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Sample records for albino rats methods

  1. Electroencephalographic changes in albino rats subjected to stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mercier, J.; Assouline, G.; Fondarai, J.

    1980-01-01

    Twenty one albino Wistar rats were subjected to stress for 7 hours. There was a significant difference in the slopes of regression lines for 7 nonulcerous rats and those for 14 ulcerous rats. Nonulcerous rats subjected to stress showed greater EEG curve synchronization than did ulcerous rats. If curve synchronization can be equated to a relaxed state, it may therefore be possible to explain the protective action of hypnotics, tranquilizers and analgesics on ulcers.

  2. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk. PMID:23569832

  3. Antipyretic activity of Guduchi Ghrita formulations in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.; Prajapati, P. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.

    2010-01-01

    The present pharmacological investigation was undertaken to study the anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations in albino rats against yeast induced pyrexia. Seven groups of six animals were used for the experiment. The yeast induced pyrexia method was standardized first by injecting 12.5% yeast suspension (s.c) followed by recording the rectal temperature at regular intervals. Then the evaluation of anti-pyretic activity of Guduchi ghrita formulations was carried out by using this standard procedure. Both the Guduchi ghrita samples including vehicle significantly attenuated the raise in temperature after three hours of yeast injection. After 6 and 9 hours of yeast injection also both the Guduchi ghrita samples attenuated the raise in temperature in a highly significant manner in comparison to both yeast control and vehicle control groups. The data generated during study shows that both the Guduchi ghrita formulations having significant anti-pyretic activity. PMID:22131741

  4. Image chorioretinal vasculature in albino rats using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Qing; Liu, Tan; Jiao, Shuliang; Zhang, Hao F.

    2014-01-01

    We imaged the microvascular network in both the retina and the choroid in an albino rat eye using photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy guided by optical coherence tomography. Relying on optical absorption and ultrasonic detection, photoacoustic ophthalmoscopy can image both retinal and choroidal vessel networks with high contrast. PMID:24744503

  5. The brainstem efferent acoustic chiasm in pigmented and albino rats.

    PubMed

    Reuss, Stefan; Closhen-Gabrisch, Stefanie; Closhen, Christina

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined whether structural peculiarities in the brain-efferent pathway to the organ of Corti may underlie functional differences in hearing between pigmented and albino individuals of the same mammalian species. Pigmented Brown-Norway rats and albino Wistar rats received unilateral injections of an aqueous solution of the retrograde neuronal tracer Fluorogold (FG) into the scala tympani of the cochlea to identify olivocochlear neurons (OCN) in the brainstem superior olivary complex. After five days, brains were perfusion-fixed and brainstem sections were cut and analyzed with respect to retrogradely labeled neurons. Intrinsic neurons of the lateral system were located exclusively in the ipsilateral lateral superior olive (LSO) in both groups. Shell neurons surrounding the LSO and in periolivary regions, which made up only 5-8% of all OCN, were more often contralaterally located in albino than in pigmented animals. A striking difference was observed in the laterality of neurons of the medial olivocochlear (MOC) system, which provided more than one third of all OCN. These neurons, located in the rostral periolivary region and in the ventral nucleus of the trapezoid body, were observed contralateral to 45% in pigmented and to 68% in albino animals. Our study, the first to compare the origin of the olivocochlear bundle in pigmented and albino rats, provides evidence for differences in the crossing pattern of the olivocochlear pathway. These were found predominantly in the MOC system providing the direct efferent innervation of cochlear outer hair cells. Our findings may account for the alterations in auditory perception observed in albino mammals including man. PMID:26657095

  6. Hepatopancreatic intoxication of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide on albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, AA; Ziada, Reem M; Mohamady, Aziza H

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the known adverse effects of lambda cyhalothrin insecticide, little is known about its hepatopancreatic intoxication effects. The present study was carried out to elucidate sub-chronic effect of Karat 2.5% EC formulation of lambda cyhalothrin on male albino rats. Methods: To explore the effects of exposure to lambda cyhalothrin on rats and its mechanism, low (1/40 of LD50, 5 mg/kg/day) and high dose (1/4 of LD50, 50 mg/kg/day) lambda cyhalothrin were applied to rats via drinking water for 3 months. Blood samples were collected monthly, and the animals were dissected for liver and pancreas’s examination at the end of the experiment. Lambda cyhalothrin administration was associated with the elevation in lipid peroxidation marker, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduction in SH-protein a major marker for antioxidant, as well as basel paraoxonase (PON) in both treated groups throughout the experimental periods. Results: In addition, significant elevations in liver enzymes alanin amino transferase, (ALT), and aspartate amino transferase (AST), as well as plasma acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glucose level. While, significant reduction in insulin level through the experimental periods. Results of histopathological and histochemical studies showed that lambda cyhalothrin exposure induces liver and pancreatic tissues damage and depletion in glycogen content was pronounced in liver of both treated groups. Conclusions: In conclusion subchronic intoxication with lambda cyhalothrin formulation induced remarkable changes in the examined parameters. PMID:26221269

  7. Oral toxicity of Madhuca butyracea Macb. saponins to albino rats.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, T; Vishwanatha, S; Venkataraman, L V

    1990-07-01

    Saponins, isolated from M. butyracea, were assessed for their acute and subacute oral toxicity in albino rats. Acute doses of saponins caused mortalities and LD50 and LD90 values were 330 and 430 mg/kg body wt respectively. Severe diarrhoea, restlessness and histopathological changes were observed in liver and kidney. Diets containing saponins at 0,250,500 and 1000 ppm for 14 weeks did not affect food intake, growth or organ weights, but induced mild histological changes in liver and kidney and altered the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, blood urea nitrogen, cholesterol and proteins, particularly in female rats. PMID:2272650

  8. The central nervous system effects of carbon disulfide in male albino rats utilizing the tritiated 2-deoxyglucose method

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, W.E. III.

    1989-01-01

    The methodology employed was the autoradiographic 2-deoxyglucose method. Due to the coupling between functional activity and energy metabolism, these autoradiographs can be likened to a stain for functional activity under varying physiological and pathological states. Exposure regimes consisted of intraperitoneal injections of: (1) 400 milligrams of carbon disulfide per kilogram body weight five days per week for eight weeks; (2) 600 milligrams of carbon disulfide per kilogram body weight for five consecutive days; (3) 800 milligrams of carbon disulfide per kilogram body weight for only a single injection. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the autoradiograms were employed. Appropriate statistical techniques were then be used to test for significant differences in the optical densities of structures between experimental and control radiographs. The results indicate a significant effect across all levels of analyses for the eight week group and the five day group for the auditory and olfactory central pathways.

  9. [Thoracic duct valves in man and albino rat].

    PubMed

    Petrenko, V M; Kruglov, S V

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this research was to determine the number, structure and position of valves along the whole length of thoracic duct in man and albino rat. The study was performed using the material obtained from 30 human corpses of men and women aged 17 to 60 years with no history of cardiovascular pathology and from 60 outbred albino rats of both sexes aged 5 to 12 months. Material was fixed in 10% neutral formalin. Anterior wall of thoracic duct was longitudinally dissected. Thoracic duct of 30 rats was stained with gallocyanin-chrome alum, in the remaining animals it was studied after its injection with blue Gerota's mass. In most cases, the valves consisted of two semilunar cusps. Thoracic duct was found to contain on the average 14.7+/-0.2 valves in man and 11.9+/-0.2 valves in rat. Most of all valves were found in the upper (anterior) 1/3 of the thoracic duct, least--in its middle part. This seems to be determined by anatomo-topographic features of the different parts of thoracic duct. PMID:15839250

  10. Displaced retinal ganglion cells in albino and pigmented rats

    PubMed Central

    Nadal-Nicolás, Francisco M.; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Sobrado-Calvo, Paloma; Villegas-Pérez, María P.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2014-01-01

    We have studied in parallel the population of displaced retinal ganglion cells (dRGCs) and normally placed (orthotopic RGCs, oRGCs) in albino and pigmented rats. Using retrograde tracing from the optic nerve, from both superior colliculi (SC) or from the ipsilateral SC in conjunction with Brn3 and melanopsin immunodetection, we report for the first time their total number and topography as well as the number and distribution of those dRGCs and oRGCs that project ipsi- or contralaterally and/or that express any of the three Brn3 isoforms or melanopsin. The total number of RGCs (oRGCs+dRGCs) is 84,706 ± 1249 in albino and 90,440 ± 2236 in pigmented, out of which 2383 and 2428 are melanopsin positive (m-RGCs), respectively. Regarding dRGCs: i/ albino rats have a significantly lower number of dRGCs than pigmented animals (0.5% of the total number of RGCs vs. 2.5%, respectively), ii/ dRGCs project massively to the contralateral SC, iii/ the percentage of ipsilaterality is higher for dRGCs than for oRGCs, iv/ a higher proportion of ipsilateral dRGCs is observed in albino than pigmented animals, v/ dRGC topography is very specific, they predominate in the equatorial temporal retina, being densest where the oRGCs are densest, vi/ Brn3a detects all dRGCs except half of the ipsilateral ones and those that express melanopsin, vii/ the proportion of dRGCs that express Brn3b or Brn3c is slightly lower than in the oRGC population, viii/ a higher percentage of dRGCs (13% albino, 9% pigmented) than oRGCs (2.6%) express melanopsin, ix/ few m-RGCs (displaced and orthotopic) project to the ipsilateral SC, x/ the topography of m-dRGCs does not resemble the general distribution of dRGCs, xi/ The soma size in m-oRGCs ranges from 10 to 21 μm and in m-dRGCs from 8 to 15 μm, xii/ oRGCs and dRGCs have the same susceptibility to axonal injury and ocular hypertension. Although the role of mammalian dRGCs remains to be determined, our data suggest that they are not misplaced by an

  11. Royal jelly modulates oxidative stress and tissue injury in gamma irradiated male Wister Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Khaled Shaaban; Bashandy, Mohamed; Salem, Mahmoud; Ahmed, Osama; Tawfik, Zaki; Helal, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Background: Royal jelly is a nutritive secretion produced by the worker bees, rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Aim: The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of royal jelly against radiation induced oxidative stress, hematological, biochemical and histological alterations in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wister albino rats were exposed to a fractionated dose of gamma radiation (2 Gy every 3 days up to 8 Gy total doses). Royal jelly was administrated (g/Kg/day) by gavages 14 days before exposure to the 1st radiation fraction and the treatment was continued for 15 days after the 1st irradiation fraction till the end of the experiment. The rats were sacrificed 3rd, equivalent to 3rd post 2nd irradiation fraction, and equivalent to 3rd day post last irradiation fraction. Results: In the present study, gamma- irradiation induced hematological, biochemical and histological effects in male Wister albino rats. In royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable decrease recorded in thiobarbituric reactive substances concentration when compared to γ-irradiated group. Also, the serum nitric oxide concentration was significantly improved. The administration of royal jelly to irradiated rats according to the current experimental design significantly ameliorates the changes induced in serum lipid profile. Moreover, in royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable amelioration recorded in all hematological parameters along the three experimental intervals. The microscopic examination of cardiac muscle of royal jelly treated irradiated rats demonstrated structural amelioration, improved nuclei and normal features of capillaries and veins in endomysium when compared to gamma-irradiated rats. Conclusion: It was suggested that the biochemical, hematological and histological amelioration observed in royal jelly (g/Kg/day) treated irradiated rats might be due to the antioxidant

  12. Antiarthritic effects of Ajuga bracteosa Wall ex Benth. in acute and chronic models of arthritis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaithwas, Gaurav; Gautam, Raju; Jachak, Sanjay M; Saklani, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antiarthritic activity of Ajuga bracteosa using albino rats. Methods The antiarthritic activity of 70% ethanolic extract of Ajuga bracteosa (EEAB) was evaluated against turpentine oil- and formaldehyde- induced acute non immunological and complete freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced chronic immunological arthritis in albino rats. Results EEAB showed a significant (P<0.05) and dose dependent inhibitory effect against acute and chronic models of arthritis. EEAB exhibited better antiarthritic activity than the standard aspirin. Conclusions EEAB exhibits a significant and promising antiarthritic activity against acute and chronic arthritis and supports the traditional use of Ajuga bracteosa for rheumatism and other inflammatory diseases. PMID:23569895

  13. Gastroprotective activity of ginger zingiber officinale rosc., in albino rats.

    PubMed

    al-Yahya, M A; Rafatullah, S; Mossa, J S; Ageel, A M; Parmar, N S; Tariq, M

    1989-01-01

    The cytoprotective and gastric anti-ulcer studies of ginger have been carried out in albino rats. Cytodestruction was produced by 80% ethanol, 0.6M HC1, 0.2M NaOH and 25% NaCl. Whereas gastric ulcers were produced by ulcerogenic agents including indomethacin, aspirin and reserpine, beside hypothermic restraint stress and by pylorus ligated Shay rat technique. The results of this study demonstrate that the extract in the dose of 500 mg/kg orally exert highly significant cytoprotection against 80% ethanol, 0.6M HC1, 0.2M NaOH and 25% NaCl induced gastric lesions. The extract also prevented the occurrence of gastric ulcers induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hypothermic restraint stress. These observations suggest cytoprotective and anti-ulcerogenic effect of the ginger. PMID:2589236

  14. Toxicity study of Lauha Bhasma (calcined iron) in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Namrata; Dash, Manoj Kumar; Dwivedi, Laxmikant; Khilnani, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lauha Bhasma (LB) is a complex herbomineral preparation widely used as an Ayurvedic hematinic agent. It is an effective remedy for chronic fever (jīrṇa jvara), phthisis (kṣaya), Breathlessness (śvāsa) etc., and possesses vitality enhancing (vājīkara), strength promoting and anti aging (rasāyana) properties. Objectives: The present work was conducted to establish the safety aspects of the use of Lauha bhasma. Setting and Design: LB was prepared by Ayurvedic procedures of purification (śodhana), sun drying (bhānupāka), sthālīpāka, followed by repeated calcination (māraṇa) and “nectarization” (amṛtīkaraṇa). The resultant product was subjected to acute and sub acute toxicity studies. Materials and Methods: Acute and subacute toxicity study of LB was conducted in albino rats. Criteria for assessment included ponderal changes, change in biochemical parameters viz., LFT and KFT and hematological parameters. Histopathological studies of different organs including liver, kidney, spleen, testis etc., were also conducted to observe pathological changes if any. Results: In the acute toxicity study, the animal group did not manifest any signs of toxicity and no mortality was observed up to 100 times the therapeutic dose (TD). Significant increase in blood urea (27.83%, P < 0.01), serum creatinine (30.92%, P < 0.05), Aspartate aminotransferase (15.09%, P < 0.05), and serum alkaline phosphatase (27.5%, P < 0.01) was evident in group IV (10 TD). A significant increase in serum total protein (6.04%, P < 0.05) level was observed in group III (5 TD). Histopathological examination of livers in group IV (10 TD) showed mild inflammation in terms of bile stasis, peri-portal hepatic inflammation and sinusoidal congestion; lymphocyte infiltration in kidney and intracellular deposits in the splenic tissue. Conclusion: Lauha Bhasma was found to be safe at the therapeutic dose and also at five times the therapeutic dose levels. However, alteration in

  15. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Amiodarone Induced Fibrosing Interstitial Lung Disease in Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zaglool, Somaya Saad; Zickri, Maha Baligh; Abd El Aziz, Dalia Hussein; Mabrouk, Doaa; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The fibrosing forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. ILD may be idiopathic, secondary to occupational, infection, complicate rheumatic diseases or drug induced. Efficacy of antifibrotic agents is as far as, limited and uncertain. No effective treatment was confirmed for pulmonary fibrosis except lung transplantation. The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of human cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on fibrosing ILD. This was accomplished by using amiodarone as a model of induced lung damage in albino rat. Methods and Results: Seventeen adult male albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Rats of amiodarone group were given 30 mg/kg of amiodarone orally 6 days/ week for 6 weeks. Rats of stem cell therapy group were injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of lung damage and left for 4 weeks before sacrifice. Obstructed bronchioles, thickened interalveolar septa and thickened wall of pulmonary vessels were found and proved morphometrically. Reduced type I pneumocytes and increased area% of collagen fibers were recorded. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusions: Cord blood MSC therapy proved definite amelioration of fibrosing interstitial lung disease provided therapy starts early in the development of the pathogenesis. PMID:24298346

  16. Effects of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappan, V.; Shree, K. Sakthi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to investigate the effect of Phyllanthus reticulatus on lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in albino rats by administration of atherogenic diet for 2 weeks. Experimental rats were divided into different groups: normal, hypercholesterolemic control and P. reticulatus treated (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight doses for 45 days). After the treatment period of 45th day triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Results: The aqueous extract of P. reticulatus (250 mg and 500 mg/kg) produced significant reduction (P < 0.05) in triglyceride, VLDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol and oxidative stress (protein carbonyl) while increased HDL-cholesterol in atherogenic diet-induced hypercholesterolemic rats at the end of the treatment period (45 days). However, the reduction in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic control. Thus, aqueous extract of P. reticulatus is effective in controlling TC, lipid profile and oxidative stress in hypercholesterolemic animals. Conclusion: The results suggest the aqueous extract of P. reticulatus can be utilized for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic patients. PMID:21189912

  17. Evaluation of Antinociceptive Activity of Aqueous Extract of Bark of Psidium Guajava in Albino Rats and Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Jayasree, T.; Ubedulla, Shaikh; Dixit, Rohit; V S, Manohar; J, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psidium guajava is commonly known as guava. Psidium guajava is a medium sized tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae found throughout the tropics. All the parts of the plant, the leaves, followed by the fruits, bark and the roots are used in traditional medicine. The traditional uses of the plant are Antidiarrheal, Antimicrobial Activity, Antimalarial/Antiparasitic Activity, Antitussive and antihyperglycaemic. Leaves are used as Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antinociceptive effects. Aim: To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava in albino rats with that of control and standard analgesic drugs aspirin and tramadol. Materials and Methods: Mechanical (Tail clip method) and thermal (Tail flick method using Analgesiometer), 0.6% solution of acetic acid writhing models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. Six groups of animals, each consists of 10 animals, first one as control, second and third as standard drugs, Aspirin and Tramadol, fourth, fifth and sixth groups as text received the extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/ kg) orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. Results: The results obtained demonstrated that aqueous extract of bark of Psidium guajava produced significant antinociceptive response in all the mechanical and thermal-induced nociception models. Conclusion: AEPG antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms. PMID:25386462

  18. Nephroprotection of lacidipine against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Sahar

    2010-01-01

    Aim Gentamycin, a widely-used aminoglycoside antibiotic, is recognized as possessing significant nephrotoxic potential in human beings. Gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity is suggested to be mediated via reactive oxygen species. The present study investigated the possible antioxidant nephroprotective effect of lacidipine as a calcium-channel blocker in a gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity model in albino rats. Methods Albino rats were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 received normal saline. Group 2 received gentamycin 80 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 14 days. Group 3 received lacidipine 1 mg/kg intraperitoneally 3 days before and 14 days concurrently with gentamycin. This dose does not affect the blood pressure of rats, as evidenced in the pilot study. Results Gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity was evidenced by a marked reduction in creatinine clearance. Treatment with lacidipine improved creatinine clearance compared to the gentamycin-treated group. In addition, it reduced thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, as an index of lipid peroxidation, with significant increases in superoxide dismutase enzyme in erythrocyte lysates and kidney catalase enzyme activities. Conclusion This study recommends the use of lacidipine in prophylaxis against gentamycin-induced nephrotoxicity.

  19. Effect of Stem Cell Therapy on Induced Diabetic Keratopathy in Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Zickri, Maha Baligh; Ahmad, Nagwa Abdel Wahab; Maadawi, Zeinab Mohamad El; Mohamady, Yasmin Kamal; Metwally, Hala Gabr

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a prevalent disorder. Diabetic keratopathy is a well-known ocular complication secondary to type 2 DM. Topical insulin application did not affect apoptosis and necrosis levels in corneal epithelium. Autologous cell transplantation is not a viable option for diabetic patients with bilateral limbal stem cell deficiency. The present study aimed at assessing the possible effect of hemopoeitic stem cell (HSC) therapy on induced diabetic keratopathy in albino rat. Methods and Results: Fifteen male albino rats were divided into control group of 2 rats, diabetic group of 8 rats receiving single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). 3 animals were sacrificed 6 weeks following confirmation of diabetes to confirm keratopathy and 5 rats were sacrificed 4 weeks following confirmation of keratopathy. SC therapy group included 5 rats injected with HSCs 6 weeks following confirmation of diabetes and sacrificed 4 weeks following SC therapy. Cord blood collection, stem cells isolation and labeling were performed. Eye specimens were subjected to histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, morphometric and statistical studies. In diabetic group, the central cornea showed multiple cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and dark nuclei, focal epithelial discontinuity, reduced corneal thickness and less number of layers of corneal and conjunctival epithelia. In stem cell therapy group, few cells with vacuolated cytoplasm and dark nuclei were found in the corneal and conjunctival epithelia with more number of epithelial layers. Conclusions: A definite ameliorating effect of HSC therapy was detected on diabetic keratopathy. The therapeutic cells were effective in limiting corneal epithelial changes. PMID:24298355

  20. Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) Induced Weight Changes: A Dose and Duration Dependent Study on Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jethani, S.L.; Rohatgi, R.K.; Kalra, Juhi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most significant and safe drugs among the antidepressants. Fluoxetine is the prototype drug of SSRIs. Various clinical studies showed that SSRI causes change in body weight in patients. This study was conducted to know the extent of weight change with different doses for different durations. Aim The aim of this study was to find out whether fluoxetine causes weight gain or weight loss, and to deduce the comparative weight change after intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine for different duration and doses. Materials and Methods Present study was conducted on 72 adult (36 males and 36 females) albino rats, in 3 phases of 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 12 weeks duration. Each phase consisted of 24 (12 males and 12 females) albino rats. These 24 rats were further randomly subdivided into 4 Groups of 6 albino rats each (3 males & 3 females). Group 1(Control) received normal saline (vehicle). Rest 18 rats of each phase were experimental rats, of Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 (6 rats each). Group 2, group 3 and group 4 experimental rats received 10mg/kg, 20 mg/kg and 40mg/kg of intraperitoneal injection of fluoxetine respectively. All rats were weighed on each day for growth monitoring. Data was subjected to statistical analysis (Mean, standard deviation and Student’s t-Test). Results All experimental group rats which received fluoxetine showed decrease of body weight. Rats which received high doses of fluoxetine could not tolerate the drug for more than two weeks and died due to excessive body weight loss, loose stools and muscle twitching. Conclusion Present study conclude that SSRIs can cause weight change in the form of decrease of body weight. This property of SSRIs can be used clinically by prescribing these drugs to obese psychiatric patient without any fear of withdrawal of drug. PMID:27134853

  1. Analysis of anti-depressant potential of curcumin against depression induced male albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xue-Run; Wang, Li; Li, Jing; Wu, Dian-Shui

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the antidepressant potential of curcumin in olfactory bulbectomy and forced swimming test models of depression in male albino rats under chronic treatment. The experimental animals were divided into four groups, and curcumin was administered for 45 days. Our results showed that the curcumin significantly reduced olfactory bulbectomy-induced behavioral abnormalities including deficits in step-down passive avoidance, increased activity in the open area and immobility time. Chronic administration of curcumin significantly reversed levels of 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, noradrenaline, serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the hippocampus region of male albino rats. Also, curcumin normalizes the levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in the frontal cortex of rats. Taking all these results together, it may suggest that curcumin is potent compound acting against the depression in the male albino rats. PMID:26972530

  2. Ameliorative effect of grapefruit juice on amiodarone-induced cytogenetic and testicular damage in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sakr, Saber Abdelruhman; Zoil, Mohamed El-said; El-shafey, Samraa Samy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the ameliorative role of grapefruit juice on the cytogenetic and testicular damage induced by the antiarrythmic drug amiodarone in albino rats. Methods Animals were divided into four groups. Group I was considered as control. Group II was given grapefruit juice at a dose level of 27 mL/kg body weight. Group III was orally administered amiodarone (18 mg/kg body weight) daily for 5 weeks. Animals were sacrificed after 5 weeks of treatment. Bone marrow was collected from the femurs for analysis of chromosomal aberrations and mitotic indices. Testes were removed and stained with H&E for histological examination. Sperms were collected from epidedymis for detection of sperm head abnormalities. Comet assay was used to detect DNA damage. Results Amiodarone treatment caused a significant increase in the percentage of chromosomal aberrations, decreased the mitotic index and increased DNA damage. The testis showed many histopathological alterations, inhibition of spermatogenesis and morphometric changes. The number of sperm head abnormalities was increased. Treating animals with amiodarone and grapefruit juice caused a reduction in chromosomal aberrations, mitotic index, DNA damage and testicular alterations caused by amiodarone. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that grapefruit juice ameliorates the cytotoxicty and testicular alterations induced by amiodarone in albino rats and this is may be due to the potent antioxidant effects of its components. PMID:23836512

  3. Evaluation of skeletal muscle relaxant activity of aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Tirumalasetti, Jayasree; Patel, Maulik; Shaikh, Ubedulla; Harini, K.; Shankar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Nerium oleander is traditionally used in various diseases because of its medicinal properties. One of its uses is in musculoskeletal disorder. The aim of the study was to evaluate the skeletal muscle relaxant activity of the aqueous extract of Nerium oleander flowers (AENOF) in albino rats in comparison with diazepam. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 Swiss albino rats aged 6–7 weeks, of either sex, weighing about 100–150 g, were taken, and after acute toxicity studies two different doses were selected. The animals were divided into four different groups. The first group was kept as the control (normal saline), second as the standard (diazepam) and the remaining two groups as Test I and Test II, and given different doses of the AENOF. Skeletal muscle relaxant activity (motor coordination) on Rotarod and locomotor activity on photoactometer was performed. Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance, followed by Dunnett's multiple comparison tests. Results: The result from the Actophotometer test and Rotarod test showed that the extract of AENOF significantly reduced (P < 0.05) the motor coordination of the tested animals. Conclusions: Our data indicates that AENOF possesses skeletal muscle relaxant activities. PMID:26288474

  4. Determination of the antiulcer properties of sodium cromoglycate in pylorus-ligated albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vivek; Viswanathaswamy, A.H.M.; Mohan, Govind

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To study the ulcer protective property of sodium cromoglycate in pylorusligated rats and the biochemical role in ulcer protection by various biochemical tests. Materials and Methods: The ulcer protective effect of sodium cromoglycate was studied using a Pyloric Ligation Model using Wistar albino rats. The antiulcer effect of sodium cromoglycate 40 mg/kg b.w., i.p., was compared with the reference drug ranitidine 27 mg/kg b.w., i.p. The ulcer index was calculated and other biochemical parameters like free acidity, total acidity, pH, mucin, pepsin and volume of gastric juice were determined. Results: Pylorus ligation showed a significant (P < 0.01) reduction in gastric volume, free acidity, total acidity and ulcer index as compared to the control. Conclusion: Sodium cromoglycate has activity equipotent to ranitidine. PMID:20871772

  5. In-vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of Manilkara zapota leaves in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Uddin, Mir Muhammad Nasir; Rahman, SM Abdur

    2013-01-01

    Objective To screen ethanolic extracts of Manilkara zapota leaves (Family: Sapotaceae) and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic activities in experimental albino Wistar rats. Methods Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induced paw edema method; anti-pyretic potential was determined by yeast-induced pyrexia method in albino Wistar rats. Results In evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity the crude ethanolic (300 mg/kg) and ethyl acetate extract (300 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of paw edema by 91.98% and 92.41% (P<0.001) respectively at 4th h compared to standard diclofenac (86.08% inhibition). In anti-pyretic study by yeast-induced pyrexia in albino Wistar rats, the ethanol extract (300 mg/kg) reduced temperature from 37.90 °C to 37.41 °C (P<0.01) and 37.07 °C (P<0.001) in 3rd and 4th h respectively. Similarly, both petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions exhibited significant anti-pyretic property (P<0.001). The maximum body temperature lowering effect (36.86 °C) was noticed by petroleum ether fraction. Conclusions The findings of the studies demonstrated both anti-inflammatory and anti-pyretic activities of the leaves of Manilkara zapota which could be the therapeutic option against inflammatory disease and pyrexia.

  6. [Evaluation of the biological effects of chemical substances on albino rat offspring].

    PubMed

    Rukavishnikov, V S; Sosedova, L M; Kapustina, E A

    2011-01-01

    The paper provides the results of experimental studies of the impact of vinyl chloride or sublimate intoxication in male albino rats on the functional state of the nervous system of their offspring. Retarded sensorimotor development was revealed in the neonatal offspring. The pubertal offspring showed behavioral pattern disintegrity that was characterized by changes in motor activity and orientative-exploratory responses and by anxiety. There was abnormal impulse conduction in the neuromuscular apparatus of the hind legs of albino rats and morphological changes in the structure of nervous tissue. PMID:22250396

  7. Premature Ejaculation – Dose and Duration Dependent Effect of Fluoxetine: A Histological Study on Seminal Vesicle of Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jethani, SL; Rohatagi, RK; Kalra, Juhi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Fluoxetine is a prototype drug of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors. Its active demethylated metabolite has a half life of 7-10 d. Fluoxetine is used to treat depression and is also prescribed in premature ejaculation. Aim: In the present study dose and duration dependent effects of Fluoxetine on histology of seminal vesicle of the albino rats were observed. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 36 adult male albino rats. Fluoxetine was administered intraperitoneally for 2 wk, 4 wk and 12 wk with mild (10mg/kg/day), moderate (20mg/kg/day) and severe doses (40mg/kg/day). Histological slides of Seminal vesicle were prepared and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain. Results: On examination through the light microscope, the proliferation of primary, secondary and tertiary villi, increased crypt/alveoli, increased thickness of lamina propria, decreased epithelial cell height, metaplasia, changes in the amount of luminal eosinophilic secretory material in the form of scanty secretion in lumen of seminal vesicle. Conclusion: Low doses for long duration and high doses for short duration of Fluoxetine produce histological changes in seminal vesicle of albino rats. PMID:25386416

  8. Evaluation of Musa (Paradisiaca Linn. cultivar)--"Puttubale" stem juice for antilithiatic activity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Prasad, K V; Bharathi, K; Srinivasan, K K

    1993-10-01

    The fresh juice of Musa stem (Puttubale) was tested for its antilithiatic activity. Zinc discs were implanted in the urinary bladder of albino rats to induce urolithiasis. The stones formed were mainly of magnesium ammonium phosphate with traces of calcium oxalate. Musa stem juice (3 mL/rat/day orally) was found to be effective in reducing the formation and also in dissolving the pre-formed stones. PMID:8112813

  9. Effect of amlodipine, a calcium channel antagonist, on gonadal steroid of male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Onwuka, FC; wuanyanwu, KC Patrick-I; Nnodu, CK; Erhabor, O

    2010-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of prolonged intake of calcium-channel blocker amlodipine, an antihypertensive drug on gonadal steroid hormone (testosterone) of male albino rats. Three different concentrations of amlodipine (0.01, 0.02 and 0.03 mg/kg body weight) was administered orally to three different groups (B, C, and D) of experimental male Wistar albino rats (n = 8) for six weeks. Group A rats were fed normal diet without amlodipine (n = 8) served as the control. The administration of amlodipine significantly reduced testosterone level in the following order, group A (0.22 ± 0.01) > B (0.18 ± 0.01) > C (0.14 ± 0.01) > D (0.10 ± 0.01). The reduction in testosterone levels corresponded with an increase in the concentration of amlodipine administered to male Wistar albino rats. The observation in this study reveals that long-term treatment of male Wistar rats with calcium-channel blocker and antihypertensive (amlodipine) produces a significant reduction in the level of testosterone a hormone associated with decreased ability of men to enjoy sex and to develop good quality erections. There is the need for a large scale study to investigate the potential effect of long-term antihypertensive therapy with amlodipine on sexual dysfunction in men.

  10. Hazardous effects of fried potato chips on the development of retina in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayyad, Hassan I; Sakr, Saber A; Badawy, Gamal M; Afify, Hanaa S

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the hazardous effects of fried potato chips upon the retina of two developmental stages of the albino rats aged 7 and 14 days from parturition. Methods Pregnant rats were arranged into two groups: control pregnant rats and consequently their delivered newborns until reaching 7 and 14 days old from parturition and fried potato chips group in which pregnant rats at the 6th day of gestation maintained on diet formed of fried potato chips supplied from the market mixed with standard diet at a concentration of 50% per each till 7 and 14 post-partum. Three fold integrated approaches were adopted, namely, histological, ultrastructural and proteomic analysis. Results Histological examination of the retina of the experimental offsprings revealed many histopathological changes, including massive degeneration, vacuolization and cell loss in the ganglion cell layer, as well as general reduction in retinal size. At the ultrastructural level, the retina of experimental offsprings exhibited number of deformities, including ill differentiated and degenerated nuclear layer, malformed and vacuolated pigment epithelium with vesiculated and fragmented rough endoplasmic reticulum, degenerated outer segment of photoreceptors, as well as swollen choriocapillaris and loss of neuronal cells. Proteomic analysis of retina of the two experimental developmental stages showed variations in the expressed proteins as a result of intoxication which illustrated the adverse toxic effects of fried potato chips upon the retina. Conclusions It can be concluded that the effect of fried potato chips on the development of retina in rats may be due to the presence of acrylamide or its metabolite. PMID:23569770

  11. Immunomodulatory activity of methanolic leaf extract of Moringa oleifera in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nfambi, Joshua; Bbosa, Godfrey S.; Sembajwe, Lawrence Fred; Gakunga, James; Kasolo, Josephine N.

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, Moringa oleifera is used by different communities to treat various ailments including modulation of the immune system though with limited scientific evidence. Aim To study the immunomodulatory activity of M. oleifera methanolic leaf extract in Wistar albino rats. Methods An experimental laboratory-based study was done following standard methods and procedures. Nine experimental groups (I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX) each comprising of six animals were used. Group I received normal saline. Groups II to IX received 200 mg/kg bwt cyclophosphamide at the beginning of the study. Group III received 50 mg/kg bwt of an immunostimulatory drug levamisole. Groups IV to IX were dosed daily for 14 days with extract at doses of 250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg bwt, respectively, using an intragastric tube. Complete blood count (CBC), delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (DTH), neutrophil adhesion test, and hemagglutination antibody titer were determined using standard methods and procedures. Statistical analysis was performed using GraphPad prism 5.0a Software. Results There was an increment in WBC, lymphocyte, and neutrophil counts at a dose of 1000 mg/kg bwt similar to the levamisole-positive control group. The neutrophil adhesion was statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) for treatment groups that received 1000 mg/kg bwt (29.94%) and 500 mg/kg bwt at 17.28%. The mean percentage increment in footpad thickness was highest (26.9%) after 8 h of injection of antigen in the footpad of rats dosed 500 mg/kg bwt and this later reduced to 25.6% after 24 h. There was a dose-dependent increment in the mean hemagglutination antibody titer to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) from 10.73±0.57 HA units/μL for the 250 mg/kg bwt to 26.22±1.70 HA units/μL for the 1000 mg/kg bwt. Conclusions Methanolic leaf extract of M. oleifera caused a significant immunostimulatory effect on both the cell-mediated and humoral immune systems in the Wistar albino rats. PMID:26103628

  12. Evaluation of Diuretic Activity of Alcoholic Extract of Roots of Cissampelos Pareira in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khanwelkar, Chitra C.; Nimmagadda, Venkat Rao; Dasi, Jeevan Mani Babu; Chavan, Vasant R.; Kutani, Aruna; Kotagiri, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Background: In congestive heart failure, nephritis, toxemia of pregnancy, premenstrual tension and hypertension associated with oedema diuretic compounds are much helpful to relieve these conditions. Aims: To study the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by Lipschitz method in albino rats. Methods and Material: Five groups of Albino rats were used to evaluate the diuretic activity of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira by using metabolic cages. The group I serves as normal control received vehicle (2% CMC in normal saline), group II with Furosemide (10 mg/Kg, p.o), Groups III, IV and V with low (100 mg/kg), medium (200 mg/kg), and high (400 mg/kg) doses of alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira respectively. Immediately after the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treatment all the rats were hydrated with saline (15 ml/kg, p.o) and 2 animals placed in each metabolic cage, kept at 21°C±0.5°C. No food and water was made available to animals for 5 hour. The total volume of urine collected with each metabolic cage was measured at the end of 5 hour. Various parameters like total urine volume and concentration of different ions i.e.; Sodium, Potassium , Chloride in the urine were measured. Results: In this model when compared to control group the alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira treated groups at different dose levels (100,200 and 400 mg/kg) have noted with significant increase in the urine volume and also significantly enhanced the excretion of Sodium, Potassium and Chloride ions in urine. Conclusion: Results showed that single dose administration of standard Furosemide and alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira significantly (p<0.05*, p<0.01**, p<0.001***) increased the urine output along with an increase in elimination of Sodium, Potassium, and Chloride ions. Alcoholic extract of roots of Cissampelos pareira 400 mg/Kg produced a comparable diuretic activity with

  13. Ameliorating effect of Allium Sativum on high-fat diet induced fatty liver in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Qamar, Aisha; Usmani, Ambreen; Waqar, Humera; Siddiqui, Asma; Kumar, Hemant

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the hepatoprotective effect provided by fresh garlic on fatty liver induced by high-fat diet. Methods: This experimental study was carried out at BMSI, JPMC from October to November 2008. Thirty adult albino rats, 200-240 gram weight, were divided into three groups. Group A received control diet, Group B received high-fat diet (20 mg butter/100 gm diet) and Group C received high-fat diet with fresh garlic (20 mg butter with 6 gm fresh garlic/100 gm diet). The groups were further divided on the basis of duration of treatment, four weeks and eight weeks respectively. The rats were sacrificed, liver removed, weighed and relative liver weight calculated. Hepatic tissue was processed and tissue slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. Results: There was significant increase in relative liver weight in group B animals as compared to the control animals, which decreased significantly in group C. Haematoxylin and eosin stained sections revealed ballooned hepatocytes having vesicular appearance with pyknotic nuclei in high-fat group which were preserved to a great extent in group C animals. Conclusion: This study has shown that use of fresh garlic along with high-fat diet prevents its damaging effects on liver to a great extent. PMID:27182249

  14. Antihyperglycaemic Effect of Tetracarpidium Conophorum Nuts in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Female Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Onwuli, Donatus Onukwufor; Brown, Holy; Ozoani, Harrison Anaezichukwuolu

    2014-01-01

    The antihyperglycaemic activity of Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) was investigated in albino rats. A total of 20 albino rats were used for the study. The rats were divided into five groups (A–E) of four rats each. Diabetes were induced in the rats except four which served as the positive control group A. Groups B (negative control), C, D, and E contain diabetic rats each with blood sugar level ≥17.00 mmol/L. Groups A and B were fed on 85.2 g of top feed grower over the test period. Test groups C, D, and E were fed on 21.3 g, 42.6 g, and 85.2 g of walnuts, respectively, and their fasting blood sugar (FBS) levels were checked on daily basis. Fasting blood glucose levels of the test groups were significantly lower than negative control P < 0.05, for 3rd, 7th, and 10th days of the test. There were also significant increase in the body weight and hemoglobin concentration and a decreased urine output of the test group compared with the controls. These results indicate that Tetracarpidium conophorum nut (walnut) has an antihyperglycemic effect in diabetic rats. PMID:24944826

  15. Evaluation of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of Basella alba in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Das, Saibal; Bandyopadhyay, Sanjib; Ramasamy, Anand; Mondal, Somnath

    2015-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate possible hepatoprotective effects of aqueous leaf extracts of Basella alba in comparison with silymarin in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. Six groups of six albino rats each received orally for 6 weeks, vehicle, paracetamol (2 g/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus silymarin (50 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (60 mg/kg/day), paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (80 mg/kg/day) and paracetamol (2 g/kg/day) plus B. alba extract (100 mg/kg/day). Hepatoprotective effect was evaluated by comparing serum bilirubin, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, proteins, alkaline phosphatase and liver histopathology. Results were represented as mean ± SEM. One-way ANOVA was done followed by post hoc Tukey's test with a highly significance level of P < 0.001. Aqueous leaf extracts of B. alba 100 mg/kg/day orally had significant hepatoprotective effect in paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The results were well comparable and even in some respects superior to standard drug silymarin. PMID:25347929

  16. Improvement of sperm density in neem-oil induced infertile male albino rats by Ipomoea digitata Linn

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Ghanashyam Keshav; Mahajan, Raghunath Totaram; Mahajan, Arun Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Investigation has been carried out to validate folkloric claim of the potential of Ipomoea digitata (ID) based on reproductive health status in experimentally induced male albino rats. Materials and Methods: Emulsified neem oil fed albino rats were orally administered root powder of ID suspended in water for the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight for 40 days. Change in organ weight, sperm density and motility, serum hormonal levels and histomorphological changes were evaluated. Results: Significant increase in the sperm density and the sperm motility (P < 0.01) along with increase in the testis, and epididymes weight in neem-oil induced infertile rats treated with ID at both dose levels. This effect is vis-à-vis to serum hormonal levels. Presence of β-sitosterol in the root of ID likely to enhance the process of spermatogenesis as it is evident from histomorphological studies. Conclusion: Results of the present investigation reveal that ID is a good candidate for the management of male infertility. PMID:26401398

  17. Learning and memory impairment in albino rats after potassium ethylxanthogenate. Effects of nootropic agents.

    PubMed

    Genkova-Papasova, M; Lazarova-Bakarova, M

    1991-01-01

    The effects of the nootropic agents piracetam, aniracetam, meclofenoxate and fipexide on the cognitive functions impaired after potassium ethylxanthogenate, inhibitor of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase, were tested in experiments on albino rats. The changes in learning and memory were traced by the active conditioned avoidance method with negative reinforcement (shuttle-box) and the passive avoidance method (step-down). Potassium ethylxanthogenate, injected intraperitoneally in a dose of 100 mg/kg, markedly impaired learning and memory with both methods used. Piracetam (600 mg/kg), aniracetam (50 mg/kg), meclofenoxate (100 mg/kg) and fipexide (10 mg/kg), administered orally five days before and five days during shuttle-box training, as well as five days before step-down training, completely prevented the impairing effect of potassium ethylxanthogenate on the cognitive processes. The role of the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system and of other brain transmitter systems for memory disturbances caused by potassium ethylxanthogenate, as well as the protective effect of the nootropic drugs used, are discussed. PMID:1668136

  18. Diuretic activity of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum extract in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Asif, Muhammad; Jabeen, Qaiser; Abdul-Majid, Amin Malik-Shah; Atif, Muhammad

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of crude aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata Roxb. oleo gum on urinary electrolytes, pH and diuretic activity in normal albino rats. Moreover, acute toxicity of the gum extract was assessed using mice. Albino rats were divided into five groups. Control group received normal saline (10 mg/kg), reference group received furosemide (10 mg/kg) and test groups were given different doses of crude extract (10, 30 and 50 mg/kg) by intra-peritoneal route, respectively. The Graph Pad Prism was used for the statistical analysis and p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Significant diuretic, kaliuretic and natriuretic effects were observed in the treated groups in a dose dependent manner. Diuretic index showed good diuretic activity of the crude extract. Lipschitz values indicated that the crude extract, at the dose of 50 mg/kg, showed 44 % diuretic activity compared to the reference drug. No lethal effects were observed among albino mice even at the higher dose of 3000 mg/kg. It is concluded that aqueous extract of Boswellia serrata oleo gum, at the dose of 50 mg/kg showed significant effects on urinary volume and concentration of urinary electrolytes with no signs of toxicity. PMID:25362605

  19. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  20. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress. PMID:26445572

  1. Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swarnamoni; Kanodia, Lalit; Mukherjee, Apurba; Hakim, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida (EEPF) was prepared by percolation method. Acute toxicity test was done by using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines. Albino rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. Groups A and B received 3% gum acacia. Groups C and D received EEPF 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 5-aminosalisylic acid 100 mg/kg BW respectively. Colitis was induced by transrectal administration of 4% acetic acid on 5th day. All animals were sacrificed after 48 h of colitis induction and distal 10 cm of the colon was dissected. Colon was weighed for disease activity index (DAI) and scored macroscopically and microscopically. Biochemical assessment of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was done in colonic tissue homogenate and malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated in serum. Results: P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in DAI, macroscopic and microscopic lesion score as well as significant (P < 0.05) improvement in MPO, MDA, CAT, and SOD level as compared to Group B. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of leaves of P. foetida showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property. PMID:24130378

  2. Anti-diarrhoeal investigation from aqueous extract of Cuminum cyminum Linn. Seed in Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sagar, Rakesh; Kori, Mohan Lal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cuminum cyminum Linn. (Umbelliferae), commonly known as Jeera. It is native from mediterranean region, but today widely cultivated in Asian countries. It has been reported to possess various medicinal properties and an important food ingredient. The seed of the plant are claimed for treatment of diarrhoea by various traditional practitioners. Objectives: Hence, the present investigation was undertaken to evaluate aq. extract of C. cyminum seeds (ACCS) against diarrhoea on albino rats. Materials and Methods: The animals were divided into five groups and the control group was applied with 2% acacia suspension, the standard group with loperamide (3 mg/kg) or atropine sulphate (5mg/kg) and three test groups administered orally with 100, 250 and 500 mg/kg of ACCS. The antidiarrhoeal effect was investigated by castor oil induce diarrhoea model, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) induced enteropooling model, intestinal transit by charcoal meal test. Results: The ACCS showed significant (P < 0.001) inhibition in frequency of diarrhoea, defecation time delaying, secretion of intestinal fluid as well as intestinal propulsion as compared to control and the graded doses of tested extract followed dose dependent protection against diarrhoea. Conclusions: The study reveals that the ACCS is a potent antidiarrhoeal drug which supports the traditional claim. PMID:25002800

  3. Pharmacological Investigation of the Wound Healing Activity of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) Ointment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Hemant Kumar; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Srivastava, Rajnish; Kurmi, Madan Lal; Chandel, Harinarayan Singh; Ranawat, Mahendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The present study was aimed at investigating the wound healing effect of ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (L.) leaves (EECN) using excision and incision wound model. Methods. Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups each consisting of six animals; group I (left untreated) considered as control, group II (ointment base treated) considered as negative control, group III treated with 5% (w/w) povidone iodine ointment (Intadine USP), which served as standard, group IV treated with EECN 2% (w/w) ointment, and group V treated with EECN 5% (w/w) ointment were considered as test groups. All the treatments were given once daily. The wound healing effect was assessed by percentage wound contraction, epithelialization period, and histoarchitecture studies in excision wound model while breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in the incision wound model. Result. Different concentration of EECN (2% and 5% w/w) ointment promoted the wound healing activity significantly in both the models studied. The high rate of wound contraction (P < 0.001), decrease in the period for epithelialization (P < 0.01), high skin breaking strength (P < 0.001), and elevated hydroxyproline content were observed in animal treated with EECN ointments when compared to the control and negative control group of animals. Histopathological studies of the EECN ointments treated groups also revealed the effectiveness in improved wound healing. Conclusions. Ethanolic extract of Cestrum nocturnum (EECN) leaves possesses a concentration dependent wound healing effect. PMID:27018126

  4. Possible Therapeutic Effect of Stem Cell in Atherosclerosis in Albino Rats. A Histological and Immunohistochemical Study

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Kawi, Samraa H; Hashem, Khalid S

    2015-01-01

    Background Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of death worldwide. there are no effective approaches to regressing atherosclerosis due to not fully understood mechanisms. Recently, stem cell-based therapies have held promises to various diseases, including vascular diseases. Aim The present study aimed at investigating the possible effect of cord blood mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy on atherosclerosis. Material and Methods Eighty adult male albino rats were divided into control group (I), atherogenic group (II): subjected to high cholesterol fed diet (200~300 mg/kg body weight) for 12 weeks and 1.8 million units of vitamin D / kg of diet for 6 weeks. Stem cell therapy group (III): injected with stem cells in the tail vein following confirmation of atherosclerosis. Histological, Immunohistochemical and morphometric studies were performed were conducted. Results Atherogenic group (II) showed increased aortic thickness, intimal proliferation, smooth muscle proliferation and migration. Increased area % of collagen fibers, iNOS and vimentin immunoreactions were recorded and proved morphometrically. All findings regressed on stem cell therapy. Conclusion A definite therapeutic effect of mesenchymal stem cells was found on atherosclerosis. PMID:26634068

  5. Effects of Different Concentrations of Fluoride in Oral Mucosal Cells in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, P.Ajay; Rao, T.Madhusudhan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Fluoride has been described to be physiologically essential for the normal development and growth of human beings. However, it is well known that excessive fluoride causes skeletal, nonskeletal and dental complications. Therefore, outlining the cytogenetic effects induced by fluorosis is necessary. Objectives To evaluate the cytomorphology of exfoliated oral mucosal cells among various concentrations of fluoride. Study design: Study group comprised of 12 Albino Wistar rats, categorized into A,B and C groups (fed with 25 ppm,50 ppm and 100 ppm concentration of NaF), each group consisting of 4 rats, with 4 controls (fed with 1ppm concentration of NaF in distilled water). Each group was fed for a period of 42 days. Materials and Methods Cytological smears were taken from the buccal mucosa of each group after 42 days of fluoride administration. The samples were stained with the papanicolaou method and assessed for Cytomorphometrical changes in maximum diameter of nucleus, minimum diameter of nucleus, perimeter of the nucleus, maximum diameter of the cell, minimum diameter of the cell and perimeter of the cell by image analysis software and the results were statistically analysed using SPSS software. Results Mean values of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the nucleus increased in fluoride induced study groups when compared to controls and the results showed that p-value was statistically significant (p-value: 0.000, 0.001). Mean value of maximum diameter, minimum diameter and perimeter of the cell decreased in fluoride induced subjects when compared with controls which were statistically not significant (p-value: 0.791, 0.600 & 0.719). A continuous increase in the nuclear size and decrease in the cell size was identified in fluoride induced groups as compared to controls. Conclusion The observations of our present study revealed that cellular changes occur with severity of fluorosis. These cellular morphological changes may possibly

  6. Hypoglycaemic and Tissue-Protective Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Persea Americana Seeds on Alloxan-Induced Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    EZEJIOFOR, Anthonet Ndidi; OKORIE, Abednego; ORISAKWE, Orish Ebere

    2013-01-01

    Background: The tissue-protective potential of Persea americana necessitated a look into the histopathological effects of the plant extract on the pancreas, liver, and kidneys. This study was conceived and designed based on the gaps in the research that has been performed and what is known about the plant. The hypoglycaemic and tissue-protective effects of hot aqueous Persea americana (avocado pear) seed extracts on alloxan-induced albino rats were investigated. Methods: Persea americana seeds were extracted using hot water, and different concentrations of the extract were prepared. The effects of different concentrations (20, 30, 40 g/L) of the hot aqueous P. americana seed extract on alloxan-induced Wistar albino rats were compared with those of a reference drug, glibenclamide. The glucose level of the rats was measured daily, and the weight of the animal was monitored on a weekly basis for 21 days. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 0, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes, and the histopathologies of the liver, kidneys, and pancreas were investigated. Phytochemical analysis of P. americana seed extracts indicated the presence of glycosides, tannins, saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, and alkaloids. Results: The results showed that the extract possessed a significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.05) effect and reversed the histopathological damage that occurred in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, comparable to the effects glibenclamide. The seeds of P. americana also had anti-diabetic and protective effects on some rat tissues such as the pancreas, kidneys, and liver. Conclusion: In conclusion, the present study provides a pharmacological basis for the folkloric use of the hot-water extract of P. americana seeds in the management of diabetes mellitus. PMID:24643349

  7. Impact of acute and chronic stress hormone on male albino rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Han, Li-Li; Chen, Ling; Dong, Zhi-Ling

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation aimed to evaluate the acute and chronic effect of stress (stress hormone) in male albino rat brain. Nor-epinephrine was used for the treatment and saline used for the control. Nor-epinephrine was dissolved in the saline and administered orally to the rats. Following nor-epinephrine administration, the brain was removed surgically at 6 h, 12 h and 45 days. Alanine tansaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly altered in the rats. Lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA), showed altered lipid peroxidation. Hematological markers such as packed cell volume (PCV), white blood cells (WBC), neutrophil, lymphocytes and hemoglobin were significantly altered compared to controls. Altered serum biochemical and hematological markers, lipid peroxidation and enzyme activities leads to adverse effect in the cellular metabolism and physiological activities of rats. PMID:26261571

  8. Haematological, biochemical and histopathological alterations induced by abamectin and Bacillus thuringiensis in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Eissa, F I; Zidan, N A

    2010-03-01

    The renal- and hepato-toxicity induced by abamectin pesticide (Vertimec) and a commercial form of a bio-insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Agerin) in male albino rats were evaluated. Blood picture and blood glucose level were investigated. Male albino rats were administered dietary doses each equivalent to 1/10 or 1/100 of the LD50 values of each toxicant for 30 consecutive days. Abamectin was found to pose risks of renal- and hepato-toxicity in rats, since the biochemical parameters of liver function (i.e. aspartate aminotransferase activity, alanine aminotransferase activity, acid phosphatase activity, albumin, and total protein levels) and kidney function (uric acid and creatinine concentration) were severely affected. These effects were verified by histopathological examination of liver and kidney tissues. Likewise, some haematological indices (i.e. erythrocyte count, leukocyte count and haemoglobin concentration) were also influenced; in addition abamectin might cause hypoglycaemia. On the other hand, the above-mentioned lesions were less pronounced in the case of Bacillus thuringiensis -treated rats. PMID:20194097

  9. Effect of alcohol and kolanut interaction on brain sodium pump activity in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Obochi, G O; Abara, A E; Malu, S P; Obi-Abang, M; Edu, F E; Eteng, M U; Umoh, I B

    2007-01-01

    Effect of alcohol-kolanut interaction on sodium pump activity in wistar albino rats was studied. Thirty wistar albino rats were divided into six groups of five (5) rats per group and used for the study. The control group (1) received via oral route a placebo (4 ml of distilled water). Groups 2 to 6 were treated for a period of 21 days, with (10% v/v) of alcohol (group 2), 50mg/kg body weight of kolanut (group 3), 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine (group 4), 4 ml of 10% v/v of alcohol and 50 mg/kg body weight kolanut (group 5), 4 ml of 10% v/v of alcohol and 50 mg/kg body weight of caffeine in 4.0 ml of the vehicle via gastric intubation respectively. A day after the final exposure, the brain of each rat was harvested and processed to examine several biochemical parameters, i.e., total ATpase, ouabain-insensitive ATpase, ouabain sensitive ATpase (Na(+)-K(+)ATPase), non-enzymatic breakdown of ATP and inorganic phosphate (Pi) released. The results showed that the essential enzyme of the brain responsible for neuronal function, Na(+)-K(+)ATPase, was inhibited by alcohol-kolanut co-administration relative to control, resulting in a decrease in Na(+)-K(+)ATPase activity, ATP production, ion transport and action potential, leading to loss of neuronal activities. PMID:18379627

  10. Impact of dietary oils and fats on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Haggag, Mohammad El-Sayed Yassin El-Sayed; Elsanhoty, Rafaat Mohamed; Ramadan, Mohamed Fawzy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of different dietary fat and oils (differing in their degree of saturation and unsaturation) on lipid peroxidation in liver and blood of rats. Methods The study was conducted on 50 albino rats that were randomly divided into 5 groups of 10 animals. The groups were fed on dietary butter (Group I), margarine (Group II), olive oil (Group III), sunflower oil (Group IV) and corn oil (Group V) for 7 weeks. After 12 h of diet removal, livers were excised and blood was collected to measure malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the supernatant of liver homogenate and in blood. Blood superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), serum vitamin E and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels were also measured to determine the effects of fats and oils on lipid peroxidation. Results The results indicated that no significant differences were observed in SOD activity, vitamin E and TAC levels between the five groups. However, there was significant decrease of GPx activity in groups IV and V when compared with other groups. The results indicated that feeding corn oil caused significant increases in liver and blood MDA levels as compared with other oils and fats. There were positive correlations between SOD and GPx, vitamin E and TAC as well as between GPx and TAC (r: 0.743; P<0.001) and between blood MDA and liver MDA (r: 0.897; P<0.001). The results showed also negative correlations between blood MDA on one hand and SOD, GPx, vitamin E and TAC on the other hand. Conclusions The results demonstrated that feeding oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) increases lipid peroxidation significantly and may raise the susceptibility of tissues to free radical oxidative damage. PMID:24144131

  11. Acetaminophen effects on behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Kaiser, G A; Maranto, D L; Blake, S E; Storey, T M; McPherson, K P; Luper, S L

    1999-02-01

    Acetaminophen (N-Acetyl-p-aminophenol) was administered intraperitoneally to 15 Sprague-Dawley rats partitioned into 3 studies (5 rats per study) using a within subjects, repeated-measures reversal design. Behavioral thermoregulation was assessed in a cold Skinner Box using 5-sec. exposures of microwave radiation [Specific Absorption Rate = 0.34 Watts/kg/(mW/cm2)] as reinforcing stimuli under a fixed-interval 2-min. schedule of positive reinforcement. Doses of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 mg/kg (in solutions of 1%, 2%, 3%, 4%, and 5%) acetaminophen showed stable rates of operant responding for heat compared with significant changes in rates for comparable doses of aspirin in a 1993 study by Vitulli, et al. Weight reductions and temperature increases varied significantly with before-session and after-session measures, respectively. 1994-95 biochemical data of Murphy, et al. from humans following aspirin or acetaminophen ingestion which affect thermoregulation and sleep patterns are discussed in conjunction with behavioral data from rats. PMID:10214655

  12. Biochemical and immunological changes on oral glutamate feeding in male albino rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D.; Bansal, Anju; Thomas, Pauline; Sairam, M.; Sharma, S. K.; Mongia, S. S.; Singh, R.; Selvamurthy, W.

    High altitude stress leads to lipid peroxidation and free radical formation which results in cell membrane damage in organs and tissues, and associated mountain diseases. This paper discusses the changes in biochemical parameters and antibody response on feeding glutamate to male albino Sprague Dawley rats under hypoxic stress. Exposure of rats to simulated hypoxia at 7576 m, for 6 h daily for 5 consecutive days, in an animal decompression chamber at 32+/-2° C resulted in an increase in plasma malondialdehyde level with a concomitant decrease in blood glutathione (reduced) level. Supplementation of glutamate orally at an optimal dose (27 mg/kg body weight) in male albino rats under hypoxia enhanced glutathione level and decreased malondialdehyde concentration significantly. Glutamate feeding improved total plasma protein and glucose levels under hypoxia. The activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) and the urea level remained elevated on glutamate supplementation under hypoxia. Glutamate supplementation increased the humoral response against sheep red blood cells (antibody titre). These results indicate a possible utility of glutamate in the amelioration of hypoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  13. Contraceptive studies of isolated fractions of Cuminum cyminum in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Poonam; Gupta, Rajnish; Gupta, R S

    2015-01-01

    The contraceptive efficacy of Cuminum cyminum isolated fractions (CcFr) in male albino rats was investigated. Oral dose of CcFr at 50 mg/rat/day for 60 days revealed no significant changes in body weight, while marked abnormalities in spermatogenesis were observed with decreased counts (P ≤ 0.001) in round spermatids, preleptotene spermatocytes and secondary spermatocytes. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as number of mature Leydig cell were decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.001). Testicular as well as accessory sex organ biochemical parameters were significantly changed (P ≤ 0.001). Sperm motility, density and morphology were resulted in 100% negative fertility. Testosterone levels were declined significantly. In conclusion, Cuminum cyminum inhibited spermatogenesis in rats, indicating the possibility of developing an herbal male contraceptive. PMID:25675391

  14. Salty solutions: their effects on thermal set points in behavioral repertoires of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Aker, R; Howard, S W; Jones, W M; Kimball, M W; Quinn, J M

    1994-08-01

    Salt (sodium chloride) has been linked to increased blood pressure and a rise in core body temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate the role played by salt in altering behavioral thermoregulation in albino rats. Different doses of sodium chloride were administered (ip) prior to fixed-interval 2-min. schedules of microwave reinforcement in rats tested in a cold Skinner Box. Three Sprague-Dawley rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with 5-sec. exposures of MW reinforcement in a repeated-measures reversal design. Friedman's non-parametric test showed significant differences among sodium chloride doses and physiologically normal saline. Post hoc sign tests showed that all doses of NaCl suppressed operant behavior for heat except 60 mg/kg. The hypothesis that sodium chloride lowers hypothalamic set point for heat was partially supported. PMID:7991311

  15. 6-gingerol ameliorates gentamicin induced renal cortex oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Ahmed M S; Mosaed, Mohammed M; Elshafey, Saad H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-06-01

    Ginger or Zingiber officinale which is used in traditional medicine has been found to possess antioxidant effect that can control the generation of free radicals. Free radicals are the causes of renal cell degeneration that leads to renal failure in case of gentamicin induced toxicity. This study was done to evaluate the possible protective effects of 6-gingerol as natural antioxidant on gentamicin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress and apoptosis in adult male albino rats. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study and were randomly divided into four groups, control group; 6-gingerol treated group; gentamicin treated group and protected group (given simultaneous 6-gingerol and gentamicin). At the end of the study, blood samples were drawn for biochemical study. Kidney sections were processed for histological, and immunohistochemical examination for caspase-3 to detect apoptosis and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) to detect oxidative damage. Gentamicin treated rats revealed a highly significant increase in renal function tests, tubular dilatation with marked vacuolar degeneration and desquamation of cells, interstitial hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Immunohistochemically, gentamicin treated rats showed a strong positive immunoreaction for caspase-3 and anti heat shock protein 47 (HSP47). Protected rats showed more or less normal biochemical, histological, and immunohistochemical pictures. In conclusion, co-administration of 6-gingerol during gentamicin 'therapy' has a significant reno-protective effect in a rat model of gentamicin-induced renal damage. It is recommended that administration of ginger with gentamicin might be beneficial in men who receive gentamicin to treat infections. PMID:27036327

  16. Ulcerogenic and intestinal motility/transit stimulating actions of nevirapine in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Umoren, Elizabeth Bassey; Obembe, Agona Odeh; Osim, Eme Effiom

    2013-09-01

    The antiretroviral is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of nevirapine (NVP) administration on gastric acid secretion, pepsin secretion, mucosal secretion, intestinal motility, and transit using apparently healthy albino Wistar rats. Eighty albino Wistar rats (50-125 g body weight) from the start of the experiment were used for the study. Rats in the control group were fed normal rodent chow, while the NVP group was fed by gavage NVP (0.4 mg/kg body weight) two times daily (07:00 and 18:00 hours) in addition to normal rodent chow for 12 weeks. All animals were allowed free access to clean drinking water. Mean basal gastric output and peak acid output following histamine administration in the NVP-treated group were significantly higher (p < 0.001, respectively) compared to the control. Following cimetidine administration, there was significant decrease (p < 0.001) in peak acid output in the NVP-treated group compared to the control. The concentration of gastric pepsin, adherent mucus secretion, and mean value for ulcer score were significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to their control group, respectively. There were significant increases (p < 0.05, respectively) in intestinal motility and basal contraction (p < 0.05) and increase in intestinal transit of the ileum of NVP-treated rats compared to their control, respectively. Results of the study suggest that NVP administration might provoke gastric ulceration in rats which may be caused by high pepsin, high basal acid output, and increased intestinal motility and transit. PMID:23536414

  17. Hair growth promoting activity of Eclipta alba in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Roy, R K; Thakur, Mayank; Dixit, V K

    2008-08-01

    Alopecia is a dermatological disorder with psychosocial implications on patients with hair loss. Eclipta alba Hassk. is a well-known Ayurvedic herb with purported claims of hair growth promotion. In the reported work attempts were undertaken to evaluate petroleum ether and ethanol extract of E. alba Hassk. for their effect on promoting hair growth in albino rats. The extracts were incorporated into oleaginous cream (water in oil cream base) and applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino rats. The time (in days) required for hair growth initiation as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control for comparison. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts, as compared to control animals. The time required for complete hair growth was also significantly reduced. Quantitative analysis of hair growth after treatment with petroleum ether extract (5%) exhibited greater number of hair follicles in anagenic phase (69 +/- 4) which were higher as compared to control (47 +/- 13). The result of treatment with 2 and 5% petroleum ether extracts were better than the positive control minoxidil 2% treatment. PMID:18478241

  18. Survival of some photoreceptor cells in albino rats following long-term exposure to continuous light.

    PubMed

    La Vail, M M

    1976-01-01

    Fischer albino rats, seven weeks of age, were exposed to continuous light at 65 foot-candle incident illuminance for up to 264 days. Other Fischer rats, seven months of age, were exposed to continuous light at 140 foot-candle incident illuminance for up to 147 days. In all cases, a small percentage of the photoreceptors survived. The identification of the surviving cells as photoreceptors was made by light microscopy on the basis of nuclear heterochromatin pattern and staining and by electron microscopy by the presence of ribbon synapses and ciliary basal bodies with ciliary filaments. No outer segment membranes were observed. The percentage of cones progressively increased from the normal 1.5 per cent to about 60 per cent with increasing exposure time, indicating that cone cells are more resistant than rods to destruction by constant light. PMID:1245384

  19. Study on the diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis Buch.-Ham. in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ashok, B. K.; Bhat, Savitha D.; Shukla, V. J.; Ravishankar, B.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate diuretic activity of Euphorbia fusiformis root powder in Wistar strain albino rats. Randomly selected animals were divided into three groups of six animals each. The root powder was suspended in distilled water and administered orally at a dose of 90 mg/kg therapeutically equivalent dose (TED) and 180 mg/kg (TED × 02) to overnight fasted rats. The diuretic activity was evaluated by determination of urine volume and urinary electrolyte concentrations. Test drug showed significant increase in urine volume and urinary electrolyte excretion in a dose-dependant manner. Thus, from this study, it can be concluded that roots of E. fusiformis possess diuretic activity. PMID:22529656

  20. Modulating effect of Gmelina arborea Linn. on immunosuppressed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, S. H.; Saluja, A. K.; Pandya, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: In the present study, the immunomodulatory effects of roots of Gmelina arborea Linn. were investigated Materials and Methods: Methanolic extract of G. arborea Linn. (MEGA) and its ethyl acetate fraction (EAFME) were used for evaluating the pharmacological activity. The modulating effect was evaluated on humoral and cell-mediated immune response using animal models like cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response, and humoral antibody (HA) titre Results: Both test extracts produced significant increase in HA titre, DTH response, and levels of total white blood cell count Conclusion: This drug is found to be a potential immunostimulant PMID:21713139

  1. Antispermatogenic Activity of the Benzothiazoline Ligand and Corresponding Organoantimony(V) Derivative in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pankaj K.; Rehwani, H.; Rai, A. K.; Gupta, R. S.; Singh, Y. P.

    2006-01-01

    Triphenylantimony(V) derivative, Ph3Sb(OPri) [SC6H4N : C(CH3)CH2C(O)CH3], 1b, and the corresponding benzothiazoline ligand [1, 2], HNC6H4SC⎴(CH3)CH2C(O)CH3, 1a, have been tested for their effects on the reproductive system of male albino rats. The oral administration of both 1a and 1b at the dose level of 10 mg/rat/day produced significant reduction in the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles, and ventral prostate. Significant decrease in sperm motility as well as in sperm density resulted in 100% sterility. Significant (P < .01) alterations were also found in biochemical parameters of reproductive organs in treated male rats as compared to the control group. Production of preleptotene, pachytene, and secondary spermatocytes was decreased by 42%, 43%, 39%, and by 44%, 49%, 55% in the ligand, 1a, and organoantimony(V) derivative, 1b, treated rats, respectively. These results indicate that both compounds 1a and 1b are antispermatogenic in nature and on oral administration in male rats, and finally caused sterility. A comparison indicates that the organoantimony(V) derivative 1b is more effective pertaining to its antispermatogenic activity than the corresponding ligand 1a. PMID:17496999

  2. Amelioration of excision wounds by topical application of green synthesized, formulated silver and gold nanoparticles in albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Naraginti, Saraschandra; Kumari, P Lakshmi; Das, Raunak Kumar; Sivakumar, A; Patil, Sagar Hindurao; Andhalkar, Vaibhav Vilas

    2016-05-01

    Wound healing, a complex biological process, has attained a lot of attention as dermatologists are primarily interested in stimulated wound closure without formation of scar or a faint scar. The recent upsurgence of nanotechnology has provided novel therapeutic materials in the form of silver and gold nanoparticles which accelerate the wound healing process. The effect of formulated nanoparticles using Coleus forskohlii root extract (green synthesized) has been tried out for ameliorating full thickness excision wounds in albino Wistar male rats. The evaluation of in vivo activity of nanoparticles in wound healing was carried out on open wounds made by excision on the dorsal sides of albino Wistar rats under anesthesia, and the healing of the wounds was assessed. Histological aspects of the healing process were studied by a HE (Hematoxylin and Eosin) staining method to assess various degrees of re-epithelialization and the linear alignment of the granulation tissue whereas Van Gieson's histochemical staining was performed to observe collagen fibers. The healing action shown by the formulated nanoparticles was remarkable during the early stages of wound healing, which resulted in the substantial reduction of the whole healing period. Topical application of formulated gold nanoparticles was found to be more effective in suppressing inflammation and stimulating re-epithelialization compared to silver nanoparticles during the healing process. The results throw light on the amelioration of excision wounds using nanoparticles which could be a novel therapeutic way of improving wound healing in clinical practice. The mechanism of advanced healing action of both types of nanoparticles could be due to their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:26952426

  3. Ascorbic acid treatment elevates follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone plasma levels and enhances sperm quality in albino Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Okon, Uduak Akpan; Utuk, Ikponoabasi Ibanga

    2016-01-01

    Background: Infertility issues have been linked to the effect of oxidative reaction in the reproductive system. This study evaluated the effect of ascorbic acid, on fertility parameters of male albino Wistar rats was studied. Materials and Methods: Eighteen albino Wistar rats weighed between 178 g and 241 g were used, randomly assigned into three groups. Group 1 was the control group; oral gavaged 5 ml of distilled water; Groups 2 and 3 were administered medium dose (250 mg/kg) and high dose of ascorbic acid (400 mg/kg), respectively; twice daily for 21 days. Blood samples were obtained by cardiac puncture, and blood serum was obtained for hormonal assay, and the testes were harvested for sperm analysis. Results: Follicle stimulating hormone levels significantly increased in the high-dose group as compared to both the control and medium dose groups. Luteinizing hormone levels in the medium dose group decreased significantly as compared to the control group. Testosterone significantly increased in both the medium- and high-dose groups as compared to the control group. Sperm motility increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to both control and medium-dose groups. Percentage sperm concentration decreased significantly in the medium-dose group when compared to the control and increased significantly in the high-dose group as compared to the medium-dose group. For percentage normal morphology, there was a dose-dependent increase in the test groups when compared to control group. Conclusion: These results are indicative of a positive influence of ascorbic acid on male fertility modulators and may therefore, serve as a potential adjuvant treatment for male infertility cases. PMID:27185976

  4. Anti-ulcer activity of ethanol extract of Terminaliapallida Brandis. in Swiss albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Mazumder, U K; Manikandan, L; Bhattacharya, S; Senthilkumar, G P; Suresh, R

    2005-02-28

    Ethanol extract of Terminalia pallida Brandis. (EETP) was evaluated for its anti-ulcer activity against various models of ulcers, such as drug-induced ulcers, histamine-induced ulcers and ethanol-induced ulcers in Swiss albino rats. The EETP at the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg per os (p.o.) exhibited significant protection against ulcers produced by indomethacin, histamine and the effect was comparable to that of the reference drug famotidine (30 mg/kg b.w) orally. The extract also afforded significant protection against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. Meanwhile, EETP significantly lowered the elevated lipid peroxide level (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS)) and restored the altered glutathione level in ethanol-induced gastric ulceration. The present investigation revealed that the EETP exhibited significant anti-ulcer activity by enhancing antioxidant potential of the gastric mucosa, thereby reducing mucosal damage. PMID:15707782

  5. Zinc sulphate and vitamin E alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium sulphate in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rawi, Sayed M; Seif Al Nassr, Fatma M

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of aluminium sulphate and the therapeutic effects of administration of zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination against the toxic effect caused by aluminium (Al) in male albino rats. The animals were divided into five groups: group 1 received distilled water and served as control; group 2 received only aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)); group 3 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) plus zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.); group 4 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (15 mg/kg b.w.); group 5 received aluminium sulphate plus a combination of zinc sulphate and vitamin E in similar doses as above. Doses were administered orally once daily for 45 consecutive days. The results revealed that aluminium sulphate induced significant decrease in body weight gain and testis weight and significant increase in Al level in both serum and testes of male rats. Biochemical analysis showed significant decrease in serum total protein and phospholipids levels, while serum total lipid was significantly elevated post Al treatment. In addition, significant decrease in total protein, phospholipids and cholesterol levels in the testes of Al-treated rats was recorded. The data also showed significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in the level of serum prolactin in Al-intoxicated rats. Moreover, histological examination showed that aluminium sulphate caused apparent alterations in the testicular structure of the treated animals. Treatment with zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination ameliorated the harmful effects of Al, which was proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testicular tissues. We can conclude that the tested dose of aluminium sulphate induced toxic effect on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the treatment with

  6. Neuroprotective effect of grape seed extract against cadmium toxicity in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Tarras, Adel El-Sayed; Attia, Hossam Fouad; Soliman, Mohammed Mohamed; El Awady, Mohammed Abdelhamid; Amin, Adnan Abelghani

    2016-09-01

    Cadmium toxicity can disturb brain chemistry leading to depression, anxiety, and weakened immunity. Cadmium disturbs the neurotransmitter dopamine, resulting in low energy, lack of motivation, and depression, which are predisposing factors for violence. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ameliorative effect of grape seed extract (GSE) on the brain of 40 male albino rats after exposure to cadmium chloride (Cd) toxicity. The rats were separated into either the control group, the Cd group, the GSE group, or the GSE and Cd mixture (treated) group. The cerebrum showed evidence of degeneration of some nerve fibers and cells. Fibrosis, vacuolations, and congestion in the blood vessels were demonstrated. Satelletosis was located in the capsular cells. Immunohistochemical expression of Bax was strongly positive in the Cd group and decreased in the treated group. These histopathological changes were decreased in the brain tissue of the treated group, but a few blood vessels still had evidence of congestion. Cadmium administration increased the level of MDA and decreased MAO-A, acetylcholinesterase, and glutathione reductase (GR), while the treatment with GSE affected the alterations in these parameters. In addition, cadmium downregulated the mRNA expression levels of GST and GPx, while GSE treatment normalized the transcript levels. The expression of both dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter was downregulated in the rats administered cadmium and the addition of GSE normalized the expression of these aggression associated genes. PMID:27271977

  7. [Age-dependent changes of morphometric and histochemical characteristics of neurocytes in different ganglia of albino rats].

    PubMed

    Rumiantseva, T A

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain the normative data on the age-dependent transformation of morphometric and histochemical characteristics of neurocytes in different ganglia in albino rats. Cell cross-sectional area, activities of cholinesterase (demonstrated with thioacetic acid method) monoamine oxidase (demonstrated with Glenner method) were measured in neurocytes of stellate, spinal, trigeminal and gastric ganglia in rats aged 2 to 360 days. Measurements were made with the help of "Bioscan" videoanalyzer. Informational analysis was used for the evaluation of the degree of maturation of neurocyte systems. General features, age- and organ-related peculiarities of morphometric and enzyme-histochemical characteristics were established for neurocytes of different ganglia, as well as a heterochronism of their definitive state attainment. The time of stabilization for neurocytes of stellate and I thoracic spinal ganglia was the age of 60 days, for those of trigeminal ganglion and intramural gastric ganglia -90 and 120 days, respectively. By this time, neurocyte systems turned from a determined state into a probabilistic-determined one, this transformation being considered as a population stabilization. PMID:15359692

  8. Phytochemical and acute toxicity of ethanolic extract of Enantia chlorantha (oliv) stem bark in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Abatan, Mathew O.

    2013-01-01

    It is presumed that drugs sourced from herbs have lesser side effects than allopathic drugs. Enantia chlorantha is widely used in herbal medicine for the treatment of several ailments such as jaundice, malaria, fever, infective hepatitis, etc. However its toxicity profiles are not well documented. The effects of ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark on body weight changes, biochemical and haematological parameters as well as histology of vital organs (heart, kidneys and liver) were assessed. Also, the phytochemical constituent of the plant was analysed. Albino rats of both sexes were randomly divided into five groups (A–E) of five rats each and the ethanolic extract of E. chlorantha stem bark extract was administered by oral gavage in a single dose. Group A rats were administered 500 mg/kg of the extract, group B; 1000 mg/kg, group C; 2000 mg/kg, group D; 3000 mg/kg and group E rats received distilled water (10 ml/kg) and served as control. The extract caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in the levels of packed cell volume, haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell counts in a dose dependent manner. Further, significant alterations were not observed in the serum biochemical parameters analysed (AST, ALP, ALT, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, globulin and bilirubin). In addition, the extract at 1000, 2000 and 3000 mg/kg caused congestion in the heart and kidney of experimental rats. These results suggest that oral administration of E. chlorantha may produce severe toxic effects at relatively high doses, thus caution should be exercised in its use. PMID:24678252

  9. Influence of Momordica charantia on oxidative stress-induced perturbations in brain monoamines and plasma corticosterone in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kavitha, Naga; Babu, S. Manohar; Rao, M.E. Bhanoji

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antistress activity of Momordica charantia (MC) fruit extract on stress-induced changes in albino rats and also to explore attenuating effects of MC on in vitro lipid peroxidation in rat brain. Materials and Methods: In this study, Wistar albino rats (180–200 g) were used. Plasma corticosterone and monoamines—5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and dopamine (DA) in cortex, hypothalamus and hippocampus regions of brain were determined in animals under different stressful conditions. Ethanolic fruit extract of MC, at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg, was used. The oxidative stress paradigms used in in vivo models were acute stress (AS) and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Panax quinquefolium (PQ) was used as a standard in in vivo models and ascorbic acid was used as a reference standard in the in vitro method. Results: Subjecting the animals to AS (immobilization for 150 min once only) resulted in significant elevation of plasma corticosterone levels and brain monoamine levels. Pretreatment with MC at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. significantly countered AS-induced changes and a similar effect was exhibited by PQ at 100 mg/kg p.o. In the CUS regimen (different stressors for 7 days), plasma corticosterone levels were significantly elevated whereas the levels of 5-HT, NE, E, and DA were depleted significantly. Pretreatment with MC (200 and 400 mg/kg) attenuated the CUS-induced changes in the levels of above monoamines in cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus regions of brain and plasma corticosterone in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, MC extract (1000–5000 μg/mL) exhibited a significant quenching effect on in vitro lipid peroxidation indicating its strong antioxidant activity which was compared with ascorbic acid. Conclusions: This study reveals the antistress activity of MC as it significantly reverted the stress-induced changes, and the activity might be attributed

  10. Effects of isosaline extracts of tetrapleura tetrapetra and olax subscorpioides on certain biochemical parameters of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Olagunju, J A; Oyedapo, O O; Onasanya, B A; Osoba, O O; Adebanjo, O O; Eweje, O; Shodeinde, A B

    2000-01-01

    The effects of isosaline extracts of Tetrapleura tetrapetra and Olax subscorpioides were investigated in albino rats. The treatment of rats with these extracts resulted in an increase in the activities of serum alanine aminotransferase, liver aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. The extract of Tetrapleura tetrapetra caused a significant increase in blood glucose and liver glycogen levels while the extract of Olax subscorpioides caused a slight reduction but not statistically significant in the levels of blood glucose and liver glycogen. Both extracts exhibited a significant reduction of protein in the livers of treated rats. PMID:21214460

  11. Acute and subacute oral toxicity study on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ekeanyanwu, Raphael Chukwuma; Njoku, Obioma Uzoma

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia seed on the haematology, histopathology and liver profile of Wistar albino rats. Methods Toxicity study was investigated on the flavonoid rich fraction of Monodora tenuifolia in rats administered different concentrations orally for 28 d using standard laboratory procedures. Results The LD50 of the flavonoid rich fraction was found to be above 5 000 mg/kg body weight in mice observed for 48 h. After the Day 14, biochemical markers of liver injury such as serum alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase decreased significantly (P<0.05 at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight and P<0.01 at 400 mg/kg) while serum alkaline phosphatase increased non-significantly (P>0.05). There was non-significant (P>0.05) effect observed across the groups in the levels of serum total protein, albumin, globulin, urea and creatinine. The result of histological examination showed various degrees of peribiliary hepatitis after the Day 14 which fizzled out after the Day 28. Conclusions The result therefore suggests that the seed extract is potentially safe. PMID:25182437

  12. Vertebral muscles of the back and tail of the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus albinus).

    PubMed

    Brink, E E; Pfaff, D W

    1980-01-01

    The dorsal and ventral vertebral muscles of the back and the tail of the albino Norway rat are described and discussed. These muscles were analyzed because they are undoubtably used during the sexual posturing, lordosis, of the female rat, as well as participating in a variety of other behaviors. The muscles are described by region (thoracic-lumbar or sacrocaudal), and the classifications of Vallois are followed where possible. Of the epaxial (dorsal) muscles, the three longitudinal systems of muscles, the transversospinalis, the longissimus, and the iliocostalis systems, can be identified in the albino rat. Muscles of the transversospinalis system are fused in the lumbar region, distinct and specialized in the thoracic region, and form the tail muscle extensor caudae medialis caudally. The iliocostalis system of the lumbar region is fused with one component of the lumbar longissimus system to form lateral longissimus. Anteriorly, iliocostalis thoracis and cervicis represent the iliocostalis system. The lumbar longissimus system is represented by the longissimus component of lateral longissimus, medial longissimus, and a short-fiber component. Longissimus dorsi is the anterior continuation of the longissimus portion of the lateral longissimus. The short-fiber component also continues into the thoracic region, where it becomes difficult to separate out from longissimus dorsi. Medial longissimus represents the excursion into the lumbar region of the long, tendinous, tailbase-tail muscle, longissimus caudae; the caudal portion of this muscle is extensor caudae lateralis. The remaining dorsal muscle described is the tail muscle, abductor caudae dorsalis. The hyposomal (ventral) muscles described are quadratus lumborum and the intertransversarii, present in the lumbar region; the muslces iliococcygeus, pubococcygeus and coccygeus which arise from the medial face of the pelvis and insert onto the proximal tail; the long, tendinous, tail muscles, flexor caudae brevis and

  13. Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Extract Ameliorates Chronic Ethanol-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lodhi, Poonam; Tandan, Neeraj; Singh, Neera; Kumar, Divyansh; Kumar, Monu

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Camellia sinensis or green tea extract (AQGTE) in chronic ethanol-induced albino rats. All animals were divided into 4 groups in the study for a 5-week duration. 50% ethanol was given orally to the rats with two doses (5 mg/kg bw and 10 mg/kg bw) of AQGTE. Ethanol administration caused a significant increase in the levels of plasma and serum enzymatic markers, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and nonenzymatic markers (cholesterol and triglycerides), lipid peroxidation contents, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and decreased the activities of total proteins, albumin, and cellular antioxidant defense enzymes such as superoxide dismutase (SOD). The elevation and reduction in these biochemical enzymes caused the damage in hepatocytes histologically due to the high production of ROS, which retards the antioxidant defense capacity of cell. AQGTE was capable of recovering the level of these markers and the damaged hepatocytes to their normal structures. These results support the suggestion that AQGTE was able to enhance hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects in vivo against ethanol-induced toxicity. PMID:25254057

  14. The acute lethal dose 50 (LD50) of caffeine in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Richard H

    2016-10-01

    An acute LD50 is a statistically derived amount of a substance that can be expected to cause death in 50% of the animals when given by a specified route as a single dose and the animals observed for a specified time period. Although conducting routine acute toxicity testing in rodents has been criticized, it can serve useful functions and also have practical implications. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) will reflect the acute toxicity of a substance and may require workers to wear protective gear, if appropriate, based on the LD50. There is no information in the scientific published literature which calculates a mean LD50 and standard deviation for caffeine administered orally to rats, using studies performed under good laboratory practice (GLP) or equivalent. This report does that and should be useful to manufacturers, packagers, transporters and regulators of this material. Using data from studies that are reproducible and reliable, the most accurate estimate of the acute LD50 of caffeine administered orally in male albino rats is hereby reported to be 367/mg/kg. PMID:27461039

  15. Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Lambert, J K; Brown, S W; Quinn, J M

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the "local" satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement. PMID:3438124

  16. Behavioral effects of microwave reinforcement schedules and variations in microwave intensity on albino rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vitulli, W.F.; Lambert, J.K.; Brown, S.W.; Quinn, J.M.

    1987-12-01

    The objective of this exploratory investigation was to determine the interactive effects of fixed-ratio scheduling of microwave reinforcement in tandem with changes in microwave intensity. Nine albino rats were conditioned to regulate their thermal environment with microwave radiation while living in a Skinner (operant conditioning) Box in which the ambient temperature was about 27.13 degrees F at the beginning of the session. Each rat obtained a 6-sec. exposure of microwave radiation on a fixed-ratio schedule of MW reinforcement, the values of which varied from FR-1 to FR-30. Intensities of MW radiation were 62.5 W, 125 W, 250 W, and 437.5 W. Sessions lasted for 8 to 9 hr. over an approximate 13-mo. period. The effects of the intensity of microwave reinforcement varied as a function of the ratio value of the schedule used. Continuous reinforcement (FR-1) produced the lowest over-all rates, whereas FR-15, and FR-25 produced the highest over-all rates. Relatively higher thermal-behavior rates occurred under 62.5 W than under any of the other MW intensities for FR-1, FR-15, and FR-25, whereas FR-10 and FR-30 ratios produced intermediate rates of thermal responding which were constant for all values of MW intensity. These data are explained in terms of interactive effects between the local satiation or deprivation properties of the MW intensity and the ratio requirements of the schedule of MW reinforcement.

  17. Enhancement of Hippocampal CA3 Neuronal Dendritic Arborization by Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract Treatment in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarthi, Kosuri Kalyan; Avadhani, Ramakrishna

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been in clinical use for centuries. Aim: In the present study, we investigated the role of aqueous extract of root of Gg treatment on the dendritic morphology of hippocampal Cornu Ammonis area three (CA3) neurons, one of the regions concerned with learning and memory, in 1- month- old male Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: The aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally in four doses (75, 150, 225 and 300 mg/kg) for 4 weeks. After the treatment period, all experimental animals were subjected to spatial learning (Morris water maze, Hebb-William's maze and elevated plus maze) tests. At the end of the spatial memory tests, the rats were deeply anesthetized with Pentobarbitone and killed their brains were removed rapidly and fixed in rapid Golgi fixative. Hippocampal CA3 neurons were traced using camera lucida, and dendritic arborization and intersections were quantified. These data were compared to those of age-matched control rats. Results: The aqueous root extract of Gg in the dose of 150 and 225 mg/kg/p.o showed a significant (P < 0.01) enhancement of dendritic arborization (dendritic branching points) and dendritic intersections along the length of both apical and basal dendrites in hippocampal (CA3) pyramidal neurons is comparable to control. Conclusion: Based on our results obtained, we conclude that constituents present in aqueous root extract of Gg have neuronal dendritic growth stimulating properties. PMID:24678192

  18. Maturation of convulsogenic activity induced by leptazol in the albino rat

    PubMed Central

    De Casrilevitz, Mira; Engelhardt, E.; Esbérard, C. A.

    1971-01-01

    1. Maturation of the excitatory and inhibitory neuromechanisms at various levels of the central nervous system was demonstrated by the convulsogenic activity induced by leptazol in the developing albino rat. 2. The somatomotor end points considered (myoclonic jerk, myoclonic seizure, tonic seizure and catalepsy) were not observed in all age groups. Tonic seizure was seen at birth, myoclonic jerks at 2 weeks of age, myoclonic seizure and catalepsy at 3 weeks of age. 3. The convulsive sequences described presented three different patterns, defining three age groups: the infant pattern (infant group: newborn-1 week old animals); the transitional pattern (transitional group: 2 week old animals); and the adult pattern (adult group: 3 week old-adult animals). 4. Effective doses were determined for the three types of convulsive sequence: MJ50 for the myoclonic major sequence (maximal end point: myoclonic jerk), MS50 for the myoclonic major sequence (maximal end point: myoclonic seizure) and the TS50 for the myoclonic-tonic-clonic sequence (maximal end point: tonic seizure). 5. The correlation of the convulsive patterns with the dose and latency variations suggests that: (a) the neuromechanisms responsible for the tonic seizure and clonic seizure, located at brainstem and spinal cord levels, function at birth and reach maturity at 3 weeks of age; (b) the neuromechanisms responsible for the myoclonic manifestations and for catalepsy, located at the striato-thalamocortical level, start functioning at 2-3 weeks of age, indicating the later maturation of the more cephalic structures. PMID:5104003

  19. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K.; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K.

    2010-01-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  20. Diuretic activity of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Roshan; Mahobia, Naveen K; Gendle, Ravindra; Kaushik, Basant; Singh, Sudarshan K

    2010-03-01

    The shade-dried powder of leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour) Spreng was subjected to successive extraction using the various solvents (petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanol and water) in increasing order of polarity. The preliminary phytochemical analyses were carried out for all the extracts. The analyses of the leaves revealed the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, proteins, amino acids, flavonoids, quinine, tannins, phenolic compounds and terpenoids. Since the phytoconstituents present in the ethanolic and aqueous extracts were similar, both the extracts were selected for further study. The diuretic properties of ethanolic and aqueous extracts were evaluated by determination of urine volume and electrolyte concentration in male albino rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg) was used as standard while normal saline (0.9%) was used as control. Both ethanolic and aqueous extracts (500 mg/kg) have shown significant increase in the volume of urine and urinary concentration of Na, K and Cl ions. Thus, from the is study it may be concluded that the leaves of P. amboinicus (Lour) Spreng possess diuretic activities. PMID:21808546

  1. Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Indigofera tinctoria on Chemically-Induced Seizures and Brain GABA Levels in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Garbhapu, Asuntha; Yalavarthi, Prasannaraju; Koganti, Prasad

    2011-01-01

    Objective(s) Indigofera tinctoria Linn. of Fabaceae family is claimed to be useful to control epileptic seizures in the Indian system of folkore medicine. This study was designed to evaluate tinctoria and to verify the claim. Materials and Methods Seizures were induced in male albino rats with pentylenetetrazole (PTZ). The test group animals were administered ethanolic extract of Indigofera tinctoria (EEIT) orally. The time of onset and duration of clonic convulsions were recorded. Maximal electroshock seizures (MES) were induced in animals. The duration of hind limb tonic extension (HLTE) was recorded. GABA levels and GABA transaminase activity in brain were estimated. Results In PTZ model, EEIT significantly (P< 0.01, P< 0.001) delayed the onset of convulsions and reduced the duration of seizures in a dose dependent manner. A significant (P< 0.05) reduction in the duration of HLTE at higher doses of EEIT was observed in MES model. Increase in brain GABA levels was observed on treatment with EEIT at 500 and 1000 mg/kg doses, suggested that the plant may be acting by facilitating GABAergic transmission. A significant reduction (P< 0.05) in the activity of brain GABA transaminase was observed at higher doses. No neurotoxic signs were observed with rotarod test, pentobarbital induced sleeping time, locomotor activity and haloperidol-induced catalepsy. Conclusion The ethanolic extract of tinctoria was found to be useful to control and treat the variety of seizures. PMID:23493444

  2. Studies on fate and toxicity of nanoalumina in male albino rats: Lethality, bioaccumulation and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Gamal M; El-Ala, Kawther S Abou; Ali, Atef A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to follow-up the distribution, lethality percentile doses (LDs) and bioaccumulation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3-NPs, average diameter 9.83 ± 1.61 nm) in some tissues of male albino rats, and to evaluate its genotoxicity to the brain tissues, during acute and sublethal experiments. The LDs of Al2O3-NPs, including median lethal dose (LD50), were estimated after intraperitoneal injection. The computed LD50 at 24 and 48 h were 15.10 and 12.88 g/kg body weight (b.w.), respectively. For acute experiments, the bioaccumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, liver, kidneys, intestine and spleen was estimated after 48 h of injection with a single acute dose (3.9, 6.4 and 8.5 g/kg b.w.), while for sublethal experiments it was after 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days of injection with 1.3 g/kg b.w. once in 2 days. Multi-way analysis of variance affirmed that Al uptake, in acute experiments, was significantly affected by the injected doses, organs (brain, liver, kidneys, intestine and spleen) and their interactions, while for sublethal experiments an altogether effect based on time (1, 3, 7, 14, 28 days), doses (0 and 1.3 g), organs and their interactions was reported. In addition, Al accumulated in the brain, liver, kidney, intestine and spleen of rats administered with Al2O3-NPs were significantly higher than the corresponding controls, during acute and sublethal experiments. The uptake of Al by the spleen of rats injected with acute doses was greater than that accumulated by kidney>brain>intestine>liver, whereas the brain of rats injected with sublethal dose accumulated lesser amount of Al followed by the kidney

  3. The therapeutic effect of curcumin in male albino rats and its putative mechanisms on cerebral microvascular flow.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jie; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Qi-Mei; Zheng, Zheng; Han, Zhong-Mou

    2016-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of curcumin on hypertension and its putative mechanisms in the cerebral microcirculation. The surgical preparation was made to generate a cranial window for observation of the capillary network in the cerebral cortex region. Digital image processing, intravital videomicroscopy, and laser Doppler flow meter were used in this investigation. The number of open capillaries, arterial blood pressure, red cell velocity, microvascular diameter, circulating endothelial cells, relative blood flow and frequency were determined. Control rats showed severe dysfunction in the microcirculation with increased blood pressure. In curcumin treated mice, the blood pressure significantly reduced compared to their respective controls. Curcumin significantly increased blood velocity and LDF flow in hypertensive and normotensive rats. Curcumin significantly altered the circulating endothelial cells and open capillaries number in the male albino rats. Our results suggested that the curcumin exerts its therapeutic effect in male albino rats by regulating vasomotion function, increasing blood perfusion, releasing the peripheral resistance and opening efficiently capillaries. Taking all these data together, it is concluded that the curcumin might be useful in the regulation of the cerebral microcirculatory function and hypertension. PMID:27017961

  4. Protective effects of ginger toward cadmium-induced testes and kidney lipid peroxidation and hematological impairment in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Onwuka, Frank C; Erhabor, Osaro; Eteng, M U; Umoh, I B

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of oral dietary supplementation with ginger on cadmium-induced toxic effects on biochemical, hematological, and pathophysiological indices of albino rats. The effect of cadmium and cadmium/ginger treatment on lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in testes and kidney; serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzyme were investigated alongside hematological indices. The results showed that cadmium induces a significant increase in both testicular and kidney MDA, whereas cadmium/ginger treatment produced a significant reversal of the effect of lipid peroxidation (P=.004). Cadmium treatment induced 75%, 78%, and 22% increases in activities of ACP, PAP, and ALP, respectively, whereas the cadmium/ginger-treated group reversed these values for enzyme activities (P=.001). Results of organ weight and hematological indices analysis in the cadmium-treated rats showed a decrease in organ weight and distortion of the hemopoietic features, whereas the cadmium/ginger-treated rats showed an improvement in organ weight and hematological indices (P=.04 and .001, respectively). The reversal of the toxic effects of cadmium in the cadmium/ginger-treated albino rats heralds the antioxidant potency of ginger toward cadmium toxicity-associated oxidative stress. PMID:21476888

  5. Effect of bisphenol A on morphology, apoptosis and proliferation in the resting mammary gland of the adult albino rat.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Marwa A A; Elbakry, Reda H; Bayomy, Naglaa A

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic oestrogen that is extensively used in a wide range of daily used plastic products. This makes it one of the environmental chemicals that may have impact on human health. Due to its oestrogenic effect, BPA might affect the mammary gland. This study aimed to investigate the influence of BPA on the histological structure of the mammary gland of the adult female albino rat and its effect on epithelial cell proliferation and apoptosis status, in addition to its possible modulating effect on estrogen receptor expression. Thirty female adult albino rats were divided into control and experimental groups. The rats in the experimental group were gavaged with 5 mg/kg BPA daily for 8 weeks. The mammary glands were dissected and processed for histological and immunohistochemical stains for Ki-67, activated caspase-3 and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α). BPA induced an increase in the number and size of the acini and ducts in the mammary gland of treated rats with hyperplasia of their lining epithelial cells. The collagen fibre content was significantly increased in the connective tissue stroma separating the ducts. Immunohistochemical results showed a significant increase in Ki-67 and caspase-3, but a non-significant increase in ER-α expression. Bisphenol A induced structural changes and affected the proliferation rate of mammary glands, so it might be one of the predisposing factors for breast cancer. PMID:26877094

  6. Ameliorative Effects of Acacia Honey against Sodium Arsenite-Induced Oxidative Stress in Some Viscera of Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Sani; Inuwa, Hajiya M.; Sallau, Abdullahi B.; Abbas, Olagunju; Aimola, Idowu A.; Habila, Nathan; Uche, Ndidi S.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and its development is frequently associated with oxidative stress-induced by carcinogens such as arsenicals. Most foods are basically health-promoting or disease-preventing and a typical example of such type is honey. This study was undertaken to investigate the ameliorative effects of Acacia honey on sodium arsenite-induced oxidative stress in the heart, lung and kidney tissues of male Wistar rats. Male Wistar albino rats divided into four groups of five rats each were administered distilled water, Acacia honey (20%), sodium arsenite (5 mg/kg body weight), Acacia honey, and sodium arsenite daily for one week. They were sacrificed anesthetically using 60 mg/kg sodium pentothal. The tissues were used for the assessment of glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities, protein content and lipid peroxidation. Sodium arsenite significantly (P < 0.05) suppressed the glutathione peroxidase, catalase, superoxide dismutase activities with simultaneous induction of lipid peroxidation. Administration of Acacia honey significantly increased (P < 0.05) glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities with concomitant suppression of lipid peroxidation as evident by the decrease in malondialdehyde level. From the results obtained, Acacia honey mitigates sodium arsenite induced-oxidative stress in male Wistar albino rats, which suggest that it may attenuate oxidative stress implicated in chemical carcinogenesis. PMID:24368942

  7. Hematological effects of repeated graded doses of the methanol extract of Paullinia pinnata (Linn.) leaves in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeyemo-Salami, Oluwatoyin A.; Ewuola, Emmanuel O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Paullinia pinnata is a medicinal plant used for the treatment of various diseases, including anemia in West Africa. Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of increasing doses of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata on hematological parameters in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar albino rats were grouped into six groups of six animals each. Five doses; 50,100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight of the P. pinnata extract were administered separately to five groups. The sixth group served as a control and received only the vehicle (70% physiological saline: 30% Tween 80 [v/v]). Administration was done orally daily for 28 days at 24 h interval. On day 29, the animals were made inactive, blood was then collected from the heart and various hematological parameters were evaluated. Statistical Analysis: Analysis of variance was employed. Results: The packed cell volume and red blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the treatment groups except at 200 mg/kg dose. The hemoglobin concentration increased in all the treatment groups. The values for the neutrophils at 50, 100, 200 and 800 mg/kg doses were higher than that of the control. The white blood cell count increased significantly (P < 0.05) at 50 and 400 mg/kg doses compared to the control and exceeded the normal physiological range. Conclusion: The maximum tolerable dose is 200 mg/kg body weight of the methanolic leaves extract of P. pinnata and the extract has anti-anemic property with the ability to increase neutrophils count. PMID:26109785

  8. Antiobesity, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective effects of Achyranthes aspera seed saponins in high cholesterol fed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Naveed; Akhtar, Muhammad Shoaib; Braga, Valdir de Andrade; Reich, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Numerous herbal medicines have been recommended for the treatment of different diseases. Achyranthes aspera, Linn. (Family: Amaranthaceae), popularly known as Charchitta or Pitpapra, is commonly used by traditional healers for the treatment of fever, malaria, dysentery, asthma, arterial hypertension, pneumonia, and diabetes. The root extract is well reputed for its insect molting hormonal activity. This investigation was conducted to evaluate the effects of saponins from Achyranthes aspera seeds on the serum lipid profile of albino rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Material and methods Hypolipidemic, antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of these saponins were tested as described previously. To determine the mechanism underlying the observed effects, serum antioxidant status was assessed according to ABTS (2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), superoxide dismutase and ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays in saponin-treated hyperlipidemic animals. Liver enzyme levels were determined to reveal any possible hepatotoxicity. Results Four-week oral administration of A. aspera seed saponins produced a significant (p < 0.05) decrease of total cholesterol, total triglycerides and LDL-C and a significant increase of HDL-C level in hyperlipidemic rats. Treatment with A. aspera seed saponins also showed a significant (p < 0.01) improvement of serum antioxidant status in tested animals. No significant hepatotoxicity was produced by such treatment as the serum liver enzyme activity remained unaltered. Conclusions Saponins from A. aspera seeds possess antihyperlipidemic and antioxidant properties which might lead to improvement of serum lipid profile and blood antioxidant status. Our findings support the folkloric use of this indigenous plant in the treatment of hyperlipidemia. However, its exact mechanism of action remains to be elucidated. PMID:26788089

  9. Effect of Aqueous Extract of Passiflora edulis on Biochemical and Hematological Parameters of Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Devaki, K.; Beulah, U.; Akila, G.; Gopalakrishnan, V. K.

    2012-01-01

    Passiflora edulis is traditionally used in folk lore medicine for the treatment of various ailments. To validate its use in traditional medicine, it is important to evaluate its toxicity in the animal system. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicological effects of oral administration of aqueous leaf extract of P. edulis in Wistar albino rats. Acute toxicity tests were conducted by the oral administration of 200, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg body weight of the animal. In subacute study, they were administered with various doses of aqueous extract of P. edulis (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg body weight) to evaluate its toxicity for a period of 7 days. The effect of aqueous extract of P. edulis on organ weight, hematological, renal, and hepatic markers were analyzed. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was seen with in 24 h of the administration of P. edulis extract. No signs of neurological and behavioral changes were noticed with in 72 h. In the subacute study, the extract intake has not changed the hematological parameters such as RBC, WBC, and platelets and it was also found that the plasma level of amino transferases, ALP, urea, uric acid and, creatinine were also not altered by the administration of P. edulis extract throughout the study. The weight of organ was found to be unaltered in all the doses selected. The acute toxicity study reveals that the oral administration of the extract was found to be safe up to the dose level of 2000 mg/kg. The subacute study indicates that the extract is safe on the bone marrow function and it is neither hepatotoxic nor nephrotoxic. This supports the safety use of the aqueous extract of P. edulis in pharmacological studies. PMID:22736906

  10. An experimental study of the effects of Matricaria chamomilla extract on cutaneous burn wound healing in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Jarrahi, Morteza

    2008-03-20

    Previous studies conducted on the anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of Matricaria chamomilla (chamomile) extract led us to study the effect of topical chamomile extract on burn wound healing in albino rats. Thirty male albino rats (250-300 g) were randomly divided into three groups, as control, vehicle, and treatment. Second-degree burning was induced in 20% of whole surface area of animal body by placing the back of animal into boiling water for 8s. Animals of control group received no treatment. Animals of vehicle and treatment groups were treated topically by olive oil and extract dissolved in olive oil twice a day respectively from the first day of burn induction to complete wound healing. The percentage of wound healing was calculated weekly. The results showed that there was significant difference (p < 0.05) between vehicle and treatment groups. So we concluded that the chamomile extract in the form of rubbing oil had a good potential for acceleration of burn wound healing in rats. PMID:18404562

  11. Lipid peroxidation in various organs and tissues of albino rats with cadmium intoxication in winter and summer.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, S V; Sokolova, N G; Kotelnikov, A V

    2008-09-01

    The effect of cadmium chloride on lipid peroxidation in the liver, kidneys, brain, and gonads of outbred albino rats was studied in winter and summer. Cadmium chloride in a daily dose of 2 mg per 100 g body weight was administered intragastrically for 15 days. Administration of cadmium chloride was followed by an increase in peroxide radical production in the liver during the summer period. Lipid peroxidation remained unchanged in the liver, but increased in the ovaries of animals receiving the same dose of cadmium chloride during the winter period. PMID:19240842

  12. Lethality, accumulation and toxicokinetics of aluminum in some tissues of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rawy, Sayed M; Morsy, Gamal M; Elshibani, Majda M

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, the lethality percentiles including median lethal doses (LD50), accumulation, distribution and toxicokinetics of aluminum in the liver, kidney, intestine, brain and serum of male albino rats, following a single oral administration were studied throughout 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The estimated LD50 at 24 h was 3.45 g Al/kg body weight (b.wt.). The utilized dose of Al was 1/50 LD50 (0.07 g Al/kg b.wt.). Aluminum residues, in Al-treated rats, were significantly decreased in response to the experimental periods and were negatively correlated with time. In addition, the hepatic, renal, intestinal, brain and serum Al contents were significantly higher than the corresponding controls at all experimental periods, except the brain that showed significant depletion when compared with its corresponding control after 28 days. Kinetically, the highest average of Al area under concentration - time curves (AUCtotal, μg/g day) and area under moment concentration - time curves (AUMCtotal, µg/g day(2)) recorded in the brain followed by kidney, serum, intestine and liver. The longest elimination half-life time (t 1/2, day) and the mean residence time (MRT, day) were recorded in the brain followed by the liver, kidney, serum and intestine. On the other hand, the slowest clearance rates (Cls, L/day) of Al, in order, were recorded in brain, kidney, serum, intestine and the liver. The elimination rate constant (Lz, day(-) (1)) of Al from the brain was less than that in the intestine and serum was less than that in the liver and kidney. The computed maximum concentrations (C max) of Al in the intestine > kidney > serum > brain > liver were recorded after 3, 3.8, 2.2, 5.4 and 3.8 days, respectively. The computed starting concentration (C 0, μg) of Al in serum was higher than its level in the intestine followed by the brain, kidney and liver. PMID:22317823

  13. Effects of composite root extract on histological structures of graffian follicle and endometrial epithelium in albino rat.

    PubMed

    Sarma, H N; Mahanta, H C

    2000-05-01

    This study attempted in vivo testing of a group of plant root extracts in composite form on the reproductive organs of the female albino rat. These roots in composite form have been used by the folk women of Assam to prevent pregnancy. Firsthand knowledge revealed that the dry powder of these roots in composite form can induce sterility in women temporarily (reversible) or permanently which is dose-dependent when taken through oral route. The study revealed that administration of ethanolic crude extract of these composite roots in a dose of 1000 mg/kg/day, consecutively for 12 days, can modulate histological changes in the structures of ovary and uterus. This dose has previously been detected as the threshold dose to induce sterility (reversible) in albino rat. The ovarian follicle showed structural disparity in thecal cells and granulosa cells, and formation of zona pellucida. In the uterus, the endometrial epithelium on the luminal surface showed pseudostratification, vacuolation of the cells, and irregular desquamation from the stroma. Infiltration of a large number of polymorphs in the endometrial stroma and necrosis of endometrial gland tissues indicated structural and functional aberrations of the uterus. PMID:10906505

  14. Effect of Monotherapy and Combination Therapy of Pantoprazole and Aprepitant in Gastric Esophageal Reflux Disease in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Kamleshwar; Raj, Prince; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Mukesh; Kaithwas, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of pantoprazole and aprepitant on experimental esophagitis in albino rats. Groups of rats, fasted overnight, received normal saline (3 mL/kg, sham control) or toxic control (3 mL/kg) or pantoprazole (30 mg/kg) or aprepitant (10 mg/kg), or their combinations and were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation. Animals were sacrificed after 8 h and evaluated for the gastric pH, volume of gastric juices, total acidity, esophagitis index, and free acidity. Esophageal tissues were further subjected to estimations of TBARS, GSH, catalase, and SOD. Treatment with pantoprazole and aprepitant significantly inhibited the gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. The treatment also helped to restore the altered levels oxidative stress parameters to normal. PMID:24790551

  15. Antilithiatic effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd on ethylene glycol-induced lithiasis in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Christina, A J M; Ashok, K; Packialakshmi, M; Tobin, G C; Preethi, J; Murugesh, N

    2005-11-01

    The ethanolic extract of Asparagus racemosus Willd. was evaluated for its inhibitory potential on lithiasis (stone formation), induced by oral administration of 0.75% ethylene glycolated water to adult male albino Wistar rats for 28 days. The ionic chemistry of urine was altered by ethylene glycol, which elevated the urinary concentration of crucial ions viz. calcium, oxalate, and phosphate, thereby contributing to renal stone formation. The ethanolic extract, however, significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the elevated level of these ions in urine. Also, it elevated the urinary concentration of magnesium, which is considered as one of the inhibitors of crystallization. The high serum creatinine level observed in ethylene glycol-treated rats was also reduced, following treatment with the extract. The histopathological findings also showed signs of improvement after treatment with the extract. All these observations provided the basis for the conclusion that this plant extract inhibits stone formation induced by ethylene glycol treatment. PMID:16357948

  16. Effect of Benincasa hispida fruits on testosterone-induced prostatic hypertrophy in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nandecha, Chetan; Nahata, Alok; Dixit, Vinod Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Background: Benincasa hispida Cogn. has been used traditionally in India for the management of urinary disorders. The fruit of B hispida is used as a diuretic and the seeds have been reported to possess antiangiogenic effects in prostate cells. Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of petroleum ether extract, ethanolic extract, and B hispida seed oil on hyperplasia of the prostate induced by the subcutaneous administration of testosterone in rats. Methods: In vitro studies were performed to determine the 5α-reductase inhibitory potential of the extracts. The results of those studies paved the way for the pharmacologic screening of the extracts to assess their potential against testosterone-induced hyperplasia in rats. Nine groups containing 10 rats per group were created for this study. Hyperplasia was induced by administration of testosterone (3 mg/kg SC) for 14 days in all the groups except the vehicle-treated group. Simultaneous administration of petroleum ether extract (100 or 200 mg/kg PO), ethanolic extract (100 or 200 mg/kg PO), and B hispida seed oil (20 or 40 mg/kg PO) was conducted. A standard 5α-reductase inhibitor (ie, finasteride) was used as a positive control. The weight of the rats was recorded on day 0 (ie, day 1 of the study) and on day 14, and the influence of testosterone and test extracts on the weight of the rats was determined. On day 14, rats were euthanized; prostates were dissected out, and weighed. The rats' prostate/body weight (P/BW) ratio was then determined. Histologic examinations were performed on prostates from each group. Results: The petroleum ether extract as well as B hispida seed oil exhibited inhibition of 5α-reductase activity in in vitro studies. Ethanolic extract did not exhibit significant inhibitory potential in vitro. Further in vivo study found that testosterone treatment significantly increased the rats' P/BW ratio in all the groups except the vehicle-treated rats, and this increase in

  17. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia on N-nitrosodiethylamine (diethylnitrosamine) induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Jayaprakash, R.; Ramesh, V.; Sridhar, M. P.; Sasikala, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer is a disease that evokes wide spread fear among people and is one of the leading causes of deaths in the world. Diethylnitrosamine (DEN) is a known carcinogen in rodent liver. DENs reported to undergo metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 enzymes to form reactive electrophiles that cause oxidative stress leading to cytotoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (EETC) in N-nitrosodiethylamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity was assessed by the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants. Result: A significant levels of LPO was increased as the enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants values were decreased in liver cancer bearing animals. Conclusions: The administration of EETC to cancer bearing animals reverted the LPO levels, enzymic and nonenzymic antioxidants to near normal PMID:26015745

  18. Modulatory effect of whey proteins in some cytokines involved in wound healing in male diabetic albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Bahaa Kenawy Abuel-Hussien

    2014-10-01

    The anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necroses factor-alpha (TNF-α)) have important functions in wound healing. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with whey protein could enhance normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats. In this study, male albino rats were divided into a wounded control group, a wounded diabetic group, and a wounded diabetic group supplemented with whey protein orally at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Tested rats showed increasing wound closure in rats treated with whey protein. In addition, after 4 days of wound, modulation in IL-4, IL-10, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels were detected. Statistical analysis of data showed significant difference between the whey-protein-treated group and either control or diabetic groups (P < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with whey protein enhances the normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats by modulating the levels of some anti-inflammatory and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24760706

  19. Does rosmarinic acid treatment have protective role against sepsis-induced oxidative damage in Wistar Albino rats?

    PubMed

    Bacanlı, M; Aydın, S; Taner, G; Göktaş, H G; Şahin, T; Başaran, A A; Başaran, N

    2016-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species are believed to be involved in the development of sepsis. Plant-derived phenolic compounds are thought to be possible therapeutic agents against sepsis because of their antioxidant properties. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic compound commonly found in various plants, which has many biological activities including antioxidant activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of RA on sepsis-induced DNA damage in the lymphocytes and liver and kidney cells of Wistar albino rats by alkaline comet assay with and without formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase protein. The oxidative stress parameters such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities and total glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the liver and kidney tissues and an inflammatory cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) level in plasma were also evaluated. It is found that DNA damage in the lymphocytes, livers, and kidneys of the RA-treated rats was significantly lower than that in the sepsis-induced rats. RA treatment also decreased the MDA levels and increased the GSH levels and SOD and GSH-Px activities in the livers and kidneys of the sepsis-induced rats. Plasma TNF-α level was found to be decreased in the RA-treated rats. It seems that RA might have a role in the attenuation of sepsis-induced oxidative damage not only by decreasing the DNA damage but also by increasing the antioxidant status and DNA repair capacity of the animals. PMID:26429925

  20. Effect of Schizandra chinensis lignans on cell division in the corneal epithelium and tongue of albino rats exposed to chronic cold stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mel'nik, E.I.; Lupandin, A.V.; Timoshin, S.S.

    1985-05-01

    The authors study the possibility of correcting cellular manifestations of disadaptation following chronic exposure to cold stress by means of preparations of Sch. chinensis. The model of chronic stress was cooling male albino rats daily for 1.5 h to a temperature of 28-30 C for 28 days. Since differences between levels of proliferation in intact animals and in the rats receiving 1.9% ethanol solution were absent, values obtained in the group of intact animals are presented in a table as the control. The animals underwent euthanasia 48 hours after the final exposure to the cold. The rats received an injection of tritium-thymidine one hour before sacrifice. It is shown that the results confirm those in previous studies of stimulation of DNA synthesis and mitotic activity in the corneal and lingual epithelium of albino rats during chronic exposure to stress.

  1. Effect of aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii rhizome on some kidney and liver functional indicies of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nafiu, Mo; Akanji, M A; Yakubu, M T

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchonii Hook. Ef. x Planch rhizome was investigated for its toxic effects in albino rats using some liver and kidney functional indices as 'markers'. Thirty six albino rats weighing 200.08 ± 10.21 were randomly assinged into six groups (A-F) of six animals each. Animals in groups A-E were orally administered on daily basis with 1 ml of the extract corresponding to 50 mg/kg body weight of the extract for 1, 3, 5, 10 and 15 days while those in the control group received orally 1 ml of distilled water. Rats in all the groups were sacrificed 24 hours after the completion of their respective doses. The extract significantly (P<0.05) decreased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in the liver leading to 80.95% loss by the end of the experimental period. While there was no consistent pattern in the kidney ALP activity and serum bilirubin level, the serum enzyme compared well (P>0.05) with the control value. There was no effect (P>0.05) on the acid phosphatase activity of the tissues and serum of the animals. The extract also reduced the urea, albumin and creatinine content in the serum of the animals. The alterations in the biochemical parameters by the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchoni may have consequential effects on the normal functioning of the liver and kidney of the animals. Therefore, the 50 mg/kg body weight of the aqueous extract of Cochlospermum planchoni rhizome may not be completley safe as an oral remedy. PMID:22238479

  2. Protective effect of curcumin against experimentally induced aflatoxicosis on the renal cortex of adult male albino rats: a histological and immunohisochemical study

    PubMed Central

    El-Mahalaway, Abeer M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxin contamination of foods is a worldwide problem. Chronic aflatoxin exposure is associated with kidney damage. Curcumin is a herbal agent, used in medicine with a wide range of beneficial therapeutic effects. Objective: to evaluate the effect of curcumin against experimentally induced aflatoxicosis on the renal cortex of adult male albino rats. Materials and methods: Forty adult male rats were included and they were divided equally into 4 groups (10 rats each): Group I (control group), group II (Curcumin group): The rats received curcumin (200 mg/kg b.w.) orally by gastric tube for 5 days/week, group III (Aflatoxin B1 group): The rats received aflatoxin B1 (250 μg/kg b.w./day) orally by gastric tube 5 days/week for 4 weeks, group IV (Aflatoxin B1 and Curcumin group): The rats received aflatoxin and curcumin orally by gastric tube 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Kidney specimens were prepared and sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Masson’s trichrome, Periodic acid Schiff, immunohistochemical detection of desmin and Bcl2. Results: The tubules of group III showed degenerative and necrotic changes with disruption of basal lamina. There was a significant decrease Bcl2 expression in the tubules, but the glomeruli showed an enlargement with dilation of their capillaries lumina in some areas, while the other areas showed glomerular atrophy with obliteration of their capillaries lumina. There was a significant increase in desmin expression in the glomerular cells. The interstitium showed hemorrhage and cellular infiltration. Group IV showed improvement of the histological and immunohistochemical changes described before. Conclusion: Aflatoxin B1 has deleterious effects of on the histological structure of the rat’s renal cortex and curcumin minimized these effects as it has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic activities. We advise eating nutritious diets that contain sufficient amounts of curcumin and regulation must implement to

  3. Comparative alteration in atherogenic indices and hypocholesteremic effect of palm oil and palm oil mill effluent in normal albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ajiboye, John A; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Lawal, Babatunde A; Nwachukwu, Viola A; Tugbobo-Amisu, Adesewa O; Okafor, Ebelechukwu N

    2015-09-01

    The comparative hypocholesteremic effect of feeding palm oil and palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated in male albino rats. Diets were prepared and designed to contain 50% of energy as carbohydrate, 35% as fat, and 15% as protein. Groups of six rats were each fed one of these diets, while a group was fed pelletized mouse chow which served as the control. Feeding on palm oil and POME led to a significant increase (p < 0.05) in serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, and vLDL. Feeding on POME led to significant increase (p < 0.05) in cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL levels in brain tissues. Increased hepatic LDL level was also observed in POME fed rats. Except for hepatic triglyceride and tissues HDL level, a rather reduced level of the studied lipids was observed in the serum and tissues of palm oil fed rats compared to POME. These results indicate the protective potentials of palm oil against cardiovascular disease, as well as hyperlipidemia that characterize obesity and hypertension; as compared to its effluent. PMID:27441210

  4. Reactivity of tracheal smooth muscles in albino rats with experimental diabetes mellitus treated with a new complex compound of oxovanadium (IV) and isonicotinic acid hydrazide.

    PubMed

    Khafiz'yanova, R Kh; Minnebaev, M M; Gallyamov, R M; Latypov, R S; Gosmanov, A R; Aleeva, G N

    2003-06-01

    We studied functional properties of tracheal smooth muscle cells in rats with diabetes mellitus. Reactivity of tracheal smooth muscles increased in rats with experimental alloxan-induced diabetes mellitus. A new complex compound of oxovanadium (IV) and isonicotinic acid hydrazide affected reactivity of tracheal smooth muscles in albino rats with experimental type I diabetes mellitus. This new organic vanadium-containing compound reduced contractility of tracheal smooth muscles in rats and potentiated relaxation of smooth muscle cells in the trachea in response to exogenous nitric oxide. PMID:12937677

  5. Influence of teak (Tectona grandis; family: Verbenaceae) seed protein on some enzymes and liver lipids of albino rats.

    PubMed

    Laskar, S; Ghosh-Majumdar, S; Basak, B; Maity, C R

    1985-09-01

    The influence of protein, isolated from teak (Tectona grandis) seed upon albino rats with respect to some of their serum, liver and intestinal enzymes and liver lipids has been studied. The protein in question contains aspartic acid, threonine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, glycine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, lysine, phenylalanine, histidine and arginine as determined by amino acid analyser. After feeding experiment an increase in body weight including the liver weight was noted in the test animals due to excess protein in the diet. A marked increase was observed in G.O.T., G.P.T. and total lipid of liver, whereas G.O.T. and G.P.T. of serum were decreased. The observed increased concentration of lipid in liver may be due to excess addition of protein in diet. The overall observation is an indication of probable fatty infiltration in liver of test animals. PMID:4070763

  6. Protective effect of a high protein diet against the toxicity of some organophosphorus compounds in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, A K; Kaveeshwar, U

    1991-10-01

    The present investigation deals with determining the efficacy of a high protein diet (HPD) in combating toxicity in albino rats of some organophosphorus compounds (OPCs) that follow dissimilar metabolic patterns in a living system. As assessed by an increase or decrease in the levels of some biochemical and nutritional parameters, the high protein diet containing 59% protein seems to have a beneficial effect in alleviating toxicity of low but prolonged doses of OPCs over the standard diet (SD) containing 19% protein. OPCs undergoing direct detoxication in a living system like diisopropyl phosphoro-fluoridate (DFP) appear to be more susceptible to HPD than those undergoing biotoxication like EPN (O-ethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phenyl-phosphonothioate) and malathion (S-(1,2-dicarbethoxyethyl) O,O-dimethyldithiophosphate). PMID:1812296

  7. Hypolipidemic and antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma in healthy and hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Newary, Samah A; Sulieman, A M; El-Attar, S R; Sitohy, M Z

    2016-07-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. Hyperlipidemia increases the incidence of myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. This study evaluated the potential hypolipidemic and antioxidant action of the aqueous extract from the uneaten pulp of the fruit from Cordia dichotoma ("CDNP extract"). In vivo studies were performed for 10 weeks on dietary hyperlipidemic and healthy Wistar albino rat models that received two dose levels of the CDNP extract (0.50 and 1.00 g/kg body weight). Serum lipid profiles were determined for the experimental animals. Dietary hyperlipidemic rats were characterized by an elevated lipid profile compared to the healthy control, i.e., increased levels of serum total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and triglycerides (TG), although the level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) was reduced. Levels of antioxidant enzymes, i.e., glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT), were significantly higher in the dietary hyperlipidemic rats than in the normal healthy ones, while the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly lower. Force-feeding hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats with the CDNP extract at two doses decreased TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, and TG to normal levels. The risk ratio, which was as high as 870 % for the hyperlipidemic rats was decreased by the treatment to levels close to that calculated for the healthy control rats. Levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were very low in the hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats but increased significantly when CDNP extract was adminstered, attaining similar HDL-C levels to those of healthy control rats. Treatment with the CDNP extract also improved the levels of antioxidant enzymes (GR, GST, GPx, SOD, and CAT) in hyperlipidemic Wistar albino rats. Thus, the CDNP extract improves the lipid

  8. Antioxidative Role of Hatikana (Leea macrophylla Roxb.) Partially Improves the Hepatic Damage Induced by CCl4 in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akhter, Samina; Rahman, Md. Atiar; Aklima, Jannatul; Hasan, Md. Rakibul; Hasan Chowdhury, J. M. Kamirul

    2015-01-01

    This research investigated the protective role of Leea macrophylla extract on CCl4-induced acute liver injury in rats. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla (Roxb.) crude extract were subjected to analysis for antioxidative effects. Rats were randomly divided into four groups as normal control, hepatic control, and reference control (silymarin) group and treatment group. Evaluations were made for the effects of the fractions on serum enzymes and biochemical parameters of CCl4-induced albino rat. Histopathological screening was also performed to evaluate the changes of liver tissue before and after treatment. Different fractions of Leea macrophylla showed very potent 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect, FeCl3 reducing effect, superoxide scavenging effect, and iron chelating effect. Carbon tetrachloride induction increased the level of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and other biochemical parameters such as lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. In contrast, treatment of Leea macrophylla reduced the serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities as well as biochemical parameters activities. L. macrophylla partially restored the lipid profiles, total protein, and CK-MB. Histopathology showed the treated liver towards restoration. Results evidenced that L. macrophylla can be prospective source of hepatic management in liver injury. PMID:26221590

  9. Garlic and alpha lipoic supplementation enhance the immune system of albino rats and alleviate implications of pesticides mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Darwish, Nevine S; Shokry, Dina A; El-Aal, Aly GE Abd; Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Nahas, Abd-Alhamed; Ziada, Reem M

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate age dependent immune-system response versus exposure to different doses of mixture of (chlorpyrifos, profenofose, and fenitrothion) and/or combined with 60 and 250 mg kg-1 alpha lipoic acid and garlic, respectively. 120 males of albino rats were divided to two groups according to age; weaning group (2 months age and 60-80 gm.), adult (6 months and 180-200 gm). Each age was divided into 6 subgroups treated orally for 3 months , G1 (control), G2 high dose (HDPM) CPF10 mg kg-1, PRO 3 mg kg-1, FEN 6 mg kg-1, G3 low dose (LDPM) CPF 1 mg kg-1, PFN 0.3 mg kg-1 and FEN 0.6 mg kg-1, G4 AOX (alpha lipoic + Garlic), G5 HDPM + AOX and G6 LDPM + AOX. Results showed significant inhibition in serum acetylcholinesterase (AChE), elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA) concurrent with reduction in total reduced glutathione (GSH) in both ages was recorded as well as, decrease in IGG, IGM, Lymphocyte transformation and Phagocytosis humeral and cellular immunity confirmed by alteration in lymph nodes architecture. This study was concluded that the supplementation with alpha lipoic acid and garlic improved previous alternations slightly to be more or less near the control level in both adult and weaning rats. It seems that, immune-responses of both adult and weaning rats were slightly similar. PMID:26221319

  10. Effect of vitamins a, C, and e supplementation in the treatment of metabolic syndrome in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Bilbis, L S; Muhammad, S A; Saidu, Y; Adamu, Y

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome increase the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress seems to be involved in the path physiology of cardiovascular complications of metabolic syndrome. In this study we investigated the effects of vitamins A, C, and E in the management of metabolic syndrome traits condition in albino rats fed with high salt diet. The rats were placed on 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and then supplemented with these vitamins for additional 4 weeks in the presence of salt diet. Supplementation with vitamins significantly (P < 0.01 ) decreased blood pressure of the rats as compared with the control. Supplementation also significantly (P < 0.05) reduced serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total antioxidant status as compared with untreated group. The percentage protection of the supplemented groups against atherogenesis indicated 55.50 ± 3.75%. Percentage weight gain indicated significant positive correlation with triglyceride, insulin resistance, and malondialdehyde while total antioxidant status and nitric oxide showed significant negative correlation. Salt diet significantly (P < 0.05) induced features of metabolic syndrome. The result, therefore, indicated strong relationship between obesity and metabolic syndrome and underscores the role of these vitamins in the management of metabolic syndrome. PMID:22953063

  11. Vitamin D3 May Ameliorate the Ketoconazole Induced Adrenal Injury: Histological and Immunohistochemical Studies on Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Mahmoud Salah

    2015-01-01

    Ketoconazole (KZ) is used widely for treating the superficial, systemic fungal activities and hyperandrogenemic states. Its uses are limited by its deleterious effect on histological structure and function of the adrenal cortex. This study investigates whether vitamin D3 supplement can ameliorate the morphological changes induced by KZ. Thirty four adult male albino rats were randomized into control group (Group I) which was subdivided into: control 1 (n=7) and control 2 (n=7): In control 1, rats were intraperitoneal (I.P) injected once with 1 ml of polyethylene glycol-400 for 15 consecutive days and control 2 rats were injected I.P with (1 μg/kg) of vitamin D3 for the same period. Group II (n=10): rats were I.P injected with KZ (10 mg/100 g of body weight) once daily for 15 days; Group III (n=10): rats were I.P concomitantly injected with KZ and vitamin D3 similar doses to animals in groups II and control 2 respectively. Blood samples were collected to determine plasma ACTH, corticosterone and aldosterone levels. The right adrenal specimens sections were stained with Haematoxylin & Eosin and Masson Trichrome for histological studies and treated with Bax, Ubiquitin and vitamin D receptors for immunohistochemical studies. KZ induced adrenal cortical morphological changes in forms of disturbed adrenocorticocyte cytological architecture, nuclear changes, and intracellular lipid accumulation. KZ also increased adrenal Bax and Ub but decreased the vitamin D receptors immunopositive staining expression, in addition to increased plasma ACTH as well as decreased corticosterone and aldosterone levels. These changes were ameliorated by supplementing with vitamin D3. PMID:26379312

  12. Immunopathological and antimicrobial effect of black pepper, ginger and thyme extracts on experimental model of acute hematogenous pyelonephritis in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nassan, M A; Mohamed, E H

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed prominent antimicrobial activity of various plant extracts on certain pathogenic microorganisms, therefore we prepared crude aqueous extracts of black pepper, ginger and thyme and carried out an in vitro study by measuring antimicrobial activity of these extracts using the agar well diffusion method. An in vivo study was carried out on 50 adult healthy male albino rats which were divided into 5 groups, 10 rats each. Group 1: negative control group which received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 2: Positive control group, injected with mixed bacterial suspension of S.aureus and E.coli as a model of pyelonephritis, then received saline solution intragastrically daily; Group 3: injected with the same dose of mixed bacterial suspension, then received 100 mg/kg/day black pepper extract intragastrically; Group 4: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day ginger extract intragastrically. Group 5: injected with mixed bacterial suspension then received 500 mg/kg/day thyme extract intragastrically. All groups were sacrificed after either 1 or 4 weeks. Serum and blood samples were collected for lysozyme activity estimation using agarose lysoplate, measurement of nitric oxide production, and lymphocyte transformation test as well as for counting both total and differential leukocytes and erythrocytes. Kidney samples were tested histopathologically. Both in vivo and in vitro results confirm the efficacy of these extracts as natural antimicrobials and suggest the possibility of using them in treatment procedures. PMID:25572733

  13. Evaluation of anti-ulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Arumugam, Suresh; Selvaraj, Senthil Velan; Velayutham, Suresh; Natesan, Senthil Kumar; Palaniswamy, Karthikeyan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiulcer activity of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark on ethanol and stress induced gastric lesions in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Gastric lesions were induced in rats by oral administration of absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) and stress induced by water immersion. The antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, 400 mg/kg) was compared with standard drugs. The parameters studied were ulcer index, gastric juice volume, pH, free acidity and total acidity. Result: Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr showed a dose dependent curative ratio compared to ulcer control groups. The extract at 400 mg/kg showed significant anti ulcer activity which is almost equal to that of the standard drug in both models. The volume of acid secretion, total and free acidity was decreased and pH of the gastric juice was increased compared to ulcer control group. Conclusions: The present study indicates that Samanea saman (Jacq) Merr bark extracts have potential anti ulcer activity. PMID:22022006

  14. Nano gold conjugation, anti-arthritic potential and toxicity studies of snake Naja kaouthia (Lesson, 1831) venom protein toxin NKCT1 in male albino rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Saha, Partha Pratim; Bhowmik, Tanmoy; Dasgupta, Anjan Kumar; Gomes, Antony

    2014-08-01

    Nanoscience and Nanotechnology have found their way in the fields of pharmacology and medicine. The conjugation of drug to nanoparticles combines the properties of both. In this study, gold nanoparticle (GNP) was conjugated with NKCT1, a cytotoxic protein toxin from Indian cobra venom for evaluation of anti-arthritic activity and toxicity in experimental animal models. GNP conjugated NKCT1 (GNP-NKCT1) synthesized by NaBH4 reduction method was stable at room temperature (25 +/- 2 degrees C), pH 7.2. Hydrodynamic size of GNP-NKCT1 was 68-122 nm. Arthritis was developed by Freund's complete adjuvant induction in male albino rats and treatment was done with NKCT1/GNP-NKCT1/standard drug. The paw/ankle swelling, urinary markers, serum markers and cytokines were changed significantly in arthritic control rats which were restored after GNP-NKCT1 treatment. Acute toxicity study revealed that GNP conjugation increased the minimum lethal dose value of NKCT1 and partially reduced the NKCT1 induced increase of the serum biochemical tissue injury markers. Histopathological study showed partial restoration of toxic effect in kidney tissue after GNP conjugation. Normal lymphocyte count in culture was in the order of GNP-NKCT1 > NKCT1 > Indomethacine treatment. The present study confirmed that GNP conjugation increased the antiarthritic activity and decreased toxicity profile of NKCT1. PMID:25141538

  15. Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus)

    PubMed Central

    Abu El-Saad, Abdelaziz S.

    2009-01-01

    The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6) in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1) treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) throughout treatment and withdrawal periods. One hundred and twenty white male albino rats were grouped into four groups. Group 1, was injected with 300 μg kg−1 body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and left uninjected for another 15 days to study the withdrawal effect. Group 2, was injected with 300 μg kg−1 body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and treated simultaneously with IP6 daily for another 15 days. Group 3, was treated daily with IP6 (40 mg kg−1 body wt) for 15 days and with no treatment for other 15 days. Group 4, injected with equivalent volume of sterile phosphate buffer saline solution as a control group. Sera were taken at the experimental intervals and assayed for testosterone hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to determine the toxicological impact of AFB1 and the possibility of amelioration by phytic acid on the reproductive performance of the studied animal. The effects of AFB1 treatment on the absolute and relative weight of testis as well as its histopathologic effect on the testis and the possibility of amelioration by IP6 treatment were evaluated. The activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants, in addition to lipid peroxidation were measured in the testis’ homogenate of AFB1-treated rats. A decrease in sex hormone levels, an increase in testicular lipid peroxidation product levels and a significant decrease in testicular glutathione content, catalase and total peroxidase and superoxide dismutase

  16. Inhibition of pathogenic bacterial growth on excision wound by green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles leads to accelerated wound healing activity in Wistar Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Renu; Baskaran, Athmanathan; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2015-07-01

    An impaired wound healing is one of the major health related problem in diabetic and non-diabetic patients around the globe. The pathogenic bacteria play a predominant role in delayed wound healing, owing to interaction in the wound area. In our previous work we developed green chemistry mediated copper oxide nanoparticles using Ficus religiosa leaf extract. In the present study we make an attempt to evaluate the anti-bacterial, and wound healing activity of green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles in male Wistar Albino rats. The agar well diffusion assay revealed copper oxide nanoparticles have substantial inhibition activity against human pathogenic strains such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli, which were responsible for delayed wound healing process. Furthermore, the analyses results of wound closure, histopathology and protein profiling confirmed that the F. religiosa leaf extract tailored copper oxide nanoparticles have enhanced wound healing activity in Wistar Albino rats. PMID:26194977

  17. Effect of different doses of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid follicular cells of adult male albino rats: a histological study

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Hanaa A; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2015-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a major flavor enhancer used as a food additive. The present study investigates the effects of different doses of MSG on the morphometric and histological changes of the thyroid gland. 28 male albino rats were used. The rats were divided into four groups: group I control, group II, III and IV treated with MSG (0.25 g/kg, 3 g/kg, 6 g/kg daily for one month) respectively. The thyroid glands were dissected out and prepared for light and electron microscopic examination. Light microscopic examination of thyroid gland of group II revealed increase in follicular epithelial height. Groups III & IV showed decrease in the follicular diameter and irregularity in the shape of some follicles with discontinuity of basement membrane. Follicular hyperplasia was detected in some follicles with appearance of multiple pyknotic nuclei in follicular and interfollicular cells and multiple exfoliated cells in the colloid. In addition, areas of loss of follicular pattern were appeared in group IV. Immunohistochemical examination of BCL2 immunoexpression of the thyroid glands of groups III & IV reveals weak positive reaction in the follicular cells cytoplasm. Ultrathin sections examination of groups III & IV revealed follicular cells with irregular hyperchromatic nuclei, marked dilatation of rER and increased lysosomes with areas of short or lost apical microvilli. In addition, vacuolation of mitochondria was detected in group IV. The results displayed that MSG even at low doses is capable of producing alterations in the body weights and thyroid tissue function and histology. PMID:26884820

  18. Antioxidative and antidiabetic activities of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) juice on oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Oseni, O. A.; Odesanmi, O. E.; Oladele, F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The nutritional and medicinal importance of watermelon has been emphasized and its diseases preventive and curative power must be evaluated. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate the antioxidative and antidiabetic potentials of watermelon. Materials and Methods: The in vivo assay was carried out on 15 male albino rats which were divided into groups of three stages. In stage I, all animals received normal feeds and water for 1-week after, which five animals were selected and sacrificed for biochemical analyses which form the nondiabetic control, group. The remaining animals were fasted for 24 h before injected intra-peritoneally with a freshly prepared solution of alloxan at a dosage of 35 mg/kg body weight. Five out of the 10 rats were sacrificed as diabetic group while last five animals were fed with water melon juice for a week after, which they were sacrificed to form the treated group animals. In all the groups, body weights, fasting blood sugar, total protein level in the blood, and other biochemical parameters such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration; catalase, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) % inhibition activities were determined. Results: The results of the biochemical analyses showed a significant increase in the concentration of blood glucose level after treatment with alloxan, which indicates that diabetic was induced. Hence, watermelon juice caused increased in weight, hypoglycemia; and increases in GSH, GPx, catalase, and SOD % inhibition activities with reduced MDA concentration after treatments. Conclusion: The watermelon juice resulted in the restoration of impaired conditions of the rats. PMID:26759513

  19. Differential effects of alprazolam and clonazepam on the immune system and blood vessels of non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Elmesallamy, Ghada E.; Abass, Marwa A.; Ahmed Refat, Nahla A.G.; Atta, Amal H.

    2011-01-01

    Benzodiazepines belongs to one of the most commonly used anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drugs in the world. Full description of toxic effects on different organs is lacking for nearly all the current benzodiazepines. The aim of the current work was to study the immunologic and vascular changes induced by sub-chronic administration of alprazolam and clonazepam in non-stressed and stressed adult male albino rats. Forty-two adult male albino rats were divided into 6 groups (I): (Ia) Negative control rats, (Ib): Positive control rats received distilled water, (II): Stressed rats, (III): Non-stressed rats received daily oral dose of clonazepam (0.5 mg/kg), (IV): Stressed rats received daily oral dose of clonazepam (0.5 mg/kg), (V): Non-stressed rats received daily oral dose of alprazolam (0.3 mg/kg). (VI): Stressed rats received daily oral dose of alprazolam (0.3 mg/kg). At the end of the 4th week, total leukocyte count (WBCs) and differential count were determined, anti-sheep RBC antibody (Anti-SRBC) titer and interleukin-2 (IL-2) level were assessed, thymus glands, lymph nodes, spleens and abdominal aortae were submitted to histopathological examination. Alprazolam was found to induce a significant increase in neutrophil count and a significant decrease in lymphocytes, anti-SRBC titer and IL-2 level with severe depletion of the splenic, thymal and nodal lymphocytes, accompanied by congestion and eosinophilic vasculitis of all organs tested in comparison to clonazepam treated rats. Stress enhanced the toxic effects. It was concluded that the immune system and blood vessels can be adversely affected to a greater extent by short-term chronic administration of alprazolam than by clonazepam, and these toxic effects are aggravated by stress. PMID:22058654

  20. Gender Difference in the Role of Posterodorsal Amygdala on the Regulation of Food Intake, Adiposity and Immunological Responses in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lalitha, Venugopal; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Pal, Pravati; Parija, Subash Chandra; Murugaiyan, Sathish Babu

    2016-01-01

    Lesion of posterodorsal amygdala (PDA) has been known to produce hyperphagia and obesity in animal models. However, the influence of gender on food intake (FI), body weight (BW) and immunological parameters following PDA lesion is not yet known. The present work was carried out to study the effect of gender on the regulation of FI, BW and immunological parameters following lesions of PDA in albino Wistar rats. Twenty-four albino Wistar rats were divided equally into 2 groups - PDA group and control group - with 6 male and 6 female rats in each. In the experimental group, bilateral electrolytic lesion of the respective nuclei was performed by stereotaxy and post-lesion parameters were recorded. In the control group, sham lesion was made. Male-female difference in each parameter was determined. Following PDA lesion, FI increased significantly in both male (p < 0.001) and female rats (p < 0.01) but the percentage increase in FI was significantly more in female rats (p < 0.001). BW also increased in both the sexes but the increase in BW was significant only in male rats (p < 0.05). Both male and female rats showed increase in the concentration of cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4), but the significant increase in CD4 concentration (p < 0.01) was seen only in male rats. CD8 concentration increased significantly in male rats (p < 0.05). The liver weight-BW ratio was significantly greater in female rats (p < 0.001) following PDA lesions. Lesion of PDA results in accentuation of FI and BW gain and activation of immunity. There is a gender difference in the inhibitory control of PDA on FI, BW and immunity.

  1. Lipidomic Modulation in Stressed Albino Rats Is Altered by Yolk and Albumen of Quail (Coturnix japonica) Egg and Poultry Feed

    PubMed Central

    Oluwafemi Ibukun, Emmanuel; Oludare Oladipo, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Cold and immobilization stressors can generate oxidative stress as well as skeletal muscle fatigue. Free radicals cause oxidative degradation of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates molecules, thereby compromising cell integrity and function. Quail egg had been described as being very functional biochemically, due to the essential biomolecules it contains in very regulated quantity. This study was aimed for evaluating the dietary effect of the egg on lipid profile parameters on selected tissues. The antilipidemic properties of the egg yolk and albumen and poultry (layers) feed were determined in selected tissues in male albino rats assaulted with cold immobilization stress induced on them at 4°C for 2 hours, while diazepam was used as standard antistress drug. Antilipidemic activities were evaluated by lipid profile modulation (HDL, LDL, TRIG., and T-CHOL.). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of fatty acids profile of the yolk hexane-extract were determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The ameliorative impacts of diazepam (2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL/kg BW), yolk (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), albumen (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), and the feed (5–10 mg/kg BW) were competitively (p < 0.05) specific for each of the tissues. The result of the study suggested yolk and albumen of quail egg and poultry feed as antistress agents as well as lipid modulators. PMID:26942009

  2. A comparative study on chronic administration of Go Ghrita (cow ghee) and Avika Ghrita (ewe ghee) in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Dipali J; Vyas, Hitesh A; Vyas, Mahesh Kumar; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

    2012-07-01

    Ghrita (ghee) is the foremost substance of Indian cuisine from centuries. Ayurvedic classics described eight kinds of ghee from eight different animal milk, among them ghee made from cow milk is said to be the superior and ghee of ewe milk is said to be the inferior and also detrimental to heart. The present study was undertaken to evaluate chronic administration of cow ghee (Go Ghrita) and ghee of ewe milk (Avika Ghrita) to experimental animals. Experiment was carried out on Wistar strain albino rats and study was done at two dose levels. The test drugs were administered orally for 45 consecutive days. Parameters, such as gross behavior, body weight, weight of important organs, total fecal fat content, electrocardiogram, serum biochemical parameters, and histopathology of different organs were studied. Both the test drugs did not alter the gross behavior, body weight, weight of organs, and cytoarchitecture of different organs to significant extent. Avika Ghrita at a low dose significantly decreased triglyceride content, significantly prolonged QTc and at both dose levels it significantly shortened the PR interval. This study shows chronic administration of Avika Ghrita and Go Ghrita has no marked differences between them except the QTc prolongation in Avika Ghrita. This may be the basis for the classics to categorize Avika Ghrita as Ahridya. PMID:23723655

  3. Cognitive effects of acute restraint stress in male albino rats and the impact of pretreatment with quetiapine versus ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Amin, Shaimaa Nasr; Gamal, Sarah Mahmoud; Esmail, Reham Shehab El Nemr; Aziz, Tarek Mohamed Abdel; Rashed, Laila Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Stress is any condition that seriously affects the balance of the organism physiologically and psychologically. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) releasing glucocorticoid hormones that produce generalized effects on different body systems including the nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the effect of acute restraint stress (ARS) on cognitive performance by measuring spatial working memory in Y-maze, behavior (anxiety and exploratory behavior) in open field test, expression of synaptophysin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the hippocampus by immunohistochemistry, dopaminergic receptors (D2) in the basal ganglia by gene expression and comparing the effect of ghrelin and quetiapine on the previous parameters. 36 adult male albino rats constituted the animal model of this work and have been divided into six groups: control group, control group exposed to ARS, quetiapine group, quetiapine group exposed to ARS, ghrelin group and ghrelin group exposed to ARS. We demonstrated more neuroprotective effect for quetiapine compared to ghrelin on stress response, anxiety behavior and working spatial memory impairment due to ARS. PMID:25391717

  4. Effects of Calendula Essential Oil-Based Cream on Biochemical Parameters of Skin of Albino Rats against Ultraviolet B Radiation.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Arun K; Mishra, Amrita; Verma, Anurag; Chattopadhyay, Pronobesh

    2012-09-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from UV-B radiation have the capacity to cause oxidative decomposition which leads to the formation of toxic components as well as lipid peroxidation. Considering this fact, the present study was performed to evaluate the effect of a cream (O/W) containing the essential oil of Calendula officinalis on biochemical parameters of the skin of albino rats against UV-B radiation. The fingerprint analysis of Calendula essential oil was performed by HPLC with special reference to 1,8-cineole and α-pinene. The results indicated that the treatment with creams containing 4% and 5% of Calendula essential oil caused a significant decrease in the malonyldialdehyde level, whereas the levels of catalase, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, ascorbic acid, and the total protein level were significantly increased after 1 month of daily irradiation and treatment when compared to untreated control groups. The results suggest that the cutaneous application of the essential oil of Calendula prevents UV-B-induced alterations in the level of antioxidants in skin tissue. PMID:23008814

  5. Lipidomic Modulation in Stressed Albino Rats Is Altered by Yolk and Albumen of Quail (Coturnix japonica) Egg and Poultry Feed.

    PubMed

    Oluwafemi Ibukun, Emmanuel; Oludare Oladipo, Gideon

    2016-01-01

    Cold and immobilization stressors can generate oxidative stress as well as skeletal muscle fatigue. Free radicals cause oxidative degradation of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates molecules, thereby compromising cell integrity and function. Quail egg had been described as being very functional biochemically, due to the essential biomolecules it contains in very regulated quantity. This study was aimed for evaluating the dietary effect of the egg on lipid profile parameters on selected tissues. The antilipidemic properties of the egg yolk and albumen and poultry (layers) feed were determined in selected tissues in male albino rats assaulted with cold immobilization stress induced on them at 4°C for 2 hours, while diazepam was used as standard antistress drug. Antilipidemic activities were evaluated by lipid profile modulation (HDL, LDL, TRIG., and T-CHOL.). Quantitative and qualitative analyses of fatty acids profile of the yolk hexane-extract were determined by Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). The ameliorative impacts of diazepam (2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL/kg BW), yolk (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), albumen (5 and 10 mL/kg BW), and the feed (5-10 mg/kg BW) were competitively (p < 0.05) specific for each of the tissues. The result of the study suggested yolk and albumen of quail egg and poultry feed as antistress agents as well as lipid modulators. PMID:26942009

  6. Comparative evaluation of standardized alcoholic, hydroalcoholic, and aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus maderaspatensis Linn. against galactosamine-induced hepatopathy in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ilyas, U. K.; Katare, Deepshikha P.; Aeri, Vidhu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Phyllanthus maderaspatensis species (Euphorbiaceae) has been used in folk medicine of many countries as a remedy against several pathological conditions including jaundice and hepatitis. This study is an attempt to evaluate hepatoprotective activity of P. maderaspatensis against galactosamine-induced toxicity and also investigation of polyphenols in each extract. Materials and Methods: The extraction of P. maderaspatensis as per Ayurveda was simultaneously standardized and quantified for biochemical markers viz., polyphenols: Kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid by high-performance thin layer chromatography. Hepatotoxicity was induced albino adult rats by intraperitoneal injection of galactosamine (400 mg/kg). The quantified aqueous, hydroalcoholic and alcoholic extract of P. maderaspatensis (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight/day) were compared for evaluation of hepatoprotective potential, which were assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, change in serum enzymes such as aspartate amino transaminase, alanine amino transaminase and alkaline phosphatase and increase thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results and Discussion: The hydroalcoholic extract was found to contain comparatively high amount of kaempferol, quercetin, catechin, rutin, and ellagic acid which are responsible for hepatoprotection. Antioxidant parameters such as glutathione, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity in liver tissues were restored toward the normalization more significantly by the hydroalcoholic extract when compared with other extracts. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination. Conclusion: The hydroalcoholic extract standardized with respect to known biomarkers may be considered as a potent extract against hepatotoxicity. PMID:25829765

  7. Anti-arthritic Activity of Dashanga Ghana (An Ayurvedic Compound Formulation) Against Freund's Adjuvant Induced Arthritis in Charles Foster Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ruknuddin, Galib; Patgiri, B. J.; Prajapati, P. K.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Arthritis is the most common cause of disability, limiting the activities of adults throughout the world. Apart from the conventional treatment strategies using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs, and glucocorticoids, newer and safer drugs are continuously being searched, as long-term usage of these drugs have resulted in adverse effects. Besides this, currently a number of medicinal plants are under scientific evaluation to develop a promising remedy in these cases. There is a need to investigate the complete therapeutic potential of these herbals for providing newer and safer treatment options with minimum side effects. Considering this, a polyherbal Ayurvedic compound formulation (Dashanga Ghana) has been studied in experimental animals to evaluate anti-arthritic activity. Materials and Methods: Dashanga Ghana has been prepared in the laboratory by following standard guidelines. Charles Foster albino rats were used to evaluate the activity through Freund's adjuvant induced arthritis model. Results and Conclusions: Dashanga Ghana is found to possess significant anti-arthritic activity. Further studies are required to identify and characterize exact active phyto-constituents and to elucidate the exact mechanism of action, which is responsible for the observed pharmacological profile. PMID:26862275

  8. Inhibitory Response of Raphanus sativus on Lipid Peroxidation in Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, P

    2008-03-01

    In the present study, inhibitory effect of the methanol extract of Raphanus sativus root on lipid peroxidation has been carried out in normal rats. Graded doses of methanol extract of root of the plant (40, 80 and 120 mg kg(-1) body weight) were administered orally for 15 days to experimental treated rats. Distilled water was administered to experimental control rats. At the end of experiment, rats were killed by decapitation after ether anesthesia. Blood and liver were collected to measure thiobarbituric acid reactive substance, reduced glutathione and activity of catalase. Results indicated that the extract of R. sativus root reduced the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance significantly in all experimental treated groups (P < 0.05) as compared to the experimental control group. It also increased the levels of reduced glutathione and increased the activity of catalase. In vitro experiments with the liver of experimental control and experimental treated rats were also carried out against cumene hydroperoxide induced lipid peroxidation. The extract inhibited in vitro cumene hydroperoxide induced lipid peroxidation. R. sativus inhibits lipid peroxidation in vivo and in vitro. It provides protection by strengthening the antioxidants like glutathione and catalase. Inclusion of this plant in every day diet would be beneficial. PMID:18317549

  9. The potent effects of ginseng root extract and memantine on cognitive dysfunction in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Hazmi, Mansour A; Rawi, Sayed M; Arafa, Nadia Ms; Wagas, Abeer; Montasser, Ayat Os

    2015-06-01

    The study determined the maximum intraperitoneal (ip) scopolamine dose inducing memory impairment in rats (2 mg/kg) compared to 0.5 or 1 mg/kg dose. The effect reflected by significant increase from normal in the latency time required for rats to find the hidden platform in water maze task and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. The dose-related histopathological effect via the hemorrhage, vacuolation and gliosis in cortex and hippocampus is assessed. Then the study investigated the potency of Panax ginseng root extract on scopolamine cognitive dysfunction rat model compared to memantine hydrochloride as reference Food and Drug Administration approved. Ginseng extract was administered at dose 100 or 200 mg/kg/day and memantine at 20 mg/kg/day orally for 2 weeks. All treatments showed improvement in the water maze task, however, ginseng (200 mg/kg) group acquired the advantage without statistical difference control. Scopolamine (2 mg/kg ip) group showed significant increase in AChE reactivity and glutamate level and reduced monoamines (norepinephrine, dopamine and serotonin) and γ-aminobutyric acid contents in cortex, hippocampus and striatum. Ginseng extract in a dose-dependent manner appears effective as memantine and can improve memory impairment through the retrieved homeostasis via neurotransmitter levels and AChE activities in rat brain areas with partial effect on the histological feature of the brain tissue. PMID:23406953

  10. Histological Study on Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy on Experimental Renal Injury Induced by Ischemia/Reperfusion in Male Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Eman Mostafa; Afifi, Noha Mohamed; Elfattah, Lamiaa Ibrahim Abd; Mohsen, Manal Ali Abd-El

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Acute kidney injury (AKI) represents a major clinical problem with high mortality and limited treatment protocols. This study was planned to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of bone marrow - derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in a rat model of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) AKI. Methods and Results This study was carried out on thirty adult male albino rats. Animals were divided equally into three groups. Group I (control sham-operated group) (n=10), were subdivided equally into two subgroups; Ia and Ib. The experimental group (n=20) were all subjected to I/R injury by clamping both renal pedicles for 40 minutes. Half of the I/R animals did not receive MSC therapy (group II) [non-MSC treated group]. The other half of the I/R animals received single intravenous injection of PKH26 labelled BM-MSCs immediately after removal of the clamps and visual confirmation of reflow (group III) [MSC treated group]. Animals were sacrificed 24 hrs (subgroups IIa & IIIa) and 72 hrs (subgroups IIb & IIIb) after intervention. Serological measurements included serum urea and creatinine. Kidney specimens were processed for H&E, PAS and PCNA. Mean % of renal corpuscles with affected glomeruli, mean % of affected tubules, mean area % of PAS-positive reaction and mean area % of PCNA immunoreactivity were measured by histomorphometric studies and statistically compared. MSCs-treated group exhibited protection against renal injury serologically and histologically. Conclusions Results of the present study suggest a potential reno-protective capacity of MSCs which could be of considerable therapeutic promise for cell-based management of clinical AKI. PMID:24298374

  11. Impact of an Energy Drink on the Structure of Stomach and Pancreas of Albino Rat: Can Omega-3 Provide a Protection?

    PubMed Central

    Ayuob, Nasra; ElBeshbeishy, Rana

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives A controversy developed between the benefits of energy drinks (EDs) versus the possible health threats since its revolution. Lack of information was a call to assess the effect of chronic consumption of Power Horse (PH) as one of the EDs, on the structure of pancreas and fundic mucosa of stomach in rats, and possible protective role of Omega-3. Materials and Methods Thirty two adult male albino rats were divided equally into 4 groups; control received group which only received a standard diet, Omega-3 group, PH group which given PH and PH plus Omega-3 group received both PH plus Omega-3 for 4 weeks. Biochemical assessment of blood glucose, serum insulin, gastrin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOS) was performed. The antioxidant activity and histopathological examination of both pancreatic tissue and fundic mucosa of stomach were assessed. Results Administration of PH significantly increased serum insulin and glucose levels while it significantly reduced serum gastrin level compared to control. PH also caused oxidants/antioxidants imbalance in both pancreas and fundic mucosa. The latter revealed degenerative changes and increased apoptosis which was evident by increased caspase-3 immunoexpression. Pancreas exhibited signs of β-cells overstimulation. Fundic mucosa showed reduced number of parietal cells, gastrin hormone expression compared to control group. Omega-3 administration could alleviate, to some extent, these changes. It significantly decreased TNF-α, iNOS and reduced glutathione (GSH) as well as significantly increasing superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities compared to the group which received PH alone. Conclusion Power Horse intake significantly injures islet cells, pancreatic acini as well as the glandular cells of the fundic mucosa. Omega-3 decreases these detrimental effects mostly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory action. PMID

  12. Guanosine may increase absence epileptic activity by means of A2A adenosine receptors in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Renáta Krisztina; Dobolyi, Árpád; Todorov, Mihail Ivilinov; Kékesi, Katalin A; Juhász, Gábor; Aleksza, Magdolna; Kovács, Zsolt

    2016-06-01

    The non-adenosine nucleoside guanosine (Guo) was demonstrated to decrease quinolinic acid(QA)-induced seizures, spontaneously emerged absence epileptic seizures and lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-evoked induction of absence epileptic seizures suggesting its antiepileptic potential. It was also described previously that intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 20 and 50mg/kg Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in a well investigated model of human absence epilepsy, the Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats during 4th (20mg/kg Guo) and 3rd as well as 4th (50mg/kg Guo) measuring hours. Guanosine can potentially decrease SWD number by means of its putative receptors but absence epileptic activity changing effects of Guo by means of increased extracellular adenosine (Ado) cannot be excluded. An increase in the dose of i.p. injected Guo is limited by its low solubility in saline, therefore, we addressed in the present study whether higher doses of Guo, diluted in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution, have more potent antiepileptic effect in WAG/Rij rats. We confirmed that i.p. 50mg/kg Guo decreased but, surprisingly, i.p. 100mg/kg Guo enhanced the number of SWDs in WAG/Rij rats. Combined i.p. injection of a non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5mg/kg) or a selective Ado A2A receptor (A2AR) antagonist SCH 58261 (7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine) (1mg/kg) and a cyclooxygenase 1 and 2/COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor indomethacin (10mg/kg) with 100mg/kg Guo decreased the SWD number compared to i.p. 100mg/kg Guo alone. The results suggest that i.p. 100mg/kg Guo can increase SWD number by means of the adenosinergic system. PMID:27154620

  13. Studies on fate and toxicity of nanoalumina in male albino rats: Some haematological, biochemical and histological aspects.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Gamal M; El-Ala, Kawther S Abou; Ali, Atef A

    2016-04-01

    The work aimed to evaluate the nanoalumina toxicity on the histological architecture, some haematological and biochemical aspects in male albino rats, during acute and sublethal experiments. Rats, in acute experiments, were injected with a single-acute dose of 3.9 g or 6.4 g or 8.5 g of aluminium oxide (Al2O3) kg(-) (1), whereas those of sublethal were injected with 1.3 g of Al2O3 kg(-) (1)2 days(-) (1) One-way analysis of variance indicated that injected doses and the experimental periods were significantly affected by haemoglobin (Hb) content; haematocrit value (Hct); white blood cell (WBC) count; blood platelet (Plt) count; mean corpuscular volume (MCV); mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) and MCH concentration (MCHC). In acute experiments, Hct, WBC count, MCV and Plt were significantly higher than the corresponding controls, whereas Hb, MCH and MCHC markedly decreased. In comparison with the related controls after 1, 3 and 7 days post-injection, red blood cell count, Hb, Hct, WBC count, Plt and MCV were significantly increased, but begun to decrease after 14 or/and 28 days and were associated with a marked decrease in MCH and MCHC. In serum of rats injected with acute or sublethal dose, the concentrations of total protein (TP) and total lipid (TL) were significantly lesser than the corresponding controls, whereas the levels of urea, uric acid, creatinine and the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were markedly increased. The injected doses were directly proportional with all the studied biochemical parameter, except the TL and TP that exhibited a negative correlation. Histologically, the highest acute and sublethal doses of nanoalumina caused hepatic irregular disarray, necrosis to the hepatic and Kupffer cells that are associated with congested blood sinusoids. The renal tissues characterized by the appearance of inter-tubular congestion that is accompanied by the dilation of the vascular glomeruli that completely occupied Bowman

  14. Induction of epoxide hydrolase, glucuronosyl transferase, and sulfotransferase by phenethyl isothiocyanate in male Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Mohd Noor, Noramaliza; Konsue, Nattaya

    2014-01-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is an isothiocyanate found in watercress as the glucosinolate (gluconasturtiin). The isothiocyanate is converted from the glucosinolate by intestinal microflora or when contacted with myrosinase during the chopping and mastication of the vegetable. PEITC manifested protection against chemically-induced cancers in various tissues. A potential mechanism of chemoprevention is by modulating the metabolism of carcinogens so as to promote deactivation. The principal objective of this study was to investigate in rats the effect of PEITC on carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems such as sulfotransferase (SULT), N-acetyltransferase (NAT), glucuronosyl transferase (UDP), and epoxide hydrolase (EH) following exposure to low doses that simulate human dietary intake. Rats were fed for 2 weeks diets supplemented with PEITC at 0.06 µmol/g (low dose, i.e., dietary intake), 0.6 µmol/g (medium dose), and 6.0 µmol/g (high dose), and the enzymes were monitored in rat liver. At the Low dose, no induction of the SULT, NAT, and EH was noted, whereas UDP level was elevated. At the Medium dose, only SULT level was increased, whereas at the High dose marked increase in EH level was observed. It is concluded that PEITC modulates carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems at doses reflecting human intake thus elucidating the mechanism of its chemoprevention. PMID:24592387

  15. Safety Evaluation of Unani Formulation: Capsule Shaqeeqa in Albino Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfar, Khalid; Ahmad Dar, Showkat; Akbar, Seema; Nazir, Tazeen; Hamdani, Mariya; Siddiqui, Khalid M.; Kumar, Pawan; Masood, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Capsule Shaqeeqa, Unani formulation, is prescribed for the clinical treatment of diseases like sinusitis, headache, and migraine. The safety evaluation data of it is not available; in order to provide the safety data the present study was carried out. The study was carried out on four groups of rats (n = 5). Two groups (one male and one female group) as normal controls were orally given water while the other two groups were orally given daily doses of drug at the dose level of 150 mg/kg of body weight for duration of 90 days. Physiological parameters like body weight, feed consumption, water consumption, and clinical signs were regularly monitored and recorded. Organs were collected, examined, and weighed and specimens were taken for histopathological studies. The results showed that the drug did not alter the physiological parameters. There was no mortality or any morbidity found in drug treated rats. There was no statistical significant change found in any haematological or biochemical parameter of rats orally fed with Shaqeeqa. A statistically insignificant association verified that haematological and biochemical parameters were rendered unaffected by the drug. Moreover histological investigations of essential key organs demonstrated that the drug did not prompt any histopathological change. These observations demonstrate the safety of Capsule Shaqeeqa at the studied dosage levels. PMID:27190679

  16. Ibuprofen effects on behavioral thermoregulation with microwave radiation in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Vitulli, W F; Nemeth, Y M; Conte, C T

    2001-04-01

    This study determined whether ibuprofen causes a disruptive behavior pattern similar to aspirin yet contrary to acetaminophen regarding thermoregulatory effects. 8 Sprague-Dawley rats (3 males and 5 females) were drawn from a population of rats which had been conditioned to press a lever for food reinforcement in an undergraduate course in operant conditioning. Animals were conditioned in a refrigerated Skinner Box on a fixed-interval 2-min. (FI-2 min.) schedule of microwave radiation (5 sec. of radiation per exposure occasion) in a repeated-measures reversal (within-subjects) design. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with doses of ibuprofen in amounts of 10-50 mg/kg or methyl-cellulose control vehicle of equal volume over 8-hr. daily sessions. A multivariate analysis of variance showed significant differences due to doses (mg/kg) of ibuprofen for number of microwave heat reinforcers per hour and rate of responding (ns) both measures of which were significantly higher during the first 2 hours of the session. Comparative differences in behavioral thermoregulation in humans reflect the likelihood of underlying biochemical mechanisms based on research by Murphy, Badia, Myers, Boecker, and Wright in 1994. PMID:11361298

  17. Induction of Epoxide Hydrolase, Glucuronosyl Transferase, and Sulfotransferase by Phenethyl Isothiocyanate in Male Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Noor, Noramaliza; Konsue, Nattaya

    2014-01-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) is an isothiocyanate found in watercress as the glucosinolate (gluconasturtiin). The isothiocyanate is converted from the glucosinolate by intestinal microflora or when contacted with myrosinase during the chopping and mastication of the vegetable. PEITC manifested protection against chemically-induced cancers in various tissues. A potential mechanism of chemoprevention is by modulating the metabolism of carcinogens so as to promote deactivation. The principal objective of this study was to investigate in rats the effect of PEITC on carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems such as sulfotransferase (SULT), N-acetyltransferase (NAT), glucuronosyl transferase (UDP), and epoxide hydrolase (EH) following exposure to low doses that simulate human dietary intake. Rats were fed for 2 weeks diets supplemented with PEITC at 0.06 µmol/g (low dose, i.e., dietary intake), 0.6 µmol/g (medium dose), and 6.0 µmol/g (high dose), and the enzymes were monitored in rat liver. At the Low dose, no induction of the SULT, NAT, and EH was noted, whereas UDP level was elevated. At the Medium dose, only SULT level was increased, whereas at the High dose marked increase in EH level was observed. It is concluded that PEITC modulates carcinogen-metabolising enzyme systems at doses reflecting human intake thus elucidating the mechanism of its chemoprevention. PMID:24592387

  18. Absence epileptic activity changing effects of non-adenosine nucleoside inosine, guanosine and uridine in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk rats.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Z; Kékesi, K A; Dobolyi, Á; Lakatos, R; Juhász, G

    2015-08-01

    Adenosine (Ado) and non-adenosine (non-Ado) nucleosides such as inosine (Ino), guanosine (Guo) and uridine (Urd) may have regionally different roles in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes in the central nervous system (CNS) such as epilepsy. It was demonstrated previously that Ino and Guo decreased quinolinic acid (QA)-induced seizures and Urd reduced penicillin-, bicuculline- and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures. It has also been demonstrated that Ino and Urd may exert their effects through GABAergic system by altering the function of GABA(A) type of gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors (GABAA receptors) whereas Guo decreases glutamate-induced excitability through glutamatergic system, which systems (GABAergic and glutamatergic) are involved in pathomechanisms of absence epilepsy. Thus, we hypothesized that Ino and Guo, similarly to the previously described effect of Urd, might also decrease absence epileptic activity. We investigated in the present study whether intraperitoneal (i.p.) application of Ino (500 and 1000mg/kg), Guo (20 and 50mg/kg), Urd (500 and 1000mg/kg), GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (1 and 3mg/kg), GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline (2 and 4mg/kg), non-selective Ado receptor antagonist theophylline (5 and 10mg/kg) and non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo (a,d) cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate (MK-801, 0.0625 and 0.1250mg/kg) alone and in combination have modulatory effects on absence epileptic activity in Wistar Albino Glaxo Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. We found that Guo decreased the number of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) whereas Ino increased it dose-dependently. We strengthened that Urd can decrease absence epileptic activity. Our results suggest that Guo, Urd and their analogs could be potentially effective drugs for treatment of human absence epilepsy. PMID:26037802

  19. Histological and histochemical observations on the testis and epididymis of the albino rat treated with ACTH 1-39 and dexamethasone.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, A; Ricciardi, M P

    1983-01-01

    We analysed the modifications induced in the testis and epididymis of the adult male albino rat by drugs stimulating (ACTH) and inhibiting (dexamethasone) the steroidogenesis of the adrenal cortex. After stopping treatment, observations were continued for several days in order to follow up the possible long-term effects of these drugs. Morphological examination showed that the greatest damage in the testis was produced a few days after suspension of treatment by small doses of ACTH and that, with dexamethasone, the testis and epididymis were damaged, especially after discontinuing treatment. No noteworthy histochemical modifications were observed. PMID:6305865

  20. Changes in the Mother-Placenta-Fetus System Under the Effect of α-Tocopherol in Albino Rats with Normal Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, A S; Peretyatko, L P; Sitnikova, O G; Nazarov, S B

    2015-08-01

    The effects of α-tocopherol on the function of the mother-placenta-fetus system and structural changes in the placenta in normal pregnancy were studied in albino rats. The results indicated that inhibition of free radical processes by injections of α-tocopherol in normal pregnancy led to disorders in the feto-maternal circulation, which was proven by morphological changes in the placenta. The disorders in the uteroplacental circulation manifested in the development of small-for-date fetuses and erythrocytosis. PMID:26395631

  1. Therapeutic efficacy of Rosa damascena Mill. on acetaminophen-induced oxidative stress in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Monika; Shakya, Arvind Kumar; Sharma, Neetu; Shrivastava, Sadhana; Shukla, Sangeeta

    2012-01-01

    Rosa damascena (RD) is a widely cultivated ornamental plant. It acts as an astringent, aperients, carminative, and refrigerant and is used in respiratory disorders, tonsillitis, eye disorders, migraines, gynecological disorders, and menopausal symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of the aqueous extract of RD flowers at different oral dose levels (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg body weight) on acetaminophen (2 g/kg oral N-acetyl-p-aminophenol [APAP])-induced toxicity in rats. APAP administration altered various biochemical parameters, including serum transaminases, serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, bilirubin, urea and creatinine, hepatic lipid peroxidation, and reduced glutathione levels. Adenosine triphosphatase and glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the liver was decreased significantly in animals treated with APAP. These values are retrieved significantly by treatment with RD extract at all 3 doses in dose-dependant manner. Apart from these, histopathological changes also reveal the protective nature of the RD extract against acetaminophen-induced necrotic damage of hepatic tissues. In conclusion, these data suggest that the aqueous extract of RD may prevent hepatic damage from APAP-induced toxicity in rats and is likely to be mediated through its antioxidant activities. PMID:23339694

  2. Effects of lithium chloride on testicular steroidogenic and gametogenic functions in mature male albino rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, D.; Chaudhuri, A.; Biswas, N.M.; Ghosh, P.K. )

    1990-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of lithium, on steroidogenic and gametogenic functions of testis in the rat. Adult male rats of Wistar strain were injected with lithium chloride at the dose of 0.1 mg, 0.2 mg, and 0.4 mg/100 g body weight/day for 21 days. All the treated animals along with the vehicle treated controls were sacrificed 24 hours after the last injections. Testicular steroidogenic activity was evaluated by measuring the activities of two steroidogenic key enzymes, {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta} hydroxysteriod dehydrogenase ({Delta}{sup 5} -3{beta}-HSD) and 17{beta} hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17{beta} -HSD). Gametogenic capacity was determined by counting the number of germ cells at stage VII of seminiferous cycle. Plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Administration of lithium chloride at a dose of 0.1 mg/100g body wt. for 21 days led to insignificant changes of plasma FSH, LH, PRL and T along with unaltered activities of testicular {Delta}5 -3{beta}-HSD, 17 {beta}-HSD activities and gametogenesis.

  3. Direct input from cochlear root neurons to pontine reticulospinal neurons in albino rat.

    PubMed

    Nodal, Fernando R; López, Dolores E

    2003-05-19

    The cochlear root neurons (CRNs) are thought to mediate the auditory startle reflex (ASR) in the rat, which is widely used as a behavioral model for the investigation of the sensorimotor integration. CRNs project, among other targets, to the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (PnC), a major component of the ASR circuit, but little is known about the organization of this projection. Thus, we injected biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) in CRNs to study their projections with light and electron microscopy. Also, we performed double-labeling experiments, injecting BDA in the CRNs and subunit B of the cholera toxin or Fluorogold in the spinal cord to verify that CRNs project onto reticulospinal neurons. Electron microscopy of the labeled CRNs axons and terminals showed that even their most central and thinnest processes are myelinated. Most of the terminals are axodendritic, with multiple asymmetric synapses, and contain round vesicles (50 nm diameter). Double-labeling experiments demonstrated that CRN terminals are apposed to retrogradely labeled reticulospinal neurons in the contralateral nucleus reticularis PnC and bilaterally in the lateral paragigantocellular nucleus. Analyses of serial sections revealed that multiple CRNs synapse on single reticulospinal neurons in PnC, suggesting a convergence of auditory information. The morphometric features of these neurons classify them as giant neurons. This study confirms that CRNs project directly onto reticulospinal neurons and presents other anatomical features of the CRNs that contribute to a better understanding of the circuitry of the ASR in the rat. PMID:12687698

  4. Effect of antioxidant mineral elements supplementation in the treatment of hypertension in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, S A; Bilbis, L S; Saidu, Y; Adamu, Y

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in various pathologies, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and chronic renal disease. The current work was designed with the aim of investigating the potentials of antioxidants copper, manganese, and zinc in the treatment of hypertension in Wistar rats. The rats were fed 8% NaCl diet for 5 weeks and treatment with supplements in the presence of the challenging agent for additional 4 weeks. The supplementation significantly decreased the blood pressure as compared with hypertensive control. The result also indicated significant decreased in the levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, malondialdehyde, insulin and increase in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total antioxidant activities, and nitric oxide of the supplemented groups relative to the hypertensive control. The average percentage protection against atherogenesis indicated 47.13 ± 9.60% for all the supplemented groups. The mean arterial blood pressure showed significant positive correlation with glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, atherogenic index, insulin resistance and malondialdehyde while high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and total antioxidant activities showed negative correlation. The result therefore indicated strong relationship between oxidative stress and hypertension and underscores the role of antioxidant minerals in reducing oxidative stress, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance associated with hypertension. PMID:22966412

  5. Sub-acute Toxicity of Aqueous Fruit Pulp Extract of Hunteria umbellata in Albino Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Igbe, Ighodaro; Eze, Gerald Ikechi; Ojameruaye, Oghenekevwe

    2013-01-01

    Hunteria umbellata K. Schum (Apocynaceae) is used in herbal medicine for the treatment of diabetes, peptic ulcers, piles, yaws, dysmenorrhea, fevers, infertility, and helminthic infections. The present study investigated the in vivo sub-acute toxicity of the aqueous fruit pulp extract of Hunteria umbellata (H. umbellata). Sub-acute toxicity was evaluated after administering daily oral doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg of H. umbellata extract, for 28 days to the rats. Anthropometric, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters were assessed using standard procedures. There were significant reductions (p<0.01) in the pattern of weight gain in 200 and 400 mg/kg H. umbellata -treated rats but no significant differences in the organ weight index between control and treated animals. Hematological and biochemical analysis showed no marked differences in any of the parameters examined in either the control or treated groups but there was significant (p<0.05) thrombocytosis. Pathologically, neither gross abnormalities nor histopathological changes were observed. H. umbellata led to activation of the reticulo endothelial tissue of the spleen as evidenced by proliferation of the sinus histocytes and activation of the lymphoid aggregates in the lungs, indicating activation of the local immune system of the lungs. H. umbellata fruit pulp is relatively nontoxic in animals but there is increased tendency to cause thrombocytosis on prolonged use. PMID:23955412

  6. Studies on fate and toxicity of nanoalumina in male albino rats: Oxidative stress in the brain, liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Gamal M; Abou El-Ala, Kawther S; Ali, Atef A

    2016-02-01

    The present work aimed to evaluate the oxidative stress of nanoalumina (aluminium oxide nanoparticles, Al2O3-NPs) with a diameter <13 nm (9.83 ± 1.61 nm) as assessed by the perturbations in the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the brain, liver and kidney of male albino rats, after 2 days of single acute dose (3.9 or 6.4 or 8.5 g/kg) injection and a sublethal dose of 1.3 g/kg once in 2 days for a period of 28 days. According to two-way analysis of variance, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities as well as the levels of glutathione (GSH) and LPO were significantly affected by the injected doses, organs and their interactions. On the other hand, in sublethal experiments, these parameters were affected by the experimental periods, organs and their interactions. Regression analysis confirmed that the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx and GSH levels in the brain, liver and kidney were inversely proportional with the acute doses, the experimental periods, and aluminium accumulated in these tissues, whereas the levels of LPO exhibited a positive relationship. Correlation coefficient indicated that oxidative stress mainly depends on aluminium accumulated in the studied organs, followed by injected doses and the experimental periods. In comparison with the corresponding controls, the acute and sublethal doses of Al2O3-NPs caused significant inhibition of the brain, hepatic and renal SOD, CAT, GPx activities and a severe marked reduction in the concentrations of GSH that were associated with a significant elevation in the levels of malondialdehyde (an indicator of LPO). In conclusion, our data indicated that rats injected with nanoalumina suffered from the oxidative stresses that were dose and time dependent. In addition, Al2O3-NPs released into the biospheres could be potentiating a risk to the environment and causing hazard effects on living organisms, including mammals. PMID:24081632

  7. [THE STATUS OF CERTAIN PHYSIOLOGICAL ADRENERGIC RESPONSES IN ALBINO RATS DURING DEVELOPMENT OF EXPERIMENTAL HYPERTHYROIDISM].

    PubMed

    Osman, Nizar Salim; Ismail, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we investigated the effects of thyroid hormones on the expression of physiological reactions during adrenergic stimulation (20 min at a dose of 2.0 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) during the development of experimental hyperthyroidism. Rats were divided into two groups. The animals in Group 1 were injected woth triiodothyronine. The duration of injection ranged from 1 to 12 days. Consequently, 12 subgroups were formed. The second group was the control group. It is shown that in the process of development of experimental hyperthyroidism all physiological responses vary in accordance with the law, which can be described by a parabola of general form with the value of the degree in the equation equal to three. PMID:26387161

  8. Potassium Dichromate Toxicities: Protective Effect of Methanol Extract of Corchorus olitorius in Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Akinwumi, Kazeem A; Osifeso, Olabode O; Jubril, Afusat J; Adedoja, Ayobami W; Ogunbiyi, Elizabeth T; Adebo, Fumilayo M; Adesina, Idayat O; Odunola, Oyeronke A

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to hexavalent chromate compounds such as other human carcinogens is unavoidable in the developing countries of the world. Research efforts are being directed toward minimizing exposure to them, intercepting their activity in vivo, and/or prophylaxis. The present study therefore evaluates the effect of methanol extract of the leafy vegetable, Corchorus olitorius (MECO), against potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7)-induced toxicities. Negative control animals were fed distilled water, while the positive control rats received 12 mg/kg body weight K2Cr2O7 once a week for 6 weeks. Test rats were exposed daily to 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg body weight MECO alone for 6 weeks and 12 mg/kg body weight of K2Cr2O7 once a week for 6 weeks before sacrifice. The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (mPCEs) was monitored in bone marrow cells, while induction of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine levels, and hematological parameters were assessed in the plasma. The phytochemical analysis of MECO was also carried out. K2Cr2O7 significantly (P < .05) increased the levels of mPCEs, AST, ALT, creatinine, total white blood cells, and lymphocytes compared with the control. The percentage pack cell volume and neutrophils were, however, reduced. In contrast, MECO at different doses restored the markers toward the levels of the negative control. MECO is rich in flavonoids, saponins, anthraquinones, terpenoids, and phenols, and they might be responsible for the protective effect observed in this study. Our results suggest that MECO has a promising potential in the treatment/management of chromate-induced toxicities. PMID:27152977

  9. The Effect of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Chitosan Gel on Full Thickness Skin Wound Healing in Albino Rats: Histological, Immunohistochemical and Fluorescent Study

    PubMed Central

    El Sadik, Abir O.; El Ghamrawy, Tarek A.; Abd El-Galil, Tarek I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Wound healing involves the integration of complex biological processes. Several studies examined numerous approaches to enhance wound healing and to minimize its related morbidity. Both chitosan and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used in treating skin wounds. The aim of the current work was to compare MSCs versus chitosan in wound healing, evaluate the most efficient route of administration of MSCs, either intradermal or systemic injection, and elicit the mechanisms inducing epidermal and dermal cell regeneration using histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent techniques. Material and Methods Forty adult male Sprague Dawley albino rats were divided into four equal groups (ten rats in each group): control group (Group I); full thickness surgical skin wound model, Group II: Wound and chitosan gel. Group III: Wound treated with systemic injection of MSCs and Group IV: Wound treated with intradermal injection of MSCs. The healing ulcer was examined on day 3, 5, 10 and 15 for gross morphological evaluation and on day 10 and 15 for histological, immunohistochemical and fluorescent studies. Results Chitosan was proved to promote wound healing more than the control group but none of their wound reached complete closure. Better and faster healing of wounds in MSCs treated groups were manifested more than the control or chitosan treated groups. It was found that the intradermal route of administration of stem cells enhanced the rate of healing of skin wounds better than the systemic administration to the extent that, by the end of the fifteenth day of the experiment, the wounds were completely healed in all rats of this group. Histologically, the wound areas of group IV were hardly demarcated from the adjacent normal skin and showed complete regeneration of the epidermis, dermis, hypodermis and underlying muscle fibers. Collagen fibers were arranged in many directions, with significant increase in their area percent, surrounding fully regenerated hair

  10. Sub-acute effects of ethanol extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius root on some physiologically important electrolytes in serum of normal Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Enemor, V H A; Okaka, A N C

    2013-12-01

    Sarcocephalus latifolius (Synonym, Nauclea latifolia) is a shrub commonly seen in the South East of Nigeria. It is widely applied as herbal remedy in the treatment of various illnesses. The effect of ethanol extract of the root of the plant on some serum electrolytes was studied. A total of thirty Wistar albino rats were used to determine serum concentrations of K+, Ca2+, Cl- and HCO3-. The animals were divided into six groups of five rats each. Five groups labeled A, B, C, D and E, were administered orally with graded doses of root extract of Sarcocephalus latifolius at concentration of 300, 350, 400, 450 and 500 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively. The sixth group (Group F) was used as the control and its animals were simply sustained on normal diet and water. Administration of the extract lasted for twenty-one days after which the animals were sacrificed by cardiac puncture. K+, Ca2+, Cl- and HCO3- were determined from each sample and the mean concentration was calculated for each dose and the control. Potassium, calcium and chloride determination were done by colorimetric methods while determination of bicarbonate concentration was done by simple titration. Na+ was separately assayed, by flame photometer, from a set of 18 rats of six animals in each of three groups. For K+, non dose dependent increases were observed which was non-significant (p > 0.05), for A, D and E but significant (p < 0.05) for B and C. Ca2+ showed a dose dependent and significant (p < 0.05) decreases, except for A (p > 0.05). Decreases (p < 0.05) for C, D, E and (p > 0.05) for A and B were observed for Cl-. Serum bicarbonate appeared almost completely unaffected by the extract, showing no significant changes. Na+ levels were depressed for the two test groups, A and B compared with the control (group C), with test group B showing a significant decrease (p < 0.05). From the analysis, it could be concluded that Sarcocephalus latifolius has the capacity to influence various electrolytes to

  11. Cardioprotective effect of lipistat against doxorubicin induced myocardial toxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Koti, B C; Vishwanathswamy, A H M; Wagawade, Jyoti; Thippeswamy, A H M

    2009-01-01

    Preventive role of lipistat against doxorubicin induced myocardial toxicity in rats has been reported. Cardiotoxicity was produced by doxorubicin administration (15 mg/kg for 2 weeks). Lipistat (350 mg/kg, orally) was administered as pretreatment for 2 weeks and then for 2 weeks alternated with doxorubicin. The general observations, mortality, histopathology, biomarker enzymes like lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK), serum lipid profiles like total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL), antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were monitored after 3 weeks of last dose. Pretreatment with the lipistat significantly protected myocardium from the toxic effects of doxorubicin by reducing the elevated level of biomarker enzymes like LDH and CPK to the normal and serum lipids such as total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL back to normal. Lipistat increases the decreased level of GSH, SOD and CAT and decreases the increased level of malondialdehyde in cardiac tissue. The repeated administration of doxorubicin causes cardiomyopathy associated with an antioxidant deficit and increased level of lipid profiles by interfering with fatty acid metabolism. The results support the lipid lowering and antioxidant properties of lipistat, which indicate the cardioprotective property against doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity. PMID:19317350

  12. Effect of lithium chloride on spermatogenesis and testicular steroidogenesis in mature albino rats: Duration dependent response

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, P.K.; Biswas, N.M.; Ghosh, D. )

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative evaluation of the different varieties of germ cells at stage VII of the seminiferous epithelium cycle, namely type-A spermatogonia (ASg), preleptotene spermatocytes (pLSc), midpachytene spermatocytes (mPSc) and step 7 spermatids (7 Sd) along with Leydig cell nuclear area (LCNA) and radioimmunoassay of plasma levels of gonadotrophins (FSH and LH), prolactin (PRL) and testosterone (T), activities of testicular, {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta} hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ({Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta}-HSD) and 17{beta}-hydroxyteroid dehydrogenase (17{beta}-HSD) were measured in mature rats of the Wistar strain following treatment with lithium chloride at a dose of 200 ug/100 g body wt/day for 7, 14 and 21 days. A remarkable reduction in plasma levels of FSH, LH, PRL and T along with significant diminution in the activities of testicular {Delta}{sup 5}-3{beta}-HSD and 17 {beta}-HSD were observed following lithium treatment for 14 and 21 days. 21 days of treatment also resulted in a marked degree of degeneration of ASg and 7Sd at stage VII but 14 days of treatment did not exhibit any significant effect on testicular gametogenesis. LCNA was decreased after lithium chloride treatment for 14 and 21 days. 7 days of treatment did not exert any notable result in the above parameters.

  13. Evaluation of effects of T and N type calcium channel blockers on the electroencephalogram recordings in Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij rats, an absence epilepsy model

    PubMed Central

    Durmus, Nedim; Gültürk, Sefa; Kaya, Tijen; Demir, Tuncer; Parlak, Mesut; Altun, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: It is suggested that excessive calcium entry into neurons is the main triggering event in the initiation of epileptic discharges. We aimed to investigate the role of T and N type calcium channels in absence epilepsy experimental model. Materials and Methods: Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) rats (12–16 weeks old) were randomly allocated into four groups; sham, mibefradil (T type calcium channel blocker), w-Conotoxin MVIIA (N type calcium channel blocker), and mibefradil + w-Conotoxin MVIIA. Beta, alpha, theta, and delta wave ratios of EEG recordings and frequency and duration of spike wave discharges (SWDs) were analyzed and compared between groups. Results: Beta and delta recording ratios in 1 μM/5 μl mibefradil group was significantly different from basal and other dose-injected groups. Beta, alpha, and theta recordings in 0.2 μM/5 μl w-Conotoxin MVIIA group was significantly different from basal and other dose-injected groups. In w-Conotoxin MVIIA after mibefradil group, beta, alpha, and theta recording ratios were significantly different from basal and mibefradil group. Mibefradil and w-Conotoxin MVIIA significantly decreased the frequency and duration of SWDs. The decrease of frequency and duration of SWDs in mibefradil group was significantly different from w-Conotoxin MVIIA group. The frequency and duration of SWDs significantly decreased in w-Conotoxin MVIIA after mibefradil group compared with basal, mibefradil, and w-Conotoxin MVIIA groups. Conclusions: We concluded that both T and L type calcium channels play activator roles in SWDs and have positive effects on frequency and duration of these discharges. These results are related with their central effects more than peripheral effects. PMID:25821308

  14. Effects of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid in the severity and management of traumatic brain injury in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ishaq, Gaafar M.; Saidu, Yusuf; Bilbis, Lawal S.; Muhammad, Suleiman A.; Jinjir, Nasir; Shehu, Bello B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is accompanied by substantial accumulation of biomarkers of oxidative stress and depletion of antioxidants reserve which initiate chain reactions that damage brain cells. The present study investigated the role of ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol on the severity and management of TBI in rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were subjected to closed head injury using an accelerated impact device. Rats were administered 45 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol or a combination of the two vitamins for 2 weeks pre- and post injury. Blood and brain tissue homogenates were analyzed for vitamin C, vitamin E, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase, and creatine kinase activities. Results: The results indicated that TBI caused significant (P < 0.05) decreased in vitamins C and E levels in the blood and brain tissue of TBI-untreated rats. The activities of superoxide dismutase in TBI rats were markedly reduced when compared with non traumatized control and showed a tendency to increased following supplementation with vitamins C and E. Supplementation of the vitamins significantly (P < 0.05) reduced malondialdehyde in the treatment groups compared with the TBI-untreated group. Conclusion: The study indicated that pre and post treatment with ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol reduced oxidative stress induced by brain injury and effectively reduced mortality rate in rats. PMID:24250162

  15. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kaksha J.; Panchasara, Ashwin K.; Barvaliya, Manish J.; Purohit, Bhargav M.; Baxi, Seema N.; Vadgama, Vishal K.; Tripathi, C. B.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2’-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  16. Evaluation of cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds on isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kaksha J; Panchasara, Ashwin K; Barvaliya, Manish J; Purohit, Bhargav M; Baxi, Seema N; Vadgama, Vishal K; Tripathi, C B

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, cardioprotective effect of aqueous extract of Garcinia indica Linn. fruit rinds in isoprenaline-induced myocardial infarction in Wistar albino rats was evaluated. In vitro total phenolic, total flavonoid content and 2, 2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl hydrate radical scavenging activity was measured. In vivo effect of aqueous extract of G. indica was evaluated in Wistar albino rats by isoprenaline-induced myocardial injury model. Thirty six rats were randomly divided in 6 groups. Rats were treated with G. indica 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg doses for 21 days and myocardial injury was produced by subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline 85 mg/kg on day 20 and 21. Carvedilol 1 mg/kg for 21 days served as active control. Electrocardiogram parameters, cardiac injury markers (serum troponin-I, uric acid, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine kinase-MB, aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase), oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde level) and histopathological changes were evaluated in each group and compared using appropriate statistical tests. In vitro evaluation of aqueous extract showed significant antioxidant property. Isoprenaline produced significant myocardial ischemia as compared to normal control group (P<0.05). Administration of G. indica in both the doses did not significantly recover the altered electrocardiogram, cardiac injury markers, oxidative stress markers and histopathological myocardial damage as compared to disease control group (P>0.05). The aqueous extract of G. indica was not found to be cardioprotective against myocardial injury. Further study with more sample size and higher dose range may be required to evaluate its cardioprotective effect. PMID:26752987

  17. Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. against DEN and Fe NTA Induced Liver Necrosis in Wistar Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in rats. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tabernaemontana divaricata at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and 5-fluorouracil (standard drug) was orally administered to male Wistar Albino rats once daily for 24 weeks, simultaneously treated with the carcinogen DEN and Fe NTA. In simultaneously treated animals, the plant extract significantly decreased the levels of uric acid, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and increased the levels of liver marker enzymes in liver. Treatment with the extracts resulted in a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants accompanied by a marked reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde when compared to DEN and Fe NTA treated group. When compared with 200 mg/kg bw rats, 400 mg/kg bw rats and 5-fluorouracil treated rats showed better results in all the parameters. The histopathological studies confirmed the protective effects of extract against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis. Thus, it could be concluded that the use of Tabernaemontana divaricata extract in the treatment of carcinogen induced hepatic necrosis. PMID:25136566

  18. Protective effect of ethanolic extract of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L.) R. Br. against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in Wistar Albino rats.

    PubMed

    Poornima, Kannappan; Chella Perumal, Palanisamy; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur Kanniappan

    2014-01-01

    This study is an attempt to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Tabernaemontana divaricata against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis in rats. Ethanolic extract of the whole plant of Tabernaemontana divaricata at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and 5-fluorouracil (standard drug) was orally administered to male Wistar Albino rats once daily for 24 weeks, simultaneously treated with the carcinogen DEN and Fe NTA. In simultaneously treated animals, the plant extract significantly decreased the levels of uric acid, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and increased the levels of liver marker enzymes in liver. Treatment with the extracts resulted in a significant increase in the levels of antioxidants accompanied by a marked reduction in the levels of malondialdehyde when compared to DEN and Fe NTA treated group. When compared with 200 mg/kg bw rats, 400 mg/kg bw rats and 5-fluorouracil treated rats showed better results in all the parameters. The histopathological studies confirmed the protective effects of extract against DEN and Fe NTA induced liver necrosis. Thus, it could be concluded that the use of Tabernaemontana divaricata extract in the treatment of carcinogen induced hepatic necrosis. PMID:25136566

  19. Evaluation of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) for antihypertensive activity in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghelani, Hardik S.; Patel, Bipin M.; Gokani, Rina H.; Rachchh, Manish A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is an incurable pathological condition and lifelong therapy is required. Long term use of conventional synthetic anti-hypertensive drugs is associated with a spectrum of toxic effects. However, therapeutic interventions using herbal drugs for hypertension have gained considerable attention worldwide. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hypertensive activity of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03). Materials and Methods: The polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) comprises of leaves of Aegle marmelos L., fruits of Benincasa hispida Thunb., Garcinia indica Thouars, and flowers of Musa paradiasica L., Rosa indica L., Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. Selected plants as mentioned above were collected, dried and extracted with different solvents. Formulation SJT-HT-03 (250 mg/kg, p.o.), was evaluated using two kidney one clip (2K1C) model and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertension model using the enalapril (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and hydrochlorothiazide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) as a reference standard drug in respective models. Results: SJT-HT-03 significantly reduced (P < 0.001, one-way analysis of variance followed by Turkey's multiple comparison tests) systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure (BP) in 2K1C and DOCA-salt model. Further, SJT-HT-03 has shown a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in serum, clipped kidney as well as in lungs in 2K1C model, whereas significant reduction (P < 0.05) in serum Na+ and increase in serum K+ level in DOCA model. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 possess significant anti-hypertensive activity by producing direct depressant effect on heart, inhibition of ACE, aldosterone antagonistic as well as diuretic effect and thereby act on multiple targets to achieve optimal effect. PMID:26195912

  20. Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris L. fruit aqueous extracton lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol induced myocardial necrosis in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sailaja, K V; Shivaranjani, V Leela; Poornima, H; Rahamathulla, S B Md; Devi, K Lakshmi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the possible protective effects of Tribulus terrestris fruit aqueous extract (TTFAEt) on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in albino Wistar rats. Albino Wistar rats were divided into normal control, TTFAEt alone treated, ISO control and pretreated (TTFAEt+ISO) groups. The extract was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for 40 days orally by gavage and ISO was administered at a dose of 85 mg/kg body weight for two consecutive days intraperitoneally at an interval of 24 h. ISO induced myocardial infarction (MI) was confirmed by disturbances in serum lipid profile, heart tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. There was a significant increase in the levels of serum total cholesterol (32.60 %), triglycerides (41.30 %), very low density lipoproteins (81.81 %), low density lipoproteins (84%) and phospholipids (38.88 %) and a significant decrease in the levels of high density lipoproteins (33.33 %) in the ISO control group when compared to normal controls. Additionally, there is a significant decrease in the levels of heart tissue antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and depletion of reduced glutathione, which indicates enhanced lipid peroxidation(172 %). Pretreatment with extract significantly showed a protective effect against ISO altered lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme levels. The present study showed therapeutic effect of TTFAEt on lipid profile and oxidative stress in isoproterenol (ISO) induced myocardial necrosis in experimental rats. PMID:26417233

  1. Experimental studies on the effect of (Lambda-Cyhalothrin) insecticide on lungs and the ameliorating effect of plant extracts (Ginseng (Panax Ginseng) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) on asthma development in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lambda-cyhalothrin (LTC) is a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide for agricultural and public health applications. This study was to determine the pathological alterations of LTC in lungs, which has not previously been studied, and the ameliorating effects of plant extracts (ginseng and garlic) on the development of asthma in albino rats. Methods Four groups (gps) of albino rats, (n = 20, average body weight = 200 gm with an age of 4 months), were formed. Gp 1 was kept as control. Gp 2 was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with LTC at a dose of 1/6 LD50 that is 9.34 mg/kg body weight (w.t.) daily for 21 days (d). Gp 3 & 4 were injected (i.p.) with ginseng at the dose of 200 mg/kg b.wt and garlic (Allium sativum L.) at the dose of 100 mg/kg b.wt., respectively, one hour before being given LTC at a dose of 1/6 LD50 (9.34 mg/kg b.wt.) daily. Each groups were divided into two sacrificed, at 15 and 21 d p.i. Blood and lung samples were collected for hematological and histopathological examinations. Results Hematological findings showed that the animals in gps 2 and 3, which were treated for 21 days, showed a significant difference in RBC counts (P > .001), Hb (P > .007), PCV% (P > .004), (P > .008) in comparison with the control group. Signs of cough and nasal discharge were seen in gp 2, which became mild in gp 4. Grossly, the lungs showed congestion and consolidation in gp 2. Histopathologically, macroabscesses and interstitial alveolitis were seen in gp 2, which led to obstruction in the lumen of the bronchioles at 21 d p.i. Meanwhile, thickening in the interalveolar septa with mononuclear cells was seen in gps. 3 and 4 at 21d p.i. Conclusions The study shows 3 gps of rats injected with LHC alone or combined with garlic and ginseng extract, each group were divided into two sacrificed (15 and 21 d p.i.). Lambda cyhalothrin causes bronchial obstruction in the lungs of the rats (15 and 21 d p.i), which decreased into mild to

  2. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A.

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10th LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues. PMID:26862254

  3. Amelioration Effect of Zinc and Iron Supplementation on Selected Oxidative Stress Enzymes in Liver and Kidney of Cadmium-Treated Male Albino Rat.

    PubMed

    Jamakala, Obaiah; Rani, Usha A

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic, nonessential heavy metal with many industrial uses that can contribute to a well-defined spectrum of diseases in animals as well as in humans. The present study examines the effect of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) supplementation on oxidative stress enzymes in Cd-treated rats. Wistar strain male albino rats were treated with cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 1/10(th) LD50/48 h, that is, 22.5 mg/kg body weight for 7, 15, and 30 days (d) time intervals. The 15d Cd-treated rats were divided into three groups. The first group received Zn (12 mg/kg), second group Fe (40 mg/kg) alone, and third group supplemented with both Zn and Fe and observed for 7, 15, and 30d. After the specific time intervals, rats were decapitated and oxidative stress enzymes like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) were assayed in liver and kidney. Simultaneously lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels were also measured. A significant elevation in LPO levels with decreased activity levels of CAT, SOD, GPx, and GST were observed during Cd intoxication. With Zn and/or Fe supplementation, a significant reversal in the oxidative stress enzymes was observed. Our study reveals that combination of Zn and Fe supplementation is effective in detoxifying the Cd body burden from the test tissues. PMID:26862254

  4. Morphofunctional state of the adrenal glands in albino rats under conditions of toxic stress caused by cadmium salt in winter and summer periods.

    PubMed

    Kotelnikova, S V; Kargina, M V; Kotelnikov, A V

    2011-06-01

    We studied the morphology and function of the adrenal glands in male and female albino rats in cadmium intoxication during winter and summer periods (January and July). In animals of the control group, sex-related differences in the total area of the adrenal glands and in the size of their zones were revealed. In females, zones of adrenal gland were larger than in males. In winter months, these differences were most pronounced. Analysis of seasonal differences in the area of the adrenal glands in males revealed no significant differences in winter and summer months. Irrespective of the season and gender, cadmium chloride treatment led to an increase in the size of the adrenal glands. Cadmium salts caused more pronounced functional strain in males in winter months and in females in summer. PMID:22238762

  5. Psammomys obesus and the albino rat--two different models of nutritional insulin resistance, representing two different types of human populations.

    PubMed

    Kalman, R; Ziv, E; Shafrir, E; Bar-On, H; Perez, R

    2001-10-01

    Animal models for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are required for the study of the mechanism of these phenomena and for a better understanding of diabetes complications in human populations. Type 2 diabetes is a syndrome that affects 5-10% of the adult population. Hyperinsulinaemia, hypertriglyceridaemia, decreased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels, obesity and hypertension, all form a cluster of risk factors that increase the risk of coronary artery disease, and are known as insulin resistance syndrome or syndrome X. The gerbil, Psammomys obesus is characterized by primary insulin resistance and is a well-defined model for dietary induced type 2 diabetes. Weanling Psammomys and Albino rats were held individually for several weeks on high energy (HE) and low energy (LE) diets in order to determine the development of metabolic changes leading to diabetes. Feeding Psammomys on HE diet resulted in hyperglycaemia (303 +/- 40 mg/dl), hyperinsulinaemia (194 +/- 31 microU/ml) and a moderate elevation in body weight, obesity and plasma triglycerides. Albino rats on HE diet demonstrated an elevation in plasma insulin (30 +/- 4 microU/ml), hypertriglyceridaemia (170 +/- 11 mg/dl), an elevation in body weight and obesity, but maintained normoglycaemia (98 +/- 6 mg/dl). Psammomys represent a model that is similar to human populations, with primary insulin resistance expressed in young age, which leads to a high percentage of adult type 2 diabetes. Examples for such populations are the Pima Indians, Australian Aborigines and many other Third World populations. The results indicate that the metabolism of Psammomys is well adapted towards life in a low energy environment, where Psammomys takes advantage of its capacity for a constant accumulation of adipose tissue that will serve for maintenance and breeding in periods of scarcity. This metabolism known as 'thrifty metabolism', is compromised at a high nutrient intake. PMID:11669319

  6. Gender difference following high cholesterol diet induced renal injury and the protective role of rutin and ascorbic acid combination in Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An increased interest is given to the impact of high fat diet on health worldwide. Abnormalities in lipid metabolism induced by high cholesterol diet (HCD) were reported to exacerbate renal diseases via oxidative stress pathways. Rutin and ascorbic acid showed a protective role against oxidative stress-mediated diseases. Furthermore, both lipid metabolism and tissue response to oxidative stress damage was found to vary according to animal gender. Thus, the objective of this work was to examine possible gender-related differences and the possible protective effects of rutin and ascorbic acid supplementation on high cholesterol diet induced nephrotoxicity. Methods 96 young male and female Wistar albino rats were used. HCD supplemented animals were treated with rutin alone or in combination with ascorbic acid for 6 weeks. Creatinine plasma level was estimated. Furthermore, kidney levels of nucleic acids, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total cholesterol, and triglycerides were determined. Finally, kidney tissues were used for histopathological examination. Results HCD supplementation decreased kidney level of nucleic acids, which was more prominent in female animals. Both vitamin combination significantly attenuated HCD induced decrease in nucleic acids. Moreover, kidney level of MDA was significantly altered by HCD in both genders, which was inhibited by rutin and ascorbic acid alone or in combination in male groups and by both vitamins in female groups. There was a reduction in kidney level of GSH by HCD, especially in male groups, which was attenuated by rutin and ascorbic acid combination. Kidney levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased by HCD supplementation in both genders. Coadministration with rutin and/or ascorbic acid protected from such increase, which was more obvious in both vitamins combination. Histopathological investigation supported vitamins protective effect, which was

  7. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in open arm duration in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed in catalase activity in group IV and V when compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicates that 4 weeks exposure to electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats. PMID:26546224

  8. Bisphenol A exposure and healing effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris L. plant extract (APE) in bisphenol A-induced reproductive toxicity in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Balal; Amina; Liu, Guijian; Wang, Ruwei; Qadir, Abdul; Ali, Muhammad Ubaid; Kanwal, Qudsia; Munir, Bushra; Asmatullah; Abbas, Zaigham

    2016-06-01

    The current study presents the bisphenol A exposure and the ameliorative effects of Adiantum capillus-veneris on testicular toxicity induced by bisphenol A. Adult male albino rats were divided into five groups of five animals each: A (control), B (vehicle control), C (toxic), D (protective), and E (ameliorative) were served distilled water, olive oil, bisphenol A (BPA) at 100 mg/kg body weight, A. capillus-veneris plant extract at 25 mg/kg body weight, and BPA + A. capillus-veneris, respectively. All of the doses were administered orally for 15 days, and the rats were then sacrificed. Blood samples for the testosterone assay and both testes were collected for histological examination. The body weight, paired testes weight, relative tissue weight index, Johnsen scoring of tubules, and level of serum testosterone decreased in BPA-treated rats. Similarly, histological examination of the testes in BPA-treated animals revealed a lower number of Leydig cells, an irregular basement membrane, sloughing of germinal layers, vacuolization, a lower number of spermatocytes, and debris in the lumen. However, co-administration of A. capillus-veneris with BPA increased the total antioxidative capacity (330.82 ± 22.46 μmol/mg protein) of the testes and restored the serum testosterone level (1.70 ng/ml); histological features showed restoration in the stages of spermatogenesis. Conclusively, A. capillus-veneris plant extract overcomes the estrogenic effects of BPA on the reproductive system of rats and protects rats' testes against BPA-induced injury/damage via an antioxidative mechanism that appears to be conciliated. PMID:26936479

  9. Design and development of ethosomal transdermal drug delivery system of valsartan with preclinical assessment in Wistar albino rats.

    PubMed

    Bhosale, Sagar S; Avachat, Amelia M

    2013-06-01

    Valsartan (VLT) is a highly selective and orally active antihypertensive drug. However, its oral administration is associated with drawbacks like low bioavailability. The objective of this study was to design and develop a transdermal delivery system for VLT using ethosomal carriers to investigate their enhanced transdermal delivery potential. VLT ethosomes were prepared by cold method. VLT ethosomes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The prepared ethanolic liposomes were characterized to be spherical having low polydispersity of nano-size range with good entrapment efficiency. ETC5 ethosomal suspension with 4% of phospholipon 90H and 40% of ethanol was found to have highest entrapment efficiency, i.e. 80.230 ± 0.8748%. The permeation study of ethosomes was evaluated by ex vivo diffusion study through rat abdominal skin using Franz's diffusion cells and ETC5 ethosomal suspension was found to have highest permeation with flux of 92.819 ± 1.539 µg/cm²/h, when compared to the permeation profiles of drug solutions either in water or in a water-ethanol mixture. Transdermal application of ethosomal VLT on Wistar rats showed better and prolonged antihypertensive activity in comparison to orally administered VLT suspension by virtue of transdermal permeation through Wistar rat skin. Histopathological study of skin applied with ETC5 showed intercellular permeation across skin by dissolving intercellular lipids in epidermis without causing any rigorous changes in the skin cellular structure. In conclusion, ethosomes enabled the transdermal permeation of VLT, which amply proves its superiority over oral administration for antihypertensive treatment. PMID:23324030

  10. Comparison of the efficacy of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Nitasha Bhat, G M; Nayak, Nagendra; Vinodraj, K; Chandralekha, N; Mathai, Paul; Cherian, J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of cardamom with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats. There were four groups of 6 rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received cardamom suspension 1 g/kg/10 mL of 2% gum acacia orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Third group received pioglitazone 45 mg/kg orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Fourth group did not receive any medication and was considered as normal control. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, blood sugar 2 h after glucose load, liver weight, liver volume were recorded, and histopathological analysis was done. The effects of cardamom were compared with that of pioglitazone. Dexamethasone caused hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Both pioglitazone and cardamom significantly reduced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia (P < 0.01). Reduction of blood sugar levels after glucose load was significant with pioglitazone in comparison to cardamom (P < 0.01). Cardamom has comparable efficacy to pioglitazone in preventing dexamethasone-induced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and fasting hyperglycemia. PMID:26317079

  11. Comparison of the efficacy of cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Nitasha Bhat, G. M.; Nayak, Nagendra; Vinodraj, K.; Chandralekha, N.; Mathai, Paul; Cherian, J.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of cardamom with pioglitazone on dexamethasone-induced hepatic steatosis, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia in albino rats. There were four groups of 6 rats each. First group received dexamethasone alone in a dose of 8 mg/kg intraperitoneally for 6 days to induce metabolic changes and considered as dexamethasone control. Second group received cardamom suspension 1 g/kg/10 mL of 2% gum acacia orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Third group received pioglitazone 45 mg/kg orally 6 days before dexamethasone and 6 days during dexamethasone administration. Fourth group did not receive any medication and was considered as normal control. Fasting blood sugar, lipid profile, blood sugar 2 h after glucose load, liver weight, liver volume were recorded, and histopathological analysis was done. The effects of cardamom were compared with that of pioglitazone. Dexamethasone caused hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. Both pioglitazone and cardamom significantly reduced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia (P < 0.01). Reduction of blood sugar levels after glucose load was significant with pioglitazone in comparison to cardamom (P < 0.01). Cardamom has comparable efficacy to pioglitazone in preventing dexamethasone-induced hepatomegaly, dyslipidemia, and fasting hyperglycemia. PMID:26317079

  12. Development of regulation of the cardiac chronotropic function in albino rats during the early postnatal ontogeny according to the results of spectral analysis of heart rhythm variability.

    PubMed

    Kurjanova, E V; Teplyj, D L; Zereninova, N V

    2012-04-01

    Regulation of the cardiac chronotropic function was studied by spectral analysis of cardiac rhythm variability in HF, LF, and VLF bands in rats at various stages of the early postnatal ontogeny. The inadequacy of the regulatory mechanisms during the first days of life manifested by low power of all waves (particularly HF) in the cardiac rhythm variability spectrum. On day 14 of life, the cardiointerval variability was formed by HF waves, their low power together with increasing heart rate indicating more intense sympathetic effects. On day 21 of life, a potent elevation of the VLF power reflected a stronger centralization of regulation from higher autonomic centers. The age of 28 days was characterized by a sharp increase of HF activity and could be regarded as the turning point in the development of parasympathetic effects and activity of the autonomic regulation contour. From the age of 35 days, the wave power and the proportion of the spectral components of cardiac rhythm variability in albino rats corresponded to the adult pattern; a trend to the central regulation predominance and to greater rigidity of cardiac rhythm formed only with the onset of sexual maturation. PMID:22803162

  13. Effect of palonosetron (5HT-3 antagonist) and pantoprazole (proton pump inhibitor) against surgical esophagitis induced by forestomach and pylorus ligation in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Gautam, S; Rawat, J K; Singh, M; Saraf, S A; Kaithwas, G

    2016-01-01

    This study was embarked upon to evaluate the effects of pantoprazole and palonosetron on experimental esophagitis in albino wistar rats. Groups of rats, fasted for 36 h, were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation, supervened by treatment with normal saline (3 ml/kg, po, sham control), esophagitis control (3 ml/kg, po), pantoprazole (30 mg/kg, po), palonosetron (0.5 mg/kg, po), and their combination. Animals were sacrificed after 12 h and appraised for the volume of gastric juices, total acidity, free acidity, and esophagitis index. Esophageal tissues were further figured out biochemically for markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. The combination therapy comparably inhibited the esophagitis index (52.86%), gastric volume (66.04%), free acidity (43.76%), and total acidity (42.60%) in comparison with toxic control. The combination therapy also subsidized the biochemical and inflammatory markers to the purview less than toxic control. The morphological changes were scrutinized by scanning electron microscopy and were observed to demonstrate momentous protection by the amalgamation therapy. Combination therapy with pantoprazole and palonosetron flaunted sententious protection against experimental esophagitis. PMID:25743726

  14. Protective Effects of Extract from Sclerotium of the King Tuber Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus tuberregium (Higher Basidiomycetes) on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Alagbaoso, Chidube A; Osubor, Christopher C; Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of 50% ethanol extract from the sclerotia of Pleurotus tuberregium on hepatocellular integrity of albino rats treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Activities of hepatic enzymes alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine transaminase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined in serum. Antioxidant enzyme activities, total protein, and level of malondialdehyde (MDA) were assayed in liver homogenate from treated rats. Oral administration of CCl4 (2 ml/kg body weight/day) for 7 consecutive days caused hepatotoxicity. There was a significant increase in the activity of serum ALT, AST, and ALP and the level of MDA in the liver. However, the activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase, which are antioxidant enzymes, were significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Concomitant treatment with 250 mg/kg body weight of extract and CCl4 for 7 consecutive days resulted in a significant decrease in the activity of liver marker enzymes [46% (ALT), 67.25% (AST), and 68.51% (ALP)]. These activities were further decreased [68.24% (ALT), 78.39% (AST), and 75.38% (ALP)] when the extract was increased to 500 mg/kg body weight. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, total protein, and MDA content of the liver were improved to levels that are not significantly different from the control. These findings, therefore, suggest that ethanol extract from the sclerotia of P. tuberregium has a protective action against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:26854100

  15. Alteration in Memory and Electroencephalogram Waves with Sub-acute Noise Stress in Albino Rats and Safeguarded by Scoparia dulcis

    PubMed Central

    Loganathan, Sundareswaran; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Noise stress has different effects on memory and novelty and the link between them with an electroencephalogram (EEG) has not yet been reported. Objective: To find the effect of sub-acute noise stress on the memory and novelty along with EEG and neurotransmitter changes. Materials and Methods: Eight-arm maze (EAM) and Y-maze to analyze the memory and novelty by novel object test. Four groups of rats were used: Control, control treated with Scoparia dulcis extract, noise exposed, and noise exposed which received Scoparia extract. Results: The results showed no marked difference observed between control and control treated with Scoparia extract on EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and EEG in both prefrontal and occipital region, however, noise stress exposed rats showed significant increase in the reference memory and working memory error in EAM and latency delay, triad errors in Y-maze, and prefrontal and occipital EEG frequency rate with the corresponding increase in plasma corticosterone and epinephrine, and significant reduction in the novelty test, and significant reduction in the novelty test, amplitude of prefrontal, occipital EEG, and acetylcholine. Conclusion: These noise stress induced changes in EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extract and these changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia extract on the brain, which altered due to noise stress. SUMMARY Noise stress exposure causes EEG, behavior, and neurotransmitter alteration in the frontoparietal and occipital regions mainly involved in planning and recognition memoryOnly the noise stress exposed animals showed the significant alteration in the EEG, behavior, and neurotransmittersHowever, these noise stress induced changes in EEG behavior and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extractThese changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia dulcis (adoptogen) on

  16. Spontaneous Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Expression in the Cochlea of Adult Albino Rat and Its Up-Regulation after Cisplatin Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Trinidad, Almudena; Ramil, Elvira; Sánchez-López, Antonio J.; Coronado, Maria José; Martínez-Martínez, Esther; García, José Miguel; García-Berrocal, José Ramón; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    We provide evidence for the presence of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in some cellular types of the cochlea of the adult albino rat. Cannabinoids and their receptors are increasingly being studied because of their high potential for clinical use. As a hyperspecialized portion of the peripheral nervous system, study of the expression and function of cannabinoid receptors in the hearing organ is of high interest. Stria vascularis and inner hair cells express CB2 receptor, as well as neurites and cell bodies of the spiral ganglion. Cellular types such as supporting cells and outer hair cells, in which the expression of other types of functional receptors has been reported, do not significantly express CB2 receptors in this study. An up-regulation of CB2 gene expression was detected after an ototoxic event such as cisplatin treatment, probably due to pro-inflammatory events triggered by the drug. That fact suggests promising potential of CB2 receptor as a therapeutic target for new treatments to palliate cisplatin-induced hearing loss and other ototoxic events which triggers inflammatory pathways. PMID:27564061

  17. A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Savrikar, Shriram S.; Dole, Vilas; Ravishankar, B.; Shukla, Vinay J.

    2010-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced–swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity. PMID:20814518

  18. Spontaneous Cannabinoid Receptor 2 (CB2) Expression in the Cochlea of Adult Albino Rat and Its Up-Regulation after Cisplatin Treatment.

    PubMed

    Martín-Saldaña, Sergio; Trinidad, Almudena; Ramil, Elvira; Sánchez-López, Antonio J; Coronado, Maria José; Martínez-Martínez, Esther; García, José Miguel; García-Berrocal, José Ramón; Ramírez-Camacho, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    We provide evidence for the presence of cannabinoid CB2 receptors in some cellular types of the cochlea of the adult albino rat. Cannabinoids and their receptors are increasingly being studied because of their high potential for clinical use. As a hyperspecialized portion of the peripheral nervous system, study of the expression and function of cannabinoid receptors in the hearing organ is of high interest. Stria vascularis and inner hair cells express CB2 receptor, as well as neurites and cell bodies of the spiral ganglion. Cellular types such as supporting cells and outer hair cells, in which the expression of other types of functional receptors has been reported, do not significantly express CB2 receptors in this study. An up-regulation of CB2 gene expression was detected after an ototoxic event such as cisplatin treatment, probably due to pro-inflammatory events triggered by the drug. That fact suggests promising potential of CB2 receptor as a therapeutic target for new treatments to palliate cisplatin-induced hearing loss and other ototoxic events which triggers inflammatory pathways. PMID:27564061

  19. Sugarcane bagasse lignin, and silica gel and magneto-silica as drug vehicles for development of innocuous methotrexate drug against rheumatoid arthritis disease in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Sanaa M R; Darwish, Atef S; Shehata, Iman H; Abd Elhalem, Sahar S

    2015-03-01

    The present study clarifies co-therapy action of deliveries from their textural changes point of view. Methotrexate (MTX) was immobilized onto biodegradable lignin, silica gel and iron/silica nanocomposite. Loaded-MTX was i.p. injected into albino rats at doses of 0.25 and 0.5mg/kg/week for 2.5months, after which spleen, liver, testes and knee joint tissues were collected for tests. IFN-γ and IL-17A mRNA gene expressions in spleen in all biological samples were determined by RT-PCR. Physicochemical features of drug carriers were monitored by XRD, BET-PSD, SEM and TEM. Drug inflammatory-site targeting was found to be closely related to the physico-features of deliverers. The interlayered lignin of micro- and meso-pore channels directed MTX toward concealed infected cells in liver and testes tissues, while meso-structured silica flacks satisfied by gathering MTX around knee joints. The magneto-silica nanocomposite targeted MTX toward spleen tissue, which is considered as a lively factory for the production of electron rich compounds. PMID:25579963

  20. Ceria-containing uncoated and coated hydroxyapatite-based galantamine nanocomposites for formidable treatment of Alzheimer's disease in ovariectomized albino-rat model.

    PubMed

    Wahba, Sanaa M R; Darwish, Atef S; Kamal, Sara M

    2016-08-01

    This paper upraises delivery and therapeutic actions of galantamine drug (GAL) against Alzheimer's disease (AD) in rat brain through attaching GAL to ceria-containing hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp) as well ceria-containing carboxymethyl chitosan-coated hydroxyapatite (GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC) nanocomposites. Physicochemical features of such nanocomposites were analyzed by XRD, FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectrophotometer, N2-BET, DLS, zeta-potential measurements, SEM, and HR-TEM. Limited interactions were observed in GAL@Ce-HAp with prevailed existence of dispersed negatively charged rod-like particles conjugated with ceria nanodots. On contrary, GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC was well-structured developing aggregates of uncharged tetragonal-shaped particles laden with accession of ceria quantum dots. Such nanocomposites were i.p. injected into ovariectomized AD albino-rats at galantamine dose of 2.5mg/kg/day for one month, then brain tissues were collected for biochemical and histological tests. GAL@Ce-HAp adopted as a promising candidate for AD curativeness, whereas oxidative stress markers were successfully upregulated, degenerated neurons in hippocampal and cerebral tissues were wholly recovered and Aβ-plaques were vanished. Also, optimizable in-vitro release for GAL and nanoceria were displayed from GAL@Ce-HAp, while delayed in-vitro release for those species were developed from GAL@Ce-HAp/CMC. This proof of concept work allow futuristic omnipotency of rod-like hydroxyapatite particles for selective delivery of GAL and nanoceria to AD affected brain areas. PMID:27157738

  1. Effects of short and long term treatment of Ballota undulata on female albino rats fertility and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Qazan, Walid Sh

    2008-02-15

    The objectives of this study is to investigate the toxic effects of Ballota undulata (300 mg kg(-1) b.wt.) on the reproductive system after administration to female Sprague-Dawley rats for two time periods 4 and 12 weeks. Forty adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two treatment and two control groups of 10 rats each. The two treated groups received 15 mg kg(-1) b.wt. of Ballota undulata for two periods of 4 and 12 weeks. Female rats were allowed mating with males after treatment. Several pregnancy parameters were investigated including: total number of pregnant rats, body weight and reproductive organ weight, number of implantation sites, number of resorption sites and number of viable fetuses. The significance of these results was calculated using student's t and Chi-square tests. Exposure to Ballota undulata for 4 weeks did not have significant effects on most parameters investigated. However, a slight decrease in the relative ovarian and embryo weights was observed. Administration of Ballota undulata for 12 weeks significantly reduced the percentage of pregnancies and the number of implantation sites when compared with controls. In addition, a decrease in ovarian weights and in viable fetuses' number was also observed. Histological sections of ovaries of female treated with Ballota undulata were found to have congested blood vessels in cortical and medullary regions. We also noted the arrestment of developing follicles at primary and secondary stages in addition to presence of degenerative areas and hypercellullarity in medulla. Long term treatment with Ballota undulata might lead to diversified negative effects on fertility and pregnancy in female rats. PMID:18817140

  2. Effect of acute progestational hypoxia on the content of biogenic amines in the brain of albino rat pups: Peptide correction.

    PubMed

    Maslova, M V; Graf, A V; Sokolova, N A; Goncharenko, E N; Shestakova, S V; Kudryashova, N Yu; Andreeva, L A

    2003-08-01

    We studied the effect of exposure to acute hypobaric hypoxia in the progestational period on the content of biogenic amines in the brainstem and cerebral cortex in rat pups of different age. The possibility of correcting hypoxia-induced changes with regulatory peptides was evaluated. We found that early antenatal hypoxia disturbs maturation of catecholaminergic systems in the brain. It should be emphasized that the differences from the control varied depending on the age of rat pups. Single intranasal administration of Semax heptapeptides and beta-casomorphine-7 to pregnant females prevented changes in the content of biogenic amines in CNS of the offspring during postnatal ontogeny. PMID:14631488

  3. Retinal compensatory changes after light damage in albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Montalbán-Soler, Luis; Alarcón-Martínez, Luis; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Salinas-Navarro, Manuel; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Bezerra de Sá, Fabrízio; García-Ayuso, Diego; Avilés-Trigueros, Marcelino; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the anatomic and functional changes triggered by light exposure in the albino mouse retina and compare them with those observed in the albino rat. Methods BALB/c albino mice were exposed to 3,000 lx of white light during 24 h and their retinas analyzed from 1 to 180 days after light exposure (ALE). Left pupil mydriasis was induced with topical atropine. Retinal function was analyzed by electroretinographic (ERG) recording. To assess retinal degeneration, hematoxylin and eosin staining, the TdT-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique, and quantitative immunohistofluorescence for synaptophysin and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) were used in cross sections. Intravenous injection of horseradish peroxidase and Fluoro-Gold™ tracing were used in whole-mounted retinas to study the retinal vasculature and the retinal ganglion cell (RGC) population, respectively. Results Light exposure caused apoptotic photoreceptor death in the central retina. This death was more severe in the dorsal than in the ventral retina, sparing the periphery. Neither retinal vascular leakage nor retinal ganglion cell death was observed ALE. The electroretinographic a-wave was permanently impaired, while the b-wave decreased but recovered gradually by 180 days ALE. The scotopic threshold responses, associated with the inner retinal function, diminished at first but recovered completely by 14 days ALE. This functional recovery was concomitant with the upregulation of protein kinase Cα and synaptophysin. Similar results were obtained in both eyes, irrespective of mydriasis. Conclusions In albino mice, light exposure induces substantial retinal damage, but the surviving photoreceptors, together with compensatory morphological/molecular changes, allow an important restoration of the retinal function. PMID:22509098

  4. Effect of papaya (Carica papaya linn) on pregnancy and estrous cycle in albino rats of Wistar strain.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, M; Rajasekharasetty, M R

    1978-01-01

    The antifertility effects of Carica papaya were investigated by feeding adult cycling and pregnant rats with different components of its fruits. No attempt was made to force-feed the animals. The results indicate that unripe fruits of papaya interrupt estrous cycle and induce abortions. The abortifacient property seems to decrease as the fruit becomes stale or ripe. Exogenous progesterone counteracts partially the adverse effects on pregnancy and the surviving foeti are without any distinct malformations. PMID:680941

  5. Estimation of absorbed cadmium in tissues of male and female albino rats through different routes of administration.

    PubMed

    Nwokocha, C R; Nwokocha, M I; Owu, D U; Edidjana, E; Nwogbo, N; Ekpo, U; Ufearo, C S

    2011-06-01

    The resultant effects of cadmium exposure are seen in almost all the systems of the body, however, this study is designed to quantify its accumulation in tissues of animals exposed to cadmium. The rats were divided into two distinct groups of males and females, which were then divided into three groups, each for the monitoring of exposure. Group 1 served as control male and female and received normal rat chow and tap water. Group 2 males and females were treated with 5 mg/kg body weight of cadmium chloride (Cd) intraperitoneally for eight days while Group 3 males and females rats received 100 ppm of Cd in drinking water for 18 days. The concentrations of cadmium were analyzed in tissues (lung, stomach, kidney, heart, spleen, blood) by AAS. There were significant (P<0.05) increase in Cd (ppm) accumulation in males compared with females lungs (2.253 ± 1.47 vs 0.317 ± 0.001), stomach (0.187 ± 0.094 vs 0.045 ± 0.032) and blood (0.070 ± 0.001 vs 0.001±0.001) when Cd was administered intraperitoneally. Following oral administration, there were significant (P<0.05) difference in Cd (ppm) content between males and females (kidney (0.506 ± 0.074 vs 0.748 ± 0.147), stomach (0.045 ± 0.020 vs 0.001± 0.001) and blood (1.126 ± 0.001 vs 0.114 ± 0.001). Our results suggest that Cd accumulation in the various organs was sex and route of exposure-dependent in rats. PMID:22314995

  6. Effect of Potassium Bromate on the Liver of Adult Male Albino Rat and A Possible Protective Role of Vitamin C: Histological, Immunohistochemical, and Biochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Bayomy, Naglaa A; Soliman, Gehan M; Abdelaziz, Eman Z

    2016-09-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3 ) is a food additive which is used primarily as a maturing agent for flour. It is proved as a toxic agent with significant reduction in the activities of antioxidant capacity. The therapeutic efficacy of vitamin C as antioxidant may provide a possible solution to KBrO3 mediated oxidative damage. Twenty four adult male albino rats were used to evaluate the protective role of vitamin C against KBrO3 induced hepatotoxicity and divided into four groups; Group 1 (control), Group 2: received 30 mg/Kg/day vitamin C orally for 4 weeks, Group 3: received 20 mg/Kg/dose KBrO3 orally twice weekly for 4 weeks and Group 4: received both KBrO3 and vitamin C. Liver specimens were processed for histological study by light and electron microscopes and stained immunohistochemically to detect glial fibriller acidic protein (GFAP). Serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were estimated as well as the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities in all dissected tissues were determined. KBrO3 induced histological alterations in the form of degeneration, cellular infiltration and significant increase in collagen deposition in portal tracts with a significant increase in immunoexpression of GFAP. Significant rise in serum levels of AST, ALT, and MDA in liver tissues were recorded. However, levels of GSH and SOD were significantly decreased. Most of these changes were improved by vitamin C treatment. In conclusion, vitamin C ameliorates the histological and biochemical alterations of the liver induced by KBrO3 . Anat Rec, 299:1256-1269, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27373450

  7. Evaluation of the protective role of vitamin C in imidacloprid-induced hepatotoxicity in male Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Soujanya, S.; Lakshman, M.; Kumar, A. Anaad; Reddy, A. Gopala

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, the effects of oral administration of imidacloprid for 4 weeks on serum biochemical, oxidative stress, histopathological and ultrastructural alterations were assessed in the liver of male rats. This study also aimed to investigate whether vitamin C could protect against the imidacloprid-induced oxidative stress. Forty-eight male Sprague dawley rats were divided into four groups of 12 animals each. Group 1 served as the control, while groups 2 and 4 were administered with imidacloprid (80 mg/kg body weight) daily by oral gavage for 28 days. In addition to imidacloprid, group 4 also received vitamin C at 10 mg/kg daily by oral gavage for 28 days. Group 3 was maintained as the vitamin C control (dose as above). The serum biochemical assays revealed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in alanine transaminase and aspartate transaminase and decrease in total protein in group 2. The tissue biochemical profile revealed a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in reduced glutathione concentration in the liver of group 2 animals. Histologically, the liver showed marked dilation, congestion of central vein, portal vein and sinusoidal spaces, vacuolation/fatty change and degenerated hepatocytes. Ultra thin sections of the liver revealed swollen nuclei, varied size and shape of mitochondria, disrupted chromatin and rough endoplasmic reticulum. Co-treatment with vitamin C significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the imidacloprid-induced changes. PMID:23633837

  8. Improvement of lipid profile and antioxidant of hypercholesterolemic albino rats by polysaccharides extracted from the green alga Ulva lactuca Linnaeus.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sherif; El-Twab, Sanaa Abd; Hetta, Mona; Mahmoud, Basant

    2011-10-01

    Sulfated polysaccharides from Ulva lactuca were extracted in hot water and precipitated by ethanol then orally gavaged to rats fed on a hypercholesterolemic diet for 21 days to evaluate the antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant actions. Atorvastatine Ca (Lipitor) was used as a reference drug. The intragastric administration of U. lactuca extract to hypercholesterolemic rats caused significant decrease of serum total lipids, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and vLDL-cholesterol levels. Whereas, HDL-cholesterol concentration was markedly increased by 180%. Aqueous extract showed a significant ameliorative action on elevated atherogenic index, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities of hypercholesterolemic group. Furthermore, serum activities of transaminases and alkaline phosphatase were also improved. High fat diet intake caused a highly significantly elevated serum urea, creatinine concentration. These effects were reversed by oral administration of U. lactuca extract. Sulfates polysaccharides extract of U. lactuca ameliorate hepatic enzymatic (catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase), non-enzymatic (reduced glutathione & total thiol) antioxidant defenses and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. In conclusion, the tested U. lactuca polysaccharides extract has potent hypocholesterolemic and antioxidant effects in experimentally-induced hypercholesterolemic animal model. PMID:23961145

  9. Exploring the Potential Role of Chemopreventive Agent, Hesperetin Conjugated Pegylated Gold Nanoparticles in Diethylnitrosamine-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Male Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Gokuladhas, Krishnan; Jayakumar, Subramaniyan; Rajan, Balan; Elamaran, Ramasamy; Pramila, Chengalvarayan Subramani; Gopikrishnan, Mani; Tamilarasi, Sasivarman; Devaki, Thiruvengadam

    2016-04-01

    Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer and is still one of the leading causes of death world wide, due to food additives, alcohol, fungal toxins, air, toxic industrial chemicals, and water pollutants. Chemopreventive drugs play a potential role in liver cancer treatment. Obviously in the production of anticancer drugs, the factors like poor solubility, bioavailability, biocompatibility, limited chemical stability, large amount of dose etc., plays a major role. Against this backdrop, the idea of designing the chemopreventive nature of bio flavanoid hesperetin (HP) drug conjugated with pegylated gold nanoparticles to increasing the solubility, improve bioavailability and enhance the targeting capabilities of the drug during diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced liver cancer in male wistar albino rats. The dose fixation studies and the toxicity of pure HP and HP conjugated gold nanoparticles (Au-mPEG(5000)-S-HP) were analysed. After concluded the dose fixation and toxicity studies the experimental design were segregated in six groups for the anticancer analysis of DEN induced HCC for 16 weeks. After the experimental period the body weight, relative liver weight, number of nodules and size of nodules, the levels of tumor markers like CEA, AFP and the level of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were assessed. The administration of DEN to rats resulted in increased relative liver weight and serum marker enzymes aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase. The levels of lipid peroxides elevated (in both serum and tissue) with subsequent decrease in the final body weight and tissue antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidise, and glutathione reductase. HP supplementation (20 mg/kg b.wt) significantly attenuated these alterations, thereby showing potent anticancer effect in liver cancer and the

  10. Effect of Ocimum basilicum extract on cadmium-induced testicular histomorphometric and immunohistochemical alterations in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Sakr, Saber A; Nooh, Hanna Z

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of Ocimum basilicum (basil) extract, a natural herb, with antioxidant properties, against testicular toxicity induced by cadmium (Cd), which is one of the most important toxic heavy metals. The intoxicated rats showed significant alterations in the testicular tissue including decreased seminiferous epithelium height and changes in the arrangement of spermatogenic layers. Hypospermatogensis with cytoplasmic vacuolization and pyknotic nuclei were observed. Intertubular hemorrahage and absence of spermatozoa were noted. Decreased cell proliferation was reflected by a decrease in Ki-67 expression, whereas the increase in apoptotic rate was associated with a decrease in the Bcl/Bax ratio. Concomitant treatment with aqueous basil extract led to an improvement in histological, morphometrical and immunohistochemical changes induced by Cd. The beneficial effects of basil extract could be attributed to its antioxidant properties. PMID:23869259

  11. Influence of Vitamin C and Vitamin E on testicular zinc content and testicular toxicity in lead exposed albino rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Occupational and environmental exposures to lead remain a public health problem as lead alters physiological processes by inducing oxidative stress and mimicking divalent cations. This study was designed to investigate the effects of Vitamin C (VC) and Vitamin E (VE) on the reproductive function of lead exposed male rats. Experimental animals were exposed to oral doses of lead, VC and VE at 60 mg/kg body weight, 40 mg/kg body weight, and 150 mg/kg body weight respectively, while control animals received 0.9% saline solution. Oral administration spanned for six weeks after which changes in testicular redox status, lead deposition, testicular zinc content, serum androgen content, semen quality and testis histology were examined. Results There were significant (p < 0.05) increases in oxidative stress indices and testicular lead content. A significant (p < 0.05) depletion of zinc in the testis of lead exposed animals was also observed. Fluctuations were observed in androgen levels of lead treated animals with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in Serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and testosterone (TT) content, while there was no significant change in luteinizing hormone (LH) content. Testicular tissue showed an alteration in its normal histology with degeneration of the seminiferous epithelium accompanied by a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the number of luminal spermatozoa. A downgrade in the semen appearance and semen quality –sperm motility, morphology, and count was also observed after lead exposure. VC and VE treatment showed a significant (p < 0.05) reversal of the physiological alteration induced by lead. Conclusions Lead exposure resulted in a decline in the reproductive function of male rats by inducing oxidative stress, inhibiting enzymes and depleting testicular zinc contents. However, results clearly showed that VC and VE attenuated the deleterious impact of lead on the reproductive system. PMID:23241495

  12. Protective role of Moringa oleifera (Sajina) seed on arsenic-induced hepatocellular degeneration in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, Sandip; Maiti, Smarajit; Maji, Gurupada; Deb, Bimal; Pan, Bappaditya; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-08-01

    In an attempt to develop new herbal therapy, an aqueous extract of the seed of Moringa oleifera was used to screen the effect on arsenic-induced hepatic toxicity in female rat of Wistar strain. Subchronic exposure to sodium arsenite (0.4 ppm/100 g body weight/day via drinking water for a period of 24 days) significantly increased activities of hepatic and lipid function markers such as alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL along with a decrease in total protein and HDL. A notable distortion of hepatocellular histoarchitecture was prominent with a concomitant increase in DNA fragmentation following arsenic exposure. A marked elevation of lipid peroxidation in hepatic tissue was also evident from the hepatic accumulation of malondialdehyde and conjugated dienes along with suppressed activities in the antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase. However, co-administration of aqueous seed extract of M. oleifera (500 mg/100 g body weight/day for a period of 24 days) was found to significantly prevent the arsenic-induced alteration of hepatic function markers and lipid profile. Moreover, the degeneration of histoarchitecture of liver found in arsenic-treated rats was protected along with partial but definite prevention against DNA fragmentation induction. Similarly, generation of reactive oxygen species and free radicals were found to be significantly less along with restored activities of antioxidant enzymes in M. oleifera co-administered group with comparison to arsenic alone treatment group. The present investigation offers strong evidence for the hepato-protective and antioxidative efficiencies of M. oleifera seed extract against oxidative stress induced by arsenic. PMID:20661662

  13. Repeated exposure to the herbicide atrazine alters locomotor activity and the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system of the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Verónica M; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge H; Mendoza-Trejo, Maria Soledad; González-Gallardo, Adriana; Hernández-Plata, Isela; Giordano, Magda

    2013-01-01

    Atrazine (ATR) is used as a pre- and post-emergent herbicide; although banned in several countries of the European Community, it is still used extensively around the world. A recent study in rats has shown that chronic, daily exposure to 10 mg ATR/kg BW causes hyperactivity, disrupts motor coordination and learning of behavioral tasks, and decreases dopamine levels in the brain. In order to evaluate the short-term effect of ATR exposure on locomotor activity, monoamine markers, and antioxidants, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received six IP injections of 100 mg ATR/kg BW or vehicle over two weeks. After every ATR injection we found hypoactivity that lasted up to five days, and it was accompanied by reductions in levels of striatal DA, DOPAC, and HVA without any alteration in the striatal expression of the mRNAs for Mn-SOD, Trx-1, DAR-D(1), or DAR-D(2). In contrast, in the nucleus accumbens no changes in monoamine markers were observed, and a down-regulation of Trx-1 expression was detected shortly after the ATR treatment. Moreover, in the ventral midbrain, we found that ATR induced a down-regulation of mRNA for Th and DAT, but it increased VMAT2 mRNA expression. Decreases of monoamine levels and of locomotor activity disappeared three months after ATR treatment; however, an amphetamine challenge (1 mg/kg) given two months after the ATR treatment resulted in a significant stimulation in the exposed group, revealing hidden effects of ATR on dopaminergic systems. These results indicate that ATR exposure differentially modifies the dopaminergic systems, and these modifications may underlie the behavioral changes observed. PMID:23123945

  14. Ameliorative effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on immunohistochemical and ultrastuctural changes of cerebellum of albino rats induced by aspartame.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hamid, Manal; Gallaly, Sanaa Rida

    2014-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the protective effect of Pimpinella anisum oil on aspartame (ASP) which resulted in cerebellar changes. The rats were divided into four equal groups: Group 1: (control group): served as control animals. Group 2: control P. anisum oil received .5 mL/kg/d/b wt. once daily. Group 3 (ASP group): received daily 250 mg/kg/b wt. of ASP dissolved in distilled water and given orally to the animals by intra-gastric tube for 2 months. Group 4: received .5 mL/kg/b wt. of prophylactic P. anisum oil once daily, followed by ASP after 2 h for 2 months. The histopathological approach revealed marked changes in the Purkinje cells, myleinated nerve fibers and granular cells of ASP-treated animals. Some of these cells appeared with deeply stained cytoplasm. Ultrastructural examination showed Purkinje cells with dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum and condensed mitochondria. Granular cells appeared with less c nuclei and surrounded by dissolution of most Mossy rosettes structures. Most myelinated nerve fibers showed thickening of myelinated sheath and others showed splitting of their myelin sheath. The histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural alterations were much less observed in concomitant use of P. anisum oil with ASP. Cerebellar cortex is considered target areas of ASP neurotoxicity, while P. anisum oil, when used in combination with ASP displays a protective action against neurotoxicity. PMID:24684500

  15. Exposure to difenoconazole, diclofop-methyl alone and combination alters oxidative stress and biochemical parameters in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Alrahman, Sherif H; Elhalwagy, Manal EA; Kotb, Gamila Ahmed; Farid, Hoda; Farag, Ahmed AG; Draz, Hossam M; Isa, Ahmed M; Sabico, S

    2014-01-01

    The herbicides diclofop-methyl and the fungicide difenoconazole are widely used in agriculture and may lead to serious toxicity risks. However, limited studies have been done to evaluate differences in the metabolic effects of these herbicides. Difenoconazole (10 mg/kg) and Diclofop-methyl (1 mg/kg) were orally administrated individually (Groups 1 and 2 respectively) as well as combined (G3) to rats for 28 days. In all treated groups, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and urea were significantly higher than the control group. Plasma creatinine was also significantly higher in groups G1 and G2 than control. Significant inhibition in gamma glutamyltransferase (γGT) was observed in all treated groups, in addition to significant inhibition of plasma acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) in G3 (p < 0.01). There was no effect in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and albumin. Total plasma triiodothy-ronine (T3) hormone was significantly higher in groups G2 and G3 (p < 0.01), but significantly lower in G1 group as compared to control. Thyroxin (T4) was significantly lower in all treated groups than control. Cholesterol level was significantly lower in G3 than control, and a total protein (TP) was significantly higher in all treated groups than control. No differences were observed in glucose levels. Malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), an oxidative stress biomarker, was significantly increased in all treated groups comparing to control. Sulphur containing protein (SH-protein) was significantly lower in G1 than control. No significant changes were observed for GST in all treatments. The significant differences in measured biomarkers after application of diclofop-methyl, difenoconazole individually and combined indicate that the investigated pesticides may have potentially harmful effects on humans and the surrounding environment. We suggest that larger studies be conducted to better understand the toxicity mechanisms of these pesticides. PMID:25419412

  16. Phenolic Profiling and Evaluation of Contraceptive Effect of the Ethanolic Extract of Salsola imbricata Forssk. in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shehab, Naglaa Gamil

    2014-01-01

    Reported researches dealing with either composition or bioactivity of Salsola imbricata are limited. This study was conducted aiming to investigate the phenolic composition of the plant and evaluate its efficacy as male contraceptive. Polyphenols, namely, phenolic acids and flavonoids, were qualitatively and quantitatively analysed by RP-HPLC in the hydrolysed methanol extract using two different wavelengths, 280 and 330 nm. The efficiency of different solvents in extracting the plant phenolics was assessed via spectrophotometric determination of the total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Acute toxicity study was carried out on the ethanolic extract to ascertain its safety prior to biological evaluation. The contraceptive effect was assessed, in male rats, by oral administration of the extract at two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg b. wt.), over a period of 65 days. HPLC analyses allowed the identification and quantification of a total of 13 and 8 components in the hydrolysed-methanol extract; the overall phenolic composition was dominated by quercitrin (12.692%) followed by coumaric acid (4.251%). Prolonged oral administration of the ethanolic extract caused slight reduction in the testis weight only. A significant decrease in the sperm count was observed (P < 0.01) in the two treated groups while significant decrease in the epididymal sperm motility was only observed in the high dose group. Morphological abnormalities were observed in sperms of treated animals. No distinct change in serum FSH, LH, and testosterone concentration was recorded. The histopathological findings supported to a high extent these results. The male contraceptive activity of Salsola imbricata could be ascribed to its phenolic components, especially quercitrin. PMID:25587346

  17. Pancreatic islet regeneration and some liver biochemical parameters of leaf extracts of Vitex doniana in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Oche, Okpe; Sani, Ibrahim; Chilaka, Njoku Godwin; Samuel, Ndidi Uche; Samuel, Atabo

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test two water soluble extracts (aqueous and ethanolic) obtained from the leaves of Vitex doniana in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats for their effects on pancreatic endocrine tissues and serum marker enzymes for a period of 21 d. Methods A total of 55 rats divided into 11 groups of 5 rats each were assigned into diabetic and non-diabetic groups and followed by a daily administration of ethanolic and aqueous extracts for 21 d. Group 1 was the normal control while group 7 was treated with standard drug. Results The histopathological studies of the diabetic rats indicated increase in the volume density of islets, percent of β-cells and size of islet in the groups that received the plant extracts, which suggested regeneration of β-cells along with β-cells repairs, as compared with the non-treated diabetic control which showed complete degeneration of the islet cells. There was significant reduction (P<0.05) in the serum activities of marker enzymes, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase in diabetes treated rats, whereas an insignificant increase (P>0.01) in the serum activities of marker enzymes was observed for non-diabetic treated rats. Results of total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin showed that diabetic control group was significantly higher (P<0.05) in total bilirubin and unconjugated bilirubin compared with treated groups while non-diabetic treated groups showed no significant increase (P>0.01) in total bilirubin and direct bilirubin compared with the normal control. Conclusion This herbal therapy appears to bring about repair/regeneration of the endocrine pancreas and hepatic cells protection in the diabetic rat. PMID:25182283

  18. Effect of green tea (camellia sinensis l.) leaf extract on reproductive system of adult male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shyamal Kanti; Karmakar, Soumendra Nath

    2015-01-01

    Green tea leaf extract (GTLE), used in this experiment has shown great influence on male reproductive system functionally as well as morphologically. The extract was prepared according to the method of Wei. H. et al. The extract was given to two different experimental animal groups with two different doses during 26 consecutive days. After treatment it was found that, the weight of the testis was markedly reduced instead of normal weight gain of all the animals. The sperm count and motility were reduced for the treated groups as compared with control animal group. The enzymes like SGPT and SGOT were as usual and other blood parameters like glucose and protein were also as usual comparing with controlled group. Testosterone level was reduced in the treated groups. FSH and LH levels were also altered accordingly in treated groups. Histological examination showed inhibition of spermatogenesis as evidenced by disintegration of seminiferous tubules of testis. Result of this study showed that GTLE has potent castrative effect on male reproductive system in dose dependent manner. PMID:27073594

  19. Modulatory effects of Crataeva nurvala bark against testosterone and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced oxidative damage in prostate of male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dugganaboyana Guru; Deepa, Purandekkattil; Rathi, Muthaiyan A.; Meenakshi, Periasamy; Gopalakrishnan, Velliyur K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Antioxidant properties of Crataeva nurvala bark contains a variety of the bioactive phytochemical constituents in medicinal plants which include flavonoids, phenolic compounds, tannins, anthracene derivatives, and essential oils. Components from Crataeva nurvala bark have been accounted to play an important role in scavenging free radicals generated by mutagens and carcinogens. Androgens are the key factors in either the initiation or progression of prostate cancer by inducing oxidative stress. In the present set of investigations, the antioxidative potential of Crataeva nurvala bark extract against androgen-mediated oxidative stress in male Wistar rats has been studied. Materials and Methods: Oxidative damage in prostate was induced in rats by the injection of testosterone (100 mg/kg body weight [bw]) for 3 days followed by injection of chemical carcinogen N-Methyl N-Nitroso Urea (50 mg/kg bw) for 1 week. The oxidative damage in prostate-induced rats were treated with the ethanolic extract of Crataeva nurvala bark (150 mg/kg bw) and testosterone injection (2 mg/ kg bw) was also continued through the experimental period of 4 months. The prostate tissue was dissected out for biochemical analysis of lipid peroxidation and enzymic-antioxidants viz. catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione reductase; the non-enzymic antioxidants viz. reduced glutathione, and Vitamin C. Results: The results revealed that testosterone administration induced the oxidative stress in rat prostate; however, in drug (150 mg/kg bw) supplemented groups, a significant protective effect of Crataeva nurvala bark against testosterone-induced oxidative injury was recorded. Conclusion: Hence, the study reveals that constituents present in Crataeva nurvala bark impart protection against androgen-induced oxidative injury in prostate. PMID:24082632

  20. Protective Effects of Pinus halepensis L. Essential Oil on Aspirin-induced Acute Liver and Kidney Damage in Female Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Samout, Noura; Amani, Etaya; Mbarki, Sakhria; Tlili, Zied; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants are sources of natural antioxidants thanks to their secondary metabolites. Administration of Pinus halepensis L. (Pinaceae family) in previous studies was found to alleviate deleterious effects of aspirin-induced damage on liver and kidney. The present study, carried out on female rats, evaluates the effects of P. halepensis L. essential oil (EOP) on aspirin (A)-induced damage to liver and kidney. The animals used in this study were rats (n=28) divided into 4 groups of 7 each: (1) a control group (C); (2) a group given NaCl for 56 days then treated with (A) (600 mg/kg) for 4 days (A); (3) a group fed with (EOP) for 56 days then (A) for 4 days; and a group fed with only (EOP) for 56 days and given NaCl for 4 days. Estimations of biochemical parameters in blood were determined using kit methods (Spinreact). Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were determined. Histopathological study was done by immersing pieces of both organs in a fixative solution followed by paraffin embeddeding and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Under our experimental conditions, Aspirin at dose 600 mg/kg body weight induced an increase of serum biochemical parameters as well as an oxidative stress in both organs. An increase occurred in TBARS by 108% and 55%, a decrease in SOD by 78% and 53%, CAT by 53% and 78%, and GPx by 78% and 51% in liver and kidney, respectively, compared to control. Administration of EOP given to rats enabled correction in these parameters. It could be concluded that the treatment with P. halepensis L. essential oil inhibited aspirin-induced liver and kidney damage. PMID:27430382

  1. Identification of Differential Protein Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Induced Wistar Albino Rats by 2D Electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF-MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Vedarethinam, Vadanasundari; Dhanaraj, Karthik; Soundherrajan, Ilavenil; Sivanesan, Ravikumar

    2016-04-01

    Hepato cellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of malignant tumor. To investigate the proteins in cancer molecular mechanism and its role in HCC, we have used proteomic tools such as 2DE and MALDI-TOF-MS. Our investigation ravels that, plasma α-fetoprotein and carcinoembryonic antigen levels were elevated in DEN induced rats and gradually decreased after the treatment with 1,3BPMU. 2DE and MALDI-TOF-MS tool offers to identify the up and down regulation of proteins in HCC. Proteomic study reveals that, five differentially expressed proteins were identified in DEN induced rats and 1,3BPMU treated rats i.e. three up regulated protein such as T kininogen, NDPKB, PRMT1 (DEN induced rats), RGS19 and PAF (1,3BPMU treated rats) in 3BPMU treated rats, activation of transcription of a single gene from multiple promoters provides flexibility in the controlled gene expression. The regulations of hepatocyte stimulating factor were slow down the proliferation of hepatic cell and uncontrolled hepatic cell growth and also molecular signals strongly argue for a patho-physiological role in liver metastasis to control the cell aggression. This indicates that, anti cancer property of 1,3BPMU can be used as potent anti cancer agent. The present study also shows the proteomic approach helps to elucidate the tumor maker as well as regulatory marker proteins in HCC. PMID:27069327

  2. Anti arthritic and anti inflammatory activity of a cytotoxic protein NN-32 from Indian spectacle cobra (Naja naja) venom in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Antony; Datta, Poulami; Das, Tanaya; Biswas, Ajoy Kumar; Gomes, Aparna

    2014-11-01

    The anti arthritic and anti inflammatory activity of NN-32, a cytotoxic protein from Indian spectacle cobra snake (Naja naja) venom has been studied in Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) induced arthritis and carrageenan induced anti inflammatory model. NN-32 treatment showed significant decrease in physical and urinary parameters, serum enzymes, serum cytokines levels as compared to arthritic control group of rats. NN-32 treatment recovered carrageenan induced inflammation as compared to control group of rats. The findings showed that the cytotoxic protein NN-32 shares anti arthritic and anti inflammatory activity and thus NN-32 may target complex pathophysiological processes like cancer- arthritis-inflammation. PMID:25026566

  3. [Fibrogenic effect of anthracite dust compared with the effects of hard and bituminous coal dust on the lungs of albino rats].

    PubMed

    Szymczykiewicz, K

    1983-01-01

    In experiments on white rats the fibrogenic effects of the dust of anthracite and other types of coal, from the U.S.A. and Poland, were tested. What was found basing on hydroxyproline measurements in lungs was that the extent of fibrogenic effects of anthracite equals fibrogenic effects of bituminous coal dust containing 30% alpha-quartz. Non-anthracite coal dusts containing SiO2 crystalline phases (alpha-quartz) as an admixture--exhibit fibrogenic effects on white rats' lungs--proportional to free silica content. It is probable that fibrogenic effects of anthracite on the pulmonary tissue result from its structure and active free radicals. PMID:6306385

  4. Evaluation of antidiabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum in male Wistar albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Salwe, Kartik J.; Sachdev, Devender O.; Bahurupi, Yogesh; Kumarappan, Manimekalai

    2015-01-01

    Background: We investigated anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant activity of hydroalcoholic extract from leaves and fruit peel of Punica granatum. Materials and Methods: Streptozotocin induced diabetic Wister rats were used in this study consisting of seven groups of six animals each. Groups (1) normal control, (2) diabetic control, (3) leaves extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (4) leaves extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (5) fruit peel extract 100 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum, (6) peel extract 200 mg/kg b.w. of P. granatum and (7) glibenclamide respectively. Fasting blood sugar was recorded on 1st, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day. At the end of the experiment Lipid profile and levels of antioxidants were determined. Safety profile of both extracts was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. Results: Higher dose of fruit peel extract of P. granatum (PEPG) and glibenclamide significantly lowered blood glucose level from 7th day onwards however glibenclamide was found to be more effective. Leaves extract at higher dose and fruit extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 14th day onwards. Leaves extract at lower dose also significantly lowered blood glucose level from 21st day onwards. Glibenclamide and higher dose of fruit PEPG extract significantly reduced the total cholesterol, triglyceride levels and significantly increased the high density lipoprotein cholesterol level. Glibenclamide followed by higher dose was found more effective in reducing plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and increasing levels of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase). No toxicity was observed even when both extracts were administered at 10 times of higher dose used in this study and no significant changes were seen when it were used chronically. Conclusion: Leaves and fruit PEPG possesses significant anti-diabetic, hypolipedimic and antioxidant properties. This study supports the traditional use of P

  5. Toxic effects of sub-chronic exposure of male albino rats to emamectin benzoate and possible ameliorative role of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, El-Sayed A; Galal, Azza A A

    2015-05-01

    Emamectin benzoate (EB) is an avermectin insecticide used extensively in pest control on vegetable and field crops. Few studies have been done for evaluating adverse effects of EB. In the current study, we evaluated the toxic effects of EB on male rats and the possible ameliorative role of fennel essential oil (FEO). Thirty two male rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. All groups were treated orally with distilled water (control group), 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW (FEO group), 2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (EB group), and 0.5mlFEOkg(-1) BW+2.5mgEBkg(-1) BW (FEO+EB group) for 28 days. The obtained results showed that EB treatment resulted in a significant decrease in body weight, body weight gain, RBC count, Hb concentration, % PCV, MCV and MCHC. Moreover, EB significantly decreased total leukocyte, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count but significantly increased granulocyte count. EB markedly decreased total protein, albumin, globulin, IgG and IgM concentrations with a significant increase in TNF-α secretion. EB had a negative impact on the liver as it significantly increased ALT, ALP, and MDA, while decreasing SOD activity. Regarding to the histopathological examination, EB treatment induced coagulative necrosis and blood vessels congestion of the liver in treated rats. Furthermore, it resulted in depletion and necrosis of the white pulp of the spleen in treated rats. The co-administration of FEO with EB, however, improved the majority of parameters studied, suggesting that FEO is an important substance in decreasing toxic effects of EB. PMID:25935540

  6. The Protective Effect of Aged Garlic Extract on Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug-Induced Gastric Inflammations in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Gehan Moustafa; AL-Mulhim, Jawaher Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have long gained wide acceptance among the public and scientific community in the gastrointestinal ulcerative field. The present study explore the potential effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) on indomethacin-(IN-) induced gastric inflammation in male rats. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 8) control group, IN-induced gastric inflammation group via oral single dose (30 mg/kg to fasted rats) two AGE orally administered groups (100 and 200 mg/kg for 30 consecutive days) two AGE orally administered groups to rats pretreated with IN at the same aforementioned doses. The results declared the more potent effect of the higher AGE dose (200 mg/kg) as compared to that of the 100 mg/kg dose in the gastroprotective effects reflected by significant gastric mucosal healing of damage and reduction in the total microbial induced due to indomethacin administration. In addition to the significant effect to normalize the significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) values, and the significant decrease in the total glutathione (tGSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) values induced by indomethacin. The results support AGE antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial potency reflected by the healing of the gastric tissue damage induced by indomethacin. PMID:24876878

  7. Corrective role of Eugenia jambolana on testicular impairment in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rat: an approach through genomic and proteomic study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A; Jana, K; Ali, K M; De, D; Chatterjee, K; Ghosh, D

    2014-04-01

    The present study was conducted to explore the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of hydro-methanolic (40 : 60) extract of seed of Eugenia jambolana on testicular impairment in diabetic rats. In this respect, biomarkers of oxidative stress, genomics and proteomics in testicular tissue were assessed. Side by side, glycated haemoglobin, serum testosterone, activities of glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase in serum, epididymal sperm count including reproductive organosomatic indices were evaluated. Results indicate that a significant recovery (P < 0.05) in the levels of these parameters in fraction-treated diabetic group in comparison with diabetic control. A significant recovery was noted (P < 0.05) in the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 gene towards the control after the treatment of said fraction. Histological study also focused a significant recovery (P < 0.05) in the number of different generation of germ cells at stage VII of spermatogenesis in fraction-treated diabetic group. The said fraction treatment to diabetic rat can recover the activities of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase significantly towards the control (P < 0.05). Finally, it may be concluded that ethyl acetate fraction of seed of E. jambolana has a promiseable remedial effect on diabetes-induced testicular dysfunctions in male rat without inducing any metabolic toxicity. PMID:23521341

  8. The protective effect of aged garlic extract on nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastric inflammations in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Badr, Gehan Moustafa; Al-Mulhim, Jawaher Abdulaziz

    2014-01-01

    Natural products have long gained wide acceptance among the public and scientific community in the gastrointestinal ulcerative field. The present study explore the potential effects of aged garlic extract (AGE) on indomethacin-(IN-) induced gastric inflammation in male rats. Animals were divided into six groups (n = 8) control group, IN-induced gastric inflammation group via oral single dose (30 mg/kg to fasted rats) two AGE orally administered groups (100 and 200 mg/kg for 30 consecutive days) two AGE orally administered groups to rats pretreated with IN at the same aforementioned doses. The results declared the more potent effect of the higher AGE dose (200 mg/kg) as compared to that of the 100 mg/kg dose in the gastroprotective effects reflected by significant gastric mucosal healing of damage and reduction in the total microbial induced due to indomethacin administration. In addition to the significant effect to normalize the significant increase in malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) values, and the significant decrease in the total glutathione (tGSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) values induced by indomethacin. The results support AGE antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial potency reflected by the healing of the gastric tissue damage induced by indomethacin. PMID:24876878

  9. Nigerian bonny-light crude oil induces alteration in testicular stress response proteins and caspase-3 dependent apoptosis in albino wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ebokaiwe, Azubuike P; D'Cruz, Cynthia S; Jubendradass, R; Amala Rani, Judith S; Mathur, Premendu P; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2015-02-01

    In the past few decades, there has been much concern about the adverse health effects of environmental contaminants in general and Crude Oil in particular around the Niger Delta region of Nigeria where all the crude Oil exploration is taking place. Studies have shown the repro-toxic effects of Bonny-light crude oil (BLCO). However, the insight into the mechanisms of gonadal toxicity induced by BLCO is not well known. In this study, we sought to elucidate the mechanism(s) underpinning the gonadal effects within hours of exposure to BLCO. Experimental rats were divided into five groups of four each. Animals were orally administered with a single dose of BLCO (800 mg/kg body weight) and killed at 0, 6, 12, 24, and 72 h post-treatment. The levels and time-course of induction of stress response proteins and apoptosis-related proteins like cytochorome C, caspase 3 and procaspase 9, Fas-FasL, NF-kB and TNF-α were determined to assess sequential induction of apoptosis in the rat testis. DNA damage was assessed by TUNEL assay. Administration of BLCO resulted in a significant increase in the levels of stress response proteins and apoptotis- related proteins as early as 6 h following exposure. Time-dependent elevations in the levels of the proteins were observed. The DNA damage was measured and showed time-dependent increase in the TUNEL positive cells of testicular cells. The study demonstrates induction of testicular apoptosis in adult rats following exposure to a single dose of BLCO. PMID:24106129

  10. Histopathologycal findings in the ovaries and uterus of albino female rats promoted by co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici; Leite, Gabriel Adan Araújo; Pinto, Tiago; Ribeiro-Paes, João Tadeu

    2014-07-01

    The use of anabolic androgenic steroids is often associated with the use of other substances, licit or not, such as nicotine present in the tobacco. The present study investigated for the first time the effects of co-administration of synthetic steroids and nicotine on the ovarian and uterine tissue and fertility of adult female rats. Animals were submitted to treatment groups (n=16/group): nandrolone decanoate (ND; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); testosterone mixture (T; 7.5mg/kg BW/week); nicotine (N; 2.0mg/kg BW/day), and co-administration of ND/N, T/N and ND/T/N. The control group received saline solution daily. The injections were administered subcutaneously for 30 consecutive days. Results demonstrated that all androgenized rats exhibited estral acyclicity and there was suppression of reproductive capacity due to notable ovarian and uterine histological changes. Treatments promoted decrease (p<0.05) in the ovarian weight. Uterine weight increased (p<0.05) in the T and T/N groups, in comparison to control group. ND or T co-administered or not to nicotine promoted intense follicular degeneration, with formation of cysts in the ovaries. High levels of circulating androgens in the ND/T/N group induced the presence of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors of Sertoli cell pattern. Androgenized females presented endometrial changes characterized by papilliferous or pleated luminal epithelium, oedematous and hemorrhagic stroma and presence of gland cysts. In conclusion, the co-administration of three drugs promoted atypical morphological pattern on the ovaries and uterus of female rats. PMID:24556002

  11. Antioxidant, hepatoprotective, and ameliorative effects of methanolic extract of leaves of Grewia mollis Juss. on carbon tetrachloride-treated albino rats.

    PubMed

    Asuku, Oiza; Atawodi, Sunday E; Onyike, Elewechi

    2012-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Grewia mollis leaves was evaluated in vivo for its antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. Oxidative stress was induced in rats by administering carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) intraperitoneally at a dose of 0.6 mL/kg, whereas the crude plant extract and standard antioxidant (vitamin E) were administered at a dose of 5 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg, respectively. The effect of G. mollis crude extracts and vitamin E on malondialdehyde (MDA) and liver function parameters such as protein, bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase were measured spectrophotometrically. The methanolic extract of G. mollis leaves and vitamin E showed a significant (P<.05) hepatoprotective potential by lowering the serum levels of bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase and decreasing MDA levels in rats pretreated or post-treated with CCl(4). Based on these results, it is concluded that G. mollis leaves contain potent antioxidant compounds that could offer protection against hepatotoxicity as well as ameliorate preexisting liver damage and oxidative stress conditions. PMID:21877945

  12. Incision wound healing activity of pine bark extract containing topical formulations: a study with histopathological and biochemical analyses in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Cetin, E O; Yesil-Celiktas, O; Cavusoglu, T; Demirel-Sezer, E; Akdemir, O; Uyanikgil, Y

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify and compare the in vivo wound healing capacity of a bark extract from Pinus brutia and Pycnogenol in an incision wound model in rats. O/W cream formulations were prepared incorporating 2% Pycnogenol and P. brutia bark extract. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 8). Subsequently placebo and test formulations were applied to animals once a day from day "0" until the 9th day. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were studied in addition to histopathological examinations. Treatment with F. brutia extract containing cream inhibited lipid peroxidation by a 35% decrease in MDA and 46.8% increase in SOD activity, whereas 19.3% decrease in MDA and 34.7% increase in SOD activity were attained with Pynogenol compared to control. The histological data revealed a better performance of P. brutia extract enriched formulation in terms of degeneration of hair roots, increased vascularization and a decrease in necrotic area. Consequently, a high wound healing activity was observed in animals treated with P. brutia extract significantly accelerating the wound healing process. PMID:23444785

  13. The effect of triiodothyronine on maturation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells during remyelination following induced demyelination in male albino rat.

    PubMed

    El-Tahry, H; Marei, H; Shams, A; El-Shahat, M; Abdelaziz, H; Abd El-Kader, M

    2016-06-01

    Demyelination was induced by two weeks cuprizone treatment. Rats of +ve control and triiodothyronine (T3) then received three subcutaneous injections of either saline or T3 day after day and sacrificed at the end of the third and fifth weeks. Animals in -ve control group received only standard rodent chow. After one week of cuprizone withdrawal the corpus callosum in +ve control and T3 treated rats was still demyelinated as revealed by MBP immunohistochemistry. The assay of PLP gene showed significant increase of T3 treated group compared to both the -ve control and +ve control groups. After three weeks, significant improvement in myelination was detected in T3-treated group compared to +ve control as detected by both MBP immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. After one week of cuprizone withdrawal, PDGFRα positive cells and gene expression showed significant increase in +ve control and T3-treated groups as compared to -ve control with insignificant difference in between the former two groups. After three weeks of cuprizone withdrawal, PDGFRα positive cells in T3-treated and +ve control groups decreased to the control levels. These results suggest that T3 was effective in improving remyelination when administered during acute phase and might direct progenitor lineage toward oligodendrocytes. PMID:26993973

  14. Spatiotemporal features of early neuronogenesis differ in wild-type and albino mouse retina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rachel, Rivka A.; Dolen, Gul; Hayes, Nancy L.; Lu, Alice; Erskine, Lynda; Nowakowski, Richard S.; Mason, Carol A.

    2002-01-01

    In albino mammals, lack of pigment in the retinal pigment epithelium is associated with retinal defects, including poor visual acuity from a photoreceptor deficit in the central retina and poor depth perception from a decrease in ipsilaterally projecting retinal fibers. Possible contributors to these abnormalities are reported delays in neuronogenesis (Ilia and Jeffery, 1996) and retinal maturation (Webster and Rowe, 1991). To further determine possible perturbations in neuronogenesis and/or differentiation, we used cell-specific markers and refined birth dating methods to examine these events during retinal ganglion cell (RGC) genesis in albino and pigmented mice from embryonic day 11 (E11) to E18. Our data indicate that relative to pigmented mice, more ganglion cells are born in the early stages of neuronogenesis in the albino retina, although the initiation of RGC genesis in the albino is unchanged. The cellular organization of the albino retina is perturbed as early as E12. In addition, cell cycle kinetics and output along the nasotemporal axis differ in retinas of albino and pigmented mice, both absolutely, with the temporal aspect of the retina expanded in albino, and relative to the position of the optic nerve head. Finally, blocking melanin synthesis in pigmented eyecups in culture leads to an increase in RGC differentiation, consistent with a role for melanin formation in regulating RGC neuronogenesis. These results point to spatiotemporal defects in neuronal production in the albino retina, which could perturb expression of genes that specify cell fate, number, and/or projection phenotype.

  15. Effect of Garlic (Allium sativum) on Heavy Metal (Nickel II and ChromiumVI) Induced Alteration of Serum Lipid Profile in Male Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Amrita Das; Das, Swastika N.; Dhundasi, Salim A.; Das, Kusal K.

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effect of simultaneous oral treatment of aqueous garlic extract (Allium sativum) on heavy metal (nickel II and chromium VI) induced changes in serum lipid profile. Nickel sulfate and potassium dichromate treated rats showed a significant increase in serum low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) level as well as decrease in serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Simultaneous garlic administration with nickel sulfate showed improvement in serum LDL-C, HDL-C, VLDL-C and TG level. But in case of potassium dichromate, garlic administration did not show satisfactory improvement in lipid profile except VLDL-C and TG level. The results indicate that garlic (Allium sativum) has some beneficial effect in preventing heavy metal (nickel and chromium VI) induced alteration of lipid profile. PMID:19139532

  16. Effect of scoparia dulcis (Sweet Broomweed) plant extract on plasma antioxidants in streptozotocin-induced experimental diabetes in male albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Pari, L; Latha, M

    2004-07-01

    Clinical research has confirmed the efficacy of several plants in the modulation of oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. Scoparia dulcis plant extract is tried for prevention and treatment of diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by streptozotocin injection. A single dose of streptozotocin (45 mg/kg body weight) produced decrease in insulin, hyperglycemia, increased lipid peroxidation (Thiobarbituric reactive substances and lipid hydroperoxides) and decreased antioxidant levels (vitamin C, vitamin E, reduced glutathione, ceruloplasmin). Oral administration of an aqueous extract of Scoparia dulcis plant (200 mg/kg body weight) for 6 weeks to diabetic rats significantly increased the plasma insulin and plasma antioxidants and significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. The effect of Scoparia dulcis plant extract at 200 mg/kg body weight was better than that of glibenclamide, a reference drug. PMID:15296095

  17. Effect of pycnogenol and spirulina on vancomycin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress, apoptosis, and autophagy in adult male albino rat.

    PubMed

    Bayomy, Naglaa A; Abdelaziz, Eman Z; Said, Mona A; Badawi, Marwa S; El-Bakary, Reda H

    2016-08-01

    Vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity has been reported to occur in 5%-25% of patients who were administered with it. Several natural antioxidants were found to be effective against drug-induced toxicity. We evaluated the possible protective effects of spirulina and pycnogenol alone or in combination on vancomycin-induced renal cortical oxidative stress. Forty-nine rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: group I, control; group II, received spirulina 1000 mg/kg per day; group III, received pycnogenol 200 mg/kg per day; group IV, received vancomycin 200 mg/kg per day every 12 h; group V, (spirulina + vancomycin); group VI, (pycnogenol + vancomycin); and group VII, (pycnogenol + spirulina + vancomycin). At the end of the experiment, kidney functions were estimated and then the kidneys were removed, weighed, and sampled for histopathological, immunohistochemistry, and biochemical studies. Administration of spirulina and pycnogenol alone or in combination decreased elevated serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, renal malondialdehyde, and immunoexpression of the proapoptotic protein (Bax), autophagic marker protein (LC3/B), and inducible nitric oxide synthase induced by vancomycin. They increased reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and immunoexpression of the antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2). They also ameliorated the morphological changes induced by vancomycin. The combination therapy of spirulina and pycnogenol showed better protective effects than the corresponding monotherapy. PMID:27203524

  18. Synthesis and migration of /sup 3/H-fucose-labeled glycoproteins in the retinal pigment epithelium of albino rats, as visualized by radioautography

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, A.; Bennett, G.

    1987-03-01

    /sup 3/H-fucose was injected into the vitreous body of the eye(s) of 250-gm rats, which were then killed by means of an intracardiac perfusion with glutaraldehyde after intervals of 10 min, 1 and 4 hr, and 1 and 7 days. The eyes were removed and further fixed, and pieces of retina were processed for light and electron microscope radioautography. Light microscope radioautography showed that the pigment epithelial cells actively incorporated /sup 3/H-fucose label. The intensity of reaction peaked at 4 hr after injection of the label and then slowly declined. Quantitative electron microscope radioautography revealed that, at 10 min after /sup 3/H-fucose injection, over 70% of the label was localized to the Golgi apparatus, indicating that fucose residues are added to newly synthesized glycoproteins principally at this site. With time the proportion of label associated with the Golgi apparatus decreased, but that assigned to the infolded basal plasma membrane, the apical microvilli, and various apical lysosomes increased. These results indicate that in retinal pigment epithelial cells newly synthesized glycoproteins continuously migrate from the Golgi apparatus to lysosomes and to various regions of the plasma membrane. In this case, the membrane glycoproteins may play specific roles in receptor functions of the basal plasma membrane or phagocytic activities at the apical surface. Very little label migrated to Bruch's membrane, indicating either a very slow turnover or a paucity of fucose-containing glycoproteins at this site.

  19. Effect of noise stress on cardiovascular system in adult male albino rat: implication of stress hormones, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Said, Mona A; El-Gohary, Ola A

    2016-07-01

    Noise pollution has been realized as an environmental stressor associated with modern life style that affects our health without being consciously aware of it. The present study investigated the effect of acute, chronic intermittent and chronic continuous exposure to noise of intensity 80-100 dB on heart rate and mean systemic arterial blood pressure in rats and the possible underlying mechanisms. Noise stress causes significant increase in heart rate, mean systemic arterial blood pressure as well as significant increase in plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline, endothelin-1, nitric oxide and malondialdehyde with significant decrease in superoxide dismutase and these values are significantly more worse in chronic continuous exposure to noise than acute or chronic intermittent exposure. These findings suggest that noise stress has many adverse effects on cardiovascular system via increasing plasma levels of stress hormones, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. These findings have major implication in the management of adverse cardiovascular reactions of people subjected to daily noise stress. PMID:27174896

  20. Effect of Nerium oleander (N.O.) Leaves Extract on Serum hepcidin, Total Iron, and Infiltration of ED1 Positive Cells in Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Muddasir Hassan; Fatima, Sana; Naz, Naila; Malik, Ihtzaz A.

    2013-01-01

    To gain insight into the hepatohistological alterations in noninjured rat liver, Nerium oleander (N.O.) leaves extract was injected intramuscularly to induce an acute phase reaction (APR). Histopathological changes were studied after 3, 12, and 24 h time course of sterile muscle abscess. Tissue integrity and any infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver were investigated by Hematoxylin and Eosin and ED1 peroxidase stainings. The administration of N.O. leaves extract (10 mL/kg) in H & E stained sections showed a general vacuolization of cytoplasm resulting loss of polarity with prominent nucleoli after 3 h of induction. At 12 h, eccentric nuclei were also observed in the sections. Marked infiltration of leucocytes with predominate macrophages was also found after 24 h as seen by ED1 positive staining. In the present study, a possible relationship between serum hepcidin and total iron level was also investigated in vivo. An early increase of hepcidin and total iron level (3 h) with a maximum at 12 h (P < 0.01; P < 0.001) was observed. These changes indicate that sterile muscle abscess may induce APR resulting in hepatic damage which is evident with the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the organ. PMID:24069586

  1. Chronic exposure to low levels of inorganic arsenic causes alterations in locomotor activity and in the expression of dopaminergic and antioxidant systems in the albino rat.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Verónica Mireya; Limón-Pacheco, Jorge Humberto; Carrizales, Leticia; Mendoza-Trejo, María Soledad; Giordano, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have associated chronic arsenicism with decreases in IQ and sensory and motor alterations in humans. Likewise, studies of rodents exposed to inorganic arsenic ((i)As) have found changes in locomotor activity, brain neurochemistry, behavioral tasks, oxidative stress, and in sensory and motor nerves. In the current study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to environmentally relevant doses of (i)As (0.05, 0.5 mg (i)As/L) and to a high dose (50 mg (i)As/L) in drinking water for one year. Hypoactivity and increases in the striatal dopamine content were found in the group treated with 50 mg (i)As/L. Exposure to 0.5 and 50 mg (i)As/L increased the total brain content of As. Furthermore, (i)As exposure produced a dose-dependent up-regulation of mRNA for Mn-SOD and Trx-1 and a down-regulation of DAR-D₂ mRNA levels in the nucleus accumbens. DAR-D₁ and Nrf2 mRNA expression were down-regulated in nucleus accumbens in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L. Trx-1 mRNA levels were up-regulated in the cortex in an (i)As dose-dependent manner, while DAR-D₁ mRNA expression was increased in striatum in the 0.5 mg (i)As/L group. These results show that chronic exposure to low levels of arsenic causes subtle but region-specific changes in the nervous system, especially in antioxidant systems and dopaminergic elements. These changes became behaviorally evident only in the group exposed to 50 mg (i)As/L. PMID:20699118

  2. Reaction of Rat Subcutaneous Connective Tissue to Resin Composites Polymerized with Different Light Curing Units and Different Lightening Methods

    PubMed Central

    Feiz, Atiyeh; Arbabzadeh Zavareh, Farahnaz; Mohammad Razavi, Seyed; Badrian, Hamid; Dolatyar, Sepideh; Vajihi, Mansoureh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine and compare the reaction of rat subcutaneous connective tissue to resin composites polymerized with different lights curing and lightening methods. In this in vivo study, 20 mature Wister Albino rats were used. The composite discs, 4 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick, were cured by QTH or LED light curing units with 4 different lightning methods (full power QTH, full power LED, pulse LED, and ramp LED). Five resin composite discs were implanted in each rat, so that 4 of 5 discs for implantation of cured composite discs differently and central one as control without implantation. After sacrificing at 7, 14, 30, and 60 days the inflammatory grade, fibrosis, and necrosis were determined. Freedman and Cochran tests were used to analyze the data using SPSS software ver. 15. The results of the study showed significant differences in inflammation grade and fibrosis among control group and 4 experimental groups at day 14 (P < 0.05). In necrosis, there was no significant difference among 4 groups in different times (P > 0.05). In conclusion, neither the type of light curing units (LED or QTH) nor the lightening methods can affect the grade of inflammatory reaction. PMID:22761617

  3. Antioxidant Properties of the Extracts of Talinum Triangulare and its Effect on Antioxidant enzymes in Tissue Homogenate of Swiss Albino Rat

    PubMed Central

    Afolabi, Olakunle Bamikole; Oloyede, Omotade Ibidun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to put into consideration both the in vitro and in vivo investigations on Talinum triangulare (Tt), an herbaceous perennial plant that is a native of tropical America and one of the most important vegetables in Nigeria. Methods: Total phenolic contents in (mg GAE/100 g), flavonoid contents, the ferric reducing antioxidant properties (FRAP), 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl free radical scavenging ability (OH-) and iron chelating ability were carried out in vivo using standard described methods while GSH, GPx, catalase and SOD were determined in vivo using standard described methods. Results: In the three different solvents extraction of T. triangulare that were studied in vitro, it was noted that ethyl acetate and ethanolic fractions of T. triangulare showed potent antioxidant activity against DPPH and iron chelating property with high phenolic content except Hydroxyl free radical scavenging ability that showed highest value in the aqueous extract, while the Reduced GSH indicated the highest in the parameter determined in vivo. Conclusion: The antioxidant properties showed in this solvent extractable component probably could have been the basis for the enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes at very lower dose in the examined tissue homogenates. Therefore, T. triangulare can thereby serve as a means of Preventing some of major degenerative diseases challenging Humans PMID:25948971

  4. Antihyperglycemic and antioxidative effects of the hydro-methanolic extract of the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc on streptozotocin-induced diabetes in male albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Jana, Kishalay; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; De, Debasis; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

    2012-01-01

    Background: No satisfactory effective treatment is available yet to cure diabetes mellitus. Though, synthetic drugs are used but there are several drawbacks. The attributed antihyperglycemic effects of many traditional plants are due to their ability for the management of diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A hydromethanolic extract was administered orally at a dose of 250 mg/kg of body weight per day for 21 days. Its effects on the fasting blood glucose (FBG) level, activities of key carbohydrate metabolic enzymes like hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and antioxidant enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase along with the effect on the lipid peroxidation level in hepatic tissues were measured. Glycogen levels were also assessed in hepatic and skeletal muscles and some toxicity parameters, such as serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, and alkaline phosphates activities were measured. Results: Treatment of the hydromethanolic extract of the seeds of Caesalpinia bonduc resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) recovery in the activities of carbohydrate metabolic enzymes along with correction in FBG and glycogen levels as compared with the untreated diabetic group. The extract also resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) recovery in the activities of toxicity assessment enzyme parameters. Activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase along with the lipid peroxidation levels were also recovered significantly (P < 0.05) after the treatment of the extract. The corrective effects produced by the extract were compared with the standard antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide. Conclusion: Our findings provide that the extract shows possible antihyperglycemic and antioxidative activities. PMID:22224063

  5. Chinese green tea consumption reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and tissues damage in smoke exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awaida, Wajdy; Akash, Muhanad; Aburubaiha, Zaid; Talib, Wamidh H.; Shehadeh, Hayel

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): One cause of cigarette smoking is oxidative stress that may alter the cellular antioxidant defense system, induce apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. It has been shown that Chinese green tea (CGT) (Lung Chen Tea) has higher antioxidant property than black tea. In this paper, we will explore the preventive effect of CGT on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and tissues inflammation in albino rat model. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups, i.e. sham air (SA), cigarette smoke (CS), CGT 2% plus SA or plus CS. The exposure to smoking was carried out as a single daily dose (1 cigarette/rat) for a period of 90 days using an electronically controlled smoking machine. Sham control albino rats were exposed to air instead of cigarette smoke. Tissues were collected 24 hr after last CS exposure for histology and all enzyme assays. Apoptosis was evidenced by the fragmentation of DNA using TUNEL assay. Results: Long-term administration of cigarette smoke altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. All these pathophysiological and biochemical events were significantly improved when the cigarette smoke-exposed albino rats were given CGT infusion as a drink instead of water. Conclusion: Exposure of albino rat model to cigarette smoke caused oxidative stress, altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and tissues damage, which could be prevented by supplementation of CGT. PMID:25729541

  6. Comparative evaluation of the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Devgan, Manish; Nanda, Arun; Ansari, Shahid Husain

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the anti-diabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb. heartwood in alloxan induced diabetic rats using extracts obtained by optimized conventional and non conventional extraction methods. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of Pterocarpus marsupium heartwood were prepared by conventional methods (infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation) and non conventional methods, such as ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The crude aqueous extracts were administered orally to both normal and alloxan induced male albino rats (Sprague-Dawley strain). The experimental set up consisted of 48 male albino rats divided into 6 groups: Normal control, diabetic control (sterile normal saline, 1 ml/100 g body weight), standard (gliclazide, 25 mg/1000g of body weight), groups 4-6 (crude aqueous percolation, optimized UAE and MAE extract, 250 mg/1000g of body weight). In acute treatment, the reduction of blood glucose level was statistically significant with the oral administration of UAE and percolation aqueous extracts to the hyperglycemic rats. In sub-acute treatment, the UAE aqueous extract led to consistent and statistically significant (p<0.001) reduction in the blood glucose levels. There was no abnormal change in body weight of the hyperglycemic animals after 10 days of administration of plant extracts and gliclazide. This study justifies the traditional claim and provides a rationale for the use of Pterocarpus marsupium to treat diabetes mellitus. The antidiabetic activity of Pterocarpus marsupium can be enhanced by extracting the heartwood by non conventional method of UAE. PMID:24035955

  7. Mistletoes and mutant albino shoots on woody plants as mineral nutrient traps

    PubMed Central

    Lo Gullo, M. A.; Glatzel, G.; Devkota, M.; Raimondo, F.; Trifilò, P.; Richter, H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Potassium, sulphur and zinc contents of mistletoe leaves are generally higher than in their hosts. This is attributed to the fact that chemical elements which are cycled between xylem and phloem in the process of phloem loading of sugars are trapped in the mistletoe, because these parasites do not feed their hosts. Here it is hypothesized that mutant albino shoots on otherwise green plants should behave similarly, because they lack photosynthesis and thus cannot recycle elements involved in sugar loading. Methods The mineral nutrition of the mistletoe Scurrula elata was compared with that of albino shoots on Citrus sinensis and Nerium oleander. The potential for selective nutrient uptake by the mistletoe was studied by comparing element contents of host leaves on infected and uninfected branches and by manipulation of the haustorium–shoot ratio in mistletoes. Phloem anatomy of albino leaves was compared with that of green leaves. Key Results Both mistletoes and albino leaves had higher contents of potassium, sulphur and zinc than hosts or green leaves, respectively. Hypothetical discrimination of nutrient elements during the uptake by the haustorium is not supported by our data. Anatomical studies of albino leaves showed characteristics of release phloem. Conclusions Both albino shoots and mistletoes are traps for elements normally recycled between xylem and phloem, because retranslocation of phloem mobile elements into the mother plant or the host is low or absent. It can be assumed that the lack of photosynthetic activity in albino shoots and thus of sugars needed in phloem loading is responsible for the accumulation of elements. The absence of phloem loading is reflected in phloem anatomy of these abnormal shoots. In mistletoes the evolution of a parasitic lifestyle has obviously eliminated substantial feeding of the host with photosynthates produced by the mistletoe. PMID:22442343

  8. A method for intratracheal instillation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Morrow, W G

    1975-06-01

    A method was developed to provide safe, rapid, and accurate intratracheal instillation of radionuclides into the rat lung. Rats were anesthetized with halothane and suspended vertically on an animal support stand with rubber bands attached to the incisor teeth, holding the mouth open. A speculum was inserted into the trachea and the radionuclide was injected from a syringe through tubing inserted through the tracheal speculum into the trachea. The amount of radionuclide retained in the lung varied by less than a factor of 2 within groups of rats observed 4 hr-20 da after employing this method of instillation. When a volume of 2 ml was instilled, the radionuclide distribution between the left and right lung was similar to that observed following incorporation by inhalation. Instillations of less than 2 ml showed unequal distribution of radionuclide between the right and left lung. PMID:1142728

  9. Recovery of Green Plantlets from Albino Shoot Primordia Derived from Anther Culture of Indica Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Mohiuddin, Abul Kashem Md.; Karim, Nilufer Hye; Sultana, Shahanaz; Ferdous, Zannatul

    2011-01-01

    A simple method was developed to permit albino plant regeneration from anther culture of Hobigonj Boro (Hbj B) IV and Hbj B VI, two local varieties of aromatic indica rice from Bangladesh. Three crucial factors were identified for the albino shoot primordia to change into green plantlets in culture; components of M10 induction medium, callus size (range 0.2–0.4 cm long) and height of shoot primordia (range 2–3 mm). Immediate transfer of shoot primordia (2–3 mm) from M10 medium to regeneration medium followed by continuous incubation under fluorescent light (100-lux, 25±1°C) triggered albino shoot primordia to turn green in 2–3 days. Callus size did not show any effect on the change. Albino plantlets derived from anther callus cultured in KA, KB, KC, KD and KE media did not recover in both the varieties. Transfer of albino shoot primordia shorter or longer than 2–3 mm from the above 5 cultures to regeneration medium did not cause the shoot primordia to turn green. 100% albino shoot primordia initiated from Hbj B VI and 79% from Hbj B IV in M10 medium changed to green plantlets upon transfer to regeneration medium. Subsequent culture and subculture of green plantlets showed rapid formation of many new green plantlets. PMID:24575205

  10. An Observational Assessment Method for Aging Laboratory Rats

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Pamela M; Jarema, Kimberly A; Kurtz, David M; MacPhail, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    The rapid growth of the aging human population highlights the need for laboratory animal models to study the basic biologic processes of aging and susceptibility to disease, drugs, and environmental pollutants. Methods are needed to evaluate the health of aging animals over time, particularly methods for efficiently monitoring large research colonies. Here we describe an observational assessment method that scores appearance, posture, mobility, and muscle tone on a 5-point scale that can be completed in about 1 min. A score of 1 indicates no deterioration, whereas a score of 5 indicates severe deterioration. Tests were applied to male Brown Norway rats between 12 and 36 mo of age (n = 32). The rats were participating concurrently in experiments on the behavioral effects of intermittent exposure (approximately every 4 mo) to short-acting environmental chemicals. Results demonstrated that aging-related signs of deterioration did not appear before 18 mo of age. Assessment scores and variability then increased with age. Body weights increased until approximately 24 mo, then remained stable, but decreased after 31 mo for the few remaining rats. The incidence of death increased slightly from 20 to 28 mo of age and then rose sharply; median survival age was approximately 30 mo, with a maximum of 36 mo. The results indicate that our observational assessment method supports efficient monitoring of the health of aging rats and may be useful in studies on susceptibility to diseases, drugs, and toxicants during old age. PMID:21205442

  11. Effect of Atorvastatin on Memory in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    M.C., Das; Rao A.S.R., Srinivasa; Kadali, SLDV Ramana Murty

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim and objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of atorvastatin on learning and memory in albino mice. Materials and Methods: Thirty Swiss albino mice were divided into 5groups (n=6). In group2, group4 and group5 hyperlipidemia was induced by high fat diet (HFD) orally for 28days. Atrorvastatin was given to group3, group4 and group5 orally for 14 d. Learning and memory was evaluated with Hebb Williams’s maze, Elevated plus maze, Y maze and Step through latency. Continuous data were analyzed by one way ANOVA followed by Scheffe multiple range test, discrete data were analyzed by Kruskal - Wallis test. The level of significance was 5% (p ≤ 0.05). Result and Conclusion: HFD treatment had shown significant increase in body weight, significant impairment in learning and memory (p < 0.05). Only atorvastatin treated group had shown better learning and memory in comparison to HFD group. Atorvastatin 10mg/kg and 20 mg/kg had reversed the HFD induced impairment of learning and memory but there was no significant difference between the doses (p > 0.05). PMID:25584244

  12. Effect of chronic usage of tramadol on motor cerebral cortex and testicular tissues of adult male albino rats and the effect of its withdrawal: histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Khalaf, Hanaa A; Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Helaly, Ahmed N

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the histopathological and biochemical changes in rat cerebral cortex and testicles due to chronic usage of tramadol and the effect of withdrawal. Thirty adult male rats weighing 180-200 gm were classified into three groups; group I (control group) group II (10 rats received 50 mg/kg/day of tramadol intraperitoneally for 4 weeks) and group III (10 rats received the same dose as group II then kept 4 weeks later to study the effect of withdrawal). Histological and immunohistochemical examination of cerebral cortex and testicular specimens for Bax (apoptotic marker) were carried out. Testicular specimens were examined by electron microscopy. RT-PCR after RNA extraction from both specimens was done for the genes of some antioxidant enzymes .Also, malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured colourimetrically in tissues homogenizate. The results of this study demonstrated histological changes in testicular and brain tissues in group II compared to group I with increased apoptotic index proved by increased Bax expression. Moreover in this group increased MDA level with decreased gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes revealed oxidative stress. Group III showed signs of improvement but not returned completely normal. It could be concluded that administration of tramadol have histological abnormalities on both cerebral cortex and testicular tissues associated with oxidative stress in these organs. Also, there is increased apoptosis in both organs which regresses with withdrawal. These findings may provide a possible explanation for delayed fertility and psychological changes associated with tramadol abuse. PMID:25550769

  13. A Method for Recording Urethral Pressure Profiles in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shengfei; Li, Xiaohui; Xu, Lei; Chen, Biao; Tan, Huibing; Du, Guanghui

    2015-01-01

    Aims Urethral pressure profile (UPP) and leak-point pressure (LPP) measurements as well as external urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography (EMG) and videourodynamic analyses are the primary methods for evaluating urethral function in humans. However, UPP recording in female rats, a widely used animal model, is challenging due to their small body sizes. This study reports a novel method for recording UPP in female rats. Materials and Methods Seventeen anesthetized female rats were studied. LPP data for 14 rats were included. The other 3 rats were excluded because of death or abnormal urogenital organs. UPP curves were recorded using a modified water-perfusion catheter system, with the lateral hole facing the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-o’clock positions in a randomized sequence. LPP, functional urethral length (FUL) and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) were analyzed. Results The mean LPP was 64.39 ± 20.29 cm H2O. The mean FUL and MUCP values at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-o’clock positions were 12.90 ± 1.20, 16.70 ± 1.95, 13.90 ± 2.42, and 11.60 ± 0.97 mm, respectively, and 38.70 ± 11.85, 33.90 ± 11.82, 37.40 ± 11.95, and 71.90 ± 23.01 cm H2O, respectively. The FUL at the 6-o’clock position and MUCP at the 12-o’clock position were significantly greater than those at the other 3 positions. The FUL and MUCP of repeated UPP recordings were not significantly different than those of the first recordings. Conclusions UPP recording using a modified method based on a water-perfusion catheter system is feasible and replicable in female rats. It produces UPP curves that sensitively and appreciably reflect detailed pressure changes at different points within the urethra and thus provides opportunity to evaluate urethral structures, especially the urethral sphincter, in detail. These results may enhance the utility of female rat models in research of urinary sphincter mechanisms. PMID:26502072

  14. Biochemical and molecular studies on the possible influence of the Brassica oleracea and Beta vulgaris extracts to mitigate the effect of food preservatives and food chemical colorants on albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarhan, Mohammed A.A.; Shati, Ali A.; Elsaid, Fahmy G.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the biochemical influence of broccoli and beet extracts on selected individual additives NaNO2 or sunset yellow treated rats, in addition to the gene expression of some antioxidant enzymes. Forty-two male rats were assigned to seven groups of six rats in each group. The control group was fed a diet without an additive for four weeks. Group (2) received NaNO2, groups (3) received NaNO2 co-administered with broccoli extract (4) NaNO2 co-administered with beet extracts, Group (5) received sunset yellow, Group (6) received sunset yellow co-administered with broccoli extract, and Group (7) received sunset yellow co-administered with beet extract, for four weeks. At the end of the experiment, blood, liver, kidney, and brain samples were taken for biochemical and/or molecular analysis. The mRNA expression of antioxidant enzymes was determined by reversing transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The obtained results revealed that rats co-administered with beet or broccoli extracts had a significant decrease in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, urea, total lipids, and triglycerides, as well as a significant increase in reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities, compared to the normal control group. Oral administration of NaNO2 or sunset yellow caused a significant increase in serum levels of AST, ALT, ALP, urea, total lipids, and triglycerides, as well as a significant decrease in GSH, GSH-px, and SOD compared to the positive group. In conclusion, this study showed that broccoli and beet extracts have a protective effect against NaNO2 or sunset yellow in rat treated groups. PMID:25183945

  15. METHODS FOR ASSESSING RAT SPERM MOTILITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) systems are becoming more widely used. ith this spread of technology come more data from toxicology studies, designed to determine if treatment with putative toxicants affects sperm motion parameters. hile these CASA methods provide us with...

  16. Genetic and developmental studies of albino chorus frogs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, Paul Stephen

    1986-01-01

    Albino (amelanic) adult chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) occurred with frequencies of 7 percent in 1981 and 12 percent in 1982 in breeding aggregations at a pond in the foothills of the Colorado Front Range. Laboratory matings and examination of albino egg masses suggest that the absence of melanin is due to a recessive allele. The albino phenotype displayed no deficiencies in survival of embryos, rates of embryo or larval development, or rates of growth of juvenile frogs. The absence of abnormalities in development or growth suggests that the a allele in P. triseriata has an action different from albino alleles studied previously in anurans.

  17. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of ethanolic extract of Salvadora oleoides in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, J.P.; Saini, Sushila; Kalia, A.N.; Dangi, A.S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To find out the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of an ethanolic extract of the aerial part of Salvadora oleoides Decne in euglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.). Normal as well as diabetic albino rats were divided into groups (n = 6) receiving different treatments: vehicle (control), ethanolic extract (1 g and 2 g/kg b.w), and standard antidiabetic drug tolbutamide (0.5 g/kg b.w.). Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture and were analyzed for blood glucose and lipid profile on days 0, 7, 14, and 21. Results: The ethanolic extract of S oleoides produced significant reduction (P < 0.001) in blood glucose and also had beneficial effects (P < 0.001) on the lipid profile in euglycemic as well as alloxan-induced diabetic rats at the end of the treatment period (21st day). However, the reduction in the blood glucose and improvement in lipid profile was less than that achieved with the standard drug tolbutamide. Conclusion: We concluded that an ethanolic extract of S oleoides is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and improves lipid profile in euglycemic as well as diabetic rats. PMID:21264157

  18. A novel method to study cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in rats

    PubMed Central

    Karimy, Jason K.; Kahle, Kristopher T.; Kurland, David B.; Yu, Edward; Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J. Marc

    2014-01-01

    Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow dynamics play critical roles in both the immature and adult brain, with implications for neurodevelopment and disease processes such as hydrocephalus and neurodegeneration. Remarkably, the only reported method to date for measuring CSF formation in laboratory rats is the indirect tracer dilution method (a.k.a., ventriculocisternal perfusion), which has limitations. New Method Anesthetized rats were mounted in a stereotaxic apparatus, both lateral ventricles were cannulated, and the Sylvian aqueduct was occluded. Fluid exited one ventricle at a rate equal to the rate of CSF formation plus the rate of infusion (if any) into the contralateral ventricle. Pharmacological agents infused at a constant known rate into the contralateral ventricle were tested for their effect on CSF formation in real-time. Results The measured rate of CSF formation was increased by blockade of the Sylvian aqueduct but was not changed by increasing the outflow pressure (0–3 cm of H2O). In male Wistar rats, CSF formation was age-dependent: 0.39±0.06, 0.74±0.05, 1.02±0.04 and 1.40±0.06 µL/min at 8, 9, 10 and 12 weeks, respectively. CSF formation was reduced 57% by intraventricular infusion of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, acetazolamide. Comparison with existing methods Tracer dilution methods do not permit ongoing real-time determination of the rate of CSF formation, are not readily amenable to pharmacological manipulations, and require critical assumptions. Direct measurement of CSF formation overcomes these limitations. Conclusions Direct measurement of CSF formation in rats is feasible. Our method should prove useful for studying CSF dynamics in normal physiology and disease models. PMID:25554415

  19. [The structure of the initial inputs into the metasympathetic nervous system of the rat uterus].

    PubMed

    Kucheriavykh, L E; Skopichev, V G; Nozdrachev, A D

    1999-01-01

    Different populations of sympathetic neurons exerting modulating influence on neurons of nervous plexuses of proper metasympathetic nervous system of the uterus in albino laboratory rats were detected using the method on retrograde transport of fluorescent marker primulin. Following the injection of the marker into uterovaginal plexus, labelled neurons were found as aggregations in caudal mesenterial sympathetic ganglia, ganglia of coeliac plexus, renal ganglia and ganglia of coeliac trunk. The structure of nervous paths of external control of uterus functioning was analysed. PMID:10709194

  20. Retinal image degradation by optical aberrations and light scatter in normal and albino chick eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Yibin; Shieh, Kevin; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2007-02-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of retinal image quality requires that light scatter as well as optical aberrations be considered. In investigating how retinal image degradation affects eye growth in the chick model of myopia, we developed a simple method based on Shack-Hartmann images for evaluating the effects of both monochromatic aberrations and light scatter on retinal image quality. We further evaluated our method in the current study by applying it to data collected from both normal chick eyes and albino eyes that were expected to show increased intraocular light scatter. To analyze light scatter in our method, each Shack-Hartmann dot is treated as a local point spread function (PSF) that is the convolution of a local scatter PSF and a lenslet diffraction PSF. The local scatter PSF is obtained by de-convolution, and is fitted with a circularly symmetric Gaussian function using nonlinear regressions. A whole-eye scatter PSF also can be derived from the local scatter PSFs for the analyzed pupil. Aberrations are analyzed using OSA standard Zernike polynomials, and aberration-related PSF calculated from reconstructed wavefront using fast Fourier transform. Modulation transfer functions (MTFs) are computed separately for aberration and scatter PSFs, and a whole-eye MTF is derived as the product of the two. This method was applied to 4 normal and 4 albino eyes. Compared to normal eyes, albino eyes were more aberrated and showed greater light scatter. As a result, overall retinal image degradation was much greater in albino eyes than in normal eyes, with the relative contribution to retinal image degradation of light scatter compared to aberrations also being greater for albino eyes.

  1. Effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression in male albino Rattus norvegicus

    PubMed Central

    Tabassum, Imrana; Siddiqui, Zeba N.; Rizvi, Shamim J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to study the ameliorative effects of Ocimum sanctum and Camellia sinensis on stress-induced anxiety and depression. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out using male albino rats (200 ± 50 g). The effect of O. sanctum and C. sinensis was evaluated for anxiety and depression using elevated plus maze (EPM) test, open field test (OFT), forced swim test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST). Result: Restraint stress (3 h/day for six consecutive days) induced a significant reduction in both the percentage number of entries and time spent in open arms in EPM, and these changes were reversed with post-treatment of aqueous extract of O. sanctum and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg for 6 days). Restraint stress-induced (a) increased latency and (b) decreased ambulation and rearing were also reversed by O. sanctum and C. sinensis in OFT. A significant increase in immobility period was observed in FST and TST after restraint stress. O. sanctum and C. sinensis significantly reduced the immobility times of rats in FST and TST. Conclusion: O. sanctum and C. sinensis possess anxiolytic and antidepressant activities. PMID:21206619

  2. How does agonistic behaviour differ in albino and pigmented fish?

    PubMed Central

    Horký, Pavel; Wackermannová, Marie

    2016-01-01

    In addition to hypopigmentation of the skin and red iris colouration, albino animals also display distinct physiological and behavioural alterations. However, information on the social interactions of albino animals is rare and has mostly been limited to specially bred strains of albino rodents and animals from unique environments in caves. Differentiating between the effects of albinism and domestication on behaviour in rodents can be difficult, and social behaviour in cave fish changes according to species-specific adaptations to conditions of permanent darkness. The agonistic behaviours of albino offspring of pigmented parents have yet to be described. In this study, we observed agonistic behaviour in albino and pigmented juvenile Silurus glanis catfish. We found that the total number of aggressive interactions was lower in albinos than in pigmented catfish. The distance between conspecifics was also analysed, and albinos showed a tendency towards greater separation from their same-coloured conspecifics compared with pigmented catfish. These results demonstrate that albinism can be associated with lower aggressiveness and with reduced shoaling behaviour preference, as demonstrated by a tendency towards greater separation of albinos from conspecifics. PMID:27114883

  3. Antidiabetic Potentiality of the Aqueous-Methanolic Extract of Seed of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Albino Rat: A Correlative and Evidence-Based Approach with Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Activities

    PubMed Central

    De, Debasis; Chatterjee, Kausik; Ali, Kazi Monjur; Bera, Tushar Kanti; Ghosh, Debidas

    2011-01-01

    Antidiabetic, antioxidative, and antihyperlipidemic activities of aqueous-methanolic (2 : 3) extract of Swietenia mahagoni (L.) Jacq. (family Meliaceae) seed studied in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Feeding with seed extract (25 mg 0.25 mL distilled water−1100 gm b.w.−1rat−1 day−1) for 21 days to diabetic rat lowered the blood glucose level as well as the glycogen level in liver. Moreover, activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase, peroxidase, and levels of the products of free radicals like conjugated diene and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in liver, kidney, and skeletal muscles were corrected towards the control after this extract treatment in this model. Furthermore, the seed extract corrected the levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoproteins towards the control level in this experimental diabetic model. The results indicated the potentiality of the extract of S. mahagoni seed for the correction of diabetes and its related complications like oxidative stress and hyperlipidemia. The extract may be a good candidate for developing a safety, tolerable, and promising neutraceutical treatment for the management of diabetes. PMID:20981322

  4. Ommochrome genesis in an albino strain of a terrestrial isopod.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Y; Negishi, S; Naito, J; Ikeda, R; Hasegawa, H; Nagamura, Y; Ishiguro, I

    1999-01-01

    The contents of tryptophan (Trp) metabolites and the activities of the enzymes involved in ommochrome biosynthesis were measured in an albino strain of a terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. There was little difference between the Trp content in the albino mutant and that in the wild type, although the contents of 3-hydroxykynurenine (3-OH-Kyn), 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-OH-AA) and xanthommatin in the albino were significantly lower than those in the wild type. Tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) activity in the albino was extremely low, while the activities of Kyn-3-hydroxylase and kynureninase did not differ significantly between the two phenotypes. The extremely low activity of TDO is probably one of main reasons why almost no ommochrome pigment is produced in the albino mutant. PMID:10721113

  5. Tolerance of an albino fish to ultraviolet-B radiation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fabacher, D.L.; Little, E.E.; Ostrander, G.K.

    1999-01-01

    We exposed albino and pigmented medaka Oryzias latipes to simulated solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation to determine if albino medaka were less tolerant of UVB radiation than medaka pigmented with melanin. There was no difference in the number of albino and pigmented medaka that died during the exposure period. Spectrophotometric analyses of the outer dorsal skin layers from albino and pigmented medaka indicated that, prior to exposure, both groups of fish had similar amounts of an apparent colorless non-melanin photoprotective substance that appears to protect other fish species from UVB radiation. Our results indicate that albino medaka were as tolerant of UVB radiation as pigmented medaka because they had similar amounts of this photoprotective substance in the outer layers of the skin.

  6. Methods for 17β-oestradiol administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Isaksson, Ida-Maria; Theodorsson, Annette; Theodorsson, Elvar; Strom, Jakob O

    2011-11-01

    Several studies indicate that the beneficial or harmful effects of oestrogens in stroke are dose-dependent. Rats are amongst the most frequently used animals in these studies, which calls for thoroughly validated methods for administering 17β-oestradiol to rats. In an earlier study we characterised three different administration methods for 17β-oestradiol over 42 days. The present study assesses the concentrations in a short time perspective, with the addition of a novel peroral method. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomised and administered 17β-oestradiol by subcutaneous injections, silastic capsules, pellets and orally (in the nut-cream Nutella(®)), respectively. One group received 17β-oestradiol by silastic capsules without previous washout time. Blood samples were obtained after 30 minutes, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 168 hours and serum 17β-oestradiol (and oestrone sulphate in some samples) was subsequently analysed. For long-term characterisation, one group treated perorally was blood sampled after 2, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days. At sacrifice, uterine horns were weighed and subcutaneous tissue samples were taken for histological assessment. The pellets, silastic capsule and injection groups produced serum 17β-oestradiol concentrations that were initially several orders of magnitude higher than physiological levels, while the peroral groups had 17β-oestradiol levels that were within the physiological range during the entire experiment. The peroral method is a promising option for administering 17β-oestradiol if physiological levels or similarity to women's oral hormone therapy are desired. Uterine weights were found to be a very crude measure of oestrogen exposure. PMID:21834617

  7. Metabolic rate and thermal insulation in albino and hairless mice

    PubMed Central

    Mount, L. E.

    1971-01-01

    1. Rates of oxygen consumption of albino and hairless mice were measured in a metabolism chamber during periods of approximately 5 or 24 hr. Rectal temperature was measured before and after each period. The chamber temperatures used were 22, 30 and 32° C for both albino and hairless, and in addition 34 and 36° C for the hairless mice. 2. The mean age and body weight of the albino mice were 102 days and 34·6 g; the corresponding values for the hairless mice were 87 days and 32·8 g. 3. The mean minimum rates of oxygen consumption (ml./kg.min) were 31·0 for the albino and 38·8 for the hairless mouse; the corresponding estimated critical temperatures were in the ranges 30-32° C for the albino mouse and 32-34° C for the hairless mouse. 4. The mean values for core-ambient thermal insulation (° C.m2.hr/kcal) were 0·418 and 0·328 for the albino mouse, and 0·275 and 0·221 for the hairless mouse, at 22 and 30° C respectively in each case. PMID:5097602

  8. Comparative analysis of ACTH and corticosterone sampling methods in rats.

    PubMed

    Vahl, Torsten P; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Ostrander, Michelle M; Dolgas, C Mark; Elfers, Eileen E; Seeley, Randy J; D'Alessio, David A; Herman, James P

    2005-11-01

    A frequently debated question for studies involving the measurement of stress hormones in rodents is the optimal method for collecting blood with minimal stress to the animal. Some investigators prefer the implantation of indwelling catheters to allow for frequent sampling. Others argue that the implantation of a catheter creates a chronic stress to the animal that confounds stress hormone measures and therefore rely on tail vein sampling. Moreover, some investigators measure hormones in trunk blood samples obtained after anesthesia, a practice that may itself raise hormone levels. To address these controversies, we 1) compared plasma ACTH and corticosterone (Cort) concentrations in pre- and poststress rat blood samples obtained via previously implanted vena cava catheters, tail vein nicks, or clipping the tip off the tail and 2) compared plasma ACTH and Cort in rat blood samples obtained by decapitation with and without anesthesia. Rats sampled via indwelling catheters displayed lower prestress ACTH levels than those sampled by tail vein nick if the time to acquire samples was not limited; however, elevated basal ACTH was not observed in samples obtained by tail clip or tail nick when the samples were obtained within 3 min. Baseline Cort levels were similar in all groups. After restraint stress, the profile of the plasma ACTH and Cort responses was not affected by sampling method. Decapitation with prior administration of CO2 or pentobarbital sodium increased plasma ACTH levels approximately 13- and 2-fold, respectively, when compared with decapitation without anesthesia. These data indicate that tail vein nicking, tail clipping, or indwelling venous catheters can be used for obtaining plasma for ACTH and Cort during acute stress studies without confounding the measurements. However, the elevation in basal ACTH seen in the tail vein nick group at baseline suggests that sampling needs to be completed rapidly (<3 min) to avoid the initiation of the pituitary stress

  9. An Efficient Method for Generation of Transgenic Rats Avoiding Embryo Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Bhola Shankar; Majumdar, Subeer S

    2016-01-01

    Although rats are preferred over mice as an animal model, transgenic animals are generated predominantly using mouse embryos. There are limitations in the generation of transgenic rat by embryo manipulation. Unlike mouse embryos, most of the rat embryos do not survive after male pronuclear DNA injection which reduces the efficiency of generation of transgenic rat by this method. More importantly, this method requires hundreds of eggs collected by killing several females for insertion of transgene to generate transgenic rat. To this end, we developed a noninvasive and deathless technique for generation of transgenic rats by integrating transgene into the genome of the spermatogonial cells by testicular injection of DNA followed by electroporation. After standardization of this technique using EGFP as a transgene, a transgenic disease model displaying alpha thalassemia was successfully generated using rats. This efficient method will ease the generation of transgenic rats without killing the lives of rats while simultaneously reducing the number of rats used for generation of transgenic animal. PMID:27111419

  10. Antifertility activity of Ailanthus excelsa Linn. in female albino rats.

    PubMed

    Dhanasekaran, S; Suresh, B; Sethuraman, M; Rajan, S; Dubey, R

    1993-04-01

    Alcoholic extract of leaf and stem bark of A. excelsa at a dose of 250 mg equivalent of plant material/kg body weight, exhibited remarkably high anti-implantation and early abortifacient activities. The results are in agreement with the traditional use of this plant as a abortifacient by the Irula women of the Nilgiri district. PMID:8359839

  11. Deficits in reproductive behaviour in septally lesioned female rats.

    PubMed

    Gogate, M G; Brid, S V; Wingkar, K C

    1991-12-01

    Estrous cycle and sexual behaviour were studied in septally lesioned female albino Wistar rats. In lesioned rats the vaginal smears showed continuous diestrus and the females failed to exhibit sexual receptivity during the postoperative period. Ovarian and uterine weights in lesioned rats were also significantly decreased. The results suggest that the septal nuclei exert a modulatory influence on female sexual behaviour. PMID:1816101

  12. Differences in Retinal Structure and Function between Aging Male and Female Sprague-Dawley Rats are Strongly Influenced by the Estrus Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Chaychi, Samaneh; Polosa, Anna; Lachapelle, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Biological sex and age are considered as two important factors that may influence the function and structure of the retina, an effect that might be governed by sexual hormones such as estrogen. The purpose of this study was to delineate the influence that biological sex and age exert on the retinal function and structure of rodents and also clarify the effect that the estrus cycle might exert on the retinal function of female rats. Method The retinal function of 50 normal male and female albino Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was investigated with the electroretinogram (ERG) at postnatal day (P) 30, 60, 100, 200, and 300 (n = 5–6 male and female rats/age). Following the ERG recording sessions, retinal histology was performed in both sexes. In parallel, the retinal function of premenopausal and menopausal female rats aged P540 were also compared. Results Sex and age-related changes in retinal structure and function were observed in our animal model. However, irrespective of age, no significant difference was observed in ERG and retinal histology obtained from male and female rats. Notwithstanding the above we did however notice that between P60 and P200 there was a gradual increase in ERG amplitudes of female rats compared to males. Furthermore, the ERG of premenopausal female rats aged 18 months old (P540) was larger compared to age-matched menopausal female rats as well as that of male rats. Conclusion Our results showed that biological sex and age can influence the retinal function and structure of albino SD rats. Furthermore, we showed that cycled female rats have better retinal function compared to the menopausal female rats suggesting a beneficial effect of the estrus cycle on the retinal function. PMID:26317201

  13. Antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya Linn. leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu

    2012-01-01

    Background: India is considered as the diabetic capital of the world. The study of plants having antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activities may give a new approach in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Objective: The study was intended to evaluate the antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity of aqueous extract of leaves of Carica papaya Linn. (AECPL) in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (120 mg/kg, i.p.). Rats were divided into 6 groups of 6 animals each. First group served as non-diabetic control, second group as diabetic control, third group as standard and was treated with 0.1 mg/kg/day of glibenclamide. Group 4, 5, and 6 received 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight of AECPL. Blood samples were analyzed for blood glucose on day 0, 1, 7, 14, 21 and lipid profile on day 21. Results: The AECPL showed significant reduction (P<0.01) in blood glucose level and serum lipid profile levels with 400 mg/kg body weight in alloxan-induced diabetic rats as compared with the control. Conclusion: It is concluded that AECPL is effective in controlling blood glucose levels and in improving lipid profile in diabetic rats. PMID:22707862

  14. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  15. Differences in MITF gene expression and histology between albino and normal sea cucumbers ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Heling; Yang, Hongsheng; Zhao, Huan; Liu, Shilin; Wang, Tianming

    2012-01-01

    Albino Apostichopus japonicus occur both in the wild and in captivity. The offspring of albino A. japonicus also suffer from albinism. The formation of melanin in the melanocytes is dependant on microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). To investigate the role of MITF in controlling albinism, we cloned the full-length MITF cDNA from A. japonicus and compared MITF mRNA expression in albino and normal A. japonicus. In addition, we used light and electron microscopy to compare histological samples of normal and albino A. japonicus. The body wall of albino adults was characterized by significantly lower levels of MITF expression and lower numbers of epidermal melanocytes, which also contained less melanin. In albino juvenile offspring, MITF expression levels were significantly lower 32 d after fertilization and there were fewer, and less developed, epidermal melanocytes. Thus, we conclude that albino A. japonicus have fewer melanocytes and a reduced ability to synthesize melanin, likely because of lower expression of MITF.

  16. Pharmacokinetic study of arctigenin in rat plasma and organ tissue by RP-HPLC method.

    PubMed

    He, Fan; Dou, De-Qiang; Hou, Qiang; Sun, Yu; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was developed for the determination of arctigenin in plasma and various organs of rats after the oral administration of 30, 50 and 70 mgkg(-1) of arctigenin to the Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed that the validated HPLC method was simple, fast, reproducible and suitable to the determination of arctigenin in rat plasma and organ tissue and one-compartmental model with zero-order absorption process can well describe the changes of arctigenin concentration in the plasma. The concentration of compound was highest in the spleen, less in the liver and the least in the lung. PMID:22404522

  17. Anti-neoplastic activities of sepia officinalis ink and coelatura aegyptiaca extracts against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Amel M; Fahmy, Sohair R; El-Abied, Salma A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: With the development of sophisticated instruments for the isolation and elucidation of natural products structures from marine and freshwater organisms, major advances have been made in the discovery of aquatic derived therapeutics. Present investigations were carried out to evaluate cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) ink extract (IE) and freshwater clam (Coelatura aegyptiaca) extract (CE) for their anticancer and antioxidant activities as compared to 5-flurouracil (5-Fu), in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Methods: Sixty female Swiss albino mice were divided into five groups (n = 12). All groups except group I received EAC cells (5 × 106 cells/mouse i.p.) and this was taken as the 0th day. Group I served as saline control (5 ml/kg 0.9% NaCl w/v p.o). Group II served as EAC control. Rats of groups III, IV and V received IE, CE (200 mg/kg body weight i.p.), and reference drug (5-Fu, 20 mg/kg body weight i.p.), respectively. Results: The reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, tumor cell counts and increase in median survival time and percentage increase in life span in treated animals were observed. There was a significant increase in RBC count; Hb content in treated animals and reduction in total WBC count. There was a significant decrease in AST, ALT, ALP and liver MDA levels and increase in GSH, SOD and NO levels were observed in all treated animals. Conclusion: Both IE and CE were effective in inhibiting the tumor growth in ascitic tumor models. The biochemical, antioxidants and histopathological studies were also supported their antitumor properties. PMID:26097537

  18. Methods in renal research: kidney transplantation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Tillou, Xavier; Howden, Brian O; Kanellis, John; Nikolic-Paterson, David J; Ma, Frank Y

    2016-06-01

    Kidney transplantation in small animals has been crucial in the development of anti-rejection therapies. While there is no substitute for a skilled microsurgeon, there are many aspects of the transplant procedure that can be modified to optimize the reproducibility and utility of the technique. This article provides a detailed description, including video recording, of orthotopic kidney transplantation in the rat. The key variables in the technique are also discussed. PMID:26648592

  19. Administration of Intravenous Inf liximab for Prevention of Peritoneal Adhesions Formation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nikeghbalian, Saman; Vafaei, Homeira; Moradian, Farid; Kazemi, Kourosh; Tanideh, Nader; Shayan, Leila; Nikeghbalian, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the effects of intravenous infliximab in preventing the formation of peritoneal adhesions in an animal model of rat. Methods: This was an experimental study being performed in animal laboratory of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences during 2012. Sixty albino rats were randomly assigned in to three groups by Random Design Method. The first group received single infliximab injection (n=20), the second one received double infliximab injection (n=20) and the third received nothing (n=20), after receiving intra-peritoneal injection of talc for induction of peritoneal adhesions. All the animals were sacrificed after 6 weeks and the peritoneal adhesions were evaluated according to Nair classification. Results: We observed that the mean adhesion grade was lower in those who received double dose of infliximib when compared to single dose and controls. However the difference did not reach a significant value (p=0.178). The grade of peritoneal adhesion was also comparable between the three study groups (p=0.103). The mean number of 1st WBC count was also comparable between three study groups (p=0.382). We observed that 2nd WBC count was also comparable between two study groups (p=0.317). Conclusion: Administration of intravenous infliximab after intraabdominal surgicalprocedures would not prevent the formation of peritoneal adhesions in animal model of albino rat. PMID:27162911

  20. Antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Balamurugan, Karuppasamy; Nishanthini, Antony; Mohan, Veerabahu Ramasamy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic effect of ethanol extract of Melastoma malabathricum (M. malabathricum) Linn. leaf in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods Diabetes was induced in albino rats by administration of alloxan monohydrate (150 mg/kg i.p). the ethanol extracts of M. malabathricum at a dose of 150 and 300 mg/kg of body weight were administrated at a single dose per day to diabetes induced rats for a period of 14 d. The effect of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf extract on blood glucose, plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated haemoglobin, urea serum lipid profile [total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol and phospholipid, serum protein, albumin, globulin, serum enzymes (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminases), serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase] were measured in the diabetic rats. Results In the acute toxicity study, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf was non-toxic at 2 000 mg/kg in rats. The increased body weight, decreased blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin and other biochemical parameters level were observed in diabetic rats treated with both doses of ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf compared to diabetic control rats. In diabetic rats, ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf administration, altered lipid profiles were reversed to near normal than diabetic control rats. Conclusions Ethanol extract of M. malabathricum leaf possesses significant antidiabetic and antihyperlipidaemic activity in diabetic rats. PMID:25183126

  1. Effect of Nicotinic Acid (Vitamin B3 or Niacin) on the lipid profile of diabetic and non – diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zeb Shah, Talmeez; Ali, Abdul Basit; Ahmad Jafri, Saghir; Qazi, M.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of nicotinic acid on the lipid profile of diabetic and non diabetic rats. Methods: This was an experimental study done at the Institute of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, The University of Lahore, Pakistan between May 2010 to July 2010. Nicotinic acid was administered to a hypercholesterolemic group and a hypercholesterolemic + diabetic Group of Albino rats for 42 days and response to therapy was recorded on day 21 and day 42 of the experiment. Comparison among these two groups as well as three control groups was determined by Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and differences were considered significant at (P<0.05). A total of 50 rats were included in the study. Results: Lipid profile of the hypercholesterolemic group as well as hypercholesterolemic + diabetic group as compared with the control groups showed highly significant improvement on the day 21 and day 42 of the experiment. The values of serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and total lipids (TL) showed highly significant decrease whereas serum high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol showed highly significant increase. Conclusion: Nicotinic acid is the most effective agent available in increasing HDL cholesterol and lowering serum TC, triglycerides (TG), LDL cholesterol and TL in hypercholesterolemic Diabetic and hypercholesterolemic non-diabetic Albino rats. PMID:24353732

  2. Beaded-chain collars: A new method to radiotag kangaroo rats for short-term studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harker, M.B.; Rathbun, G.B.; Langtimm, C.A.

    1999-01-01

    To study burrow use by small mammals, we needed to develop a simple, non-invasive radiotag for the endangered giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens). We designed and tested a radiocollar made of beaded-chain on 4 captive Heermann's kangaroo rats (D. heermanii). Attachment of the collar required no anesthesia, the collar was easily fitted in 1-2 minutes, and it caused minimal stress to the animals. Once the collar design and attachment technique were perfected on the surrogate animals, we fitted radiocollars on 48 giant kangaroo rats for about 15 days. Upon recapture, 12 animals showed some minor fur or skin abrasion on the neck. Overall, the attachment performed as expected and proved to be a reliable method to radiotrack kangaroo rats during our short-term field study.

  3. Investigating the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on fundus imaging in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Liu, Wenzhong; Zhang, Hao F.

    2015-10-01

    Rodent models are indispensable in studying various retinal diseases. Noninvasive, high-resolution retinal imaging of rodent models is highly desired for longitudinally investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. However, due to severe aberrations, the retinal image quality in rodents can be much worse than that in humans. We numerically and experimentally investigated the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on retinal imaging. We confirmed that the rat retinal image quality decreased with increasing illumination bandwidth. We achieved the retinal image resolution of 10 μm using a 19 nm illumination bandwidth centered at 580 nm in a home-built fundus camera. Furthermore, we observed higher chromatic aberration in albino rat eyes than in pigmented rat eyes. This study provides a design guide for high-resolution fundus camera for rodents. Our method is also beneficial to dispersion compensation in multiwavelength retinal imaging applications.

  4. Investigating the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on fundus imaging in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Liu, Wenzhong; Zhang, Hao F

    2015-10-01

    Abstract. Rodent models are indispensable in studying various retinal diseases. Noninvasive, high-resolution retinal imaging of rodent models is highly desired for longitudinally investigating the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies. However, due to severe aberrations, the retinal image quality in rodents can be much worse than that in humans. We numerically and experimentally investigated the influence of chromatic aberration and optical illumination bandwidth on retinal imaging. We confirmed that the rat retinal image quality decreased with increasing illumination bandwidth. We achieved the retinal image resolution of 10  μm using a 19 nm illumination bandwidth centered at 580 nm in a home-built fundus camera. Furthermore, we observed higher chromatic aberration in albino rat eyes than in pigmented rat eyes. This study provides a design guide for high-resolution fundus camera for rodents. Our method is also beneficial to dispersion compensation in multiwavelength retinal imaging applications. PMID:26502233

  5. Generation of albino Xenopus tropicalis using zinc-finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Takase, Minoru; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2012-12-01

    To generate albino lines of Xenopus tropicalis, we injected fertilized eggs with mRNAs encoding zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) targeting the tyrosinase coding region. Surprisingly, vitiligo was observed on the skin of F0 frogs that had been injected with ZFN mRNAs, indicating that both tyrosinase genes in the genome were disrupted in all melanocytes within the vitiligo patches. Mutation analysis using genomic DNA from the skin revealed that two mosaic F0 frogs underwent spatially complex tyrosinase gene mutations. The data implies that the ZFN-induced tyrosinase gene ablations occurred randomly over space and time throughout the entire body, possibly until the young tadpole stage, and that melanocyte precursors lacking functional tyrosinase proliferated and formed vitiligo patches. Several albino X. tropicalis, which are compound heterozygotes for biallelic tyrosinase mutations, were obtained by mating the mosaic F0 frogs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the albino vertebrates generated by the targeted gene knockout. PMID:23106502

  6. Effect of imatinib on the biochemical parameters of the reproductive function in male Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, A.M.; Ramnarayan, K.; Nalini, K.; Bairy, K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Treatment of cancers with cytotoxic agents such as tyrosine kinase inhibiting drugs often, but not always, result in transient to permanent testicular dysfunction. Germ cells are important targets of many chemicals. Most of the drugs are genotoxins and induce irreversible effect on genetic makeup. These mutagenic changes are proportionally related to carcinogenesis. This is alarmingly dangerous in youth and children, since these effects last longer, affecting fertility or forming basis for carcinogenesis. There is paucity of reports on planned studies of imatinib on the testicular function. Hence, the study was planned to assess the effects of imatinib on biochemical markers of testicular functions in male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Male Swiss albino mice were treated with imatinib and sacrificed at the end of first, second, fourth, fifth, seventh, and tenth week after the last exposure to imatinib. The testis were removed, weighed, and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: The intratesticular testosterone level was significantly (P<0.001) reduced in treated groups and severe effect was observed on week 4 and 5. The intratesticular lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was significantly increased by imatinib in all treated groups up to week 5. Conclusion: Imatinib does affect testosterone and LDH level significantly, but this effect is reversible once the drug is withdrawn. This finding may help the clinicians to plan and address the fertility-related issues in young patients of reproductive age who are being treated with imatinib for gastrointestinal tumors and chronic myeloid leukemia. PMID:21844991

  7. Antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of Hordeum vulgare seeds on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Jignesh G.; Patel, Bharat G.; Patel, Sandip B.; Patel, Ravindra K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to investigate the antiurolithiatic and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Hordeum vulgare seeds (EHV) on ethylene glycol-induced urolithiasis in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Urolithiasis was produced in Wistar albino rats by adding 0.75% v/v ethylene glycol (EG) to drinking water for 28 days. The ethanolic extract of Hordeum vulgare seeds (EHV) was assessed for its curative and preventive action in urolithiasis. In preventive treatment, the EHV given from 1st day to 28th day, while in the curative regimen, the EHV was given from 15th day to 28th day. Various renal functional and injury markers such as urine volume, calcium, phosphate, uric acid, magnesium, urea, and oxalate were evaluated using urine, serum, and kidney homogenate. Antioxidant parameters such as lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were also determined. Results: The EHV treatment (both preventive and curative) increased the urine output significantly compared to the control. The EHV treatment significantly reduced the urinary excretion of the calcium, phosphate, uric acid, magnesium, urea, and oxalate and increased the excretion of citrate compared to EG control. The increased deposition of stone forming constituents in the kidneys of calculogenic rats were significantly lowered by curative and preventive treatment with EHV. It was also observed that the treatment with EHV produced significant decrease in lipid peroxidation, and increased levels of superoxide dismutase and catalase. Conclusion: These results suggest the usefulness of ethanolic extract of Hordeum vulgare seeds as an antiurolithiatic and antioxidant agent. PMID:23248392

  8. A simple versatile method for measuring tail cuff systolic blood pressure in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Widdop, R E; Li, X C

    1997-09-01

    1. The non-invasive measurement of tail cuff systolic blood pressure in conscious rats is routinely used in long-term cardiovascular studies. There are a number of commercially available tail cuff systems, however, these apparatus are generally expensive and are dedicated for single-task operations. In the present study, a simple method for measuring systolic blood pressure, which requires only minor modifications to the existing hardware found in most cardiovascular laboratories, is described. 2. Systolic blood pressure measurements were made in the conventional manner by determining the systolic blood pressure which coincided with the restoration of the caudal artery pulse. This was achieved by using an inexpensive piezo-electric pulse transducer to detect the pulse, and this was coupled to a standard data-acquisition system (MacLab, ADInstruments) normally set up to record blood pressure. This method was compared with another established tail cuff method, as well as with direct intra-arterial recordings. 3. It was found that the results obtained using both tail cuff systems were in good agreement when systolic blood pressure was measured in Wistar-Kyoto rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats. In addition, systolic blood pressure was measured over 4 weeks in 2K1C rats and sham-operated rats, with both tail cuff methods producing similar results, which were not significantly different from direct intra-arterial recordings in the same animals. 4. Thus, in the present study, with only minor modifications, the same equipment was used for both direct and indirect determinations of systolic blood pressure. This situation differs from other conventional tail cuff systems since these items are designed for a single purpose. Therefore, the current method using piezo-electric sensor/MacLab-technology should be viewed as a relatively simple, flexible and cheap alternative method to measure tail cuff systolic blood pressure in conscious rats. PMID:9337632

  9. An external fixation method and device to study fracture healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Mark, Hans; Bergholm, Jan; Nilsson, Anders; Rydevik, Björn; Strömberg, Lennart

    2003-08-01

    We wished to establish a reproducible model for fracture fixation to be used in fracture healing research and therefore developed an external fixation construct and surgical procedure adapted to Sprague-Dawley rats. We evaluated the mechanical properties of the construct in brass rods and rat bone, in an Instron test machine with axial and transverse loading, and the in vivo performance. We found that the mechanical properties of the construct in brass rods were predictable and could be repeated in rat femora. In all tests, the axial load was about 10 times the transverse for the same degree of deformation. The stiffness among fixators was uniform. 1 mm pins caused about 50% less stiffness than 1.2 mm pins in axial loading of rat bone (p < 0.001) and brass rods (p < 0.001) as well as in transverse loading of brass rods (p < 0.001). Loosening of 1 or 2 screws that lock the pins to the fixator reduced stiffness by about 50% in axial loading of rat bone (p = 0.009) and brass rods (p = 0.05). A change in the distance between the bone surface and the fixator was linearly related to the stiffness in axial loading of rat bone (p < 0.001) and brass rods (p < 0.001) and in transverse loading of brass rods (p < 0.001). If the bone ends touched each other, the axial stiffness of the construct increased almost 10 times (265 N/mm), as compared to a fracture gap size of 2 mm (31 N/mm). In vivo experiments had a complication rate of less than 10% when we used 1.2 mm pins, 6 mm offset and rats weighing 350-450 g. Our method and device for experimental external fixation of rat femora are reliable and the findings are reproducible. These can be used in bone repair and fracture healing research. PMID:14521302

  10. Prenatal Caffeine Exposure Impairs Pregnancy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yadegari, Maryam; Khazaei, Mozafar; Anvari, Morteza; Eskandari, Mohadeseh

    2016-01-01

    Background In recent years, concerns have been raised about human reproductive disorders. Caffeine consumption is increasing by the world’s population and there is a relationship between caffeine intake and adverse reproductive outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on implantation sites, number of live births, birth weight, crown-rump length (CRL) and abnormality in pregnant rats. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, 40 female albino rats (170-190 g) were randomly divided into two experimental and two control groups (n=10/each group). In both experimental groups, animals received caffeine intraperitoneally (IP: 150 mg/kg/day) on days 1-5 of pregnancy. In experimental group 1, treated animals were euthanized on day 7of pregnancy and the number of implantation sites was counted. In experimental group 2, treated animals maintained pregnant and after delivery, the number of live births, birth weight, CRL and abnormality of neonates were investigated. In control group, animals received IP injections of distilled water. Data were analyzed by independent t test. Results Results showed that administration of caffeine significantly decreased the number of implantation sites, number of live births and CRL as compared with control group (P<0.05). There were no significant differences regarding birth weight and abnormality of neonate rats between experimental and control groups. Conclusion These results suggest that caffeine caused anti-fertility effect and significantly decreased CRL in neonate rats. PMID:26985345

  11. SU-E-T-492: Implementing a Method for Brain Irradiation in Rats Utilizing a Commercially Available Radiosurgery Irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, J; Drzymala, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to implement a method for accurate rat brain irradiation using the Gamma Knife Perfexion unit. The system needed to be repeatable, efficient, and dosimetrically and spatially accurate. Methods: A platform (“rat holder”) was made such that it is attachable to the Leskell Gamma Knife G Frame. The rat holder utilizes two ear bars contacting bony anatomy and a front tooth bar to secure the rat. The rat holder fits inside of the Leskell localizer box, which utilizes fiducial markers to register with the GammaPlan planning system. This method allows for accurate, repeatable setup.A cylindrical phantom was made so that film can be placed axially in the phantom. We then acquired CT image sets of the rat holder and localizer box with both a rat and the phantom. Three treatment plans were created: a plan on the rat CT dataset, a phantom plan with the same prescription dose as the rat plan, and a phantom plan with the same delivery time as the rat plan. Results: Film analysis from the phantom showed that our setup is spatially accurate and repeatable. It is also dosimetrically accurate, with an difference between predicted and measured dose of 2.9%. Film analysis with prescription dose equal between rat and phantom plans showed a difference of 3.8%, showing that our phantom is a good representation of the rat for dosimetry purposes, allowing for +/- 3mm diameter variation. Film analysis with treatment time equal showed an error of 2.6%, which means we can deliver a prescription dose within 3% accuracy. Conclusion: Our method for irradiation of rat brain has been shown to be repeatable, efficient, and accurate, both dosimetrically and spatially. We can treat a large number of rats efficiently while delivering prescription doses within 3% at millimeter level accuracy.

  12. A validated HPLC-ESI-MS/MS method for quantification of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid from rat plasma and its application to pharmacokinetic study using sparse sampling methodology.

    PubMed

    Nair, Sreenath Nandakumar; Mhatre, Mandar; Menon, Sasikumar; Shailajan, Sunita

    2014-11-01

    The phenolic compound, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxy benzoic acid (HMBA), is one of the major phytoconstituents of Decalepis arayalpathra (Joseph & Chandra.) Venter, a rare and endemic medicinal plant found in the Western Ghats of India. HMBA has been attributed to possess several biological effects including anti-inflammatory, anti-pyretic, anti-oxidant and anti-diabetic. The present article describes a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method (HPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of HMBA in rat plasma. In brief, the developed assay involves pre-treatment of the plasma samples by an optimized solid phase extraction method (recoveries for HMBA greater than 90%) followed by chromatographic separation on a Cosmosil C18 (150mm×4.6mm i.d.; 5μm particle size) analytical column with mobile phase of methanol and 10mM ammonium formate (95:5 v/v; 0.2% formic acid) delivered at a constant flow rate of 1.0mL/min. The detection and quantification was performed using an Applied Biosystems Hybrid Q-Trap API 2000 mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source (ESI) functioning in negative mode. The developed assay was validated as per the US FDA bioanalytical guidelines with the calibration curve linear over the concentration range of 5.05-2019.60ng/mL (r(2)≥0.9936) for HMBA from rat plasma. Further, the validated HPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of HMBA after oral administration of D. arayalpathra tuber extracts to female albino Wistar rats using sparse sampling methodology. Following oral administration, the maximum mean concentration in rat plasma (Cmax -1301.57±128.22ng/mL) was achieved at 1.5h (Tmax) and the area under the curve (AUC0-48h) was 8985.02±229.54ngh/mL. The elimination half-life (t1/2) and terminal elimination rate constant (Kel) were 2.48h and 0.28 L/h, respectively. PMID:25168218

  13. A comparison of cell-collecting methods for the Comet assay in urinary bladders of rats.

    PubMed

    Wada, Kunio; Ohnuma, Aya; Kojima, Sayuri; Yoshida, Toshinori; Matsumoto, Kyomu

    2012-02-18

    Conducting the single-cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay in the urinary bladders of rodents is technically problematic because the bladder is small and thin, which makes it difficult to collect its mucosal cells by scraping. We performed the Comet assay using a simple mincing method in which tissues are minced with scissors. We then compared data obtained with this method with data obtained using the scraping method. Sprague-Dawley rats of both sexes were orally given twice the known carcinogens N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU), ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), or o-anisidine (OA). Three hours after the second administration, the bladder of each rat was divided into two parts and each part was processed by either the mincing or the scraping method. Both mincing and scraping methods detected DNA damage in MNU-, EMS-, but not OA-treated rats, and thus the mincing method had a sufficient capability to detect DNA damaging agents. The morphological analysis of the prepared cell suspensions revealed that more than 80% of the cells collected by the mincing method were from the epithelium. Because the mincing method requires only one-half of a bladder, the other half remains intact and can be used for histopathological examination. We conclude that the mincing method is easier and more appropriate for the Comet assay in urinary bladder tissue than the scraping method. PMID:22155339

  14. METHOD OF EUTHANASIA DOES NOT AFFECT SPERM MOTILITY IN THE LABORATORY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To determine if anesthetic agents used in laboratory animal euthanasia affected sperm motion parameters, rats (n=10) were euthanized by one of 5 different methods: ecapitation alone, or decapitation following either ether, halothane, or nembutal anesthesia, or C02 asphyxiation. p...

  15. A qPCR method to characterize the sex type of the cell strains from rats.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Junbei; Li, Zhilin; Wan, Qian; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Mianxue; Jiang, Xiaohui; Xie, Linfeng

    2016-10-01

    A simple and fast method was established to identify the sex types of the rat-derived cell strains. The single copy X-chromosome-linked gene AR and the single copy Y-chromosome-linked gene Sry were both detected with qPCR for the rat genomic DNA sample and the AR/Sry ratio was calculated. According to the law of the AR/Sry ratio, a new method to identify the sex types of the rat-derived cell strains was developed. The new assay was proved effective. The new assay showed advantages over the traditional sex type identification PCR methods, which detected only the Sry gene. Moreover, the new method was used to identify the sex types of two rat-derived cell strains unknown for the sex types and the results were confirmed with the in situ hybridization. Finally, the problem of the cross contamination between the female and the male samples was addressed and discussed extensively. PMID:27316703

  16. Method of Isolated Ex Vivo Lung Perfusion in a Rat Model: Lessons Learned from Developing a Rat EVLP Program

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Kevin; Bobba, Christopher; Eren, Emre; Spata, Tyler; Tadres, Malak; Hayes,, Don; Black, Sylvester M.

    2015-01-01

    The number of acceptable donor lungs available for lung transplantation is severely limited due to poor quality. Ex-Vivo Lung Perfusion (EVLP) has allowed lung transplantation in humans to become more readily available by enabling the ability to assess organs and expand the donor pool. As this technology expands and improves, the ability to potentially evaluate and improve the quality of substandard lungs prior to transplant is a critical need. In order to more rigorously evaluate these approaches, a reproducible animal model needs to be established that would allow for testing of improved techniques and management of the donated lungs as well as to the lung-transplant recipient. In addition, an EVLP animal model of associated pathologies, e.g., ventilation induced lung injury (VILI), would provide a novel method to evaluate treatments for these pathologies. Here, we describe the development of a rat EVLP lung program and refinements to this method that allow for a reproducible model for future expansion. We also describe the application of this EVLP system to model VILI in rat lungs. The goal is to provide the research community with key information and “pearls of wisdom”/techniques that arose from trial and error and are critical to establishing an EVLP system that is robust and reproducible. PMID:25741794

  17. Method of isolated ex vivo lung perfusion in a rat model: lessons learned from developing a rat EVLP program.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kevin; Bobba, Christopher; Eren, Emre; Spata, Tyler; Tadres, Malak; Hayes, Don; Black, Sylvester M; Ghadiali, Samir; Whitson, Bryan A

    2015-01-01

    The number of acceptable donor lungs available for lung transplantation is severely limited due to poor quality. Ex-Vivo Lung Perfusion (EVLP) has allowed lung transplantation in humans to become more readily available by enabling the ability to assess organs and expand the donor pool. As this technology expands and improves, the ability to potentially evaluate and improve the quality of substandard lungs prior to transplant is a critical need. In order to more rigorously evaluate these approaches, a reproducible animal model needs to be established that would allow for testing of improved techniques and management of the donated lungs as well as to the lung-transplant recipient. In addition, an EVLP animal model of associated pathologies, e.g., ventilation induced lung injury (VILI), would provide a novel method to evaluate treatments for these pathologies. Here, we describe the development of a rat EVLP lung program and refinements to this method that allow for a reproducible model for future expansion. We also describe the application of this EVLP system to model VILI in rat lungs. The goal is to provide the research community with key information and "pearls of wisdom"/techniques that arose from trial and error and are critical to establishing an EVLP system that is robust and reproducible. PMID:25741794

  18. Simple method for the preparation of single cell suspensions from normal and tumorous rat colonic mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Perret, V; Lev, R; Pigman, W

    1977-01-01

    Viable single cell suspensions from rat colonic epithelium were obtained by using phosphate buffered saline containing 0-2 M mannitol. The method, which requires no prior enzyme treatment, provides undamaged cells in high yield within one hour. The procedure was also applied to neoplastic rat colonic tissue, which was induced by repeated intrarectal infusion of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea. Comparison between normal and neoplastic cells has shown that the latter have a higher nucleus: cytoplasm ratio and a higher metabolic activity. Images Figure PMID:873323

  19. Novel Method for Analyzing Locomotor Ability after Spinal Cord Injury in Rats: Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Shinozaki, Munehisa; Yasuda, Akimasa; Nori, Satoshi; Saito, Nobuhito; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Okano, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    In the research for the treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI), the evaluation of motor function in model rats must be as objective, noninvasive, and ethical as possible. The maximum speed and acceleration of a mouse measured using a SCANET system were previously reported to vary significantly according to severity of SCI. In the present study, the motor performance of SCI model rats was examined with SCANET and assessed for Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) score to determine the usefulness of the SCANET system in evaluating functional recovery after SCI. Maximum speed and acceleration within the measurement period correlated significantly with BBB scores. Furthermore, among several phased kinematic factors used in BBB scores, the capability of “plantar stepping” was associated with a drastic increase in maximum speed and acceleration after SCI. Therefore, evaluation of maximum speed and acceleration using a SCANET system is a useful method for rat models of SCI and can complement open field scoring scales. PMID:24097095

  20. A noninvasive method to study regulation of extracellular fluid volume in rats using nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Christopher J; Phillips, Pamela M; Johnstone, Andrew F M

    2016-03-01

    Time-domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR)-based measurement of body composition of rodents is an effective method to quickly and repeatedly measure proportions of fat, lean, and fluid without anesthesia. TD-NMR provides a measure of free water in a living animal, termed %fluid, and is a measure of unbound water in the vascular and extracellular spaces. We hypothesized that injecting a bolus of fluid into the peritoneal cavity would lead to an abrupt increase in %fluid and the rate of clearance monitored with TD-NMR would provide a noninvasive assessment of the free water homeostasis in an awake rat. Several strains of laboratory rats were injected intraperitoneally with 10 ml/kg isotonic or hypertonic saline and %fluid was monitored repeatedly with a Bruker "Minispec" TD-NMR body composition system. Following isotonic saline, %fluid increased immediately by 0.5% followed by a recovery over ∼6 h. Injecting hypertonic (3 times normal saline) resulted in a significantly greater rise in %fluid and longer recovery. Intraperitoneal and subcutaneous fluid injection led to similar rates of clearance. The Wistar-Kyoto rat strain displayed significantly slower recovery to fluid loads compared with Long-Evans and Sprague-Dawley strains. Rats exercised chronically showed significant increases in %fluid, but the rate of clearance of fluid was similar to that of sedentary animals. We conclude that this technique could be used to study vascular and extracellular volume homeostasis noninvasively in rats. PMID:26697983

  1. An observational assessment method for aging laboratory rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    The growth of the aging population highlights the need for laboratory animal models to study the basic biological processes ofaging and susceptibility to toxic chemicals and disease. Methods to evaluate health ofaging animals over time are needed, especially efficient methods for...

  2. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  3. Forkhead containing transcription factor Albino controls tetrapyrrole-based body pigmentation in planarian.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Han, Xiao-Shuai; Li, Fang-Fang; Huang, Shuang; Qin, Yong-Wen; Zhao, Xian-Xian; Jing, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Pigmentation processes occur from invertebrates to mammals. Owing to the complexity of the pigmentary system, in vivo animal models for pigmentation study are limited. Planarians are capable of regenerating any missing part including the dark-brown pigments, providing a promising model for pigmentation study. However, the molecular mechanism of planarian body pigmentation is poorly understood. We found in an RNA interference screen that a forkhead containing transcription factor, Albino, was required for pigmentation without affecting survival or other regeneration processes. In addition, the body color recovered after termination of Albino double stranded RNA feeding owing to the robust stem cell system. Further expression analysis revealed a spatial and temporal correlation between Albino and pigmentation process. Gene expression arrays revealed that the expression of three tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzymes, ALAD, ALAS and PBGD, was impaired upon Albino RNA interference. RNA interference of PBGD led to a similar albinism phenotype caused by Albino RNA interference. Moreover, PBGD was specifically expressed in pigment cells and can serve as a pigment cell molecular marker. Our results revealed that Albino controls planarian body color pigmentation dominantly via regulating tetrapyrrole biogenesis. These results identified Albino as the key regulator of the tetrapyrrole-based planarian body pigmentation, suggesting a role of Albino during stem cell-pigment cell fate decision and provided new insights into porphyria pathogenesis. PMID:27551436

  4. Experimental barbiturate dependence. I. Barbiturate dependence development in rats by drug-admixed food (DAF) method.

    PubMed

    Tagashira, E; Izumi, T; Yanaura, S

    1978-04-28

    A method for testing a rat's physical-dependence liability to sedaditive-hypnotic agents and for evaluating that dependence was studied by using the method. Rats received phenobarbital- or barbital-admixed food on a graded-increase dosage schedule over 30-40 days. Manifestations of CNS-suppressing action of either drug (e.g., systemic muscle relaxation, motor incoordination, staggering gait, and ptosis) persisted day and night during the drug medication. Twenty-four to 48 h after withdrawal of either drug, abstinence symptoms (e.g., muscle fasciculation, nuchal twitching, vocalization, increased irritability, ataxia, hyperthermia, and clonic-tonic and grand mal-type convulsions) were evidenced in all animals (N = 6), some of which died after convulsions. These withdrawal signs in rats were classified and found to be closely correlated with the magnitude of weight loss during the withdrawal. The calssification provides a basis for quantitatively assessing physical-dependence liability. The data obtained in the present study suggest that rats, like dogs and monkeys, are suitable experimental animals for tests in early stages of dependence liability, and that the administration of drug-admixed food is a useful method of developing dependence on both barbiturate and morphine-type drugs. PMID:418446

  5. Chronic effects of mercuric chloride ingestion on rat adrenocortical function

    SciTech Connect

    Agrawal, R.; Chansouria, J.P.N. )

    1989-09-01

    Mercurial contamination of environment has increased. Mercury accumulates in various organs and adversely affects their functions. Some of the most prominent toxic effects of inorganic mercury compounds include neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Besides this, mercury has also been reported to affect various endocrine glands like pituitary, thyroid, gonadal and adrenal glands. There have been no reports on the toxic effects of chronic oral administration of varying doses of mercuric chloride on adrenocortical function in albino rats. The present work was undertaken to study the adrenocortical response to chronic oral administration of mercuric chloride of varying dose and duration in albino rats.

  6. A simple method for reducing autotomy in rats after peripheral nerve lesions.

    PubMed

    Sporel-Ozakat, R E; Edwards, P M; Hepgul, K T; Savas, A; Gispen, W H

    1991-02-01

    Experiments using peripheral nerve lesions (crush or transection) in rats to study repair processes are hampered by the tendency for the animals to attack the limb in which the peripheral nerves are damaged (autotomy). In this paper we describe a simple method which significantly reduces the incidence of autotomy after peripheral nerve lesions. The method consists of painting the hind paws of operated rats with a commercially available non-toxic lotion, which is used to discourage nail-biting and thumb-sucking in humans. Although the method is not absolute, it was extremely beneficial in our experiments, since the number of animals that had to be taken out of the experiment due to severe autotomy was greatly reduced. We believe that this method may prove to be as beneficial to other investigators who are using experimental peripheral nerve lesions to study the regenerative aspects of the nervous system. PMID:2062121

  7. Four-Point Bending as a Method for Quantitatively Evaluating Spinal Arthrodesis in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Samuel T; Svet, Mark T; Kanim, Linda A; Metzger, Melodie F

    2015-01-01

    The most common method of evaluating the success (or failure) of rat spinal fusion procedures is manual palpation testing. Whereas manual palpation provides only a subjective binary answer (fused or not fused) regarding the success of a fusion surgery, mechanical testing can provide more quantitative data by assessing variations in strength among treatment groups. We here describe a mechanical testing method to quantitatively assess single-level spinal fusion in a rat model, to improve on the binary and subjective nature of manual palpation as an end point for fusion-related studies. We tested explanted lumbar segments from Sprague–Dawley rat spines after single-level posterolateral fusion procedures at L4–L5. Segments were classified as ‘not fused,’ ‘restricted motion,’ or ‘fused’ by using manual palpation testing. After thorough dissection and potting of the spine, 4-point bending in flexion then was applied to the L4–L5 motion segment, and stiffness was measured as the slope of the moment–displacement curve. Results demonstrated statistically significant differences in stiffness among all groups, which were consistent with preliminary grading according to manual palpation. In addition, the 4-point bending results provided quantitative information regarding the quality of the bony union formed and therefore enabled the comparison of fused specimens. Our results demonstrate that 4-point bending is a simple, reliable, and effective way to describe and compare results among rat spines after fusion surgery. PMID:25730756

  8. Neuroprotective Effect of Lercanidipine- A Novel Calcium Channel Blocker in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adhimoolam, Mangaiarkkarasi; Perumal, Deepa Kameswari; Rajamohammed, Meher Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background The available conventional antiepileptics do not afford cure or prophylactic treatment and henceforth there is always a quest to explore new targets for management of convulsions. In this perspective, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers have been investigated in various animal models of epilepsy. Lercanidipine, a newer dihydropyridine calcium antagonist, is a potential candidate with its favourable lipid profile and longer duration of action. Objective (1) To evaluate the anticonvulsant effect of lercanidipine alone and in combination with standard drug in adult male Swiss albino mice. (2) To evaluate the muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity of lercanidipine in adult male Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods Adult male Swiss albino mice weighing 20-30g were used to study the anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and spontaneous locomotor activity using electroconvulsometer, rotarod and actophotometer apparatus respectively. The mice were divided into six groups of six animals in each group. Group 1 and 2 served as control (vehicle treated) and standard group respectively. Standard drug used to evaluate anticonvulsant effect is phenytoin sodium 25 mg/kg I.P. whereas muscle relaxant activity and locomotor activity is diazepam 4 mg/kg I.P., Group 3 and 4 received lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg I.P., respectively. Anticonvulsant models included group 5 and 6 and they were given combination of phenytoin sodium 12.5 mg/kg I.P., with lercanidipine 1 and 3 mg/kg i.p, respectively. Abolition or reduction of tonic hind limb extension was considered as index of anticonvulsant activity whereas the balancing time of the animals in rod was recorded to asses muscle relaxant activity. The locomotor activity was recorded for 5 minutes. The data were analysed with one-way Analysis of Variance followed by post-hoc ‘Dunnett t-test’. Results Lercanidipine given alone in a dose of 1 and 3 mg/kg had significantly reduced the tonic hind limb extension

  9. Experimental transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi through the genitalia of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Herrera, L; Urdaneta-Morales, S

    2001-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is usually transmitted by contact with the excreta of infected Triatominae; among non-vectorial infections, direct transmission through coitus has been proposed. We investigated this possibility by instilling, through the external meatus of the vagina and the penis of previously anesthetized NMRI albino mice, blood of mice infected with strains isolated from Didelphis marsupialis (opossum, strain CO57), Rattus rattus (rat, strain CO22) and human (strain EP). Some animals were allowed to copulate the same day of the instillation. In other experiments, the strains were inoculated in the scrotum. To determine the effect of immunosuppression, some mice were treated with cyclophosphamide 30 days post-instillation. Controls were instilled orally and ocularly. Vaginal instillation with strain CO22 produced systemic infection with tropism to the heart, skeletal muscle, skin, duodenum, pancreas, ovary and sternum. Scrotal inoculation with strain EP likewise invaded liver, spleen, lung, lymph nodes and urogenital organs; while strain CO57 invaded skeletal and cardiac muscle, pancreas, testis, and vas deferens. Penile infection with strain CO22 was detected by xenodiagnosis. Immunosuppression did not increase parasitemia of vaginally infected mice or controls. Mating did not produce infection. Our results show that contact of blood trypomastigotes of T. cruzi with genital mucosa can produce blood and tissue infections. These results are discussed in relation to reports of frequent experimental tropism of T. cruzi toward urogenital organs. PMID:11500777

  10. Effect of Unripe Plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Blood Glucose, Body Weight and Feed Intake of Streptozotocin-induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    M, Iroaganachi; C.O, Eleazu; P.N, Okafor; N, Nwaohu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effect of unripe plantain (Musa paradisiaca) and ginger (Zingiber officinale) on blood glucose (BG), feed intake (FI) and weight of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods: Twenty four male albino rats were used and were divided into 4 groups of 6 rats each. Group 1 (non-diabetic) and Group 2 (diabetic) received standard rat feed; Group 3 received unripe plantain incorporated feed (810 /kg body weight) and Group 4 received unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feed (710:100 g/kg body weight). The weights and FI of the rats were measured daily throughout the experimentation. Results: Groups 3 and 4 rats had 159.52% and 71.83% decreases in BG but 24.91% and 35.32% decreases in weights compared with groups 1 and 2 rats that had 2.09% and 22.94% increases in BG with 13.42% increase and 45.36% decrease in weights respectively. The FI of the experimental rats did not differ significantly from each other (P>0.05) at the end of experimentation. The standard rat feed contained higher amounts of Ca but lower amounts of Mg and Fe compared with the unripe plantain and unripe plantain+ginger incorporated feeds. Conclusion: Combination of unripe plantain and ginger at the dose used in the management of diabetes was not very effective compared with unripe plantain alone. PMID:25674161

  11. Immunohistochemical and Calcium Imaging Methods in Wholemount Rat Retina

    PubMed Central

    Sargoy, Allison; Barnes, Steven; Brecha, Nicholas C.; De Sevilla Müller, Luis Pérez

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the tools, reagents, and the practical steps that are needed for: 1) successful preparation of wholemount retinas for immunohistochemistry and, 2) calcium imaging for the study of voltage gated calcium channel (VGCC) mediated calcium signaling in retinal ganglion cells. The calcium imaging method we describe circumvents issues concerning non-specific loading of displaced amacrine cells in the ganglion cell layer. PMID:25349920

  12. An Experimental Method for Measuring Mechanical Properties of Rat Pulmonary Arteries Verified With Latex

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, E. S.; Slifka, A. J.; Wright, J. E.; McCowan, C. N.; Finch, D. S.; Quinn, T. P.; McColskey, J. D.; Ivy, D. D.; Shandas, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a test method for measuring the mechanical properties of small, nonlinear membrane samples from a rat model for pulmonary hypertension. The size and nonlinearity of the pulmonary artery samples poses a challenge for developing a test method that will generate quality, reproducible data in the pressure range experienced by the hypertensive pulmonary artery. The experimental method described here has sufficient precision to yield a combined relative standard uncertainty of 4 %. The method is calibrated against 75 µm thick latex and the data agree well with the neo-Hookian model.

  13. Gamma Knife irradiation method based on dosimetric controls to target small areas in rat brains

    SciTech Connect

    Constanzo, Julie; Paquette, Benoit; Charest, Gabriel; Masson-Côté, Laurence; Guillot, Mathieu

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Methods: Euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomography (CT), to estimate positioning variations relative to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates obtained from CT images, different regions of the brain were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A single isocenter treatment plan delivering ≥100 Gy in 100% of the target volume was produced by Leksell GammaPlan using the 4 mm diameter collimator of sectors 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit. Impact of positioning deviations of the rat brain on dose deposition was simulated by GammaPlan and validated with dosimetric measurements. Results: The authors’ results showed that 90% of the target volume received 100 ± 8 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 125 ± 0.7 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.6%. This dose deposition calculated with GammaPlan was validated with dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 5%, both in X- and Z-axes. Conclusions: The authors’ results demonstrate the feasibility of standardizing the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife.

  14. Therapeutic effects of various methods of MSC transplantation on cerebral resuscitation following cardiac arrest in rats

    PubMed Central

    LEONG, KA-HONG; ZHOU, LI-LI; LIN, QING-MING; WANG, PENG; YAO, LAN; HUANG, ZI-TONG

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were transplanted into the brain of rats following cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by three different methods: Direct stereotaxic injection into the lateral cerebral ventricle (LV), intra-carotid administration (A), and femoral venous infusion (V). The three different methods were compared by observing the effects of MSCs on neurological function following global cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, in order to determine the optimum method for MSC transplantation. MSCs were transplanted in groups A, V and LV following the restoration of spontaneous circulation. Neurological deficit scale scores were higher in the transplantation groups, as compared with the control group. Neuronal damage, brain water content and serum levels of S100 calcium-binding protein B were reduced in the hippo-campus and temporal cortex of the transplantation groups, as compared with the control rats following resuscitation. MSCs were able to migrate inside the brain tissue following transplantation, and were predominantly distributed in the hippocampus and temporal cortex where the neurons were vulnerable during global cerebral ischemia. These results suggest that transplantation of MSCs may notably improve neurological function following CPR in a rat model. Of the three different methods of MSC transplantation tested in the present study, LV induced the highest concentration of MSCs in brain areas vulnerable to global cerebral ischemia, and therefore, produced the best neurological outcome. PMID:26935023

  15. Effect of acute paraquat poisoning on CYP450 isoforms activity in rats by cocktail method.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuanghu; Wang, Zhiyi; Chen, Dongxin; Chen, Mengchun; Lin, Yingying; Liu, Zezheng; Zhang, Lijing; Wen, Congcong; Wang, Xianqin; Ma, Jianshe

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat is a highly effective contact herbicide that is marketed worldwide as a fantastical, non-selective compound for broadleaf weed control. As compared to most pesticides, paraquat is extremely toxic to humans and the lack of strategies to manage paraquat poisoning has resulted in high fatality rates. The rats were randomly divided into acute paraquat poisoning group and control group. The paraquat group rats were given 36 mg/kg paraquat by intragastric administration. The influence of acute paraquat poisoning on the activities of CYP450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 were evaluated by cocktail method, they were responded by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of bupropion, phenacetin, tolbutamide, metoprolol, midazolam and omeprazole. The six probe drugs were given to rats through intragastric administration, and the plasma concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. In the results of paraquat group compared to control group, there was statistical pharmacokinetic difference for bupropion, tolbutamide, metoprolol, midazolam and omeprazole. Acute paraquat poisoning may induce the activities of CYP2C19, and inhibit of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in rats. This may give advising for reasonable drug use after acute paraquat poisoning. PMID:26770539

  16. Effect of acute paraquat poisoning on CYP450 isoforms activity in rats by cocktail method

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuanghu; Wang, Zhiyi; Chen, Dongxin; Chen, Mengchun; Lin, Yingying; Liu, Zezheng; Zhang, Lijing; Wen, Congcong; Wang, Xianqin; Ma, Jianshe

    2015-01-01

    Paraquat is a highly effective contact herbicide that is marketed worldwide as a fantastical, non-selective compound for broadleaf weed control. As compared to most pesticides, paraquat is extremely toxic to humans and the lack of strategies to manage paraquat poisoning has resulted in high fatality rates. The rats were randomly divided into acute paraquat poisoning group and control group. The paraquat group rats were given 36 mg/kg paraquat by intragastric administration. The influence of acute paraquat poisoning on the activities of CYP450 isoforms CYP2B6, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 were evaluated by cocktail method, they were responded by the changes of pharmacokinetic parameters of bupropion, phenacetin, tolbutamide, metoprolol, midazolam and omeprazole. The six probe drugs were given to rats through intragastric administration, and the plasma concentrations were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. In the results of paraquat group compared to control group, there was statistical pharmacokinetic difference for bupropion, tolbutamide, metoprolol, midazolam and omeprazole. Acute paraquat poisoning may induce the activities of CYP2C19, and inhibit of CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 in rats. This may give advising for reasonable drug use after acute paraquat poisoning. PMID:26770539

  17. Analysis of spike-wave discharges in rats using discrete wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Ubeyli, Elif Derya; Ilbay, Gül; Sahin, Deniz; Ateş, Nurbay

    2009-03-01

    A feature is a distinctive or characteristic measurement, transform, structural component extracted from a segment of a pattern. Features are used to represent patterns with the goal of minimizing the loss of important information. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) as a feature extraction method was used in representing the spike-wave discharges (SWDs) records of Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats. The SWD records of WAG/Rij rats were decomposed into time-frequency representations using the DWT and the statistical features were calculated to depict their distribution. The obtained wavelet coefficients were used to identify characteristics of the signal that were not apparent from the original time domain signal. The present study demonstrates that the wavelet coefficients are useful in determining the dynamics in the time-frequency domain of SWD records. PMID:19230874

  18. [CHARACTERISTICS OF THE RETINA IN CHRONIC STRESS IN LABORATORY RATS OF DIFFERENT AGE GROUPS].

    PubMed

    Nesterova, A A; Yermilov, V V; Tiurenkov, I N; Smirnov, A V; Grigoriyeva, N V; Zagrebin, V L; Rogova, L N; Antoshkin, O N; Dovgalyov, A O

    2016-01-01

    The retina was studied in albino laboratory male rats of two age groups (12 and 24 months), 10 animals in each subjected to chronic combined stress. The stress was caused in animals by simultaneous exposure to pulsed light, loud sound, swinging and restriction of mobility for 7 days, 30 mm daily. The retina of intact rats of the corresponding age groups (n = 20) served as control. Enucleated eyes of stressed and control animals were processed with standard histological technique and stained with Nissl's method and hematoxylin-eosin. The retina of the stressed animals of both age groups showed the decrease in the number of cells and the disarrangement of its layers, most pronounced in the layers of photoreceptor neurons and ganglion cells. The comparative morphometric analysis demonstrated a reduction of the layer thickness and cell numerical density in the retina of stressed animals, both young (12 months) and old (24 months), as compared to that of control animals. PMID:27487662

  19. The generation of NGF-secreting primary rat monocytes: A comparison of different transfer methods

    PubMed Central

    Hohsfield, Lindsay A.; Geley, Stephan; Reindl, Markus; Humpel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF), a member of the neurotrophin family, is responsible for the maintenance and survival of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain. The degeneration of cholinergic neurons and reduced acetycholine levels are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as associated with learning and memory deficits. Thus far, NGF has proven the most potent neuroprotective molecule against cholinergic neurodegeneration. However, delivery of this factor into the brain remains difficult. Recent studies have begun to elucidate the potential use of monocytes as vehicles for therapeutic delivery into the brain. In this study, we employed different transfection and transduction methods to generate NGF-secreting primary rat monocytes. Specifically, we compared five methods for generating NGF-secreting monocytes: (1) cationic lipid-mediated transfection (Effectene and FuGene), (2) classical electroporation, (3) nucleofection, (4) protein delivery (Bioporter) and (5) lentiviral vectors. Here, we report that classical transfection methods (lipid-mediated transfection, electroporation, nucleofection) are inefficient tools for proper gene transfer into primary rat monocytes. We demonstrate that lentiviral infection and Bioporter can successfully transduce/load primary rat monocytes and produce effective NGF secretion. Furthermore, our results indicate that NGF is bioactive and that Bioporter-loaded monocytes do not appear to exhibit any functional disruptions (i.e. in their ability to differentiate and phagocytose beta-amyloid). Taken together, our results show that primary monocytes can be effectively loaded or transduced with NGF and provides information on the most effective method for generating NGF-secreting primary rat monocytes. This study also provides a basis for further development of primary monocytes as therapeutic delivery vehicles to the diseased AD brain. PMID:23474426

  20. Simplified surgical placement and stabilization methods for intracerebroventricular cannulas in rat lateral ventricles.

    PubMed

    Jho, David H; Engelhard, Herbert H; Juarez, Altair; Espat, N Joseph

    2003-10-01

    Intracerebroventricular cannulation in rat models is an efficient tool for exploring the effects of substances directly injected into the CNS, bypassing the blood-brain barrier. Techniques for surgically securing the ICV cannula require a balance between ease of application and adequate stability. The authors tested several methods of lateral ventricle cannula stabilization, especially focusing on a comparison of cyanoacrylate gel to cranioplastic cement with an anchoring bone screw. PMID:15235663

  1. Application of retrograde dissection method for isolation of bone marrow cells from rat femurs and tibiae.

    PubMed

    Li, C M; Fu, B M; Zhang, L C; Tang, B; Zhu, L; Zhao, Y; Zhang, J

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no practical and efficient method for the isolation of bone marrow cells (BMCs) from rat femurs and tibiae. Here, we attempted to develop a rapid, simple, effective, and non-contaminating method for the isolation of BMCs from rat femurs and tibiae. Rat femurs and tibiae were dissected from the ankle to the hip joint; subsequently, a three-step "locate-slide-twist" procedure was performed using scissors and forceps to remove the femurs and tibiae completely, from the surrounding musculature. The bones were flushed with phosphate-buffered saline to harvest BMCs. The femurs and tibiae were dissected in 1.8 ± 0.6 min, and the BMC suspension preparation time was 13.1 ± 2.3 min. The bone marrow cavities did not incur any fractures or injuries during the isolation. Culture of harvested BMCs for 72 h led to a significant increase in cell number from 4.4 ± 0.3 x 106 to 6.9 ± 0.7 x 10(6) (P < 0.01) with no significant decrease in viability (98.1 ± 0.6% vs 96.2 ± 1.1%; P > 0.05). Microscopic examination of the isolated BMCs after the 72-h incubation period revealed the no-microbial or muscle cell contamination. Furthermore, flow cytometry revealed that cultured BMCs (72-h culture) grew well. Here, we have reported a rapid, simple, effective, and non-contaminating method for the isolation of BMCs from rat femurs and tibiae by using retrograde dissection. This method can be used to harvest a large number of viable BMCs without the risk of contamination from muscle and connective tissues. PMID:27323101

  2. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN CARBACHOL-STIMULATED INOSITOLPHOSPHATE RELEASE IN PIGMENTED RAT RETINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Muscarinic stimulation of inositolphosphate (IP) release in the albino rat retina changes during development. ittle is known, however, about the developmental profile of receptor-stimulated IP release in pigmented rat retina. arbachol-stimulated EP release was studied in the whol...

  3. THE TERATOGENIC POTENTIAL OF CACODYLIC ACID IN THE RAT AND MOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cacodylic acid, an organic arsenical herbicide, was administered to time-pregnant albino CD rats and CD-1 mice on days 7-16 of gestation. The compound was given by gastric intubation as a solution in distilled water. Rats received 0, 7.5, 15, 30, 40, 50, and 60 mg/kg/day in 0.2 m...

  4. The 'evil albino' stereotype: an impediment to the right to equality.

    PubMed

    Mswela, Maureen

    2013-03-01

    This article address the 'evil albino' plot device or albino bias as portrayed in films and explores how such labelling stimulates societal intolerance and discrimination against People Living With Albinism. The article reveals how media perpetuates stereotypes of albinism through their portrayal of role players and argues that the continued existence of such stereotypes is a failure to see albinism for what it is: a medical condition. The article further discusses Albinism related stigma and discrimination against the backdrop of the 'evil albino' plot device. PMID:23781766

  5. Effect of Royal Jelly on new bone formation in rapid maxillary expansion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Özan, Fatih; Çörekçi, Bayram; Halicioğlu, Koray; Irgin, Celal; Yilmaz, Fahri; Hezenci, Yasin

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long and short term systemic usage of royal jelly on bone formation in the expanded maxillary suture in a rat model. Material and Methods Twenty eight Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: Control (C); Only Expansion (OE), Royal Jelly (RJ) group, Royal Jelly was given to rats by oral gavage only during the expansion and retention period; Royal Jelly plus Nursery (RJN) group, Royal Jelly was given to rats by oral gavage during their nursery phase of 40 days and during the retention period. After the 5 day expansion period was completed, the rats underwent 12 days of mechanical retention. All rats were sacrificed in same time. Histological examination was performed to determine the number of osteoclasts, number of osteoblasts, number of capillaries, inflammatory cell infiltration, and new bone formation. Results New bone formation, number of osteoclasts, number of osteoblasts, and the number of capillaries in the expanded maxillary sutures were higher in the RJ and RJN groups than in the other groups. Statistical analysis also demonstrated that new bone formation and the number of osteoblasts was also highest in the RJN group. Conclusions The systemic administration of Royal Jelly in conjunction with rapid maxillary expansion may increase the quality of regenerated bone. Key words:Bone formation, rapid maxillary expansion, Royal jelly. PMID:26449428

  6. Antihyperglycemic effect of Hypericum perforatum ethyl acetate extract on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Arokiyaraj, S; Balamurugan, R; Augustian, P

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity of ethyl acetate extract of Hypericum perforatum (H. perforatum) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Methods Acute toxicity and oral glucose tolerance test were performed in normal rats. Male albino rats were rendered diabetic by STZ (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally). H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract was orally administered to diabetic rats at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses for 15 days to determine the antihyperglycemic activity. Biochemical parameters were determined at the end of the treatment. Results H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract showed dose dependant fall in fasting blood glucose (FBG). After 30 min of extract administration, FBG was reduced significantly when compared with normal rats. H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract produced significant reduction in plasma glucose level, serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose-6-phosphatase levels. Tissue glycogen content, HDL-cholesterol, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly increased compared with diabetic control. No death or lethal effect was observed in the toxic study. Conclusions The results demonstrate that H. perforatum ethyl acetate extract possesses potent antihyperglycemic activity in STZ induced diabetic rats. PMID:23569798

  7. Determination of the effects of pulmonary arterial hypertension and therapy on the cardiovascular system of rats by impedance cardiography

    PubMed Central

    Buyukakilli, Belgin; Gurgul, Serkan; Cıtırık, Derya; Hallioglu, Olgu; Ozeren, Murat; Tasdelen, Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effects of bosentan, sildenafil, and combined therapy on the cardiovascular system using impedance cardiography (ICG) in rats with monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Methods Seventy male Wistar-albino rats were randomized into five groups. A single dose of MCT was given to all rats, except to the control group. After 4 weeks, bosentan, sildenafil, and combined treatment was started and lasted for 3 weeks. The last group that developed PAH did not receive any medication. Echocardiographic evaluation was performed to determine the PAH development. Thoracic fluid content index (TFCI), stroke volume index (SI), heart rate (HR), cardiac index (CI), and myocardial contractility index (IC) were determined. All procedures were performed at the baseline and after 4 and 7 weeks. Results Echocardiographic parameters showed that the all MCT-injected rats developed PAH. There were no significant inter- and intra-group differences in TFCI, SI, and IC (P > 0.05), but at the 7th week, CI value in the sildenafil-treated PAH rats was significantly higher than in other groups and HR of PAH rats with combined therapy was significantly lower than in other groups. Conclusion PAH did not have an effect on LV function of rats, or if it did, the effect was compensated by physiological processes. Also, sildenafil treatment deteriorated the LV cardiac index. PMID:25358882

  8. Effects of hydro-ethanol extract of Citrullus colocynthis on blood glucose levels and pathology of organs in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Oryan, Ahmad; Hashemnia, Mohammad; Hamidi, Ahmad-Reza; Mohammadalipour, Adel

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluated the differential effects of ethanol extraction of Citrullus colocynthis (C. colocynthis) on the blood glucose concentration and pathology of pancreas, liver, lungs, kidney and gastrointestinal tract in the alloxan induced diabetes in rats. Methods Diabetes mellitus was induced in 20 adult female Albino rats, using intraperitoneal injection of 120 mg/kg alloxan. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into two equal groups. The first group was treated with the extract of C. colocynthis seed (300 mg/kg) and the rats of the second group, as an untreated diabetic group, received ordinary diet. Ten non diabetic rats remained as a normal control group. Results The results of this study indicate that C. colocynthis was able to reduce blood glucose significantly compared with the control diabetic group (P<0.05). Histopathologically, alloxan resulted in severe necrotic changes in the pancreatic islets, especially in the central area of the islets. Tissue sections of the pancreas in the treated rats demonstrated enhanced regeneration of B cells and increased size of pancreatic islets. Liver of the treated diabetic rats revealed significant improvement of the hepatic tissue compared to those of the untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions The present study indicated a significant anti-hyperglycemic effect of C. colocynthis seed and supported its traditional usage in treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  9. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Toppo, Reetu; Roy, Birendra Kumar; Gora, Ravuri Halley; Baxla, Sushma Lalita; Kumar, Prabhat

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days). On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters, histomorphological examination were carried out with estimation of cadmium concentration in liver tissues. Results: Oral administration of cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), significant (p≤0.01) increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase in cadmium accumulation in liver. Treatment with M. oleifera @ 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01) decreased the elevated ALP, AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in SOD levels, and as compared to cadmium chloride treated group. However, there was no significant difference in cadmium concentration in liver when compared with cadmium chloride treated group. Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of M. oleifera (500 mg/kg), daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:27047130

  10. Spectrofluorimetric Method for Estimation of Curcumin in Rat Blood Plasma: Development and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivedi, J.; Variya, B.; Gandhi, H.; Rathod, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin is a medicinally important phytoconstituent of curcuminoids. The present study describes development of a simple method for estimation of curcumin in rat plasma. This method involves the use of spectrofluorimetry for evaluation of curcumin at 257 (Ex) and 504 nm (Em). Sample preparation involves only two steps: extraction of curcumin and drying the extract. Following this procedure, the samples are reconstituted with ethyl acetate, and relative fluorescence intensity is measured using a spectrofluorimeter. The method was validated as per CDER guidelines. The linearity of the method was found to be in the range of 100-500 ng/mL with accuracy and precision lying within 2% RSD. The LOD and LOQ were found to be 15.3 and 46.1 ng/mL, respectively. The method was applied for pharmacokinetic evaluation in rats, and AUC, Cmax, and Tmax were found to be 5580 ± 1006 h × ng/mL, 1526 ± 209 ng/mL, and 2.97 ± 0.28 h, respectively, with a plasma half-life of 1.14 ± 0.27 h.

  11. Skin cancers among Albinos at a University teaching hospital in Northwestern Tanzania: a retrospective review of 64 cases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Skin cancers are a major risk associated with albinism and are thought to be a major cause of death in African albinos. The challenges associated with the care of these patients are numerous and need to be addressed. The aim of this study was to outline the pattern and treatment outcome of skin cancers among albinos treated at our centre and to highlight challenges associated with the care of these patients and proffer solutions for improved outcome. Methods This was a retrospective study of all albinos with a histopathological diagnosis of skin cancer seen at Bugando Medical Centre from March 2001 to February 2010. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results A total of 64 patients were studied. The male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The median age of patients was 30 years. The median duration of illness at presentation was 24 months. The commonest reason for late presentation was financial problem. Head and the neck was the most frequent site afflicted in 46(71.8%) patients. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common histopathological type in 75% of cases. Surgical operation was the commonest modality of treatment in 60 (93.8%) patients. Radiotherapy was given in 24(37.5%) patients. Twenty-seven (42.2%) of the patients did not complete their treatment due to lack of funds. Local recurrence following surgical treatment was recorded in 6 (30.0%) patients. Only thirty-seven (61.7%) patients were available for follow-up at 6–12 months and the remaining patients were lost to follow-up. Conclusions Skin cancers are the most common cancers among albinos in our environment. Albinism and exposure to ultraviolet light appears to be the most important risk factor in the development of these cancers. Late presentation and failure to complete treatment due to financial difficulties and lack of radiotherapy services at our centre are major challenges in the care of these patients. Early institution of preventive measures, early

  12. Sclera-Choroid-RPE Transport of Eight β-Blockers in Human, Bovine, Porcine, Rabbit, and Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Kadam, Rajendra S.; Cheruvu, Narayan P. S.; Edelhauser, Henry F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the influence of drug lipophilicity, ocular pigmentation, and species differences on transscleral solute transport. Methods. The transport of eight β-blockers across excised sclera/sclera-choroid-RPE (SCRPE) of albino rabbit, pigmented rabbit, human, porcine, and bovine eyes was determined over 6 hours. The ex vivo transscleral β-blocker transport to the vitreous at the end of 6 hours was determined in euthanatized, pigmented Brown Norway rats. The thicknesses of the sclera and SCRPE and the melanin content in choroid-RPE (CRPE) were measured to determine whether species differences in drug transport can be explained on this basis. Results. Solute lipophilicity inversely correlated with the SCRPE cumulative percentage of transport in all species (R2 ≥ 0.80). The CRPE impeded the SCRPE transport of all β-blockers (51%–64% resistance in the rabbits; 84%–99.8% in the bovine and porcine eyes) more than the sclera, with the impedance increasing with lipophilicity. SCRPE transport followed the trend albino rabbit > pigmented rabbit > human > porcine > bovine, and a cross-species comparison showed good Spearman's rho correlation (R2 ≥ 0.85). Bovine (R2 = 0.84), porcine (R2 = 0.84), and human (R2 = 0.71) SCRPE transport was more predictive than that in the rabbit models (R2 = 0.60–0.61) of transscleral solute transport to the vitreous in rats. The CRPE concentrations were higher in pigmented rabbits than in albino rabbits. The melanin content of the CRPE exhibited the trend albino rabbit ≪ pigmented rabbit < porcine ∼ bovine < rat. Normalization to scleral thickness abolished the species differences in scleral transport. Normalization to SCRPE thickness and melanin content significantly reduced species differences in SCRPE transport. Conclusions. Owing to the presence of pigment and drug binding, choroid-RPE is the principal barrier to transscleral β-blocker transport, with the barrier being more significant for lipophilic

  13. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Hardik; Patel, Sejal; Patel, Ghanshyam; Paranjape, Archana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glucova Active Tablet is a proprietary Ayurvedic formulation with ingredients reported for anti-hyperglycemic, anti-hyperlipidemic activity and antioxidant properties. Objective: Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of Glucova Active Tablet on Type I and Type II diabetic model in rats. Materials and Methods: Experimental Type I diabetes was induced in 24 albino rats with intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Type II diabetes was induced in 18 albino rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg) along with high fat diet. The rats were divided in 5 groups for Type I model and 4 groups for Type II model. Normal control group was kept common for both experimental models. Glucova Active Tablet (108 mg/kg) treatment was provided for 28 days twice daily orally. Fasting blood glucose level, serum lipid profile and liver anti-oxidant parameters like superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione was carried out in both experimental models. Pancreas histopathology was also done. Statistical analysis were done by ‘analysis of variance’ test followed by post hoc Tukey's test, with significant level of P < 0.05. Results and Discussion: Glucova Active Tablet showed significant effect on fasting blood glucose level. It also showed significant alteration in lipid profile and antioxidant parameters. Histopathology study revealed restoration of beta cells in pancreas in Glucova Active Tablet treated group. Conclusion: Finding of this study concludes that Glucova Active Tablet has shown promising anti-diabetic activity in Type I and Type II diabetic rats. It was also found showing good anti-hyperlipidemic activity and anti-oxidant property. PMID:24948860

  14. Hypoglycemic effect of aqueous extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vijay S.; Chitra, V.; Prasanna, P. Lakshmi; Krishnaraju, V.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of Parthenium hysterophorus L. flower on serum glucose level in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into six groups of six animals each, three groups of normal animals receiving different treatments consisting of vehicle, aqueous extract of Parthenium hysterophorus L. flower (100 mg/kg) and the standard antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide (0.5 mg/kg). The same treatment was given to the other three groups comprising alloxan induced diabetic animals. Fasting blood glucose level was estimated using the glucose oxidase method in normal and alloxan induced diabetic rats, before and 2 h after the administration of drugs. Results: Parthenium hysterophorus L. showed significant reduction in blood glucose level in the diabetic (P<0.01) rats. However, the reduction in blood glucose level with aqueous extract was less than with the standard drug glibenclamide. The extract showed less hypoglycemic effect in fasted normal rats, (P<0.05). Conclusion: The study reveals that the active fraction of Parthenium hysterophorus L. flower extract is very promising for developing standardized phytomedicine for diabetes mellitus. PMID:20040954

  15. Histopathological, Ultrastructural and Apoptotic Changes in Diabetic Rat Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Gül, Mehmet; Bayat, Nuray; Çetin, Aslı; Kepekçi, Remziye Aysun; Şimşek, Yavuz; Kayhan, Başak; Turhan, Uğur; Otlu, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background: The exchange of substances between mother and fetus via the placenta plays a vital role during development. A number of developmental disorders in the fetus and placenta are observed during diabetic pregnancies. Diabetes, together with placental apoptosis, can lead to developmental and functional disorders. Aims: Histological, ultrastructural and apoptotic changes were investigated in the placenta of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: In this study, a total of 12 female Wistar Albino rats (control (n=6) and diabetic (n=6)) were used. Rats in the diabetic group, following the administration of a single dose of STZ, showed blood glucose levels higher than 200 mg/dL after 72 hours. When pregnancy was detected after the rats were bred, two pieces of placenta and the fetuses were collected on the 20th day of pregnancy by cesarean incision under ketamine/ xylazine anesthesia from in four rats from the control and diabetic groups. Placenta tissues were processed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and periodic acid Schiff-diastase (PAS-D) staining for light microscopic and caspase-3 staining for immunohistochemical investigations were performed for each placenta. Electron microscopy was performed on thin sections contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead nitrate. Results: Weight gain in the placenta and fetuses of diabetic rats and thinning of the decidual layer, thickening of the hemal membrane, apoptotic bodies, congestion in intervillous spaces, increased PAS-D staining in decidual cells and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were observed in the diabetic group. After the ultrastructural examination, the apoptotic appearance of the nuclei of trophoblastic cells, edema and intracytoplasmic vacuolization, glycogen accumulation, dilation of the endoplasmic reticulum and myelin figures were observed. In addition, capillary basement membrane thickening, capillary

  16. A Wireless EEG Recording Method for Rat Use inside the Water Maze

    PubMed Central

    Pinnell, Richard C.; Almajidy, Rand K.; Kirch, Robert D.; Cassel, Jean C.; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2016-01-01

    With the continued miniaturisation of portable embedded systems, wireless EEG recording techniques are becoming increasingly prevalent in animal behavioural research. However, in spite of their versatility and portability, they have seldom been used inside water-maze tasks designed for rats. As such, a novel 3D printed implant and waterproof connector is presented, which can facilitate wireless water-maze EEG recordings in freely-moving rats, using a commercial wireless recording system (W32; Multichannel Systems). As well as waterproofing the wireless system, battery, and electrode connector, the implant serves to reduce movement-related artefacts by redistributing movement-related forces away from the electrode connector. This implant/connector was able to successfully record high-quality LFP in the hippocampo-striatal brain regions of rats as they undertook a procedural-learning variant of the double-H water-maze task. Notably, there were no significant performance deficits through its use when compared with a control group across a number of metrics including number of errors and speed of task completion. Taken together, this method can expand the range of measurements that are currently possible in this diverse area of behavioural neuroscience, whilst paving the way for integration with more complex behaviours. PMID:26828947

  17. Imaging dermal blood flow through the intact rat skin with an optical clearing method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dan; Wang, Jing; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wen, Xiang; Luo, Qingming

    2010-03-01

    Noninvasive detection of skin microcirculation is very significant for clinical diagnosis and therapy of peripheral vascular disease. In this study, an optical clearing method enables a laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) technique to image dermal blood flow through intact rat skin. The optical clearing effect of rat skin in vitro caused by a mixture of PEG-400 and Thiazone is evaluated by a commercially available spectrophotometer with an integrating sphere. A LSCI system is applied to image the dermal blood flow of in vivo rat skin after topical treatment of the agents. The results show that the reduced scattering coefficient (630 nm) is down to 60% of the initial value after 40 min of topical treatment of the mixture on skin in vitro. In vivo experimental results show that a 12-min treatment of the mixture on the epidermis can make the skin transparent and dermal vessels can be observed, while treatment with pure PEG-400 cannot. The process of skin optical clearing lasts, and the skin can be recovered by treatment of saline solution. Because optical clearing decreases the temporal contrast, dermal blood flow can be obtained by the laser speckle contrast imaging technique.

  18. A Wireless EEG Recording Method for Rat Use inside the Water Maze.

    PubMed

    Pinnell, Richard C; Almajidy, Rand K; Kirch, Robert D; Cassel, Jean C; Hofmann, Ulrich G

    2016-01-01

    With the continued miniaturisation of portable embedded systems, wireless EEG recording techniques are becoming increasingly prevalent in animal behavioural research. However, in spite of their versatility and portability, they have seldom been used inside water-maze tasks designed for rats. As such, a novel 3D printed implant and waterproof connector is presented, which can facilitate wireless water-maze EEG recordings in freely-moving rats, using a commercial wireless recording system (W32; Multichannel Systems). As well as waterproofing the wireless system, battery, and electrode connector, the implant serves to reduce movement-related artefacts by redistributing movement-related forces away from the electrode connector. This implant/connector was able to successfully record high-quality LFP in the hippocampo-striatal brain regions of rats as they undertook a procedural-learning variant of the double-H water-maze task. Notably, there were no significant performance deficits through its use when compared with a control group across a number of metrics including number of errors and speed of task completion. Taken together, this method can expand the range of measurements that are currently possible in this diverse area of behavioural neuroscience, whilst paving the way for integration with more complex behaviours. PMID:26828947

  19. Determination of quality constituents in the young leaves of albino tea cultivars.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Gao, Ming-Jun; Hou, Ru-Yan; Hu, Xiao-Yi; Zhang, Liang; Wan, Xiao-Chun; Wei, Shu

    2014-07-15

    Albino tea has received increased attention due to its brisk flavour. To identify changes in the key chemical constituents conveying important qualities to albino tea, the metabolite profiles of four albino cultivars and one green tea cultivar were analysed. Compared to the green tea control, significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll (Chl) (p<0.01), total carotenoids (p<0.05), caffeine (p<0.01), and total catechins (p<0.05) were found in albino tea leaves with a few exceptions, whereas increases were noted in the Chl a/b ratio and the contents of both zeaxanthin and free amino acids, including theanine. Multivariate analysis identified catechins and carotenoids as the most important contributors to the metabolic profile variance between the albino and green tea cultivars. High levels of amino acids, along with low levels of chlorophylls, catechins and caffeine, contribute to the qualities of albino tea, which include reduced astringency and bitterness, along with a strong umami taste. PMID:24594160

  20. Termination of Nutrient Import and Development of Vein Loading Capacity in Albino Tobacco Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Robert

    1984-01-01

    The sink-source conversion in developing leaves of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was studied to determine whether import termination is caused by the onset of export or is related to achievement of positive carbon balance. Albino shoots were grown in vitro and grafted to detopped stems of green tobacco plants. Termination of import was studied by providing mature leaves of the stock plant with 14CO2 and detecting the presence of labeled nutrient in developing albino leaves by whole-leaf autoradiography. In albino leaves, import terminated progressively in the basipetal direction at the same stage of development as in leaves of green shoots. Starch was not present in the plastids of mesophyll cells of mature albino leaves but starch was synthesized when discs were cut from these leaves and incubated on 3 millimolar sucrose. Import ceased progressively in developing green leaves even when photosynthesis was prevented by darkening. It was concluded that cessation of import does not require achievement of positive carbon balance and is not the direct result of export initiation. To determine whether vein loading capacity develops in albino leaves, discs were cut from mature leaves and floated on [14C]sucrose solution. Uptake of label into the veins was detected by autoradiography and this uptake was sensitive to the phloem loading inhibitor p-chloromercuribenzenesulfonic acid. However, the amount of label taken up by veins in albino leaves was less than that taken up by veins of mature green leaves. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:16663820

  1. A venous outflow method for continuously monitoring cerebral blood flow in the rat.

    PubMed

    Morii, S; Ngai, A C; Ko, K R; Winn, H R

    1986-02-01

    We analyzed the retroglenoid venous outflow (VOF) technique in the rat to document the validity of this method of measuring cerebral blood flow (CBF). Stereotypic changes in CBF were obtained with VOF during hypercarbia and hypotension. O2 content of retroglenoid venous blood did not differ significantly from O2 content of blood obtained from the sagittal sinus, suggesting minimal extracerebral contamination of the retroglenoid venous blood. This lack of extracerebral contamination was further analyzed using a double tracer technique (125I-labeled serum albumin, 22Na) that quantitated minimal extracerebral contamination in the retroglenoid vein. CBF measurements were made simultaneously using microsphere and VOF methods, and excellent correlation was found between the two techniques over a wide range of CBF during normoxia, hypoxia, and normoxic hypocarbia and hypercarbia. However, a decrease in the ratio of VOF to microsphere CBF was observed during severe normoxic hypotension (mean arterial pressure = 41 +/- 4 mmHg). VOF represented 18% of total CBF as measured by microsphere method. This study indicates that the retroglenoid outflow technique in rats is a valid method of measuring CBF. PMID:3080902

  2. Method parameters’ impact on mortality and variability in rat stroke experiments: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Even though more than 600 stroke treatments have been shown effective in preclinical studies, clinically proven treatment alternatives for cerebral infarction remain scarce. Amongst the reasons for the discrepancy may be methodological shortcomings, such as high mortality and outcome variability, in the preclinical studies. A common approach in animal stroke experiments is that A) focal cerebral ischemia is inflicted, B) some type of treatment is administered and C) the infarct sizes are assessed. However, within this paradigm, the researcher has to make numerous methodological decisions, including choosing rat strain and type of surgical procedure. Even though a few studies have attempted to address the questions experimentally, a lack of consensus regarding the optimal methodology remains. Methods We therefore meta-analyzed data from 502 control groups described in 346 articles to find out how rat strain, procedure for causing focal cerebral ischemia and the type of filament coating affected mortality and infarct size variability. Results The Wistar strain and intraluminal filament procedure using a silicone coated filament was found optimal in lowering infarct size variability. The direct and endothelin methods rendered lower mortality rate, whereas the embolus method increased it compared to the filament method. Conclusions The current article provides means for researchers to adjust their middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) protocols to minimize infarct size variability and mortality. PMID:23548160

  3. Bioassay of Eucalyptus extracts for anticancer activity against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (eac) cells in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Farhadul; Khatun, Hasina; Ghosh, Soby; Ali, MM; Khanam, JA

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antineoplastic activity of Eucalyptus extract (EuE) against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods Preliminary examination of four plant extracts (namely Eucalyptus, Costus, Azadirachta, Feronia) has been done by observing the reduction ability of number of EAC cells in previously inoculated Swiss albino mice. Among them as EuE showed maximum capability, the whole study has been conducted with EuE only. Important parameters viz. enhancement of life span, reduction of average tumor weight etc. have been studied. In addition the effects of EuE on hematological parameters in both normal and EAC inoculated mice have been measured. Effect of EuE on normal peritoneal cells has also been studied. Results : EuE reduced tumor burden remarkably. It reduced the tumor growth rate and enhanced the life span of EAC bearing mice noticeably. It reversed back the hematological parameters towards normal, reduced the trasplantability of EAC cells and enhanced the immunomodulatory effects in mice. The host toxic effect of EuE in mice is minimum and mostly reversible with time. All such data have been compared with those obtained by running parallel experiments with bleomycin at dose 0.3 mg/kg (i.p.). Conclusions The Eucalyptus extract may be considered as a potent anticancer agent for advanced researches. PMID:23569937

  4. Simple generation of albino C57BL/6J mice with G291T mutation in the tyrosinase gene by the CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Seiya; Dinh, Tra Thi Huong; Kato, Kanako; Mizuno-Iijima, Saori; Tanimoto, Yoko; Daitoku, Yoko; Hoshino, Yoshikazu; Ikawa, Masahito; Takahashi, Satoru; Sugiyama, Fumihiro; Yagami, Ken-ichi

    2014-08-01

    Single nucleotide mutations (SNMs) are associated with a variety of human diseases. The CRISPR/Cas9 genome-editing system is expected to be useful as a genetic modification method for production of SNM-induced mice. To investigate whether SNM-induced mice can be generated by zygote microinjection of CRISPR/Cas9 vector and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) donor, we attempted to produce albino C57BL/6J mice carrying the Tyr gene SNM (G291T) from pigmented C57BL/6J zygotes. We first designed and constructed a CRISPR/Cas9 expression vector for the Tyr gene (px330-Tyr-M). DNA cleavage activity of px330-Tyr-M at the target site of the Tyr gene was confirmed by the EGxxFP system. We also designed an ssDNA donor for homology-directed repair (HDR)-mediated gene modification. The px330-Tyr-M vector and ssDNA donor were co-microinjected into the pronuclei of 224 one-cell-stage embryos derived from C57BL/6J mice. We obtained 60 neonates, 28 of which showed the ocular albinism and absence of coat pigmentation. Genomic sequencing analysis of the albino mice revealed that the target of SNM, G291T in the Tyr gene, occurred in 11 mice and one founder was homozygously mutated. The remaining albino founders without Tyr G291T mutation also possessed biallelic deletion and insertion mutants adjacent to the target site in the Tyr locus. Simple production of albino C57BL/6J mice was provided by C57BL/6J zygote microinjection with px330-Tyr-M DNA vector and mutant ssDNA (G291T in Tyr) donor. A combination of CRISPR/Cas9 vector and optional mutant ssDNA could be expected to efficiently produce novel SNM-induced mouse models for investigating human diseases. PMID:24879364

  5. Combination treatment of lycopene and hesperidin protect experimentally induced ulcer in laboratory rats

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Dilpesh; Katti, Neha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Lycopene, a carotenoid and hesperidin, a flavonoid are naturally occurring in vegetables and fruits. Synergistic effect of a combination of carotenoid and flavonoid has been reported due to its antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present study was aimed to evaluate the protective effect of this combination on pylorus ligation induced ulcers in rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups (n = 6). Rats were fasted for 24 h before pylorus ligation. After 24 h of fasting the rats were treated with hesperidin (100 mg/kg) and lycopene (2 mg/kg) and their combination 1h prior to surgery. After an hour under ether anesthesia pylorus ligation was performed, after 5 h the animals were sacrificed, stomach was dissected, and gastric contents were collected and measured. Total acidity and pH of gastric content was estimated. Ulcer index was calculated, and macroscopic examination of the stomach was carried out. Results: The sham operated rats showed a significant increase in pH, volume of gastric content and total acidity and ulcer index. The rats pretreated with lycopene and hesperidin showed significant improvement in the ulcer conditions. However, rats treated with a combination of lycopene and hesperidin showed more significant restoration of gastric function as compared to sham operated rats. Moreover, a significant difference was also noted in rats treated with a combination as compared to lycopene and hesperidin treatment alone. Conclusion: Thus experimentally the combination was seen to treat ulcers by anti-secretory, neutralizing, cytoprotective and mainly due to its antioxidant property. PMID:26401402

  6. Preventive effects of dexmedetomidine on the liver in a rat model of acid-induced acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Sen, Velat; Güzel, Abdulmenap; Şen, Hadice Selimoğlu; Ece, Aydın; Uluca, Unal; Söker, Sevda; Doğan, Erdal; Kaplan, İbrahim; Deveci, Engin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether dexmedetomidine improves acute liver injury in a rat model. Twenty-eight male Wistar albino rats weighing 300-350 g were allocated randomly to four groups. In group 1, normal saline (NS) was injected into the lungs and rats were allowed to breathe spontaneously. In group 2, rats received standard ventilation (SV) in addition to NS. In group 3, hydrochloric acid was injected into the lungs and rats received SV. In group 4, rats received SV and 100 µg/kg intraperitoneal dexmedetomidine before intratracheal HCl instillation. Blood samples and liver tissue specimens were examined by biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical methods. Acute lung injury (ALI) was found to be associated with increased malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant activity (TOA), oxidative stress index (OSI), and decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Significantly decreased MDA, TOA, and OSI levels and significantly increased TAC levels were found with dexmedetomidine injection in group 4 (P < 0.05). The highest histologic injury scores were detected in group 3. Enhanced hepatic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and reduced CD68 expression were found in dexmedetomidine group compared with the group 3. In conclusion, the presented data provide the first evidence that dexmedetomidine has a protective effect on experimental liver injury induced by ALI. PMID:25165710

  7. Protective effects of Withania somnifera root on inflammatory markers and insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Samadi Noshahr, Zahra; Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadvand, Hassan; Nourabadi, Davood; Nakhaei, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Background: We investigated the effects of Withania somnifera root (WS) on insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in fructose-fed rats. Methods: Forty-eight Wistar-Albino male rats were randomly divided into four groups (n=12); Group I as control, Group II as sham-treated with WS by 62.5mg/g per diet, Group III fructose-fed rats received 10%W/V fructose, and Group IV fructose- and WS-fed rats. After eight weeks blood samples were collected to measure glucose, insulin, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in sera. Results: Blood glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-R), IL-6, and TNF-α levels were all significantly greater in the fructose-fed rats than in the controls. Treatment with WS significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the fructose-induced increases in glucose, insulin, HOMA-R, IL-6, and TNF-α. Conclusion: Our data suggest that WS normalizes hyperglycemia in fructose-fed rats by reducing inflammatory markers and improving insulin sensitivity. PMID:26989739

  8. Neuroprotective Effects of Memantine in the Retina of Glaucomatous Rats: An Electron Microscopic Study

    PubMed Central

    Celiker, Hande; Yuksel, Nursen; Solakoglu, Seyhun; Karabas, Levent; Aktar, Fadime; Caglar, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In this experimental study, the effects of systemic memantine administration on the retinal ultrastructure of experimentally induced glaucomatous rats were investigated. Methods: Twenty-four Wistar albino rats were included in this study. Glaucoma was induced by injecting sodium hyaluronate into the anterior chamber of the rats for a period of three weeks. As a control, 8 rats were sham treated (Group C). Glaucoma induced animals were divided into two groups; Group M (n = 8) received a single daily dose of 10 mg/kg memantine, and Group G received the same volume of saline (n = 8), via intraperitoneal route for a period of six weeks, starting with the induction of glaucoma. Then, all rats were sacrificed and the retinas were prepared for electron microscopic examination. Electron microscopic damage findings were graded between 0 and 4 and mean damage scores for each cell or layer was calculated for each group. Statistical comparison was made between group G and group M. Results: Including the photoreceptor cells, marked ultrastructural changes were observed in the retinas of the animals in group G. The ultrastructural changes in group M were modest and there was no significant cell death. Statistical findings indicated these results. Conclusion: Results of the present study suggest that memantine treatment, when started in the early phase of glaucomatous process, may help to preserve the retinal ultrastructure and thus prevent neuronal injury in experimentally induced glaucoma.

  9. Determination of trace elements in rat organs implanted with endodontic repair materials by ICP-MS.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Neslihan; Bulut, Elçin Tekin; Ahmetoğlu, Fuat; Alan, Hilal

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the levels of seven elements using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method in rat organs after the implantation of Micro Mega Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MM-MTA), Bioaggregate (BA) and Biodentine (BD) materials. MM-MTA, BA and BD were implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of 15 Wistar albino rats; three control animals had no operation. After 45 days, the rats were sacrificed and their brains, kidneys and livers were removed. The ICP-MS analysis was used to determine trace elements. Data were analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Connover post hoc tests. There was no significant difference between the control groups and the MM-MTA, BA and BD groups according to the concentration of aluminum, calcium, arsenic and lead in the rats' organs. Beryllium was not detected in all tissue samples. Chromium levels of these materials were higher than the control group in brain and kidney samples (P = 0.038 and P = 0.037); magnesium levels were higher than the control group in kidney and liver samples (P = 0.030 and P = 0.008). MM-MTA, BA and BD were nontoxic according to trace element levels in brain, kidney and liver samples of rats. Further investigation is required to understand the systemic effects of these materials. PMID:26758893

  10. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats

    PubMed Central

    Hyacinth, Abu Adakole; Nwocha, Uchendu Chukwuka

    2011-01-01

    Background: Hymenocardia acida is traditionally used in African herbal medicine and has numerous therapeutic benefits. But little is known about its potentially negative effects on pregnant women. Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antifertility effect of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats were administered orally aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight daily for 19 days. The control group received distilled water. On day 20 of gestation, each rat was laparatomised and number of corpora lutea of pregnancy, number of live fetuses as well as the postcoitum fertility index, weights of the foetuses and placentae were determined. Results: Oral administration of the extract from days 1 to 19 of gestation showed reduction (p<0.05) in the number of corpora lutea of pregnancy and number of live fetuses. Weights of fetuses of extract treated female rats were also smaller (p<0.05) compared with the control. Anti-implantation activity of the treatment groups were 41.4%, 48.3% and 51.7% for groups II to IV respectively, whereas antifertility activity of the groups was found to be 40%, 60% and 60% in the same order. Conclusion: The results suggest that aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark could induce negative effects on reproductive functions in female albino rats. PMID:26396567

  11. Culturing Schwann Cells from Neonatal Rats by Improved Enzyme Digestion Combined with Explants-culture Method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Di; Liang, Xiao-Chun; Zhang, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Objective To develop an improved method for culturing Schwann cells(SCs) by using both enzyme digestion and explants-culture approaches and compared with traditional explants-culture method and general hemi-explants-culture method. Methods Bilaterally sciatic nerves and brachial plexus nerves were dissected from 3 to 5-day-old neonatal SD rats and explants-culture method,general hemi-explants-culture method,and improved enzyme digestion combined with explants-culture method were adopted to culture SCs,respectively. SCs were digested and passaged after 7 days in culture and counted under the microscope. The purity of SCs was identified by S-100 immunofluorescence staining. Results The SCs of improved method group grew fastest and the total number of cells obtained was(1.85±0.13)×10(6);the SCs of the hemi-explants-culture method group grew slower than the improved method group and the total number of cells obtained was (1.10±0.10)×10(6);the SCs of the explants-culture method group grew slowest and the total number of cells obtained was (0.77±0.03)×10(6).The total number of cells obtained showed significant difference among the three groups(P<0.01). Immunofluorescence staining showed that the SCs purity was (95.73±1.51)% in the improved method group,(84.66±2.68)% in the hemi-explants-culture method group,and (74.50±4.23)% in the explants-culture method group(P<0.01). Conclusion The improved enzyme digestion combined with explants-culture method can obtain sufficient amount of high-purity SCs in a short time and thus may be applied in further research on peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:27594149

  12. An immunocytochemical method for localization of estrogen receptors in rat tissues using a dinitrophenyl (DNP)-labeled rat monoclonal primary antibody.

    PubMed

    Gee, J M; Nicholson, R I; Jasani, B; Newman, G R; Amselgruber, W M

    1990-01-01

    We have developed an immunocytochemical method to demonstrate estrogen receptor in hormone-sensitive tissues of the rat using a dinitrophenyl (DNP) hapten-labeled rat antihuman estrogen receptor monoclonal antibody (MAb), H222. Mouse IgM anti-DNP was used secondarily, followed by a DNP/peroxidase conjugate, diaminobenzidine/hydrogen peroxide chromogen, and silver intensification. This method was applied to tissues from intact female rats and showed that estrogen receptor was localized in the nuclei of the stromal and glandular components of the uterine endometrium. Reduced receptor staining was observed in the luminal epithelium, with minimal myometrial staining. Anterior pituitary glands showed heterogeneous immunostaining and ovaries expressed the receptor predominantly in the interstitial cells; fallopian tubes demonstrated substantial epithelial staining. Uteri from chemically castrated rats showed reduced estrogen receptor immunostaining in both stromal and luminal cells, whereas staining was enhanced in the glandular elements. Classical estrogen-unresponsive tissues (heart, lung, and spleen) were unstained. Antibody controls involved pre-blocking antibody recognition sites on the receptor with unlabeled antibodies to estrogen receptor (H222, H226, and D547), as well as use of an inappropriate DNP-labeled antibody to metallothionein. These controls illustrated the specific nature of the DNP-H222 binding. PMID:1688451

  13. A method to test contractility of the supraspinatus muscle in mouse, rat, and rabbit.

    PubMed

    Valencia, Ana P; Iyer, Shama R; Pratt, Stephen J P; Gilotra, Mohit N; Lovering, Richard M

    2016-02-01

    The rotator cuff (RTC) muscles not only generate movement but also provide important shoulder joint stability. RTC tears, particularly in the supraspinatus muscle, are a common clinical problem. Despite some biological healing after RTC repair, persistent problems include poor functional outcomes with high retear rates after surgical repair. Animal models allow further exploration of the sequela of RTC injury such as fibrosis, inflammation, and fatty infiltration, but there are few options regarding contractility for mouse, rat, and rabbit. Histological findings can provide a "direct measure" of damage, but the most comprehensive measure of the overall health of the muscle is contractile force. However, information regarding normal supraspinatus size and contractile function is scarce. Animal models provide the means to compare muscle histology, imaging, and contractility within individual muscles in various models of injury and disease, but to date, most testing of animal contractile force has been limited primarily to hindlimb muscles. Here, we describe an in vivo method to assess contractility of the supraspinatus muscle and describe differences in methods and representative outcomes for mouse, rat, and rabbit. PMID:26586911

  14. Azodicarbonamide: methods for the analysis in tissues of rats and inhalation disposition.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, W E; Medinsky, M A; Cheng, Y S; Hobbs, C H

    1989-09-01

    1. A method has been developed for measuring azodicarbonamide (ADA) and its metabolite biurea in tissues of rat. The method is based on the reaction of ADA with triphenylphosphine; the derivative so formed was isolated and quantified using reversed-phase h.p.l.c. Quantification was by u.v. detection with 14C-ADA as internal standard. Biurea was measured by oxidation to ADA, followed by treatment as described above. 2. When biurea was added to tissues at 100-400 micrograms, recoveries of 92-125% were observed. In contrast, recoveries of ADA added to tissues were generally much less than 100% and could not be reliably determined. The inability to quantify ADA added to tissues was ascribed to its rapid and facile reduction by tissue sulphydryl groups. 3. When rats were exposed to ADA aerosol concentrations of 200, 100, 50 and 0 mg/m3 for 13 weeks by inhalation, a non-linear dose-dependent accumulation of biurea was observed in lungs. No ADA was detected in lungs. Neither biurea nor ADA could be detected in kidneys. PMID:2815834

  15. Reproductive toxic potential of panmasala in male Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Kumari, A; Mojidra, Bn; Gautam, Ak; Verma, Y; Kumar, Sunil

    2011-09-01

    Some ingredients of panmasala have the ability to penetrate the blood-testis barrier but the reproductive toxic potential of panmasala has not been studied. This study is aimed to assess the possible damage caused by panmasala to male reproductive system in mice. Swiss albino male mice were randomly divided into 7 groups receiving either standard control diet or panmasala-containing diet. Three doses (0.5%, 1.5% and 3%) of panmasala plain (PMP) as well as panmasala with tobacco (PMT)-gutkha were given for a period of 6 months. Assessment of organ weight, sperm count and morphology, spermatid count, sperm production, testicular 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) activity and histology were conducted. A nonsignificant decrease in absolute and relative weight of testis and epididymis was observed. Spermatid count, sperm count and production were significantly decreased and 17β-HSD activity was found considerably declined at 3% of both PMP- and PMT-treated groups as compared to control. The histological observations revealed panmasala induced testicular damage. Abnormal morphology of sperm head shape was significantly elevated in higher doses of both types of panmasala-treated groups than control. The results suggests that panmasala has reproductive toxic potential and more alteration is seen with gutkha as compared to panmasala plain, indicating that similar effects might also be possible in humans. PMID:21343226

  16. A novel turning behavior control method for rat-robot through the stimulation of ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kedi; Zhang, Jiacheng; Zhou, Hong; Lee, Ji Chao Tristan; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2016-02-01

    The concept of a rat-robot was initially introduced in 2002, bringing to the field, a novel area of research using modern research into neuroscience and robotics. This paper brings to the table, a study into the method best used for navigation systems in a rat-robot. Current research is epitomized by the use of reward-based spatial navigation, combining the concept of an induced reward sensation as well as a 'virtual touch' sensation to control the movement of the rat-robot. However, such methods are plagued by limitations affecting the success rate as well as preparation procedures which may have varying effects on different rats, even under similar conditions. Hence, this paper studies the stimulation of two different portions of the brain to induce a turning motion within the rat, namely the Ventral Posteromedial (VPM) thalamic nucleus as well as the Barrel-Field (BF) cortex and demonstrates the preferential usage of VPM as the choice use of navigational control in a rat-robot. PMID:26546880

  17. In vivo DNA damaging and apoptotic potential of silver nanoparticles in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Al Gurabi, Mohammed A; Ali, Daoud; Alkahtani, Saad; Alarifi, Saud

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles can potentially cause adverse effects on organs, tissue, cell levels, and protein levels because of their physicochemical properties. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are being used on a wide scale in world consumer markets; their potential hazards for humans remain largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the intraperitoneal toxicity of AgNPs (26 mg per kg of body weight, 52 mg per kg of body weight, and 78 mg per kg of body weight) over 72 hours in Swiss albino mice. AgNPs induced a significant increase in serum liver injury markers including alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. Induction of DNA damage was also studied in mice injected with AgNPs. Apoptosis (detected by using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine triphosphatase nick end labeling assay method) in liver tissue and DNA strand breaks (detected by using the comet assay method) in lymphocytes revealed that a concentration of 78 mg of AgNPs per kg body weight can cause significant apoptosis and DNA damage. The DNA damage and apoptosis raise the concern about the safety associated with application of the AgNPs. Significantly more alterations were induced in the hepatocytes of animals exposed to AgNP doses than in the control animals. The induced histological and apoptotic changes may be due to AgNP toxicity. Immunohistochemical and ultrastructural of AgNP. PMID:25674004

  18. The effect of Prosopis farcta beans extract on blood biochemical parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rats

    PubMed Central

    Dashtban, Mohsen; Sarir, Hadi; Omidi, Arash

    2016-01-01

    Background: The use of herbals in the treatment of diabetes mellitus is a well-established practice in traditional medicine. The medicinal plant Prosopis farcta has some antioxidant activity, which may be useful in diabetic patients. Since, there is no report on the antidiabetic effect of the P. farcta, this study evaluated antidiabetic activity of P. farcta bean extract (PFE) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Hyperglycemia was induced in male albino Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg body weight [BW]), after which, the animals were randomly allocated into six experimental groups as follows: Group 1: Normal rats (received normal saline), Groups 2 and 3: Normal rats received PFE; (50 and 75 mg/kg BW), Group 4: Diabetic control rats, Group 5: Diabetic rats received PFE (50 mg/kg BW), Group 6: Diabetic rats received PFE (75 mg/kg BW). Three days after induction of diabetes, rats were received an extract of PFE orally for 12 days. Blood samples were collected by cardiac puncture to determine liver enzymes; aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase (AST and ALT), cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), high and low density lipoproteins (HDL and LDL). Results: The administration of PFE (50 and 75 mg/kg) in STZ-induced diabetic rats significantly reduced the blood glucose levels when compared with the STZ-control group (227.2 ± 12.00 and 259.6 ± 7.03 vs. 454.6 ± 12.66, P < 0.001). PFE in diabetic groups had no significant effect on the levels of cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL, AST, and ALT compare to the STZ-control group. Conclusion: P. farcta could reduce blood glucose in diabetic rats. PMID:27512685

  19. A Novel Cell Therapy Method for Recovering after Brain Stroke in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Seyed Mojtaba; Farahmandnia, Mohammad; Kazemi, Sepehr; Shakibajahromi, Benafshe; Sarvestani, Fatemeh Sabet; Khodabande, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Background Nowadays, stroke leads to a significant part of the adult mortality and morbidity and also it could result in some neurological deficits in the patients’ lives. Cell therapy has opened a new approach to treat the brain ischemia and reduce its terrible effects on the patients’ lives. There are several articles which show that the cell therapy could be beneficial for treating brain stroke. In this study, we have planned to present a new cell therapy method for stroke by administration of Mesenchymal stem cells and differentiated neural stem cells without astrocytes. Method and Materials The Mesenchymal stem cells were isolated from tibia and femur of a 250~300 g rat and they were cultured in DMEM/F12, 10% fetal bovine serum, 1% Pen/Strep. Neural stem cells were isolated from 14 days rat embryo ganglion eminence and were cultured in NSA media containing Neurobasal, 2% B27, bFGF 10 ng/ml and EGF 20 ng/ml after 5 days they formed some neurospheres. The isolated neural stem cells were differentiated to neural lineages by adding 5% fetal bovine serum to their culture media. After 48 hours the astrocytes were depleted by using MACS kit. Results The group that received Mesenchymal stem cells systemically and differentiated neural stem cells without astrocytes had the best neurological outcomes and the least infarct volume and apoptosis. It could be understood that this cell therapy method might cause almost full recovery after brain stoke. Conclusion Using combination cell therapy with Mesenchymal stem cells and differentiated neural stem cells with removed astrocyte could provide a novel method for curing brain stroke. PMID:26634067

  20. Validation of a simple and inexpensive method for the quantitation of infarct in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Schilichting, C L R; Lima, K C M; Cestari, L A; Sekiyama, J Y; Silva, F M; Milani, H

    2004-04-01

    A gravimetric method was evaluated as a simple, sensitive, reproducible, low-cost alternative to quantify the extent of brain infarct after occlusion of the medial cerebral artery in rats. In ether-anesthetized rats, the left medial cerebral artery was occluded for 1, 1.5 or 2 h by inserting a 4-0 nylon monofilament suture into the internal carotid artery. Twenty-four hours later, the brains were processed for histochemical triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and quantitation of the schemic infarct. In each TTC-stained brain section, the ischemic tissue was dissected with a scalpel and fixed in 10% formalin at 0 masculine C until its total mass could be estimated. The mass (mg) of the ischemic tissue was weighed on an analytical balance and compared to its volume (mm(3)), estimated either by plethysmometry using platinum electrodes or by computer-assisted image analysis. Infarct size as measured by the weighing method (mg), and reported as a percent (%) of the affected (left) hemisphere, correlated closely with volume (mm(3), also reported as %) estimated by computerized image analysis (r = 0.88; P < 0.001; N = 10) or by plethysmography (r = 0.97-0.98; P < 0.0001; N = 41). This degree of correlation was maintained between different experimenters. The method was also sensitive for detecting the effect of different ischemia durations on infarct size (P < 0.005; N = 23), and the effect of drug treatments in reducing the extent of brain damage (P < 0.005; N = 24). The data suggest that, in addition to being simple and low cost, the weighing method is a reliable alternative for quantifying brain infarct in animal models of stroke. PMID:15064814

  1. Metabolism of ochratoxin A by rats.

    PubMed Central

    Støren, O; Holm, H; Størmer, F C

    1982-01-01

    Albino rats were given ochratoxin A (6.6 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally or per os. Independent of route administration, 6% of a given dose was excreted as the toxin, 1 to 1.5% as (4R)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A, and 25 to 27% as ochratoxin alpha in the urine. The metabolite (4S)-4-hydroxyochratoxin A, which is formed by rat liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH, was not detected. Only traces of ochratoxins A and alpha were found in feces. Identical experiments were carried out with brown rats, since the Km value for the formation of the 4S epimer was considerably lower when brown rat microsomes were used. About the same ratios of metabolites and metabolite recoveries as those found for albino rats were found for brown rats. Brown rats were also given the two hydroxylated metabolites and ochratoxin alpha (0.66 mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally. The three compounds were excreted in the urine; within 48 h, 90% recovery of ochratoxin alpha and 54 and 35%, respectively, of the 4R and 4S isomers were observed. PMID:7149712

  2. A simple implantation method for flexible, multisite microelectrodes into rat brains

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Anja; Xie, Yijing; Schumacher, Anett; Löffler, Susanne; Kirch, Robert D.; Al-Hasani, Jaafar; Rapoport, Daniel H.; Kruse, Charli; Moser, Andreas; Tronnier, Volker; Danner, Sandra; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2013-01-01

    A long term functional and reliable coupling between neural tissue and implanted microelectrodes is the key issue in acquiring neural electrophysiological signals or therapeutically excite neural tissue. The currently often used rigid micro-electrodes are thought to cause a severe foreign body reaction resulting in a thick glial scar and consequently a poor tissue-electrode coupling in the chronic phase. We hypothesize, that this adverse effect might be remedied by probes compliant to the soft brain tissue, i.e., replacing rigid electrodes by flexible ones. Unfortunately, this flexibility comes at the price of a low stiffness, which makes targeted low trauma implantation very challenging. In this study, we demonstrate an adaptable and simple method to implant extremely flexible microprobes even to deep areas of rat's brain. Implantation of flexible probes is achieved by rod supported stereotactic insertion fostered by a hydrogel (2% agarose in PBS) cushion on the exposed skull. We were thus able to implant very flexible micro-probes in 70 rats as deep as the rodent's subthalamic nucleus. This work describes in detail the procedures and steps needed for minimal invasive, but reliable implantation of flexible probes. PMID:23898266

  3. A new, albino-beige mouse: giant granules in retinal pigment epithelium.

    PubMed

    Robison, W G; Kuwabara, T

    1978-04-01

    Albino-beige mice were produced in order to combine two experimentally useful characteristics, albinism and lysosomal dysfunction, in the same animal. The retinal pigment epithelium of albino-beige mice formed giant intracellular granules. Exposure of albino-beige mice to white light of 150 foot-candles for 3 to 10 hr induced marked phagocytosis of rod outer segment fragments by the retinal pigment epithelium, resulting in intracellular accumulations of undigested disk membranes within the giant granules. Additional, incompletely processed membranes accumulated as the mice aged or were exposed to 150 foot-candle light for longer periods. Such accumulations of ingested membranes were not observed in the pigment epithelium of exposed or aging albino mice heterozygous for the beige gene. Because of its altered processing of ingested outer segment membranes, this new albino mouse should be useful for studying the possible roles of the retinal pigment epithelium in the maintenance of photoreceptor cells and in their recovery from light damage and other insults. PMID:640784

  4. Early-effect of bariatric surgery (Scopinaro method) on intestinal hormones and adipokines in insulin resistant Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Dib, N; Kiciak, A; Pietrzak, P; Ferenc, K; Jaworski, P; Kapica, M; Tarnowski, W; Zabielski, R

    2013-10-01

    Bariatric surgery consists in duodenal exclusion from the food passage in obese patients with coexistent type 2 diabetes. Nowadays bariatric surgery is considered the most effective method of glycemic index normalization and insulin resistance reduction. Recent results on obese and non-obese rats showed remission of type 2 diabetes symptoms within few days after the surgery. The aim of the present work was to analyze the mechanisms of neuro-hormonal regulation responsible for early normalization of metabolic syndrome after bariatric surgery. In present study the concentration of selected intestinal hormones and adipokines in blood plasma and gastrointestinal tissues were analyzed. Study was conducted on Wistar rats. Animals were divided into three groups (each n=6): control (SH) shame-operated rats; animals in which visceral fat tissue was extracted (LP); and rats in which Scopinaro bariatric surgery was performed (BPD). Immunochemistry analysis of blood plasma showed decrease of insulin concentration in BPD and LP and increase of polypeptide YY (PYY) in BPD group as compared to the control. In duodenal mucosa homogenates the tendency to reduce insulin in LP and BPD group, and increase PYY and visfatin in BPD group was observed. Histometry analysis showed reduction of mucosa thickness in excluded segments of gastrointestinal tract in BPD group as compared to the SH and LP. Concluding, model studies on rats allowed better understanding of mechanisms important for early normalization of glycemic index and insulin resistance reduction in rats. PMID:24304571

  5. Determination of rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban in rat plasma by UPLC-MS/MS method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wan-Li; Lou, Dan; Zhang, Dong-Tao; Zhang, Yin; Huang, Huan-Jie

    2016-08-01

    To establish a rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban in rat plasma. The analytes and the internal standard (diazepam) were separated on an Acquity UPLC BEH C18 chromatography column (2.1 mm × 50 mm, 1.7 μm) using gradient elution with a mobile phase of acetonitrile and 0.1 % formic acid in water at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring mode to monitor the precursor-to-product ion transitions of m/z 436.1 → 145.1 for rivaroxaban, m/z 460.0 → 443.1 for apixaban, m/z 548.2 → 366.1 for edoxaban and m/z 285.2 → 193.1 for diazepam (IS) using a positive electrospray ionization interface. The method was validated over a concentration range of 1.0-200 ng/mL for rivaroxaban, 1.0-100 ng/mL for apixaban and 1.0-500 ng/mL for edoxaban. Total time for each chromatograph was 3.5 min. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of the quality control samples at low, medium, and high concentration levels exhibited relative standard deviations <10.5 % and the accuracy values ranged from -9.9 to 11.3 %. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban in rats. PMID:27116356

  6. Adaptation of the quantitative 2-[14C]deoxyglucose method for use in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Crane, A M; Porrino, L J

    1989-10-01

    A procedure for venous and arterial catheterization is described which allows the quantitative 2-[14C]deoxyglucose method to be applied to freely moving animals for behavioral and pharmacological studies. The catheterization method is rapid, minimally invasive, and requires no complicated equipment. Physiological conditions and rates of cerebral glucose utilization in freely moving rats and in restrained rats have been compared. The results demonstrate that local cerebral glucose utilization can readily be measured in freely moving animals engaged in behavioral experiments. PMID:2804673

  7. Assessment of Immunotoxicity of Dextran Coated Ferrite Nanoparticles in Albino Mice

    PubMed Central

    Syama, Santhakumar; Gayathri, Viswanathan; Mohanan, Parayanthala Valappil

    2015-01-01

    In this study, dextran coated ferrite nanoparticles (DFNPs) of size <25 nm were synthesized, characterized, and evaluated for cytotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and oxidative stress by in vitro and in vivo methods. Cytotoxicity was performed in vitro using splenocytes with different concentrations of DFNPs. Gene expression of selected cytokines (IL-1, IL-10, and TNF β) secretion by splenocytes was evaluated. Also, 100 mg of DFNPs was injected intraperitoneally to 18 albino mice for immunological stimulations. Six animals each were sacrificed at the end of 7, 14, and 21 days. Spleen was subjected to immunotoxic response and liver was analyzed for antioxidant parameters (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione reductase). The results indicated that DFNPs failed to induce any immunological reactions and no significant alternation in antioxidant defense mechanism. Also, mRNA expression of the cytokines revealed an increase in IL-10 expression and subsequent decreased expression of IL-1 and TNF β. Eventually, DNA sequencing of liver actin gene revealed base alteration in nonconserved regions (10–20 bases) of all the treated groups when compared to control samples. Hence, it can be concluded that the DFNPs were nontoxic at the cellular level and nonimmunotoxic when exposed intraperitoneally to mice. PMID:26576301

  8. Inhibition of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by Manilkara zapota L. stem bark in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Osman, M Abu; Rashid, M Mamunur; Aziz, M Abdul; Habib, M Rowshahul; karim, M Rezaul

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antitumor activity of Manilkara zapota (M. zapota) L. stem bark against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Methods The in vivo antitumour activity of the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. (EASM) was evaluated at 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg bw against EAC using mean survival time. After administration of the extract of M. zapota, viable EAC cell count and body weight in the EAC tumour hosts were observed. The animal was also observed for improvement in the haematological parameters (e.g., heamoglobin content, red and white blood cells count and differential cell count) after EASM treatment. Results Intraperitoneal administration of EASM reduced viable EAC cells, increased the survival time, and restored altered haematological parameters. Significant efficacy was observed for EASM at 100 mg/kg dose (P<0.05). Conclusions It can be concluded that the ethyl acetate extract of stem bark of M. zapota L. possesses significant antitumour activity. PMID:23569811

  9. Do different reperfusion methods affect the outcomes of stroke induced by MCAO in adult rats?

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xia-Lin; Deng, Hou-Liang; Wu, Ping; Xu, En

    2016-09-01

    There are two patterns of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) models used in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) I/R models, which differ in the use of unilateral or bilateral carotid artery reperfusion. The primary difference between the two patterns of I/R models is the complexity of the surgery procedure. However, researchers in this field have no idea whether there are any differences in outcomes of these two methods. In this study, we investigated the effects of the two methods on neurological deficits, infarct volume, blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression. Through evaluating the current way of bilateral common carotid artery reperfusion, we tried to find whether it could be replaced by an easier way. We found that there were no statistical significant differences between the different methods in infarct volume, neurological deficits, BBB integrity, and the level of BDNF (P > 0.05). These data demonstrated that different methods did not affect the neurological deficits, infarct volume, BBB integrity, and the BDNF protein level, which provides reference when we use an experimental stroke. These results suggest that the two methods have similar capability for inducing cerebral I/R injury and can be interchanged. PMID:26268737

  10. The Rat Grimace Scale: A partially automated method for quantifying pain in the laboratory rat via facial expressions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    We recently demonstrated the utility of quantifying spontaneous pain in mice via the blinded coding of facial expressions. As the majority of preclinical pain research is in fact performed in the laboratory rat, we attempted to modify the scale for use in this species. We present herein the Rat Grimace Scale, and show its reliability, accuracy, and ability to quantify the time course of spontaneous pain in the intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant, intraarticular kaolin-carrageenan, and laparotomy (post-operative pain) assays. The scale's ability to demonstrate the dose-dependent analgesic efficacy of morphine is also shown. In addition, we have developed software, Rodent Face Finder®, which successfully automates the most labor-intensive step in the process. Given the known mechanistic dissociations between spontaneous and evoked pain, and the primacy of the former as a clinical problem, we believe that widespread adoption of spontaneous pain measures such as the Rat Grimace Scale might lead to more successful translation of basic science findings into clinical application. PMID:21801409

  11. A new method to model electroconvulsive therapy in rats with increased construct validity and enhanced translational value.

    PubMed

    Theilmann, Wiebke; Löscher, Wolfgang; Socala, Katarzyna; Frieling, Helge; Bleich, Stefan; Brandt, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy is the most effective therapy for major depressive disorder (MDD). The remission rate is above 50% in previously pharmacoresistant patients but the mechanisms of action are not fully understood. Electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) in rodents mimics antidepressant electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in humans and is widely used to investigate the underlying mechanisms of ECT. For the translational value of findings in animal models it is essential to establish models with the highest construct, face and predictive validity possible. The commonly used model for ECT in rodents does not meet the demand for high construct validity. For ECT, cortical surface electrodes are used to induce therapeutic seizures whereas ECS in rodents is exclusively performed by auricular or corneal electrodes. However, the stimulation site has a major impact on the type and spread of the induced seizure activity and its antidepressant effect. We propose a method in which ECS is performed by screw electrodes placed above the motor cortex of rats to closely simulate the clinical situation and thereby increase the construct validity of the model. Cortical ECS in rats induced reliably seizures comparable to human ECT. Cortical ECS was more effective than auricular ECS to reduce immobility in the forced swim test. Importantly, auricular stimulation had a negative influence on the general health condition of the rats with signs of fear during the stimulation sessions. These results suggest that auricular ECS in rats is not a suitable ECT model. Cortical ECS in rats promises to be a valid method to mimic ECT. PMID:24607291

  12. A Simple, Quantitative Method Using Alginate Gel to Determine Rat Colonic Tumor Volume In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Amy A; Young, Lindsay B; Pleiman, Jennifer K; Konrath, Michael J; Marzella, Blake; Nonte, Michael; Cacciatore, Justin; Ford, Madeline R; Clipson, Linda; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Dove, William F

    2014-01-01

    Many studies of the response of colonic tumors to therapeutics use tumor multiplicity as the endpoint to determine the effectiveness of the agent. These studies can be greatly enhanced by accurate measurements of tumor volume. Here we present a quantitative method to easily and accurately determine colonic tumor volume. This approach uses a biocompatible alginate to create a negative mold of a tumor-bearing colon; this mold is then used to make positive casts of dental stone that replicate the shape of each original tumor. The weight of the dental stone cast correlates highly with the weight of the dissected tumors. After refinement of the technique, overall error in tumor volume was 16.9% ± 7.9% and includes error from both the alginate and dental stone procedures. Because this technique is limited to molding of tumors in the colon, we utilized the ApcPirc/+ rat, which has a propensity for developing colonic tumors that reflect the location of the majority of human intestinal tumors. We have successfully used the described method to determine tumor volumes ranging from 4 to 196 mm3. Alginate molding combined with dental stone casting is a facile method for determining tumor volume in vivo without costly equipment or knowledge of analytic software. This broadly accessible method creates the opportunity to objectively study colonic tumors over time in living animals in conjunction with other experiments and without transferring animals from the facility where they are maintained. PMID:24674588

  13. A Time Course Study of Different Methods of Extraneural Scar Induction in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Zanjani, Leila Oriady; Firouzi, Masoumeh; Nabian, Mohammad Hossein; Zadegan, Shayan Abdollah; Nategh, Mohsen; Erfanian, Reza; Ashtiani, Ahmad Mohebbi; Kamrani, Reza Shahryar

    2016-05-01

    Background Extraneural scar formation is a challenging problem in nerve repair. Rodent models of scar induction, with their high regenerative capacity, suffer from lack of comparable similarities with human cases. In this study, we attempted to find a reliable and reproducible method of extraneural scarring with a significant impact on the peripheral nerve function. Methods A total of 60 rats were divided into three scar induction groups: abrasion (with a small piece of compressed steel wool), mincing (with extracorporeal mincing of adductor muscle and a 5-mm wide strip of the anterior border of the biceps femoris), and electrocoagulation (with a bipolar coagulator). Extraneural scarring was evaluated macroscopically and histologically during 8 weeks. The tibial functional index was used for behavioral analysis. Results Among three different physical methods of scar induction that were applied, electrocoagulation had the most functional impairment (p < 0.001, two-way analysis of variance); whereas mincing produced the most adhesive and intensive scar, morphologically (p < 0.001). Conclusion We conclude that: (1) the impact of the extraneural scar on the nerve is morphologically and functionally different, based on the method of scarring; (2) to achieve a scar model comparable to the human situation, a method in which the involved nerve is functionally impaired, is preferred over the ones that merely produce a bulky scar. PMID:26848565

  14. Pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice reduces oxidative injury and improves sperm concentration in a rat model of testicular torsion-detorsion

    PubMed Central

    ATILGAN, DOGAN; PARLAKTAS, BEKIR; ULUOCAK, NIHAT; GENCTEN, YUSUF; ERDEMIR, FIKRET; OZYURT, HUSEYIN; ERKORKMAZ, UNAL; ASLAN, HUSEYIN

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of pomegranate juice (PJ) on oxidative stress (OS) and sperm concentration in a rat model of testicular torsion-detorsion. A total of 21 Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups, each consisting of seven rats, as follows: i) control group, which underwent sham surgery; ii) ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group, designed to determine the effects of the testicular torsion-detorsion process on rats; and iii) PJ+I/R group, designed to evaluate the effect of PJ on the OS and sperm cell concentrations induced by the torsion-detorsion process. In the PJ+I/R group, the rats were given 0.4 ml/day PJ orally over a period of eight weeks prior to surgery. Ipsilateral orchiectomy was carried out and 5-cm3 blood samples were obtained from the inferior vena cava of all rats. Biochemical analyses were performed to calculate the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the testicular tissue and serum. The concentrations of spermatids, spermatocytes and spermatogonia in the seminiferous tubules were assessed using histopathological methods. Serum and tissue SOD and MDA levels were significantly higher in rats from the I/R group compared with the control group (P<0.001). PJ treatment significantly decreased the SOD and MDA levels in both the serum and testicular tissue of the rats (P<0.001). The spermatid, spermatocyte and spermatogonia concentrations were significantly reduced in the I/R group compared with the control group (P<0.001). PJ treatment significantly improved the concentrations of spermatids, spermatocytes and spermatogonia compared with those in the I/R group (P=0.008). The experimentally established testicular torsion-detorsion model led to OS in the rat testes. Daily consumption of PJ prior to surgery reduced OS parameters and improved sperm cell concentrations. PMID:25009604

  15. Genetic and Physical Interaction Studies Reveal Functional Similarities between ALBINO3 and ALBINO4 in Arabidopsis1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Trösch, Raphael; Töpel, Mats; Flores-Pérez, Úrsula; Jarvis, Paul

    2015-01-01

    ALBINO3 (ALB3) is a well-known component of a thylakoid protein-targeting complex that interacts with the chloroplast signal recognition particle (cpSRP) and the cpSRP receptor, chloroplast filamentous temperature-sensitive Y (cpFtsY). Its protein-inserting function has been established mainly for light-harvesting complex proteins, which first interact with the unique chloroplast cpSRP43 component and then are delivered to the ALB3 integrase by a GTP-dependent cpSRP-cpFtsY interaction. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), a subsequently discovered ALB3 homolog, ALB4, has been proposed to be involved not in light-harvesting complex protein targeting, but instead in the stabilization of the ATP synthase complex. Here, however, we show that ALB3 and ALB4 share significant functional overlap, and that both proteins are required for the efficient insertion of cytochrome f and potentially other subunits of pigment-bearing protein complexes. Genetic and physical interactions between ALB4 and ALB3, and physical interactions between ALB4 and cpSRP, suggest that the two ALB proteins may engage similar sets of interactors for their specific functions. We propose that ALB4 optimizes the insertion of thylakoid proteins by participating in the ALB3-cpSRP pathway for certain substrates (e.g. cytochrome f and the Rieske protein). Although ALB4 has clearly diverged from ALB3 in relation to the partner-recruiting C-terminal domain, our analysis suggests that one putative cpSRP-binding motif has not been entirely lost. PMID:26265777

  16. Anti-hyperbilirubinemic and wound healing activity of aqueous extract of Calotropis procera leaves in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Rupali Arun; Makwana, Aakash B.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bilirubin lowering and wound healing property of aqueous extract of Calotropis procera (AECP) leaves in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Albino Wistar rats of either sex were used for the study. Bilirubin lowering property of C. procera leaves was evaluated using phenylhydrazine and paracetamol as inducing agents followed by measuring the concentration of serum total bilirubin in hyperbilirubinemic rats. Wound healing property was evaluated using incision and excision models by measuring tensile breaking strength, percentage wound contractions, and epithelization days, respectively. Statistical Analysis: Statistical comparison between groups in each experiment was done with one-way analysis of variance followed by Dunnett's test. Results: AECP showed a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in concentrations of serum total bilirubin in hyperbilirubinemic rats as well as significant (P < 0.05) increase in breaking strength and percentage wound contractions with decreased epithelization period when compared to control groups. Conclusions: AECP showed significant bilirubin lowering and wound healing property in Wistar rats. PMID:26288472

  17. Antidiabetic activity and phytochemical screening of crude extract of Stevia rebaudiana in alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kujur, R. S.; Singh, Vishakha; Ram, Mahendra; Yadava, Harlokesh Narayan; Singh, K. K.; Kumari, Suruchi; Roy, B. K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Stevia rebaudiana regulates blood sugar, prevents hypertension and tooth decay. Other studies have shown that it has antibacterial as well as antiviral property. Methods: Preliminary phytochemical screening of aqueous, ether and methanolic extracts of S. rebaudiana was done. Acute and sub-acute toxicity were conducted on twenty four Albino rats, divided into one control (Group I) and three treatment groups viz. aqueous extract (Group II), ether extract (Group III) and methanolic extract (Group IV). For the study of antidiabetic effect of S. rebaudiana rats were divided into seven groups (n=6). Diabetes was induced by a single dose of 5% alloxan monohydrate (125 mg/kg, i.p.) after 24 hour fasting.Blood samples were analysed on day 0, 1, 5, 7, 14 and 28. Results: Phytochemical tests showed presence of different kinds of phyto-constituents in aqueous, ether and methanol extract of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Daily single dose (2.0 g/kg) administration of aqueous extract (A.E.) , ether extract (E.E.) and methanol extract (M.E.) for 28 days of S. rebaudiana could not show any significant change in ALT and AST levels in rats. Blood sugar level was found to be decreased on day 28 in groups of rats treated with A.E., E.E. and M.E. of S. rebaudiana. Conclusion: The extracts of Stevioside rebaudiana could decrease the blood glucose level in diabetic rats in time dependent manner. PMID:21808578

  18. [THERAPEUTIC ACTIVITY OF MICRONIZED MEBENDAZOLE IN THE MUSCULAR PHASE OF EXPERIMENTAL TRICHINELLA SPIRALIS INVASION IN ALBINO MICE].

    PubMed

    Kukhaleva, I V; Kovalenko, F P; Shkolyar, N A; Legonkov, Yu A; Musaev, A Kh; Bulanova, T E; Samochatova, E I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of trichinosis in Russia was 0.07 per 100,000 population in 2014, which was 2.9-fold higher than that in 2013. Two WHO recommended medications mebendazole and albendazole are now used to treat humari trichinosis. The drugs are active against only mature helminths and non-encysted muscle larvae. The original oil suspension of micronized mebendazole was.found to have 100% efficacy against trichinosis in albino mice in the late muscular phase (encysted larvae) of hyperinvasion after intensive therapy under lifetime diagnostic guidance during and after a treatment cycle. The lifetime diagnostic method used to evaluate the larvicidal activity of anti-trichinosis agents in animals with experimental trichinosis revealed the signs of viaility, established a trend for deatih of Trichinella larvae, and determined their destructive changes. PMID:26827586

  19. An Inexpensive and Automated Method for Presenting Olfactory or Tactile Stimuli to Rats in a Two-Choice Discrimination Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Iver H.

    2008-01-01

    An inexpensive and automated method for presentation of olfactory or tactile stimuli in a two-choice task for rats was implemented with the use of a computer-controlled bidirectional motor. The motor rotated a disk that presented two stimuli of different texture for tactile discrimination, or different odor for olfactory discrimination. Because…

  20. Virulence of Streptococcus mutans: a sensitive method for evaluating cariogenicity in young gnotobiotic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Michalek, S M; McGhee, J R; Navia, J M

    1975-01-01

    Gnotobiotic rats infected with Streptococcus mutans 6715 at 19 days of age and fed a purified diet (305) containing 5% sucrose developed extensive caries lesions on all molar surfaces within 16 days (35 days of age). Approximately twice as many lesions developed when infected rats were maintained until 45 days of age, whereas noninfected rats did not develop caries when fed diet 305. Gnotobiotic rats infected with S. mutans 6715 and fed a purified diet containing no sucrose (300) until day 25 and subsequently fed diet 305 for 10 days developed lesions similar to rats fed diet 305 for 16 days. Furthermore, rats infected with S. mutans 6715 and fed diet 300 until 45 days of age developed approximately one-half the smooth surface lesions as infected rats fed diet 305 for the same length of time. The level of caries on buccal and proximal molar surfaces in 45-day-old gnotobiotic rats varied when animals were infected with S. mutans AHT, BHT, NCTC 10449, 6715, or LM-7. Animals infected with S. mutans AHT showed more severe lesions on the buccal surfaces than those observed in animals infected with the other strains of S. mutans tested, whereas S. mutans 6715 caused significantly more caries on proximal surfaces. On the other hand, rats infected with S. mutans LM-7 exhibited the lowest level of caries on all molar surfaces of the five strains of S. mutans tested. Images PMID:1140853

  1. Comparative Study in Laboratory Rats to Validate Sperm Quality Methods and Endpoints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, W. A.; Briggs, G. B.; Alexander, W. K.; Still, K. R.; Grasman, K. A.

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The Naval Health Research Center, Detachment (Toxicology) performs toxicity studies in laboratory animals to characterize the risk of exposure to chemicals of Navy interest. Research was conducted at the Toxicology Detachment at WPAFB, OH in collaboration with Wright State University, Department of Biological Sciences for the validation of new bioassay methods for evaluating reproductive toxicity. The Hamilton Thorne sperm analyzer was used to evaluate sperm damage produced by exposure to a known testicular toxic agent, methoxyacetic acid and by inhalation exposure to JP-8 and JP-5 in laboratory rats. Sperm quality parameters were evaluated (sperm concentration, motility, and morphology) to provide evidence of sperm damage. The Hamilton Thorne sperm analyzer utilizes a DNA specific fluorescent stain (similar to flow cytometry) and digitized optical computer analysis to detect sperm cell damage. The computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) is a more rapid, robust, predictive and sensitive method for characterizing reproductive toxicity. The results presented in this poster report validation information showing exposure to methoxyacetic acid causes reproductive toxicity and inhalation exposure to JP-8 and JP-5 had no significant effects. The CASA method detects early changes that result in reproductive deficits and these data will be used in a continuing program to characterize the toxicity of chemicals, and combinations of chemicals, of military interest to formulate permissible exposure limits.

  2. Mechanical Bowel Preparation Does Not Affect Anastomosis Healing in an Experimental Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Piroglu, Isılay; Tulgar, Serkan; Thomas, David Terence; Cakiroglu, Basri; Piroglu, Mustafa Devrim; Bozkurt, Yasin; Gergerli, Ruken; Ates, Nagihan Gozde

    2016-01-01

    Background Mechanical bowel preparation before colorectal surgery is commonly performed, but its benefits are controversial. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of mechanical bowel preparation on healing of colonic anastomosis and tissue strength. Material/Methods After institutional review board approval, 20 adult Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into 2 groups of 10 animals each. Mechanical bowel preparation including sodium phosphate was performed on the experimental group via a feeding tube, whereas no bowel preparation procedures were performed on the control group. Transverse colon resection and anastomosis were performed on all rats under general anaesthesia. On postoperative day 5, re-laparotomy was performed and the anastomotic areas were resected. Animals were killed, after which bursting pressure and tissue hydroxyproline concentrations were measured, histopathological examination was performed, and we evaluated and compared the results. Results There were no differences between control and experimental groups in bursting pressure, tissue hydroxyproline concentrations, or histopathological examination results (P>0.05). Conclusions Our study demonstrated no significant difference between bursting pressures, tissue hydroxyproline levels, or modified wound healing score at postoperative day 5 between rats undergoing and not undergoing mechanical bowel preparation. Mechanical bowel preparation is not essential for healing or strength of colonic anastomosis in rats. PMID:26725402

  3. Aphrodisiac activity of polyherbal formulation in experimental models on male rats

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Himanshu Bhusan; Nandy, Subhangkar; Senapati, Aswini Kumar; Sarangi, Sarada Prasad; Sahoo, Saroj Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the aphrodisiac potential of polyherbal formulations prepared from different parts of Tribulus terrestris, Curculigo orchioides, Allium tuberosum, Cucurbita pepo, Elephant creeper, Mucuna pruriens, and Terminalia catappa in Albino rats in specified ratio as suspension. Materials and Methods: The different concentrations of prepared polyherbal formulations i.e. 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg and sildenafil citrate as standard (5 mg/kg) and vehicle (control) were administered orally to rats (n = 6 animals per group) for 3 weeks. Mating behavior parameters in male rats was monitored in first week and third week week of treatment pairing with receptive females. After termination of drug treatment, the mating performance, hormonal analysis, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio were also evaluated. Results: The polyherbal formulation showed a significant increase in mating behavior as well as mating performance, serum hormonal levels, sperm count, and testes-body weight ratio with dose-dependent relationship as compared to vehicle control. But the dose of 600 mg/kg of polyherbal formulation assumes closer resemblance of above parameters with the standard used. Conclusion: The results of the study strongly suggest that the polyherbal formulations have a good aphrodisiac activity on rats in the above experimental models, which may be an alternative weapon for various sexual dysfunctions in future. PMID:24761115

  4. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Triticum aestivum in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Yogesha; Jesuthankaraj, Grace Nirmala; Ramasamy Thangavelu, Narendhirakannan

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Triticum aestivum were evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in the Wistar strain albino rats by injecting streptozotocin at a dose of 55 mg/kg body weight. Ethanolic extracts of Triticum aestivum at doses of 100 mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 30 days. Various parameters were studied and the treatment group with the extract showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and serum marker enzyme levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein were also significantly reduced and the high density lipoprotein level was significantly increased upon treatment with the Triticum aestivum ethanol extract. A significant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxides, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidise and increase in the levels of vitamin E, catalase, and reduced glutathione were observed in Triticum aestivum treated diabetic rats. Thus, from this study we conclude that ethanolic extract of Triticum aestivum exhibited significant antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. PMID:24416041

  5. Diameters of juxtacapillary venules determined by oil-drop method in rat lung.

    PubMed

    Sadurski, R; Tsukada, H; Ying, X; Bhattacharya, S; Bhattacharya, J

    1994-08-01

    We report a new method for precise quantification of lung microvascular diameter. Isolated blood-perfused rat lungs (500-g Sprague-Dawley rats) at constant inflation pressure [alveolar pressure (PA)] and stopped blood flow were viewed by microscopy and video. Subpleural venules of the second and third postcapillary generations were microinjected with oil colored with Sudan Black. Vascular pressure (Pvas) was varied in steps, and at each step the horizontal diameter (DH) and the length of the oil-filled segment were determined by microcaliper measurements of the replayed video image. At PA = 5 cmH2O, a decrease in Pvas from 25 to 0 cmH2O decreased DH in the second-generation venules from 55 +/- 2 (SE) to 41 +/- 1 microns (n = 13) and in the third-generation venules from 96 +/- 6 to 73 +/- 6 microns (n = 6). The constant-volume oil-filled segment conformed to the cylinder formula in that decreases in DH correlated linearly with 1/ square root of length, thereby indicating that at all Pvas values venular geometry was constant and probably circular in cross section. The decrease in Pvas to -5 cmH2O did not further decrease DH. At Pvas = 10-25 cmH2O, an increase in PA to 15 cmH2O did not significantly increase DH, although the increase in PA did diminish the slope (compliance) of the DH-Pvas relationship in second- but not third-generation venules. We conclude that 1) lung expansion decreases compliance of juxtacapillary venules, 2) venules retain circular cross sections at Pvas between -5 and 25 cmH2O, and 3) venules are patent at subzero Pvas. PMID:8002519

  6. Effects of Intraperitoneal Administration of Simvastatin in Prevention of Postoperative Intra-abdominal Adhesion Formation in Animal Model of Rat

    PubMed Central

    Javaherzadeh, Mojtaba; Shekarchizadeh, Ali; Kafaei, Marjan; Mirafshrieh, Abass; Mosaffa, Nariman; Sabet, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the preventive effects of local administration of simvastatin for postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation in animal model of ratMethods: In this experimental study, 32 Wistar albino rats as the animal model of intra-abdominal adhesion formation were included. Adhesions were induced in all the animals via abrasion of the peritoneal and intestinal surface during laparotomy. Afterwards, the rats were randomly assigned to receive simvastatin (30 mg/kg body weight) as a single intraperitoneal dose at the time of laparotomy (n=16) or normal saline in same volume at the same time (n=16). At the day 21, animals were euthanized and the adhesions were quantified clinically (via repeated laparotomy) and pathologically and compared between the two groups. Results: The baseline characteristics of the animals were comparable between two study groups. Clinically, in simvastatin group, 10 rats (62.5%) did not develop any adhesion and 6 (37.5%) had first-grade adhesion; whereas in the control group, 11 (68.8%) rats had first- and 5 (31.2%) had second-grade adhesions (p<0.001). Pathologically, in simvastatin group, 6 rats (37.5%) had first-grade adhesion, while in control group, 11 rats (68.8%) had first- and 5 (31.2%) had second-grade adhesions (p<0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that intraperitoneal administration of simvastatin is an effective method for prevention of postoperative intra-abdominal adhesion formation in animal model of rat.   PMID:27540550

  7. A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of Pulsatilla saponin D in rat plasma and its application in a rat pharmacokinetic and bioavailability study.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hui; Guo, Yicheng; He, Mingzhen; Zhang, Jinlian; Huang, Xiaofang; Zhou, Xin; Jiang, Hongliang; Feng, Yulin; Yang, Shilin

    2015-03-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of Pulsatilla saponin D, a potential antitumor constituent isolated from Pulsatilla chinensis in rat plasma. Rat plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. The method validation was performed in accordance with US Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. The method was successfully applied to assess the pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of Pulsatilla saponin D in rats. PMID:25041853

  8. High performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of cinepazide maleate and its application to a pharmacokinetic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinyi; Song, Ying; Wang, Hujun; Sun, Yuan; Liu, Meiyou; Lu, Chengtao; Li, Yan; Wang, Shan; Zhu, Xiaohe; Hai, Wenli; Wen, Aidong; Jia, Yanyan

    2014-04-15

    A simple and reliable high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed and validated to quantify cinepazide maleate, a calcium blocker, in rat plasma. Cinepazide maleate and Tinidazole (internal standard) have been extracted by a simple liquid-liquid extraction before injection into chromatographic system. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed phase C18 column with a mobile phase consisted of a water mixture of 10mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate (pH=4.5):methanol (40:60, v/v), pumped at flow rate of 1.0mL/min, and detected at 303nm. The method exhibited a linear range of 0.12-120μg/mL in blank rat plasma, with the lower detection limit of 0.06μg/mL. The method was statistically validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, selectivity and stability following FDA guidelines. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation did not exceed ±15% from the nominal concentration. The accuracy of cinepazide maleate was within ±15% of the theoretical value. The assay has been applied successfully in a pharmacokinetic study of cinepazide maleate after a single intravenous at three doses in rat. And cinepazide maleate injection can improve the bioavailability of cinepazide maleate greatly, and has a dose-dependence profile in rats. PMID:24674989

  9. Investigation on fagonia cretica -its effect on hormonal profile and immunomodulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Abirami, V; Khosa, R L; Dhar, S K; Sahai, M

    1996-04-01

    The effect of alcoholic extracts of the aerial parts of fagonia cretica on estrous cycle and implantation in female albino rats was studied, It induced random omission of heat phase in eh estrous cycle and exhibited 100% anti implantation activity without exhibiting any toxic manifestation, However it was found to have some strong androgenic antiprogestational activity, and immunostimulating property. PMID:22556753

  10. Dissociation of feeding and hoarding after bilateral destruction of lateral septal nuclei in rats.

    PubMed

    Gogate, M G; Salgar, D C; Brid, S V; Wingkar, K C

    1989-01-01

    The interrelationship between Feeding and Hoarding of food pellets was observed to be disrupted following bilateral destruction of lateral septal nuclei in adult male albino rats. The significance of forebrain areas and neuro-endocrinal connection to hypothalamus is discussed. PMID:2737748

  11. [Renal pathomorphology of rats fed irradiated food products over a long period].

    PubMed

    Levina, A I; Ivanov, A E

    1978-02-01

    Morphological changes were studied in the kidneys of albino rats and their progeny fed only with irradiated food for 20 months. Morphological signs of the autoimmune process in the form of the membraneous-proliferative glomerulonephritis in combination with characteristic disturbances of the blood vessels and extensive lymphoid-histiocyticeosinophilis infiltration of the stroma were revealed. PMID:630103

  12. Stereospecific analytical method development and preliminary in vivo pharmacokinetic characterization of pinostrobin in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sayre, Casey L; Zhang, Yangmiao; Martinez, Stephanie E; Takemoto, Jody K; Davies, Neal M

    2013-05-01

    The complete pharmacokinetic disposition of the chiral flavonoid (±) pinostrobin remains unknown without the development of an analytical method of detection and quantitation of its individual enantiomers. Resolution of the enantiomers of pinostrobin was achieved using as simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method. A Chiralpak(®) AD-RH column was employed to perform baseline separation with UV detection at 287 nm. The standard curves were linear ranging from 0.5 to 100 µg/mL for each enantiomer. The limit of quantification was 0.5 µg/mL. Precision and accuracy of the assay was < 15% (RSD) and was with a bias <15% for all points on the calibration curve. The assay was applied successfully to stereoselective serum disposition of pinostrobin enantiomers in rats. Both enantiomers had a serum half-life of ~7 h. They also shared similar values of volume of distribution (V(d) S-pinostrobin, 8.2 L/kg; V(d) R-pinostrobin, 8.9 L/kg), total clearance (S-pinostrobin CL(total), 0.959 L//h/kg; R-pinostrobin CL(total), 1.055 L//h/kg), and area under the curve (S-pinostrobin AUC(inf), 23.16 µg h/mL; R-pinostrobin AUC(inf), 21.296 µg h/mL). The large volume of distribution suggests extensive distribution of pinostrobin into tissues. PMID:23070926

  13. Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for Determination of Homocysteine in Rat Plasma: Application to the Study of a Rat Model for Tauopathies.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Andrej; Svihlova, Katarina; Michalicova, Alena; Novak, Michal

    2015-07-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a common occurrence in many neurodegenerative diseases, including tauopathies. We developed and validated a simple and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of homocysteine (Hcy) in rat plasma. Hcy was analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography on a C8 column with detection by positive ESI tandem mass spectrometry. For optimal retention and separation, we used ion-pair reagent-heptafluorobutyric acid. The method utilizes heavy labeled internal standard and does not require any derivatization or extraction step. The procedure was validated in compliance with the European Medicines Agency guideline. The limit of detection was 0.15 µmol/L and the limit of quantification was 0.5 µmol/L. The method showed excellent linearity with regression coefficients higher than 0.99. The accuracy was in the range of 93-98%. The inter-day precision (n = 5 days), expressed as % relative standard deviation, was in the range 3-8%. Using this method, we analyzed plasma samples from two transgenic lines of the rat model for tauopathies. PMID:25466230

  14. Ulcer healing potential of ethanolic extract of Caralluma attenuata on experimental diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sunil; Srivastava, Sajal; Singh, Kisanpal; Sharma, Alok; Garg, Kavita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Available data indicated that diabetes mellitus (DM) increases the vulnerability of the gastric ulcers and the need of the hour is to develop effective agents to treat ulcer with diabetes for better patient compliance and cost effectiveness. The ulcer-healing properties of ethanolic extract of Caralluma attenuata (CAEt) against both chemically- and physically induced gastric ulcers in experimental rats are recently studied. Aim: To assess the ulcer healing potential of Ethanolic Extract of Caralluma attenuata on Experimental Diabetic Rats. Material and Methods: The current study aimed to evaluate ulcer healing properties of CAEt on the aspirin induced gastric ulcer in rats with streptozotocin induced DM. The hypothesis is based on the fact that DM results in compromising the mucosal defensive factors associated with delay in gastric ulcer healing, and if these changes can be corrected by using agents known for their antidiabetic and antiulcer properties. Experimental albino rats were divided into six groups. Except for Group I, other groups contained streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Group I (normal control) and Group II (diabetic control) were administered vehicle, Groups III and IV (diabetic experimental) were administered CAEt in dose of 100 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg, respectively, and Groups V and VI (positive controls) were respectively administered oral standard drugs omeprazole, 20 mg/kg, and tolbutamide 10 mg/kg. Result: The results confirmed that the CAEt significantly decreases the ulcer index (P < 0.05) in the aspirin-induced gastric ulcers and also significantly exhibit antioxidant and glucose lowering activity in the diabetic ulcer rats. The study showed that C. attenuata has the potential to be used as an antiulcer agent in experimental diabetic rats. PMID:27621520

  15. Antihyperlipidemic activities of Pleurotus ferulae on biochemical and histological function in hypercholesterolemic rats

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Nuhu; Yoon, Ki Nam; Lee, Tae Soo

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pleurotus ferulae is an edible mushroom has been widely used for nutritional and medicinal purposes. Irrespective of the medicinal importance or therapeutic potentials of P. ferulae, there have not been studies on anti-hyperlipidemic properties. Therefore, the present study investigates the effects of dietary P. ferulae fruiting bodies on plasma and feces biochemical and on the liver histological status in hypercholesterolemic rats. METHODS: Six weeks old female Sprague-Dawley albino rats were divided into three groups of 10 rats each. Then biochemical and histological examinations were performed. RESULTS: Feeding of a diet containing 5% P. ferulae fruiting bodies to hypercholesterolemic rat reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), total lipid, phospholipids, and LDL/high-density lipoprotein ratio by 30.02, 49.31, 71.15, 30.23, 21.93, and 65.31%, respectively. Mushroom also significantly reduced body weight in hypercholesterolemic rats. However, it had no adverse effects on plasma albumin, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, creatinin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, glucose, total protein, calcium, sodium, potassium, chloride, inorganic phosphate, magnesium, and enzyme profiles. Feeding mushroom increased total lipid and cholesterol excretion in feces. The plasma lipoprotein fraction, separated by agarose gel electrophoresis, indicated that P. ferulae significantly reduced plasma β and pre-β-lipoprotein, while increased the α-lipoprotein. A histological study of hepatic cells by conventional hematoxylin-eosin and oil red O staining showed normal findings for mushroom-fed hypercholesterolemic rats. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that 5% P. ferulae diet supplement provides health benefits, at least partially, by acting on the atherogenic lipid profile in hypercholesterolemic rats. PMID:22091307

  16. A simple method for in situ freezing of anchorage-dependent cells including rat liver parenchymal cells.

    PubMed

    Ohno, T; Saijo-Kurita, K; Miyamoto-Eimori, N; Kurose, T; Aoki, Y; Yosimura, S

    1991-03-01

    We developed a simple method for freezing anchorage-dependent cells, including primary cultured rat liver parenchymal cells, without detaching the cells from the culture dish. The method consists of preculture of the cells to confluence, changing the growth medium to a conventional freezing medium, packaging in a container, and storage at -80 degrees C. After thawing and changing the freezing medium to regular growth medium, cell growth was nearly identical to that of cells freshly seeded into a new dish. PMID:1367380

  17. Evaluation of antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal properties of Manilkara zapota leaves in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ganguly, Amlan; Al Mahmud, Zobaer; Kumar Saha, Sajal; Abdur Rahman, S M

    2016-08-01

    Context Manilkara zapota (L.). P. Royen. (Sapotaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat pain, diarrhoea, inflammation, arthralgia, and other disorders. Objective Screening of Manilkara zapota leaves ethanol extract and its different solvent soluble fractions for possible antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities in Swiss albino mice. Materials and methods The extract and various fractions (200 and 400 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) were tested for peripheral and central antinociceptive activity by acetic acid-induced writhing and radiant heat tail-flick method, respectively; castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model was used to evaluate antidiarrhoeal activity at both doses. All the samples were administered once in a day and the duration of study was approximately 5 h. Results Ethanol extract (400 mg/kg), petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg), and ethyl acetate fraction (400 mg/kg) showed significant peripheral antinociceptive activity having 59.89, 58.24, and 46.7% (p < 0.001) of writhing inhibition, respectively, which is comparable with that of standard diclofenac (59.34% inhibition). The ethanol extract (400 mg/kg) and petroleum ether fraction (400 mg/kg) also showed promising central analgesic activity having 74.15 and 82.15% (p < 0.001) elongation of reaction time, respectively, at 90 min after administration of sample which is also similar to that obtained by morphine (85.84% elongation). In antidiarrhoeal activity screening, ethanol extract (200 and 400 mg/kg) showed significant inhibition of defecation by 53.57 and 60.71%, respectively (p < 0.001) compared with that of loperamide (71.42%). Discussion and conclusion The findings of the studies demonstrated antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activities of M. zapota leaves which could be the therapeutic option against pain and diarrhoeal disease. PMID:26799747

  18. Ostracism of an Albino Individual by a Group of Pigmented Catfish

    PubMed Central

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual’s exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics. PMID:26018869

  19. [Phase morphometric differences among Locusta migratoria cinerascens, Locusta migratoria migratorioides, and their mutant albinos (Orthoptera)].

    PubMed

    Rakotondrainibe, K; Nicolas, G; Fuzeau-Braesch, S

    1975-12-22

    A first canonical variate analysis (factor analysis) of two geographic strains of L. m. shows that the same axes distinguish crowded from isolated animals as well as their geographical origins. Two other analyses between normal and albino strains of both localities show no differences for one strain; however for the other strain, the pigmentary mutation coincides with a solitary tendency. PMID:816517

  20. Ostracism of an albino individual by a group of pigmented catfish.

    PubMed

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Maciak, Matúš

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and behavioural constraints hinder albino individuals. Albino animals are rare in the wild; this trait is associated with easy detection by predators, non-native or damaged environments, and exclusively aphotic environments in total darkness. The social aspect of albinism is reported only for human beings, and the effect is distinguishable in time and space when social benefits, are used to a limited the extent. Thus far, the social consequences of albinism for animals remain unknown. We used socially established groups of the pigmented catfish, (Silurus glanis), to observe space and temporal distance detachment of albino specimens in laboratory conditions. The albino fish were separated at larger distances from the group than pigmented individuals with the same social status determined by familiarity, and this asymmetry also varied in time. Albinism-related ostracism results in a solitary existence, usually followed by enhanced predation risk. The motivation for an individual's exclusion from a group appears to be the avoidance of the predation risk that increases not only for an odd individual but also for conspecifics within a group. Our findings indicate a role for albinism in behavioural processes related to sociality in a group of conspecifics. PMID:26018869

  1. Generation of Albino Cynops pyrrhogaster by Genomic Editing of the tyrosinase Gene.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Keisuke; Nakajima, Taeko; Yaoita, Yoshio

    2016-06-01

    Albino animals are useful for in situ hybridization experiments that demonstrate gene expression in embryos and organs, for the immunological rejection of skin grafts transplanted to host animals, and to identify tissues with regenerative ability during limbs and retina regeneration processes. Cynops pyrrhogaster has extensive regenerating capacities. To facilitate regenerative research, in the present study, we produced albino C. pyrrhogaster using genomic editing. The DNA fragment containing part of the tyrosinase gene from C. pyrrhogaster was amplified using degenerate primers corresponding to evolutionarily conserved nucleotide sequences among several species, and the nucleotide sequence was determined. We designed a transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) that targets a candidate of the C. pyrrhogaster tyrosinase gene. Fertilized eggs were injected with TALEN mRNA, and albinos of C. pyrrhogaster were obtained. The results of the present study demonstrated that TALEN can be used effectively for genomic editing in C. pyrrhogaster and that the candidates of the tyrosinase gene that were cloned by us are essential for melanin synthesis. The albino newts created in the present study can be used as versatile experimental material. PMID:27268983

  2. Revisiting Intragastric Ethanol Intubation as a Dependence Induction Method for Studies of Ethanol Reward and Motivation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Braconi, Simone; Sidhpura, Nimish; Aujla, Harinder; Martin-Fardon, Rémi; Weiss, Friedbert; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to re-examine intragastric ethanol intubation as a dependence induction method that effectively induces physical dependence upon ethanol over a short time period, is devoid of intrinsic stress artifacts, inexpensive, and easy to implement. Methods Male Wistar rats were subjected to ethanol dependence induction via intragastric ethanol intubation. Ethanol solution (final concentration 20%, made up in a dietary liquid vehicle consisting of powdered milk, sucrose, and water) was intubated four times per day, at 4 h intervals, for 6 consecutive days (for a total of 10 g/kg/day). The utility of this procedure was evaluated for inducing physical dependence, determined by daily and final withdrawal ratings. Anxiety-like behavior associated with ethanol dependence history was examined using the elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, conducted five days after ethanol withdrawal. To evaluate whether potential stress-like effects of intragastric intubation per se produce lasting effects on behavior, experimentally naive rats were compared to vehicle-intubated rats for anxiety-like behavior on the EPM. Results Blood alcohol levels reached stable levels of 200–250 mg%, measured 1 h after the second and third ethanol intubation on days 2, 4, and 6. Ethanol-treated rats developed significant somatic withdrawal signs, recorded daily between 10–12 h after the last ethanol administration. At 5 days post-withdrawal, ethanol-treated rats showed significant anxiety-like behavior, measured by decreased open arm time and open arm entries on the EPM, compared with vehicle controls. Additionally, ethanol post-dependent rats showed decreased open arm time compared to experimentally naive rats. EPM performance did not differ between vehicle-intubated and naive rats. No withdrawal seizures were observed and mortality rate was near zero. Conclusions These findings suggest that intragastric ethanol administration produces a behavioral profile consistent with

  3. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric method-based urine metabolomic profile of rats with pelvic inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    ZOU, WEI; WEN, XIAOKE; SHENG, XIAOQI; ZHENG, YI; XIAO, ZUOQI; LUO, JIEYING; CHEN, SHUQIONG; WANG, YICHAO; CHENG, ZENENG; XIANG, DAXIONG; NIE, YICHU

    2016-01-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) can lead to a poor outcome of severe sequelae, and the current methods of clinical diagnosis are not satisfactory. Metabolomics is an effective method for the identification of disease-related metabolite biomarkers to facilitate disease diagnosis. However, to the best of our knowledge, no PID-associated metabolomic study has yet been carried out. The metabolomic changes of rats with PID were investigated in the present study. A PID model was constructed by the multi-pathogenic infection of the upper genital tract in rats. Infiltration of inflammatory cells and elevated expression levels of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 in the uterus and fallopian tubes validated the disease model. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with derivatization was used to determine the urine metabolomic profile. Principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis of the data sets showed a clear separation of metabolic profiles between rats with PID and control rats. Eighteen differentiating metabolites were found, including four amino acids, three fatty acids, nine organic acids, and two sugars, which indicated alterations in sugar metabolism, the citric acid cycle, amino acid metabolism and fatty acid metabolism. These metabolites could be potential biomarkers of PID, and this research may offer a new approach to evaluate the effect of anti-PID drugs in pre-clinical or clinical trials. PMID:27168785

  4. Spices Mixture Containing Garlic, Ginger and Nutmeg Has Protective Effects on the Kidneys and Liver of Cadmium Exposed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ugwuja, Emmanuel Ike; Erejuwa, Omotayo O.; Ugwu, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the potential protective effect of spice mixture containing garlic, ginger and nutmeg on the liver and kidney of cadmium exposed rats. Methods: Male albino rats (n=30) weighing 120 – 180 g, grouped into five (1-5) of 6 rats/group were studied. Group 1 (NC) rats were administered distilled water (1 ml) orally for 4 weeks and served as the negative control while group 2 (PC) rats were administered low dose (LD) cadmium (25 mg/kg body weight) orally for 4 weeks and served as positive control. Group 3 (TBE) rats were treated with spice mixture (SM); 300 mg/kg body weight orally for 2 weeks and then administered LD cadmium for 4 weeks. While group 4 (CET) rats were concurrently administered LD cadmium and SM for 4 weeks, group 5 (TAE) rats were administered LD cadmium for 4 weeks and then treated with SM for 2 weeks. The whole experiment lasted for 42 day after which the animals were sacrificed and blood collected for determination of biochemical parameters using standard procedures and techniques. Results: Exposure to Cd produced greater increases in the liver function parameters. However treatment with SM significantly (p<0.05) reduced ALT in animals treated after exposure, AST and bilirubin in those treated before exposure and significant (p<0.05) increased serum albumin in animals treated before exposure to Cd. The altered renal function parameters and total serum cholesterol were restored to near normal values following treatment with SM. Conclusion: It may be concluded that concurrent intake of garlic, ginger and nutmeg at culinary dose in the diet has both therapeutic and prophylactic effect at mitigating Cd toxicity and reaffirms the safely of spices combinations as being currently practiced. PMID:27478792

  5. Effects of Sesame Butter (Ardeh) versus Sesame Oil on Metabolic and Oxidative Stress Markers in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Mohammadshahi, Majid; Zarei, Mehdi; Gorji, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is one of the most common metabolic disorders and is related to oxidative-stress-induced diseases. Given the role of dietary antioxidants in the control and prevention of diabetes, this study aimed to examine the effects of sesame butter versus sesame oil on the serum levels of glucose, lipid profile, and oxidative stress biomarkers in diabetic rats. Methods: Forty male albino rats of Wistar strain were randomly divided into 4 groups (i.e., nondiabetic control rats, diabetic rats, diabetic rats treated with sesame butter, and diabetic rats treated with sesame oil). Experimental diabetes was induced with an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (55 mg/kg). Sesame butter (1.25 g/kg) and sesame oil (0.5 g/kg) were given by oral gavage to the diabetic rats for 6 weeks. Finally, serum glucose, lipid profile, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured and analyzed statistically. Results: Our data showed that the diabetic groups treated with sesame butter and sesame oil had significantly lower levels of glucose and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein than did the diabetic control group at the end of the study (P<0.05). Sesame butter supplementation also increased TAC and decreased MDA concentrations significantly in the diabetic rats (P<0.05). Conclusion: The antihyperglycemic, antioxidative, and partly lipid-lowering effects of sesame butter make it an excellent candidate for future human studies on diabetes, although further research is needed to determine the exact dose and duration of supplementation. PMID:26989280

  6. The albino chick as a model for studying ocular developmental anomalies, including refractive errors, associated with albinism.

    PubMed

    Rymer, Jodi; Choh, Vivian; Bharadwaj, Shrikant; Padmanabhan, Varuna; Modilevsky, Laura; Jovanovich, Elizabeth; Yeh, Brenda; Zhang, Zhan; Guan, Huanxian; Payne, W; Wildsoet, Christine F

    2007-10-01

    Albinism is associated with a variety of ocular anomalies including refractive errors. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ocular development of an albino chick line. The ocular development of both albino and normally pigmented chicks was monitored using retinoscopy to measure refractive errors and high frequency A-scan ultrasonography to measure axial ocular dimensions. Functional tests included an optokinetic nystagmus paradigm to assess visual acuity, and flash ERGs to assess retinal function. The underlying genetic abnormality was characterized using a gene microarray, PCR and a tyrosinase assay. The ultrastructure of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was examined using transmission electron microscopy. PCR confirmed that the genetic abnormality in this line is a deletion in exon 1 of the tyrosinase gene. Tyrosinase gene expression in isolated RPE cells was minimally detectable, and there was minimal enzyme activity in albino feather bulbs. The albino chicks had pink eyes and their eyes transilluminated, reflecting the lack of melanin in all ocular tissues. All three main components, anterior chamber, crystalline lens and vitreous chamber, showed axial expansion over time in both normal and albino animals, but the anterior chambers of albino chicks were consistently shallower than those of normal chicks, while in contrast, their vitreous chambers were longer. Albino chicks remained relatively myopic, with higher astigmatism than the normally pigmented chicks, even though both groups underwent developmental emmetropization. Albino chicks had reduced visual acuity yet the ERG a- and b-wave components had larger amplitudes and shorter than normal implicit times. Developmental emmetropization occurs in the albino chick but is impaired, likely because of functional abnormalities in the RPE and/or retina as well as optical factors. In very young chicks the underlying genetic mutation may also contribute to refractive error and eye shape abnormalities

  7. Comparison of standard laminectomy with an optimized ejection method for the removal of spinal cords from rats and mice

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Heather S; Jones, Charles; Caplazi, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    For researchers seeking to collect spinal cord samples from mice and rats while avoiding acid decalcification, few options are available. Laminectomy is the standard method which yields high quality samples, yet is time consuming and technically difficult. Ejection of the cord from the vertebral column is another technique commonly used; however, the literature suggests that this method can damage the spinal tissues and is typically avoided when histology of samples is the desired endpoint. Here, we describe an optimized method for ejection of spinal cords from rats and mice, and compare histological quality of these samples with those collected via laminectomy. Our results show that ejection can yield high quality spinal cord samples and may be suitable for use as an alternative to laminectomy. PMID:24039319

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca extract in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abo-dola, Marium A.; Lutfi, Mohamed F.

    2016-01-01

    Background There were no studies on the anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca, though it is commonly used by Sudanese herbalists in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Objectives To determine phytochemical constituents of Euphorbia aegyptiaca To investigate the anti-inflammatory activity of Euphorbia aegyptiaca in rats. Methodology Plant material was extracted by ethanol and phytochemical screening was done according to standard methods. The thickness of Albino rats’ paws were measured before injection of 0.1 ml of 1% formalin in the sub planter region and then, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 24 hours after oral dose of ethanolic extract of Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a rate of 400mg/kg, 800mg/kg, indomethacin (5mg/kg) and normal saline (5ml/kg). Edema inhibition percentage (EI%) and mean paw thickness (MPT) were measured in the different groups and compared using appropriate statistical methods. Results The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of saponins, cumarins, flavonoids, tannins, sterols, triterpenes, and absence of alkaloids, anthraquinones glycosides and cyanogenic glycosides. The mean of EI% of rats treated with indomethacin at a dose of 5 mg/kg over different time intervals (64.0%) was significantly lower compared to those treated with Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a dose of 800 mg/kg (75.0%, P< 0.001), but higher compared to rats treated at higher dose of 400 mg/kg (57.4%, P< 0.001). In contrast, MPT of rats treated with indomethacin at a dose of 5 mg/kg (6.5±1.1 mm) was significantly higher compared to those treated with Euphorbia aegyptiaca at a dose of 800 mg/kg (6.1±.7 mm, P< 0.001) as well as 400 mg/kg (5.9±.5, P< 0.001). Conclusion Euphorbia aegyptiaca ethanolic extract has a sustained dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:27004059

  9. Expression of distinct α1-adrenoceptor phenotypes in the iris of pigmented and albino rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, I; Suzuki, F; Nishimune, A; Anisuzzaman, ASM; Yoshiki, H; Su, T-H; Chang, C-K; Morishima, S

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: The expression of multiple pharmacological phenotypes including α1L-adrenoceptor has recently been reported for α1-adrenoceptors. The purpose of the present study was to identify α1-adrenoceptor phenotypes in the irises of pigmented and albino rabbits. Experimental approach: Radioligand binding and functional bioassay experiments were performed in segments or strips of iris of pigmented and albino rabbits, and their pharmacological profiles were compared. Key results: [3H]-silodosin at subnanomolar concentrations bound to intact segments of iris of pigmented and albino rabbits at similar densities (approximately 240 fmol·mg−1 protein). The binding sites in the iris of a pigmented rabbit were composed of a single component showing extremely low affinities for prazosin, hydrochloride [N-[2-(2-cyclopropylmethoxyphenoxy)ethyl]-5-chloro-α,α-dimethyl-1H-indole-3-ethamine hydrochloride (RS-17053)] and 5-methylurapidil, while two components with high and low affinities for prazosin, RS-17053 and 5-methylurapidil were identified in irises from albino rabbits. In contrast, specific binding sites for [3H]-prazosin were not clearly detected because a high proportion of non-specific binding and/or low affinity for prazosin occurred. Contractile responses of iris dilator muscle to noradrenaline were antagonized by the above ligands, and their antagonist affinities were consistent with the binding estimates at low-affinity sites identified in both strains of rabbits. Conclusions and implications: A typical α1L phenotype with extremely low affinity for prazosin is exclusively expressed in the iris of pigmented rabbits, while two distinct phenotypes (α1A and α1L) with high and moderate affinities for prazosin are co-expressed in the iris of albino rabbits. This suggests that a significant difference in the expression of phenotypes of the α1-adrenoceptor occurs in the irises between the two strains of rabbits. PMID:19466984

  10. Effect of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. (burdock) roots on the sexual behavior of male rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arctium lappa L. root has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. It is used to treat impotence and sterility in China, and Native Americans included the root in herbal preparations for women in labor. However, its use has not been scientifically validated. The present study therefore investigated the effects of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots on sexual behavior in normal male rats. Methods Seventy-five albino male rats were randomly divided into five groups of 15 rats each. Rats in group 1 (control) were administered 10 mL⁄kg body weight distilled water (vehicle), group 2 received 60 mg/kg body weight sildenafil citrate (Viagra), while those in groups 3, 4, and 5 were given 300, 600, and 1,200 mg/kg body weight, respectively, of aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots in the same volume. Female albino rats were made receptive by hormonal treatment. Sexual behavior parameters in male rats were monitored on days 3, 7 and 15 by pairing with receptive females (1:3). Male serum testosterone concentrations and potency were also determined. Results Oral administration of Arctium lappa L. roots extract at 600 and 1,200 mg/kg body weight significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission, and ejaculation frequency (p < 0.05). The latencies of mount and intromission were significantly reduced and ejaculation latency was prolonged. Administration of the extract also reduced the post-ejaculatory interval. The standard drug (Viagra) was more effective than the extract. The extract significantly increased the frequencies of all components of penile reflexes as well as serum testosterone levels, compared with the distilled water controls. Conclusions The results of this study demonstrate that aqueous extract of Arctium lappa L. roots enhances sexual behavior in male rats. The aphrodisiac effects of the plant extract may be related to the presence of flavonoids, saponins, lignans and alkaloids, acting via a multitude of central

  11. Rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the determination of auraptene in rat plasma and its application in a pharmacokinetic and bioavailability study in rats.

    PubMed

    Ye, X D; Ouyang, H; Zhong, L Y; Li, T E; Rao, X Y; Feng, Y L; Yang, W L

    2016-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of auraptene, a constituent isolated from Fructus aurantii with potential to combat Alzheimer's disease, in rat plasma. Rat plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. The analytes were separated by a Waters Sun Fire C18 column (50 mm x 2 mm, 5 μm) and eluted with 1:1000 methanol and formic acid/water (v/v) mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Multiple reaction monitoring was used to monitor the transition of the deprotonated auraptene molecule with an m/z of 299.3 [M+H](+), to the product ion with an m/z of 162.9 [M+H](+). Progesterone, with an m/z of 315.2→ 96.9 was used as an internal standard. The limits of detection and of quantification of auraptene in the rat plasma were 1 and 5 ng/mL, respectively. The method was linear in the concentration range of 20- 2000 ng/mL with coefficient correlation of 0.9956. After auraptene (100 mg/kg, p.o.) administration, the maximum plasma concentration and the time taken to reach maximum concentration were 1719.5 ± 384.3 g/mL and 108.0 ± 25.3 min, respectively. The elimination half-life was 108.0 ± 25.3 for auraptene (100 mg/kg, p.o.) and 3.0 ± 0 min for auraptene (2 mg/kg, i.v.). The oral bioavailability was about 8.5%. PMID:27420975

  12. Antitumor and antioxidant status of Terminalia catappa against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Naitik B.; Tigari, Prakash; Dupadahalli, Kotresha; Kamurthy, Hemalatha; Nadendla, Rama Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antitumor and antioxidant status of ethanol extract of Terminalia catappa leaves against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The leaves powder was extracted with Soxhlet apparatus and subjected to hot continuous percolation using ethanol (95% v/v). Tumor bearing animals was treated with 50 and 200 mg/kg of ethanol extract. EAC induced in mice by intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells 1 × 106 cells/mice. The study was assed using life span of EAC-bearing hosts, hematological parameters, volume of solid tumor mass and status of antioxidant enzymes such as lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were also determined. Results: Total phenolics and flavonoids contents from the leaves extract were found 354.02 and 51.67 mg/g extract. Oral administration of ethanol extract of T. catappa (50 and 200 mg/kg) increased the life span (27.82% and 60.59%), increased peritoneal cell count (8.85 ± 0.20 and 10.37 ± 0.26) and significantly decreased solid tumor mass (1.16 ± 0.14 cm2) at 200 mg/kg as compared with EAC-tumor bearing mice (P < 0.01). Hematological profile including red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin (11.91 ± 0.47 % g) and protein estimation were found to be nearly normal levels in extract-treated mice compared with tumor bearing control mice. Treatment with T. catappa significantly decreased levels of LPO and GSH, and increased levels of SOD and CAT activity (P < 0.01). Conclusion: T. catappa exhibited antitumor effect by modulating LPO and augmenting antioxidant defense systems in EAC bearing mice. The phenolic and flavonoid components in this extract may be responsible for antitumor activity. PMID:24130380

  13. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity of Xanthium indicum stem extract in Swiss albino mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthium indicum stem is used in folk medicine of Bangladesh to control sugar in diabetic patients and to alleviate pain. The objective of the study was to evaluate antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive activity of methanolic extract of Xanthium indicum stems (XISE) in mice. Methods Antihyperglycemic activity was measured by oral glucose tolerance tests in glucose-loaded Swiss albino mice. Antinociceptive activity was determined by observed decreases in abdominal constrictions in acetic acid-induced gastric pain model in mice. Results The methanol extract of stems showed dose-dependent and statistically significant antihyperglycemic activity at doses of 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg per kg body weight (p values, respectively, < than 0.01, 0.01, 0.005, and 0.01). Highest reduction in blood glucose level (31.2%) was observed with the highest dose (400 mg) of the extract. A standard antihyperglycemic drug, glibenclamide, reduced blood glucose levels by 46.2%, when administered at a dose of 10 mg per kg body weight. In antinociceptive activity tests, the extract when administered at the afore-mentioned four doses, reduced the number of abdominal constrictions in mice, respectively, by 41.7, 50.0, 54.2, and 61.0%. In comparison, a standard antinociceptive drug, aspirin, when administered at a dose of 200 mg per kg body weight, reduced the number of abdominal constrictions by 37.5%. Conclusion The experimental results obtained in the present study validate the use of X. indicum stems in folk medicines of Bangladesh to lower blood sugar in diabetic patients and to alleviate pain. PMID:24171758

  14. A method of nodose ganglia injection in Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Calik, Michael W; Radulovacki, Miodrag; Carley, David W

    2014-01-01

    Afferent signaling via the vagus nerve transmits important general visceral information to the central nervous system from many diverse receptors located in the organs of the abdomen and thorax. The vagus nerve communicates information from stimuli such as heart rate, blood pressure, bronchopulmonary irritation, and gastrointestinal distension to the nucleus of solitary tract of the medulla. The cell bodies of the vagus nerve are located in the nodose and petrosal ganglia, of which the majority are located in the former. The nodose ganglia contain a wealth of receptors for amino acids, monoamines, neuropeptides, and other neurochemicals that can modify afferent vagus nerve activity. Modifying vagal afferents through systemic peripheral drug treatments targeted at the receptors on nodose ganglia has the potential of treating diseases such as sleep apnea, gastroesophageal reflux disease, or chronic cough. The protocol here describes a method of injection neurochemicals directly into the nodose ganglion. Injecting neurochemicals directly into the nodose ganglia allows study of effects solely on cell bodies that modulate afferent nerve activity, and prevents the complication of involving the central nervous system as seen in systemic neurochemical treatment. Using readily available and inexpensive equipment, intranodose ganglia injections are easily done in anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. PMID:25490160

  15. A method for the routine observation of sexual behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Mercier, O; Perraud, J; Stadler, J

    1987-04-01

    In seeking a method for the routine observation of copulatory behaviour in rats we compared the use of a standard rectangular Makrolon cage, commonly used in toxicology studies, with a Plexiglas cylinder that provided 2.5 times more floor area. The cylinder resulted in a much higher incidence of copulation, either once or for multiple series, within 30 min. This was not affected by whether oestrus was natural or induced. Using the cylinder and 4 h observation periods, we found that the dark phase of a 12-12 h inverse light cycle resulted in many more copulations than occurred during the light phase of a natural cycle. The incidence increased from the first to the second to the last 4 h of the dark phase. We found that placing a virgin receptive female and a naive male together in a Plexiglas cylinder for 1 h towards the end of the dark phase is a useful tool in reproductive toxicology studies in which it is important to know the precise time of insemination. PMID:3599876

  16. The Laboratory Rat: Relating Its Age With Human's

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav

    2013-01-01

    By late 18th or early 19th century, albino rats became the most commonly used experimental animals in numerous biomedical researches, as they have been recognized as the preeminent model mammalian system. But, the precise correlation between age of laboratory rats and human is still a subject of debate. A number of studies have tried to detect these correlations in various ways, But, have not successfully provided any proper association. Thus, the current review attempts to compare rat and human age at different phases of their life. The overall findings indicate that rats grow rapidly during their childhood and become sexually mature at about the sixth week, but attain social maturity 5-6 months later. In adulthood, every day of the animal is approximately equivalent to 34.8 human days (i.e., one rat month is comparable to three human years). Numerous researchers performed experimental investigations in albino rats and estimated, in general, while considering their entire life span, that a human month resembles every-day life of a laboratory rat. These differences signify the variations in their anatomy, physiology and developmental processes, which must be taken into consideration while analyzing the results or selecting the dose of any research in rats when age is a crucial factor. PMID:23930179

  17. Red Lentil Extract: Neuroprotective Effects on Perphenazine Induced Catatonia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tarahomi, Shahram; Arzi, Ardeshir; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Rashidi-Nooshabadi, Mohammadreza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Parkinsonism is a neurodegenerative disease that is defined by certain symptoms such as muscle rigidity, impaired movement, catatonia, tremor and disorientation of body. Aim The aim was to investigate the effect of red lentil extract on perphenazine-induced Catatonia in model of rat. Materials and Methods This experimental study was done on 48 male albino rats (weight 180–200g) of the Sprague-Dawley strain. Animals were randomly divided into six groups and were pre-treated with a single dose of red lentil extract (200, 400, 800 and 1000 mg/kg), most effective dose of bromocriptine (30mg/kg) and normal saline (5ml/kg) via intraperitoneal (IP) route. perphenazine (5 mg/kg) was after 30 minutes, administered (IP) to induce catatonia. The scoring method of Morpurgo was used to determine the muscular rigidity of animals. Results The results showed that the 200mg/kg red lentil extract treated group had no significant reduction in catatonic responses after perphenazine administration in comparison with control group while the groups that received 800 and 1000mg/kg of red lentil extract showed significant difference (p<0.05) at all the time points. Conclusion The results revealed that hydroalcoholic extract of red lentil has protective effect on Catatonia induced by perphenazine in rats. So this extract may be probably beneficial for catatonia in Parkinsonism. PMID:27504309

  18. Effects of pulsed electromagnetic field and swimming exercise on rats with experimental sciatic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Kavlak, Erdoğan; Belge, Ferda; Unsal, Cengiz; Uner, Aykut Göktürk; Cavlak, Uğur; Cömlekçi, Selçuk

    2014-09-01

    [Purpose] The current study aimed to reveal the therapeutic effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field and swimming exercises on rats with experimental sciatic nerve injury, which was induced with crush-type neuropathy model damage, using electrophysiological methods. [Subjects] In the current study, the sample consisted of 28 adult male Wistar albino rats. [Methods] The rats were randomized into four groups (n=7). Swimming exercise and PEMF (2 Hz and 0.3 MT) were applied one hour a day, five days a week, for four weeks. Electroneuromyographic (ENMG) measurements were taken on day 7. [Results] When the data were evaluated, it was found that the 4 weeks of PEMF and swimming exercises led to an increase in motor conduction rates and a decrease in latency values, but the changes were not significant in comparison with the control and injury groups. The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) values of the left leg were lower in weeks 2, 3, and 4 in the swimming exercise group in comparison with the control group, although for the PEMF group, the CMAP values of the left leg reached the level observed in the control group beginning in week 3. [Conclusion] PEMF and swimming exercise made positive contributions to nerve regeneration after week 1, and regeneration was enhanced. PMID:25276015

  19. Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic Field and Swimming Exercise on Rats with Experimental Sciatic Nerve Injury

    PubMed Central

    Kavlak, Erdoğan; Belge, Ferda; Ünsal, Cengiz; Üner, Aykut Göktürk; Cavlak, Uğur; Çömlekçi, Selçuk

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The current study aimed to reveal the therapeutic effects of a pulsed electromagnetic field and swimming exercises on rats with experimental sciatic nerve injury, which was induced with crush-type neuropathy model damage, using electrophysiological methods. [Subjects] In the current study, the sample consisted of 28 adult male Wistar albino rats. [Methods] The rats were randomized into four groups (n=7). Swimming exercise and PEMF (2 Hz and 0.3 MT) were applied one hour a day, five days a week, for four weeks. Electroneuromyographic (ENMG) measurements were taken on day 7. [Results] When the data were evaluated, it was found that the 4 weeks of PEMF and swimming exercises led to an increase in motor conduction rates and a decrease in latency values, but the changes were not significant in comparison with the control and injury groups. The compound muscle action potential (CMAP) values of the left leg were lower in weeks 2, 3, and 4 in the swimming exercise group in comparison with the control group, although for the PEMF group, the CMAP values of the left leg reached the level observed in the control group beginning in week 3. [Conclusion] PEMF and swimming exercise made positive contributions to nerve regeneration after week 1, and regeneration was enhanced. PMID:25276015

  20. Structural characterization of rat ventricular tissue exposed to the smoke of two types of waterpipe

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awaida, Wajdy; Najjar, Hossam; Shraideh, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): this study focused on the effect of waterpipe smoke exposure toxicity on the structure of albino rat’s ventricular tissue and their recovery. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups: control, flavored, and unflavored. The control group was exposed to normal air while the flavored and unflavored groups were exposed to waterpipe smoke for a period of 90 days. Each group was followed by a period of 90 days of fresh air exposure. Following each period, the ventricular tissue was removed for biochemical and histopathological studies. Results: The ventricular tissues of waterpipe exposed rats showed some degree of separation between cardiac muscle fibers, infiltration of lymphocytes, and congestion of blood vessel. Also, thin cross sections of ventricular cells revealed pleomorphic mitochondria with partially disrupted cristae, partial disruption of the myofibrils, and deposited toxic materials. The unflavored waterpipe has more deleterious effects on heart ventricular tissues than the flavored one. Waterpipe smoke didn’t induce apoptosis in the ventricular tissue. We also found very high levels of plasma thiocyanate after exposure to smoke in the flavored and unflavored groups, while the control group showed no increase. After the recovery period, those tissues showed partial recovery. Conclusion: Waterpipe smoke induces structural changes in the heart ventricle tissues, causing a negative impact on the capacity of the cardiac muscle for pumping blood and may lead to heart attack due to accumulation of free radicals and tissue inflammation. Cessation of smoking is important in returning most of these changes to their normal structure. PMID:26730327

  1. [Metabolites and metabolic pathways of mesaconitine in rat liver microsomal investigated by using UPLC-MS/MS method in vitro].

    PubMed

    Bi, Yun-Feng; Liu, Shu; Zhang, Rui-Xing; Song, Feng-Rui; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2013-12-01

    Mesaconitine was incubated with rat liver microsomes in vitro. The metabolites of mesaconitine in rat liver microsomes were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method with high resolution power. A typical reaction mixture of 100 mol L-1 Tris-HCI buffer (pH 7.4) containing 0.5 gL-1 microsomal protein and 50 micro molL-1 mesaconitine was prepared. The above reaction mixture was divided into six groups, and the volume of each group was 200 micro L. The incubation mixture was pre-incubated at 37 degrees C for 2 min and the reactions were initiated by adding NADPH generating system. After 90 min incubation at 37 degrees C, 200 micro L of acetonitrile was added to each group to stop the reaction. The metabolites of mesaconitine were investigated by UPLC-MS/MS method. Mesaconitine and 6 metabolites M1-M6 were found in the incubation system. The structures were characterized according to the data from MS/MS spectra and literatures. The metabolic reactions of mesaconitine in rat liver microsomes included the demethylation, deacetylation, dehydrogenation and hydroxylation. The major metabolic pathways of mesaconitine in rat liver microsomes were determined by UPLC-MS/MS on multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode combined with specific inhibitors of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms, including alpha-naphthoflavone (CYP1A2), quinine (CYP2D), diethyldithiocarbamate (CYP2E1), ketoconazole (CYP3A) and sulfaphenazole (CYP2C), separately. Mesaconitine was mainly metabolized by CYP3A. CYP2C and CYP2D were also more important CYP isoforms for the metabolism reactions of mesaconitine, but CYP1A2 and CYP2E1 haven't any contribution to MA metabolism in rat liver microsomes. PMID:24689241

  2. Effect of piperine on pharmacokinetics of sodium valproate in plasma samples of rats using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method

    PubMed Central

    Parveen, Bushra; Pillai, K. K.; Tamboli, E. T.; Ahmad, Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    Piperine (PIP) is used as anticonvulsant in traditional Chinese medicine. Co-administration of low-dose sodium valproate with PIP has been regarded to have potential anticonvulsant activity. Aim: This study was intended to investigate the effect of PIP on the pharmacokinetics of sodium valproate (SVP) in the plasma samples of rats using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method. Materials and Methods: The plasma samples obtained after oral administration of SVP, 150 mg/kg and SVP, 150 mg/kg + PIP, and 5 mg/kg to male Wistar rats were used to quantify the concentrations in plasma using GC-MS method. Results: A simple and accurate method developed in-house was applied for the analysis of plasma samples of Wistar rats after oral administration of SVP and PIP + sodium valproate, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters reported 14.8-fold increase in plasma concentration (maximum observed concentration in the concentration-time profile), 4.6-fold increase in area under the curve and slightly prolonged time to reach that concentration (1 h) of SVP in presence of PIP. Conclusion: The study reaffirms the bioenhancing effect of PIP suggesting possibility of dose reduction of SVP while co-adminstering with PIP. PMID:26681892

  3. Comparison of parasitological, immunological and molecular methods for evaluation of fecal samples of immunosuppressed rats experimentally infected with Strongyloides venezuelensis.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Leilane A; Gonçalves, Ana Lúcia R; Paula, Fabiana M; Silva, Neide M; Silva, Cláudio V; Costa-Cruz, Julia M; Freitas, Michelle A R

    2015-12-01

    Definitive diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in humans is typically achieved by detection of larvae in fecal samples. However, limitations on sensitivity of parasitological methods emphasize the need for more robust diagnostic methods. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic value of three methods: eggs per gram of feces (EPG), coproantigen detection by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and DNA detection by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The assays were performed at 0 and 5, 8, 13, 21 and 39 days post-infection (dpi) using fecal samples from experimentally infected immunocompetent and immunosuppressed rats. In immunocompetent rats, eggs were detected in feces on days 5, 8 and 13 dpi; coproantigen detection and PCR amplification were successful at all post-infection time points (5, 8, 13, 21 and 39 dpi). In immunosuppressed rats, eggs were detected at 5, 8, 13 and 21; coproantigen detection and PCR amplification were successful at all post-infection time points. In conclusion, these results suggest that coproantigen detection and PCR may be more sensitive alternatives to traditional methods such as EPG for diagnosis of Strongyloides venezuelensis infection. PMID:26442899

  4. Determination of corilagin in rat plasma using a liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric method.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian Qian; Guo, Jianru; Fan, Hongyan; Wang, Caiyun; Xu, Fengguo; Zhang, Wei

    2015-10-01

    A sensitive and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (HPLC-MS/MS) method for the determination of corilagin in rat plasma has been developed. Samples were prepared with protein precipitation method and analyzed with a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer. We employed negative electrospray ionization as the ionization source and the analytes were detected in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Separation was achieved on a C8 column eluted with mobile phase consisting of methanol-0.1% formic acid in a gradient mode at the flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The total run time was 7.0 min.This method was proved to have good linearity in the concentration range of 2.5-1000.0 ng/mL. The lower limit of quantification of corilagin was 2.5 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day relative standard deviationa across three validation runs for four concentration levels were both <9.8%. The relative error was within ±6.0%. This assay offers advantages in terms of expediency and suitability for the analysis of corilagin in rat plasma. The practical utility of this new HPLC-MS/MS method was confirmed in pilot plasma concentration studies in rats following oral administration. PMID:25808247

  5. Antidiarrheal activity of flowers of Ixora Coccinea Linn. in rats

    PubMed Central

    Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu; Agashikar, N. V.

    2010-01-01

    Ixora coccinea Linn (Rubiaceae), a small shrub cultivated throughout India, has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. It has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. However the claims of Ayurveda have to be validated by suitable experimental models. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of I. coccinea for its antidiarrheal potential against several experimental models of diarrhea in albino Wistar rats. Here, we report the effects of aqueous extracts of flowers of I. coccinea in the castor oil induced diarrhea model. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance traversed by charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. Weight and volume of intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by the enteropooling method. Loperamide was used as a positive control. The plant-extract showed significant (P<0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in rats at the dose of 400 mg/kg. There was also significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Results obtained in this study substantiate the antidiarrheal effect of the aqueous extract and its use by traditional practitioners in the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:21731376

  6. Antidiarrheal activity of flowers of Ixora Coccinea Linn. in rats.

    PubMed

    Maniyar, Yasmeen; Bhixavatimath, Prabhu; Agashikar, N V

    2010-10-01

    Ixora coccinea Linn (Rubiaceae), a small shrub cultivated throughout India, has been reported to possess a number of medicinal properties. It has traditionally been used for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. However the claims of Ayurveda have to be validated by suitable experimental models. The present study was therefore undertaken to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of I. coccinea for its antidiarrheal potential against several experimental models of diarrhea in albino Wistar rats. Here, we report the effects of aqueous extracts of flowers of I. coccinea in the castor oil induced diarrhea model. The gastrointestinal transit rate was expressed as the percentage of the longest distance traversed by charcoal divided by the total length of the small intestine. Weight and volume of intestinal content induced by castor oil were studied by the enteropooling method. Loperamide was used as a positive control. The plant-extract showed significant (P<0.001) inhibitor activity against castor oil induced diarrhea and castor oil induced enteropooling in rats at the dose of 400 mg/kg. There was also significant reduction in gastrointestinal motility in the charcoal meal test. Results obtained in this study substantiate the antidiarrheal effect of the aqueous extract and its use by traditional practitioners in the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:21731376

  7. Protein digestibility of the same protein preparations by human and rat assays and by in vitro enzymic digestion methods.

    PubMed

    Bodwell, C E; Satterlee, L D; Hackler, L R

    1980-03-01

    The apparent and true digestibilities of the same preparations of six proteins (spray dried whole egg, cottage cheese, canned tuna, peanut flour, soy isolate, and wheat gluten) were estimated in four to five men and in rats and compared to estimates of digestibility from three different in vitro enzymic digestion procedures. For all six proteins, the correlation coefficient was 0.46 between true digestibility in humans and in rats; with values for tuna excluded, r = 0.96. With all six proteins, none of the in vitro values was significantly correlated with values from humans or rats. However, with either the three animal proteins alone or the three plant proteins alone, correlations were high (r greater than 0.90) between one or more of the in vitro estimates and the observed true or apparent human and rat digestibilities. The differences in the relationship between enzymic digestion estimates and the human digestibility estimates for plant or animal proteins suggest that for accurate prediction of protein digestibility in humans by these enzymic methods, different equations would have to be used for plant and animal proteins. For protein sources containing both plant and animal protein, use of the in vitro enzymic procedures would give only an approximate estimate of digestibility in humans. PMID:6986763

  8. Effect of Commiphora mukul gum resin on hepatic marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status in pancreas and heart of streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, B; Karuna, R; Sreenivasa, Reddy S; Haritha, K; Sai, Mangala D; Sasi, Bhusana Rao B; Saralakumari, D

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the antioxidant efficacy of Commiphora mukul (C. mukul) gum resin ethanolic extract in streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats. Methods The male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into four groups of eight animals each: Control group (C), CM-treated control group (C+CMEE), Diabetic control group (D), CM- treated diabetic group (D+CMEE). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (55 mg/kg/ bwt). After being confirmed the diabetic rats were treated with C. mukul gum resin ethanolic extract (CMEE) for 60 days. The biochemical estimations like antioxidant, oxidative stress marker enzymes and hepatic marker enzymes of tissues were performed. Results The diabetic rats showed increased level of enzymatic activities aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT) in liver and kidney and oxidative markers like lipid peroxidation (LPO) and protein oxidation (PO) in pancreas and heart. Antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly decreased in the pancreas and heart compared to control group. Administration of CMEE (200 mg/kg bw) to diabetic rats for 60 days significantly reversed the above parameters towards normalcy. Conclusions In conclusion, our data indicate the preventive role of C. mukul against STZ-induced diabetic oxidative stress; hence this plant could be used as an adjuvant therapy for the prevention and/or management of diabetes and aggravated antioxidant status. PMID:23569867

  9. Cholinesterase activity in rat liver and serum during experimentally induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Simon, G; Budavári, I

    1977-01-01

    Cholinesterase activity of albino rats with acute local oedematous inflammation induced by turpentine, croton oil or Freund's adjuvant was elevated in the liver homogenate but decreased in the serum. Aprotinin administration prevented the decrease of serum activity. In the oedema fluid of rats treated with croton oil an enzyme with cholinester splitting activity was detected and it was shown to be identical with serum cholinesterase (EC 3. 1. 1. 8.). PMID:311577

  10. A Multi-Atlas Based Method for Automated Anatomical Rat Brain MRI Segmentation and Extraction of PET Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lancelot, Sophie; Roche, Roxane; Slimen, Afifa; Bouillot, Caroline; Levigoureux, Elise; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Zimmer, Luc; Costes, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Preclinical in vivo imaging requires precise and reproducible delineation of brain structures. Manual segmentation is time consuming and operator dependent. Automated segmentation as usually performed via single atlas registration fails to account for anatomo-physiological variability. We present, evaluate, and make available a multi-atlas approach for automatically segmenting rat brain MRI and extracting PET activies. Methods High-resolution 7T 2DT2 MR images of 12 Sprague-Dawley rat brains were manually segmented into 27-VOI label volumes using detailed protocols. Automated methods were developed with 7/12 atlas datasets, i.e. the MRIs and their associated label volumes. MRIs were registered to a common space, where an MRI template and a maximum probability atlas were created. Three automated methods were tested: 1/registering individual MRIs to the template, and using a single atlas (SA), 2/using the maximum probability atlas (MP), and 3/registering the MRIs from the multi-atlas dataset to an individual MRI, propagating the label volumes and fusing them in individual MRI space (propagation & fusion, PF). Evaluation was performed on the five remaining rats which additionally underwent [18F]FDG PET. Automated and manual segmentations were compared for morphometric performance (assessed by comparing volume bias and Dice overlap index) and functional performance (evaluated by comparing extracted PET measures). Results Only the SA method showed volume bias. Dice indices were significantly different between methods (PF>MP>SA). PET regional measures were more accurate with multi-atlas methods than with SA method. Conclusions Multi-atlas methods outperform SA for automated anatomical brain segmentation and PET measure’s extraction. They perform comparably to manual segmentation for FDG-PET quantification. Multi-atlas methods are suitable for rapid reproducible VOI analyses. PMID:25330005

  11. A new method of measuring functional recovery after crushing the peripheral nerves in unanesthetized and unrestrained rats.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, K

    1978-02-15

    The distances between the first and fifth digits and between the second and fourth digits of the rat's hind paw were measured after crushing the sciatic nerve. The distances between the digits recovered significantly faster in weak nerve crushing than in strong crushing, and faster in distal nerve crushing than in proximal crushing. These results suggest that this method is available for evaluating the functional recovery after nerve crushing. PMID:624375

  12. The Effects of Sugammadex on Progesterone Levels in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Et, Tayfun; Topal, Ahmet; Erol, Atilla; Tavlan, Aybars; Kılıçaslan, Alper; Uzun, Sema Tuncer

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sugammadex has been shown to decrease the efficiency of progesterone-containing oral contraceptive drugs which possess a steroid structure. Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of sugammadex on progesterone levels in pregnant rats as well as on the physiological course of the pregnancy. Study Design: Animal experiment. Methods: This study was approved by the Selçuk University Ethical Committee for Experimental Animal Research. Pregnant Winster Albino rats (n=26) were divided into three groups and administered with various intravenous injections on the 7th day of pregnancy. The control group (Group K, n=6) received 1.5 mL serum physiologic, the sugammadex group (Group S, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and the sugammadex + rocuronium group (Group SR, n=10) received 30 mg/kg sugammadex and 3.5 mg/kg rocuronium. Progesterone levels were measured and the offspring were monitored for morphologic status. Results: Mean progesterone levels were 94.16±15.54 ng/mL in Group K, 87.86±12.48 ng/mL in Group S, and 94.53±16.10 ng/mL in Group SR (p>0.05). No stillbirth or miscarriage was observed in the rats. The mean number of offspring was 6.8±1.47 in Group K, 6.5±1.35 in Group S, and 6.4±1.17 in Group SR. The offspring appeared macroscopically normal. Conclusion: Sugammadex does not appear to affect the progesterone levels in pregnant rats in the first trimester and the clinical course. Successful completion of pregnancy and the absence of stillbirth or miscarriage will guide future studies about the use of sugammadex, particularly in the first trimester of the pregnancy. PMID:26167346

  13. Methods to evaluate functional nerve recovery in adult rats: walking track analysis, video analysis and the withdrawal reflex.

    PubMed

    Dijkstra, J R; Meek, M F; Robinson, P H; Gramsbergen, A

    2000-03-15

    The aim of this study was to compare different methods for the evaluation of functional nerve recovery. Three groups of adult male Wistar rats were studied. In group A, a 12-mm gap between nerve ends was bridged by an autologous nerve graft; in rats of group B we performed a crush lesion of the sciatic nerve and group C consisted of non-operated control rats. The withdrawal reflex, elicited by an electric stimulus, was used to evaluate the recovery of sensory nerve function. To investigate motor nerve recovery we analyzed the walking pattern. Three different methods were used to obtain data for footprint analysis: photographic paper with thickened film developer on the paws, normal white paper with finger paint, and video recordings. The footprints were used to calculate the sciatic function index (SFI). From the video recordings, we also analyzed stepcycles. The withdrawal reflex is a convenient and reproducible test for the evaluation of global sensory nerve recovery. Recording walking movements on video and the analysis of footplacing is a perfect although time-consuming method for the evaluation of functional aspects of motor nerve recovery. PMID:10720672

  14. A Study of hepatoprotective activity of Hedyotis corymbosa. Linn, in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Chimkode, Rajshekar; Patil, M B; Jalalpure, Sunil; Pasha, T Y; Sarkar, Sibaji

    2009-04-01

    Hedyotis corymbosa Linn is spreading, suffruticose annual, belongs to family Rubiaceae frequently met with in field through out India, usually during rainy season. This plant is used for their medicinal properties as a folk medicine to treat jaundice, mouth wash in toothache. Hence the present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extract of Hedyotis corymbosa which was separated in to different fractions against carbon tetrachloride intoxification. The results indicate that, Intoxification with CCl(4) increase the levels of SGOT and SGPT. The elevated levels of SGOT and SGPTwere significantly decreased by ether and butanol fractions at P<0.001 and butanone and ethanol at p<0.05, where as petroleum ether and ethyl acetate did not shown any significant reduction in the level of SGOT and SGPT. PMID:22557330

  15. Neurochemical impact of bisphenol A in the hippocampus and cortex of adult male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Khadrawy, Yasser A; Noor, Neveen A; Mourad, Iman M; Ezz, Heba S Aboul

    2016-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine-disrupting chemical, is widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonated plastics and epoxy resins and line metal beverage cans. Growing evidence suggests that BPA acts directly on neuronal functions as it is lipophilic and could accumulate in the brain. The present study aims to investigate the effect of two doses of BPA (10 mg/kg for 6 and 10 weeks and 25 mg/kg for 6 weeks) on excitatory (glutamate and aspartate) and inhibitory (γ-aminobutyric acid, glycine, and taurine) amino acid neurotransmitter levels in the cortex and hippocampus. This study extends to investigate the effect of BPA on acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and some oxidative stress parameters in the two regions. In the cortex, a significant increase in the excitatory and a significant decrease in the inhibitory amino acids occurred after BPA (10 mg/kg for 10 weeks and 25 mg/kg for 6 weeks). This was accompanied by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and reduced glutathione after 6 weeks of BPA (25 mg/kg). In the hippocampus, a significant increase in the excitatory and inhibitory amino acid neurotransmitters occurred after 6 weeks of BPA. Hippocampal lipid peroxidation increased significantly after BPA exposure and hippocampal reduced glutathione increased significantly after 6 weeks of BPA exposure (10 mg/kg). BPA induced a significant increase in cortical and hippocampal AchE activity. The present neurochemical changes in the cortex and hippocampus suggest that BPA induced a state of excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. This may raise concerns about the exposure of humans to BPA due to its wide applications in industry. PMID:25903087

  16. Prenatal and developmental toxicity study of meclizine and caffeine combination in female albino Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sandeep, M; Alvin, Jose M

    2014-12-01

    Meclizine and caffeine combination is used for the treatment of morning sickness. Both compounds are teratogenic and caffeine is known to possess anti-fertility activity also. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the reproductive toxic effect of meclizine and caffeine combination. Three doses were taken for the study; low dose (LD; meclizine 3.7 mg/kg and caffeine 3 mg/kg) was selected from commercially available formulation, middle dose (MD; meclizine 37 mg/kg and caffeine 30 mg/kg) and high dose (HD; meclizine 370 mg/kg and caffeine 300 mg/kg). The mixture was administered 1-7 days and 8-14 days for fertility and embryotoxic studies respectively. Laparotomy was done on 10t day of gestation period. Number of implants and corpora lutea were counted, pre and post-implantation losses were determined. In embryo toxicity study fetuses were evaluated for external, skeletal and visceral examination. High dose was removed from both fertility and embryotoxicity studies due to its severe toxicity to the dam. Significant anti-fertility activity was observed at middle dose. Embryotoxicity study showed significant reduction in fetal body weight, body length and body mass index, dam body weight gain on gestation day 14. Absolute kidney weight in MD and absolute and relative spleen weight in both LD and MD were significantly reduced. There was no increase in external or internal congenital anomalies at both LD and MD. The, results suggest that prescription of meclizine and caffeine for morning sickness in early pregnancy should be reviewed carefully. PMID:25651609

  17. Protective effects of honokiol on ischemia/reperfusion injury of rat ovary: an experimental study

    PubMed Central

    Yaman Tunc, Senem; Agacayak, Elif; Goruk, Neval Yaman; Icen, Mehmet Sait; Turgut, Abdulkadir; Alabalik, Ulas; Togrul, Cihan; Ekinci, Cenap; Ekinci, Aysun; Gul, Talip

    2016-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of honokiol on experimental ischemia/reperfusion injury of rat ovary. Materials and methods A total of 40 female Wistar albino rats were used in this study. The rats were divided into five groups as follows: sham (Group I), torsion (Group II), torsion + detorsion (Group III), torsion + detorsion + saline (Group IV), and torsion + detorsion + honokiol (Group V). Bilateral adnexa in all the rats except for those in the sham group were exposed to torsion for 3 hours. The rats in Group IV were administered saline, whereas the rats in Group V were administered honokiol by intraperitoneal route 30 minutes before detorsion. Tissue and plasma concentrations of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide were determined. Ovarian tissue was histologically evaluated. Data analyses were performed by means of Kruskal–Wallis test and Mann–Whitney U-test (Bonferroni correction) in SPSS 15.0 (Statistical Package for Social Sciences; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). Results The torsion and detorsion groups had higher scores in vascular congestion, hemorrhage, and inflammatory cell infiltration compared with the sham group (P<0.005). In addition, total histopathological scores were significantly higher in the torsion and detorsion groups compared with the sham group (P<0.005). A significant reduction was observed in hemorrhage, inflammatory cell infiltration, and cellular degeneration scores, of all histopathological scores, in the honokiol group (P<0.005). Ovarian tissue concentrations of malondialdehyde were significantly higher in the torsion and detorsion groups compared with the sham and honokiol groups (P<0.005). Ovarian tissue concentrations of nitric oxide, on the other hand, were significantly higher in the torsion group compared with the sham, saline, and honokiol groups (P<0.005). Conclusion Honokiol has a beneficial effect on ovarian torsion-related ischemia/reperfusion injury. PMID:27022246

  18. HPLC-DAD Method for the Pharmacokinetic Interaction Study of Atorvastatin with Pioglitazone and Cholestyramine in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ritesh N; Pancholi, Shyam S

    2014-09-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness is used as a surrogate marker for cardiovascular complications in diabetes mellitus. The combination of atorvastatin and pioglitazone was found to be effective in reducing the thickness of the carotid intima-media layer. The method of RP-HPLC coupled with a diode array detector (DAD) was developed for the pharmacokinetic interaction study of atorvastatin with pioglitazone and cholestyramine, respectively, in Wistar rats. Atorvastatin (ATR) and pioglitazone (PIO) were resolved on a C18 column with a mobile phase composed of 48% methanol, 19% acetonitrile, and 33% 10 mM ammonium formate (v/v/v; pH 3.5±0.3, by formic acid) and a 260 nm detection wavelength on the diode array detector. The method was validated according to international standards with good reproducibility and linear response; mean (r) 0.9987 and 0.9972 to ATR and PIO, respectively. The coefficients of variation of intra- and interassay precision ranged between 4.95-8.12 and 7.29-9.67, respectively. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined in rats following an oral administration of atorvastatin in the presence and absence of pioglitazone and also with cholestyramine. Compared with the control given atorvastatin alone, the Cmax and AUC of atorvastatin were merely unchanged in rats with the co-administration of pioglitazone, while they decreased by nearly 21 and 15%, respectively, with the concurrent use of cholestyramine. There were no significant changes in Tmax and the plasma half-life (T1/2 ) of atorvastatin in both cases. The performed experiment demonstrated that the presented method was suitable for the estimation and pharmacokinetic interaction study of atorvastatin with pioglitazone and cholestyramine in Wistar rat plasma. PMID:25853068

  19. Permeability determination and pharmacokinetic study of nobiletin in rat plasma and brain by validated high-performance liquid chromatography method.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sheelendra Pratap; Wahajuddin; Tewari, Divyesh; Patel, Kushalkumar; Jain, Girish Kumar

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, we are reporting permeability and pharmacokinetics of nobiletin in rat plasma and brain, using a validated reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic method. Protein precipitation method was used for the extraction of nobiletin and coumarin (IS) from rat plasma and brain tissue. The system was run in isocratic mode with mobile phase consisting of potassium dihydrogen ortho-phosphate (pH 4.5; 0.04 mM) and acetonitrile in ratio of 50:50, v/v. The total chromatographic run time was 9.0 min. The method was proved to be accurate and precise at linearity range of 0.05-10 μg/mL with a correlation coefficient (r) of ≥ 0.994 in rat plasma and ≥ 0.995 in rat brain. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy values are found to be within the assay variability limits as per the FDA guidelines. Nobiletin was found stable in the battery of stability studies viz., bench-top, auto-sampler, freeze/thaw cycles and long term storage in a freezer at -70±10°C. Maximum concentrations of nobiletin in both plasma and brain were observed at 1h after single oral dosing (50 mg/kg). The maximum concentration in plasma and brain were 1.78 and 4.20 μg/mL, respectively. The AUC(0-t) in plasma and brain were 7.49 and 20.66 μg·h/mL, respectively. The mean elimination half life (t(½) in plasma and brain were 1.80 and 11.42 h, respectively. The Parallel Artificial Membrane Permeability Assay (PAMPA) permeability of nobiletin was found to be high at both pH 4.0 and 7.0. PMID:21888953

  20. Ultrasound method applied to characterize healthy femoral diaphysis of Wistar rats in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fontes-Pereira, A; Matusin, D P; Rosa, P; Schanaider, A; von Krüger, M A; Pereira, W C A

    2014-05-01

    A simple experimental protocol applying a quantitative ultrasound (QUS) pulse-echo technique was used to measure the acoustic parameters of healthy femoral diaphyses of Wistar rats in vivo. Five quantitative parameters [apparent integrated backscatter (AIB), frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB), time slope of apparent backscatter (TSAB), integrated reflection coefficient (IRC), and frequency slope of integrated reflection (FSIR)] were calculated using the echoes from cortical and trabecular bone in the femurs of 14 Wistar rats. Signal acquisition was performed three times in each rat, with the ultrasound signal acquired along the femur's central region from three positions 1 mm apart from each other. The parameters estimated for the three positions were averaged to represent the femur diaphysis. The results showed that AIB, FSAB, TSAB, and IRC values were statistically similar, but the FSIR values from Experiments 1 and 3 were different. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation coefficient showed, in general, strong correlations among the parameters. The proposed protocol and calculated parameters demonstrated the potential to characterize the femur diaphysis of rats in vivo. The results are relevant because rats have a bone structure very similar to humans, and thus are an important step toward preclinical trials and subsequent application of QUS in humans. PMID:24838643

  1. Sequential rat blood boron concentration measurements method using CR-39 SSNTDs

    SciTech Connect

    Mengers, T.F.; Blue, T.E.; Curran, J.F.; Carey, W.E.; Barth, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) has been used as an experimental modality for the treatment of a highly malignant form of human brain cancer, glioblastoma multiforme. The success of BNCT is currently being tested at our institution using an anaplastic glioma clone transplanted into the caudate nucleus of Fischer rats, as a model for glioblastoma multiforme in humans. Since the blood boron concentration at the time of neutron irradiation must be low in order for BNCT to be successful, we have developed a solid-state nuclear track detector (SSNTD)-based sequential assay technique for measuring {sup 10}B concentrations in the blood of rats. With our technique, many blood samples can be taken from a single rat, thus reducing the uncertainty at different time points, due to biological variability among rats, which is inherent is assay techniques with which one can obtain only one data point per rat. The purpose of this paper is to describe the assay technique and to illustrate its usefulness by providing representative data from an ongoing pharmacokinetic study.

  2. Ultrastructure of neurons and interneuronal connections in the sensomotor cortex of progeny of alcohol-addicted rats

    SciTech Connect

    Popova, E.N.

    1985-05-01

    This paper studies the ultrastructure of neurons and interneuronal connections in the sensomotor cortex of the progeny of alcohol-addicted rats. Experiments were carried out on 12 female and four male albino rats; they were given alcohol solutions for 4 months and then mated. The female rats continued to ingest alcohol until the young rats acquired vision. The sensomotor cortex of experimental young rats aged 21 and 30 days and of intact animals of the same age was investigated; the sections were stained with uranyl acetate and studied. It is shown that alcoholic intoxication of females and males causes significant disturbances of the structural organization of the sensomotor cortex in the progeny.

  3. The Antinociceptive Effects of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Borago Officinalis Flower in Male Rats Using Formalin Test

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Ahmadimoghadm, Mahdieh; Shahraki, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Borago officinalis flower (borage) is a known sedative in herbal medicine; the aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of borage hydroalcoholic extract in formalin test male rats. Methods: Fifty-six adult male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into seven groups: Control groups of A (intact), B (saline), and C (Positive control) plus test groups of D, E, F, and G (n=8). The groups D, E, and F received 6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg/kg, Borago officinalis flower hydroalcholic extract before the test, respectively but group G received 25 mg/kg borage extract and aspirin before the test. A biphasic pain was induced by injection of formalin 1%. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software ver. 17 employing statistical tests of Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney. The results were expressed as mean±SD. Statistical differences were considered significant at P<0.05. Results: The results revealed that the acute and chronic pain behavior score in test groups of D, E, F, and G significantly decreased compared to groups A and B, but this score did not show any difference compared to group C. Moreover, chronic pain behavior score in group G was significantly lower than all other groups. Discussion: The results indicated that Borago officinalis hydroalcoholic extract affects the acute and chronic pain behavior response in formaline test male rats. PMID:26649166

  4. Hepatoprotective effects of parsley, basil, and chicory aqueous extracts against dexamethasone-induced in experimental rats

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Hanan A.; El-Desouky, Mohamed A.; Hozayen, Walaa G.; Ahmed, Rasha R.; Khaliefa, Amal K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and hepatoprotective effects of the aqueous extract of parsley, basil, and chicory whole plant in normal and dexamethasone (Dex) rats. Materials and Methods: 50 female albino rats were used in this study and divided into 5 groups (for each 10). Group (1) fed basal diet and maintained as negative control group. Group (2) received Dex in a dose of (0.1 mg/kg b. wt.). Groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Dex along with three different plant extracts of parsley, basil, and chicory (2 g/kg b. wt.), (400 mg/kg b. wt.), and (100 mg/kg b. wt.), respectively. Results: All these groups were treated given three times per week for 8 consecutive weeks. Dex-induced alterations in the levels of serum glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels and cardiovascular indices and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase activities, liver thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) levels increased, while high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, total protein, albumin, and liver glutathione (GSH) levels decreased. On the other hand, plant extracts succeeded to modulate these observed abnormalities resulting from Dex as indicated by the reduction of glucose, cholesterol, TBARS, and the pronounced improvement of the investigated biochemical and antioxidant parameters. Conclusions: It was concluded that probably, due to its antioxidant property, parsley, basil, and chicory extracts have hepatoprotective effects in Dex-induced in rats. PMID:27069727

  5. Role of nitro-oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of experimental rat periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    BOŞCA, ADINA BIANCA; MICLĂUŞ, VIOREL; ILEA, ARANKA; CÂMPIAN, RADU SEPTIMIU; RUS, VASILE; RUXANDA, FLAVIA; RAŢIU, CRISTIAN; UIFĂLEAN, ANA; PÂRVU, ALINA ELENA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Periodontitis is a common chronic adult condition that implicates oxidative damage to gingival tissue, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. This study aimed at assessing the association between the nitro-oxidative stress and the periodontal tissues destructions in experimental rat periodontitis. Methods Periodontitis was induced in 15 male albino rats by repetitive lesions to the gingiva adjacent to the inferior incisors, performed daily, for 16 days. On D1, D3, D6, D8, and D16 the onset and evolution of periodontitis were monitored by clinical and histopathological examinations; blood was collected and serum nitro-oxidative stress was evaluated through total nitrites and nitrates, total oxidative status, total antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress index. Results The results demonstrated that there was a graded and continuous increase in serum levels of total nitrites and nitrates, total oxidative status and oxidative stress index, which was consistent with the severity of periodontal destructions during periodontitis progression. However, total antioxidant capacity was not significantly influenced by the disease progression. Conclusions In experimental rat periodontitis, the systemic nitro-oxidative stress was associated with the severity of periodontal destructions assessed clinically and histopathologically. Therefore, systemic nitro-oxidative stress parameters might be used as diagnostic tools in periodontitis. PMID:27004039

  6. Examination of the Ovarian Reserve after Generation of Unilateral Rudimentary Uterine Horns in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Toyganözü, Hasan; Nazik, Hakan; Narin, Raziye; Satar, Deniz; Narin, Mehmet Ali; Büyüknacar, Sinem; Api, Murat; Aytan, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this experimental rat model study is to evaluate the changes in the ovarian environment after excision of the rudimentary horn. Methods. Ten female Wistar albino rats were used in this study. One cm of right uterine horn length was excised in the first operation. Two months after the first operation, all animals were sacrificed to obtain ovaries for histological examination. Mann-Whitney U test and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis purposes. Statistical significance was defined as P < 0.005. Results. The number of primordial follicles (P = 0.415), primary follicles (P = 0.959), preantral follicles (P = 0.645), antral follicles (P = 0.328), and Graafian follicles (P = 0.721) was decreased and the number of atretic follicles (P = 0.374) increased in the right ovarian side. Howeve,r this difference was not found to be statistically significant. Conclusion. The results of this experimental rat model study suggest that the excision of rudimentary horn could have negative effects on ipsilateral ovarian functions. PMID:24672393

  7. Aloe vera Aqueous Extract Effect on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome in Morphine-Dependent Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Mohammad Reza; Mirshekari, Hamideh; Sabri, Azame

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aloe vera is a medicinal herb used as an anti-inflammatory and sedative agent. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Aloe vera aqueous extract on morphine withdrawal symptoms in morphine-dependent female rats. Patients and Methods: The current research was performed on 40 female Wista-Albino rats which were made dependent on morphine using Houshyar protocol and were randomly divided into five groups (A, B, C, D, and E). Group A did not receive any agent in the period of handling but other groups (B, C, D and E) received 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg of Aloe vera aqueous extract by gavage, three times daily for a week, respectively. Withdrawal symptoms, stool form, agitation, disparity, floppy eyelids, and body mass variations were checked for 10 days. The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS v.11 software, and Friedman, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney statistical tests. Statistical difference was considered significant (P < 0.05). Results: The results of the present study showed that agitation, disparity, and floppy eyelids in group E were significantly higher than those of others groups; however, these symptoms in group C were significantly lower than those of the other groups. Conclusions: The results of the present study revealed that the Aloe vera aqueous extract had various effects on morphine withdrawal syndrome in morphine-dependent female rats . PMID:25593890

  8. Carrot (Daucus carota L.): Nephroprotective against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sodimbaku, Vamsi; Pujari, Latha; Mullangi, Raviteja; Marri, Saisudheer

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Daucus carota L.(DC) commonly known as carrot, folkorically used as ethnomedicine to treat nephrosis and other urinary disorders. Hence, the present study was aimed to investigate the nephroprotective effects of ethanolic root extract of DC against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in Albino Wistar rats. Methods: Nephrotoxicity in rats was induced by intraperitoneal administration of gentamicin (100 mg/kg/day) for 8 days. Rats of either sex were divided into four groups (n = 6). Group 1 served as control that received normal saline (i.p.) whereas Group 2 (GM) was treated with gentamicin which served as gentamicin-intoxicated group. Group 3–4 (DC200, DC 400) were pretreated with DC at doses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg (p.o.), respectively, 1 h before the gentamicin intoxication. Following treatment, the nephroprotective effects of DC were evaluated by using serum levels of urea, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), uric acid, and creatinine levels; change in body weight and wet kidney weight along with the histological observations among the experimental groups. Results: Gentamicin intoxication induced elevated serum urea, BUN, uric acid, and creatinine levels which was found to be significantly (P < 0.01) decreased in a dose-dependent manner in groups received DC which was also evidenced by the histological observations. Conclusion: DC showed a significant nephroprotective effect in a dose-dependent manner by ameliorating the gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and thus authenticates its ethnomedicinal use. PMID:27127313

  9. Oral administration of leaf extracts of Momordica charantia affect reproductive hormones of adult female Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Adewale, Osonuga Odusoga; Oduyemi, Osonuga Ifabunmi; Ayokunle, Osonuga

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of graded doses of aqueous leaf extracts of Momordica charantia on fertility hormones of female albino rats. Methods Twenty adult, healthy, female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: low dose (LD), moderate dose (MD) and high dose (HD) groups which received 12.5 g, 25.0 g, 50.0 g of the leaf extract respectively and control group that was given with water ad libatum. Result Estrogen levels reduced by 6.40 nmol/L, 10.80 nmol/L and 28.00 nmol/L in the LD, MD and HD groups respectively while plasma progesterone of rats in the LD, MD and HD groups reduced by 24.20 nmol/L, 40.8 nmol/L and 59.20 nmol/L respectively. Conclusion Our study has shown that the antifertility effect of Momordica charantia is achieved in a dose dependent manner. Hence, cautious use of such medication should be advocated especially when managing couples for infertility. PMID:25183143

  10. Protective effects of fish oil, allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Messiha, Basim Anwar Shehata; Abo-Youssef, Amira M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The major aim of this work was to study the protective effects of fish oil (FO), allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced injury in experimental rats. Materials and Methods: Sixty male Wistar albino rats were randomly assigned to six groups of 10 rats each. Group 1 served as a negative control. Group 2 served as hepatic IR control injury. Groups 3, 4, 5, and 6 received N-acetylcysteine (standard), FO, allopurinol, and verapamil, respectively, for 3 consecutive days prior to ischemia. All animals were fasted for 12 h, anesthetized and underwent midline laparotomy. The portal triads were clamped by mini-artery clamp for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 30 min. Blood samples were withdrawn for estimation of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) activities as well as hepatic thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase, and total nitrate/nitrite levels, in addition to histopathological examination. Results: Fish oil, allopurinol, and verapamil reduced hepatic IR injury as evidenced by significant reduction in serum ALT and AST enzyme activities. FO and verapamil markedly reduced oxidative stress as compared to control IR injury. Levels of inflammatory biomarkers in liver were also reduced after treatment with FO, allopurinol, or verapamil. In accordance, a marked improvement of histopathological findings was observed with all of the three treatments. Conclusion: The findings of this study prove the benefits of FO, allopurinol, and verapamil on hepatic IR-induced liver injury and are promising for further clinical trials. PMID:26283828

  11. Inhalation of mercury vapor can cause the toxic effects on rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Akgül, Nilgün; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Altunkaynak, Muhammed Eyüp; Deniz, Ömür Gülsüm; Ünal, Deniz; Akgül, Hayati Murat

    2016-01-01

    Dental amalgam has been used in dentistry as a filling material. The filler comprises mercury (Hg). It is considered one of the most important and widespread environmental pollutants, which poses a serious potential threat for the humans and animals. However, mercury deposition affects the nervous, cardiovascular, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and especially renal systems. In most animals' species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites of deposition of mercury and target organ for its toxicity. In this study, the effects of mercury intake on kidney in rats were searched. For the this purpose; we used 24 adult female Wistar albino rats (200 g in weight) obtained from Experimental Research and Application Center of Atatürk University with ethical approval. Besides, they were placed into a specially designed glass cage. Along this experiment for 45 days, subjects were exposed to (1 mg/m(3)/day) mercury vapor. However, no application was used for the control subjects. At the end of the experiment, kidney samples were obtained from all subjects and processed for routine light microscopic level and stereological aspect were assessed. Finally, according to our results, mercury affects the histological features of the kidney. That means, the severe effects of mercury has been shown using stereological approach, which is one of the ideal quantitative methods in the current literature. In this study, it was detected that chronic exposure to mercury vapor may lead to renal damage and diseases in an experimental rat model. PMID:26888214

  12. Determination of piceid in rat plasma and tissues by high-performance liquid chromatographic method with UV detection.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chunyan; Zhang, Lantong; Wang, Qiao; Liu, Weina; Wang, Chunying; Jing, Xiujuan; Liu, Yang

    2006-11-01

    A rapid, sensitive and selective HPLC method was developed and validated for determination of piceid in rat plasma and tissues. The drug was isolated from plasma and tissues by a simple protein precipitation procedure. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C(18) column with acetonitrile-water (26:74, v/v) as mobile phase. The method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution research after oral administration of a 50 mg/kg dose of piceid to healthy male Wistar rats. The pharmacokinetic parameters showed that piceid was quickly absorbed, distributed and eliminated within 4 h after oral administration. The tissue distribution results showed that, at 10 min, the concentrations of piceid in most tissues reached peak level except in heart and testis. The highest level of piceid was found in stomach, then in small intestine, spleen, lung, brain, testis, liver, kidney and heart. The amount of piceid in testis and heart reached the peak level at 30 min. At 120 min, the amount of piceid in all tissues decreased to a low percentage of the initial concentration. Piceid was absorbed throughout the gastrointestinal tract with considerable absorption taking place in the stomach and small intestine. There was no long-term accumulation of piceid in rat tissues. PMID:16883546

  13. Development of LC-MS determination method and back-propagation ANN pharmacokinetic model of corynoxeine in rat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jianshe; Cai, Jinzhang; Lin, Guanyang; Chen, Huilin; Wang, Xianqin; Wang, Xianchuan; Hu, Lufeng

    2014-05-15

    Corynoxeine(CX), isolated from the extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla, is a useful and prospective compound in the prevention and treatment for vascular diseases. A simple and selective liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed to determine the concentration of CX in rat plasma. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a Zorbax SB-C18 (2.1 mm × 150 mm, 5 μm) column with acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid in water as mobile phase. Selective ion monitoring (SIM) mode was used for quantification using target ions m/z 383 for CX and m/z 237 for the carbamazepine (IS). After the LC-MS method was validated, it was applied to a back-propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) pharmacokinetic model study of CX in rats. The results showed that after intravenous administration of CX, it was mainly distributed in blood and eliminated quickly, t1/2 was less than 1h. The predicted concentrations generated by BP-ANN model had a high correlation coefficient (R>0.99) with experimental values. The developed BP-ANN pharmacokinetic model can be used to predict the concentration of CX in rats. PMID:24732215

  14. A simple LC-MS method for determination of cyasterone in rat plasma: application to a pilot pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Li, Fuqiang; Li, Guangyu; Zhao, Jinsong; Xiao, Jun; Liu, Zaoxia; Su, Guanfang

    2016-06-01

    A simple, specific, and sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method for determination of cyasterone in rat plasma was developed in our laboratory. Cucurbitacin B was used as an internal standard (IS). After protein precipitation with twofold volume of acetonitrile, the analyte and IS were separated on a Luna C18 column (100 × 4.6 mm, i.d., 3.0 µm; Phenomenex) by isocratic elution with acetonitrile-water (80:20, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. An electrospray ionization source was applied and operated in the positive ion mode; selected ion monitoring scan mode was used for quantification, and the target ions m/z 543.3 for cyasterone and m/z 581.3 for IS were chosen. Good linearity was observed in the concentration range of 0.40-400 ng/mL for cyasterone in rat plasma. Intra-day and inter-day precision were both <7.4%. This method was proved to be suitable for pharmacokinetic studies after oral (5.0 mg/kg) or intravenous (0.5 mg/kg) administration of cyasterone in rats. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26390114

  15. Brief anesthesia by isoflurane alters plasma corticosterone levels distinctly in male and female rats: Implications for tissue collection methods.

    PubMed

    Bekhbat, Mandakh; Merrill, Liana; Kelly, Sean D; Lee, Vanessa K; Neigh, Gretchen N

    2016-05-15

    Euthanasia by anesthetic agents is commonly performed prior to tissue collection in order to minimize pain and distress to the animal. However, depending on their mechanism of action as well as administration regimen, different methods of anesthesia may trigger an acute stress response through engaging the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which can impact numerous other physiological processes that the researcher may wish to examine as endpoints. We investigated the effects of the commonly used anesthetic agent isoflurane on two different endpoints related to the stress response: plasma corticosterone levels and gene expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) as well as several of its regulators including FK506-binding protein 51 (Fkbp5) in the hippocampus of male and female rats. Our results indicate that brief exposure to anesthesia by isoflurane prior to decapitation can alter plasma corticosterone levels differentially in male and female rats within minutes without impacting gene expression in the hippocampus. We conclude that collection methods can influence stress-related physiological endpoints in female rats and the potential influence of even brief anesthesia as well as sex differences in response to anesthesia should be evaluated during the experimental design process and data interpretation. This finding is particularly important in light of new NIH standards regarding sex and reproducibility, and care should be taken to be certain that sex differences in endpoints of interest are not an artifact of sex differences in response to collection paradigms. PMID:26946276

  16. New High-performance Liquid Chromatography-DAD Method for Analytical Determination of Arbutin and Hydroquinone in Rat Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, F. R.; Pagliuca, G.; Multari, G.; Panzini, G.; D’amore, E.; Altieri, I.

    2015-01-01

    Natural substances present in herbal preparations should be carefully used because they can give toxic or therapeutic effects despite of their amount or the way of administration. The safety of products of vegetable origin must be assessed before commercialisation by monitoring the active ingredients and their metabolites. This study was therefore designed to identify and quantify arbutin and its metabolite hydroquinone, naturally present in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng plant in rat plasma, after an acute and subacute administration of aqueous arbutin solution in Wistar rats. For this purpose a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection was developed to assess the pharmacokinetic of arbutin and hydroquinone in plasma of female rats treated with aqueous arbutin solutions. The detection (arbutin: 0.0617 µg/ml and hydroquinone 0.0120 µg/ml) and quantification (arbutin: 0.2060 µg/ml and hydroquinone: 0.0400 µg/ml) limits were determined. At the arbutin concentration level of 10.7 µg/ml repeatability was 13.33% and its recovery 93.4±6.93%, while at the hydroquinone concentration level of 10.6 µg/ml repeatability was 11.66% and its recovery 92.9±7.75%. Furthermore the method was fully validated and the obtained data indicate that the new method provides good performances. PMID:26798166

  17. New High-performance Liquid Chromatography-DAD Method for Analytical Determination of Arbutin and Hydroquinone in Rat Plasma.

    PubMed

    Gallo, F R; Pagliuca, G; Multari, G; Panzini, G; D'amore, E; Altieri, I

    2015-01-01

    Natural substances present in herbal preparations should be carefully used because they can give toxic or therapeutic effects despite of their amount or the way of administration. The safety of products of vegetable origin must be assessed before commercialisation by monitoring the active ingredients and their metabolites. This study was therefore designed to identify and quantify arbutin and its metabolite hydroquinone, naturally present in Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng plant in rat plasma, after an acute and subacute administration of aqueous arbutin solution in Wistar rats. For this purpose a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection was developed to assess the pharmacokinetic of arbutin and hydroquinone in plasma of female rats treated with aqueous arbutin solutions. The detection (arbutin: 0.0617 µg/ml and hydroquinone 0.0120 µg/ml) and quantification (arbutin: 0.2060 µg/ml and hydroquinone: 0.0400 µg/ml) limits were determined. At the arbutin concentration level of 10.7 µg/ml repeatability was 13.33% and its recovery 93.4±6.93%, while at the hydroquinone concentration level of 10.6 µg/ml repeatability was 11.66% and its recovery 92.9±7.75%. Furthermore the method was fully validated and the obtained data indicate that the new method provides good performances. PMID:26798166

  18. Quantitation of acotiamide in rat plasma by UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS: method development, validation and application to pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Patel, Prinesh N; Kalariya, Pradipbhai D; Swamy, Challa Veerabhadra; Gananadhamu, S; Srinivas, R

    2016-03-01

    A novel, sensitive and selective ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of acotiamide (ACT), a first-in-class drug used in functional dyspepsia, in rat plasma. A simple protein precipitation method with acetonitrile as precipitating solvent was used to extract ACT from rat plasma. ACT and an internal standard (mirabegron, IS) were separated on an Agilent poroshell EC C18 column (50 × 3.0 mm, 2.7 µm) using methanol-10 mM ammonium acetate binary gradient mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min over 4 min run time. Detection was performed using target ions of [M + H](+) at m/z 451.2010 for ACT and m/z 397.1693 for IS in selective ion mode. The method was validated in the calibration range of 1.31-1000 ng/mL. All the validation parameters were well within the limits. The method demonstrated good performances in terms of intra- and inter-day precision (3.27-12.60% CV) and accuracy (87.96-104.94%). Thus the present ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatograhy-high-resolution mass spectrometry method for determination of ACT in rat plasma, is highly sensitive and rapid with a short run-time of 4 min, can be suitable for high sample throughput and for large batches of biological samples in pharmacokinetic studies. This method can be extended to measure plasma concentrations of ACT in humans to understand drug metabolism, drug interaction and adverse effects. PMID:26153099

  19. Development of dog mammary tumor xenograft in immunosuppressed Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Rajmani, R S; Singh, Prafull Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, G Ravi; Sahoo, Aditya P; Santra, Lakshman; Saxena, Shikha; Singh, Lakshya Veer; Chaturvedi, Uttara; Saxena, Lovleen; Desai, G S; Gupta, Shishir Kumar; Kumar, Amit; Jadon, N S; Tiwari, Ashok K

    2014-10-01

    Development and study of dog mammary tumour xenograft in immunosuppressed Swiss Albino Mice adds a new dimension in cancer research as dog tumors have many similarities with human tumors regarding progression, histopathology, molecular mechanism, immune response and therapy. Failure of the immune system to recognize and eliminate cancer cells leads to cancer progression and the fight between immune cells and cancer cells has a great role in understanding the mechanism of cancer progression and elimination. Rejection and acceptance of tumour xenograft depends on efficiency of CD4+, CD8+ and NK cell populations. In the present investigation, dog mammary tumor xenograft in cyclosporine-A and gamma-irradiated, immunosuppressed Swiss Albino mice was developed and the immune cell status of graft accepted and rejected mice was assessed. It was observed that all the major immune cells (CD4+, CD8+ and NK cells) play an equal role in tumour rejection. PMID:25345242

  20. Binding of radioiodinated human. beta. -endorphin to serum proteins from rats and humans, determined by several methods

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, H.; Sugiyama, Y.; Sawada, Y.; Iga, T.; Hanano, M.

    1985-10-07

    Binding of immunoreactive radioiodinated human ..beta..-endorphin (/sup 125/I-..beta..-EP) to rat serum was demonstrated by gel filtration of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in pooled rat serum on Sephadex G-200. Two radioactive peaks associated with proteins eluted from the column. The first peak eluted at the void volume containing lipoproteins, ..cap alpha../sub 2/- and ..beta../sub 2/-macroglobulins, and the second peak at the fraction of albumin. Binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP to albumin was directly proved by gel filtration of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in buffer containing 4% human serum albumin on Sephadex G-200. Equilibrium dialysis was not applicable to investigating the interaction of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP with serum proteins, because of the intense nonspecific adsorption to the semi-permeable membrane and the degradation of the peptide during dialysis. Therefore, in order to quantitatively evaluate the binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in sera from rats and humans, the authors utilized four other methods (ultrafiltration, charcoal adsorption, polyethylene glycol precipitation and equilibrium gel filtration). These methods corresponded well with each other and indicated 35-44% binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in rat serum. Binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP in normal human serum was 36%, determined by ultrafiltration. Serum protein binding of /sup 125/I-..beta..-EP was concentration independent over the concentration range studied (1-1000 nM). 23 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  1. Precipitating antibody against Aeromonas salmonicida in serums of inbred albino Rainbow Trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Douglas P.; Klontz, George W.

    1970-01-01

    Precipitins in albino rainbow trout serums were demonstrated by gel diffusion after a single parenteral exposure to the soluble antigens of Aeromonas salmonicida. The fraction of the serum containing antibody activity against the presented antigens was shown by immunoelectrophoresis to be in the nonmigrating region. This corresponded to the beta-2 fraction of rabbit serum. An antibody-containing component comparable with rabbit gamma globulin was not detected.

  2. Beliefs and practices concerning twins, hermaphrodites, and albinos among the Bamana and Maninka of Mali.

    PubMed

    Imperato, Gavin H; Imperato, Pascal James

    2006-06-01

    The Bamana and Maninka of Mali greatly value twins, and have elaborated a range of cultural beliefs and practices to assure their survival. Rates of twinning among these two ethnic groups average from 15.2/1000 to 17.9/1000 births compared to 10.5/1000 births (without assisted reproduction) in the United States and Great Britain. Twins (flaniw) are regarded as extraordinary beings with unusual powers, and as a gift from the supreme deity. A small altar (sinzin) is maintained in the home of twins, and periodic sacrifices of chicken blood, kola nuts, millet paste and millet beer regularly made to assure their protection. Albinos (yéfeguéw) and true and pseudo-hermaphrodites (tyéténousotéw) are also considered twin beings. However, they are believed to be the result of aberrant parental social behavior. The Bamana and Maninka believe that all four groups (twins, albinos, hermaphrodites, and pseudo-harmaphrodites) are closely linked to Faro, an androgynous supernatural being who provides equilibrium in the world. Faro is the original albino and hermaphrodite who gave birth to the first pair of twins after self-impregnation. Whenever a twin dies, a small wooden statue is sculpted called a flanitokélé (twin that remains). This commemorative figure is kept close to the surviving twin, reflecting a belief in the inseparability of twins. Eventually, the surviving twin takes responsibility for the figure. When a surviving twin marries, another figure is often sculpted in the opposite sex from the deceased twin, and placed with the original sculpture. Such commemorative sculptures are not created upon the death of those who are albinos, hermaphrodites, or pseudo-hermaphrodites. In recent years, transformational belief patterns have evolved as increasing numbers of Bamana and Maninka embrace Islam. Traditional beliefs are often given Islamic myths of origin. However, even in this Islamic context, many practices that assure twin survival are maintained. PMID:16830507

  3. The Ayurvedic drug Ksheerabala (101) ameliorates alcohol-induced neurotoxicity by down-regulating the expression of transcription factor (NFkB) in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Rejitha, S.; Prathibha, P.; Madambath, Indira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Most of the pharmaceutical effects of alcohol are due to its accumulation in the brain. Ksheerabala (101) an Ayurvedic formulation mainly used against central nervous system disorders. Aim: To determine the antioxidant and neuroprotective effect of Ksheerabala (101) on alcohol-induced oxidative stress in rats. Materials and Methods: Male Albino rats of Sprague-Dawley strain were grouped into four; control, alcohol (4 g/kg), Ksheerabala (15 μL/1 ml milk/100 g) and Ksheerabala (15 μL/1 ml milk/100 g) + alcohol (4 g/kg). After the experimental period (90 days), the animals were sacrificed and the effect of Ksheerabala (101) was studied on oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, and induction of transcription factor in brain. Results were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: The activities of antioxidant enzymes and reduced glutathione which were decreased in alcohol-treated rats, increased significantly in co-administered groups. The lipid peroxidation products and protein carbonyls which were increased significantly in alcohol-treated rats decreased significantly in co-administered groups. The expression of gamma-glutamyl cysteine synthase decreased significantly in alcohol-treated rats and increased significantly in co-administered groups. The transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) which was up-regulated in alcohol-treated rats was down-regulated in co-administered rats. The histopathology reinforced these results. Conclusion: Ksheerabala (101) attenuates alcohol-induced oxidative stress and down-regulates the expression of NFκB in rat brain. PMID:27313421

  4. A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Wild and Albino Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco)

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoting; Shi, Zechao; Lin, Li; Ouyang, Gang; Zhang, Guirong; Zheng, Huan; Wei, Kaijian; Ji, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Body colours are important and striking features for individual survival and reproductive success, in particular in vertebrates where mating behaviour and mate preference may be strongly influenced by non-normal phenotypes. Pigmentation disorders may be generated by disruption of one or many independent genes as well as by environmental factors. The first discovery of albino yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) with golden skin colour from fish farms in China provides us valuable material to study the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormalities of pigmentation. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of fin tissues corresponding to the distinct body colours, wild type and mutant albino yellow catfish, were performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Based on next-generation sequencing technology and de novo assembly, we generated a transcriptome of P. fulvidraco. A number of genes differentially expressed between the wild types and albinos were identified, suggesting their contribution to the different phenotypes and fitness. However, non-synonymous mutations result from single nucleotide substitutions residing in coding regions may not contribute to such differences. Based on the high-throughput expression data generated for the two different types of P. fulvidraco, we found that alterations of expression pattern may be more common than non-synonymous mutations. The transcriptome of P. fulvidraco will be an invaluable resource for subsequent comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of this economically important fish. PMID:26114548

  5. A Comparative Transcriptome Analysis between Wild and Albino Yellow Catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco).

    PubMed

    Zou, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoting; Shi, Zechao; Lin, Li; Ouyang, Gang; Zhang, Guirong; Zheng, Huan; Wei, Kaijian; Ji, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Body colours are important and striking features for individual survival and reproductive success, in particular in vertebrates where mating behaviour and mate preference may be strongly influenced by non-normal phenotypes. Pigmentation disorders may be generated by disruption of one or many independent genes as well as by environmental factors. The first discovery of albino yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco Richardson) with golden skin colour from fish farms in China provides us valuable material to study the molecular mechanism underlying the abnormalities of pigmentation. In this study, transcriptome sequencing of fin tissues corresponding to the distinct body colours, wild type and mutant albino yellow catfish, were performed using Illumina sequencing technology. Based on next-generation sequencing technology and de novo assembly, we generated a transcriptome of P. fulvidraco. A number of genes differentially expressed between the wild types and albinos were identified, suggesting their contribution to the different phenotypes and fitness. However, non-synonymous mutations result from single nucleotide substitutions residing in coding regions may not contribute to such differences. Based on the high-throughput expression data generated for the two different types of P. fulvidraco, we found that alterations of expression pattern may be more common than non-synonymous mutations. The transcriptome of P. fulvidraco will be an invaluable resource for subsequent comparative genomics and evolutionary analyses of this economically important fish. PMID:26114548

  6. The effect of levosimendan on myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Kiraz, Hasan Ali; Poyraz, Fatih; Kip, Gülay; Erdem, Özlem; Alkan, Metin; Arslan, Mustafa; Özer, Abdullah; Şivgin, Volkan; Çomu, Faruk Metin

    2015-01-01

    Objective Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an important cause of myocardial damage by means of oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to examine the potential cardio protective effects of levosimendan in a diabetic rat model of myocardial I/R injury. Methods A total of 18 streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar Albino rats (55 mg/kg) were randomly divided into three equal groups as follows: the diabetic I/R group (DIR) in which myocardial I/R was induced following left thoracotomy, by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery for 60 min, followed by 2 h of reperfusion; the diabetic I/R levosimendan group (DIRL), which underwent I/R by the same method while taking levosimendan intraperitoneal 12 µg kg−1; and the diabetic control group (DC) which underwent sham operations without tightening of the coronary sutures. As a control group (C), six healthy age-matched Wistar Albino rats underwent sham operations similar to the DC group. Two hours after the operation, the rats were sacrificed and the myocardial tissue samples were examined by light microscopy for evidence of myonecrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration. Results Myonecrosis findings were significantly different among groups (p=0.008). Myonecrosis was more pronounced in the DIR group compared with the C, DC, and DIRL groups (p=0.001, p=0.007 and p=0.037, respectively). Similarly, the degree of inflammatory cell infiltration showed significant difference among groups (p<0.0001). Compared with C, DC, and DIRL groups, the inflammatory cell infiltration was significantly higher among the DIR group (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, and p=0.020, respectively). Also, myocardial tissue edema was significantly different among groups (p=0.006). The light microscopic myocardial tissue edema levels were significantly higher in the DIR group than the C, DC, and DIRL groups (p=0.001, p=0.037, and p=0.014, respectively). Conclusion Taken together, our data indicate that

  7. The Effect of Intravitreal Azithromycin on the Albino Newborn Rabbit Retina

    PubMed Central

    Cam, Duygu; Saatci, Ali Osman; Micili, Serap Cilaker; Ergur, Bekir Ugur; Karabag, Revan Yildirim; Durak, Ismet; Berk, Ayse Tulin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of intravitreal azithromycin on the retina in a newborn rabbit model. Methods: Twelve, two-week old New Zealand albino rabbits were divided into two groups (six in each). The right eyes of six rabbits received 0.75 mg (0.05 mL) azithromycin and the right eyes of the remaining six rabbits 1.5 mg (0.1 mL) azithromycin intravitreally. Left eyes were served as the control and received the same volume of saline. All eyes were enucleated at the third postinjection week. Retinal histology was examined by light microscopy. Apoptosis of the retinal cells was further evaluated by immunohistochemical staining for caspase-3 and in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated biotin-deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling (TUNEL) of DNA fragments. Results: Light microscopy demonstrated no retinal abnormalities in all eyes. However, retinal nuclear DNA fragmentation was evident in both study groups (33.6% with 1.5 mg and 21.4% with 0.75 mg azithromycin) with the TUNEL method. TUNEL staining ratio was statistically higher only in the second group treated with 1.5 mg azithromycin when compared to the control group (p=0.01 Mann Whitney U test). The ratio of caspase-3 positive cells in the two study groups was 21.5% and 20.2%, respectively. Caspase-3 staining ratio was statistically higher in both study groups when compared to the control eyes (p=0.00, p=0.00 respectively). The difference of TUNEL staining ratio between the two study groups was statistically significant (p=0.028), but there were no statistically significant differences in the two study groups by caspase-3 staining (p=0.247). Conclusion: In newborn rabbits, intravitreal azithromycin injection resulted in an apoptotic activity in the photoreceptor, bipolar and ganglion cells. Immunohistochemical analysis suggested that doses of 0.75 mg and 1.5 mg azithromycin, administered intravitreally might be toxic to the newborn rabbit retina. PMID:27014381

  8. Dual Infections with Pigmented and Albino Strains of Cryptococcus neoformans in Patients with or without Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection in India

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Piyali; Banerjee, Uma; Casadevall, Arturo; Nosanchuk, Joshua D.

    2005-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated yeast-like fungus of worldwide distribution. Melanin production is an important virulence factor of C. neoformans. We report the identification of distinct cryptococcal isolates with either pigmented or white colony phenotypes on l-dihydroxyphenylalanine agar plates in three patients who presented with meningitis to the All India Institute of Medical Sciences in India. Two of the patients were also infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Biochemical studies, India ink analysis, immunofluorescence with antibodies specific to capsular antigen, and serotyping confirmed that the melanotic and albino strains were C. neoformans serotypes A and D, respectively. Genotyping with M13 and [GACA]4 primers revealed that all the C. neoformans isolates were genetically different. The CNLAC1 gene associated with melanin production was identified in all the strains by PCR. Standard MIC testing revealed that the strains had similar susceptibilities to amphotericin B, but time-kill assays with the antifungal showed reduced susceptibility in melanin-producing strains. Infection studies with A/Jcr mice showed that the melanin-lacking yeast were less virulent than melanin-producing isolates. These findings indicate that these patients had dual infections with pigmented and albino strains of C. neoformans that were phenotypically and biologically different. Continued surveillance of primary isolates from patients with cryptococcosis by analyzing phenotypic differences and by molecular methods may reveal that mixed infections occur more commonly than is currently realized. PMID:16145139

  9. A novel isolation method for macrophage-like cells from mixed primary cultures of adult rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Kitani, Hiroshi; Takenouchi, Takato; Sato, Mitsuru; Yoshioka, Miyako; Yamanaka, Noriko

    2010-08-31

    We report a simple and efficient method to obtain macrophage-like cells from the mixed primary cultures of adult rat liver cells. A parenchymal hepatocyte enriched fraction was prepared from adult rat livers and seeded into culture flasks. After 7 to 10 days of culture, when most hepatocytes were degenerated or transformed into fibroblastic cells, macrophage-like cells vigorously proliferated on the cell sheet. By shaking the flasks, macrophage-like cells were readily detached. Subsequent transfer and incubation in plastic dishes resulted in quick and selective adhesion of macrophage-like cells, while other contaminating cells remained suspended in the medium. After rinsing with saline, attached macrophage-like cells were harvested with 95 to 99% purity, as evaluated by flow cytometry or immunocytochemistry. These cells showed typical macrophage morphology and were strongly positive for markers of rat macrophages, such as ED-1, ED-3, and OX-41, but negative for cytokeratins and alpha-smooth muscle actin. They possessed functional properties of typical macrophages, including active phagocytosis of latex beads, proliferative response to recombinant GM-CSF, secretion of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines upon stimulation with LPS, and formation of multinucleated giant cells. As more than 10(6) cells can be recovered repeatedly from a T75 culture flask at two to three day intervals for more than two weeks, our procedure might implicate a novel alternative to obtain Kupffer cells in sufficient number and purity without complex equipment and skills. PMID:20600081

  10. A robust method for assessing chemically induced mutagenic effects in the oral cavity of transgenic Big Blue® rats.

    PubMed

    Young, Robert R; Thompson, Chad M; Dinesdurage, Harshini R; Elbekai, Reem H; Suh, Mina; Rohr, Annette C; Proctor, Deborah M

    2015-08-01

    The Big Blue® (BB) in vivo mutation assay uses transgenic rodents to measure treatment-induced mutations in virtually any tissue. The BB assay can be conducted in rats or mice and is ideal for investigating tissue-specific mutagenic mode of action of tumor induction. Some tissues such as oral mucosa have not been thoroughly studied. Due to the small quantity and cartilaginous nature of oral cavity tissues, development of special prosection and DNA isolation methods was required to permit robust analysis of mutations in these tissues. Improved surgical methods permitted collection of adequate and reproducible quantities of tissue (∼45 mg gingiva/buccal and ∼30 mg gingiva/palate). Optimized DNA isolation methods included use of liquid nitrogen pulverization, homogenization, nuclei pelleting, digestion, and phenol/chloroform extraction, to yield sufficient quantities of DNA from these tissues. In preliminary optimization work, mutant frequency (MF) in tongue and gingiva was increased in rats exposed to the promutagen, benzo[a]pyrene, and the direct mutagen, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea. The oral cavity carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO; 10 ppm in drinking water; 28 days), was qualified as a positive control for mutagenesis in oral tissues since it caused significant increases in cII MFs in gingiva/palate (50.2-fold) and gingiva/buccal tissues (21.3-fold), but not in liver or bone marrow (0.9- and 1.4-fold, respectively). These results are consistent with the observation that 4-NQO primarily induces tumors in oral cavity. Results also demonstrate the utility of the BB rat mutation assay and optimized methods for investigation of oral cavity mutagenicity, and by extension, analysis of other small and cartilaginous tissues. PMID:25969955

  11. Therapeutic Effect of Adipose Derived Stem Cells versus Atorvastatin on Amiodarone Induced Lung Injury in Male Rat

    PubMed Central

    Aboul-Fotouh, Gihan Ibrahim; Zickri, Maha Baligh; Metwally, Hala Gabr; Ibrahim, Ihab Refaat; Kamar, Samaa Samir; Sakr, Wael

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Amiodarone (AM), a class 3 antiarrhythmic drug, has been associated with variety of adverse effects, the most serious of which is pulmonary toxicity. Ator (A) is a statin, known for their immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activities. Recent studies provide evidence of potential therapeutic effect of statins on lung injury. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) have shown great promise in the repair of various tissues. The present study aimed at investigating and comparing the possible therapeutic effect of A and ADSCs on AM induced lung injury in albino rats. Methods and Results 34 adult male albino rats were divided into 5 groups: control group (Gp I), A group (Gp II) received 10 mg/kg of A orally 6 days (d)/week (w) for 4 weeks (ws), AM group (Gp III) received 30 mg/kg of AM orally 6 d/w for 4 ws, AM&A group (Gp IV) received AM for 4ws then A for other 4 ws and AM&SCs group (Gp V) received AM for 4 ws then injected with 0.5 ml ADSCs on 2 successive days intravenously (IV). Histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical and morphometric studies were performed. Group III displayed bronchiolitis obliterans, thickened interalveolar septa (IAS) and thickened vascular wall which were proven morphometrically. Increased area% of collagen fibers and apoptotic changes were recorded. All findings regressed on A administration and ADSCs therapy. Conclusion Ator proved a definite ameliorating effect on the degenerative, inflammatory, apoptotic and fibrotic changes induced by AM. ADSCs administration denoted more remarkable therapeutic effect compared to A. PMID:26634065

  12. Determination of rat serum esterase activities by an HPLC method using S-acetylthiocholine iodide and p-nitrophenyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Koitka, Matthias; Höchel, Joachim; Obst, Detlev; Rottmann, Antje; Gieschen, Hille; Borchert, Hans-Hubert

    2008-10-01

    Establishing esterase assays allows the determination and comparison of esteratic activities of tissues of one organism and between organisms. We have developed a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for the determination of S-acetylthiocholine (ATC) and p-nitrophenyl acetate (NPA) hydrolyzing activities of rat serum esterases based on ion pair chromatography with on-line radiochemical and ultraviolet (UV) detection. ATC is a substrate for cholinesterases, whereas NPA is cleaved by a variety of esterases and other proteins (e.g., cholinesterases, paraoxonase, carboxylesterase, albumin). Both substrates were incubated, simultaneously or separately, with rat serum to explore potential interferences between the enzymatic hydrolyses of the compounds. The ratio of the peak area of the (14)C-labeled substrates to the total peak area of the substrates and their corresponding cleavage products was compared with the UV quantitation of ATC and p-nitrophenolate (NP), the cleavage product of NPA, measured at 230 and 350 nm, respectively. The peak identity of ATC and NP was confirmed by electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). The reaction rates of the assays using one substrate or both, as well as using radiochemical or UV detection, were equal. Moreover, the correlation between rat serum volumes and reaction rates was shown for both substrates. In conclusion, one can (i) choose between the two detection methods reliably, (ii) take advantage of monitoring both substrate and product by using radiochemical detection, and (iii) combine both substrates to determine esterase activities in rat serum and probably other biological matrices. PMID:18602882

  13. Selected contribution: ambient temperature for experiments in rats: a new method for determining the zone of thermal neutrality.

    PubMed

    Romanovsky, Andrej A; Ivanov, Andrei I; Shimansky, Yury P

    2002-06-01

    There is a misbelief that the same animal has the same thermoneutral zone (TNZ) in different experimental setups. In reality, TNZ strongly depends on the physical environment and varies widely across setups. Current methods for determining TNZ require elaborate equipment and can be applied only to a limited set of experimental conditions. A new, broadly applicable approach that rapidly determines whether given conditions are neutral for a given animal is needed. Consistent with the definition of TNZ [the range of ambient temperature (T(a)) at which body core temperature (T(c)) regulation is achieved only by control of sensible heat loss], we propose three criteria of thermoneutrality: 1) the presence of high-magnitude fluctuations in skin temperature (T(sk)) of body parts serving as specialized heat exchangers with the environment (e.g., rat tail), 2) the closeness of T(sk) to the median of its operational range, and 3) a strong negative correlation between T(sk) and T(c). Thermocouple thermometry and liquid crystal thermography were performed in five rat strains at 13 T(a). Under the conditions tested (no bedding or filter tops, no group thermoregulation), the T(a) range of 29.5-30.5 degrees C satisfied all three TNZ criteria in Wistar, BDIX, Long-Evans, and Zucker lean rats; Zucker fatty rats had a slightly lower TNZ (28.0-29.0 degrees C). Skin thermometry or thermography is a definition-based, simple, and inexpensive technique to determine whether experimental or housing conditions are neutral, subneutral, or supraneutral for a given animal. PMID:12015388

  14. Analysis of the Albino-Locus Region of the Mouse. I. Origin and Viability

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Liane B.; Russell, W. L.; Kelly, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    Numerous specific-locus experiments designed to test the mutagenic effect of external radiation have yielded, in over 3,600,000 animals observed, altogether 119 presumed mutations involving the c locus. Of these, 55 were viable and albino (cav), 13 were viable and of various intermediate pigment types (cxv), four were subvital (cas and cxs), seven were neonatally lethal albinos (cal), 28 prenatally lethal albinos (cal); 12 died untested. All of the prenatally lethal and at least one of the neonatally lethal c-locus mutations (cal classes) are probably deficiencies that we have analyzed extensively in other experiments. Since absence of the locus mimics albino in phenotype, the intermediates (cxv and cxs groups) probably resulted from intragenic changes. The class of viable albino mutants (cav) might include, in addition to intragenic changes, some extremely small deficiencies.—The effects on viability of c-locus lethals (cal's) in heterozygous condition are not drastic enough to be perceived in stocks of mixed genetic background except in the case of the two longest known deficiencies and a few others.—Analysis of the relation between radiation treatment and type of c-locus mutants obtained shows that the relative frequency of viable mutations, for each germ-cell type, is greater for low-LET than for neutron irradiation; however, the difference for any individual cell type is not significant. The majority (66.7%) of mutations derived from X- or γ-ray irradiated spermatogonia are viable, and the proportion of "intermediates" among these viables is similar to that among presumed spontaneous c-locus mutations. No significant dose-rate effect on the proportion of lethals could be demonstrated within the set of mutants induced by low-LET irradiation of spermatogonia. Although sets from other germ-cell stages are too small for statistical tests, the results for oocytes are similar, as far as they go. Furthermore, most of the c-locus mutations induced in

  15. Proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and distribution of rat bone marrow stromal cells in nonwoven fabrics by different culture methods.

    PubMed

    Ichinohe, Norihisa; Takamoto, Tomoaki; Tabata, Yasuhiko

    2008-01-01

    The proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and distribution patterns of stromal cells from rat bone marrow were investigated in a three-dimensional nonwoven fabric of polyethylene terephthalate fiber by the static, agitated, and stirred culture methods; stirring speeds were 10, 50, and 100 rpm in the stirred culture method. The culture method affected the time profile of proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of cells or their distribution in the fabric. The extent of cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation became higher in order of the stirred at 100 rpm = the stirred at 50 rpm > the stirred at 10 rpm > the agitated > the static methods. In addition, the cells were more uniformly proliferated in the fabric by the stirred culture method with time than they were proliferated in the fabric by other methods. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium content were higher for cells cultured by the stirred culture method than those cultured by other methods. The total ALP activity, calcium content, and bone mineral density were higher for every stirred method than those for other methods. However, the distribution uniformity of cells differentiated was low irrespective of the culture method. It is concluded that the extent of proliferation and differentiation of cells or their distribution uniformity in the nonwoven fabrics was influenced by the culture method. PMID:18333809

  16. A new validated HPLC method for the determination of sulforaphane: application to study pharmacokinetics of sulforaphane in rats.

    PubMed

    Ong, Chau; Elbarbry, Fawzy

    2016-07-01

    A simple, accurate and reproducible high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method has been developed and validated for the quantification of sulforaphane (SF) in rat plasma. The method involves a simple liquid-liquid extraction procedure to extract both SF and 7-hyrdoxycoumarin, the internal standard. The chromatographic analysis was achieved on a Shimadzu LC 20A HPLC system equipped with a Zorbax Eclipse XDB C18 column and an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 10 mm KH2 PO4 (pH 4.5) and acetonitrile HPLC grade (40:60, v/v) run at a flow rate of 1 mL/min for 10 min. The UV detection wavelength was set at 202 nm. The method exhibited good linearity (R(2) > 0.999) over the assayed concentration range (0.05-2 μg/mL) and demonstrated good intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy (relative standard deviations and the deviation from predicted values were <15%). This method was also successfully applied for studying the pharmacokinetics of SF in spontaneously hypertensive rats following single oral dietary doses of SF. The pharmacokinetics of SF show linear behavior at the dose range investigated in this study. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26542340

  17. Distribution of melanopsin positive neurons in pigmented and albino mice: evidence for melanopsin interneurons in the mouse retina

    PubMed Central

    Valiente-Soriano, Francisco J.; García-Ayuso, Diego; Ortín-Martínez, Arturo; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Galindo-Romero, Caridad; Villegas-Pérez, Maria Paz; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Vugler, Anthony A.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Here we have studied the population of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) in adult pigmented and albino mice. Our data show that although pigmented (C57Bl/6) and albino (Swiss) mice have a similar total number of ipRGCs, their distribution is slightly different: while in pigmented mice ipRGCs are more abundant in the temporal retina, in albinos the ipRGCs are more abundant in superior retina. In both strains, ipRGCs are located in the retinal periphery, in the areas of lower Brn3a+RGC density. Both strains also contain displaced ipRGCs (d-ipRGCs) in the inner nuclear layer (INL) that account for 14% of total ipRGCs in pigmented mice and 5% in albinos. Tracing from both superior colliculli shows that 98% (pigmented) and 97% (albino) of the total ipRGCs, become retrogradely labeled, while double immunodetection of melanopsin and Brn3a confirms that few ipRGCs express this transcription factor in mice. Rather surprisingly, application of a retrograde tracer to the optic nerve (ON) labels all ipRGCs, except for a sub-population of the d-ipRGCs (14% in pigmented and 28% in albino, respectively) and melanopsin positive cells residing in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ) of the retina. In the CMZ, between 20% (pigmented) and 24% (albino) of the melanopsin positive cells are unlabeled by the tracer and we suggest that this may be because they fail to send an axon into the ON. As such, this study provides the first evidence for a population of melanopsin interneurons in the mammalian retina. PMID:25477787

  18. A Method for Psychosocial Stress-Induced Reinstatement of Cocaine Seeking in Rats.

    PubMed

    Manvich, Daniel F; Stowe, Taylor A; Godfrey, Jodi R; Weinshenker, David

    2016-06-01

    We describe a novel preclinical model of stress-induced relapse to cocaine use in rats using social defeat stress, an ethologically valid psychosocial stressor in rodents that closely resembles stressors that promote craving and relapse in humans. Rats self-administered cocaine for 20 days. On days 11, 14, 17, and 20, animals were subjected to social defeat stress or a nonstressful control condition following the session, with discrete environmental stimuli signaling the impending event. After extinction training, reinstatement was assessed following re-exposure to these discrete cues. Animals re-exposed to psychosocial stress-predictive cues exhibited increased serum corticosterone and significantly greater reinstatement of cocaine seeking than the control group, and active coping behaviors during social defeat episodes were associated with subsequent reinstatement magnitude. These studies are the first to describe an operant model of psychosocial stress-induced relapse in rodents and lay the foundation for future work investigating its neurobiological underpinnings. PMID:26257242

  19. Different profiles of quercetin metabolites in rat plasma: comparison of two administration methods.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Yoshichika; Saito, Satomi; Nishikawa, Tomomi; Ishisaka, Akari; Murota, Kaeko; Terao, Junji

    2009-03-23

    The bioavailability of polyphenols in human and rodents has been discussed regarding their biological activity. We found different metabolite profiles of quercetin in rat plasma between two administration procedures. A single intragastric administration (50 mg/kg) resulted in the appearance of a variety of metabolites in the plasma, whereas only a major fraction was detected by free access (1% quercetin). The methylated/non-methylated metabolites ratio was much higher in the free access group. Mass spectrometric analyses showed that the fraction from free access contained highly conjugated quercetin metabolites such as sulfo-glucuronides of quercetin and methylquercetin. The metabolite profile of human plasma after an intake of onion was similar to that with intragastric administration in rats. In vitro oxidation of human low-density lipoprotein showed that methylation of the catechol moiety of quercetin significantly attenuated the antioxidative activity. These results might provide information about the bioavailability of quercetin when conducting animal experiments. PMID:19270373

  20. Method for diagnosis and control of aerobic training in rats based on lactate threshold.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Joyce F; Masuda, Masako O; Pompeu, Fernando A M S

    2005-04-01

    We propose a protocol for determination of lactate threshold (LT) and test the validity of one aerobic training based on LT in rats. In group I, V(LTi) (velocity at LT before training) was determined in all rats (n=10), each rat training at its own V(LTi) and in group II, animals (n=7) ran at 15 m min(-1), the mean V(LTi) of group I. The training consisted of daily runs at V(LTi) for 50 min, 5 days/week, for 4 weeks. In group I, this program increased V(LT) (V(LTi) 14.90+/-1.49 m min(-1) and V(LTf), after training, 22.60+/-1.17 m min(-1)) and the velocity at exhaustion (19.50+/-1.63 m min(-1) and 27.60+/-1.17 m min(-1)). [Lactate] at LT (2.62+/-0.43 mmol L(-1) versus 2.11+/-0.15 mmol L(-1)) and relative values of LT (76+/-3% versus 82+/-2%) stayed unaltered. In group II the V(LTf) was 20+/-1.8 m.mim(-1), the [lactate] at the LT, 2.02+/-0.17 mmol.L(-1); the exhaustion speed, 23.57+/-2.11 m.mim(-1) and relative value of LT, 82.71+/-2.29%. There were no significant differences in these parameters between groups I and II. Thus, this protocol based on LT is effective and the mean V(LT) determined in a small number of healthy untrained rats can be used for aerobic training in a larger group of healthy animals of same gender and age. PMID:15936699

  1. Evaluation of Mallotus oppositifolius Methanol Leaf Extract on the Glycaemia and Lipid Peroxidation in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Nwaehujor, C. O.; Ezeigbo, I. I.; Nwinyi, F. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler) Müll. Arg. (Euphorbiaceae) is folklorically used to “treat” diabetic conditions in some parts of Nigeria therefore the study, to investigate the extract of the leaves for activities on hyperglycaemia, lipid peroxidation, and increased cholesterol levels in vivo in alloxan diabetic rats as well as its potential antioxidant activity in vitro. Methods. Albino rats (240–280 g) were given an injection of 120 mg/kg body weight, i.p. of alloxan monohydrate. After 8 days, diabetic animals with elevated fasting blood glucose levels (>9 mmol/L) were considered and selected for the study. Results. Oral treatment with the extract administered every 12 h by gavage at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg of the extract to the test rats, for 14 days, resulted in a significant dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose levels from 12.82 ± 1.02 mmol/dL to 4.92 ± 2.01 mmol/dL at the highest dose of 400 mg/kg compared to the control drug and glibenclamide as well as attendant significant decline in diabetic rats employed in the study. Conclusion. The extract also showed in vitro concentration-dependent antioxidant activity following the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing assays. Findings further suggest the presence of active antidiabetic and antioxidant principles in M. oppositifolius leaves. PMID:24224091

  2. Add-on Effect of Levetiracetam on Cognitive Activity of Carbamazepine and Topiramate Treated Healthy Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gonarkar, Satish; Sanghavi, Dhara; Pandit, Vijaya

    2015-01-01

    Background Many antiseizure drugs are used for non-epileptic indications like bipolar disorder, anxiety, neuropathic pain, prophylaxis of migraine, etc. Cognitive problems are known with many of these agents in epileptic situations but not to that extent in other situations. The antiepileptic Levetiracetam has been shown to improve a range of cognitive abilities. Objective To study the effect of levetiracetam, carbamazepine, topiramate and co-administration of levetiracetam with carbamazepine and topiramate on cognition in healthy rats. Materials and Methods Wistar albino rats of either sex were randomly assigned to 6 groups (n=6). Treatment groups: I - Normal saline; II, III & IV- Levetiracetam (180mg/kg), Carbamazepine (50mg/kg) and Topiramate (20mg/kg) respectively; V & VI- Levetiracetam + Carbamazepine and VI- Levetiracetam + Topiramate respectively orally for 21 days. Morris Water Maze was used to study the spatial learning and memory in rats and the change in Escape transfer latency (ETL) was recorded to see the effect of drugs on it. Data analyzed by ANOVA followed by Dunnett’s post-hoc test. Results Twenty one days drug treatment significantly increased the ETL in rats treated with Topiramate (p=0.0001) and combination of Levetiracetam and Topiramate (p<0.0001) from their baseline values. At the same time, there was significant reduction in the time spent in target quadrant in Topiramate group (p= 0.033) and the combination group of Topiramate + Levetiracetam (p=0.026). No significant change was observed in the other groups when tested for both these parameters. Conclusion Topiramate causes impairment of spatial memory in healthy rats after 21 days exposure and its combination with Levetiracetam could not overcome this cognitive deficit. PMID:26266137

  3. Protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice on testes against carbon tetrachloride intoxication in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pomegranate fruit has been extensively used as a natural medicine in many cultures. The present study was aimed at evaluating the protective effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum) juice against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced oxidative stress and testes injury in adult Wistar rats. Methods Twenty eight Wistar albino male rats were divided equally into 4 groups for the assessment of protective potential of pomegranate juice. Rats of group I (control) received only vehicles and