemic toxicity of celecoxib. Celecoxib-treated rats had statistically significant decreases of cholesterol, total bilirubin, total protein, urea, globulin, blood urea nitrogen, phosphorus, and calcium. Serum gamma glutamyl transferase levels increased in 10- and 50-mg/kg/day celecoxib-treated rats. Histological examinations showed mononuclear cell infiltration, hyperplasia, and cellular degeneration in liver and tubular damage and mononuclear cell infiltration in kidney. We suggest that high doses of celecoxib may cause changes in liver and kidney histopathology, liver function, and in some biochemical parameters.

  19. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant effect and safety profile of gomutra ark in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sachdev, Devender O.; Gosavi, Devesh D.; Salwe, Kartik J.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark. PMID:23284212

  20. Effect of genetically modified corn on the jejunal mucosa of adult male albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Okasha, Ebtsam F

    2016-11-01

    Genetically modified (GM) plants expressing insecticidal traits offer a new strategy for crop protection. GM-corn contains Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) genes producing delta endotoxins in the whole plant. Diet can influence the characteristics of the gastrointestinal tract altering its function and structure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GM-corn on the histological structure of jejunal mucosa of adult male albino rat using different histological, immunohistochemical and morphometrical methods. Twenty adult male albino rats were divided into two equal groups; control and GM-corn fed group administered with 30% GM-corn for 90days. Specimens from the jejunum were processed for light and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical study was carried out using antibody against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Different morphometrical parameters were assessed. Specimens from GM-corn fed group showed different forms of structural changes. Focal destruction and loss of the villi leaving denuded mucosal surface alternating with stratified areas were observed, while some crypts appeared totally disrupted. Congested blood capillaries and focal infiltration with mononuclear cells were detected. Significant upregulation of PCNA expression, increase in number of goblet cells and a significant increase in both villous height and crypt depth were detected. Marked ultrastructural changes of some enterocytes with focal loss of the microvillous border were observed. Some enterocytes had vacuolated cytoplasm, swollen mitochondria with disrupted cristae and dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum (rER). Some cells had dark irregular nuclei with abnormally clumped chromatin. It could be concluded that consumption of GM-corn profoundly alters the jejunal histological structure.

  1. Effect of mesenchymal stem cells on induced skeletal muscle chemodenervation atrophy in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Azza S; Al-Ghonemy, Nabila M; Ahmed, Samah M; Mohamed, Samar R

    2017-04-01

    The present research was conducted to evaluate the effect of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) as a potential therapeutic tool for improvement of skeletal muscle recovery after induced chemodenervation atrophy by repeated local injection of botulinum toxin-A in the right tibialis anterior muscle of adult male albino rats. Forty five adult Wistar male albino rats were classified into control and experimental groups. Experimental group was further subdivided into 3 equal subgroups; induced atrophy, BM-MSCs treated and recovery groups. Biochemical analysis of serum LDH, CK and Real-time PCR for Bcl-2, caspase 3 and caspase 9 was measured. Skeletal muscle sections were stained with H and E, Mallory trichrome, and Immunohistochemical reaction for Bax and CD34. Improvement in the skeletal muscle histological structure was noticed in BM-MSCs treated group, however, in the recovery group, some sections showed apparent transverse striations and others still affected. Immunohistochemical reaction of Bax protein showed strong positive immunoreaction in the cytoplasm of muscle fibers in the induced atrophy group. BM-MSCs treated group showed weak positive reaction while the recovery group showed moderate reaction in the cytoplasm of muscle fibers. Immunohistochemical reaction for CD34 revealed occasional positive CD34 stained cells in the induced atrophy group. In BM-MSCs treated group, multiple positive CD34 stained cells were detected. However, recovery group showed some positive CD34 stained cells at the periphery of the muscle fibers. Marked improvement in the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscles after BM-MSCs therapy. Hence, stem cell therapy provides a new hope for patients suffering from myopathies and severe injuries.

  2. Biosterilant effects of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki HD-73 extract on male Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, Vikas Kumar; Peki, Vanlal; Devi, Maibam Sunita; Sanjeev, Sanasam; Khusboo, Maurya; Zothansanga, R; Ibrahim, Kalibulla Syed; Kumar, Nachimuthu Senthil; Gurusubramanian, Guruswami

    2017-01-15

    Chemosterilants have long been used in sterilization programs for managing pet, stray, and wild animals but adverse effects such as trauma, incomplete responses to treatment, and complete abolition of gonadal sources of testosterone often occurs. This study describes the biosterilant effects of administering three doses of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki HD-73 (Bt 5, 50, and 250 mg/kg; 20 rats/dose) extract in adult male Wistar albino rats on testicular parameters, function, histology, and a number of biochemical markers of overall health, free radical production, and cell proliferation. Intratesticular administration of Bt extract to rats induces testicular oxidative stress and damages and consequently, perturb spermatogenesis, degeneration of testis, reduction in testes size, and depletion of testosterone and antioxidant enzyme concentrations in a dose-dependent manner because of free radical-mediated lipid peroxidation. No morbidity or mortality adverse effects were observed in both the saline control and Bt extract-treated rats. Significant variation was noted in clinical manifestations, weight and volume of testes, and hormonal and biochemical profiles between Bt doses in comparison with the saline control. Aspermia/azoospermia (100%) resulted in Bt-treated rats without any adverse effects. Histopathological analysis showed degeneration, necrosis, vacuolation, fewer germ cells, formation of multinucleated giant cells, and a lack of elongated spermatids in atrophic seminiferous tubules in Bt extract-treated groups in the presence of low concentrations of testosterone, antioxidant enzymes, and suppression of germ cell proliferation. Dose-dependent effects were evident in most parameters that were measured. The vast array of tests that were undertaken also provides some important indicators of the physiological effects associated with the treatments that were applied. Intratesticular injection of Bt extract impairs spermatogenesis and induces permanent sterility

  3. Effect of honey consumption on intestinal motility in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Alagwu, E A; Egwurugwu, J N; Nneli, R O; Oguike, F; Osim, E E

    2013-12-20

    This study investigated the effects of honey on intestinal motility and transit using twenty (20) male albino rats of Wistar strain weighing 210-220g. The rats were randomly grouped into control and honey-fed (test) groups of ten (10) rats each. The control group was fed on normal rat chow ( Pfizer Company, Nigeria ) and water while the test group was fed on rat feed, water and honey ( 1 ml of honey to every 10 ml initial drinking water daily) for twenty two (22) weeks after which the rats were starved over night before the experiment and sacrificed by stunning. Laparatomy was immediately performed, proximal and distal portions of the intestine identified, cut and put in aerated tyrode solution. Cut sections of the ileum (2-3cm) were mounted on organ bath instrument for motility experiment with varying concentrations of acetylcholine and carbachol. Contractions were recorded as well as the intestinal transit in each group and lengths of intestine with total mean values calculated. Results obtained showed that honey significantly decreased (p<0.01 ) intestinal transit in the test group (21.15±0.75 ) compared with the control group ( 35.96±1.15); decreased intestinal motility in the test group compared with the control and caused significant percentage reduction of intestinal motility with varied concentrations of acetylcholine and carbachol in the test group ( Ach-75.00±0.75%; Carbachol-79.00±0.28%) compared with the control group (Ach-62.00±0.39%; Carbachol-51.00±0.39%). In conclusion, unprocessed Nigerian honey decreased intestinal transit, caused intestinal smooth muscle inhibition and motility and reduced sensitivity of gastrointestinal tract to cholinergic agents.

  4. Comparative study on the effect of energy drinks on haematopoietic system in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Khayyat, Latifa I; Essawy, Amina E; Al Rawy, Maisaa M; Sorour, Jehan M

    2014-09-01

    Energy drinks have become popularized and the market value for these drinks is continually growing. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of three popular kinds of energy drinks (Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red) on certain hematological parameters and on the ultrastructure of blood cells in male Wistar albino rats. Animals were treated orally with Power Horse, Red Bull and Code Red respectively for 4 weeks. Blood samples were taken after two and four weeks for determination of haematological indices. Ultrastructure examination of blood cells was carried only after 4 weeks of treatment. The results indicated significant reduction (P < 0.05) in red blood cell count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit value, blood platelets count and neutrophils in animals treated with Red Bull and Power Horse and these changes were time dependant. Insignificant changes were recorded in rats administered with Code Red. On the other hand, ultrastructural alterations, including both nucleus and cytoplasm of peripheral blood cells, were recorded in all treated animals but they were more pronounced in animals received Red Bull and Power Horse. It is concluded that energy drinks have serious detrimental impacts on haematopoietic system of male rats.

  5. A comparative study on aphrodisiac activity of some ayurvedic herbs in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Mayank; Chauhan, Nagendra S; Bhargava, Shilpi; Dixit, Vinod K

    2009-12-01

    The roots of Asparagus racemosus, Chlorophytum borivilianum, and rhizomes of Curculigo orchioides are popular for their aphrodisiac and immunostimulatory properties. The herbs have been traditionally used as Vajikaran Rasayana herbs because of their putative positive influence on sexual performance in humans. Lyophilized aqueous extracts obtained from the roots of A. racemosus, C. borivilianum, and rhizomes of C. orchioides were studied for sexual behavior effects in male albino rats and compared with untreated control group animals (total N = 60). The rats were evaluated for effect of treatments on anabolic effect. Seven measures of sexual behavior were evaluated. Administration of 200 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extracts had pronounced anabolic effect in treated animals as evidenced by weight gains in the body and reproductive organs. There was a significant variation in the sexual behavior of animals as reflected by reduction of mount latency, ejaculation latency, post ejaculatory latency, intromission latency, and an increase of mount frequency. Penile erection (indicated by Penile Erection Index) was also considerably enhanced. Reduced hesitation time (an indicator of attraction towards female in treated rats) also indicated an improvement in sexual behavior of extract treated animals. The observed effects appear to be attributable to the testosterone-like effects of the extracts. Nitric oxide based intervention may also be involved as observable from the improved penile erection. The present results, therefore, support the folklore claim for the usefulness of these herbs and provide a scientific basis for their purported traditional usage.

  6. High Expression of Cyclin D1 and p21 in N-Nitroso-N-Methylurea-Induced Breast Cancer in Wistar Albino Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashrafi, Mahboobeh; Bathaie, Seyedeh Zahra; Abroun, Saeid

    2012-01-01

    Objective: N-nitroso-N-methylurea (NMU) induces breast cancer in rodents, particularly in rats. This model of breast cancer is very similar to human breast cancer. As a continuation of our recent work, we investigated the expressions of cyclin D1 and p21 in NMU-induced breast cancer of Wistar Albino rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, mammary carcinoma was induced in female Wistar Albino rats by a new protocol which included the intraperitoneal injection of NMU (50 mg/kg) at 50, 65, and 80 days of the animal’s age. The animals were weighed weekly and palpated in order to record the numbers, location, and size of tumors. Subsequently tumor incidence (TI), latency period (LP), and tumor multiplicity (TM) were reported. About four weeks after the tumor size reached 1.5 cm3, rats were sacrificed. Cyclin D1 and p21 expressions in tumors and normal mammary glands from normal rats were measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR) and Western blot analysis. Statistical analysis of the data was performed using SPSS software version 16.0. Results: The efficiency of tumor induction was 65%, LP was 150 days, and a TM of 1.43 ± 0.53 per rat was noted. RT-PCR and Western blot data indicated significant (p<0.05) induction of both cyclin D1 and p21 expressions in rat mammary tumors compared with normal tissue from the control group. Conclusion: These results indicate an efficient mammary tumor induction protocol for this type of rat, which is accompanied by an increase in cyclin D1 and p21 expressions. PMID:23508728

  7. Hazardous effects of fried potato chips on the development of retina in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I; Sakr, Saber A; Badawy, Gamal M; Afify, Hanaa S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hazardous effects of fried potato chips upon the retina of two developmental stages of the albino rats aged 7 and 14 days from parturition. Methods Pregnant rats were arranged into two groups: control pregnant rats and consequently their delivered newborns until reaching 7 and 14 days old from parturition and fried potato chips group in which pregnant rats at the 6th day of gestation maintained on diet formed of fried potato chips supplied from the market mixed with standard diet at a concentration of 50% per each till 7 and 14 post-partum. Three fold integrated approaches were adopted, namely, histological, ultrastructural and proteomic analysis. Results Histological examination of the retina of the experimental offsprings revealed many histopathological changes, including massive degeneration, vacuolization and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, as well as general reduction in retinal size. At the ultrastructural level, the retina of experimental offsprings exhibited number of deformities, including ill differentiated and degenerated nuclear layer, malformed and vacuolated pigment epithelium with vesiculated and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as swollen choriocapillaris and loss of neuronal cells. Proteomic analysis of retina of the two experimental developmental stages showed variations in the expressed proteins as a result of intoxication which illustrated the adverse toxic effects of fried potato chips upon the retina. Conclusions It can be concluded that the effect of fried potato chips on the development of retina in rats may be due to the presence of acrylamide or its metabolite. PMID:23569770

  8. Atorvastatin improves Y-maze learning behaviour in nicotine treated male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das S, Syam; Nair, Saritha S; Kavitha, S; Febi, John; Indira, M

    2015-11-01

    Nicotine is a parasympathomimetic alkaloid present in tobacco which can induce hyperlipidemia and has a direct effect on neural functions. Statins, competitive inhibitors of 3-hydroxymethyl-3-glutaryl-coenzyme-A reductase, are cholesterol lowering drugs. It has some neuroprotective effects. Hence we analysed the combined effect of nicotine and statin on the learning behaviour of male albino rats. We employed Y-Maze conditional discrimination task. Rats were divided into 4 groups with six rats in each group. (1) Control, (2) Atorvastatin (10mg/kgb.wt), (3) Nicotine (0.6mg/kgb.wt) and (4) Atorvastatin (10mg/kgb.wt)+Nicotine (0.6mg/kgb.wt). After 30days of treatment rats from each group were selected for behavioural study and they were observed for 30days. At the end of the experimental period rats were sacrificed, and brain and liver were dissected out for further biochemical analysis. Nicotine treated group showed least performance in learning in comparison with control, atorvastatin and atorvastatin+nicotine treated groups. Co-administration of atorvastatin and nicotine improved learning behaviour compared to nicotine treated group. Reactive oxygen species level was significantly increased in nicotine group compared to control. The level of neurotransmitter serotonin which has a significant role in learning was found to be decreased in nicotine treated group compared to the control group. Activity of Na(+) K(+) ATPase, Ca(2+) ATPase and glutathione content was significantly reduced in nicotine treated group compared to control. The activity of acetylcholine esterase was significantly increased in the nicotine treated group. Expression studies showed significant decrease in N-methyl D-aspartate receptors and increase in mono amine oxidase-A and mono amine oxidase-B in nicotine treated group and was reversed in atorvastatin + nicotine treated group. It can be concluded that co-administration of nicotine with statin ameliorates the neural functional alterations caused

  9. Phytochemical and acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Enantia chlorantha (oliv) stem bark in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Abatan, Mathew O.

    2013-01-01

    It is presumed that drugs sourced from herbs have lesser side effects than allopathic drugs. Enantia chlorantha is widely used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several ailments such as jaundice, malaria, fever, infective hepatitis, etc. However its toxicity profiles are not well documented. The effects of ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark on body weight changes, biochemical and haematological parameters as well as histology of vital organs (heart, kidneys and liver) were assessed. Also, the phytochemical constituent of the plant was analysed. Albino rats of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups (A–E) of five rats each and the ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark extract was administered by oral gavage in a single dose. Group A rats were administered 500 mg/kg of the extract, group B; 1000 mg/kg, group C; 2000 mg/kg, group D; 3000 mg/kg and group E rats received distilled water (10 ml/kg) and served as control. The extract caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in the levels of packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell counts in a dose dependent manner. Further, significant alterations were not observed in the serum biochemical parameters analysed (AST, ALP, ALT, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin and bilirubin). In addition, the extract at 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg caused congestion in the heart and kidney of experimental rats. These results suggest that oral administration of E. chlorantha may produce severe toxic effects at relatively high doses, thus caution should be exercised in its use. PMID:24678252

  10. Immunobiological changes of in vivo glucocorticoid depleted male Swiss albino rats.

    PubMed

    Bishayi, Biswadev; Ghosh, Soumya

    2007-01-01

    Whether endogenous deficiency of adrenal corticosteroid by unilateral adrenalectomy leads to any modulation of macrophage response is not clear and needs investigation in detail. We performed unilateral adrenalectomy on male Swiss albino rats. Fractions of splenic macrophages were isolated and their functional activities were determined. To test the effect of adrenal hormone insufficiency (after unilateral adrenalectomy) on the cell mediated and humoral immune response, sheep red blood cells were injected, then the delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) response and the number of antibody secreting plasma cells were determined. Studies reported herein indicate that in vivo glucocorticoid (GC) insufficiency due to unilateral adrenalectomy decreases chemotactic migration, myeloperoxidase enzyme release, and lysozyme release from rat splenic macrophages that were also related to the induction of cell mediated and humoral immune responses. The maximum number of plaque was obtained from control cells isolated from spleen after 10 days from the control rats, whereas the number of plaque was decreased in spleens isolated 20 days after unilateral adrenalectomy. Our study also showed time dependent decrease in foot pad swelling in the unilaterally adrenalectomized rats where endogenous GC was reduced with respect to control indicating reduced DTH response in case of GC insufficiency. We found slower clearance of bacterial burden from the blood and spleen isolated from unilaterally adrenalectomized rats with respect to control. Thus on one hand partially GC insufficient animals show altered macrophage response and on the other hand it heightens the persistence (in vivo) of Staphylococus aureus. The study may be helpful in understanding that adrenal corticosteroid insufficiency due to adrenalectomy interferes with immune functions, which may also support the hypothesis that endogenous GC plays a role in regulating immune response.

  11. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nfambi, Joshua; Bbosa, Godfrey S.; Sembajwe, Lawrence Fred; Gakunga, James; Kasolo, Josephine N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, Moringa oleifera is used by different communities to treat various ailments including modulation of the immune system though with limited scientific evidence. Aim To study the immunomodulatory activity of M. oleifera methanolic leaf extract in Wistar albino rats. Methods An experimental laboratory-based study was done following standard methods and procedures. Nine experimental groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX) each comprising of six animals were used. Group I received normal saline. Groups II to IX received 200 mg/kg bwt cyclophosphamide at the beginning of the study. Group III received 50 mg/kg bwt of an immunostimulatory drug levamisole. Groups IV to IX were dosed daily for 14 days with extract at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bwt, respectively, using an intragastric tube. Complete blood count (CBC), delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), neutrophil adhesion test, and hemagglutination antibody titer were determined using standard methods and procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad prism 5.0a Software. Results There was an increment in WBC, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts at a dose of 1000 mg/kg bwt similar to the levamisole-positive control group. The neutrophil adhesion was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for treatment groups that received 1000 mg/kg bwt (29.94%) and 500 mg/kg bwt at 17.28%. The mean percentage increment in footpad thickness was highest (26.9%) after 8 h of injection of antigen in the footpad of rats dosed 500 mg/kg bwt and this later reduced to 25.6% after 24 h. There was a dose-dependent increment in the mean hemagglutination antibody titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) from 10.73±0.57 HA units/μL for the 250 mg/kg bwt to 26.22±1.70 HA units/μL for the 1000 mg/kg bwt. Conclusions Methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera caused a significant immunostimulatory effect on both the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems in the Wistar albino rats. PMID:26103628

  12. Effect of Drug Alprazolam on Restrained Stress Induced Alteration of Serum Cortisol and Antioxidant Vitamins (Vitamin C and E) in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kori, Rohini Sharanappa; Aladakatti, Ravindranath H.; Desai, S.D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Stress can cause harmful effects in the body that induce a wide range of biochemical and behavioural changes. As anti-stress drugs are routinely used to combat stress hence study is needed to assess the contraindication of these drugs in the physiological systems. Aim To investigate the effect of alprazolam on restrained stress induced alteration of serum cortisol, and antioxidant vitamin levels in male albino rats. Materials and Methods Adult male albino rats (body weight 175-225g) were divided into four groups of six animals in each. Group I (control), kept undisturbed in the metabolic cage throughout the 42 days experimental period. Group II (stress) rats were kept in a wire mesh restrainer for 6 hr/day for 42 days. Group III (stress+ withdrawal) rats were stressed for 21 days and withdrawal of stress for remaining 21 days (total 42 days). Group IV (stress + alprazolam) rats were only stressed for 21 days and treated with drug alprazolam (5mg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal) in continuation with stress for remaining 21 days (total period is 42 days). At the end of 42 days all the rats were sacrificed and serum cortisol, vitamin C and E levels were estimated. Results Group II (stressed) showed a significant increase in serum cortisol level with concomitant decrease of serum vitamin C and E levels. Group III (withdrawal) and Group IV (+alprazolam) rats showed significant reduction of serum cortisol along with subsequent increase of serum vitamin C and E concentrations. Conclusion Results indicate a possible antioxidant effect of alprazolam on restrained stress induced alteration of serum cortisol and antioxidant vitamin levels. PMID:27656428

  13. Cold exposure impairs dark-pulse capacity to induce REM sleep in the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Baracchi, Francesca; Zamboni, Giovanni; Cerri, Matteo; Del Sindaco, Elide; Dentico, Daniela; Jones, Christine Ann; Luppi, Marco; Perez, Emanuele; Amici, Roberto

    2008-06-01

    In the albino rat, a REM sleep (REMS) onset can be induced with a high probability and a short latency when the light is suddenly turned off (dark pulse, DP) during non-REM sleep (NREMS). The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent DP delivery could overcome the integrative thermoregulatory mechanisms that depress REMS occurrence during exposure to low ambient temperature (Ta). To this aim, the efficiency of a non-rhythmical repetitive DP (3 min each) delivery during the first 6-h light period of a 12 h:12 h light-dark cycle in inducing REMS was studied in the rat, through the analysis of electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, hypothalamic temperature and motor activity at different Tas. The results showed that DP delivery triggers a transition from NREMS to REMS comparable to that which occurs spontaneously. However, the efficiency of DP delivery in inducing REMS was reduced during cold exposure to an extent comparable with that observed in spontaneous REMS occurrence. Such impairment was associated with low Delta activity and high sympathetic tone when DPs were delivered. Repetitive DP administration increased REMS amount during the delivery period and a subsequent negative REMS rebound was observed. In conclusion, DP delivery did not overcome the integrative thermoregulatory mechanisms that depress REMS in the cold. These results underline the crucial physiological meaning of the mutual exclusion of thermoregulatory activation and REMS occurrence, and support the hypothesis that the suspension of the central control of body temperature is a prerequisite for REMS occurrence.

  14. Ameliorating effect of Allium Sativum on high-fat diet induced fatty liver in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Aisha; Usmani, Ambreen; Waqar, Humera; Siddiqui, Asma; Kumar, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect provided by fresh garlic on fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at BMSI, JPMC from October to November 2008. Thirty adult albino rats, 200-240 gram weight, were divided into three groups. Group A received control diet, Group B received high-fat diet (20 mg butter/100 gm diet) and Group C received high-fat diet with fresh garlic (20 mg butter with 6 gm fresh garlic/100 gm diet). The groups were further divided on the basis of duration of treatment, four weeks and eight weeks respectively. The rats were sacrificed, liver removed, weighed and relative liver weight calculated. Hepatic tissue was processed and tissue slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Results: There was significant increase in relative liver weight in group B animals as compared to the control animals, which decreased significantly in group C. Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections revealed ballooned hepatocytes having vesicular appearance with pyknotic nuclei in high-fat group which were preserved to a great extent in group C animals. Conclusion: This study has shown that use of fresh garlic along with high-fat diet prevents its damaging effects on liver to a great extent. PMID:27182249

  15. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, Poonam; Tandan, Neeraj; Singh, Neera; Kumar, Divyansh; Kumar, Monu

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE) in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw) of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides), lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity.

  16. Number and spatial distribution of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the adult albino rat.

    PubMed

    Galindo-Romero, C; Jiménez-López, M; García-Ayuso, D; Salinas-Navarro, M; Nadal-Nicolás, F M; Agudo-Barriuso, M; Villegas-Pérez, M P; Avilés-Trigueros, M; Vidal-Sanz, M

    2013-03-01

    Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) respond directly to light and are responsible of the synchronization of the circadian rhythm with the photic stimulus and for the pupillary light reflex. To quantify the total population of rat-ipRGCs and to assess their spatial distribution we have developed an automated routine and used neighbour maps. Moreover, in all analysed retinas we have studied the general population of RGCs - identified by their Brn3a expression - and the population of ipRGCs - identified by melanopsin immunodetection - thus allowing the co-analysis of their topography. Our results show that the total mean number ± standard deviation of ipRGCs in the albino rat is 2047 ± 309. Their distribution in the retina seems to be complementary to that of Brn3a(+)RGCs, being denser in the periphery, especially in the superior retina where their highest densities are found in the temporal quadrant, above the visual streak. In addition, by tracing the retinas from both superior colliculi, we have also determined that 90.62% of the ipRGC project to these central targets.

  17. Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vitulli, W.F.; Lambert, J.K.; Brown, S.W.; Quinn, J.M.

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the local satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement.

  18. Difference in leptin hormone response to nutritional status in normal adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Sowyan, Noorah S

    2009-01-15

    The present study investigated the effect of 14 days diet, enriched in butter, vitamin E (vit. E) and green tea, on the major regulators of energy expenditure. Leptin is the product OB gene. This 16 KDa protein is produced by mature adipocytes and is secreted in plasma. Its plasma levels are strongly correlated with adipose mass in rodents as well as in humans. Leptin inhibit food intake, reduces body weight and stimulates energy expenditure. In order to evaluate the effect of diet enriched in butter, vit. E and green tea on body weight, adipose tissue weight and organs weight, serum lipids, lipoproteins content and serum leptin levels in male albino rats supplemented for 14 days on the previous diet. This study showed that high fat diet significantly increased body weight and adipose tissue weight, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered body weight and adipose tissue weight, kidney and spleen weights didn't show significant changes in all the experimental groups. While liver weight decreased in diet supplemented with high fat diet. Also, the results showed that high fat diet and vit. E supplemented diet induced significant increase in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with significant decrease in HDLc. level as compared to normal control rats. Finally green tea supplemented diet induced significant decrease in total cholesterol, LDLc., triglyceride level with insignificant increase in HDLc. level in control rats. On the other hand, high fat supplemented diet significantly increased serum leptin levels in rats compared to control group, while vit. E and green tea enriched diet significantly lowered serum leptin levels at the end of experimental period. In conclusion, improving the biological activity of leptin by diet modification may exist as a practical strategy for the treatment of obesity and related disorders and a diet rich in green tea to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) obesity and also protect the liver

  19. [Histochemical detection of glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans in the respiratory mucosa of albino rats during estrous cycle, pregnancy and puerperium].

    PubMed

    Pontes, P A; Simões, M J; Merzel, J

    1989-11-01

    In this work we attempted to detect, with histochemical methods, the possible modifications in the mucus of the respiratory mucosa of albino female rats during estral cycle, pregnancy and puerperium. Based on its results, it was possible to conclude that: a--There were no modifications in the nature of the epithelial and supraepithelial mucus during the studied periods: b--The Alcian Blue staining from lamina propria is absent during pregnancy and present during puerperium.

  20. Enhancement of Hippocampal CA3 Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract Treatment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Kosuri Kalyan; Avadhani, Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been in clinical use for centuries. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the role of aqueous extract of root of Gg treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal Cornu Ammonis area three (CA3) neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory, in 1- month- old male Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally in four doses (75, 150, 225 and 300 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. After the treatment period, all experimental animals were subjected to spatial learning (Morris water maze, Hebb-William's maze and elevated plus maze) tests. At the end of the spatial memory tests, the rats were deeply anesthetized with Pentobarbitone and killed their brains were removed rapidly and fixed in rapid Golgi fixative. Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic arborization and intersections were quantified. These data were compared to those of age-matched control rats. Results: The aqueous root extract of Gg in the dose of 150 and 225 mg/kg/p.o showed a significant (P < 0.01) enhancement of dendritic arborization (dendritic branching points) and dendritic intersections along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in hippocampal (CA3) pyramidal neurons is comparable to control. Conclusion: Based on our results obtained, we conclude that constituents present in aqueous root extract of Gg have neuronal dendritic growth stimulating properties. PMID:24678192

  1. In-vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Manilkara zapota leaves in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Rahman, SM Abdur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen ethanolic extracts of Manilkara zapota leaves (Family: Sapotaceae) and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic activities in experimental albino Wistar rats. Methods Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema method; anti-pyretic potential was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia method in albino Wistar rats. Results In evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity the crude ethanolic (300 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (300 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of paw edema by 91.98% and 92.41% (P<0.001) respectively at 4th h compared to standard diclofenac (86.08% inhibition). In anti-pyretic study by yeast-induced pyrexia in albino Wistar rats, the ethanol extract (300 mg/kg) reduced temperature from 37.90 °C to 37.41 °C (P<0.01) and 37.07 °C (P<0.001) in 3rd and 4th h respectively. Similarly, both petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited significant anti-pyretic property (P<0.001). The maximum body temperature lowering effect (36.86 °C) was noticed by petroleum ether fraction. Conclusions The findings of the studies demonstrated both anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of the leaves of Manilkara zapota which could be the therapeutic option against inflammatory disease and pyrexia.

  2. Cytotoxic effect of aspartame (diet sweet) on the histological and genetic structures of female albino rats and their offspring.

    PubMed

    Abd Elfatah, Azza A M; Ghaly, Inas S; Hanafy, Safaa M

    2012-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of aspartame intake on the histological and genetic structures of mother albino rats and their offspring. Sixty adult female albino rats and 180 of their offspring were equally divided into two groups (control and treated), each group divided into three subgroups. Each subgroup consisted of 10 pregnant rats and 30 of their offspring. The experimental design divided into three periods: (1) the gestation period (subgroup one), (2) the gestation period and three weeks after delivery (subgroup two) and (3) animals in the third subgroup treated as subgroup two then left till the end of the ninth week after delivery. Each pregnant rat in the treated subgroups was given a single daily dose of 1 mL aspartame solution (50.4 mg) by gastric gavage throughout the time intervals of experimental design. At the end of each experimental period for control and treated subgroups, the liver of half of both control and treated groups were subjected for histological study while the liver and bone marrow of the other halves were subjected for cytogenetic studies. Body weight of both groups were recorded individually twice weekly in the morning before offering the diet. The results revealed that the rats and their offspring in the subgroups of control animals showed increases in body weight, normal histological sections, low chromosomal aberration and low DNA fragmentation. The treated animals in the three subgroups rats and their offspring revealed decreases in body weight, high histological lesions, increases in the chromosomal aberration and DNA fragmentation compared with control groups. In conclusion, the consumption of aspartame leads to histopathological lesions in the liver and alterations of the genetic system in the liver and bone marrow of mother albino rats and their offspring. These toxicological changes were directly proportional to the duration of its administration and improved after its withdrawal.

  3. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Indigofera tinctoria on Chemically-Induced Seizures and Brain GABA Levels in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Garbhapu, Asuntha; Yalavarthi, Prasannaraju; Koganti, Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Indigofera tinctoria Linn. of Fabaceae family is claimed to be useful to control epileptic seizures in the Indian system of folkore medicine. This study was designed to evaluate tinctoria and to verify the claim. Materials and Methods Seizures were induced in male albino rats with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). The test group animals were administered ethanolic extract of Indigofera tinctoria (EEIT) orally. The time of onset and duration of clonic convulsions were recorded. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES) were induced in animals. The duration of hind limb tonic extension (HLTE) was recorded. GABA levels and GABA transaminase activity in brain were estimated. Results In PTZ model, EEIT significantly (P< 0.01, P< 0.001) delayed the onset of convulsions and reduced the duration of seizures in a dose dependent manner. A significant (P< 0.05) reduction in the duration of HLTE at higher doses of EEIT was observed in MES model. Increase in brain GABA levels was observed on treatment with EEIT at 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses, suggested that the plant may be acting by facilitating GABAergic transmission. A significant reduction (P< 0.05) in the activity of brain GABA transaminase was observed at higher doses. No neurotoxic signs were observed with rotarod test, pentobarbital induced sleeping time, locomotor activity and haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of tinctoria was found to be useful to control and treat the variety of seizures. PMID:23493444

  4. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities.

  5. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K.; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  6. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P < 0.001), decrease in the period for epithelialization (P < 0.01), high skin breaking strength (P < 0.001), and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect. PMID:27018126

  7. [Learning and chronobiological regulation following experimental damage to the coronary-artery wall of albino rats].

    PubMed

    Hecht, K; Choinowski, S; Kunde, D; Meyer, R; Moritz, V; Schlegel, T; Wenzelides, K; Götze, J

    1976-01-01

    Forty male albino rats were used to study the relationship between experimentally (concentrated hydrochloric acid) produced local structural changes of the coronary artery wall and central nervous information processing and chronobiological events, respectively. The alterations of the coronary arteries caused by this treatment did not produce infarction but initiated on the whole length of the arterial branch proliferative processes that are complete within 12 weeks following the intervention. Central nervous information processing and chronoregulatory processes showed, immediately after exposure to hydrochloric acid, pronounced malfunctions followed by a stage of hyperreactivity (4 weeks following the damage). At 8 weeks from the intervention, the parameters of information processing and chronobiological events of the CNS again equalled the control values. Since the central nervous functions were back to normal earlier than the structural alterations, the results are interpreted as reflecting CNS-controlled interactions between the complex of visceral afference and efference, the regulation of which is determined by the CNS after coronary damage in such a way as to restore the adaptational capacity of the organism by a predominance of sanogenetic processes.

  8. Effects of continuous environmental illumination on the albino rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system.

    PubMed

    Weiss, M L; Smith, J E; Sokhansanj, A; Rusch, P; Landis, C; Hatton, G I

    1995-01-01

    Continuous environmental illumination or constant light (LL) exposure causes a suppression of daily water intake, and long-term exposure of greater than 19 days produces a hypertrophy of magnocellular neuroendocrine cells (MNCs) in the hypothalamus. These findings led Glantz to hypothesize that LL increases the secretion of vasopressin (VP). We wanted to determine whether LL could trigger morphological changes within the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial system (HNS) seen with other manipulations that result in enhanced hormone release. The posterior pituitary of male albino rats that were exposed to LL for 24 or 48 h were examined ultrastructurally for evidence of enhanced hormone release. In addition, water intake, plasma VP levels, and MNC size within the supraoptic nucleus (SON) were measured. After LL exposure, the posterior pituitary morphology was different, suggesting enhanced hormone release. LL exposure did not affect plasma VP or the size of SON MNCs, but did suppress drinking behavior. These data show that posterior pituitary morphology is affected rapidly by LL exposure. The HNS response to LL exposure may consist of changes within the first 24 h of LL found within the posterior pituitary followed later by hypertrophy of the SON MNCs.

  9. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P < 0.001), decrease in the period for epithelialization (P < 0.01), high skin breaking strength (P < 0.001), and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect.

  10. Setaria equina: in vivo effect of diethylcarbamazine citrate on microfilariae in albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Shahawi, G A; Abdel-Latif, M; Saad, A H; Bahgat, M

    2010-12-01

    Although diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) is successful drug in eliminating human filariasis, yet, its mode of action is still debatable. Herein, the effect of DEC to treat albino rats infected with the animal filarial parasite Setaria equina was tested. Microfilarial (mf) counts and sections from liver, lung, kidney as well as spleen were investigated at different time points after treatment by light microscopy. After 45 and 300min of treatment, a significant decrease in blood mf was observed accompanied by adherence of degenerated mf to both kupffer cells and leukocyte in liver sections. In lung sections, loss of sheath was observed at 45min, while degeneration was observed at later time points. In kidney sections, more mf counts and less matrix were observed in the glomeruli at all time points after treatment. Degenerated mf were observed in spleen sections only at, late time point, 480min after treatment. In conclusion, one of the possible mechanisms by which DEC reduces blood microfilarial count is trapping larvae in organs and killing them through cellular adherence.

  11. Investigation of the ex vivo and in vivo iontophoretic delivery of aceclofenac from topical gels in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Bhatt, Bhavik; Koland, Marina; Shama, K Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Iontophoresis was used to enhance the delivery of aceclofenac (ACF) from topical gels formulated with various polymers for the purpose of relieving pain and inflammation. Materials and Methods Gels were formulated from hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), carbopol 934P, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC). The formulations were evaluated for cathodal iontophoretic delivery of ACF through excised rat abdominal skin at three levels of current density of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 mA/cm2. The in vivo effectiveness of the drug delivered passively as well as under the influence of iontophoresis at pH 7.4 at a current density of 0.5 mA/cm2 was also investigated using male Albino rats with carrageenan induced paw edema. Results and Discussion: In the ex vivo studies, though it was clear that iontophoresis significantly increased drug permeation through the excised skin from all formulations; the percentage drug permeated from HPMC gels was superior to that from carbopol 934P or NaCMC gels but increased with an increase in the current density only for the former. The steady state flux, permeability coefficient, enhancement factor were significantly greater from HPMC gels than from the gels of the ionic polymers due to the interference of competitive ions. With iontophoresis, the carrageenan induced paw edema was significantly reduced by 61.53% (P < 0.01) for HPMC gels as compared to the control although passive permeation without iontophoresis showed a 54.6% reduction (P < 0.05) at the end of 4 h. Conclusion: The results of the study indicate that ACF could be administered topically by using iontophoresis from a suitably formulated gel for effective control of pain and inflammation. PMID:24015382

  12. Antiobesity, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Achyranthes aspera seed saponins in high cholesterol fed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naveed; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Reich, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numerous herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of different diseases. Achyranthes aspera, Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae), popularly known as Charchitta or Pitpapra, is commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of fever, malaria, dysentery, asthma, arterial hypertension, pneumonia, and diabetes. The root extract is well reputed for its insect molting hormonal activity. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of saponins from Achyranthes aspera seeds on the serum lipid profile of albino rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Material and methods Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of these saponins were tested as described previously. To determine the mechanism underlying the observed effects, serum antioxidant status was assessed according to ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), superoxide dismutase and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays in saponin-treated hyperlipidemic animals. Liver enzyme levels were determined to reveal any possible hepatotoxicity. Results Four-week oral administration of A. aspera seed saponins produced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease of total cholesterol, total triglycerides and LDL-C and a significant increase of HDL-C level in hyperlipidemic rats. Treatment with A. aspera seed saponins also showed a significant (p < 0.01) improvement of serum antioxidant status in tested animals. No significant hepatotoxicity was produced by such treatment as the serum liver enzyme activity remained unaltered. Conclusions Saponins from A. aspera seeds possess antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties which might lead to improvement of serum lipid profile and blood antioxidant status. Our findings support the folkloric use of this indigenous plant in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, its exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. PMID:26788089

  13. Hematological effects of repeated graded doses of the methanol extract of Paullinia pinnata (Linn.) leaves in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo-Salami, Oluwatoyin A.; Ewuola, Emmanuel O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases, including anemia in West Africa. Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of increasing doses of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata on hematological parameters in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were grouped into six groups of six animals each. Five doses; 50,100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the P. pinnata extract were administered separately to five groups. The sixth group served as a control and received only the vehicle (70% physiological saline: 30% Tween 80 [v/v]). Administration was done orally daily for 28 days at 24 h interval. On day 29, the animals were made inactive, blood was then collected from the heart and various hematological parameters were evaluated. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance was employed. Results: The packed cell volume and red blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups except at 200 mg/kg dose. The hemoglobin concentration increased in all the treatment groups. The values for the neutrophils at 50, 100, 200 and 800 mg/kg doses were higher than that of the control. The white blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) at 50 and 400 mg/kg doses compared to the control and exceeded the normal physiological range. Conclusion: The maximum tolerable dose is 200 mg/kg body weight of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata and the extract has anti-anemic property with the ability to increase neutrophils count. PMID:26109785

  14. Pressure-time cell death threshold for albino rat skeletal muscles as related to pressure sore biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Linder-Ganz, Eran; Engelberg, Santiego; Scheinowitz, Mickey; Gefen, Amit

    2006-01-01

    Deep pressure sores (DPS) are associated with inadequate soft tissue perfusion and excessive tissue deformation over critical time durations, as well as with ischemia-reperfusion cycles and deficiency of the lymphatic system. Muscle tissue shows the lowest tolerance to pressure injuries, compared with more superficial tissues. In this communication, we present new histopathology data for muscle tissue of albino (Sprague-Dawley) rats exposed to pressures for 15 or 30 min. These data are superimposed with an extensive literature review of all previous histopathology reported for albino rat skeletal muscles subjected to pressure. The pooled data enabled a new mathematical characterization of the pressure-time threshold for cell death in striated muscle of rats, in the form of a sigmoid pressure-time relation, which extends the previous pressure-time relation to the shorter exposure periods. We found that for pressure exposures shorter than 1 h, the magnitude of pressure is the important factor for causing cell death and the exposure time has little or no effect: even relatively short exposures (15 min - 1 h) to pressures greater than 32 kPa (240 mmHg) cause cell death in rat muscle tissue. For exposures of 2 h or over, again the magnitude of pressure is the important factor for causing cell death: pressures greater than 9 kPa (67 mmHg) applied for over 2 h consistently cause muscle cell death. For the intermediate exposures (between 1 and 2 h), the magnitude of cell-death-causing pressure strongly depends on the time of exposure, i.e., critical pressure levels drop from 32 to 9 kPa. The present sigmoidal pressure-time cell death threshold is useful for design of studies in albino rat models of DPS, and may also be helpful in numerical simulations of DPS development, where there is often a need to extrapolate from tissue pressures to biological damage.

  15. Studies on fate and toxicity of nanoalumina in male albino rats: Lethality, bioaccumulation and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Gamal M; El-Ala, Kawther S Abou; Ali, Atef A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to follow-up the distribution, lethality percentile doses (LDs) and bioaccumulation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3-NPs, average diameter 9.83 ± 1.61 nm) in some tissues of male albino rats, and to evaluate its genotoxicity to the brain tissues, during acute and sublethal experiments. The LDs of Al2O3-NPs, including median lethal dose (LD50), were estimated after intraperitoneal injection. The computed LD50 at 24 and 48 h were 15.10 and 12.88 g/kg body weight (b.w.), respectively. For acute experiments, the bioaccumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, liver, kidneys, intestine and spleen was estimated after 48 h of injection with a single acute dose (3.9, 6.4 and 8.5 g/kg b.w.), while for sublethal experiments it was after 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days of injection with 1.3 g/kg b.w. once in 2 days. Multi-way analysis of variance affirmed that Al uptake, in acute experiments, was significantly affected by the injected doses, organs (brain, liver, kidneys, intestine and spleen) and their interactions, while for sublethal experiments an altogether effect based on time (1, 3, 7, 14, 28 days), doses (0 and 1.3 g), organs and their interactions was reported. In addition, Al accumulated in the brain, liver, kidney, intestine and spleen of rats administered with Al2O3-NPs were significantly higher than the corresponding controls, during acute and sublethal experiments. The uptake of Al by the spleen of rats injected with acute doses was greater than that accumulated by kidney>brain>intestine>liver, whereas the brain of rats injected with sublethal dose accumulated lesser amount of Al followed by the kidney

  16. Effect of saffron (Crocus sativus L.) on sodium valporate induced cytogenetic and testicular alterations in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Zowail, Mohamed E.; Marzouk, Amera M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiepileptic drug, sodium valporate (SVP) in albino rats and the effect of saffron aqueous extracts. Treating rats with SVP caused a significant increase in the chromosomal aberrations either structural or numerical and decreased the mitotic index. Besides, animals administered SVP showed DNA damage appeared in the single strand breaks (comet assay). Testis of SVP-treated rats showed many histopathological changes. A significant decrease in seminiferous tubules and their epithelial heights diameters and inhibition of spermatogenesis was recorded. In addition, the number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Biochemical results revealed an increase in malondialdhyde (MDA) which is lipid peroxidation marker and a significant decrease in the level of serum antioxidant enzyme, catalase (CAT) and reducing antioxidant power (RAP). Animals given SVP and saffron showed an improvement in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by SVP. Moreover, MDA decreased and CAT and RAP increased. It is concluded from the present results that the ameliorative effects of saffron extract against SVP-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats may be due to the presence of one or more antioxidant components of saffron. PMID:25276476

  17. Protective effects of ginger toward cadmium-induced testes and kidney lipid peroxidation and hematological impairment in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Onwuka, Frank C; Erhabor, Osaro; Eteng, M U; Umoh, I B

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral dietary supplementation with ginger on cadmium-induced toxic effects on biochemical, hematological, and pathophysiological indices of albino rats. The effect of cadmium and cadmium/ginger treatment on lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in testes and kidney; serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme were investigated alongside hematological indices. The results showed that cadmium induces a significant increase in both testicular and kidney MDA, whereas cadmium/ginger treatment produced a significant reversal of the effect of lipid peroxidation (P=.004). Cadmium treatment induced 75%, 78%, and 22% increases in activities of ACP, PAP, and ALP, respectively, whereas the cadmium/ginger-treated group reversed these values for enzyme activities (P=.001). Results of organ weight and hematological indices analysis in the cadmium-treated rats showed a decrease in organ weight and distortion of the hemopoietic features, whereas the cadmium/ginger-treated rats showed an improvement in organ weight and hematological indices (P=.04 and .001, respectively). The reversal of the toxic effects of cadmium in the cadmium/ginger-treated albino rats heralds the antioxidant potency of ginger toward cadmium toxicity-associated oxidative stress.

  18. Nephrotoxic effects of aquoeus extract U & Dee Sweet Bitter (a Nigerian herbal remedy) in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ezejiofor, N A; Maduagwuna, N; Igwebuike, Onyiaorah Victor; Hussaini, D C; Orisakwe, O E

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the extract of U & Dee Sweet Bitter, a Nigerian herbal remedy on the kidney was investigated in matured Wistar albino rats. Twenty male albino rats were allocated into four dose groups of five rats each, namely 0.00, 539, 1077, 1616 mg/kg of the herbal product orally for 90 days. Animals had access to deionized water and were fed ad libitum with rat chow for 90 days. The feed and fluid consumption of the animals were measured on daily basis, and the body weight was measured weekly. After 90 days, the animals were anaesthetized with ether, bled, sacrificed, kidney excised, and weighed. The parameters measured included food and fluid intake, body weight, absolute and relative weight of the kidney. A nonsignificant increase (p > .05) in feed and fluid intake occurred in all treated animals and a significant decrease (p < .05) in absolute weight of the kidney in all the treated animals when compared with the control. The administration of 539, 1077, and 1616mg/kg of U & Dee Sweet Bitter caused a significant (p < .05) dose-dependent increase in creatinine, whereas a significant dose-dependent decrease for urea was noted compared with the control. Histological study showed that U & Dee Sweet Bitter at all doses caused renal pathologic changes that include tubular necrosis, inflammation of the interstitial and glomerulus, and disorganization of the entire architecture. The results are indicative of nephrotoxicity.

  19. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Sani; Inuwa, Hajiya M.; Sallau, Abdullahi B.; Abbas, Olagunju; Aimola, Idowu A.; Habila, Nathan; Uche, Ndidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups of five rats each were administered distilled water, Acacia honey (20%), sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight), Acacia honey, and sodium arsenite daily for one week. They were sacrificed anesthetically using 60 mg/kg sodium pentothal. The tissues were used for the assessment of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities, protein content and lipid peroxidation. Sodium arsenite significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase activities with simultaneous induction of lipid peroxidation. Administration of Acacia honey significantly increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities with concomitant suppression of lipid peroxidation as evident by the decrease in malondialdehyde level. From the results obtained, Acacia honey mitigates sodium arsenite induced-oxidative stress in male Wistar albino rats, which suggest that it may attenuate oxidative stress implicated in chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:24368942

  20. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer.

  1. Effects of leflunomide on inflamation and fibrosis in bleomycine induced pulmonary fibrosis in wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Guzel, Aygul; Duran, Latif; Tutuncu, Serife; Guzel, Ahmet; Gunaydın, Mithat; Salis, Osman; Okuyucu, Ali; Selcuk, Mustafa Yasin

    2013-01-01

    Purposes Pulmonary fibrosis is a rare and progressive lung disease with a high mortality rate. The treatment regimens still fail to recover the disease. Leflunomide (LEF) is an immunomodulatory agent with antiproliferative activity that is used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The purpose of the study is to investigate the potential therapeutic efficacy of LEF in bleomycin (BLM) induced pulmonary fibrosis. Methods A total of 21 male, adult wistar albino rats were used. The animals were divided into three groups as control, BLM and BLM plus LEF groups (n=7). In BLM group, mice were treated with intratracheal instillation of BLM (2.5 U/kg). Control group received the same volume of saline instead of BLM. In LEF group, in addition to BLM, LEF (10 mg/kg, daily) was administrated by oral gavage. The effect of LEF on pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was studied by measurements of serum clara cell protein-16 (CC-16), thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) levels and lung tissue contents of IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB by immunhistochemical examinations. Results LEF significantly increased the level of CC-16 and decreased the level of AOPP (P=0.042 and P=0.003 respectively). Lung tissue contents of IL-6, TNF-α and NF-κB significantly decreased in LEF group compared to BLM group by immunhistochemical examinations (P<0.001). Conclusions LEF reduces oxidative stress factors, alveolar inflammation and attenuates lung injury and fibrosis. PMID:24255778

  2. Metabolic response to optic centers to visual stimuli in the albino rat: anatomical and physiological considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Toga, A.W.; Collins, R.C.

    1981-07-10

    The functional organization of the visual system was studied in the albino rat. Metabolic differences were measured using the /sup 14/C-2-deoxyglucose (DG) autoradiographic technique during visual stimulation of one entire retina in unrestrained animals. All optic centers responded to changes in light intensity but to different degrees. The greatest change occurred in the superior colliculus, less in the lateral geniculate, and considerably less in second-order sites such as layer IV of visual cortex. These optic centers responded in particular to on/off stimuli, but showed no incremental change during pattern reversal or movement of orientation stimuli. Both the superior colliculus and lateral geniculate increased their metabolic rate as the frequency of stimulation increased, but the magnitude was twice as great in the colliculus. The histological pattern of metabolic change in the visual system was not homogenous. In the superior colliculus glucose utilization increased only in stratum griseum superficiale and was greatest in visuotopic regions representing the peripheral portions of the visual field. Similarly, in the lateral geniculate, only the dorsal nucleus showed an increased response to greater stimulus frequencies. Second-order regions of the visual system showed changes in metabolism in response to visual stimulation, but no incremental response specific for type or frequency of stimuli. To label proteins of axoplasmic transport to study the terminal fields of retinal projections /sup 14/C-amino acids were used. This was done to study how the differences in the magnitude of the metabolic response among optic centers were related to the relative quantity of retinofugal projections to these centers.

  3. An experimental study of the effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on cutaneous burn wound healing in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Jarrahi, Morteza

    2008-03-20

    Previous studies conducted on the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract led us to study the effect of topical chamomile extract on burn wound healing in albino rats. Thirty male albino rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Second-degree burning was induced in 20% of whole surface area of animal body by placing the back of animal into boiling water for 8s. Animals of control group received no treatment. Animals of vehicle and treatment groups were treated topically by olive oil and extract dissolved in olive oil twice a day respectively from the first day of burn induction to complete wound healing. The percentage of wound healing was calculated weekly. The results showed that there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between vehicle and treatment groups. So we concluded that the chamomile extract in the form of rubbing oil had a good potential for acceleration of burn wound healing in rats.

  4. Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis L (Malvaceae) in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Anusha; Nithya, V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the wound-healing potency of the ethanolic extract of the flowers of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The wound-healing activity of H. rosa sinensis (5 and 10% w/w) on Wistar albino rats was studied using three different models viz., excision, incision and dead space wound. The parameters studied were breaking strength in incision model, granulation tissue dry weight, breaking strength and collagen content in dead space wound model, percentage of wound contraction and period of epithelization in excision wound model. The granulation tissue formed on days 4, 8, 12, and 16 (post-wound) was used to estimate total collagen, hexosamine, protein, DNA and uronic acid. Data were analyzed by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The extract increased cellular proliferation and collagen synthesis at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in DNA, total protein and total collagen content of granulation tissues. The extract-treated wounds were found to heal much faster as indicated by improved rates of epithelialization and wound contraction. The extract of H. rosa sinensis significantly (P<0.001) increased the wound-breaking strength in the incision wound model compared to controls. The extract-treated wounds were found to epithelialize faster, and the rate of wound contraction was significantly (P<0.001) increased as compared to control wounds. Wet and dry granulation tissue weights in a dead space wound model increased significantly (P<0.001). There was a significant increase in wound closure rate, tensile strength, dry granuloma weight, wet granuloma weight and decrease in epithelization period in H. rosa sinensis-treated group as compared to control and standard drug-treated groups. Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of H. rosa sinensis had greater wound-healing activity than the nitrofurazone ointment. PMID:23248396

  5. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia on N-nitrosodiethylamine (diethylnitrosamine) induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, R.; Ramesh, V.; Sridhar, M. P.; Sasikala, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a disease that evokes wide spread fear among people and is one of the leading causes of deaths in the world. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is a known carcinogen in rodent liver. DENs reported to undergo metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 enzymes to form reactive electrophiles that cause oxidative stress leading to cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (EETC) in N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was assessed by the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Result: A significant levels of LPO was increased as the enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants values were decreased in liver cancer bearing animals. Conclusions: The administration of EETC to cancer bearing animals reverted the LPO levels, enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants to near normal PMID:26015745

  6. Therapeutic effect of green tea extract on alcohol induced hepatic mitochondrial DNA damage in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Reddyvari, Hymavathi; Govatati, Suresh; Matha, Sumanth Kumar; Korla, Swapna Vahini; Malempati, Sravanthi; Pasupuleti, Sreenivasa Rao; Bhanoori, Manjula; Nallanchakravarthula, Varadacharyulu

    2017-05-01

    The present study principally sought to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on hepatic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage in alcohol receiving rats. MtDNA was isolated from hepatic tissues of albino wistar rats after alcohol treatment with and without GTE supplementation. Entire displacement loop (D-loop) of mtDNA was screened by PCR-Sanger's sequencing method. In addition, mtDNA deletions and antioxidant activity were measured in hepatic tissue of all rats. Results showed increased frequency of D-loop mutations in alcoholic rats (ALC). DNA mfold analysis predicted higher free energy for 15507C and 16116C alleles compared to their corresponding wild alleles which represents less stable secondary structures with negative impact on overall mtDNA function. Interestingly, D-loop mutations observed in ALC rats were successfully restored on GTE supplementation. MtDNA deletions were observed in ALC rats, but intact native mtDNA was found in ALC + GTE group suggesting alcohol induced oxidative damage of mtDNA and ameliorative effect of GTE. Furthermore, markedly decreased activities of glutathione peroxidise, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione content were identified in ALC rats; however, GTE supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) restored these levels close to normal. In conclusion, green tea could be used as an effective nutraceutical against alcohol induced mitochondrial DNA damage.

  7. Effect of soaked Moringa oleifera seeds on growth rates and the levels of some biochemical parameters in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Igwilo, I O; Ogoke, T J; Ogbu, D O; Igwilo, S N; Obi, E; Abdulsalami, M S

    2013-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a multipurpose tree, cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics for its nutritional and therapeutic properties. The raw matured seeds which have been reported to be used as food and clarifying agent of turbid water caused growth retardation in albino rats and this might have been due to its antinutritional contents. Owing to these adverse factors, the effect of soaking the seeds for 30 min and then compounding it as feeds was done. Its effect on growth rate and the level of some biochemical parameters on rats were investigated. The Wistar albino rats were fed for 21 days and their weights measured at 2 days interval. Aspartate and Alanine transaminases, Alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin levels were assayed using Automated Vitros 350 Chemistry Analyzer. The growth rates of rats fed with the commercial rat pellets, Casilan diet and the processed Moringa seed diet had a range of 80.06 +/- 3.54 to 100.98 +/- 5.37, 66.70 +/- 7.54 to 55.23 +/- 7.47 and 52.99 +/- 4.15 to 35.47 +/- 2.26, respectively. The parameters assayed for the group that received the processed Moringa seed diet are 144.00 +/- 16.80 (AST), 41.00 +/- 7.05 (ALT), 66.50 +/- 8.80 (ALP) and 12.45 +/- 1.18 (Total Bilirubin). The one-way ANOVA statistical analysis indicated that there was no significant change in the parameters of all the groups at 95% significance level (p < 0.05). Hence, the soaked Moringa oleifera seed did not support growth in the animal subjects and also did not pose a threat to the liver. However, it is better to develop more suitable processing methods to improve the seed's nutritional capabilities.

  8. Effect of Monotherapy and Combination Therapy of Pantoprazole and Aprepitant in Gastric Esophageal Reflux Disease in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Kamleshwar; Raj, Prince; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Mukesh; Kaithwas, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of pantoprazole and aprepitant on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, received normal saline (3 mL/kg, sham control) or toxic control (3 mL/kg) or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg) or aprepitant (10 mg/kg), or their combinations and were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 8 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index, and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with pantoprazole and aprepitant significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The treatment also helped to restore the altered levels oxidative stress parameters to normal. PMID:24790551

  9. Effect of monotherapy and combination therapy of pantoprazole and aprepitant in gastric esophageal reflux disease in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kamleshwar; Raj, Prince; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Mukesh; Kaithwas, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of pantoprazole and aprepitant on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, received normal saline (3 mL/kg, sham control) or toxic control (3 mL/kg) or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg) or aprepitant (10 mg/kg), or their combinations and were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 8 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index, and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with pantoprazole and aprepitant significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The treatment also helped to restore the altered levels oxidative stress parameters to normal.

  10. Effect of aqueous leaves extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl (Zingiberaceae) on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rat

    PubMed Central

    Ezejiofor, A. N.; Orish, C. N.; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2013-01-01

    Background: The use of medicinal plants in Nigeria has significantly increased over recent years as it is easily accessible, cheap and the strong belief that herbal remedies are natural and therefore non toxic. Aims: This study aims to investigate the sub-chronic toxicity (28-day) of the aqueous extract of Costus afer Ker Gawl leaves on the liver and kidney of male albino Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 male albino Wistar rats (113-205 g) divided into four groups of five weight-matched animals each, were used for the study. Group 1 received standard feed and water ad libitium and served as the control. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 375, 750 and 1125 mg/kg of aqueous extract of C. afer leaves respectively. The animals were sacrificed under ether anesthesia and the organs were harvested, weighed and histopathological studies carried out. The effect of C. afer on the hepatic biomarkers aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT); alkaline phosphatase (ALP); triglyceride (TG); total bilirubin (TB); conjugated bilirubin (CB); albumin (ALB) and kidney biomarkers urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate were investigated. Statistical Analysis: Data were evaluated using Mann Whitney. If P ≤ 0.05 groups were considered to be significantly different. Results: C. afer contained alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides, terpenoids, phenolic compounds and tannins. The average body, organ, relative weights, feed and fluid intake showed no significant changes (P > 0.05) when compared to the control. The liver function tests (ALT, ALP, AST, CB, TB and ALB) showed significant differences (P < 0.05) in the test groups when compared with the control while TG showed no statistical difference (P > 0.05). The kidney function tests (urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium and bicarbonate) showed no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the test groups when compared to the control. Conclusion: Costus afer may be

  11. Impacts of the coexistence of diabetes and hypothyroidism on body weight gain, leptin and various metabolic aspects in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Osama M; Gabar, Mohamed Abdel; Ali, Tarek M

    2012-01-01

    The present study was conducted to assess the interrelationship and the influence of the coexistence of diabetes and hypothyroidism on thyroid hormone levels, insulin levels and biochemical variables related to carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism in addition to thyroid gland and Islets of Langerhans histological changes and antioxidant defense system. Diabetes mellitus was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin to fasting albino rats at dose level of 45 mg/kg b. w. Hypothyroidism in diabetic and normal rats was induced by adding methimazole in drinking water (0.02% w/v) for 4 weeks. The obtained results revealed that hypothyroidism interacts with diabetes in a way that prevents the progress of the hyperglycemic state. This may be due to the increase in the insulin secretory response in diabetic hypothyroid than diabetic rats. Serum T3 level decreased in order in diabetic (-26.63%), hypothyroid (-61.89%) and diabetic hypothyroid (-65.69%) rats while T4 level was increased in diabetic rats and decreased in hypothyroid ones. The decrease in T3 level in diabetic animals in spite of T4 increase may be attributed to the decrease in conversion of T4 to T3 as a result of hepatic 5'-DI decreased activity. Liver glycogen content was three-fold decreased in diabetic rats and was not significantly altered in both hypothyroid and diabetic hypothyroid rats. The serum leptin level and body weight gain were decreased in diabetic and diabetic hypothyroid rats; the leptin level was more deteriorated in diabetic hypothyroid rats while body weight gain was more affected in diabetic rats. Serum triglycerides level was more increased in diabetic rats than in diabetic hypothyroid ones on one hand, while total lipids, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol levels as well as cardiovascular indices were more deteriorated in diabetic hypothyroid rats than diabetic ones on the other hand. Serum total protein and globulin levels were decreased in diabetic rats and were

  12. The rat pink-eyed dilution (p) mutation: an identical intragenic deletion in pink-eye dilute-coat strains and several Wistar-derived albino strains.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, Takashi; Gohma, Hiroshi; Kimura, Kunio; Wedekind, Dirk; Hedrich, Hans J; Serikawa, Tadao

    2005-09-01

    We identified the rat pink-eyed dilution (p) and pink eye Mishima (p(m)) mutations. The p(m) mutation, which was isolated from a wild rat caught in Mishima Japan in 1961 and is carried in the NIG-III strain, is a splice donor site mutation in intron 5. The p mutation, which was first described in 1914 and is carried in several p/p rats including the RCS and BDV strains, is an intragenic deletion including exons 17 and 18. In addition to RCS and BDV strains, several albino strains, KHR, KMI and WNA, all descendants of albino stock of the Wistar Institute, are homozygous for the p allele. Analyses revealed that the colored p strains and the Wistar-derived albino p strains had the same marker haplotype spanning approximately 4 Mb around the P locus. This indicates that these p strains share a common ancestor and the p allele did not arise independently via recurrent mutations. The historical relationship among the p strains suggests that the p deletion had been maintained in stock heterogeneous for the C and P loci and then was inherited independently by the ancestor of the Wistar albino stock and the ancestor of the pink-eyed agouti rats in Europe.

  13. Modulatory effect of whey proteins in some cytokines involved in wound healing in male diabetic albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Bahaa Kenawy Abuel-Hussien

    2014-10-01

    The anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necroses factor-alpha (TNF-α)) have important functions in wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with whey protein could enhance normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats. In this study, male albino rats were divided into a wounded control group, a wounded diabetic group, and a wounded diabetic group supplemented with whey protein orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Tested rats showed increasing wound closure in rats treated with whey protein. In addition, after 4 days of wound, modulation in IL-4, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were detected. Statistical analysis of data showed significant difference between the whey-protein-treated group and either control or diabetic groups (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with whey protein enhances the normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats by modulating the levels of some anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines.

  14. Protective effect of curcumin against experimentally induced aflatoxicosis on the renal cortex of adult male albino rats: a histological and immunohisochemical study

    PubMed Central

    El-Mahalaway, Abeer M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxin contamination of foods is a worldwide problem. Chronic aflatoxin exposure is associated with kidney damage. Curcumin is a herbal agent, used in medicine with a wide range of beneficial therapeutic effects. Objective: to evaluate the effect of curcumin against experimentally induced aflatoxicosis on the renal cortex of adult male albino rats. Materials and methods: Forty adult male rats were included and they were divided equally into 4 groups (10 rats each): Group I (control group), group II (Curcumin group): The rats received curcumin (200 mg/kg b.w.) orally by gastric tube for 5 days/week, group III (Aflatoxin B1 group): The rats received aflatoxin B1 (250 μg/kg b.w./day) orally by gastric tube 5 days/week for 4 weeks, group IV (Aflatoxin B1 and Curcumin group): The rats received aflatoxin and curcumin orally by gastric tube 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Kidney specimens were prepared and sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson’s trichrome, Periodic acid Schiff, immunohistochemical detection of desmin and Bcl2. Results: The tubules of group III showed degenerative and necrotic changes with disruption of basal lamina. There was a significant decrease Bcl2 expression in the tubules, but the glomeruli showed an enlargement with dilation of their capillaries lumina in some areas, while the other areas showed glomerular atrophy with obliteration of their capillaries lumina. There was a significant increase in desmin expression in the glomerular cells. The interstitium showed hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Group IV showed improvement of the histological and immunohistochemical changes described before. Conclusion: Aflatoxin B1 has deleterious effects of on the histological structure of the rat’s renal cortex and curcumin minimized these effects as it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities. We advise eating nutritious diets that contain sufficient amounts of curcumin and regulation must implement to

  15. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mel'nik, E.I.; Lupandin, A.V.; Timoshin, S.S.

    1985-05-01

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress.

  16. Deficits in visual discrimination performance following neglect-producing unilateral lateral hypothalamic lesions in the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ackil, J E; Frommer, G P

    1984-06-01

    Adult male albino rats were trained with water reinforcement on a lateralized visual discrimination task. For six rats the correct head turn--nose poke response was to the same side as the discriminative stimulus (Turn Towards group). For six others the correct response was to the side opposite from the discriminative stimulus (Turn Away group). Immediately after a rat had mastered its task, a unilateral electrolytic lesion was made under ether anesthesia through a stainless steel electrode previously implanted in the lateral hypothalamus (LH). Discrimination training continued until the rat's performance returned to criterion. The lesions produced contralateral neglect as demonstrated by deficits in turning and orientation contralateral to the lesion. The lesions also disrupted all measures of discrimination performance (% correct, latency, and duration of observing response) for trials on which responses contralateral to the lesion were correct, regardless of whether the discriminative stimulus was also contralateral (Turn Towards group) or was ipsilateral (Turn Away group). These data are interpreted as showing that contralateral neglect following LH lesions is associated with a deficit in initiating instrumental responses contralateral to the lesion. They also confirm previous results from a similar task using tactile discriminative stimuli.

  17. Effect of caffeine-coconut products interactions on induction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abara, A E; Obochi, G O; Malu, S P; Obi-Abang, M; Ekam, V S; Uboh, F E

    2007-01-01

    Effect of caffeine-coconut products interactions on induction of drug-metabolizing enzyme in Wistar albino rats was studied. Twenty rats were randomly divided into four groups: The control group (1) received via oral route a placebo (4.0 ml of distilled water). Groups 2 to 4 were treated for a 14-day period with 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine, 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine and 50 mg/kg body weight of coconut water, and 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine and 50 mg/kg body weight of coconut milk in 4.0 ml of the vehicle via gastric intubation respectively. One day after the final exposure, the animals were anaesthetized by inhalation of an overdose of chloroform. The blood of each rat was collected by cardiac puncture while the liver of each rat was harvested and processed to examine several biochemical parameters, i.e., total protein and RNA levels, protein/RNA ratios, and activities of alanine and aspartate amino transferase (ALT and AST, respectively). The results showed that while ingestion of coconut milk and coconut water increased the values of protein and protein/RNA ratios, it decreased alanine and aspartate amino transferase (ALT and AST) activities. These effects, in turn, enhanced the induction of the metabolizing enzymes and a resultant faster clearance and elimination of the caffeine from the body, there by reducing the toxic effect on the liver.

  18. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent.

  19. Evaluation of the diuretic and urinary electrolyte effects of methanolic extract of Peganum harmala L. in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Saikhan, Fahad I; Ansari, Mohd N

    2016-11-01

    The use of traditional medicines as a diuretic agent has been increasing in recent years. The diuretic activity of a number of plant extracts used as diuretic agents in ethnomedicine has been confirmed in experimental animals. However, despite the widespread use of Peganum harmala in traditional medicine, there is a paucity of data supporting its use as a diuretic agent. Therefore, the present study aimed to envisage the true effect and magnitude of diuresis of methanolic extract of P. harmala (MEPH) in comparison with a well-known diuretic drug furosemide using Wistar albino rats. MEPH was administered orally in three different doses (150, 300 and 450 mg/kg) to experimentally dehydrated rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg orally) was used as a reference drug. The diuretic effect of the MEPH was evaluated by measuring urine volume, urine pH, urinary electrolyte levels, natriuretic and saliuretic effects. The urine volume (in mL) measured at 5 h and 24 h and electrolyte excretion (Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-)) at 24 h duration were measured. The urine output and urinary electrolyte excretion were found to be significantly higher in rats treated with MEPH as compared to normal rats in a dose dependent manner (P < 0.05). The results of our study were comparable to furosemide drug. Based on observed results, we can recommend that P. harmala may be an effective diuretic, however, toxicity studies should be conducted before administration.

  20. Role of cytokines in anti-implantation activity of H2 receptor blockers in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Shyam S; Ittiyavirah, Sibi P

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the negative effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD) on the immune system and body weight gain of rats and the preventive effects of curcumin were examined. For this purpose, 3-4 months old 128 Wistar albino rats with 280-310g body weights were used. The 2microg/kg dose of 2,3,7,8-TCDD and 100mg/kg dose of curcumin were dissolved in corn oil and orally given to the rats found in the experimental and control groups. Then, the serum samples were taken from all rats at 15, 30, 45 and 60th days to analyzed for the determination of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-12 and IL-13 levels by ELISA method. The data of body weight gain was measured at 15, 30, 45 and 60th days. The results indicated that 2,3,7,8,3,7,8-TCDD caused to increase significantly (p<0.05) in serum TNF-alpha levels. However, it caused significantly (p<0.05) decreases in the levels of IFN-gamma, IL-12 and IL-13 in rats. On contrary, curcumin increased IFN-gamma, IL-12 and IL-13 levels, but decreased TNF-alpha level in rats. Additionally, TCDD caused significantly (P<0.01) reductions in the body weight gain. However curcumin reversed this effect of TCDD.In conclusion, 2,3,7,8-TCDD significantly suppressed the humoral immunity and body weight gain in rats at doses of 2microg/kg. However curcumin, which was found in some plants, eliminated the effect of TCDD on immune system and body weight when it was given together with 2,3,7,8-TCDD. It is thought that this effect may have occurred via curcumin and TCDD were binding aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) competitively.

  1. Correction of Negative Effect of Antenatal Hypoxia on Liver Tissue Homeostasis in Newborn Albino Rats with Opioid Peptides.

    PubMed

    Pinaeva, O G; Sazonova, E N; Lebed'ko, O A; Timoshin, S S

    2016-12-01

    We studied the possibility of correction of the negative effects of antenatal hypoxia on the liver tissue homeostasis in 7-day-old albino rats by administration of opioid peptides in a dose of 100 μg/kg on postnatal days 2-6. Administration of mixed μ/δ-opioid receptor agonist Dalargin neutralized deviations of gravimetric indicators, parameters of proliferative activity, and activity of the nucleolar apparatus of hepatocytes. Administration of the non-opiate Leu-enkephalin analogue did not normalize gravimetric parameters and nucleolar apparatus parameters, however, it significantly increased the pool of proliferating hepatocytes. Both peptides significantly reduced the intensity of free radical oxidation, improved antioxidant antiradical defense and resistance to peroxidation in the liver tissue of animals subjected to antenatal hypoxia.

  2. Influence of acrylamide on the gastric mucosa of adult albino rats and the possible protective role of rosemary.

    PubMed

    El-Mehi, Abeer E; El-Sherif, Neveen M

    2015-06-01

    Acrylamide is a common chemical found in heated starchy foods especially potato products. We investigated, for the first time, the effect of acrylamide, alone or with rosemary, on the structure of gastric mucosa of adult male albino rats. Stomach sections were examined using light and scanning electron microscopy. Quantitative immmunohistochemical assessments of the expression of caspase-3, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EPGR) were performed. Our results showed that acrylamide produced mucosal erosions and depletion of the protective surface mucus together with widespread inflammatory infiltration. In addition, there was significantly increased expression of caspase-3 and iNOS and weak expression of EPGR. Rosemary exerted a protective effect against acrylamide-induced gastric toxicity via reducing oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation as well as accelerating the healing process. The results of this work add to the known toxic effects of acrylamide and provide a new insight into the possible use of rosemary to ameliorate these effects.

  3. Exogenous Ketone Supplements Reduce Anxiety-Related Behavior in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ari, Csilla; Kovács, Zsolt; Juhasz, Gabor; Murdun, Cem; Goldhagen, Craig R.; Koutnik, Andrew P.; Poff, Angela M.; Kesl, Shannon L.; D’Agostino, Dominic P.

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional ketosis has been proven effective for seizure disorders and other neurological disorders. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of ketone supplementation on anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We tested exogenous ketone supplements added to food and fed chronically for 83 days in SPD rats and administered sub-chronically for 7 days in both rat models by daily intragastric gavage bolus followed by assessment of anxiety measures on elevated plus maze (EPM). The groups included standard diet (SD) or SD + ketone supplementation. Low-dose ketone ester (LKE; 1,3-butanediol-acetoacetate diester, ~10 g/kg/day, LKE), high dose ketone ester (HKE; ~25 g/kg/day, HKE), beta-hydroxybutyrate-mineral salt (βHB-S; ~25 g/kg/day, KS) and βHB-S + medium chain triglyceride (MCT; ~25 g/kg/day, KSMCT) were used as ketone supplementation for chronic administration. To extend our results, exogenous ketone supplements were also tested sub-chronically on SPD rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 5 g/kg/day) and on WAG/Rij rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 2.5 g/kg/day). At the end of treatments behavioral data collection was conducted manually by a blinded observer and with a video-tracking system, after which blood βHB and glucose levels were measured. Ketone supplementation reduced anxiety on EPM as measured by less entries to closed arms (sub-chronic KE and KS: SPD rats and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats), more time spent in open arms (sub-chronic KE: SPD and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats; chronic KSMCT: SPD rats), more distance traveled in open arms (chronic KS and KSMCT: SPD rats) and by delayed latency to entrance to closed arms (chronic KSMCT: SPD rats), when compared to control. Our data indicates that chronic and sub-chronic ketone supplementation not only elevated blood βHB levels in both animal models, but reduced anxiety-related behavior. We conclude that ketone supplementation may represent a promising anxiolytic strategy through a

  4. Exogenous Ketone Supplements Reduce Anxiety-Related Behavior in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk Rats.

    PubMed

    Ari, Csilla; Kovács, Zsolt; Juhasz, Gabor; Murdun, Cem; Goldhagen, Craig R; Koutnik, Andrew P; Poff, Angela M; Kesl, Shannon L; D'Agostino, Dominic P

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional ketosis has been proven effective for seizure disorders and other neurological disorders. The focus of this study was to determine the effects of ketone supplementation on anxiety-related behavior in Sprague-Dawley (SPD) and Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We tested exogenous ketone supplements added to food and fed chronically for 83 days in SPD rats and administered sub-chronically for 7 days in both rat models by daily intragastric gavage bolus followed by assessment of anxiety measures on elevated plus maze (EPM). The groups included standard diet (SD) or SD + ketone supplementation. Low-dose ketone ester (LKE; 1,3-butanediol-acetoacetate diester, ~10 g/kg/day, LKE), high dose ketone ester (HKE; ~25 g/kg/day, HKE), beta-hydroxybutyrate-mineral salt (βHB-S; ~25 g/kg/day, KS) and βHB-S + medium chain triglyceride (MCT; ~25 g/kg/day, KSMCT) were used as ketone supplementation for chronic administration. To extend our results, exogenous ketone supplements were also tested sub-chronically on SPD rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 5 g/kg/day) and on WAG/Rij rats (KE, KS and KSMCT; 2.5 g/kg/day). At the end of treatments behavioral data collection was conducted manually by a blinded observer and with a video-tracking system, after which blood βHB and glucose levels were measured. Ketone supplementation reduced anxiety on EPM as measured by less entries to closed arms (sub-chronic KE and KS: SPD rats and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats), more time spent in open arms (sub-chronic KE: SPD and KSMCT: WAG/Rij rats; chronic KSMCT: SPD rats), more distance traveled in open arms (chronic KS and KSMCT: SPD rats) and by delayed latency to entrance to closed arms (chronic KSMCT: SPD rats), when compared to control. Our data indicates that chronic and sub-chronic ketone supplementation not only elevated blood βHB levels in both animal models, but reduced anxiety-related behavior. We conclude that ketone supplementation may represent a promising anxiolytic strategy through a

  5. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Suresh; Selvaraj, Senthil Velan; Velayutham, Suresh; Natesan, Senthil Kumar; Palaniswamy, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Gastric lesions were induced in rats by oral administration of absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) and stress induced by water immersion. The antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) was compared with standard drugs. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. Result: Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr showed a dose dependent curative ratio compared to ulcer control groups. The extract at 400 mg/kg showed significant anti ulcer activity which is almost equal to that of the standard drug in both models. The volume of acid secretion, total and free acidity was decreased and pH of the gastric juice was increased compared to ulcer control group. Conclusions: The present study indicates that Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark extracts have potential anti ulcer activity. PMID:22022006

  6. Antioxidative Role of Hatikana (Leea macrophylla Roxb.) Partially Improves the Hepatic Damage Induced by CCl4 in Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Akhter, Samina; Rahman, Md Atiar; Aklima, Jannatul; Hasan, Md Rakibul; Chowdhury, J M Kamirul Hasan

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the protective role of Leea macrophylla extract on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) crude extract were subjected to analysis for antioxidative effects. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal control, hepatic control, and reference control (silymarin) group and treatment group. Evaluations were made for the effects of the fractions on serum enzymes and biochemical parameters of CCl4-induced albino rat. Histopathological screening was also performed to evaluate the changes of liver tissue before and after treatment. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla showed very potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing effect, superoxide scavenging effect, and iron chelating effect. Carbon tetrachloride induction increased the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. In contrast, treatment of Leea macrophylla reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as biochemical parameters activities. L. macrophylla partially restored the lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. Histopathology showed the treated liver towards restoration. Results evidenced that L. macrophylla can be prospective source of hepatic management in liver injury.

  7. Garlic and alpha lipoic supplementation enhance the immune system of albino rats and alleviate implications of pesticides mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Darwish, Nevine S; Shokry, Dina A; El-Aal, Aly GE Abd; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, Abd-Alhamed; Ziada, Reem M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate age dependent immune-system response versus exposure to different doses of mixture of (chlorpyrifos, profenofose, and fenitrothion) and/or combined with 60 and 250 mg kg-1 alpha lipoic acid and garlic, respectively. 120 males of albino rats were divided to two groups according to age; weaning group (2 months age and 60-80 gm.), adult (6 months and 180-200 gm). Each age was divided into 6 subgroups treated orally for 3 months , G1 (control), G2 high dose (HDPM) CPF10 mg kg-1, PRO 3 mg kg-1, FEN 6 mg kg-1, G3 low dose (LDPM) CPF 1 mg kg-1, PFN 0.3 mg kg-1 and FEN 0.6 mg kg-1, G4 AOX (alpha lipoic + Garlic), G5 HDPM + AOX and G6 LDPM + AOX. Results showed significant inhibition in serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE), elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) concurrent with reduction in total reduced glutathione (GSH) in both ages was recorded as well as, decrease in IGG, IGM, Lymphocyte transformation and Phagocytosis humeral and cellular immunity confirmed by alteration in lymph nodes architecture. This study was concluded that the supplementation with alpha lipoic acid and garlic improved previous alternations slightly to be more or less near the control level in both adult and weaning rats. It seems that, immune-responses of both adult and weaning rats were slightly similar. PMID:26221319

  8. Antioxidative Role of Hatikana (Leea macrophylla Roxb.) Partially Improves the Hepatic Damage Induced by CCl4 in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Samina; Rahman, Md. Atiar; Aklima, Jannatul; Hasan, Md. Rakibul; Hasan Chowdhury, J. M. Kamirul

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the protective role of Leea macrophylla extract on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) crude extract were subjected to analysis for antioxidative effects. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal control, hepatic control, and reference control (silymarin) group and treatment group. Evaluations were made for the effects of the fractions on serum enzymes and biochemical parameters of CCl4-induced albino rat. Histopathological screening was also performed to evaluate the changes of liver tissue before and after treatment. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla showed very potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing effect, superoxide scavenging effect, and iron chelating effect. Carbon tetrachloride induction increased the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. In contrast, treatment of Leea macrophylla reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as biochemical parameters activities. L. macrophylla partially restored the lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. Histopathology showed the treated liver towards restoration. Results evidenced that L. macrophylla can be prospective source of hepatic management in liver injury. PMID:26221590

  9. Vitamin D3 May Ameliorate the Ketoconazole Induced Adrenal Injury: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies on Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mahmoud Salah

    2015-01-01

    Ketoconazole (KZ) is used widely for treating the superficial, systemic fungal activities and hyperandrogenemic states. Its uses are limited by its deleterious effect on histological structure and function of the adrenal cortex. This study investigates whether vitamin D3 supplement can ameliorate the morphological changes induced by KZ. Thirty four adult male albino rats were randomized into control group (Group I) which was subdivided into: control 1 (n=7) and control 2 (n=7): In control 1, rats were intraperitoneal (I.P) injected once with 1 ml of polyethylene glycol-400 for 15 consecutive days and control 2 rats were injected I.P with (1 μg/kg) of vitamin D3 for the same period. Group II (n=10): rats were I.P injected with KZ (10 mg/100 g of body weight) once daily for 15 days; Group III (n=10): rats were I.P concomitantly injected with KZ and vitamin D3 similar doses to animals in groups II and control 2 respectively. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma ACTH, corticosterone and aldosterone levels. The right adrenal specimens sections were stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin and Masson Trichrome for histological studies and treated with Bax, Ubiquitin and vitamin D receptors for immunohistochemical studies. KZ induced adrenal cortical morphological changes in forms of disturbed adrenocorticocyte cytological architecture, nuclear changes, and intracellular lipid accumulation. KZ also increased adrenal Bax and Ub but decreased the vitamin D receptors immunopositive staining expression, in addition to increased plasma ACTH as well as decreased corticosterone and aldosterone levels. These changes were ameliorated by supplementing with vitamin D3. PMID:26379312

  10. Curative effects of mandur bhasma on liver and kidney of albino rats after induction of acute hepatitis by CCl(4).

    PubMed

    Kanase, A; Patil, S; Thorat, B

    1997-07-01

    Hepatocurative effects of mandur bhasma were studied in albino rats after induction of acute hepatitis by CCl4 liquid paraffin and CCl4 + liquid param. Recovery of the liver was studied with reference to histological architecture and differential counts of degenerated, recovering and recovered hepatocytes. Alterations in the kidney were also studied histologically. Hepatotoxins were given (s.c.) daily for 11 days. Mandur bhasma was given (po) for 7 days to normal, CCl4, liquid paraffin and CCl4 + liquid paraffin treated rats from day 12 to day 18. There were no spontaneous liver and kidney recoveries within a week after the cessation of the treatments of hepatotoxins. Mandur bhasma treatment showed conspicuous recoveries of liver and kidney within a week and total recoveries were noticed after two weeks. Biochemical alterations in lipid peroxidation, glucose-phosphatase and total proteins were studied during present work. The alterations in the histology and biochemical parameters of liver and kidney show hepatocurative potency of mandur bhasma.

  11. Acute and subacute oral toxicity study on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ekeanyanwu, Raphael Chukwuma; Njoku, Obioma Uzoma

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed on the haematology, histopathology and liver profile of Wistar albino rats. Methods Toxicity study was investigated on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia in rats administered different concentrations orally for 28 d using standard laboratory procedures. Results The LD50 of the flavonoid rich fraction was found to be above 5 000 mg/kg body weight in mice observed for 48 h. After the Day 14, biochemical markers of liver injury such as serum alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly (P<0.05 at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight and P<0.01 at 400 mg/kg) while serum alkaline phosphatase increased non-significantly (P>0.05). There was non-significant (P>0.05) effect observed across the groups in the levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine. The result of histological examination showed various degrees of peribiliary hepatitis after the Day 14 which fizzled out after the Day 28. Conclusions The result therefore suggests that the seed extract is potentially safe. PMID:25182437

  12. The protective effects of ascorbic acid, cimetidine, and nifedipine on diethyldithiocarbamate-induced hepatic toxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gaafa, Khadiga Mohammed; Badawy, Mohammed M; Hamza, Alaaeldin A

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to clarify the involvement of free radicals, cytochrome P450 toxic metabolites, and deregulation of calcium homeostasis in the mechanism of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) hepatotoxicity. This was elucidated through the preadministration of ascorbic acid (a free radical scavenger), cimetidine (an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 enzymes), or nifedipine (a calcium-blocking agent) before DDC treatment to male albino rats. DDC was administered either as a single dose [800 mg/kg body weight (b.w.), subcutaneously, s.c.] or daily repeated doses for 30 days (400 mg/kg b.w., s.c.). Oxidative stress indicators [e.g., malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase enzyme (SOD)] showed that single or repeated DDC doses induce an increase in MDA level and a decrease in SOD activity in the liver, whereas it causes depletion in hepatic GSH after a single dose and an elevation in its value after repeated doses. Severe histopathological changes were also observed in the livers of rats treated with single or repeated DDC doses. Ascorbic acid, cimetidine, and nifedipine pretreatments were found to induce highly protective effects against the evinced DDC hepatotoxicity, manifesting that free radical, cytochrome P450, and calcium-dependent processes contribute to DDC liver toxicity. Finally, although multiple mechanisms may be involved in the hepatotoxic changes induced by DDC, calcium disarrangement and free radical formation play a more critical role than cytochrome P450 in metabolic events leading to toxic effects of DDC.

  13. Effects of gamma radiation on hard dental tissues of albino rats using scanning electron microscope - Part 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Faramawy, Nabil; Ameen, Reham; El-Haddad, Khaled; Maghraby, Ahmed; El-Zainy, Medhat

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, 40 adult male albino rats were used to study the effect of gamma radiation on the hard dental tissues (enamel surface, dentinal tubules and the cementum surface). The rats were irradiated at 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 and 6.0 Gy gamma doses. The effects of irradiated hard dental tissues samples were investigated using a scanning electron microscope. For doses up to 0.5 Gy, there was no evidence of the existence of cracks on the enamel surface. With 1 Gy irradiation dose, cracks were clearly observed with localized erosive areas. At 2 Gy irradiation dose, the enamel showed morphological alterations as disturbed prismatic and interprismatic areas. An increase in dentinal tubules diameter and a contemporary inter-tubular dentine volume decrease were observed with higher irradiation dose. Concerning cementum, low doses,<0.5 Gy, showed surface irregularities and with increase in the irradiation dose to≥1 Gy, noticeable surface irregularities and erosive areas with decrease in Sharpey's fiber sites were observed. These observations could shed light on the hazardous effects of irradiation fields to the functioning of the human teeth.

  14. Optical properties of albino rat skin heated in vitro: comparison of photoacoustic and integrating sphere measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Sharon L.; Vijverberg, Helene; Jacques, Steven L.; Oraevsky, Alexander A.

    1994-08-01

    The optical properties represented by the absorption coefficient ((mu) a) and reduced scattering coefficient [(mu) s(1-g) or (mu) 's] at (lambda) equals 355 nm of thermally altered albino rat skin were measured in vitro by two methods: (1) a time-resolved stress detection (TRSD) technique which directly measured the effective attenuation coefficient ((mu) eff) and the absorption coefficient ((mu) a), and (2) the well-known integrating sphere technique which measured total transmittance (Tt) nd total diffuse reflectance (Rd). The skin pieces were wrapped in water-tight packets and heated for 20 minutes in a calibrated water bath (temperature range: 20 degree(s) - 90 degree(s)C) and the same skin samples were used for both measurement methods. The experimental data were analyzed to specify the absorption and the scattering properties. The results, which were in general agreement for both methods, indicated that denaturation of the rat skin caused a decrease in scattering due to melting of the collagen fibers. The decrease began at 55 degree(s)C and plateaued at 65 degree(s) - 70 degree(s)C and was essentially unchanged at higher temperatures. Absorption was not significantly affected by denaturation except for a transient rise at 50 degree(s) - 60 degree(s)C.

  15. Effect of clove and cinnamon extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats: Immunopathological and antimicrobial study.

    PubMed

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H; Abdelhafez, S; Ismail, T A

    2015-03-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of some plant extracts on some pathogenic microorganisms so we evaluated antimicrobial activity of aqueous extracts of clove and cinnamon using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 40 adult healthy male albino rats divided into four groups: Group 1: negative control group (received intragastric saline solution daily); Group 2: injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S. aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis then received intragastric saline solution daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension then received intragastric clove extract 500 mg/kg/day; and Group (4): injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received intragastric cinnamon 500 mg/kg/day. Five rats from each group were sacrificed after 1 and 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozymes activity and nitric oxide production, lymphocyte transformation test, as well as counting of both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirmed the efficacy of clove extract as natural antimicrobials and suggested the possibility of its use in treatment of such bacterial infections.

  16. Aqueous seed extract of Cola nitida rubra reduces serum reproductive hormone concentrations and sperm count in adult male albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Umoh, I. O.; Emmanuel, O. A.; Nna, V. U.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Following the high rate of consumption of Cola nitida (cola nut) among the male population in Nigeria, this study seeks to determine the effects of consumption of Cola nitida on serum reproductive hormones and sperm count, which are major determinants of male fertility. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male albino wistar rats weighing 180-220 g were used for this study and were divided into 4 groups of eight animals each. Group 1 served as control, group 2 received 2 mg/kg Cola nitida extract (Test 1), group 3 received 6 mg/kg Cola nitida extract (Test 2) and group 4 received 10 mg/kg Cola nitida extract (Test 3). After 6 weeks of treatment, reproductive hormonal assay was carried out using the rat serum. Epididymal spermatozoa were collected and sperm count determined. Results: Serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in test 2 and 3, compared with control. Sperm count was significantly lower in test group 1 (P < 0.05), 2 (P < 0.001) and 3 (P < 0.001) compared with control, with test 3 significantly (P < 0.05) lower compared with test 1. There was no significant difference in testicular and epididymis weight in the different experimental groups studied. Conclusion: Aqueous seed extract of Cola nitida rubra resulted in reduced serum reproductive hormone concentrations and sperm count in male wistar rats, and may therefore be detrimental to reproductive health, hence the need for regulation of its consumption. PMID:25538361

  17. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, O. A.; Odesanmi, O. E.; Oladele, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. Materials and Methods: The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) % inhibition activities were determined. Results: The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. Conclusion: The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats. PMID:26759513

  18. 1H NMR-based serum metabolomics reveals erythromycin-induced liver toxicity in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Atul; Dubey, Durgesh; Guleria, Anupam; Kumar, Umesh; Keshari, Amit K.; Chaturvedi, Swati; Prakash, Anand; Saha, Sudipta; Kumar, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Erythromycin (ERY) is known to induce hepatic toxicity which mimics other liver diseases. Thus, ERY is often used to produce experimental models of drug-induced liver-toxicity. The serum metabolic profiles can be used to evaluate the liver-toxicity and to further improve the understanding of underlying mechanism. Objective: To establish the serum metabolic patterns of Erythromycin induced hepatotoxicity in albino wistar rats using 1H NMR based serum metabolomics. Experimental: Fourteen male rats were randomly divided into two groups (n = 7 in each group): control and ERY treated. After 28 days of intervention, the metabolic profiles of sera obtained from ERY and control groups were analyzed using high-resolution 1D 1H CPMG and diffusion-edited nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra. The histopathological and SEM examinations were employed to evaluate the liver toxicity in ERY treated group. Results: The serum metabolic profiles of control and ERY treated rats were compared using multivariate statistical analysis and the metabolic patterns specific to ERY-induced liver toxicity were established. The toxic response of ERY was characterized with: (a) increased serum levels of Glucose, glutamine, dimethylamine, malonate, choline, phosphocholine and phospholipids and (b) decreased levels of isoleucine, leucine, valine, alanine, glutamate, citrate, glycerol, lactate, threonine, circulating lipoproteins, N-acetyl glycoproteins, and poly-unsaturated lipids. These metabolic alterations were found to be associated with (a) decreased TCA cycle activity and enhanced fatty acid oxidation, (b) dysfunction of lipid and amino acid metabolism and (c) oxidative stress. Conclusion and Recommendations: Erythromycin is often used to produce experimental models of liver toxicity; therefore, the established NMR-based metabolic patterns will form the basis for future studies aiming to evaluate the efficacy of anti-hepatotoxic agents or the hepatotoxicity of new drug

  19. Anti-arthritic Activity of Dashanga Ghana (An Ayurvedic Compound Formulation) Against Freund's Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Charles Foster Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ruknuddin, Galib; Patgiri, B. J.; Prajapati, P. K.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Arthritis is the most common cause of disability, limiting the activities of adults throughout the world. Apart from the conventional treatment strategies using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and glucocorticoids, newer and safer drugs are continuously being searched, as long-term usage of these drugs have resulted in adverse effects. Besides this, currently a number of medicinal plants are under scientific evaluation to develop a promising remedy in these cases. There is a need to investigate the complete therapeutic potential of these herbals for providing newer and safer treatment options with minimum side effects. Considering this, a polyherbal Ayurvedic compound formulation (Dashanga Ghana) has been studied in experimental animals to evaluate anti-arthritic activity. Materials and Methods: Dashanga Ghana has been prepared in the laboratory by following standard guidelines. Charles Foster albino rats were used to evaluate the activity through Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis model. Results and Conclusions: Dashanga Ghana is found to possess significant anti-arthritic activity. Further studies are required to identify and characterize exact active phyto-constituents and to elucidate the exact mechanism of action, which is responsible for the observed pharmacological profile. PMID:26862275

  20. Comparative evaluation of standardized alcoholic, hydroalcoholic, and aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. against galactosamine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, U. K.; Katare, Deepshikha P.; Aeri, Vidhu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phyllanthus maderaspatensis species (Euphorbiaceae) has been used in folk medicine of many countries as a remedy against several pathological conditions including jaundice and hepatitis. This study is an attempt to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of P. maderaspatensis against galactosamine-induced toxicity and also investigation of polyphenols in each extract. Materials and Methods: The extraction of P. maderaspatensis as per Ayurveda was simultaneously standardized and quantified for biochemical markers viz., polyphenols: Kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid by high-performance thin layer chromatography. Hepatotoxicity was induced albino adult rats by intraperitoneal injection of galactosamine (400 mg/kg). The quantified aqueous, hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extract of P. maderaspatensis (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day) were compared for evaluation of hepatoprotective potential, which were assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, change in serum enzymes such as aspartate amino transaminase, alanine amino transaminase and alkaline phosphatase and increase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results and Discussion: The hydroalcoholic extract was found to contain comparatively high amount of kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid which are responsible for hepatoprotection. Antioxidant parameters such as glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity in liver tissues were restored toward the normalization more significantly by the hydroalcoholic extract when compared with other extracts. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract standardized with respect to known biomarkers may be considered as a potent extract against hepatotoxicity. PMID:25829765

  1. Assessment of enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation by intermittent fasting in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Razzak, Rima L Abdul; Abu-Hozaifa, Bodour M; Bamosa, Abdullah O; Ali, Nemah M

    2011-01-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF), a type of feeding regimen where the frequency of eating is reduced enhances cardiovascular stress adaptation and improves cardiovascular risk factors in rats. Data on the effect of IF on the endothelium is not common, so we examined whether IF showed similarity to documented beneficial effects of caloric restriction on endothelium-dependent vasodilatory responses of rat aortic rings. 25 young male Wistar rats had ad libitum (AL) access to food and 25 others were provided with food every other day for 2 months, during which their weight was measured every 2 weeks. Vascular reactivity of abdominal aorta was simultaneously evaluated using dual wire myographs. Weight gain was greater in the AL group (P<0.001) at all weighing intervals. Acetylcholine (ACh; 10(-10)-10(-5)M) produced greater (P<0.05) vasorelaxation in IF rats at the two highest concentrations. IF reduces weight gain in young male rats and improves their aortic endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation.

  2. A high molecular weight protein Bengalin from the Indian black scorpion (Heterometrus bengalensis C.L. Koch) venom having antiosteoporosis activity in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Haldar, Subhash; Das Gupta, Shubho; Gomes, Aparna; Giri, Biplab; Dasgupta, Subir Chandra; Biswas, Ajay; Mishra, Roshnara; Gomes, Antony

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the presence of a high molecular weight protein (Bengalin) from the Indian black scorpion (Heterometrus bengalensis) venom having antiosteoporosis activity in experimental osteoporosis developed in female albino Wister rats. Bengalin was purified through DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The molecular weight of the Bengalin was found to be 72kDa and the first 20 amino acid sequence was found to be G-P-L-T-I-L-H-I-N-D-V-H-A-A/R-F-E-Q/G-F/G-N-T. Bengalin exhibited significant antiosteoporosis activity in experimental female rats, which was confirmed through analysis of urine Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-), CRE & OH-P. Bengalin (3 microg and 5 microg/100g rat/i.p.) antagonized osteoporosis by restoring urinary Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-), CRE and OH-P, serum/plasma Ca(2+), PO(4)(3-), ALP, TRAP, PTH, T(3), TSH, Osteocalcin, IL1, IL6 and TNF alpha and bone minerals Ca(2+), P, Mg(2+), Zn(2+), Na(+), as compared with the sham operated control rats. Bone minerals density of osteoporosis female rats was improved due to Bengalin, observed through DEXA scan. Subacute toxicity studies in male albino mice, Bengalin showed cardiotoxicity. In vivo experiments, Bengalin showed cardiotoxicity on isolated guinea pig heart, guinea pig auricle, and neurotoxicity on isolated rat phrenic nerve diaphragm preparation. Further detail studies on the toxicity, antiosteoporosis and structural identity of Bengalin are warranted.

  3. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester protects 661W cells from H2O2-mediated cell death and enhances electroretinography response in dim-reared albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Tran, Julie-Thu A.; Anderson, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of honeybee propolis, has a wide range of beneficial properties. The purpose of this study was to test the protective role of CAPE in 661W cells (in vitro) against H2O2-mediated cell death and in albino rats (in vivo) against various light conditions. Methods The 661W cells were pretreated with CAPE and then stressed with H2O2. Cell death was measured with lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay, and mRNA and proteins were analyzed. Sprague Dawley rats were raised on either a control or CAPE (0.02%) diet and exposed to various light conditions for short or long periods. Retinal histology, mRNA, protein, lipid composition, and retinal function by electroretinography (ERG) were measured at the end of feeding. Results Pretreatment of 661W cells with CAPE reduced H2O2-mediated cell death in a dose-dependent manner and induced expression of heme oxygenase-1 (Ho1). Albino rats fed with CAPE had greater expression of Ho1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (Icam1), less expression of FOS-like antigen (Fosl) and lipoxygenase 12 (Lox12) genes in the retina, less translocation of nuclear factor kappaB protein to the nucleus, and a lower molar ratio of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Further, the ERGs of the retinas of CAPE-fed rats were significantly higher than those of the control-fed rats when raised in dim light. Conclusions CAPE can activate the antioxidative gene expression pathway in retinal cells in vitro and in vivo. Feeding CAPE to albino rats can enhance ERG responses and change the lipid profile in the rats’ retinas. PMID:22690111

  4. Effects of aqueous extracts of Acacia albida stem bark on Wistar albino rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Ndidi, Uche Samuel; Umar, Ismaila Alhaji; Mohammed, Aminu; Samuel, Cosmas; Oladeru, Amos Oladiran; Yakubu, Rahinat Nimma

    2015-01-01

    The effect of aqueous extract of Acacia albida stem bark was investigated in Wistar albino rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. The extract showed highest reduction in parasitemia at the dose of 600 mg/kg body weight (bw). A dose of 300 mg/kg bw improved packed cell volume the most by 14.35%. The group treated with 150 and 600 mg/kg bw of the extract showed significant decrease (P < 0.05) in alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase levels which were lower than those of the group treated with diminazene aceturate. The group treated with 150 mg/kg bw of the extract showed the least urea, albumin and protein level and lowest relative organ weight. There was a significant difference (P < 0.05) in the levels of catalase and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver and kidney of the animals in the infected-untreated group and the extracts-treated groups. The results of this study show that the extracts of A. albida have antitrypanosomal activity against T. evansi infection.

  5. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arun K; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue.

  6. Effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) extract on morphological and functional changes in adult male gonads of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Amar K; Choudhury, Shyamosree Roy; De, Neela; Sarkar, Mahitosh

    2011-09-01

    Green tea, prepared from the steamed and dried leaves of the shrub Camellia sinensis, is known for its antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic effects. However, its effects on male gonadal functions have not been explored adequately and the present investigation has been undertaken to evaluate the effect of green tea extract on gonads of adult male albino rats. Results of in vivo studies showed that green tea extract (GTE) at mild (1.25 g%, identical to 5 cups of tea/day), moderate (2.5 g%, identical to 10 cups of tea/day) and high (5.0 g%, identical to 20 cups of tea/day) doses, for a period of 26 days, altered morphology and histology of testis and accessory sex organs. A significant dose-dependent decrease in the sperm counts, inhibited activities of testicular delta(5)3beta-and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (delta5-3beta3-HSD and 17beta3-HSD respectively) and decreased serum testosterone level were noticed. Significant increase in serum LH level was observed after moderate and high doses; serum FSH level also increased but not significantly. Histopathological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis evidenced by preferential loss of matured and elongated spermatids. Results of this study showed that GTE at relatively high dose may cause impairment of both the morphological and normal functional status of testis in rodents and thus its consumption at relatively high doses raises concern on male reproductive function in spite of its other beneficial effects.

  7. Effect of dietary Garcinia kola seed on selected serum electrolytes and trace metals in male Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Agada, P O; Braide, V B

    2009-06-01

    The effects of various doses of dietary intake of Garcinia kola seed powder [incorporated in animal feed at levels of 5% w/w, 10% w/w and 20% w/w and fed daily for six weeks] on serum levels of selected electrolytes [K+, Na+, CI-, HCO3-, Mg2+ and Ca2+] and trace metals [Cu2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+] were studied in male Albino rats [100-150 g body wt]. The pair-fed controls received basal feed diet daily for six weeks. Results showed a significant [P<0.05] dose dependent elevation of serum CI-, HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+. These findings point to a possible relationship with already documented histopathology of various organs [such as the gonads] induced by Garcinia kola seed. It is also conjectured that the documented antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic, antidiabetic and antifertility effects of Garcinia kola seed may have underlying involvement of alterations in body levels of trace metals and electrolytes.

  8. Effect of topical application of silymarin (Silybum marianum) on excision wound healing in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Roya; Rastegar, Hossein; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Paknejad, Maliheh; Mehrabani Natanzi, Mahboobeh; Ghannadian, Naghmeh; Akbari, Minoo; Pasalar, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Silymarin, an extract from Silybum marianum, has been shown to have antioxidant properties. However, there is no scientific report on wound healing activity of the silymarin. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of topical administration of silymarin on excision wound healing in rats. Excision wounds were made on the back of rats. Rats were divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Vehicle and treatment groups received polyethylene glycol and silymarin dissolved in polyethylene glycol, respectively. The control group did not receive any treatment. The wound tissues were removed on 5th, 10th and 15th day for histopathological analysis and total collagen determination by hydroxyproline assay. Results showed that silymarin increased epithelialization and decreased inflammation but did not have any effect on percentage of wound contraction, collagenization and hydroxyproline levels. It was concluded that silymarin can significantly stimulate epithelialization and reduce inflammation in full-thickness wounds in rats.

  9. Effect of Benincasa hispida fruits on testosterone-induced prostatic hypertrophy in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nandecha, Chetan; Nahata, Alok; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Benincasa hispida Cogn. has been used traditionally in India for the management of urinary disorders. The fruit of B hispida is used as a diuretic and the seeds have been reported to possess antiangiogenic effects in prostate cells. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of petroleum ether extract, ethanolic extract, and B hispida seed oil on hyperplasia of the prostate induced by the subcutaneous administration of testosterone in rats. Methods: In vitro studies were performed to determine the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of the extracts. The results of those studies paved the way for the pharmacologic screening of the extracts to assess their potential against testosterone-induced hyperplasia in rats. Nine groups containing 10 rats per group were created for this study. Hyperplasia was induced by administration of testosterone (3 mg/kg SC) for 14 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether extract (100 or 200 mg/kg PO), ethanolic extract (100 or 200 mg/kg PO), and B hispida seed oil (20 or 40 mg/kg PO) was conducted. A standard 5α-reductase inhibitor (ie, finasteride) was used as a positive control. The weight of the rats was recorded on day 0 (ie, day 1 of the study) and on day 14, and the influence of testosterone and test extracts on the weight of the rats was determined. On day 14, rats were euthanized; prostates were dissected out, and weighed. The rats' prostate/body weight (P/BW) ratio was then determined. Histologic examinations were performed on prostates from each group. Results: The petroleum ether extract as well as B hispida seed oil exhibited inhibition of 5α-reductase activity in in vitro studies. Ethanolic extract did not exhibit significant inhibitory potential in vitro. Further in vivo study found that testosterone treatment significantly increased the rats' P/BW ratio in all the groups except the vehicle-treated rats, and this increase in

  10. Egyptian sweet marjoram leaves protect against genotoxicity, immunosuppression and other complications induced by cyclophosphamide in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Gamal; El-Beih, Nadia M; Zahra, Mai M

    2012-09-28

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the most popular alkylating anticancer drugs that show a high therapeutic index, despite the widespread side effects and toxicity particularly in high-dose regimens and long-term use. Here, we evaluated and compared the efficacy of two different doses (50 and 100 mg/kg body weight, given orally for 30 consecutive days) of Egyptian sweet marjoram leaf powder (MLP) and marjoram leaf aqueous extract (MLE) in alleviating the genotoxicity, immunosuppression and other complications induced by CP in non-tumour-bearing albino rats. The present study showed (probably for the first time) that both MLP and MLE significantly alleviated (P < 0·05-0·001) most side effects and toxicity of CP-treated rats including the increase in chromosomal aberrations of bone marrow cells and serum malondialdehyde level, the decrease in the level of serum Ig, the delayed type of hypersensitivity response as also the weights and cellularity of lymphoid organs, and myelosuppression, leucopenia, macrocytic normochromic anaemia as well as thrombocytopenia by reactivating the non-enzymic (reduced glutathione) and enzymic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, superoxide dismutase) antioxidant system and increasing the mitotic index of bone marrow cells. The modulatory effects of marjoram leaves shown in the present study were dose dependent in most cases and much higher in MLE (21-23 % for all parameters taken together). In addition, the doses used in the present study were considered safe. In conclusion, sweet marjoram leaves (especially in the form of a herbal tea) may be useful as an immunostimulant and in reducing genotoxicity in patients under chemotherapeutic interventions.

  11. Gender Difference in the Role of Posterodorsal Amygdala on the Regulation of Food Intake, Adiposity and Immunological Responses in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lalitha, Venugopal; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Parija, Subash Chandra; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Lesion of posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) has been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in animal models. However, the influence of gender on food intake (FI), body weight (BW) and immunological parameters following PDA lesion is not yet known. The present work was carried out to study the effect of gender on the regulation of FI, BW and immunological parameters following lesions of PDA in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-four albino Wistar rats were divided equally into 2 groups - PDA group and control group - with 6 male and 6 female rats in each. In the experimental group, bilateral electrolytic lesion of the respective nuclei was performed by stereotaxy and post-lesion parameters were recorded. In the control group, sham lesion was made. Male-female difference in each parameter was determined. Following PDA lesion, FI increased significantly in both male (p < 0.001) and female rats (p < 0.01) but the percentage increase in FI was significantly more in female rats (p < 0.001). BW also increased in both the sexes but the increase in BW was significant only in male rats (p < 0.05). Both male and female rats showed increase in the concentration of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), but the significant increase in CD4 concentration (p < 0.01) was seen only in male rats. CD8 concentration increased significantly in male rats (p < 0.05). The liver weight-BW ratio was significantly greater in female rats (p < 0.001) following PDA lesions. Lesion of PDA results in accentuation of FI and BW gain and activation of immunity. There is a gender difference in the inhibitory control of PDA on FI, BW and immunity. PMID:27536016

  12. Impact of an Energy Drink on the Structure of Stomach and Pancreas of Albino Rat: Can Omega-3 Provide a Protection?

    PubMed Central

    Ayuob, Nasra; ElBeshbeishy, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives A controversy developed between the benefits of energy drinks (EDs) versus the possible health threats since its revolution. Lack of information was a call to assess the effect of chronic consumption of Power Horse (PH) as one of the EDs, on the structure of pancreas and fundic mucosa of stomach in rats, and possible protective role of Omega-3. Materials and Methods Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups; control received group which only received a standard diet, Omega-3 group, PH group which given PH and PH plus Omega-3 group received both PH plus Omega-3 for 4 weeks. Biochemical assessment of blood glucose, serum insulin, gastrin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) was performed. The antioxidant activity and histopathological examination of both pancreatic tissue and fundic mucosa of stomach were assessed. Results Administration of PH significantly increased serum insulin and glucose levels while it significantly reduced serum gastrin level compared to control. PH also caused oxidants/antioxidants imbalance in both pancreas and fundic mucosa. The latter revealed degenerative changes and increased apoptosis which was evident by increased caspase-3 immunoexpression. Pancreas exhibited signs of β-cells overstimulation. Fundic mucosa showed reduced number of parietal cells, gastrin hormone expression compared to control group. Omega-3 administration could alleviate, to some extent, these changes. It significantly decreased TNF-α, iNOS and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as significantly increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities compared to the group which received PH alone. Conclusion Power Horse intake significantly injures islet cells, pancreatic acini as well as the glandular cells of the fundic mucosa. Omega-3 decreases these detrimental effects mostly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. PMID

  13. Effect of textile waste water on the spermatogenesis of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R S; Sharma, Rakhi; Chaudhary, Rakesh; Yadav, Rajesh Kumar; Khan, T I

    2003-01-01

    Textile waste water released from dyeing and printing industries situated in Sanganer, Jaipur (India), brought about inhibition of spermatogenesis in male rats. Water analysis showed the presence of heavy metals at more than permissible limits. Oral administration of waste water to the rats at the dose level of 26.6 ml kg(-1) body wt. significantly reduced the weights of testes, epididymides and seminal vesicle. Treated animals showed a notable depression of various stages of spermatogenesis. The production of spermatids was inhibited by 70.8% in waste-water-treated rats. The populations of spermatogonia, preleptotene spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes were decreased by 67.2, 71.1 and 73.2%, respectively. The total number of Sertoli cells was affected after waste water treatment. Reduced sperm count and motility resulted in treated groups. A significant fall in the content of various biochemical parameters of reproductive tissues was observed after water treatment.

  14. The potent effects of ginseng root extract and memantine on cognitive dysfunction in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Hazmi, Mansour A; Rawi, Sayed M; Arafa, Nadia Ms; Wagas, Abeer; Montasser, Ayat Os

    2015-06-01

    The study determined the maximum intraperitoneal (ip) scopolamine dose inducing memory impairment in rats (2 mg/kg) compared to 0.5 or 1 mg/kg dose. The effect reflected by significant increase from normal in the latency time required for rats to find the hidden platform in water maze task and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. The dose-related histopathological effect via the hemorrhage, vacuolation and gliosis in cortex and hippocampus is assessed. Then the study investigated the potency of Panax ginseng root extract on scopolamine cognitive dysfunction rat model compared to memantine hydrochloride as reference Food and Drug Administration approved. Ginseng extract was administered at dose 100 or 200 mg/kg/day and memantine at 20 mg/kg/day orally for 2 weeks. All treatments showed improvement in the water maze task, however, ginseng (200 mg/kg) group acquired the advantage without statistical difference control. Scopolamine (2 mg/kg ip) group showed significant increase in AChE reactivity and glutamate level and reduced monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin) and γ-aminobutyric acid contents in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Ginseng extract in a dose-dependent manner appears effective as memantine and can improve memory impairment through the retrieved homeostasis via neurotransmitter levels and AChE activities in rat brain areas with partial effect on the histological feature of the brain tissue.

  15. Protective effect of selenium against cisplatin-induced nasopharyngeal cancer in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Kan; Jiang, Lei; Chu, Yun; Zhang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluated the protective effect of selenium against cisplatin-induced nasopharyngeal cancer in the cardiac tissue of adult rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Different combinations of selenium and cisplatin were administered for 45 days, following which the animals were sacrificed and the nasopharyngeal tissue was surgically removed. Lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured. Apoptotic-related gene (p53, bax and caspase 3) mRNA expression was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Caspase 3 activity was also measured in all the groups. The results demonstrated that selenium significantly reduced the levels of malondialdehyde. The levels of glutathione, SOD, LDH and catalase significantly increased following selenium treatment. Relative mRNA expression (p53, bax and caspase 3) was significantly reduced in the cisplatin-treated rats, but it significantly increased following selenium treatment. The anticancer activity of selenium was also investigated in HK1cells. Fluorescence and confocal microscopy were used to analyze apoptosis and reactive oxygen species. The protective effect of selenium was also evident through caspase 3 activity, which significantly increased following selenium treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that selenium may be beneficial against cisplatin-induced nasopharyngeal cancer. PMID:28101235

  16. Protective effect of apigenin against N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ali, Fahad; Rahul; Naz, Falaq; Jyoti, Smita; Siddique, Yasir Hasan

    2014-06-01

    A number of pharmacological properties have been attributed to apigenin. In the present study the effect of apigenin was investigated with respect to hepatotoxicity induced by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), a compound that is present in many food stuffs and has been reported to be a hepatocarcinogen. Male rats were exposed to NDEA (0.1mg/ml) dissolved in drinking-water separately, and with 10, 20, or 40mg/ml of apigenin for 21 days. The activity of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT), glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was measured in blood serum. Lipid peroxidation, protein carbonyl content and micronucleus frequency were determined in hepatocytes. To assess the effect on DNA damage, the comet assay was performed on hepatocytes, blood lymphocytes and bone-marrow cells of the exposed rats. The results of the study reveal that the treatment of NDEA together with apigenin showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the serum concentration of the enzymes SGOT, SGPT, ALP and LDH (p<0.05). Histological sections of the liver also showed a protective effect of apigenin. A significant dose-dependent reduction in lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl content was observed in rats exposed to NDEA (0.1mg/ml) together with apigenin (p<0.05). The results obtained for the comet assay in rat hepatocytes, blood lymphocytes and bone-marrow cells showed a significant dose-dependent decrease in the mean tail length (p<0.05). The present study supports the role of apigenin as an anti-genotoxic and hepatoprotective agent.

  17. Safety Evaluation of Unani Formulation: Capsule Shaqeeqa in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfar, Khalid; Ahmad Dar, Showkat; Akbar, Seema; Nazir, Tazeen; Hamdani, Mariya; Siddiqui, Khalid M.; Kumar, Pawan; Masood, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Capsule Shaqeeqa, Unani formulation, is prescribed for the clinical treatment of diseases like sinusitis, headache, and migraine. The safety evaluation data of it is not available; in order to provide the safety data the present study was carried out. The study was carried out on four groups of rats (n = 5). Two groups (one male and one female group) as normal controls were orally given water while the other two groups were orally given daily doses of drug at the dose level of 150 mg/kg of body weight for duration of 90 days. Physiological parameters like body weight, feed consumption, water consumption, and clinical signs were regularly monitored and recorded. Organs were collected, examined, and weighed and specimens were taken for histopathological studies. The results showed that the drug did not alter the physiological parameters. There was no mortality or any morbidity found in drug treated rats. There was no statistical significant change found in any haematological or biochemical parameter of rats orally fed with Shaqeeqa. A statistically insignificant association verified that haematological and biochemical parameters were rendered unaffected by the drug. Moreover histological investigations of essential key organs demonstrated that the drug did not prompt any histopathological change. These observations demonstrate the safety of Capsule Shaqeeqa at the studied dosage levels. PMID:27190679

  18. Guanosine may increase absence epileptic activity by means of A2A adenosine receptors in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Dobolyi, Árpád; Todorov, Mihail Ivilinov; Kékesi, Katalin A; Juhász, Gábor; Aleksza, Magdolna; Kovács, Zsolt

    2016-06-01

    The non-adenosine nucleoside guanosine (Guo) was demonstrated to decrease quinolinic acid(QA)-induced seizures, spontaneously emerged absence epileptic seizures and lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-evoked induction of absence epileptic seizures suggesting its antiepileptic potential. It was also described previously that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 20 and 50mg/kg Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in a well investigated model of human absence epilepsy, the Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats during 4th (20mg/kg Guo) and 3rd as well as 4th (50mg/kg Guo) measuring hours. Guanosine can potentially decrease SWD number by means of its putative receptors but absence epileptic activity changing effects of Guo by means of increased extracellular adenosine (Ado) cannot be excluded. An increase in the dose of i.p. injected Guo is limited by its low solubility in saline, therefore, we addressed in the present study whether higher doses of Guo, diluted in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, have more potent antiepileptic effect in WAG/Rij rats. We confirmed that i.p. 50mg/kg Guo decreased but, surprisingly, i.p. 100mg/kg Guo enhanced the number of SWDs in WAG/Rij rats. Combined i.p. injection of a non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5mg/kg) or a selective Ado A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist SCH 58261 (7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine) (1mg/kg) and a cyclooxygenase 1 and 2/COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin (10mg/kg) with 100mg/kg Guo decreased the SWD number compared to i.p. 100mg/kg Guo alone. The results suggest that i.p. 100mg/kg Guo can increase SWD number by means of the adenosinergic system.

  19. [The postnatal development of the lamina V pyramidal cells in the temporal cortex of the albino rat].

    PubMed

    Nicolai, B

    1981-01-01

    1. The development of layer V pyramidal neurons is analysed quantitatively in albino rat temporal ("auditory") cortex from the 1st to the 90th postnatal days (12 stages). The length of apical dendrites, the number of primary dendrites and the total amount of apical dendrite spines are registered in Golgi-Cox preparations (55 animals). The diameters of the nucleus, length and width of the perikaryon and the relation between nucleus and perikaryon are measured in Nissl-series (45 animals). 2. Two types of development can be recognised by the examined parameters: --Length of apical dendrites, number of primary dendrites and of apical dendrite spines aspire more or less continuously to a maximum value. --Sizes of nucleus and perikaryon show intermediately a higher value than the terminal one ("overshooting growth"). 3. The postnatal development of the parameters suggests that the dendritic growth (also after initiated phase) starts from the perikaryon and relates with dendritic neuroplasmic flow. 4. In order to give general statements about the evolution of layer V pyramidal neuron's rates of growth are counted and their degree of maturity is determined. The biggest rates of growth are reached up to the 12th day post partum. At this time the pyramidal neurons have a relatively high degree of maturity. 5. There are two periods with especially marked alterations of structure of the layer V pyramidal neurons. These alterations are regarded as morphokineses according to Scharf. I. The morphological changes between the 8th and the 12th day are regarded as "morphokinesis as a reaction to planned crises" (2.2., according to Scharf 1970). In this case the critical situation is the beginning of hearing of the young rats, which is to be prepared. II. The morphological changes between the 24th and 36th day take place in the critical period of primary socialization (Scott et al. 1974). This could be understood as "morphokinesis as a reaction to environmental influences" (2

  20. Effect of mancozeb on ovarian compensatory hypertrophy and biochemical constituents in hemicastrated albino rat.

    PubMed

    Mahadevaswami, M P; Jadaramkunti, U C; Hiremath, M B; Kaliwal, B B

    2000-01-01

    Mancozeb a carbamate fungicide was administered orally at doses of 500, 600, 700, and 800 mg/kg/day to normal hemicastrated virgin rats for 15 consecutive days to examine the effect on ovarian hypertrophy. Sham-operated and hemicastrated control rats were administered a similar quantity of olive oil. The vaginal smear and body weight of the rats were recorded daily and rats were sacrificed on the Day 16. The ovary, uterus, kidney, adrenal, spleen, liver, lungs, heart, thymus, and thyroid were removed and weighed. The left ovary from each animal was serially sectioned and stained for histologic studies. The hemicastrated control rats revealed a significant increase in relative ovarian weight with 66.3% hypertrophy. Treatment with 700 and 800 mg/kg/day mancozeb revealed a decrease in ovarian hypertrophy with 28.2 and 22.8% hypertrophy, respectively. There was no significant change in the number of estrous cycles and duration of each phase of the estrous cycle with 500 mg/kg/day mancozeb. However, there was a decrease in the number of estrous cycles, duration of proestrus, estrus, and metestrus with concomitant significant increase in the duration of the diestrus phase with 600, 700, and 800 mg/kg/day mancozeb treatment. There was a significant decrease in the number of healthy follicles with concomitant increase in the number of atretic follicles at higher doses of mancozeb. There were no significant changes in the body and organ weight with 500, 600, 700, and 800 mg/kg/day of mancozeb. The levels of protein, glycogen, total lipid, phospholipid, and neutral lipid were elevated in the liver, uterus, and ovary after hemicastration. Protein, glycogen, total lipid, phospholipid, and neutral lipid were not significantly changed in the liver, uterus, and ovary after 500 mg/kg/day mancozeb. However, treatment with 600, 700, and 800 mg/kg/day mancozeb showed a significant decrease in the levels of protein, glycogen, total lipid, phospholipid, and neutral lipid in the liver

  1. Morphometric analysis of follicular growth and biochemical constituents in albino rats exposed to mancozeb.

    PubMed

    Baligar, P N; Kaliwal, B B

    2004-01-01

    Mancozeb, an ethylenebisdithiocarbamate (EBDC), was administered orally at a dose of 700 mg/kg body weight/day to female virgin rats for 5, 10, 20, and 30 days to examine the effect on ovarian follicular development. No significant change occurred in the number of estrous cycles and the duration of proestrus, estrus, and metestrus, but mancozeb treatment for 5 days significantly increased the duration of diestrus. Mancozeb treatment for 10 days significantly increased the number of estrous cycle and the duration of estrus, with a concomitant significant increase in diestrus, but no change in proestrus and metestrus. With mancozeb treatment for 20 and 30 days, the number of estrous cycles and duration of proestrus, estrus, and metestrus were significantly decreased, with a concomitant significant increase in the duration of diestrus. Exposure of rats to mancozeb for 5 days resulted in a significant decrease in stage II and the total number of healthy follicles but no change in atretic follicles. Mancozeb treatment for 10 days resulted in a significant decrease in stages I, II, and IV and in the total number of healthy follicles. A significant increase in atretic follicles was found in rats treated with mancozeb for 20 and 30 days. No significant change occurred in body and organ weights in any group, but the thyroid weight of 20 and 30 days mancozeb-treated rats was significantly increased. The level of protein in the ovary was significantly decreased, but no change was found in the uterus and liver of mancozeb-treated animals. The level of glycogen was significantly decreased in the ovary and the uterus with mancozeb treatment, but not in the liver. With mancozeb treatment, the levels of phospholipids and neutral lipids were significantly increased in the liver but significantly decreased in the uterus. The change in the biochemical constituents of ovary, uterus, and liver was duration dependent. The results of the study thus indicate a marked disruption of the

  2. Effects of aspartame on hsp70, bcl-2 and bax expression in immune organs of Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Devi, Rathinasamy Sheela

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Aspartame, a “first generation sweetener”, is widely used in a variety of foods, beverages, and medicine. The FDA has determined the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value of aspartame to be 50 mg/kg·day, while the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) has set this value at 40 mg/kg of body weight/day. Safety issues have been raised about aspartame due to its metabolites, specifically toxicity from methanol and/or its systemic metabolites formaldehyde and formic acid. The immune system is now recognized as a target organ for many xenobiotics, such as drugs and chemicals, which are able to trigger unwanted apoptosis or to alter the regulation of apoptosis. Our previous studies has shown that oral administration of aspartame [40 mg/(kg·day)] or its metabolites for 90 days increased oxidative stress in immune organs of Wistar albino rats. In this present study, we aimed to clarify whether aspartame consumption over a longer period (90-days) has any effect on the expression of hsp70, bcl-2 and bax at both mRNA transcript and protein expression levels in immune organs. We observed that oral administration of aspartame for 90 days did not cause any apparent DNA fragmentation in immune organs of aspartame treated animals; however, there was a significant increase in hsp70 expression, apart from significant alteration in bcl-2 and bax at both mRNA transcript and protein expression level in the immune organs of aspartame treated animals compared to controls. Hence, the results indicated that hsp70 levels increased in response to oxidative injury induced by aspartame metabolites; however, these metabolites did not induce apoptosis in the immune organs. Furthermore, detailed analyses are needed to elucidate the precise molecular mechanisms involved in these changes. PMID:27845306

  3. Effects of aspartame on hsp70, bcl-2 and bax expression in immune organs of Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Arbind Kumar; Devi, Rathinasamy Sheela

    2016-09-01

    Aspartame, a "first generation sweetener", is widely used in a variety of foods, beverages, and medicine. The FDA has determined the acceptable daily intake (ADI) value of aspartame to be 50 mg/kg·day, while the JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives) has set this value at 40 mg/kg of body weight/day. Safety issues have been raised about aspartame due to its metabolites, specifically toxicity from methanol and/or its systemic metabolites formaldehyde and formic acid. The immune system is now recognized as a target organ for many xenobiotics, such as drugs and chemicals, which are able to trigger unwanted apoptosis or to alter the regulation of apoptosis. Our previous studies has shown that oral administration of aspartame [40 mg/(kg·day)] or its metabolites for 90 days increased oxidative stress in immune organs of Wistar albino rats. In this present study, we aimed to clarify whether aspartame consumption over a longer period (90-days) has any effect on the expression of hsp70, bcl-2 and bax at both mRNA transcript and protein expression levels in immune organs. We observed that oral administration of aspartame for 90 days did not cause any apparent DNA fragmentation in immune organs of aspartame treated animals; however, there was a significant increase in hsp70 expression, apart from significant alteration in bcl-2 and bax at both mRNA transcript and protein expression level in the immune organs of aspartame treated animals compared to controls. Hence, the results indicated that hsp70 levels increased in response to oxidative injury induced by aspartame metabolites; however, these metabolites did not induce apoptosis in the immune organs. Furthermore, detailed analyses are needed to elucidate the precise molecular mechanisms involved in these changes.

  4. Potential risks of maternal administration of Mucophylline on the pups of albino rats during lactation.

    PubMed

    Hamdi, Hamida; Ali, Heba

    2017-03-02

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the potential risks of the mucolytic and broncholytic drug, Theophylline derivatives (Mucophylline) maternally administered on the pups. The nursing rats orally administered from 1st postpartum day (PPD) to 21th PPD with two different doses 30.83mg/kg (low dose) and 66.61mg/kg (Human equivalent dose (HED)). On the 21th PPD, the postnatal developmental signs, skeletal malformation and the histopathology of neonatal liver, kidney and brain were examined. Our results showed that Mucophylline induced a significant reduction in the neonatal weight and length, delayed, weak and incomplete ossification, wavy ribs and the neonatal liver revealed histopathological changes, pyknotic hepatocytes, cytoplasmic vacuolization, dilated sinusoid and necrotic area. Kidney revealed alternation changes, enlargement of the glomerulus, renal tubules degeneration and lymphatic infiltration. Brain (cerebral cortex and cerebellum) showed neurodegenerative changes, vacuolization of neuropil, congested and dilated blood vessel and dark stain neurons. Our results showed that the activities of non-enzymatic (GSH) and enzymatic (GST, CAT) antioxidants were insignificantly decrease in both neonatal brain and liver tissues of rats administered with 30.83mg/kg and 61.66mg/kg of Mucophylline and insignificant increase in MDA levels in both neonatal brain and liver tissues. However, significant reduction (P≤0.05) in the content of GR was recorded in neonatal brain tissue of rats administered with 30.83mg/kg and 61.66mg/kg of Mucophylline during lactation period in comparison with control. These support and proof the potential risks of the maternal administration of Mucophylline on pups.

  5. Immunological studies on Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin as food colouring agents in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hashem, Mohamed M; Atta, Attia H; Arbid, Mahmoud S; Nada, Somaia A; Asaad, Gihan Farag

    2010-06-01

    The use of food dyes is at least controversial because they are only of essential role. Moreover many of them have been related to health problems mainly in children that are considered a very vulnerable group. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin for 4 weeks at doses of 47, 315 and 157.5 mg/kg b. wt. and after 2 weeks all animals were immunostimulated by intra peritoneal injection of sheep RBCs 10% (1 ml/rat). Body weight, relative body weight, total and differential leukocytes count, mononuclear cell count, delayed hypersensitivity, total protein and serum fractions were determined. Results revealed that oral administration of Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin did not affect the body weight gain or the spleen weight. On the other hand Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the weight of thymus gland of the rats. Total leukocyte count were not affected while Amaranth and Curcumin-treated rats revealed a significant decrease in neutrophiles and monocytes and a compensatory increase in lymphocytes. Moreover, oral administration of Sunset Yellow revealed a significant decrease in monocyte percent. Amaranth, Sunset Yellow and Curcumin significantly decreased the delayed hyper sensitivity. Total serum protein, albumin, total globulin and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio were not affected by administration of the colouring agents. Oral administration of Amaranth increases the density of albumin band. On the other hand oral administration of Curcumin decreases the density of the albumin band. Oral administration of any of the tested colouring agents did not change the density of globulin region as compared to control group. In conclusion we found that both synthetic (Amaranth and Sunset Yellow) and natural (Curcumin) colouring agents used at doses up to 10 times the acceptable daily intake exerted a depressing effect on the cellular but not humoral immune response.

  6. Brief light as a practical aversive stimulus for the albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Barker, David J.; Sanabria, Federico; Lasswell, Anne; Thrailkill, Eric A.; Pawlak, Anthony P.; Killeen, Peter R.

    2010-01-01

    Bright light was an effective aversive stimulus for Wistar rats in punishment, escape, and avoidance paradigms. Contingent punishment of lever-pressing maintained by concurrent schedules of food delivery shifted presses to an alternate lever, and depressed overall response rates. Periodic non-contingent presentation of the light prompted escape responding (head entry into a hole). Unsignaled avoidance contingencies were not effective, but pre-pulse signaling of light supported avoidance behavior. These results demonstrate a possible alternative to foot-shock, one with greater ecological validity, and one that might avoid some of the physiological effects that accompany electric shock. PMID:20600344

  7. Effect of Kombucha tea on chromate(VI)-induced oxidative stress in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sai Ram, M; Anju, B; Pauline, T; Dipti, P; Kain, A K; Mongia, S S; Sharma, S K; Singh, B; Singh, R; Ilavazhagan, G; Kumar, D; Selvamurthy, W

    2000-07-01

    The effect of Kombucha tea (KT) on oxidative stress induced changes in rats subjected to chromate treatment are reported. KT feeding alone did not show any significant change in malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, but did enhance humoral response and delayed type of hypersensitivity (DTH) response appreciably over control animals. Chromate treatment significantly enhanced plasma and tissue MDA levels, decreased DTH response considerably, enhanced glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities; however, no change in GSH, superoxide dismutase and antibody titres was noticed. KT feeding completely reversed the chromate-induced changes. These results show that Kombucha tea has potent anti-oxidant and immunopotentiating activities.

  8. Fertility suppression in male albino rats by administration of methanolic extract of Opuntia dillenii.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, V K; Gupta, R S

    2012-05-01

    To control growing world population, there is a need for male contraceptive methods that are comparable to female contraceptives, but due to lack of knowledge or investigation, no sufficient safe and effective contraceptives were developed till now. In the present investigation, the effect of 100% methanol extract of Opuntia dillenii phylloclade on reproduction in male rats was studied. A first group (I) received vehicle alone to serve as control. The second group (II) was further divided into treated and recovery groups, and the plant extract at 50 mg kg body weight(-1) was administered orally for 30 days. Biochemical, haematological and histopathological analyses were carried out to reveal the effects on reproductive organs in the male rats. The weights of reproductive organs were recorded. It was found that the number of fertile males, number of inseminated females, number of litters delivered and testosterone levels were reduced significantly. Epididymal sperm count and motility were also significantly decreased. Biochemical parameters support the antifertility activity of O. dillenii i.e. decreases in protein, glycogen content and elevation in cholesterol level. Testes and sperm morphology were altered significantly. Haematological parameters have not shown any significant changes. It is concluded that 100% methanol extract of O. dillenii possesses antifertility effects on male reproduction without change in general physiology.

  9. Ameliorative potentials of quercetin against lead-induced hematological and testicular alterations in Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Omair, Mohammed A.; Sedky, Azza; Ali, Awatef; Elsawy, Hany

    2017-02-28

    Lead is one of the oldest environmental and occupational toxins. Health hazards from increased lead exposure as a result of industrial and environmental pollution are recognized. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of quercetin as a model of an antioxidant drug against the toxic effects of lead acetate on the blood and the testis of rats. The lead concentrations were determined in blood and the testis. Testosterone (T), luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were assessed in serum. Hemoglobin (Hb) content, packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cell (WBC) and red blood cell (RBC) counts were evaluated in the whole blood. Our results showed that administration of lead acetate was associated with an increased lead levels in blood as well as in the testis. Lead acetate administration also caused a decrease in testicular function, Hb content, PCV and RBC count in comparison to the respective mean values of the control. In addition, lead acetate increased WBC count and induced alterations in sperm count, sperm motility and sperm abnormality and histopathology. In the contrary, administration of lead acetate along with quercetin partially restored the studied parameters to normal values. In conclusion, the treatment with quercetin may provide a partial protection against the toxic effects induced by lead acetate in blood and the testis of rats.

  10. Evaluation of topical Matricaria chamomilla extract activity on linear incisional wound healing in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Jarrahi, Morteza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Taherian, Abbas Ali; Miladi, Hossein; Rashidi Pour, Ali

    2010-05-01

    In this investigation, the effect of Matricaria chamomilla extract on linear incisional wound healing was studied. Thirty male Wistar rats were subjected to a linear 3 cm incision made over the skin of the back. The animals were randomly divided into three experimental groups, as control, olive oil, and treatment. Control group did not receive any drug or cold cream. Olive oil group received topical olive oil once a day from beginning of experiments to complete wound closure. Treatment group were treated topically by M. chamomilla extract dissolved in olive oil at the same time. For computing the percentage of wound healing, the area of the wound measured at the beginning of experiments and the next 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, and 20 days. The percentage of wound healing was calculated by Walker formula after measurement of the wound area. Results showed that there were statistically significant differences between treatment and olive oil animals (p < 0.05) in most of the days. We conclude that the extract of M. chamomilla administered topically has wound healing potential in linear incisional wound model in rats.

  11. Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Norfloxacin in Pregnant Female Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Elbadawy, Mohamed; Soliman, Ahmed; El-Hewaity, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the possible developmental teratogenicity of norfloxacin in rats. Forty pregnant female rats were divided into four equal groups. Group A received norfloxacin in a dose of 500 mg/kg·b·wt/day orally from 6th to 15th day of gestation. Groups B and C received 1000 and 2000 mg/kg·b·wt/day orally for the same period, respectively; Group D behaved as control and received 0.5 mL distilled water orally for the same period. The dams were killed on 20th day of gestation and their fetuses were subjected to morphological, visceral, and skeletal examinations. Norfloxacin significantly decreased the number of viable fetuses, increased the number of resorbed fetuses, and induced retardation in growth of viable fetuses; some visceral and skeletal defects in these fetuses were seen and these effects were dose dependant. Conclusively, norfloxacin caused some fetal defects and abnormalities, so it is advisable to avoid using this drug during pregnancy. PMID:24639869

  12. Effects of lithium chloride on testicular steroidogenic and gametogenic functions in mature male albino rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, D.; Chaudhuri, A.; Biswas, N.M.; Ghosh, P.K. )

    1990-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of lithium, on steroidogenic and gametogenic functions of testis in the rat. Adult male rats of Wistar strain were injected with lithium chloride at the dose of 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, and 0.4 mg/100 g body weight/day for 21 days. All the treated animals along with the vehicle treated controls were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injections. Testicular steroidogenic activity was evaluated by measuring the activities of two steroidogenic key enzymes, {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta} hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase ({Delta}{sup 5} -3{beta}-HSD) and 17{beta} hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17{beta} -HSD). Gametogenic capacity was determined by counting the number of germ cells at stage VII of seminiferous cycle. Plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Administration of lithium chloride at a dose of 0.1 mg/100g body wt. for 21 days led to insignificant changes of plasma FSH, LH, PRL and T along with unaltered activities of testicular {Delta}5 -3{beta}-HSD, 17 {beta}-HSD activities and gametogenesis.

  13. Morphologic study of the blood vessels of the superior cervical ganglion of the albino rat.

    PubMed

    DePace, D M

    1981-01-01

    Blood vessels of the rat superior cervical ganglion were examined by both light and electron microscopy. Direct blood supply to the superior cervical ganglion was derived from a capsular plexus of vessels. Intraganglionic vessels were for the most part capillaries. Some of these capillaries appeared dilated and sinusoidal. Although the ganglion did not seem to be densely vascularized, there was sufficient distribution to accommodate the nerve cell bodies of the ganglion. Individual capillaries served groups of neurons. Occasionally, capillary loops could be observed to surround single neuron perikarya. Ultrastructural studies revealed the presence of two types of capillaries. The majority of the capillaries of the rat superior cervical ganglion demonstrated a continuous, non-fenestrated endothelium. Typical junctional complexes were found on abutting endothelial surfaces. Endothelial flaps and microvilli were also observed on the luminal surface of some of the vessels. Numerous micropinocytotic vesicles were observed on both the luminal and abluminal surfaces of the endothelium. A small number of capillaries demonstrated a fenestrated endothelium. In both types of capillaries there was a basement membrane and an extracellular space containing collagen. Perikaryal cytoplasm was separated from the extracellular space by a thick layer of satellite cell cytoplasm.

  14. Effect of honey intake on serum cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein levels in albino rats and potential benefits on risks of coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Alagwu, E A; Okwara, J E; Nneli, R O; Osim, E E

    2011-12-20

    The beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly in the treatment of wounds and gastrointestinal tract disorders. However there is paucity of reports on its effect on the plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) including cholesterol levels despite common consumption of honey worldwide including, Nigeria. The effect of the widely consumed unrefined Nigeria honey on plasma HDL, VLDL, LDL, TG, cholesterol and cardiovascular risk predictive index (CVPI) was studied using 20 adult male albino rats to ascertain its scientific and clinical relevance. The rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups, the control and honey-fed (test) groups, ten in each group. The rats weighed between 190-200gm at the start of the study. The control group was fed on normal rat (Pfizer-Nigeria) while the test group was fed on normal rat feed and honey (1ml of honey was added to 10ml of drinking water given once every day) for 22 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized with thiopentone sodium and blood collected by cardiac puncture. Serum TG, HDL, VLDL, LDL and total cholesterol in the control and the test groups were determined. The results showed significant increase in the level of plasma TG, HDL, and VLDL in the test group when compared with the control group. In contrast, there were significant decreases in the levels of plasma LDL and total cholesterol in the test when compared with the control group. Computed values of CVPI showed significant increase in the test values compared to that of the control. It is concluded that consumption of unrefined Nigeria honey significantly improved lipid profile and computed cardiovascular disease predictive index in male albino rats.

  15. Effect of ethanol extract of Trigonella foenum graecum (Fenugreek) seeds on Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Suresh, P; Kavitha, Ch N; Babu, S Manohar; Reddy, V Prabhakar; Latha, A Kanaka

    2012-08-01

    Trigonella foenum graecum is an Iranian medicinal plant used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammation. The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial outcome of the plant T. foenum graecum on adjuvant-induced arthritis in albino rats. Ethanol extract of T. foenum graecum was tested against Freund's complete adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. In the present study, paw volume was measured on the 4th, 8th, 14th and 21st day. On day 22, animals were anaesthetized, and blood samples were collected for the estimation of haemoglobin, white blood cells (WBC), differential white blood cells, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), red blood cells (RBC), interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The animals were sacrificed, and the cartilage tissue was isolated for estimation of lipid peroxidation (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH). Administration with both doses of T. foenum graecum (200 and 400 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the paw oedema and restored body weight. T. foenum graecum significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the differential WBC count, ESR and WBC (5.833 ± 0.703, 6.989 ± 58.5) content and also showed significant (P < 0.05) increase in RBC and Hb (4.783 ± 0.46, 15.46 ± 0.158) content. T. foenum graecum significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α levels. It also significantly decreased the levels of LPO and increased the SOD and GSH levels in cartilage tissue. In this study, T. foenum graecum 400-mg/kg dose showed more prominent results compared to the 200-mg/kg dose of T. foenum graecum. The results obtained in this study suggest that anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of T. foenum graecum may be the possible reason behind the observed anti-arthritic activity.

  16. Evaluation of effects of T and N type calcium channel blockers on the electroencephalogram recordings in Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij rats, an absence epilepsy model

    PubMed Central

    Durmus, Nedim; Gültürk, Sefa; Kaya, Tijen; Demir, Tuncer; Parlak, Mesut; Altun, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It is suggested that excessive calcium entry into neurons is the main triggering event in the initiation of epileptic discharges. We aimed to investigate the role of T and N type calcium channels in absence epilepsy experimental model. Materials and Methods: Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) rats (12–16 weeks old) were randomly allocated into four groups; sham, mibefradil (T type calcium channel blocker), w-Conotoxin MVIIA (N type calcium channel blocker), and mibefradil + w-Conotoxin MVIIA. Beta, alpha, theta, and delta wave ratios of EEG recordings and frequency and duration of spike wave discharges (SWDs) were analyzed and compared between groups. Results: Beta and delta recording ratios in 1 μM/5 μl mibefradil group was significantly different from basal and other dose-injected groups. Beta, alpha, and theta recordings in 0.2 μM/5 μl w-Conotoxin MVIIA group was significantly different from basal and other dose-injected groups. In w-Conotoxin MVIIA after mibefradil group, beta, alpha, and theta recording ratios were significantly different from basal and mibefradil group. Mibefradil and w-Conotoxin MVIIA significantly decreased the frequency and duration of SWDs. The decrease of frequency and duration of SWDs in mibefradil group was significantly different from w-Conotoxin MVIIA group. The frequency and duration of SWDs significantly decreased in w-Conotoxin MVIIA after mibefradil group compared with basal, mibefradil, and w-Conotoxin MVIIA groups. Conclusions: We concluded that both T and L type calcium channels play activator roles in SWDs and have positive effects on frequency and duration of these discharges. These results are related with their central effects more than peripheral effects. PMID:25821308

  17. Correlation among the toxicity profiling (28-days repeated oral dose toxicity), toxicokinetics and tissue distribution data of ulifloxacin, the active metabolite of prulifloxacin in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nandi, Utpal; Roy, Bikash; Das, Anjan Kumar; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2012-09-01

    This experiment was designed to investigate correlation among 28-days repeated oral dose toxicity, toxicokinetics and tissue distribution data of ulifloxacin (active metabolite of prulifloxacin) in Wistar albino rats. Prulifloxacin was administered for 28-days in rats at 0, 100, 200, 400mg/kg/day followed by 14-days recovery period. Simultaneously different toxicokinetic parameters and tissue distributions of ulifloxacin was examined by LC-MS/MS method. Plasma levels and tissue concentrations of ulifloxacin were increased with dose-related manner. Ulifloxacin was also distributed to many tissues, and concentration in lungs nearly equivalent to the plasma concentration. Based on these results it was concluded that long-term repeated dose of prulifloxacin may produce different blood parameters abnormality, liver damage, stomach ulcer, joint damage and dysfunction of lungs in rats which relates to high tissue distribution and accumulation of ulifloxacin in these tissues. These findings help in management of prulifloxacin induced adverse effects by appropriate dose selection in clinical practice.

  18. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of Punica granatum in alloxan-induced non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swarnamoni; Barman, Sarajita

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Punica granatum L., (Family: Punicaceae) is used in Indian Unani medicine for treatment of diabetes mellitus. Therefore, the present study was done to evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic effects of ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Healthy Wistar albino rats (100-150 g) were divided into four groups of six animals each. Groups A and B received normal saline [(10 ml/kg/day/per oral (p.o.)]; group C received ethanolic extract of leaves of P. granatum (500 mg/kg/p.o.); and group D received glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg/day/p.o.). The extracts were given for 1 week in all groups. To induce diabetes, alloxan 150 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (i.p.) single dose was administered to groups B, C, and D. Blood glucose and serum lipids [Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL), and High Density Lipoproteins (HDL)] and the atherogenic index were estimated after one week. For mechanism of antidiabetic action glycogen estimation on the liver, cardiac and skeletal muscle, and intestinal glucose absorption was done. Results: Group B showed a significant (P<0.01) increase in blood glucose as compared to group A. Groups C and D showed significant decrease (P<0.01) in blood glucose level in comparison to group B. The test drug showed a significant (P<0.01) increase in glycogen content in the liver, cardiac, and skeletal muscle; it significantly (P<0.01) reduced intestinal glucose absorption. Groups C and D showed significant (P<0.01) decrease in serum TC, TG, LDL, and AI as compared to Group B, which showed a significant (P<0.01) increase. Groups C and D showed significant (P<0.01) increase in serum HDL as compared to Group B, which showed a significant (P<0.01) decrease in all values. Conclusion: P. granatum leaves possess significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity. PMID:22529479

  19. Nutraceutical inherent of Spinacia oleracea Linn. methanolic leaf extract ameliorates isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats via mitigating inflammation.

    PubMed

    Vutharadhi, Shivaranjani; Jolapuram, Umamaheswari; Kodidhela, Lakshmi Devi

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) remain the principal cause of death in both developed and developing countries. The present study was intended to appraise the nutraceutical inherent of HPLC standardized Spinacia oleracea methanolic leaf extract (SoLE) in isoproterenol (ISO) induced male albino Wistar rats via activation of pro-inflammatory signaling pathway that drives myocardial necrosis. Biochemical analysis of ISO injected rats showed significant alterations in the activities of homocysteine, paraoxonase, lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase, C-reactive protein, myeloperoxidase and caspase-3 which were further confirmed by the histopathological examination. In addition, it also flaunted a significant increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 in ISO administered rats when compared with normal control rats. Pretreatment with SoLE (100, 200, and 300mg/kg bw) along with positive control gallic acid, significantly prevented all the adverse effects in ISO administered rats in a dose dependent manner. These results also reiterated the expected amelioration of myocardial necrosis in ISO induced MI rats conveying anti-atherogenic, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities of SoLE.

  20. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Kharadi, Geeta B; Patel, Kaksha J; Purohit, Bhargav M; Baxi, Seema N; Tripathi, C B

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the cardioprotective potential of the aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb in isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. Isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model was used to evaluate in vivo effect of aqueous extract of A. cepa in Wistar albino rats. Seventy two rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with A. cepa 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg doses for 30 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline (ISO) 85 mg/kg on day 28 and 29. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 30 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract of A. cepa showed significant antioxidant property. ISO produced significant myocardial injury as compared to normal control group (P < 0.05). Administration of A. cepa in the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly recovered the altered parameters (Troponin-I, Creatine kinase-MB, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, HR, R-R interval, and oxidative stress markers) compared to disease control group (P < 0.05) while A. cepa in the dose 800 mg/kg recovered the altered parameters (HR, heart weight/body weight ratio, and superoxide dismutase level) compared to disease control group. Histopathological parameters did not recover in the doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg (P > 0.05). The aqueous extract of A. cepa 400 mg/kg was found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury while A. cepa 800 mg/kg did not show significant cardioprotective activity. So, we presume that A. cepa might be effective within certain dose range only.

  1. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kharadi, Geeta B.; Patel, Kaksha J.; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Baxi, Seema N.; Tripathi, C.B.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the cardioprotective potential of the aqueous extract of Allium cepa Linn. bulb in isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. Isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model was used to evaluate in vivo effect of aqueous extract of A. cepa in Wistar albino rats. Seventy two rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with A. cepa 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg doses for 30 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline (ISO) 85 mg/kg on day 28 and 29. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 30 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract of A. cepa showed significant antioxidant property. ISO produced significant myocardial injury as compared to normal control group (P < 0.05). Administration of A. cepa in the dose of 400 mg/kg significantly recovered the altered parameters (Troponin-I, Creatine kinase-MB, glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, HR, R-R interval, and oxidative stress markers) compared to disease control group (P < 0.05) while A. cepa in the dose 800 mg/kg recovered the altered parameters (HR, heart weight/body weight ratio, and superoxide dismutase level) compared to disease control group. Histopathological parameters did not recover in the doses of 400 and 800 mg/kg (P > 0.05). The aqueous extract of A. cepa 400 mg/kg was found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury while A. cepa 800 mg/kg did not show significant cardioprotective activity. So, we presume that A. cepa might be effective within certain dose range only. PMID:27920825

  2. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kaksha J.; Panchasara, Ashwin K.; Barvaliya, Manish J.; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Baxi, Seema N.; Vadgama, Vishal K.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  3. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. against DEN and Fe NTA Induced Liver Necrosis in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in rats. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tabernaemontana divaricata at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and 5-fluorouracil (standard drug) was orally administered to male Wistar Albino rats once daily for 24 weeks, simultaneously treated with the carcinogen DEN and Fe NTA. In simultaneously treated animals, the plant extract significantly decreased the levels of uric acid, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and increased the levels of liver marker enzymes in liver. Treatment with the extracts resulted in a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants accompanied by a marked reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde when compared to DEN and Fe NTA treated group. When compared with 200 mg/kg bw rats, 400 mg/kg bw rats and 5-fluorouracil treated rats showed better results in all the parameters. The histopathological studies confirmed the protective effects of extract against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis. Thus, it could be concluded that the use of Tabernaemontana divaricata extract in the treatment of carcinogen induced hepatic necrosis. PMID:25136566

  4. Effects of ionizing radiation and restraint stress on activity, avoidance conditioning, and stomach ulcers in albino rats. Final report October 1980-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lanum, J.; Blick, D.W.; Campbell, M.E.; Wheeler, T.G.; Koger, S.A.

    1984-03-01

    In an experiment with albino rats, we have tried to model a nuclear attack scenario in which military personnel receiving 600 to 800 rads of ionizing radiation would be making a counterattack under the stress of an emergency situation. We used a dose of radiation that, though higher than the human exposure field, was estimated to be its physiological equivalent. Restraining the rat in an immobile position, a technique previously shown to have stressing qualities for rats, was chosen as an analogy to the stress of being in a war emergency. Activity and conditioned avoidance acquisition were chosen as test responses. Performance in the activity maze was affected only to a minor degree and in the direction of considering irradiation as activating. However, all irradiated groups showed retarded conditioned avoidance acquisition, which can be interpreted as decreased adaptability to a stressful situation. Further, our results support the expectation of performance decrements in the military scenario that could not be predicted by considering ionizing radiation in isolation. On the avoidance task, male rats in the combination stress-irradiation condition showed more failures to respond and longer response latencies than any other group. Female rats, on the other hand, showed shorter escape/avoidance latencies in the combined stress-irradiation condition than in the irradiation condition alone. This sex difference may be useful as a clue for investigating mechanisms of radiation resistance and interactions between stressors.

  5. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extracton lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Sailaja, K.V.; Shivaranjani, V. Leela; Poornima, H.; Rahamathulla, S.B.Md.; Devi, K. Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dose of 85 mg/kg body weight for two consecutive days intraperitoneally at an interval of 24 h. ISO induced myocardial infarction (MI) was confirmed by disturbances in serum lipid profile, heart tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum total cholesterol (32.60 %), triglycerides (41.30 %), very low density lipoproteins (81.81 %), low density lipoproteins (84%) and phospholipids (38.88 %) and a significant decrease in the levels of high density lipoproteins (33.33 %) in the ISO control group when compared to normal controls. Additionally, there is a significant decrease in the levels of heart tissue antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and depletion of reduced glutathione, which indicates enhanced lipid peroxidation(172 %). Pretreatment with extract significantly showed a protective effect against ISO altered lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. The present study showed therapeutic effect of TTFAEt on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in experimental rats. PMID:26417233

  6. Teratogenic Effect of Crude Ethanolic Root Bark and Leaf Extracts of Rauwolfia vomitoria (Apocynaceae) on Nissl Substances of Albino Wistar Rat Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Eluwa, Mokutima A; Ekanem, Theresa B; Udoh, Paul B; Ekong, Moses B; Asuquo, Olaitan R; Akpantah, Amabe O; Nwakanma, Agnes O

    2013-01-01

    Rauwolfia vomitoria is a plant used for the treatment of insanity. The possible adverse effects of crude ethanolic root bark and leaf extract of the plant on Nissl substances of albino Wistar rat fetuses were studied using 25 mature female Wistar rats. The animals were divided equally into 5 groups, labeled A, B, C, D, and E. Group A was the control, while groups B, C, D, and E were the experimental. The female rats were mated with the males overnight, and the sperm positive day was designated as day zero of pregnancy. Oral doses of 150 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight of the root bark extract were administered to groups B and C animals, respectively, while groups D and E animals received 150 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg body weight of the leaf extract, respectively, from day 7 to 11 of gestation. On day 20 of gestation, the rats were sacrificed, the fetuses brains extracted, and the cerebral cortices excised and routinely processed for Nissl substances using Cresyl fast violet staining method. Results showed reduced staining intensity of Nissl substances in the treated groups, especially those that received the root extract. Thus, the herbs may have adverse effects on protein synthesis within the cerebral cortex.

  7. Effect of gavage treatment with pulverised Garcinia kola seeds on erythrocyte membrane integrity and selected haematological indices in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ahumibe, A A; Braide, V B

    2009-06-01

    This study examines the effect of the whole seed of Garcinia kola [GKS] on various blood parameters, in adult male albino rats. Five groups, of 6 animals per group, were treated by gavage with suspensions of graded concentrations of GKS daily for 5 weeks. The animals were then sacrificed and blood was obtained for estimation of the data herein presented. Packed red cell volume [PCV], hemoglobin concentration [Hb], and red blood cell count [RBC] showed significantly [P<0.05], increased response to treatment with GKS; while the platelet and white blood cell [WBC] counts showed no corresponding increase with increasing GKS dosage. The mean red blood cell volume [MCV] and mean cell hemoglobin [MCH] levels decreased with increasing GKS dosage. Prothrombin time [PT] and activated partial thromboplastin time [APPT] were both prolonged with increased GKS dosage; while the serum lipids (cholesterol and triglycerides) decreased significantly [P<0.05] with increased GKS dosage.

  8. Morphofunctional state of the adrenal glands in albino rats under conditions of toxic stress caused by cadmium salt in winter and summer periods.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, S V; Kargina, M V; Kotelnikov, A V

    2011-06-01

    We studied the morphology and function of the adrenal glands in male and female albino rats in cadmium intoxication during winter and summer periods (January and July). In animals of the control group, sex-related differences in the total area of the adrenal glands and in the size of their zones were revealed. In females, zones of adrenal gland were larger than in males. In winter months, these differences were most pronounced. Analysis of seasonal differences in the area of the adrenal glands in males revealed no significant differences in winter and summer months. Irrespective of the season and gender, cadmium chloride treatment led to an increase in the size of the adrenal glands. Cadmium salts caused more pronounced functional strain in males in winter months and in females in summer.

  9. [Classification of nerve cell forms in lamina IV of the visual cortex of albino rats using Nissel preparation with the help of automatic picture processing].

    PubMed

    Werner, L; Voss, K

    1979-01-01

    1) Using the automatical picture processing device "MORPHOQUANT", VEB Carl Zeiss Jena, layer IV of the adult albino rat's area 17 was investigated in Nissl-preparations to classify pyramidal and stellate cells on the basis of quantitative features. 2) A review is given about the applied computer programme. 3) 30 seconds are necessary for adjustment, measurement and statistical calculation. 4) Five features per neuron soma were registered and statistical calculated: neuron area in picture points (KOFL), mean value of extinction (EXTM), total extinction (EXTS), shape (i.e. dia ratio, DMVH), and the distribution of strong coloured particles (i.e. centricity, ZNTR). 5) High statistical significance could be achieved only with regard to the neuron area and the distribution of strong coloured particles. 6) The causes for different results obtained in previous and present measurements and the importance of differentiation between several types of neurones are discussed as well.

  10. Myocardial antioxidant status and oxidative stress after combined action of exercise training and ethanol in two different age groups of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Pushpalatha, K; Nishanth, K; Sathyavelu Reddy, K

    2007-06-01

    The interaction of exercise training and ethanol on the myocardial antioxidant enzymes and the oxidative stress markers was investigated in the Wistar strain male albino rats. We also tested the interactive effects of exercise training and ethanol on the age-associated free radical production and antioxidant defense system. We found a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the activity levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in the myocardium of old rats when compared to young rats by 26% and 58%, respectively, suggesting the onset of age-dependent decrease in the myocardial antioxidant enzyme system. In contrast to the decreased antioxidant enzyme activity, xanthine oxidase (XOD) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were elevated, suggesting the age-induced oxidative stress. Exercise training significantly (p < 0.05) elevated the activities of SOD, CAT, XOD and LPO levels in both the age groups of animals. Ethanol consumption significantly lowered the SOD and CAT activities in both the age groups, whereas a significant increase was observed in the XOD and LPO levels. In contrast, the combination of exercise training plus ethanol lowered XOD and LPO levels in both the age groups of rats compared to ethanol treated rats. A significant (p < 0.05) increase in the activities of SOD and CAT was reported in the rats treated with the combination of exercise training plus ethanol. This increase was more pronounced in the younger rats than the older rats. The findings of the present investigation on the potential role of antioxidant enzymes to counter the ethanol-induced pro-oxidants showed an increase with the interaction of exercise training. With age, a decrease in the antioxidant enzyme capacity was observed. This reveals that the old age rats were more affected to the pro-oxidants when compared to the young age rats. In conclusion it is demonstrated that two months treadmill endurance exercise training is beneficial to both young and old rats in improving

  11. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in open arm duration in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed in catalase activity in group IV and V when compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicates that 4 weeks exposure to electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats.

  12. Behavioral and neuronal biochemical possible effects in experimental induced chronic mild stress in male albino rats under the effect of oral barley administration in comparison to venlafaxine

    PubMed Central

    Darwish, Inas E; Maklad, Hala M; Diab, Iman H

    2013-01-01

    Venlafaxine is an antidepressant of choice, whose effectiveness could be modified by a commonly used medicinal plant and nutrient. The current study had evaluated the barley extract (1 g/kg) when compared to or combined to venlafaxine (32 mg/kg) in a rat stress model. The present study was conducted on 40 male Wister albino rats; divided to five groups. Four groups were subjected to social chronic mild stress. Drugs or saline were orally daily administered one week before stress induction and extended up to ten weeks. Behavioral, brain biochemical tests and serum magnesium were assessed at the end. The study revealed significant change in the combined group on behavioral tests; forced swim test, elevated plus maze and saccharin preference test when compared to barley extract group. Furthermore, there was significant reduction in brain malondialdehyde level, no significant change in brain nitric oxide level, while significant increase in serum magnesium level was noticed. Whereas, the barley extract group recorded a lowest significant improvement in behavioral, brain and serum biochemical tests. It could be concluded that barley and venlafaxine together had muffled the oxidant stress and increased brain serotonin, serum magnesium level that might had a crucial role in experimental induced chronic mild stress in rats. PMID:23750311

  13. Bisphenol A exposure and healing effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. plant extract (APE) in bisphenol A-induced reproductive toxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Balal; Amina; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Ruwei; Qadir, Abdul; Ali, Muhammad Ubaid; Kanwal, Qudsia; Munir, Bushra; Asmatullah; Abbas, Zaigham

    2016-06-01

    The current study presents the bisphenol A exposure and the ameliorative effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris on testicular toxicity induced by bisphenol A. Adult male albino rats were divided into five groups of five animals each: A (control), B (vehicle control), C (toxic), D (protective), and E (ameliorative) were served distilled water, olive oil, bisphenol A (BPA) at 100 mg/kg body weight, A. capillus-veneris plant extract at 25 mg/kg body weight, and BPA + A. capillus-veneris, respectively. All of the doses were administered orally for 15 days, and the rats were then sacrificed. Blood samples for the testosterone assay and both testes were collected for histological examination. The body weight, paired testes weight, relative tissue weight index, Johnsen scoring of tubules, and level of serum testosterone decreased in BPA-treated rats. Similarly, histological examination of the testes in BPA-treated animals revealed a lower number of Leydig cells, an irregular basement membrane, sloughing of germinal layers, vacuolization, a lower number of spermatocytes, and debris in the lumen. However, co-administration of A. capillus-veneris with BPA increased the total antioxidative capacity (330.82 ± 22.46 μmol/mg protein) of the testes and restored the serum testosterone level (1.70 ng/ml); histological features showed restoration in the stages of spermatogenesis. Conclusively, A. capillus-veneris plant extract overcomes the estrogenic effects of BPA on the reproductive system of rats and protects rats' testes against BPA-induced injury/damage via an antioxidative mechanism that appears to be conciliated.

  14. Alteration in Memory and Electroencephalogram Waves with Sub-acute Noise Stress in Albino Rats and Safeguarded by Scoparia dulcis

    PubMed Central

    Loganathan, Sundareswaran; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Noise stress has different effects on memory and novelty and the link between them with an electroencephalogram (EEG) has not yet been reported. Objective: To find the effect of sub-acute noise stress on the memory and novelty along with EEG and neurotransmitter changes. Materials and Methods: Eight-arm maze (EAM) and Y-maze to analyze the memory and novelty by novel object test. Four groups of rats were used: Control, control treated with Scoparia dulcis extract, noise exposed, and noise exposed which received Scoparia extract. Results: The results showed no marked difference observed between control and control treated with Scoparia extract on EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and EEG in both prefrontal and occipital region, however, noise stress exposed rats showed significant increase in the reference memory and working memory error in EAM and latency delay, triad errors in Y-maze, and prefrontal and occipital EEG frequency rate with the corresponding increase in plasma corticosterone and epinephrine, and significant reduction in the novelty test, and significant reduction in the novelty test, amplitude of prefrontal, occipital EEG, and acetylcholine. Conclusion: These noise stress induced changes in EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extract and these changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia extract on the brain, which altered due to noise stress. SUMMARY Noise stress exposure causes EEG, behavior, and neurotransmitter alteration in the frontoparietal and occipital regions mainly involved in planning and recognition memoryOnly the noise stress exposed animals showed the significant alteration in the EEG, behavior, and neurotransmittersHowever, these noise stress induced changes in EEG behavior and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extractThese changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia dulcis (adoptogen) on

  15. Comparison of the efficacy of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nitasha Bhat, G M; Nayak, Nagendra; Vinodraj, K; Chandralekha, N; Mathai, Paul; Cherian, J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of cardamom with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats. There were four groups of 6 rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received cardamom suspension 1 g/kg/10 mL of 2% gum acacia orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Third group received pioglitazone 45 mg/kg orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Fourth group did not receive any medication and was considered as normal control. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, blood sugar 2 h after glucose load, liver weight, liver volume were recorded, and histopathological analysis was done. The effects of cardamom were compared with that of pioglitazone. Dexamethasone caused hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Both pioglitazone and cardamom significantly reduced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia (P < 0.01). Reduction of blood sugar levels after glucose load was significant with pioglitazone in comparison to cardamom (P < 0.01). Cardamom has comparable efficacy to pioglitazone in preventing dexamethasone-induced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and fasting hyperglycemia.

  16. An analysis of the postnatal development of the action potential repolarization process in the working ventricular myocardium of albino rats (effect of tea, frequency, verapamil and adrenaline).

    PubMed

    Pucelík, P; Králícek, P; Barták, F; Jezek, K

    1983-01-01

    Using the glass microelectrodes techniques, we analysed the causes of the shortening of the ventricular myocardial action potentials (AP) of albino rats during postnatal development. Delayed outward currents were blocked with tetraethylammonium (TEA) in 20 mmol.l-1 concentration. TEA led to prolongation of action potentials and to accentuation of frequency sensitivity in all the given age groups, but a block of TEA-sensitive currents nevertheless does not permit the conclusion that the cause of postnatal AP shortening is due to an increase in the intensity of outward currents. Slow inward current (Isi) were blocked with verapamil (2.10(-5) mol.l-1), which markedly shortened the myocardial AP of newborn rats; with advancing age its effect diminished and shifted to the negative membrane voltage level. The Isi was stimulated by adrenaline (10(-5) mol.l-1), which markedly prolonged the AP of newborn animals; with advancing age its effect rapidly diminished and was virtually undetectable in 10-day-old animals. The results indicate that postnatal AP prolongation is caused by a drop in the Isi rate rather than by the growth of outward repolarizing currents.

  17. Hypertrophic Scar Formation on Application of Terpenoid Fraction of Tuberous Root of Mirabilis jalapa L. on Excision Wound Model in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gogoi, Jyotchna; Chattopadhayay, Pronobesh; Kumar Rai, Ashok; Veer, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the effects of hydromethanolic extract of tuberous root of M. jalapa and its terpenoid and flavonoid fractions on cutaneous wound healing in Wistar Albino rats. The hydromethanolic extract was subfractionated by sequential extraction in solvents (moderately nonpolar to polar). The extract and its (terpenoid and flavonoid) fractions were used for cutaneous wound healing studies by using excision wound model on rat. Their effects on wound contraction rate, biochemical and histological changes, and expression of growth factors such as collagen 3A, basic fibroblast growth factor, and vascular endothelial growth factor were investigated. The results indicated that flavonoid treated group showed significant decrease (P < 0.05) in antioxidant enzyme level as compared to control in wound healing process, whereas terpenoid fraction showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in expression of growth factor levels but regeneration and remodeling stages were delayed due to formation of thicker ulcus layer and also there were no hair follicle-like blood capillaries formation which ultimately may lead to formation of hypertrophic scar of wound. Therefore, from this study, it can be concluded that terpenoid fraction prolongs proliferation phase and hence may have tendency to convert the wound into hypertrophic wound. PMID:27379322

  18. Effect of garlic (Allium sativum) on hematology and erythrocyte antioxidant defense system of albino rats exposed to heavy metals (nickel II & chromium VI).

    PubMed

    Tikare, Swati N; Yendigeri, Saeed; Gupta, Amrita Das; Dhundasi, Salim A; Das, Kusal K

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals are stable environmental contaminants, causing various alterations in target tissues. Garlic has some beneficial effect in preventing heavy metal induced various alteration. The objective was to investigate the possible protective role of fresh aqueous homogenate of garlic on hematology, erythrocyte antioxidant defense system in male albino rats treated with NiSO4 and K2Cr2O7. Rats were divided into six groups. Group I was untreated control. Group II was given aqueous homogenate of garlic (orally). Group III was administered with nickel sulfate (i.p). Group IV was given NiSO4 and garlic simultaneously. Group V was administered with K2Cr2O7 (i.p). Group VI were treated simultaneously with K2Cr2O7 and garlic. RBC, WBC, platelet count, PCV%, hemoglobin concentration decreased significantly and clotting time increased significantly after nickel treatment. After chromium treatment all the values decreased except clotting time. Increased malondialdehyde and glutathione level after nickel and chromium treatment was observed. Also erythrocyte superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities significantly increased after nickel and chromium treatment. Simultaneous garlic supplementation exhibited protective role to combat nickel toxicity, whereas no such beneficial effects were observed for chromium (VI). Garlic may partially prevent nickel and chromium induced alteration but such ameliorated effects as an antioxidant is only restricted on nickel induced alteration.

  19. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on certain pathogenic microorganisms, therefore we prepared crude aqueous extracts of black pepper, ginger and thyme and carried out an in vitro study by measuring antimicrobial activity of these extracts using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 50 adult healthy male albino rats which were divided into 5 groups, 10 rats each. Group 1: negative control group which received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 2: Positive control group, injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S.aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis, then received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension, then received 100 mg/kg/day black pepper extract intragastrically; Group 4: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day ginger extract intragastrically. Group 5: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day thyme extract intragastrically. All groups were sacrificed after either 1 or 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozyme activity estimation using agarose lysoplate, measurement of nitric oxide production, and lymphocyte transformation test as well as for counting both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirm the efficacy of these extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggest the possibility of using them in treatment procedures.

  20. Effect of palonosetron (5HT-3 antagonist) and pantoprazole (proton pump inhibitor) against surgical esophagitis induced by forestomach and pylorus ligation in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Gautam, S; Rawat, J K; Singh, M; Saraf, S A; Kaithwas, G

    2016-01-01

    This study was embarked upon to evaluate the effects of pantoprazole and palonosetron on experimental esophagitis in albino wistar rats. Groups of rats, fasted for 36 h, were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation, supervened by treatment with normal saline (3 ml/kg, po, sham control), esophagitis control (3 ml/kg, po), pantoprazole (30 mg/kg, po), palonosetron (0.5 mg/kg, po), and their combination. Animals were sacrificed after 12 h and appraised for the volume of gastric juices, total acidity, free acidity, and esophagitis index. Esophageal tissues were further figured out biochemically for markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. The combination therapy comparably inhibited the esophagitis index (52.86%), gastric volume (66.04%), free acidity (43.76%), and total acidity (42.60%) in comparison with toxic control. The combination therapy also subsidized the biochemical and inflammatory markers to the purview less than toxic control. The morphological changes were scrutinized by scanning electron microscopy and were observed to demonstrate momentous protection by the amalgamation therapy. Combination therapy with pantoprazole and palonosetron flaunted sententious protection against experimental esophagitis.

  1. 13-week inhalation toxicity study (including 6- and 13-week recovery periods) with ammonium persulfate dust in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Signorin, J; Ulrich, C E; Butt, M T; D'Amato, E A

    2001-11-01

    The subchronic inhalation toxicity of ammonium persulfate was characterized using Sprague-Dawley rats (20/sex/group) at respirable dust concentrations of 0, 5.0, 10.3, and 25 mg/m(3). Whole-body exposures were conducted 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 13 wk. Gravimetric airborne test material samples were taken daily and particle size samples were taken weekly from each exposure chamber for analysis. Ten animals/sex/group were necropsied after 13 wk of exposure, and 5 animals/sex/group were held for 6- and 13-wk recovery periods. Animals were observed for clinical signs. Effects on body weight, food consumption, clinical chemistry and hematology, ophthalmologic parameters, organ weights, gross lesions, and histopathology were evaluated. There were no exposure-related deaths during the study. Rales and increased respiration rate were noted in both males and females in the 25 mg/m(3) group, and in a few animals in the 10.3 mg/m(3) group. The incidence of these clinical signs decreased to zero during the first few weeks of the recovery period. Body weights for both males and females in the 25 mg/m(3) group were significantly depressed during most of the exposure period compared to the control group. By the end of the recovery period, body weights for the exposed animals were similar to the control group values. Lung weights were elevated in the 25 mg/m(3) group after 13 wk of exposure, but were similar to controls at 6 wk postexposure. Irritation of the trachea and bronchi/bronchiole was noted microscopically after 13 wk of exposure to 25 mg/m(3). These lesions had recovered by 6 wk postexposure. Based on the results of this study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was 10.3 mg/m(3), while the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) for exposure of rats to a dust aerosol of ammonium persulfate was 5.0 mg/m(3).

  2. Spontaneous Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Expression in the Cochlea of Adult Albino Rat and Its Up-Regulation after Cisplatin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Trinidad, Almudena; Ramil, Elvira; Sánchez-López, Antonio J.; Coronado, Maria José; Martínez-Martínez, Esther; García, José Miguel; García-Berrocal, José Ramón; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    We provide evidence for the presence of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in some cellular types of the cochlea of the adult albino rat. Cannabinoids and their receptors are increasingly being studied because of their high potential for clinical use. As a hyperspecialized portion of the peripheral nervous system, study of the expression and function of cannabinoid receptors in the hearing organ is of high interest. Stria vascularis and inner hair cells express CB2 receptor, as well as neurites and cell bodies of the spiral ganglion. Cellular types such as supporting cells and outer hair cells, in which the expression of other types of functional receptors has been reported, do not significantly express CB2 receptors in this study. An up-regulation of CB2 gene expression was detected after an ototoxic event such as cisplatin treatment, probably due to pro-inflammatory events triggered by the drug. That fact suggests promising potential of CB2 receptor as a therapeutic target for new treatments to palliate cisplatin-induced hearing loss and other ototoxic events which triggers inflammatory pathways. PMID:27564061

  3. Development of safety profile evaluating pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicity of a combination of pioglitazone and olmesartan medoxomil in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Pinaki; Nandi, Utpal; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Pioglitazone (PIO), an antidiabetic drug and olmesartan medoxomil (OLM), an antihypertensive drug were administered orally alone and in combination to Wistar albino rats for evaluation of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity of individual drugs and their combination. Pharmacokinetic study was performed by orally administering PIO and OLM at single dose of 3 and 2mg/kg, respectively alone and in combination analyzing the plasma samples using LC-MS/MS. Antidiabetic activity evaluation was done in type-2 diabetes mellitus induced animals at same dose level as in pharmacokinetic study daily for 30 days. PIO and/or OLM were administered orally to animals at daily doses of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg for 28 days for toxicity study. There was no significant alteration in the pharmacokinetic parameters of either drug indicating absence of any pharmacokinetic interaction when co-administered. Positive pharmacodynamic interaction between PIO and OLM was established in this study. Two drugs in combination showed no evidence of potentiation of 28-day repeated dose toxicity in animals. Again, drugs, alone and in combination, caused only minor changes in clinical-laboratory tests and histopathological change was not found in the experiment performed. In conclusion, PIO and OLM combination can primarily be stated as safe in terms of present toxicity and pharmacokinetics findings.

  4. Apigenin inhibits oxidative stress-induced macromolecular damage in N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Jeyabal, Prince Vijeya Singh; Syed, Mumtaz Banu; Venkataraman, Magesh; Sambandham, Jamuna Kumari; Sakthisekaran, Dhanapal

    2005-09-01

    Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone), a flavone subclass of flavonoid widely distributed in many herbs, fruits, and vegetables is a substantial component of the human diet and has been shown to possess a variety of biological activities including tumor growth inhibition and chemoprevention. Recent studies in several biological systems have shown that apigenin induces tumor growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Free radical-induced degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acid results in electrophilic products and causes severe oxidative stress. Oxidative stress induced by free radicals, nonoxidizing species, electrophiles, and associated DNA damages have been frequently coupled with carcinogenesis. In the present study, the protective role of apigenin was examined against the oxidative stress caused by N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and phenobarbital (PB) in Wistar albino rats. Oxidative stress was measured in terms of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein carbonyl formation. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage was measured by single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Apigenin exhibited its antioxidant defense against NDEA-induced oxidative stress. We have observed minimal levels of LPO and DNA damage in apigenin-treated hepatoma bearing animals. Based on the results, we suggest that apigenin may be developed as a promising chemotherapeutic agent against the development of chemical carcinogenesis.

  5. Exposure to high fluoride concentration in drinking water will affect spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Pushpalatha, T; Srinivas, M; Sreenivasula Reddy, P

    2005-06-01

    Sodium fluoride (NaF) administered orally to adult male rats at a dose level of 4.5 ppm and 9.0 ppm for 75 days caused significant decrease in the body weight, brain index and testicular index. A significant decrease in sperm count, sperm motility, sperm viability and sperm function (HOS positive) with increased sperm abnormalities was also observed in NaF-exposed male rats. The activity levels of testicular steroidogenic marker enzymes 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) and 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) were significantly decreased in NaF-treated rats indicating decreased steroidogenesis and in turn spermatogenesis in rats exposed to NaF.

  6. Effect of dietary co-administration of sodium selenite on sodium arsenite-induced ovarian and uterine disorders in mature albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Pal Ghosh, Sampa; Ghosh, Debidas; Debnath, Jogen

    2003-10-01

    The subchronic treatment of mature female Wistar-strain albino rats in diestrous phase with sodium arsenite at a dose of 0.4 ppm/100 g body weight/rat/day via drinking water for period of 28 days (seven estrous cycles) caused a significant reduction in the plasma levels of leutinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and estradiol along with a significant decrease in ovarian activities of delta five, 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (Delta5,3beta-HSD), and 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17beta-HSD) followed by a reduction in ovarian and uterine peroxidase activities. A significant weight loss of the ovary and uterus was also observed after this treatment, along with a prolonged diestrous phase and a high accumulation of arsenic in the plasma and these organs. Moreover, sodium arsenite was also responsible for ovarian follicular and uterine cell degeneration characterized by a high number of regressing follicles and a reduction in the uterine luminal diameter, respectively, in comparison with the controls. A dietary supplementation of sodium selenite at the dose of 0.6 mg/100 g body weight/rat/day for a period of 28 days along with arsenic treatment minimized the gonadal weight loss significantly and increased the activities of the ovarian steroidogenic enzymes as well as the ovarian and uterine peroxidase at the control level. Selenium was also able to increase the plasma levels of LH, FSH, and estradiol toward the control level. Vaginal smears showed normal estrous cyclicity in sodium selenite-supplemented arsenic-treated rats along with lower arsenic levels in the plasma and gonadal tissue in comparison with arsenic-only-treated rats. Histological sections of ovary and uterine tissues in the control and experimental groups confirmed that sodium selenite supplementation was able to prevent arsenic-induced histopathological changes in the ovary and uterus. Plasma levels of norepinephrine and dopamine in the midbrain and diencephalon

  7. Radiolabeling of new generation magnetic poly(HEMA-MAPA) nanoparticles with (131) I and preliminary investigation of its radiopharmaceutical potential using albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Avcıbaşı, Uğur; Demiroğlu, Hasan; Ediz, Melis; Akalın, Hilmi Arkut; Özçalışkan, Emir; Şenay, Hilal; Türkcan, Ceren; Özcan, Yeşim; Akgöl, Sinan; Avcıbaşı, Nesibe

    2013-12-01

    In this study, N-methacryloyl-l-phenylalanine (MAPA) containing poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (HEMA)-based magnetic poly(HEMA-MAPA) nanobeads [mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA)] were radiolabeled with (131) I [(131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA)], and the radiopharmaceutical potential of (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) was investigated. Quality control studies were carried out by radiochromatographic method to be sure that (131) I binded to mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) efficiently. In this sense, binding yield of (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) was found to be about 95-100%. In addition to this, optimum radiodination conditions for (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were determined by thin-layer radiochromatography studies. In addition to thin-layer radiochromatography studies, lipophilicity (partition coefficient) and stability studies for (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were realized. It was determined that lipophilicities of mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) and (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) were 0.12 ± 0.01 and 1.79 ± 0.76 according to ACD/logP algorithm program, respectively. Stability of the radiolabeled compound was investigated in time intervals given as 0, 30, 60, 180, and 1440 min. It was found that (131) I-mag-poly(HEMA-MAPA) existed as a stable complex in rat serum within 60 min. After that, biodistribution and scintigraphy studies were carried out by using albino Wistar rats. It was determined that the most important (131) I activity uptake was observed in the breast, the ovary, and the pancreas. Scintigraphy studies well supported biodistribution results.

  8. Protective effect of hesperidin against lung injury induced by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion in adult albino rats: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Bayomy, Naglaa A; Elshafhey, Saad H; ElBakary, Reda H; Abdelaziz, Eman Z

    2014-10-01

    Hesperidin is a naturally common flavonoid. It is an abundant and cheap by-product of citrus cultivation. It is reported to have antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects. This work was performed to investigate the possible protective role of hesperidin in ameliorating the effect of experimentally induced intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R) on lung tissue, histologically, immunohistochemically and biochemically. Thirty male Wistar adult albino rats were randomized into three groups named: group I (control group); group II (I/R); and group III (I/R with hesperidin). Intestinal I/R was induced by occluding the superior mesenteric artery for 60 min, followed by 120 min of reperfusion period. Animals were given hesperidin orally 1h before the onset of ischemia. At the end of the reperfusion period the lung tissues were extracted for histopathological examination and immunohistochemical detection of the distribution of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Pulmonary edema was evaluated by lung tissue wet/dry weight ratios. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, a biomarker of oxidative damage), myeloperoxidase (MPO, an index of the degree of neutrophil accumulation) and glutathione (GSH, a biomarker of protective oxidative injury) were also determined in all dissected tissues. Pretreatment with hesperidin (in group III) alleviated lung morphological changes noticed in I/R group and the levels of MDA and MPO were significantly decreased whereas those of GSH were significantly increased. Immunohistochemical study revealed a significant decrease in the iNOS. Hesperidin also significantly alleviated the formation of pulmonary edema as evidenced by the decreased organ wet/dry weight ratios. Hesperidin exerts a protective effect against lung damage induced by intestinal I/R injury in rats by reducing oxidative stress.

  9. Ceria-containing uncoated and coated hydroxyapatite-based galantamine nanocomposites for formidable treatment of Alzheimer's disease in ovariectomized albino-rat model.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Sanaa M R; Darwish, Atef S; Kamal, Sara M

    2016-08-01

    This paper upraises delivery and therapeutic actions of galantamine drug (GAL) against Alzheimer's disease (AD) in rat brain through attaching GAL to ceria-containing hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp) as well ceria-containing carboxymethyl chitosan-coated hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC) nanocomposites. Physicochemical features of such nanocomposites were analyzed by XRD, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometer, N2-BET, DLS, zeta-potential measurements, SEM, and HR-TEM. Limited interactions were observed in GAL@Ce-HAp with prevailed existence of dispersed negatively charged rod-like particles conjugated with ceria nanodots. On contrary, GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC was well-structured developing aggregates of uncharged tetragonal-shaped particles laden with accession of ceria quantum dots. Such nanocomposites were i.p. injected into ovariectomized AD albino-rats at galantamine dose of 2.5mg/kg/day for one month, then brain tissues were collected for biochemical and histological tests. GAL@Ce-HAp adopted as a promising candidate for AD curativeness, whereas oxidative stress markers were successfully upregulated, degenerated neurons in hippocampal and cerebral tissues were wholly recovered and Aβ-plaques were vanished. Also, optimizable in-vitro release for GAL and nanoceria were displayed from GAL@Ce-HAp, while delayed in-vitro release for those species were developed from GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC. This proof of concept work allow futuristic omnipotency of rod-like hydroxyapatite particles for selective delivery of GAL and nanoceria to AD affected brain areas.

  10. Effect of furostanol glycosides from Trigonella foenum-graecum on the reproductive system of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Aswar, Urmila; Bodhankar, Subhash Laxman; Mohan, V; Thakurdesai, Prasad Arvind

    2010-10-01

    Trigonella foenum (TF) has long been used in the traditional Indian systems of medicine for the treatment of various ailments. The objective was to study the anabolic and androgenic activity of the furostanol glycosides fraction of Trigonella foenum-graecum (Fenu-FG) in immature castrated male Wistar rats. It was also aimed to investigate the effect of Fenu-FG on testicular histology in non-castrated immature rats. The animals (55 ± 5 g) were castrated. The rats were treated with either vehicle, testosterone (10 mg/kg s.c. bi-weekly) or Fenu-FG (10 and 35 mg/kg p.o.) once daily for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, blood was withdrawn, serum testosterone and BUN were measured. Animals were killed and reproductive organs were excised and weighed.Fenu-FG (35 mg/kg p.o.) and testosterone (10 mg/kg, s.c. biweekly) increased the weight of the levator ani muscle as well as body weight. Fenu-FG (10 or 35 mg/kg p.o.) did not change the testosterone level in castrated rats. Histopathological examination of the testis of non-castrated rats treated with Fenu-FG (10, 35 mg/kg p.o.) showed normal architecture of the testis. Fenu-FG (35 mg/kg p.o.) showed anabolic activity without androgenic activity.

  11. Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Restraint Stress on Activity, Avoidance Conditioning, and Stomach Ulcers in Albino Rats.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    of the potential for stress communication through pheromones . For the same reason, immobilized animals were always "*-."carried separately and tested...and D. J. Kimeldorf. The effect of x-irradiation on the diffuse activity performance of rats, guinea pigs and hamsters. Brit J Rad 32:386-389 (1959

  12. The estrogenic effects of apigenin, phloretin and myricetin based on uterotrophic assay in immature Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Barlas, Nurhayat; Özer, Saadet; Karabulut, Gözde

    2014-04-07

    Chemicals that occur in vegetal food and known as phytoestrogens, because of their structures similarity to estrogen, have benefits on chronic diseases. Despite this, when they are taken at high amounts, they can cause harmful effects on endocrine system of human and animals. In this study, it has been intended to determine the estrogenic potencies of phytoestrogens apigenin, phloretin and myricetin whose affinities for estrogen receptors in vitro. The female rats divided into 17 groups, each containing six rats. There was a negative control group and there were positive control dose groups which contains ethinyl estradiol, ethinyl estradiol+tamoxifen and genistein. The other dose groups which were tested for estrogenic activity contains apigenin, myricetin and phloretin All chemicals have been given to Wistar immature female rats with oral gavage for 3 consecutive days. By using uterotrophic analysis, uterus wet and blotted weights, vaginal opening, uterus length of female rats has been recorded at the end of the experiment. For detect of cell response, luminal epithelium height, gland number and lactoferrin intensity in luminal epithelium of uterus were evaluated. Biochemical analysises in blood were performed. Relative uterus weights of rats in 100 mg/kg/day dose group of myricetin were statistically increased according to vehicle control and positive control groups. In dose groups of apigenin and phloretin it was found that there were cell responses in uterus. All treatment groups had a significant difference in the high intensity of lactoferrin and uterine gland count compared to oil control group. There was no difference between phloretin and apigenin treatment groups in uterine weight statictically. Uterine heights were increased in positive control groups and 100 mg/kg/day dose group of myricetin. Epithelial cell heights were increased in treatment groups except apigenin and phloretin dose groups. There was no difference between all treatment groups in

  13. Aged garlic extract ameliorates immunotoxicity, hematotoxicity and impaired burn-healing in malathion- and carbaryl-treated male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Gamal; El-Beih, Nadia M; Ahmed, Rehab S A

    2017-03-01

    Malathion and carbaryl are the most widely used organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, respectively, especially in developing countries; they pose a potential health hazard for both humans and animals. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of an odorless (free from allicin) Kyolic aged garlic extract (AGE, containing 0.1% S-allylcysteine; 200 mg/kg body weight) on the toxicity induced by 0.1 LD50 of malathion (89.5 mg/kg body weight) and/or carbaryl (33.9 mg/kg body weight) in male Wistar rats. Doses were orally administered to animals for four consecutive weeks. The present study showed that AGE completely modulated most adverse effects induced by malathion and/or carbaryl in rats including the normocytic normochromic anemia, immunosuppression, and the delay in the skin-burning healing process through normalizing the count of blood cells (erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets), hemoglobin content, hematocrit value, blood glucose-6-phosphodehydrogenase activity, weights and cellularity of lymphoid organs, serum γ-globulin concentration, and the delayed type of hypersensitivity response to the control values, and accelerating the inflammatory and proliferative phases of burn-healing. In addition, AGE completely modulated the decrease in serum reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration and the increase in clotting time in malathion alone and carbaryl alone treated rats. Moreover, AGE induced a significant increase (P < 0.001) in serum GSH concentration (above the normal value) and accelerating burn-healing process in healthy rats. In conclusion, AGE was effective in modulating most adverse effects induced in rats by malathion and carbaryl, and hence may be useful as a dietary adjunct for alleviating the toxicity in highly vulnerable people to insecticides intoxication. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 32: 789-798, 2017.

  14. Design and development of ethosomal transdermal drug delivery system of valsartan with preclinical assessment in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Bhosale, Sagar S; Avachat, Amelia M

    2013-06-01

    Valsartan (VLT) is a highly selective and orally active antihypertensive drug. However, its oral administration is associated with drawbacks like low bioavailability. The objective of this study was to design and develop a transdermal delivery system for VLT using ethosomal carriers to investigate their enhanced transdermal delivery potential. VLT ethosomes were prepared by cold method. VLT ethosomes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The prepared ethanolic liposomes were characterized to be spherical having low polydispersity of nano-size range with good entrapment efficiency. ETC5 ethosomal suspension with 4% of phospholipon 90H and 40% of ethanol was found to have highest entrapment efficiency, i.e. 80.230 ± 0.8748%. The permeation study of ethosomes was evaluated by ex vivo diffusion study through rat abdominal skin using Franz's diffusion cells and ETC5 ethosomal suspension was found to have highest permeation with flux of 92.819 ± 1.539 µg/cm²/h, when compared to the permeation profiles of drug solutions either in water or in a water-ethanol mixture. Transdermal application of ethosomal VLT on Wistar rats showed better and prolonged antihypertensive activity in comparison to orally administered VLT suspension by virtue of transdermal permeation through Wistar rat skin. Histopathological study of skin applied with ETC5 showed intercellular permeation across skin by dissolving intercellular lipids in epidermis without causing any rigorous changes in the skin cellular structure. In conclusion, ethosomes enabled the transdermal permeation of VLT, which amply proves its superiority over oral administration for antihypertensive treatment.

  15. Hepatoprotective role of Ricinus communis leaf extract against d-galactosamine induced acute hepatitis in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Babu, Pappithi Ramesh; Bhuvaneswar, Cherukupalle; Sandeep, Gandham; Ramaiah, Chintha Venkata; Rajendra, Wudayagiri

    2017-04-01

    Ricinus communis (RC) is a traditional medicinal plant which has been used by Chenchu and Yerukula tribes for treating their liver ailments. The present work is aimed to explore the hepatoprotective efficacy of Ricinus communis against d-galactosamine (D-GalN) induced hepatitis rat model and its therapeutic potential compared with standard drug, silymarin (100mg/kg.bw). In vitro antioxidant activity of Methanolic extract of Ricinus communis leaves (MERCL) was assayed through DPPH and H2O2 free radical scavenging activity. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of MERCL using HPLC, demonstrated that Rutin was found to be predominant bioactive compound in the extract. Hepatitis was induced by treating the rats with D-GalN at a single intraperitoneal dose of 800mg/kg.bw. Serum markers viz, Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly increased and the activity levels of antioxidant enzymes such as Superoxide dismutase (SOD),Catalase (CAT), Glutathione reductase (GR), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx), non-enzymatic antioxidant Glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased in the liver of hepatitis induced rats when compared to controls. Pre and post treatment with MERCL significantly altered the enzyme activities, GSH and MDA to normal levels. Histopathological observations also showed protective and curative effects of MERCL against D-GalN intoxication. These results demonstrated that MERCL significantly protected the liver from d-galactosamine induced hepatitis, improved the curative effect in the liver and hence, MERCL can be used as a potent hepatoprotective drug in future.

  16. Activation of cell division and nucleic acid synthesis in the corneal epithelium of albino rats by repeated stress

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhnova, N.I.; Timoshin, S.S.

    1985-05-01

    Adaption to unfavorable factors is accompanied by activation of nucleic acid and protein synthesis in systems responsible for adaption. The authors investigate the possibility of similar changes taking place in structures not actively participating in adaptation. The corneas of the dead male albin rats were preincubated with tritium-uridine for 1.5 hours. The mitotic index, the index of tritium-thymidine-labeled nuclei and the intensity of thymidine labeling were determined. The results indicate that after a single exposure to hypoxia, hyperthermia, and immobilization, mitotic index in the corneal epithelium decreased and DNA synthesis under these circumstances remained stable.

  17. Protective role of Moringa oleifera (Sajina) seed on arsenic-induced hepatocellular degeneration in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit; Maji, Gurupada; Deb, Bimal; Pan, Bappaditya; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-08-01

    In an attempt to develop new herbal therapy, an aqueous extract of the seed of Moringa oleifera was used to screen the effect on arsenic-induced hepatic toxicity in female rat of Wistar strain. Subchronic exposure to sodium arsenite (0.4 ppm/100 g body weight/day via drinking water for a period of 24 days) significantly increased activities of hepatic and lipid function markers such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL along with a decrease in total protein and HDL. A notable distortion of hepatocellular histoarchitecture was prominent with a concomitant increase in DNA fragmentation following arsenic exposure. A marked elevation of lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissue was also evident from the hepatic accumulation of malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes along with suppressed activities in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase. However, co-administration of aqueous seed extract of M. oleifera (500 mg/100 g body weight/day for a period of 24 days) was found to significantly prevent the arsenic-induced alteration of hepatic function markers and lipid profile. Moreover, the degeneration of histoarchitecture of liver found in arsenic-treated rats was protected along with partial but definite prevention against DNA fragmentation induction. Similarly, generation of reactive oxygen species and free radicals were found to be significantly less along with restored activities of antioxidant enzymes in M. oleifera co-administered group with comparison to arsenic alone treatment group. The present investigation offers strong evidence for the hepato-protective and antioxidative efficiencies of M. oleifera seed extract against oxidative stress induced by arsenic.

  18. Maternal psychological stress-induced developmental disability, neonatal mortality and stillbirth in the offspring of Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Govindaraj, Sakthivel; Shanmuganathan, Annadurai; Rajan, Ravindran

    2017-01-01

    Background Stress is an inevitable part of life, and maternal stress during the gestational period has dramatic effects in the early programming of the physiology and behavior of offspring. The developmental period is crucial for the well-being of the offspring. Prenatal stress influences the developmental outcomes of the fetus, in part because the developing brain is particularly vulnerable to stress. The etiology of birth defects of the offspring is reported to be 30–40% genetic and 7–10% multifactorial, with the remaining 50% still unknown and also there is no clear cause for neonatal mortality and still-birth. Objective The present study explores the association of maternal psychological stress on mother and the offspring’s incidence of birth defects, stillbirth, and neonatal mortality. Study design Pregnant animals were restrained to induce psychological stress (3 times per day, 45 minutes per session). Except control group, other animals were exposed to restraint stress during the gestational period: early gestational stress (EGS, stress exposure during 1st day to 10th days of gestational period), late gestational stress (LGS, stress exposure during 11th day to till parturition), and full term gestational stress (FGS, stress exposure to the whole gestational period). The effects of maternal stress on the mother and their offspring were analyzed. Results Expectant female rats exposed to stress by physical restraint showed decreased body weight gain, food intake, and fecal pellet levels. Specifically, the offspring of female rats subjected to late gestational and full term gestational restraint stress showed more deleterious effects, such as physical impairment (LGS 24.44%, FGS 10%), neonatal mortality (EGS 2.56%, LGS 24.44%, FGS 17.5%), stillbirths (FGS 27.5%), low birth weight (EGS 5.42g, LGS 4.40g, FGS 4.12g), preterm births (EGS 539 Hrs, LGS 514 Hrs, FGS 520.6 Hrs), and delayed eyelid opening (EGS 15.16 Days, LGS 17 Days, FGS 17.67 Days). Conclusion

  19. [Mechanism of the membrane stabilizing action of vitamins K and E under conditions of chronic phenol poisoning in albino rats].

    PubMed

    Nazarov, P V; Lider, V A

    1996-01-01

    In experiment with white male-rats the influence of membranotropic phenol-poison on the qualitative composition of phospholipids of liver, kidneys, heart, skeletal muscles as well as biomembranes of erythrocytes and mitochondria of liver was investigates. Along with these investigations the possibility of preventing from supposed changes of qualitative composition of phospholipids has also been studied by additional injection K and K vitamins as minor lipid components. As the result of this research it was stated that when phenol (per, os) was repeatedly injected the content of lysophospholipids, phosphatidic acids in phospholipid composition increased and the content of phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine and sphingomyelin simultaneous decreased. Additional injection E and K vitamins (50 mg/kg by weight and 20 mg/kg accordingly) prevented to a greater extent the changes of fractional composition of the lipid phase of biomembranes. The mechanism of protective action of K and E vitamins is probably connected with spatial screening of pi-bonds in the radicals of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholipid composition from reoxidation and on the hand the competitive interrelations may exist between minor lipid components and on the other hand between the ethers of cholesterol. These conclusions agree with hypothesis that K and E vitamins are the natural modifiers of the membranes of different types of structure.

  20. Ameliorative effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on immunohistochemical and ultrastuctural changes of cerebellum of albino rats induced by aspartame.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Gallaly, Sanaa Rida

    2014-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the protective effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on aspartame (ASP) which resulted in cerebellar changes. The rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1: (control group): served as control animals. Group 2: control P. anisum oil received .5 mL/kg/d/b wt. once daily. Group 3 (ASP group): received daily 250 mg/kg/b wt. of ASP dissolved in distilled water and given orally to the animals by intra-gastric tube for 2 months. Group 4: received .5 mL/kg/b wt. of prophylactic P. anisum oil once daily, followed by ASP after 2 h for 2 months. The histopathological approach revealed marked changes in the Purkinje cells, myleinated nerve fibers and granular cells of ASP-treated animals. Some of these cells appeared with deeply stained cytoplasm. Ultrastructural examination showed Purkinje cells with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and condensed mitochondria. Granular cells appeared with less c nuclei and surrounded by dissolution of most Mossy rosettes structures. Most myelinated nerve fibers showed thickening of myelinated sheath and others showed splitting of their myelin sheath. The histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations were much less observed in concomitant use of P. anisum oil with ASP. Cerebellar cortex is considered target areas of ASP neurotoxicity, while P. anisum oil, when used in combination with ASP displays a protective action against neurotoxicity.

  1. Ameliorative effect of acetyl-L-carnitine and/or nifedipine against selenite-induced cataractogenesis in young albino rats.

    PubMed

    Farghaly, Lamiaa M; Ghobashy, Waleed A; Shoukry, Youssef; El-Azab, Mona F

    2014-04-15

    Free radical toxicity and calcium ion overload have been identified as the major two players in the causation of cataract. The current study was carried out to investigate the anti-cataractogenic effect of single and combined treatment with acetyl-l-carnitine and nifedipine in sodium selenite-induced cataract. Rat pups were divided into 5 groups; 1st group received intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of saline and served as normal control, 2nd group received single subcutaneous injection of sodium selenite 30nmol/g body weight on p10 (postpartum day 10), 3rd and 4th groups received either acetyl-l-carnitine (200mg/kg, i.p.) or nifedipine (0.1mg/kg, i.p.) on p9, respectively, before the administration of sodium selenite, and the treatment continued till p14. Last group received the combined treatments of acetyl-l-carnitine and nifedipine in the same regimen. All animals were examined using a slit lamp and retroillumination then sacrificed on p30. Lenses were removed and processed for biochemical analyses, histopathological and electron microscopic examination. Selenite-treated groups showed significantly (P≤0.05) lower values of redox system components (glutathione and glutathione reductase activity) and anti-oxidant enzymes׳ activities (superoxide dismutase and catalase) along with increased lipid peroxidation that was accompanied by 100% opacified crystalline lenses (mature cataract) with abnormal structure as detected by electron microscopy. It is concluded that acetyl-l-carnitine or nifedipine was able to partially protect against selenite-induced abnormalities. While, combined treatment with acetyl-l-carnitine and nifedipine was superior to individual treatments in slowing down the development of cataract by restoring the anti-oxidant defense and mitigating lipid peroxidation in the lens and hence represents an attractive anti-cataractogenic remedy.

  2. Exposure to difenoconazole, diclofop-methyl alone and combination alters oxidative stress and biochemical parameters in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Kotb, Gamila Ahmed; Farid, Hoda; Farag, Ahmed AG; Draz, Hossam M; Isa, Ahmed M; Sabico, S

    2014-01-01

    The herbicides diclofop-methyl and the fungicide difenoconazole are widely used in agriculture and may lead to serious toxicity risks. However, limited studies have been done to evaluate differences in the metabolic effects of these herbicides. Difenoconazole (10 mg/kg) and Diclofop-methyl (1 mg/kg) were orally administrated individually (Groups 1 and 2 respectively) as well as combined (G3) to rats for 28 days. In all treated groups, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and urea were significantly higher than the control group. Plasma creatinine was also significantly higher in groups G1 and G2 than control. Significant inhibition in gamma glutamyltransferase (γGT) was observed in all treated groups, in addition to significant inhibition of plasma acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) in G3 (p < 0.01). There was no effect in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and albumin. Total plasma triiodothy-ronine (T3) hormone was significantly higher in groups G2 and G3 (p < 0.01), but significantly lower in G1 group as compared to control. Thyroxin (T4) was significantly lower in all treated groups than control. Cholesterol level was significantly lower in G3 than control, and a total protein (TP) was significantly higher in all treated groups than control. No differences were observed in glucose levels. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), an oxidative stress biomarker, was significantly increased in all treated groups comparing to control. Sulphur containing protein (SH-protein) was significantly lower in G1 than control. No significant changes were observed for GST in all treatments. The significant differences in measured biomarkers after application of diclofop-methyl, difenoconazole individually and combined indicate that the investigated pesticides may have potentially harmful effects on humans and the surrounding environment. We suggest that larger studies be conducted to better understand the toxicity mechanisms of these pesticides. PMID:25419412

  3. Phenolic Profiling and Evaluation of Contraceptive Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Salsola imbricata Forssk. in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shehab, Naglaa Gamil

    2014-01-01

    Reported researches dealing with either composition or bioactivity of Salsola imbricata are limited. This study was conducted aiming to investigate the phenolic composition of the plant and evaluate its efficacy as male contraceptive. Polyphenols, namely, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed by RP-HPLC in the hydrolysed methanol extract using two different wavelengths, 280 and 330 nm. The efficiency of different solvents in extracting the plant phenolics was assessed via spectrophotometric determination of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Acute toxicity study was carried out on the ethanolic extract to ascertain its safety prior to biological evaluation. The contraceptive effect was assessed, in male rats, by oral administration of the extract at two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b. wt.), over a period of 65 days. HPLC analyses allowed the identification and quantification of a total of 13 and 8 components in the hydrolysed-methanol extract; the overall phenolic composition was dominated by quercitrin (12.692%) followed by coumaric acid (4.251%). Prolonged oral administration of the ethanolic extract caused slight reduction in the testis weight only. A significant decrease in the sperm count was observed (P < 0.01) in the two treated groups while significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility was only observed in the high dose group. Morphological abnormalities were observed in sperms of treated animals. No distinct change in serum FSH, LH, and testosterone concentration was recorded. The histopathological findings supported to a high extent these results. The male contraceptive activity of Salsola imbricata could be ascribed to its phenolic components, especially quercitrin. PMID:25587346

  4. Effect of alpha lipoic acid co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical changes in subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult male albino rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation.

    PubMed

    Mazroa, Shireen A; Asker, Samar A; Asker, Waleed; Abd Ellatif, Mohamed

    2015-06-01

    Polypropylene mesh is commonly used in the treatment of abdominal hernia. Different approaches were addressed to improve their tissue integration and consequently reduce long-term complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall of the adult rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group I (control), group II (receiving ALA), group III (polypropylene mesh implantation) and group IV (mesh implantation + ALA co-administration). After 4 weeks, subcutaneous tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and IHC study of CD34 as a marker for angiogenesis. In groups I and II rats, positive CD34 expression was demonstrated by IHC reaction, localized to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels. Group III showed an excess inflammatory reaction, deposition of both regular and irregularly arranged collagen fibres around mesh pores and few elastic fibres. CD34-positive was detected not only in cells lining small blood vessels but also in other cells scattered in the connective tissue indicating angiogenesis. In group IV, ALA co-administration resulted in less inflammatory reaction, regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and a significant increase in CD34-positive cells and small blood vessels reflecting improved angiogenesis. ALA co-administration with polypropylene mesh implantation controlled the inflammatory reaction, helped regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and improved angiogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult albino rats, suggesting a possible role of ALA in optimizing mesh integration in subcutaneous tissue.

  5. Effect of alpha lipoic acid co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical changes in subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult male albino rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation

    PubMed Central

    Mazroa, Shireen A; Asker, Samar A; Asker, Waleed; Abd Ellatif, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Polypropylene mesh is commonly used in the treatment of abdominal hernia. Different approaches were addressed to improve their tissue integration and consequently reduce long-term complications. This study aimed to investigate the effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) co-administration on structural and immunohistochemical (IHC) changes in the subcutaneous tissues of the anterior abdominal wall of the adult rat in response to polypropylene mesh implantation. Forty adult male albino rats were divided into: group I (control), group II (receiving ALA), group III (polypropylene mesh implantation) and group IV (mesh implantation + ALA co-administration). After 4 weeks, subcutaneous tissue samples were prepared for light microscopy and IHC study of CD34 as a marker for angiogenesis. In groups I and II rats, positive CD34 expression was demonstrated by IHC reaction, localized to endothelial cells lining small blood vessels. Group III showed an excess inflammatory reaction, deposition of both regular and irregularly arranged collagen fibres around mesh pores and few elastic fibres. CD34-positive was detected not only in cells lining small blood vessels but also in other cells scattered in the connective tissue indicating angiogenesis. In group IV, ALA co-administration resulted in less inflammatory reaction, regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and a significant increase in CD34-positive cells and small blood vessels reflecting improved angiogenesis. ALA co-administration with polypropylene mesh implantation controlled the inflammatory reaction, helped regular collagen deposition, enhanced elastic fibres synthesis and improved angiogenesis in the subcutaneous tissue of anterior abdominal wall of adult albino rats, suggesting a possible role of ALA in optimizing mesh integration in subcutaneous tissue. PMID:25891652

  6. Reduced neuronal size and dendritic length in the medial superior olivary nucleus of albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Conlee, J W; Parks, T N; Creel, D J

    1986-01-15

    We have previously demonstrated that circumscribed structural and functional abnormalities exist in the brainstem auditory system of albino cats. Anomalies in the auditory brainstem evoked response of albino cats were correlated with anatomical defects in the medial superior olivary nucleus (MSO) of the same animals. To examine whether a similar syndrome is present in other albino mammals, we studied the MSO of albino and pigmented rabbits using both Nissl-stained and Golgi-impregnated material. Neurons in the MSO of the albinos were significantly smaller (24%) than those in the pigmented rabbits and there was no overlap in the size distributions between the two groups. Neurons in the abducens nucleus of the albinos were also 14% smaller than in the pigmented rabbits, but this difference was not statistically reliable. The broad overlap in the distributions of neuronal size in the abducens nucleus between groups indicated that not all cells in the albino brainstem are significantly smaller than normal. In the Golgi-impregnated material, the mean total dendritic length for the 'marginal' cell type in the MSO was 39% shorter in albinos than in the pigmented animals. The branching density of dendrites was also significantly reduced in the albinos. Mean total dendritic length for cerebellar granule cells was a statistically insignificant 6% longer in the albinos, demonstrating that dendritic structure is not uniformly affected in all regions of the albino brain. The demonstration of similar anatomical differences in albino rabbits and cats indicates that whatever process produces these effects is not species-specific and may be common to the albinos of other mammalian species. The evidence that the amount of cochlear melanin may be related to differences in auditory function further suggests that the differences in the MSO of the albinos may ultimately be related to absence of inner ear pigmentation and not to other gene effects.

  7. Experimental studies on the effect of (Lambda-Cyhalothrin) insecticide on lungs and the ameliorating effect of plant extracts (Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) on asthma development in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide for agricultural and public health applications. This study was to determine the pathological alterations of LTC in lungs, which has not previously been studied, and the ameliorating effects of plant extracts (ginseng and garlic) on the development of asthma in albino rats. Methods Four groups (gps) of albino rats, (n = 20, average body weight = 200 gm with an age of 4 months), were formed. Gp 1 was kept as control. Gp 2 was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LTC at a dose of 1/6 LD50 that is 9.34 mg/kg body weight (w.t.) daily for 21 days (d). Gp 3 & 4 were injected (i.p.) with ginseng at the dose of 200 mg/kg b.wt and garlic (Allium sativum L.) at the dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt., respectively, one hour before being given LTC at a dose of 1/6 LD50 (9.34 mg/kg b.wt.) daily. Each groups were divided into two sacrificed, at 15 and 21 d p.i. Blood and lung samples were collected for hematological and histopathological examinations. Results Hematological findings showed that the animals in gps 2 and 3, which were treated for 21 days, showed a significant difference in RBC counts (P > .001), Hb (P > .007), PCV% (P > .004), (P > .008) in comparison with the control group. Signs of cough and nasal discharge were seen in gp 2, which became mild in gp 4. Grossly, the lungs showed congestion and consolidation in gp 2. Histopathologically, macroabscesses and interstitial alveolitis were seen in gp 2, which led to obstruction in the lumen of the bronchioles at 21 d p.i. Meanwhile, thickening in the interalveolar septa with mononuclear cells was seen in gps. 3 and 4 at 21d p.i. Conclusions The study shows 3 gps of rats injected with LHC alone or combined with garlic and ginseng extract, each group were divided into two sacrificed (15 and 21 d p.i.). Lambda cyhalothrin causes bronchial obstruction in the lungs of the rats (15 and 21 d p.i), which decreased into mild to

  8. Effects of Artesunate on some biochemical parameters in pregnant albino Wistar rats challenged with lethal strain Plasmodium berghei NK65: Appreciating the activities of artemisinin drugs on key pregnancy hormone balance.

    PubMed

    Nwaehujor, Chinaka O; Asuzu, Onyeka V; Nwibo, Daniel D; Nwobi, Obichukwu C; Ezeigbo, Ihechiluru I

    2017-03-20

    In humans, malaria in pregnancy can cause serious maternal and foetal morbidity and in extreme untreated cases, foetal mortality occurs. The therapeutic approach to curbing this malaise is the administration of an effective and/or combinations of anti-malaria medicaments. Acute or chronic administration of some of these drugs, however, gives rise to some adverse medical conditions including reproductive dysfunction, especially in pregnancy. Studies aimed at the hormonal interplays following administration of these drugs in pregnancy have been limited due to too few appropriate animal models. In this experiment, pregnant albino rats were infected with rodent parasite, Plasmodium berghei on the 5th day of gestation, following which biochemical changes, specific for pregnancy maintenance were monitored in the blood of test rats. We observed that infecting the pregnant rats with P. berghei negatively impacted the measured biological parameters (hormones) compared to unchallenged controls. The observed effect was however retreated following oral administration of 3mg/kg body weight, qDay of Artesunate until the 17th day of gestation. Findings, therefore, suggest that Artesunate is an effective therapeutic agent in pregnancy, demonstrated by the restoration of the hormonal changes occasioned by the parasitic infection.

  9. Antidepressant Activity of Brahmi in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kadali, SLDV Ramana Murty; M.C., Das; Rao A.S.R., Srinivasa; Sri G, Karuna

    2014-01-01

    Context: In traditional system of medicine brahmi has been used to enhance memory. Recently it has been reported to have action in psychiatric disorders. With these backgrounds the work has been undertaken to study antidepressant activity of brahmi in albino mice. Aim: To evaluate antidepressant activity of brahmi in experimental models. Materials and Methods: The antidepressant activity was studied in albino mice using forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST) and shock induced depression (SID). Imipramine (10mg/kg), fluoxetine (30mg/kg) were used as standard drugs and brahmi (10, 20, 30mg/kg) was used as test drug. Results: Brahmi exhibited significant decrease in duration of immobility in FST and reduced the shock induced decrease in activity in SID models. It didn’t show any activity in the TST model. Conclusion: Brahmi has shown antidepressant activity in FST and SID. PMID:24783074

  10. Role of zinc in regulating the testicular function. Part 3. Histopathological changes induced by dietary zinc deficiency in testes of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hafiez, A A; el-Kirdassy, Z H; el-Malkh, N M; el-Zayat, E M

    1990-01-01

    Zinc deficiency affects the testicular tissues adversely. The testes of zinc-deficient rats showed variable degrees of degeneration compared to both control and zinc-supplemented ones. Initially, there was an early pronounced spermatic arrest followed by a series of degeneration of the cellular layers constituting the seminiferous tubules in the zinc-deficient rats. Degenerative changes were additionally demonstrated in the interstitial tissue cells of the zinc-deficient rats. These histopathological observations in testes of zinc-deficient rats run in parallel provide an additional support to our previous publications in which we recorded a significant reduction in both serum and testicular levels of testosterone in the same group of animals, since spermatogenesis in rodents appeared to depend primarily on testosterone level.

  11. Pancreatic islet regeneration and some liver biochemical parameters of leaf extracts of Vitex doniana in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Oche, Okpe; Sani, Ibrahim; Chilaka, Njoku Godwin; Samuel, Ndidi Uche; Samuel, Atabo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test two water soluble extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) obtained from the leaves of Vitex doniana in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for their effects on pancreatic endocrine tissues and serum marker enzymes for a period of 21 d. Methods A total of 55 rats divided into 11 groups of 5 rats each were assigned into diabetic and non-diabetic groups and followed by a daily administration of ethanolic and aqueous extracts for 21 d. Group 1 was the normal control while group 7 was treated with standard drug. Results The histopathological studies of the diabetic rats indicated increase in the volume density of islets, percent of β-cells and size of islet in the groups that received the plant extracts, which suggested regeneration of β-cells along with β-cells repairs, as compared with the non-treated diabetic control which showed complete degeneration of the islet cells. There was significant reduction (P<0.05) in the serum activities of marker enzymes, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in diabetes treated rats, whereas an insignificant increase (P>0.01) in the serum activities of marker enzymes was observed for non-diabetic treated rats. Results of total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin showed that diabetic control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) in total bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin compared with treated groups while non-diabetic treated groups showed no significant increase (P>0.01) in total bilirubin and direct bilirubin compared with the normal control. Conclusion This herbal therapy appears to bring about repair/regeneration of the endocrine pancreas and hepatic cells protection in the diabetic rat. PMID:25182283

  12. Effect of morin-5'-sulfonic acid sodium salt on the expression of apoptosis related proteins caspase 3, Bax and Bcl 2 due to the mercury induced oxidative stress in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, Rantham Subramaniam; Sadiq, Abdul Majeeth Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Many environmental contaminants have been reported to disturb the pro-oxidant or antioxidant balance of the cells by inducing oxidative stress. Oxidative stress mediated by the HgCl2 induces DNA, protein and lipid oxidation resulted in necrosis or apoptosis, or both. Currently flavonoids are being emerging topic and reported to have antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti- tumor and antioxidant activities. Morin is one of the flavonoid protects the cells from oxygen free radical damage and scavenges the free radicals and metals and also heals the injured cells commercially. Morin hydrate is sparingly soluble in water. Hence, the water soluble morin -5'- sulfonic acid sodium salt (NaMSA) was selected and synthesized. Aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of morin-5'-sulfonic acid sodium salt on the expression of apoptosis related proteins caspase 3, Bax and Bcl 2 due to the mercury induced oxidative stress in albino rats.. The experimental rats were exposed to sub lethal concentration of mercuric chloride (1.25mg/kg) and the ameliorating effect of NaMSA was studied by using apoptotic protein markers Bax and caspase-3 and Bcl-2. The obtained results were analyzed using one way analysis of variance by the Duncan's Multiple comparison test to determine the level of significance (p) and p<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Administration of mercuric chloride (1.25mg/kg) in the experimental rats increased the expression of Bax and caspase-3 and a decreased expression was noted in the Bcl-2 level compared with control bands significantly (p<0.05). On the other hand NaMSA (50mg/kg) and HgCl2 (1.25mg/kg) simultaneous administration did not bring any change in the protein expression of Bax, Caspase-3 and Bcl-2 levels compared with control rats. Hence, the membrane damage was protected, stopped the cell death and apoptosis. This could be due to the morin-5'-sulfonic acid sodium salt effective chelation action on the HgCl2 generated free radicals.

  13. Anti arthritic and anti inflammatory activity of a cytotoxic protein NN-32 from Indian spectacle cobra (Naja naja) venom in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Antony; Datta, Poulami; Das, Tanaya; Biswas, Ajoy Kumar; Gomes, Aparna

    2014-11-01

    The anti arthritic and anti inflammatory activity of NN-32, a cytotoxic protein from Indian spectacle cobra snake (Naja naja) venom has been studied in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis and carrageenan induced anti inflammatory model. NN-32 treatment showed significant decrease in physical and urinary parameters, serum enzymes, serum cytokines levels as compared to arthritic control group of rats. NN-32 treatment recovered carrageenan induced inflammation as compared to control group of rats. The findings showed that the cytotoxic protein NN-32 shares anti arthritic and anti inflammatory activity and thus NN-32 may target complex pathophysiological processes like cancer- arthritis-inflammation.

  14. [Effect of alpha-tocopherol and synthetic antioxidants on morpho-functional status of gonadotropic cells from the adenohypophysis of albino rats].

    PubMed

    Kozak, M V; Teplyĭ, D L

    2003-01-01

    Morphometric indices of gonadotropic cells obtained from adenohypophysis of white rats, both males and females, were investigated after treatment with alpha-tocopherol and synthetic antioxidants. The former stimulated the functional status of gonadotropic cells revealed in a proportional increase in both nuclear and cytoplasmic volumes. After the treatment with a synthetic antioxidant dibunolum, the volume of the cytoplasm increased in gonadotropic cells of rats of different sexes. After the treatment with a water-soluble antioxidant emoxipinum, the volume of the cytoplasm in gonadotropic cells increased only in males. The outcomes allow to consider alpha-tocopherol, in contrast to from synthetic antioxidants, as one of the modulators of the functional state of gonadotropic cells obtained from adenohypophysis.

  15. Toxic effects of sub-chronic exposure of male albino rats to emamectin benzoate and possible ameliorative role of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Galal, Azza A A

    2015-05-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is an avermectin insecticide used extensively in pest control on vegetable and field crops. Few studies have been done for evaluating adverse effects of EB. In the current study, we evaluated the toxic effects of EB on male rats and the possible ameliorative role of fennel essential oil (FEO). Thirty two male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All groups were treated orally with distilled water (control group), 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW (FEO group), 2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (EB group), and 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW+2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (FEO+EB group) for 28 days. The obtained results showed that EB treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain, RBC count, Hb concentration, % PCV, MCV and MCHC. Moreover, EB significantly decreased total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count but significantly increased granulocyte count. EB markedly decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, IgG and IgM concentrations with a significant increase in TNF-α secretion. EB had a negative impact on the liver as it significantly increased ALT, ALP, and MDA, while decreasing SOD activity. Regarding to the histopathological examination, EB treatment induced coagulative necrosis and blood vessels congestion of the liver in treated rats. Furthermore, it resulted in depletion and necrosis of the white pulp of the spleen in treated rats. The co-administration of FEO with EB, however, improved the majority of parameters studied, suggesting that FEO is an important substance in decreasing toxic effects of EB.

  16. Antihyperglycemic effects of separate and composite extract of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Chhanda; Chatterjee, Kausik; Guhabiswas, Mehuli; Ghosh, Debidas

    2007-02-16

    We evaluated the antihyperglycaemic properties of aqueous-methanolic (40:60) extract of root of Musa paradisiaca and leaf of Coccinia indica in separate as well as in composite manner by conducting experiment on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. We measured food and water intake ability, the fasting blood glucose level, glucose tolerance, activities of important carbohydrate metabolic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphatase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, hexokinase in liver along with quantification of glycogen in liver and in skeletal muscle and serum insulin level. We noted that after treatment of aqueous methanolic extract of above plant parts in separate as well as in composite manner at a concentration of 80 mg/100 g body weight/day to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat resulted in a significant remedial effect on blood glucose level as well as carbohydrate metabolic enzymes and the quantity of liver and skeletal muscle glycogen. Serum insulin level that was diminished in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat recovered significantly after the co-administration of extract of above plant parts. All the above parameters showed a more potent remedial effect after composite extract treatment with respect to separate treatment and none of the extract has any general metabolic toxicity induction.

  17. Effect of Transplantation of Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Platelets Rich Plasma on Experimental Model of Radiation Induced Oral Mucosal Injury in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    El Kholy, Samar; El Rouby, Dalia; Rashed, Laila; Shouman, Tarek

    2017-01-01

    Normal tissue damage following radiotherapy is still a major problem in cancer treatment. Therefore, the current work aimed at exploring the possible role of systemically injected bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and/or locally injected platelet rich plasma (PRP) in ameliorating the side effects of ionizing radiation on the rat's tongue. Twelve rats served as control group (N) and 48 rats received a single radiation dose of 13 Gy to the head and neck region; then, they were equally divided into 4 experimental groups: irradiated only (C), irradiated + MSCs (S), irradiated + (PRP) (P), and combined group (PS). Animal scarification occurred in 3 and 7 days after radiation. Then, tongues were dissected and examined histologically and for expression of bcl-2 by RT-PCR. Histological examination of the treated groups (S), (P), and (PS) revealed an obvious improvement in the histological structure of the tongue, compared to group (C), in addition to upregulated expression of bcl-2, indicating decreased apoptotic activity. Conclusion. BM-MSCs and PRP have shown positive effect in minimizing the epithelial atrophy of normal oral mucosa after regional radiotherapy, which was emphasized by decreasing apoptotic activity in these tissues. Nevertheless, combined use of BM-MSCs and PRP did not reveal the assumed synergetic effect in oral tissue protection. PMID:28337218

  18. Histopathologycal findings in the ovaries and uterus of albino female rats promoted by co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici; Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Pinto, Tiago; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2014-07-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids is often associated with the use of other substances, licit or not, such as nicotine present in the tobacco. The present study investigated for the first time the effects of co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine on the ovarian and uterine tissue and fertility of adult female rats. Animals were submitted to treatment groups (n=16/group): nandrolone decanoate (ND; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); testosterone mixture (T; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); nicotine (N; 2.0mg/kg BW/day), and co-administration of ND/N, T/N and ND/T/N. The control group received saline solution daily. The injections were administered subcutaneously for 30 consecutive days. Results demonstrated that all androgenized rats exhibited estral acyclicity and there was suppression of reproductive capacity due to notable ovarian and uterine histological changes. Treatments promoted decrease (p<0.05) in the ovarian weight. Uterine weight increased (p<0.05) in the T and T/N groups, in comparison to control group. ND or T co-administered or not to nicotine promoted intense follicular degeneration, with formation of cysts in the ovaries. High levels of circulating androgens in the ND/T/N group induced the presence of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors of Sertoli cell pattern. Androgenized females presented endometrial changes characterized by papilliferous or pleated luminal epithelium, oedematous and hemorrhagic stroma and presence of gland cysts. In conclusion, the co-administration of three drugs promoted atypical morphological pattern on the ovaries and uterus of female rats.

  19. Identification of a tyrosinase (TYR) exon 4 deletion in albino ferrets (Mustela putorius furo).

    PubMed

    Blaszczyk, W M; Distler, C; Dekomien, G; Arning, L; Hoffmann, K-P; Epplen, J T

    2007-08-01

    Albinism is due to a lack of pigmentation in hair, skin and eye, and has been shown to occur in several animal species. Mutations of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene account for albinism in domestic cats, rabbits, cattle, mice and rats. In this study, we demonstrate that a TYR mutation accounts for albinism in the ferret (Mustela putorius furo). The coding sequence of the five exons of TYR was determined in genomic DNA from wild-type pigmented 'sable' coloured and albino ferrets. It was not possible to amplify TYR exon 4 in albino ferrets originating from different breeds. The deletion of exon 4 in albino ferrets was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization of genomic DNA from albino and pigmented ferrets. This is the first report of a deletion of a TYR exon in a non-human mammal.

  20. Possible protective effect of royal jelly against cyclophosphamide induced prostatic damage in male albino rats; a biochemical, histological and immuno-histo-chemical study.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafez, Sara Mohammed Naguib; Rifaai, Rehab Ahmed; Abdelzaher, Walaa Yehia

    2017-03-21

    Almost all the chemotherapy treat many cancer types effectively, but it leads to severe side effects. Chemotherapy like cyclophosphamide (CP) not works only on the active cells, such as cancer cells, but also acts on the healthy cells. Royal jelly (RJ) was reported to have a lot of therapeutic effects besides being an anti-oxidant and anti-cancer agent. The purpose of this study was to assess the possible protective role of RJ in ameliorating the toxic effects of CP overdose in the rat prostatic tissue. The rats were separated into 4 groups; control group, RJ group, CP group and RJ with CP group. Prostatic specimens were processed for biochemical, histological and immune-histo-chemical studies. The mean area fractions of eNOS and Bax expression were measured in all groups, and statistical analysis was carried out. The results showed that in CP treated group, there were marked biological changes in the form of significant increase in prostatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and C - reactive protein (CRP). Additionally there was a significant decrease in glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in prostatic tissue if compared with the control group. Furthermore, the histological changes showed marked acinar and stromal prostatic degeneration. Most prostatic acini showed less PAS reaction and more (eNOS and Bax) expression if compared with the control group. Concomitant administration of RJ with CP revealed a noticeable amelioration of these biochemical and histological changes. In conclusion, RJ provided biochemical and histo-pathological improvement in CP induced prostatic tissue toxicity. These findings revealed that this improvement was associated with a decrease in the tissue oxidative damage and apoptosis.

  1. Effect of pycnogenol and spirulina on vancomycin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy in adult male albino rat.

    PubMed

    Bayomy, Naglaa A; Abdelaziz, Eman Z; Said, Mona A; Badawi, Marwa S; El-Bakary, Reda H

    2016-08-01

    Vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity has been reported to occur in 5%-25% of patients who were administered with it. Several natural antioxidants were found to be effective against drug-induced toxicity. We evaluated the possible protective effects of spirulina and pycnogenol alone or in combination on vancomycin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress. Forty-nine rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: group I, control; group II, received spirulina 1000 mg/kg per day; group III, received pycnogenol 200 mg/kg per day; group IV, received vancomycin 200 mg/kg per day every 12 h; group V, (spirulina + vancomycin); group VI, (pycnogenol + vancomycin); and group VII, (pycnogenol + spirulina + vancomycin). At the end of the experiment, kidney functions were estimated and then the kidneys were removed, weighed, and sampled for histopathological, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical studies. Administration of spirulina and pycnogenol alone or in combination decreased elevated serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, renal malondialdehyde, and immunoexpression of the proapoptotic protein (Bax), autophagic marker protein (LC3/B), and inducible nitric oxide synthase induced by vancomycin. They increased reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and immunoexpression of the antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2). They also ameliorated the morphological changes induced by vancomycin. The combination therapy of spirulina and pycnogenol showed better protective effects than the corresponding monotherapy.

  2. Synthesis and migration of /sup 3/H-fucose-labeled glycoproteins in the retinal pigment epithelium of albino rats, as visualized by radioautography

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, A.; Bennett, G.

    1987-03-01

    /sup 3/H-fucose was injected into the vitreous body of the eye(s) of 250-gm rats, which were then killed by means of an intracardiac perfusion with glutaraldehyde after intervals of 10 min, 1 and 4 hr, and 1 and 7 days. The eyes were removed and further fixed, and pieces of retina were processed for light and electron microscope radioautography. Light microscope radioautography showed that the pigment epithelial cells actively incorporated /sup 3/H-fucose label. The intensity of reaction peaked at 4 hr after injection of the label and then slowly declined. Quantitative electron microscope radioautography revealed that, at 10 min after /sup 3/H-fucose injection, over 70% of the label was localized to the Golgi apparatus, indicating that fucose residues are added to newly synthesized glycoproteins principally at this site. With time the proportion of label associated with the Golgi apparatus decreased, but that assigned to the infolded basal plasma membrane, the apical microvilli, and various apical lysosomes increased. These results indicate that in retinal pigment epithelial cells newly synthesized glycoproteins continuously migrate from the Golgi apparatus to lysosomes and to various regions of the plasma membrane. In this case, the membrane glycoproteins may play specific roles in receptor functions of the basal plasma membrane or phagocytic activities at the apical surface. Very little label migrated to Bruch's membrane, indicating either a very slow turnover or a paucity of fucose-containing glycoproteins at this site.

  3. Evaluation of genotoxicity in leukocytes and testis following intra-vasal contraception with RISUG and its reversal by DMSO and NaHCO₃ in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ansari, A S; Alam, I; Hussain, M; Khan, S R; Lohiya, N K

    2013-04-01

    Evaluation of genotoxicity of RISUG® - a vas based contraceptive, was carried out in the present study. Animals were allotted into groups of sham operated control, vas occlusion with RISUG (5-7 μl) for 360 days and reversal by DMSO (250-500 μl) and 5% NaHCO₃ (500 μl). Blood samples and testis were collected at 360 days of vas occlusion and 90 days of vas occlusion reversal for comet analysis. Hydrogen peroxide induced samples were used as positive control. Olive moment, tail length and percentage DNA in tail were recorded with minimum variation in all groups for both leukocytes and testis. When compared with positive control the variation was highly significant for both 20 μM and 50 μM H₂O₂ (p<0.001). It is concluded that vas occlusion with RISUG at the contraceptive dose regimen is not associated with genotoxicity in leukocytes or the testis of pre- and post-reversal rats.

  4. Effect of noise stress on cardiovascular system in adult male albino rat: implication of stress hormones, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Said, Mona A; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2016-07-01

    Noise pollution has been realized as an environmental stressor associated with modern life style that affects our health without being consciously aware of it. The present study investigated the effect of acute, chronic intermittent and chronic continuous exposure to noise of intensity 80-100 dB on heart rate and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Noise stress causes significant increase in heart rate, mean systemic arterial blood pressure as well as significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelin-1, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and these values are significantly more worse in chronic continuous exposure to noise than acute or chronic intermittent exposure. These findings suggest that noise stress has many adverse effects on cardiovascular system via increasing plasma levels of stress hormones, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have major implication in the management of adverse cardiovascular reactions of people subjected to daily noise stress.

  5. Comparative Effects of Some Medicinal Plants: Anacardium occidentale, Eucalyptus globulus, Psidium guajava, and Xylopia aethiopica Extracts in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Okpashi, Victor Eshu; Bayim, Bayim Peter-Robins; Obi-Abang, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Insulin therapy and oral antidiabetic agents/drugs used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus have not sufficiently proven to control hyperlipidemia, which is commonly associated with the diabetes mellitus. Again the hopes that traditional medicine and natural plants seem to trigger researchers in this area is yet to be discovered. This research was designed to compare the biochemical effects of some medicinal plants in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar rats using named plants that are best at lowering blood glucose and hyperlipidemia and ameliorating other complications of diabetes mellitus by methods of combined therapy. The results obtained showed 82% decrease in blood glucose concentration after the 10th hour to the fortieth hour. There was significant increase P < 0.05 in the superoxide dismutase activity of the test group administered 100 mg/kg of A. Occidentale. There was no significant difference P > 0.05 recorded in the glutathione peroxidase activity of E. globulus (100 mg/kg) when compared to the test groups of P. guajava (250 mg/kg) and X. aethiopica (250 mg/kg). Catalase activity showed significant increase P < 0.05 in the catalase activity, compared to test groups. While at P > 0.05, there was no significant difference seen between test group and treated groups. Meanwhile, degree of significance was observed in other parameters analysed. The biochemical analysis conducted in this study showed positive result, attesting to facts from previous works. Though these individual plants extracts exhibited significant increase in amelorating diabetes complication and blood glucose control compared to glibenclamide, a synthetic antidiabetic drug. Greater performance was observed in the synergy groups. Therefore, a poly/combined formulation of these plants extracts yielded significant result as well as resolving some other complications associated with diabetics. PMID:25525518

  6. The "Inscrutable Albino" in Contemporary Ethnic Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TuSmith, Bonnie

    1993-01-01

    In both canonical European American literature and contemporary ethnic American literature, there exists a counterpart to the "inscrutable Oriental" stereotype, the "inscrutable Albino." The albino motif is explored in some ethnic works to demonstrate how the trope functions in each and what this says about the author's world…

  7. Protein quality, hematological properties and nutritional status of albino rats fed complementary foods with fermented popcorn, African locust bean, and bambara groundnut flour blends

    PubMed Central

    Keshinro, Oluremi Olufunke

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine protein quality and hematological properties of infant diets formulated from local food materials. The food materials were obtained locally, fermented, and milled into flour. The flours were mixed as 70% popcorn and 30% African locust bean (FPA), 70% popcorn and 30% bambara groundnut (FPB), and 70% popcorn, 20% bambara groundnut, and 10% African locust bean (FPAB). Proximate analysis, protein quality, hematological properties, and anthropometric measurements of the animals fed with the formulations were investigated. The protein contents of the formulated diets were significantly higher than that of Cerelac (a commercial preparation) (15.75 ± 0.01 g/100 g) and ogi (traditional complementary food) (6.52 ± 0.31 g/100 g). The energy value of FPAB (464.94 ± 1.22 kcal) was higher than those of FPA (441.41 ± 3.05 kcal) and FPB (441.48 ± 3.05 kcal). The biological value (BV) of FPAB (60.20%) was the highest followed by FPB (44.24%) and FPA (41.15%); however, BV of the diets was higher than that of ogi (10.03%) but lower than that of Cerelac (70.43%). Net protein utilization (NPU) of the formulations was 41.16-60.20%, whereas true protein digestibility was 41.05-60.05%. Metabolizable energy (232.98 kcal) and digestible energy (83.69 kcal) of FPAB were the highest, whereas that of FPA had the lowest values. The protein digestibility values corrected for amino acid score of the diets (0.22-0.44) were lower than that of Cerelac (0.52), but higher than that of ogi (0.21). The growth patterns and hematological properties (packed cell volume, red blood cells, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular volume) of the formulated diets were higher than those of ogi, but lower than those of Cerelac. In conclusion, we established that the FPAB food sample was rated best in terms of protein quality over the other formulated diets. Therefore, a FPAB blend may be used as a

  8. Retinal compensatory changes after light damage in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Montalbán-Soler, Luis; Alarcón-Martínez, Luis; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrízio; García-Ayuso, Diego; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the anatomic and functional changes triggered by light exposure in the albino mouse retina and compare them with those observed in the albino rat. Methods BALB/c albino mice were exposed to 3,000 lx of white light during 24 h and their retinas analyzed from 1 to 180 days after light exposure (ALE). Left pupil mydriasis was induced with topical atropine. Retinal function was analyzed by electroretinographic (ERG) recording. To assess retinal degeneration, hematoxylin and eosin staining, the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique, and quantitative immunohistofluorescence for synaptophysin and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) were used in cross sections. Intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase and Fluoro-Gold™ tracing were used in whole-mounted retinas to study the retinal vasculature and the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) population, respectively. Results Light exposure caused apoptotic photoreceptor death in the central retina. This death was more severe in the dorsal than in the ventral retina, sparing the periphery. Neither retinal vascular leakage nor retinal ganglion cell death was observed ALE. The electroretinographic a-wave was permanently impaired, while the b-wave decreased but recovered gradually by 180 days ALE. The scotopic threshold responses, associated with the inner retinal function, diminished at first but recovered completely by 14 days ALE. This functional recovery was concomitant with the upregulation of protein kinase Cα and synaptophysin. Similar results were obtained in both eyes, irrespective of mydriasis. Conclusions In albino mice, light exposure induces substantial retinal damage, but the surviving photoreceptors, together with compensatory morphological/molecular changes, allow an important restoration of the retinal function. PMID:22509098

  9. Demonstration of endogenous imipramine like material in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Rehavi, M.; Ventura, I.; Sarne, Y.

    1985-02-18

    The extraction and partial purification of an endogenous imipramine-like material from rat brain is described. The endogenous factor obtained after gel filtration and silica chromatography inhibits (/sup 3/H) imipramine specific binding and mimics the inhibitory effect of imipramine on (/sup 3/H) serotonin uptake in both brain and platelet preparations. The effects of the endogenous material are dose-dependent and it inhibits (/sup 3/H) imipramine binding in a competitive fashion. The factor is unevenly distributed in the brain with high concentration in the hypothalamus and low concentration in the cerebellum.

  10. Chinese green tea consumption reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and tissues damage in smoke exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awaida, Wajdy; Akash, Muhanad; Aburubaiha, Zaid; Talib, Wamidh H.; Shehadeh, Hayel

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): One cause of cigarette smoking is oxidative stress that may alter the cellular antioxidant defense system, induce apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. It has been shown that Chinese green tea (CGT) (Lung Chen Tea) has higher antioxidant property than black tea. In this paper, we will explore the preventive effect of CGT on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and tissues inflammation in albino rat model. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups, i.e. sham air (SA), cigarette smoke (CS), CGT 2% plus SA or plus CS. The exposure to smoking was carried out as a single daily dose (1 cigarette/rat) for a period of 90 days using an electronically controlled smoking machine. Sham control albino rats were exposed to air instead of cigarette smoke. Tissues were collected 24 hr after last CS exposure for histology and all enzyme assays. Apoptosis was evidenced by the fragmentation of DNA using TUNEL assay. Results: Long-term administration of cigarette smoke altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. All these pathophysiological and biochemical events were significantly improved when the cigarette smoke-exposed albino rats were given CGT infusion as a drink instead of water. Conclusion: Exposure of albino rat model to cigarette smoke caused oxidative stress, altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and tissues damage, which could be prevented by supplementation of CGT. PMID:25729541

  11. Effect of ammonia on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Casey, C. J.; Furst, A.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC /50/ values were determined for Swiss albino male mice exposed to different concentrations of ammonia in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC/50/ for a 30 minute exposure was 21,430 ppm.

  12. Effect of Atorvastatin on Memory in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    M.C., Das; Rao A.S.R., Srinivasa; Kadali, SLDV Ramana Murty

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim and objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on learning and memory in albino mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty Swiss albino mice were divided into 5groups (n=6). In group2, group4 and group5 hyperlipidemia was induced by high fat diet (HFD) orally for 28days. Atrorvastatin was given to group3, group4 and group5 orally for 14 d. Learning and memory was evaluated with Hebb Williams’s maze, Elevated plus maze, Y maze and Step through latency. Continuous data were analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Scheffe multiple range test, discrete data were analyzed by Kruskal - Wallis test. The level of significance was 5% (p ≤ 0.05). Result and Conclusion: HFD treatment had shown significant increase in body weight, significant impairment in learning and memory (p < 0.05). Only atorvastatin treated group had shown better learning and memory in comparison to HFD group. Atorvastatin 10mg/kg and 20 mg/kg had reversed the HFD induced impairment of learning and memory but there was no significant difference between the doses (p > 0.05). PMID:25584244

  13. Genetic and developmental studies of albino chorus frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Albino (amelanic) adult chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) occurred with frequencies of 7 percent in 1981 and 12 percent in 1982 in breeding aggregations at a pond in the foothills of the Colorado Front Range. Laboratory matings and examination of albino egg masses suggest that the absence of melanin is due to a recessive allele. The albino phenotype displayed no deficiencies in survival of embryos, rates of embryo or larval development, or rates of growth of juvenile frogs. The absence of abnormalities in development or growth suggests that the a allele in P. triseriata has an action different from albino alleles studied previously in anurans.

  14. Generation of Albino Cynops pyrrhogaster by Genomic Editing of the tyrosinase Gene.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Albino animals are useful for in situ hybridization experiments that demonstrate gene expression in embryos and organs, for the immunological rejection of skin grafts transplanted to host animals, and to identify tissues with regenerative ability during limbs and retina regeneration processes. Cynops pyrrhogaster has extensive regenerating capacities. To facilitate regenerative research, in the present study, we produced albino C. pyrrhogaster using genomic editing. The DNA fragment containing part of the tyrosinase gene from C. pyrrhogaster was amplified using degenerate primers corresponding to evolutionarily conserved nucleotide sequences among several species, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. We designed a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) that targets a candidate of the C. pyrrhogaster tyrosinase gene. Fertilized eggs were injected with TALEN mRNA, and albinos of C. pyrrhogaster were obtained. The results of the present study demonstrated that TALEN can be used effectively for genomic editing in C. pyrrhogaster and that the candidates of the tyrosinase gene that were cloned by us are essential for melanin synthesis. The albino newts created in the present study can be used as versatile experimental material.

  15. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse. PMID:25550769

  16. Biochemical and molecular studies on the possible influence of the Brassica oleracea and Beta vulgaris extracts to mitigate the effect of food preservatives and food chemical colorants on albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarhan, Mohammed A.A.; Shati, Ali A.; Elsaid, Fahmy G.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biochemical influence of broccoli and beet extracts on selected individual additives NaNO2 or sunset yellow treated rats, in addition to the gene expression of some antioxidant enzymes. Forty-two male rats were assigned to seven groups of six rats in each group. The control group was fed a diet without an additive for four weeks. Group (2) received NaNO2, groups (3) received NaNO2 co-administered with broccoli extract (4) NaNO2 co-administered with beet extracts, Group (5) received sunset yellow, Group (6) received sunset yellow co-administered with broccoli extract, and Group (7) received sunset yellow co-administered with beet extract, for four weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood, liver, kidney, and brain samples were taken for biochemical and/or molecular analysis. The mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes was determined by reversing transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The obtained results revealed that rats co-administered with beet or broccoli extracts had a significant decrease in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, urea, total lipids, and triglycerides, as well as a significant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities, compared to the normal control group. Oral administration of NaNO2 or sunset yellow caused a significant increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, urea, total lipids, and triglycerides, as well as a significant decrease in GSH, GSH-px, and SOD compared to the positive group. In conclusion, this study showed that broccoli and beet extracts have a protective effect against NaNO2 or sunset yellow in rat treated groups. PMID:25183945

  17. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    PubMed Central

    Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics. PMID:27114883

  18. Indigestible material attenuated changes in apoptosis in the fasted rat jejunal mucosa.

    PubMed

    Kakimoto, Takashi; Fujise, Takehiro; Shiraishi, Ryosuke; Kuroki, Tsukasa; Park, Jae Myung; Ootani, Akifumi; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Tsunada, Seiji; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Fujimoto, Kazuma

    2008-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated that fasting induced apoptosis and decreased cell proliferation in the rat intestinal mucosa. The aim was to investigate the effect of expanded polystyrene as indigestible material on apoptosis and cell proliferation in rat small intestinal mucosa during fasting. Male SD rats were divided into 3 groups. The first group was fed with chow and water ad libitum. The second group fasted for 72 hrs. The third group was fasted for 24 hrs and was fed expanded polystyrene. Intestinal apoptosis was evaluated by percent fragmented DNA assay, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUDP-biotin nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining, and caspase-3 assay. Cell proliferation was analyzed by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (5-BrdU) uptake. Truncal vagotomy was performed to evaluate a role of the central nervous system. In the 72-hr fasted rat, mucosal height of the rat jejunum was decreased to 73% of that in rats fed ad libitum, and this decrease was partly restored to 90% in rats fed expanded polystyrene. The fragmented DNA was increased in fasted rats (28.0%) when compared with that in rats fed ad libitum (2.6%). The increase in fragmented DNA in fasted rats was recovered by feeding them expanded polystyrene (8.3%). TUNEL staining confirmed this result. The effect of polystyrene on apoptosis was decreased by truncal vagotomy. Expression of cleaved caspase-3 was increased in fasted rats, which was then decreased by feeding of expanded polystyrene. In contrast to apoptosis, feeding of expanded polystyrene had no reconstructive effect on 5-BrdU uptake in the intestinal epithelium, which was decreased by fasting to 60% of that in rats fed ad libitum. In conclusion, feeding of indigestible material partly restored the decrease in intestinal mucosal length in the fasted rats through the apoptotic pathway without any influence on BrdU uptake. Further exploration focused on the mechanism of this effect of indigestible material is required.

  19. Tolerance of an albino fish to ultraviolet-B radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabacher, David L.; Little, Edward E.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    1999-01-01

    We exposed albino and pigmented medakaOryzias latipes to simulated solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to determine if albino medaka were less tolerant of UVB radiation than medaka pigmented with melanin. There was no difference in the number of albino and pigmented medaka that died during the exposure period. Spectrophotometric analyses of the outer dorsal skin layers from albino and pigmented medaka indicated that, prior to exposure, both groups of fish had similar amounts of an apparent colorless non-melanin photoprotective substance that appears to protect other fish species from UVB radiation. Our results indicate that albino medaka were as tolerant of UVB radiation as pigmented medaka because they had similar amounts of this photoprotective substance in the outer layers of the skin.

  20. 49 CFR 173.133 - Assignment of packing group and hazard zones for Division 6.1 materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... air. Ten albino rats (five male and five female) are exposed to the test atmosphere as determined by... rats (five male and five female) are exposed to the test atmosphere for one hour and observed for.... Ten albino rats (five male and five female) are exposed to the test atmosphere for one hour...

  1. Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities

    PubMed Central

    De, Debasis; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-01-01

    Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2 : 3) extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. (family Meliaceae) seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25 mg 0.25 mL distilled water−1100 gm b.w.−1rat−1 day−1) for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of the products of free radicals like conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles were corrected towards the control after this extract treatment in this model. Furthermore, the seed extract corrected the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins towards the control level in this experimental diabetic model. The results indicated the potentiality of the extract of S. mahagoni seed for the correction of diabetes and its related complications like oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. The extract may be a good candidate for developing a safety, tolerable, and promising neutraceutical treatment for the management of diabetes. PMID:20981322

  2. A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Wild and Albino Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoting; Shi, Zechao; Lin, Li; Ouyang, Gang; Zhang, Guirong; Zheng, Huan; Wei, Kaijian; Ji, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Body colours are important and striking features for individual survival and reproductive success, in particular in vertebrates where mating behaviour and mate preference may be strongly influenced by non-normal phenotypes. Pigmentation disorders may be generated by disruption of one or many independent genes as well as by environmental factors. The first discovery of albino yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) with golden skin colour from fish farms in China provides us valuable material to study the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormalities of pigmentation. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of fin tissues corresponding to the distinct body colours, wild type and mutant albino yellow catfish, were performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Based on next-generation sequencing technology and de novo assembly, we generated a transcriptome of P. fulvidraco. A number of genes differentially expressed between the wild types and albinos were identified, suggesting their contribution to the different phenotypes and fitness. However, non-synonymous mutations result from single nucleotide substitutions residing in coding regions may not contribute to such differences. Based on the high-throughput expression data generated for the two different types of P. fulvidraco, we found that alterations of expression pattern may be more common than non-synonymous mutations. The transcriptome of P. fulvidraco will be an invaluable resource for subsequent comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of this economically important fish. PMID:26114548

  3. [Development of a new hydrocarbon extract from the medicinal raw material of Circassian walnut (Juglans regia) and study of its antiparasitic activity].

    PubMed

    Streliaeva, A V; Polzikov, V V; Prokina, E S; Kurilov, D V; Chebyshev, N V; Shcheglova, T A; Gasparian, É R; Sadykov, V M

    2011-01-01

    The authors developed a technology for preparing a hydrocarbon extract from the medicinal raw material of Circassian walnut (Juglans regia), including its green fruits, green leaves, and fresh roots. To prepare the preparation, they obtained for the first time a new extragent called petroleum Russia that was found to contain more than hundred chemical compounds by chromatography mass spectrometry. The new agent was named irillen. Experiments on albino mice and albino rats established that the new agent was low toxic. The lethal doses of irillen were calculated: LD50 was 16377 +/- 457.5 mg/kg; LD16 = 12986.4 mg/kg; LD84 was 18976.6 mg/kg for albino mice; LD50 was 16998.0 +/- 535.4 mg/kg; LD16 = 12875.3 mg/ kg; LD84 = 18583.4 mg/kg for albino rats. The irillen prepared by the authors should be referred to as a low toxic and practically nontoxic agent (Toxicity Class IV and V). Irillen has a broad spectrum of antiparasitic activity. It is effective in treating toxocariasis in dogs, larval alveolar echinococcosis, ascaridiasis, and eimeriasis in chickens, and siphachiasis.

  4. Effect of hypobaric hypoxia on immune function in albino rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SaiRam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Dipti, P.; Pauline, T.; Kain, A. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Bansal, Anju; Patra, B. D.; Ilavazhagan, G.; Devendra, K.; Selvamurthy, W.

    The effect of exposure to hypoxia on macrophage activity, lymphocyte function and oxidative stress was investigated. Hypoxia enhanced peritoneal macrophage activity as revealed by enhanced phagocytosis and free radical production. There was no significant change in antibody titres to sheep red blood cells in either serum or spleen during hypoxia. However, there was a considerable reduction in the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to sheep red blood cells, indicating the impairment of T-cell activity. Hypoxia decreased the blood glutathione (reduced) level and increased plasma malondialdehyde by a factor of about 2. It is therefore speculated that hypoxia imposes an oxidative stress leading to decreased T-cell acivity.

  5. Generation of albino Xenopus tropicalis using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Takase, Minoru; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2012-12-01

    To generate albino lines of Xenopus tropicalis, we injected fertilized eggs with mRNAs encoding zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) targeting the tyrosinase coding region. Surprisingly, vitiligo was observed on the skin of F0 frogs that had been injected with ZFN mRNAs, indicating that both tyrosinase genes in the genome were disrupted in all melanocytes within the vitiligo patches. Mutation analysis using genomic DNA from the skin revealed that two mosaic F0 frogs underwent spatially complex tyrosinase gene mutations. The data implies that the ZFN-induced tyrosinase gene ablations occurred randomly over space and time throughout the entire body, possibly until the young tadpole stage, and that melanocyte precursors lacking functional tyrosinase proliferated and formed vitiligo patches. Several albino X. tropicalis, which are compound heterozygotes for biallelic tyrosinase mutations, were obtained by mating the mosaic F0 frogs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the albino vertebrates generated by the targeted gene knockout.

  6. Decreases in bone blood flow and bone material properties in aging Fischer-344 rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Susan A.; Hogan, Harry A.; Delp, Michael D.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify precisely aging-induced changes in skeletal perfusion and bone mechanical properties in a small rodent model. Blood flow was measured in conscious juvenile (2 months old), adult (6 months old), and aged (24 months old) male Fischer-344 rats using radiolabeled microspheres. There were no significant differences in bone perfusion rate or vascular resistance between juvenile and adult rats. However, blood flow was lower in aged versus adult rats in the forelimb bones, scapulas, and femurs. To test for functional effects of this decline in blood flow, bone mineral density and mechanical properties were measured in rats from these two age groups. Bone mineral density and cross-sectional moment of inertia in femoral and tibial shafts and the femoral neck were significantly larger in the aged versus adult rats, resulting in increased (+14%-53%) breaking strength and stiffness. However, intrinsic material properties at midshaft of the long bones were 12% to 25% lower in the aged rats. Although these data are consistent with a potential link between decreased perfusion and focal alterations in bone remodeling activity related to clinically relevant bone loss, additional studies are required to establish the mechanisms for this putative relationship.

  7. Modulation of drug efflux by aloe materials: An In Vitro investigation across rat intestinal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Carien, Beneke; Alvaro, Viljoen; Josias, Hamman

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clinically, significant herb-drug interactions have been previously documented and can be pharmacodynamic and/or pharmacokinetic in nature. Pharmacokinetic interactions have been attributed to induction or inhibition of either metabolic enzymes or efflux transporters. Objective: The effect of gel and whole leaf materials from 3 different aloe species namely Aloe ferox, Aloe marlothii, and Aloe vera as well as polysaccharides precipitated from the A. vera materials on the bi-directional transport of cimetidine across rat intestinal tissue was investigated. Materials and Methods: Cimetidine transport studies were performed across excised rat intestinal tissue mounted in Sweetana-Grass diffusion chambers in both the apical-to-basolateral and basolateral-to-apical directions. Results: While A. vera gel and whole leaf materials did not inhibit the efflux of cimetidine, the polysaccharides precipitated from them did show a reduction of cimetidine efflux. On the other hand, both A. ferox and A. marlothii gel and whole leaf materials exhibited an inhibition effect on cimetidine efflux. Conclusions: This study identified a modulation effect of efflux transporters by certain aloe materials. This may cause herb-drug pharmacokinetic interactions when drugs that are substrates for these efflux transporters are taken simultaneously with aloe materials. On the other hand, these aloe materials may be used for drug absorption enhancement for drugs with low bioavailability due to extensive efflux. PMID:24143044

  8. The legacy of Adolf Meyer's comparative approach: Worcester rats and the strange birth of the animal model.

    PubMed

    Logan, Cheryl A

    2005-01-01

    The breeding of albino rats had an enormous impact on experimental psychology in the twentieth century. Rats were, and for many questions still remain, the "standard animal" for laboratory research in neurology, psychology, and physiology. Albert Meyer was one of the figures most responsible for developing the albino rat as an experimental model. Despite Meyer's pioneering work with albino rats, his rat research has received only sparse attention. Little is known about the way in which the animal served Meyer's more famous psychiatric program. In this article, the author discusses the role that albino rats played in Meyer's animal research. He then turn to the contrast between the way in which Meyer viewed the animal's role in research and the way rats were later used as a laboratory "standard" to assure scientific generality. This comparison highlights the changes that occurred in comparative psychology in the twentieth century, and it further clarifies some of the concerns associated with the use of animal models today.

  9. Effect of nitrogen dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 10 minute exposure was about 1000 ppm NO2.

  10. Effect of sulfur dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was about 3000 ppm SO2.

  11. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  12. Histopathological Changes by the Use of Soft Reline Materials: A Rat Model Study

    PubMed Central

    Bail, Michele; Meister, Lissandra Matos Brol; Campagnoli, Eduardo Bauml; Jorge, Janaina Habib; Ban, Manuella de Cassia Iglesias; Sanchez-Ayala, Alfonso; Campanha, Nara Hellen

    2014-01-01

    Aim To assess the histopathological changes of rat palatal mucosa exposed to soft reline materials. Methods Forty-five adult female Wistar rats with controlled living conditions and fed ad libitum were employed. Palatal appliances of heat-polymerized acrylic resin Lucitone 550 were manufactured and worn by forty animals during 14 days. Five animals did not use the appliances (G1) and were used to control the appliance influence. One experimental group (n = 10) used the appliances without any relining material (G2) to control the material effect. Three experimental groups (n = 10) received the following soft reline materials below appliances: Dentusoft (G3), Dentuflex (G4), and Trusoft (G5). Appliances from half of each experimental group(n = 5) was immersed in water bath at 55°C for 10 min before use. Animals were slaughtered and the palates were fixed in 10% buffered formalin. Hematoxylin and eosin stained sections of 5 µm were analyzed by computerized planimetry. Cellular compartment, keratin and total epithelial thickness, and basement membrane length were measured to histopathological description.Analysis of variance and Tukey post-hoc test were used to data examination(α = 0.05). Results For heat-treatment groups, G4 showed less elongated ridges at the basal layer interface (p = 0.037) than G2. When comparing the conditions with and without heat-treatment, only G2 showed a significant decrease in the cellular compartment, keratin layer and total epithelium thickness (p<0.05). Conclusion The post-polymerization for Lucitone 550 was an effective method to reduce the changes in the rat palatal mucosa. The soft reline materials tested did not cause significant histopathological changes in the rat palatal mucosa. PMID:24963657

  13. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  14. Attenuation of N-nitrosodimethylamine induced hepatotoxicity by Operculina turpethum in Swiss Albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Veena; Singh, Manu

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): To appraise the antihepatotoxic efficacy of ethanolic extract of Operculum turpethum root on the liver of Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Hepatic fibrosis was induced in adult male albino mice through intraperitoneal administrations of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) at the concentration of 10 mg/kg body weight. The liver toxicity and therapeutic effect of the plant ethanolic extract was assessed by the analysis of liver marker enzymes and antioxidant enzymes and liver histopathological studies. Results: Hepatotoxicity was manifested by significantly decreased (P<0.01) levels of the activities of the enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH and increased levels of cholesterol, AST, ALT, ALP and lipid peroxidation. The plant extract significantly restored the antioxidant enzyme level in the liver and exhibited significant dose dependent curative effect against NDMA induced toxicity which was also supported by histopathological studies of the liver. Conclusion: O. turpethum manifested therapeutic effects by significantly restoring the enzymatic levels and reducing the hepatic damage in mice. This work intends to aid researchers in the study of natural products which could be useful in the treatment of liver diseases including cancer. PMID:24592311

  15. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidemic activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Withania coagulans Dunal dried fruit in experimental rat models

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Ankur; Bagchi, Chiranjib; Das, Saibal; Mitra, Achintya; Pati, Anuradha De; Tripathi, Santanu Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Evaluation of antidiabetic potential of the hydroalcoholic extract of Withania coagulans Dunal dried fruit (WCDF) alone and in combination with glipizide, in streptozotocin-induced diabetes, and evaluation of possible antihyperlipidemic activity of the same extract in high-cholesterol diet-induced hyperlipidemia, in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental diabetes was induced in 30 albino rats with intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). The rats were divided into five groups receiving the following treatments orally for 4 weeks: Vehicle, glipizide (2.5 mg/kg), WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg), WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg) plus glipizide (1 mg/kg) and WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg) plus glipizide (2.5 mg/kg). Fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels were measured every week for 4 weeks. Endocrine pancreas histopathology was done at the end. In a separate set of experiment, five groups of six albino rats each, received orally for 4 weeks, vehicle, cholesterol (25 mg/kg/day), cholesterol (25 mg/kg/day) plus atorvastatin (7.2 mg/kg/day), cholesterol (25 mg/kg/day) plus WCDF extract (1000 mg/kg/day) and no treatment, respectively. Estimation of serum lipid profile and liver histopathology was done at the end of 4 weeks. Statistical Analysis: Between-group and within-group comparisons were respectively done by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and repeated measures ANOVA, followed by post hoc Tukey's test, with a significance level of P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: The 4-week treatment with WCDF extract significantly reversed hyperglycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetes that was comparable to glipizide. When combined with glipizide (2.5 mg/kg), WCDF extract produced a synergistic antihyperglycemic effect as well as improvement in pancreatic histopathology. Moreover, hydroalcoholic extract of WCDF was effective and comparable to atorvastatin in controlling the high-cholesterol diet-induced hyperlipidemia in rats. PMID:23930042

  16. The rat cortex in stereotaxic coordinates.

    PubMed

    Schober, W

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of Nissl-preparations the cortex of albino rats has been mapped cytoarchitectonically. 13 frontal sections through the cortex are illustrated with coordinates. Therewith exists a stereotaxic atlas of the cortex of the rat and one can realize exactly experimental investigations in the different cortical areas.

  17. A Histological Comparison of a New Pulp Capping Material and Mineral Trioxide Aggregate in Rat Molars

    PubMed Central

    Moazzami, Fariborz; Ghahramani, Yasmin; Tamaddon, Ali Mohammad; Dehghani Nazhavani, Ali; Adl, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Recent investigations have attempted to improve regenerative endodontics with the help of stem cell therapy. In vitro studies have shown the ability of different agents to stimulate the differentiation of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) into odontoblast-like cells. A combination of dexamethasone, β-glycerophosphate and Vitamin D has been proven to induce a successful differentiation. The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the effect of this combination, named odontoblastic differentiating material (ODM), on pulp tissue when used as a capping material. Materials and Methods: Sixty maxillary right and left molars of 30 Sprague-dawley rats were selected for this study. The teeth were exposed under sterile condition. Half of the teeth were capped with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and the other half with ODM. All cavities were restored with glass ionomer. The rats were sacrificed at post-operative intervals of 2 weeks and 2 months. Samples were histologically evaluated for the degree of inflammation and reparative dentin formation. Finally the data was analyzed with Mann-Whitney and Chi-Square tests. Results: Reparative dentin formed in all groups within both time periods and there was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the mentioned time periods. The MTA group, however, showed a statistically significant reduction in inflammation at both time intervals (P<0.05). Compared to MTA, ODM samples showed a greater amount of inflammation in the pulp tissue. Conclusion: ODM, as a pulp capping material, can induce dentinal bridge formation. PMID:24396376

  18. Standard wool fabric as a reference material. [for fire toxicity tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Standard wool fabric is investigated as a potential reference material. A screening test method for relative toxicity exposes four albino male rats enclosed in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber to pyrolysis effluents produced by pyrolyzing a 1.00 g sample under a variety of test conditions (200-800 C with a 40 C/min heating rate). It is found that for fabrics containing 86-100% wool, animal response remains virtually unchanged, although a 100% wool fabric is preferred as it eliminates local composition differences as a source of variation.

  19. Biomechanical testing and material characterization for the rat large intestine: regional dependence of material parameters.

    PubMed

    Sokolis, Dimitrios P; Orfanidis, Ioannis K; Peroulis, Michalis

    2011-12-01

    The function of the large bowel is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter and subsequently pass useless waste material from the body, but there has been only a small amount of data in the literature on its biomechanical characteristics that would facilitate our understanding of its transport function. Our study aims to fill this gap by affording comprehensive inflation/extension data of intestinal segments from distinct areas, spanning a physiologically relevant deformation range (100-130% axial stretches and 0-15 mmHg lumen pressures). These data were characterized by the Fung-type exponential model in the thick-walled setting, showing reasonable agreement, i.e. root-mean-square error ~30%. Based on optimized material parameters, i.e. a(1)material characterization results for the large intestine of healthy young animals are expected to aid in comprehending the adaptation/remodeling that occurs with ageing, pathological conditions and surgical procedures, as well as for the development of suitable biomaterials for replacement.

  20. Determination of quality constituents in the young leaves of albino tea cultivars.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Gao, Ming-Jun; Hou, Ru-Yan; Hu, Xiao-Yi; Zhang, Liang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2014-07-15

    Albino tea has received increased attention due to its brisk flavour. To identify changes in the key chemical constituents conveying important qualities to albino tea, the metabolite profiles of four albino cultivars and one green tea cultivar were analysed. Compared to the green tea control, significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll (Chl) (p<0.01), total carotenoids (p<0.05), caffeine (p<0.01), and total catechins (p<0.05) were found in albino tea leaves with a few exceptions, whereas increases were noted in the Chl a/b ratio and the contents of both zeaxanthin and free amino acids, including theanine. Multivariate analysis identified catechins and carotenoids as the most important contributors to the metabolic profile variance between the albino and green tea cultivars. High levels of amino acids, along with low levels of chlorophylls, catechins and caffeine, contribute to the qualities of albino tea, which include reduced astringency and bitterness, along with a strong umami taste.

  1. The pigmentary system of developing axolotls. III. An analysis of the albino phenotype.

    PubMed

    Frost, S K; Epp, L G; Robinson, S J

    1986-03-01

    The albino mutant in the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) is analysed with respect to the differentiation of pigment cells. Pigment cells were observed with the transmission electron microscope in order to determine any unusual structural characteristics and to determine what happens to each of the cell types as development proceeds. Chemical analyses of pteridine pigments were also carried out, and the pattern of pteridines in albino animals was found to be more complex than, and quantitatively enhanced (at all developmental stages examined) over, the pattern observed in comparable wild-type axolotls. The golden colour of albino axolotls is due primarily to sepiapterin (a yellow pteridine) and secondarily to riboflavin (and other flavins). Coincident with enhanced levels of yellow pigments, xanthophore pigment organelles (pterinosomes) in albino skin reach a mature state earlier than they do in wild-type axolotl skin. This morphology is conserved throughout development in albino animals whereas it is gradually lost in the wild type. Unpigmented melanophores from albino axolotls are illustrated for the first time, and in larval albino axolotls the morphology of these cells is shown to be very similar to xanthophore morphology. In older animals xanthophores are easily distinguished from unpigmented melanophores. Iridophores seem to appear in albino skin at an earlier stage than they have been observed in wild-type skin. Morphologically, wild-type and albino iridophores are identical.

  2. A comparative study of zirconium and titanium implants in rat: osseointegration and bone material quality.

    PubMed

    Hoerth, Rebecca M; Katunar, María R; Gomez Sanchez, Andrea; Orellano, Juan C; Ceré, Silvia M; Wagermaier, Wolfgang; Ballarre, Josefina

    2014-02-01

    Permanent metal implants are widely used in human medical treatments and orthopedics, for example as hip joint replacements. They are commonly made of titanium alloys and beyond the optimization of this established material, it is also essential to explore alternative implant materials in view of improved osseointegration. The aim of our study was to characterize the implant performance of zirconium in comparison to titanium implants. Zirconium implants have been characterized in a previous study concerning material properties and surface characteristics in vitro, such as oxide layer thickness and surface roughness. In the present study, we compare bone material quality around zirconium and titanium implants in terms of osseointegration and therefore characterized bone material properties in a rat model using a multi-method approach. We used light and electron microscopy, micro Raman spectroscopy, micro X-ray fluorescence and X-ray scattering techniques to investigate the osseointegration in terms of compositional and structural properties of the newly formed bone. Regarding the mineralization level, the mineral composition, and the alignment and order of the mineral particles, our results show that the maturity of the newly formed bone after 8 weeks of implantation is already very high. In conclusion, the bone material quality obtained for zirconium implants is at least as good as for titanium. It seems that the zirconium implants can be a good candidate for using as permanent metal prosthesis for orthopedic treatments.

  3. Toxic effects of various retrograde root filling materials on gingival fibroblasts and rat sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Peltola, M; Salo, T; Oikarinen, K

    1992-06-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of amalgam, glass ionomer, composite and titanium on the growth of gingival fibroblasts (GF) and rat sarcoma cells (UMR) in vitro. The cells were either obtained from gingival biopsies taken during deliberation of unerupted canines (GF) or were of commercial origin (UMR). Equal numbers of cells were placed on culture dishes and incubated for a period of two weeks with the freshly prepared test materials. The cultures were photographed through a light microscope after 7 days incubation and finally counted after 14 days. It was shown that the proliferation of gingival fibroblasts was less disturbed by titanium, being approximately 96% of the control value (cell cultures without test particles), followed by composite, amalgam and glass ionomer (61%, 49% and 35% of the control value respectively). The number of UMR cells after 14 days incubation with the various materials was 76% of the control value with titanium, 12% with composite and 5% with both amalgam and glass ionomer. Inhibition of cell growth (UMR) around the test particles was most prominent around amalgam and glass ionomer, followed by composite and titanium. These effects were noted only with freshly prepared components however, so that the toxic reaction was less pronounced or minimal in a second incubation using the same particles sterilized in between. The results demonstrated that potential retrograde root filling materials have a variable toxic effect on gingival fibroblasts and rat sarcoma cells. The fact that the influence on proliferation disappeared when the test was performed with materials already tested once may be of clinical importance when estimating the biocompatibility in vivo.

  4. Human plasma-derived material with clonidine displacing substance (CDS)-like properties contracts the isolated rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Synetos, D; Manolopoulos, V G; Atlas, D; Pipili-Synetos, E

    1991-12-01

    1. The biological activity of a plasma-derived, clonidine displacing substance (CDS)-like material was tested on isolated rat aortic rings and compared to that of clonidine, an imidazoline with alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonist properties. 2. The CDS-like material was partially purified from expired human blood. This product inhibited in a dose-dependent manner the binding of [3H]-clonidine to rat brain membranes with a ki of 0.87 +/- 0.4 u ml-1, without affecting the binding of the alpha 1-antagonist, [3H]-WB4101. 3. When the CDS-like material (0.14-6 u ml-1) was applied to the bathing medium of isolated rat aortic rings, it caused dose-dependent contractions with an EC50 of 1.0 +/- 0.18 u ml-1. Clonidine also dose-dependently contracted rat aortic rings (EC50, 1.1 +/- 0.24 x 10(-7) M). The maximal tension developed in response to clonidine, however, was higher (1.37 +/- 0.15 g) compared to that developed in response to the CDS-like material (0.92 +/- 0.12 g). 4. Contractions induced by both CDS-like material and clonidine were antagonized by 5 x 10(-7) M rauwolscine, an alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist. Prazosin, an alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, at 10(-8) M, greatly reduced contractions caused by clonidine while leaving those caused by CDS-like material unaffected. 5. The CDS-like material failed to alter the tension of intact or endothelium-denuded rat aortic rings which had been precontracted with methoxamine. Clonidine on the other hand, caused dose-dependent relaxations in intact, though not in denuded, precontracted rat aortic rings.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Protective effect of rutin in comparison to silymarin against induced hepatotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, M. Kasi; Reddy, A. Gopala; Kumar, B. Kala; Madhuri, D.; Boobalan, G.; Reddy, M. Anudeep

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of rutin (RTN) in comparison to silymarin (SLM) against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats (n=24) of 3 months age were equally divided into four groups. Group 1 served as normal control. Hepatotoxicity was induced in the remaining three groups with administration of 500 mg/kg po APAP from day 1-3. Groups 2, 3, and 4 were subsequently administered orally with distilled water, 25 mg/kg of SLM, and 20 mg/kg of RTN, respectively, for 11 days. The mean body weights and biomarkers of hepatotoxicity were estimated on day 0, 4 (confirmation of toxicity), and 15 (at the end of treatment). Hematological parameters were evaluated on day 4 and 15. Antioxidant profile and adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) were assessed at the end of the experiment. Liver tissues were subjected to histopathology and transmission electron microscopy after the sacrifice on day 15. Results: Antioxidant profile, ATPases, and hematological and sero-biochemical parameters were significantly altered, and histopathological changes were noticed in the liver of toxic control group. These changes were reversed in groups 3 and 4 that were administered with SLM and RTN, respectively. Conclusion: The results of the present investigation enunciated that SLM has potent hepatoprotective activity though the RTN was found superior in restoring the pathological alterations in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar albino rats. PMID:28246450

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of Lercanidipine- A Novel Calcium Channel Blocker in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adhimoolam, Mangaiarkkarasi; Perumal, Deepa Kameswari; Rajamohammed, Meher Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background The available conventional antiepileptics do not afford cure or prophylactic treatment and henceforth there is always a quest to explore new targets for management of convulsions. In this perspective, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers have been investigated in various animal models of epilepsy. Lercanidipine, a newer dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, is a potential candidate with its favourable lipid profile and longer duration of action. Objective (1) To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of lercanidipine alone and in combination with standard drug in adult male Swiss albino mice. (2) To evaluate the muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity of lercanidipine in adult male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30g were used to study the anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity using electroconvulsometer, rotarod and actophotometer apparatus respectively. The mice were divided into six groups of six animals in each group. Group 1 and 2 served as control (vehicle treated) and standard group respectively. Standard drug used to evaluate anticonvulsant effect is phenytoin sodium 25 mg/kg I.P. whereas muscle relaxant activity and locomotor activity is diazepam 4 mg/kg I.P., Group 3 and 4 received lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg I.P., respectively. Anticonvulsant models included group 5 and 6 and they were given combination of phenytoin sodium 12.5 mg/kg I.P., with lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg i.p, respectively. Abolition or reduction of tonic hind limb extension was considered as index of anticonvulsant activity whereas the balancing time of the animals in rod was recorded to asses muscle relaxant activity. The locomotor activity was recorded for 5 minutes. The data were analysed with one-way Analysis of Variance followed by post-hoc ‘Dunnett t-test’. Results Lercanidipine given alone in a dose of 1 and 3 mg/kg had significantly reduced the tonic hind limb extension

  7. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  8. Spatiotemporal features of early neuronogenesis differ in wild-type and albino mouse retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rachel, Rivka A.; Dolen, Gul; Hayes, Nancy L.; Lu, Alice; Erskine, Lynda; Nowakowski, Richard S.; Mason, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    In albino mammals, lack of pigment in the retinal pigment epithelium is associated with retinal defects, including poor visual acuity from a photoreceptor deficit in the central retina and poor depth perception from a decrease in ipsilaterally projecting retinal fibers. Possible contributors to these abnormalities are reported delays in neuronogenesis (Ilia and Jeffery, 1996) and retinal maturation (Webster and Rowe, 1991). To further determine possible perturbations in neuronogenesis and/or differentiation, we used cell-specific markers and refined birth dating methods to examine these events during retinal ganglion cell (RGC) genesis in albino and pigmented mice from embryonic day 11 (E11) to E18. Our data indicate that relative to pigmented mice, more ganglion cells are born in the early stages of neuronogenesis in the albino retina, although the initiation of RGC genesis in the albino is unchanged. The cellular organization of the albino retina is perturbed as early as E12. In addition, cell cycle kinetics and output along the nasotemporal axis differ in retinas of albino and pigmented mice, both absolutely, with the temporal aspect of the retina expanded in albino, and relative to the position of the optic nerve head. Finally, blocking melanin synthesis in pigmented eyecups in culture leads to an increase in RGC differentiation, consistent with a role for melanin formation in regulating RGC neuronogenesis. These results point to spatiotemporal defects in neuronal production in the albino retina, which could perturb expression of genes that specify cell fate, number, and/or projection phenotype.

  9. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis.

  10. Investigation of the potential carcinogenicity of a range of chromium containing materials on rat lung.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, L S; Martin, P A; Bidstrup, P L

    1986-01-01

    Twenty one chromium containing materials were examined for carcinogenic activity in a two year study using an intrabronchial pellet implantation system whereby pellets loaded with test material were surgically implanted into the lower left bronchus of rats. The principal aim of the study was to extend our knowledge of the carcinogenic potential of chromium compounds and, in particular, chromates (Cr6+). A statistically significant incidence of treatment related lung tumours was found with some sparingly soluble chromate materials. All tumours were large keratinizing squamous carcinomas of the left lung, except for a single left lung adenocarcinoma and two left lung anaplastic carcinomas. No bronchial carcinomas (0/100) were seen in the negative control group (blank pellet loaded with cholesterol), whereas bronchial carcinomas (22/48 and 25/100) occurred in the two positive control groups which received pellets loaded with 20-methylcholanthrene and calcium chromate respectively. Among the 20 test materials, only three groups gave statistically significant numbers of bronchial carcinomas. Two of these were groups receiving different samples of strontium chromate which gave 43/99 and 62/99 tumours. The third group, zinc chromate (low solubility), gave 5/100 bronchial carcinomas. A further zinc chromate group (Norge composition) produced 3/100 bronchial carcinomas which was not statistically significant. A few lung tumours were observed in other test groups. Images PMID:3964573

  11. Regenerative behavior of biomineral/agarose composite gels as bone grafting materials in rat cranial defects.

    PubMed

    Suzawa, Yoshika; Funaki, Takafumi; Watanabe, Junji; Iwai, Soichi; Yura, Yoshiaki; Nakano, Takayoshi; Umakoshi, Yukichi; Akashi, Mitsuru

    2010-06-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the biological behavior of Hydroxyapatite (HAp)/agarose and calcium carbonate (CaCO3)/agarose composite gels by an alternate soaking process used for the treatment of surgically produced bone defects in rat cranium. We designed the following four groups: (i) HAp (HAp/agarose composite gel), (ii) CaCO3 (CaCO3/agarose composite gel), (iii) Agarose (bare agarose gel), and (iv) Defect (no filling materials). We subdivided (i) (ii) (iii) into two application types as a (I) Homogenized Group (homogenized materials) and a (II) Disk Group (disk shaped materials). We assessed samples by radiological and histological analyses 0, 4, and 8 weeks after implantation. The results indicated that the composite gels showed higher radiopacity in microfocus-computed tomography (muCT) images and showed higher volume in quantitative analyses using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA) and Peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) than the Agarose and Defect groups. The histological examination showed characteristic images due to each application form. Consequently, HAp and CaCO3/agarose composite gels can be expected to accelerate the speed of producing more new bone associated with osteogenesis. These novel biomaterials play an important role as an alternative biocompatible and biodegradable bone grafting filler material for autogenous bone.

  12. Molecular mapping within the mouse albino-deletion complex.

    PubMed

    Johnson, D K; Hand, R E; Rinchik, E M

    1989-11-01

    Induced germ-line deletion mutations in the mouse provide a malleable experimental system for in-depth molecular and functional analysis of large segments of the mammalian genome. To obtain an initial bank of molecular probes for the region of mouse chromosome 7 associated with the albino-deletion complex, random anonymous DNA clones, derived from a library constructed from flow-sorted chromosomes, were screened on DNAs from Mus musculus-Mus spretus F1 hybrids carrying large, multilocus, lethal albino deletions. Clones falling within a given deletion interval can easily be recognized because hybridization bands that represent restriction fragment length polymorphisms specific for the mutant (deleted) chromosome inherited from the M. musculus parent will be absent. Among 72 informative clones used as probes, one, which defines the locus D7OR1, mapped within two deletions that are 6-11 centimorgans in length. Submapping of this anonymous clone across a panel of 27 smaller deletions localized D7OR1 distal to a chromosomal subregion important for survival of the preimplantation embryo, proximal to globin [beta-chain (Hbb)], and near the shaker-1 (sh-1) locus. The results of these deletion-mapping experiments were also confirmed by standard three-point linkage analysis. This strategy for selection and rapid mapping of anonymous DNA probes to chromosomal segments corresponding to germ-line deletion mutations should contribute to the generation of more detailed physical and functional maps of genomic regions associated with mutant developmental phenotypes.

  13. Effect of diethylcarbamazine citrate and Setaria equina excretory-secretory material on rat hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Latif, Mahmoud; Sakran, Thabet; El-Shahawi, Gamal; El-Fayoumi, Hoda; El-Mallah, Al-Mahy

    2014-12-01

    Diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) has been known for its efficacy to eradicate bancroftian filariasis in Egypt and other countries in the world. One of the known effects was to decrease the level of circulating filarial antigen in the patient's serum. The target of this study was to examine the effect of DEC, excretory-secretory (ES) material from the filarial parasite Setaria equina or a combination of both on the status of oxidative stress and pathogenesis of rat hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by diethylnitrosamine and 2-acetylaminofluorene. This could be tested in vitro using nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test for measuring the level of superoxide anion (O₂(•-)) released from rat peritoneal macrophages. For in vivo test, a single dose before induction of carcinogenesis or continually repeated doses with DEC, ES or DEC + ES was used. Exposure of macrophages to ES could lead to a significant decrease (p < 0.01) in O₂(•-) release, while DEC (200 μM) could modulate such effect with significant increase (p < 0.05). Pathogenesis of liver cancer and treatment were evaluated using histological investigation, level of antioxidant and liver function enzymes. Repeated ES doses could increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes, especially the catalase enzyme and show a protective effect on liver architecture. DEC could modulate the later effects when combined with ES. No significant effect on the liver function enzymes after treatment was observed. Nuclear factor κB was found to be localized only in the cytoplasm after single and repeated treatments with ES. This study could indicate the effect of S. equina ES as antioxidant against rat HCC, while DEC could modulate such effect when combined with it.

  14. Intestinal surfactant-like material. A novel secretory product of the rat enterocyte.

    PubMed Central

    DeSchryver-Kecskemeti, K; Eliakim, R; Carroll, S; Stenson, W F; Moxley, M A; Alpers, D H

    1989-01-01

    Surface-active phospholipid-containing particles are traditionally considered to be the product of type II pneumocytes. We now demonstrate membrane-bound lamellar cytoplasmic organelles in adult and suckling rat enterocytes that are densely reactive with phospholipid-staining reagents. These structures were seen in the basolateral space, within the intercellular junctions, and unraveling on the lumenal surface, and were more abundant after fat feeding. Light scrapings of intestinal mucosa and lumenal washings that contained these bodies, as evidenced by morphology and biochemical analysis, lowered surface tension in a pulsating bubble assay. Production by normal enterocytes of material with surfactant-like appearance and properties demonstrates that these structures are present in extrapulmonary epithelia, and extends the possible range of their function beyond gaseous exchange, e.g., solute exchange or lubrication on membrane surfaces. Images PMID:2794067

  15. [The blastomogenic effect of 249Bk in rats].

    PubMed

    Moskalev, Iu I; Zalikin, G A; Zhorova, E S; Nisimov, P G

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that 249Bk nitrate injected intraperitoneally in a wide range of doses to albino mongrel female rats is preferentially accumulated in the bony tissue (39.8%) and liver (18.4%). Incorporation of 249Bk to rats results in development of osteosarcomas, neoplasms of hemopoietic and lymphoid tissues, mammary tumours, thyroid and pituitary glands.

  16. Obesity-related changes in bone structural and material properties in hyperphagic OLETF rats and protection by voluntary wheel running

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We conducted a study to examine how the development of obesity and the associated insulin resistance affect bone structural and material properties, and bone formation and resorption markers in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat model. This was a 36-week study of sedentary, hyperphag...

  17. Anti-Diabetic Effects of an Ethanol Extract of Cassia Abbreviata Stem Bark on Diabetic Rats and Possible Mechanism of Its Action

    PubMed Central

    Kwape, Tebogo Elvis; Chaturvedi, Padmaja

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the hypoglycemic effects of an ethanol extract of Cassia abbreviata (ECA) bark and the possible mechanisms of its action in diabetic albino rats. Methods: ECA was prepared by soaking the powdered plant material in 70% ethanol. It was filtered and made solvent-free by evaporation on a rotary evaporator. Type 2 diabetes was induced in albino rats by injecting 35 mg/kg body weight (bw) of streptozotocin after having fed the rats a high-fat diet for 2 weeks. Diabetic rats were divided into ECA-150, ECA-300 and Metformin (MET)-180 groups, where the numbers are the doses in mg.kg.bw administered to the groups. Normal (NC) and diabetic (DC) controls were given distilled water. The animals had their fasting blood glucose levels and body weights determined every 7 days for 21 days. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) were carried out in all animals at the beginning and the end of the experiment. Liver and kidney samples were harvested for glucose 6 phosphatase (G6Pase) and hexokinase activity analyses. Small intestines and diaphragms from normal rats were used for α-glucosidase and glucose uptake studies against the extract. Results: Two doses, 150 and 300 mg/kg bw, significantly reduced the fasting blood glucose levels in diabetic rats and helped them maintain normal body weights. The glucose level in DC rats significantly increased while their body weights decreased. The 150 mg/kg bw dose significantly increased hexokinase and decreased G6Pase activities in the liver and the kidneys. ECA inhibited α-glucosidase activity and promoted glucose uptake in the rats’ hemi-diaphragms. Conclusion: This study revealed that ECA normalized blood glucose levels and body weights in type 2 diabetic rats. The normalization of the glucose levels may possibly be due to inhibition of α-glucosidase, decreased G6Pase activity, increased hexokinase activity and improved glucose uptake by muscle tissues.

  18. Feasibility of rat hair as a quality control material for the determination of methamphetamine and amphetamine in human hair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sooyeun; Park, Yonghoon; Kim, Jihyun; In, Sanghwan; Choi, Hwakyung; Chung, Heesun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck

    2011-04-01

    A quality control material (QCM) is a necessity in hair drug analysis, but it is not always easy to have an authentic hair sample containing various target drugs and metabolites. In the present study, the feasibility of rat hair as a QCM was examined for its application in the determination of methamphetamine (MA) and amphetamine (AP) in human hair. MA was administered to lean Zucker rats, from which only pigmented hair was collected for the preparation of a QCM. The rat hair was then washed, homogenized and finally bottled. Both homogeneity and stability were examined in order to demonstrate the suitability of rat hair as a QCM in hair drug analysis. The concentrations of MA and AP in each bottle were determined using extraction with 1% HCl in methanol at 38°C followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry after derivatization with trifluoroacetic anhydride. Furthermore, the prepared QCM was used in an inter-laboratory quality assurance program. In the homogeneity test, no significant difference was observed between bottles of the QCM. The statistical results also showed no significant trends in stability for three months at room temperature. An inter-laboratory quality assurance program was also performed successfully using this material. Thus, rat hair will be useful as an alternative QCM sample for the determination of a variety of drugs and their metabolites in human hair.

  19. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles from Premna serratifolia L. leaf and its anticancer activity in CCl4-induced hepato-cancerous Swiss albino mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arockia John Paul, J.; Karunai Selvi, B.; Karmegam, N.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we report the biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the ethanolic leaf powder extract of Premna serratifolia L. and its anticancer activity in carbon tetra chloride (CCl4)-induced liver cancer in Swiss albino mice (Balb/c). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, FTIR and XRD analyses. The Debye-Scherrer equation was used to calculate particle size and the average size of silver nanoparticles synthesized from P. serratifolia leaf extract was 22.97 nm. The typical pattern revealed that the sample contained cubic structure of silver nanoparticles. FTIR analysis confirmed that the bioreduction of silver ions to silver nanoparticles is due to reduction by capping material of the plant extract. The silver nanoparticles of P. serratifolia leaf extract were effective in treating liver cancer in Swiss albino mice when compared with P. serratifolia leaf extract with isoleucine.

  20. Improvement Characteristics of Bio-active Materials Coated Fabric on Rat Muscular Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Lee, Donghee; Kim, Young-Won; Kim, Jung-Ha; Yang, Misuk; Bae, Hyemi; Lim, Inja; Bang, Hyoweon; Go, Kyung-Chan; Yang, Gwang-Wung; Rho, Yong-Hwan; Park, Hyo-Suk; Park, Eun-Ho; Ko, Jae-Hong

    2015-05-01

    This study surveys the improvement characteristics in old-aged muscular mitochondria by bio-active materials coated fabric (BMCF). To observe the effects, the fabric (10 and 30%) was worn to old-aged rat then the oxygen consumption efficiency and copy numbers of mitochondria, and mRNA expression of apoptosis- and mitophagy-related genes were verified. By wearing the BMCF, the oxidative respiration significantly increased when using the 30% materials coated fabric. The mitochondrial DNA copy number significantly decreased and subsequently recovered in a dose-dependent manner. The respiratory control ratio to mitochondrial DNA copy number showed a dose-dependent increment. As times passed, Bax, caspase 9, PGC-1α and β-actin increased, and Bcl-2 decreased in a dose-dependent manner. However, the BMCF can be seen to have had no effect on Fas receptor. PINK1 expression did not change considerably and was inclined to decrease in control group, but the expression was down-regulated then subsequently increased with the use of the BMCF in a dose-dependent manner. Caspase 3 increased and subsequently decreased in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest that the BMCF invigorates mitophagy and improves mitochondrial oxidative respiration in skeletal muscle, and in early stage of apoptosis induced by the BMCF is not related to extrinsic death-receptor mediated but mitochondria-mediated signaling pathway.

  1. Lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits.

    PubMed

    Javed, Ijaz; Faisal, Imran; Rahman, Ziaur; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Muhammad, Faqir; Aslam, Bilal; Ahmad, Mahmood; Shahzadi, Andleeb

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the lipid lowering effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Cinnamon) in hyperlipidaemic albino rabbits. For this purpose, forty eight albino rabbits were randomly divided into eight equal groups; untreated control on normal routine feed, untreated control on butter and cholesterol, treated control on synthetic cholesterol lowering drug simvastatin (Tablet survive (R) 20 mg), three treated groups on three respective doses of C. zeylanicum bark powder and two treated groups on water and methanol extracts of C. zeylanicum bark powder. Butter ad lib and cholesterol powder 500 mg/kg body weight were used to induce experimental hyperlipidaemia in all groups except untreated control group. The results suggested that C. zeylanicum bark powder at the rate of 0.50 g/kg, 0.75 g/kg and methanol extract equivalent to 0.75 g/kg powder produced respective percent reductions in total lipids by 45, 49 and 64; triglycerides by 38, 53 and 60; total cholesterol by 53, 64 and 69 and LDL-cholesterol by 50, 59 and 62. However, at these dosage levels HDL-cholesterol showed respective percent increase of 42, 48 and 53. Nonetheless, C. zeylanicum bark powder at the level of 0.25g/kg and C. zeylanicum extract in water could not significantly reduce lipid profile indicators. Based on these studies, it can safely be said that C. zeylanicum bark powder methanol extract equivalent to 0.75g/kg bark powder and simvastatin (0.6 mg/kg b. wt.) were equieffective in treating hyperlipidaemia.

  2. Ocular penetration of grepafloxacin after intravitreal administration in albino and pigmented rabbits.

    PubMed

    Solans, C; Bregante, M A; Garcia, M A; Perez, S

    2004-06-01

    Ocular penetration of grepafloxacin into several ocular tissues was determined in albino and pigmented rabbits following a single intravitreal administration. After administration, grepafloxacin was detected in all ocular tissues studied in both breeds of rabbits. The superior mean penetration ratios were found in the chorioretina and lens of albino rabbits, and in the chorioretina, iris and lens of pigmented rabbits. A significantly greater penetration of grepafloxacin was found in the chorioretina and iris of the pigmented rabbits than in those of the albino rabbits. As a final conclusion, grepafloxacin detected in different ocular structures could attain therapeutic concentrations against a variety of ocular conditions.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and ocular penetration of grepafloxacin in albino and pigmented rabbits.

    PubMed

    Perez, S; Solans, C; Bregante, M A; Pinilla, I; García, M A; Honrubia, F

    2002-10-01

    The pharmacokinetics of grepafloxacin were determined in albino and pigmented rabbits following a single 10 mg/kg intravenous administration. The penetration of grepafloxacin into various ocular tissues was also determined after continuous intravenous infusion in both types of animal. Grepafloxacin showed a bicompartmental model of distribution in both pigmented and albino rabbits with significant differences in the pharmacokinetics between the two types of animal. After continuous intravenous infusion, significantly greater penetration of grepafloxacin was found in the iris, cornea and chorioretina of pigmented rabbits compared with albino rabbits.

  4. The 'evil albino' stereotype: an impediment to the right to equality.

    PubMed

    Mswela, Maureen

    2013-03-01

    This article address the 'evil albino' plot device or albino bias as portrayed in films and explores how such labelling stimulates societal intolerance and discrimination against People Living With Albinism. The article reveals how media perpetuates stereotypes of albinism through their portrayal of role players and argues that the continued existence of such stereotypes is a failure to see albinism for what it is: a medical condition. The article further discusses Albinism related stigma and discrimination against the backdrop of the 'evil albino' plot device.

  5. Termination of Nutrient Import and Development of Vein Loading Capacity in Albino Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Robert

    1984-01-01

    The sink-source conversion in developing leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was studied to determine whether import termination is caused by the onset of export or is related to achievement of positive carbon balance. Albino shoots were grown in vitro and grafted to detopped stems of green tobacco plants. Termination of import was studied by providing mature leaves of the stock plant with 14CO2 and detecting the presence of labeled nutrient in developing albino leaves by whole-leaf autoradiography. In albino leaves, import terminated progressively in the basipetal direction at the same stage of development as in leaves of green shoots. Starch was not present in the plastids of mesophyll cells of mature albino leaves but starch was synthesized when discs were cut from these leaves and incubated on 3 millimolar sucrose. Import ceased progressively in developing green leaves even when photosynthesis was prevented by darkening. It was concluded that cessation of import does not require achievement of positive carbon balance and is not the direct result of export initiation. To determine whether vein loading capacity develops in albino leaves, discs were cut from mature leaves and floated on [14C]sucrose solution. Uptake of label into the veins was detected by autoradiography and this uptake was sensitive to the phloem loading inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. However, the amount of label taken up by veins in albino leaves was less than that taken up by veins of mature green leaves. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663820

  6. Chronic effects of mercuric chloride ingestion on rat adrenocortical function

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Chansouria, J.P.N. )

    1989-09-01

    Mercurial contamination of environment has increased. Mercury accumulates in various organs and adversely affects their functions. Some of the most prominent toxic effects of inorganic mercury compounds include neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Besides this, mercury has also been reported to affect various endocrine glands like pituitary, thyroid, gonadal and adrenal glands. There have been no reports on the toxic effects of chronic oral administration of varying doses of mercuric chloride on adrenocortical function in albino rats. The present work was undertaken to study the adrenocortical response to chronic oral administration of mercuric chloride of varying dose and duration in albino rats.

  7. Inhalation Toxicology. V. Evaluation of Relative Toxicity to Rats of Thermal Decomposition Products from Two Aircraft Seat Fire-Blocking Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-01

    only. The relative toxicity of the combustion gases was measured by determining time-to-incapacitation (ti) in the laboratory rat , the same endpoint... the laboratory rat was the measured response used to compare the relative toxicity of the combustion gases produced from the two materials. Because of

  8. The effects of unilateral varicose ovarian vein on antioxidant capacity and oocyte quality in rat ovary

    PubMed Central

    Kehinde, Babatunde Adebayo; Abolhassani, Farid; Yazdekhasti, Hossein; Abbasi, Niloufar; Heydari, Leyla; Daneshi, Erfan; Rajabi, Zahra; Hamada, Alaa; Agarwal, Ashok; Abbasi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Several researchers have reported the relationship between infertility in male and varicocele for so many years but the implication of varicocele in female patients is remains elusive. Here, we aim to examine the effects of unilateral varicose ovarian vein on antioxidant capacity and oocyte quality of rat ovary after the experimental creation of varicocele in female rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, thirty adult female albino rats were divided into three equal groups: Group 1 as the control group has 10 rats, Group 2 as the sham group has 10 rats and they underwent a sham operation and finally Group 3 has the varicocele group has 10 rats. Antioxidant assays for superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were performed using specific assay kits and gene expression for Bax, Bmp-15, Hsp-27 and Gdf-9 was done via real time PCR. Results: The adverse effects of the experimentally induced varicocele were reported and recorded on the left ovary compared to the right sided ovary (no varicocele induction) in the varicocele group. Real time PCR data shows that the expression of Gdf-9, Hsp-27 and Bmp-15 genes were all significantly reduced at p≤ 0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study show that reduced gene expression of Bmp-15, Gdf-9 and Hsp-27, increased gene expression of bax and an imbalance between pro-oxidant/antioxidant ratio are few of the several mechanisms by which varicocele may lead to infertility in female. PMID:27746868

  9. Effect of radio-frequency electromagnetic radiations (RF-EMR) on passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Raju Suresh; Potu, Bhagath Kumar; Nayak, Satheesha; Bhat, P. Gopalakrishna; Mailankot, Maneesh

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The interaction of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) with the brain is a serious concern of our society. Objective We evaluated the effect of RF-EMR from mobile phones on passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in rats. Materials and methods Healthy male albino Wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR by giving 50 missed calls (within 1 hour) per day for 4 weeks, keeping a GSM (0.9 GHz/1.8 GHz) mobile phone in vibratory mode (no ring tone) in the cage. After the experimental period, passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology were studied. Results Passive avoidance behaviour was significantly affected in mobile phone RF-EMR-exposed rats demonstrated as shorter entrance latency to the dark compartment when compared to the control rats. Marked morphological changes were also observed in the CA3 region of the hippocampus of the mobile phone-exposed rats in comparison to the control rats. Conclusion Mobile phone RF-EMR exposure significantly altered the passive avoidance behaviour and hippocampal morphology in rats. PMID:20095879

  10. Muscarinic receptors of the albino rabbit ciliary process.

    PubMed

    Mallorga, P; Babilon, R W; Buisson, S; Sugrue, M F

    1989-04-01

    Muscarinic receptor binding sites were identified in membranes prepared from albino rabbit ciliary processes, using the muscarinic antagonist [3H]L-quinuclidinyl benzylate as the radioligand. Analysis of saturation binding experiments demonstrated that [3H]L-quinuclidinyl benzylate bound to an apparent homogeneous population of binding sites with a Kd value of 6.4 pm and a Bmax value of 155 fmol mg-1 protein. Seventy percent (70%) of binding sites showed high affinity for pirenzepine, i.e. belonged to the M1 subtype. In contrast, AF-DX 116 was unable to discriminate between subtypes of muscarinic binding sites in this tissue. Carbachol caused a dose-dependent increase in phosphatidylinositol turnover (EC50 = 154 microM) in ciliary processes. A maximum stimulation of 652% of basal activity was obtained following a 45 min incubation with 10 mM carbachol. The potency of muscarinic antagonists to block the carbachol-induced response was comparable to that found for M1 receptors in other tissues. Oxotremorine and pilocarpine behaved like partial agonists in this assay. The carbachol-induced increase in phosphatidylinositol turnover was also observed in a suspension of epithelial cells from ciliary processes and it was blocked by atropine; thus, indicating the presence of muscarinic receptors functionally coupled to phosphatidylinositol turnover in these cells.

  11. Pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 infection in albino guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Shi, Hong-Fei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Yan, Hao; Ma, Lei; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Xue, Fei

    2014-12-01

    Bovine adenovirus type 3 (BAV-3) is considered one of the most important respiratory tract agents of cattle and is widespread among cattle around the world. A BAV-3 strain was isolated from a bovine nasal swab for the first time in China in 2009 and named HLJ0955. Subsequently, BAV-3 has frequently been isolated from calves with respiratory diseases in China. To date, only limited study on the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in cotton rats has been conducted, and the pathogenesis of BAV-3 infection in guinea pigs has not been reported. Therefore, sixteen albino guinea pigs were inoculated intranasally with HLJ0955. All of the infected guinea pigs had apparently elevated rectal temperatures (39.2 °C-39.9 °C) at 2-7 days post-inoculation (PI). Consolidation and petechial hemorrhage were also observed in guinea pigs experimentally infected with HLJ0955. Viral replication was detectable by virus isolation and titration and by immunohistochemistry in the lungs of guinea pigs as early as 24 h PI. Viral DNA was detectable in the lungs of infected guinea pigs during 11 days of observation by real-time PCR. Virus-neutralizing antibodies against BAV-3 were detectable from 11 days PI and reached a peak titer at 15 days PI. Histopathological changes mainly occurred in the lungs of infected guinea pigs and were characterized by thickening of alveolar septa, mononuclear cell infiltration, hemorrhage and alveolar epithelial necrosis. These results indicate that HLJ0955 can replicate in the lungs of guinea pigs and cause fever and gross and histological lesions. The guinea pig infection model of BAV-3 would serve as a useful system for monitoring the infection process and pathogenesis of the Chinese BAV-3 strain HLJ0955, as well as immune responses to BAV-3 vaccines.

  12. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Toppo, Reetu; Roy, Birendra Kumar; Gora, Ravuri Halley; Baxla, Sushma Lalita; Kumar, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days). On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters, histomorphological examination were carried out with estimation of cadmium concentration in liver tissues. Results: Oral administration of cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), significant (p≤0.01) increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase in cadmium accumulation in liver. Treatment with M. oleifera @ 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01) decreased the elevated ALP, AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in SOD levels, and as compared to cadmium chloride treated group. However, there was no significant difference in cadmium concentration in liver when compared with cadmium chloride treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of M. oleifera (500 mg/kg), daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:27047130

  13. Mistletoes and mutant albino shoots on woody plants as mineral nutrient traps

    PubMed Central

    Lo Gullo, M. A.; Glatzel, G.; Devkota, M.; Raimondo, F.; Trifilò, P.; Richter, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Potassium, sulphur and zinc contents of mistletoe leaves are generally higher than in their hosts. This is attributed to the fact that chemical elements which are cycled between xylem and phloem in the process of phloem loading of sugars are trapped in the mistletoe, because these parasites do not feed their hosts. Here it is hypothesized that mutant albino shoots on otherwise green plants should behave similarly, because they lack photosynthesis and thus cannot recycle elements involved in sugar loading. Methods The mineral nutrition of the mistletoe Scurrula elata was compared with that of albino shoots on Citrus sinensis and Nerium oleander. The potential for selective nutrient uptake by the mistletoe was studied by comparing element contents of host leaves on infected and uninfected branches and by manipulation of the haustorium–shoot ratio in mistletoes. Phloem anatomy of albino leaves was compared with that of green leaves. Key Results Both mistletoes and albino leaves had higher contents of potassium, sulphur and zinc than hosts or green leaves, respectively. Hypothetical discrimination of nutrient elements during the uptake by the haustorium is not supported by our data. Anatomical studies of albino leaves showed characteristics of release phloem. Conclusions Both albino shoots and mistletoes are traps for elements normally recycled between xylem and phloem, because retranslocation of phloem mobile elements into the mother plant or the host is low or absent. It can be assumed that the lack of photosynthetic activity in albino shoots and thus of sugars needed in phloem loading is responsible for the accumulation of elements. The absence of phloem loading is reflected in phloem anatomy of these abnormal shoots. In mistletoes the evolution of a parasitic lifestyle has obviously eliminated substantial feeding of the host with photosynthates produced by the mistletoe. PMID:22442343

  14. Delayed neurogenesis leads to altered specification of ventrotemporal retinal ganglion cells in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Proper binocular vision depends on the routing at the optic chiasm of the correct proportion of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons that project to the same (ipsilateral) and opposite (contralateral) side of the brain. The ipsilateral RGC projection is reduced in mammals with albinism, a congenital disorder characterized by deficient pigmentation in the skin, hair, and eyes. Compared to the pigmented embryonic mouse retina, the albino embryonic mouse retina has fewer RGCs that express the zinc-finger transcription factor, Zic2, which is transiently expressed by RGCs fated to project ipsilaterally. Here, using Zic2 as a marker of ipsilateral RGCs, Islet2 as a marker of contralateral RGCs, and birthdating, we investigate spatiotemporal dynamics of RGC production as they relate to the phenotype of diminished ipsilateral RGC number in the albino retina. Results At embryonic day (E)15.5, fewer Zic2-positive (Zic2+) RGCs are found in the albino ventrotemporal (VT) retina compared with the pigmented VT retina, as we previously reported. However, the reduction in Zic2+ RGCs in the albino is not accompanied by a compensatory increase in Zic2-negative (Zic2−) RGCs, resulting in fewer RGCs in the VT retina at this time point. At E17.5, however, the number of RGCs in the VT region is similar in pigmented and albino retinae, implicating a shift in the timing of RGC production in the albino. Short-term birthdating assays reveal a delay in RGC production in the albino VT retina between E13 and E15. Specifically, fewer Zic2+ RGCs are born at E13 and more Zic2− RGCs are born at E15. Consistent with an increase in the production of Zic2− RGCs born at later ages, more RGCs at E17.5 express the contralateral marker, Islet2, in the albino VT retina compared with the pigmented retina. Conclusions A delay in neurogenesis in the albino retina is linked to the alteration of RGC subtype specification and consequently leads to the reduced ipsilateral projection that

  15. In vivo evaluation of chitosan-PVP-titanium dioxide nanocomposite as wound dressing material.

    PubMed

    Archana, D; Singh, Brijesh K; Dutta, Joydeep; Dutta, P K

    2013-06-05

    In our present study, the blends of chitosan, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The size distribution of the TiO2 nanoparticles was measured using transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. The studies on the mechanical properties of composite material indicate that the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles increases its strength. The prepared nanocomposite dressing has excellent antimicrobial efficacy and good biocompatibility against NIH3T3 and L929 fibroblast cells. Compared to conventional gauze, soframycin skin ointment and chitosan treated groups, the prepared nano dressing caused an accelerated healing of open excision type wounds in albino rat model. The synergistic effects of nanocomposite dressing material like good antibacterial ability, high swelling properties, high WVTR, excellent hydrophilic nature, biocompatibility, wound appearance and wound closure rate through in vivo test makes it a suitable candidate for wound healing applications.

  16. Eye-specific projections of retinogeniculate axons are altered in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Rebsam, Alexandra; Bhansali, Punita; Mason, Carol A

    2012-04-04

    The divergence of retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons into ipsilateral and contralateral projections at the optic chiasm and the subsequent segregation of retinal inputs into eye-specific domains in their target, the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), are crucial for binocular vision. In albinism, affected individuals exhibit a lack or reduction of pigmentation in the eye and skin, a concomitant reduced ipsilateral projection, and diverse visual defects. Here we investigate how such altered decussation affects eye-specific retinogeniculate targeting in albino mice using the C57BL/6 Tyr(c-2J/c-2J) strain, in which tyrosinase, necessary for melanogenesis, is mutated. In albino mice, fewer RGCs from the ventrotemporal (VT) retina project ipsilaterally, reflected in a decrease in cells expressing ipsilateral markers. In addition, a population of RGCs from the VT retina projects contralaterally and, within the dLGN, their axons cluster into a patch separated from the contralateral termination area. Furthermore, eye-specific segregation is not complete in the albino dLGN and, upon perturbing postnatal retinal activity with epibatidine, the ipsilateral projection fragments and the aberrant contralateral patch disappears. These results suggest that the defects in afferent targeting and activity-dependent refinement in the albino dLGN arise from RGC misspecification together with potential perturbations of early activity patterns in the albino retina.

  17. Potential changes in rat spermatogenesis and sperm parameters after inhalation of Boswellia papyrifera and Boswellia carterii incense.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Mukhtar; Al-Daghri, Nasser; Alokail, Majed S; Hussain, Tajamul

    2013-02-28

    In this study the effect of Boswellia papyrifera (B. papyrifera) and Boswellia carterii (B. carterii) smoke exposure on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in male albino rats was investigated. Rats (n = 11) were exposed daily in smoking chambers to smoke emanated by burning 4 g each of either B. papyrifera or B. carterii for 48 days. At the end of exposure duration rats were killed, and the testes were excised and analysed for histopathological and ultrastructural changes. Sperm analysis including total sperm count, motility, velocity and relative percentage of abnormal sperms were recorded. Rats exposed to B. papyrifera and B. carterii showed significant disturbances in spermatogenetic patterns and changes in sperm kinetics compared to unexposed rats. Atrophied seminiferous tubules with dynamic changes were also noticed. The boundaries of intercellular and intracellular vacuoles were seen in the Sertoli cells. Furthermore, in spermatids acrosomal vesicles were not fully formed. Degenerating spermatids were devoid of their nuclear membrane with electron dense matrix and vacuolization. Structural changes in Leydig cells were observed. Sperm analysis in exposed rats exhibited significant decrease in the sperm count, motility, speed and an increase in sperm anomalies when compare to controls. These findings demonstrate that the B. papyrifera and B. carterii smoke affects the process of spermatogenesis and sperm parameters and indicate the detrimental effects of these incense materials on human reproductive system.

  18. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hyacinth, Abu Adakole; Nwocha, Uchendu Chukwuka

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hymenocardia acida is traditionally used in African herbal medicine and has numerous therapeutic benefits. But little is known about its potentially negative effects on pregnant women. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifertility effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were administered orally aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 19 days. The control group received distilled water. On day 20 of gestation, each rat was laparatomised and number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses as well as the postcoitum fertility index, weights of the foetuses and placentae were determined. Results: Oral administration of the extract from days 1 to 19 of gestation showed reduction (p<0.05) in the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and number of live fetuses. Weights of fetuses of extract treated female rats were also smaller (p<0.05) compared with the control. Anti-implantation activity of the treatment groups were 41.4%, 48.3% and 51.7% for groups II to IV respectively, whereas antifertility activity of the groups was found to be 40%, 60% and 60% in the same order. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark could induce negative effects on reproductive functions in female albino rats. PMID:26396567

  19. The Ingestion of Proteins and Colloidal Materials by Columnar Absorptive Cells of the Small Intestine in Suckling Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Sam L.

    1959-01-01

    Proteins and colloidal materials, administered orally to suckling rats and mice, were ingested by columnar absorptive cells of the jejunum and ileum, but not of the duodenum. Bovine gamma globulin and ovalbumin were identified in the apical cytoplasm by staining with fluorescent antibody; trypan blue, Evans blue, saccharated iron oxide, and colloidal gold were detected intracellularly by their color, specific staining, and appearance in the electron microscope. Each substance was segregated in membrane-enclosed vacuoles, apparently part of a system of potentially interconnecting vacuoles and tubules in the apical cytoplasm which is continuous in places with the apical cell membrane. We postulate that ingestion of foreign materials was accomplished by pinocytosis, that is, by invagination of the apical cell membrane to form vacuoles containing material from the intestinal lumen. Approximately 18 days after birth columnar absorptive cells lost the ability to ingest proteins and colloids, and no longer contained large vacuoles and numerous tubules. At this age rats and mice lose the ability to absorb antibodies from the intestine in an immunologically intact form, and we conclude that cellular ingestion is part of the mechanism of absorption of intact proteins in suckling animals. Particulate fat apparently is absorbed in both newborn and adult animals by micropinocytosis. Thus adult animals may not have lost the capacity for pinocytosis, but rather have become selective as to what substances provoke it. Cortisone acetate, administered subcutaneously to rats 8 to 10 days old alters the columnar absorptive cells within 72 hours so that they resemble the cells in adult animals and no longer ingest proteins. PMID:13630932

  20. Combination treatment of lycopene and hesperidin protect experimentally induced ulcer in laboratory rats

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Dilpesh; Katti, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Lycopene, a carotenoid and hesperidin, a flavonoid are naturally occurring in vegetables and fruits. Synergistic effect of a combination of carotenoid and flavonoid has been reported due to its antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of this combination on pylorus ligation induced ulcers in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups (n = 6). Rats were fasted for 24 h before pylorus ligation. After 24 h of fasting the rats were treated with hesperidin (100 mg/kg) and lycopene (2 mg/kg) and their combination 1h prior to surgery. After an hour under ether anesthesia pylorus ligation was performed, after 5 h the animals were sacrificed, stomach was dissected, and gastric contents were collected and measured. Total acidity and pH of gastric content was estimated. Ulcer index was calculated, and macroscopic examination of the stomach was carried out. Results: The sham operated rats showed a significant increase in pH, volume of gastric content and total acidity and ulcer index. The rats pretreated with lycopene and hesperidin showed significant improvement in the ulcer conditions. However, rats treated with a combination of lycopene and hesperidin showed more significant restoration of gastric function as compared to sham operated rats. Moreover, a significant difference was also noted in rats treated with a combination as compared to lycopene and hesperidin treatment alone. Conclusion: Thus experimentally the combination was seen to treat ulcers by anti-secretory, neutralizing, cytoprotective and mainly due to its antioxidant property. PMID:26401402

  1. Anti-inflammatory activity of Dalbergia lanceolaria bark ethanol extract in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Kale, Mrudula; Misar, A V; Dave, Vivek; Joshi, Maruti; Mujumdar, A M

    2007-06-13

    Topical anti-inflammatory activity of Dalbergia lanceolaria Linn. bark ethanol extract was demonstrated in albino mice using TPA-, EPP- and AA-induced ear edema models. The systemic activity of extract was confirmed using acute and sub-acute anti-inflammatory models in albino rats. The ethanol extract exhibited significant systemic anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, by inhibition of histamine and prostaglandin phases of acute inflammation. The extract also showed significant activity against turpentine-induced exudative changes and no activity against granular tissue formation in cotton pellet-induced granuloma in albino rats. Thus, resultant anti-inflammatory activity might be due to effects on several mediators involving cyclo-oxygenase pathway resulting in prostaglandin formation and leukocyte migration from the vessels.

  2. Characterization of the extracellular bactericidal factors of rat alveolar lining material.

    PubMed Central

    Coonrod, J D; Lester, R L; Hsu, L C

    1984-01-01

    The surfactant fraction (55,000-g pellet) of leukocyte-free rat bronchoalveolar lavage fluid contains factors that rapidly kill and lyse pneumococci. These factors were purified and identified biochemically by using a quantitative bactericidal test to monitor fractionation procedures. 91% of the antipneumococcal activity of rat surfactant was recovered in chloroform after extraction of rat surfactant with chloroform-methanol (Bligh-Dyer procedure). After chromatography on silicic acid with chloroform, acetone, and methanol, all detectable antibacterial activity (approximately 80% of the initial activity) eluted with the neutral lipids in chloroform. When rechromatographed on silicic acid with hexane, hexane-chloroform, and chloroform, the antibacterial activity eluted with FFA. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) established that the antibacterial activity was confined to the FFA fraction. Gas-liquid chromatography showed that the fatty acid fraction contained a mixture of long-chain FFA (C12 to C22) of which 66.7% were saturated and 32.4% were unsaturated. The quantity of TLC-purified FFA needed to kill 50% of 10(8) pneumococci under standardized conditions (one bactericidal unit) was 10.6 +/- 0.5 micrograms. Purified FFA acted as detergents, causing release of [3H]choline from pneumococcal cell walls and increased bacterial cell membrane permeability, evidenced by rapid unloading of 3-O-[3H]methyl-D-glucose. FFA acting as detergents appear to account for the bactericidal and bacteriolytic activity of rat pulmonary surfactant for pneumococci. PMID:6548228

  3. The effect of Prosopis farcta beans extract on blood biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats

    PubMed Central

    Dashtban, Mohsen; Sarir, Hadi; Omidi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbals in the treatment of diabetes mellitus is a well-established practice in traditional medicine. The medicinal plant Prosopis farcta has some antioxidant activity, which may be useful in diabetic patients. Since, there is no report on the antidiabetic effect of the P. farcta, this study evaluated antidiabetic activity of P. farcta bean extract (PFE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia was induced in male albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg body weight [BW]), after which, the animals were randomly allocated into six experimental groups as follows: Group 1: Normal rats (received normal saline), Groups 2 and 3: Normal rats received PFE; (50 and 75 mg/kg BW), Group 4: Diabetic control rats, Group 5: Diabetic rats received PFE (50 mg/kg BW), Group 6: Diabetic rats received PFE (75 mg/kg BW). Three days after induction of diabetes, rats were received an extract of PFE orally for 12 days. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture to determine liver enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL). Results: The administration of PFE (50 and 75 mg/kg) in STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduced the blood glucose levels when compared with the STZ-control group (227.2 ± 12.00 and 259.6 ± 7.03 vs. 454.6 ± 12.66, P < 0.001). PFE in diabetic groups had no significant effect on the levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL, AST, and ALT compare to the STZ-control group. Conclusion: P. farcta could reduce blood glucose in diabetic rats. PMID:27512685

  4. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal properties of Manilkara zapota leaves in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Kumar Saha, Sajal; Abdur Rahman, S M

    2016-08-01

    Context Manilkara zapota (L.). P. Royen. (Sapotaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat pain, diarrhoea, inflammation, arthralgia, and other disorders. Objective Screening of Manilkara zapota leaves ethanol extract and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities in Swiss albino mice. Materials and methods The extract and various fractions (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) were tested for peripheral and central antinociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick method, respectively; castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model was used to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity at both doses. All the samples were administered once in a day and the duration of study was approximately 5 h. Results Ethanol extract (400 mg/kg), petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg), and ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) showed significant peripheral antinociceptive activity having 59.89, 58.24, and 46.7% (p < 0.001) of writhing inhibition, respectively, which is comparable with that of standard diclofenac (59.34% inhibition). The ethanol extract (400 mg/kg) and petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg) also showed promising central analgesic activity having 74.15 and 82.15% (p < 0.001) elongation of reaction time, respectively, at 90 min after administration of sample which is also similar to that obtained by morphine (85.84% elongation). In antidiarrhoeal activity screening, ethanol extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of defecation by 53.57 and 60.71%, respectively (p < 0.001) compared with that of loperamide (71.42%). Discussion and conclusion The findings of the studies demonstrated antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities of M. zapota leaves which could be the therapeutic option against pain and diarrhoeal disease.

  5. Effect of benzene extract of Ocimum sanctum leaves on cauda epididymal spermatozoa of rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Mukhtar; Ahamed, R. Nazeer; H Aladakatti, Ravindranath; G Ghodesawar, Mukhtar Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have shown that benzene extract of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) leaves induces the ultrastructural changes in the epithelial cells of the cauda epididymis, its subsequent recovery in the seminiferous epithelium and fertility of male albino rats. Objective: Our aim was to investigate the effect of benzene extract of O.sanctum leaves on the cauda epididymal sperm parameters, morphology and their organelles at the ultrastructural level in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar male rats (n=20) were allocated into two groups of control (n=10) and test group (n=10). The test group received benzene extract of O.sanctum leaves (250mg/kg/day) for 48 consequence days. Five animals from each group were used for fertility test. Twenty-four hours after the last dose, the rest of the control (n=5) and treated (n=5) animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and then the cauda epididymal plasma was used for sperm analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies. Results: Sperm analysis of test group exhibited significant (p≤0.001) decrease in the sperm count, motility, speed and increase in sperm anomalies when compare to control group. SEM and TEM observation in treated animals indicated the morphological changes in plasma membrane as well as in the acrosomal membrane of spermatozoa, formation of a balloon-like cytoplasmic droplet in the mid-region of abnormal tail and disorganization or degeneration of mitochondria of sperm mitochondrial sheaths. Conclusion: The effects observed in this study may have resulted from a general alteration in the cauda epididymal milieu, probably due to androgen deficiency consequent to the anti-androgenic property of O.sanctum leaves. PMID:26396561

  6. The in vivo effect of different bedding materials on the antioxidant levels of rat heart, lung and liver tissue.

    PubMed

    Potgieter, F J; Wilke, P I; van Jaarsveld, H; Alberts, D W

    1996-03-01

    Several experimental effects due to wood-derived bedding have been reported. Female Sprague Dawley rats were kept on pine shavings, eucalyptus pulp, vermiculite and in wire-bottomed cages without bedding for 14 days whereafter normal values for the antioxidants ascorbic acid and reduced glutathione (G-SH) in rat heart lung and liver tissue were determined and compared. Statistically significant differences were observed for lung G-SH between pine shavings and eucalyptus pulp (p < 0.0183), and heart G-SH between vermiculite and eucalyptus pulp (p < 0.0948). The highest levels of liver G-SH were obtained using pine shavings compared to vermiculite (p < 0.0001), eucalyptus pulp (p < 0.0002) and wire floor (p < 0.0001). Statistically significant differences in ascorbic acid concentrations could only be described between the wire-bottomed cages and eucalyptus pulp (p < 0.0333) for lung tissue and between pine shavings and eucalyptus pulp for liver tissue (p < 0.042). Although no statistically significant differences were observed in heart ascorbic acid levels between the different bedding applications, the concentration obtained using vermiculite was approximately 50% higher than that observed with the other materials. Pine shavings, eucalyptus pulp and wire floors demonstrated virtually the same heart tissue ascorbic acid levels. It was thus demonstrated that bedding material can alter the tissue antioxidant concentration of laboratory animals, limiting the comparison of this type of result between institutions to those using identical environmental conditions.

  7. Promotion of endodontic lesions in rats by a novel extraradicular biofilm model using obturation materials.

    PubMed

    Kuremoto, Katsutaka; Noiri, Yuichiro; Ishimoto, Takuya; Yoneda, Naomichi; Yamamoto, Reiko; Maezono, Hazuki; Nakano, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Mikako; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2014-07-01

    Although extraradicular biofilm formation is related to refractory periapical periodontitis, the mechanism of extraradicular biofilm development, as well as its effect on periapical lesions, is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to develop an in vivo extraradicular biofilm model in rats and to identify and quantify extraradicular biofilm-forming bacteria while investigating the effect of extraradicular biofilms on periapical lesions. Periapical lesions were induced by exposing the pulpal tissue of the mandibular first molars of male Wistar rats to their oral environment. Four weeks later, gutta-percha points were excessively inserted into the mesial root canals of the right first molars (experimental sites) but not the left first molars (control sites). After 6 and 8 weeks of pulp exposure, the presence of extraradicular biofilms was confirmed histomorphologically, and biofilm-forming bacteria were identified by using classical culture methods. The biofilms were observed in the extraradicular area of the experimental sites. Similar species were detected both inside and outside the root canals. The bacterial count, quantified by real-time PCR assays, in the extraradicular area gradually increased in the experimental sites until 20 weeks after pulp exposure. After 8 weeks of pulp exposure, the periapical lesion volume that was measured by micro-computed tomography was significantly larger in the experimental sites than in the control sites (P < 0.05 by Welch's t test). These results suggest that we developed an extraradicular biofilm model in rats and that extraradicular biofilms affect developing periapical lesions.

  8. Promotion of Endodontic Lesions in Rats by a Novel Extraradicular Biofilm Model Using Obturation Materials

    PubMed Central

    Kuremoto, Katsutaka; Ishimoto, Takuya; Yoneda, Naomichi; Yamamoto, Reiko; Maezono, Hazuki; Nakano, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Mikako; Ebisu, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Although extraradicular biofilm formation is related to refractory periapical periodontitis, the mechanism of extraradicular biofilm development, as well as its effect on periapical lesions, is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to develop an in vivo extraradicular biofilm model in rats and to identify and quantify extraradicular biofilm-forming bacteria while investigating the effect of extraradicular biofilms on periapical lesions. Periapical lesions were induced by exposing the pulpal tissue of the mandibular first molars of male Wistar rats to their oral environment. Four weeks later, gutta-percha points were excessively inserted into the mesial root canals of the right first molars (experimental sites) but not the left first molars (control sites). After 6 and 8 weeks of pulp exposure, the presence of extraradicular biofilms was confirmed histomorphologically, and biofilm-forming bacteria were identified by using classical culture methods. The biofilms were observed in the extraradicular area of the experimental sites. Similar species were detected both inside and outside the root canals. The bacterial count, quantified by real-time PCR assays, in the extraradicular area gradually increased in the experimental sites until 20 weeks after pulp exposure. After 8 weeks of pulp exposure, the periapical lesion volume that was measured by micro-computed tomography was significantly larger in the experimental sites than in the control sites (P < 0.05 by Welch's t test). These results suggest that we developed an extraradicular biofilm model in rats and that extraradicular biofilms affect developing periapical lesions. PMID:24747900

  9. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

    PubMed

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics.

  10. Melanin precursors prevent premature age-related and noise-induced hearing loss in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Cuesta, Silvia; Contreras, Julio; Zurita, Esther; Cediel, Rafael; Cantero, Marta; Varela-Nieto, Isabel; Montoliu, Lluís

    2010-02-01

    Strial melanocytes are required for normal development and correct functioning of the cochlea. Hearing deficits have been reported in albino individuals from different species, although melanin appears to be not essential for normal auditory function. We have analyzed the auditory brainstem responses (ABR) of two transgenic mice: YRT2, carrying the entire mouse tyrosinase (Tyr) gene expression-domain and undistinguishable from wild-type pigmented animals; and TyrTH, non-pigmented but ectopically expressing tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) in melanocytes, which generate the precursor metabolite, L-DOPA, but not melanin. We show that young albino mice present a higher prevalence of profound sensorineural deafness and a poorer recovery of auditory thresholds after noise-exposure than transgenic mice. Hearing loss was associated with absence of cochlear melanin or its precursor metabolites and latencies of the central auditory pathway were unaltered. In summary, albino mice show impaired hearing responses during ageing and after noise damage when compared to YRT2 and TyrTH transgenic mice, which do not show the albino-associated ABR alterations. These results demonstrate that melanin precursors, such as L-DOPA, have a protective role in the mammalian cochlea in age-related and noise-induced hearing loss.

  11. Albino and pink-eyed dilution mutants in the Russian dwarf hamster Phodopus campbelli.

    PubMed

    Robinson, R

    1996-01-01

    The coat color mutant genes albino (c) and pink eyed dilution (p) are described in the dwarf hamster species Phodopus campbelli. Both genes are inherited as redessive to normal. Tests for linkage between the two genes gave negative results. The apparent absence of linkage is contrasted with linkage between homologous alleles c and p in other species of rodents.

  12. Validation of a protocol to compare the effectiveness of experimental decontaminants with both components of the M258A1 kit against percutaneous application of undiluted vesicant chemical surety material to the laboratory albino rabbit. Final report, 1 March 1985-24 July 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Joiner, R.L.

    1987-07-24

    A rabbit model was developed and validated for screening noninvasive candidate decontamination systems for their efficacies against topical exposure to the vesicant chemical surety material sulfur mustard (HD). Rabbits were dosed with HD on their shaved dorsa and then decontaminated at varying times with either both components of the M258A1 field kit or twice with distilled water. Lesion lengths were estimated and compared contralaterally. Results revealed statistically shorter lesions for M258A1 decontamination relative to the respective lesions decontaminated with distilled water.

  13. Analysis of the albino-locus region of the mouse. IV. Characterization of 34 deficiencies

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L.B.; Montgomery, C.S.; Raymer, G.D.

    1982-03-01

    Thirty-four independent nonviable c-locus mutations (types c/sup al/, albino lethal and c/sup as/, albino subvital), derived from radiation experiments, were tested for invovlvement of nearby markers tp, Mod-2, sh-1, and Hbb: 10, 22, and 2 involved, respectively, none of these markers, Mod-2 alone, and Mod-2 plus sh-1. When classified on this basis, as well as according to developmental stage at which homozygotes die, and by limited complementation results, the 34 independent mutations fell into 12 groups. From results of a full-scale complementation grid of all 435 possible crosses among 30 of the mutations, we were able to postulate an alignment of eight functional units by which the 12 groups fit a linear pattern. Abnormal phenotypes utilized in the complementation study were deaths at various stages of prenatal or postnatla development, body weight, and reduction or absence of various enzymes. Some of these phenotypes can be separated (e.g., glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency and neonatal death). - We conclude that all of the nonviable albino mutations are deficiencies overalpping at c, and ranging in size from < 2cM to 6 to 11 cM. The characterization of this array of deficiencies should provide useful tools for gene-dosage studies, recombinant-DNA fine-structure analyses, etc. Since many of the combinations of lethals produce viable albino animals that resemble the standard c/c type, we conclude (1) that the c locus contains no sites essential for survival, and (b) that viable nonalbino c-locus mutations (c/sup xv/) are the result of mutations within the c cistron. Viable albinos (c/sup av/, the majority of radiation-induced c-locus mutations) may be intracistronic mutations or very small deficiencies.

  14. Retinal image degradation by optical aberrations and light scatter in normal and albino chick eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yibin; Shieh, Kevin; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2007-02-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of retinal image quality requires that light scatter as well as optical aberrations be considered. In investigating how retinal image degradation affects eye growth in the chick model of myopia, we developed a simple method based on Shack-Hartmann images for evaluating the effects of both monochromatic aberrations and light scatter on retinal image quality. We further evaluated our method in the current study by applying it to data collected from both normal chick eyes and albino eyes that were expected to show increased intraocular light scatter. To analyze light scatter in our method, each Shack-Hartmann dot is treated as a local point spread function (PSF) that is the convolution of a local scatter PSF and a lenslet diffraction PSF. The local scatter PSF is obtained by de-convolution, and is fitted with a circularly symmetric Gaussian function using nonlinear regressions. A whole-eye scatter PSF also can be derived from the local scatter PSFs for the analyzed pupil. Aberrations are analyzed using OSA standard Zernike polynomials, and aberration-related PSF calculated from reconstructed wavefront using fast Fourier transform. Modulation transfer functions (MTFs) are computed separately for aberration and scatter PSFs, and a whole-eye MTF is derived as the product of the two. This method was applied to 4 normal and 4 albino eyes. Compared to normal eyes, albino eyes were more aberrated and showed greater light scatter. As a result, overall retinal image degradation was much greater in albino eyes than in normal eyes, with the relative contribution to retinal image degradation of light scatter compared to aberrations also being greater for albino eyes.

  15. Effects of Rosiglitazone with Insulin Combination Therapy on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Profile in Left Ventricular Muscles of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kavak, Servet; Ayaz, Lokman; Emre, Mustafa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that rosiglitazone (RSG) with insulin is able to quench oxidative stress initiated by high glucose through prevention of NAD(P)H oxidase activation. Methods and Materials. Male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into an untreated control group (C), a diabetic group (D) that was treated with a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (45 mgkg−1), and rosiglitazone group that was treated with RSG twice daily by gavage and insulin once daily by subcutaneous injection (group B). HbA1c and blood glucose levels in the circulation and malondialdehyde and 3-nitrotyrosine levels in left ventricular muscle were measured. Result. Treatment of D rats with group B resulted in a time-dependent decrease in blood glucose. We found that the lipid profile and HbA1c levels in group B reached the control group D rat values at the end of the treatment period. There was an increase in 3-nitrotyrosine levels in group D compared to group C. Malondialdehyde and 3-nitrotyrosine levels were found to be decreased in group B compared to group D (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Our data suggests that the treatment of diabetic rats with group B for 8 weeks may decrease the oxidative/nitrosative stress in left ventricular tissue of rats. Thus, in diabetes-related vascular diseases, group B treatment may be cardioprotective. PMID:22829806

  16. Structural characterization of rat ventricular tissue exposed to the smoke of two types of waterpipe

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awaida, Wajdy; Najjar, Hossam; Shraideh, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): this study focused on the effect of waterpipe smoke exposure toxicity on the structure of albino rat’s ventricular tissue and their recovery. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups: control, flavored, and unflavored. The control group was exposed to normal air while the flavored and unflavored groups were exposed to waterpipe smoke for a period of 90 days. Each group was followed by a period of 90 days of fresh air exposure. Following each period, the ventricular tissue was removed for biochemical and histopathological studies. Results: The ventricular tissues of waterpipe exposed rats showed some degree of separation between cardiac muscle fibers, infiltration of lymphocytes, and congestion of blood vessel. Also, thin cross sections of ventricular cells revealed pleomorphic mitochondria with partially disrupted cristae, partial disruption of the myofibrils, and deposited toxic materials. The unflavored waterpipe has more deleterious effects on heart ventricular tissues than the flavored one. Waterpipe smoke didn’t induce apoptosis in the ventricular tissue. We also found very high levels of plasma thiocyanate after exposure to smoke in the flavored and unflavored groups, while the control group showed no increase. After the recovery period, those tissues showed partial recovery. Conclusion: Waterpipe smoke induces structural changes in the heart ventricle tissues, causing a negative impact on the capacity of the cardiac muscle for pumping blood and may lead to heart attack due to accumulation of free radicals and tissue inflammation. Cessation of smoking is important in returning most of these changes to their normal structure. PMID:26730327

  17. Behavior of the different implant materials in acute infection and efficacy of antibiotherapy: experimental study in rats.

    PubMed

    Silistreli, Ozlem Karataş; Capar, Mustafa; Ulusal, Betul Gozel; Ekinci, Neşe; Aytug, Zeynep; Oztan, Yücel

    2007-02-01

    In this study, we propose a comparison of the behaviors of four different implant materials in case of acute infection: expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE), porous high density polyethylene (PHDPE), silicone, and autogenous cartilage tissue. The efficacy of prophylactic and therapeutic antibiotic therapies was also investigated in a rat model as four groups: group A, acute infection and no antibiotic therapy (n = 24); group B, acute infection and prophylactic antibiotic therapy (n = 24); group C, acute infection and therapeutic antibiotic therapy (n = 24); and control, no infection and no antibiotic therapy (n = 24). All materials with dimensions of approximately 1 x 1 cm(2) diameter were implanted separately under the dorsal skin of rats. Staphylococcus aureus was used as the infectious agent and antibiotic therapy was done with seftriaxone (Desefin, I.M., 20 mg/kg/day). Tissue specimens were obtained on postoperative days 14 and 21. Semiquantitative and qualitative alterations existing in the connective tissue neighboring the implant material (reaction zone-capsule tissue), fixation to the host tissue, cellular ingrowth (interstice qualitatively), and infection signs were assessed either macroscopically or microscopically. In group A, all materials were affected negatively that led to continuous regression in the wound healing process. Fixation of the cartilage to the surrounding tissue was weak compared with other groups. Fibrovascular tissue ingrowth in porous implants was delayed, and no regular capsule formation was observed around silicone implants. In group B, outcomes were similar to control groups. Porous materials showed tissue ingrowth into the pores as good as the control group. Regular capsular tissue formed around the silicone implants and cartilage tissues. In group C, where silicone had been used, wound healing was not as good as in group B and the control group. In the e-PTFE group, the granulation tissue forming through the pores did not

  18. The albino chick as a model for studying ocular developmental anomalies, including refractive errors, associated with albinism.

    PubMed

    Rymer, Jodi; Choh, Vivian; Bharadwaj, Shrikant; Padmanabhan, Varuna; Modilevsky, Laura; Jovanovich, Elizabeth; Yeh, Brenda; Zhang, Zhan; Guan, Huanxian; Payne, W; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2007-10-01

    Albinism is associated with a variety of ocular anomalies including refractive errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ocular development of an albino chick line. The ocular development of both albino and normally pigmented chicks was monitored using retinoscopy to measure refractive errors and high frequency A-scan ultrasonography to measure axial ocular dimensions. Functional tests included an optokinetic nystagmus paradigm to assess visual acuity, and flash ERGs to assess retinal function. The underlying genetic abnormality was characterized using a gene microarray, PCR and a tyrosinase assay. The ultrastructure of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was examined using transmission electron microscopy. PCR confirmed that the genetic abnormality in this line is a deletion in exon 1 of the tyrosinase gene. Tyrosinase gene expression in isolated RPE cells was minimally detectable, and there was minimal enzyme activity in albino feather bulbs. The albino chicks had pink eyes and their eyes transilluminated, reflecting the lack of melanin in all ocular tissues. All three main components, anterior chamber, crystalline lens and vitreous chamber, showed axial expansion over time in both normal and albino animals, but the anterior chambers of albino chicks were consistently shallower than those of normal chicks, while in contrast, their vitreous chambers were longer. Albino chicks remained relatively myopic, with higher astigmatism than the normally pigmented chicks, even though both groups underwent developmental emmetropization. Albino chicks had reduced visual acuity yet the ERG a- and b-wave components had larger amplitudes and shorter than normal implicit times. Developmental emmetropization occurs in the albino chick but is impaired, likely because of functional abnormalities in the RPE and/or retina as well as optical factors. In very young chicks the underlying genetic mutation may also contribute to refractive error and eye shape abnormalities.

  19. Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Nandy, Subhangkar; Senapati, Aswini Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group) for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. Results: The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. Conclusion: The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future. PMID:24761115

  20. Whole-body tissue distribution of total radioactivity in rats after oral administration of [¹⁴C]-bilastine.

    PubMed

    Lucero, María Luisa; Patterson, Andrew B

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the tissue distribution of total radioactivity in male albino, male pigmented, and time-mated female albino rats after oral administration of a single dose of [¹⁴C]-bilastine (20 mg/kg). Although only 1 animal was analyzed at each time point, there were apparent differences in bilastine distribution. Radioactivity was distributed to only a few tissues at low levels in male rats, whereas distribution was more extensive and at higher levels in female rats. This may be a simple sex-related difference. In each group and at each time point, concentrations of radioactivity were high in the liver and kidney, reflecting the role of these organs in the elimination process. In male albino rats, no radioactivity was measurable by 72 hours postdose. In male pigmented rats, only the eye and uveal tract had measurable levels of radioactivity at 24 hours. Measureable levels of radioactivity were retained in these tissues at the final sampling time point (336 hours postdose), indicating a degree of melanin-associated binding. In time-mated female rats, but not in albino or pigmented male rats, there was evidence of low-level passage of radioactivity across the placental barrier into fetal tissues as well as low-level transfer of radioactivity into the brain.

  1. An Imaging and Histological Study on Intrahepatic Microvascular Passage of Contrast Materials in Rat Liver

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yuanbo; Yin, Ting; Liu, Yewei; Zhang, Guozhi; Liu, Jianjun; Tong, Linjun; Willemyns, Robin; Yu, Jie; Oyen, Raymond; Huang, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Background. Lipiodol has been applied for decades in transarterial chemoembolization to treat liver malignancies, but its intrahepatic pathway through arterioportal shunt (APS) in the liver has not been histologically revealed. This rodent experiment was conducted to provide evidence for the pathway of Lipiodol delivered through the hepatic artery (HA) but found in the portal vein (PV) and to elucidate the observed unidirectional APS. Methods. Thirty rats were divided into 5 groups receiving systemic or local arterial infusion of red-stained iodized oil (RIO) or its hydrosoluble substitute barium sulfate suspension (BSS), or infusion of BSS via the PV, monitored by real-time digital radiography. Histomorphology of serial frozen and paraffin sections was performed and quantified. Results. After HA infusion, RIO and BSS appeared extensively in PV lumens with peribiliary vascular plexus (PVP) identified as the responsible anastomotic channel. After PV infusion, BSS appeared predominantly in the PV and surrounding sinusoids and to a much lesser extent in the PVP and HA (P < 0.001). Fluid mechanics well explains the one-way-valve phenomenon of APS. Conclusions. Intravascularly injected rat livers provide histomorphologic evidences: (1) the PVP exists in between the HA and PV, which is responsible to the APS of Lipiodol; and (2) the intrahepatic vascular inflow appears HA-PVP-PV unidirectional without a physical one-way valve, which can be postulated by the fluid mechanics. PMID:28293625

  2. Benefits of Alcohol on Arsenic Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Shubha Ranjan; Passi, Deepak; Bharti, Jaya

    2017-01-01

    Introduction It has been demonstrated earlier that exposure to ethanol and/or arsenic compounds (such as sodium arsenite) produces toxic effects as shown by both in vitro and in vivo experiments. Chronic exposure of humans to arsenic through drinking water, pesticides or consumption of alcoholic beverages has produced major health problem and concern in recent years. Water being one of the main ingredients for alcohol formation (beer fermentation process) can lead to contamination with arsenic. Thus, people consuming such alcohol are getting continuously exposed to arsenic compounds as well along with alcohol. Aim The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of alcohol co-administration on arsenic induced changes in carbohydrate metabolic status in adult male albino rats. Materials and Methods Adult male albino rats of Wistar strain (weighing~100g) were divided into three groups (n=8 rats/group) including Control or vehicle treated (C), Arsenic treated (As) and Arsenic treated alcohol co-exposed (As+Alc). Treatment with Sodium-arsenite included intra-peritoneal injection consecutively for 14 days at a dose of 5.55 mg/kg (equivalent to 35% of LD50) per day. Absolute alcohol (15% v/v) was fed at a dose of 0.5 ml/100 g body weight per day for five consecutive days from start of the treatment schedule. Distilled water (D/W) was used as vehicle. Blood Glucose (BG) level, levels of glycogen, Pyruvic Acid (PA), Free Amino Acid Nitrogen (FAAN), total protein, Glutamate Oxalate transaminase (GOT) and Glutamate Pyruvate Transaminase (GPT) activity, and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity were measured in tissues including liver, kidney and muscle. Results Treatment with arsenic decreased the levels of BG, liver glycogen and PA, tissue protein and G6Pase activity, GOT activity in liver and muscle, and increased free amino acid content in kidney and muscle, GPT activity in liver and kidney. Alcohol administration to rats co-exposed to arsenic treatment

  3. Bone Regeneration after Treatment with Covering Materials Composed of Flax Fibers and Biodegradable Plastics: A Histological Study in Rats.

    PubMed

    Gredes, Tomasz; Kunath, Franziska; Gedrange, Tomasz; Kunert-Keil, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic potential of new flax covering materials. Bone defects were created on the skull of forty rats. Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers, genetically modified producing PHB (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen) and unmodified (PLA-wt, PCL-wt), were inserted. The skulls were harvested after four weeks and subjected to histological examination. The percentage of bone regeneration by using PLA was less pronounced than after usage of pure PCL in comparison with controls. After treatment with PCL-transgen, a large amount of new formed bone could be found. In contrast, PCL-wt decreased significantly the bone regeneration, compared to the other tested groups. The bone covers made of pure PLA had substantially less influence on bone regeneration and the bone healing proceeded with a lot of connective tissue, whereas PLA-transgen and PLA-wt showed nearly comparable amount of new formed bone. Regarding the histological data, the hypothesis could be proposed that PCL and its composites have contributed to a higher quantity of the regenerated bone, compared to PLA. The histological studies showed comparable bone regeneration processes after treatment with tested covering materials, as well as in the untreated bone lesions.

  4. Bone Regeneration after Treatment with Covering Materials Composed of Flax Fibers and Biodegradable Plastics: A Histological Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gedrange, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the osteogenic potential of new flax covering materials. Bone defects were created on the skull of forty rats. Materials of pure PLA and PCL and their composites with flax fibers, genetically modified producing PHB (PLA-transgen, PCL-transgen) and unmodified (PLA-wt, PCL-wt), were inserted. The skulls were harvested after four weeks and subjected to histological examination. The percentage of bone regeneration by using PLA was less pronounced than after usage of pure PCL in comparison with controls. After treatment with PCL-transgen, a large amount of new formed bone could be found. In contrast, PCL-wt decreased significantly the bone regeneration, compared to the other tested groups. The bone covers made of pure PLA had substantially less influence on bone regeneration and the bone healing proceeded with a lot of connective tissue, whereas PLA-transgen and PLA-wt showed nearly comparable amount of new formed bone. Regarding the histological data, the hypothesis could be proposed that PCL and its composites have contributed to a higher quantity of the regenerated bone, compared to PLA. The histological studies showed comparable bone regeneration processes after treatment with tested covering materials, as well as in the untreated bone lesions. PMID:27597965

  5. Phytochemical Screening and Acute Toxicity of Aqueous Extract of Leaves of Conocarpus erectus Linnaeus in Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Dayane K D; Souza, Ivone A DE; Oliveira, Antônio F M DE; Barbosa, Mariana O; Santana, Marllon A N; Pereira, Daniel F; Lira, Eduardo C; Vieira, Jeymesson R C

    2016-09-01

    Mangroves represent areas of high biological productivity and it is a region rich in bioactive substances used in medicine production. Conocarpus erectus (Combretaceae) known as button mangrove is one of the species found in mangroves and it is used in folk medicine in the treatment of anemia, catarrh, conjunctivitis, diabetes, diarrhea, fever, gonorrhea, headache, hemorrhage, orchitis, rash, bumps and syphilis. The present study aimed to investigate the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of leaves of C. erectus in Swiss albino mice. The plant material was collected in Vila Velha mangroves, located in Itamaracá (PE). The material was subjected to a phytochemical screening where extractive protocols to identify majority molecules present in leaves were used. The evaluation of acute toxicity of aqueous extract of C. erectus followed the model of Acute Toxicity Class based on OECD 423 Guideline, 2001. The majority molecules were identified: flavonoids, tannins and saponins. The LD50 was estimated at 2,000 mg/kg bw. Therefore, the aqueous extract showed low acute toxicity classified in category 5.

  6. The Effects of Cortisol, Corticosterone, Insulin and Glucose Pre- and Post-Treatment on Heatstroke in Rats and the Kinetics of Uptake and Cellular Response.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-27

    being heated. RT = tea ~erature at which each rat was remed from the heating chamber; MX -maxim m -aperature reahed after removal fran the heating chaner...subjected to Analysis of Variance and the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. d. We appreciate the affirmation of our use of male albino rats in these studie The

  7. Ulcer healing potential of ethanolic extract of Caralluma attenuata on experimental diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sunil; Srivastava, Sajal; Singh, Kisanpal; Sharma, Alok; Garg, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Available data indicated that diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the vulnerability of the gastric ulcers and the need of the hour is to develop effective agents to treat ulcer with diabetes for better patient compliance and cost effectiveness. The ulcer-healing properties of ethanolic extract of Caralluma attenuata (CAEt) against both chemically- and physically induced gastric ulcers in experimental rats are recently studied. Aim: To assess the ulcer healing potential of Ethanolic Extract of Caralluma attenuata on Experimental Diabetic Rats. Material and Methods: The current study aimed to evaluate ulcer healing properties of CAEt on the aspirin induced gastric ulcer in rats with streptozotocin induced DM. The hypothesis is based on the fact that DM results in compromising the mucosal defensive factors associated with delay in gastric ulcer healing, and if these changes can be corrected by using agents known for their antidiabetic and antiulcer properties. Experimental albino rats were divided into six groups. Except for Group I, other groups contained streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Group I (normal control) and Group II (diabetic control) were administered vehicle, Groups III and IV (diabetic experimental) were administered CAEt in dose of 100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, respectively, and Groups V and VI (positive controls) were respectively administered oral standard drugs omeprazole, 20 mg/kg, and tolbutamide 10 mg/kg. Result: The results confirmed that the CAEt significantly decreases the ulcer index (P < 0.05) in the aspirin-induced gastric ulcers and also significantly exhibit antioxidant and glucose lowering activity in the diabetic ulcer rats. The study showed that C. attenuata has the potential to be used as an antiulcer agent in experimental diabetic rats. PMID:27621520

  8. Materialism.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Andrew

    2012-05-01

    Materialism is nearly universally assumed by cognitive scientists. Intuitively, materialism says that a person's mental states are nothing over and above his or her material states, while dualism denies this. Philosophers have introduced concepts (e.g., realization and supervenience) to assist in formulating the theses of materialism and dualism with more precision, and distinguished among importantly different versions of each view (e.g., eliminative materialism, substance dualism, and emergentism). They have also clarified the logic of arguments that use empirical findings to support materialism. Finally, they have devised various objections to materialism, objections that therefore serve also as arguments for dualism. These objections typically center around two features of mental states that materialism has had trouble in accommodating. The first feature is intentionality, the property of representing, or being about, objects, properties, and states of affairs external to the mental states. The second feature is phenomenal consciousness, the property possessed by many mental states of there being something it is like for the subject of the mental state to be in that mental state. WIREs Cogn Sci 2012, 3:281-292. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1174 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. Six novel P gene mutations and oculocutaneous albinism type 2 frequency in Japanese albino patients.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tamio; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Matsunaga, Jun; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Ohyama, Naoko; Ishikawa, Osamu; Ishikawa, Tomoyuki; Terao, Hiroshi; Tomita, Yasushi

    2003-05-01

    Type 2 oculocutaneous albinism (OCA2) is an autosomal recessive disorder that results from mutations in the P gene that codes one of the melanosomal proteins, the function of which remains unknown. In this paper, we report the frequency of OCA2, 8%, among the Japanese albino population, six novel mutations containing four missense substitutions (P198L, P211L, R10W, M398I), and two splice site mutations (IVS15+1 G>A, IVS24-1 G>C). One of them, R10W, was within the putative signal peptide at the N-terminal of the P protein. This is the first report on the frequency of OCA2 in the Japanese albino population.

  10. Recovery of Green Plantlets from Albino Shoot Primordia Derived from Anther Culture of Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Abul Kashem Md.; Karim, Nilufer Hye; Sultana, Shahanaz; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2011-01-01

    A simple method was developed to permit albino plant regeneration from anther culture of Hobigonj Boro (Hbj B) IV and Hbj B VI, two local varieties of aromatic indica rice from Bangladesh. Three crucial factors were identified for the albino shoot primordia to change into green plantlets in culture; components of M10 induction medium, callus size (range 0.2–0.4 cm long) and height of shoot primordia (range 2–3 mm). Immediate transfer of shoot primordia (2–3 mm) from M10 medium to regeneration medium followed by continuous incubation under fluorescent light (100-lux, 25±1°C) triggered albino shoot primordia to turn green in 2–3 days. Callus size did not show any effect on the change. Albino plantlets derived from anther callus cultured in KA, KB, KC, KD and KE media did not recover in both the varieties. Transfer of albino shoot primordia shorter or longer than 2–3 mm from the above 5 cultures to regeneration medium did not cause the shoot primordia to turn green. 100% albino shoot primordia initiated from Hbj B VI and 79% from Hbj B IV in M10 medium changed to green plantlets upon transfer to regeneration medium. Subsequent culture and subculture of green plantlets showed rapid formation of many new green plantlets. PMID:24575205

  11. Precipitating antibody against Aeromonas salmonicida in serums of inbred albino Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Douglas P.; Klontz, George W.

    1970-01-01

    Precipitins in albino rainbow trout serums were demonstrated by gel diffusion after a single parenteral exposure to the soluble antigens of Aeromonas salmonicida. The fraction of the serum containing antibody activity against the presented antigens was shown by immunoelectrophoresis to be in the nonmigrating region. This corresponded to the beta-2 fraction of rabbit serum. An antibody-containing component comparable with rabbit gamma globulin was not detected.

  12. Comparative study of Inula Racemosa and Saussurea Lappa on the glucose level in Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, P; Shukla, S; Tripathi, P; Chaurasia, S; Singh, S K; Tripathi, Y B

    1995-07-01

    Inula racemosa and Saussurea lappa have been used in ayurvedic system for the management of diabetes. The result of this communication concludes that I. racemosa reduces the blood glucose earlier as compared to S. lappa. Maximum response in case of I. racemosa is noted between 2 to 4 hours after drug administration while for S. lappa while for S. lappa, it is 4 to 8 hours. S. lappa can be used as substitute for I. racemosa for the management of diabetes, but it should not be taken for granted that this substitution should be applicable to all other systems, where I. racemosa has been recommended as a drug of choice.

  13. Enhancement of wound healing with roots of Ficus racemosa L. in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Murti, Krishna; Kumar, Upendra

    2012-01-01

    Objective To establish the wound healing activity of aqueous and ethanolic extract of roots of Ficus racemosa (F. racemosa). Methods Two models were performed to evaluate the wound healing activity i.e. incision and excision models. In incision model the parameter which was carried out was breaking strength of wounded skin. In excision model percentage wound contraction and period of epithelialization were established for both the extracts. Reference standard drug was povidone iodine ointment for comparison with other groups. Results From the observation in both two models, aqueous extract of F. racemosa was found to have greater wound healing activity in terms of breaking strength in incision model and percentage wound contraction, period of epithelialization in excision model than that of other groups. Conclusions In conclusion, our findings suggest that aqueous extract of F. racemosa possesses better wound healing ability than the ethanolic extract. PMID:23569913

  14. Effect of Semax on homeostasis of gastric mucosa in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Zhuikova, S E; Smirnova, E A; Bakaeva, Z V; Samonina, G E; Ashmarin, I P

    2000-09-01

    The ACTH(4-7)analogue Semax administered intraperitoneally in a dose of 50 microg/kg 1 h before exposure to ulcerogenic factors (ethanol, water immersion immobilization stress) protected gastric mucosa from damage. Postoperative treatment with Semax for 5 days after application of glacial acetic acid on the mucosa prevented acetic acid-induced ulcers and promoted their healing. The antiulcer effects of Semax in the studied dose were comparable with those of tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro in a dose of 1 mg/kg.

  15. [Asymmetric function of the pes hippocampi in experimental stress-induced arterial hypertension of albino rats].

    PubMed

    Ljowschina, I P; Hecht, K

    1976-01-01

    Relations between a unilateral lesion of circumscribed structures of the Pes hippocampi on the one hand, and stress-induced blood-pressure and learning behaviour, on the other, were studied. An asymmetric functioning of the CNS was analyzed, in which unilateral exclusion of right-hand hippocampal structures stimulates processes of excitation, while lesion of left-hand structures causes prevalence of inhibitory processes. The resulting impairment of the emotional equilibrium potentiates the stress action's contribution to the development of arterial hypertension.

  16. Cardiorenal protective effect of taurine against cyclophosphamide-induced toxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Alhumaidha, Khaled A; Saleh, Dalia O; Abd El Fattah, Mai A; El-Eraky, Wafaa I; Moawad, Helmy

    2015-07-18

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a cytotoxic alkylating agent used in the treatment of malignant diseases and autoimmune disorders. Its clinical use is limited to its marked cardiorenal toxicity. The present study aimed to investigate the possible protective role of taurine (Tau; 200 mg·kg(-1) per day, i.p.) on CP-induced cardiorenal toxicity. CP (200 mg·kg(-1)) was administered as a single intraperitoneal injection whereas; Tau was administered for 3 weeks on a daily basis. The results showed that CP produced an elevation in serum activities of creatine kinase, creatine kinase isoenzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine as well as blood urea nitrogen. CP also induced an elevation in the oxidative stress markers viz. elevation in the serum lipid peroxides level (measured as malondialdehyde; MDA) and reduction in reduced glutathione level and superoxide dismutase activity in both heart and renal tissue. On the other hand, administration of Tau attenuated the CP-evoked disturbances in the above mentioned parameters. In addition, CP exhibited electrocardiographic (ECG) changes, which were significantly reversed by Tau treatment. Finally, the histopathological examination emphasized the obtained results. In conclusion, Tau is suggested to be a potential candidate to ameliorate CP-induced cardiorenal toxicity that may be related to its antioxidant activity.

  17. In vivo evaluation of a new sealant material on a rat lung air leak model.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, H; Sekine, T; Nakamura, T; Shimizu, Y

    2001-01-01

    The ability of an albumin-based hydrogel sealant (ABHS) to prevent air leakage through the suture line after pulmonary surgery was evaluated by comparison with that of a fibrin glue (FG). As an air-leak model, a rat lung was used in which a standard incision was made and the burst pressure for ABHS and FG was measured. The average burst pressures at time 0 for the FG and ABHS groups were 30.8+/-15.2 and 77.5 +/-19.1 mmHg, respectively. At Day 3, the value of ABHS (76.3 +/- 15.8 mmHg) was still significantly higher (P<0.05) than that of FG (60.0 +/- 21.9 mmHg). At Day 7, no statistical difference was observed between the FG group(71.2 +/- 18.6 mmHg) and the ABHS group(88.8 +/- 11.7 mmHg). Histological examination of the incision at Day 14 revealed that neither sealant was not visible at the incision site, and there was no evidence of adverse tissue reaction. It was concluded that ABHS had good sealing properties and is an alternative to FG for air leakage treatment in pulmonary surgery.

  18. Spatial learning in the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock and RLA-I/RHA-I rats: revisiting the relationship with unconditioned and conditioned anxiety.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Membrives, Esther; López-Aumatell, Regina; Blázquez, Gloria; Cañete, Toni; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2015-05-15

    To characterize learning/memory profiles for the first time in the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock, and to examine whether these are associated with anxiety, we evaluated NIH-HS rats for spatial learning/memory in the Morris water maze (MWM) and in the following anxiety/fear tests: the elevated zero-maze (ZM; unconditioned anxiety), a context-conditioned fear test and the acquisition of two-way active avoidance (conditioned anxiety). NIH-HS rats were compared with the Roman High- (RHA-I) and Low-Avoidance (RLA-I) rat strains, given the well-known differences between the Roman strains/lines in anxiety-related behavior and in spatial learning/memory. The results show that: (i) As expected, RLA-I rats were more anxious in the ZM test, displayed more frequent context-conditioned freezing episodes and fewer avoidances than RHA-I rats. (ii) Scores of NIH-HS rats in these tests/tasks mostly fell in between those of the Roman rat strains, and were usually closer to the values of the RLA-I strain. (iii) Pigmented NIH-HS (only a small part of NIH-HS rats were albino) rats were the best spatial learners and displayed better spatial memory than the other three (RHA-I, RLA-I and NIH-HS albino) groups. (iv) Albino NIH-HS and RLA-I rats also showed better learning/memory than the RHA-I strain. (v) Within the NIH-HS stock, the most anxious rats in the ZM test presented the best learning and/or memory efficiency (regardless of pigmentation). In summary, NIH-HS rats display a high performance in spatial learning/memory tasks and a passive coping strategy when facing conditioned conflict situations. In addition, unconditioned anxiety in NIH-HS rats predicts better spatial learning/memory.

  19. Anti-neoplastic activities of sepia officinalis ink and coelatura aegyptiaca extracts against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M; Fahmy, Sohair R; El-Abied, Salma A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With the development of sophisticated instruments for the isolation and elucidation of natural products structures from marine and freshwater organisms, major advances have been made in the discovery of aquatic derived therapeutics. Present investigations were carried out to evaluate cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink extract (IE) and freshwater clam (Coelatura aegyptiaca) extract (CE) for their anticancer and antioxidant activities as compared to 5-flurouracil (5-Fu), in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Methods: Sixty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 12). All groups except group I received EAC cells (5 × 106 cells/mouse i.p.) and this was taken as the 0th day. Group I served as saline control (5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl w/v p.o). Group II served as EAC control. Rats of groups III, IV and V received IE, CE (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and reference drug (5-Fu, 20 mg/kg body weight i.p.), respectively. Results: The reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor cell counts and increase in median survival time and percentage increase in life span in treated animals were observed. There was a significant increase in RBC count; Hb content in treated animals and reduction in total WBC count. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and liver MDA levels and increase in GSH, SOD and NO levels were observed in all treated animals. Conclusion: Both IE and CE were effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic tumor models. The biochemical, antioxidants and histopathological studies were also supported their antitumor properties. PMID:26097537

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca extract in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abo-dola, Marium A.; Lutfi, Mohamed F.

    2016-01-01

    Background There were no studies on the anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca, though it is commonly used by Sudanese herbalists in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Objectives To determine phytochemical constituents of Euphorbia aegyptiaca To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca in rats. Methodology Plant material was extracted by ethanol and phytochemical screening was done according to standard methods. The thickness of Albino rats’ paws were measured before injection of 0.1 ml of 1% formalin in the sub planter region and then, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 hours after oral dose of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a rate of 400mg/kg, 800mg/kg, indomethacin (5mg/kg) and normal saline (5ml/kg). Edema inhibition percentage (EI%) and mean paw thickness (MPT) were measured in the different groups and compared using appropriate statistical methods. Results The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, cumarins, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, triterpenes, and absence of alkaloids, anthraquinones glycosides and cyanogenic glycosides. The mean of EI% of rats treated with indomethacin at a dose of 5 mg/kg over different time intervals (64.0%) was significantly lower compared to those treated with Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a dose of 800 mg/kg (75.0%, P< 0.001), but higher compared to rats treated at higher dose of 400 mg/kg (57.4%, P< 0.001). In contrast, MPT of rats treated with indomethacin at a dose of 5 mg/kg (6.5±1.1 mm) was significantly higher compared to those treated with Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a dose of 800 mg/kg (6.1±.7 mm, P< 0.001) as well as 400 mg/kg (5.9±.5, P< 0.001). Conclusion Euphorbia aegyptiaca ethanolic extract has a sustained dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27004059

  1. Red Lentil Extract: Neuroprotective Effects on Perphenazine Induced Catatonia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tarahomi, Shahram; Arzi, Ardeshir; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Rashidi-Nooshabadi, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parkinsonism is a neurodegenerative disease that is defined by certain symptoms such as muscle rigidity, impaired movement, catatonia, tremor and disorientation of body. Aim The aim was to investigate the effect of red lentil extract on perphenazine-induced Catatonia in model of rat. Materials and Methods This experimental study was done on 48 male albino rats (weight 180–200g) of the Sprague-Dawley strain. Animals were randomly divided into six groups and were pre-treated with a single dose of red lentil extract (200, 400, 800 and 1000 mg/kg), most effective dose of bromocriptine (30mg/kg) and normal saline (5ml/kg) via intraperitoneal (IP) route. perphenazine (5 mg/kg) was after 30 minutes, administered (IP) to induce catatonia. The scoring method of Morpurgo was used to determine the muscular rigidity of animals. Results The results showed that the 200mg/kg red lentil extract treated group had no significant reduction in catatonic responses after perphenazine administration in comparison with control group while the groups that received 800 and 1000mg/kg of red lentil extract showed significant difference (p<0.05) at all the time points. Conclusion The results revealed that hydroalcoholic extract of red lentil has protective effect on Catatonia induced by perphenazine in rats. So this extract may be probably beneficial for catatonia in Parkinsonism. PMID:27504309

  2. Inhibitory effects of Indigofera aspalathoides on 20-methylcholanthrene-induced chemical carcinogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S. Selva; Karrunakaran, C. M.; Rao, M. R. K.; Balasubramanian, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The anticancer and antioxidant effects of the aqueous extract of Indigofera aspalathoides on 20-methylcholanthrene (20-MCA) induced fibrosarcoma were investigated in male albino rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four different groups, each group consisting of six animals. Group I animals were served as normal control, Group II animals were fibrosarcoma-bearing animals after the incubation period, Group III animals were fibrosarcoma-bearing animals, treated with aqueous extract of I. aspalathoides intraperitoneally at a dose of 250 mg/kg b.w. for 30 days and Group IV animals were administered with the aqueous extract of I. aspalathoides alone, at a dose of 250 mg/kg b.w. for 30 days, served as drug control animals. After the experimental period, all the rats were weighed and killed by cervical decapitation. The serum was separated from the blood for analysis. The weights of the liver and the kidneys were noted. The fibrosarcoma was proved by pathological examinations. The liver and kidney tissues were excised and then homogenized in an ice-cold buffer. These tissues were used for biochemical analysis. Results: The activities of antioxidant enzymes, e.g. catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), in blood serum, liver, and kidney of control and experimental animals, respectively, have been reported. Conclusion: The present observations suggested that the aqueous extract of I. aspalathoides treatment enhanced the recovery from 20-MCA-induced fibrosarcoma due to its antioxidants and antineoplastic properties. PMID:21297921

  3. Inhalation of mercury vapor can cause the toxic effects on rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Akgül, Nilgün; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Altunkaynak, Muhammed Eyüp; Deniz, Ömür Gülsüm; Ünal, Deniz; Akgül, Hayati Murat

    2016-01-01

    Dental amalgam has been used in dentistry as a filling material. The filler comprises mercury (Hg). It is considered one of the most important and widespread environmental pollutants, which poses a serious potential threat for the humans and animals. However, mercury deposition affects the nervous, cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and especially renal systems. In most animals' species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites of deposition of mercury and target organ for its toxicity. In this study, the effects of mercury intake on kidney in rats were searched. For the this purpose; we used 24 adult female Wistar albino rats (200 g in weight) obtained from Experimental Research and Application Center of Atatürk University with ethical approval. Besides, they were placed into a specially designed glass cage. Along this experiment for 45 days, subjects were exposed to (1 mg/m(3)/day) mercury vapor. However, no application was used for the control subjects. At the end of the experiment, kidney samples were obtained from all subjects and processed for routine light microscopic level and stereological aspect were assessed. Finally, according to our results, mercury affects the histological features of the kidney. That means, the severe effects of mercury has been shown using stereological approach, which is one of the ideal quantitative methods in the current literature. In this study, it was detected that chronic exposure to mercury vapor may lead to renal damage and diseases in an experimental rat model.

  4. Neuroprotective activity of Wedelia calendulacea on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Tigari; Kotresha, Dupadahalli; Nedendla, Rama Rao

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study was undertaken to evaluate the neuroprotective activity of Wedelia calendulacea against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion induced oxidative stress in the rats. Materials and Methods: The global cerebral ischemia was induced in male albino Wistar rats by occluding the bilateral carotid arteries for 30 min followed by 1 h and 4 h reperfusion. At various times of reperfusion, the histopathological changes and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione–s–transferase (GST), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) activity and brain water content were measured. Results: The ischemic changes were preceded by increase in concentration of MDA, hydrogen peroxide and followed by decreased GPx, GR, and GST activity. Treatment with W. calendulacea significantly attenuated ischemia–induced oxidative stress. W. calendulacea administration markedly reversed and restored to near normal level in the groups pre-treated with methanolic extract (250 and 500 mg/kg, given orally in single and double dose/day for 10 days) in dose-dependent way. Similarly, W. calendulacea reversed the brain water content in the ischemia reperfusion animals. The neurodegenaration also conformed by the histopathological changes in the cerebral-ischemic animals. Conclusion: The findings from the present investigation reveal that W. calendulacea protects neurons from global cerebral–ischemic injury in rat by attenuating oxidative stress. PMID:22144773

  5. Hepatoprotective effects of parsley, basil, and chicory aqueous extracts against dexamethasone-induced in experimental rats

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Hanan A.; El-Desouky, Mohamed A.; Hozayen, Walaa G.; Ahmed, Rasha R.; Khaliefa, Amal K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of parsley, basil, and chicory whole plant in normal and dexamethasone (Dex) rats. Materials and Methods: 50 female albino rats were used in this study and divided into 5 groups (for each 10). Group (1) fed basal diet and maintained as negative control group. Group (2) received Dex in a dose of (0.1 mg/kg b. wt.). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Dex along with three different plant extracts of parsley, basil, and chicory (2 g/kg b. wt.), (400 mg/kg b. wt.), and (100 mg/kg b. wt.), respectively. Results: All these groups were treated given three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Dex-induced alterations in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and cardiovascular indices and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, liver thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) levels increased, while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and liver glutathione (GSH) levels decreased. On the other hand, plant extracts succeeded to modulate these observed abnormalities resulting from Dex as indicated by the reduction of glucose, cholesterol, TBARS, and the pronounced improvement of the investigated biochemical and antioxidant parameters. Conclusions: It was concluded that probably, due to its antioxidant property, parsley, basil, and chicory extracts have hepatoprotective effects in Dex-induced in rats. PMID:27069727

  6. Protective effects of honokiol on ischemia/reperfusion injury of rat ovary: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Yaman Tunc, Senem; Agacayak, Elif; Goruk, Neval Yaman; Icen, Mehmet Sait; Turgut, Abdulkadir; Alabalik, Ulas; Togrul, Cihan; Ekinci, Cenap; Ekinci, Aysun; Gul, Talip

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of honokiol on experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury of rat ovary. Materials and methods A total of 40 female Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into five groups as follows: sham (Group I), torsion (Group II), torsion + detorsion (Group III), torsion + detorsion + saline (Group IV), and torsion + detorsion + honokiol (Group V). Bilateral adnexa in all the rats except for those in the sham group were exposed to torsion for 3 hours. The rats in Group IV were administered saline, whereas the rats in Group V were administered honokiol by intraperitoneal route 30 minutes before detorsion. Tissue and plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were determined. Ovarian tissue was histologically evaluated. Data analyses were performed by means of Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test (Bonferroni correction) in SPSS 15.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results The torsion and detorsion groups had higher scores in vascular congestion, hemorrhage, and inflammatory cell infiltration compared with the sham group (P<0.005). In addition, total histopathological scores were significantly higher in the torsion and detorsion groups compared with the sham group (P<0.005). A significant reduction was observed in hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cellular degeneration scores, of all histopathological scores, in the honokiol group (P<0.005). Ovarian tissue concentrations of malondialdehyde were significantly higher in the torsion and detorsion groups compared with the sham and honokiol groups (P<0.005). Ovarian tissue concentrations of nitric oxide, on the other hand, were significantly higher in the torsion group compared with the sham, saline, and honokiol groups (P<0.005). Conclusion Honokiol has a beneficial effect on ovarian torsion-related ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27022246

  7. Microdisc gel electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulfate of organic material from rat otoconial complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, M. D.; Pote, K. G.; Rarey, K. E.; Verma, L. M.

    1981-01-01

    The gravity receptors of all vertebrates utilize a 'test mass' consisting of a complex arrangement of mineral and organic substance that lies over the sensory receptor areas. In most vertebrates, the mineral is a polymorph of calcium carbonate in the form of minute, single crystals called otoconia. An investigation is conducted to determine the number of proteins in otoconial complexes and their molecular weights. The investigation makes use of a microdisk gel electrophoresis method reported by Gainer (1971). The most important finding of the reported research is that analysis of the proteins of the organic material of the otoconial complexes is possible when sensitive microanalytical methods are employed. Further modification of the basic technique employed and the inclusion of other sensitive staining methods should mean that, in the future, protein separation by molecular weight will be possible in sample pools containing only two otoconial masses.

  8. Carbon dioxide laser-assisted nerve repair: effect of solder and suture material on nerve regeneration in rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Menovsky, Tomas; Beek, Johan F

    2003-01-01

    In order to further improve and explore the role of lasers for nerve reconstruction, this study was designed to investigate regeneration of sharply transected peripheral nerves repaired with a CO(2) milliwatt laser in combination with three different suture materials and a bovine albumin protein solder as an adjunct to the welding process. Unilateral sciatic nerve repair was performed in 44 rats. In the laser group, nerves were gently apposed, and two stay sutures (10-0 nylon, 10-0 polyglycolic acid, or 25 microm stainless steel) were placed epi/perineurially. Thereafter, the repair site was fused at 100 mW with pulses of 1.0 s. In the subgroup of laser-assisted nerve repair (LANR), albumen was used as a soldering agent to further reinforce the repair site. The control group consisted of nerves repaired by conventional microsurgical suture repair (CMSR), using 4-6 10-0 nylon sutures. Evaluation was performed at 1 and 6 weeks after surgery, and included qualitative and semiquantitative light microscopy. LANR performed with a protein solder results in a good early peripheral nerve regeneration, with an optimal alignment of nerve fibers and minimal connective tissue proliferation at the repair site. All three suture materials produced a foreign body reaction; the least severe was with polyglycolic acid sutures. CMSR resulted in more pronounced foreign-body granulomas at the repair site, with more connective-tissue proliferation and axonal misalignment. Furthermore, axonal regeneration in the distal nerve segment was better in the laser groups. Based on these results, CO(2) laser-assisted nerve repair with soldering in combination with absorbable sutures has the potential of allowing healing to occur with the least foreign-body reaction at the repair site. Further experiments using this combination are in progress.

  9. Genotoxicity of nimesulide in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Borkotoky, Debojyoti; Panda, Sushen K; Sahoo, Gyana R; Parija, Subas C

    2014-04-01

    It is mandatory for all new drugs to be tested for their potential genotoxicity in addition to general toxicity testing. Some old drugs have not been tested adequately for their genotoxic effects because these were in use before the local regulations were enforced. According to the material safety database, the toxicological effect of nimesulide is not yet fully understood. The present study therefore aimed to explore the genotoxic potential of nimesulide in Wistar albino rats. Nimesulide at the dose level of 50 (Gr-50), 100 (Gr-100) and 200 (Gr-200) mg/kg body weight (b.w.) was given orally. Each rat in treated groups (Gr-50 to Gr-200; n = 10) and negative control group (Gr-NC; n = 10) were administered orally (p.o.) with nimesulide and normal saline, respectively, for 14 days. Similarly, rats of positive control (Gr-PC; n = 10) were administered with cyclophosphamide (CPA; 20 mg/kg b.w.) intraperitoneally. CPA served as positive control, whereas normal saline served as as negative control. Approximately 1-2 mL of blood was collected from retro-orbital sinus for comet assay and subsequently rats were sacrificed to aspirate the femoral bone marrow for the micronucleus test. Structural chromosomal aberration, micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs), polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs) and comet tail length were calculated using micronucleus assay and comet assay, respectively, which served as markers of genotoxicity. In the present study, it was observed that a significant increase in (1) different classified structural chromosomal aberrations with increase in nimesulide dose, such as gaps (50 mg/kg), gaps, breaks and pulverizations (100 mg/kg) and gaps, breaks, fragments, rings and pulverizations (200 mg/kg) and (2) % MnPCE and comet tail length was observed in animals treated with CPA (p < 0.001) or 200 mg of nimesulide (p < 0.05), as compared to negative control. In conclusion, nimesulide (200 mg/kg b.w.) produced a

  10. Intraperitoneal Infusion of Neutral-pH Superoxidized Solution in Rats: Evaluation of Toxicity and Complications on Peritoneal Surface and Liver

    PubMed Central

    Aras, Abbas; Karaman, Erbil; Yıldırım, Serkan; Yılmaz, Özkan; Kızıltan, Remzi; Karaman, Kamuran

    2017-01-01

    Background Superoxidized water (SOW) is known to be a potent disinfectant. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity and complications on the peritoneal surface and liver after infusion of pH-neutral SOW into the peritoneal cavity of rats. Material/Methods Thirty Wistar-Albino rats weighing 250–300 g were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 rats/group). Group1 (control group) rats received single dose of 10 mg/kg saline solution intraperitoneally. Group 2 (single-dose group) rats received a single dose of 10 mg/kg pH-neutral SOW intraperitoneally. Group 3 (multiple-doses group) rats received multiple doses of 10 mg/kg pH-neutral SOW intraperitoneally on days 1, 3, and 5. All animals were killed at 1 week after infusion. Blood specimens were taken to the laboratory and macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed on each rat. Results All 30 rats survived after the infusion. The gross-macroscopic examinations revealed no pathologic findings in any of the 3 groups. The microscopic examination of peritoneum and liver showed no signs of toxicity or complications in any of the 3 groups. There were no statistically significant differences among the 3 groups with regards to the blood biochemistry, including hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, urea, or creatinine levels (p>0.05). However, the leucocyte counts were lower in group 3 than in groups 1 and 2, but this was not statistically significant (p=0.189). Conclusions Intraperitoneal infusion of pH-neutral SOW does not result in any significant toxicity or complications on the liver and peritoneal surface. However, multiple infusions lead to low leucocyte counts and future studies with longer follow-up times are needed. PMID:28224975

  11. The Ayurvedic drug Ksheerabala (101) ameliorates alcohol-induced neurotoxicity by down-regulating the expression of transcription factor (NFkB) in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Rejitha, S.; Prathibha, P.; Madambath, Indira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Most of the pharmaceutical effects of alcohol are due to its accumulation in the brain. Ksheerabala (101) an Ayurvedic formulation mainly used against central nervous system disorders. Aim: To determine the antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of Ksheerabala (101) on alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were grouped into four; control, alcohol (4 g/kg), Ksheerabala (15 μL/1 ml milk/100 g) and Ksheerabala (15 μL/1 ml milk/100 g) + alcohol (4 g/kg). After the experimental period (90 days), the animals were sacrificed and the effect of Ksheerabala (101) was studied on oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, and induction of transcription factor in brain. Results were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: The activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione which were decreased in alcohol-treated rats, increased significantly in co-administered groups. The lipid peroxidation products and protein carbonyls which were increased significantly in alcohol-treated rats decreased significantly in co-administered groups. The expression of gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthase decreased significantly in alcohol-treated rats and increased significantly in co-administered groups. The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) which was up-regulated in alcohol-treated rats was down-regulated in co-administered rats. The histopathology reinforced these results. Conclusion: Ksheerabala (101) attenuates alcohol-induced oxidative stress and down-regulates the expression of NFκB in rat brain. PMID:27313421

  12. Oxidative Balance in Rats during Adaptation to Swimming Load.

    PubMed

    Elikov, A V

    2016-12-01

    The main parameters of free radical oxidation and antioxidant defense in the blood plasma, erythrocytes, and homogenates of skeletal muscles, heart, liver, lungs, and kidneys were studied in adult outbred albino male rats with different degree of adaptation to moderate exposure to swimming. The rats were trained to swim regularly over 1 month. Changes in oxidative balance varied in organs and tissues and depended on the level of training. Malonic dialdehyde content in the erythrocytes after swimming increased by 13.8% in non-trained animals, but decreased by 19.2% in trained rats. Parameters of blood plasma reflect the general oxidative balance of organs and tissues.

  13. The Laboratory Rat: Relating Its Age With Human's

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2013-01-01

    By late 18th or early 19th century, albino rats became the most commonly used experimental animals in numerous biomedical researches, as they have been recognized as the preeminent model mammalian system. But, the precise correlation between age of laboratory rats and human is still a subject of debate. A number of studies have tried to detect these correlations in various ways, But, have not successfully provided any proper association. Thus, the current review attempts to compare rat and human age at different phases of their life. The overall findings indicate that rats grow rapidly during their childhood and become sexually mature at about the sixth week, but attain social maturity 5-6 months later. In adulthood, every day of the animal is approximately equivalent to 34.8 human days (i.e., one rat month is comparable to three human years). Numerous researchers performed experimental investigations in albino rats and estimated, in general, while considering their entire life span, that a human month resembles every-day life of a laboratory rat. These differences signify the variations in their anatomy, physiology and developmental processes, which must be taken into consideration while analyzing the results or selecting the dose of any research in rats when age is a crucial factor. PMID:23930179

  14. Bacopa monniera Stabilized Silver Nanoparticles Attenuates Oxidative Stress Induced by Aluminum in Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Mahitha, B; Deva Prasad Raju, B; Mallikarjuna, K; Durga Mahalakshmi, Ch N; Sushmal, N John

    2015-02-01

    In the recent years usage of nanomedicine plays a promising strategy in the improvement of medical treatment. The ecofriendly synthesized silver nanoparticles has introduced a new opportunity to increase the efficacy of drug by reducing its side effects. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidant property of Bacopa monniera stabilized silver nanoparticles against aluminum induced toxicity in albino mice. Forty male albino mice were randomly divided into five groups. First group was treated as control, second group received aluminum acetate (5 mg/kg b . w), third group received Bacopa monniera extract (5 mg/kg b . w), fourth group received BmSNPs (5 mg/kg b . w), fifth group received aluminum acetate plus BmSNPs. Exposure to aluminum acetate significantly increased lipid peroxidation levels with a significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the brain, liver and kidney of mice. Degenerative changes were also observed in brain, liver and kidney of aluminum treated mice. No significant changes in the oxidative stress were observed in the Bacopa monniera and BmSNPs alone treated mice. Whereas, co-administration of BmSNPs to Al treated mice showed a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation levels with a significant increase of SOD, CAT and GPx indicating the antioxidant potential of nanoparticles and in counteracting Al induced oxidative stress and histological response in male albino mice. These findings clearly implicate that BmSNPs are able to eradicate the oxidative stress and prevent the tissue damage in aluminum exposed mice.

  15. Histopathological changes in liver, kidney and muscles of pesticides exposed malnourished and diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Benjamin, Nidhi; Kushwah, Ameeta; Sharma, R K; Katiyar, A K

    2006-03-01

    Histopathological changes were observed in liver, kidney and muscles of normal, protein-malnourished, diabetic as well as both protein-malnourished and diabetic albino rats when exposed to a mixture of monocrotophos, hexachlorocyclohexane and endosulfan at varying intervals. The examination revealed hepatotoxic, nephrotoxic and muscular necrotic effects in pesticides exposed rats. Toxicity was aggravated in protein-malnourished and diabetic animals and more so, if the animals were both diabetic and protein-malnourished.

  16. Activation of the Albino Sterlet Acipenser ruthenus Eggs by UV-Irradiated Bester Hybrid Spermatozoa to Provide Gynogenetic Progeny.

    PubMed

    Fopp-Bayat, D; Ocalewicz, K

    2015-08-01

    Meiotic gynogenesis was induced in the albino form of sterlet Acipenser ruthenus by activation of eggs with UV-irradiated bester (Huso huso x Acipenser ruthenus) spermatozoa followed by inhibition of the second meiotic division performed by a heat shock. Obtained putative gynogenetic progeny were all albinos. The genetic verification based on three microsatellite DNA markers confirmed the only maternal inheritance of the progeny from the gynogenetic experimental groups. Cytogenetic analysis proved the gynogenetic sterlets were diploids. Application of the albino phenotype together with the molecular and the cytogenetic diagnostic approaches enabled to evaluate the efficiency of the spermatozoa irradiation and application of the heat shock to restore diploid state in the gynogenetic zygotes.

  17. Two types of albino mutants in desert and migratory locusts are caused by gene defects in the same signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sugahara, Ryohei; Tanaka, Seiji; Jouraku, Akiya; Shiotsuki, Takahiro

    2017-04-15

    Albinism is caused by mutations in the genes involved in melanin production. Albino nymphs of Locusta migratoria and Schistocerca gregaria reared under crowded conditions are uniformly creamy-white in color. However, nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon in locusts. The albino strain of L. migratoria is known to lack the dark-color-inducing neuropeptide corazonin (Crz). In this study, we report that this albino strain has a 10-base-pair deletion in the gene LmCRZ, which encodes Crz. This mutation was found to cause a frame-shift, resulting in a null mutation in Crz. On the other hand, the albino strain of S. gregaria is known to have an intact Crz. This strain was found to possess a single-nucleotide substitution in the middle of the Crz receptor-encoding gene, SgCRZR, which caused a nonsense mutation, resulting in a truncated receptor. Silencing of SgCRZR in wild-type S. gregaria nymphs greatly reduced the area and intensity of their black patterning, suggesting that the functional defect of SgCRZR likely causes the albinism. The expression level of SgCRZR in the albino S. gregaria was comparable to that in the wild type. Unlike the wild type, the albino strain of this locust did not show a phase-dependent shift in a morphometric trait controlled by Crz. From these results, we conclude that the mutations in LmCRZ and SgCRZR are responsible for the albinism in L. migratoria and S. gregaria, respectively, indicating that the two types of albinism are caused by different genetic defects in the same Crz signaling pathway.

  18. Integrated analysis of transcriptome and metabolome of Arabidopsis albino or pale green mutants with disrupted nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins.

    PubMed

    Satou, Masakazu; Enoki, Harumi; Oikawa, Akira; Ohta, Daisaku; Saito, Kazunori; Hachiya, Takushi; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Kusano, Miyako; Fukushima, Atsushi; Saito, Kazuki; Kobayashi, Masatomo; Nagata, Noriko; Myouga, Fumiyoshi; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Motohashi, Reiko

    2014-07-01

    We used four mutants having albino or pale green phenotypes with disrupted nuclear-encoded chloroplast proteins to analyze the regulatory system of metabolites in chloroplast. We performed an integrated analyses of transcriptomes and metabolomes of the four mutants. Transcriptome analysis was carried out using the Agilent Arabidopsis 2 Oligo Microarray, and metabolome analysis with two mass spectrometers; a direct-infusion Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR/MS) and a gas chromatograph-time of flight mass spectrometer. Among approximately 200 known metabolites detected by the FT-ICR/MS, 71 metabolites showed significant changes in the mutants when compared with controls (Ds donor plants). Significant accumulation of several amino acids (glutamine, glutamate and asparagine) was observed in the albino and pale green mutants. Transcriptome analysis revealed altered expressions of genes in several metabolic pathways. For example, genes involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway, and the de novo purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway were up-regulated. These results suggest that nitrogen assimilation is constitutively promoted in the albino and pale green mutants. The accumulation of ammonium ions in the albino and pale green mutants was consistently higher than in Ds donor lines. Furthermore, genes related to pyridoxin accumulation and the de novo purine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway were up-regulated, which may have occurred as a result of the accumulation of glutamine in the albino and pale green mutants. The difference in metabolic profiles seems to be correlated with the disruption of chloroplast internal membrane structures in the mutants. In albino mutants, the alteration of metabolites accumulation and genes expression is stronger than pale green mutants.

  19. Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaessgen, Edward H.; Schoeppner, Gregory A.

    2006-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has successfully developed an electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF3) process, a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF3 process can be used to build a complex, unitized part in a layer-additive fashion, although the more immediate payoff is for use as a manufacturing process for adding details to components fabricated from simplified castings and forgings or plate products. The EBF3 process produces structural metallic parts with strengths comparable to that of wrought product forms and has been demonstrated on aluminum, titanium, and nickel-based alloys to date. The EBF3 process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Operation in a vacuum ensures a clean process environment and eliminates the need for a consumable shield gas. Advanced metal manufacturing methods such as EBF3 are being explored for fabrication and repair of aerospace structures, offering potential for improvements in cost, weight, and performance to enhance mission success for aircraft, launch vehicles, and spacecraft. Near-term applications of the EBF3 process are most likely to be implemented for cost reduction and lead time reduction through addition of details onto simplified preforms (casting or forging). This is particularly attractive for components with protruding details that would require a significantly large volume of material to be machined away from an oversized forging, offering significant reductions to the buy-to-fly ratio. Future far-term applications promise improved structural efficiency through reduced weight and improved performance by exploiting the layer-additive nature of the EBF3 process to fabricate tailored unitized structures with functionally graded microstructures and compositions.

  20. Comparison of green and albino individuals of the partially mycoheterotrophic orchid Epipactis helleborine on molecular identities of mycorrhizal fungi, nutritional modes and gene expression in mycorrhizal roots.

    PubMed

    Suetsugu, Kenji; Yamato, Masahide; Miura, Chihiro; Yamaguchi, Katsushi; Takahashi, Kazuya; Ida, Yoshiko; Shigenobu, Shuji; Kaminaka, Hironori

    2017-03-01

    Some green orchids obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi, as well as from photosynthesis. These partially mycoheterotrophic orchids sometimes produce fully achlorophyllous, leaf-bearing (albino) variants. Comparing green and albino individuals of these orchids will help to uncover the molecular mechanisms associated with mycoheterotrophy. We compared green and albino Epipactis helleborine by molecular barcoding of mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient sources based on (15) N and (13) C abundances and gene expression in their mycorrhizae by RNA-seq and cDNA de novo assembly. Molecular identification of mycorrhizal fungi showed that green and albino E. helleborine harboured similar mycobionts, mainly Wilcoxina. Stable isotope analyses indicated that albino E. helleborine plants were fully mycoheterotrophic, whereas green individuals were partially mycoheterotrophic. Gene expression analyses showed that genes involved in antioxidant metabolism were upregulated in the albino variants, which indicates that these plants experience greater oxidative stress than the green variants, possibly due to a more frequent lysis of intracellular pelotons. It was also found that some genes involved in the transport of some metabolites, including carbon sources from plant to fungus, are higher in albino than in green variants. This result may indicate a bidirectional carbon flow even in the mycoheterotrophic symbiosis. The genes related to mycorrhizal symbiosis in autotrophic orchids and arbuscular mycorrhizal plants were also upregulated in the albino variants, indicating the existence of common molecular mechanisms among the different mycorrhizal types.

  1. Early Life Stress Induced by Limited Nesting Material Produces Metabolic Resilience in Response to a High-Fat and High-Sugar Diet in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher P.; Wang, Kristy W.; Morris, Margaret J.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental conditions experienced in early life can profoundly influence long-term metabolic health, but the additive impact of poor nutrition is poorly understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that early life stress (ELS) induced by limited nesting material (LN) combined with high-fat and high-sugar diet (HFHS) post-weaning would worsen diet-related metabolic risk. Sprague-Dawley male rats were exposed to LN, postnatal days 2–9, and at weaning (3 weeks), siblings were given unlimited access to chow or HFHS resulting in (Con-Chow, Con-HFHS, LN-Chow, and LN-HFHS, n = 11–15/group). Glucose and insulin tolerance were tested and rats were killed at 13 weeks. LN rats weighed less at weaning but were not different to control at 13 weeks; HFHS diet led to similar increases in body weight. LN-chow rats had improved glucose and insulin tolerance relative to Con-Chow, whereas LN-HFHS improved insulin sensitivity versus Con-HFHS, associated with increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator-1-alpha (Pgc-1α) mRNA in muscle. No effect of LN on plasma or liver triglycerides was observed, and hepatic gluconeogenic regulatory genes were unaltered. In summary, this study demonstrates that ELS induced by LN conferred some metabolic protection against insulin and/or glucose intolerance in a diet-dependent manner during adulthood. PMID:26441828

  2. This pineal gland does not mediate phase shifts in the disc shedding rhythm of the rat retina

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, A.I.

    1982-01-01

    Albino rats were subjected to pinealectomy, superior cervical ganglionectomy, or the appropriate sham preparation and were placed in lighting conditions so that light onset was advanced by 10 hr. After 6 days of this regimen, all animals exhibited a complete shift in their outer segment disc shedding rhythm, indicating that the pineal gland is not a factor in mediating such a shift.

  3. [An analysis of the structure of the metabolic products of methandrostenolone in the body of white rats].

    PubMed

    Krynetskiĭ, E Iu; Maruzhenkov, D S; ProKhorov, B S; Rylin, A F

    1990-01-01

    The products of biotransformation of an anabolic steroidal drug methandrostenolone in the Wistar albino rat organism were studied. By using the developed methods of HPLC the products of a complete reduction of methandrostenolone were isolated and their chemical structures were determined. It was found that at the reduction of the system of methandrostenolone double bonds were formed all four possible isomers.

  4. The antiatherogenic, renal protective and immunomodulatory effects of purslane, pumpkin and flax seeds on hypercholesterolemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Lamiaa A.A.; Mahmoud, Rasha Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Background: Atherosclerosis remains one of the leading causes of death all over the world. Flax, pumpkin and purslane seeds are rich sources of unsaturated fatty acids, antioxidants and fibers, known to have antiatherogenic activities. Aims: This study was to examine the efficiency of using either flax/pumpkin or purslane/pumpkin seed mixture (components of ω-3 and ω-6) on hyperlipidemia, kidney function and as immunomodulators in rats fed high cholesterol diets. Materials and Methods: 40 male albino rats were divided into four groups: control group, hypercholesterolemic rats, fed the balanced diet supplemented with cholesterol at a dose level of 2 g/100 g diet; the other two groups of animals fed the same previous hypercholesterolemic diet supplemented with either flax/pumpkin seed mixture or pumpkin/purslane seed mixture at ratio of (5/1) (ω-3 and ω-6). Results: The present study showed that 2% cholesterol administration caused a significant increase in total cholesterol, total lipids, and triacylglycerol in both serum and liver. Serum phospholipids, LDL-C, and atherogenic index AI also significantly increased compared to control group. Cholesterol-enriched diet significantly increased serum urea, creatinine, sodium and potassium levels as well as significantly increased serum IgG and IgM compared to healthy control. Consumption of flax/pumpkin or purslane/pumpkin seed mixtures by hypercholesterolemic rats resulted in a significantly decrement in lipid parameters and significant improvement in IgG and IgM levels as compared with hypercholesterolemic rats. Conclusion: Our results suggests that both flax/pumpkin and purslane/pumpkin seed mixtures had anti-atherogenic hypolipidemic and immunmodulator effects which were probably mediated by unsaturated fatty acids (including alpha linolenic acid) present in seed mixture. PMID:22362450

  5. [Absorption of 249Bk from the gastrointestinal tract of rats].

    PubMed

    Zalikin, G A; Nisimov, P G

    1988-01-01

    In experiments with albino mongrel female rats a study was made of the absorption of 249Bk from the gastrointestinal tract after a single per os administration. The bulk of 249Bk (96 per cent) administered either intravenously or per os was mainly deposited in the skeleton and liver. The value of 249Bk absorption from the gastrointestinal tract by days 4 and 8 following administration was 0.05 per cent.

  6. Comparative Study on The Preventive Effect of Saffron Carotenoids, Crocin and Crocetin, in NMU-Induced Breast Cancer in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sajjadi, Meysam; Bathaie, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Objective Crocin (Cro) and crocetin (Crt) are two widely known saffron carotenoids, which exert anticancer effects by different mechanisms. Here, we investigated and compared the preventive effect of Cro and Crt at the initiation and promotion stages of breast cancer induction in an animal model. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, female Wistar albino rats were injected with three doses of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (NMU). The preventive intervention was done at different times for the initiation and promotion stages. Thus, Cro/Crt was administered by gavage 20 days before, or one week after, the first NMU injection, for the prevention at the initiation or promotion stages respectively. The treatment was repeated every three days, and continued up to the end of experiment. Tumor appearance was checked by palpation and some parameters were determined after sacrifice. Results Tumor volume, latency period, and tumor number were significantly decreased in the rat groups treated with both saffron carotenoids for prevention at both the initiation and promotion stages. Tumor incidence was 77% due to NMU injection, which was decreased to 45 and 33% (on average) after Cro and Crt administration, respectively. In addition, enkephaline degrading aminopeptidase (EDA) was decreased significantly in the ovaries of the animals, however, changes in the brain were not significant. Conclusion Crt/Cro showed a significant protective effect against the NMU-induced breast cancer in rats. However, Crt was more effective than Cro and prevention at the initiation stage was more effective than at the promotion stage.

  7. Effects of L-cysteine on lead acetate induced neurotoxicity in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Y I; Sayed, S S

    2016-07-01

    Lead is a toxic heavy metal that adversely affects nervous tissues; it often occurs as an environmental pollutant. We investigated histological changes in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum of adult albino mice following exposure to lead acetate. We also studied the possible ameliorative effect of the chelating agent, L-cysteine, on lead-induced neurotoxicity. We divided albino mice into six groups: 1) vehicle-only control, 2) L-cysteine control, 3 and 4) treated for 7 days with 20 and 40 mg/kg lead acetate, respectively, and 5 and 6) treated for 7 days with 20 and 40 mg/kg lead acetate, respectively, followed by 50 mg/kg L-cysteine for 7 days. Lead acetate administration caused disorganization of cell layers, neuronal loss and degeneration, and neuropil vacuolization. Brain sections from lead-intoxicated mice treated with L-cysteine showed fewer pathological changes; the neuropil showed less vacuolization and the neurons appeared less damaged. L-cysteine at the dose we used only marginally alleviated lead-induced toxicity.

  8. Effect of Dietary Factors upon the Resistance of Albino Mice to Experimental Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Herbert W.; Youmans, Guy P.

    1965-01-01

    Layton, Herbert W. (Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, Ill.), and Guy P. Youmans. Effect of dietary factors upon the resistance of albino mice to experimental infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. J. Bacteriol. 90:958–964. 1965.—Each of the major nutritional components of a synthetic diet was quantitatively altered to determine its effect upon the resistance of albino mice to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The animals were challenged after the first 2 weeks of feeding, and the percentage that survived acute death was determined statistically. The level of protein which provided the greatest percentage of survival was 30%; increases or decreases from this level were detrimental. The optimal fat level was found to be 5% for either corn oil or coconut oil. Survival decreased when greater amounts of oil were added, and this effect was especially marked for 40% coconut oil. Vitamin A enhanced survival when increased from the normal level of 20,000 units per kg of diet to 160,000 units, but further increases were harmful. An amount of 75 g/kg of a vitamin B complex mixture afforded optimal resistance, but 25-g shifts in either direction lowered this resistance. Vitamin K-free diets resulted in high levels of survival, and addition of the vitamin resulted in proportional decreases in resistance. PMID:5847809

  9. Clinical evaluation and molecular screening of a large consecutive series of albino patients.

    PubMed

    Mauri, Lucia; Manfredini, Emanuela; Del Longo, Alessandra; Veniani, Emanuela; Scarcello, Manuela; Terrana, Roberta; Radaelli, Adriano Egidio; Calò, Donata; Mingoia, Giuseppe; Rossetti, Antonella; Marsico, Giovanni; Mazza, Marco; Gesu, Giovanni Pietro; Cristina Patrosso, Maria; Penco, Silvana; Piozzi, Elena; Primignani, Paola

    2017-02-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is characterized by hypopigmentation of the skin, hair and eye, and by ophthalmologic abnormalities caused by a deficiency in melanin biosynthesis. In this study we recruited 321 albino patients and screened them for the genes known to cause oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1-4 and OCA6) and ocular albinism (OA1). Our purpose was to detect mutations and genetic frequencies of the main causative genes, offering to albino patients an exhaustive diagnostic assessment within a multidisciplinary approach including ophthalmological, dermatological, audiological and genetic evaluations. We report 70 novel mutations and the frequencies of the major causative OCA genes that are as follows: TYR (44%), OCA2 (17%), TYRP1 (1%), SLC45A2 (7%) and SLC24A5 (<0.5%). An additional 5% of patients had GPR143 mutations. In 19% of cases, a second reliable mutation was not detected, whereas 7% of our patients remain still molecularly undiagnosed. This comprehensive study of a consecutive series of OCA/OA1 patients allowed us to perform a clinical evaluation of the different OCA forms.

  10. Dietary Yucca schidigera supplementation reduces arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Turkmen, Ruhi; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Sever, Emine

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera (Ys) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in arsenic-exposed mice. Forty Swiss albino male mice were divided into five equal groups. Group I (control group) was given normal diet and tap water for 28 days. Group II (arsenic group) was given normal diet and 100 mg/L arsenic along with drinking water for 28 days. Groups III-V were given three different doses of Ys (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in supplemented diet and arsenic (100 mg/L) along with drinking water throughout the entire period of 28 days. The arsenic significantly increased serum biochemical parameters and malondialdehyde levels in blood and tissue. However, arsenic significantly decreased tissue glutathione concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, dietary supplementation of Ys, in a dose-dependent manner, resulted in reversal of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, LPO and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, Ys also exhibited protective action against the arsenic-induced focal gliosis and hyperemi in brain, necrosis and degeneration in liver, degeneration and dilatation in Bowman's capsule of kidney and hyaline degeneration in heart tissue of mice. Consequently, our results demonstrate that Ys especially high-dose supplementation in diet decreases arsenic-induced oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerate of tissues in Swiss albino mice.

  11. [Effects of cadmium on the ovarian parenchyma in Swiss albino mice].

    PubMed

    Lubo-Palma, Adonías; Nava-Leal, Carmen; Villasmil, Víctor; Quevedo, Ana Luisa; Montiel, Maria; Simoes, David; Faría, Clarisa

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of cadmium on the ovarian parenchyma. An experimental study was designed with 25 Swiss albino mice (healthy females) living 50 days under controlled laboratory conditions. For the experimental group, 21 mice were selected at random and divided into 3 groups (B, C, and D) of 7 animals each; thereafter they were exposed, respectively, to 50, 100 and 150 ppm of cadmium chloride dissolved in water offered ad libitum. They were compared with the control group A (6 remaining mice). Beginning on week three, physical and behavioral changes were observed: darkening of the eyes, yellowish discoloration of hair, flaccid and hypotonic muscles, irritability, aggressiveness and indifference. Ovaric histological findings were compared among the groups through optic microscopy and they were the following in cadmium exposed mice: 1) in the epithelium, proliferation, finger-like projections, hyperplasia, degeneration and necrosis; 2) in the ovary cortex, increased numbers of atresic follicles, decreased number of follicles in different stages of maturation, disorganization, edema and decreased number of yellow bodies; 3) in the interfollicular zone, areas of disorganization, edema and necrosis, mainly in the samples belonging to group D; 4) in the ovaric medulla, congestion, hyperemia and large sanguineous vasodilatation tending to haemorrhage. Since these effects increased with increasing concentrations of cadmium chloride, we may conclude that cadmium chloride is a highly toxic agent on the ovaric parenchyma of Swiss albino mice.

  12. Antioxidant potential of tea reduces arsenite induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D; Roy, S; Roy, M

    2010-04-01

    Environmental arsenic (As) is a potent human carcinogen and groundwater As contamination is a major health concern in West Bengal, India. Oxidative stress has been one of the prime factors in As-induced carcinogenicity. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), beyond the body's endogenous antioxidant balance cause a severe imbalance of the cellular antioxidant defence mechanism. Tea, a popular beverage has excellent chemopreventive and antioxidant properties. In this study it was investigated whether these flavonoids could ameliorate the arsenite (As III) induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Bio-monitoring with comet assay elicited that the increase in genotoxicity caused by As III was counteracted by both black tea and green tea. Elevated levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyl by As III were effectively reduced with green as well as black tea. They also exhibited protective action against the As III induced depletion of antioxidants like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) in mice liver tissue. Thus the tea polyphenols by virtue of their antioxidant potential may be used as an effective agent to reduce the As III induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

  13. Anticarcinogenic effect of black tea on pulmonary tumors in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Yogeshwer; Taneja, Pankaj

    2002-02-25

    The widespread consumption of tea as beverage throughout the world has stimulated interest in the possibility of its use in chemoprevention of cancer. The present set of investigation was carried out to evaluate the anticarcinogenic activity of black tea using lung tumorigenesis model in Swiss albino mice. Diethylnitrosoamine (DEN), a known inducer of pulmonary tumors was given at the multiple (total eight) doses of 20mg/kg body weight through oral intubation to Swiss albino mice. Simultaneously, three different groups of animals received 1, 2 and 4% aqueous black tea extracts (ATE) as a sole source of drinking solution. The positive control group received DEN treatment only. The animals were sacrificed after 28 weeks of the first dose of DEN. They were identified for different histological types of alveologenic pulmonary tumors. In the positive DEN treated group, higher incidences of pulmonary tumors were observed, while in ATE treated groups, a lower incidence of DEN induced lung tumorigenicity was recorded. The percentage of mice having lung tumors was decreased following ATE administration. Besides this, significant decrease in the number of tumors/mouse was observed in 2 and 4% ATE supplemented groups. The histological examination revealed a significant decrease in pulmonary adenomas at all doses of ATE. The number of animals showing pulmonary adenocarcinomas induced by DEN was found to be inhibited significantly by 4% ATE. In addition, splenomegaly was found to be protected by ATE administration.

  14. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    PubMed

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

  15. Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Jaybhaye, Deepali; Varma, Sushikumar; Gagne, Nitin; bonde, Vijay; Gite, Amol; Bhosle, Deepak

    2010-01-01

    The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil. PMID:21455447

  16. Beneficial effects of an Andrographis paniculata extract and andrographolide on cognitive functions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Ajit Kumar; Rai, Geeta; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-09-01

    Context Andrographolide containing Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F.) Wall. Ex Nees (Acanthaceae) extracts is often used for treatments of diabetes and other inflammatory disorders commonly accompanying cognitive and other psychiatric disorders. Objective To compare the efficacies of a standardised A. paniculata extract (AP) and pure andrographolide on cognitive functions, oxidative stress and cholinergic function in diabetic rats. Materials and methods Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Charles Foster albino rats treated orally with a hydro-methanolic A. paniculata leaf extract (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day), or with pure andrographolide (15, 30 and 60 mg/kg/day) for 10 consecutive days, were subjected to Morris water maze test. After the test, acetylcholinesterase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities and lipid peroxidation (LPO) in brain tissues were assessed. Results Acetylcholinesterase activity in pre-frontal cortex and hippocampus of diabetic rats was 2.1 and 2.6 times higher compared to nondiabetic rats. LPO was 1.6 times higher and decreased SOD (56.3%) and CAT (44.9%) activities in pre-frontal cortex of diabetic rats compared to nondiabetic rats. AP or andrographolide treatments dose dependently attenuated cognitive deficits, reduced acetylcholinesterase activity, oxidative stress, improved diabetic hyperglycemia and insulin deficiency. All observed effects of AP were quantitatively almost equal to those expected from its analytically quantified andrographolide content. Discussion and conclusion Reported observations are the very first ones suggesting beneficial effects of andrographolide against diabetes associated cognitive deficits, increased acetylcholinesterase activity and deteriorated antioxidative status. Efforts to exploit A. paniculata extracts enriched in andrographolide as preventive measures against such disorders can be warranted.

  17. Ultrastructure of neurons and interneuronal connections in the sensomotor cortex of progeny of alcohol-addicted rats

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, E.N.

    1985-05-01

    This paper studies the ultrastructure of neurons and interneuronal connections in the sensomotor cortex of the progeny of alcohol-addicted rats. Experiments were carried out on 12 female and four male albino rats; they were given alcohol solutions for 4 months and then mated. The female rats continued to ingest alcohol until the young rats acquired vision. The sensomotor cortex of experimental young rats aged 21 and 30 days and of intact animals of the same age was investigated; the sections were stained with uranyl acetate and studied. It is shown that alcoholic intoxication of females and males causes significant disturbances of the structural organization of the sensomotor cortex in the progeny.

  18. Effects of fly ash and boric acid on Y2O3-stabilized tetragonal ZrO2 dispersed with MgAl2O4: An experimental study on rat subcutaneous tissue.

    PubMed

    Ergun, Gulfem; Guru, Metin; Egilmez, Ferhan; Cekic-Nagas, Isil; Yilmaz, Dervis

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the subcutaneous tissue reaction around zirconia-based materials. Forty-eight male Wistar Albino rats were used in this study. Disk-shaped (1mm height and 5mm diameter) samples composed of 67% spinel (MgAl2O4), 27% tetragonal zirconia polycrystal, 4% (m/m) fly ash and 2% (m/m) boric acid were inserted into dorsal muscles of rats. After 1, 4, 8 and 16 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and zirconia materials were removed with the surrounding tissue. Tissue sections were made with a microtome and then stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Sections were evaluated for the intensity of inflammation. Additionally, the somatic and visceral lymph nodes were evaluated. Data were submitted to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey HSD tests at a significant level of p < 0.05. There were statistically significant differences between mean inflammatory scores in different experimental periods (p <0.05). In addition, the inflammatory reaction decreased over time. The tested materials had no damaging effect on the rat lymph nodes and did not have a toxic action on the internal organs. Therefore, zirconia polycrystal tested in the present study may offer a promising treatment alternative after further mechanical and biological studies are performed.

  19. The effect of GABAmimetics on the duration of immobility in the forced swim test in albino mice.

    PubMed

    El Zahaf, Najwa Ahmed; Elhwuegi, Abdalla Salem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Studies regarding the role of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) in depression are conflicting. Therefore, it was decided to examine the effect of different drugs that enhance the GABA system on the time of immobility induced by the forced swim test (FST). Materials and methods Adult albino mice were divided into several groups of six animals. Each group received an intraperitoneal injection of either imipramine (10, 20, or 30 mg/kg), diazepam (0.5, 1, or 2 mg/kg), vigabatrin (100, 200, or 300 mg/kg), zolpidem (2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg), or alprazolam (1, 2.5, or 5 mg/kg). Control groups received the appropriate vehicle. One hour after injection, the duration of immobility was measured for 5 min in the FST. The percentage change in the duration of immobility from the control was calculated for each group. The statistical test of the difference between the treated and the control groups was calculated using unpaired Student's t-test. Results Imipramine produced a significant dose-dependent decrease in the duration of immobility (78, 74, and 56%, respectively). Different doses of diazepam, vigabatrin, and zolpidem produced a significant increase in the duration of immobility (119, 126, and 128%), (116, 124, and 128%), and (108, 109, and 119%), respectively. The two low doses of alprazolam produced a significant increase (115 and 120%), while the high dose produced a significant decrease in the duration of immobility (74%). Conclusion Increasing central GABAergic activity by different mechanisms has resulted in a depressant-like activity measured as an increase in the duration of immobility in the FST model of depression.

  20. Effect of feeding a high-fat diet independently of caloric intake on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Mona A.; Abogresha, Noha M.; Tamany, Dalia A.; Lotfy, Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, predisposing females to health hazards including compromised reproductive capacity. Our objective was to investigate the effect of ad libitum, isocalorically and hypocalorically restricted high-fat diet (HFD) feeding on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats. Material and methods Twenty female albino Sprague Dawley rats were used; 5 rats were kept on a standard pellet animal diet to serve as a control group (A) and 15 rats were fed a HFD for 9 weeks to induce obesity. The HFD fed animals were equally divided into three groups: an ad libitum HFD group (B), an isocalorically restricted HFD group (C), and a hypocalorically restricted HFD group (D). Estrous cyclicity, hormonal levels, ovarian histopathology and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were evaluated. Results The HFD-fed rats in groups B, C and D had significant irregularity in estrous cyclicity Vs group A (p = 0.001, 0.003 and 0.034 respectively). Groups C and D had significant reduction in serum progesterone level (p = 0.006 and 0.018 Vs A). Isocaloric restriction of HFD feeding significantly increased serum LH. Groups B and C had a significant increase in caspase-3 expression in the ovary (p < 0.001). Conclusions Ad libitum HFD interfered with the normal estrous cycle and enhanced apoptosis of luteal cells in obese female rats. The HFD restriction interfered with the normal estrous cycle and caused functional insufficiency of the corpus luteum in obese female rats. These results suggest that HFD feeding determinately affects female reproductive function independently of caloric intake. PMID:27478474

  1. Developmental toxicity studies with 6 forms of titanium dioxide test materials (3 pigment-different grade & 3 nanoscale) demonstrate an absence of effects in orally-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Boatman, R; Brown, S C

    2015-12-01

    Six different commercial forms and sizes of titanium dioxide particles were tested in separate developmental toxicity assays. The three pigment-grade (pg) or 3 ultrafine (uf)/nanoscale (anatase and/or rutile) titanium dioxide (TiO2) particle-types were evaluated for potential maternal and developmental toxicity in pregnant rats by two different laboratories. All studies were conducted according to OECD Guideline 414 (Prenatal Developmental Toxicity Study). In addition, all test materials were robustly characterized. The BET surface areas of the pg and uf samples ranged from 7 to 17 m(2)/g and 50-82 m(2)/g respectively (see Table 1). The test substances were formulated in sterile water. In all of the studies, the formulations were administered by oral gavage to time-mated rats daily beginning around the time of implantation and continuing until the day prior to expected parturition. In 3 of the studies (uf-1, uf-3, & pg-1), the formulations were administered to Crl:CD(SD) rats beginning on gestation day (GD) 6 through GD 20. In 3 additional studies (uf-2, and pg-2, pg-3 TiO2 particles), the formulations were administered to Wistar rats beginning on GD 5 through 19. The dose levels used in all studies were 0, 100, 300, or 1000 mg/kg/day; control group animals were administered the vehicle. During the in-life portions of the studies, body weights, food consumption, and clinical observations before and after dosing were collected on a daily basis. All dams were euthanized just prior to expected parturition (GD 21 for Crl:CD(SD) rats and GD 20 for Wistar rats). The gross necropsies included an examination and description of uterine contents including counts of corpora lutea, implantation sites, resorptions, and live and dead fetuses. All live fetuses were sexed, weighed, and examined externally and euthanized. Following euthanasia, fresh visceral and head examinations were performed on selected fetuses. The fetal carcasses were then processed and examined for skeletal

  2. The evaluation of anti-ulcerogenic effect of rhizome starch of two source plants of Tugaksheeree (Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn.) on pyloric ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    Rajashekhara, N.; Ashok, B. K.; Sharma, Parmeshwar P.; Ravishankar, B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the present era, because of the life-style, the disorders such as hyperacidity and gastric ulcers are found very frequently. Satwa (starch) obtained from the rhizomes of two plants namely Curcuma angustifolia Roxb. and Maranta arundinacea Linn. are used in folklore practice for the treatment of above complaints under the name Tugaksheeree. Aim: To compare the anti-ulcerogenic activity of the above two drugs in pyloric ligation induced gastric ulcer in albino rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 18 Wistar strain albino rats of both sexes grouped into three groups. Group C served as pyloric ligated control group, Group I received starch of C. angustifolia suspension and Group II received starch of M. arundinacea for seven days. On 8th day pylorus was ligated. After ligation the animals were deprived of food and water and sacrificed at the end of 14 h. The collected gastric contents were used for biochemical estimation and ulcer index was calculated from excised stomach. Results: Both the test drugs showed statistically significant decrease in the volume, increase in the pH, reduced the free acidity of gastric juice and decreased the peptic activity. The starch of C. angustifolia reduced a total acidity non-significantly while M. arundinacea reduced it significantly. Among the two drugs the M. arundinacea has effectively reduced the peptic activity, which is statistically significant. M. arundinacea shown statistically significant increase of total carbohydrates. Conclusion: Both the test drugs proved anti-ulcer activity and prevents the chance of gastric ulcer. Among these two M. arundinacea is more effective. PMID:25558167

  3. Characterization and comparison of proteomes of albino sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus (Selenka) by iTRAQ analysis.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chang-ge; Zhang, Dijun; Ma, Chengnv; Zhou, Jun; He, Shan; Su, Xiu-rong

    2016-04-01

    Sea cucumber is a commercially important marine organism in China. Of the different colored varieties sold in China, albino sea cucumber has the greatest appeal among consumers. Identification of factors contributing to albinism in sea cucumber is therefore likely to provide a scientific basis for improving the cultivability of these strains. In this study, two-dimensional liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled with isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification labeling was used for the first time to quantitatively define the proteome of sea cucumbers and reveal proteomic characteristics unique to albino sea cucumbers. A total of 549 proteins were identified and quantified in albino sea cucumber and the functional annotations of 485 proteins have been exhibited based on COG database. Compared with green sea cucumber, 12 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in the intestine and 16 proteins in the body wall of albino sea cucumber. Among them, 5 proteins were up-regulated in the intestine and 8 proteins were down-regulated in body wall. Gene ontology annotations of these differentially expressed proteins consisted mostly of 'biological process'. The large number of differentially expressed proteins identified here should be highly useful in further elucidating the mechanisms underlying albinism in sea cucumber.

  4. Effects of X radiation on the retina of the albino rabbit as viewed with the scanning electron microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, J.C.; Barsa-Newton, M.C.; Wardly, J.

    1980-02-01

    The eyes of albino rabbits were exposed in vivo to 7000 rad of X radiation, and the retinas were examined with a scanning electron microscope 24 and 72 h after irradiation. The rods and cones of the retina were observed to show the most severe damage.

  5. Toxicological Evaluation of the Methanol Extract of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Bark in Mice and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Y. A.; Veeranjaneyulu, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to evaluate acute and repeated dose toxicity of the methanol extract (ME) of the Gmelina arborea stem bark. Materials and Methods: For the acute toxicity study, ME of G. arborea was orally administered to Swiss albino mice at a dose range of 300–5000 mg/kg. For the repeated dose toxicity study, the Wistar rats of either sex were orally administered with ME of G. arborea at the doses of 300, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day for a period of 28 days. The effects on body weight, food and water consumption, organ weight, hematology, clinical chemistry as well as histology were studied. Results: The administration of ME from the G. arborea bark at 300–5000 mg/kg did not produce mortality or significant changes in the clinical signs. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of ME was 5000 mg/kg. There were no significant differences in the general condition, growth, organ weights, hematological parameters, clinical chemistry values, or gross and microscopic appearance of the organs from the treatment groups as compared to the control group. Conclusion: ME of G. arborea was found safe in acute and repeated dose toxicity studies when tested in mice and rats. PMID:22778509

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea against arsenic induced toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gora, Ravuri Halley; Baxla, Sushma Lalita; Kerketta, Priscilla; Patnaik, Subhasree; Roy, Birendra Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tephrosia purpurea (TP) against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) induced sub-acute toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty four wistar albino rats of either sex were randomly divided into three groups. Group II and III were orally administered with sodium arsenite (10 mg/kg) daily in drinking water for 28 days. Additionally Group III was orally treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Tephrosia purpurea (TP) @ 500 mg/kg daily for the same time period, whereas only deionized water was given to Group I (control). Serum biomarker levels, oxidative stress parameters and arsenic concentration were assessed in liver. Histopathology was also conducted. Results: It has been seen that TPE (500 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.01) reduced serum ALT, AST, ALP activity and increased total protein and reduced necrosis and inflammation in liver of group III compared to group II. A significantly (P < 0.01) higher LPO and lower GSH levels without change in SOD activity in liver was also observed in group II compared to group III, though there was no significant difference in arsenic accumulation between them. The plant extract also protects the animals of group III from significant (P < 0.01) reduction in body weight. Conclusion: Our study shows that supplementation of Tephrosia purpurea extract (500 mg/kg) could ameliorate the hepatotoxic action of arsenic. PMID:24741193

  7. Antioxidant and Nephroprotective Activities of Aconitum heterophyllum Root in Glycerol Induced Acute Renal Failure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Eerike, Madhavi; Raghuraman, Lakshmipathy Prabhu; Rajamanickam, Maignana Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Aim The present study was to evaluate the antioxidant and nephroprotective activities of ethanolic extract of Aconitum heterophyllum root (EEAHR) in glycerol induced acute renal failure (ARF) in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods In vitro antioxidant activity of EEAHR was assessed using the 2, 2-diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay), nitric oxide radical scavenging (NO assay), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 assay) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) scavenging activity assays. In vivo study, rats were divided into four groups of six each for assessing the nephroprotective activity. Group-1 received normal saline, group-2 received 50% glycerol (10 ml/kg) alone, group-3 received glycerol and 250 mg/kg of EEAHR and group-4 received glycerol and 500 mg/kg of EEAHR. The renal injury and recovery was measured by serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total proteins, albumin, urine output and histopathological changes. Results In vitro antioxidant activity of root extract was found to be equal to Vitamin C and in an in vivo study root extract treated animals showed significant attenuation of biochemical parameters and histopathological changes of the kidney compared to glycerol treated group and it was found to be more significant with the extract at 500 mg/kg than 250mg/kg. Conclusion The present study revealed that Aconitum heterophyllum root has shown antioxidant and nephroprotective activities. PMID:27134892

  8. Protective effect of propolis on methotrexate-induced kidney injury in the rat.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Hasan Basri; Öztürk, İsmet; Sönmez, Mehmet Fatih

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Propolis is a potent antioxidant and a free radical scavenger. Pharmacological induction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) has been investigated for restoring normal cellular function following an injury. In this study, effect of propolis on HSP-70 expression in methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity and direct preventive effect of propolis in this toxicity were investigated. Material and methods A total of 40 male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: Group 1 was the untreated control. On the eighth day of the experiment, groups 2 and 3 received single intraperitoneal injections of methotrexate (MTX) at 20 mg/kg. Groups 3 and 4 received 100 mg/kg/day propolis (by oral gavage) for 15 d by the first day of the experimental protocol. Then the rats were decapitated under ketamine esthesia and their kidney tissues were removed. HSP-70 expression, apoptosis, and histopathological damage scores were then compared. Results MTX caused epithelial desquamation into the lumen of the tubules, dilatation, and congestion of the peritubular vessels and renal corpuscles with obscure Bowman's space. The number of apoptotic cells (p = 0.000) and HSP-70 (p = 0.002) expression were increased in group 2. Propolis prevented the rise in number of apoptotic cells (p = 0.017), HSP-70 (p = 0.000) expression, and improved kidney morphology. Conclusions It was found that methotrexate gives rise to serious damage in the kidney and propolis is a potent antioxidant agent in preventing kidney injury.

  9. Pentoxifylline Inhibits Epidural Fibrosis in Post-Laminectomy Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kelten, Bilal; Erdogan, Hakan; Antar, Veysel; Sanel, Selim; Tuncdemir, Matem; Kutnu, Muge; Karaoglan, Alper; Orki, Tulay

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this experimental study was to investigate the effectiveness of intramuscular pentoxifylline in the prevention of postoperative fibrosis. Material/Methods We divided 16 adult Wistar albino rats into 2 equal groups: treatment and control. Both groups underwent L1 vertebral total laminectomy to expose the dura. The intramuscular treatment group received pentoxifylline. Four weeks later, epidural fibrosis was studied in both groups using electron microscopy, light microscopy, histology, biochemistry, and macroscopy. Results The evaluation of epidural fibrosis in the 2 groups according to macroscopic (p<0.01) assessment and light microscopy revealed that epidural scar tissue formation was lower in the treatment group compared to the control group (p<0.001) and the number of fibroblasts was also decreased significantly in the pentoxifylline-treated group (p<0.05). More immature fibers were demonstrated in the treatment group by electron microscopy in comparison with the control group. In biochemical analysis, a statistically significant decrease was detected in hydroxyproline, which indicates fibrosis and myeloperoxidase activity, and shows an inflammatory response (P<0.001). Conclusions Systemic pentoxifylline application prevents postoperative epidural fibrosis and adhesions with various mechanisms. Our study is the first to present evidence of experimental epidural fibrosis prevention with pentoxifylline. PMID:26974057

  10. Influence of 50 Hz frequency sinusoidal magnetic field on the blood-brain barrier permeability of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Oztaş, Baria; Kalkan, Tunaya; Tuncel, Handan

    2004-07-01

    The combined effects of diabetes and a 50 Hz, 5 mT RMS flux density sinusoidal magnetic field for 8 h a day, for 21 consecutive days on the permeation of Evans-blue dye through the blood-brain barrier were studied in male Wistar albino rats. Our results suggest that magnetic field has no effect on the blood-brain barrier permeability in normoglycemic animals, but that diabetic rats are vulnerable to magnetic fields.

  11. Effects of substance P on the isolated iris sphincter muscle of the albino rabbit.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, A; Mochizuki, M; Masuda, K

    1982-01-01

    Effects of substance P on the isolated iris sphincter muscle of the albino rabbit were studied. The muscle was incubated in an organ bath containing Krebs' physiologic solution and the muscle tension was recorded with an isometric transducer. Substance P induced dose-dependent muscle contraction in the concentration range from 3 x 10(-11) to 3 x 10(-7) M and ED50 was estimated to be 3.7 x 10(-9) M. The muscle contraction was not antagonized by tropicamide, phentolamine, propranolol, chlorpheniramine, cimetidine, methysergide or baclofen. Tetrodotoxin (3 x 10(-7) g/ml) pretreatment did not change the muscle contraction induced by substance P. A retrobulbar capsaicin injection did not cause supersensitivity in the muscle response to substance P. These results indicate that the iris sphincter muscle contraction caused by substance P is not mediated by cholinergic-, adrenergic-, histamine- or serotonine-recepters and suggests that its action on the muscle is direct.

  12. Anti-seizure activity of flower extracts of Nepeta bractaeta in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Aslam, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid; Nizami, Qudsia; Khanam, Razia; Siddiqui, Aisha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupts the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethno pharmacological information of the plant, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bractaeta was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bracteata were observed for their antiepileptic activity by increased current Electroshock seizures (ICES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in ICES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. In ICES model, NBAE at higher dose showed 16.7 % and NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure and in PTZ model, NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure. From the experiments performed, it can be said that Nepeta bractaeta does possess anticonvulsant property.

  13. Anticonvulsant activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Melissa parviflora in experimentally induced Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Nizami, Qudsia; Asiaf, Asia; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Aslam, Mohammad; Khanam, Razia; Mujeeb, Mohammad; Umar, Sadiq; Siddiqi, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of whole plant extracts of Melissa parviflora using MES and PTZ induced seizures models. The dried whole plant was subjected to extraction in methanol and water. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical tests and the carbohydrate, flavonols, coumarins, glycosides and steroid were found to be present. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant of Melissa parviflora were observed for their anticonvulsant activity by Maximal Electroshock seizures (MES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in MES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. From the literature surveys as well experiments performed, it can be said that Melissa parviflora does pose anticonvulsant property. PMID:27298604

  14. Anti-seizure activity of flower extracts of Nepeta bractaeta in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Aslam, Mohammad; Ansari, Shahid; Nizami, Qudsia; Khanam, Razia; Siddiqui, Aisha; Ahmad, Mohd Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by unprovoked, recurring seizures that disrupts the nervous system and can cause mental and physical dysfunction. Based on the ethno pharmacological information of the plant, the methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bractaeta was evaluated for its antiepileptic activity. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the flowers of Nepeta bracteata were observed for their antiepileptic activity by increased current Electroshock seizures (ICES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in ICES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. In ICES model, NBAE at higher dose showed 16.7 % and NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure and in PTZ model, NBME at higher dose showed 33.3 % protection against seizure. From the experiments performed, it can be said that Nepeta bractaeta does possess anticonvulsant property. PMID:27540346

  15. Anticonvulsant activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Melissa parviflora in experimentally induced Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Jalal Uddin; Nizami, Qudsia; Asiaf, Asia; Parray, Shabir Ahmad; Ahmad, Shiekh Tanveer; Aslam, Mohammad; Khanam, Razia; Mujeeb, Mohammad; Umar, Sadiq; Siddiqi, Ayesha

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of whole plant extracts of Melissa parviflora using MES and PTZ induced seizures models. The dried whole plant was subjected to extraction in methanol and water. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical tests and the carbohydrate, flavonols, coumarins, glycosides and steroid were found to be present. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of the plant of Melissa parviflora were observed for their anticonvulsant activity by Maximal Electroshock seizures (MES) test and Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) test using Swiss albino mice. Both the extracts showed significant activity in MES and PTZ induced convulsions in comparison to control. From the literature surveys as well experiments performed, it can be said that Melissa parviflora does pose anticonvulsant property.

  16. Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Jyoti; Yadav, Mridul; Sood, Sushma; Dahiya, Kiran; Singh, Veena

    2010-01-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum Sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent. PMID:21455446

  17. Effects of a sunscreen formulation on albino hairless mice: a morphological approach.

    PubMed

    Hossy, Bryan Hudson; da Costa Leitão, Alvaro Augusto; Luz, Flávio Barbosa; dos Santos, Elisabete Pereira; Allodi, Silvana; de Pádula, Marcelo; de Oliveira Miguel, Nádia Campos

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of a sunscreen formulation on the skin of albino hairless mice subjected to simulated solar light (SSL) in terms of morphological changes. Young adult albino hairless mice HRS/J (n = 36) were used as an experimental model for determining skin photoaging changes. Mice were irradiated with SSL, and the sunscreen (estimated SPF 30, PF-UVA) was obtained from the Pharmacy College/UFRJ, Brazil. The animals were divided into four groups: non-treated (G1), radiation only (G2), sunscreen-treated (G3) and vehicle + radiation (G4). Animals from groups G2, G3 and G4 were irradiated weekly (5 weeks), with no immobilization. One week after the final exposure, the dorsal skin was observed using a dermatoscopic camera. Biopsies were analyzed in order to quantify neovascularization and to evaluate histological aspects of the skin. Neovascularization was also evaluated with immunohistochemical reactions for the Von Willebrand factor. Animals from G2 displayed classical morphological changes denoting skin photoaging: thickening of the epidermis, increased dermal cellularity, follicular keratosis, sebaceous gland hyperplasia, and angiogenesis. Animals from groups G3 and G1 displayed similar morphological profiles, without these changes. Animals from group G4 showed more morphological changes than group G2, emphasizing the relative importance of the putative photosensitizing components present in the vehicle formulation. The extent of the morphological skin changes suggested that the sunscreen formulation was effective against SSL, and showed the importance of assessing the phototoxicity of vehicle formulations.

  18. Protection against radiation-induced testicular damage in Swiss albino mice by Mentha piperita (Linn.).

    PubMed

    Samarth, Ravindra M; Samarth, Meenakshi

    2009-04-01

    The protective effects of Mentha piperita leaf extract against radiation-induced damage in testis of Swiss albino mice have been studied. Animals (Male Swiss albino mice) were given M. piperita leaf extract orally (1 g/kg body weight/day) for three consecutive days before radiation exposure (8 Gy gamma-radiation). Mice were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 14, and 30 days after irradiation to evaluate the radiomodulatory effect in terms of histological alterations, lipid peroxidation, and acid and alkaline phosphatases levels in testis. Radiation treatment showed reduction in the testis weight during all days of observation, however, in the M. piperita leaf extract-pretreated irradiated group there was a significant increase in testis weight. Radiation treatment induced moderate to severe testicular atrophy with degeneration of germ cells in seminiferous tubules. The tubules were shrunken and greatly depleted of germ cells. Sertoli cells with few germ cells were observed in the lumen. However, animals pre-treated with M. piperita leaf extract and exposed to radiation showed normal testicular morphology with regular arrangement of germ cells and slight degeneration of seminiferous epithelium. Significant decreases in the lipid peroxidation and acid phosphatase level and increase in level of alkaline phosphatase were observed in testis. The M. piperita leaf extract showed high amount of phenolic content, flavonoids content and flavonols. The results of the present study suggest that M. piperita has a significant radioprotective effect and the amount of phenolic compounds, the content of flavonoids and flavonols of M. piperita leaf extract may be held responsible for radioprotective effect due to their antioxidant and radical scavenging activity.

  19. Using the Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino Zebrafish Line to Characterize In Vivo Expression of neurod

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Jennifer L.; Ochocinska, Margaret J.; Hitchcock, Peter F.; Thummel, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we used a newly-created transgenic zebrafish, Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino, to further characterize the expression of neurod in the developing and adult retina and to determine neurod expression during adult photoreceptor regeneration. We also provide observations regarding the expression of neurod in a variety of other tissues. In this line, EGFP is found in cells of the developing and adult retina, pineal gland, cerebellum, olfactory bulbs, midbrain, hindbrain, neural tube, lateral line, inner ear, pancreas, gut, and fin. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we compare the expression of the nrd:egfp transgene to that of endogenous neurod and to known retinal cell types. Consistent with previous data based on in situ hybridizations, we show that during retinal development, the nrd:egfp transgene is not expressed in proliferating retinal neuroepithelium, and is expressed in a subset of retinal neurons. In contrast to previous studies, nrd:egfp is gradually re-expressed in all rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration in adult zebrafish, in situ hybridization reveals that neurod is not expressed in Müller glial-derived neuronal progenitors, but is expressed in photoreceptor progenitors as they migrate to the outer nuclear layer and differentiate into new rod photoreceptors. During photoreceptor regeneration, expression of the nrd:egfp matches that of neurod. We conclude that Tg(nrd:egfp)/albino is a good representation of endogenous neurod expression, is a useful tool to visualize neurod expression in a variety of tissues and will aid investigating the fundamental processes that govern photoreceptor regeneration in adults. PMID:22235264

  20. Duration sensitivity of neurons in the primary auditory cortex of albino mouse.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Qi, Qiaozhen; Huang, Caifei; Chomiak, Taylor; Luo, Feng

    2016-02-01

    Many neurons in the central auditory system of a number of species have been found to be sensitive to the duration of sound stimuli. While previous studies have shown that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibitory input is important for duration sensitivity in the inferior colliculus (IC), it is still unknown whether (GABA)-ergic inhibitory input plays an important role in generating duration sensitivity in the cortex. Using free-field sound stimulation and in vivo extracellular recording, we investigated duration sensitivity in primary auditory cortical (AI) neurons of the Nembutal anesthetized albino mouse (Mus musculus, Km) and examined the effect of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline on AI neuron duration sensitivity. A total of 63 duration tuning curves were measured in AI neurons. Of these, 44% (28/63) exhibited duration sensitive responses, while 43% (27/63) lacked duration sensitivity. The remaining 13% (8/63) exhibited long-pass properties likely reflecting both duration sensitive and insensitive features. We found that duration sensitive neurons had shorter first spike latency (FSL) and longer firing duration (FD) when stimulated with best duration (p < 0.05), while duration insensitive neurons had invariable FSL and FD at different sound durations (p>0.05). Furthermore, 60% (6/10) of duration sensitive neurons and 75% (3/4) long-pass neurons lost duration sensitivity following bicuculline application. Taken together, our results show that cortical neurons in the albino mouse are sensitive to sound duration, and that GABAergic inhibition may play an important role in the formation of de novo duration sensitivity in AI. The possible mechanism and behavioral significance of duration sensitivity in AI neurons is discussed.

  1. Effect of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Surekha Devadasa; Bairy, Laxminarayana Kurady

    2015-01-01

    The issue of male germ line mutagenesis and the effects on developmental defects in the next generation has become increasingly high profile over recent years. Mutagenic substance affects germinal cells in the testis. Since the cells are undergoing different phases of cell division and maturation, it is an ideal system to study the effect of chemotherapeutic agents. There are lacunae in the literature on the effect of sorafenib on gonadal function. With background, a study was planned to evaluate the effects of sorafenib on sperm count and sperm motility in male Swiss albino mice. Male Swiss albino mice were used for the study. The animals were segregated into control, positive control (PC) and three treatment groups. PC received oral imatinib (100 mg/kg body weight) and treatment groups received 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight of sorafenib orally for 7 consecutive days at intervals of 24 h between two administrations. The control group remained in the home cage for an equal duration of time to match their corresponding treatment groups. The animals were sacrificed at the end of 1st, 2nd, 4th, 5th, 7th, and 10th weeks after the last exposure to drug, respectively. Sperm suspensions were prepared and introduced into a counting chamber. Total sperm count and motility were recorded. There was a significant decrease in sperm count and sperm motility by sorafenib which was comparable with the effect of PC imatinib. Sorafenib adversely affects sperm count and sperm motility which are reversible after discontinuation of treatment. PMID:26605157

  2. Ultrastructural changes in rat thyroid tissue after acute organophosphate poisoning and effects of antidotal therapy with atropine and pralidoxime: A single-blind, ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Satar, Deniz; Satar, Salim; Mete, Ufuk Ozgu; Suchard, Jeffrey R.; Topal, Metin; Karakoc, Emre; Kaya, Mehmet

    2008-01-01

    Background: Organophosphate (OP) insecticides are widely used in both agricultural and landscape pest control, and the potential for human exposure to these compounds is significant. Objectives: The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of acute poisoning with the OP methamidophos and the effects of antidotal therapy with atropine and pralidoxime on rat thyroid tissue ultrastructure. Methods: In this single-blind, ex vivo study, male Wistar albino rats weighing 220 to 230 g were divided into 4 treatment groups. Group 1 received a median lethal dose of methamidophos (30 mg/kg) via oral gavage. Group 2 received saline via oral gavage and served as the control group for group 1. Group 3 received methamidophos (30 mg/kg) via oral gavage, and after 8 minutes atropine 0.05 mg/kg and pralidoxime chloride (2-FAM) (40 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally (IP). Atropine was titrated to reverse signs of cholinergic excess. Group 4 received saline via oral gavage followed by IP injections and served as the control for group 3. Rat thyroid tissues were examined using electron microscopy, and the histologic changes were examined by a histopathologist who was blinded to treatment. All rats were euthanized by intracardiac blood collection. The rats in groups 1 and 2 were euthanized 8 minutes after treatment. The rats in groups 3 and 4 were euthanized 96 hours after treatment. Results: Thirty-four male rats (aged 16 weeks) were included in the study. The rats were grouped accordingly: group 1 (n = 10); group 2 (n = 7); group 3 (n = 10); and group 4 (n = 7). The mean (SD) pseudocholinesterase (FCE) activity was significantly lower in the methamidophos-treated rats (group 1) compared with the corresponding control group (group 2) (32.6 [17.0] vs 579.4 [59.0] U/L, respectively; P < 0.001). PCE activity was significantly higher in rats treated with atropine and 2-PAM (group 3) (392.5 [39.4] U/L; P < 0.001) compared with those not receiving antidotal therapy (group 1

  3. Distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal in the bladders of fetal rats with retinoic acid induced myelomeningocele

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Ali; Karakuş, Osman Zeki; Hakgüder, Gülce; Ateş, Oğuz; Özer, Erdener; Olguner, Mustafa; Akgür, Feza Miraç

    2016-01-01

    Objective Myelomeningocele (MMC) is one of the most common reason of neurogenic bladder dysfunction in children. Although neurogenic bladder dysfunction occurrence is related with bladder innervation, also there are some changes seen in the smooth muscle and neural cells of the bladder. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are the pacemaker cells found in organs with peristaltic activity. Although it has been shown that ICC are diminished in the rat urinary bladder with traumatic spinal cord injury, there is no data about ICC in fetal rat bladders with MMC. This study has been conducted to investigate the ICC in the bladders of fetal rats with retinoic acid induced MMC. Materials and methods Time dated pregnant Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups. In MMC group, dams were fed with gavage solution containing 60 mg/kg all-trans retinoic acid dissolved in olive oil on 10. embryologic day. Sham group animals were fed only olive oil. Control group dams were fed with standard rat chow. Fetuses were delivered by cesarean section and harvested on 22. embryologic day. MMC was identified by observing MMC sacs at the back of the fetuses. Distribution of ICCs were evaluated using immunohistochemical staining. Results ICCs were found in all groups, which have the same morphological features that had been described earlier in the gastrointestinal tract and the bladder. The density of the ICC in the MMC group was found to be significantly decreased when compared with the control and the sham groups (p<0.05). Conclusion The density of the ICC in the urinary bladder decreased in the neurogenic bladder developed in MMC. PMID:27909623

  4. Furan toxicity on testes and protective role of lycopene in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kara, Özlem; Baş, Hatice; Pandır, Dilek

    2016-01-01

    Objective Furan (C4H4O) is a heat-induced food contaminant that is utilized as an industrial chemical agent. Lycopene is a natural substance that is produced by plants and tomatoes. We aimed to evaluate the toxicity of furan on testes and the protective effect of lycopene in diabetic rats. Material and Methods Male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups: Group 1 (control group) received 1 mL/kg corn oil. Group 2 (diabetic control group) received 55 mg/kg STZ and 1 mL/kg corn oil. Group 3 (diabetic lycopene group) received 55 mg/kg STZ and 4 mg/kg lycopene. Group 4 (diabetic furan group) received 55 mg/kg STZ and 40 mg/kg furan. Group 5 (diabetic furan + lycopene group) received 55 mg/kg STZ, 40 mg/kg furan, and 4 mg/kg lycopene. After 28 days, the testes were extirpated in all groups. In the testicular tissue samples, the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the activities of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reducted glutathione (GST) were studied. Serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone levels were measured. Histopathologic examination was performed by light microscope. Results The MDA level and the activities of CAT, GPx, SOD, and GST were found to be higher in the furan group than in the control and diabetic control groups (p<0.05). The MDA level and the activities of CAT, GPx, SOD, and GST were significantly lower in the furan + lycopene group than in the furan group (p<0.05). Conclusion The low blood testosterone level in the rats who received furan suggested the presence of endocrinological defects and cellular degenerative changes. Lycopene may be effective to reverse furan toxicity in diabetic rat testes. PMID:27990087

  5. Alcoholic leaf extract of Plectranthus amboinicus regulates carbohydrate metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Koti, B. C.; Gore, Aparna; Thippeswamy, A. H. M.; Swamy, A. H. M. Viswanatha; Kulkarni, Rucha

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present investigation was undertaken to explore the possible mechanisms of Plectranthus amboinicus leaf extract in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Control and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats received different treatments; orally control (vehicle), 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg of ethanol extract of Plectranthus amboinicus (PAEE) and 600 μg/kg of glibenclamide (standard) for 15 days. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and enzyme activities of carbohydrate metabolism were measured in the liver. Results: Diabetic control rats showed a significant elevation (P < 0.001) in fasting blood glucose on successive days of the experiment as compared with their basal values, which was maintained over a period of 2 weeks. Daily oral treatment with PAEE showed a significant reduction (P < 0.001) in the blood glucose levels on successive days of the experiment as compared with their basal values. The most pronounced antihyperglycemic effect was obtained with the dose of 400 mg/kg. PAEE shows a dose-dependent reduction in gluconeogenic enzymes like glucose-6-phosphatase and fructose-1,6-disphosphatase. After 15 days of treatment with PAEE, glycolytic enzymes like phosphoglucoisomerase resulted in a significant increase with a concomitant significant decrease in the activities of aldolase. On the other hand, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was significantly improved in diabetic rats on administration of PAEE; the 400 mg/kg dose of PAEE elicited a more potent effect compared with the 200 mg/kg dose. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study provide evidence of the antidiabetic activity of PAEE, mediated through the regulation of carbohydrate metabolic enzyme activities. PMID:21713092

  6. Cerebroprotective activity of Pentapetes phoenicea on global cerebral ischemia in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sravanthi, Koneru Naga; Rao, Nadendla Rama

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The study was performed to evaluate the cerebroprotective activity of methanolic extract (ME) of Pentapetes phoenicea - a folk medicine used as anti-inflammatory and in central nervous system ailments. It has high phenolic and flavonoid contents including rutin. Materials and Methods: Global cerebral ischemia was induced in male albino Wistar rats by temporary bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 30 min, followed by 4 h reperfusion. Groups of rats were pretreated for 10 days with 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of ME of P. phoenicea and 3 mg/kg of edaravone, a marketed cerebroprotective agent, as standard. Antioxidant enzymes such as, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), protein content, brain water content, cerebral infarct size and the histopathological changes were measured. Results: P. phoenicea-pretreated groups restored the biochemical parameters significantly in a dose-dependent manner. The ischemic changes were involved with an increase in the concentration of MDA and H2O2, followed by decreased SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GST activity in rat brain. The neurodegenaration and its attenuation by P. phoenicea were confirmed by examination of triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining and histopathological changes in the cerebral ischemic rat brains. Similarly, P. phoenicea reversed the brain water content in the ischemia-reperfusion animals. Conclusion: The result of the study indicates that the treatment with P. phoenicea enhances the antioxidant defense against BCAO-induced global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion and exerts cerebroprotection. PMID:28066109

  7. Protective effects of hesperidin in experimental testicular ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Emrah; Sahin, Nurhan; Turtay, Muhammet Gökhan; Oguz, Fatih; Ciftci, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we aimed to determine the protective effects of hesperidin, a citrus flavonoid, in a model of testicular ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Material and methods Forty-two pubertal male Wistar-Albino rats were divided into six groups: group 1 – control; group 2 – 50 mg/kg hesperidin (low dose hesperidin) used without torsion (LH group); group 3 – 100 mg/kg hesperidin without torsion (HH group); group 4 – torsion/detorsion group (T/D); group 5 – T/D + 50 mg/kg hesperidin treatment group (T/D + LH); and group 6 – T/D + 100 mg/kg hesperidin treatment group (T/D + HH). Hesperidin was given to the treatment groups 30 min before detorsion. After the fourth hour of reperfusion, orchiectomy was performed on the rats under anesthesia. The tissue samples were examined histologically and biochemically. Results In the T/D group testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were increased significantly (p < 0.001) whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH) levels were decreased compared to the control and other groups. However, hesperidin caused the effect of T/D to become closer to normal biochemical values. In addition, the histological examinations showed that T/D caused damage in the testis but hesperidin reduced this effect. The effects of hesperidin were found to be dose dependent. Thus, applying high doses would generate greater therapeutic effects. Conclusions In a rat testicular T/D model we observed biochemical and histological damage due to ischemia. However, high and low dose applications of hesperidin were shown to have protective effects against this damage. Therefore, the aforementioned citrus flavonoid may provide positive results in cases of testicular torsion. PMID:27695481

  8. Strain differences among rats in response to Remington iodine-deficient diets

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, K.; Taurog, A.; Krulich, L.

    1981-08-01

    Male rats of five different strains (Simonsen albino, Wistar, Long-Evans, Holtzman Sprague-Dawley, and Charles River Sprague-Dawley) were tested for their response to the U.S. Biochemical Corp. Remington low iodine diet containing 15-18 microgram I/kg. Measurements made after the diet had been fed for 28-30 days indicated that Simonsen albino and Wistar strains consistently showed the greatest response, based on degree of thyroid enlargement, depletion of thyroidal iodine, reduction in serum T4, and elevation of serum TSH. Long-Evans and Holtzman Sprague-Dawley rats responded relatively poorly to the low iodine diet. One experiment included female rats, and the limited data suggested that within a given strain there was no significant sex difference. With more prolonged feeding (84 days), the difference between a rapidly responding strain (Simonsen albino) and a more slowly responding strain (Holtzman Sprague-Dawley) was not so marked. Our results indicate that given sufficient time and a diet sufficiently low in iodine, even a more slowly responding strain will ultimately develop signs of extreme iodine deficiency. However, it is inconvenient and expensive to maintain rats on a Remington low iodine diet for 3 months, and studies on the effect of severe iodine deficiency are much more rapidly performed using a rapidly responding strain such as the Simonsen albino. Our observation that rats of different strains differ markedly in their responses to an iodine-deficient diet suggests that hereditary factors play an important role in this response.

  9. Effects of hypothermia on skeletal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaldırım, Ümit; Akyıldız, Faruk; Bilgiç, Serkan; Koca, Kenan; Poyrazoğlu, Yavuz; Uysal, Ozgür Selim; Turğut, Hasan; Türkkan, Selim; Erşen, Ömer; Topal, Turgut; Ozkan, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hypothermia (H) on skeletal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury in rats by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), nitric oxide (NO), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) in muscle, and measureing immunohistochemical-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) staining of skeletal muscle. Materials and Methods Eighteen Wistar Albino rats were divided randomly into three groups (sham, IR, hypothermia) (n=6). The sham group had all procedures without the IR period. The lower right extremity of rats in the IR and hypothermia groups was subjected to 2 hours of ischemia and 22 hours of reperfusion by applying a clamp on the common iliac artery and a rubber-band at the level of the lesser trochanter under general anesthesia. Rats in the hypothermia group underwent 4 hours of hypothermia during the first four hours of reperfusion in addition to a 2-hour ischemia and 22-hour reperfusion period. All rats were sacrificed at end of the IR period using a high dose of anesthesia. The tibialis anterior muscles were preserved. Immunohistochemical iNOS staining was performed, and MDA, SOD, GSH-Px, NO, and IL-1β were measured in the muscle. Results The level of MDA, NO, and IL-1β in muscle was increased in the IR group compared with that in the sham group, but these parameters were decreased in the hypothermia group compared with the IR group. The activities of SOD and GSH-Px in muscle were decreased in the IR group; however, these parameters were increased in the hypothermia group. The score and intensity of iNOS staining of skeletal muscle was dens in IR group, mild in hypothermia group, and weak in sham group. Conclusion The present study has shown that hypothermia reduced IR injury in the skeletal muscle by decreasing the levels of MDA, NO, and IL-1β, and increasing the activities of SOD and GSH-Px. In addition, hypothermia attenuated the score and intensity of i

  10. An Experimental Study to Evaluate the Effect of Memantine in Animal Models of Anxiety in Swiss Albino Mice