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Sample records for albizia julibrissin durazz

  1. Genetic fidelity assessment of in vitro-regenerated plants of Albizia julibrissin using SCoT and IRAP fingerprinting

    Treesearch

    Mohammad-Shafie Rahmani; Paula M. Pijut; Naghi Shabanian; Mona Nasri

    2015-01-01

    A protocol was established for callus induction and plant regeneration of Albizia julibrissin Durazz., a multipurpose tree. Calli were induced on hypocotyl explants excised from 10- to 14-d-old in vitro seedlings cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) alone or in...

  2. Protoplast isolation and genetically true-to-type plant regeneration from leaf- and callus-derived protoplasts of Albizia julibrissin

    Treesearch

    Mohammad-Shafie Rahmani; Paula M. Pijut; Naghi Shabanian

    2016-01-01

    Protoplast isolation and subsequent plant regeneration of Albizia julibrissin was achieved from leaf and callus explants. Leaf tissue from 4 to 5-week-old in vitro seedlings was the best source for high-yield protoplast isolation. This approach produced 7.77 × 105 protoplasts (Pp) per gram fresh weight with 94 % viability;...

  3. Saponins from Albizia lebbeck.

    PubMed

    Pal, B C; Achari, B; Yoshikawa, K; Arihara, S

    1995-03-01

    Three main saponins named albiziasaponins A, B, and C were isolated from the barks of Albizia lebbeck. Their structures were established through spectral analyses as acacic acid lactone 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)- beta-D-glucopyranoside, 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-- >6)]- beta-D-glucopyranoside and 3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)- O- [beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside.

  4. Leaf flavonoids of Albizia lebbeck.

    PubMed

    el-Mousallamy, A M

    1998-06-01

    Two new tri-O-glycoside flavonols: kaempferol and quercetin 3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta-glucopyranosyl(1-->6)-beta- galactopyranosides, were identified from the leaves of Albizia lebbeck. Structures were established by conventional methods of analysis and confirmed by ESI-MS, 1H and 13C-NMR spectral analysis.

  5. Fatty acid profile of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman seed oils: Presence of coronaric acid

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this work, the fatty acid profiles of the seed oils of Albizia lebbeck and Albizia saman (Samanea saman) are reported. The oils were analyzed by GC, GC-MS, and NMR. The most prominent fatty acid in both oils is linoleic acid (30-40%), followed by palmitic acid and oleic acid for A. lebbeck and ol...

  6. Soil phosphorus and water effects on growth, nutrient and carbohydrate concentrations, d13C, and nodulation of mimosa (Albizia julibrissin Durz.) on a highly weathered soil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growth and physiological performance of multipurpose tree species can be severely constrained by nutrient shortages such as of phosphorus (P) in highly-weathered soils. Limitations to plant growth are accentuated by seasonal dry periods. We examined P fertilization and irrigation effects on growth...

  7. Fungal pretreatment of albizia chips for enhanced biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Albizia biomass is a forestry waste, and holds a great potential in biogas production by solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD). However, low methane yields from albizia chips were observed due to their recalcitrant structure. In this study, albizia chips were pretreated by Ceriporiopsis subvermisp...

  8. Antimicrobial, Antiparasitic and Cytotoxic Spermine Alkaloids from Albizia schimperiana

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Albizia schimperiana Oliv. (Leguminosae) is a tree distributed in the highland of Kenya, where it is used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of bacterial and parasitic infections, notably pneumonia and malaria, respectively. Bioassay guided isolation of the CH2Cl2–MeOH 1:1/ MeOH-H2O 9:1 (m...

  9. First record of Acizzia jamatonica (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in North America: friend or foe?

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Ulyshen; Douglass Miller

    2007-01-01

    Acizzia jamatonica (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Psyllidae) is reported for the first time in North America. Because the species is thought to feed exclusively on Albizia, it may prove to be an effective biocontrol agent against the invasive Albizia julibrissin Durazzini in the southeastern United States. Because A. julibrissin is also an ornamental plant of...

  10. Dynamic of Plant Composition and Regeneration following Windthrow in a Temperate Beech Forest

    PubMed Central

    Mollaei Darabi, Sakineh; Kooch, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    The effects of soil pedoturbation (i.e., pit and mound microtopography, PM) on development of herbaceous plant species and woody species regeneration were examined in a temperate beech forest (Fagus orientalis Lipsky) in northern Iran. We recorded the vegetation in 20 pairs of disturbed and adjacent undisturbed plots and established a chronosequence of PM ages to study the effect of time since microsite formation on cover percent of herbaceous plants and woody regeneration status. According to our findings, Carex acutiformis L., Sambucus ebulus L., Brachypodium pinnatum L., and Cyclamen coum L. are found only in the PM microsites, whereas the Equisetum ramosissimum L. is recorded only under closed canopy. The coverage percent of Rubus caesius L. increased in PM microsites compared to closed canopy intensively. In addition, Albizia julibrissin Durazz. is detected in PM microsite, whereas the Acer cappadocicum B. and Prunus persica L. species were recorded only under closed canopy. We found significant differences in understory species diversity between different ages of PM, and disturbed and adjacent undisturbed plots. Our study supports that the PM complex will create a mosaic of environmental conditions. This environmental heterogeneity could be responsible for the diversity of herbaceous plant species and regeneration of woody species. PMID:27379260

  11. In vitro antioxidant activities of leaf and root extracts of Albizia antunesiana harms.

    PubMed

    Chipiti, Talent; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Koorbanally, Neil Anthony; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidative activities of the ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaf and root samples of Albizia antunesiana were determined across a series of four in vitro models. The results showed that all the extracts had reducing power (Fe(3+)- Fe2+), DPPH, hydroxyl and nitric oxide radical scavenging abilities. The ethanol root extract had more potent antioxidant power in all the experimental models and possesses a higher total phenol content of 216.6 +/- 6.7 mg/g. The GC-MS analysis of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the roots and leaves indicated that several aromatic phenolic compounds, a coumarin and some common triterpenoids were present in these extracts. Data from this study suggest that the leaves and roots of Albizia antunesiana possessed antioxidative activities that varied depending on the solvents.

  12. First report of Albizia lebbeck dieback caused by Scytalidium dimidiatum in Oman.

    PubMed

    Elshafie, Abdulkadir E; Ba-Omar, Taher

    2002-01-01

    Over 200 Albizia lebbeck trees at Sultan Qaboos University campus wilted and died. The symptoms were dieback of large branches due to infection by Scytalidium dimidiatum. The fungus has also infected Ficus benghalensis, F. carica, F. retusa, Thespesia populnea, Delonix regia and Peltophorum petrocarpum. This is the first report of the fungus in Oman and on A. lebbeck, T. populnea, D. regia and P. petrocarpum. The strain of this fungus has not been found to cause human disease in Oman.

  13. Psychotropic Effects of an Alcoholic Extract from the Leaves of Albizia zygia (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Kukuia, Kennedy Kwami Edem; Adjei, Samuel; Akure, Obed Awintuma; Agbemelo-Tsomafo, Constance; Adu-Poku, Shirley Nyarko; Agyeman-Badu, Kenneth Yaw

    2017-01-01

    Background Albizia zygia is used in Ghanaian traditional medicine for the management of mental disorders. The present study tested the hypothesis that an extract of the leaves of Albizia zygia (AZE) may possess antipsychotic and antidepressant properties. Method The novelty- and apomorphine-induced locomotor and rearing behaviours of AZE in mice were explored in an open-field observational test system. The effects of AZE in apomorphine-induced cage climbing test, extract-induced catalepsy, and haloperidol-induced catalepsy on mice were also investigated. Lastly, the forced swimming and tail suspension tests in mice were employed to screen the possible antidepressant effects of AZE. Results AZE (100–3000 mg/kg) showed signs of central nervous system (CNS) depression under observation, with no lethality, 24 h after treatment in mice. AZE (100–1000 mg/kg) produced a significant decrease in the frequency of novelty- and apomorphine-induced locomotor activities in mice. The extract also significantly decreased the frequency and duration of apomorphine-induced climbing activities in mice. AZE, while failing to produce any cataleptic event in naïve mice, significantly enhanced haloperidol-induced catalepsy at a dose of 1000 mg/kg. However, AZE did not produce any significant antidepressant effects in the test models employed. Conclusion The extract of Albizia zygia exhibited an antipsychotic-like activity in mice. PMID:29234443

  14. Anti-allergic activity of standardized extract of Albizia lebbeck with reference to catechin as a phytomarker.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Pichairajan; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Kumar, Nanjappan Satheesh; Bandyopadhyay, Arun; Fukui, Hiroyuki; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Islam, Nurul

    2010-06-01

    The major groups of phytonutrients found in plants include polyphenols, flavonoids, terpenes, amines, etc., all of which are observed to have potential anti-allergic activity. In this study, we evaluated the anti-allergic activity of the standardized extract of Albizia lebbeck with respect to the catechin, a polyphenolic phytomarker. The percentage of catechin in the ethanolic extract was found to be 14.72 mg/g. We administered Albizia lebbeck (50-300 mg/kg) and 50 mg/kg of catechin to mice to evaluate the mast cell stabilization and estimation of histamine elevation in the plasma. Results support the conclusion that Albizia lebbeck at different concentrations has got potent mast cell stabilizing property and the IC(50) value of Albizia lebbeck was found to be 85 microg/ml. This inhibitory potential of catechin from Albizia lebbeck is perhaps due to modulation of two important effector's functions, histamine release and cytokine expression of antigen -IgE activated mast cells.

  15. New Cytochalasin from Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana, an Endophytic Fungus of Albizia lebbeck.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Nisha; Kushwaha, Manoj; Arora, Divya; Jain, Shreyans; Singamaneni, Venugopal; Sharma, Sonia; Shankar, Ravi; Bhushan, Shashi; Gupta, Prasoon; Jaglan, Sundeep

    2018-03-24

    To explore the potential of Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana an endophytic fungus associated with Albizia lebbeck for pharmaceutically important cytotoxic compounds. One novel cytochalasin, named Jammosporin A (1) and four known analogues (2-5) were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana, harbored from the leaves of medicinal plant Albizia lebbeck. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR data along with MS data and by comparison with literature reports. In preliminary screening the ethyl acetate extract of the fungal culture was tested for the cytotoxic activity against a panel of four cancer cell lines (MOLT-4, A549, MIA PaCa -2 and MDA-MB-231), was found to be active against MOLT-4 with IC 50 value of 10 μg/mL. Owing to the remarkable cytotoxic activity of the extract the isolated compounds (1-5) were evaluated for their cytototoxicity against MOLT-4 cell line by MTT assay. Interestingly, compounds 1-2, 4 and 5 showed considerable cytotoxic potential against the human leukemia cancer cell line (MOLT-4) with IC 50 values of 20.0, 10.0, 8.0 and 6.0 μM, respectively, while compound 3 showed IC 50 value of 25 μM. This is the first report of existence of this class of secondary metabolites in Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana fungus. This study discovered a novel compound, named Jammosporin A, isolated for the first time from Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana, an endophytic fungus of Albizia lebbeck with anticancer activity against MOLT-4 cell line. Rosellinia sanctae-cruciana represents an interesting source of a new compound with bioactive potential as a therapeutic agent against human leukemia cancer cell line (MOLT-4). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Phytofabrication and characterization of monodisperse copper oxide nanoparticles using Albizia lebbeck leaf extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumarai, G.; Gokulpriya, C.; Sudhapriya, R.; Sharmila, G.; Muthukumaran, C.

    2015-12-01

    Simple effective and rapid approach for the green synthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CONPs) using of Albizia lebbeck leaf extract was investigated in this study. Various instrumental techniques were adopted to characterize the synthesized CONPs, viz. UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, EDS and XRD. The synthesized CONPs were found to be spherical in shape and size less than 100 nm. It could be concluded that A. lebbeck leaf extract can be used as a cheap and effective reducing agent for CONPs production in large scale.

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of Albizia lebbeck Benth., an ethnomedicinal plant, in acute and chronic animal models of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Babu, N Prakash; Pandikumar, P; Ignacimuthu, S

    2009-09-07

    Albizia lebbeck Benth. is used both in Indian traditional system and folk medicine to treat several inflammatory pathologies such as asthma, arthritis and burns. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the scientific basis of anti-inflammatory activity of different organic solvent extracts of Albizia lebbeck. The anti-inflammatory activity of Albizia lebbeck was studied using the carrageenan, dextran, cotton pellet and Freund's complete adjuvant induced rat models. The extracts obtained using petroleum ether, chloroform and ethanol were administered at the concentrations of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg body weight. The petroleum ether and ethanol extracts at 400mg/kg, showed maximum inhibition of inflammation induced by carrageenan (petroleum ether-48.6%; ethanol-59.57%), dextran (petroleum ether-45.99%; ethanol-52.93%), cotton pellet (petroleum ether-34.46%; ethanol-53.57%) and Freund's adjuvant (petroleum ether-64.97%; ethanol-68.57%). The marked inhibitory effect on paw edema shows that Albizia lebbeck possesses remarkable anti-inflammatory activity, supporting the folkloric usage of the plant to treat various inflammatory diseases.

  18. Chemical Utilization of Albizia lebbeck Leaves for Developing Protein Concentrates as a Dietary Supplement.

    PubMed

    Khan, Lutful Haque; Varshney, V K

    2017-08-17

    In search of nonconventional sources of protein to combat widespread malnutrition, the possibility of developing a protein concentrate as an alternative dietary supplement from abundantly available yet poorly valorized leaves of Albizia lebbeck (siris) was examined. A process for recovery of leaf protein concentrate (LPC) from these leaves was optimized and applied for isolation of LPCs from lower, middle, and upper canopies of the tree. The optimized conditions (leaves to water 1:9, coagulation at pH 4.0 using 1 N citric acid at 90°C for 11 minutes) afforded LPCs containing protein 37.15%, 37.57%, and 37.76% in 5.99%, 5.97%, and 6.07% yield, respectively. The proximate nutritional composition, pigments, minerals, in vitro digestibility, and antinutritional factors of these LPCs were determined. Analysis of variance of these data revealed no significant difference with respect to canopy. Use of Albizia lebbeck leaves for development of LPC as a food/feed supplement was revealed.

  19. The analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the extract of Albizia lebbeck in animal model.

    PubMed

    Saha, Achinto; Ahmed, Muniruddin

    2009-01-01

    The extract of the bark of Albizia lebbeck Benth. obtained by cold extraction of mixture of equal proportions of petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and methanol was chosen for pharmacological screening. In rat paw edema model induced by carrageenan, the extract at the 400 mg/kg dose level showed 36.68% (p<0.001) inhibition of edema volume at the end of 4h. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the extract at the 200 and 400 mg/kg dose level showed 39.9% and 52.4 % inhibition of writhing, respectively. In radiant heat tail-flick method the crude extract produced 40.74% (p<0.001) and 61.48% (p<0.001) elongation of tail flicking time 30 minutes after oral administration at the 200 and 400 mg/kg dose level, respectively.

  20. New acyclic secondary metabolites from the biologically active fraction of Albizia lebbeck flowers.

    PubMed

    Al-Massarani, Shaza M; El Gamal, Ali A; Abd El Halim, Mohamed F; Al-Said, Mansour S; Abdel-Kader, Maged S; Basudan, Omer A; Alqasoumi, Saleh I

    2017-01-01

    The total extract of Albizia lebbeck flowers was examined in vivo for its possible hepatoprotective activity in comparison with the standard drug silymarin at two doses. The higher dose expressed promising activity especially in reducing the levels of AST, ALT and bilirubin. Fractionation via liquid-liquid partition and reexamination of the fractions revealed that the n -butanol fraction was the best in improving liver biochemical parameters followed by the n -hexane fraction. However, serum lipid parameters were best improved with CHCl 3 fraction. The promising biological activity results initiated an intensive chromatographic purification of A. lebbeck flowers fractions. Two compounds were identified from natural source for the first time, the acyclic farnesyl sesquiterpene glycoside1-O-[6-O- α -l-arabinopyranosyl- β -d-glucopyranoside]-(2 E ,6 E -)-farnesol ( 6 ) and the squalene derivative 2,3-dihydroxy-2,3-dihydrosqualene ( 9 ), in addition to eight compounds reported here for the first time from the genus Albizia ; two benzyl glycosides, benzyl 1-O- β -d-glucopyranoside ( 1 ) and benzyl 6-O- α -l-arabinopyranosyl β -d-glucopyranoside ( 2 ); three acyclic monoterpene glycosides, linalyl β -d-glucopyranoside ( 3 ) and linalyl 6-O- α -l-arabinopyranosyl- β -d-glucopyranoside ( 4 ); (2 E )-3,7-dimethylocta-2,6-dienoate-6-O- α -l arabinopyranosyl- β -d-glucopyranoside ( 5 ), two oligoglycosides, n -hexyl- α -l arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)- β -d-glucopyranoside (creoside) ( 7 ) and n -octyl α -l-arabinopyranosyl-(1 → 6)- β -d-glucopyranoside (rhodiooctanoside) ( 8 ); and ethyl fructofuranoside ( 10 ). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated based on extensive examination of their spectroscopic 1D and 2D-NMR, MS, UV, and IR data. It is worth mentioning that, some of the isolated linalol glycoside derivatives were reported as aroma precursors.

  1. A new species of Bruchidius (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) from Albizia in Northern Thailand and a review of Bruchidius group 5.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Midori

    2008-04-01

    A new species, Bruchidius paicus (Insecta, Coleoptera) reared from the seeds of a leguminous tree, Albizia lebbeck (Fabaceae: Mimosoideae: Ingeae), is described from Northern Thailand. Inspection of genital and external morphological traits of B. paicus revealed that the new species belongs to Bruchidius Group 5 (sensu ). The definition of Group 5 is reviewed based on both external and genital morphology. Further comparison of the group to molecular Clade I of Bruchidius (sensu ) indicates the two groups correspond to each other.

  2. Effect of Saponins of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth bark on the reproductive system of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R S; Chaudhary, Rakesh; Yadav, Rajesh K; Verma, Suresh K; Dobhal, M P

    2005-01-04

    Oral administration of saponins isolated from Albizia lebbeck bark at the dose level of 50 mg/kg/b.w. per day for 60 days to male rats brought about a significant decrease in the weights of testes, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate. The production of round spermatid was reduced by 73.04% in Albizia lebbeck treated rats. The population of preleptotene spermatocytes and spermatogonia were reduced by 65.07% and 47.48% and secondary spermatocytes by 73.41%, respectively. Cross sectional surface area of Sertoli cells as well as the cell counts were found to be depleted significantly. Leydig cell nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 57.47% and 54.42%, respectively. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly. Albizia lebbeck reduced the fertility of male rats by 100%. There were no significant changes in RBC and WBC count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and glucose in the blood and cholesterol, protein, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum. The protein, glycogen and cholesterol contents of the testes, fructose in the seminal vesicle and protein in epididymides were significantly decreased. Histoarchitecture of the testes showed vacuolization at primary spermatocytes stage. Highly reduced seminiferous tubular diameter and increased intertubular space were also observed when compared to controls.

  3. Gene flow among established Puerto Rican populations of the exotic tree species, Albizia lebbeck.

    PubMed

    Dunphy, B K; Hamrick, J L

    2005-04-01

    We estimate gene flow and patterns of genetic diversity in Albizia lebbeck, an invasive leguminous tree in the dry forest of southwestern Puerto Rico. Genetic diversity estimates calculated for 10 populations of 24 trees each indicated that these populations may have been formed from multiple introductions. The presence of unique genotypes in the northernmost populations suggests that novel genotypes are still immigrating into the area. This combination of individuals from disparate locations led to high estimates of genetic diversity (He = 0.266, P = 0.67). Indirect estimates of gene flow indicate that only 0.69 migrants per generation move between populations, suggesting that genetic diversity within populations should decrease due to genetic drift. Since migration-drift equilibrium was not found, however, this estimate needs to be viewed with caution. The regular production of pods in this outcrossing species (tm = 0.979) indicates that sufficient outcross pollen is received to insure successful reproduction. Direct estimates of gene flow indicate that between 44 and 100% of pollen received by trees in four small stands of trees (n < 11) was foreign. The role of gene flow in facilitating the spread of this invasive plant species is discussed.

  4. The contribution of endophytic bacteria to Albizia lebbeck-mediated phytoremediation of tannery effluent contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Muthu; Kannan, Vijayaraghavan; Mendoza, Ordetta Hannah; Kanimozhi, Mahalingam; Chun, Sechul; Pašić, Lejla

    2016-01-01

    Toxicity of chromium often impairs the remediation capacity of plants used in phytoremediation of polluted soils. In this study, we have identified Albizia lebbeck as a prospective chromium hyperaccumulator and examined cultivable diversity of endophytes present in chromium-treated and control saplings. High numbers (22-100%) of endophytic bacteria, isolated from root, stem, and leaf tissues, could tolerate elevated (1-3 mM) concentrations of K2CrO7. 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic analysis showed that the 118 isolates obtained comprised of 17 operational taxonomic units affiliated with the proteobacterial genera Rhizobium (18%), Marinomonas (1%), Pseudomonas (16%), and Xanthomonas (7%) but also with members of Firmicutes genera, such as Bacillus (35%) and Salinococcus (3%). The novel isolates belonging to Salinococcus and Bacillus could tolerate high K2CrO7 concentrations (3 mM) and also showed elevated activity of chromate reductase. In addition, majority (%) of the endophytic isolates also showed production of indole-3-acetic acid. Taken together, our results indicate that the innate endophytic bacterial community assists plants in reducing heavy metal toxicity.

  5. Antispermatogenic, antiandrogenic activities of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth bark extract in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R S; Kachhawa, J B S; Chaudhary, R

    2006-03-01

    Methanolic extract of Albizia lebbeck bark when administered orally at the dose level of 100 mg/rat/day to male rats of proven fertility for 60 days did not cause any significant loss in their body weights but the weights of reproductive organs, i.e. testis, epididymides, seminal vesicle and ventral prostate were decreased in a significant manner when compared to controls. Sperm motility as well as sperm density were reduced significantly which resulted in reduction of male fertility by 100%. Marked decline in the germ cell population was noticed. Population of preleptotene, pachytene, secondary spermatocytes and step-19 spermatid were declined by 60.86%, 65.81%, 71.56% and 66.55%, respectively. Cross-sectional surface area of sertoli cells as well as the cells counts were found to be depleted significantly. Leydig cells nuclear area and number of mature Leydig cells were decreased by 60.03% and 51.56%, respectively. Serum testosterone levels showed significant reduction after A. lebbeck extract feeding. Oral administration of the extract did not affect red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) count, haemoglobin, haematocrit and glucose in the blood and cholesterol, protein, triglyceride and phospholipid in the serum. In conclusion, A. lebbeck bark extract administration arrests spermatogenesis in male rats without noticeable side effects.

  6. Characterization and in vitro antioxidant activity of Albizia stipulata Boiv. gum exudates.

    PubMed

    Thanzami, K; Malsawmtluangi, C; Lalhlenmawia, H; Seelan, T Veenus; Palanisamy, Selvamani; Kandasamy, Ruckmani; Pachuau, Lalduhsanga

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the present study is to characterize the physicochemical properties and to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity of Albizia stipulata Boiv. gum exudates collected from Northeast India. The total carbohydrate, uronic acid and protein contents, monosaccharide composition and the molecular weight distribution of the purified gum was determined. The powder flow property and preliminary compressibility test were performed on the dried gum exudates. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study was performed to analyze the functional groups present in the structure. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetry (TGA/DTA) analyses were performed to study the thermal stability of the gum. The antioxidant properties of the gum were evaluated by determining 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl scavenging activities and reducing power. The total carbohydrate and protein contents of the gum were found to be 75.17±3.21% and 2.60±1.05% respectively. The viscosity of 2% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited non-Newtonian type of flow showing pH dependent swelling. Arabinose and galactose were found to be the main monosaccharides present in the gum exudates and the molecular weight distribution of the gum was also found to be polydispersed. Results from DPPH, hydroxyl scavenging and reducing power studies showed the gum possesses antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of Budmunchiamine - A isolated from Albizia amara.

    PubMed

    Thippeswamy, Sreerangegowda; Mohana, Devihalli Chikkaiah; Abhishek, Rayasandra Umesh; Manjunath, Kiragandur

    2015-03-01

    The present investigations were aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacies of budmunchiamine-A (BUA) of Albizia amara . The activity-guided isolation leaded to isolate the bioactive compound budmunchiamine-A from alkaloid extract of A. amara . The budmunchiamine-A showed significant broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with zone of inhibition (ZOI), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) values varied from 7.3 to 24.5 mm, 0.95 to 62.5 μg/mL, and 1.9 to 250 μg/mL, respectively. The budmunchiamine-A exhibited moderate antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC 50 ) value of 400 μg/mL in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and percent inhibition of β-carotene/linoleic acid was 67.8%. The results suggest the possible use of budmunchiamine-A as a molecular entity for drug development in pharmaceutical industry.

  8. Evaluation of some pharmacological activities of Budmunchiamine - A isolated from Albizia amara

    PubMed Central

    Thippeswamy, Sreerangegowda; Mohana, Devihalli Chikkaiah; Abhishek, Rayasandra Umesh; Manjunath, Kiragandur

    2015-01-01

    The present investigations were aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant efficacies of budmunchiamine-A (BUA) of Albizia amara . The activity-guided isolation leaded to isolate the bioactive compound budmunchiamine-A from alkaloid extract of A. amara . The budmunchiamine-A showed significant broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity with zone of inhibition (ZOI), minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC) values varied from 7.3 to 24.5 mm, 0.95 to 62.5 μg/mL, and 1.9 to 250 μg/mL, respectively. The budmunchiamine-A exhibited moderate antioxidant activity with inhibitory concentration 50% (IC 50 ) value of 400 μg/mL in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and percent inhibition of β-carotene/linoleic acid was 67.8%. The results suggest the possible use of budmunchiamine-A as a molecular entity for drug development in pharmaceutical industry. PMID:26221099

  9. Analgesic, antibacterial and central nervous system depressant activities of Albizia procera leaves

    PubMed Central

    Khatoon, Mst. Mahfuza; Khatun, Mst. Hajera; Islam, Md. Ekramul; Parvin, Mst. Shahnaj

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ascertain analgesic, antibacterial and central nervous system (CNS) depressant activities of ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride fractions of methanol extract of Albizia procera (A. procera) leaves. Methods Leaves extracts of A. procera were tested for analgesic activity by acetic acid induced and formalin test method in mice. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed by agar well diffusion method. CNS depressant activity was evaluated by hole cross and open field tests. Results All the extracts at 200 mg/kg exhibited significant (P<0.01) analgesic activity in acetic acid induced and formalin tests method in mice. Analgesic activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was almost same like as standard drug indomethacin in acetic acid induced method. The CNS depressant activity of the extracts at 500 mg/kg was comparable to the positive control diazepam as determined by hole cross and open field test method. The extracts exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Esherichia coli, Shigella soneii, Shigella boydii) at concentration of 0.8 mg/disc. The measured diameter of zone of inhibition for the extracts was within the range of 7 to 12 mm which was less than the standard kanamycin (16-24 mm). Conclusions It is concluded that all the extracts possess potential analgesic and CNS depressants activity. This study also showed that different fractions of methanol extract could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents. PMID:25182551

  10. Analgesic, antibacterial and central nervous system depressant activities of Albizia procera leaves.

    PubMed

    Khatoon, Mst Mahfuza; Khatun, Mst Hajera; Islam, Md Ekramul; Parvin, Mst Shahnaj

    2014-04-01

    To ascertain analgesic, antibacterial and central nervous system (CNS) depressant activities of ethyl acetate, dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride fractions of methanol extract of Albizia procera (A. procera) leaves. Leaves extracts of A. procera were tested for analgesic activity by acetic acid induced and formalin test method in mice. The in vitro antibacterial activity was performed by agar well diffusion method. CNS depressant activity was evaluated by hole cross and open field tests. All the extracts at 200 mg/kg exhibited significant (P<0.01) analgesic activity in acetic acid induced and formalin tests method in mice. Analgesic activity of the ethyl acetate fraction was almost same like as standard drug indomethacin in acetic acid induced method. The CNS depressant activity of the extracts at 500 mg/kg was comparable to the positive control diazepam as determined by hole cross and open field test method. The extracts exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Esherichia coli, Shigella soneii, Shigella boydii) at concentration of 0.8 mg/disc. The measured diameter of zone of inhibition for the extracts was within the range of 7 to 12 mm which was less than the standard kanamycin (16-24 mm). It is concluded that all the extracts possess potential analgesic and CNS depressants activity. This study also showed that different fractions of methanol extract could be potential sources of new antimicrobial agents.

  11. Myricitrin and bioactive extract of Albizia amara leaves: DNA protection and modulation of fertility and antioxidant-related genes expression.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Mona El Said; Ibrahim, Lamya Fawzy; Hussein, Sameh Reda; El-Sharawy, Reham; El-Ansari, Mohamed Amin; Hassanane, Mahrousa Mohamed; Booles, Hoda Fahime

    2016-11-01

    Albizia species are reported to exhibit many biological activities including antiovulatory properties in female rats and antispermatogenic and antiandrogenic activities in male rats. The present study investigates the flavonoids of Albizia amara (Roxb.) B. Boivin (Fabaceae) leaves and evaluates their activity on gene expression of fertility and antioxidant glutathione-S-transferase-related genes of treated female mice in addition to their effect on DNA damage. Plant materials were extracted by using 70% methanol for 48 h, the extract was chromatographed on a polyamide 6S column, each isolated compound was purified by using Sephadex LH-20 column; its structure was elucidated by chemical and spectral methods. Both the leaves extract and myricitrin (200, 30 mg/kg bw/d, respectively) were assayed for their effect on DNA damage in female mice after four weeks treatment using Comet assay. Their modulatory activity on gene expression of fertility (aromatase CYP19 and luteinizing hormone LH) and antioxidant glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-related genes of treated female mice were investigated by real-time PCR (qPCR). Quercetin-3-O-gentiobioside, myricitrin, quercetin-3-O-α-rhamnopyranoside, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol were isolated and identified from the studied taxa. Myricitrin and the extract induced low rate of DNA damage (4.8% and 5%, respectively), compared with the untreated control (4.2%) and significantly down-regulated the expression of CYP19 and LH genes and up-regulated GST gene. Our results highlight the potential effect of the leaves extract of Albizia amara and myricitrin as fertility-regulating phytoconstituents with ability to protect DNA from damage and cells from oxidative stress.

  12. Antimalarial efficacy of Albizia lebbeck (Leguminosae) against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro & P. berghei in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Kalia, Shagun; Walter, Neha Sylvia; Bagai, Upma

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Albizia lebbeck Benth. (Leguminosae) has long been used in Indian traditional medicine. The current study was designed to test antimalarial activity of ethanolic bark extract of A. lebbeck (EBEAL). Methods: EBEAL was prepared by soxhlet extraction and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The extract was evaluated for its in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) sensitive (MRC2) and CQ resistant (RKL9) strains. Cytotoxicity (CC50) of extract against HeLa cells was evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD50) was determined to assess safety of EBEAL in BALB/c mice. Schizonticidal (100-1000 mg/kg) and preventive (100-750 mg/kg) activities of EBEAL were evaluated against P. berghei. Curative activity (100-750 mg/kg) of extract was also evaluated. Results: Phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, terpenes and phytosterols. The extract exhibited IC50 of 8.2 μg/ml (MRC2) and 5.1 μg/ml (RKL9). CC50 of extract on HeLa cell line was calculated to be >1000 μg/ml. EBEAL showed selectivity indices (SI) of >121.9 and >196.07 against MRC2 and RKL9 strains of P. falciparum, respectively. LD50 of EBEAL was observed to be >5 g/kg. Dose-dependent chemosuppression was observed with significant (P<0.001) schizonticidal activity at 1000 mg/kg with ED50 >100 mg/kg. Significant (P<0.001) curative and repository activities were exhibited by 750 mg/kg concentration of extract on D7. Interpretation & conclusions: The present investigation reports antiplasmodial efficacy of EBEAL in vitro against P. falciparum as evident by high SI values. ED50 of <100 mg/kg against P. berghei categorizes EBEAL as active antimalarial. Further studies need to be done to exploit its antiplasmodial activity further. PMID:26905234

  13. Investigation of antibacterial activities of Albizia gummifera and Ferula communis on Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptoccus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Unasho, Abayneh; Geyid, Aberra; Melaku, Abebe; Debela, Asfaw; Mekasha, Amha; Girma, Samson; Kebede, Tesfaye; Fantaw, Surafael; Asaminew, Nega; Mamo, Kidanemariam

    2009-01-01

    Respiratory Tract infections continue to be a major cause of morbidity and mortality world wide. There is a failure to treat respiratory infections due to the emergence of antibiotic resistant strains among the most common respiratory pathogens. To evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of two traditionally used plants: Albizia gummifera (Ambabesa-Muka, Oromifa, Sessa-Amharic.) and Ferula communis (Doge-Oromifa, Dog-Amharic) against clinical isolates of S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae. The study involving the antibacterial susceptibility test of traditionally used plant species against Gram-positive bacterial pathogens was conducted over a period of 5 months (January - August, 2004) at the Ethiopian Health, and Nutrition Research Institute. The in vitro antibacterial activities of 80% methanol crude extracts prepared from the seeds of Ablizia gummifera and, roots of Ferula communis as well as their respective hydro alcoholic solvent fractionates of both plant species were tested for inhibitory activity against the clinical isolates of six S. pneumonae and twenty two S. pyogenes using agar dilution method. Eighty percent ethanol solubilized fractions of both plants were found to have antibacterial effects to all assayed bacteria while aqueous solubilized fractions did not exhibit any effect. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the 80% ethanol solubilized fractions was determined and the MIC of the fractions ranged from 500 mg/ ml to 1000 mg/ml for both plants showing the extracts may contain bioactive compounds of therapeutic interest. All extracts showed antibacterial activities against clinical isolates of S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae. The extracts may contain compounds with potential therapeutic activity. Further purification and identification are needed to be tested using animal models.

  14. Antimalarial efficacy of Albizia lebbeck (Leguminosae) against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro & P. berghei in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kalia, Shagun; Walter, Neha Sylvia; Bagai, Upma

    2015-12-01

    Albizia lebbeck Benth. (Leguminosae) has long been used in Indian traditional medicine. The current study was designed to test antimalarial activity of ethanolic bark extract of A. lebbeck (EBEAL). EBEAL was prepared by soxhlet extraction and subjected to phytochemical analysis. The extract was evaluated for its in vitro antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine (CQ) sensitive (MRC2) and CQ resistant (RKL9) strains. Cytotoxicity (CC 50 ) of extract against HeLa cells was evaluated. Median lethal dose (LD 50 ) was determined to assess safety of EBEAL in BALB/c mice. Schizonticidal (100-1000 mg/kg) and preventive (100-750 mg/kg) activities of EBEAL were evaluated against P. berghei. Curative activity (100-750 mg/kg) of extract was also evaluated. Phytochemical screening revealed presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, saponins, terpenes and phytosterols. The extract exhibited IC 50 of 8.2 µg/ml (MRC2) and 5.1 µg/ml (RKL9). CC 50 of extract on HeLa cell line was calculated to be >1000 µg/ml. EBEAL showed selectivity indices (SI) of >121.9 and >196.07 against MRC2 and RKL9 strains of P. falciparum, respectively. LD 50 of EBEAL was observed to be >5 g/kg. Dose-dependent chemosuppression was observed with significant ( p<0.001) schizonticidal activity at 1000 mg/kg with ED 50 >100 mg/kg. Significant (P<0.001) curative and repository activities were exhibited by 750 mg/kg concentration of extract on D7. The present investigation reports antiplasmodial efficacy of EBEAL in vitro against P. falciparum as evident by high SI values. ED 50 of <100 mg/kg against P. berghei categorizes EBEAL as active antimalarial. Further studies need to be done to exploit its antiplasmodial activity further.

  15. Albizia lebbeck Seed Coat Proteins Bind to Chitin and Act as a Defense against Cowpea Weevil Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Silva, Nadia C M; De Sá, Leonardo F R; Oliveira, Eduardo A G; Costa, Monique N; Ferreira, Andre T S; Perales, Jonas; Fernandes, Kátia V S; Xavier-Filho, Jose; Oliveira, Antonia E A

    2016-05-11

    The seed coat is an external tissue that participates in defense against insects. In some nonhost seeds, including Albizia lebbeck, the insect Callosobruchus maculatus dies during seed coat penetration. We investigated the toxicity of A. lebbeck seed coat proteins to C. maculatus. A chitin-binding protein fraction was isolated from seed coat, and mass spectrometry showed similarity to a C1 cysteine protease. By ELM program an N-glycosylation interaction motif was identified in this protein, and by molecular docking the potential to interact with N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) was shown. The chitin-binding protein fraction was toxic to C. maculatus and was present in larval midgut and feces but not able to hydrolyze larval gut proteins. It did not interfere, though, with the intestinal cell permeability. These results indicate that the toxicity mechanism of this seed coat fraction may be related to its binding to chitin, present in the larvae gut, disturbing nutrient absorption.

  16. New Cytotoxic Triterpenoid Saponins from the Roots of Albizia gummifera (J.F.Gmel.) C.A.Sm.

    PubMed

    Simo, Line Made; Noté, Olivier Placide; Mbing, Joséphine Ngo; Aouazou, Sarah Ali; Guillaume, Dominique; Muller, Christian Dominique; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Lobstein, Annelise

    2017-10-01

    As part of our search for new bioactive saponins from Cameroonian medicinal plants, two new oleanane-type saponins, named gummiferaosides D and E (1 and 2), along with one known saponin, julibroside J 8 (3), were isolated from the roots of Albizia gummifera. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR ( 1 H- and 13 C-NMR, DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, HSQC-TOCSY, and HMBC) and HR-ESI-MS studies, and by chemical evidence. The apoptotic effect of saponins 1 - 3 was evaluated on the A431 human epidermoid cancer cell. Flow cytometric analyses showed that saponins 1 - 3 induced apoptosis of human epidermoid cancer cell (A431) in a dose-dependent manner. © 2017 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  17. Lebbeckoside C, a new triterpenoid saponin from the stem barks of Albizia lebbeck inhibits the growth of human glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Noté, Olivier Placide; Ngo Mbing, Joséphine; Kilhoffer, Marie-Claude; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Lobstein, Annelise

    2018-02-19

    One new acacic acid-type saponin, named lebbeckoside C (1), was isolated from the stem barks of Albizia lebbeck. Its structure was established on the basis of extensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR ( 1 H, 13 C NMR, DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC and HMBC) experiments, HRESIMS studies, and by chemical evidence as 3-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(l→2)-β-d-fucopyranosyl-(1→6)-[β-d-glucopyranosyl(1→2)]-β-d-glucopyranosyl]-21-O-{(2E,6S)-6-O-{4-O-[(2E,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(β-d-quinovopyranosyl)octa-2,7-dienoyl]-4-O-[(2E,6S)-2,6-dimethyl-6-O-(β-d-quinovopyranosyl)octa-2,7-dienoyl]-β-d-quinovopyranosyl}-2,6-dimethylocta-2,7-dienoyl}acacic acid 28 O-[β-d-quinovopyranosyl-(l→3)-[α-l-arabinofuranosyl-(l→4)]-α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(l→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl] ester. The isolated saponin (1) displayed significant cytotoxic activity against the human glioblastoma cell line U-87 MG and TG1 stem-like glioma cells isolated from a patient tumor with IC 50 values of 1.69 and 1.44 μM, respectively.

  18. Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Profile of Diospyros mespiliformis, Albizia lebbeck, and Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Oils from Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adewuyi, Adewale; Oderinde, Rotimi Ayodele

    2014-01-01

    The screening of lesser-known underutilized seeds as source of food has been a way of finding solution to food insecurity in developing nations. In this regard, oil as a class of food was extracted from the seeds of Diospyros mespiliformis  (4.72 ± 0.2%), Albizia lebbeck  (6.40 ± 0.60%), and Caesalpinia pulcherrima  (7.2 ± 0.30%). The oils were finally analyzed for their fatty acid composition, lipid classes, fatty acid distribution in the lipid fractions, and molecular speciation of the triacylglycerols, glycolipids, and phospholipids. The fatty acid composition of the oils varied with C18:2 fatty acid being the most dominant in the oils. Neutral lipids were the most abundant lipid class found in the oils while molecular species of the triacylglycerol with equivalent carbon chain number C40 was majorly present in the oils of Diospyros mespiliformis and Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The present study presents lesser-known underutilized seeds as possible sources of food.

  19. Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Profile of Diospyros mespiliformis, Albizia lebbeck, and Caesalpinia pulcherrima Seed Oils from Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oderinde, Rotimi Ayodele

    2014-01-01

    The screening of lesser-known underutilized seeds as source of food has been a way of finding solution to food insecurity in developing nations. In this regard, oil as a class of food was extracted from the seeds of Diospyros mespiliformis  (4.72 ± 0.2%), Albizia lebbeck  (6.40 ± 0.60%), and Caesalpinia pulcherrima  (7.2 ± 0.30%). The oils were finally analyzed for their fatty acid composition, lipid classes, fatty acid distribution in the lipid fractions, and molecular speciation of the triacylglycerols, glycolipids, and phospholipids. The fatty acid composition of the oils varied with C18:2 fatty acid being the most dominant in the oils. Neutral lipids were the most abundant lipid class found in the oils while molecular species of the triacylglycerol with equivalent carbon chain number C40 was majorly present in the oils of Diospyros mespiliformis and Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The present study presents lesser-known underutilized seeds as possible sources of food. PMID:26904625

  20. Formulation and optimization of pH sensitive drug releasing O/W emulsions using Albizia lebbeck L. seed polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Varma, Chekuri Ashok Kumar; Jayaram Kumar, K

    2018-04-30

    Smart polymers, one of the class of polymers with extensive growth in the last few decades due to their wide applications in drug targeting and controlled delivery systems. With this in mind, the aim of the present study is to design and formulate smart releasing o/w emulsion by using Albizia lebbeck L. seed polysaccharide (ALPS). For this purpose, the physicochemical and drug release characteristics like emulsion capacity (EC), emulsion stability (ES), viscosity, microscopy, zeta potential, polydispersity index (PDI) and in-vitro drug release were performed. The EC and ES values were found to increase with an increased concentration of ALPS. The emulsion formulations were statistically designed by using 3 2 full factorial design. All the emulsions showed a shear-thinning behavior. The zeta potential and polydispersity index were found to be in the range of -35.83 mV to -19.00 mV and 0.232-1.000 respectively. Further, the percent cumulative drug release of the emulsions at 8 h was found to be in the range of 30.19-82.65%. The drug release profile exhibited zero order release kinetics. In conclusion, the ALPS can be used as a natural emulsifier and smart polymer for the preparation of pH sensitive emulsions in drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Flos Albiziae aqueous extract and its active constituent quercetin potentiate the hypnotic effect of pentobarbital via the serotonergic system

    PubMed Central

    YE, MENG-FEI; LIU, ZHENG; LOU, SHU-FANG; CHEN, ZHEN-YONG; YU, AI-YUE; LIU, CHUN-YAN; YU, CHAO-YANG; ZHANG, HUA-FANG; ZHANG, JIAN

    2015-01-01

    Flos albiziae (FA) is reportedly used for treatment of insomnia and anxiety in traditional medicine. The hypnotic effect of an extract of FA (FAE) and its constituent quercetin [2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-3,5,7-trihydroxy-4H-chromen-4-one, QR] was examined in mice. QR is a widely distributed natural flavonoid abundant in FA flowers and other tissues. The possible mechanisms underlying the hypnotic effects of FAE and QR were investigated using behavioral pharmacology. FAE and QR significantly potentiated pentobarbital-induced [50 mg/kg, intraperitoneal (ip)] sleep (prolonged sleeping time; shortened sleep latency) in a dose-dependent manner, and these effects were augmented by administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a precursor of 5-hydroxytryptamine. With a sub-hypnotic dose of pentobarbital (28 mg/kg, ip), FAE and QR significantly increased the rate of sleep onset and were synergistic with 5-HTP (2.5 mg/kg, ip). Pretreatment with p-chlorophenylalanine, an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase, significantly decreased sleeping time and prolonged sleep latency in pentobarbital-treated mice, whereas FAE and QR significantly reversed this effect. Data show that FAE and QR have hypnotic activity, possibly mediated by the serotonergic system. The present study offers a rationale for the use of FA in treating sleep disorders associated with serotonin system dysfunction. PMID:26623026

  2. A novel β-lactam derivative, albactam from the flowers of Albizia lebbeck with platelets anti-aggregatory activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    El-Gamal, Ali Ali; Abd-El-Halim, Mohamed Farag; Kalil, Ashraf Taha; Basudan, Omer Ahmed; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan; Ahmad, Mohamed Shamim; El-Tahir, Kamal Hussin; Al-Massarani, Shaza Mohamed; Abdel-Mageed, Wael Moustafa

    2015-03-01

    A novel β-lactam derivative, albactam, was isolated from the alcoholic extract of the flowers of Albizia lebbeck. It showed a significant anti-aggregatory activity against adenosine diphosphate and arachidonic acid induced guinea-pigs' platelets aggregation in vitro. Six more known compounds were also isolated and fully characterized by measuring 1D and 2D NMR, two of them are the triterpenes β-amyrin and 11α, 12α-oxidotaraxerol, two ceramide derivatives and two flavonoids, kampferol 3-O-rutinoside and rutin.

  3. Albizia lebbeck suppresses histamine signaling by the inhibition of histamine H1 receptor and histidine decarboxylase gene transcriptions.

    PubMed

    Nurul, Islam Mohammed; Mizuguchi, Hiroyuki; Shahriar, Masum; Venkatesh, Pichairajan; Maeyama, Kazutaka; Mukherjee, Pulok K; Hattori, Masashi; Choudhuri, Mohamed Sahabuddin Kabir; Takeda, Noriaki; Fukui, Hiroyuki

    2011-11-01

    Histamine plays major roles in allergic diseases and its action is mediated mainly by histamine H(1) receptor (H1R). We have demonstrated that histamine signaling-related H1R and histidine decarboxylase (HDC) genes are allergic diseases sensitive genes and their expression level affects severity of the allergic symptoms. Therefore, compounds that suppress histamine signaling should be promising candidates as anti-allergic drugs. Here, we investigated the effect of the extract from the bark of Albizia lebbeck (AL), one of the ingredients of Ayruvedic medicines, on H1R and HDC gene expression using toluene-2,4-diisocyanate (TDI) sensitized allergy model rats and HeLa cells expressing endogenous H1R. Administration of the AL extract significantly decreased the numbers of sneezing and nasal rubbing. Pretreatment with the AL extract suppressed TDI-induced H1R and HDC mRNA elevations as well as [(3)H]mepyramine binding, HDC activity, and histamine content in the nasal mucosa. AL extract also suppressed TDI-induced up-regulation of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 mRNA. In HeLa cells, AL extract suppressed phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate- or histamine-induced up-regulation of H1R mRNA. Our data suggest that AL alleviated nasal symptoms by inhibiting histamine signaling in TDI-sensitized rats through suppression of H1R and HDC gene transcriptions. Suppression of Th2-cytokine signaling by AL also suggests that it could affect the histamine-cytokine network. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of Albizia lebbeck Saponin and Its Fractions on In Vitro Gas Production Kinetics, Rumen Methanogenesis, and Rumen Fermentation Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Sunil Kumar; Goel, Navneet; Singh, Nasib

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crude seed powder (CSP) and gross saponins extract (GSE) of seeds of Albizia lebbeck on antimicrobial activity by taking two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi) bacteria, and two fungi species (Aspergillus niger and Candida butyric) were taken at 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 µg levels using agar well diffusion method. Zone of inhibition was increased with increasing of concentration of CSP and saponins which indicates that Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli), Gram-positive bacteria (B. cereus), and A. niger were significantly susceptible to inhibition. Another experiment was conducted to study the effect of GSE and saponins fraction A and B of A. lebbeck supplementation at 6% on DM basis on methane production and other rumen fermentation parameters using in vitro gas production test, by taking three different type diets, that is, high fiber diet (D1, 60R : 40C), medium fiber diet (D2, 50R : 50C), and low fiber diet (D3, 40R : 60C). Significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase was seen in IVDMD, methane production; however ammonia nitrogen concentration decreased as compared to control. The methane production was reduced in a range between 12 and 49% by saponin supplemented diets except in case of GSE in D2. Sap A showed the highest methane reduction per 200 mg of truly digested substrate (TDS) than other treatment groups. Results in relation with quantification of methanogens and protozoa by qPCR indicated the decreasing trend with saponins of A. lebbek in comparison with control except total methanogen quantified using mcr-A based primer.

  5. Influence of Albizia lebbeck Saponin and Its Fractions on In Vitro Gas Production Kinetics, Rumen Methanogenesis, and Rumen Fermentation Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Sirohi, Sunil Kumar; Goel, Navneet; Singh, Nasib

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of crude seed powder (CSP) and gross saponins extract (GSE) of seeds of Albizia lebbeck on antimicrobial activity by taking two Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus), two Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella Typhi) bacteria, and two fungi species (Aspergillus niger and Candida butyric) were taken at 25, 50, 100, 250, and 500 µg levels using agar well diffusion method. Zone of inhibition was increased with increasing of concentration of CSP and saponins which indicates that Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli), Gram-positive bacteria (B. cereus), and A. niger were significantly susceptible to inhibition. Another experiment was conducted to study the effect of GSE and saponins fraction A and B of A. lebbeck supplementation at 6% on DM basis on methane production and other rumen fermentation parameters using in vitro gas production test, by taking three different type diets, that is, high fiber diet (D1, 60R : 40C), medium fiber diet (D2, 50R : 50C), and low fiber diet (D3, 40R : 60C). Significant (P ≤ 0.05) increase was seen in IVDMD, methane production; however ammonia nitrogen concentration decreased as compared to control. The methane production was reduced in a range between 12 and 49% by saponin supplemented diets except in case of GSE in D2. Sap A showed the highest methane reduction per 200 mg of truly digested substrate (TDS) than other treatment groups. Results in relation with quantification of methanogens and protozoa by qPCR indicated the decreasing trend with saponins of A. lebbek in comparison with control except total methanogen quantified using mcr-A based primer. PMID:24977047

  6. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia (Mimosoideae).

    PubMed

    Tamokou, Jean de Dieu; Simo Mpetga, Deke James; Keilah Lunga, Paul; Tene, Mathieu; Tane, Pierre; Kuiate, Jules Roger

    2012-07-18

    Albizia adianthifolia is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds isolated from the stem bark of this plant. The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its fractionation was done by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data in conjunction with literature data. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Broth micro-dilution method was used for antimicrobial test. Total phenol content was determined spectrophotometrically in the extracts by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The fractionation of the extract afforded two known compounds: lupeol (1) and aurantiamide acetate (2) together with two mixtures of fatty acids: oleic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid (B₁); n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and docosanoic acid (B₂). Aurantiamide acetate was the most active compound. The total phenol concentration expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was found to vary from 1.50 to 13.49 μg/ml in the extracts. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenol content (R² = 0.946 for the TEAC method and R² = 0.980 for the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay). Our results clearly reveal that the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of A. adianthifolia possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial principles. The antioxidant activity of this extract as well as that of compound 2 are being reported herein for the first time. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as compound 2 in the treatment of oxidative damage and infections associated with the studied microorganisms.

  7. Environmental Assessment of Construction of Antenna Parts Storage Facility, Upgrade of Perimeter Security Fence, Demolition of Storage Shed, Hawkinsville Air Force Space Surveillance Station, Hawkinsville, Georgia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    the most common. Japanese honeysuckle and Chinese tallow are limited to are- as along the fence line, and mimosa was only found in two locations at the...HAWKINSVILLE AFSSS Scientific Name Common Name Albizia julibrissin* mimosa Ampelopsis arborea peppervine Andropogon virginicus broomsedge bluestem

  8. Final Environmental Assessment for Aerial Spraying for Invasive Species Control MacDill AFB, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    bark tree (Melaleuca quinquinervia), Australian pine (Casuarina equisetifolia), Japanese mimosa (Albizia julibrissin) and, cogan grass (Imperata...inaccessible areas of the base. 2.1 DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PROPOSED ACTION Invasive plant species such as Brazilian pepper, melaleuca, and mimosa are...principle invasive plant species proposed for treatment through the aerial application of herbicides include Brazilian pepper, melaleuca, and mimosa

  9. Drought induced changes in growth, leaf gas exchange and biomass production in Albizia lebbeck and Cassia siamea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Saraswathi, S Gnaana; Paliwal, Kailash

    2011-03-01

    Diurnal trends in net photosynthesis rate (P(N)), stomatal conductance (g(s)), water use efficiency (WUE) and biomass were compared in six-month-old seedlings of Albizia lebbeck and Cassia siamea, under different levels of drought stress. The potted plants were subjected to four varying drought treatment by withholding watering for 7 (D1), 14(D2) and 25 (D3) days. The fourth group (C) was watered daily and treated as unstressed (control). Species differed significantly (p < 0.001) in their physiological performance under varying stress conditions. Higher P(N) of 11.6 +/- 0.05 in control followed by 4.35 +/- 0.4 in D1 and 2.83 +/- 0.18 micromol m(-2) s(-1) in D2 was observed in A. lebbeck. A significant (p < 0.001) reduction in P(N) was observed in C. siamea (C 7.65 +/- 0.5 micromol m(-2) s(-1), D1, 2.56 +/- 0.33 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and D2, 1.4 +/- 0.01 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) at 9 hr. A positive correlation was seen between P(N) and g(s) (A. lebbeck, r2 = 0.84; C. siamea, r2 = 0.82). Higher WUE was observed in C. siamea (D2, 7.1 +/- 0.18 micromol m(-2) s(-1); D3, 8.39 +/- 0.11 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) than A. lebbeck, (control, 7.58 +/- 0.3 micromol m(-2) s(-1) and D3, 8.12 +/- 0.15 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). The chlorophyll and relative water content (RWC) was more in A. lebbeck than C. siamea. Maximum biomass was produced by A. lebbeckthan C. siamea. From the study, one could conclude that A. lebbeckis better than C. siamea in adopting suitable resource management strategy and be best suited for the plantation programs in the semi-arid dry lands.

  10. Phytochemical screening and evaluation of in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the indigenous medicinal plant Albizia odoratissima.

    PubMed

    Banothu, Venkanna; Neelagiri, Chandrasekharnath; Adepally, Uma; Lingam, Jayalakshmi; Bommareddy, Kesavaharshini

    2017-12-01

    Albizia odoratissima (L. f.) Benth has been used in Indian folk medicine to treat numerous inflammatory pathologies, such as leprosy, ulcers, burns and asthma. To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of A. odoratissima. Dried leaves of A. odoratissima were extracted in organic solvents (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol). The total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were determined using the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride colorimetric methods, respectively. The antioxidant activity was examined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The antibacterial activity was examined using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bacterial concentration (MBC), determined by broth microdilution method against Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus vulgaris) and Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus). The TPC ranged from 4.40 ± 1.06 to 1166.66 ± 31.85 mg GAE/g of dry weight (DW), and the TFC ranged from 48.35 ± 3.62 to 109.74 ± 1.84 mg QE/g of DW. The IC 50 values of the ethyl acetate extract for DPPH, ABTS, and H 2 O 2 were 10.96 ± 0.40, 4.35 ± 0.07, and 163.82 ± 1.52 μg/mL, respectively. Both methanol and ethyl acetate extracts demonstrated effective antibacterial activity with MICs and MBCs values ranging 136-546 μg/mL and 273-1093 μg/mL, respectively, against the tested pathogenic species. The leaves of A. odoratissima showed potent free radical scavenging property and antimicrobial activity.

  11. [Nutritional evaluation of the seeds of "ipil-ipil" (Leucaena leucocephala), "casco de vaca" (Bauhinia monandra) and scented carob (Albizia lebbeck)].

    PubMed

    Abreu Peñate, M; Bencomo Hernández, A; Sampere Díaz, E; Farrás Fernández, I; Hernández Triana, M; Porrata Maury, C; Ponce de León Boloy, I

    1988-12-01

    Chemical composition, antinutritional factors and biological protein quality of raw and autoclaved (120 degrees C for 10 min) ipil-ipil (Leucaena leucocephala), casco de vaca (Bauhinia monandra) ard algarrobo de olor (Albizia lebbeck) seeds were determined. The trypsin inhibitor activity was 29, 120, and 150 TIU/mg of sample respectively. Autoclaving eliminated 59, 33 and 100% of the activity. Bauhinia monandra seed depicted a high hemagglutinating activity which was eliminated by autoclaving. Net protein utilization of raw and autoclaved seeds was 31 and 30, 21 and 55 and 29 and 49%, respectively. All seeds were free from cyanide and alkaloids. It is concluded that the relative low protein quality of the seeds would limit their use for human consumption.

  12. An effect of humid climate on micro structure and chemical component of natural composite (Boehmeria nivea-Albizia falcata) based wind turbine blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudarsono, S.; Purwanto; Sudarsono, Johny W.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, wind turbine blade NACA 4415 is fabricated from natural composite of Boehmeria nivea and Albizia falcate. The composite fabrication method used is hand lay up method. The aim of the work is to investigate an effect of humid climate of coastal area on micro structure and chemical composition of composite material of the blade. The wind turbine is tested at Pantai Baru, Bantul, Yogyakarta for 5.5 months. The micro structure scanning is performed with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and material component is measured with Energy Dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The samples are tested before and after the use within 5.5 month at the location. The results show that composite material inexperienced interface degradation and insignificant change of micro structure. From EDS test, it is observed that Na filtration reduces C and increases O in composite material after 5.5 months.

  13. Albizia zygia (DC.) J.F. Macbr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) root extract exhibits anti-nociceptive and antipyretic activities in murine models.

    PubMed

    Abotsi, Wonder Kofi Mensah; Lamptey, Stanley Benjamin; Boakye-Gyasi, Eric; Woode, Eric

    2017-03-06

    The root extract of Albizia zygia (DC.) J.F. Macbr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) is traditionally used in the management of pain and fever. However, little scientific data exists in literature to support its use. The present study evaluated the anti-nociceptive and antipyretic properties of the hydroethanolic extract of the roots of Albizia zygia in animal models. The analgesic effects were investigated in chemical (acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing and formalin tests), thermal (tail-immersion test) and mechanical (carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia) pain models. Possible mechanisms of anti-nociception were also assessed with antagonists in the formalin test. The anti-pyretic effect was evaluated using the baker yeast-induced pyrexia model in young rats. The extract (30-300mg/kg, p.o.) and positive controls, diclofenac (3-30mg/kg, i.p.) and morphine (1-10mg/kg, i.p.), significantly (at least P<0.01) attenuated acetic acid-induced visceral pain, formalin- induced paw pain (both neurogenic and inflammatory), thermal pain as well as carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in animals. The anti-nociceptive effect of the extract was reversed (at least P<0.05) by the pre-emptive administration of naloxone and atropine; the administration of theophylline, however, exhibited no significant (P>0.05) inhibition of anti-nociception. The extract (30-300mg/kg, p.o) and paracetamol (15-150mg/kg, p.o.) both reversed yeast-induced pyrexia in rats with ED 50 values of 48.59±2.59 and 26.19±1.33mg/kg respectively. The findings indicate that the extract possesses significant anti-nociceptive and antipyretic effects which justify its traditional use in the management of pain and fever. Also, anti-nociceptive effect of the extract involves opioidergic and muscarinic cholinergic mechanisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Central analgesic activity of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Albizia lebbeck: role of the GABAergic and serotonergic pathways.

    PubMed

    Meshram, Girish G; Kumar, Anil; Rizvi, Waseem; Tripathi, C D; Khan, R A

    2015-01-01

    Albizia lebbeck Benth. is extensively used in Indian traditional medicine for treating several painful and inflammatory disorders. The possible central analgesic activity and the underlying mechanism of action of the aqueous (AE) and ethanolic extracts (EE) of the leaves of A. lebbeck were investigated in Wistar rats using Eddy's hot plate and the tail flick tests. In order to investigate the underlying mechanism of action, rats were pretreated with naloxone, bicuculline or methysergide and then were administered a per os (p.o.) dose of AE or EE. AE and EE caused a significant (p<0.05) elevation in the mean basal reaction time in the hot plate method and an increase in the latency time in the tail flick method. In rats pretreated with bicuculline and methysergide, a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the analgesic activity was observed in comparison to AE and EE. Thus, AE and EE exhibited significant central analgesic activity and act possibly via the GABAergic and serotonergic pathways. The flavonoids and saponins found in the leaves could be responsible for the observed effect.

  15. Structural, functional and pH sensitive release characteristics of water-soluble polysaccharide from the seeds of Albizia lebbeck L.

    PubMed

    Kumar Varma, Chekuri Ashok; Jayaram Kumar, K

    2017-11-01

    Plant polysaccharides, generally regarded as safe (GRAS), are gaining importance as excipients in drug delivery. Therefore, the current paper presents the studies on structural, functional and drug release study of water soluble polysaccharide (ALPS) from seeds of Albizia lebbeck L. High swelling, water holding capacity, foam stability and lower moisture content suggests its use as additive in food preparations. The apparent molecular weight of polysaccharide was found to be 1.98×10 2 kDa. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that ALPS consists of mannose (4.06%), rhamnose (22.79%), glucose (38.9%), galactose (17.84%) and xylose (16.42%). Micromeritic properties revealed that the polysaccharide possess potential for pharmaceutical applications. From the surface charge analysis, ALPS was found to be non-ionic polysaccharide. Morphological study reveals the polysaccharide with irregular particle shape and rough surface. Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) study confirms the carbohydrate nature of polysaccharide. From the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data, the second mass loss (243-340°C) attributed to polysaccharide degradation. The drug release profile reveals the use of polysaccharide for the preparation of pH sensitive pharmaceutical dosage forms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Souza, A.J.; Ferreira, A.T.S.; Perales, J.; Beghini, D.G.; Fernandes, K.V.S.; Xavier-Filho, J.; Venancio, T.M.; Oliveira, A.E.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitinbinding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation. PMID:22267002

  17. First report of an anti-tumor, anti-fungal, anti-yeast and anti-bacterial hemolysin from Albizia lebbeck seeds.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sze Kwan; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2011-05-15

    A monomeric 5.5-kDa protein with hemolytic activity toward rabbit erythrocytes was isolated from seeds of Albizia lebbeck by using a protocol that involved ion-exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and SP-Sepharose, hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Phenyl-Sepharose, and gel filtration on Superdex 75. It was unadsorbed on both Q-Sepharose and SP-Sepharose, but adsorbed on Phenyl-Sepharose. Its hemolytic activity was fully preserved in the pH range 0-14 and in the temperature range 0-100 °C, and unaffected in the presence of a variety of metal ions and carbohydrates. The hemolysin reduced viability of murine splenocytes and inhibited proliferation of MCF-7 breast cancer cells and HepG2 hepatoma cells with an IC₅₀ of 0.21, 0.97, and 1.37 μM, respectively. It impeded mycelial growth in the fungi Rhizoctonia solani with an IC₅₀ of 39 μM but there was no effect on a variety of other filamentous fungi, including Fusarium oxysporum, Helminthosporium maydis, Valsa mali and Mycosphaerella arachidicola. Lebbeckalysin inhibited growth of Escherichia coli with an IC₅₀ of 0.52 μM. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Triterpenoid saponins from Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth and their inhibitory effect on the survival of high grade human brain tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Noté, Olivier Placide; Jihu, Dong; Antheaume, Cyril; Zeniou, Maria; Pegnyemb, Dieudonné Emmanuel; Guillaume, Dominique; Chneiwess, Hervé; Kilhoffer, Marie Claude; Lobstein, Annelise

    2015-03-02

    As part of our search of new bioactive triterpenoid saponins from Cameroonian Mimosaceae plants, phytochemical investigation of the roots of Albizia lebbeck led to the isolation of two new oleanane-type saponins, named lebbeckosides A-B (1-2). Their structures were established on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H, (13)C NMR, DEPT, COSY, TOCSY, ROESY, HSQC, and HMBC) and HRESIMS studies, and by chemical evidence. Compounds 1-2 were evaluated for their inhibitory effect on the metabolism of high grade human brain tumor cells, the human glioblastoma U-87 MG cell lines and the glioblastoma stem-like TG1 cells isolated from a patient tumor, and known to be particularly resistant to standard therapies. The isolated saponins showed significant cytotoxic activity against U-87 MG and TG1 cancer cells with IC50 values of 3.46 μM and 1.36 μM for 1, and 2.10 μM and 2.24 μM for 2, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identification of Albizia lebbeck seed coat chitin-binding vicilins (7S globulins) with high toxicity to the larvae of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Souza, A J; Ferreira, A T S; Perales, J; Beghini, D G; Fernandes, K V S; Xavier-Filho, J; Venancio, T M; Oliveira, A E A

    2012-02-01

    Seed coat is a specialized maternal tissue that interfaces the embryo and the external environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination. In addition, it is the first defensive barrier against penetration by pathogens and herbivores. Here we show that Albizia lebbeck seed coat dramatically compromises the oviposition, eclosion and development of the bruchid Callosobruchus maculatus. Dietary supplementation of bruchid larvae with A. lebbeck seed coat flour causes severe weight loss and reduces survival. By means of protein purification, mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analyses, we show that chitin-binding vicilins are the main source of A. lebbeck tegumental toxicity to C. maculatus. At concentrations as low as 0.1%, A. lebbeck vicilins reduce larval mass from 8.1 ± 1.7 (mass of control larvae) to 1.8 ± 0.5 mg, which corresponds to a decrease of 78%. Seed coat toxicity constitutes an efficient defense mechanism, hindering insect predation and preventing embryo damage. We hypothesize that A. lebbeck vicilins are good candidates for the genetic transformation of crop legumes to enhance resistance to bruchid predation.

  20. Antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of Albizia adianthifolia, Alchornea laxiflora, Laportea ovalifolia and three other Cameroonian plants against multi-drug resistant Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tchinda, Cedric F; Voukeng, Igor K; Beng, Veronique P; Kuete, Victor

    2017-05-01

    In the last 10 years, resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has been increasing. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of the methanol extracts of six Cameroonian medicinal plants Albizia adianthifolia , Alchornea laxiflora , Boerhavia diffusa , Combretum hispidum , Laportea ovalifolia and Scoparia dulcis against a panel of 15 multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacterial strains. The broth microdilution was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extracts was conducted according to the reference qualitative phytochemical methods. Results showed that all extracts contained compounds belonging to the classes of polyphenols and triterpenes, other classes of chemicals being selectively distributed. The best antibacterial activities were recorded with bark and root extracts of A. adianthifolia as well as with L. ovalifolia extract, with MIC values ranging from 64 to 1024 μg/mL on 93.3% of the fifteen tested bacteria. The lowest MIC value of 64 μg/mL was recorded with A. laxiflora bark extract against Enterobacter aerogenes EA289. Finally, the results of this study provide evidence of the antibacterial activity of the tested plants and suggest their possible use in the control of multidrug resistant phenotypes.

  1. Albizia lebbeck seed methanolic extract as a complementary therapy to manage local toxicity of Echis carinatus venom in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Amog, P U; Manjuprasanna, V N; Yariswamy, M; Nanjaraj Urs, A N; Joshi, Vikram; Suvilesh, K N; Nataraju, A; Vishwanath, Bannikuppe Sannanaik; Gowda, T V

    2016-11-01

    Viperid venom-induced chronic local-toxicity continues even after anti-snake venom treatment. Therefore, traditional antidote Albizia lebbeck L. (Fabaceae) seed extract was tested against Echis carinatus S. (Viperidae) venom (ECV)-induced local toxicity to evaluate its complementary remedy. Soxhlet extraction of A. lebbeck seeds was performed with the increasing polarity of solvents (n-hexane to water); the extract was screened for phytochemicals (alkaloids, anthraquinones, flavonoids, glycosides, phenolics, saponins, steroids and tannins). In preliminary in vitro analysis, A. lebbeck methanolic extract (ALME) demonstrated significant inhibition of ECV proteases, the major enzyme-toxin responsible for local- toxicity. Therefore, in vitro neutralizing potential of ALME was further evaluated against hyaluronidases and phospholipase A 2 (1:1-1:100 w/w). In addition, alleviation of ECV induced characteristic local- toxicity [haemorrhage (i.d.) and myotoxicity (i.m.)] was determined in mice. ALME contained high concentrations of phenolics and flavonoids and demonstrated significant in vitro inhibition of ECV protease (IC 50  =   36.32 μg, p < 0.0001) and hyaluronidase (IC 50  =   91.95 μg, p < 0.0001) at 1:100 w/w. ALME significantly neutralized ECV induced haemorrhage (ED 50  =   26.37 μg, p < 0.0001) and myotoxicity by significantly reducing serum creatinine kinase (ED 50  =   37.5 μg, p < 0.0001) and lactate dehydrogenase (ED 50  =   31.44 μg, p = 0.0021) levels at 1:50 w/w. ALME demonstrated significant neutralization of ECV enzymes that contribute in local tissue damage and haemostatic alterations. The study scientifically supports the anecdotal use of A. lebbeck in complementary medicine and identifies ALME as principle fraction responsible for antivenom properties.

  2. Ovicidal and adulticidal potential of leaf and seed extract of Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. (Family: Fabaceae) against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan

    2015-05-01

    Several diseases are associated to the mosquito-human interaction. Mosquitoes are the carriers of severe and well-known illnesses such as malaria, arboviral encephalitis, dengue fever, chikungunya fever, West Nile virus, and yellow fever. These diseases produce significant morbidity and mortality in humans and livestock around the world. In the present study, hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts of leaf and seed of Albizia lebbeck were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The mean percent hatchability of the eggs was observed after 48 h post-treatment. The percent hatchability was inversely proportional to the concentration of extract and directly proportional to the eggs. All the five solvent extracts showed moderate ovicidal activity; however, the methanol extract showed the highest ovicidal activity. One hundred percent mortality was observed at 250, 200, and 150 ppm for leaf methanol extract and 375, 300, and 225 ppm for seed methanol extract of A. lebbeck against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi, respectively. The adulticidal activity of plant leaf and seed extracts showed moderate toxic effect on the adult mosquitoes after 24 h of exposure period. However, the highest adulticidal activity was observed in the leaf methanol extract of A. lebbeck against An. stephensi where the LC₅₀ and LC₉₀ values were 65.12 and 117.70 ppm, respectively. Compared to leaf extracts, seeds have low potency against three mosquito species. No mortality was recorded in the control. Our data suggest that the crude hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol solvent extracts of A. lebbeck have the potential to be used as an eco-friendly approach for the control of the An. stephensi, Ae. aegypti, and C. quinquefasciatus. These results suggest that the leaf and seed extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal

  3. Memory-enhancing activities of the aqueous extract of Albizia adianthifolia leaves in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesion rodent model of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Albizia adianthifolia (Schumach.) W. Wright (Fabaceae) is a traditional herb largely used in the African traditional medicine as analgesic, purgative, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial and memory-enhancer drug. This study was undertaken in order to evaluate the possible cognitive-enhancing and antioxidative effects of the aqueous extract of A. adianthifolia leaves in the 6-hydroxydopamine-lesion rodent model of Parkinson’s disease. Methods The effect of the aqueous extract of A. adianthifolia leaves (150 and 300 mg/kg, orally, daily, for 21 days) on spatial memory performance was assessed using Y-maze and radial arm-maze tasks, as animal models of spatial memory. Pergolide - induced rotational behavior test was employed to validate unilateral damage to dopamine nigrostriatal neurons. Also, in vitro antioxidant activity was assessed through the estimation of total flavonoid and total phenolic contents along with determination of free radical scavenging activity. Statistical analyses were performed using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant differences were determined by Tukey’s post hoc test. F values for which p < 0.05 were regarded as statistically significant. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and regression analysis were used in order to evaluate the association between behavioral parameters and net rotations in rotational behavior test. Results The 6-OHDA-treated rats exhibited the following: decrease of spontaneous alternations percentage within Y-maze task and increase of working memory errors and reference memory errors within radial arm maze task. Administration of the aqueous extract of A. adianthifolia leaves significantly improved these parameters, suggesting positive effects on spatial memory formation. Also, the aqueous extract of A. adianthifolia leaves showed potent in vitro antioxidant activity. Furthermore, in vivo evaluation, the aqueous extract of A. adianthifolia leaves attenuated the contralateral

  4. Biomimetic FAA-certifiable, artificial muscle structures for commercial aircraft wings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Ronald M.; Barrett, Cassandra M.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is centered on a new form of adaptive material which functions much in the same way as skeletal muscle tissue, is structurally modeled on plant actuator cells and capable of rapidly expanding or shrinking by as much as an order of magnitude in prescribed directions. Rapid changes of plant cell shape and sizes are often initiated via ion-transport driven fluid migration and resulting turgor pressure variation. Certain plant cellular structures like those in Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant), Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa tree), or Dionaea muscipula (Venus Flytrap) all exhibit actuation physiology which employs such turgor pressure manipulation. The paper begins with dynamic micrographs of a sectioned basal articulation joint from A. julibrissin. These figures show large cellular dimensional changes as the structure undergoes foliage articulation. By mimicking such structures in aircraft flight control mechanisms, extremely lightweight pneumatic control surface actuators can be designed. This paper shows several fundamental layouts of such surfaces with actuator elements made exclusively from FAA-certifiable materials, summarizes their structural mechanics and shows actuator power and energy densities that are higher than nearly all classes of conventional adaptive materials available today. A sample flap structure is shown to possess the ability to change its shape and structural stiffness as its cell pressures are manipulated, which in turn changes the surface lift-curve slope when exposed to airflows. Because the structural stiffness can be altered, it is also shown that the commanded section lift-curve slope can be similarly controlled between 1.2 and 6.2 rad-1. Several aircraft weight reduction principles are also shown to come into play as the need to concentrate loads to pass through point actuators is eliminated. The paper concludes with a summary of interrelated performance and airframe-level improvements including enhanced gust rejection, load

  5. D-Pinitol in Fabaceae: an Oviposition Stimulant for the Common Grass Yellow Butterfly, Eurema mandarina.

    PubMed

    Mukae, Shin-Ya; Ohashi, Toshiki; Matsumoto, Yuika; Ohta, Shinji; Ômura, Hisashi

    2016-11-01

    The common grass yellow butterfly, Eurema mandarina (formerly Eurema hecabe mandarina) (Lepidoptera, Pieridae), recently has been separated taxonomically from a subtropical population of Eurema hecabe in Japan. This species is widely distributed in the temperate region of Japan, and feeds mainly on various ligneous plants within the Fabaceae. We attempted to identify an oviposition stimulant for E. mandarina from its primary hosts, Albizia julibrissin and Lespedeza cuneata. In both hosts, crude extract and an aqueous fraction elicited oviposition responses from gravid females. A polar subfraction of the aqueous fraction also stimulated high oviposition-stimulatory activity, comparable to the original aqueous fraction, suggesting that E. mandarina females use water-soluble compounds for host recognition. Subsequent activity-directed fractionation by ion exchange chromatography indicated that one of the key substances was contained in the neutral/amphoteric fraction. Chemical analyses revealed that the active fractions of both hosts contained D-(+)-pinitol as the major component. We examined female responses to authentic D-pinitol and found that it induced oviposition responses at concentrations greater than 0.1 %. Since this cyclitol is omnipresent in Fabaceae, we conclude that D-pinitol plays a role in mediating oviposition of E. mandarina on fabaceous plants.

  6. Design and testing of botanical thermotropic actuator mechanisms in thermally adaptive building coverings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Ronald M.; Barrett, Ronald P.; Barrett, Cassandra M.

    2017-09-01

    This paper lays out the inspiration, operational principles, analytical modeling and coupon testing of a new class of thermally adaptive building coverings. The fundamental driving concepts for these coverings are derived from various families of thermotropic plant structures. Certain plant cellular structures like those in Mimosa pudica (Sensitive Plant), Rhododendron leaves or Albizia julibrissin (Mimosa Tree), exhibit actuation physiology which depends on changes in cellular turgor pressures to generate motion. This form of cellular action via turgor pressure manipulation is an inspiration for a new field of thermally adaptive building coverings which use various forms of cellular foam to aid or enable actuation much like plant cells are used to move leaves. When exposed to high solar loading, the structures use the inherent actuation capability of pockets of air trapped in closed cell foam as actuators to curve plates upwards and outwards. When cold, these same structures curve back towards the building forming large convex pockets of dead air to insulate the building. This paper describes basic classical laminated plate theory models comparing theory and experiment of such coupons containing closed-cell foam actuators. The study concludes with a global description of the effectiveness of this class of thermally adaptive building coverings.

  7. Benefits of Eucalyptus-Albizia mixtures vary by site on Hawaii Island

    Treesearch

    Dean S. DeBell; Craig D. Whitesell; Thomas B. Crabb

    1987-01-01

    Eucalyptus saligna Sm. plantations are being tested in Hawaii as a means of providing biomass for conversion to energy. Initial growth rates have been excellent, but supplemental nitrogen (N) is needed for sustained productivity on most sites. Although responses to N fertilizer have been substantial, costs of N applications are costly in dollars and...

  8. The potential of turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza) in agroforestry system based on silk tree (Albizia chinensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, D.; Budiastuti, M. S.; Sakya, A. T.; Cholid, M. I.

    2018-03-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb.) is a traditional medicinal plant. In Indonesia, it is generally cultivated in village home gardens. Famers conducted very simpple cultivation method of turmeric, without specific maintenance and below varies tree. The experiment was conducted by cultivating turmeric below silk trees as in agroforetry system. The experiment was arranged split plot design, the first factor was three level of irradiation (turmeric monoculture/full irradiation, turmeric below silktree with pruning canopy, and turmeric below silk tree no pruning). The second factor was fertilizer NPK 15-15-15 with three levels of doses (100, 150, and 200 kg ha-1). Cultivating turmeric in agroforestry system based on silk tree which were one year old and not yet needed pruning, application of NPK 15-15-15 fertilizer 100 kg ha-1 was enough. The rhizome yield of turmeric 3 months age reaches 139 g per plant (fresh weight). Litter fall from a silk tree one year old in one year is 30 kg per tree per year.

  9. Fasciolicidal efficacy of Albizia anthelmintica and Balanites aegyptiaca compared with albendazole.

    PubMed

    Koko, W S; Galal, M; Khalid, H S

    2000-07-01

    An attempt was made to evaluate the oral doses of 9 g/kg-body weight of Albizzia anthelmintica Brong. Mimoaseae stem bark water extract and 9 g/kg body weight of B. aegyptiaca (L) Del. (Balanitaceae) fruit mesocarp water extract (traditionally used as an anthelmintic in the Sudan) compared with 20 mg/kg body weight (recommended dose) of albendazole against Fasciola gigantica adult worm (12 weeks old) in five groups each of three goats (6 month old). Group (I) uninfected control, group (II) infected untreated control, group (III, IV and V) infected and treated as mentioned above respectively. Based on the percentage reduction in fluke counts from the liver post mortum 2 weeks after treatment, the efficacy of the mentioned therapeutics was 95.5, 93.2 and 97.7%, respectively. The characteristic lesions of liver fasciolosis, egg/gm of faeces (EPG), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration, total red blood cells count (RBC), total white blood cells count (WBC) and oesinophil% were significantly different from control and treated groups (P<0.05).

  10. Prescriptions of Chinese Herbal Medicines for Insomnia in Taiwan during 2002

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fang-Pey; Jong, Maw-Shiou; Chen, Yu-Chun; Kung, Yen-Ying; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Chen, Fun-Jou; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2011-01-01

    Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has been commonly used for treating insomnia in Asian countries for centuries. The aim of this study was to conduct a large-scale pharmaco-epidemiologic study and evaluate the frequency and patterns of CHM use in treating insomnia. We obtained the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) outpatient claims from the National Health Insurance in Taiwan for the year 2002. Patients with insomnia were identified from the diagnostic code of International Classification of Disease among claimed visiting files. Corresponding prescription files were analyzed, and an association rule was applied to evaluate the co-prescription of CHM. Results showed that there were 16 134 subjects who visited TCM clinics for insomnia in Taiwan during 2002 and received a total of 29 801 CHM prescriptions. Subjects between 40 and 49 years of age comprised the largest number of those treated (25.3%). In addition, female subjects used CHMs for insomnia more frequently than male subjects (female : male = 1.94 : 1). There was an average of 4.8 items prescribed in the form of either an individual Chinese herb or formula in a single CHM prescription for insomnia. Shou-wu-teng (Polygonum multiflorum) was the most commonly prescribed single Chinese herb, while Suan-zao-ren-tang was the most commonly prescribed Chinese herbal formula. According to the association rule, the most commonly prescribed CHM drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang plus Long-dan-xie-gan-tang, while the most commonly prescribed triple drug combination was Suan-zao-ren-tang, Albizia julibrissin, and P. multiflorum. Nevertheless, further clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these CHMs for treating insomnia. PMID:19339485

  11. Plant-based medicines for anxiety disorders, Part 1: a review of preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sarris, Jerome; McIntyre, Erica; Camfield, David A

    2013-03-01

    Research in the area of herbal psychopharmacology has revealed a variety of promising medicines that may provide benefit in the treatment of general anxiety and specific anxiety disorders. However, a comprehensive review of plant-based anxiolytics has been absent to date. This article (part 1) reviews herbal medicines for which only preclinical investigations for anxiolytic activity have been performed. In part 2, we review herbal medicines for which there have been clinical investigations for anxiolytic activity. An open-ended, language-restricted (English) search of MEDLINE (PubMed), CINAHL, Scopus and the Cochrane Library databases was conducted (up to 28 October 2012) using specific search criteria to identify herbal medicines that have been investigated for anxiolytic activity. This search of the literature revealed 1,525 papers, from which 53 herbal medicines were included in the full review (having at least one study using the whole plant extract). Of these plants, 21 had human clinical trial evidence (reviewed in part 2), with another 32 having solely preclinical studies (reviewed here in part 1). Preclinical evidence of anxiolytic activity (without human clinical trials) was found for Albizia julibrissin, Sonchus oleraceus, Uncaria rhynchophylla, Stachys lavandulifolia, Cecropia glazioui, Magnolia spp., Eschscholzia californica, Erythrina spp., Annona spp., Rubus brasiliensis, Apocynum venetum, Nauclea latifolia, Equisetum arvense, Tilia spp., Securidaca longepedunculata, Achillea millefolium, Leea indica, Juncus effusus, Coriandrum sativum, Eurycoma longifolia, Turnera diffusa, Euphorbia hirta, Justicia spp., Crocus sativus, Aloysia polystachya, Albies pindrow, Casimiroa edulis, Davilla rugosa, Gastrodia elata, Sphaerathus indicus, Zizyphus jujuba and Panax ginseng. Common mechanisms of action for the majority of botanicals reviewed primarily involve GABA, either via direct receptor binding or ionic channel or cell membrane modulation; GABA transaminase

  12. Effects of different CO2 concentration on growth and photosynthetic of rain tree plants (Albizia saman jacq.Merr)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fathurrahman, F.; Nizam, M. S.; Wan Juliana, W. A.; Doni, Febri; NorLailatul, W. M.; Che Radziah, C. M. Z.

    2016-11-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to determine the effect of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) in rain tree growth under controllable growth chamber. The tolerance towards CO2 absorption in the photosynthesis process for the growth of tree rain is still unknown. In this study, rain tree seedlings were incubated for three months in a growth chamber with three different CO2 concentration treatment: GC1 (300 ppm), GC2 (600 ppm) and GC3 (900 ppm) at similar condition of temperature (28°C), humidity (60%) and lighting (1200 lux). The results showed that increased CO2 significantly increase the growth rate and chlorophyll content in rain tree. The results of this study add to the further understanding of how the improvement of the growth and physiological characteristics of rain tree was affected by CO2 enrichment treatment. This research can for used for global warming mitigation in the future.

  13. Potential effects of an invasive nitrogen-fixing tree on a Hawaiian stream food web

    Treesearch

    Trisha B. Atwood; Tracy N. Wiegner; Jason P. Turner; Richard A. MacKenzie

    2010-01-01

    Falcataria moluccana (albizia) is an exotic nitrogen (N)-fixing tree currently invading riparian forests in Hawai'i, U.S.A. This study examined how this invasion is impacting stream ecosystems by using naturally occurring stable isotopes of carbon (C) and N to compare food web structure between a noninvaded and an albizia-invaded...

  14. Comparative study on growth performance of two shade trees in tea agroforestry system.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Rinku Moni; Das, Ashesh Kumar; Nath, Arun Jyoti

    2014-07-01

    An attempt was made to study the stem growth of two native dominant shade tree species in terms of annual girth increment in three dominant girth size categories for two years in tea agroforestry system of Barak Valley, Assam. Fifty two sampling plots of 0.1 ha size were established and all trees exceeding 10 cm girth over bark at breast height (1.37 m) were uniquely identified, tagged, and annually measured for girth increment, using metal tape during December 2010-12. Albizia lebbeck and A. odoratissima were dominant shade tree species registering 82% of appearance of the individuals studied. The girth class was categorized into six different categories where 30-50 cm, 50-70 cm and 70-90 cm were dominating girth classes and selected for increment study. Mean annual girth increment ranged from 1.41 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 2.97 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the first year and 1.70 cm in Albizia odoratissima (50-70 cm girth class) to 3.09 cm in Albizia lebbeck (70-90 cm girth class) for the second year. Albizia lebbeck exhibited better growth in all prominent girth classes as compared to Albizia odoratissima during the observation period. The two shade tree species showed similar trend of growth in both the years of observation and significant difference in girth increment.

  15. Salt tolerances of some mainland tree species select as through nursery screening.

    PubMed

    Miah, Md Abdul Quddus

    2013-09-15

    A study of salt tolerance was carried out on germination, survival and height growth performance of important mesophytic species such as Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Artocarpus heterophyllus, Albizia procera, Albizia lebbeck, Acacia nilotica, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolaia, Emblica officinalis, Leucaena leucocephala, Samania saman, Swetenia macrophylla, Terminalia arjuna, Tamarindus indica, Terminalia bellirica and Thespesia populnea in nursery stage using fresh water and salt (NaCl) solutions of 10, 15 and 20 ppm. Effect of salt on germination, survival performance and height growth performance were examined in this condition. Based on the observation, salt tolerance of these species has been determined Acacia auriculiformis, Acacia hybrid, Achras sapota, Casuarina equisetifolia, Leucaena leucocephala and Tamarindus indica has showed the best capacity to perform in different salinity conditions. Acacia nilotica, Emblica officinalis, Thespesia populnea has performed better. Albizia procera, Samania saman and Terminalia bellirica, germination and height performance showed good but when salinity increases survivability were decreases.

  16. Forest products harvested in Hawaii-1969

    Treesearch

    Robert E. Burgan; Jr. Wesley H.C. Wong

    1971-01-01

    Primary forest products harvested in Hawaii in 1969 were valued at $331,000-a $3,000 drop from the value of the harvest surveyed in 1967. Sawlogs and veneer logs were the most important products. Koa and robusta eucalyptus were the primary sawlog species. Albizia and robusta eucalyptus provided most of the veneer logs.

  17. Seed dispersal turns an experimental plantation on degraded land into a novel forest in urban northern Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    Oscar Abelleira; Elvia J. Meléndez Ackerman; Diana García Montiel; John A. Parrotta

    2015-01-01

    Planting tree species with desirable traits may catalyze forest regeneration in increasingly common degraded lands by restoring soil properties and attracting seed dispersers. We sampled forest regeneration in an experimental plantation of Albizia lebbek, an introduced N-fixing species, on a degraded pasture in northern Puerto Rico, 27 years after its establishment. We...

  18. Secondary forest regeneration on degraded tropical lands: the role of plantations as ‘foster ecosystems’

    Treesearch

    John A. Parrotta

    1993-01-01

    Forest plantations established on degraded sites can accelerate natural succession through their effects on vegetation structure, microclimate, and soils. Spatial and temporal patterns of secondary forest species regeneration were studied in permanent quadrats in Albizia lebbek planta1ion plots and control areas at a degraded coastal pasture in...

  19. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass, and food w...

  20. Assisted recovery of degraded tropical lands: plantation forests and ecosystem stability

    Treesearch

    John A. Parrotta

    1993-01-01

    Plantations of multipurpose tree species can play a critical role in restoring productivity, ecosystem stability, and biological diversity to degraded tropical lands. The present study, conducted at a coastal pasture site in Puerto Rico, compares 4.5-year-old plantation stands of Albizia lebbek (L.) Benth. plantation stands and adjacent control...

  1. Nutritive value and qualitative assessment of secondary compounds in seeds of eight tropical browse, shrub and pulse legumes.

    PubMed

    Babayemi, O J; Demeyer, D; Fievez, V

    2004-01-01

    Seeds of four tropical multipurpose trees (Albizia saman, Albizia lebbeck, Albizia rhizonse, Leucaena leucocephala), two shrubs (Tephrosia candida, Tephrosia bracteolata) and two pulse legume (Lablab purpureus, Canavalia ensiformis) were chemically analysed for dry matter (DM), ash, crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and ether extract (EE). Qualitative evaluation of secondary metabolites (saponins, phenols, steroids, and alkaloids) was elucidated. The DM, ash, CP, NDF and EE ranged between 88.9-93.6 %, 3.0-5.4 %, 24.8-38.2 %, 22.1-46.9 % and 2.0-17.0 % respectively. All seed species contained at least one group of secondary plant metabolites and steroids were common to all except C. ensiformis that was not implicated for any. A. lebbeck and A. rhizonse showed low saponin content. Indications for water soluble tannins were reported for L. leucocephala while the two species of Tephrosia contained flavonoids or condensed tannins. The study suggested the potentials of the legumes seed species as a feed source for ruminants.

  2. Potential tree species for use in the restoration of unsanitary landfills.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kee Dae; Lee, Eun Ju

    2005-07-01

    Given that they represent the most economical option for disposing of refuse, waste landfills are widespread in urban areas. However, landfills generate air and water pollution and require restoration for landscape development. A number of unsanitary waste landfills have caused severe environmental problems in developing countries. This study aimed to investigate the colonization status of different tree species on waste landfills to assess their potential for restoring unsanitary landfills in South Korea. Plot surveys were conducted using 10 x 10-m quadrats at seven waste landfill sites: Bunsuri, Dugiri, Hasanundong, Gomaeri, Kyongseodong, Mojeonri, and Shindaedong. We determined the height, diameter at breast height (DBH), and number of tree species in the plots, and enumerated all saplings < or =1 m high. Because black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia, was the dominant tree species in the waste landfills, we measured the distance from the presumed mother plant (i.e., the tallest black locust in a patch), height, and DBH of all individuals in black locust patches to determine patch structure. Robinia pseudoacacia, Salix koreensis, and Populus sieboldii formed canopy layers in the waste landfills. The basal area of black locust was 1.51 m(2)/ha, and this species had the highest number of saplings among all tree species. The diameter of the black locust patches ranged from 3.71 to 11.29 m. As the patch diameter increased, the number of regenerated saplings also tended to increase, albeit not significantly. Black locust invaded via bud banks and spread clonally in a concentric pattern across the landfills. This species grew well in the dry habitat of the landfills, and its growth rate was very high. Furthermore, black locust has the ability to fix nitrogen symbiotically; it is therefore considered a well-adapted species for waste landfills. Eleven woody species were selected for screening: Acer palmatum, Albizzia julibrissin, Buxus microphylla var. koreana, Ginkgo

  3. The influence of surface modification on sound absorption coefficient of albizzia wood absorber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diharjo, Kuncoro; Prabowo, Anditya E.; Jamasri, Suharty, Neng Sri

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the influence of surface modification to sound absorption on absorber based albizia wood and kenaf fiber. The absorber was produced using the albizia wood as main materials, and the kenaf fiber was used as acoustic fill. The albizia wood used for producing the absorber was cut in the transverse direction so that its surface had good porosity. The size of specimens had 100 mm in diameter and 40 mm in thickness. The configuration of resonator cavities was 30 mm in diameter and 20 mm in depth, and each resonator was completed with a neck hole of the resonator. The types of surface modification were the addition of screen printing ink, fabric (with and without neck hole), and vinyl-wallpaper (with and without neck hole). According to ISO 10534-2, the absorber specimens were tested using two microphones impedance tube with random noise source to get the curve of noise absorption coefficient (NAC) for each specimen. The result shows that both unmodified absorber and absorber modified with screen printing ink have the similar characteristic of NAC and they are feasible to be used as an absorber in conversation rooms. The addition of fabric and vinyl-wallpaper as cover on the absorber surface give the positive effect of the air gap, and it increases the NAC in low frequency (100-400 Hz). However, the covers decrease the NAC in high frequency (400-1,400 Hz). The holes on the fabric and wallpaper covers give the improvement of NAC.

  4. Heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil under plantations of certain native woody species in dry tropical environment, India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anand N; Zeng, De-hui; Chen, Fu-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Total concentration of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Mn and Zn) was estimated in the redeveloping soil of mine spoil under 5-yr old plantations of four woody species namely: Albizia lebbeck, Albizia procera, Tectona grandis and Dendrocalamus strictus. The data recorded in the present study were compared with other unplanted coal mine spoil colliery, which was around to the study site and adjoining area of dry tropical forest. Among all the heavy metals, the maximum concentration was found for Fe and minimum for Cd. However, among all four species, total concentrations of these heavy metals were recorded maximally in the plantation plots of T. grandis except for Fe, while minimally in A. lebbeck except for Zn, whereas, the maximum concentration of Fe and Zn was in the plantation plots of D. strictus and A. procera. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences due to species for all the heavy metals except Cu. Among four species, A. lebbeck, A. procera and D. strictus showed more efficient for reducing heavy metal concentrations whereas T. grandis was not more effective to reduce heavy metal concentrations in redeveloping soil of mine spoil.

  5. Soil, water and nutrient conservation in mountain farming systems: case-study from the Sikkim Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Sharma, E; Rai, S C; Sharma, R

    2001-02-01

    The Khanikhola watershed in Sikkim is agrarian with about 50% area under rain-fed agriculture representing the conditions of the middle mountains all over the Himalaya. The study was conducted to assess overland flow, soil loss and subsequent nutrient losses from different land uses in the watershed, and identify biotechnological inputs for management of mountain farming systems. Overland flow, soil and nutrient losses were very high from open agricultural (cropped) fields compared to other land uses, and more than 72% of nutrient losses were attributable to agriculture land use. Forests and large cardamom agroforestry conserved more soil compared to other land uses. Interventions, like cultivation of broom grass upon terrace risers, N2-fixing Albizia trees for maintenance of soil fertility and plantation of horticulture trees, have reduced the soil loss (by 22%). Soil and water conservation values (> 80%) of both large cardamom and broom grass were higher compared to other crops. Use of N2-fixing Albizia tree in large cardamom agroforestry and croplands contributed to soil fertility, and increased productivity and yield. Bio-composting of farm resources ensured increase in nutrient availability specially phosphorus in cropped areas. Agricultural practices in mountain areas should be strengthened with more agroforestry components, and cash crops like large cardamom and broom grass in agroforestry provide high economic return and are hydroecologically sustainable.

  6. Biogas energy production from tropical biomass wastes by anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xumeng; Matsumoto, Tracie; Keith, Lisa; Li, Yebo

    2014-10-01

    Anaerobic digestion (AD) is an attractive technology in tropical regions for converting locally abundant biomass wastes into biogas which can be used to produce heat, electricity, and transportation fuels. However, investigations on AD of tropical forestry wastes, such as albizia biomass and food wastes, such as taro, papaya, and sweet potato, are limited. In this study, these tropical biomass wastes were evaluated for biogas production by liquid AD (L-AD) and/or solid-state AD (SS-AD), depending on feedstock characteristics. When albizia leaves and chips were used as feedstocks, L-AD had greater methane yields (161 and 113 L kg(-1)VS, respectively) than SS-AD (156.8 and 59.6 L kg(-1)VS, respectively), while SS-AD achieved 5-fold higher volumetric methane productivity than L-AD. Mono-digestion and co-digestion of taro skin, taro flesh, papaya, and sweet potato achieved methane yields from 345 to 411 L kg(-1)VS, indicating the robustness of AD technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of bolted connections in wood-plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnandha, Yudhi; Satyarno, Iman; Awaludin, Ali; Irawati, Inggar Septia; Ihsan, Muhamad; Wijanarko, Felyx Biondy; William, Mahdinur, Fardhani, Arfiati

    2017-03-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) is a relatively new material that consists of sawdust and plastic polymer using the extrusion process. Due to its attributes such as low water content, low maintenance, UV durability and being fungi and termite resistant. Nowadays, WPC has already been produced in Indonesia using sawdust from local wood such as Albizia (Paraserianthes falcataria) and Teak (Tectona grandis). Moreover preliminary studies about the physical and mechanical WPC board from Albizia sawdust and HDPE plastic have been carried out. Based on these studies, WPC has a high shear strength around 25-30 MPa higher than its original wood shear strength. This paper was a part of the research in evaluating WPC as potential sheathing in a shear wall system. Since still little is known about connection behavior in WPC using Indonesian local wood, this study evaluated the connection for both of these two types of wood-plastic composite. WPC board from Albizia sawdust will be projected as shear wall sheathing and WPC stud from Teak sawdust projected to be shear wall frame. For this study, the embedding strength for both WPC was determined according to ASTM D 5764 standard, using two types of bolts (stainless bolt and standard bolt) with several diameters as variation (6 mm, 8 mm, 10 and 12 mm). Hence, dowel-bearing test under fastened condition conducted accordance to ASTM D5652, hereby the yield strength then compared with the prediction yield strength from European Yield Model (EYM). According to both single and double shear connection, it can be concluded that yield strength from the EYM method tended to under-predict the 5% diameter offset yield than the actual yield strength from the test. The yield strength itself increase with the increase of bolt diameter. For single shear connection, the highest yield strength was 12 mm standard bolt around 9732 N, slightly higher than stainless bolt around 9393 N. Whereby for double shear connection, the highest yield strength was

  8. Screening of the anticonvulsant activity of some plants from Fabaceae family in experimental seizure models in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sayyah, M.; Khodaparast, A.; Yazdi, A.; Sardari, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study Fabaceae is the third largest family of flowering plants. Lack of essential oils in the plants of this family can be an advantage in search for safe and effective medicines. In this study the anticonvulsant effect of the leaves of Albizzia julibrissin, Acacia juliflora, Acacia nubica and aerial parts of Astragalus obtusifolius was evaluated in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and maximal electroshock (MES) seizure tests. Methods The hydroalcoholic extracts of the plants were obtained by percolation. Different doses of the extracts were injected to the mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) and occurrence of clonic seizures induced by PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.) or tonic seizures induced by MES (50 mA, 50Hz, 1sec) were monitored up to 30 min after administration. Acute toxicity of the extracts was also assessed. The safe and effective extract was then fractionated by dichloromethane and anticonvulsant activity of the fractions was determined. Finally, the constituents of the extract and the fractions were screened by thin layer chromatography. Results Among the extracts, only A. obtusifolius extract showed low toxicity and protective effect against clonic seizures with ED50 value of 3.97 g/kg. Fractionation of the extract led to increase in anticonvulsant activity and ED50 value of 2.86 g/kg was obtained for the aqueous fraction. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, anthrones and saponins in the aqueous fraction. Major conclusion The presence of anticonvulsant compounds in A. obtusifolius suggests further activity-guided fractionation and analytical studies to find out the potential of this plant as a source of anticonvulsant agent. PMID:22615673

  9. Co-occurrence of tannin and tannin-less vacuoles in sensitive plants.

    PubMed

    Fleurat-Lessard, Pierrette; Béré, Emile; Lallemand, Magali; Dédaldéchamp, Fabienne; Roblin, Gabriel

    2016-05-01

    Vacuoles of different types frequently coexist in the same plant cell, but the duality of the tannin/tannin-less vacuoles observed in Mimosa pudica L. is rare. In this plant, which is characterized by highly motile leaves, the development and original features of the double vacuolar compartment were detailed in primary pulvini from the young to the mature leaf stage. In young pulvini, the differentiation of tannin vacuoles first occurred in the epidermis and progressively spread toward the inner cortex. In motor cells of nonmotile pulvini, tannin deposits first lined the membranes of small vacuole profiles and then formed opaque clusters that joined together to form a large tannin vacuole (TV), the proportion of which in the cell was approximately 45%. At this stage, transparent vacuole profiles were rare and small, but as the parenchyma cells enlarged, these profiles coalesced to form a transparent vacuole with a convexity toward the larger-sized tannin vacuole. When leaf motility began to occur, the two vacuole types reached the same relative proportion (approximately 30%). Finally, in mature cells displaying maximum motility, the large transparent colloidal vacuole (CV) showed a relative proportion increasing to approximately 50%. At this stage, the proportion of the tannin vacuole, occurring in the vicinity of the nucleus, decreased to approximately 10%. The presence of the condensed type of tannins (proanthocyanidins) was proven by detecting their fluorescence under UV light and by specific chemical staining. This dual vacuolar profile was also observed in nonmotile parts of M. pudica (e.g., the petiole and the stem). Additional observations of leaflet pulvini showing more or less rapid movements showed that this double vacuolar structure was present in certain plants (Mimosa spegazzinii and Desmodium gyrans), but absent in others (Albizzia julibrissin, Biophytum sensitivum, and Cassia fasciculata). Taken together, these observations strongly suggest that a

  10. Anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha: An Ayurvedic compound formulation.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Ravishankar, B; Prajapati, P K; Ashok, B K; Varun, B

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth.), viz. the bark (Twak) and the heartwood (Sara). The activity was screened in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model in albino rats. The raw materials were collected and authenticated in the university and the trial formulations were prepared by following standard classical guidelines. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg for 5 days. Phenylbutazone was used as the standard anti-inflammatory drug for comparison. Between the two different test samples studied, the formulation made from heartwood showed a weak anti-inflammatory activity in this model while that made from the bark produced a considerable suppression of edema after 6 h. It appears that the bark sample would be preferable for clinical use.

  11. Phylogenetic relationships and host range of Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Lucas, I; Segovia, L; Martinez-Romero, E; Pueppke, S G

    1995-07-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene segments from five Rhizobium strains that have been isolated from tropical legume species. All share the capacity to nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L., the common bean. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains are of two different chromosomal lineages. We defined the host ranges of two strains of Rhizobium etli and three strains of R. tropici, comparing them with those of the two most divergently related new strains. Twenty-two of the 43 tested legume species were nodulated by three or more of these strains. All seven strains have broad host ranges that include woody species such as Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia maculata, and Leucaena leucocephala.

  12. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of "Shirishavaleha"-An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Prajapati, P K; Ashok, B K; Ravishankar, B

    2011-10-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity.

  13. Phylogenetic relationships and host range of Rhizobium spp. that nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Lucas, I; Segovia, L; Martinez-Romero, E; Pueppke, S G

    1995-01-01

    We determined the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene segments from five Rhizobium strains that have been isolated from tropical legume species. All share the capacity to nodulate Phaseolus vulgaris L., the common bean. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed that these strains are of two different chromosomal lineages. We defined the host ranges of two strains of Rhizobium etli and three strains of R. tropici, comparing them with those of the two most divergently related new strains. Twenty-two of the 43 tested legume species were nodulated by three or more of these strains. All seven strains have broad host ranges that include woody species such as Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia maculata, and Leucaena leucocephala. PMID:7618891

  14. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids in Selected Indian Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, C. T.; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-01-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity. PMID:23439764

  15. Evaluation of immunomodulatory activity of “Shirishavaleha”–An Ayurvedic compound formulation in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Prajapati, P. K.; Ashok, B. K.; Ravishankar, B.

    2011-01-01

    The immunomodulatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth), i.e., Twak (Bark) and Sara (Heartwood) as main ingredients was evaluated for humoral antibody formation and cell-mediated immunity in established experimental models. The study used Wistar rats of either sex weighing 200 ± 40 g, while the test drug was administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg. Hemagglutination titer and body weight were recorded to assess effects on humoral immunity; immunological paw edema was assessed for cell-mediated immunity. Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood shows significant enhancement in antibody formation, attenuation of body weight changes, and suppression of immunological paw edema, while Shirishavaleha prepared from bark shows weak immunomodulatory activity. The study therefore concludes that Shirishavaleha prepared from heartwood has significant immunomodulatory activity. PMID:22253509

  16. Past and present vegetation ecology of Laetoli, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Peter; Bamford, Marion

    2008-01-01

    We are attempting to set up a new protocol for palaeoecological reconstruction in relation to the fossil hominin site Laetoli, Tanzania. This is based on the premise that habitat variability in the past was at least as great as at present; that this variability at the landscape level is a function of variations in geology, soils, and topography rather than climate; and that vegetation type at the landscape level can be reconstructed from these environmental variables. Measurable variation in climate in tropical Africa today occurs over distances of at least 100 km, so that ranges of habitat variation within the limited area of Laetoli today can be reconstructed in relation to soils and topography, and the effects of climate changes are then estimated in relation to these other factors. In order to document the modern vegetation, we have made voucher collections of plants in the Laetoli region, recorded distributions of plants by habitat, climate, soil, and topography, and mapped the vegetation distributions. Results show that areas of low relief have soils with impeded drainage and dense Acacia drepanolobium woodland, having low canopies when disturbed by human action, higher when not; shallow brown soils on volcanic lavas have four woodland associations, two dominated by Acacia species, two by Combretum-Albizia species; shallow volcanic soils to the east have a woodland association with Croton-Dombeya-Albizia species; elevated land to the east on volcanic soils has two associations of montane-edge species, one with Croton-Celtis-Lepidotrichilia, and the other with Acacia lahai; the eastern highlands above 2,750 m have montane forest; seasonal water channels flowing from east to west have three Acacia riverine woodland associations; three deep valleys to the north of the area have dense riverine woodland with Celtis, Albizia, Euclea, Combretum, Acacia spp.; emergence of springs at Endulen feed a perennial stream with closed gallery forest with Ficus

  17. Antimicrobial activities of three species of family mimosaceae.

    PubMed

    Mahmood, Adeel; Mahmood, Aqeel; Qureshi, Rizwana Aleem

    2012-01-01

    The antimicrobial activities of crude methanolic extract of leaves of Acacia nilotica L., Albizia lebbeck L. and Mimosa himalayana Gamble belonging to family mimosaceae were investigated in this research work. Antibacterial activity was studied by agar well diffusion method against one gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and three gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumonia. Crude extract of all plants showed best activity against gram-negative bacterial strains while minor inhibition zones were found against gram positive bacterial strains. Antifungal activity of crude plant extract was screened by agar tube dilution method against Aspergillus nigar and Aspergillus flavus. These results showed that these plants extracts have potential against bacterias, while against fungi their activity is not much effective.

  18. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy

    2016-01-01

    Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK). The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest. PMID:27195310

  19. Restoration of Degraded Soil in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest with Native Tree Species: Effect of Indigenous Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Andimuthu; Radhapriya, Parthasarathy

    Restoration of a highly degraded forest, which had lost its natural capacity for regeneration, was attempted in the Nanmangalam Reserve Forest in Eastern Ghats of India. In field experiment, 12 native tree species were planted. The restoration included inoculation with a consortium of 5 native plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), with the addition of small amounts of compost and a chemical fertilizer (NPK). The experimental fields were maintained for 1080 days. The growth and biomass varied depending on the plant species. All native plants responded well to the supplementation with the native PGPB. The plants such as Pongamia pinnata, Tamarindus indica, Gmelina arborea, Wrightia tinctoria, Syzygium cumini, Albizia lebbeck, Terminalia bellirica, and Azadirachta indica performed well in the native soil. This study demonstrated, by using native trees and PGPB, a possibility to restore the degraded forest.

  20. Short-rotation management of Eucalyptus: Guidelines for plantations in Hawaii. Forest Service general technical report (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Whitesell, C.D.; DeBell, D.S.; Schubert, T.H.

    1992-11-01

    A 10-year research and development program was conducted on the island of Hawaii, where nearly 230,000 acres are suitable for growing biomass in short-rotation Eucalyptus plantations. Successful techniques are described for seedling production, plantation establishment (site preparation, weed control, planting), maintenance (weed control, fertilization), biomass yield estimation, and harvest. Basic biological relationships are described to aid decisions on site selection, initial spacing, fertilizer schedules, and rotation length. Environmental issues likely to be faced by growers of Eucalyptus plantations are discussed, including soil erosion, nutrient depletion, and monocultures. Continuing programs for tree improvement, monitoring, and silviculture research are recommeded. Production costsmore » for biomass yields are estimated for three promising management regimes, representing pure Eucalyptus plantings at dense and wide spacings and a mixed species plantation where Albizia is used as a nurse crop to provide nitrogen needed for optimum Eucalyptus growth.« less

  1. Total phenolics and total flavonoids in selected Indian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, C T; Balachandran, Indira

    2012-05-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia nilotica: 80.63 mg gallic acid equivalents, Acacia catechu 78.12 mg gallic acid equivalents, Albizia lebbeck 66.23 mg gallic acid equivalents). The highest total flavonoid content was revealed in Senna tora which belongs to the family Caesalpiniaceae. The present study also shows the ratio of flavonoids to the phenolics in each sample for their specificity.

  2. Sleeping site preferences in Sapajus cay Illiger 1815 (Primates: Cebidae) in a disturbed fragment of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest, Rancho Laguna Blanca, Eastern Paraguay.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rebecca L; Hayes, Sarah E; Smith, Paul; Dickens, Jeremy K

    2018-01-01

    Wild primates can spend up to half of their lives sleeping, during which time they are subjected to many of the same selective pressures that they face when awake. Choosing an appropriate sleeping site can thus have important fitness consequences. We examined the sleeping site preferences of wild hooded capuchins (Sapajus cay) in a small degraded fragment of the Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest at Rancho Laguna Blanca (RLB) in eastern Paraguay. Sleeping trees and sites were identified during 5 months of field observations and their physical characteristics were compared to those of non-sleeping trees and sites. Capuchins preferred larger emergent trees with more main and forked branches, no lianas and denser undergrowth directly below. These were found in sites of more mature forest with fewer small trees, less liana coverage and denser undergrowth but more fruiting trees. The species composition of the sleeping sites differed from that of the non-sleeping sites and was dominated by Albizia niopoides (Mimosaceae) as well as Peltophorum dubium (Fabaceae) and Anadenanthera colubrina (Fabaceae). The capuchins were found to sleep most often in these three tree species: 69.23% in Albizia niopoides (Mimosaceae), 11.54% in Peltophorum dubium (Fabaceae) and 11.54% in Anadenanthera colubrina (Fabaceae). We found evidence for the predator avoidance, thermoregulatory, social contact and feeding site proximity hypotheses. We found no support for parasite avoidance, given the reuse of sites, although the small size of the forest fragment may have restricted this. Their preference for older-growth forest suggests that selective logging impacts hooded capuchins. However, their persistence in a disturbed fragment shows they are highly adaptable, providing support for the value of conservation and reforestation of even small fragments of the Paraguayan Upper Paraná Atlantic Forest.

  3. Biochemical methane potential, biodegradability, alkali treatment and influence of chemical composition on methane yield of yard wastes.

    PubMed

    Gunaseelan, Victor Nallathambi

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the biochemical CH4 potential, rate, biodegradability, NaOH treatment and the influence of chemical composition on CH4 yield of yard wastes generated from seven trees were examined. All the plant parts were sampled for their chemical composition and subjected to the biochemical CH4 potential assay. The component parts exhibited significant variation in biochemical CH4 potential, which was reflected in their ultimate CH4 yields that ranged from 109 to 382 ml g(-1) volatile solids added and their rate constants that ranged from 0.042 to 0.173 d(-1). The biodegradability of the yard wastes ranged from 0.26 to 0.86. Variation in the biochemical CH4 potential of the yard wastes could be attributed to variation in the chemical composition of the different fractions. In the Thespesia yellow withered leaf, Tamarindus fruit pericarp and Albizia pod husk, NaOH treatment enhanced the ultimate CH4 yields by 17%, 77% and 63%, respectively, and biodegradability by 15%, 77% and 61%, respectively, compared with the untreated samples. The effectiveness of NaOH treatment varied for different yard wastes, depending on the amounts of acid detergent fibre content. Gliricidia petals, Prosopis leaf, inflorescence and immature pod, Tamarindus seeds, Albizia seeds, Cassia seeds and Delonix seeds exhibited CH4 yields higher than 300 ml g(-1) volatile solids added. Multiple linear regression models for predicting the ultimate CH4 yield and biodegradability of yard wastes were designed from the results of this work. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. The abundance and importance value of tree in “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah” surrounding and its implication to the spring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiryani, Erry; Murningsih; Jumari

    2018-05-01

    One important factor affecting sustainability of spring is composition of vegetation around it. “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah” is one of many springs in Semarang with intensive utilization. Vulnerability of spring can be monitored by dominant vegetation species indicated by vegetation importance value indices, especially for tree. This research aimed to study the variation of tree species around “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah”, to analyze the importance value index of tree species and to analyze the implication of tree species which had dominant importance value index on “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah” spring. Data collection was conducted via line transect with the length of 200 m on 4 directions which were defined based on the stream direction and the spring as the central point. Each transect has 4 observation plots occupying 20 x 20 m2. Data collection was including tree species, abundance, presence frequency and basal area of tree. Data analysis was conducted for vegetation importance value index. The result showed that around “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah” there were 28 tree species inwhich the abundance was dominated by Mahogany (33 individuals stands), Albizia (31 stands), Coffee (20 stands), Coconut (18 stands), Mangosteen (16 stands) and Banana (16 stands). Vegetation importance value index around “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah” was dominated by the above 7 treeswith important values (IV) respectively species including Mahogany (28,97%), Albizia (26,70%), Mangosteen (23,47%), Java Black Bamboo (22,18%), Coffee (19,23%), Coconut (17,98%) and Durian (16,41%). Cumulatively, these 7 treesspecieses dominated the importance value of tree around “Sendang Kalimah Toyyibah” which was 154,95%. These dominant species had represented the ecosystem function in infiltration, filtration and absorption of water which were required for spring ecosystem sustainability.

  5. Mast cell stabilization, lipoxygenase inhibition, hyaluronidase inhibition, antihistaminic and antispasmodic activities of Aller-7, a novel botanical formulation for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Amit, A; Saxena, V S; Pratibha, N; D'Souza, P; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D; Stohs, S J

    2003-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis, also known as hay fever, rose fever or summer catarrh, is a major challenge to health professionals. A large number of the world's population, including approximately 40 million Americans, suffers from allergic rhinitis. A novel, botanical formulation (Aller-7) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants, including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, T. bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and P. longum, which have a proven history of efficacy and health benefits. The clinical manifestations of allergy are due to a number of mediators that are released from mast cells. The effect of Aller-7 on rat mesenteric mast cell degranulation was studied by incubating different concentrations of Aller-7 and challenging them with a degranulating agent, compound 48/80. The inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was determined against lipoxygenase and hyaluronidase, the key enzymes involved in the initiation and maintenance of inflammatory responses. Furthermore, most of these manifestations are due to histamine, which causes vasodilatation, increasing capillary permeability and leading to bronchoconstriction. Hence, the antihistaminic activity of Aller-7 was determined is isolated guinea pig ileum substrate using cetirizine as a positive control. The antispasmodic effect of Aller-7 on contractions of guinea pig tracheal chain was determined using papaverine and cetirizine as controls. Aller-7 exhibited potent activity in all these in vitro models tested, thus demonstrating the novel anti-allergic potential of Aller-7.

  6. Study of the in vitro antiplasmodial, antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activities of medicinal plants from Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Musayeib, Nawal M; Mothana, Ramzi A; Al-Massarani, Shaza; Matheeussen, An; Cos, Paul; Maes, Louis

    2012-09-25

    The present study investigated the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of sixteen selected medicinal plants. Plant materials were extracted with methanol and screened in vitro against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. Cytotoxic activity was determined against MRC-5 cells to assess selectivity. The criterion for activity was an IC₅₀ < 10 μg/mL (<5 μg/mL for T. brucei) and a selectivity index of ≥4. Antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts of Prosopis juliflora and Punica granatum. Antileishmanial activity against L. infantum was demonstrated in Caralluma sinaica and Periploca aphylla. Amastigotes of T. cruzi were affected by the methanol extract of Albizia lebbeck pericarp, Caralluma sinaica, Periploca aphylla and Prosopius juliflora. Activity against T. brucei was obtained in Prosopis juliflora. Cytotoxicity (MRC-5 IC₅₀ < 10 μg/mL) and hence non-specific activities were observed for Conocarpus lancifolius.

  7. Assessment of air pollution stress on some commonly grown tree species in industrial zone of Durgapur, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Nayek, S; Satpati, S; Gupta, S; Saha, R N; Datta, J K

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the biochemical responses of some selected tree species with respect to increased air pollution in Durgapur industrial city in India. Areas in vicinity to industries possess very high concentrations of suspended particulate matter (571 microg/m3), SOx (132 microg/m3) and NOx (97 microg/m3) which shows significant correlations (p < 0.05) with the biochemical constituents of stressed plants. Plants growing in industrial zone exhibit a considerable decline in total chlorophyll (34.97-59.81%), soluble sugars (23.85-33.16%) and protein content (21.59-47.13%) and increase in ascorbic acid (81.87-238.53%) and proline content (123.47-284.91%). Of the studied tree species, Shorea robusta (9.78 +/- 0.095), Alstonia scholaris (8.76 +/- 0.084), Peltophorum pterocarpum (8.99 +/- 0.13) and Albizia lebbeck (7.71 +/- 0.012) were found to be more tolerant with higher Air Pollution Toblerance Index (APTI) and Tectona grandis (6.13 +/- 0.276), Lagerstroemia speciosa (7.075 +/- 0.18) and Delonix regia (6.87 +/- 0.079) were sensitive with lower APTI values. Therefore, plant species with higher APTI value, being more resistant, can be used as pollutant absorbent to reduce the pollution level and are suitable for plantations in industrial areas.

  8. Anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha: An Ayurvedic compound formulation

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Shyamlal Singh; Galib; Ravishankar, B.; Prajapati, P.K.; Ashok, B.K.; Varun, B.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth.), viz. the bark (Twak) and the heartwood (Sara). The activity was screened in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model in albino rats. The raw materials were collected and authenticated in the university and the trial formulations were prepared by following standard classical guidelines. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg for 5 days. Phenylbutazone was used as the standard anti-inflammatory drug for comparison. Between the two different test samples studied, the formulation made from heartwood showed a weak anti-inflammatory activity in this model while that made from the bark produced a considerable suppression of edema after 6 h. It appears that the bark sample would be preferable for clinical use. PMID:21455445

  9. Negative effect of litter of invasive weed Lantana camara on structure and composition of vegetation in the lower Siwalik Hills, northern India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Dogra, Kuldip Singh; Kaur, Shalinder; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Negi, Anjana

    2014-06-01

    Lantana camara, an aromatic shrub, native to tropical America, was introduced into India for ornamental hedging, but later escaped and became a serious invasive weed. This study assessed the quantitative and qualitative status of plant community richness and diversity in areas invaded by L. camara in the Siwalik Hills (Himachal Pradesh, India), and explored allelopathy as a possible mechanism of interference. We measured species diversity, richness and evenness of the vegetation in areas invaded and uninvaded by L. camara. Allelopathic effects of L. camara rhizosphere soil and litter were assessed against two native plants-Achyranthes aspera (a herb) and Albizia lebbeck (a tree). Density, biomass and indices of diversity, richness and evenness were reduced by L. camara, indicating a significant alteration in composition and structure of native communities. Seedling growth of the test species was reduced in L. camara rhizosphere- and litter-amended soil. The inhibitory effect was ameliorated by the addition of activated charcoal, indicating the presence of organic inhibitors (quantified as phenolics) in the soil. Lantana invasion greatly reduces the density and diversity of the vegetation in the invaded area, and chemical interference of its litter plays an important role in invasion.

  10. Identification of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria from three African leguminous trees in Gorongosa National Park.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Helena; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Susana

    2016-07-01

    The symbiosis between leguminous plants and symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria is a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. Woody legumes are well represented in tropical African forests but despite their ecological and socio-economic importance, they have been little studied for this symbiosis. In this study, we examined the identity and diversity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria associated with Acacia xanthophloea, Faidherbia albida and Albizia versicolor in the Gorongosa National Park (GNP) in Mozambique. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identity of symbiotic-nitrogen fixing bacteria in this region. 166 isolates were obtained and subjected to molecular identification. BOX-A1R PCR was used to discriminate different bacterial isolates and PCR-sequencing of 16S rDNA, and two housekeeping genes, glnII and recA, was used to identify the obtained bacteria. The gene nifH was also analyzed to assess the symbiotic capacity of the obtained bacteria. All isolates from F. albida and Al. versicolor belonged to the Bradyrhizobium genus whereas isolates from Ac. xanthophloea clustered with Mesorhizobium, Rhizobium or Ensifer strains. Soil chemical analysis revealed significant differences between the soils occupied by the three studied species. Thus, we found a clear delimitation in the rhizobial communities and soils associated with Ac. xanthophloea, F. albida and Al. versicolor, and higher rhizobial diversity for Ac. xanthophloea than previously reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Knowledge on plants used traditionally in the treatment of tuberculosis in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Bunalema, Lydia; Obakiro, Samuel; Tabuti, John R S; Waako, Paul

    2014-02-03

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality globally. The disease is especially important because of increasing drug resistant strains and co infection with human immune virus (HIV) and acquired immune disease syndrome (AIDS). Because of this there is need to identify new leads that can be developed into new drugs. The objectives of this study were to (1) document plant species commonly used by traditional medicine practitioners (TMPs) to treat TB, methods of preparation and administration of drugs (2) document disease recognition by TMPs and (3) document medicine preservation and packaging practices by TMPs. We interviewed 40 TMPs from Mpigi and Butambala districts using a guided questionnaire. A total of 90 plant species, distributed within 44 families were documented. Priority plants identified include Zanthoxylum leprieurii, Piptadeniastrum africanum, Albizia coriaria and Rubia cordifolia which were most mentioned by TMPs. TMPs had knowledge of how TB is transmitted and they admitted that it is closely associated with HIV. Decoctions of multiple plant species were commonly used. Plant parts frequently used were leaves followed by the stem bark and root bark. The TMPs had insufficient knowledge about packaging and preservation techniques. Plant based therapies for treating TB have been identified in this study and further investigation of these plants is appropriate as these, may be developed into new drugs to curb the resistant strains of TB. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethnobotanical survey of food and medicinal plants of the Ilkisonko Maasai community in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kimondo, Julia; Miaron, Jacob; Mutai, Peggoty; Njogu, Peter

    2015-12-04

    Pastoralist communities such as the Maasai are heavily reliant on traditional foods and medicines. This survey sought to identify traditional foods and/or medicinal plants of the Ilkisonko Maasai community living in Kenya. Ethnobotanical knowledge of traditional plants used as food and human/veterinary medicine was obtained using structured and semi-structured questionnaires administered through face to face interviews of key informants. A total of 30 species from 21 families and 25 genera were reportedly used as food and/or medicine by 48 respondents. The most commonly encountered genus was the Fabaceae. The growth forms encountered were tree (47%), shrub (33%) and herb (20%). Plants that were commonly mentioned by respondents were Salvadora persica (85%), Grewia villosa (52%), Ximenia americana (52%), Albizia anthelmintica (50%), Acacia robusta (46%) and Acacia nilotica (42%). The root/root bark was the most commonly used plant part (35%), followed by the stem/stem bark (30%), fruit (15%), leaves (11%) and whole plant (9%). Common ailments treated were stomach aches, constipation, back aches, joint aches, body pains and sexually transmitted infections. The plants were also used as tonics, digestives, and restoratives. It was evident that traditional medicine was the preferred health care system for the Ilkisonko Maasai community. It is important to document and use this knowledge in producing novel products that could improve nutrition and healthcare in rural communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Plant antiherbivore defenses in Fabaceae species of the Chaco.

    PubMed

    Lima, T E; Sartori, A L B; Rodrigues, M L M

    2017-01-01

    The establishment and maintenance of plant species in the Chaco, one of the widest continuous areas of forests in the South American with sharp climatic variations, are possibly related to biological features favoring plants with particular defenses. This study assesses the physical and chemical defenses mechanisms against herbivores of vegetative and reproductive organs. Its analyses of 12 species of Fabaceae (Leguminosae) collected in remnants of Brazilian Chaco shows that 75% present structural defense characters and 50% have chemical defense - defense proteins in their seeds, like protease inhibitors and lectins. Physical defenses occur mainly on branches (78% of the species), leaves (67%), and reproductive organs (56%). The most common physical characters are trichomes and thorns, whose color represents a cryptic character since it does not contrast with the other plant structures. Defense proteins occur in different concentrations and molecular weight classes in the seeds of most species. Protease inhibitors are reported for the first time in seeds of: Albizia niopoides, Anadenanthera colubrina, Mimosa glutinosa, Prosopis rubriflora, and Poincianella pluviosa. The occurrence of physical and chemical defenses in members of Fabaceae indicate no associations between defense characters in these plant species of the Chaco.

  14. Characterization of some biological specimens using TEM and SEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Nabarun; Smith, Don W.

    2009-05-01

    The advent of novel techniques using the Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes improved observation on various biological specimens to characterize them. We studied some biological specimens using Transmission and Scanning Electron Microscopes. We followed negative staining technique with Phosphotungstic acid using bacterial culture of Bacillus subtilis. Negative staining is very convenient technique to view the structural morphology of different samples including bacteria, phage viruses and filaments in a cell. We could observe the bacterial cell wall and flagellum very well when trapped the negative stained biofilm from bacterial culture on a TEM grid. We cut ultra thin sections from the fixed root tips of Pisum sativum (Garden pea). Root tips were pre fixed with osmium tetroxide and post fixed with uranium acetate and placed in the BEEM capsule for block making. The ultrathin sections on the grid under TEM showed the granular chromatin in the nucleus. The protein bodies and large vacuoles with the storage materials were conspicuous. We followed fixation, critical point drying and sputter coating with gold to view the tissues with SEM after placing on stubs. SEM view of the leaf surface of a dangerous weed Tragia hispida showed the surface trichomes. These trichomes when break on touching releases poisonous content causing skin irritation. The cultured tissue from in vitro culture of Albizia lebbeck, a tree revealed the regenerative structures including leaf buds and stomata on the tissue surface. SEM and TEM allow investigating the minute details characteristic morphological features that can be used for classroom teaching.

  15. Soil biological attributes in arsenic-contaminated gold mining sites after revegetation.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Jessé Valentim; de Melo Rangel, Wesley; Azarias Guimarães, Amanda; Duque Jaramillo, Paula Marcela; Rufini, Márcia; Marra, Leandro Marciano; Varón López, Maryeimy; Pereira da Silva, Michele Aparecida; Fonsêca Sousa Soares, Cláudio Roberto; de Souza Moreira, Fatima Maria

    2013-12-01

    Recovery of arsenic contaminated areas is a challenge society faces throughout the world. Revegetation associated with microbial activity can play an essential role in this process. This work investigated biological attributes in a gold mining area with different arsenic contents at different sites under two types of extant revegetation associated with cover layers of the soil: BS, Brachiaria sp. and Stizolobium sp., and LEGS, Acacia crassicarpa, A. holosericea, A. mangium, Sesbania virgata, Albizia lebbeck and Pseudosamanea guachapele. References were also evaluated, comprising the following three sites: B1, weathered sulfide substrate without revegetation; BM, barren material after gold extraction and PRNH (private reserve of natural heritage), an uncontaminated forest site near the mining area. The organic and microbial biomass carbon contents and substrate-induced respiration rates for these sites from highest to lowest were: PRNH > LEGS > BS > B1 and BM. These attributes were negatively correlated with soluble and total arsenic concentration in the soil. The sites that have undergone revegetation (LEGS and BS) had higher densities of bacteria, fungi, phosphate solubilizers and ammonium oxidizers than the sites without vegetation. Principal component analysis showed that the LEGS site grouped with PRNH, indicating that the use of leguminous species associated with an uncontaminated soil cover layer contributed to the improvement of the biological attributes. With the exception of acid phosphatase, all the biological attributes were indicators of soil recovery, particularly the following: microbial carbon, substrate-induced respiration, density of culturable bacteria, fungi and actinobacteria, phosphate solubilizers and metabolic quotient.

  16. Lectin, hemolysin and protease inhibitors in seed fractions with ovicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Braga, Ana Carolina Linhares; Nascimento, Maria Thayana dos Santos Canuto do; Sousa, Ana Márjory Paiva; Lima, Adriano Rodrigues; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Cavalcante, Antônio Cézar Rocha; Egito, Antonio Silvio do; Andrade, Lúcia Betânia da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive molecules of plant species are promising alternatives for the chemical control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Extracts of native and exotic seed species from Brazil's semi-arid region were tested in vitro in an egg hatch assay and the bioactivity of their proteins was investigated. Each seed species was subjected to three extractions with three types of solvents. All the seeds showed ovicidal activity, which varied according to the solvents. Higher ovicidal activity was found in the molecule fractions of low molecular weight (<12 kDa) for Albizia lebbeck, Ipomoea asarifolia, Jatropha curcas, Libidibia ferrea, Moringa oleifera and Ricinus communis (P<0.05, Bonferroni test). The two fractions of Crotalaria spectabilis showed the same ovicidal activity (P>0.05, Bonferroni test). Hemagglutinating activity was detected in the fractions of C. spectabilis and M. oleifera fractions, hemolysin activity in the A. lebbeck and M. oleifera fractions, serine protease inhibitory activity in the A. lebbeck, I. asarifolia, J. curcas, M. oleifera and R. communis fractions, cysteine protease inhibitor activity in the M. oleifera fraction, and no protein activity in the L. ferrea fraction. The results of this work reveal new plant species with a potential for use in controlling nematode parasites in goats, thus opening a new field of research involving plant protein molecules with ovicidal properties.

  17. Sickness behaviour associated with non-lethal infections in wild primates

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Ria R.; Fugère, Vincent; Chapman, Colin A.; Goldberg, Tony L.; Davies, T. Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Non-lethal parasite infections are common in wildlife, but there is little information on their clinical consequences. Here, we pair infection data from a ubiquitous soil-transmitted helminth, the whipworm (genus Trichuris), with activity data from a habituated group of wild red colobus monkeys (Procolobus rufomitratus tephrosceles) in Kibale National Park, Uganda. We use mixed-effect models to examine the relationship between non-lethal parasitism and red colobus behaviour. Our results indicate that red colobus increased resting and decreased more energetically costly behaviours when shedding whipworm eggs in faeces. Temporal patterns of behaviour also changed, with individuals switching behaviour less frequently when whipworm-positive. Feeding frequency did not differ, but red colobus consumption of bark and two plant species from the genus Albizia, which are used locally in traditional medicines, significantly increased when animals were shedding whipworm eggs. These results suggest self-medicative plant use, although additional work is needed to verify this conclusion. Our results indicate sickness behaviours, which are considered an adaptive response by hosts during infection. Induction of sickness behaviour in turn suggests that these primates are clinically sensitive to non-lethal parasite infections. PMID:26311670

  18. Role of anaerobic fungi in wheat straw degradation and effects of plant feed additives on rumen fermentation parameters in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dagar, S S; Singh, N; Goel, N; Kumar, S; Puniya, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rumen microbial groups, i.e. total rumen microbes (TRM), total anaerobic fungi (TAF), avicel enriched bacteria (AEB) and neutral detergent fibre enriched bacteria (NEB) were evaluated for wheat straw (WS) degradability and different fermentation parameters in vitro. Highest WS degradation was shown for TRM, followed by TAF, NEB and least by AEB. Similar patterns were observed with total gas production and short chain fatty acid profiles. Overall, TAF emerged as the most potent individual microbial group. In order to enhance the fibrolytic and rumen fermentation potential of TAF, we evaluated 18 plant feed additives in vitro. Among these, six plant additives namely Albizia lebbeck, Alstonia scholaris, Bacopa monnieri, Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna considerably improved WS degradation by TAF. Further evaluation showed A. lebbeck as best feed additive. The study revealed that TAF plays a significant role in WS degradation and their fibrolytic activities can be improved by inclusion of A. lebbeck in fermentation medium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate its active constituents, effect on fungal population and in vivo potential in animal system.

  19. Diversity analysis of diazotrophic bacteria associated with the roots of tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze).

    PubMed

    Gulati, Arvind; Sood, Swati; Rahi, Praveen; Thakur, Rishu; Chauhan, Sunita; Chawla, Isha

    2011-06-01

    The diversity elucidation by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and 16S rDNA sequencing of 96 associative diazotrophs, isolated from the feeder roots of tea on enriched nitrogen-free semisolid media, revealed the predominance of Gram-positive over Gram-negative bacteria within the Kangra valley in Himachal Pradesh, India. The Gram-positive bacteria observed belong to two taxonomic groupings; Firmicutes, including the genera Bacillus and Paenibacillus; and Actinobacteria, represented by the genus Microbacterium. The Gram-negative bacteria included alpha-Proteobacteria genera Brevundimonas, Rhizobium, and Mesorhizobium; gamma-Proteobacteria genera Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas; and beta-Proteobacteria genera Azospira, Burkholderia, Delftia, Herbaspirillum and Ralstonia. The low level of similarity of two isolates, with the type strains Paenibacillus xinjiangensis and Mesorhizobium albiziae, suggests the possibility of raising species novum. The bacterial strains of different phylogenetic groups exhibited distinct carbon-source utilization patterns and fatty acid methyl ester profiles. The strains differed in their nitrogenase activities with relatively high activity seen in the Gramnegative strains exhibiting the highest similarity to Azospira oryzae, Delftia lacustris and Herbaspirillum huttiense.

  20. Large-scale carbon stock assessment of woody vegetation in tropical dry deciduous forest of Sathanur reserve forest, Eastern Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Durai Sanjay; Sundarapandian, Somaiah

    2017-04-01

    Tropical dry forests are one of the most widely distributed ecosystems in tropics, which remain neglected in research, especially in the Eastern Ghats. Therefore, the present study was aimed to quantify the carbon storage in woody vegetation (trees and lianas) on large scale (30, 1 ha plots) in the dry deciduous forest of Sathanur reserve forest of Eastern Ghats. Biomass of adult (≥10 cm DBH) trees was estimated by species-specific allometric equations using diameter and wood density of species whereas in juvenile tree population and lianas, their respective general allometric equations were used to estimate the biomass. The fractional value 0.4453 was used to convert dry biomass into carbon in woody vegetation of tropical dry forest. The mean aboveground biomass value of juvenile tree population was 1.86 Mg/ha. The aboveground biomass of adult trees ranged from 64.81 to 624.96 Mg/ha with a mean of 245.90 Mg/ha. The mean aboveground biomass value of lianas was 7.98 Mg/ha. The total biomass of woody vegetation (adult trees + juvenile population of trees + lianas) ranged from 85.02 to 723.46 Mg/ha, with a mean value of 295.04 Mg/ha. Total carbon accumulated in woody vegetation in tropical dry deciduous forest ranged from 37.86 to 322.16 Mg/ha with a mean value of 131.38 Mg/ha. Adult trees accumulated 94.81% of woody biomass carbon followed by lianas (3.99%) and juvenile population of trees (1.20%). Albizia amara has the greatest biomass and carbon stock (58.31%) among trees except for two plots (24 and 25) where Chloroxylon swietenia contributed more to biomass and carbon stock. Similarly, Albizia amara (52.4%) showed greater carbon storage in juvenile population of trees followed by Chloroxylon swietenia (21.9%). Pterolobium hexapetalum (38.86%) showed a greater accumulation of carbon in liana species followed by Combretum albidum (33.04%). Even though, all the study plots are located within 10 km radius, they show a significant spatial variation among

  1. Descriptions of Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina) from Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Tomar, V V S; Somvanshi, Vishal S; Bajaj, Harish K

    2015-03-01

    Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b' = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c' = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b' = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c' = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism.

  2. Evaluation of Phenolic Content Variability along with Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Potential of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants from India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Garima; Passsari, Ajit K; Leo, Vincent V; Mishra, Vineet K; Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Singh, Bhim P; Kumar, Brijesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Vijai K; Lalhlenmawia, Hauzel; Nachimuthu, Senthil K

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 μg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW) and 3.17 to 102.2 μg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 μg/mL), ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica, and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09, and 29.66 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health.

  3. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF LEGUMINOUS TREES AGAINST SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII.

    PubMed

    Sana, Nighat; Shoaib, Amna; Javaid, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. is a destructive soil-borne plant pathogen that infects over 500 plant species and causes significant yield losses in many economically important plant species. Synthetic fungicides used to combat the menace also pollute the environment and cause health hazards. In order to search environmental friendly alternatives from natural resources, methanolic extracts of three leguminous tree species namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. were evaluated for their antifungal activity against S. rolfsii and A. nilotica subsp. indica exhibited the maximum fungicidal potential. Two hundred grams dried leaf material of each of the three test plant species were extracted with methanol for two weeks. After filtration, methanol was evaporated on a rotary evaporator. Malt extract broth was used to make various concentrations of the crude methanolic extracts and their antifungal potential was determined by comparing the fungal biomass in various treatments with control. Chemical composition of methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica was determined through GC-MS analysis. Methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica showed the highest fungicidal activity. Fungal biomass was decreased by 17-55% due to various concentrations of this extract over control. Different concentrations of P. juliflora reduced fungal biomass by 3-52%. Fourteen compounds were identified in methanolic extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica . 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z,)- (16.59%) was the most abundant compound followed by 1-pentanol, 2 methyl-, acetate (14.80%); hexanedioic acid, dimethyl ester (13.10%) and cyclotriaconta- 1, 7, 16, 22-tetraone (10.28%). This study concludes that methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica can be used for management of S. rolfsii .

  4. Effect of textile industrial effluent on tree plantation and soil chemistry.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Bala, N; Rathod, T R; Singh, B

    2001-01-01

    A field study was conducted at Arid Forest Research Institute to study the effect of textile industrial effluent on the growth of forest trees and associated soil properties. The effluent has high pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) whereas the bivalent cations were in traces. Eight months old seedlings of Acacia nilotica, Acacia tortilis, Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Parkinsonia aculeata and Prosopis juliflora were planted in July 1993. Various treatment regimes followed were; irrigation with effluent only (W1), effluent mixed with canal water in 1:1 ratio (W2), irrigation with gypsum treated effluent (W3), gypsum treated soil irrigated with effluent (W4) and wood ash treated soil irrigated with effluent (W5). Treatment regime W5 was found the best where plants attained (mean of six species) 173 cm height, 138 cm crown diameter and 9.2 cm collar girth at the age of 28 months. The poorest growth was observed under treatment regime of W3. The growth of the species varied significantly and the maximum growth was recorded for P. juliflora (188 cm height, 198 cm crown diameter and 10.0 cm collar girth). The minimum growth was recorded for A. lebbeck. Irrigation with effluent resulted in increase in percent organic matter as well as in EC. In most of the cases there were no changes in soil pH except in W5 where it was due to the effect of wood ash. Addition of wood ash influenced plant growth. These results suggest that tree species studied (except A. lebbeck) can be established successfully using textile industrial wastewater in arid region.

  5. ANTIFUNGAL POTENTIAL OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF LEGUMINOUS TREES AGAINST SCLEROTIUM ROLFSII

    PubMed Central

    Sana, Nighat; Shoaib, Amna; Javaid, Arshad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. is a destructive soil-borne plant pathogen that infects over 500 plant species and causes significant yield losses in many economically important plant species. Synthetic fungicides used to combat the menace also pollute the environment and cause health hazards. In order to search environmental friendly alternatives from natural resources, methanolic extracts of three leguminous tree species namely Acacia nilotica (L.) Willd. ex Delile subsp. indica (Benth.) Brenan, Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. and Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth. were evaluated for their antifungal activity against S. rolfsii and A. nilotica subsp. indica exhibited the maximum fungicidal potential. Materials and Methods: Two hundred grams dried leaf material of each of the three test plant species were extracted with methanol for two weeks. After filtration, methanol was evaporated on a rotary evaporator. Malt extract broth was used to make various concentrations of the crude methanolic extracts and their antifungal potential was determined by comparing the fungal biomass in various treatments with control. Chemical composition of methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica was determined through GC-MS analysis. Results: Methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica showed the highest fungicidal activity. Fungal biomass was decreased by 17-55% due to various concentrations of this extract over control. Different concentrations of P. juliflora reduced fungal biomass by 3-52%. Fourteen compounds were identified in methanolic extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica. 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z,)- (16.59%) was the most abundant compound followed by 1-pentanol, 2 methyl-, acetate (14.80%); hexanedioic acid, dimethyl ester (13.10%) and cyclotriaconta- 1, 7, 16, 22-tetraone (10.28%). Conclusion: This study concludes that methanolic leaf extract of A. nilotica subsp. indica can be used for management of S. rolfsii. PMID:28487894

  6. Ethnoveterinary plants for the treatment of camels in Shiwalik regions of Kathua district of Jammu & Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R; Manhas, R K

    2015-07-01

    Camel is an important mode of transportation in the hot and hilly tracts of Shiwaliks of Kathua districts. The camel owners of the region lack the modern veterinary facilities and therefore depend heavily upon local treatments for the animal. This ethnoveterinary knowledge of plants is acquired by them from their forefathers and generally moves from one generation to another orally. The oral mode of transferring this valuable knowledge is vulnerable to erosion with the passage of time and generations. Ethnoveterinary information was collected by interviewing 38 camel keepers and traditional healers as per the questionnaire. The data collected was analysed quantitatively using three indices viz. use-value (UV), informant consensus factor (ICF), and fidelity level (Fl %). A total of 41 plants were found to be of ethnoveterinary importance in the present study. Herbs and trees (41.5% each) were the most used life forms. The most used plant part was fruit (27.9%). Rhizome, root and whole plant parts collectively contributed to 18.6%. Most of the ethnoveterinary practices (65.9%) used oral mode of medication. The values of UV and Fl (%) shows that the most important species for curing the ailing camels were Curcuma longa, Trachyspermum ammi, Brassica campestris, Tamarindus indica, Phyllanthus emblica, Cassia fistula, Eruca sativa, Plumbago zeylanica etc. The high values of ICF (0.91-0.99) show that the informants share the knowledge for the treatment of camels amongst themselves on regular basis. A good number of plants are utilised by the informants to cure camels. Most of the preparations used fruits and leaves. Only 18.6% of the practices required destructive collection and such species need sustainable use and conservation. Some of the species like Tamarindus indica, Cassia fistula, Eruca sativa, Albizia lebbeck and Citrus medica require further phytochemical and pharmacological studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Antimalarial activity of methanolic extracts from plants used in Kenyan ethnomedicine and their interactions with chloroquine (CQ) against a CQ-tolerant rodent parasite, in mice.

    PubMed

    Muregi, Francis W; Ishih, Akira; Miyase, Toshio; Suzuki, Tohru; Kino, Hideto; Amano, Teruaki; Mkoji, Gerald M; Terada, Mamoru

    2007-04-20

    Methanolic extracts from 15 medicinal plants representing 11 families, used traditionally for malaria treatment in Kenya were screened for their in vivo antimalarial activity in mice against a chloroquine (CQ)-tolerant Plasmodium berghei NK65, either alone or in combination with CQ. The plant parts used ranged from leaves (L), stem bark (SB), root bark (RB), seeds (S) and whole plant (W). When used alone, extracts from seven plants, Clerodendrum myricoides (RB), Ficus sur (L/SB/RB), Maytenus acuminata (L/RB), Rhamnus prinoides (L/RB), Rhamnus staddo (RB), Toddalia asiatica (RB) and Vernonia lasiopus (RB) had statistically significant parasitaemia suppressions of 31.7-59.3%. In combination with CQ, methanolic extracts of Albizia gummifera (SB), Ficus sur (RB), Rhamnus prinoides and Rhamnus staddo (L/RB), Caesalpinia volkensii (L), Maytenus senegalensis (L/RB), Withania somnifera (RB), Ekebergia capensis (L/SB), Toddalia asiatica (L/RB) and Vernonia lasiopus (L/SB/RB) gave statistically significant and improved suppressions which ranged from 45.5 to 85.1%. The fact that these activities were up to five-fold higher than that of extract alone may suggest synergistic interactions. Remarkable parasitaemia suppression by the extracts, either alone or in combination with CQ mostly resulted into longer mouse survival relative to the controls, in some cases by a further 2 weeks. Plants, which showed significant antimalarial activity including Vernonia lasiopus, Toddalia asiatica, Ficus sur, Rhamnus prinoides and Rhamnus staddo warrant further evaluation in the search for novel antimalarial agents against drug-resistant malaria.

  8. Feeding of tropical trees and shrub foliages as a strategy to reduce ruminal methanogenesis: studies conducted in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Denia Caridad; Galindo, Juana; González, Rogelio; González, Niurca; Scull, Idania; Dihigo, Luís; Cairo, Juan; Aldama, Ana Irma; Moreira, Onidia

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the main results obtained in Cuba on the effects of feeding tropical trees and shrubs on rumen methanogenesis in animals fed with low quality fibrous diets. More than 20 tree and shrub foliages were screened for phytochemicals and analyzed for chemical constituents. From these samples, seven promising plants (Samanea saman, Albizia lebbeck, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Trichantera gigantea, Sapindus saponaria, and Morus alba) were evaluated for methane reduction using an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Results indicated that the inclusion levels of 25% of Sapindo, Morus, or Trichantera foliages in the foliages/grass mixtures (grass being Pennisetum purpureum) reduced (P < 0.01) methane production in vitro when compared to Pennisetum alone (17.0, 19.1, and 18.0 versus 26.2 mL CH(4)/g fermented dry matter, respectively). It was demonstrated that S. saman, A. lebbeck, or T. diversifolia accession 23 foliages when mixed at the rate of 30% in Cynodon nlemfuensis grass produced lower methane compared to the grass alone. Inclusion levels of 15% and 25% of a ruminal activator supplement containing 29% of L. leucocehala foliage meal reduced methane by 37% and 42% when compared to the treatment without supplementation. In vivo experiment with sheep showed that inclusion of 27% of L. leucocephala in the diet increased the DM intake but did not show significant difference in methane production compared to control diet without this foliage. The results of these experiments suggest that the feeding of tropical tree and shrub foliages could be an attractive strategy for reduction of ruminal methanogenesis from animals fed with low-quality forage diets and for improving their productivity.

  9. [Vegetation diversity, composition and structure in a cattle agro-landscape of Matiguás, Nicaragua].

    PubMed

    Merlos, Dalia Sánchez; Harvey, Celia A; Grijalva, Alfredo; Medina, Arnulfo; Vílchez, Sergio; Hernández, Blas

    2005-01-01

    The diversity, composition and structure of vegetation in a cattle landscape in Matiguás, Nicaragua was characterized, and the floristic and structural differences of six types of habitats (secondary forests, riparian forests, charrales, live fences and pastures with high and low tree cover) were compared. A total of 3 949 trees of 180 species and 52 families were recorded. Forty six percent of the total trees reported for the landscape were represented by Guazuma ulmifolia (18.5%), Bursera simaruha (13.2%), Tabebuia rosea (6.3%), Enterolobium cyclocarpum (4.2%) and Albizia saman (3.4%). Many of the dominant species in the landscape were typical of open and disturbed areas. There were significant differences between the different habitats in the patterns of tree species richness, abundance, diversity, structure and floristic composition. The riparian forests had greater tree richness (p=0.0001) and diversity (p=0.0009) than other habitats. The floristic composition varied across habitats. with pairs of habitats sharing between 18.4 and 51.6% of the same tree species, and with clear differences in composition between the forested (riparian and secondary forests) and agricultural habitats. Of the habitats studied, the riparian forests and secondary forests seem to have greatest value for the conservation of the flora in the agropaisaje because they have the greatest species richness, and maintain small populations of endangered species. On the basis of the study, we recommend including agricultural landscapes in strategies to conserve tree diversity and suggest measures to ensure the maintenance of tree diversity in the Matiguas landscape.

  10. Studies on Anthropogenic Impact on Water Quality in Hilo (Hawaii) Bay and Mapping the Study Stations Using Geospatial Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartier, A. J.; Williams, M. S.; Adolf, J.; Sriharan, S.

    2015-12-01

    Hilo Bay has uncharacteristically brown waters compared to other waters found in Hawai'i. The majority of the freshwater entering Hilo Bay is from storm and surface water runoff. The anthropogenic impact on water quality at Hilo Bay is due to sediment entrance, cesspools (Bacteria), and invasive species (Albizia). This poster presentation will focus on the water quality and phytoplankton collected on a weekly basis at a buoy positioned one meter from the shore of Hilo Bay, preserving the phytoplankton intact, concentrating and dehydrating the sample with ethanol, and viewing the phytoplankton with a scanning electron microscope (Hitachi S-3400NII). The GPS (Global Positioning System) points were collected at the sampling stations. Three transects on three separate dates were performed in Hilo Bay with salinity, percent dissolved oxygen, turbidity, secchi depth, temperature, and chlorophyll fluorescence data collected at each sampling station. A consistent trend observed in all transects was as distance from the river increased turbidity decreased and salinity increased. The GPS data on June 30, 2015 showed a major correlation between stations and their distance from shore. There is a decrease in the turbidity but not the temperature for these stations. The GPS points collected on July 7, 2015 at thirteen stations starting with station one being at the shore to the water, showed that the salinity concentration fluctuate noticeably at the first 6 stations. As we proceed further away from the shore, the salinity concentration increases from stations seven through thirteen. The water temperature shows little variation throughout the thirteen stations. The turbidity level was high at the shore and shows a noticeable drop at station thirteen.

  11. Evaluation of Phenolic Content Variability along with Antioxidant, Antimicrobial, and Cytotoxic Potential of Selected Traditional Medicinal Plants from India

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Garima; Passsari, Ajit K.; Leo, Vincent V.; Mishra, Vineet K.; Subbarayan, Sarathbabu; Singh, Bhim P.; Kumar, Brijesh; Kumar, Sunil; Gupta, Vijai K.; Lalhlenmawia, Hauzel; Nachimuthu, Senthil K.

    2016-01-01

    Plants have been used since ancient times as an important source of biologically active substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the phytochemical constituents (flavonoids and phenolics), antioxidant potential, cytotoxicity against HepG2 (human hepato carcinoma) cancer cell lines, and the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract of selected traditional medicinal plants collected from Mizoram, India. A number of phenolic compounds were detected using HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF-MS, mainly Luteolin, Kaempferol, Myricetin, Gallic Acid, Quercetin and Rutin, some of which have been described for the first time in the selected plants. The total phenolic and flavonoid contents showed high variation ranging from 4.44 to 181.91 μg of Gallic Acid equivalent per milligram DW (GAE/mg DW) and 3.17 to 102.2 μg of Quercetin/mg, respectively. The antioxidant capacity was determined by DPPH (IC50 values ranges from 34.22 to 131.4 μg/mL), ABTS (IC50 values ranges from 24.08 to 513.4 μg/mL), and reducing power assays. Antimicrobial activity was assayed against gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus), gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and yeast (Candida albicans) demonstrating that the methanol extracts of some plants were efficacious antimicrobial agents. Additionally, cytotoxicity was assessed on human hepato carcinoma (HepG2) cancer cell lines and found that the extracts of Albizia lebbeck, Dillenia indica, and Bombax ceiba significantly decreased the cell viability at low concentrations with IC50 values of 24.03, 25.09, and 29.66 μg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of detection of phenolic compounds along with antimicrobial, antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of selected medicinal plants from India, which indicates that these plants might be valuable source for human and animal health. PMID:27066046

  12. Response to dietary tannin challenges in view of the browser/grazer dichotomy in an Ethiopian setting: Bonga sheep versus Kaffa goats.

    PubMed

    Yisehak, Kechero; Kibreab, Yoseph; Taye, Tolemariam; Lourenço, Marta Ribeiro Alves; Janssens, Geert Paul Jules

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that goats (typical browser) are better adapted to digest tannin-rich diets than sheep (typical grazer). To evaluate this, Bonga sheep and Kaffa goats were used in a 2 × 3 randomized crossover design with two species, three diets, and three periods (15-day adaptation + 7-day collection). The dietary treatments consisted of grass-based hay only (tannin-free diet = FT), a high-tannin diet (36% Albizia schimperiana (AS) + 9% Ficus elastica (FE) + 55% FT (HT)), and HT + polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG). Animals were individually fed at 50 g dry matter (DM)/kg body weight (BW) and had free access to clean drinking water and mineralized salt licks. Nutrient intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, nutrient conversion ratios, and live weight changes were determined. Condensed tannin concentrations in AS and FE were 110 and 191 g/kg DM, respectively. Both sheep and goats ate 47% more of HT than FT, and dry matter intake further increased by 9% when PEG was added, with clear difference in effect size between goats and sheep (P < 0.001). The effects of the tannin-rich diet and PEG addition were similarly positive for DM digestibility between sheep and goats, but crude protein (CP) digestibility was higher in HT + PEG-fed goats than in sheep fed the same diet. However, PEG addition induced a larger improvement in growth performance and feed efficiency ratio in sheep than in goat (P < 0.001). The addition of PEG as a tannin binder improved digestion and performance in both species, but with the highest effect size in sheep.

  13. Climate change versus deforestation: Implications for tree species distribution in the dry forests of southern Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Hildebrandt, Patrick; Cueva, Jorge; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Seasonally dry forests in the neotropics are heavily threatened by a combination of human disturbances and climate change; however, the severity of these threats is seldom contrasted. This study aims to quantify and compare the effects of deforestation and climate change on the natural spatial ranges of 17 characteristic tree species of southern Ecuador dry deciduous forests, which are heavily fragmented and support high levels of endemism as part of the Tumbesian ecoregion. We used 660 plant records to generate species distribution models and land-cover data to project species ranges for two time frames: a simulated deforestation scenario from 2008 to 2014 with native forest to anthropogenic land-use conversion, and an extreme climate change scenario (CCSM4.0, RCP 8.5) for 2050, which assumed zero change from human activities. To assess both potential threats, we compared the estimated annual rates of species loss (i.e., range shifts) affecting each species. Deforestation loss for all species averaged approximately 71 km2/year, while potential climate-attributed loss was almost 21 km2/year. Moreover, annual area loss rates due to deforestation were significantly higher than those attributed to climate-change (P < 0.01). However, projections into the future scenario show evidence of diverging displacement patterns, indicating the potential formation of novel ecosystems, which is consistent with other species assemblage predictions as result of climate change. Furthermore, we provide recommendations for management and conservation, prioritizing the most threatened species such as Albizia multiflora, Ceiba trichistandra, and Cochlospermum vitifolium. PMID:29267357

  14. Climate change versus deforestation: Implications for tree species distribution in the dry forests of southern Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Manchego, Carlos E; Hildebrandt, Patrick; Cueva, Jorge; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Stimm, Bernd; Günter, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Seasonally dry forests in the neotropics are heavily threatened by a combination of human disturbances and climate change; however, the severity of these threats is seldom contrasted. This study aims to quantify and compare the effects of deforestation and climate change on the natural spatial ranges of 17 characteristic tree species of southern Ecuador dry deciduous forests, which are heavily fragmented and support high levels of endemism as part of the Tumbesian ecoregion. We used 660 plant records to generate species distribution models and land-cover data to project species ranges for two time frames: a simulated deforestation scenario from 2008 to 2014 with native forest to anthropogenic land-use conversion, and an extreme climate change scenario (CCSM4.0, RCP 8.5) for 2050, which assumed zero change from human activities. To assess both potential threats, we compared the estimated annual rates of species loss (i.e., range shifts) affecting each species. Deforestation loss for all species averaged approximately 71 km2/year, while potential climate-attributed loss was almost 21 km2/year. Moreover, annual area loss rates due to deforestation were significantly higher than those attributed to climate-change (P < 0.01). However, projections into the future scenario show evidence of diverging displacement patterns, indicating the potential formation of novel ecosystems, which is consistent with other species assemblage predictions as result of climate change. Furthermore, we provide recommendations for management and conservation, prioritizing the most threatened species such as Albizia multiflora, Ceiba trichistandra, and Cochlospermum vitifolium.

  15. Use of GLM approach to assess the responses of tropical trees to urban air pollution in relation to leaf functional traits and tree characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Arideep; Agrawal, Madhoolika

    2018-05-15

    Responses of urban vegetation to air pollution stress in relation to their tolerance and sensitivity have been extensively studied, however, studies related to air pollution responses based on different leaf functional traits and tree characteristics are limited. In this paper, we have tried to assess combined and individual effects of major air pollutants PM 10 (particulate matter ≤ 10 µm), TSP (total suspended particulate matter), SO 2 (sulphur dioxide), NO 2 (nitrogen dioxide) and O 3 (ozone) on thirteen tropical tree species in relation to fifteen leaf functional traits and different tree characteristics. Stepwise linear regression a general linear modelling approach was used to quantify the pollution response of trees against air pollutants. The study was performed for six successive seasons for two years in three distinct urban areas (traffic, industrial and residential) of Varanasi city in India. At all the study sites, concentrations of air pollutants, specifically PM (particulate matter) and NO 2 were above the specified standards. Distinct variations were recorded in all the fifteen leaf functional traits with pollution load. Caesalpinia sappan was identified as most tolerant species followed by Psidium guajava, Dalbergia sissoo and Albizia lebbeck. Stepwise regression analysis identified maximum response of Eucalyptus citriodora and P. guajava to air pollutants explaining overall 59% and 58% variability's in leaf functional traits, respectively. Among leaf functional traits, maximum effect of air pollutants was observed on non-enzymatic antioxidants followed by photosynthetic pigments and leaf water status. Among the pollutants, PM was identified as the major stress factor followed by O 3 explaining 47% and 33% variability's in leaf functional traits. Tolerance and pollution response were regulated by different tree characteristics such as height, canopy size, leaf from, texture and nature of tree. Outcomes of this study will help in urban forest

  16. Potent anti-proliferative effects against oral and cervical cancers of Thai medicinal plants selected from the Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III".

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Aranya; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Pattamapun, Kassara; Kitdamrongtham, Worapong; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2015-07-01

    Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipes have been used for the treatment of several diseases including oral and cervical cancers. To investigate anti-proliferative activity on human cervical (HeLa) and oral (KB) cancer cell lines of medicinal plants selected from Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI III". Twenty-three methanolic plant crude extracts were tested for phytochemicals and anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines for 24 h by the sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay at the doses of 1 × 10(1)-1 × 10(-6 )mg/ml. The nine extracts with the concentrations giving 50% growth inhibition (GI50) lower than 100 µg/ml were further semi-purified by liquid/liquid partition in order to evaluate and enhance the anti-proliferative potency. All extracts contained steroids/triterpenoids, but not xanthones. The methanolic extracts of Gloriosa superba L. (Colchinaceae) root and Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. (Leguminosae-Mimosoideae) wood gave the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.91 (6.0- and 0.31-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.16 µg/ml (28.78- and 82.29-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. Hexane and methanol-water fractions of G. superba exhibited the highest anti-proliferative activity on HeLa and KB cell lines with the GI50 values of 0.15 (37- and 1.9-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin) and 0.058 µg/ml (77.45- and 221.46-fold of cisplatin and doxorubicin), respectively. This study has demonstrated the potential of plants selected from MANOSROI III database especially G. superba and A. chinensis for further development as anti-oral and cervical cancer agents.

  17. Descriptions of Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina) from Haryana, India

    PubMed Central

    Tomar, V. V. S.; Somvanshi, Vishal S.; Bajaj, Harish K.

    2015-01-01

    Two different nematodes were isolated from the bark of Albizia lebbeck trees; one from insect infested and another from noninfested, healthy tree. Based on the biological, morphological, and molecular evidences, the nematodes are described as Deladenus albizicus n. sp. and D. processus n. sp. (Nematoda: Hexatylina). Deladenus albizicus n. sp., isolated from insect-infested tree, multiplied on the fungus Nigrospora oryzae. Myceliophagous females of this nematode reproduced by parthenogenesis and spermathecae were indistinct. Infective females, readily produced in the cultures, are dorsally curved. Only one type of males containing small-sized sperms in their genital tracts were produced in the culture. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.75 to 1.71 mm, a = 32.3 to 50.8, b = 9.3 to 11.2, b’ = 5.2 to 7.3, c = 27.2 to 35.6, V = 91.0 to 93.3, c’ = 2.0 to 2.9, stylet = 11 to 12 µm, excretory pore in the region of median pharyngeal bulb, 43 to 47 µm anterior to hemizonid. Deladenus processus n. sp., isolated from bark of healthy A. lebbeck tree, was cultured on Alternaria alternata. Myceliophagous females reproduced by amphimixis and their spermathecae contained rounded sperms. Infective females were never produced, even in old cultures. Myceliophagous females: L = 0.76 to 0.99 mm, a = 34 to 49, b = 13.3 to 17.7, b’ = 3.8 to 5.8, c = 19.6 to 22.8, V = 92.2 to 93.5, c’ = 2.7 to 3.5, stylet = 6 to 7 µm, excretory pore in the proximity of hemizonid, tail conoid, tapering from both sides to a long pointed central process. It is proposed to classify Deladenus species in three groups: durus, siricidicola, and laricis groups based on female and spermatogonia dimorphism, mode of reproduction, and insect parasitism. PMID:25861116

  18. Exo-Oligosaccharides of Rhizobium sp. Strain NGR234 Are Required for Symbiosis with Various Legumes

    PubMed Central

    Staehelin, Christian; Forsberg, Lennart S.; D'Haeze, Wim; Gao, Mu-Yun; Carlson, Russell W.; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Pellock, Brett J.; Jones, Kathryn M.; Walker, Graham C.; Streit, Wolfgang R.; Broughton, William J.

    2006-01-01

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish endosymbiotic associations with legumes. Nodule formation depends on various bacterial carbohydrates, including lipopolysaccharides, K-antigens, and exopolysaccharides (EPS). An acidic EPS from Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 consists of glucosyl (Glc), galactosyl (Gal), glucuronosyl (GlcA), and 4,6-pyruvylated galactosyl (PvGal) residues with β-1,3, β-1,4, β-1,6, α-1,3, and α-1,4 glycoside linkages. Here we examined the role of NGR234 genes in the synthesis of EPS. Deletions within the exoF, exoL, exoP, exoQ, and exoY genes suppressed accumulation of EPS in bacterial supernatants, a finding that was confirmed by chemical analyses. The data suggest that the repeating subunits of EPS are assembled by an ExoQ/ExoP/ExoF-dependent mechanism, which is related to the Wzy polymerization system of group 1 capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli. Mutation of exoK (NGRΩexoK), which encodes a putative glycanase, resulted in the absence of low-molecular-weight forms of EPS. Analysis of the extracellular carbohydrates revealed that NGRΩexoK is unable to accumulate exo-oligosaccharides (EOSs), which are O-acetylated nonasaccharide subunits of EPS having the formula Gal(Glc)5(GlcA)2PvGal. When used as inoculants, both the exo-deficient mutants and NGRΩexoK were unable to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on some hosts (e.g., Albizia lebbeck and Leucaena leucocephala), but they were able to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on other hosts (e.g., Vigna unguiculata). EOSs of the parent strain were biologically active at very low levels (yield in culture supernatants, ∼50 μg per liter). Thus, NGR234 produces symbiotically active EOSs by enzymatic degradation of EPS, using the extracellular endo-β-1,4-glycanase encoded by exoK (glycoside hydrolase family 16). We propose that the derived EOSs (and not EPS) are bacterial components that play a crucial role in nodule formation in various legumes. PMID:16923883

  19. Antioxidant properties of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, P; Amit, A; Saxena, V S; Bagchi, D; Bagchi, M; Stohs, S J

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis, a frequently occurring immunological disorder affecting men, women and children worldwide, is a state of hypersensitivity that occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollen, mold, mites or dust. Allergic rhinitis exerts inflammatory response and irritation of the nasal mucosal membranes leading to sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy, watery and swollen eyes. A novel, safe polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. In this study, the antioxidant efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated by various assays including hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion scavenging assay, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) radical scavenging assays. The protective effect of Aller-7 on free radical-induced lysis of red blood cells and inhibition of nitric oxide release by Aller-7 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine macrophages were determined. Aller-7 exhibited concentration-dependent scavenging activities toward biochemically generated hydroxyl radicals (IC50 741.73 microg/ml); superoxide anion (IC50 24.65 microg/ml by phenazine methosulfate-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide [PMS-NADH] assay and IC50 4.27 microg/ml by riboflavin/nitroblue tetrazolium [NBT] light assay), nitric oxide (IC50 16.34 microg/ml); 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical (IC50 5.62 microg/ml); and 2,2-azinobis-ethyl-benzothiozoline-sulphonic acid diammonium salt (ABTS) radical (IC50 7.35 microg/ml). Aller-7 inhibited free radical-induced hemolysis in the concentration range of 20-80 microg/ml. Aller-7 also significantly inhibited nitric oxide release from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine

  20. Exo-oligosaccharides of Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 are required for symbiosis with various legumes.

    PubMed

    Staehelin, Christian; Forsberg, Lennart S; D'Haeze, Wim; Gao, Mu-Yun; Carlson, Russell W; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Pellock, Brett J; Jones, Kathryn M; Walker, Graham C; Streit, Wolfgang R; Broughton, William J

    2006-09-01

    Rhizobia are nitrogen-fixing bacteria that establish endosymbiotic associations with legumes. Nodule formation depends on various bacterial carbohydrates, including lipopolysaccharides, K-antigens, and exopolysaccharides (EPS). An acidic EPS from Rhizobium sp. strain NGR234 consists of glucosyl (Glc), galactosyl (Gal), glucuronosyl (GlcA), and 4,6-pyruvylated galactosyl (PvGal) residues with beta-1,3, beta-1,4, beta-1,6, alpha-1,3, and alpha-1,4 glycoside linkages. Here we examined the role of NGR234 genes in the synthesis of EPS. Deletions within the exoF, exoL, exoP, exoQ, and exoY genes suppressed accumulation of EPS in bacterial supernatants, a finding that was confirmed by chemical analyses. The data suggest that the repeating subunits of EPS are assembled by an ExoQ/ExoP/ExoF-dependent mechanism, which is related to the Wzy polymerization system of group 1 capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli. Mutation of exoK (NGROmegaexoK), which encodes a putative glycanase, resulted in the absence of low-molecular-weight forms of EPS. Analysis of the extracellular carbohydrates revealed that NGROmegaexoK is unable to accumulate exo-oligosaccharides (EOSs), which are O-acetylated nonasaccharide subunits of EPS having the formula Gal(Glc)5(GlcA)2PvGal. When used as inoculants, both the exo-deficient mutants and NGROmegaexoK were unable to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on some hosts (e.g., Albizia lebbeck and Leucaena leucocephala), but they were able to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on other hosts (e.g., Vigna unguiculata). EOSs of the parent strain were biologically active at very low levels (yield in culture supernatants, approximately 50 microg per liter). Thus, NGR234 produces symbiotically active EOSs by enzymatic degradation of EPS, using the extracellular endo-beta-1,4-glycanase encoded by exoK (glycoside hydrolase family 16). We propose that the derived EOSs (and not EPS) are bacterial components that play a crucial role in nodule formation in various legumes.

  1. Safety of a Novel Botanical Extract Formula for Ameliorating Allergic rhinitis. Part II.

    PubMed

    Amit, A; Joshua, A J; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Each year more than 50 million Americans suffer from allergic rhinitis, which is a state of hypersensitivity or hyperimmunity. Basically, allergic rhinitis is symptomatically recognized as the inflammation and irritation of the nasal mucosal membranes; sneezing; stuffy/runny nose; nasal congestion; and itchy; watery, and swollen eyes; and defined as a state of hypersensitivity/ hyperimmunity caused by exposure to a particular allergen (antigen) that results in increased reactivity upon subsequent exposure. A novel polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) was developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants, including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, and Piper longum. Earlier studies in our laboratories have demonstrated potent antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and mast-cell stabilization activities of Aller-7 in addition to its efficacy in a clinical setting. A series of preliminary toxicological evaluations were also conducted in the past, which demonstrated its safety. In this study, we have conducted further safety studies on Aller-7, including acute oral, acute dermal, acute dermal irritation, eye irritation, and 90-day repeated dose toxicity studies. Acute oral toxicity of Aller-7 was found to be greater than 5,000 mg/kg body weight in both male and female rats and no mortality or toxicity was observed at this dose, while the acute dermal toxicity was found to be greater than 2,000 mg/kg body weight. In the acute dermal irritation study, the skin irritancy index was found to be 0.0, which classifies Aller-7 as a nonirritant to rabbit skin. In the acute eye irritation study, Aller-7 was found to have minimal irritancy to eyes of rabbits. In the repeated-dose 90-day oral toxicity study, Aller-7 was administered at dose levels of 100, 300, and 1,000 mg/kg rat body weight for 90

  2. Anti-inflammatory activities of Aller-7, a novel polyherbal formulation for allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Pratibha, N; Saxena, V S; Amit, A; D'Souza, P; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D

    2004-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is an immunological disorder and an inflammatory response of nasal mucosal membranes. Allergic rhinitis, a state of hypersensitivity, occurs when the body overreacts to a substance such as pollens or dust. A novel, safe polyherbal formulation (Aller-7/NR-A2) has been developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis using a unique combination of extracts from seven medicinal plants including Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale and Piper longum. Since inflammation is an integral mechanistic component of allergy, the present study aimed to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of Aller-7 in various in vivo models. The efficacy of Aller-7 was investigated in compound 48/80-induced paw edema both in Balb/c mice and Swiss Albino mice, carrageenan-induced paw edema in Wistar Albino rats and Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats. The trypsin inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was also determined and compared with ovomucoid. At a dose of 250 mg/kg, Aller-7 demonstrated 62.55% inhibition against compound 48/80-induced paw edema in Balb/c mice, while under the same conditions prednisolone at an oral dose of 14 mg/kg exhibited 44.7% inhibition. Aller-7 significantly inhibited compound 48/80-induced paw edema at all three doses of 175, 225 or 275 mg/kg in Swiss Albino mice, while the most potent effect was observed at 225 mg/kg. Aller-7 (120 mg/kg, p.o.) demonstrated 31.3% inhibition against carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in Wistar Albino rats, while ibuprofen (50 mg/kg, p.o.) exerted 68.1% inhibition. Aller-7 also exhibited a dose-dependent (150-350 mg/kg) anti-inflammatory effect against Freund's adjuvant-induced arthritis in Wistar Albino rats and an approximately 63% inhibitory effect was observed at a dose of 350 mg/kg. The trypsin inhibitory activity of Aller-7 was determined, using ovomucoid as a positive control. Ovomucoid and Aller-7 demonstrated

  3. Safety of a novel botanical extract formula for ameliorating allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Amit, A; Saxena, V S; Pratibha, N; Bagchi, M; Bagchi, D; Stohs, S J

    2003-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (also known as hay fever) is the most commonly occurring immunological disorder, and it affects 40 million men, women, and children in the United States. Symptomatically, it is an inflammation and irritation of the mucous membranes that line the nose. Allergy is defined as a state of hypersensitivity or hyperimmunity caused by exposure to a particular antigen (allergen) that results in increased reactivity upon subsequent exposure. A novel botanical formulation, Aller-7/NR-A2, was developed for the treatment of allergic rhinitis; it is a combination of medicinal plant extracts from Phyllanthus emblica, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Albizia lebbeck, Piper nigrum, Zingiber officinale, and Piper longum. This novel formulation has demonstrated potent antihistaminic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antioxidant, and mast-cell-stabilization activities. All of the doses for these toxicity studies were selected according to the guidelines of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the World Health Organization, and the Environmental Protection Agency. Acute toxicity of Aller-7 was evaluated in Swiss Albino mice at doses of 125, 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg. After 15 days of treatment, the animals were sacrificed. No histopathological changes were observed in major vital organs. A similar study was conducted in Albino Wistar rats, which were sacrificed at the end of 15 days. No histopathological changes or toxicity was observed at up to 2 g/kg body weight. Subacute toxicity was conducted in Albino Wistar rats at a dose of 90 mg/kg body weight for 3 days, then at 180 mg/kg for the next 3 days, and then at 270 mg/kg for 3 weeks. After 28 days, the animals were sacrificed and tested; no toxicity was observed. In a subchronic toxicity study, there was no observed adverse effect level at 1 g/kg body weight in rats. In a teratological assay, at doses of 3.0 g/kg (20 times the recommended dose) and 1.8 g/kg, respectively, no

  4. Cocoa agroforestry is less resilient to sub-optimal and extreme climate than cocoa in full sun.

    PubMed

    Abdulai, Issaka; Vaast, Philippe; Hoffmann, Munir P; Asare, Richard; Jassogne, Laurence; Van Asten, Piet; Rötter, Reimund P; Graefe, Sophie

    2018-01-01

    Cocoa agroforestry is perceived as potential adaptation strategy to sub-optimal or adverse environmental conditions such as drought. We tested this strategy over wet, dry and extremely dry periods comparing cocoa in full sun with agroforestry systems: shaded by (i) a leguminous tree species, Albizia ferruginea and (ii) Antiaris toxicaria, the most common shade tree species in the region. We monitored micro-climate, sap flux density, throughfall, and soil water content from November 2014 to March 2016 at the forest-savannah transition zone of Ghana with climate and drought events during the study period serving as proxy for projected future climatic conditions in marginal cocoa cultivation areas of West Africa. Combined transpiration of cocoa and shade trees was significantly higher than cocoa in full sun during wet and dry periods. During wet period, transpiration rate of cocoa plants shaded by A. ferruginea was significantly lower than cocoa under A. toxicaria and full sun. During the extreme drought of 2015/16, all cocoa plants under A. ferruginea died. Cocoa plants under A. toxicaria suffered 77% mortality and massive stress with significantly reduced sap flux density of 115 g cm -2  day -1 , whereas cocoa in full sun maintained higher sap flux density of 170 g cm -2  day -1 . Moreover, cocoa sap flux recovery after the extreme drought was significantly higher in full sun (163 g cm -2  day -1 ) than under A. toxicaria (37 g cm -2  day -1 ). Soil water content in full sun was higher than in shaded systems suggesting that cocoa mortality in the shaded systems was linked to strong competition for soil water. The present results have major implications for cocoa cultivation under climate change. Promoting shade cocoa agroforestry as drought resilient system especially under climate change needs to be carefully reconsidered as shade tree species such as the recommended leguminous A. ferruginea constitute major risk to cocoa functioning under

  5. Utilisation of priority traditional medicinal plants and local people's knowledge on their conservation status in arid lands of Kenya (Mwingi District)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Mwingi District lies within the Kenyan Arid and Semiarid lands (ASALs) in Eastern Province. Although some ethnobotanical surveys have been undertaken in some arid and semiarid areas of Kenya, limited studies have documented priority medicinal plants as well as local people's awareness of conservation needs of these plants. This study sought to establish the priority traditional medicinal plants used for human, livestock healthcare, and those used for protecting stored grains against pest infestation in Mwingi district. Further, the status of knowledge among the local people on the threat and conservation status of important medicinal species was documented. This study identified 18 species which were regarded as priority traditional medicinal plants for human health. In terms of priority, 8 were classified as moderate, 6 high, while 4 were ranked highest priority species. These four species are Albizia amara (Roxb.) Boiv. (Mimosacaeae), Aloe secundiflora (Engl. (Aloaceae), Acalypha fruticosa Forssk. (Euphorbiaceae) and Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae). In regard to medicinal plants used for ethnoveterinary purposes, eleven species were identified while seven species were reported as being important for obtaining natural products or concoctions used for stored grain preservation especially against weevils. The data obtained revealed that there were new records of priority medicinal plants which had not been documented as priority species in the past. Results on conservation status of these plants showed that more than 80% of the respondents were unaware that wild medicinal plants were declining, and, consequently, few of them have any domesticated species. Some of the species that have been conserved on farm or deliberately allowed to persist when wild habitats are converted into agricultural lands include: Croton megalocarpus Hutch., Aloe secundiflora, Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Warburgia ugandensis Sprague, Ricinus communis L. and Terminalia brownie Fresen

  6. Medicinal plants used in treatment and management of cancer in Kakamega County, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Ochwang'i, Dominic O; Kimwele, Charles N; Oduma, Jemimah A; Gathumbi, Peter K; Mbaria, James M; Kiama, Stephen G

    2014-02-12

    Traditional medicine plays a critical role in treatment of chronic debilitating and life threatening conditions and diseases. Cancer is one such condition whose therapeutic intervention is commonly through inexpensive traditional herbal remedies. Increasingly industrialised societies are developing drugs and chemotherapeutics from these traditional herbal plants. Plant biogeography determines the abundance and availability of medicinal plants which in turn determine their use by local communities. The present study was carried out in Kakamega County of Kenya to identify and document medicinal plants used for treatment and management of cancer states by communities living adjacent to Kakamega Tropical rainforest of Kakamega County, Kenya. An ethnobotanical survey was done using semi-structured questionnaires administered to 32 randomly selected herbalists from Kakamega County. Sixty five (65) plants of 59 genera and 32 families were identified as candidates in therapeutic intervention against cancer states. Most commonly cited plant species were Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. ssp. nilotica (Seem), Microglossa pyrifolia (Lam.) Kuntze, Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex poir, Prunus africana (Hook. f.) kalkman, Cyphostemma serpens (A. Rich), Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don and Aloe volkensii Engl. The following were documented for the first time; Aeschynomene abyssinica (A. Rich.) Vatke, Synsepalum cerasiferum (welw.) T. D penn., Albizia coriaria Welw. ex Oliv., Aloe volkensii Engl. Bridelia micrantha (Hochst.) Baill, Croton macrostachyus Delile, Cyphostemma serpens (A. Rich), Dicliptera laxata C.B. Clarke, Ekebergia capensis Sparrm., Gardenia volkensii K. schum. ssp. volkensii, Glycine wightii (wight & Arn.), Ocimum gratissimum Suave, Olea hotcsh spp. hochstetteri, Pavetta abyssinica Fresen., Phyllanthus fischeri Pax, Psydrax schimperiana (A. Rich), Rhus vulgaris Meikle, Senna didymobotyra (Fresen.) Irwin and Barneby, Solanecio nandensis (S. Moore) C. Jeffrey

  7. Anti-proliferative activities on HeLa cancer cell line of Thai medicinal plant recipes selected from MANOSROI II database.

    PubMed

    Manosroi, Jiradej; Boonpisuttinant, Korawinwich; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Aranya

    2012-07-13

    The Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI II" contained the medicinal plant recipes of all regions in Thailand for the treatment of various diseases including anti-cancer medicinal plant recipes. To investigate anti-proliferative activity on HeLa cell lines of medicinal plant recipes selected from the Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI II". The forty aqueous extracts of Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipes selected from the Thai/Lanna medicinal plant recipe database "MANOSROI II" were investigated for anti-proliferative activity on HeLa cell line by SRB assay. The apoptosis induction by caspase-3 activity and MMP-2 inhibition activity by zymography on HeLa cell line of the three selected aqueous extracts, which gave the highest anti-proliferative activity were determined. Phytochemicals and anti-oxidative activities including free radical scavenging activity, inhibition of lipid peroxidation and metal chelating inhibition activities were also investigated. Sixty percentages of the medicinal plant recipes selected from "MANOSROI II" database showed anti-proliferative activity on HeLa cell line. The recipes of N031(Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr, Cassia fistula L., and Dargea volubilis Benth.ex Hook. etc.), N039 (Nymphoides indica L., Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC.), and Polyalthia debilis Finet et Gagnep etc.) and N040 (Nymphoides indica L. Kuntze, Sida rhombifolia L., and Xylinbaria minutiflora Pierre. etc.) gave higher anti-proliferative activity than the standard anti-cancer drug, cisplatin of 1.25, 1.29 and 30.18 times, respectively. The positive relationship between the anti-proliferative activity and the MMP-2 inhibition activity and metal chelating inhibition activity was observed, but no relationship between the anti-proliferative activity and apoptosis induction, free radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. Phytochemicals found in these extracts were alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and xanthones

  8. Response To And Lessons Learned From Two Back-To-Back Disasters At Kilauea Volcano, Puna District, Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, C. E.; Houghton, B. F.; Kim, K.

    2015-12-01

    The Puna District, Hawaii, is exposed to many natural hazards, including those associated with volcanic eruptions and tropical storms, but for decades Puna has also been the fastest growing District in the state due to its affordable real estate. In 2014, populated areas were affected by back-to-back hurricane and volcanic eruption crises. Both events were declared Presidential Disasters and tested response and recovery systems of many of Puna's 49, 000 residents, government services and businesses. This paper summarizes individual and organizational response to the two crises: the relatively rapid onset Tropical Storm Iselle, which made landfall in Puna on August 5 and the slow onset June 27 lava flow. The latter took some 2 months to advance to the edge of developed areas, prompting widespread community reaction. While the lava flows no longer pose an immediate threat to development because they are repaving remote, near-source and upflow areas, the lava could again advance into developed areas over similar time scales as in 2014. Puna is mostly a rural setting with many narrow, privately owned dirt roads. Some residents have no municipal electricity and water; they use solar and gasoline generators and rain catchment systems. High winds and collapse of exotic Albizia trees during Iselle isolated many residents, but people self-organized through social media to respond and recover. Social media and community meetings dominated information sharing during the lava crisis. Major expenses were incurred in response to the lava crisis, primarily through upgraded alternate roads that provide redundancy and construction of temporary school buildings linked to evacuation and relocation of students. Experiences during Iselle primed residents to rapidly self-organize and address the impending inundation by slow moving lava flows which advanced in uncertain directions at rates of 0-450 m/day. People's demand for constant and near-real time information from authorities placed

  9. Descriptive study of plant resources in the context of the ethnomedicinal relevance of indigenous flora: A case study from Toli Peer National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Amjad, Muhammad Shoaib; Qaeem, Mirza faisal; Ahmad, Israr; Khan, Sami Ullah; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil; Zahid Malik, Nafeesa; Shaheen, Humaira; Khan, Arshad Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    gastro-intestinal, parasitic and hepatobiliary complaints (0.90). Berberis lycium Ajuga bracteosa, Prunella vulgaris, Adiantum capillus-veneris, Desmodium polycarpum, Pinus roxburgii, Albizia lebbeck, Cedrella serrata, Rosa brunonii, Punica granatum, Jasminum mesnyi and Zanthoxylum armatum were the most valuable plants with the highest UV, RFC and relative importance values. The Pearson correlation coefficient between UV and RFC (0.881) reflects a significant positive correlation between the use value and relative frequency of citation. The coefficient of determination indicated that 77% of the variability in UV could be explained in terms of RFC. Conclusion Systematic documentation of the medicinal plants in the Toli Peer National Park shows that the area is rich in plants with ethnomedicinal value and that the inhabitants of the area have significant knowledge about the use of such plants with herbal drugs commonly used to cure infirmities. The results of this study indicate that carrying out subsequent pharmacological and phytochemical investigations in this part of Pakistan could lead to new drug discoveries. PMID:28192466

  10. Descriptive study of plant resources in the context of the ethnomedicinal relevance of indigenous flora: A case study from Toli Peer National Park, Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Amjad, Muhammad Shoaib; Qaeem, Mirza Faisal; Ahmad, Israr; Khan, Sami Ullah; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil; Zahid Malik, Nafeesa; Shaheen, Humaira; Khan, Arshad Mehmood

    2017-01-01

    hepatobiliary complaints (0.90). Berberis lycium Ajuga bracteosa, Prunella vulgaris, Adiantum capillus-veneris, Desmodium polycarpum, Pinus roxburgii, Albizia lebbeck, Cedrella serrata, Rosa brunonii, Punica granatum, Jasminum mesnyi and Zanthoxylum armatum were the most valuable plants with the highest UV, RFC and relative importance values. The Pearson correlation coefficient between UV and RFC (0.881) reflects a significant positive correlation between the use value and relative frequency of citation. The coefficient of determination indicated that 77% of the variability in UV could be explained in terms of RFC. Systematic documentation of the medicinal plants in the Toli Peer National Park shows that the area is rich in plants with ethnomedicinal value and that the inhabitants of the area have significant knowledge about the use of such plants with herbal drugs commonly used to cure infirmities. The results of this study indicate that carrying out subsequent pharmacological and phytochemical investigations in this part of Pakistan could lead to new drug discoveries.

  11. Fungal Planet description sheets: 469-557.

    PubMed

    Crous, P W; Wingfield, M J; Burgess, T I; Hardy, G E St J; Crane, C; Barrett, S; Cano-Lira, J F; Le Roux, J J; Thangavel, R; Guarro, J; Stchigel, A M; Martín, M P; Alfredo, D S; Barber, P A; Barreto, R W; Baseia, I G; Cano-Canals, J; Cheewangkoon, R; Ferreira, R J; Gené, J; Lechat, C; Moreno, G; Roets, F; Shivas, R G; Sousa, J O; Tan, Y P; Wiederhold, N P; Abell, S E; Accioly, T; Albizu, J L; Alves, J L; Antoniolli, Z I; Aplin, N; Araújo, J; Arzanlou, M; Bezerra, J D P; Bouchara, J-P; Carlavilla, J R; Castillo, A; Castroagudín, V L; Ceresini, P C; Claridge, G F; Coelho, G; Coimbra, V R M; Costa, L A; da Cunha, K C; da Silva, S S; Daniel, R; de Beer, Z W; Dueñas, M; Edwards, J; Enwistle, P; Fiuza, P O; Fournier, J; García, D; Gibertoni, T B; Giraud, S; Guevara-Suarez, M; Gusmão, L F P; Haituk, S; Heykoop, M; Hirooka, Y; Hofmann, T A; Houbraken, J; Hughes, D P; Kautmanová, I; Koppel, O; Koukol, O; Larsson, E; Latha, K P D; Lee, D H; Lisboa, D O; Lisboa, W S; López-Villalba, Á; Maciel, J L N; Manimohan, P; Manjón, J L; Marincowitz, S; Marney, T S; Meijer, M; Miller, A N; Olariaga, I; Paiva, L M; Piepenbring, M; Poveda-Molero, J C; Raj, K N A; Raja, H A; Rougeron, A; Salcedo, I; Samadi, R; Santos, T A B; Scarlett, K; Seifert, K A; Shuttleworth, L A; Silva, G A; Silva, M; Siqueira, J P Z; Souza-Motta, C M; Stephenson, S L; Sutton, D A; Tamakeaw, N; Telleria, M T; Valenzuela-Lopez, N; Viljoen, A; Visagie, C M; Vizzini, A; Wartchow, F; Wingfield, B D; Yurchenko, E; Zamora, J C; Groenewald, J Z

    2016-12-01

    caatingaensis (endophyte from Tacinga inamoena ), Geastrum ishikawae on sandy soil, Geastrum pusillipilosum on soil, Gymnopus pygmaeus on dead leaves and sticks, Inonotus hymenonitens on decayed angiosperm trunk, Pyricularia urashimae on Urochloa brizantha , and Synnemellisia aurantia on Passiflora edulis . Chile : Tubulicrinis australis on Lophosoria quadripinnata. France : Cercophora squamulosa from submerged wood, and Scedosporium cereisporum from fluids of a wastewater treatment plant. Hawaii : Beltraniella acaciae , Dactylaria acaciae , Rhexodenticula acaciae , Rubikia evansii and Torula acaciae (all on Acacia koa ) . India : Lepidoderma echinosporum on dead semi-woody stems, and Rhodocybe rubrobrunnea from soil. Iran : Talaromyces kabodanensis from hypersaline soil. La Réunion : Neocordana musarum from leaves of Musa sp. Malaysia : Anungitea eucalyptigena on Eucalyptus grandis × pellita , Camptomeriphila leucaenae (incl. Camptomeriphila gen. nov.) on Leucaena leucocephala , Castanediella communis on Eucalyptus pellita , Eucalyptostroma eucalypti (incl. Eucalyptostroma gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus pellita , Melanconiella syzygii on Syzygium sp., Mycophilomyces periconiae (incl. Mycophilomyces gen. nov.) as hyperparasite on Periconia on leaves of Albizia falcataria , Synnemadiella eucalypti (incl. Synnemadiella gen. nov.) on Eucalyptus pellita , and Teichospora nephelii on Nephelium lappaceum. Mexico : Aspergillus bicephalus from soil. New Zealand : Aplosporella sophorae on Sophora microphylla , Libertasomyces platani on Platanus sp., Neothyronectria sophorae (incl. Neothyronectria gen. nov.) on Sophora microphylla , Parastagonospora phoenicicola on Phoenix canariensis , Phaeoacremonium pseudopanacis on Pseudopanax crassifolius , Phlyctema phoenicis on Phoenix canariensis , and Pseudoascochyta novae-zelandiae on Cordyline australis. Panama : Chalara panamensis from needle litter of Pinus cf. caribaea . South Africa : Exophiala eucalypti on leaves of Eucalyptus sp