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Sample records for alboran sea system

  1. Magnetotelluric Measurements in the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, R. L.; Jegen, M. D.; Garcia, X. A.; Matsuno, T.; Elsenbeck, J.; Worzewski, T. W.

    2010-12-01

    The PICASSO program aims to understand the tectonic history of the western Mediterranean, between Spain and Morocco, where conflicting models have suggested that the region is either a relict subduction system or a zone of mantle delamination. As part of this program we successfully deployed 12 seafloor MT instruments in water depths greater than 800m in the Alboran sea. We plan to deploy additional instruments in the fall of 2010. An initial analysis of the data shows complex MT response functions with strong distortion due to seafloor topography and coast effect. This coast effect suggests a fairly resistive lithosphere beneath the seafloor, which is confirmed after inspection of the preliminary responses. We will present the data collected thus far, along with preliminary models of the profiles collected.

  2. Atmospheric forcing and Sea Surface Temperature response in the Gulf of Cadiz-Alboran Sea system in a 20 years simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutov, D.; Peliz, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the frame of MedEX ("Inter-basin exchange in the changing Mediterranean Sea") Project a 20 years (1989-2008) simulation at 2km resolution covering Gulf of Cadiz and Alboran Sea, forced by 9 km winds (WRF downscaling of ERA-Interim reanalysis), is analyzed and compared with observations. Statistical methods, EOF techniques and two harmonic (including annual and semi-annual frequencies) data fit were performed for the analysis. Modeled SST fields are also compared with long-term (1996-2008) in-situ buoy observations provided by Puertos del Estado (Spain) and satellite derived Pathfinder SST database. Model SSTs generally follow observations data at annual and inter-annual scales with a global error not exceeding 0.17°C (model warmer than SST). No significant warming tendency was observed in both basins during the 20 years and the Interanual variability dominates, with the series showing a cooling period from 1991 to 1993 followed by a warming period started from 1994. In particular we show that SST cooling observed in the early 1990's in the Gulf of Cadiz - Alboran system is associated with the 1991 catastrophic eruption of Pinatubo volcano (Philippines).

  3. Controls of picophytoplankton abundance and composition in a highly dynamic marine system, the Northern Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Ana L.; León, Pablo; Mercado, Jesús M.; Cortés, Dolores; Gómez, Francisco; Putzeys, Sebastien; Salles, Soluna; Yebra, Lidia

    2016-06-01

    The Alboran Sea is a highly dynamic basin which exhibits a high spatio-temporal variability of hydrographic structures (e.g. fronts, gyres, coastal upwellings). This work compares the abundance and composition of picophytoplankton observed across the northern Alboran Sea among eleven cruises between 2008 and 2012 using flow cytometry. We evaluate the seasonal and longitudinal variability of picophytoplankton on the basis of the circulation regimes at a regional scale and explore the presence of cyanobacteria ecotypes in the basin. The maximal abundances obtained for Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes (12.7 × 104, 13.9 × 104 and 8.6 × 104 cells mL- 1 respectively) were consistent with those reported for other adjacent marine areas. Seasonal changes in the abundance of the three picophytoplankton groups were highly significant although they did not match the patterns described for other coastal waters. Higher abundances of Prochlorococcus were obtained in autumn-winter while Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes exhibited a different seasonal abundance pattern depending on the sector (e.g. Synechococcus showed higher abundance in summer in the west sector and during winter in the eastern study area). Additionally, conspicuous longitudinal gradients were observed for Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, with Prochlorococcus decreasing from west to east and Synechococcus following the opposite pattern. The analysis of environmental variables (i.e. temperature, salinity and inorganic nutrients) and cell abundances indicates that Prochlorococcus preferred high salinity and nitrate to phosphate ratio. On the contrary, temperature did not seem to play a role in Prochlorococcus distribution as it was numerically important during the whole seasonal cycle. Variability in Synechococcus abundance could not be explained by changes in any environmental variable suggesting that different ecotypes were sampled during the surveys. In particular, our data would indicate

  4. Evolution of the Alboran Sea hydrographic structures during July 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, Jesús García.; Cano, Natalio; Vargas, Manuel; Rubín, Juan P.; Hernández-Guerra, Alonso

    1998-01-01

    During the ICTIOALBORAN-0793 multidisciplinary oceanographic survey carried out in July 1993 by the Instituto Español de Oceanografı´a (IEO) in the Alboran Sea, some anomalous features were detected. One was the presence of a small cyclonic eddy in the western Alboran Basin, close to the African coast. The upper layer of the eddy consisted of Mediterranean Surface Water and was separated from its supposed source (the northern Alboran Sea) by the Atlantic Jet. Another feature was the probable temporary interruption of the flow of fresh Atlantic Water (S≈36.5) into the eastern Alboran Basin and its replacement by a modified (saltier) Atlantic Water. These features can be explained assuming a time evolution of the surface circulation in the Alboran Sea forced by speed variations in the inflowing Atlantic Water through the Strait of Gibraltar. A collection of satellite images covering the survey period and across-strait sea level difference data, indicative of the geostrophic velocity of the inflow through the Strait, were used to check this assumption. Both sets of data supplied independent but compatible information in the sense that they complemented each other and gave support to the proposed evolving model. Finally, some speculative ideas attempting to correlate the inferred variability in the Alboran Sea with the state of the baroclinic water exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar (maximal or submaximal) are discussed.

  5. Mantle structure beneath the Alboran Sea from shear wave splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, L. A.; Becker, T. W.; Miller, M. S.; Allam, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    New seismological investigations in the Alboran domain of the western Mediterranean, as part of the PICASSO experiment, support geodynamic models which constrain the mantle structure beneath the Alboran Sea. We evaluate global circulation models in the context of seismic anistropy as inferred from SKS/SKKS splitting observations. Using instantaneous velocity fields from 3-D flow models with variable mantle density based on several tomography and seismicity based models, we calculate the predicted anisotropy, fast polarization direction (FPD), and delay times in order to explain the complex tectonic and geologic history of the Alboran Sea region. Slab rollback, delamination, and convective removal processes have been invoked to explain the synorogenic extension in the Alboran and recently published splitting measurements show north-east trending FPD across the Iberian margin with a rotation to the southeast that follows the curve of the Gibraltar arc, suggested by the authors as supporting west-directed slab rollback. Our new measurements from 39 stations substantiate the measurements in southern Spain, but we find a striking, nearly 90 degree rotation in azimuth and reduced delay times across the High Atlas Mountains in northern Morocco. These splitting patterns define three distinct regions we attempt to predict with our geodynamic models. Here, we test several differently-oriented subduction, slab break-off, and delamination scenarios. Our preliminary results show that density models which include a curved, northeast trending slab predict the east-northeast oriented measurements along the Iberian margin. Imposing a drip structure beneath the Alboran Sea also predicts these orientations. In order to predict the rotation of the FPD we find in Morocco, however, most models require a stiff keel beneath the African craton.

  6. New and rare sponges from the deep shelf of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Sitjà, Cèlia; Maldonado, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The sponge fauna from the deep shelf (70 to 200 m) of the Alboran Island (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean) was investigated using a combination of ROV surveys and collecting devices in the frame of the EC LIFE+ INDEMARES Grant aimed to designate marine areas of the Nature 2000 Network within Spanish territorial waters. From ROV surveys and 351 examined specimens, a total of 87 sponge species were identified, most belonging in the Class Demospongiae, and one belonging in the Class Hexactinellida. Twenty six (29%) species can be regarded as either taxonomically or faunistically relevant. Three of them were new to science (Axinella alborana nov. sp.; Axinella spatula nov. sp.; Endectyon filiformis nov. sp.) and 4 others were Atlantic species recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea (Jaspis eudermis Lévi & Vacelet, 1958; Hemiasterella elongata Topsent, 1928; Axinella vellerea Topsent, 1904; Gelliodes fayalensis Topsent, 1892). Another outstanding finding was a complete specimen of Rhabdobaris implicata Pulitzer-Finali, 1983, a species only known from its holotype, which had entirely been dissolved for its description. Our second record of the species has allowed a neotype designation and a restitution of the recently abolished genus Rhabdobaris Pulitzer-Finally, 1983, also forcing a slight modification of the diagnosis of the family Bubaridae. Additionally, 12 species were recorded for the first time from the shelf of the Alboran Island, including a few individuals of the large hexactinellid Asconema setubalense Kent, 1877 that provided the second Mediterranean record of this "North Atlantic" hexactinellid. ROV explorations also revealed that sponges are an important component of the deep-shelf benthos, particularly on rocky bottoms, where they make peculiar sponge gardens characterized by a wide diversity of small, erect species forming a dense "undergrowth" among a scatter of large sponges and gorgonians. The great abundance and the taxonomic

  7. Modeling the impact of tidal flows on the biological productivity of the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Garrido, José C.; Naranjo, C.; Macías, D.; García-Lafuente, J.; Oguz, T.

    2015-11-01

    The control of phytoplankton production by tidal forcing in the Alboran Sea is investigated with a high-resolution ocean circulation model coupled to an ecosystem model. The aim of the modeling efforts was to elucidate the role of tides in sustaining the high biological productivity of the Alboran Sea, as compared with the rest of the Mediterranean subbasins. It is shown that tidal forcing accounts for an increase of phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity in the basin of about 40% with respect to a nontidal circulation, and about 60% in the western Alboran Sea alone. The tidal dynamics of the Strait of Gibraltar is shown to be the primary factor in determining the enhancement of productivity, pumping nutrients from depth to the photic zone in the Alboran Sea. Model results indicate that the biological implications of the propagating internal tides are small. These results imply that nutrient transports through the Strait of Gibraltar have to be parametrized in ocean models that do not resolve tides in order to properly represent the biochemical budgets of the Alboran Sea.

  8. The depiction of Alboran Sea Gyre during Donde Va? using remote sensing and conventional data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laviolette, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    Experienced oceanographic investigators have come to realize that remote sensing techniques are most successful when applied as part of programs of integrated measurements aimed at solving specific oceanographic problems. A good example of such integration occurred during the multi-platform international experiment, Donde Va? in the Alboran Sea during the period June through October, 1982. The objective of Donde Va? was to derive the interrelationship of the Atlantic waters entering the Mediterranean Sea and the Alboran Sea Gyre. The experimental plan conceived solely with this objective in mind consisted of a variety of remote sensing and conventional platforms: three ships, three aircraft, five current moorings, two satellites and a specialized beach radar (CODAR). Integrated analyses of these multiple-data sets are still being conducted. However, the initial results show detailed structure of the incoming Atlantic jet and Alboran Sea Gyre that would not have been possible by conventional means.

  9. Identification of T-Waves in the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Enrique; Almendros, Javier; Alguacil, Gerardo; Soto, Juan Ignacio; Luzón, Francisco; Ibáñez, Jesús M.

    2015-11-01

    Analyses of seismograms from ~1,100 north-Moroccan earthquakes recorded at stations of the Red Sísmica de Andalucía (Southern Spain) reveal the systematic presence of late phases embedded in the earthquake codas. These phases have distinctive frequency contents, similar to the P and S spectra and quite different to the frequency contents of the earthquake codas. They are best detected at near-shore stations. Their amplitudes decay significantly with distance to the shoreline. The delays with respect to the P-wave onsets of the preceding earthquakes are consistently around 85 s. Late phases are only detected for earthquakes located in a small region of about 100 × 60 km centered at 35.4°N, 4.0°W near the northern coast of Morocco. Several hypotheses could, in principle, explain the presence of these late phases in the seismograms, for example, the occurrence of low-energy aftershocks, efficient wave reflections, or Rayleigh waves generated along the source-station paths. However, we conclude that the most-likely origin of these phases corresponds to the incidence of T-waves (generated by conversion from elastic to acoustic energy in the north-Moroccan coast) in the southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. T-waves are thought to be generated by energy trapping in low-velocity channels along long oceanic paths; in this case, we demonstrate that they can be produced in much shorter paths as well. Although T-waves have been already documented in other areas of the Mediterranean Sea, this is the first time that they have been identified in the Alboran Sea.

  10. Seafloor morphology related to recent tectonics in the Alboran Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, Juan-Tomás; Estrada, Ferran; Vegas, Ramon; Ercilla, Gemma; Medialdea, Teresa; d'Acremont, Elia; Alonso, Belen; Fernández-Salas, Luis-Miguel; Gómez-Ballesteros, María; Somoza, Luis; Bárcenas, Patricia; Palomino, Desirée; Gorini, Christian

    2014-05-01

    A detailed geomorphological study of the northern part of the Alboran Sea Basin has been realized based on the combined analysis of multibeam swath bathymetric data and medium to very high resolution seismic profiles (singled Sparker, Airgun, TOPAS and Atlas PARASOUND P35). This has enabled us to define several tectonic-related seafloor features and their role in the recent tectonics. The observed morpho-tectonic features correspond to: i) lineal scarps with a wide range of dimensions and following several trends ,WNW-ESE, NE-SW, NNE-SSW and N-S; ii) NE-SW to NNE-SSW-oriented compressive ridges; iii) ENE-WSW to NE-SW-striking antiforms; iv) NNE-SSW-oriented lineal depressions; v) rhomb-shaped depressions; vi) lineal valleys, canyons and gullies with WNW-ESE, and N-S orientations; and vii) N-S directed dissected valleys, canyons and gullies. Three families of faults and related folds, with NE-SW, WNW-ESE and NNE-SSW to N-S have been interpreted within this geomorphological scheme. The NE-SW family corresponds to: a) major scarps in both flanks of the Alboran Ridge and b) the offshore prolongation of La Serrata Fault, and both have been considered as a set of sinistral strike-slip faults. To this family, some compressive ridges, antiforms and occasionally reverse faults have been correlated. The WNW-ESE family corresponds to a set of faulted valleys (occasionally with rhomb-shaped depressions), fault scarps and linear inflection points occurring in the northern Alboran margin and the Yusuf-Habibas corridor. This family has been interpreted as transtensive dextral strike-slip faults. The NNE-SSW to N-S family corresponds to a penetrative system of linear fault scarps and tectonic depressions that cross-cut the Alboran Ridge and the Djibouti-Motril marginal plateau. This family can be considered as more recent since it offsets the other two families and shows a minor importance with regard to the main reliefs. This communication is a contribution to the Spanish R + D

  11. New insights from seismic tomography on the complex geodynamic evolution of two adjacent domains: Gulf of Cadiz and Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monna, S.; Cimini, G. B.; Montuori, C.; Matias, L.; Geissler, W. H.; Favali, P.

    2013-04-01

    In this study, we present a three-dimensional P wave upper-mantle tomography model of the southwest Iberian margin and Alboran Sea based on teleseismic arrival times recorded by Iberian and Moroccan land stations and by a seafloor network deployed for 1 year in the Gulf of Cadiz area during the European Commission Integrated observations from NEAR shore sourcES of Tsunamis: towards an early warning system (EC NEAREST) project. The three-dimensional model was computed down to 600 km depth. The tomographic images exhibit significant velocity contrasts, as large as 3%, confirming the complex evolution of this plate boundary region. Prominent high-velocity anomalies are found beneath Betics-Alboran Sea, off-shore southwest Portugal, and north Portugal, at sublithospheric depths. The transition zones between high- and low-velocity anomalies in southwest and south Iberia are associated to the contact of oceanic and continental lithosphere. The fast structure below the Alboran Sea-Granada area depicts an L-shaped body steeply dipping from the uppermost mantle to the transition zone where it becomes less curved. This anomaly is consistent with the results of previous tomographic investigations and recent geophysical data such as stress distribution, GPS measurements of plate motion, and anisotropy patterns. In the Atlantic domain, under the Horseshoe Abyssal Plain, the main feature is a high-velocity zone found at uppermost mantle depths. This feature appears laterally separated from the positive anomaly recovered in the Alboran domain by the interposition of low-velocity zones which characterize the lithosphere beneath the southwest Iberian peninsula margin, suggesting that there is no continuity between the high-velocity anomalies of the two domains west and east of the Gibraltar Strait.

  12. Evolution of the continental margin of southern Spain and the Alboran Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Robb, James M.; Greene, H. Gary; Lucena, Juan Carlos

    1980-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles and magnetic intensity measurements were collected across the southern continental margin of Spain and the Alboran basin between Spain and Africa. Correlation of the distinct seismic stratigraphy observed in the profiles to stratigraphic information obtained from cores at Deep Sea Drilling Project site 121 allows effective dating of tectonic events. The Alboran Sea basin occupies a zone of motion between the African and Iberian lithospheric plates that probably began to form by extension in late Miocene time (Tortonian). At the end of Miocene time (end of Messinian) profiles show that an angular unconformity was cut, and then the strata were block faulted before subsequent deposition. The erosion of the unconformity probably resulted from lowering of Mediterranean sea level by evaporation when the previous channel between the Mediterranean and Atlantic was closed. Continued extension probably caused the block faulting and, eventually the opening of the present channel to the Atlantic through the Strait of Gibraltar and the reflooding of the Mediterranean. Minor tectonic movements at the end of Calabrian time (early Pleistocene) apparently resulted in minor faulting, extensive transgression in southeastern Spain, and major changes in the sedimentary environment of the Alboran basin. Active faulting observed at five locations on seismic profiles seems to form a NNE zone of transcurrent movement across the Alboran Sea. This inferred fault trend is coincident with some bathymetric, magnetic and seismicity trends and colinear with active faults that have been mapped on-shore in Morocco and Spain. The faults were probably caused by stresses related to plate movements, and their direction was modified by inherited fractures in the lithosphere that floors the Alboran Sea.

  13. Surface mesoscale pico-nanoplankton patterns at the main fronts of the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, P.; Blanco, J. M.; Flexas, M. M.; Gomis, D.; Reul, A.; Rodríguez, V.; Jiménez-Gómez, F.; Allen, J. T.; Rodríguez, J.

    2015-03-01

    The mesoscale (10-100 km, days-weeks) plays a key role in the Ocean's ecosystem structure and dynamics. This work compares the pico-nanoplankton patterns observed in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean) during three oceanographic cruises. We analyse its response to different expressions of mesoscale circulation associated with the three major hydrodynamic features in the basin; namely the Northwestern Alboran Front (NWAF, surveyed in OMEGA-1 cruise), the Almeria-Oran Front (AOF, surveyed in OMEGA-2 cruise) and the Western Alboran Gyre (WAG, surveyed in BIOMEGA cruise). The first two surveys were carried out under the most typical quasi-stationary twin gyre conditions of the Alboran Sea, whereas the third cruise was performed after an eastward migration of the WAG. The analysis of pico and nanoplankton populations was carried out using flow cytometry. The patchiness observed in the three cruises indicates an association of phytoplankton peaks with the main frontal structures: abundances were higher in the NWAF/upwelling area in OMEGA-1, at the Mediterranean side of the AOF in OMEGA-2, and at a tongue of recent Atlantic Water west of the WAG in BIOMEGA. However, a more detailed analysis reveals that different factors explain the origin of the phytoplankton biomass in each front/cruise. Mixing processes at the Strait of Gibraltar and the subsequent advection of water properties into the Western Alboran Sea were the mechanisms responsible for the abundances observed in the NWAF. The highest concentrations observed in the AOF were related to the intrusion of Mediterranean Surface Waters to the north of the front. During the migrating WAG the phytoplankton distribution was influenced by the formation of a new gyre. The relation between phytoplankton and mesoscale dynamics is further explored in terms of vertical velocity diagnosis. In all cases, intense vertical motion is negatively correlated with the abundance of phytoplankton populations. This resulted from the

  14. The Climatological Annual Cycle of Satellite-derived Phytoplankton Pigments in the Alboran Sea: A Physical Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Gorriz, E.; Carr, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    The circulation and upwelling processes (coastal and gyre-induced) that control the phytoplankton distribution in the Alboran sea are examined by analyzing monthly climatological patterns of Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) pigment concentrations, sea surface temperatures, winds, and seasonal geostrophic fields.

  15. Geotechnical properties and preliminary assessment of sediment stability on the continental slope of the northwestern Alboran Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baraza, J.; Ercilla, G.; Lee, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory analysis of core samples from the western Alboran Sea slope reveal a large variability in texture and geotechnical properties. Stability analysis suggests that the sediment is stable under static gravitational loading but potentially unstable under seismic loading. Slope failures may occur if horizontal ground accelerations greater than 0.16 g are seismically induced. The, Alboran Sea is an active region, on which earthquakes inducing accelerations big enough to exceed the shear strength of the soft soil may occur. Test results contrast with the apparent stability deduced from seismic profiles. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  16. ALBOREX: an intensive multi-platform and multidisciplinary experiment in the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Simón; Pascual, Ananda; Allen, John; Olita, Antonio; Tovar, Antonio; Oguz, Temel; Mahadevan, Amala; Poulain, Pierre; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    An intensive multi-platform and multidisciplinary experiment was completed in May 2014 as part of PERSEUS EU Project. 25 drifters, 2 gliders, 3 Argo floats and one ship were dedicated to sample an area of about 50x50 km in the eastern Alboran Sea during one week. The experiment, which also includes 66 CTD stations and 500 water samples (salinity, chlorophyll and nutrients), was designed to capture the intense but transient vertical exchanges associated with mesoscale and submesoscale features. The vertical motion associated with mesoscale and submesoscale features such as ocean eddies, filaments and fronts plays a major role in determining ocean productivity, due to the exchange of properties between the surface and the ocean interior. Understanding the relationship between these physical and biological processes is crucial for predicting the marine ecosystems response to changes in the climate system and to sustainable marine resource management. However, to understand the links between mesoscale and submesoscale features and ecosystem responses, it is necessary to collect data at a range of temporal and spatial scales, and then combine these data with coupled physical and biochemical models. Data from thermosalinograph revealed a sharp surface salinity front with values ranging from 36.6 (Atlantic Waters) to 38.2 (Mediterranean Waters) in conjunction with a filament in temperature. Drifters followed a massive anticyclonic gyre. Near real time data from ADCP showed coherent patterns with currents up to 1m/s. Gliders detected a subduction of chlorophyll located in areas adjacent to the front. We also present results on the horizontal strain rate, relative vorticity and quasi-geostrophic vertical motion to understand the dynamics of this intense ocean front.

  17. Atmospheric patterns driving Holocene productivity in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean): a multiproxy approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausin, Blanca; Flores, Jose-Abel; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Cacho, Isabel; Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Martrat, Belén; Grimalt, Joan

    2014-05-01

    This study is aimed to reconstruct productivity during the Holocene in the Western Mediterranean as well as to investigate what processes account for its short-term variability. Fossil coccolithophore assemblages have been studied along with Mg/Ca and Uk'37-estimated Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and other paleoenvironmental proxies. The study site is located in a semi-permanent area of upwelling in the Alboran Sea. This productive cell is of special interest since is closely related to local hydrological dynamics driven by the entering Atlantic Jet (AJ). The onset of this productive cell is suggested at 7.7 ka cal. B.P. and linked to the establishment of the anticyclonic gyres. From 7.7 ka cal. BP to present, the N ratio and accumulation rate of Florisphaera profunda show successive upwelling and stratification events. This alternation is simultaneous to changes in the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) formation rate in the Gulf of Lions [Frigola et al., 2007], along with changes in Mg/Ca-estimated SST, relative abundance of reworked nannoliths, pollen grains record [Fletcher et al., 2012] and n-hexacosan-1-ol index. Two scenarios are proposed to explain short-term climatic and oceanographic variability: [1] Wetter climate and weaker north-westerlies blowing over the Gulf of Lions trigger a slackening of the WMDW formation. Consequently, a minor AJ inflows the Alboran Sea leading to less vertical mixing and a deepening of the nutricline and hence, long-term stratification events. [2] Arid climate and stronger north-westerlies enable WMDW reinforcement. In turn, increased AJ triggers vertical mixing and nutricline shoaling, and therefore, productive periods. Finally, changes in atmospheric patterns (e.g. the winter North Atlantic Oscillation; [Olsen et al., 2012]) prove to be useful in explaining the WMDW formation in the Gulf of Lions and associated short-term productivity variations in the Alboran Sea. References Fletcher, W. J., M. Debret, and M. F

  18. Origin of lipid biomarkers in mud volcanoes from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Rodríguez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; De Lange, G. J.; Martínez-Ruíz, F.; Comas, M.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2013-11-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are the most prominent indicators of active methane/hydrocarbon venting at the seafloor on both passive and active continental margins. Their occurrence in the Western Mediterranean is patent at the West Alboran Basin, where numerous MVs develop overlaying a major sedimentary depocenter containing overpressured shales. Although some of these MVs have been studied, the detailed biogeochemistry of expelled mud so far has not been examined in detail. This work provides the first results on the composition and origin of organic matter, Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane (AOM) processes and general characteristics on MV dynamics using lipid biomarkers as the main tool. Lipid biomarker analysis was performed on MV expelled material (mud breccias) and interbedded hemipelagic sediments from Perejil, Kalinin and Schneider's Heart MVs located in the northwest margin of the Alboran Sea. The n-alkane-distributions and n-alkane-derived indices (CPI and ACL), in combination with the epimerization degree of hopanes (22S/(22S + 22R)) indicate that all studied mud breccia have a similar biomarker composition consisting of mainly thermally immature organic matter with an admixture of petroleum-derived compounds. This concordant composition indicates that common source strata must feed all three studied MVs. The past or present AOM activity was established using lipid biomarkers specific for anaerobic methanotropic archaea (irregular isoprenoids and DGDs) and the depleted carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of crocetane/phytane. The presence of these lipid biomarkers, together with the low amounts of detected GDGTs, is consistent with the dominance of anaerobic methanotrophs of the ANME-2 over ANME-1, at least in mud breccia from Perejil MVs. In contrast, the scarce presence or lack of these AOM-related lipid biomarkers in sediments from Kalinin and Schneider's Heart MVs, suggest no recent active methane seepage has occurred at these sites. Moreover, the observed

  19. Meteorologically-induced mesoscale variability of the North-western Alboran Sea (southern Spain) and related biological patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, D.; Bruno, M.; Echevarría, F.; Vázquez, A.; García, C. M.

    2008-06-01

    Hydrographic mesoscale structures in the North-western Alboran Sea show a high variability induced by a number of different factors. One of the most important is the differences in atmospheric pressure over the Mediterranean basin when compared to the Gulf of Cádiz. This difference modulates the zonal wind field in the Alboran Sea and the intensity of the Atlantic inflow through the Strait of Gibraltar, also affecting the formation and extension of the Western Alboran Gyre (WAG). When westerly winds are dominant, lower atmospheric pressure in the Mediterranean enhances the inflow of Atlantic waters causing the Atlantic Jet to be located in the vicinity of the Spanish shore, creating a well-defined frontal zone in front of Estepona Cove. In this situation, the coastal upwelling is enhanced, leading to a minimum in sea surface temperature and a maximum of surface nutrient concentrations located in the coastal area. The vertical position of the chlorophyll maximum found in these circumstances appeared to be controlled by the nutrient availability. On the other hand, when easterly winds prevail, higher atmospheric pressure in the Mediterranean leads to a reduced inflow and the oceanographic and biological structures are clearly different. The Atlantic Jet moves southward flowing in a south-eastern direction, changing the structure of the currents, resulting in an enhanced cyclonic circulation extending throughout the North-western Alboran Sea basin. These physical alterations also induce changes in the distribution of biogeochemical variables. Maximum nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations are located further off the coast in the central area of the newly created cyclonic gyre. During these easterlies periods coastal upwelling stops and the distribution of phytoplankton cells seems to be mainly controlled by physical processes such as advection of coastal waters to the open sea.

  20. Consequences of a future climatic scenario for the anchovy fishery in the Alboran Sea (SW Mediterranean): A modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, D.; Castilla-Espino, D.; García-del-Hoyo, J. J.; Navarro, G.; Catalán, I. A.; Renault, L.; Ruiz, J.

    2014-07-01

    The Alboran basin is one of the most productive areas of the Mediterranean Sea and supports an anchovy fishery with a history of remarkably variable landings. Past and present anchovy recruitment levels are highly sensitive to changes in the strength and direction of the incoming jet of Atlantic waters, which modulate the hydrographic features of the basin. Here, we analyze plausible consequences for the anchovy fisheries in the region based on a projected physical scenario for the end of the century obtained using a coupled hydrological-biogeochemical model. Our model predicts a substantial increase in horizontal water velocity and a negligible change in the associated biological production, which likely indicates reductions in anchovy stock, catches and revenues. Alternative policies are analyzed here for the economic scenario that is expected to emerge under future conditions of oceanographic features, pelagic ecosystem dynamics and anchovy landings in the Alboran Sea.

  1. Mesoscale high-frequency variability in the Alboran Sea and its influence on fish larvae distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas-Yáñez, Manuel; Sabatés, Ana

    2007-12-01

    This work analyses a multidisciplinary data set including hydrological and meteorological data, satellite images, and fish larvae abundance from a high-frequency experiment conducted along a north-south transect across the Western Alboran Sea anticyclonic gyre. Four consecutive occupations of the transect, crossing the frontal area, evidenced the high-frequency variability of hydrological structures and its influence on the latitudinal and vertical distribution of fish larvae in a period of a few days. The influence of dynamical processes on fish larvae depends on the location of the spawning as well as on the larval fish position in the water column. Wind induced upwelling and/or the southward drift of the Atlantic current transport larvae of neritic species, such as Sardina pilchardus and Engraulis encrasicolus to open sea areas. At the same time, these events bring about alterations in the latitudinal and vertical distributions of mesopelagic fish larvae. The species with a relatively surface distribution, as Ceratoscopelus maderensis, were transported and accumulated to the south of the Atlantic Jet (AJ), while those with a deeper distribution in the water column, as Maurolicus muelleri or Benthosema glaciale, would be upwelled and concentrated to the north. This study shows that it is difficult to extract conclusions about the mean or preferential distributions of fish larvae when one single/synoptic survey is considered and that time evolution of hydrological structures has to be considered in order to conclude.

  2. Origin of lipid biomarkers in mud volcanoes from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Rodríguez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; De Lange, G. J.; Martínez-Ruíz, F.; Comas, M.

    2014-06-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are the most prominent indicators of active methane/hydrocarbon venting at the seafloor on both passive and active continental margins. Their occurrence in the western Mediterranean is patent at the West Alboran Basin, where numerous MVs develop overlaying a major sedimentary depocentre containing overpressured shales. Although some of these MVs have been studied, the detailed biogeochemistry of expelled mud so far has not been examined in detail. This work provides the first results on the composition and origin of organic matter, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) processes and general characteristics on MV dynamics using lipid biomarkers as the main tool. Lipid biomarker analysis was performed on MV expelled material (mud breccias) and interbedded hemipelagic sediments from Perejil, Kalinin and Schneider's Heart MVs located in the northwest margin of the Alboran Sea. The n alkane distributions and n alkane-derived indices (CPI and ACL), in combination with the epimerization degree of hopanes (22S/(22S+22R)) indicate that all studied mud breccia have a similar biomarker composition consisting of mainly thermally immature organic matter with an admixture of petroleum-derived compounds. This concordant composition indicates that common source strata must feed all three studied MVs. The past or present AOM activity was established using lipid biomarkers specific for anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (irregular isoprenoids and dialkyl glycerol diethers) and the depleted carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of crocetane/phytane. The presence of these lipid biomarkers, together with the low amounts of detected glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, is consistent with the dominance of anaerobic methanotrophs of the ANME-2 over ANME-1, at least in mud breccia from Perejil MVs. In contrast, the scarce presence or lack of these AOM-related lipid biomarkers in sediments from Kalinin and Schneider's Heart MVs, suggests that no recent active methane seepage

  3. Controls of plankton production by pelagic fish predation and resource availability in the Alboran and Balearic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguz, Temel; Macias, Diego; Renault, Lionel; Ruiz, Javier; Tintore, Joaquin

    2013-05-01

    A one-dimensional coupled physical and intermediate-complexity biochemical model comprising large and small phytoplankton and zooplankton groups, particulate organic nitrogen, ammonium and nitrate was developed to study the physical-biogeochemical interactions and parameters that control plankton production in the Alboran and Balearic Sea ecosystems. The model findings suggest that pelagic fish predation and resource availability through lateral and vertical nutrient inputs jointly characterize the plankton community structures. In agreement with previous observations, a typical annual plankton structure of the mesotrophic systems involves a vertically homogeneous biomass of large groups of phytoplankton and zooplankton within the upper 50-to-100 m layer from mid-November to April and a subsurface biomass accumulation distributed roughly within 25-75 m depths in the following months. Their light and temperature limitations constrain the smaller groups into the thermocline zone (25-50 m) during late spring and summer. These obtained results were dependent on the zooplankton actively switching between preys (i.e., the food preference coefficients dependent on prey biomass). In the case of no switching, spurious dynamic equilibrium solutions may arise in the case of a constant and weak fish predation rate and using the quadratic predation formulation. The choice of a Holling Type II (i.e., hyperbolic) predation function may, however avoid ambiguous representation of the annual plankton structure in the case of a constant food preference choice under relatively weak predation pressures.

  4. Interaction between seabed morphology and water masses around the seamounts on the Motril Marginal Plateau (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomino, Desirée; Vázquez, Juan-Tomás; Ercilla, Gemma; Alonso, Belén; López-González, Nieves; Díaz-Del-Río, Víctor

    2011-12-01

    The seabed morphology in the vicinity of the seamounts on the Motril Marginal Plateau (northern Alboran Sea) was investigated using high-resolution (sparker) and very high-resolution (TOPAS) seismic reflection profiles and multibeam bathymetry. The aim of the study was to determine the recent geological processes, and in particular those that control the contourite depositional system associated with the intermediate and deep Mediterranean water masses. Six groups of morphological features were identified: structural features (seamount tops, tectonic depressions), fluid escape-related features (pockmarks), mass-movement features (gullies, slides), bottom-current features (moats, scour marks, terraces, elongated and separated drifts, plastered drifts, confined drifts, sheeted drifts), mixed features (ridges) and biogenic features (including evidence of (dead) cold water corals such as Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata). The main processes controlling the formation of these features are recent tectonic activity and the interaction of Mediterranean water masses with the seafloor topography. Seamounts act as topographic barriers that affect the pathway and velocity of the deep Mediterranean water masses, which are divided into strands that interact with the surrounding seafloor. The influence of the intermediate Mediterranean water mass, by contrast, is restricted mainly to the tops of the seamounts. Sediment instability and fluid-escape processes play a minor role, their occurrence being probably related to seismicity.

  5. Fueling plankton production by a meandering frontal jet: a case study for the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Oguz, Temel; Macias, Diego; Garcia-Lafuente, Jesus; Pascual, Ananda; Tintore, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    A three dimensional biophysical model was employed to illustrate the biological impacts of a meandering frontal jet, in terms of efficiency and persistency of the autotrophic frontal production, in marginal and semi-enclosed seas. We used the Alboran Sea of the Western Mediterranean as a case study. Here, a frontal jet with a width of 15-20 km, characterized by the relatively low density Atlantic water mass, flows eastward within the upper 100 m as a marked meandering current around the western and the eastern anticyclonic gyres prior to its attachment to the North African shelf/slope topography of the Algerian basin. Its inherent nonlinearity leads to the development of a strong ageostrophic cross-frontal circulation that supplies nutrients into the nutrient-starved euphotic layer and stimulates phytoplankton growth along the jet. Biological production is larger in the western part of the basin and decreases eastwards with the gradual weakening of the jet. The higher production at the subsurface levels suggests that the Alboran Sea is likely more productive than predicted by the satellite chlorophyll data. The Mediterranean water mass away from the jet and the interiors of the western and eastern anticyclonic gyres remain unproductive. PMID:25372789

  6. Seismicity and active tectonics in the Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean: Constraints from an offshore-onshore seismological network and swath bathymetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Villaseñor, Antonio; Leuchters, Wiebke; Watts, Anthony B.

    2015-12-01

    Seismicity and tectonic structure of the Alboran Sea were derived from a large amphibious seismological network deployed in the offshore basins and onshore in Spain and Morocco, an area where the convergence between the African and Eurasian plates causes distributed deformation. Crustal structure derived from local earthquake data suggests that the Alboran Sea is underlain by thinned continental crust with a mean thickness of about 20 km. During the 5 months of offshore network operation, a total of 229 local earthquakes were located within the Alboran Sea and neighboring areas. Earthquakes were generally crustal events, and in the offshore domain, most of them occurred at crustal levels of 2 to 15 km depth. Earthquakes in the Alboran Sea are poorly related to large-scale tectonic features and form a 20 to 40 km wide NNE-SSW trending belt of seismicity between Adra (Spain) and Al Hoceima (Morocco), supporting the case for a major left-lateral shear zone across the Alboran Sea. Such a shear zone is in accord with high-resolution bathymetric data and seismic reflection imaging, indicating a number of small active fault zones, some of which offset the seafloor, rather than supporting a well-defined discrete plate boundary fault. Moreover, a number of large faults known to be active as evidenced from bathymetry, seismic reflection, and paleoseismic data such as the Yusuf and Carboneras faults were seismically inactive. Earthquakes below the Western Alboran Basin occurred at 70 to 110 km depth and hence reflected intermediate depth seismicity related to subducted lithosphere.

  7. Microfossils, a Key to Unravel Cold-Water Carbonate Mound Evolution through Time: Evidence from the Eastern Alboran Sea.

    PubMed

    Stalder, Claudio; Vertino, Agostina; Rosso, Antonietta; Rüggeberg, Andres; Pirkenseer, Claudius; Spangenberg, Jorge E; Spezzaferri, Silvia; Camozzi, Osvaldo; Rappo, Sacha; Hajdas, Irka

    2015-01-01

    Cold-water coral (CWC) ecosystems occur worldwide and play a major role in the ocean's carbonate budget and atmospheric CO2 balance since the Danian (~65 m.y. ago). However their temporal and spatial evolution against climatic and oceanographic variability is still unclear. For the first time, we combine the main macrofaunal components of a sediment core from a CWC mound of the Melilla Mounds Field in the Eastern Alboran Sea with the associated microfauna and we highlight the importance of foraminifera and ostracods as indicators of CWC mound evolution in the paleorecord. Abundances of macrofauna along the core reveal alternating periods dominated by distinct CWC taxa (mostly Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata) that correspond to major shifts in foraminiferal and ostracod assemblages. The period dominated by M. oculata coincides with a period characterized by increased export of refractory organic matter to the seafloor and rather unstable oceanographic conditions at the benthic boundary layer with periodically decreased water energy and oxygenation, variable bottom water temperature/density and increased sediment flow. The microfaunal and geochemical data strongly suggest that M. oculata and in particular Dendrophylliidae show a higher tolerance to environmental changes than L. pertusa. Finally, we show evidence for sustained CWC growth during the Alleröd-Younger-Dryas in the Eastern Alboran Sea and that this period corresponds to stable benthic conditions with cold/dense and well oxygenated bottom waters, high fluxes of labile organic matter and relatively strong bottom currents. PMID:26447699

  8. Microfossils, a Key to Unravel Cold-Water Carbonate Mound Evolution through Time: Evidence from the Eastern Alboran Sea

    PubMed Central

    Stalder, Claudio; Vertino, Agostina; Rosso, Antonietta; Rüggeberg, Andres; Pirkenseer, Claudius; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Spezzaferri, Silvia; Camozzi, Osvaldo; Rappo, Sacha; Hajdas, Irka

    2015-01-01

    Cold-water coral (CWC) ecosystems occur worldwide and play a major role in the ocean's carbonate budget and atmospheric CO2 balance since the Danian (~65 m.y. ago). However their temporal and spatial evolution against climatic and oceanographic variability is still unclear. For the first time, we combine the main macrofaunal components of a sediment core from a CWC mound of the Melilla Mounds Field in the Eastern Alboran Sea with the associated microfauna and we highlight the importance of foraminifera and ostracods as indicators of CWC mound evolution in the paleorecord. Abundances of macrofauna along the core reveal alternating periods dominated by distinct CWC taxa (mostly Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata) that correspond to major shifts in foraminiferal and ostracod assemblages. The period dominated by M. oculata coincides with a period characterized by increased export of refractory organic matter to the seafloor and rather unstable oceanographic conditions at the benthic boundary layer with periodically decreased water energy and oxygenation, variable bottom water temperature/density and increased sediment flow. The microfaunal and geochemical data strongly suggest that M. oculata and in particular Dendrophylliidae show a higher tolerance to environmental changes than L. pertusa. Finally, we show evidence for sustained CWC growth during the Alleröd-Younger-Dryas in the Eastern Alboran Sea and that this period corresponds to stable benthic conditions with cold/dense and well oxygenated bottom waters, high fluxes of labile organic matter and relatively strong bottom currents PMID:26447699

  9. Geochemical proxies for reconstructing climate variability in marginal basins: the Alboran Sea record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Ruiz, Francisca; Kastner, Miriam; Gallego-Torres, David; Rodrigo-Gámiz, Marta; Nieto-Moreno, Vanesa; Jiménez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Ortega-Huertas, Miguel

    2014-05-01

    High sedimentation rate sediment sections in the Alboran Sea basin (westernmost Mediterranean) have provided excellent paleoarchives for reconstructing past climate variability. The following diverse proxies have been used for such reconstruction, molecular biomarkers, stable and radiogenic isotopes, microfossil assemblages, sediment grain size, and mineral and chemical composition of marine sediments. The elemental ratios have revealed to be reliable paleoclimate proxies. Al-normalized concentrations of detrital elements have allowed to characterize the terrigenous inputs into this basin. Ti/Al, Zr/Al and Si/Al ratios have served as proxies for eolian dust input, and Mg/Al, K/Al and Rb/Al ratios have provided information on fluvial contribution. An in-depth interpretation of these terrigenous element proxies requires knowledge of the mineral composition. Redox sensitive elements have also provided a reliable reconstruction of oxygen conditions at the time of deposition, though these elements are particularly susceptible to diagenetic remobilization, and certain elements, such as U, may also be linked to organic matter, which affects bulk U concentrations. Regarding productivity, even though most of the paleoproductivity reconstructions are based on Ba proxies, the biogeochemistry of Ba is not fully understood and the mechanisms for barite precipitation in the water column are not yet known. Over the past 20,000 cal yr BP, ratios mirroring eolian input indicate a major input of dust from the end of the Last Glacial Maximum to the Oldest Dryas. Mg/Al, K/Al and Rb/Al ratios record humid conditions during the subsequent Bölling-Alleröd warm period, further supported by the decrease in the Zr/Al ratio. These ratios have also allowed a detailed reconstruction of paleoclimate conditions during the Younger Dryas and the Holocene. Ratios of redox sensitive elements such as U/Th, Zn/Al, Cu/Al, and V/Al ratios also show significant fluctuations in oxygen conditions over

  10. Characterization of the sub-mesoscale energy cascade in the Alboran Sea thermocline from spectral analysis of multichannel seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallares, Valenti; Moncada, Jhon F.; Biescas, Berta; Klaeschen, Dirk

    2016-04-01

    Large-scale ocean dynamics is linked to small-scale mixing by means of turbulence, which enables the exchange of kinetic energy across the scales. At equilibrium, the energy flux that is injected at the production range must be balanced by mixing at the dissipation range. While the physics of the different ranges is now well established, an observational gap exists at the 103-101 m scale that prevents to characterize the transition from the anisotropic internal wave motions to isotropic turbulence. This lack of empirical evidence limits our understanding of the mechanisms governing the downward energy cascade, hampering the predictive capability of ocean circulation models. Here we show that this observational gap can be covered using high-resolution multichannel seismic (HR-MCS) data. Spectral analysis of acoustic reflectors imaged in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean) thermocline evidences that this transition is caused by shear instabilities. In particular, we show that the averaged horizontal wavenumber (kx) spectra of the reflector's vertical displacements display three subranges that reproduce theoretical spectral slopes of internal waves [λx>100 m, with λx=kx‑1], Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH)-type shear instabilities[100 m> λx>33 m], and turbulence[λx<33 m]. The presence of the transitional subrange in the averaged spectrum indicates that the whole chain of events is occurring continuously and simultaneously in the surveyed area. The availability of a system providing observational data at the appropriate scales opens new perspectives to incorporate small-scale mixing in predictive ocean modelling research.

  11. Seasonal and inter-annual changes in the planktonic communities of the northwest Alboran Sea (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercado, Jesús M.; Cortés, Dolores; García, Alberto; Ramírez, Teodoro

    2007-08-01

    The response of the northwestern Alboran Sea pelagic ecosystem to temporal changes in hydrological conditions has been examined for the time period of 1992-2002. In addition, the bottom-up linkages between the lower trophic levels and the growth and nutritional status of sardine larvae were examined using quarterly data from 1992 to 2002 within the frame of the monitoring Project ECOMALAGA. The study area was characterised by the almost permanent presence of an upwelling which was intensified in the spring period. Consequently, an annual peak of nutrients was usually found during this season when the nitrate concentration averaged 1.35 μM. Accordingly, chlorophyll- a concentration and cell abundance of micro- plus nano-phytoplankton increased in that season (1.51 μg L -1 and 446 cell mL -1 compared to 0.85 μg L -1 and 225 cell mL -1 obtained from summer to fall). Despite these seasonal changes, the analysis of the taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton communities did not reveal a clear annual succession pattern. Contrastingly, peaks of zooplankton abundance were obtained in summer (1964 ind m -3) due to the increased presence of brachiopods with respect to copepods (which dominated from fall to spring). Significant inter-annual changes were obtained in the phytoplankton and zooplankton communities. Thus, dinoflagellate and coccolitophorid abundances relative to diatom abundances tended to increase from 1997 to 2002. This trend matched the progressive reduction of the upwelling intensity. These inter-annual changes significantly affected the larval growth of Sardine pilchardus and their nutritional condition, as higher growth rates in terms of body length coupled to higher somatic mass increases (expressed by DNA content) occurred in spring, matching with the higher chlorophyll- a concentration. Furthermore, the highest larval growth was obtained in 2001, coinciding with the change observed in the composition of phytoplankton community.

  12. Scenarios for earthquake-generated tsunamis on a complex tectonic area of diffuse deformation and low velocity: The Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez-Gomez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Gonzalez, M.; Olabarrieta, M.; Carreno, E.

    2011-01-01

    The tsunami impact on the Spanish and North African coasts of the Alboran Sea generated by several reliable seismic tsunamigenic sources in this area was modeled. The tectonic setting is complex and a study of the potential sources from geological data is basic to obtain probable source characteristics. The tectonic structures considered in this study as potentially tsunamigenic are: the Alboran Ridge associated structures, the Carboneras Fault Zone and the Yusuf Fault Zone. We characterized 12 probable tsunamigenic seismic sources in the Alboran Basin based on the results of recent oceanographical studies. The strain rate in the area is low and therefore its seismicity is moderate and cannot be used to infer characteristics of the major seismic sources. These sources have been used as input for the numerical simulation of the wave propagation, based on the solution of the nonlinear shallow water equations through a finite-difference technique. We calculated the Maximum Wave Elevations, and Tsunami Travel Times using the numerical simulations. The results are shown as maps and profiles along the Spanish and African coasts. The sources associated with the Alboran Ridge show the maximum potential to generate damaging tsunamis, with maximum wave elevations in front of the coast exceeding 1.5. m. The Carboneras and Yusuf faults are not capable of generating disastrous tsunamis on their own, although their proximity to the coast could trigger landslides and associated sea disturbances. The areas which are more exposed to the impact of tsunamis generated in the Alboran Sea are the Spanish coast between Malaga and Adra, and the African coast between Alhoceima and Melilla. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Western Alboran Sea Basin in the last 25 Myrs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Couto, Damien; Gorini, Christian; Jolivet, Laurent; Lebret, Noëmie; Augier, Romain; Gumiaux, Charles; d'Acremont, Elia; Ammar, Abdellah; Jabour, Haddou; Auxietre, Jean-Luc

    2016-05-01

    The Western Alboran Basin (WAB) formation has always been the subject of debate and considered either as a back-arc or a forearc basin. Stratigraphic analyses of high-resolution 2D seismic profiles mostly located offshore Morocco, enabled us to clarify the tectonic and stratigraphic history of the WAB. The thick pre-rift sequence located beneath the Miocene basin is interpreted as the topmost Malaguide/Ghomaride complex composing the Alboran domain. The structural position of this unit compared with the HP-LT exhumed Alpujarride/Sebtide metamorphic basement, leads us to link the Early Miocene subsidence of the basin with an extensional detachment. Above the Early Miocene, a thick Serravallian sequence marked by siliciclastic deposits is nearly devoid of extensional structures. Its overall landward to basinward onlap geometry indicates that the WAB has behaved as a sag basin during most of its evolution from the Serravallian to the late Tortonian. Tectonic reconstructions in map view and in cross section further suggest that the basin has always represented a strongly subsiding topographic low without internal deformation that migrated westward together with the retreating slab. We propose that the subsidence of the WAB was controlled by the pull of the dipping subducting lithosphere hence explaining the considerable thickness (10 km) of the mostly undeformed sedimentary infill.

  14. Tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Western Alboran Sea basin since the last 25 Myrs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Couto, Damien; Gorini, Christian; Jolivet, Laurent; Lebret, Noëmie; Augier, Romain; Gumiaux, Charles; D'Acremont, Elia; Ammar, Abdellah; Auxietre, Jean-Luc

    2016-04-01

    The Western Alboran Basin (WAB) formation has always been a matter of debate and was either considered as a backarc or a forearc basin. Based on stratigraphic analysis of high-resolution 2D seismic profiles mostly located offshore Morocco, the tectonic and stratigraphic history of the WAB is clarified. A thick pre-rift sequence is observed beneath the Miocene basin and interpreted as the topmost Malaguide/Ghomaride complex composing the Alboran domain. The structural position of this unit compared with the HP-LT exhumed Alpujarride/Sebtide metamorphic basement, leads us to link the Early Miocene subsidence of the basin with an extensional detachment. Above the Early Miocene, a thick Serravallian sequence marked by siliciclastic deposits is nearly devoid of extensional structures. Its overall landward to basinward onlap geometry indicates that the WAB has behaved as a sag basin during most of its evolution, from the Serravallian to the Late Tortonian. Tectonic reconstructions in map view and cross-section further suggest that the basin has always represented a strongly subsiding topographic low without internal deformation that has migrated westward together with the retreating slab. We propose that the subsidence of the WAB was controlled by the pull of the dipping subducting lithosphere explaining the large thickness (10 km) of the mostly undeformed sedimentary infill.

  15. Seismotectonics and Seismic Structure of the Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean - Constraints from Local Earthquake Monitoring and Seismic Refraction and Wide-Angle Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuchters, W.; Grevemeyer, I.; Ranero, C. R.; Villasenor, A.; Booth-Rea, G.; Gallart, J.

    2011-12-01

    The Alboran Basin is located in the western-most Mediterranean Sea and is surrounded by the Gibraltar-Betic and Rif orogenic arc. Geological evidence suggests that the most important phase of formation started in the early-to-mid-Miocene. Currently two conflicting models are discussed for its formation: One model proposes contractive tectonics producing strike-slip faults and folds with sedimentation occurring in synclinal basins and in regions of subsidiary extension in transtensional fault segments. A second model proposes slab roll back that caused contraction at the front of the arc and coeval overriding plate bending and extension and associated arc magmatism. However, this phase has been partially masked by late Miocene to present contractive structures, caused by the convergence of Africa and Iberia. Two German/Spanish collaborative research projects provided excellent new seismological and seismic data. Onshore/offshore earthquake monitoring received a wealth of local earthquake data to study seismotectonics and yielded the average 1D velocity structure of the Alboran/Betics/Rif domain. In the Alboran Basin most earthquakes occur below 20 km along a diffuse fault zone, crossing the Alboran Sea from the Moroccan to the Spanish coast. Further, earthquakes along the northern portion of the Alboran Ridge show thrust mechanisms and compression roughly normal to the vector of plate convergence between Africa and Iberia. A 250 km long seismic refraction and wide-angle profile was acquired coincident with the existing multi-channel seismic (MCS) ESCI-Alb2 line using the German research vessel Meteor. Shots fired with a 64-litre airgun array were recorded on 24 ocean-bottom seismometer (OBS) and ocean-bottom hydrophone (OBH) stations. The profile run roughly along the axis of the basin, circa 65 km off the coast of Morocco, north of the Alboran Ridge. It continues in an ENE direction to end north of the Algeria coast. Using seismic tomography we mapped the crustal

  16. A new diagnosis of the genus Delectona (Porifera, Demospongiae), with a description of a new species from the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosell, D.

    1996-12-01

    A redescription of the genus Delectona is provided, based on information gained by the finding of a new species, D. alboransis, from the Alboran Sea (southwestern Mediterranean Sea). Up to now, this genus contained only one species: Delectona higgini, from the Indian Ocean, which has not been recorded since 1880. The presence of megascleres in the new species and the different ranges of amphiaster lengths of the two species are the main features allowing a differentiation. In addition, the excavating capability of sponges of this genus is questioned, following the observations on the external morphology of D. alboransis. Our results support the hypothesis of other authors that some areas of the circalittoral level of the Alboran Sea may represent a redoubt of relict species with Indo-Pacific affinities.

  17. Highly diverse molluscan assemblages of Posidonia oceanica meadows in northwestern Alboran Sea (W Mediterranean): Seasonal dynamics and environmental drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urra, Javier; Mateo Ramírez, Ángel; Marina, Pablo; Salas, Carmen; Gofas, Serge; Rueda, José L.

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of the molluscan fauna associated with the westernmost populations of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, has been studied throughout an annual cycle in the northwestern coasts of the Alboran Sea. Samples were collected seasonally (5 replicated per season) using a non-destructive sampling technique (airlift sampler) on quadrats of 50 × 50 cm at 2 sites located 7 km apart. Several environmental variables from the water column (temperature, chlorophyll a), the sediment (percentage of organic matter) and the seagrass meadows (shoot density, leaf height and width, number of leaves per shoot) were also measured in order to elucidate their relationships with the dynamics of the molluscan assemblages. In these meadows, a total of 17,416 individuals of molluscs were collected, belonging to 71 families and 171 species, being Rissoidae, Pyramidellidae and Trochidae the best-represented families, and Mytilidae, Nassaridae and Trochidae the dominant ones in terms of abundance. The assemblages were dominated by micro-algal grazers, filter feeders and ectoparasites (including those feeding on sessile preys). The species richness and the abundance displayed significant maximum values in summer, whereas evenness and diversity displayed maximum values in spring, being significant for the evenness. Both abundance and species richness values were positively correlated to seawater temperature and percentage organic matter, only for the latter, and negatively to leaf width. Significant seasonal groupings were obtained with multivariate analyses (MDS, Cluster, ANOSIM) using qualitative and quantitative data that could be mainly related to biological aspects (i.e. recruitment) of single species. The molluscan assemblages are influenced by the biogeographical location of the area (Alboran Sea), reflected in the absence or scarcity of most Mediterranean species strictly associated with P. oceanica (e.g. Tricolia speciosa, Rissoa ventricosa) and by the

  18. The seasonal cycle of the Atlantic Jet dynamics in the Alboran Sea: direct atmospheric forcing versus Mediterranean thermohaline circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, Diego; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Stips, Adolf

    2016-02-01

    The Atlantic Jet (AJ) is the inflow of Atlantic surface waters into the Mediterranean Sea. This geostrophically adjusted jet fluctuates in a wide range of temporal scales from tidal to subinertial, seasonal, and interannual modifying its velocity and direction within the Alboran Sea. At seasonal scale, a clearly defined cycle has been previously described, with the jet being stronger and flowing towards the northeast during the first half of the year and weakening and flowing more southwardly towards the end of the year. Different hypothesis have been proposed to explain this fluctuation pattern but, up to now, no quantitative assessment of the importance of the different forcings for this seasonality has been provided. Here, we use a 3D hydrodynamic model of the entire Mediterranean Sea forced at the surface with realistic atmospheric conditions to study and quantify the importance of the different meteorological forcings on the velocity and direction of the AJ at seasonal time scale. We find that the direct effects of local zonal wind variations are much more important to explain extreme collapse events when the jet dramatically veers southward than to the seasonal cycle itself while sea level pressure variations over the Mediterranean seem to have very little direct effect on the AJ behavior at monthly and longer time scales. Further model results indicate that the annual cycle of the thermohaline circulation is the main driver of the seasonality of the AJ dynamics in the model simulations. The annual cycles in local wind forcing and SLP variations over the Mediterranean have no causal relationship with the AJ seasonality.

  19. Architectures of the Moroccan continental shelf of the Alboran Sea: insights from high-resolution bathymetry and seismic data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafosse, Manfred; Gorini, Christian; Leroy, Pascal; d'Acremont, Elia; Rabineau, Marina; Ercilla, Gemma; Alonso, Belén; Ammar, Abdellah

    2016-04-01

    The MARLBORO and the SARAS oceanographic surveys have explored the continental shelf in the vicinity of the transtensive Nekor basin (South Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean) and over three submarine highs located at several tens of kilometers from the shelf. Those surveys have produced high-resolution (≤29m²/pixel) bathymetry maps. Simultaneously, seismic SPARKER and TOPAS profiles were recorded. To quantify and understand Quaternary vertical motions of this tectonically active area, we searched for morphological and sedimentary paleobathymetric or paleo-elevations markers. Shelf-edge wedges associated marine terraces and paleo-shorelines have been identified on the bathymetry and on seismic cross-sections. These features reflect the trends of long term accommodation variations. Along the Moroccan continental shelf the lateral changes of shelf-edges geometries and the spatial distribution of marine landforms (sedimentary marine terraces, sediment wave fields, marine incisions) reflect the interaction between sea level changes and spatial variations of subsidence rates. Positions of paleo-shorelines identified in the studied area have been correlated with the relative sea-level curve (Rohling et al., 2014). Several still stands or slow stands periods have been recognized between -130-125m, -100-110m and -85-80m. The astronomical forcing controls the architecture of Mediterranean continental shelves. Marine landforms distribution also reveals the way sea level changed since the LGM. The comparison with observations on other western Mediterranean margins (e.g. the Gulf of Lion, the Ionian-Calabrian shelf) allowed a first order access to vertical motion rates.

  20. Atmospheric-induced variability of hydrological and biogeochemical signatures in the NW Alboran Sea. Consequences for the spawning and nursery habitats of European anchovy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macías, D.; Catalán, I. A.; Solé, J.; Morales-Nin, B.; Ruiz, J.

    2011-12-01

    The north-western Alboran Sea is a highly dynamic region in which the hydrological processes are mainly controlled by the entrance of the Atlantic Jet (AJ) through the Strait of Gibraltar. The biological patterns of the area are also related to this variability in which atmospheric pressure distributions and wind intensity and direction play major roles. In this work, we studied how changes in atmospheric forcing (from high atmospheric pressure over the Mediterranean to low atmospheric pressure) induced alterations in the physical and biogeochemical environment by re-activating coastal upwelling on the Spanish shore. The nursery area of European anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) in the NW Alboran Sea, confirmed to be the very coastal band around Malaga Bay, did not show any drastic change in its biogeochemical characteristics, indicating that this coastal region is somewhat isolated from the rest of the basin. Our data also suggests that anchovy distribution is tightly coupled to the presence of microzooplankton rather than mesozooplankton. Finally, we use detailed physical and biological information to evaluate a hydrological-biogeochemical coupled model with a specific hydrological configuration to represent the Alboran basin. This model is able to reproduce the general circulation patterns in the region forced by the AJ movements only including two variable external forcings; atmospheric pressure over the western Mediterranean and realistic wind fields.

  1. Role of the Alboran Sea volcanic arc choking the Mediterranean to the Messinian salinity crisis and foundering biota diversification in North Africa and Southeast Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, Cesar R.; Grevemer, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea desiccated ~5.96 million years ago when it became isolated from the world oceans during the Messinian salinity crisis. This event permitted the exchange of terrestrial biota between Africa and Iberia contributing to the present rich biodiversity of the Mediterranean region. The cause chocking the Mediterranean has been proposed to be tectonic uplift and dynamic topography but the driving mechanism still remains debated. We present a new wide-angle seismic profile that provides a detailed image of the thickness and seismic velocity distribution of the crust in the eastern Alboran basin. The velocity model shows a characteristic structure of a subduction-related volcanic arc with a high-velocity lower crust and a 16-18 km total-thickness igneous crust that magmatic accreted mostly between ~10-6 Ma across the eastern Alboran basin. Estimation of the isostatically corrected depth of the arc crust taking into account the original thermal structure and sediment-loading subsidence since 6 Ma places a large area of the eastern Alboran basin above sea level at the time. This estimation is supported by geophysical data showing subaereal erosional unconformities for that time. This model may explain several up-to-now-disputed features of the Messinian salinity crisis, including: the progressive isolation of the Mediterranean since 7.1 Ma with the disappearance of open marine taxa, the existence of evaporites mostly to the east of the volcanic arc, the evidence that the Gibraltar straits were not a land bridge offered by continuous Messinian open marine sediments at ODP site 976 in the western Alboran basin, the importance of southeastern Iberia and North Africa as centres of biota diversification since before the salinity crisis, and patterns of speciation irradiating from SE Iberia and the eastern Rif in some taxons.

  2. Deep Chlorophyll Maximum distribution in the Alboran sea and its relationship with mesoscale and frontal features through syncronous glider observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olita, Antonio; Ribotti, Alberto; Ruiz, Simon; Pascual, Ananda

    2015-04-01

    May 25 2014, two gliders were launched in the framework of the multiplatform and multidisciplinary experiment in the Alboran sea named ALBOREX (a PERSEUS project sampling) and of the JERICO TNA FRIPP project. The two instruments glided for 6 days, during which ADCP, ship based CTD, ARGO floats and surface drifters also sampled surface to deep waters allowing, togheter with bottle water samples, to collect a comprehensive dataset of oceanographic multidisciplinary quasi-synoptic data at (sub-)mesoscale. This preliminary work presents the results related to the two glider launched at approximatively 20 km each other. The two gliders intercepted in their pathway a frontal structure belonging to the northern margin of a quite large and strong anticyclonic structure originating by the meandering of Atlantic Waters entering in Mediterranean through Gibraltar. The vertical structure of Chlorophyll-a (as derived by fluorimeter measurements) shows the area of subsidence across the front and the deepening of isolines in the eddy interior. The analysis of the relatively low-cost glider data, combined with synoptic satellite measurements, shed light on the dynamics determining the re-distribution of the phytoplanktonic biomass and provide pretious hints, combined with dissolved oxygen data also collected by the unmanned autonomous vehicles, about the influence of such dynamical features on Primary Production.

  3. Characterization of the submesoscale energy cascade in the Alboran Sea thermocline from spectral analysis of high-resolution MCS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallares, Valenti; Mojica, Jhon F.; Biescas, Berta; Klaeschen, Dirk; Gràcia, Eulàlia

    2016-06-01

    Part of the kinetic energy that maintains ocean circulation cascades down to small scales until it is dissipated through mixing. While most steps of this downward energy cascade are well understood, an observational gap exists at horizontal scales of 103-101 m that prevents characterizing a key step in the chain: the transition from anisotropic internal wave motions to isotropic turbulence. Here we show that this observational gap can be covered using high-resolution multichannel seismic (HR-MCS) data. Spectral analysis of acoustic reflectors imaged in the Alboran Sea thermocline shows that this transition is likely caused by shear instabilities. In particular, we show that the averaged horizontal wave number spectra of the reflectors vertical displacements display three subranges that reproduce theoretical spectral slopes of internal waves (λx > 100 m), Kelvin-Helmholtz-type shear instabilities (100 m > λx > 33 m), and turbulence (λx < 33 m), indicating that the whole chain of events is occurring continuously and simultaneously in the surveyed area.

  4. Last glacial to Holocene productivity and oxygen changes based on benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the western Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Asensio, José N.; Cacho, Isabel; Frigola, Jaime; Pena, Leopoldo D.; Asioli, Alessandra; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    Late glacial to Holocene productivity and oxygen changes in the Alboran Sea were investigated analyzing benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the marine sediment core HER-GC-UB06. This 255 cm-long core was recovered at 946 m water depth in the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean Sea) and includes homogeneous greyish clays from the last 23 ka. Nowadays, the core site is bathed by the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) and near the overlying Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW). Benthic foraminifera from the size fraction >63 μm were identified at species level and counted until reaching at least 300 individuals. Q-mode principal component analyses (PCA) was performed to establish benthic foraminiferal assemblages. In addition, benthic foraminifera were classified according to their microhabitat preferences. Diversity was assessed with several diversity indices. Four benthic foraminiferal assemblages have been identified along the core. The distribution of these assemblages records changes in productivity and oxygen conditions during the last 23 ka. The last glacial and deglaciation interval, 23-12.5 ka, shows low diversity and is characterized by the Nonionella iridea assemblage, which includes Cassidulina laevigata, Bolivina dilatata, Nonionoides turgida and Cibicides pachyderma as secondary taxa. This assemblage can be interpreted as a moderately oxygenated mesotrophic environment with episodic pulses of fresh organic matter. Although general mesotrophic conditions prevail, the Last Glacial Maximum shows a more oligotrophic and better oxygenated setting as suggested by higher abundance of epifaunal-shallow infaunal taxa. In contrast, along the Bølling-Allerød eutrophic conditions with higher productivity and lower oxygenation are recorded by a deep infaunal taxa maximum. During the Younger Dryas (YD) and the earliest Holocene (12.5-10.5 ka), the Bolivina dilatata assemblage dominates coinciding with a lower diversity, especially during the YD. This species

  5. The Messinian erosional surface and early Pliocene reflooding in the Alboran Sea: New insights from the Boudinar basin, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Münch, Philippe; Achalhi, Mohammed; Merzeraud, Gilles; Azdimousa, Ali; Quillévéré, Frédéric; Melinte-Dobrinescu, Mihaela; Chaix, Christian; Moussa, Abdelkhalak Ben; Lofi, Johanna; Séranne, Michel; Moissette, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    New investigations in the Neogene Boudinar basin (Morocco) provide new information about the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and Zanclean reflooding in the southern part of the Alboran realm (westernmost Mediterranean). Based on a new field, sedimentological and palaeontological analyses, the age and the geometry of both the Messinian erosional surface (MES) and the overlying deposits have been determined. The MES is of late Messinian age and was emplaced in subaerial settings. In the Boudinar basin, a maximum of 200 m of Miocene sediments was eroded, including late Messinian gypsum blocks. The original geometry of the MES is preserved only when it is overlain by late Messinian continental deposits, conglomeratic alluvial fans or lacustrine marly sediments. These sediments are interpreted as indicators of the sea-level fall during the MSC. Elsewhere in the basin, the contact between late Messinian and early Pliocene deposits is a low-angle dipping, smooth surface that corresponds to the early Pliocene transgression surface that subsequently re-shaped the regressive MES. The early Pliocene deposits are characterized by: (i) their onlap onto either the basement of the Rif chain or the late Miocene deposits; (ii) lagoonal deposits at the base to offshore marls and sands at the top (earliest Pliocene; 5.33-5.04 Ma interval; foraminifer zone PL1); (iii) marine recovery occurring in the 5.32-5.26 Ma interval; and (iv) the change from lagoonal to offshore environments occurring within deposits tens of metres thick. This information indicates that at least the end of the reflooding period was progressive, not catastrophic as previously thought.

  6. Cold-water coral carbonate mounds and associated habitats of the Chella Seamount (Alboran Sea - SW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Iacono, C.; Bartolomé, R.; Gràcia, E.; Monteys, X.; Perea, H.; Gori, A.; Event-Shelf Team

    2009-04-01

    This study focuses on the characterization of cold-water carbonate mounds and of the associated habitats detected and mapped in the Chella Seamount, off the Almeria Margin, along the eastern Alboran Sea (SW Mediterranean). The study has been carried out by means of an integrated geophysical dataset, comprising large-scale sidescan sonar (TOBI), high resolution swath-bathymetry, TOPAS and Sparker high-resolution seismics. The acoustic dataset has been ground-truthed by images from an ROV and a deep-towed video-camera. Carbonate mounds range from 10 to 60 m in height and from 150 to 250 m in width, typically displaying a sub-circular shape. They are found within a depth range of 80-400 m and generally occur along the structural ridges of the Chella Seamount. Some of the mounds are distributed NW-SE and N-S, coinciding with the orientation of the active fault lineations observed North and West of the study area. On the other hand, the orientation of some other mounds suggests that the presence of strong bottom currents and reduced sedimentary fluxes are environmental factors suitable for their development. The images obtained from video inspections have been key for the characterization of the benthic communities and abundance of the species identified along the mounds. Video stills suggest that most of the mounds are in a "sub-fossil" stage and are mainly composed of patchy distributed Madrepora oculata and Lophelia pertusa. Additionally, other environments have been detected, in which sponges, boulders, coarse sands and bedforms prevail. Wide and dense patches of gorgonian (Callogorgia verticillata) have been observed along the top of the Chella Seamount. The integration of different marine geophysical methods supported by ground-truthing calibrations, allowed to recognize in detail the structural, sedimentary and hydrodynamic constrains suitable for the development of cold-water coral carbonate mounds in the Chella Seamount and to recognize and map some of the

  7. Spatial variability and response to anthropogenic pressures of assemblages dominated by a habitat forming seaweed sensitive to pollution (northern coast of Alboran Sea).

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Ricardo; de la Fuente, Gina; Ramírez-Romero, Eduardo; Vergara, Juan J; Hernández, Ignacio

    2016-04-15

    The Cystoseira ericaefolia group is conformed by three species: C. tamariscifolia, C. mediterranea and C. amentacea. These species are among the most important habitat forming species of the upper sublittoral rocky shores of the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent Atlantic coast. This species group is sensitive to human pressures and therefore is currently suffering important losses. This study aimed to assess the influence of anthropogenic pressures, oceanographic conditions and local spatial variability in assemblages dominated by C. ericaefolia in the Alboran Sea. The results showed the absence of significant effects of anthropogenic pressures or its interactions with environmental conditions in the Cystoseira assemblages. This fact was attributed to the high spatial variability, which is most probably masking the impact of anthropogenic pressures. The results also showed that most of the variability occurred on at local levels. A relevant spatial variability was observed at regional level, suggesting a key role of oceanographic features in these assemblages. PMID:26892204

  8. The Formation of the Betic-Alboran System in the Iberia-Africa Plate Boundary: a New Kinematic Evolution Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, M.; Verges, J.

    2013-12-01

    NW to W drifting of the HP-LT metamorphic complexes formed by limited subduction and exhumation, fulfills the imaged crustal and mantle asymmetries, and is compatible with the main geological structures in the region. Cartoon showing the evolution of the Betic-Alboran-Rif system at 9 Ma.

  9. Spatial patterns of macrophyte composition and landscape along the rocky shores of the Mediterranean-Atlantic transition region (northern Alboran Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermejo, Ricardo; Ramírez-Romero, Eduardo; Vergara, Juan J.; Hernández, Ignacio

    2015-03-01

    The Alboran Sea is the westernmost ecoregion of the Mediterranean Sea. It is located in the vicinity of Strait of Gibraltar, the only natural connection of the Mediterranean Sea with global circulation. This ecoregion presents steep and highly variable environmental gradients, thus acting as a natural filter for Mediterranean and Atlantic species. This study aimed to analyse spatial patterns of littoral and upper sublittoral communities and their relationship with oceanographic conditions and coastal geomorphology, and to quantify littoral and upper sublittoral rocky shore communities at landscape scale. The results suggest that oceanographic conditions are the main factor to explain landscape patterns along the studied area, while geomorphological features should be related with local-scale variability. In this sense, three biogeographic subregions, matching with oceanographic patterns, were identified: western, central and eastern. These subregions showed significant differences in the structure and the composition of the littoral and upper sublittoral community, which can be explained by regional oceanographic dynamics. Posidonia oceanica, Cystoseira ericaefolia group and Mytilus spp. were the species that most contributed to landscape dissimilarity between the three subregions identified. The central oceanographic region, where the environmental conditions were more variable, showed the poorer and less differentiated flora, suggesting the existence of a divergent boundary between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea.

  10. Looking for long-term changes in hydroid assemblages (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in Alboran Sea (South-Western Mediterranean): a proposal of a monitoring point for the global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Duarte, Manuel María; Megina, Cesar; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    In the last 20-30 years, the temperature of the Mediterranean Sea has increased and global warming is allowing the establishment of tropical-affinity species into more temperate zones. Sessile communities are particularly useful as a baseline for ecological monitoring; however, a lack of historical data series exists for sessile marine organisms without commercial interest. Hydroids are ubiquitous components of the benthic sessile fauna on rocky shores and have been used as bio-indicators of environmental conditions. In this study on the benthic hydroid assemblages of the Chafarinas Islands (Alboran Sea, South-Western Mediterranean), we characterized the hydroid assemblages, identified the bathymetric gradients, and compared them with a previous study carried out in 1991. Hydroid assemblages showed a significant difference both between year and among depths. Furthermore, eight species not present in 1991 were found, including two possible new species and the tropical and subtropical species Sertularia marginata. Due to its strategic position at the entrance of the Mediterranean and the existence of previous data on hydroid assemblages, the Chafarinas Islands are proposed as a possible monitoring point for entrance of Atlantic tropical species into the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of the peripheral basins of the Alboran Sea in the arc of Gibraltar during the latest Messinian-Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-Merchán, Antonio; Serrano, Francisco; Hlila, Rachid; El Kadiri, Khalil; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; Garcés, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    In the peripheral basins of the Alboran Sea, five stratigraphic units (latest Messinian-Pliocene) separated by discontinuities and representing transgressive-regressive cycles have been recognized. The first unit (LM) is latest Messinian in age and precisely characterizes the Lago-Mare event at the end of the Messinian Salinity Crisis, i.e. just before the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar at the beginning of the Pliocene. The three following units (Pl-1, Pl-2 and Pl-3) are Zanclean in age, whereas the last one (Pl-4) is Piacenzian. These four Pliocene units consist of alluvial, deltaic, and littoral deposits in the marginal areas, changing to open marine deposits with planktonic components in the basinal areas, although their extension varies in each basin. Regionally, these units do not necessarily stack in a single stratigraphic succession because of tectonics that controlled their hosting basins. Thus, the LM and Pl-1 units occur only in the Malaga and Estepona-Marbella basins, revealing that the onset of the sedimentation after the Messinian evaporitic stage and the Pliocene transgression was not a single and synchronous event in the western Alboran Sea. Moreover, the Pl-3 and Pl-4 units do not appear in all basins, so that the subsequent continentalization process of these Alboran peripheral areas during the Pliocene was also diachronous. The sedimentary evolution of the peripheral basins was controlled mainly by tectonics. During the latest Messinian-early Pliocene, the sedimentation took place in a context marked by a NNW-SSE compression and ENE-WSW perpendicular tension. The onset of the sedimentation (LM and Pl-1 units) could be linked to preexisting E-W faults that mark part of the borders of the Malaga basin and the Estepona-Marbella sector. During the deposition of the Pl-2 unit, the movements of E-W, NW-SE, and NE-SW normal faults determined a continuous subsidence in several basins, resulting in the accumulation of thick clastic marine sequences (i

  12. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of the peripheral basins of the Alboran Sea in the arc of Gibraltar during the latest Messinian-Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-Merchán, Antonio; Serrano, Francisco; Hlila, Rachid; El Kadiri, Khalil; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; Garcés, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    In the peripheral basins of the Alboran Sea, five stratigraphic units (latest Messinian-Pliocene) separated by discontinuities and representing transgressive-regressive cycles have been recognized. The first unit (LM) is latest Messinian in age and precisely characterizes the Lago-Mare event at the end of the Messinian Salinity Crisis, i.e. just before the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar at the beginning of the Pliocene. The three following units (Pl-1, Pl-2 and Pl-3) are Zanclean in age, whereas the last one (Pl-4) is Piacenzian. These four Pliocene units consist of alluvial, deltaic, and littoral deposits in the marginal areas, changing to open marine deposits with planktonic components in the basinal areas, although their extension varies in each basin. Regionally, these units do not necessarily stack in a single stratigraphic succession because of tectonics that controlled their hosting basins. Thus, the LM and Pl-1 units occur only in the Malaga and Estepona-Marbella basins, revealing that the onset of the sedimentation after the Messinian evaporitic stage and the Pliocene transgression was not a single and synchronous event in the western Alboran Sea. Moreover, the Pl-3 and Pl-4 units do not appear in all basins, so that the subsequent continentalization process of these Alboran peripheral areas during the Pliocene was also diachronous. The sedimentary evolution of the peripheral basins was controlled mainly by tectonics. During the latest Messinian-early Pliocene, the sedimentation took place in a context marked by a NNW-SSE compression and ENE-WSW perpendicular tension. The onset of the sedimentation (LM and Pl-1 units) could be linked to preexisting E-W faults that mark part of the borders of the Malaga basin and the Estepona-Marbella sector. During the deposition of the Pl-2 unit, the movements of E-W, NW-SE, and NE-SW normal faults determined a continuous subsidence in several basins, resulting in the accumulation of thick clastic marine sequences (i

  13. Crustal and upper mantle shear velocities of Iberia, the Alboran Sea, and North Africa from ambient noise and ballistic finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomeras, I.; Villasenor, A.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; mimoun, H.

    2013-12-01

    The complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic Alpine deformation in the western Mediterranean extends from the Pyrenees in northern Spain to the Atlas Mountains in southern Morocco. The Iberian plate was accreted to the European plate in late Cretaceous, resulting in the formation of the Pyrenees. Cenozoic African-European convergence resulted in subduction of the Tethys oceanic plate beneath Europe. Rapid Oligocene slab rollback from eastern Iberia spread eastward and southward, with the trench breaking into three segments by the time it reached the African coast. One trench segment moved southwestward and westward creating the Alboran Sea, floored by highly extended continental crust, and building the encircling Betics Rif mountains comprising the Gibraltar arc, and the Atlas mountains, which formed as the inversion of a Jurassic rift. A number of recent experiments have instrumented this region with broad-band arrays (the US PICASSO array, Spanish IberArray and Siberia arrays, the University of Munster array), which, including the Spanish, Portuguese, and Moroccan permanent networks, provide a combined array of 350 stations having an average interstation spacing of ~60 km. Taking advantage of this dense deployment, we have calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise for short periods (4 s to 40 s) and teleseismic events for longer periods (20 s to 167 s). Approximately 50,000 stations pairs were used to measure the phase velocity from ambient noise and more than 160 teleseismic events to measure phase velocity for longer periods. The inversion of the phase velocity dispersion curves provides a 3D shear velocity for the crust and uppermost mantle. Our results show differences between the various tectonic regions that extend to upper mantle depths (~200 km). In Iberia we obtain, on average, higher upper mantle shear velocities in the western Variscan region than in the younger eastern part. We map high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) beneath the

  14. Role of structural inheritances and major transfer fault-zones in the tectonic history of the Alboran Basin (Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas, Menchu; Crespo-Blanc, Ana; Balanya, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-01

    The geodynamic evolution of the Gibraltar Arc System (GAS), which involves the origin and development of the Alboran back-arc basin, occurred during the Neogene related to the westward moving of the Alboran Domain (the Betic-Rifean hinterland) within a context of NNW-SSE plate-tectonic convergence. In this contribution we document shallow-crustal structures, deformation partitioning, and the different structural domains from the tectonic framework beneath the Alboran Sea. Furthermore, we focus the critical role of inherited crustal structures and major transfer faults within a coherent sequence of Miocene to Recent deformation phases. Early Miocene extensional processes conditioned substantial thinning and the exhumation of the metamorphic Alboran Domain before the opening of the Alboran Basin. Beneath the Alboran Sea, an ENE-SSW directed back-arc extension (from about 16 to 8.5 Ma, late Burdigalian to late Tortonian) affected both the metamorphic basement (the crustal Alboran Domain) and the overlying Miocene sedimentary units. This extension resulted in major low-angle normal faults, and NNW-SSE trending grabens connected by ENE-SSW transtensional transfer-faults, both happening in concomitance with the westward migration (around 200 km) of the Alboran Domain. The geometry of the extensional structures constrains the manner, timing and amount of the coeval crustal thinning. In the late Tortonian (about 8.5 Ma) a dominant N-S directed compressional phase caused inversions of former extensional faults, discrete folding, and strike-slip faulting. This compressional event triggered the spectacular West Alboran shale-diapirism from over-pressured basal units. At the South and Eastern Alboran and at the transition to the Algeria basins, a pervasive period of NW-SE directed compressional deformation (from about 7 Ma onwards) that affected the whole basin is patent. Long lasting compressional conditions since the late Tortonian resulted in a dramatic structural

  15. Rapid changes in temperature and hydrology in the western Mediterranean during the last climatic cycle from the high resolution record ODP Site 976 (Alboran Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combourieu-Nebout, Nathalie; Peyron, Odile; Bout-Roumazeille, Viviane

    2013-04-01

    High-resolution pollen record, pollen-inferred climate reconstructions and clay mineralogy records were performed over the last climatic cycle from the ODP Site 976 located in the Alboran Sea Continental paleoenvironment proxies were provided on the same samples to depict the short and long term variability of Mediterranean vegetation and climate during the two last terminations and the last two interglacials. Pollen record highlights the vegetation changes associated to climate variability while clay mineralogy informs about the terrigenous inputs related to wind and/or river transport. During the last cycle, both vegetation and clay minerals data have recorded the response of continental ecosystems to all the climate events which characterized the last 135000 years. The Dansgaard/Oeschger oscillations and the rapid cold events evidenced in the North Atlantic (Bond et al., 1993; McManus et al., 1994) are well evidenced in the ODP sequence. Thus, warm interstadials show a strong colonisation of temperate Mediterranean forest while cold events are particularly well expressed by correlative increases in dry steppic to semi-desert formation with enhanced input from African desert dust (Bout-Roumazeilles et al, 2007 and in progress). A special attention has been paid on the two last glacial/interglacial transitions 1 and 2 that occurred before the interglacial inception in order to better understand what happened during these key-periods in continental areas and also better understand how reacts the Mediterranean climate regime through these two periods. The two high resolution records from the Terminaison 2/ Stage 5 and Terminaison 1/ Holocene are compared especially with regards to the wind regime modifications through atmospheric supply, and to hydrological and temperature changes reconstructed from pollen data. Therefore for these two key-periods, we aim to produce a robust climate reconstruction pollen-inferred precipitation and temperature from the 0DP 976 marine

  16. The electrical Lithosphere of the Alboran Domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, X. A.; Evans, R. L.; Elsenbeck, J.; Jegen, M. D.; Matsuno, T.

    2011-12-01

    On the Western edge of the Mediterranean, the slow convergence of the Iberian and African plates is marked by very intricate tectonic activity, marked by a combination of small-scale subduction and sub-lithospheric downwelling. Delamination or convective instability has also been proposed to have occurred beneath this domain during the past 25 My. And different geodynamic models have been proposed to explain the lithospheric structure of the arc-shaped belt (Betic and Rif orogenies) and the opening of the Alboran Basin. As part of several international projects carried out in this area, magnetotelluric (MT) methods have been used to explore the crust and upper mantle. The measurements of mantle electrical conductivity are a well known complement to measurements of seismic velocity. Conductivity is sensitive to temperature, composition and hydration of the mantle, and therefore MT is widely used to provide constraints on mantle processes. We present results of electromagnetic studies in the Western Mediterranean, focusing specially in the recently work on the Alboran sea as part of a marine MT survey. Land MT studies have already imaged an area of low resistivity coincident with an area of low velocities without earthquake hypocenters, interpreted as asthenospheric material intruded by the lateral lithospheric tearing and breaking-off of the east-directed subducting Ligurian slab under the Alboran Domain. The model suggests that the most likely scenario for the opening of the Alboran Basin is related to the westward rollback of the Ligurian subducting slab. The marine data show complex MT response functions with strong distortion due to seafloor topography and coast effect, suggesting a fairly resistive lithosphere beneath the seafloor.

  17. 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of the pre-evaporitic Messinian marine sequences of the Melilla basin (Morocco): a proposal for some biosedimentary events as isochrons around the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, S.; Münch, Ph.; Cornée, J. J.; Saint Martin, J. P.; Féraud, G.; Pestrea, S.; Conesa, G.; Ben Moussa, A.

    2000-06-01

    In the Mediterranean region, the Melilla basin (NE Morocco) represents a key area that recorded biosedimentary events and environmental changes relative to the pre-evaporitic Messinian times. 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of volcanic tuffs interbedded all along the Melilla Messinian shelf carbonates and coeval basin deposits has been performed in order to date accurately three main pre-evaporitic biosedimentary events: the prograding bioclastic deposition and the oligospecific prograding Porites coral reef buildings with coeval Halimeda blooms, both within the platform, and the diatomite deposition basinward. The new age data allow a precise chronological framework to be established for the pre-evaporitic sequence of Melilla basin demonstrating that diatomitic deposits are coeval with both prograding bioclastic and reefal units. The prograding bioclastic carbonate unit related to boreal influences in coeval basinal diatomites, began at least at 6.73±0.02 Ma and ended at 6.46±0.03 Ma. The oligospecific prograding Porites coral-reefs and Halimeda beds and coeval warm-water diatomites began at least at 6.46±0.03 Ma. Previous 40Ar/ 39Ar ages indicate that they ended prior to 6.0±0.1 Ma. Both biosedimentological similarities and chronological accordance within several platforms and adjacent basins all around the Alboran Sea show that these main bioevents, dated in Melilla, are synchronous over the Alboran realm. This accurate time scale for these pre-evaporitic biosedimentary events (6.9-6.0 Ma) is in accordance with the most recent work on the latter period corresponding to the Messinian Salinity Crisis.

  18. Imaging the Alboran Domain from a marine MT survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, X.; Evans, R.; Elsenbeck, J.; Jegen, M.

    2012-04-01

    On the Western edge of the Mediterranean, the slow convergence of the Iberian and African plates is marked by very intricate tectonic activity, marked by a combination of small-scale subduction and sub-lithospheric downwelling. Delamination or convective instability has also been proposed to have occurred beneath this domain during the past 25 My. And different geodynamic models have been proposed to explain the lithospheric structure of the arc-shaped belt (Betic and Rif orogenies) and the opening of the Alboran Basin. As part of several international projects carried out in this area, magnetotelluric (MT) methods have been used to explore the crust and upper mantle. The measurements of mantle electrical conductivity are a well known complement to measurements of seismic velocity. Conductivity is sensitive to temperature, composition and hydration of the mantle, and therefore MT is widely used to provide constraints on mantle processes. We present results of electromagnetic studies in the Western Mediterranean, focusing specially in the recently work on the Alboran sea as part of a marine MT survey. Land MT studies have already imaged an area of low resistivity coincident with an area of low velocities without earthquake hypocenters, interpreted as asthenospheric material intruded by the lateral lithospheric tearing and breaking-off of the east-directed subducting Ligurian slab under the Alboran Domain. The marine data show complex MT response functions with strong distortion due to seafloor topography and coast effect, suggesting a fairly resistive lithosphere beneath the seafloor. The marine MT data also shows an anomalous conductive slab towards the Eastern Alboran basin, suggesting a possible hydration of mantle material from an Eastward subducting slab. Both the land and marine MT data suggest that the most likely scenario for the opening of the Alboran Basin is related to the westward rollback of the Ligurian subducting slab.

  19. From the North-Iberian Margin to the Alboran Basin: A lithosphere geo-transect across the Iberian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carballo, A.; Fernandez, M.; Jiménez-Munt, I.; Torne, M.; Vergés, J.; Melchiorre, M.; Pedreira, D.; Afonso, J. C.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Díaz, J.; Villaseñor, A.; Pulgar, J. A.; Quintana, L.

    2015-11-01

    A ~ 1000-km-long lithospheric transect running from the North-Iberian Margin to the Alboran Basin (W-Mediterranean) is investigated. The main goal is to image the changes in the crustal and upper mantle structure occurring in: i) the North-Iberian margin, whose deformation in Alpine times gave rise to the uplift of the Cantabrian Mountains related to Iberia-Eurasia incipient subduction; ii) the Spanish Meseta, characterized by the presence of Cenozoic basins on top of a Variscan basement with weak Alpine deformation in the Central System, and localized Neogene-Quaternary deep volcanism; and iii) the Betic-Alboran system related to Africa-Iberia collision and the roll-back of the Ligurian-Tethyan domain. The modeling approach, combines potential fields, elevation, thermal, seismic, and petrological data under a self-consistent scheme. The crustal structure is mainly constrained by seismic data whereas the upper mantle is constrained by tomographic models. The results highlight the lateral variations in the topography of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), suggesting a strong lithospheric mantle strain below the Cantabrian and Betic mountain belts. The LAB depth ranges from 180 km beneath the Cantabrian Mountains to 135-110 km beneath Iberia Meseta deepening again to values of 160 km beneath the Betic Cordillera. The Central System, with a mean elevation of 1300 m, has a negligible signature on the LAB depth. We have considered four lithospheric mantle compositions: a predominantly average Phanerozoic in the continental mainland, two more fertile compositions in the Alboran Sea and in the Calatrava Volcanic Province, and a hydrated uppermost mantle in the North-Iberian Margin. These compositional differences allowed us to reproduce the main trends of the geophysical observables as well as the inferred P- and S-wave seismic velocities from tomography models and seismic experiments available in the study transect. The high mean topography of Iberia can be

  20. Miocene magmatism and tectonics within the Peri-Alboran orogen (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Azzouzi, M.; Bellon, H.; Coutelle, A.; Réhault, J.-P.

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper concerns Miocene igneous activity in the Alboran Sea and Peri-Alboran area (northern Morocco, western Algeria and Betic Cordilleras in Spain), considering its age and its location with regard to major tectonics structures. We have compiled previous K-Ar isotopic ages of lavas and plutonic boulders and intrusives with an error of ±1σ and completed this set by a new K-Ar isotopic age for andesitic tuffites from Alboran Island. Geochemistry of most of these samples has been considered after previous analyses completed with new data for Spain magmatism. These two sets of data allow us to place the magmatic activity within the regional stratigraphy and tectonics and their chronological framework of the three major tectonic phases of the Maghrebian orogen, at 17 Ma (Burdigalian), 15 Ma (Langhian) and 9 Ma (Tortonian). Petro-geochemical characteristics are compared through time and geographical locations. A major goal of this coupled approach is to help the elaboration of possible geodynamical processes. As an application, we present the case study of the Dellys, Djinet and Thenia region (east of Algiers) where the successive magmatic events between 19.4 ± 1 and 11.6 ± 0.5 Ma are closely related to the local tectonics and sedimentation. The Peri-Alboran igneous activity is placed in a multidisciplinary framework. Timing of activity is defined according to the ages of the neighbouring sedimentary units and the K-Ar ages of igneous rocks. In Spain, the Cabo de Gata-Carboneras magmatic province displays late Oligocene and early Miocene leucogranitic dikes, dated from 24.8 ± 1.3 to 18.1 ± 1.2 Ma; three following andesitic to rhyolitic events took place around 15.1 ± 0.8 to 14.0 ± 0.7 Ma, 11.8 ± 0.6 to 9.4 ± 0.4 Ma, 8.8 ± 0.4 to 7.9 ± 0.4 Ma; this last event displays also granitic rocks. Lamproitic magmas dated between 8.4 ± 0.4 and 6.76 ± 0.04 Ma were emplaced after the Tortonian phase. In Morocco, after the complex building of the Ras Tarf

  1. Structure of the mantle beneath the Alboran Basin from magnetotelluric soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, X.; Seillé, H.; Elsenbeck, J.; Evans, R. L.; Jegen, M.; Hölz, Sebastian; Ledo, J.; Lovatini, A.; Marti, A.; Marcuello, A.; Queralt, P.; Ungarelli, C.; Ranero, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present results of marine MT acquisition in the Alboran sea that also incorporates previously acquired land MT from southern Spain into our analysis. The marine data show complex MT response functions with strong distortion due to seafloor topography and the coastline, but inclusion of high resolution topography and bathymetry and a seismically defined sediment unit into a 3-D inversion model has allowed us to image the structure in the underlying mantle. The resulting resistivity model is broadly consistent with a geodynamic scenario that includes subduction of an eastward trending plate beneath Gibraltar, which plunges nearly vertically beneath the Alboran. Our model contains three primary features of interest: a resistive body beneath the central Alboran, which extends to a depth of ˜150 km. At this depth, the mantle resistivity decreases to values of ˜100 Ohm-m, slightly higher than those seen in typical asthenosphere at the same depth. This transition suggests a change in slab properties with depth, perhaps reflecting a change in the nature of the seafloor subducted in the past. Two conductive features in our model suggest the presence of fluids released by the subducting slab or a small amount of partial melt in the upper mantle (or both). Of these, the one in the center of the Alboran basin, in the uppermost-mantle (20-30 km depth) beneath Neogene volcanics and west of the termination of the Nekkor Fault, is consistent with geochemical models, which infer highly thinned lithosphere and shallow melting in order to explain the petrology of seafloor volcanics.

  2. Structural record of Lower Miocene westward motion of the Alboran Domain in the Western Betics, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frasca, Gianluca; Gueydan, Frédéric; Brun, Jean-Pierre

    2015-08-01

    In the framework of the Africa-Europe convergence, the Mediterranean system presents a complex interaction between subduction rollback and upper-plate deformation during the Tertiary. The western end of the system shows a narrow arcuate geometry across the Gibraltar arc, the Betic-Rif belt, in which the relationship between slab dynamics and surface tectonics is not well understood. The present study focuses on the Western Betics, which is characterized by two major thrusts: 1) the Internal/External Zone Boundary limits the metamorphic domain (Alboran Domain) from the fold-and-thrust belts in the External Zone; 2) the Ronda Peridotites Thrust allows the juxtaposition of a strongly attenuated lithosphere section with large bodies of sub-continental mantle rocks on top of upper crustal rocks. New structural data show that two major E-W strike-slip corridors played a major role in the deformation pattern of the Alboran Domain, in which E-W dextral strike-slip faults, N60° thrusts and N140° normal faults developed simultaneously during dextral strike-slip simple shear. Olistostromic sediments of Lower Miocene age were deposited and deformed in this tectonic context and hence provide an age estimate for the inferred continuous westward translation of the Alboran Domain that is accommodated by an E-W lateral (strike-slip) ramp and a N60° frontal thrust. The crustal emplacement of large bodies of sub-continental mantle may occur at the onset of this westward thrusting in the Western Alboran domain. At lithosphere-scale, we interpret the observed deformation pattern as the subduction upper-plate expression of a lateral slab tear and its westward propagation since the Lower Miocene.

  3. Impacts of reprocessed altimetry on the surface circulation and variability of the Western Alboran Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juza, Mélanie; Escudier, Romain; Pascual, Ananda; Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Taburet, Guillaume; Troupin, Charles; Mourre, Baptiste; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2016-08-01

    New altimetry products in semi-enclosed seas are of major interest given the importance of the coastal-open ocean interactions. This study shows how reprocessed altimetry products in the Mediterranean Sea from Archiving, Validation and Interpolation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO) have improved the representation of the surface circulation over the 1993-2012 period. We focus on the Alboran Sea, which is the highest mesoscale activity area of the western Mediterranean. The respective impacts of the new mean dynamic topography (MDT) and mapped sea level anomaly (MSLA) on the description of the Western Alboran Gyre (WAG) are quantitatively evaluated. The temporal mean and variability of the total kinetic energy have been significantly increased in the WAG considering both the new MDT and MSLA (by more than 50%). The new MDT has added 39% to the mean kinetic energy, while the new MSLA has increased the eddy kinetic energy mean (standard deviation) by 53% (30%). The new MSLA has yielded higher variability of total (eddy) kinetic energy, especially in the annual frequency band by a factor of 2 (3). The MDT reprocessing has particularly increased the low-frequency variability of the total kinetic energy by a factor of 2. Geostrophic velocities derived from the altimetry products have also been compared with drifter data. Both reprocessed MDT and MSLA products intensify the velocities of the WAG making them closer to the in situ estimations, reducing the root mean square differences and increasing the correlation for the zonal and meridional components. The results obtained using refined coastal processing of altimetry products and new observational data are very encouraging to better understand the ocean circulation variability and coastal-open ocean interactions, and for potential improvements in other sub-basins, marginal seas and coastal global ocean.

  4. Plio-Quaternary tectonic evolution off Al Hoceima, Moroccan Margin of the Alboran Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafosse, Manfred; d'Acremont, Elia; Rabaute, Alain; Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Gorini, Christian; Ammar, Abdellah; Tahayt, Abdelilah

    2015-04-01

    We use data from a compilation of industrial and academic 2D surveys and recent data from MARLBORO-1 (2011), MARLBORO-2 (2012), and SARAS (2012) surveys, which provide high resolution bathymetry and 2D seismic reflexion data. We focus on the key area located south of the Alboran Ridge and the Tofiño Bank, and encompassing the Nekor and Boudinar onshore-offshore basins on the Moroccan side of the Alboran Sea. The Nekor basin is a present pull-apart basin in relay between inherited N050° sinistral strike-slip faults. We consider that these faults define the Principal Displacement Zones (PDZ). The northern PDZ marks the position of the crustal Bokkoya fault, which is connected to the Al-Idrisi Fault Zone en relais with the Adra and Carboneras Fault Zones. On the seabed, right-stepping non-coalescent faults characterize the sinistral kinematics of the northern PDZ and give a general N050° azimuth for the crustal discontinuity. The southern PDZ corresponds to the Nekor fault Zone, a Miocene sinistral strike-slip fault acting as the structural limit of the External Rif. On its eastern edge, the Nekor basin is bounded by the N-S onshore-offshore Trougout fault, connecting the northern and the southern PDZ. The western boundary of the Nekor basin is marked by the Rouadi and El-Hammam Quaternary active N-S normal faults. In the offshore Nekor basin, recent N155° conjugated normal faults affect the seabed. Further east, the Boudinar basin is a Plio-Quaternary uplifted Neogene basin. The northeastern segment of the Nekor fault bounds this basin to the south but is inactive in the Quaternary. Normal east-dipping N150° faults are visible offshore in the continuity of the Boudinar fault. From our perspective, the orientation of major tectonic structures (Bokkoya, Nekor and Carboneras faults and the Alboran ridge) under the present compressive regime due to the Europe/Africa convergence is not compatible with a strike-slip motion. The orientation of the most recent Plio

  5. Seimic Images and Wide-angle Velocity constrains of the structure and geodynamic origin of the Gibraltar Arc system: A geological interpretation of the Gulf of Cadiz imbricated wedge, the western and eastern Alboran basins, and the South-Balearic basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracia, E.; Ranero, C. R.; Grevemeryer, I.; WestMed, TopoMed, , T. h. e.; cruise parties, Geomargen-1

    2012-04-01

    The current geodynamics of the region between north Africa and the Iberian Peninsula are dominated by the collision between the Eurasian and African plates. The ongoing deformation is mainly driven by the NW-SE, slow 4-5 mm/yr convergence that is partitioned across numerous faults and diffused through a broad region with no clear plate boundary defined. However, this region is characterized by the a series of geological structures that appear unrelated to the current dominant plate kinematics. The region is formed by the Gibraltar Arc system, an arcuate structure that is fronted by a large imbricated wedge of tectonically piled sediment slices in the Gulf of Cadiz, and a series of basins in the Mediterranean part of the region. The western, little deformed Alboran basin is located on the rear of the Gibraltar stacked units. The eastern Alboran basin is characterized by numerous volcanic ridges and is transitional to the South Balearic - North Algerian basin that displays a generally lower topography. The different tectonic elements are floored by a poorly known crystalline basement and their age, evolution and geodynamic origin is still strongly debated. Part of the uncertainty arises from the lack of deep penetrating modern geophysical data in much of the region. In the last 5 years, 3 successive cruise in the region have produced an extensive coverage of the different tectonic elements collection a series of wide angle seismic profiles in 2006 during the WestMed cruise with German R/V Meteor and two multichannel seismic reflection cruises with the R/V Sarmiento de Gamboa from mid September to late October (TopoMed-Gassis cruise) and late October to late November (Geomargen-1 cruise) 2011. In this contribution we present the new images of the tectonic structures and sedimentary basin and the wide-angle seismic velocity models across key regions of the system. We also present an interpretation of the entire system in the context of a geodynamic model of eastward

  6. Sonmicat: Sea Level Observation System of Catalonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.; Termens, A.; Ruiz, A.; Gonzalez Lopez, S.

    2014-12-01

    SONMICAT is the integrated sea level observation system of Catalonia. SONMICAT aims at providing high-quality continous measurements of sea- and land levels at the Catalan coast from tide gauges (relative sea levels) and from modern geodetic techniques (vertical land motion and absolute sea levels) for studies on long-term sea level trends, but also the calibration of satellite altimeters, for instance. This synergy is indeed the only way to get a clear and unambigous picture of what is actually going on at the coast of Catalonia. SONMICAT aims to be: - an integrated sea level monitoring system (different types of data, sources, time and space scales), - a sea level information system handling the data measured by different observation networks, - a local/regional component of international sea level observing systems (GLOSS, ESEAS, etc.), and - a local/regional interface for related European and Global projects and databases (PSML, TIGA, etc.) There is a gap of sea level data (GLOSS, PSML, TIGA) in the coast of Catalonia, although several groups and institutions have started to do some work. SONMICAT will fill it. Up to now, the system has started at l'Estartit and Barcelona harbours. A description of the actual SONMICAT infraestructure and campaigns - especially at Barcelona harbour - are presented. In June 2014, an airborne LiDAR campaign has been carrying on in Barcelona following two ICESat tracks. First results of the airborne survey will also be presented.

  7. Particle fluxes in the Almeria-Oran Front: control by coastal upwelling and sea surface circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Vidal, A.; Calafat, A.; Canals, M.; Fabres, J.

    2004-12-01

    Particle flux data were obtained from one instrumented array moored under the direct influence of the Almeria-Oran Front (AOF) in the Eastern Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean Sea, within the frame of the "Mediterranean Targeted Project II-MAss Transfer and Ecosystem Response" (MTPII-MATER) EU-funded research project. The mooring line was deployed from July 1997 to May 1998, and was equipped with three sequential sampling sediment trap-current meter pairs at 645, 1170 and 2210 m (30 m above the seafloor). The settling material was analysed to obtain total mass, organic carbon, opal, calcium carbonate and lithogenic fluxes. Qualitative analyses of SST and SeaWiFS images allowed monitoring the location and development of the Western and Eastern Alboran Sea gyres and associated frontal systems to determine their influence on particle fluxes. Particle flux time series obtained at the three depths showed a downward decrease of the time-weighed total mass flux annual means, thus illustrating the role of pelagic particle settling. The total mass flux was dominated by the lithogenic fraction followed by calcium carbonate, opal and organic carbon. The time series at the various depths were rather similar, with two strong synchronous biogenic peaks (up to 98 mg m -2 day -1 of organic carbon and 156 mg m -2 day -1 of opal) recorded in July 1997 and May 1998. Through comparing the fluctuations of the lithogenic and calcium carbonate-rich fluxes with the biogenic flux, we observed that the non-biogenic fluxes remained roughly constant, while the biogenic flux responded strongly to seasonal variations throughout the water column. Overall, the temporal variability of particle fluxes appeared to be linked to the evolution of several tens of kilometres in length sea surface hydrological structures and circulation of the Alboran Sea. Periodic southeastward advective displacements of waters from upwelling events off the southern Spanish coast were observed on SST and SeaWiFS images

  8. Sea Ice Mapping using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solbø, S.; Storvold, R.

    2011-12-01

    Mapping of sea ice extent and sea ice features is an important task in climate research. Since the arctic coastal and oceanic areas have a high probability of cloud coverage, aerial platforms are superior to satellite measurements for high-resolution optical measurements. However, routine observations of sea ice conditions present a variety of problems using conventional piloted aircrafts. Specially, the availability of suitable aircrafts for lease does not cover the demand in major parts of the arctic. With the recent advances in unmanned aerial systems (UAS), there is a high possibility of establishing routine, cost effective aerial observations of sea ice conditions in the near future. Unmanned aerial systems can carry a wide variety of sensors useful for characterizing sea-ice features. For instance, the CryoWing UAS, a system initially designed for measurements of the cryosphere, can be equipped with digital cameras, surface thermometers and laser altimeters for measuring freeboard of ice flows. In this work we will present results from recent CryoWing sea ice flights on Svalbard, Norway. The emphasis will be on data processing for stitching together images acquired with the non-stabilized camera payload, to form high-resolution mosaics covering large spatial areas. These data are being employed to map ice conditions; including ice and lead features and melt ponds. These high-resolution mosaics are also well suited for sea-ice mechanics, classification studies and for validation of satellite sea-ice products.

  9. Medusa Sea Floor Monitoring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the research described in this poster presentation is to develop technologies to enable fundamental research into understanding the potential for and limits to chemolithoautotrophic life. The Medusa Isosampler (isobaric sampler), for sampling fluids eminating from deep sea hydrothermal vents and cold seep sites analogous to extraterrestrial environments, is described by the presentation. The following instruments are integrated with the isosampler, and also described: in situ flow-through chemical sensor, intrinsic fluorescent-based microbial detector, isotope ratio spectral detector.

  10. The Red Sea Modeling and Forecasting System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoteit, Ibrahim; Gopalakrishnan, Ganesh; Latif, Hatem; Toye, Habib; Zhan, Peng; Kartadikaria, Aditya R.; Viswanadhapalli, Yesubabu; Yao, Fengchao; Triantafyllou, George; Langodan, Sabique; Cavaleri, Luigi; Guo, Daquan; Johns, Burt

    2015-04-01

    Despite its importance for a variety of socio-economical and political reasons and the presence of extensive coral reef gardens along its shores, the Red Sea remains one of the most under-studied large marine physical and biological systems in the global ocean. This contribution will present our efforts to build advanced modeling and forecasting capabilities for the Red Sea, which is part of the newly established Saudi ARAMCO Marine Environmental Research Center at KAUST (SAMERCK). Our Red Sea modeling system compromises both regional and nested costal MIT general circulation models (MITgcm) with resolutions varying between 8 km and 250 m to simulate the general circulation and mesoscale dynamics at various spatial scales, a 10-km resolution Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model to simulate the atmospheric conditions, a 4-km resolution European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM) to simulate the Red Sea ecosystem, and a 1-km resolution WAVEWATCH-III model to simulate the wind driven surface waves conditions. We have also implemented an oil spill model, and a probabilistic dispersion and larval connectivity modeling system (CMS) based on a stochastic Lagrangian framework and incorporating biological attributes. We are using the models outputs together with available observational data to study all aspects of the Red Sea circulations. Advanced monitoring capabilities are being deployed in the Red Sea as part of the SAMERCK, comprising multiple gliders equipped with hydrographical and biological sensors, high frequency (HF) surface current/wave mapping, buoys/ moorings, etc, complementing the available satellite ocean and atmospheric observations and Automatic Weather Stations (AWS). The Red Sea models have also been equipped with advanced data assimilation capabilities. Fully parallel ensemble-based Kalman filtering (EnKF) algorithms have been implemented with the MITgcm and ERSEM for assimilating all available multivariate satellite and in-situ data sets. We

  11. Neogene tectonic evolution of the southwestern Alboran Basin as inferred from seismic data off Morocco

    SciTech Connect

    Chalouan, A.; Saji, R.; Michard, A.; Bally, A.W.

    1997-07-01

    The southwestern part of the western Mediterranean Alboran Basin, including part of the Alboran ridge (Xaouen Bank), was investigated through the analysis of 28 intersecting multichannel seismic lines. The seismic stratigraphy is tied to the Amoco well El-Jebha 1. Five seismic units or subunits are described from the Quaternary to the middle (and lower?) Miocene. The acoustic basement is interpreted to be mainly Paleozoic and Triassic metamorphic rocks of the Alboran Domain nappes, and, in places, middle Miocene-Messinian calc-alkalic volcanics. In the depocenters, the thickness of the sedimentary infill (mostly clays and turbidites) exceeds 9 km. Normal faults of middle Miocene-Tortonian age are broadly parallel to the coast, and dip either seaward or landward. They were mostly inverted during pre- and post-Messinian episodes of compression, which formed a set of en echelon, north-verging faulted folds in the Alboran ridge area, in relation with sinistral movement along the offshore projection of the Jebha fault. After Pliocene subsidence, a final episode of compression reactivated the earlier folds and pushed the Alboran ridge onto the Moroccan slope. The complex structural history suggests many structural and stratigraphic potential hydrocarbon traps. A high-resolution seismic survey could lead to the definition of new exploration plays.

  12. Air and sea rescue via satellite systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scales, W. C.; Swanson, R.

    1984-03-01

    Two approaches to a satellite system for air and sea rescue to be put into use by the 1990s, one employing polar-orbiting satellites and the other using fixed geosynchronous satellites over the equator, are discussed. A battery-powered transmitter on a ship or aircraft would be activated in an accident to emit a low-power omnidirectional signal that would be relayed by a satellite to an earth station. The polar-orbiting approach, now being evaluated on a small-scale with the Cospas-Sarsat system, allows complete coverage of the earth, including the poles, and provides a fix on the origin of the distress signals by means of the Doppler shift. A parallel effort for the testing of geostationary satellites to measure system sensitivity to various interference sources, to optimize design, and to measure land and sea performance is reviewed.

  13. Variability of mesoscale features in the Mediterranean Sea from XBT data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusco, G.; Manzella, G. M. R.; Cruzado, A.; Gacic, M.; Gasparini, G. P.; Kovacevic, V.; Millot, C.; Tziavos, C.; Velasquez, Z. R.; Walne, A.; Zervakis, V.; Zodiatis, G.

    2003-01-01

    During the period 1998-2000, the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project, aiming to build a forecasting system for the physical state of the sea, has been carried out. A ship-of-opportunity programme sampled the Mediterranean upper ocean thermal structure by means of eXpendable Bathy-Thermographs (XBTs), along seven tracks, from September 1999 to May 2000. The tracks were designed to detect some of the main circulation features, such as the stream of surface Atlantic water flowing from the Alboran Sea to the Eastern Levantine Basin. The cyclonic gyres in the Liguro-Provenal Basin, the southern Adriatic and Ionian Seas and the anticyclonic gyres in the Levantine Basin were also features to be detected.

  14. Parameter Estimation and Data Management System of Sea Clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cong, Bo; Duan, Qingguang; Qu, Yuanxin

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, a parameter estimation and data management system of sea clutter is described, which can acquire the data of sea clutter, implement parameter estimation and realize real-time communications.

  15. Active laser system for sea ice control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtikhiev, Nickolay N.; Gaponov, Alexandr E.; Kuluba, Yury N.; Matous, Vladislav I.; Radominov, Oleg E.; Tuzikov, Vladimir Z.; Vargaftic, Vasiliy N.

    1997-01-01

    The airborne systems are used for complex investigations of coastline very successfully, for example it can be used to measure the depth of the sea, to discover the reefs and so on. Such information may be used in navigation too. The specific conditions of navigation in the North and Pole seas defines the necessity of exact knowledge about the ice cracks in order to find the possible direction of the ship movement. The active optical system, working in the near IR region, has many advantages before the passive one, especially if it is necessary to work during the polar night and at bad weather conditions. In this article we discuss the demands to the laser active airborne systems, that given the accurate picture of the ice with high resolution in the daytime and nighttime conditions. Such system based on the laser, mechanical scanner and avalanche photodiode is very compact, reliable and informative. The picture of the ice surface can be shown on the TV monitor, can be written to the memory and can be delivered to the processing center by the radiochannel. The experimental results are shown together with results of this system probing in the conditions of the North Pole Ocean.

  16. Severe rainfall events over the western Mediterranean Sea: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesco Martín, Jesús; Mora García, Manuel; de Pablo Dávila, Fernando; Rivas Soriano, Luis

    2013-06-01

    A study of severe rainfall (≥ 100 mm in 24 h) over the Spanish provinces of Malaga, Granada y Almeria (close to the Alboran Sea, the westernmost part of the Mediterranean Sea) has been performed using 5 years (2006-2010) of data. The episodes of heavy rainfall were classified using the moisture flux at the 850 hPa pressure level and the lifted index. This gave three types, associated with situations of intense moisture flux and little static instability, moderate moisture flux and static instability, and moderate moisture flux and strong static instability. Representative cases of each type were analyzed, and it was found that both non-convective (41% of cases) and convective (59% of cases) systems caused the episodes of severe precipitation considered in this study. The convective structures included isolated and persistent convective systems, multicellular convective systems, and mesoscale convective systems.

  17. Sea Ice in the NCEP Climate Forecast System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Grumbine, R. W.

    2015-12-01

    Sea ice is known to play a significant role in the global climate system. For a weather or climate forecast system (CFS), it is important that the realistic distribution of sea ice is represented. Sea ice prediction is challenging; sea ice can form or melt, it can move with wind and/or ocean current; sea ice interacts with both the air above and ocean underneath, it influences by, and has impact on the air and ocean conditions. NCEP has developed coupled CFS (version 2, CFSv2) and carried out CFS reanalysis (CFSR), which includes a coupled model with the NCEP global forecast system, a land model, an ocean model (GFDL MOM4), and a sea ice model. In this work, we present the NCEP coupled model, the CFSv2 sea ice component that includes a dynamic thermodynamic sea ice model and a simple "assimilation" scheme, how sea ice has been assimilated in CFSR, the characteristics of the sea ice from CFSR and CFSv2, and the improvements of sea ice needed for future CFS (version 3) and the CFSR.

  18. Interferometric System for Measuring Thickness of Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hussein, Ziad; Jordan, Rolando; McDonald, Kyle; Holt, Benjamin; Huang, John; Kugo, Yasuo; Ishimaru, Akira; Jaruwatanadilok, Semsak; Akins, Torry; Gogineni, Prasad

    2006-01-01

    The cryospheric advanced sensor (CAS) is a developmental airborne (and, potentially, spaceborne) radar-based instrumentation system for measuring and mapping the thickness of sea ice. A planned future version of the system would also provide data on the thickness of snow covering sea ice. Frequent measurements of the thickness of polar ocean sea ice and its snow cover on a synoptic scale are critical to understanding global climate change and ocean circulation.

  19. A closed recirculated sea-water system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1967-01-01

    Study of a virus disease in the chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) necessitated the use of a marine environment to study the long range effects of the disease and to complete the life cycle of its etiologic agent. A closed recirculated sea-water system was designed for use under experimental laboratory conditions so that controlled studies of the disease could be made. As others may wish to do marine environment studies in the laboratory, the design and operation of our system are presented. Other systems currently in use have been described by Chin (1959), DeWitt and Salo (1960), McCrimmon and Berst (1966), and the authors of collected papers edited by Clark and Clark (1964). Preparatory to the design and construction of the system in use in this laboratory, visits were made to marine systems in use at the University of Washington's College of Fisheries, Seattle, -washington, and Friday Harbor Laboratory, San Juan Island, Washington; the Washington State Department of Fisheries' Point whitney Shellfish Laboratory, Brinnon, Washington; Humboldt State College, Arcata, California; and the Steinhart Aquarium of the California Academy of Science, San Francisco, California.

  20. Projected climate change impacts to the North Sea marine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrum, Corinna

    2015-04-01

    Future climate change impacts to the North Sea marine system are driven by a combination of changes induced by the globally forced oceanic boundary conditions and the regional atmospheric and terrestrial changes. We reviewed the recent progress and the projected future change of the North Sea marine system as part of the North Sea Climate Change Assessment (NOSCCA) and focussed on three major aspects, namely the change of (i) sea level, the (ii) hydrographic and circulation changes of the North Sea and the (iii) changes in lower trophic level dynamics, biogeochemistry and ocean acidification. In recent years more and more regional climate change assessments became available for the North Sea and new developments contributed important understanding on regional processes mediating climate change impacts in the North Sea. Important new knowledge on regional future sea level change was gained by improved understanding of processes contributing to global sea level rise during the last decade. Assessment of climate change impacts to hydrography, circulation and biogeochemistry has benefited from new and advanced downscaling methods. The large number of regional studies enables now a critical review of the current knowledge on climate change impacts on the North Sea and allows the identification of challenges, robust changes, uncertainties and specific recommendations for future research. The long term trends in the climate conditions are superposed on the natural modes of variability and separating these to give a clear anthropogenic climate change signal is one of the 'grand challenges' of climate change impact studies in marine regions and of particular relevance for North Sea. The impact of natural variability on future annual average steric sea level, sea surface temperature and ocean acidification is less dominant compared to the climate change signal and their projected changes for the North Sea, namely rising future sea level, increasing surface temperature and

  1. Baltic Earth - Earth System Science for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Markus; Rutgersson, Anna; Lehmann, Andreas; Reckermann, Marcus

    2014-05-01

    The Baltic Sea region, defined as its river catchment basin, spans different climate and population zones, from a temperate, highly populated, industrialized south with intensive agriculture to a boreal, rural north. It encompasses most of the Scandinavian Peninsula in the west; most of Finland and parts of Russia, Belarus, and the Baltic states in the east; and Poland and small parts of Germany and Denmark in the south. The region represents an old cultural landscape, and the Baltic Sea itself is among the most studied sea areas of the world. Baltic Earth is the new Earth system research network for the Baltic Sea region. It is the successor to BALTEX, which was terminated in June 2013 after 20 years and two successful phases. Baltic Earth stands for the vision to achieve an improved Earth system understanding of the Baltic Sea region. This means that the research disciplines of BALTEX continue to be relevant, i.e. atmospheric and climate sciences, hydrology, oceanography and biogeochemistry, but a more holistic view of the Earth system encompassing processes in the atmosphere, on land and in the sea as well as in the anthroposphere shall gain in importance in Baltic Earth. Specific grand research challenges have been formulated, representing interdisciplinary research questions to be tackled in the coming years. A major means will be scientific assessments of particular research topics by expert groups, similar to the BACC approach, which shall help to identify knowledge gaps and develop research strategies. Preliminary grand challenges and topics for which Working Groups have been installed include: • Salinity dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Land-Sea biogeochemical feedbacks in the Baltic Sea region • Natural hazards and extreme events in the Baltic Sea region • Understanding sea level dynamics in the Baltic Sea • Understanding regional variability of water and energy exchange • Utility of Regional Climate Models • Assessment of Scenario Simulations

  2. Radiative transfer in atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Weeks, W.F.; Tsay, S.C.

    1996-04-01

    Radiative energy is critical in controlling the heat and mass balance of sea ice, which significantly affects the polar climate. In the polar oceans, light transmission through the atmosphere and sea ice is essential to the growth of plankton and algae and, consequently, to the microbial community both in the ice and in the ocean. Therefore, the study of radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean system is of particular importance. Lacking a properly coupled radiative transfer model for the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system, a consistent study of the radiative transfer in the polar atmosphere, snow, sea ice, and ocean system has not been undertaken before. The radiative transfer processes in the atmosphere and in the ice and ocean have been treated separately. Because the radiation processes in the atmosphere, sea ice, and ocean depend on each other, this separate treatment is inconsistent. To study the radiative interaction between the atmosphere, clouds, snow, sea ice, and ocean, a radiative transfer model with consistent treatment of radiation in the coupled system is needed and is under development.

  3. Lithospheric-scale effects of a subduction-driven Alboran plate: improved neotectonic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neres, Marta; Carafa, Michele; Terrinha, Pedro; Fernandes, Rui; Matias, Luis; Duarte, João; Barba, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The presence of a subducted slab under the Gibraltar arc is now widely accepted. However, discussion still remains on whether subduction is active and what is its influence in the lithospheric processes, in particular in the observed geodesy, deformation rates and seismicity. Aiming at bringing new insights into the discussion, we have performed a neotectonic numerical study of a segment of the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary, from the Gloria fault to the Northern Algerian margin. Specifically, we have tested the effect of including or excluding an independently driven Alboran plate, i.e. testing active subduction versus inactive subduction (2plates versus 3plates scenarios). We used the dynamic code SHELLS (Bird et al., 2008) to model the surface velocity field and the ongoing deformation, using a new up-to-date simplified tectonic map of the region, new available lithospheric data and boundary conditions determined from two alternative Africa-Eurasia angular velocities, respectively: SEGAL2013, a new pole based on stable Africa and stable Eurasia gps data (last decades); and MORVEL, a geological-scale pole (3.16 Ma). We also extensively studied the variation within the parametric space of fault friction coefficient, subduction resistance and surface velocities imposed to the Alboran plate. The final run comprised a total of 5240 experiments, and each generated model was scored against geodetic velocities, stress direction data and seismic strain rates. The preferred model corresponds to the 3plates scenario, SEGAL2013 pole and fault friction of 0.225, with scoring results: gps misfit of 0.78 mm/yr; SHmax misfit of 13.6° and correlation with seismic strain rate of 0.62, significantly better than previous models. We present predicted fault slip rates for the recognized active structures and off-faults permanent strain rates, which can be used for seismic and tsunami hazard calculations (the initial motivation for this work was contributing for calculation of

  4. The future for the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) Sea Level Data Rescue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Matthews, Andrew; Rickards, Lesley; Aarup, Thorkild

    2016-04-01

    Historical sea level data are rare and unrepeatable measurements with a number of applications in climate studies (sea level rise), oceanography (ocean currents, tides, surges), geodesy (national datum), geophysics and geology (coastal land movements) and other disciplines. However, long-term time series are concentrated in the northern hemisphere and there are no records at the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL) global data bank longer than 100 years in the Arctic, Africa, South America or Antarctica. Data archaeology activities will help fill in the gaps in the global dataset and improve global sea level reconstruction. The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) is an international programme conducted under the auspices of the WMO-IOC Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology. It was set up in 1985 to collect long-term tide gauge observations and to develop systems and standards "for ocean monitoring and flood warning purposes". At the GLOSS-GE-XIV Meeting in 2015, GLOSS agreed on a number of action items to be developed in the next two years. These were: 1. To explore mareogram digitisation applications, including NUNIEAU (more information available at: http://www.mediterranee.cerema.fr/logiciel-de-numerisation-des-enregistrements-r57.html) and other recent developments in scanning/digitisation software, such as IEDRO's Weather Wizards program, to see if they could be used via a browser. 2. To publicise sea level data archaeology and rescue by: • maintaining and regularly updating the Sea Level Data Archaeology page on the GLOSS website • strengthening links to the GLOSS data centres and data rescue organisations e.g. linking to IEDRO, ACRE, RDA • restarting the sea level data rescue blog with monthly posts. 3. Investigate sources of funding for data archaeology and rescue projects. 4. Propose "Guidelines" for rescuing sea level data. These action items will aid the discovery, scanning, digitising and quality control

  5. Radiation Transport in the Atmosphere - Sea Ice - Ocean System.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Zhonghai

    1995-01-01

    A comprehensive radiative transfer model for the coupled atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system has been developed. The theoretical work required for constructing such a coupled model is described first. This work extends the discrete ordinate method, which has been proven to be effective in studies of radiative transfer in the atmosphere, to solve the radiative transfer problem pertaining to a system consisting of two strata with different indices of refraction, such as the atmosphere-ocean system and the atmosphere -sea ice-ocean system. The relevant changes (as compared to the standard problem with constant index of refraction throughout the medium) in formulation and solution of the radiative transfer equation, including the proper application of interface and boundary conditions, are presented. This solution is then applied to the atmosphere -sea ice-ocean system to study the solar energy balance in this coupled system. The input parameters required by the model are observable physical properties (e.g., the profiles of temperature and gas concentrations in the atmosphere, and the profiles of temperature, density, and salinity in the ice). The atmosphere, sea ice and ocean are each divided into a sufficient number of layers in the vertical to adequately resolve changes in their optical properties. This model rigorously accounts for the multiple scattering and absorption by atmospheric molecules, clouds, snow and sea water, as well as inclusions in the sea ice, such as brine pockets and air bubbles. The effects of various factors on the solar energy distribution in the entire system have been studied quantitatively. These factors include the ice salinity and density variations, cloud microphysics as well as variations in melt ponds and snow cover on the ice surface. Finally, the coupled radiative transfer model is used to study the impacts of clouds, snow and ice algae on the light transport in sea ice and in the ocean, as well as to simulate spectral irradiance and

  6. A System of Oceanic Reanalysis (SOR) fot the Nordic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pnyushkov, A.

    2009-04-01

    A system of oceanic reanalysis of the Nordic seas (Norwegian, Greenland and Barents seas) directed to the investigations of long period changes in the oceanic climate of the Arctic sub-polar seas was developed. The system of oceanic reanalysys (SOR) includes hybrid coordinate 22-th level ocean model HYCOM [Bleck,2002] and modern oceanographic data assimilation technique based on spectral nudging method. A series of test experiments was carried out and optimal parameters for assimilation routine were choused. These parameters take into account the accuracy of spatial restoring by means objective analysis procedure and phase distortion in modeling fields during monotonous assimilation of monthly distributions. On the basis of modeling results a set of monthly mean hydrological distributions of thermohaline parameters was created for the Nordic seas that was used for climatic field compilations on the standard levels for period 1957-1990. The data of reanalysis system projections allow us to restore the information about structure and dynamic of oceanographic fields for the periods and areas with a small number of direct measurements, for example East-Greenland currents area, north and north-east parts of the Barents sea. A series of additional experiments with SOR were performed directed to the simple assimilation of sea ice concentration data. A significant improvement of the system of objectively analyzed field preparation was done during 2008 including additional validation procedure of gridded arrays with using the direct data of oceanographic stations. This work was supported by Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 07-05-00393).

  7. A system for telemetering sea wave parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Zhengxu; Jin, Junmo; Suckling, E. E.

    1982-04-01

    A wave staff to be anchored at sea and containing sensing and telemetering equipment is described. This gives a record at the land station of water level changes due to tides and of waves as they pass the staff. The staff is a 13 metre long PCV tube, the upper half comprising a capacitance with inner plate a foil layer, dielectric the tube wall, and outer electrode the sea. Wave direction is obtained by a separate device comprising a raft moored near to the staff. The raft streams behind its mooring and substantially points into the advancing waves and changes its slope as these pass under it. This slope and its direction referred to magnetic north, are telemetered to the land station to give the direction from which the waves arrive.

  8. The monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanova, Luydmila; Khachaturov, Vladimir; Zlotov, Aleksandr

    2010-05-01

    The monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea The Caspian Sea is the largest closed reservoir in the world, which washes the western part of Kazakhstan. The area of water territory is 371,000 sq km; the sea level is lower than the level of the ocean on 28.5 m (1971). Maximum depth is 1,025m (in the southern part); the Kazakhstan part is not deep, and the depth of the North Caspian sea is about 15-20 m. The Caspian Sea is divided according to physical and geographical conditions to 3 parts - North Caspian, Middle Caspian and South Caspian Sea. Fauna is represented by 1809 species, 415 of which belong to the vertebrates, 101 species of fish, it also has the majority of the world's sturgeon, freshwater fish - roach, carp, pike, saltwater fish - carp, mullet, sprats, Kutum, bream, salmon, perch, pike, mammal - caspian seal. The plant world is represented by 728 species, of which algae are dominated - blue-green, diatoms, red, brown, Stoneworts and others, from flowering - eelgrass and seagrass. Development of sea oil-and-gas deposits of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian sea entails increase of anthropogenous pressure on the environment. According to preliminary estimates, the volume of recoverable hydrocarbon resources in the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea is about 8.0 billion tons per year. The impact of terrestrial and marine infrastructure, oil and gas facilities on natural systems is reflected in discharges and emissions into the environment of gaseous, solid and liquid pollutants, consumption of natural resources for industrial, farm and household needs, and violation of coastal landscapes. Dangerous influence on the environment is burning natural oil gas on torches. In this regard, there is a need for a system of state monitoring. In a basis of environmental monitoring system of the Kazakhstan sector of Caspian Sea has been put an ecosystem approach, creation of an automated system on the basis of GIS technologies and modeling of forecasts of

  9. Where is the West Antarctic Rift System in the Amundsen Sea and Bellingshausen Sea sectors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohl, Karsten; Kalberg, Thomas; Eagles, Graeme; Dziadek, Ricarda; Kaul, Norbert; Spiegel, Cornelia; Lindow, Julia

    2015-04-01

    The West Antarctic Rift System (WARS) is one of the largest continental rifts globally, but its lateral extent, distribution of local rifts, timing of rifting phases, and mantle processes are still largely enigmatic. It has been presumed that the rift and its crustal extensional processes have widely controlled the history and development of West Antarctic glaciation with an ice sheet of which most is presently based at sub-marine level and which is, therefore, likely to be highly sensitive to ocean warming. While the western domain of the WARS in the Ross Sea has been studied in some detail, only recently have various geophysical and geochemical/thermochronological analyses revealed indications for its eastern extent in the Amundsen Sea and Bellingshausen Sea sectors of the South Pacific realm. The current model, based on these studies and additional data, suggests that the WARS activity included tectonic translateral, transtensional and extensional processes from the Amundsen Sea Embayment to the Bellingshausen Sea region of the southern Antarctic Peninsula. We present the range of existing hypotheses regarding the extent of the eastern WARS as well as published and yet unpublished data that support a conceptual WARS model for the eastern West Antarctica with implications for glacial onset and developments.

  10. Antarctic sea ice carbon dioxide system and controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fransson, Agneta; Chierici, Melissa; Yager, Patricia L.; Smith, Walker O., Jr.

    2011-12-01

    In austral summer, from December 2008 to January 2009, we investigated the sea-ice carbon dioxide (CO2) system and CO2 controls in the Amundsen and Ross Seas, Antarctica. We sampled seawater, brine and sea ice for the measurements of total alkalinity (AT), total inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, inorganic nutrients, particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON), chlorophyll a, pigments, salinity and temperature. Large variability in all measured parameters was observed in time and space due to the complex sea-ice dynamics. We discuss the controls of the sea-ice CO2 system, such as brine rejection, biological processes, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitation/dissolution and CO2 exchange. Most (80 to 90%) of the DIC loss was due to brine rejection, which suggests that the sea ice acted as an efficient DIC sink from 0.8 and 2.6 mol m-2 yr-1 (9.6-31 g C m-2 yr-1). The remaining change in DIC was to a large extent explained by net biological production. The AT:DIC ratio in the sea ice was higher than in the under-ice water (UIW), with ratios reaching 1.7, which indicated CaCO3 precipitation and concomitant DIC loss in the sea ice. Elevated AT:DIC ratios and carbonate concentrations were also observed in the UIW, which reflect the solid CaCO3 rejected from the ice during melt. The potential for uptake of atmospheric CO2 in the mixed layer increased by approximately 56 μatm due to the combined effect of CaCO3 precipitation during ice formation, and ice melt in summer.

  11. Precise mean sea level measurements using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelecy, Thomas M.; Born, George H.; Parke, Michael E.; Rocken, Christian

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a sea level measurement test conducted off La Jolla, California, in November of 1991. The purpose of this test was to determine accurate sea level measurements using a Global Positioning System (GPS) equipped buoy. These measurements were intended to be used as the sea level component for calibration of the ERS 1 satellite altimeter. Measurements were collected on November 25 and 28 when the ERS 1 satellite overflew the calibration area. Two different types of buoys were used. A waverider design was used on November 25 and a spar design on November 28. This provided the opportunity to examine how dynamic effects of the measurement platform might affect the sea level accuracy. The two buoys were deployed at locations approximately 1.2 km apart and about 15 km west of a reference GPS receiver located on the rooftop of the Institute of Geophysics and Planetary Physics at the Scripps Institute of Oceanography. GPS solutions were computed for 45 minutes on each day and used to produce two sea level time series. An estimate of the mean sea level at both locations was computed by subtracting tide gage data collected at the Scripps Pier from the GPS-determined sea level measurements and then filtering out the high-frequency components due to waves and buoy dynamics. In both cases the GPS estimate differed from Rapp's mean altimetric surface by 0.06 m. Thus, the gradient in the GPS measurements matched the gradient in Rapp's surface. These results suggest that accurate sea level can be determined using GPS on widely differing platforms as long as care is taken to determine the height of the GPS antenna phase center above water level. Application areas include measurement of absolute sea level, of temporal variations in sea level, and of sea level gradients (dominantly the geoid). Specific applications would include ocean altimeter calibration, monitoring of sea level in remote regions, and regional experiments requiring spatial and

  12. Comprehensive Measurements of Wind Systems at the Dead Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Jutta; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Kalthoff, Norbert; Wieser, Andreas; Alpert, Pinhas; Lati, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    The Dead Sea is a unique place on earth. It is located at the lowest point of the Jordan Rift valley and its water level is currently at -429 m above mean sea level (amsl). To the West the Judean Mountains (up to 1000 m amsl) and to the East the Moab mountains (up to 1300 m amsl) confine the north-south oriented valley. The whole region is located in a transition zone of semi-arid to arid climate conditions and together with the steep orography, this forms a quite complex and unique environment. The Virtual Institute DEad SEa Research Venue (DESERVE) is an international project funded by the German Helmholtz Association and was established to study coupled atmospheric, hydrological, and lithospheric processes in the changing environment of the Dead Sea. Previous studies showed that the valley's atmosphere is often governed by periodic wind systems (Bitan, 1974), but most of the studies were limited to ground measurements and could therefore not resolve the three dimensional development and evolution of these wind systems. Performed airborne measurements found three distinct layers above the Dead Sea (Levin, 2005). Two layers are directly affected by the Dead Sea and the third is the commonly observed marine boundary layer over Israel. In the framework of DESERVE a field campaign with the mobile observatory KITcube was conducted to study the three dimensional structure of atmospheric processes at the Dead Sea in 2014. The combination of several in-situ and remote sensing instruments allows temporally and spatially high-resolution measurements in an atmospheric volume of about 10x10x10 km3. With this data set, the development and evolution of typical local wind systems, as well as the impact of regional scale wind conditions on the valley's atmosphere could be analyzed. The frequent development of a nocturnal drainage flow with wind velocities of over 10 m s‑1, the typical lake breeze during the day, its onset and vertical extension as well as strong downslope

  13. Unique system of photoreceptors in sea urchin tube feet

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich-Lüter, Esther M; Dupont, Sam; Arboleda, Enrique; Hausen, Harald; Arnone, Maria Ina

    2011-01-01

    Different sea urchin species show a vast variety of responses to variations in light intensity; however, despite this behavioral evidence for photosensitivity, light sensing in these animals has remained an enigma. Genome information of the recently sequenced purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) allowed us to address this question from a previously unexplored molecular perspective by localizing expression of the rhabdomeric opsin Sp-opsin4 and Sp-pax6, two genes essential for photoreceptor function and development, respectively. Using a specifically designed antibody against Sp-Opsin4 and in situ hybridization for both genes, we detected expression in two distinct groups of photoreceptor cells (PRCs) located in the animal's numerous tube feet. Specific reactivity of the Sp-Opsin4 antibody with sea star optic cushions, which regulate phototaxis, suggests a similar visual function in sea urchins. Ultrastructural characterization of the sea urchin PRCs revealed them to be of a microvillar receptor type. Our data suggest that echinoderms, in contrast to chordates, deploy a microvillar, r-opsin–expressing PRC type for vision, a feature that has been so far documented only in protostome animals. Surprisingly, sea urchin PRCs lack any associated screening pigment. Indeed, one of the tube foot PRC clusters may account for directional vision by being shaded through the opaque calcite skeleton. The PRC axons connect to the animal internal nervous system, suggesting an integrative function beyond local short circuits. Because juveniles display no phototaxis until skeleton completion, we suggest a model in which the entire sea urchin, deploying its skeleton as PRC screening device, functions as a huge compound eye. PMID:21536888

  14. The Caspian Sea Negotiation Support System 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhani, O. M.; Madani, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Caspian Sea is one of the most resourceful (both in energy and biological resources) areas of the world. The share allocation of Caspian Sea has been the subject of many disputes. Up to now, the negotiations to reach an agreement regarding the ownership status of the sea have not been completely successful. To facilitate reaching an agreement among littoral countries, research studies can provide valuable information. Researchers should examine different options for dividing the sea closely and determine the benefits of each of the options for the parties involved. Following an earlier effort, Caspian Sea Negotiation Support System is further developed in this regard. The model estimates countries' areal and utility shares under different legal methods/scenarios, attempting to minimize transportation costs of exploiting the resource. The applied model is more efficient than the earlier model and the used data includes more variables/attributes such as depth, the differentiation between gas and oil, and various fish resources than the previously employed data. Consequently, the estimates are calculated in more details than are calculated in the earlier study. The results still show a high sensitivity of outputs to the proposed division rules, suggesting a need to clarify the countries' utility and areal shares under any suggested legal regime. Compared to the previous results, the new results confirm the significant effect of the addition of the more variables/attributes to the analysis, in terms of the areal shares and allocations, valuation of resources, and asset management.

  15. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 20: The SeaWiFS bio-optical archive and storage system (SeaBASS), part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Mcclain, Charles R.; Firestone, James K.; Westphal, Todd L.; Yeh, Eueng-Nan; Ge, Yuntao; Firestone, Elaine R.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides an overview of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS), which will serve as a repository for numerous data sets of interest to the SeaWiFS Science Team and other approved investigators in the oceanographic community. The data collected will be those data sets suitable for the development and evaluation of bio-optical algorithms which include results from SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiments (SIRREXs), prelaunch characterization of the SeaWiFS instrument by its manufacturer -- Hughes/Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC), Marine Optical Characterization Experiment (MOCE) cruises, Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) deployments and refurbishments, and field studies of other scientists outside of NASA. The primary goal of the data system is to provide a simple mechanism for querying the available archive and requesting specific items, while assuring that the data is made available only to authorized users. The design, construction, and maintenance of SeaBASS is the responsibility of the SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation Team (CVT). This report is concerned with documenting the execution of this task by the CVT and consists of a series of chapters detailing the various data sets involved. The topics presented are as follows: 1) overview of the SeaBASS file architecture, 2) the bio-optical data system, 3) the historical pigment database, 4) the SIRREX database, and 5) the SBRC database.

  16. Variational data assimilation system "INM RAS - Black Sea"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parmuzin, Eugene; Agoshkov, Valery; Assovskiy, Maksim; Giniatulin, Sergey; Zakharova, Natalia; Kuimov, Grigory; Fomin, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Development of Informational-Computational Systems (ICS) for Data Assimilation Procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in: mathematical modeling; theory of adjoint equations and optimal control; inverse problems; numerical methods theory; numerical algebra and scientific computing. The problems discussed above are studied in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS) in ICS for Personal Computers (PC). Special problems and questions arise while effective ICS versions for PC are being developed. These problems and questions can be solved with applying modern methods of numerical mathematics and by solving "parallelism problem" using OpenMP technology and special linear algebra packages. In this work the results on the ICS development for PC-ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" are presented. In the work the following problems and questions are discussed: practical problems that can be studied by ICS; parallelism problems and their solutions with applying of OpenMP technology and the linear algebra packages used in ICS "INM - Black Sea"; Interface of ICS. The results of ICS "INM RAS - Black Sea" testing are presented. Efficiency of technologies and methods applied are discussed. The work was supported by RFBR, grants No. 13-01-00753, 13-05-00715 and by The Ministry of education and science of Russian Federation, project 8291, project 11.519.11.1005 References: [1] V.I. Agoshkov, M.V. Assovskii, S.A. Lebedev, Numerical simulation of Black Sea hydrothermodynamics taking into account tide-forming forces. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 5-31 [2] E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for sea surface temperature in the model of the Black Sea dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, 69-94 [3] V.B. Zalesny, N.A. Diansky, V

  17. Using near infrared light for deep sea mining observation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Huimin; Li, Yujie; Li, Xin; Yang, Jianmin; Serikawa, Seiichi

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we design a novel deep-sea near infrared light based imaging equipment for deep-sea mining observation systems. The spectral sensitivity peaks are in the red region of the invisible spectrum, ranging from 750nm to 900nm. In addition, we propose a novel underwater imaging model that compensates for the attenuation discrepancy along the propagation path. The proposed model fully considered the effects of absorption, scattering and refraction. We also develop a locally adaptive Laplacian filtering for enhancing underwater transmission map after underwater dark channel prior estimation. Furthermore, we propose a spectral characteristic-based color correction algorithm to recover the distorted color. In water tank experiments, we made a linear scale of eight turbidity steps ranging from clean to heavily scattered by adding deep sea soil to the seawater (from 500 to 2000 mg/L). We compared the results of different turbidity underwater scene, illuminated alternately with near infrared light vs. white light. Experiments demonstrate that the enhanced NIR images have a reasonable noise level after the illumination compensation in the dark regions and demonstrates an improved global contrast by which the finest details and edges are significantly enhanced. We also demonstrate that the effective distance of the designed imaging system is about 1.5 meters, which can meet the requirement of micro-terrain observation around the deep-sea mining systems. Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle (ROV)-based experiments also certified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  18. Microbial Geochemistry in Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, J. P.; Pichler, T.

    2006-12-01

    Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems are far more ubiquitous than generally recognized. Approximately 50-60 systems are currently known, occurring world-wide in areas of high heat flow, such as, volcanic island arcs, near-surface mid-ocean ridges, and intraplate oceanic volcanoes. In contrast to deep-sea systems, shallow- sea vent fluids generally include a meteoric component, they experience phase separation near the sediment- water interface, and they discharge into the photic zone (<200 m). They also are characterized by wide ranges in chemical composition, hundreds of redox disequilibria that translate to potential metabolisms, and broad phylogenetic diversity among the thermophilic bacteria and archaea. Perhaps because deep-sea smokers and continental hot springs are visually more stunning, shallow-sea systems are often overlooked study sites. We will discuss their particular features that afford unique opportunities in microbial geochemistry. Two of the better studied examples are at Vulcano Island (Italy) and Ambitle Island (Papua New Guinea). The vents and sediment seeps at Vulcano are the "type locality" for numerous cultured hyperthermophiles, including the bacteria Aquifex and Thermotoga, the crenarchaeon Pyrodictium, and the Euryarchaeota Archaeoglobus and Pyrococcus. Isotope-labeled incubation experiments of heated sediments and an array of culturing studies have shown that simple organic compounds are predominantly fermented or anaerobically respired with sulfate. 16S rRNA gene surveys, together with fluorescent in situ hybridization studies, demonstrated the dominance of key thermophilic bacteria and archaea (e.g., Aquificales, Thermotogales, Thermococcales, Archaeoglobales) in the sediments and the presence of a broad spectrum of mostly uncultured crenarchaeota in several vent waters, sediment samples, and geothermal wells. Thermodynamic modeling quantified potential energy yields from aerobic and anaerobic respiration reactions and fermentation

  19. Total Organic Carbon Distribution and Bacterial Cycling Across A Geostrophic Front In Mediterranean Sea. Implications For The Western Basin Carbon Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sempere, R.; van Wambeke, F.; Bianchi, M.; Dafner, E.; Lefevre, D.; Bruyant, F.; Prieur, L.

    We investigated the dynamic of the total organic carbon (TOC) pool and the role it played in the carbon cycle during winter 1997-1998 in the Almeria-Oran jet-front (AOF) system resulting from the spreading of Atlantic surface water through the Gibraltar Strait in the Alboran Sea (Southwestern Mediterranean Sea). We determined TOC by using high temperature combustion technique (HTC) and bacterial produc- tion (BP; via [3H] leucine incorporation) during two legs in the frontal area. We also estimated labile TOC (l-TOC) and bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) by performing TOC biodegradation experiments on board during the cruise whereas water column semi-labile (sl-TOC), and refractory-TOC were determined from TOC profile exami- nation. These results are discussed in relation with current velocity measured by using accoustic doppler current profiler (ADCP). Lowest TOC stocks (6330-6853 mmol C m-2) over 0-100 m were measured in the northern side of the geostrophic Jet which is also the highest dynamic area (horizontal speed of 80 cm s-1 in the first 100 m di- rected eastward). Our results indicated variable turnover times of sl-TOC across the Jet-Front system, which might be explained by different coupling of primary produc- tion and bacterial production observed in these areas. We also estimated TOC and sl-TOC transports within the Jet core off the Alboran Sea as well as potential CO2 production through bacterial respiration produced from sl-TOC assimilation by het- erotrophic bacteria.

  20. Biogeochemistry of lipid biomarkers and pigments in particulate matter from the frontal structure of the Alboran Sea (SW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolosa, I.; Leblond, N.; Vescovali, I.; Copin-Montegut, C.; Marty, J. C.; de Mora, S.; Prieur, L.

    2003-04-01

    The distribution of pigments, and the molecular and isotopic carbon ratios of lipid biomarkers (sterol, fatty alcohol and fatty acids) were used to investigate the different sources and transformation processes of organic matter in the water column of the Almeria-Oran frontal zone. Four sites representative of three different hydrodynamic structures (Mediterranean water, geostrophic Atlantic jet and anticyclonic gyre) were investigated using samples from sediment traps deployed at 100 and 300 m depth and from filtered (0.7 µm) water obtained at depths between 20 to 300 m. In contrast to the relatively fresh sinking particles with elevated concentrations of phyto- and zooplanktonic sterols, suspended particles were extensively degraded with increasing depth and exhibited more terrestrial, bacterial and zooplanktonic character with depth. Whereas diatom-biomarkers predominated in the frontal zone, and in particular in the gyre downstream, flagellate-biomarkers were mainly associated with the suspended particles of the Mediterranean site and gyre upstream of the Atlantic water. Sterol and alcohol biomarkers distributions and 13C values from the jet core and the gyre of Atlantic waters showed a decoupling between the sinking particles of 100 m and 300 m depth, demonstrating the influence of lateral advection in the frontal zone. In contrast, vertical transport of the particulate organic matter in Mediterranean waters was indicated by similar isotopic and molecular composition at both depths. A downwelling of biomass below the euphotic zone on the gyre downstream, due to the effects of the internal secondary circulation, was also observed from the high abundance of phytoplanktonic biomarkers at 100 m depth.

  1. Distribution of seawater fluorescence and dissolved flavins in the Almeria-Oran front (Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momzikoff, A.; Dallot, S.; Gondry, G.

    1994-08-01

    Seawater fluorescence in the blue region of the spectrum (excitation at 360 nm) due to fluorescent dissolved organic matter (FDOM), and dissolved flavins were investigated in the Almeria-Oran geostrophic front (western Mediterranean) in the 0-200 m layer. Seawater fluorescence increased with depth from a minimum in the jet divergence, increasing towards the oligotrophic waters located outside the jet zone, and reaching a maximum in the right side of the jet, a convergence zone. Comparisons with other recorded parameters suggested both physical and biological factors were involved in its distribution along the transect. Photodegradation due to light-penetration and seawater enrichment with FDOM due to biological activity appeared as driving factors of fluorescence distribution. Fluorescence increase along the secondary circulation of the jet was attributed to the combined effects of aging of a bloom (where it was suggested that both auto- and heterotrophic populations were involved) and photodegradation. FDOM of deeper waters (found in the divergence zone) was inferred to be less photodegradable than that generated in the productive layers (the convergence zone). From these data fluorescence in the oligotrophic sites was deduced to originate from prevaling biological activity. Three flavins were investigated: riboflavin and its photoproducts (lumichrome and lumiflavin). The vertical distribution of flavins was marked by a stratification into two layers of enhanced concentrations. The upper one was found to coincide with the upper chlorophyll layer (DCM or DCM1), the lower one with the lower chlorophyll layer (DCM2, where it occurred) and/or with the base of the halocline. From these depth coincidences both auto- and heterotrophic populations were inferred to be sources of flavins although their respective contributions were hard to determine. As for fluorescence, an increase of flavins was found in the jet zone. However significant differences were found between the oligotrophic sites. The effects of subduction in the jet zone were visible from depth distribution of riboflavin photoproducts. The contribution of flavins to seawater fluorescence was found to be low (or negligible). Both these parameters appeared as promising tools for studying mesoscale hydrodynamic processes despite the fact that some interpretations appeared delicate.

  2. Measuring progress of the global sea level observing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, Philip L.; Aarup, Thorkild; Merrifield, Mark; Mitchum, Gary T.; Le Provost, Christian

    Sea level is such a fundamental parameter in the sciences of oceanography geophysics, and climate change, that in the mid-1980s, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) established the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS). GLOSS was to improve the quantity and quality of data provided to the Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level (PSMSL), and thereby, data for input to studies of long-term sea level change by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It would also provide the key data needed for international programs, such as the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) and later, the Climate Variability and Predictability Programme (CLIVAR).GLOSS is now one of the main observation components of the Joint Technical Commission for Oceanography and Marine Meteorology (JCOMM) of IOC and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). Progress and deficiencies in GLOSS were presented in July to the 22nd IOC Assembly at UNESCO in Paris and are contained in the GLOSS Assessment Report (GAR) [IOC, 2003a].

  3. SeaQuest/E906 Shift Alarm System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitts, Noah

    2014-09-01

    SeaQuest, Fermilab E906, is a fixed target experiment that measures the Drell-Yan cross-section ratio of proton-proton to proton-deuterium collisions in order to extract the sea anti-quark structure of the proton. SeaQuest will extend the measurements made by E866/NuSea with greater precision at higher Bjorken-x. The continuously running experiment is always being monitored. Those on shift must keep track of all of the detector readouts in order to make sure the experiment is running correctly. As an experiment that is still in its early stages of running, an alarm system for people on shift is being created to provide warnings, such as a plot showing a detector's performance is sufficiently different to need attention. This plan involves python scripts that track live data. When the data shows a problem within the experiment, a corresponding alarm ID is sent to the MySQL database which then sets off an alarm. These alarms, which will alert the person on shift through both an audible and visual response, are important for ensuring that issues do not go unnoticed, and to help make sure the experiment is recording good data.

  4. The Ebro Deep-Sea Fan system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, C.H.; Maldonado, A.; Coumes, F.; Got, H.; Manaco, A.

    1984-01-01

    The Ebro Fan System consists of en echelon channel-levee complexes, 50??20 km in area and 200-m thick. A few strong reflectors in a generally transparent seismic facies identify the sand-rich channel floors and levee crests. Numerous continuous acoustic reflectors characterize overbank turbidites and hemipelagites that blanket abandoned channel-levee complexes. The interlobe areas between channel complexes fill with homogeneous mud and sand from mass flow and overbank deposition; these exhibit a transparent seismic character. The steep continental rise and sediment 'drainage' of Valencia Trough at the end of the channel-levee complexes prevent the development of distributary channels and midfan lobe deposits. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  5. Assessment and intercomparison of numerical simulations in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Renault, Lionel; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2014-05-01

    The Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System (SOCIB, www.socib.es) is developing high resolution numerical simulations (hindcasts and forecasts) in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMOP). WMOP uses a regional configuration of the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS, Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) with a high spatial resolution of 1/50º (1.5-2km). Thus, theses simulations are able to reproduce mesoscale and in some cases sub-mesoscale features that are key in the Mediterranean Sea since they interact and modify the basin and sub-basin circulation. These simulations are initialized from and nested in either the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS, 1/16º) or Mercator-Océan simulations (MERCATOR, 1/12º). A repeated glider section in the Ibiza Channel, operated by SOCIB, has revealed significant differences between two WMOP simulations using either MFS or MERCATOR (hereafter WMOP-MFS and WMOP-MERC). In this study, MFS, MERCATOR, WMOP-MFS and WMOP-MERC are compared and evaluated using available multi-platform observations such as satellite products (Sea Level Anomaly, Sea Surface Temperature) and in situ measurements (temperature and salinity profiles from Argo floats, CTD, XBT, fixed moorings and gliders; velocity fields from HF radar and currentmeters). A quantitative comparison is necessary to evaluate the capacity of the simulations to reproduce observed ocean features, and to quantify the possible simulations biases. This will in turn allow to improve the simulations, so as to produce better ocean forecast systems, to study and better understand ocean processes and to address climate studies. Therefore, various statistical diagnostics have been developed to assess and intercompare the simulations at various spatial and temporal scales, in different sub-regions (Alboran Sea, Western and Eastern Algerian sub-basins, Balearic Sea, Gulf of Lion), in different dynamical zones (coastal areas, shelves and "open" sea), along key sections (Ibiza and

  6. Subduction initiation, recycling of Alboran lower crust, and intracrustal emplacement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle in the Westernmost Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bosch, Delphine; Marchesi, Claudio; Hidas, Károly; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Unraveling the tectonic settings and processes involved in the annihilation of subcontinental mantle lithosphere is of paramount importance for our understanding of the endurance of continents through Earth history. Unlike ophiolites -- their oceanic mantle lithosphere counterparts -- the mechanisms of emplacement of the subcontinental mantle lithosphere in orogens is still poorly known. The emplacement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle peridotites is often attributed to extension in rifted passive margins or continental backarc basins, accretionary processes in subduction zones, or some combination of these processes. One of the most prominent features of the westernmost Mediterranean Alpine orogenic arcs is the presence of the largest outcrops worldwide of diamond facies, subcontinental mantle peridotite massifs; unveiling the mechanisms of emplacement of these massifs may provide important clues on processes involved in the destruction of continents. The western Mediterranean underwent a complex Alpine evolution of subduction initiation, slab fragmentation, and rollback within a context of slow convergence of Africa and Europe In the westernmost Mediterranean, the alpine orogeny ends in the Gibraltar tight arc, which is bounded by the Betic, Rif and Tell belts that surround the Alboran and Algero-Balearic basins. The internal units of these belts are mostly constituted of an allochthonous lithospheric domain that collided and overthrusted Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Mesozoic-Paleogene, South Iberian and Maghrebian rifted continental paleomargins. Subcontinental lithospheric peridotite massifs are intercalated between polymetamorphic internal units of the Betic (Ronda, Ojen and Carratraca massifs), Rif (Beni Bousera), and Tell belts. In the Betic chain, the internal zones of the allochthonous Alboran domain include, from bottom to top, polymetamorphic rock of the Alpujarride and Malaguide complexes. The Ronda peridotite massif -- the

  7. The Aegean Sea marine security decision support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perivoliotis, L.; Krokos, G.; Nittis, K.; Korres, G.

    2011-05-01

    As part of the integrated ECOOP (European Coastal Sea Operational observing and Forecasting System) project, HCMR upgraded the already existing standalone Oil Spill Forecasting System for the Aegean Sea, initially developed for the Greek Operational Oceanography System (POSEIDON), into an active element of the European Decision Support System (EuroDeSS). The system is accessible through a user friendly web interface where the case scenarios can be fed into the oil spill drift model component, while the synthetic output contains detailed information about the distribution of oil spill particles and the oil spill budget and it is provided both in text based ECOOP common output format and as a series of sequential graphics. The main development steps that were necessary for this transition were the modification of the forcing input data module in order to allow the import of other system products which are usually provided in standard formats such as NetCDF and the transformation of the model's calculation routines to allow use of current, density and diffusivities data in z instead of sigma coordinates. During the implementation of the Aegean DeSS, the system was used in operational mode in order support the Greek marine authorities in handling a real accident that took place in North Aegean area. Furthermore, the introduction of common input and output files by all the partners of EuroDeSS extended the system's interoperability thus facilitating data exchanges and comparison experiments.

  8. The Aegean sea marine security decision support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perivoliotis, L.; Krokos, G.; Nittis, K.; Korres, G.

    2011-10-01

    As part of the integrated ECOOP (European Coastal Sea Operational observing and Forecasting System) project, HCMR upgraded the already existing standalone Oil Spill Forecasting System for the Aegean Sea, initially developed for the Greek Operational Oceanography System (POSEIDON), into an active element of the European Decision Support System (EuroDeSS). The system is accessible through a user friendly web interface where the case scenarios can be fed into the oil spill drift model component, while the synthetic output contains detailed information about the distribution of oil spill particles and the oil spill budget and it is provided both in text based ECOOP common output format and as a series of sequential graphics. The main development steps that were necessary for this transition were the modification of the forcing input data module in order to allow the import of other system products which are usually provided in standard formats such as NetCDF and the transformation of the model's calculation routines to allow use of current, density and diffusivities data in z instead of sigma coordinates. During the implementation of the Aegean DeSS, the system was used in operational mode in order to support the Greek marine authorities in handling a real accident that took place in North Aegean area. Furthermore, the introduction of common input and output files by all the partners of EuroDeSS extended the system's interoperability thus facilitating data exchanges and comparison experiments.

  9. Global ice-sheet system interlocked by sea level

    SciTech Connect

    Denton, G.H.; Hughes, T.J.; Karlen, W.

    1986-01-01

    Denton and Hughes postulated that sea level linked a global ice-sheet system with both terrestrial and grounded marine components during later Quaternary ice ages. Summer temperature changes near Northern Hemisphere melting margins initiated sea-level fluctuations that controlled marine components in both polar hemispheres. It was further proposed that variations of this ice-sheet system amplified and transmitted Milankovitch summer half-year insolation changes between 45 and 75/sup 0/N into global climatic changes. New tests of this hypothesis implicate sea level as a major control of the areal extent of grounded portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet. But factors other than areal changes of the grounded Antarctic Ice Sheet may have strongly influenced Southern Hemisphere climate and terminated the last ice age simultaneously in both polar hemispheres. Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked to high-latitude oceans is the most likely candidate, but another potential influence was high-frequency climatic oscillations. It is postulated that variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide acted through an Antarctic ice shelf linked to the grounded ice sheet to produce and terminate Southern Hemisphere ice-age climate. It is further postulated that Milankovitch summer insolation combined with a warm-high frequency oscillation caused marked recession of Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet melting margins and the North Atlantic polar front about 14,000 /sup 14/C yr B.P. This permitted renewed formation of North Atlantic Deep Water, which could well have controlled atmospheric carbon dioxide. Combined melting and consequent sea-level rise from the three warming factors initiated irreversible collapse of the interlocked global ice-sheet system, which was at its largest but most vulnerable configuration.

  10. Adriatic Sea Decision Support System (ADRI-DSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppini, Giovanni; Lyubartsev, Vladyslav; Pinardi, Nadia; Montanari, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Attilio; Serra, Stefano; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2010-05-01

    The Adriatic Sea decision support system (ADRI-DSS) consists of an on-line service built upon a set of integrated operational oceanography products. ADRI-DSS integrates the Adriatic Sea monitoring and forecasting system (AFS) with local in-situ observations and is built to support the Emilia-Romagna coastal monitoring system for marine environment and ecosystem health. The target user is the Regional Environment Prevention Agency from Emilia-Romagna (Italy) called ARPA-EMR. Specifically ADRI-DSS will support the daily action of the oceanographic section of ARPA-EMR called ARPA-DAPHNE providing all the available products (forecast, observations, simulations) from Adriatic Forecasting System. The product is shaped as required by the user and moreover ADRI-DSS also integrates with the routinely observations that the user carry out on a weekly basis. The system has been designed through the interaction with ARPA-DAPHNE and consists of a online portal containing simulation and forecast for the relevant north Adriatic region. Moreover the model products are compared with in-situ observations of temperature and salinity collected by the ARPA-DAPHNE itself. In the coming future also satellite observations and indicators will be made available by ADRI-DSS. The final aim of ADRI-DSS is to integrate selected products from the AFS with the insitu and satellite observation to support the monitoring activities of ARPA-DAPNHE and to improve ARPA-DAPHNE capabilities for the Emilia-Romagna marine environment status assessment. ADRI-DSS has been developed within ECOOP project (European COastal-shelf sea OPerational Observing and forecasting system Integrated Project). ADRI-DSS is a web-based application available via internet browsers with JavaScript capability. The server part is implemented on PHP (data management) and NCL (graphics production). The NCL is NCAR Command Language, a free interpreted language designed specifically for scientific data processing and visualization, see

  11. A Genomic View of the Sea Urchin Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Burke, RD; Angerer, LM; Elphick, MR; Humphrey, GW; Yaguchi, S; Kiyama, T; Liang, S; Mu, X; Agca, C; Klein, WH; Brandhorst, BP; Rowe, M; Wilson, K; Churcher, AM; Taylor, JS; Chen, N; Murray, G; Wang, D; Mellott, D; Olinski, R; Hallböök, F; Thorndyke, MC

    2007-01-01

    The sequencing of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome provides a unique opportunity to investigate the function and evolution of neural genes. The neurobiology of sea urchins is of particular interest because they have a close phylogenetic relationship with chordates, yet a distinctive pentaradiate body plan and unusual neural organization. Orthologues of transcription factors that regulate neurogenesis in other animals have been identified and several are expressed in neurogenic domains before gastrulation indicating that they may operate near the top of a conserved neural gene regulatory network. A family of genes encoding voltage-gated ion channels is present but, surprisingly, genes encoding gap junction proteins (connexins and pannexins) appear to be absent. Genes required for synapse formation and function have been identified and genes for synthesis and transport of neurotransmitters are present. There is a large family of G-protein-coupled receptors, including 874 rhodopsin-type receptors, 28 metabotropic glutamate-like receptors and a remarkably expanded group of 161 secretin receptor-like proteins. Absence of cannabinoid, lysophospholipid and melanocortin receptors indicates that this group may be unique to chordates. There are at least 37 putative G-protein coupled peptide receptors and precursors for several neuropeptides and peptide hormones have been identified, including SALMFamides, NGFFFamide, a vasotocin-like peptide, glycoprotein hormones, and insulin/insulin-like growth factors. Identification of a neurotrophin-like gene and Trk receptor in sea urchin indicates that this neural signaling system is not unique to chordates. Several hundred chemoreceptor genes have been predicted using several approaches, a number similar to that for other animals. Intriguingly, genes encoding homologues of rhodopsin, Pax6 and several other key mammalian retinal transcription factors are expressed in tube feet, suggesting tube feet function as photosensory

  12. The SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS): Current Architecture and Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Fargion, Giulietta S. (Editor); McClain, Charles R. (Editor); Bailey, Sean W.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite ocean color missions require an abundance of high-quality in situ measurements for bio-optical and atmospheric algorithm development and post-launch product validation and sensor calibration. To facilitate the assembly of a global data set, the NASA Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view (SeaWiFS) Project developed the Seafaring Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS), a local repository for in situ data regularly used in their scientific analyses. The system has since been expanded to contain data sets collected by the NASA Sensor Intercalibration and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project, as part of NASA Research Announcements NRA-96-MTPE-04 and NRA-99-OES-99. SeaBASS is a well moderated and documented hive for bio-optical data with a simple, secure mechanism for locating and extracting data based on user inputs. Its holdings are available to the general public with the exception of the most recently collected data sets. Extensive quality assurance protocols, comprehensive data and system documentation, and the continuation of an archive and relational database management system (RDBMS) suitable for bio-optical data all contribute to the continued success of SeaBASS. This document provides an overview of the current operational SeaBASS system.

  13. Resilient Control System Execution Agent (ReCoSEA)

    SciTech Connect

    Craig G. Rieger; Kris Villez

    2012-08-01

    In an increasingly networked world, critical infrastructure systems suffer from two types of vulnerability. The first is the traditionally recognized problem of monitoring the systems for faults and failures, recognizing and analyzing data, and responding with real understanding to the problems of the system. Increasingly complex systems create the opportunity for single points of failure to cascade when inaccurate assessment of system health increases response time or leads to faulty analysis of the problems involved. A second problem involves vulnerability to cyber intrusion, in which bad actors can mask system deterioration or present false data about system status. A resilient system will protect stability, efficiency, and security. To ensure these three states, the system must react to changing conditions within the system with coordination: no one component of the system can be allowed to react to problems without real consideration of the effects of that action on other components within the system. Systems with multi-agent design typically have three layers of action, a management layer, a coordination layer, and an execution layer. A resilient multi-agent system will emphasize functions of the execution layer, which has the responsibility of initiating actions, monitoring, analyzing, and controlling its own processes, while feeding information back to the higher levels of management and coordination. The design concept of a resilient control system execution agent (ReCoSEA) grows out of these underpinnings, and through the use of computational intelligence techniques, this paper suggests an associated design methodology.

  14. The internal consistency of the North Sea carbonate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salt, Lesley A.; Thomas, Helmuth; Bozec, Yann; Borges, Alberto V.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2016-05-01

    In 2002 (February) and 2005 (August), the full suite of carbonate system parameters (total alkalinity (AT), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were measured on two re-occupations of the entire North Sea basin, with three parameters (AT, DIC, pCO2) measured on four additional re-occupations, covering all four seasons, allowing an assessment of the internal consistency of the carbonate system. For most of the year, there is a similar level of internal consistency, with AT being calculated to within ± 6 μmol kg- 1 using DIC and pH, DIC to ± 6 μmol kg- 1 using AT and pH, pH to ± 0.008 using AT and pCO2, and pCO2 to ± 8 μatm using DIC and pH, with the dissociation constants of Millero et al. (2006). In spring, however, we observe a significant decline in the ability to accurately calculate the carbonate system. Lower consistency is observed with an increasing fraction of Baltic Sea water, caused by the high contribution of organic alkalinity in this water mass, not accounted for in the carbonate system calculations. Attempts to improve the internal consistency by accounting for the unconventional salinity-borate relationships in freshwater and the Baltic Sea, and through application of the new North Atlantic salinity-boron relationship (Lee et al., 2010), resulted in no significant difference in the internal consistency.

  15. An objective reconstruction of the Mediterranean sea carbonate system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovato, Tomas; Vichi, Marcello

    2015-04-01

    An objective estimation of the current distribution of carbonate system variables for the Mediterranean Sea is proposed using empirical relationships derived from ship-based observations and combined with monthly climatological fields of hydrographic parameters. The high quality data of METEOR84/3 cruise were used to fit multiple linear regression models of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon (DIC) and Total Alkalinity (TA) from other hydrochemical parameters. These algorithms provided a robust estimation of DIC and TA, with corresponding Root Mean Squared Errors of 7.66 and 5.09 μmol/kg, by accounting only for potential temperature, salinity, pressure, and nitrate concentration. After the application of the identified regression models to a set of publicly available climatological fields, an objective assessment of the reconstructed carbonate system monthly distributions was derived and compared against different ship-based surveys. Results showed that the Mediterranean Sea interior was well reproduced with errors <14 μmol/kg, whereas the near surface layers still exhibited large uncertainties. The lower degree of confidence of this approach at the surface does not allow the direct application for studying anthropogenic CO2 trends, but some qualitative considerations were drawn from the comparison between the estimated inorganic carbon system and the available observational datasets. Most importantly, the present work showed that the estimated inventories are able to capture the linkages with the physical oceanic features of the system and we propose this method as an inexpensive solution to support the design of monitoring activities in the Mediterranean Sea, which is still poorly constrained by direct observations.

  16. Subduction initiation, recycling of Alboran lower crust, and intracrustal emplacement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle in the Westernmost Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bosch, Delphine; Marchesi, Claudio; Hidas, Károly; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Unraveling the tectonic settings and processes involved in the annihilation of subcontinental mantle lithosphere is of paramount importance for our understanding of the endurance of continents through Earth history. Unlike ophiolites -- their oceanic mantle lithosphere counterparts -- the mechanisms of emplacement of the subcontinental mantle lithosphere in orogens is still poorly known. The emplacement of subcontinental lithospheric mantle peridotites is often attributed to extension in rifted passive margins or continental backarc basins, accretionary processes in subduction zones, or some combination of these processes. One of the most prominent features of the westernmost Mediterranean Alpine orogenic arcs is the presence of the largest outcrops worldwide of diamond facies, subcontinental mantle peridotite massifs; unveiling the mechanisms of emplacement of these massifs may provide important clues on processes involved in the destruction of continents. The western Mediterranean underwent a complex Alpine evolution of subduction initiation, slab fragmentation, and rollback within a context of slow convergence of Africa and Europe In the westernmost Mediterranean, the alpine orogeny ends in the Gibraltar tight arc, which is bounded by the Betic, Rif and Tell belts that surround the Alboran and Algero-Balearic basins. The internal units of these belts are mostly constituted of an allochthonous lithospheric domain that collided and overthrusted Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks of the Mesozoic-Paleogene, South Iberian and Maghrebian rifted continental paleomargins. Subcontinental lithospheric peridotite massifs are intercalated between polymetamorphic internal units of the Betic (Ronda, Ojen and Carratraca massifs), Rif (Beni Bousera), and Tell belts. In the Betic chain, the internal zones of the allochthonous Alboran domain include, from bottom to top, polymetamorphic rock of the Alpujarride and Malaguide complexes. The Ronda peridotite massif -- the

  17. Sea Level Data Archaeology for the Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Matthews, Andy; Rickards, Lesley; Jevrejeva, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    The Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) was set up in 1985 to collect long term tide gauge observations and has carried out a number of data archaeology activities over the past decade, including sending member organisations questionnaires to report on their repositories. The GLOSS Group of Experts (GLOSS GE) is looking to future developments in sea level data archaeology and will provide its user community with guidance on finding, digitising, quality controlling and distributing historic records. Many records may not be held in organisational archives and may instead by in national libraries, archives and other collections. GLOSS will promote a Citizen Science approach to discovering long term records by providing tools for volunteers to report data. Tide gauge data come in two different formats, charts and hand-written ledgers. Charts are paper analogue records generated by the mechanical instrument driving a pen trace. Several GLOSS members have developed software to automatically digitise these charts and the various methods were reported in a paper on automated techniques for the digitization of archived mareograms, delivered to the GLOSS GE 13th meeting. GLOSS is creating a repository of software for scanning analogue charts. NUNIEAU is the only publically available software for digitising tide gauge charts but other organisations have developed their own tide gauge digitising software that is available internally. There are several other freely available software packages that convert image data to numerical values. GLOSS could coordinate a comparison study of the various different digitising software programs by: Sending the same charts to each organisation and asking everyone to digitise them using their own procedures Comparing the digitised data Providing recommendations to the GLOSS community The other major form of analogue sea level data is handwritten ledgers, which are usually observations of high and low waters, but sometimes contain higher

  18. Global ice-sheet system interlocked by sea level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denton, George H.; Hughes, Terence J.; Karlén, Wibjörn

    1986-07-01

    Denton and Hughes (1983, Quaternary Research20, 125-144) postulated that sea level linked a global ice-sheet system with both terrestrial and grounded marine components during late Quaternary ice ages. Summer temperature changes near Northern Hemisphere melting margins initiated sea-level fluctuations that controlled marine components in both polar hemispheres. It was further proposed that variations of this ice-sheet system amplified and transmitted Milankovitch summer half-year insolation changes between 45 and 75°N into global climatic changes. New tests of this hypothesis implicate sea level as a major control of the areal extent of grounded portions of the Antarctic Ice Sheet, thus fitting the concept of a globally interlocked ice-sheet system. But recent atmospheric modeling results ( Manabe and Broccoli, 1985, Journal of Geophysical Research90, 2167-2190) suggest that factors other than areal changes of the grounded Antarctic Ice Sheet strongly influenced Southern Hemisphere climate and terminated the last ice age simultaneously in both polar hemispheres. Atmospheric carbon dioxide linked to high-latitude oceans is the most likely candidate ( Shackleton and Pisias, 1985, Atmospheric carbon dioxide, orbital forcing, and climate. In "The Carbon Cycle and Atmospheric CO 2: Natural Variations Archean to Present" (E. T. Sundquest and W. S. Broecker, Eds.), pp. 303-318. Geophysical Monograph 32, American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C.), but another potential influence was high-frequency climatic oscillations (2500 yr). It is postulated that variations in atmospheric carbon dioxide acted through an Antarctic ice shelf linked to the grounded ice sheet to produce and terminate Southern Hemisphere ice-age climate. It is further postulated that Milankovitch summer insolation combined with a warm high-frequency oscillation caused marked recession of Northern Hemisphere ice-sheet melting margins and the North Atlantic polar front about 14,000 14C yr B.P. This

  19. Deep-sea channel/submarine-yazoo system of the Labrador Sea: A new deep-water facies model

    SciTech Connect

    Hesse, R.; Rakofsky, A. )

    1992-05-01

    The deep-sea channel/submarine-yazoo system is a newly recognized deep-water depositional environment that is significantly different from previously documented turbidite environments. The new system is in many ways the antithesis of classical deep-sea fans. The purpose of this paper is to present the characteristics and elements of the system, develop a facies model for it, establish the system variables, and discuss its possible significance in the geologic record and in subsurface exploration. Previous investigators of deepwater turbidite sediments often faced difficulties in trying to fit their sequences into traditional single-source, deep-sea fan models. The present model fills part of an obvious gap in interpretation schemes for deep-water clastic sediments.

  20. A Robust Mechanical Sensing System for Unmanned Sea Surface Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulczycki, Eric A.; Magnone, Lee J.; Huntsberger, Terrance; Aghazarian, Hrand; Padgett, Curtis W.; Trotz, David C.; Garrett, Michael S.

    2009-01-01

    The need for autonomous navigation and intelligent control of unmanned sea surface vehicles requires a mechanically robust sensing architecture that is watertight, durable, and insensitive to vibration and shock loading. The sensing system developed here comprises four black and white cameras and a single color camera. The cameras are rigidly mounted to a camera bar that can be reconfigured to mount multiple vehicles, and act as both navigational cameras and application cameras. The cameras are housed in watertight casings to protect them and their electronics from moisture and wave splashes. Two of the black and white cameras are positioned to provide lateral vision. They are angled away from the front of the vehicle at horizontal angles to provide ideal fields of view for mapping and autonomous navigation. The other two black and white cameras are positioned at an angle into the color camera's field of view to support vehicle applications. These two cameras provide an overlap, as well as a backup to the front camera. The color camera is positioned directly in the middle of the bar, aimed straight ahead. This system is applicable to any sea-going vehicle, both on Earth and in space.

  1. 3D subduction modelling of the Betic-Rif Alboran region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chertova, M.; Geenen, T.; van den Berg, A. P.; Spakman, W.

    2012-04-01

    Our project is concerned with the 4D evolution of Western-Mediterranean region from ~30 Ma until the Present. Slab rollback and lithosphere tearing play an important role in the evolution of this region and affects the development of surface geology (Spakman and Wortel(1)). The project was started with 2D numerical simulations of self-consistent slab rollback for the different model setup. We investigate the influence of different boundary conditions (open boundaries versus closed boundaries), different domain size and different far-field generated intraplate stresses applied to the overriding plate on the subduction process. We have found that free slip implemented either on the both sides of the domain or on one side leads to results that are influenced by the boundary for any reasonable domain size. For the model with open boundary conditions such an influence is only observed in the magnitude of the velocity, which can be successfully scaled by an iterative procedure. Thereby, the model with open boundaries allows us to investigate the subduction dynamic process under conditions that are free from disturbing boundary influences. By being able to model the subduction process in a smaller domain size we significantly decrease computational expenses. Generally our research is now focused on 3D models. We start from the reconstruction of the subduction process in the Betic-Rif Alboran region. This region has a long and complicated subduction history, which consists of slab rollback, lithosphere detachment and tearing processes leading to a narrow curved subduction zone (Spakman and Wortel, 2004). So far analogue models failed to reconstruct such a high-curved structure. We have implemented and tested the open boundary conditions in a 3D setting, which allowed us to significantly decrease the domain size. Different initial plate tectonic settings and kinematic boundary conditions are now being tested in order to reconstruct this complex subduction process. Spakman

  2. WMOP: The SOCIB Western Mediterranean Sea OPerational forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renault, Lionel; Juza, Mélanie; Garau, Bartolomé; Sayol, Juan Manuel; Orfila, Alejandro; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    Development of science based ocean-forecasting systems at global, regional, sub-regional and local scales is needed to increase our understanding of ocean processes and to support knowledge based management of the marine environment. In this context, WMOP (Western Mediterranean sea /Balearic OPerational system) is the forecasting subsystem component of SOCIB, the new Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System. The WMOP system is operational since the end of 2010. The ROMS model is forced every 3 hours with atmospheric forcing derived from AEMET/Hirlam and daily boundary conditions provided by MFS2 from MyOcean/MOON. Model domain is implemented over an area extending from Gibraltar strait to Corsica/Sardinia (from 6°W to 9°E and from 35°N to 44.5°N), including Balearic Sea and Gulf of Lion. The grid is 631 x 539 points with a resolution of ~1.5km, which allows good representation of mesoscale and submesoscale features (first baroclinic Rossby radius ~10-15 km) of key relevance in this region. The model has 30 sigma levels, and the vertical s coordinate is stretched for boundary layer resolution, also essential to capture extreme events water masses formation and dynamical effects. Bottom topography is derived from a 2' resolution database. Online validation procedures based on inter-comparison of model outputs against observing systems and reference models such as MFS and Mercator are used to assess at what level the numerical models are able to reproduce the features observed from in-situ systems and remote sensing. The intrinsic three-dimensional variability of the coastal ocean and open-ocean exchanges imply the need of muti-plaform observing systems covering a variety of scales. Fixed moorings provide a good temporal resolution but poor spatial coverage, while satellite products provide a good spatial coverage but just on the surface layer. Gliders can provide a reasonable spatial variability in both horizontal and vertical axes. Thus, inter

  3. The Architecture and Utility of SeaBASS: the SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werdell, P.; Bailey, S. W.; Fargion, G.; McClain, C.

    2001-12-01

    The accumulation and evaluation of in situ data is a critical aspect of both satellite ocean color sensor validation and algorithm development. NASA's Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Projects designed the SeaWiFS Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) to be a local repository of radiometric, phytoplankton pigment, and other oceanographic and atmospheric data, collected using well-defined and consistent measurement protocols. These data have been used by the SIMBIOS Project to validate SeaWiFS, Ocean Color and Temperature Scanner (OCTS), and Modular Optoelectronic Scanner (MOS) data products, to develop and evaluate bio-optical algorithms used to generate such products, for data merger studies, and to characterize the calibration history and stability of the field instruments used to build validation data sets. Data archived in SeaBASS were collected using a number of instrument packages on a variety of different platforms. The archive consists of an organized directory structure where physical data files and documentation are stored and a relational database system for managing and controlling these data and metadata. A series of World Wide Web-based search engines provide the user community direct access to data files, metadata, and geophysical data products. Additionally, other online utilities are available for generating maps and plots of data archived in SeaBASS. Historically, to protect the publication rights of contributors' data and to limit user-support to active participants, access to SeaBASS has been limited to contributing researchers and to members of the SIMBIOS and other NASA-affiliated Science Teams. As of August 2001, however, data collected prior to December 31, 1999 are available to the public at large. These data are available online and via the National Oceanographic Data Center. This report elaborates on the architecture of SeaBASS and

  4. Decadal variability in coupled sea-ice-thermohaline circulation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.; Neelin, J.D.

    1997-12-01

    An interdecadal oscillation in a coupled ocean-ice system was identified in a previous study. This paper extends that study to further examine the stability of the oscillation and the sensitivity of its frequency to various parameters and forcing fields. Three models are used: (i) an analytical box model; (ii) a two-dimensional model for the ocean thermohaline circulation (THC) coupled to a thermodynamic ice model, as in the authors` previous study; and (iii) a three-dimensional ocean general circulation model (OGCM) coupled to a similar ice model. The box model is used to elucidate the essential feedbacks that give rise to this oscillation and to identify the most important parameters and processes that determine the period. The counted model becomes more stable toward low coupling, greater diffusion, and weaker THC feedback. Nonlinear effects in the sea-ice model become important in the higher ocean-ice coupling regime where the effective sea-ice damping associated with this nonlinearity stabilizes the model. The 3D OGCM is used to test this coupled ocean-ice mechanism in a more realistic model setting. This model generates an interdecadal oscillation whose characteristics and phase relations among the model variables are similar to the oscillation obtained in the 2D models. The major difference is that the oscillation frequency is considerably lower. The difference can be explained in terms of the analytical box model solution in which the period of oscillation depends on the rate of anomalous density production by melting/cooling of sea ice per SST anomaly, times the rate of warming/cooling by anomalous THC heat advection per change in density anomaly. The 3D model has a smaller THC response to high-latitude density perturbations than the 2D model, and anomalous velocities in the 3D case tend to follow the mean isotherms so anomalous heat advection is reduced. This slows the ocean-ice feedback process, leading to the longer oscillation period. 36 refs., 27 figs.

  5. Improving Sea Ice Prediction in the NCEP Climate Forecast System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collow, T. W.; Wang, W.; Kumar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Skillful prediction of Arctic sea ice is important for the wide variety of interests focused in that region. However, the current operational system used by the NOAA Climate Prediction Center does not adequately predict the seasonal climatology of sea ice extent and maintains too high sea ice coverage across the Arctic. It is thought that the primary reasoning for this lies in the initialization of sea ice thickness. Experiments are carried out using the Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) model with an improved sea ice thickness initialization from the Pan-Arctic Ice Ocean Analysis and Assimilation System (PIOMAS) rather than the default Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) sea ice thickness data. All other variables are initialized from CFSR. In addition, physics parameterizations are adjusted to better simulate real world conditions. Here we focus on hindcasts initialized from 2005-2014. Although the seasonal cycle of sea ice is generally better captured in runs that use PIOMAS sea ice thickness initialization, local sea ice freeze in early winter in the Bering Strait and Chukchi Sea is delayed when both sea ice thickness configurations are used. In addition ice freeze in the North Atlantic is more pronounced than in the observations. This shows that simply changing initial sea ice thickness is not enough to improve forecasts for all locations. Modeled atmospheric and oceanic parameters are investigated including the radiation budget, land surface temperature advection, and sub-surface oceanic heat flow to diagnose possible reasons for the modeling deficiencies, and further modifications to the model will be discussed.

  6. An Earth System Science Program for the Baltic Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, H. E. M.; Rutgersson, A.; Reckermann, M.

    2014-04-01

    From Russia in the east to Sweden, Denmark, and Germany in the west, reaching south to the tips of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Ukraine, the Baltic Sea watershed drains nearly 20% of Europe (see Figure 1). In the highly populated south, the temperate climate hosts intensive agriculture and industry. In the north, the landscape is boreal and rural. In the Baltic Sea itself, complex bathymetry and stratification patterns as well as extended hypoxic and anoxic deep waters add to the diversity. Yet in recent history, the differences across the Baltic Sea region have been more than physical: In the mid-20th century, the watershed was split in two.

  7. Multiscroll Chaotic Sea Obtained from a Simple 3D System Without Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Sajad; Pham, Viet-Thanh; Kapitaniak, Tomasz

    Recently, many rare chaotic systems have been found including chaotic systems with no equilibria. However, it is surprising that such a system can exhibit multiscroll chaotic sea. In this paper, a novel no-equilibrium system with multiscroll hidden chaotic sea is introduced. Besides having multiscroll chaotic sea, this system has two more interesting properties. Firstly, it is conservative (which is a rare feature in three-dimensional chaotic flows) but not Hamiltonian. Secondly, it has a coexisting set of nested tori. There is a hidden torus which coexists with the chaotic sea. This new system is investigated through numerical simulations such as phase portraits, Lyapunov exponents, Poincaré map, and frequency spectra. Furthermore, the feasibility of such a system is verified through circuital implementation.

  8. Diel and seasonal variation of a molluscan taxocoenosis associated with a Zostera marina bed in southern Spain (Alboran Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rueda, Jose L.; Urra, Javier; Salas, Carmen

    2008-09-01

    The diel and seasonal variation of molluscs living in a Zostera marina bed (12-14 m depth) from southern Spain have been studied for one year using a small Agassiz trawl for collecting the samples (222 m2). The frequent and dominant species were very similar in both diurnal and nocturnal samples, including mainly gastropods such as Jujubinus striatus, Nassarius pygmaeus, Mitrella minor, Calliostoma planatum, Rissoa membranacea or Smaragdia viridis. Nevertheless, a significant increase of abundance of scavengers (e.g. Nassarius spp.) and carnivores (e.g. cephalopods) was registered in nocturnal samples. The abundance was maximal in spring and summer in diurnal and nocturnal samples and also in autumn for nocturnal ones, displaying significantly higher values in nocturnal samples. The species richness, diversity and evenness displayed a similar seasonal trend for diurnal and nocturnal samples, with maximum values during summer months. Monthly variation of the molluscan composition (species presence-absence data) was more acute than diel variation, according to the Cluster, MDS and ANOSIM results. Nevertheless, both monthly and diel changes in the structure (species abundance data) of the molluscan taxocoenosis were important throughout the year. Diel changes in the structure of the molluscan fauna are related to an increase of abundance of some species at nighttime due to vertical movements from the sediment to the shoots or along them (e.g. J. striatus, Nassarius spp.) or due to horizontal movements from adjacent habitats (e.g. cephalopods). Nevertheless, some species such as Rissoa spp. or Bittium spp. stay on the leaves of Z. marina during day as well as nighttime.

  9. Multiscale Observation System for Sea Ice Drift and Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lensu, M.; Haapala, J. J.; Heiler, I.; Karvonen, J.; Suominen, M.

    2011-12-01

    The drift and deformation of sea ice cover is most commonly followed from successive SAR images. The time interval between the images is seldom less than one day which provides rather crude approximation of the motion fields as ice can move tens of kilometers per day. This is particulary so from the viewpoint of operative services, seeking to provide real time information for ice navigating ships and other end users, as leads are closed and opened or ridge fields created in time scales of one hour or less. The ice forecast models are in a need of better temporal resolution for ice motion data as well. We present experiences from a multiscale monitoring system set up to the Bay of Bothnia, the northernmost basin of the Baltic Sea. The basin generates difficult ice conditions every winter while the ports are kept open with the help of an icebreaker fleet. The key addition to SAR imagery is the use of coastal radars for the monitoring of coastal ice fields. An independent server is used to tap the radar signal and process it to suit ice monitoring purposes. This is done without interfering the basic use of the radars, the ship traffic monitoring. About 20 images per minute are captured and sent to the headquarters for motion field extraction, website animation and distribution. This provides very detailed real time picture of the ice movement and deformation within 20 km range. The real time movements are followed in addition with ice drifter arrays, and using AIS ship identification data, from which the translation of ship cannels due to ice drift can be found out. To the operative setup is associated an extensive research effort that uses the data for ice drift model enhancement. The Baltic ice models seek to forecast conditions relevant to ship traffic, especilly hazardous ones like severe ice compression. The main missing link here is downscaling, or the relation of local scale ice dynamics and kinematics to the ice model scale behaviour. The data flow when

  10. SONARC: A Sea Ice Monitoring and Forecasting System to Support Safe Operations and Navigation in Arctic Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, S. R.; Babiker, M.; Sandven, S.; Muckenhuber, S.; Korosov, A.; Bobylev, L.; Vesman, A.; Mushta, A.; Demchev, D.; Volkov, V.; Smirnov, K.; Hamre, T.

    2015-12-01

    Sea ice monitoring and forecasting systems are important tools for minimizing accident risk and environmental impacts of Arctic maritime operations. Satellite data such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR), combined with atmosphere-ice-ocean forecasting models, navigation models and automatic identification system (AIS) transponder data from ships are essential components of such systems. Here we present first results from the SONARC project (project term: 2015-2017), an international multidisciplinary effort to develop novel and complementary ice monitoring and forecasting systems for vessels and offshore platforms in the Arctic. Automated classification methods (Zakhvatkina et al., 2012) are applied to Sentinel-1 dual-polarization SAR images from the Barents and Kara Sea region to identify ice types (e.g. multi-year ice, level first-year ice, deformed first-year ice, new/young ice, open water) and ridges. Short-term (1-3 days) ice drift forecasts are computed from SAR images using feature tracking and pattern tracking methods (Berg & Eriksson, 2014). Ice classification and drift forecast products are combined with ship positions based on AIS data from a selected period of 3-4 weeks to determine optimal vessel speed and routing in ice. Results illustrate the potential of high-resolution SAR data for near-real-time monitoring and forecasting of Arctic ice conditions. Over the next 3 years, SONARC findings will contribute new knowledge about sea ice in the Arctic while promoting safe and cost-effective shipping, domain awareness, resource management, and environmental protection.

  11. Early Anthropogenic Transformation of the Danube-Black Sea System

    PubMed Central

    Giosan, Liviu; Coolen, Marco J. L.; Kaplan, Jed O.; Constantinescu, Stefan; Filip, Florin; Filipova-Marinova, Mariana; Kettner, Albert J.; Thom, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Over the last century humans have altered the export of fluvial materials leading to significant changes in morphology, chemistry, and biology of the coastal ocean. Here we present sedimentary, paleoenvironmental and paleogenetic evidence to show that the Black Sea, a nearly enclosed marine basin, was affected by land use long before the changes of the Industrial Era. Although watershed hydroclimate was spatially and temporally variable over the last ~3000 years, surface salinity dropped systematically in the Black Sea. Sediment loads delivered by Danube River, the main tributary of the Black Sea, significantly increased as land use intensified in the last two millennia, which led to a rapid expansion of its delta. Lastly, proliferation of diatoms and dinoflagellates over the last five to six centuries, when intensive deforestation occurred in Eastern Europe, points to an anthropogenic pulse of river-borne nutrients that radically transformed the food web structure in the Black Sea. PMID:22937219

  12. Sea breeze: Induced mesoscale systems and severe weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, M. E.; Pielke, R. A.; Cotton, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    Sea-breeze-deep convective interactions over the Florida peninsula were investigated using a cloud/mesoscale numerical model. The objective was to gain a better understanding of sea-breeze and deep convective interactions over the Florida peninsula using a high resolution convectively explicit model and to use these results to evaluate convective parameterization schemes. A 3-D numerical investigation of Florida convection was completed. The Kuo and Fritsch-Chappell parameterization schemes are summarized and evaluated.

  13. The Lighthouse Ocean Research Initiative: Sustained Cabled Ocean Observing Systems in the Sea of Oman and Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, S.; Du Vall, K.; Dimarco, S. F.

    2011-12-01

    In 2003 Lighthouse R & D Enterprises, Inc. began developing an ocean observing system that would help the Sultanate of Oman better manage the health of their fisheries. The resulting cutting-edge, fiber-optic cabled ocean observatory was installed in the northern Sea of Oman and became operational in August of 2005; this summer the system surpassed the milestone of 2100 days of successful operation. A second, deepwater cabled observatory was installed farther to the south, where the Sea of Oman meets the Arabian Sea, in January, 2010. Both systems monitor physical properties throughout the water column including current velocity, temperature, pressure, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity. The entirely subsea nature of the fiber-optic cabled observatory capitalizes on several advantages over traditional buoyed systems including a lack of exposure to environmental wear and tear, collision, vandalism and theft. The systems are both cabled to nearby shore facilities, where the data are relayed instantly to Houston via satellite for processing, analysis and modeling - the data may also be used in making real time decisions. Many challenges were encountered between the design / development stage and the operation a reliable, long-term, real-time observing system in a dynamic marine environment. Examples of obstacles we encountered and overcame include: maintaining upright mooring strings under differential current velocities; minimizing points of weakness in the system, especially the number of wet mates; recognizing the need for cathodic protection in unanticipated places; protecting vulnerable sensors from biofouling; developing a climate-controlled shore facility in a harsh and remote environment; ensuring an uninterrupted power supply and availability of additional power bursts when required; and lengthening the life of the system while reducing the need for maintenance. The design and obstacles and scientific questions being addressed by the Lighthouse

  14. Electrometric method to determine the surface impedance of an ice-sea water bilayer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashkuev, Yu. B.; Naguslaeva, I. B.; Khaptanov, V. B.; Dembelov, M. G.

    2016-02-01

    An electrometric method to determine the surface impedance of an ice-sea water bilayer system is suggested. The complex impedance (its magnitude and phase) of this system is determined at very low, low, and medium frequencies from electrometric, rather than radio, measurements. For the ice-sea water system, it is sufficient to determine the conductivity and thickness of a water sample from drilling data.

  15. Systems and Methods for Automated Vessel Navigation Using Sea State Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terrance L. (Inventor); Rankin, Arturo (Inventor); Aghazarian, Hrand (Inventor); Howard, Andrew B. (Inventor); Reinhart, Rene Felix (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for sea state prediction and autonomous navigation in accordance with embodiments of the invention are disclosed. One embodiment of the invention includes a method of predicting a future sea state including generating a sequence of at least two 3D images of a sea surface using at least two image sensors, detecting peaks and troughs in the 3D images using a processor, identifying at least one wavefront in each 3D image based upon the detected peaks and troughs using the processor, characterizing at least one propagating wave based upon the propagation of wavefronts detected in the sequence of 3D images using the processor, and predicting a future sea state using at least one propagating wave characterizing the propagation of wavefronts in the sequence of 3D images using the processor. Another embodiment includes a method of autonomous vessel navigation based upon a predicted sea state and target location.

  16. Formation of the modern current system in the East China Sea since the early Holocene and its relationship with sea level and the monsoon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xufeng; Li, Anchun; Wan, Shiming; Jiang, Fuqing; Yin, Xueming; Lu, Jian

    2015-07-01

    The Okinawa Trough is a natural laboratory for the study of air-sea interaction and paleoenvironmental change. It has been demonstrated that present offshore export of particles in the bottom nepheloid layer occur primarily with downwelling from the northeast winter monsoon, which is inhibited by a transverse circulation pattern in summer. This current system was very different during the Last Glacial Maximum owing to low sea level (-120 m) and exposure of a large shelf area. We collected sediment core Oki01 from the middle Okinawa Trough during 2012 using R/V Kexue No. 1 to elucidate the timing and cause of the current system transition in the East China Sea. Clay mineral, dry density, and elemental (Ti, Ca) composition of core Oki01 was analyzed. The results indicate that clay minerals derived mainly from the Huanghe (Yellow) and the Changjiang (Yangtze) Rivers during 16.0-11.6 ka, and the modern current system in the East China Sea formed beginning in the early Holocene. Therefore, mixing of East China Sea continental shelf, Changjiang River and partially Taiwan Island sediment are the major contributors. The decrease of log(Ti/Ca) and alternating provenance since the early Holocene indicate less sediment from the East China in summer because of resistance of the modern current system, i.e., a "water barrier" and upwelling. Conversely, sediment delivery persists in winter and log(Ti/Ca) indicates the winter monsoon signal since the early Holocene. Our evidence also suggests that sediment from Taiwan Island could be transported by the Kuroshio Current to the middle Okinawa Trough, where it mingles with winter monsoon-induced export of sediment from the Changjiang River and East China Sea continental shelf. Although the present research advances understanding of the evolutionary history of paleoenvironmental change in the Okinawa Trough, more sediment cores should be retrieved over wide areas to construct a larger scenario.

  17. Sea of Bubbles at Edge of Solar System

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation summarizes the new heliospheric scenario and the formation of the “sea” of bubbles in the heliosheath. The Sun’s magnetic field points toward the Sun in the Northern hemisphere...

  18. On the majestic seasonal upwelling system of the Arafura Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kämpf, Jochen

    2016-02-01

    A three-dimensional hydrodynamic model is applied to explore the development of phytoplankton blooms in the Arafura Sea during the southeast monsoon (June-November). Before this season, blooms are restricted to nearshore waters covering a total area of ˜25,000 km2. Satellite data indicate that the bloom area grows substantially to >90,000 km2 during the southeast monsoon covering most of the northwestern Arafura Sea. Findings confirm that the southeast monsoon creates undercurrents via the classical lee effect driving nutrient-rich Banda Sea slope water into this region. This nutrient-rich slope water is driven over vast distances (˜300 km) into the northwestern Arafura Sea where it upwells and/or is entrained into the surface mixed layer. The associated overturning circulation is slow but continuous and it takes 1-2 months before nutrient-rich water appears in surface waters of the region. The predicted pathways of nutrient-rich inflows across the shelf break both north and south of the Ara Islands agree with observational evidence.

  19. Measuring precise sea level from a buoy using the global positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Rocken, C.; Kelecy, T.M.; Born, G.H. ); Young, L.E.; Purcell, G.H. Jr.; Wolf, S.K. )

    1990-11-01

    High-accuracy sea surface positioning is required for sea floor geodesy, satellite altimeter verification, and the study of sea level. An experiment to study the feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) for accurate sea surface positioning was conducted. A GPS-equipped buoy (floater) was deployed off the Scripps pier at La Jolla, California during December 13-15, 1989. Two reference GPS receivers were placed on land, one within {approximately}100 m of the floater, and the other about 80 km inland at the laser ranging site on Monument Peak. The position of the floater was determined relative to the land-fixed receivers using: (a) kinematic GPS processing software developed at the National Geodetic Survey (NGS), and (b) the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's GIPSY (GPS Inferred Positioning SYstem) software. Sea level and ocean wave spectra were calculated from GPPS measurements. These results were compared to measurements made with a NOAA tide gauge and a Paros{trademark} pressure transducer (PPT). GPS sea level for the short 100-m baseline agrees with the PPT sea level at the 1-cm level and has an rms variation of 5 mm over a period of 4 hours. Agreement between results with the two independent GPS analyses is on the order of a few millimeters. Processing of the longer Monument Peak - floater baseline is in progress and will require orbit adjustments and tropospheric modeling to obtain results comparable to the short baseline.

  20. Morphology of turbidite systems within an active continental margin (the Palomares Margin, western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Hernandez, S.; Comas, M. C.; Escutia, C.

    2014-08-01

    The Palomares Margin, an NNE-SSW segment of the South Iberian Margin located between the Alboran and the Algerian-Balearic basins, is dissected by two major submarine canyon systems: the Gata (in the South) and the Alías-Almanzora (in the North). New swath bathymetry, side-scan sonar images, accompanied by 5 kHz and TOPAS subbottom profiles, allow us to recognize these canyons as Mediterranean examples of medium-sized turbidite systems developed in a tectonically active margin. The Gata Turbidite System is confined between residual basement seamounts and exhibits incised braided channels that feed a discrete deep-sea fan, which points to a dominantly coarse-grained turbiditic system. The Alías-Almanzora Turbidite System, larger and less confined, is a good example of nested turbiditic system within the canyon. Concentric sediment waves characterize the Alías-Almanzora deep-sea fan, and the size and acoustic character of these bedforms suggest a fine-grained turbidite system. Both canyons are deeply entrenched on a narrow continental shelf and terminate at the base of the continental slope as channels that feed deep sea fans. While the Alías-Almanzora Turbidite System is the offshore continuation of seasonal rivers, the Gata Turbidite System is exclusively formed by headward erosion along the continental slope. In both cases, left-lateral transpressive deformation influences their location, longitudinal profiles, incision at the upper sections, and canyon bending associated with specific fault segments.

  1. A System of Systems Approach to Integrating Global Sea Level Change Application Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambachus, M. J.; Foster, R. S.; Powell, C.; Cole, M.

    2005-12-01

    The global sea level change application community has numerous disparate models used to make predications over various regional and temporal scales. These models have typically been focused on limited sets of data and optimized for specific areas or questions of interest. Increasingly, decision makers at the national, international, and local/regional levels require access to these application data models and want to be able to integrate large disparate data sets, with new ubiquitous sensor data, and use these data across models from multiple sources. These requirements will force the Global Sea Level Change application community to take a new system-of-systems approach to their programs. We present a new technical architecture approach to the global sea level change program that provides external access to the vast stores of global sea level change data, provides a collaboration forum for the discussion and visualization of data, and provides a simulation environment to evaluate decisions. This architectural approach will provide the tools to support multi-disciplinary decision making. A conceptual system of systems approach is needed to address questions around the multiple approaches to tracking and predicting Sea Level Change. A systems of systems approach would include (1) a forum of data providers, modelers, and users, (2) a service oriented architecture including interoperable web services with a backbone of Grid computing capability, and (3) discovery and access functionality to the information developed through this structure. Each of these three areas would be clearly designed to maximize communication, data use for decision making and flexibility and extensibility for evolution of technology and requirements. In contemplating a system-of-systems approach, it is important to highlight common understanding and coordination as foundational to success across the multiple systems. The workflow of science in different applications is often conceptually similar

  2. A seamless approach to understanding and predicting Arctic sea ice in Met Office modelling systems.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Helene T; Ridley, Jeff K; Keen, Ann B; West, Alex E; Peterson, K Andrew; Rae, Jamie G L; Milton, Sean F; Bacon, Sheldon

    2015-07-13

    Recent CMIP5 models predict large losses of summer Arctic sea ice, with only mitigation scenarios showing sustainable summer ice. Sea ice is inherently part of the climate system, and heat fluxes affecting sea ice can be small residuals of much larger air-sea fluxes. We discuss analysis of energy budgets in the Met Office climate models which point to the importance of early summer processes (such as clouds and meltponds) in determining both the seasonal cycle and the trend in ice decline. We give examples from Met Office modelling systems to illustrate how the seamless use of models for forecasting on time scales from short range to decadal might help to unlock the drivers of high latitude biases in climate models. PMID:26032316

  3. Measuring precise sea level from a buoy using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocken, Christian; Kelecy, Thomas M.; Born, George H.; Young, Larry E.; Purcell, George H., Jr.; Wolf, Susan Kornreich

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of using the Global Positioning System (GPS) for accurate sea surface positioning was examined. An experiment was conducted on the Scripps pier at La Jolla, California from December 13-15, 1989. A GPS-equipped buoy was deployed about 100 m off the pier. Two fixed reference GPS receivers, located on the pier and about 80 km away on Monument Peak, were used to estimate the relative position of the floater. Kinematic GPS processing software, developed at the National Geodetic Survey, and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's GPS Infrared Processing System software were used to determine the floater position relative to land-fixing receivers. Calculations were made of sea level and ocean wave spectra from GPS measurements. It is found that the GPS sea level for the short 100 m baseline agrees with the PPT sea level at the 1 cm level and has an rms variation of 5 mm over a period of 4 hours.

  4. A Hydro-marsh equilibrium model for marsh system response to Sea Level Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizad, K.; Hagen, S. C.; Morris, J. T.; Bacopoulos, P.

    2013-12-01

    In this study, an integrated model to assess the effect of sea level rise on salt marsh systems is presented. It is based on a coupled two-dimensional hydrodynamic model and a parametric marsh model. The model shows marsh productivity as a function of mean high water (MHW), mean low water (MLW), and the elevation of the marsh platform. MHW and MLW are the mean high and low water levels over a tidal record and the marsh platform elevation is the elevation of the thick and smooth piled up sediments and biomass that support the productivity of the marsh. MHW and MLW throughout a river and tidal creeks are determined by time varying tides resulting from the two-dimensional hydrodynamic model. In order to calculate accurate biomass productivity, and MHW and MLW elevations, a digital elevation model (DEM) representing the marsh table elevation and tidal creeks with high accuracy is necessary (Hagen et al., 2013). There are optimum ranges for relative sea level rise (RSLR), mean sea level (MSL), and depth of inundation for salt marshes to increase productivity. Because of the constantly changing MSL, the marsh always adjusts itself to a new equilibrium (Morris, et al., 2002). In the marsh model, the sediment accretion rate, which is a function of the marsh productivity, is considered. The tidal record is calculated by the hydrodynamic model and the DEM is adjusted by incorporating the accretion rate over a period of time, provided by the marsh model. Then, the new tidal record is assessed by running the hydrodynamic model, considering sea level rise with the new marsh table elevations. Using the new tidal record, the marsh productivity is simulated. This process can be divided into short time steps to capture changes in the rate of sea level rise. For example, a 68 cm sea level rise over 63 years can be split into five- or ten- year periods to have a linear trend for sea level rise in each period. The model is examined for the lower St. Johns River and Apalachicola River

  5. Tsunami early warning system for the western coast of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Partheniu, Raluca; Cioflan, Carmen; Constantin, Angela; Danet, Anton; Diaconescu, Mihai; Ghica, Daniela; Grecu, Bogdan; Manea, Liviu; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Moldovan, Iren; Neagoe, Cristian; Radulian, Mircea; Raileanu, Victor; Verdes, Ioan

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea area is liable to tsunamis generation and the statistics show that more than twenty tsunamis have been observed in the past. The last tsunami was observed on 31st of March 1901 in the western part of the Black Sea, in the Shabla area. An earthquake of magnitude generated at a depth of 15 km below the sea level , triggered tsunami waves of 5 m height and material losses as well. The oldest tsunami ever recorded close to the Romanian shore-line dates from year 104. This paper emphasises the participation of The National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP) to the development of a tsunami warning system for the western cost of the Black Sea. In collaboration with the National Institute for Marine Geology and Geoecology (GeoEcoMar), the Institute of Oceanology and the Geological Institute, the last two belonging to the Bulgarian Academy of Science, NIEP has participated as partner, to the cross-border project "Set-up and implementation of key core components of a regional early-warning system for marine geohazards of risk to the Romanian-Bulgarian Black Sea coastal area - MARINEGEOHAZARDS", coordinated by GeoEcoMar. The main purpose of the project was the implementation of an integrated early-warning system accompanied by a common decision-support tool, and enhancement of regional technical capability, for the adequate detection, assessment, forecasting and rapid notification of natural marine geohazards for the Romanian-Bulgarian Black Sea cross-border area. In the last years, NIEP has increased its interest on the marine related hazards, such as tsunamis and, in collaboration with other institutions of Romania, is acting to strengthen the cooperation and data exchanges with institutions from the Black Sea surrounding countries which already have tsunami monitoring infrastructures. In this respect, NIEP has developed a coastal network for marine seismicity, by installing three new seismic stations in the coastal area of the Black Sea, Sea Level Sensors

  6. Open-system coral ages reveal persistent suborbital sea-level cycles.

    PubMed

    Thompson, William G; Goldstein, Steven L

    2005-04-15

    Sea level is a sensitive index of global climate that has been linked to Earth's orbital variations, with a minimum periodicity of about 21,000 years. Although there is ample evidence for climate oscillations that are too frequent to be explained by orbital forcing, suborbital-frequency sea-level change has been difficult to resolve, primarily because of problems with uranium/thorium coral dating. Here we use a new approach that corrects coral ages for the frequently observed open-system behavior of uranium-series nuclides, substantially improving the resolution of sea-level reconstruction. This curve reveals persistent sea-level oscillations that are too frequent to be explained exclusively by orbital forcing. PMID:15831756

  7. Open-System Coral Ages Reveal Persistent Suborbital Sea-Level Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, William G.; Goldstein, Steven L.

    2005-04-01

    Sea level is a sensitive index of global climate that has been linked to Earth's orbital variations, with a minimum periodicity of about 21,000 years. Although there is ample evidence for climate oscillations that are too frequent to be explained by orbital forcing, suborbital-frequency sea-level change has been difficult to resolve, primarily because of problems with uranium/thorium coral dating. Here we use a new approach that corrects coral ages for the frequently observed open-system behavior of uranium-series nuclides, substantially improving the resolution of sea-level reconstruction. This curve reveals persistent sea-level oscillations that are too frequent to be explained exclusively by orbital forcing.

  8. Validation of the experimental hindcasts produced by the GloSea4 seasonal prediction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Myong-In; Kang, Hyun-Suk; Kim, Daehyun; Kim, Dongmin; Kim, Hyerim; Kang, Daehyun

    2014-05-01

    Using 14 year (1996-2009) ensemble hindcast runs produced with the Global Seasonal Forecasting System version 4 (GloSea4), this study evaluates the spatial and temporal structure of the hindcast climatology and the prediction skill of major climate variability. A special focus is on the fidelity of the system to reproduce and to forecast phenomena that are closely related to the East Asian climate. Overall the GloSea4 system exhibits realistic representations of the basic climate even though a few model deficiencies are identified in the sea surface temperature and precipitation. In particular, the capability of GloSea4 to capture the seasonal migration of rain belt associated with Changma implies a good potential for the Asian summer monsoon prediction. It is found that GloSea4 is as skillful as other state-of-the-art seasonal prediction systems in forecasting climate variability including the El-Nino/southern oscillation (ENSO), the East Asian summer monsoon, the Arctic Oscillation (AO), and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). The results presented in this study will provide benchmark evaluation for next seasonal prediction systems to be developed at the Korea Meteorological Administration.

  9. A regional ocean reanalysis system for coastal waters of China and adjacent seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guijun; Li, Wei; Zhang, Xuefeng; Li, Dong; He, Zhongjie; Wang, Xidong; Wu, Xinrong; Yu, Ting; Ma, Jirui

    2011-05-01

    A regional ocean reanalysis system for the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas has been developed by the National Marine Data and Information Service (NMDIS). It produces a dataset package called CORA (China ocean reanalysis). The regional ocean model used is based on the Princeton Ocean Model with a generalized coordinate system (POMgcs). The model is parallelized by NMDIS with the addition of the wave breaking and tidal mixing processes into model parameterizations. Data assimilation is a sequential three-dimensional variational (3D-Var) scheme implemented within a multigrid framework. Observations include satellite remote sensing sea surface temperature (SST), altimetry sea level anomaly (SLA), and temperature/salinity profiles. The reanalysis fields of sea surface height, temperature, salinity, and currents begin with January 1986 and are currently updated every year. Error statistics and error distributions of temperature, salinity and currents are presented as a primary evaluation of the reanalysis fields using sea level data from tidal gauges, temperature profiles, as well as the trajectories of Argo floats. Some case studies offer the opportunity to verify the evolution of certain local circulations. These evaluations show that the reanalysis data produced provide a good representation of the ocean processes and phenomena in the coastal waters of China and adjacent seas.

  10. Assessment of the Black Sea observing system. A focus on 2005-2012 Argo campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grayek, Sebastian; Stanev, Emil V.; Schulz-Stellenfleth, Johannes

    2015-12-01

    An observing system in the Black Sea combining remote sensing data such as sea level anomalies from altimetry, sea surface temperature from satellite radiometer and data from Argo floats has been analyzed with the aim to quantify the contribution of different information sources when reconstructing the ocean state. The main research questions are: (1) do Argo float measurements substantially impact the quality of estimates, (2) what is the dependence of this quality upon the data and sampling used, and (3) are there specific Black Sea issues? Numerical model output and statistical analysis were used for this purpose. It has been demonstrated that the statistical method performs in a consistent way reproducing known geophysical patterns. Maximum footprints of sea level, salinity and temperature were illustrated, most of them clearly connected with specific thermohaline conditions and the general circulation. Reduced analysis capabilities were identified as associated with a low level of dynamical coupling between the shelf and the open ocean, mesoscale dynamics and representation of diapycnic processes in the models. The accuracy of Argo pressure measurements appeared very important to resolve the extremely sharp stratification in the upper layers. The present-day number of Argo floats operating in the Black Sea of about 10, seems optimal for operational purposes.

  11. Sea breeze-induced mesoscale systems and severe weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pielke, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    The relationship between thunderstorm activity during the summer months along coastal regions of the Atlantic and Gulf coasts and the dry sea breeze circulation was investigated. Satellite composites of thunderstorm activity for synoptically undisturbed conditions have been obtained for south Florida for a series of days in the summer of 1983. These data were catalogued into different low level synoptic flow regimes. Five synoptic flow regimes were found from the data. A three-dimensional mesoscale numerical model was used for each sysnoptic flow regime to quantitatively predict the location of enhanced thunderstorm activity. This model includes a parameterization of vegetation and soil moisture feedbacks as well as a sophisticated planetary boundary layer representation. Using the results of the satellite image composites, spatial and temporal characteristics of deep convective cloud patterns and their variation with synoptic flow are described. The results from the numerical model have provided explanations for the observed patterns.

  12. Up in arms: Immune and nervous system response to sea star wasting disease

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuess, Lauren E; Eiselord, Morgan E.; Closek, Collin J.; Tracy, Allison M.; Mauntz, Ruth; Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Sarah; Moritsch, Monica M; Yoshioka, Reyn; Burge, Colleen A.; Harvell, Drew; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Hershberger, Paul K.; Roberts, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Echinoderms, positioned taxonomically at the base of deuterostomes, provide an important system for the study of the evolution of the immune system. However, there is little known about the cellular components and genes associated with echinoderm immunity. The 2013–2014 sea star wasting disease outbreak is an emergent, rapidly spreading disease, which has led to large population declines of asteroids in the North American Pacific. While evidence suggests that the signs of this disease, twisting arms and lesions, may be attributed to a viral infection, the host response to infection is still poorly understood. In order to examine transcriptional responses of the sea star Pycnopodia helianthoides to sea star wasting disease, we injected a viral sized fraction (0.2 μm) homogenate prepared from symptomatic P. helianthoides into apparently healthy stars. Nine days following injection, when all stars were displaying signs of the disease, specimens were sacrificed and coelomocytes were extracted for RNA-seq analyses. A number of immune genes, including those involved in Toll signaling pathways, complement cascade, melanization response, and arachidonic acid metabolism, were differentially expressed. Furthermore, genes involved in nervous system processes and tissue remodeling were also differentially expressed, pointing to transcriptional changes underlying the signs of sea star wasting disease. The genomic resources presented here not only increase understanding of host response to sea star wasting disease, but also provide greater insight into the mechanisms underlying immune function in echinoderms.

  13. Up in Arms: Immune and Nervous System Response to Sea Star Wasting Disease.

    PubMed

    Fuess, Lauren E; Eisenlord, Morgan E; Closek, Collin J; Tracy, Allison M; Mauntz, Ruth; Gignoux-Wolfsohn, Sarah; Moritsch, Monica M; Yoshioka, Reyn; Burge, Colleen A; Harvell, C Drew; Friedman, Carolyn S; Hewson, Ian; Hershberger, Paul K; Roberts, Steven B

    2015-01-01

    Echinoderms, positioned taxonomically at the base of deuterostomes, provide an important system for the study of the evolution of the immune system. However, there is little known about the cellular components and genes associated with echinoderm immunity. The 2013-2014 sea star wasting disease outbreak is an emergent, rapidly spreading disease, which has led to large population declines of asteroids in the North American Pacific. While evidence suggests that the signs of this disease, twisting arms and lesions, may be attributed to a viral infection, the host response to infection is still poorly understood. In order to examine transcriptional responses of the sea star Pycnopodia helianthoides to sea star wasting disease, we injected a viral sized fraction (0.2 μm) homogenate prepared from symptomatic P. helianthoides into apparently healthy stars. Nine days following injection, when all stars were displaying signs of the disease, specimens were sacrificed and coelomocytes were extracted for RNA-seq analyses. A number of immune genes, including those involved in Toll signaling pathways, complement cascade, melanization response, and arachidonic acid metabolism, were differentially expressed. Furthermore, genes involved in nervous system processes and tissue remodeling were also differentially expressed, pointing to transcriptional changes underlying the signs of sea star wasting disease. The genomic resources presented here not only increase understanding of host response to sea star wasting disease, but also provide greater insight into the mechanisms underlying immune function in echinoderms. PMID:26176852

  14. Up in Arms: Immune and Nervous System Response to Sea Star Wasting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Burge, Colleen A.; Harvell, C. Drew; Friedman, Carolyn S.; Hewson, Ian; Hershberger, Paul K.; Roberts, Steven B.

    2015-01-01

    Echinoderms, positioned taxonomically at the base of deuterostomes, provide an important system for the study of the evolution of the immune system. However, there is little known about the cellular components and genes associated with echinoderm immunity. The 2013–2014 sea star wasting disease outbreak is an emergent, rapidly spreading disease, which has led to large population declines of asteroids in the North American Pacific. While evidence suggests that the signs of this disease, twisting arms and lesions, may be attributed to a viral infection, the host response to infection is still poorly understood. In order to examine transcriptional responses of the sea star Pycnopodia helianthoides to sea star wasting disease, we injected a viral sized fraction (0.2 μm) homogenate prepared from symptomatic P. helianthoides into apparently healthy stars. Nine days following injection, when all stars were displaying signs of the disease, specimens were sacrificed and coelomocytes were extracted for RNA-seq analyses. A number of immune genes, including those involved in Toll signaling pathways, complement cascade, melanization response, and arachidonic acid metabolism, were differentially expressed. Furthermore, genes involved in nervous system processes and tissue remodeling were also differentially expressed, pointing to transcriptional changes underlying the signs of sea star wasting disease. The genomic resources presented here not only increase understanding of host response to sea star wasting disease, but also provide greater insight into the mechanisms underlying immune function in echinoderms. PMID:26176852

  15. Long-term and real-time monitoring system of the East/Japan sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kuh; Kim, Yun Bae; Park, Jong Jin; Nam, Sunghyun; Park, Kyung-Ae; Chang, Kyung-Il

    2005-03-01

    Long-term, continuous, and real-time ocean monitoring has been undertaken in order to evaluate various oceanographic phenomena and processes in the East/Japan Sea. Recent technical advances combined with our concerted efforts have allowed us to establish a real-time monitoring system and to accumulate considerable knowledge on what has been taking place in water properties, current systems, and circulation in the East Sea. We have obtained information on volume transport across the Korea Strait through cable voltage measurements and continuous temperature and salinity profile data from ARGO floats placed throughout entire East Sea since 1997. These ARGO float data have been utilized to estimate deep current, inertial kinetic energy, and changes in water mass, especially in the northern East Sea. We have also developed the East Sea Real-time Ocean Buoy (ESROB) in coastal regions and made continual improvements till it has evolved into the most up-to-date and effective monitoring system as a result of remarkable technical progress in data communication systems. Atmospheric and oceanic measurements by ESROB have contributed to the recognition of coastal wind variability, current fluctuations, and internal waves near and off the eastern coast of Korea. Long-term current meter moorings have been in operation since 1996 between Ulleungdo and Dokdo to monitor the interbasin deep water exchanges between the Japanese and Ulleung Basins. In addition, remotely sensed satellite data could facilitate the investigation of atmospheric and oceanic surface conditions such as sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height, near-surface winds, oceanic color, surface roughness, and so on. These satellite data revealed surface frontal structures with a fairly good spatial resolution, seasonal cycle of SST, atmospheric wind forcing, geostrophic current anomalies, and biogeochemical processes associated with physical forcing and processes. Since the East Sea has been recognized as a

  16. Mobile Permanent Magnet NMR Systems for Field Studies on Antarctic Sea Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gädke, Achim; Dykstra, Robin

    2011-03-01

    A permanent magnet based Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) system has been developed to measure various properties of the brine in sea ice. In contrast to systems utilizing the Earth's field in previous expeditions, the comparatively high field of 0.28 T provided by permanent magnets allows for shorter measurement times and advanced NMR protocols. In November 2009 the instrument was deployed to Antarctica to investigate sea ice grown under natural conditions. In this paper the instrument is described, preliminary results are reported and future options for mobile NMR applications in Antarctica discussed.

  17. Small Autonomous Air/Sea System Concepts for Coast Guard Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Larry A.

    2005-01-01

    A number of small autonomous air/sea system concepts are outlined in this paper that support and enhance U.S. Coast Guard missions. These concepts draw significantly upon technology investments made by NASA in the area of uninhabited aerial vehicles and robotic/intelligent systems. Such concepts should be considered notional elements of a greater as-yet-not-defined robotic system-of-systems designed to enable unparalleled maritime safety and security.

  18. Validation of an ensemble modelling system for climate projections for the northwest European shelf seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinker, Jonathan; Lowe, Jason; Holt, Jason; Pardaens, Anne; Wiltshire, Andy

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a modelling system used to represent the northwest European shelf seas. Variants of the coupled atmosphere-ocean global climate model, HadCM3, were run under conditions of historically varying concentrations of greenhouse gases and other radiatively active constituents. The atmospheric simulation for the shelf sea region and its surrounds was downscaled to finer spatial scales using a regional climate model (HadRM3); these simulations were then used to drive a river routing scheme (TRIP). Together, these provide the atmospheric, oceanic and riverine boundary conditions to drive the shelf seas model POLCOMS. Additionally, a shelf seas simulation was driven by the ERA-40 reanalysis in place of HadCM3. We compared the modelling systems output against a sea surface temperature satellite analysis product, a quality controlled ocean profile dataset and values of volume transport through particular ocean sections from the literature. In addition to assessing model drift with a pre-industrial control simulation the modelling system was evaluated against observations and the reanalysis driven simulation. We concluded that the modelling system provided an excellent (good) representation of the spatial patterns of temperature (salinity). It provided a good representation of the mean temperature climate, and a sufficient representation of the mean salinity and water column structure climate. The representation of the interannual variability was sufficient, while the overall shelf-wide circulation was qualitatively good. From this wide range of metrics we judged the modelling system fit for the purpose of providing centennial climate projections for the northwest European shelf seas.

  19. ICE stereocamera system - photogrammetric setup for retrieval and analysis of small scale sea ice topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Divine, Dmitry; Pedersen, Christina; Karlsen, Tor Ivan; Aas, Harald; Granskog, Mats; Renner, Angelika; Spreen, Gunnar; Gerland, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    A new thin-ice Arctic paradigm requires reconsideration of the set of parameterizations of mass and energy exchange within the ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere system used in modern CGCMs. Such a reassessment would require a comprehensive collection of measurements made specifically on first-year pack ice with a focus on summer melt season when the difference from typical conditions for the earlier multi-year Arctic sea ice cover becomes most pronounced. Previous in situ studies have demonstrated a crucial importance of smaller (i.e. less than 10 m) scale surface topography features for the seasonal evolution of pack ice. During 2011-2012 NPI developed a helicopter borne ICE stereocamera system intended for mapping the sea ice surface topography and aerial photography. The hardware component of the system comprises two Canon 5D Mark II cameras, combined GPS/INS unit by "Novatel" and a laser altimeter mounted in a single enclosure outside the helicopter. The unit is controlled by a PXI chassis mounted inside the helicopter cabin. The ICE stereocamera system was deployed for the first time during the 2012 summer field season. The hardware setup has proven to be highly reliable and was used in about 30 helicopter flights over Arctic sea-ice during July-September. Being highly automated it required a minimal human supervision during in-flight operation. The deployment of the camera system was mostly done in combination with the EM-bird, which measures sea-ice thickness, and this combination provides an integrated view of sea ice cover along the flight track. During the flight the cameras shot sequentially with a time interval of 1 second each to ensure sufficient overlap between subsequent images. Some 35000 images of sea ice/water surface captured per camera sums into 6 Tb of data collected during its first field season. The reconstruction of the digital elevation model of sea ice surface will be done using SOCET SET commercial software. Refraction at water/air interface can

  20. A three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for the South China Sea: preliminary results from observing system simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shiqiu; Zeng, Xuezhi; Li, Zhijin

    2016-03-01

    A three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) system based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is established for the South China Sea (SCS). A set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) are performed to evaluate the performance of this data assimilation system and investigate the impacts of different types of observations on representation of three-dimensional large-scale circulations and meso-scale eddies in the SCS. The pseudo-observations that are examined include sea surface temperatures (SSTs), sea surface heights (SSHs), sparse temperature/salinity (T/S) profiles, sea surface velocities (SSVs), and sea surface salinities (SSSs). The results show that SSHs can extend their impacts into the subsurface or even the deep ocean while other surface observations only have impacts within surface mixed layer. SSVs have similar impacts though confined to their spatial coverage, suggesting that SSVs could be a substitute of SSHs nearshore where SSHs are of poor quality. Despite their sparseness, the T/S profiles improve the representation of the temperature and salinity structures below the mixed layer, and a combination of T/S profiles with surface observations leads to a better representation of the meso-scale eddies. Based on the OSSE results, an affordable observing network for the SCS in the near future is proposed.

  1. A three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for the South China Sea: preliminary results from observing system simulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shiqiu; Zeng, Xuezhi; Li, Zhijin

    2016-05-01

    A three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) system based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) is established for the South China Sea (SCS). A set of Observing System Simulation Experiments (OSSEs) are performed to evaluate the performance of this data assimilation system and investigate the impacts of different types of observations on representation of three-dimensional large-scale circulations and meso-scale eddies in the SCS. The pseudo-observations that are examined include sea surface temperatures (SSTs), sea surface heights (SSHs), sparse temperature/salinity (T/S) profiles, sea surface velocities (SSVs), and sea surface salinities (SSSs). The results show that SSHs can extend their impacts into the subsurface or even the deep ocean while other surface observations only have impacts within surface mixed layer. SSVs have similar impacts though confined to their spatial coverage, suggesting that SSVs could be a substitute of SSHs nearshore where SSHs are of poor quality. Despite their sparseness, the T/S profiles improve the representation of the temperature and salinity structures below the mixed layer, and a combination of T/S profiles with surface observations leads to a better representation of the meso-scale eddies. Based on the OSSE results, an affordable observing network for the SCS in the near future is proposed.

  2. Representation of Sea Ice Processes in State of the Art Earth System Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, D. A.; Holland, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    The majority of Earth System Models now include thermodynamic-dynamic sea ice models with a subgridscale representation of ice thickness. The current sea ice component of the Community Earth System Model is the Los Alamos sea ice model (CICE) version 5. This new version of the model includes prognostic salinity in the vertical thermodynamic calculation as well as a representation of melt pond drainage through the sea ice. The CICE5 also includes a melt pond parameterization that takes into account the deformed and non-deformed ice within a model grid cell. Snow on sea ice processes allow for an evolving effective snow grain radius as a function of temperature, which is used in the shortwave radiative transfer and surface albedo calculation. I will discuss the results from coupled climate model sensitivity simulations that consider the subgridscale representations of some of these processes. This will include analysis of mean state and feedbacks in both the Arctic and Antarctic. Additional discussion will be provided on how we have used observations to guide these efforts.

  3. Influence of Sea Ice on Arctic Marine Sulfur Biogeochemistry in the Community Climate System Model

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, Clara; Jin, Meibing

    2013-06-30

    Global climate models (GCMs) have not effectively considered how responses of arctic marine ecosystems to a warming climate will influence the global climate system. A key response of arctic marine ecosystems that may substantially influence energy exchange in the Arctic is a change in dimethylsulfide (DMS) emissions, because DMS emissions influence cloud albedo. This response is closely tied to sea ice through its impacts on marine ecosystem carbon and sulfur cycling, and the ice-albedo feedback implicated in accelerated arctic warming. To reduce the uncertainty in predictions from coupled climate simulations, important model components of the climate system, such as feedbacks between arctic marine biogeochemistry and climate, need to be reasonably and realistically modeled. This research first involved model development to improve the representation of marine sulfur biogeochemistry simulations to understand/diagnose the control of sea-ice-related processes on the variability of DMS dynamics. This study will help build GCM predictions that quantify the relative current and possible future influences of arctic marine ecosystems on the global climate system. Our overall research objective was to improve arctic marine biogeochemistry in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM, now CESM). Working closely with the Climate Ocean Sea Ice Model (COSIM) team at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), we added 1 sea-ice algae and arctic DMS production and related biogeochemistry to the global Parallel Ocean Program model (POP) coupled to the LANL sea ice model (CICE). Both CICE and POP are core components of CESM. Our specific research objectives were: 1) Develop a state-of-the-art ice-ocean DMS model for application in climate models, using observations to constrain the most crucial parameters; 2) Improve the global marine sulfur model used in CESM by including DMS biogeochemistry in the Arctic; and 3) Assess how sea ice influences DMS dynamics in the arctic marine

  4. New insights on the deep structure and evolution of the Gibraltar Arc System and Atlas Mountains: results from TOPOMED-TOPOEUROPE Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Manel; Jones, Alan G.; Grevemeyer, Ingo; Terrinha, Pedro; Faccenna, Claudio; Wortel, Rinus; Topomed Team

    2013-04-01

    One of the target areas of the TOPO-MED CRP within the ESF TOPO-EUROPE EUROCORES Project is the westernmost Mediterranean region, which includes the Gibraltar Arc System (Betic-Rif orogen, Guadalquivir and Rharb foreland basins, Alboran back-arc basin and Gulf of Cadiz imbricated accretionary wedge) and the Atlas Mountains (High and Middle Atlas). Within this framework, several geological and geophysical surveys have been carried out including, among others, a 6-month deployment of OBSes in the Gulf of Cadiz and the Alboran basin, active seismic surveys combining MCS and OBS along five profiles on the Alboran and Algerian basins, a wide angle seismic profile across the Atlas Mountains, a deep MCS survey on the Alboran basin and the Gulf of Cadiz totaling 2560 km, a high resolution seismic survey on the Alboran basin, a back-scatter and high resolution topography survey on the Alboran Basin and several MT profiles across the Atlas mountains. The results of these surveys - some of them still preliminary and under processing - together with integrated models allow us to better define the geometries and properties of the crust and upper mantle structures and to link them with surface processes and the geodynamic evolution of the region. Outstanding results are the large crustal thickness variations between the Betic-Rif orogen and the Alboran basin, the very moderate crustal root beneath the Atlas Mountains and a conspicuous crust/mantle strain partitioning affecting most of the region. These results, together with those coming from the TOPO-IBERIA Spanish project, have allowed to propose different geodynamic models to explain the tectonic evolution of the region where the leading mechanism implies twisted mantle slab roll-back. In addition, modeling the Messinian salinity crisis including both the closure of the Mediterranean and desiccation and the re-opening and flooding have also been proposed.

  5. SEA Semester Undergraduates Research the Ocean's Role in Climate Systems in the Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, A. W.; Becker, M. K.; Grabb, K. C.

    2014-12-01

    Sea Education Association (SEA)'s fully accredited Oceans & Climate SEA Semester program provides upper-level science undergraduates a unique opportunity to explore the ocean's role in the global climate system as they conduct real-world oceanographic research and gain first-hand understanding of and appreciation for the collaborative nature of the scientific research process. Oceans & Climate is an interdisciplinary science and policy semester in which students also explore public policy perspectives to learn how scientific knowledge is used in making climate-related policy. Working first at SEA's shore campus, students collaborate with SEA faculty and other researchers in the local Woods Hole scientific community to design and develop an original research project to be completed at sea. Students then participate as full, working members of the scientific team and sailing crew aboard the 134-foot brigantine SSV Robert C. Seamans; they conduct extensive oceanographic sampling, manage shipboard operations, and complete and present the independent research project they designed onshore. Oceans & Climate SEA Semester Cruise S-250 sailed from San Diego to Tahiti on a 7-week, >4000nm voyage last fall (November-December 2013). This remote open-ocean cruise track traversed subtropical and equatorial regions of the Pacific particularly well suited for a diverse range of climate-focused studies. Furthermore, as SEA has regularly collected scientific data along similar Pacific cruise tracks for more than a decade, students often undertake projects that require time-series analyses. 18 undergraduates from 15 different colleges and universities participated in the S-250 program. Two examples of the many projects completed by S-250 students include a study of the possible relationship between tropical cyclone intensification, driven by warm sea surface temperatures, and the presence of barrier layers; and a study of nutrient cycling in the eastern Pacific, focusing on primary

  6. Multi-platform operational validation of the Western Mediterranean SOCIB forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Renault, Lionel; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2014-05-01

    The development of science-based ocean forecasting systems at global, regional, and local scales can support a better management of the marine environment (maritime security, environmental and resources protection, maritime and commercial operations, tourism, ...). In this context, SOCIB (the Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System, www.socib.es) has developed an operational ocean forecasting system in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMOP). WMOP uses a regional configuration of the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS, Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) nested in the larger scale Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) with a spatial resolution of 1.5-2km. WMOP aims at reproducing both the basin-scale ocean circulation and the mesoscale variability which is known to play a crucial role due to its strong interaction with the large scale circulation in this region. An operational validation system has been developed to systematically assess the model outputs at daily, monthly and seasonal time scales. Multi-platform observations are used for this validation, including satellite products (Sea Surface Temperature, Sea Level Anomaly), in situ measurements (from gliders, Argo floats, drifters and fixed moorings) and High-Frequency radar data. The validation procedures allow to monitor and certify the general realism of the daily production of the ocean forecasting system before its distribution to users. Additionally, different indicators (Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity, Eddy Kinetic Energy, Mixed Layer Depth, Heat Content, transports in key sections) are computed every day both at the basin-scale and in several sub-regions (Alboran Sea, Balearic Sea, Gulf of Lion). The daily forecasts, validation diagnostics and indicators from the operational model over the last months are available at www.socib.es.

  7. Land, sea, and air unmanned systems research and development at SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Laird, Robin; Kogut, Greg; Andrews, John; Fletcher, Barbara; Webber, Todd; Arrieta, Rich; Everett, H. R.

    2009-05-01

    The Space and Naval Warfare (SPAWAR) Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) has a long and extensive history in unmanned systems research and development, starting with undersea applications in the 1960s and expanding into ground and air systems in the 1980s. In the ground domain, we are addressing force-protection scenarios using large unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) and fixed sensors, and simultaneously pursuing tactical and explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) operations with small man-portable robots. Technology thrusts include improving robotic intelligence and functionality, autonomous navigation and world modeling in urban environments, extended operational range of small teleoperated UGVs, enhanced human-robot interaction, and incorporation of remotely operated weapon systems. On the sea surface, we are pushing the envelope on dynamic obstacle avoidance while conforming to established nautical rules-of-the-road. In the air, we are addressing cooperative behaviors between UGVs and small vertical-takeoff- and-landing unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). Underwater applications involve very shallow water mine countermeasures, ship hull inspection, oceanographic data collection, and deep ocean access. Specific technology thrusts include fiber-optic communications, adaptive mission controllers, advanced navigation techniques, and concepts of operations (CONOPs) development. This paper provides a review of recent accomplishments and current status of a number of projects in these areas.

  8. Functional Metagenomic Investigations of Microbial Communities in a Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal System

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Kai; Liu, Keshao; Jiao, Nianzhi; Zhang, Yao; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the functional capability of microbial communities in shallow-sea hydrothermal systems (water depth of <200 m). This study analyzed two high-throughput pyrosequencing metagenomic datasets from the vent and the surface water in the shallow-sea hydrothermal system offshore NE Taiwan. This system exhibited distinct geochemical parameters. Metagenomic data revealed that the vent and the surface water were predominated by Epsilonproteobacteria (Nautiliales-like organisms) and Gammaproteobacteria (Thiomicrospira-like organisms), respectively. A significant difference in microbial carbon fixation and sulfur metabolism was found between the vent and the surface water. The chemoautotrophic microorganisms in the vent and in the surface water might possess the reverse tricarboxylic acid cycle and the Calvin−Bassham−Benson cycle for carbon fixation in response to carbon dioxide highly enriched in the environment, which is possibly fueled by geochemical energy with sulfur and hydrogen. Comparative analyses of metagenomes showed that the shallow-sea metagenomes contained some genes similar to those present in other extreme environments. This study may serve as a basis for deeply understanding the genetic network and functional capability of the microbial members of shallow-sea hydrothermal systems. PMID:23940820

  9. A stochastic operational forecasting system of the Black Sea: Technique and validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vandenbulcke, Luc; Barth, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we present the latest version of an ensemble forecasting system of the hydrodynamics of the Black Sea, based on the GHER model. The system includes the Weakly Constrained Ensembles algorithm to generate random, but physically balanced perturbations to initialize members of the ensemble. On top of initial conditions, the ensemble accounts also for uncertainty on the atmospheric forcing fields, and on some scalar parameters such as river flows or model diffusion coefficients. The forecasting system also includes the Ocean Assimilation Kit, a sequential data assimilation package implementing the SEEK and Ensemble Kalman filters. A novel aspect of the forecasting system is that not only our best estimate of the future ocean state is provided, but also the associated error estimated from the ensemble of models. The primary goal of this paper is to quantitatively show that the ensemble variability is a good estimation of the model error, regardless of the magnitude of the forecast errors themselves. In order for this estimation to be meaningful, the model itself should also be well validated. Therefore, we describe the model validation against general circulation patterns. Some particular aspects critical for the Black Sea circulation are validated as well: the mixed layer depth and the shelfopen sea exchanges. The model forecasts are also compared with observed sea surface temperature, and errors are compared to those of another operational model as well.

  10. Recent sea beam mapping of Ascension-Monterey Submarine Canyon System

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, H.G. )

    1990-06-01

    Extensive Sea Beam and Bathymetric Swatch Survey System (BS{sup 3}) data covering the Ascension-Monterey Submarine Canyon system and adjoining areas and canyons were collected offshore central California. Many discovered geomorphological features lead to significant new geologic conclusions about the formation and processes of submarine canyons in general and disclose unique sedimentary and tectonic features of the Ascension-Monterey Canyon system. The highly detailed bathymetric maps constructed from the Sea Beam data indicate that the seafloor topographic pattern is influenced by sedimentary and tectonic processes; both remain active along the central California margin. Interpretations of MOAA composite maps, final raw Sea Beam bathymetric maps, and three-dimensional physiographic renditions from bathymetric data indicate a diverse and complex geomorphology for the Ascension-Monterey Submarine Canyon system and adjoining region. Five distinct geomorphologic provinces and four well-defined geographic areas are mapped. Canyons cut by faults and canyon walls actively undergoing mass wasting are prominently displayed in the Sea Beam data. Sedimentary processes illustrating canyon channel capture and the formation of extensive mega-sedimentary wave fields where the canyons debouch onto the abyssal plain are spectacularly well defined. This new tool of seafloor mapping is contributing significant data for the geological interpretation of continental margins and seafloor in the world's oceans.

  11. Coastal Transport Integrated System in the Aegean Sea Islands: Framework, Methodology, Data Issues and Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantazis, D. N.; Stratakis, P.; Karathanasis, C.; Gkadolou, E.; Pagounis, V.; Chronis, K.; Gatsiou, M.; Moumouri-Frag, F.; Tsekos, P.

    2013-05-01

    Greece has more than one hundred inhabited islands, the majority of them are geographically scattered in small distances in the Aegean Sea. The Aegean Sea suffers systematically from two major issues. First, many islands are not served quite frequently with the continent or other islands' major ports. It is a situation rather problematic for the habitants of the islands who wish to travel, for the patients in need to be transferred to metropolitan hospitals, for the goods transport from and to islands. Second, there is a crucial issue in the Aegean Sea regarding the so-called "thin lines". Governments spend every year tens of million euros in subsidies in order to sustain the thin lines. Our aim is the development of an integrated and holistic spatial information system to effectively design coastal transportation lines to combat the above mentioned problems. This paper will present the project framework, the methodology followed, data issues and preliminary results.

  12. TOPAZ4: an ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic and Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakov, P.; Counillon, F.; Bertino, L.; Lisæter, K. A.; Oke, P. R.; Korablev, A.

    2012-04-01

    We present a detailed description of TOPAZ4, the latest version of TOPAZ - a coupled ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic. It is the only operational, large-scale ocean data assimilation system that uses the ensemble Kalman filter. This means that TOPAZ features a time-evolving, state-dependent estimate of the state error covariance. Based on results from the pilot MyOcean reanalysis for 2003-2008, we demonstrate that TOPAZ4 produces a realistic estimate of the ocean circulation and the sea ice. We find that the ensemble spread for temperature and sea-level remains fairly constant throughout the reanalysis demonstrating that the data assimilation system is robust to ensemble collapse. Moreover, the ensemble spread for ice concentration is well correlated with the actual errors. This indicates that the ensemble statistics provide reliable state-dependent error estimates - a feature that is unique to ensemble-based data assimilation systems. We demonstrate that the quality of the reanalysis changes when different sea surface temperature products are assimilated, or when in situ profiles below the ice in the Arctic Ocean are assimilated. We find that data assimilation improves the match to independent observations compared to a free model. Improvements are particularly noticeable for ice thickness, salinity in the Arctic, and temperature in the Fram Strait, but not for transport estimates or underwater temperature. At the same time, the pilot reanalysis has revealed several flaws in the system that have degraded its performance. Finally, we show that a simple bias estimation scheme can effectively detect the seasonal or constant bias in temperature and sea-level.

  13. TOPAZ4: an ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic and Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakov, P.; Counillon, F.; Bertino, L.; Lisæter, K. A.; Oke, P. R.; Korablev, A.

    2012-08-01

    We present a detailed description of TOPAZ4, the latest version of TOPAZ - a coupled ocean-sea ice data assimilation system for the North Atlantic Ocean and Arctic. It is the only operational, large-scale ocean data assimilation system that uses the ensemble Kalman filter. This means that TOPAZ features a time-evolving, state-dependent estimate of the state error covariance. Based on results from the pilot MyOcean reanalysis for 2003-2008, we demonstrate that TOPAZ4 produces a realistic estimate of the ocean circulation in the North Atlantic and the sea-ice variability in the Arctic. We find that the ensemble spread for temperature and sea-level remains fairly constant throughout the reanalysis demonstrating that the data assimilation system is robust to ensemble collapse. Moreover, the ensemble spread for ice concentration is well correlated with the actual errors. This indicates that the ensemble statistics provide reliable state-dependent error estimates - a feature that is unique to ensemble-based data assimilation systems. We demonstrate that the quality of the reanalysis changes when different sea surface temperature products are assimilated, or when in-situ profiles below the ice in the Arctic Ocean are assimilated. We find that data assimilation improves the match to independent observations compared to a free model. Improvements are particularly noticeable for ice thickness, salinity in the Arctic, and temperature in the Fram Strait, but not for transport estimates or underwater temperature. At the same time, the pilot reanalysis has revealed several flaws in the system that have degraded its performance. Finally, we show that a simple bias estimation scheme can effectively detect the seasonal or constant bias in temperature and sea-level.

  14. Genome editing in sea urchin embryos by using a CRISPR/Cas9 system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Che-Yi; Su, Yi-Hsien

    2016-01-15

    Sea urchin embryos are a useful model system for investigating early developmental processes and the underlying gene regulatory networks. Most functional studies using sea urchin embryos rely on antisense morpholino oligonucleotides to knockdown gene functions. However, major concerns related to this technique include off-target effects, variations in morpholino efficiency, and potential morpholino toxicity; furthermore, such problems are difficult to discern. Recent advances in genome editing technologies have introduced the prospect of not only generating sequence-specific knockouts, but also providing genome-engineering applications. Two genome editing tools, zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), have been utilized in sea urchin embryos, but the resulting efficiencies are far from satisfactory. The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated nuclease 9) system serves as an easy and efficient method with which to edit the genomes of several established and emerging model organisms in the field of developmental biology. Here, we apply the CRISPR/Cas9 system to the sea urchin embryo. We designed six guide RNAs (gRNAs) against the well-studied nodal gene and discovered that five of the gRNAs induced the expected phenotype in 60-80% of the injected embryos. In addition, we developed a simple method for isolating genomic DNA from individual embryos, enabling phenotype to be precisely linked to genotype, and revealed that the mutation rates were 67-100% among the sequenced clones. Of the two potential off-target sites we examined, no off-target effects were observed. The detailed procedures described herein promise to accelerate the usage of CRISPR/Cas9 system for genome editing in sea urchin embryos. PMID:26632489

  15. Floating production systems for north Sea marginal fields

    SciTech Connect

    Snowden, D.P.

    1984-05-01

    The economic exploitation of marginal offshore fields through production systems based on the use of articulated columns has been the subject of an intensive two year development project executed by Taywood Engineering Ltd. A range of systems for Continental Shelf water depths have been evaluated in detail, and their possible extension into deeper waters has been investigated. This paper outlines the detailed engineering development to conceptual design level of two floating production systems, one employing a heavy duty semi-submersible, the other employing a converted tanker, both permanently linked to articulated columns. Descriptions are given of the extensive development of computer software to enable the accurate predicition of environmental loadings and system motion responses, and of the validation of this software using in-house wave tank model testing facilities. In the development of both designs, emphasis has been placed on enhancing the recovery and profitability of the field by offering improved reservoir control and cost-effective fabrication techniques, without introducing innovative technology. First-order cost estimate and economic analyses of the two systems are presented for particular reference fields to enable their comparison against current systems.

  16. Prognocean Plus: the Science-Oriented Sea Level Prediction System as a Tool for Public Stakeholders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Świerczyńska, M. G.; Miziński, B.; Niedzielski, T.

    2015-12-01

    The novel real-time system for sea level prediction, known as Prognocean Plus, has been developed as a new generation service available through the Polish supercomputing grid infrastructure. The researchers can access the service at https://prognocean.plgrid.pl/. Although the system is science-oriented, we wish to discuss herein its potentials to enhance ocean management studies carried out routinely by public stakeholders. The system produces the short- and medium-term predictions of global altimetric gridded Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) time series, updated daily. The spatial resolution of the SLA forecasts is 1/4° x 1/4°, while the temporal resolution of prognoses is equal to 1 day. The system computes the predictions of time-variable ocean topography using five data-based models, which are not computationally demanding, enabling us to compare their skillfulness in respect to physically-based approaches commonly used by different sea level prediction systems. However, the aim of the system is not only to compute the predictions for science purposes, but primarily to build a user-oriented platform that serves the prognoses and their statistics to a broader community. Thus, we deliver the SLA forecasts as a rapid service available online. In order to provide potential users with the access to science results the Web Map Service (WMS) for Prognocean Plus is designed. We regularly publish the forecasts, both in the interactive graphical WMS service, available from the browser, as well as through the Web Coverage Service (WCS) standard. The Prognocean Plus system, as an early-response system, may be interesting for public stakeholders. It may be used for marine navigation as well as for climate risk management (delineate areas vulnerable to local sea level rise), marine management (advise offered for offshore activities) and coastal management (early warnings against coastal floodings).

  17. A review of underwater acoustic systems and methods for locating objects lost at sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovelady, R. W.; Ferguson, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Information related to the location of objects lost at sea is presented. Acoustic devices attached to an object prior to being transported is recommended as a homing beacon. Minimum requirements and some environmental constraints are defined. Methods and procedures for search and recovery are also discussed. Both an interim system and a more advanced system are outlined. Controlled acoustic emission to enhance security is the theme followed.

  18. Implementation and validation of a coastal forecasting system for wind waves in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inghilesi, R.; Catini, F.; Bellotti, G.; Franco, L.; Orasi, A.; Corsini, S.

    2012-02-01

    A coastal forecasting system was implemented to provide wind wave forecasts over the whole Mediterranean Sea area, and with the added capability to focus on selected coastal areas. The goal of the system was to achieve a representation of the small-scale coastal processes influencing the propagation of waves towards the coasts. The system was based on a chain of nested wave models and adopted the WAve Model (WAM) to analyse the large-scale, deep-sea propagation of waves; and the Simulating WAves Nearshore (SWAN) to simulate waves in key coastal areas. Regional intermediate-scale WAM grids were introduced to bridge the gap between the large-scale and each coastal area. Even applying two consecutive nestings (Mediterranean grid → regional grid → coastal grid), a very high resolution was still required for the large scale WAM implementation in order to get a final resolution of about 400 m on the shores. In this study three regional areas in the Tyrrhenian Sea were selected, with a single coastal area embedded in each of them. The number of regional and coastal grids in the system could easily be modified without significantly affecting the efficiency of the system. The coastal system was tested in three Italian coastal regions in order to optimize the numerical parameters and to check the results in orographically complex zones for which wave records were available. Fifteen storm events in the period 2004-2009 were considered.

  19. Mapping sea ice using reflected GNSS signals in a bistatic radar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chew, Clara; Zuffada, Cinzia; Shah, Rashmi; Mannucci, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signals can be used as a kind of bistatic radar, with receivers opportunistically recording ground-reflected signals transmitted by the GNSS satellites themselves. This technique, GNSS-Reflectometry (GNSS-R), has primarily been explored using receivers flown on aircraft or balloons, or in modeling studies. Last year's launch of the TechDemoSat-1 (TDS-1) satellite represents an enormous opportunity to investigate the potential of using spaceborne GNSS receivers to sense changes in the land and ocean surface. Here, we examine the ability of reflected GNSS signals to estimate sea ice extent and sea ice age, as well as comment on the possibility of using GNSS-R to detect leads and polynyas within the ice. In particular, we quantify how the peak power of Delay Doppler Maps (DDMs) generated within the GNSS receiver responds as the satellite flies over the Polar Regions. To compute the effective peak power of each DDM, we first normalize the peak power of the DDM by the noise floor. We also correct for antenna gain, range, and incidence angle. Once these corrections are made, the effective peak power across DDMs may be used as a proxy for changes in surface permittivity and surface roughness. We compare our calculations of reflected power to existing sea ice remote sensing products such as data from the SSMI/S as well as Landsat imagery. Our analysis shows that GNSS reflections are extremely sensitive to the sea ice edge, with increases in reflected power of more than 10 dB relative to reflected power over the open ocean. As the sea ice ages, it thickens and roughens, and reflected power decreases, though it does not decrease below the power over the open ocean. Given the observed sensitivity of GNSS reflections to small features over land and the sensitivity to the sea ice edge, we hypothesize that reflection data could help map the temporal evolution of leads and polynyas.

  20. Characteristics of the Nordic Seas overflows in a set of Norwegian Earth System Model experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Chuncheng; Ilicak, Mehmet; Bentsen, Mats; Fer, Ilker

    2016-08-01

    Global ocean models with an isopycnic vertical coordinate are advantageous in representing overflows, as they do not suffer from topography-induced spurious numerical mixing commonly seen in geopotential coordinate models. In this paper, we present a quantitative diagnosis of the Nordic Seas overflows in four configurations of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) family that features an isopycnic ocean model. For intercomparison, two coupled ocean-sea ice and two fully coupled (atmosphere-land-ocean-sea ice) experiments are considered. Each pair consists of a (non-eddying) 1° and a (eddy-permitting) 1/4° horizontal resolution ocean model. In all experiments, overflow waters remain dense and descend to the deep basins, entraining ambient water en route. Results from the 1/4° pair show similar behavior in the overflows, whereas the 1° pair show distinct differences, including temperature/salinity properties, volume transport (Q), and large scale features such as the strength of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). The volume transport of the overflows and degree of entrainment are underestimated in the 1° experiments, whereas in the 1/4° experiments, there is a two-fold downstream increase in Q, which matches observations well. In contrast to the 1/4° experiments, the coarse 1° experiments do not capture the inclined isopycnals of the overflows or the western boundary current off the Flemish Cap. In all experiments, the pathway of the Iceland-Scotland Overflow Water is misrepresented: a major fraction of the overflow proceeds southward into the West European Basin, instead of turning westward into the Irminger Sea. This discrepancy is attributed to excessive production of Labrador Sea Water in the model. The mean state and variability of the Nordic Seas overflows have significant consequences on the response of the AMOC, hence their correct representations are of vital importance in global ocean and climate modelling.

  1. The motions of hinged-barge systems in regular seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, David Robert Burke

    Harnessing the oceans' vast, clean, and renewable energy to do useful work is a tempting prospect. For over a century, wave-energy conversion devices have been proposed, but none has emerged as a clearly practical and economical solution. One promising system is the McCabe Wave Pump (MWP), an articulated-barge system consisting of three barges hinged together with a large horizontal plate attached below the central barge. Water pumps are driven by the relative pitching motions of the barges excited by ocean waves. This high-pressure water can be used to produce potable water or electricity. A simulation of the motions of a generic hinged-barge system is developed. The equations of motion are developed so that the nonlinear interactions between the barges are included. The simulation is general so that it can be used to study other hinged-barge systems, such as causeway ferry systems or floating airports. The simulation is used to predict the motions of a scale model that was studied in wave-tank experiments. In the experimental study, it was observed that the plate attached to the central barge acted as a pendulum. It was also observed that the phases of the pitching motions of the barges was such that the motions were enhanced by the pendulum effect at all of the wave periods studied. Hence, the increased angular displacements produced greater relative pitching motions which would lead to higher volume rates of pumped water in the operational system. The numerical simulations are found to predict the pendulum effect. In addition, the theory predicted that the after barge motions were significantly less than those of the forward barge, as was observed in the experimental study. The good agreement between the two data sets gives confidence in the ability of the theory to predict the performance of the MWP prototype. The motions of the MWP prototype in regular ocean waves are predicted by the simulation, and its performance is calculated. By modifying the length of

  2. Sea Ice Topography Profiling using Laser Altimetry from Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Roger Ian

    Arctic sea ice is undergoing a dramatic transition from a perennial ice pack with a high prevalence of old multiyear ice, to a predominantly seasonal ice pack comprised primarily of young first-year and second-year ice. This transition has brought about changes in the sea ice thickness and topography characteristics, which will further affect the evolution and survivability of the ice pack. The varying ice conditions have substantial implications for commercial operations, international affairs, regional and global climate, our ability to model climate dynamics, and the livelihood of Arctic inhabitants. A number of satellite and airborne missions are dedicated to monitoring sea ice, but they are limited by their spatial and temporal resolution and coverage. Given the fast rate of sea ice change and its pervasive implications, enhanced observational capabilities are needed to augment the current strategies. The CU Laser Profilometer and Imaging System (CULPIS) is designed specifically for collecting fine-resolution elevation data and imagery from small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), and has a great potential to compliment ongoing missions. This altimeter system has been integrated into four different UAS, and has been deployed during Arctic and Antarctic science campaigns. The CULPIS elevation measurement accuracy is shown to be 95±25 cm, and is limited primarily by GPS positioning error (<25 cm), aircraft attitude determination error (<20 cm), and sensor misalignment error (<20 cm). The relative error is considerably smaller over short flight distances, and the measurement precision is shown to be <10 cm over a distance of 200 m. Given its fine precision, the CULPIS is well suited for measuring sea ice topography, and observed ridge height and ridge separation distributions are found to agree with theoretical distributions to within 5%. Simulations demonstrate the inability of course-resolution measurements to accurately represent the theoretical distributions

  3. Monitoring natural and artificial radioactivity enhancement in the Aegean Sea using floating measuring systems.

    PubMed

    Tsabaris, C

    2008-11-01

    In the present work, the enhancement of radioactivity due to rainfall in the Aegean Sea using floating measuring systems was observed and quantified. The data were acquired with a NaI underwater detection system, which was installed on a floating measuring system at a depth of 3m. The results of natural and artificial radioactivity are discussed taking into account the rainfall intensity and wind direction. The activity concentration of (214)Bi increased up to (991+/-102)Bq/m(3) after strong rainfall in the North Aegean Sea in winter (humid period) with east wind direction. On other hand, the maximum activity concentration reached the level of (110+/-10)Bq/m(3) in summer (dry period) during south winds. PMID:18495486

  4. Comparison and validation of global and regional ocean forecasting systems for the South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xueming; Wang, Hui; Liu, Guimei; Régnier, Charly; Kuang, Xiaodi; Wang, Dakui; Ren, Shihe; Jing, Zhiyou; Drévillon, Marie

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the performance of two operational ocean forecasting systems, the global Mercator Océan (MO) Operational System, developed and maintained by Mercator Océan in France, and the regional South China Sea Operational Forecasting System (SCSOFS), by the National Marine Environmental Forecasting Center (NMEFC) in China, have been examined. Both systems can provide science-based nowcast/forecast products of temperature, salinity, water level, and ocean circulations. Comparison and validation of the ocean circulations, the structures of temperature and salinity, and some mesoscale activities, such as ocean fronts, typhoons, and mesoscale eddies, are conducted based on observed satellite and in situ data obtained in 2012 in the South China Sea. The results showed that MO performs better in simulating the ocean circulations and sea surface temperature (SST), and SCSOFS performs better in simulating the structures of temperature and salinity. For the mesoscale activities, the performance of SCSOFS is better than MO in simulating SST fronts and SST decrease during Typhoon Tembin compared with the previous studies and satellite data; but model results from both of SCSOFS and MO show some differences from satellite observations. In conclusion, some recommendations have been proposed for both forecast systems to improve their forecasting performance in the near future based on our comparison and validation.

  5. Verification of an ensemble prediction system for storm surge forecast in the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mel, Riccardo; Lionello, Piero

    2014-12-01

    In the Adriatic Sea, storm surges present a significant threat to Venice and to the flat coastal areas of the northern coast of the basin. Sea level forecast is of paramount importance for the management of daily activities and for operating the movable barriers that are presently being built for the protection of the city. In this paper, an EPS (ensemble prediction system) for operational forecasting of storm surge in the northern Adriatic Sea is presented and applied to a 3-month-long period (October-December 2010). The sea level EPS is based on the HYPSE (hydrostatic Padua Sea elevation) model, which is a standard single-layer nonlinear shallow water model, whose forcings (mean sea level pressure and surface wind fields) are provided by the ensemble members of the ECMWF (European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) EPS. Results are verified against observations at five tide gauges located along the Croatian and Italian coasts of the Adriatic Sea. Forecast uncertainty increases with the predicted value of the storm surge and with the forecast lead time. The EMF (ensemble mean forecast) provided by the EPS has a rms (root mean square) error lower than the DF (deterministic forecast), especially for short (up to 3 days) lead times. Uncertainty for short lead times of the forecast and for small storm surges is mainly caused by uncertainty of the initial condition of the hydrodynamical model. Uncertainty for large lead times and large storm surges is mainly caused by uncertainty in the meteorological forcings. The EPS spread increases with the rms error of the forecast. For large lead times the EPS spread and the forecast error substantially coincide. However, the EPS spread in this study, which does not account for uncertainty in the initial condition, underestimates the error during the early part of the forecast and for small storm surge values. On the contrary, it overestimates the rms error for large surge values. The PF (probability forecast) of the EPS

  6. A Few Comments on Visual Systems of Ship Handling Simulator for Sea Pilot's Training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, Koji; Okazaki, Tadatsugi; Hayashi, Yuji

    We are using a ship handling simulator for sea pilot's training; however, in case of entering a port, it is not enough for a visual image around own ship. The general ship handling simulator does not have the visual image (screen) around own ship. We challenge to clear the effect of a visual system around own ship for entering a port. The training for entering a port is one of important training factor for a sea pilot. This paper describes characteristics of captain's visual observation area and the mental workload for ship handling when entering a port. The visual observation area comes from eye movement and the mental workload comes from heart rate variability (R-R interval), nasal temperature. The results show that the visual system around own ship gives their safe ship handling for entering a port based on eye movement.

  7. Development of a genetic system for the deep-sea psychrophilic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pseudoalteromonas species are a group of marine gammaproteobacteria frequently found in deep-sea sediments, which may play important roles in deep-sea sediment ecosystem. Although genome sequence analysis of Pseudoalteromonas has revealed some specific features associated with adaptation to the extreme deep-sea environment, it is still difficult to study how Pseudoalteromonas adapt to the deep-sea environment due to the lack of a genetic manipulation system. The aim of this study is to develop a genetic system in the deep-sea sedimentary bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913, making it possible to perform gene mutation by homologous recombination. Results The sensitivity of Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 to antibiotic was investigated and the erythromycin resistance gene was chosen as the selective marker. A shuttle vector pOriT-4Em was constructed and transferred into Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 through intergeneric conjugation with an efficiency of 1.8 × 10-3, which is high enough to perform the gene knockout assay. A suicide vector pMT was constructed using pOriT-4Em as the bone vector and sacB gene as the counterselective marker. The epsT gene encoding the UDP-glucose lipid carrier transferase was selected as the target gene for inactivation by in-frame deletion. The epsT was in-frame deleted using a two-step integration–segregation strategy after transferring the suicide vector pMT into Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913. The ΔepsT mutant showed approximately 73% decrease in the yield of exopolysaccharides, indicating that epsT is an important gene involved in the EPS production of SM9913. Conclusions A conjugal transfer system was constructed in Pseudoalteromonas sp. SM9913 with a wide temperature range for selection and a high transfer efficiency, which will lay the foundation of genetic manipulation in this strain. The epsT gene of SM9913 was successfully deleted with no selective marker left in the chromosome of the host, which thus make it

  8. The Pianosa Contourite Depositional System (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea): drift morphology and Plio-Quaternary stratigraphic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miramontes Garcia, Elda; Cattaneo, Antonio; Jouet, Gwenael; Thereau, Estelle; Thomas, Yannick; Rovere, Marzia; Cauquil, Eric; Trincardi, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    The Pianosa Contourite Depositional System (CDS) is located in the Corsica Trough (Northern Tyrrhenian Sea), a confined basin dominated by mass transport and contour currents in the eastern flank and by turbidity currents in the western flank. The morphologic and stratigraphic characterisation of the Pianosa CDS is based on multibeam bathymetry, seismic reflection data (multi-channel high resolution mini GI gun, single-channel sparker and CHIRP), sediment cores and ADCP data. The Pianosa CDS is located at shallow to intermediate water depths (170 to 850 m water depth) and is formed under the influence of the Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW). It is 120 km long, has a maximum width of 10 km and is composed of different types of muddy sediment drifts: plastered drift, separated mounded drift, sigmoid drift and multicrested drift. The reduced tectonic activity in the Corsica Trough since the early Pliocene permits to recover a sedimentary record of the contourite depositional system that is only influenced by climate fluctuations. Contourites started to develop in the Middle-Late Pliocene, but their growth was enhanced since the Middle Pleistocene Transition (0.7-0.9 Ma). Although the general circulation of the LIW, flowing northwards in the Corsica Trough, remained active all along the history of the system, contourite drift formation changed, controlled by sediment influx and bottom current velocity. During periods of sea level fall, fast bottom currents often eroded the drift crest in the middle and upper slope. At that time the proximity of the coast to the shelf edge favoured the formation of bioclastic sand deposits winnowed by bottom currents. Higher sediment accumulation of mud in the drifts occurred during periods of fast bottom currents and high sediment availability (i.e. high activity of turbidity currents), coincident with periods of sea level low-stands. Condensed sections were formed during sea level high-stands, when bottom currents were more sluggish

  9. Convective Systems Over the Japan Sea: Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Yoshizaki, Masanori; Shie, Chung-Lin; Kato, Teryuki

    2002-01-01

    Wintertime observations of MCSs (Mesoscale Convective Systems) over the Sea of Japan - 2001 (WMO-01) were collected from January 12 to February 1, 2001. One of the major objectives is to better understand and forecast snow systems and accompanying disturbances and the associated key physical processes involved in the formation and development of these disturbances. Multiple observation platforms (e.g., upper-air soundings, Doppler radar, wind profilers, radiometers, etc.) during WMO-01 provided a first attempt at investigating the detailed characteristics of convective storms and air pattern changes associated with winter storms over the Sea of Japan region. WMO-01 also provided estimates of the apparent heat source (Q1) and apparent moisture sink (Q2). The vertical integrals of Q1 and Q2 are equal to the surface precipitation rates. The horizontal and vertical adjective components of Q1 and Q2 can be used as large-scale forcing for the Cloud Resolving Models (CRMs). The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model is a CRM (typically run with a 1-km grid size). The GCE model has sophisticated microphysics and allows explicit interactions between clouds, radiation, and surface processes. It will be used to understand and quantify precipitation processes associated with wintertime convective systems over the Sea of Japan (using data collected during the WMO-01). This is the first cloud-resolving model used to simulate precipitation processes in this particular region. The GCE model-simulated WMO-01 results will also be compared to other GCE model-simulated weather systems that developed during other field campaigns (i.e., South China Sea, west Pacific warm pool region, eastern Atlantic region and central USA).

  10. Evolution and fluxes of 137Cs in the Black Sea/Turkish Straits System/North Aegean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delfanti, R.; Özsoy, E.; Kaberi, H.; Schirone, A.; Salvi, S.; Conte, F.; Tsabaris, C.; Papucci, C.

    2014-07-01

    The vertical profiles of 137Cs were determined in the North Aegean, Marmara and Black Seas, to assess inventories and fluxes of the radionuclide in these basins. The inventory of 137Cs in the Western Black Sea integrated from the surface down to 400 m water depth is 3.4 ± 0.1 kBq m- 2, which is surprisingly close to the amount determined in 1988, decay corrected to 2007 (2.9 ± 0.1 kBq m- 2). On the other hand, based on the comparison of profiles roughly 20 years apart, it is estimated that about 1 kBq m- 2 has been transferred from above the halocline to depths below the halocline, emphasizing the effective redistribution of tracers within the same period. We estimate that about 12 TBq y- 1 of 137Cs presently leaves the Black Sea with the upper layer flow through the Bosphorus and only 2 TBq y- 1 is returned with the lower layer inflow of Mediterranean water from the Marmara Sea. Accounting for river fluxes, estimated on the order of 2 TBq y- 1 few years after the Chernobyl accident, and possibly decreased by now, we can thus estimate a net rate of loss of about 8-10 TBq y- 1. Investigating the effective redistribution in the upper water column, the supply by the inflowing Mediterranean water alone does not explain the increase of 137Cs concentration and inventory at intermediate depths in the Western Black Sea. The most important mechanism transferring 137Cs and dissolved contaminants from the surface water to the sub-pycnocline layer appears to be the turbulent entrainment of a larger quantity of Black Sea water into the inflowing plume of Mediterranean water through mixing processes on the southwestern shelf and continental slope following its exit from the Bosphorus. This process produces an extra export of some10 TBq y- 1 of 137Cs from the surface to the sub-pycnocline depths of the Black Sea, a quantity comparable in magnitude to the total export out from the basin. It is the entrainment flux resulting from the mixing, and the further advection and

  11. Development of an Eddy Covariance System for Air-Sea Carbon Dioxide Exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. D.; Marandino, C. A.; McCormick, C.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2006-12-01

    We are developing a ship-based system to measure the air-sea pCO2 gradient and air-sea turbulent flux of CO2 over the ocean. The eddy covariance flux system uses off-the-shelf instruments to measure the turbulent wind vector (Campbell Scientific CSAT3 sonic anemometer), platform motion (Systron Donner Motion Pak II), and carbon dioxide molar density (LiCor 7000 Infrared Gas Analyzer). Two major sources of uncertainty in calculated fluxes are the effect of water vapor fluctuations on air density fluctuations (the WPL effect, Webb, Pearman and Leuning. 1980), and a spurious CO2 signal due to the sensitivity of the gas analyzer to platform motion (McGillis et al., 1998). Two flux systems were deployed side-by-side on a cruise from Manzanillo, Mexico to Puntas Arenas, Chile, in January 2006. Results from the cruise are presented, with a focus on our attempts to reduce biases in the calculated air-sea CO2 flux due to the WPL effect and the motion sensitivity of the gas analyzer.

  12. Development of the mechanical cryocooler system for the Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camilletti, Adam; Burgess, Christopher; Donchev, Anton; Watson, Stuart; Weatherstone Akbar, Shane; Gamo-Albero, Victoria; Romero-Largacha, Victor; Caballero-Olmo, Gema

    2014-11-01

    The Sea Land Surface Temperature Radiometer is a dual view Earth observing instrument developed as part of the European Global Monitoring for Environment and Security programme. It is scheduled for launch on two satellites, Sentinel 3A and 3B in 2014. The instrument detectors are cooled to below 85 K by two split Stirling Cryocoolers running in hot redundancy. These coolers form part of a cryocooler system that includes a support structure and drive electronics. Aspects of the system design, including control and reduction of exported vibration are discussed; and results, including thermal performance and exported vibration from the Engineering Model Cryooler System test campaign are presented.

  13. Development Of Small Drifting Buoy System With Sea Surface pCO2 Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, Y.; Fujiki, T.; Wakita, M.; Watanabe, S.; Azetsu-Scott, K.

    2008-12-01

    Many observations to clarify the fate of CO2 in the atmosphere, related with long term climate change, have been carried out in the world. However, the sea surface pCO2 observations on volunteer observation ships and research vessels concentrated in the North Atlantic and North Pacific. To assess the spatial and temporal variations of surface pCO2 in the global ocean, new automated pCO2 sensor which can be used in platform systems such as buoys or moorings is strongly desired. We have been developing the small drifting buoy system (diameter 250-340 mm, length 470 mm, weight 15 kg) for pCO2 measurement using spectro-photometric technique. The pCO2 is calculated from pH indicator solution equilibrated with seawater through a gas permeable membrane. In our system, an amorphous fluoropolymer tubing form (Teflon AF 2400) with high gas permeability was used as a gas permeable membrane. The measurement side of buoy system consisted mainly of a LED light source, optical fibers, a CCD detector, a micro pump, and a downsized PC. The measured data were transmitted to the shore-based laboratory by satellite communication (Argos system). In the laboratory experiment, we obtained a high response time (less than 2 minutes) and a precision within 3 µatm. Our first deployment of drifting buoy system was made in the east Labrador Sea in May 2008, with the support of the Bedford Institute of Oceanography. The buoy system is measuring sea-surface pCO2 four times a day (also collecting temperature and salinity data) and every six days intervals, because of limited battery capacity. The planned lifetime of buoy system, is about 1 year.

  14. Tidal regime and morphodynamic changes in estuarine systems as a function of sea-level rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallinson, D. J.; Culver, S. J.; Mulligan, R.; Leorri, E.; Mitra, S.; Riggs, S. R.; Moran, K.

    2011-12-01

    Tidal amplitude and currents along coastlines will change in conjunction with sea-level rise, when certain geomorphic and bathymetric conditions are met. Under conditions of decreasing protection from barrier islands, associated with increased inlet activity or overstepping of islands, tidal amplitude can rapidly increase in estuaries and along mainland coastlines and significantly amplify the effects of a minor sea-level rise. Impacts to coastal systems may be economically and environmentally significant. Additionally, sea-level curves developed from areas where tidal regime change has occurred in the past must be evaluated carefully for the effects of tidal amplitude. The impacts of tidal amplitude changes in response to sea-level rise have been noted in the Minas Basin, Delaware Bay, and, in this study, the Albemarle-Pamlico Estuarine System of North Carolina. Our group is investigating the magnitude of changes in response to variations in geomorphic and bathymetric conditions, and past climate events. Methods include the use of seismic data, sedimentology, microfossil analysis, oxygen isotopes, Mg/Ca, black carbon, and radiocarbon ages to reconstruct paleobathymetry, paleoenvironments and paleoclimate conditions during the late Holocene. Paleobathymetric/paleogeomorphic models are being derived to enable hydrodynamic modeling using Delft3D software. Initial runs for the Pamlico Sound have been performed to reconstruct hydrodynamic conditions during a barrier break-down event associated with the Medieval Climate Anomaly (ca. 1000 cal yr BP). Likewise, models are being used to understand hydrodynamics in the Currituck Sound (a smaller lagoon in northeastern NC) in response to historical inlet activity. Results illustrate the potential for an eight-fold increase in tidal amplitude, with significant variations within the estuarine system, and large increases in tidal currents well into the estuaries, resulting in significant changes to salinity structures and

  15. AMADEUS—The acoustic neutrino detection test system of the ANTARES deep-sea neutrino telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, J. A.; Al Samarai, I.; Albert, A.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardid, M.; Assis Jesus, A. C.; Astraatmadja, T.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Basa, S.; Bazzotti, M.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bigongiari, C.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Brown, A.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Camarena, F.; Capone, A.; Cârloganu, C.; Carminati, G.; Carr, J.; Cassano, B.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Charvis, Ph.; Chiarusi, T.; Chon Sen, N.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Curtil, C.; de Bonis, G.; Decowski, M. P.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; Emanuele, U.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Fehr, F.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fritsch, U.; Fuda, J.-L.; Gay, P.; Giacomelli, G.; Gómez-González, J. P.; Graf, K.; Guillard, G.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herold, B.; Hößl, J.; de Jong, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Larosa, G.; Laschinsky, H.; Le Provost, H.; Lefèvre, D.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martinez-Mora, J. A.; Mazure, A.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Motz, H.; Naumann, C.; Neff, M.; Ostasch, R.; Palioselitis, D.; Păvălaş, G. E.; Payre, P.; Petrovic, J.; Picot-Clemente, N.; Picq, C.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Presani, E.; Racca, C.; Radu, A.; Reed, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richardt, C.; Rujoiu, M.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Salesa, F.; Sapienza, P.; Schöck, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Simeone, F.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tasca, L.; Toscano, S.; Vallage, B.; van Elewyck, V.; Vannoni, G.; Vecchi, M.; Vernin, P.; Wijnker, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yepes, H.; Zaborov, D.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2011-01-01

    The AMADEUS (ANTARES Modules for the Acoustic Detection Under the Sea) system which is described in this article aims at the investigation of techniques for acoustic detection of neutrinos in the deep sea. It is integrated into the ANTARES neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. Its acoustic sensors, installed at water depths between 2050 and 2300 m, employ piezo-electric elements for the broad-band recording of signals with frequencies ranging up to 125 kHz. The typical sensitivity of the sensors is around -145 dB re 1 V/μPa (including preamplifier). Completed in May 2008, AMADEUS consists of six “acoustic clusters”, each comprising six acoustic sensors that are arranged at distances of roughly 1 m from each other. Two vertical mechanical structures (so-called lines) of the ANTARES detector host three acoustic clusters each. Spacings between the clusters range from 14.5 to 340 m. Each cluster contains custom-designed electronics boards to amplify and digitise the acoustic signals from the sensors. An on-shore computer cluster is used to process and filter the data stream and store the selected events. The daily volume of recorded data is about 10 GB. The system is operating continuously and automatically, requiring only little human intervention. AMADEUS allows for extensive studies of both transient signals and ambient noise in the deep sea, as well as signal correlations on several length scales and localisation of acoustic point sources. Thus the system is excellently suited to assess the background conditions for the measurement of the bipolar pulses expected to originate from neutrino interactions.

  16. Internal tides in the shallow water analysis and forecast system(SWAFS) in the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, C.; Clifford, M.; Schmitz, J.; Osterman, W.

    2003-04-01

    The Naval Oceanographic Office has been making daily forecasts of current speeds in the Mediterranean Sea, among other areas, using SWAFS since 1991. Our present Mediterranean model has a horizontal resolution of 1/35^o of latitude by 1/30^o of longitude with 47 sigma levels in the vertical. The normal configuration of our modelling system includes tides, and this is true for our Mediterranean Sea application. The relatively high resolution, both vertically and horizontally of the model grid in this basin, allows for the generation of internal tides from the imposed barotropic tide. As semidiurnal internal tides in the Mediterranean Sea have wavelengths of about 60-90 km, the approximately 3.3 km-resolution of the model grid is adequate. Furthermore, with 47 sigma levels, the thermocline is generally well-resolved. As internal tides are generated by the interaction of the barotropic tide with (steep) bathymetry, the modeling system also needs to use bathymetry with realistic bottom slopes. While the modeling system is built around a version of the Princeton Ocean Model having sigma coordinates in the vertical, horizontal pressure gradients are computed on level surfaces. The accuracy of this type of pressure gradient scheme is not limited by large bottom slopes, and the model bathymetry has not been smoothed to limit maximum bottom slopes. For these reasons, our modelling system for the Mediterranean Sea is potentially capable of generating internal tides with some fidelity. Considering the generally weak barotropic tides in the Mediterranean Sea, surprisingly strong internal tides are generated by the modelling system, especially near the Cretan Arc with its complex bathymetry. We will describe the internal tide field generated by the model, look at the major areas of internal tide generation, and describe the decay of the internal tides away from these sources. The internal tides are seen in the seasonal thermocline, and the corresponding seasonal changes in the

  17. Seasonal forecast skill of Arctic sea ice area in a dynamical forecast system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmond, M.; Fyfe, J. C.; Flato, G. M.; Kharin, V. V.; Merryfield, W. J.

    2013-02-01

    AbstractWe assess the seasonal forecast skill of pan-Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area in a dynamical forecast <span class="hlt">system</span> that includes interactive atmosphere, ocean, and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice components. Forecast skill is quantified by the correlation skill score computed from 12 month ensemble forecasts initialized in each month between January 1979 to December 2009. We find that forecast skill is substantial for all lead times and predicted seasons except spring but is mainly due to the strong downward trend in observations for lead times of about 4 months and longer. Skill is higher when evaluated against an observation-based dataset with larger trends. The forecast skill when linear trends are removed from the forecasts and verifying observations is small and generally not statistically significant at lead times greater than 2 to 3 months, except for January/February when forecast skill is moderately high up to an 11 month lead time. For short lead times, high trend-independent forecast skill is found for October, while low skill is found for November/December. This is consistent with the seasonal variation of observed lag correlations. For most predicted months and lead times, trend-independent forecast skill exceeds that of an anomaly persistence forecast, highlighting the potential for dynamical forecast <span class="hlt">systems</span> to provide valuable seasonal predictions of Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ChPhB..19e4101Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ChPhB..19e4101Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigation on global positioning <span class="hlt">system</span> signal scattering and propagation over the rough <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Chao; Guo, Li-Xin; Wu, Zhen-Sen</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>This paper is devoted to the study of polarization properties, scattering properties and propagation properties of global positioning <span class="hlt">system</span> (GPS) scattering signal over the rough <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface. To investigate the polarization and the scattering properties, the scattering field and the bistatic scattering coefficient of modified Kirchhoff approximation using the tapered incident wave is derived in detail. In modeling the propagation properties of the GPS scattering signal in the evaporation duct, the initial field of parabolic equation traditionally computed by the antenna pattern using fast Fourier transform (FFT) is replaced by the GPS scattering field. And the propagation properties of the GPS scattering signal in the evaporation duct with different evaporation duct heights and elevation angles of GPS are discussed by the improved discrete mixed Fourier transform taking into account the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface roughness.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048576','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70048576"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise on barrier island groundwater <span class="hlt">system</span> dynamics: ecohydrological implications</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Masterson, John P.; Fienen, Michael N.; Thieler, E. Robert; Gesch, Dean B.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Plant, Nathaniel G.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We used a numerical model to investigate how a barrier island groundwater <span class="hlt">system</span> responds to increases of up to 60 cm in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. We found that a <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise of 20 cm leads to substantial changes in the depth of the water table and the extent and depth of saltwater intrusion, which are key determinants in the establishment, distribution and succession of vegetation assemblages and habitat suitability in barrier islands ecosystems. In our simulations, increases in water-table height in areas with a shallow depth to water (or thin vadose zone) resulted in extensive groundwater inundation of land surface and a thinning of the underlying freshwater lens. We demonstrated the interdependence of the groundwater response to island morphology by evaluating changes at three sites. This interdependence can have a profound effect on ecosystem composition in these fragile coastal landscapes under long-term changing climatic conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JOUC...14..503W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015JOUC...14..503W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Sustainability evaluation of different <span class="hlt">systems</span> for <span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) farming based on emergy theory</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>Emergy analysis is effective for analyzing ecological economic <span class="hlt">systems</span>. However, the accuracy of the approach is affected by the diversity of economic level, meteorological and hydrological parameters in different regions. The present study evaluated the economic benefits, environmental impact, and sustainability of indoor, semi-intensive and extensive farming <span class="hlt">systems</span> of <span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus) in the same region. The results showed that A. japonicus indoor farming <span class="hlt">system</span> was high in input and output (yield) whereas pond extensive farming <span class="hlt">system</span> was low in input and output. The output/input ratio of indoor farming <span class="hlt">system</span> was lower than that of pond extensive farming <span class="hlt">system</span>, and the output/input ratio of semi-intensive farming <span class="hlt">system</span> fell in between them. The environmental loading ratio of A. japonicus extensive farming <span class="hlt">system</span> was lower than that of indoor farming <span class="hlt">system</span>. In addition, the emergy yield and emergy exchange ratios, and emergy sustainability and emergy indexes for sustainable development were higher in extensive farming <span class="hlt">system</span> than those in indoor farming <span class="hlt">system</span>. These results indicated that the current extensive farming <span class="hlt">system</span> exerted fewer negative influences on the environment, made more efficient use of available resources, and met more sustainable development requirements than the indoor farming <span class="hlt">system</span>. A. japonicus farming <span class="hlt">systems</span> showed more emergy benefits than fish farming <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The pond farming <span class="hlt">systems</span> of A. japonicus exploited more free local environmental resources for production, caused less potential pressure on the local environment, and achieved higher sustainability than indoor farming <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.608.1268T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013Tectp.608.1268T"><span id="translatedtitle">Simple shear detachment fault <span class="hlt">system</span> and marginal grabens in the southernmost Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> rift</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tesfaye, Samson; Ghebreab, Woldai</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The NNW-SSE oriented Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> rift, which separates the African and Arabian plates, bifurcates southwards into two parallel branches, southeastern and southern, collectively referred to as the southernmost Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> rift. The southern branch forms the magmatically and seismo-tectonically active Afar rift, while the less active southeastern branch connects the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to the Gulf of Aden through the strait of Bab el Mandeb. The Afar rift is characterized by lateral heterogeneities in crustal thickness, and along-strike variation in extension. The Danakil horst, a counterclockwise rotating, narrow sliver of coherent continental relic, stands between the two rift branches. The western margin of the Afar rift is marked by a series of N-S aligned right-lateral-stepping and seismo-tectonically active marginal grabens. The tectonic configuration of the parallel rift branches, the alignment of the marginal grabens, and the Danakil horst are linked to the initial mode of stretching of the continental crust and its progressive deformation that led to the breakup of the once contiguous African-Arabian plates. We attribute the initial stretching of the continental crust to a simple shear ramp-flat detachment fault geometry where the marginal grabens mark the breakaway zone. The rift basins represent the ramps and the Danakil horst corresponds to the flat in the detachment fault <span class="hlt">system</span>. As extension progressed, pure shear deformation dominated and overprinted the initial low-angle detachment fault <span class="hlt">system</span>. Magmatic activity continues to play an integral part in extensional deformation in the southernmost Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> rift.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S13C4477S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.S13C4477S"><span id="translatedtitle">Possibility of tilt observation at the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor by using the BBOBST-NX <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shiobara, H.; Ito, A.; Sugioka, H.; Shinohara, M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Since 1999, we had developed the broadband ocean bottom seismometer (BBOBS) and its new generation <span class="hlt">system</span> (BBOBS-NX), and, with them, performed several practical observations to create a new category of the ocean floor broadband seismology. Now, the BBOBS data is proved to be acceptable for broadband seismic analyses. In these studies, the period range mostly used is about 10 - 200 s, but in longer period range, i.e. geodetic range, is unknown region in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor observation. High mobility of our BBOBS and BBOBS-NX can be a breakthrough to realize the geodetic observation network on the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor. Two kinds of attempts to expand observation range toward the geodetic one have been started since 2009, based on our BBOBS technology. One is for detecting vertical displacement by attaching an absolute pressure gauge (APG) in the BBOBS <span class="hlt">system</span>. The highly stable frequency oscillator within the OBS recorder is adequate for precise pressure measurement of the APG. This BBOBS+APG <span class="hlt">system</span> has been operated since 2009. In this presentation, we will report results of several test experiments for the tilt observation just beneath the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor by using the BBOBS-NX <span class="hlt">system</span>, as the second one. The tilt is measured by using two horizontal mass position signals of the sensor. The first test observation was performed by using the same sensor of the BBOBS-NX at the land observatory in 2010. The result was comparable with that of the water tube tilt-meter there. After the in situ test for 2 months at the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor in the Shikoku Basin in 2012, we started the practical tilt observation at the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor off Boso peninsula (KAP3 site) as the feasibility study between April 2013 and April 2014. The deployment and recovery were performed by the ROV. In both observations, a Doppler current profiler was deployed nearby the BBOBST-NX to monitor bottom currents through the observation period. In January 2014, a slow slip event (SSE) occurred near the KAP3 site. The Mw of the SSE is 6.5, and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5563566','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5563566"><span id="translatedtitle">Fulmar, the first North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> SALM/VLCC storage <span class="hlt">system</span>. [Single Ankle Leg Mooring tanker ship</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Mack, R.C.; Wolfram, W.R. Jr.; Gunderson, R.H.; Lunde, P.A.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>This paper describes the general configuration of the Fulmar Single Anchor Leg Mooring (SALM), now under construction in the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, and the operations of the SALM/Storage Tanker/Offloading <span class="hlt">System</span>. The authors briefly describe the design process, including the design conditions, and some of the analyses performed. Selected structural and mechanical components are discussed in some detail. In addition, details are provided on the fabrication of the SALM and the storage tanker converson. The offloading <span class="hlt">system</span> and the general operations are further discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JMSA....7..255Q','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008JMSA....7..255Q"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and research on a variable ballast <span class="hlt">system</span> for deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> manned submersibles</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Qiu, Zhong-Liang</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Variable ballast <span class="hlt">systems</span> are necessary for manned submersibles to adjust their buoyancy. In this paper, the design of a variable ballast <span class="hlt">system</span> for a manned submersible is described. The variable ballast <span class="hlt">system</span> uses a super high pressure hydraulic seawater <span class="hlt">system</span>. A super high pressure seawater pump and a deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> brushless DC motor are used to pump seawater into or from the variable ballast tank, increasing or decreasing the weight of the manned submersible. A magnetostrictive linear displacement transducer can detect the seawater level in the variable ballast tank. Some seawater valves are used to control pumping direction and control on-off states. The design and testing procedure for the valves is described. Finally, the future development of variable ballast <span class="hlt">systems</span> and seawater hydraulic <span class="hlt">systems</span> is projected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH33A1665W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFMNH33A1665W"><span id="translatedtitle">TIDE TOOL: Open-Source <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Level Monitoring Software for Tsunami Warning <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Weinstein, S. A.; Kong, L. S.; Becker, N. C.; Wang, D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>A tsunami warning center (TWC) typically decides to issue a tsunami warning bulletin when initial estimates of earthquake source parameters suggest it may be capable of generating a tsunami. A TWC, however, relies on <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level data to provide prima facie evidence for the existence or non-existence of destructive tsunami waves and to constrain tsunami wave height forecast models. In the aftermath of the 2004 Sumatra disaster, the International Tsunami Information Center asked the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) to develop a platform-independent, easy-to-use software package to give nascent TWCs the ability to process WMO Global Telecommunications <span class="hlt">System</span> (GTS) <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level messages and to analyze the resulting <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level curves (marigrams). In response PTWC developed TIDE TOOL that has since steadily grown in sophistication to become PTWC's operational <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level processing <span class="hlt">system</span>. TIDE TOOL has two main parts: a decoder that reads GTS <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level message logs, and a graphical user interface (GUI) written in the open-source platform-independent graphical toolkit scripting language Tcl/Tk. This GUI consists of dynamic map-based clients that allow the user to select and analyze a single station or groups of stations by displaying their marigams in strip-chart or screen-tiled forms. TIDE TOOL also includes detail maps of each station to show each station's geographical context and reverse tsunami travel time contours to each station. TIDE TOOL can also be coupled to the GEOWARE™ TTT program to plot tsunami travel times and to indicate the expected tsunami arrival time on the marigrams. Because <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level messages are structured in a rich variety of formats TIDE TOOL includes a metadata file, COMP_META, that contains all of the information needed by TIDE TOOL to decode <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level data as well as basic information such as the geographical coordinates of each station. TIDE TOOL can therefore continuously decode theses <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level messages in real-time and display the time</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S51A2187S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.S51A2187S"><span id="translatedtitle">New step toward geodetic range observations at the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor with the BBOBS <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shiobara, H.; Shinohara, M.; Isse, T.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>Since 1999, we had developed the broadband ocean bottom seismometer (BBOBS) and its new generation model (BBOBS-NX), and performed several practical observations with them in these ten years to create a category of the ocean floor broadband seismology. Now, the BBOBS data is proved to be acceptable for broadband seismic analyses. In these studies, the period range of the data used is about 10 - 200 s, but in longer period range, i.e. geodetic range, is an unknown region in observations at the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor. The acoustic GPS link observation is one of successful methods to know horizontal movement of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor, but it is difficult to obtain continuous data in time. The borehole tilt-meter <span class="hlt">system</span> is ideal in observational conditions, but it is impossible to expand spatially dense observation network. On the other hand, high mobility of our BBOBS and BBOBS-NX can be a breakthrough for this kind of observation network. So that, based on our BBOBS technology, two kinds of attempts to expand observation range toward the geodetic one have been started since 2009. Our aim in these attempts is to extend observation periods more than one week long for detecting slow slip events, as a first step. Finally, we would like to build the observation network by using them. The first attempt is a precise pressure measurement to detect vertical displacement at the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor by attaching an absolute pressure gauge and a parasitic data logger to the original OBS data recorder. The stable frequency oscillator (MCXO) in the data recorder is useful for precise pressure measurement of the gauge with frequency outputs. Although the final resolution of the pressure becomes smaller than 1 Pa, we still have problems due to the drift of the gauge and some scale of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level change in practical observations. The total precision of the pressure value is also affected by the shift and drift of the frequency standard to measure frequency output signals of the gauge. In our measurements, this effect</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T53A4662V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T53A4662V"><span id="translatedtitle">Subduction initiation and recycling of <span class="hlt">Alboran</span> domain derived crustal components prior to the intra-crustal emplacement of mantle peridotites in the Westernmost Mediterranean: isotopic evidence from the Ronda peridotite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Varas-Reus, M. I.; Garrido, C. J.; Bosch, D.; Marchesi, C.; Acosta-Vigil, A.; Hidas, K.; Barich, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>During Late Oligocene-Early Miocene different domains formed in the region between Iberia and Africa in the westernmost Mediterranean, including thinned continental crust and Flysch Trough turbiditic deposits. At this time, the Ronda peridotite likely constituted the subcontinental lithospheric mantle of the <span class="hlt">Alboran</span> domain, which was undergoing strong thinning and melting coevally with Early Miocene extension in the overlying Alpujárride-Maláguide stacked crust. Intrusive Cr- rich pyroxenites in the Ronda massif record the geochemical processes occurring in the subcontinental mantle of the <span class="hlt">Alboran</span> domain during the Late Oligocene. Recent isotopic studies of these pyroxenites indicate that their mantle source was contaminated by a subduction component released by detrital crustal sediments. This data is consistent with a subduction setting for the late evolution of the <span class="hlt">Alboran</span> lithospheric mantle. Further structural studies of the Ronda peridotites have led to Hidas et al. 2013 to propose a geodynamic model where folding and shearing of an attenuated mantle lithosphere occurred by backarc basin inversion followed by failed subduction initiation that ended into the intracrustal emplacement of peridotite into the <span class="hlt">Alboran</span> wedge in the earliest Miocene. This hypothesis implies that the crustal component recorded in late, Cr-rich websterite dykes, might come from underthrusted crustal rocks from the Flysch and/or Alpujárrides units that might have been involved in the earliest stages of this subduction stage. To investigate the origin of this crustal component, we have carried out a detailed Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic study of a variety of Betic-Rif cordillera crustal rocks that might have been potentially subducted beneath the Alborán domain before the emplacement of Ronda peridotites. Crustal rocks from the Jubrique Unit overlying the Ronda peridotite are the only crustal samples that may account for the isotopic characteristics of the crustal contaminant added to the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4662135','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4662135"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimization for Reduced-Fat / Low-NaCl Meat Emulsion <span class="hlt">Systems</span> with <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Mustard (Undaria pinnatifida) and Phosphate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Cheon-Jei; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Kim, Hyun-Wook</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 20% and salt concentrations from 1.5% to 1.0% by partially substituting incorporated phosphate and <span class="hlt">sea</span> mustard were investigated based on physicochemical properties of reduced-fat / low-NaCl meat emulsion <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Cooking loss and emulsion stability, hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness for reduced-fat / low-NaCl meat emulsion <span class="hlt">systems</span> with 20% pork back fat and 1.2% sodium chloride samples with incorporation of phosphate and <span class="hlt">sea</span> mustard were similar to the control with 30% pork back fat and 1.5% sodium chloride. Results showed that reduced-fat / low-NaCl meat emulsion <span class="hlt">system</span> samples containing phosphate and <span class="hlt">sea</span> mustard had higher apparent viscosity. The results of this study show that the incorporation of phosphate and <span class="hlt">sea</span> mustard in the formulation will successfully reduce fat and salt in the final meat products. PMID:26761874</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.C43A0582W&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AGUFM.C43A0582W&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Real-Time Observations of Optical Properties of Arctic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice with an Autonomous <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, C.; Gerland, S.; Nicolaus, M.; Granskog, M. A.; Hudson, S. R.; Perovich, D. K.; Karlsen, T. I.; Fossan, K.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The recent drastic changes in the Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover have altered the interaction of solar radiation and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. To improve our understanding of this interaction, a Spectral Radiation Buoy (SRB) for measuring <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice optical properties was developed, based on a <span class="hlt">system</span> used during the last International Polar Year at the drift of "Tara" across the Arctic Ocean. A first version of the SRB was deployed on drifting ice in the high Arctic in April 2012. It includes three Satlantic spectral radiometers (two in air, one under ice), covering the wavelength range from 347 nm to 804 nm with 3.3 nm spectral resolution, a bio-shutter to protect the under-ice radiometer, a data logger to handle and store collected data, and an Iridium satellite modem to transfer data in real-time. The under-ice radiometer is mounted on an adjustable under-ice arm, and the other instruments are mounted on a triangular frame frozen into the ice. The SRB measures simultaneously, autonomously and continuously the spectral fluxes of incident and reflected solar radiation, as well as under-ice irradiance, water temperature and water pressure every hour. So far, between mid April and early August 2012, the <span class="hlt">system</span> has drifted about 600 km, from the starting position near the North Pole towards the Fram Strait. The data collected during this deployment, so far, already demonstrate that this <span class="hlt">system</span> is suitable for autonomous and long-term observations over and under <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in harsh conditions. Along with the SRB, commercially available Ice Mass Balance buoys (IMB) were deployed on the same ice floe. In the vicinity of the site, manned baseline measurements of snow and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice physical properties have been carried out during the SRB deployment. The combined datasets allow description of the evolution of the ice floe during seasonal melt. With snow melt, the spectral surface albedo decreased and the transmittance through the snow and ice increased after mid-April, especially when melt ponds started to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711839C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1711839C"><span id="translatedtitle">Coupled wave-ocean modeling <span class="hlt">system</span> experiments in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Clementi, Emanuela; Oddo, Paolo; Korres, Gerasimos; Pinardi, Nadia; Drudi, Massimiliano; Tonani, Marina; Grandi, Alessandro; Adani, Mario</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Wind waves and oceanic circulation processes are of major interest in determining accurate <span class="hlt">sea</span> state predictions and their interactions are very important for individual dynamic processes. This work presents a coupled wave-current numerical modelling <span class="hlt">system</span> composed by the ocean circulation model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) and the third generation wave model WaveWatchIII (WW3) implemented in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> with 1/16° horizontal resolution and forced by ECMWF atmospheric fields. In order to evaluate the performance of the coupled model, two sets of numerical experiments have been performed and described in this work. A first set of experiments has been built by coupling the wave and circulation models that hourly exchange the following fields: the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface currents and air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> temperature difference are transferred from NEMO model to WW3 model modifying respectively the mean momentum transfer of waves and the wind speed stability parameter; while the neutral drag coefficient computed by WW3 model is passed to NEMO that computes the turbulent component. Five years (2009-2013) numerical experiments have been carried out in both uncoupled and coupled modes. In order to validate the modelling <span class="hlt">system</span>, numerical results have been compared with coastal and drifting buoys and remote sensing data. Comparison results demonstrate that the WW3 model can fairly reproduce the observed wave characteristics and show that the wave-current interactions improve the representation of the wave spectrum. Minor improvements have been reached by comparing coupled and uncoupled circulation NEMO model results with observations. A second set of numerical experiments has been performed by considering NEMO model one-way coupled with WW3 model. The hydrodynamic model receives from the wave model the neutral drag coefficient and a set of wave fields used to calculate the wave-induced vertical mixing according to Qiao et al. (2010) formulation. Two experiments</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.5929N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.5929N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Conceptual Design and Challenges for a Tsunami Early Warning <span class="hlt">System</span> in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Necmioglu, Ocal</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this study, while discussing associated challenges such as contradictions between earthquake and tsunami mitigation activities in the Marmara Region, I suggest a conceptual design for a tsunami warning <span class="hlt">system</span> in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara upon an improved version of an applicable model for the near-field tsunami early warning and emergency planning in the Mediterranean Area presented by Papadopoulos and Fokaefs (2013). Due to the extreme short arrival times as a result of the close proximity of main fault lines to the coastal regions, and existence of potential submarine landslide sources, any tsunami early warning <span class="hlt">system</span> in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara has to be strongly coupled with the earthquake warning <span class="hlt">system</span> and stakeholders of the tsunami mitigation activities, such as local and regional components of disaster and emergency management and civil protection units. Since 1900, around 90,000 people have lost their lives in 76 earthquakes in Turkey, with a total affected population of around 7 million and direct losses of around 25 billion USD (Erdik, 2013). Based on a time-dependent model that includes coseismic and postseismic effects of the 1999 Izmit earthquake with Mw = 7.4, the probability of an earthquake with Mw > 7 in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara near Istanbul, as a mega-financial-city in the heart of the Marmara Region with a population around 13 million and 1,000,000 buildings, is 35% to 70% in the next 30 years (Parsons, 2004). Historical records indicate around 30 tsunamis in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara until today (Altinok et al., 2011). Among those, catastrophic earthquakes such as 1509, 1766 and 1894 resulted in considerable tsunamis and some damage. Latest tsunami observed in Marmara was due to a triggered submarine landslide of 1999 Izmit earthquake which led to reported run-up heights of 1-3 m in most places (Tinti et al., 2006). Hence, the add-on impact of a tsunami generated by the anticipated next earthquake in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara should not be neglected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8653P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.8653P"><span id="translatedtitle">Wave ensemble forecast in the Western Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, application to an early warning <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pallares, Elena; Hernandez, Hector; Moré, Jordi; Espino, Manuel; Sairouni, Abdel</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Western Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is a highly heterogeneous and variable area, as is reflected on the wind field, the current field, and the waves, mainly in the first kilometers offshore. As a result of this variability, the wave forecast in these regions is quite complicated to perform, usually with some accuracy problems during energetic storm events. Moreover, is in these areas where most of the economic activities take part, including fisheries, sailing, tourism, coastal management and offshore renewal energy platforms. In order to introduce an indicator of the probability of occurrence of the different <span class="hlt">sea</span> states and give more detailed information of the forecast to the end users, an ensemble wave forecast <span class="hlt">system</span> is considered. The ensemble prediction <span class="hlt">systems</span> have already been used in the last decades for the meteorological forecast; to deal with the uncertainties of the initial conditions and the different parametrizations used in the models, which may introduce some errors in the forecast, a bunch of different perturbed meteorological simulations are considered as possible future scenarios and compared with the deterministic forecast. In the present work, the SWAN wave model (v41.01) has been implemented for the Western Mediterranean <span class="hlt">sea</span>, forced with wind fields produced by the deterministic Global Forecast <span class="hlt">System</span> (GFS) and Global Ensemble Forecast <span class="hlt">System</span> (GEFS). The wind fields includes a deterministic forecast (also named control), between 11 and 21 ensemble members, and some intelligent member obtained from the ensemble, as the mean of all the members. Four buoys located in the study area, moored in coastal waters, have been used to validate the results. The outputs include all the time series, with a forecast horizon of 8 days and represented in spaghetti diagrams, the spread of the <span class="hlt">system</span> and the probability at different thresholds. The main goal of this exercise is to be able to determine the degree of the uncertainty of the wave forecast, meaningful</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS44A..02P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008AGUFMOS44A..02P"><span id="translatedtitle">Ocean Carbon Cycling and CO2 Air-<span class="hlt">Sea</span> Exchange in Eastern Boundary Upwelling <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Plattner, G.; Gruber, N.; Lachkar, Z.; Frenzel, H.; Loher, D.</p> <p>2008-12-01</p> <p>Eastern boundary current (EBC) upwelling <span class="hlt">systems</span> are regions of intense biogeochemical transformations and transports. Strong upwelling of nutrient- and carbon-rich waters tends to lead to CO2 outgassing nearshore and biologically-driven CO2 uptake offshore. Yet, the net air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> CO2 balance of EBCs remains unknown. High near-shore productivity coupled with filaments and other meso- and submesoscale phenomena cause a substantial lateral export of organic carbon. We investigate these coastal processes in the California Current (CalCS) and the Canary Current <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (CanCS), on the basis of the eddy-resolving, physical-biogeochemical model ROMS. Our results confirm the onshore-offshore trends in the air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> fluxes, with substantial spatial and temporal differences due to topography, upwelling strength, and eddy activity. The CalCS is modeled to be, on average, a very small source of CO2 to the atmosphere, consistent with a recent data-based estimate by Chavez and Takahashi, while for the CanCS this is not clear yet. Regarding offshore transport, the CalCS appears to be stronger than the CanCS. Spatio-temporal variability of all carbon fluxes is substantial, particularly nearshore, posing a tremendous challenge for observing <span class="hlt">systems</span> targeting e.g. air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> CO2 fluxes in these dynamic regions. Further analyses of the processes that determine the mean carbon fluxes and their spatio-temporal variability will be presented. Characteristic differences and similarities between the two EBC <span class="hlt">systems</span> will be discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8372E..03A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012SPIE.8372E..03A"><span id="translatedtitle">Compact optical <span class="hlt">system</span> for imaging underwater and through the air/<span class="hlt">sea</span> interface</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alley, Derek; Mullen, Linda; Laux, Alan</p> <p>2012-06-01</p> <p>Typical line-of-sight (LOS)/monostatic optical imaging <span class="hlt">systems</span> include a laser source and receiver that are co-located on the same platform. The performance of such <span class="hlt">systems</span> is deteriorated in turbid ocean water due to the large amount of light that is scattered on the path to and from an object of interest. Imagery collected with the LOS/monostatic <span class="hlt">system</span> through the air/<span class="hlt">sea</span> interface is also distorted due to wave focusing/defocusing effects. The approach of this project is to investigate an alternate, non-line-of-sight (NLOS)/bistatic approach that offers some advantages over these traditional LOS/monostatic imaging techniques. In this NLOS <span class="hlt">system</span> the laser and receiver are located on separate platforms with the laser located closer to the object of interest. As the laser sequentially scans the underwater object, a time-varying intensity signal corresponding to reflectivity changes in the object is detected by the distant receiver. A modulated laser illuminator is used to communicate information about the scan to the distant receiver so it can recreate the image with the collected scattered light. This NLOS/bistatic configuration also enables one to view an underwater target through the air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> interface (transmitter below the surface and receiver above the surface) without the distortions experienced with the LOS/monostatic sensor. In this paper, we will review the results of recent laboratory water tank experiments where an underwater object was imaged with the receiver both below and above the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMOS43A1993B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFMOS43A1993B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">COVIS Detects Interconnections Between Atmospheric, Oceanic and Geologic <span class="hlt">systems</span> at a Deep <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Hydrothermal Vent</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bemis, K. G.; Xu, G.; Lee, R.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>COVIS (Cabled Observatory Vent Imaging Sonar) is an innovative sonar <span class="hlt">system</span> designed to quantitatively monitor focused and diffuse flows from deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal vent clusters. From 9/2010 to 9/2015, COVIS was connected to the NEPTUNE observatory at Grotto vent in the Main Endeavour Field, JdFR. COVIS monitored plumes and diffuse discharge by transmitting high-frequency (200-400 kHz), pulsed acoustic waves and recording the backscattered signals to yield time series of plume heat and volume transports, plume bending, and diffuse flow area. Temporal variations indicate the rate of hydrothermal plume mixing with the ambient seawater increases with the magnitude of ocean currents. Such current-driven entrainment links the dynamics of a deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal plume with oceanic and atmospheric processes. We estimate the direction and relative amplitude of the local bottom currents from the bending angles of the plumes. A comparison with currents from an ADCP (~80 m south of Grotto) reveals significant complexity in the mean bottom flow structure within a hydrothermal vent field. Diffuse flow area, temperature, and faunal densities vary periodically reflecting some combination of tidal pressure and current interactions. The heat transport time series suggests the heat source driving the plume remained relatively steady for 41 months. Local seismic data reveals that increased heat transport in 2000 followed seismic events in 1999 and 2000 and the steady heat flux from 10/2011 to 2/2015 coincided with quiescent seismicity. Such a correlation points to the close linkage of a seafloor hydrothermal <span class="hlt">system</span> with geological processes. These findings demonstrate the intimate interconnections of seafloor hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> with processes spanning the Earth's interior to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface. Further, they (and the time-series acquired by COVIS) testify to the effectiveness and robustness of employing an acoustic-imaging sonar for long-term monitoring of a seafloor hydrothermal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22970260','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22970260"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur metabolizing microbes dominate microbial communities in Andesite-hosted shallow-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yao; Zhao, Zihao; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Tang, Kai; Su, Jianqiang; Jiao, Nianzhi</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>To determine microbial community composition, community spatial structure and possible key microbial processes in the shallow-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal vent <span class="hlt">systems</span> off NE Taiwan's coast, we examined the bacterial and archaeal communities of four samples collected from the water column extending over a redoxocline gradient of a yellow and four from a white hydrothermal vent. Ribosomal tag pyrosequencing based on DNA and RNA showed statistically significant differences between the bacterial and archaeal communities of the different hydrothermal plumes. The bacterial and archaeal communities from the white hydrothermal plume were dominated by sulfur-reducing Nautilia and Thermococcus, whereas the yellow hydrothermal plume and the surface water were dominated by sulfide-oxidizing Thiomicrospira and Euryarchaeota Marine Group II, respectively. Canonical correspondence analyses indicate that methane (CH(4)) concentration was the only statistically significant variable that explains all community cluster patterns. However, the results of pyrosequencing showed an essential absence of methanogens and methanotrophs at the two vent fields, suggesting that CH(4) was less tied to microbial processes in this shallow-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal <span class="hlt">system</span>. We speculated that mixing between hydrothermal fluids and the <span class="hlt">sea</span> or meteoric water leads to distinctly different CH(4) concentrations and redox niches between the yellow and white vents, consequently influencing the distribution patterns of the free-living Bacteria and Archaea. We concluded that sulfur-reducing and sulfide-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs accounted for most of the primary biomass synthesis and that microbial sulfur metabolism fueled microbial energy flow and element cycling in the shallow hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> off the coast of NE Taiwan. PMID:22970260</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3436782','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3436782"><span id="translatedtitle">Sulfur Metabolizing Microbes Dominate Microbial Communities in Andesite-Hosted Shallow-<span class="hlt">Sea</span> Hydrothermal <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Yao; Zhao, Zihao; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Tang, Kai; Su, Jianqiang; Jiao, Nianzhi</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>To determine microbial community composition, community spatial structure and possible key microbial processes in the shallow-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal vent <span class="hlt">systems</span> off NE Taiwan’s coast, we examined the bacterial and archaeal communities of four samples collected from the water column extending over a redoxocline gradient of a yellow and four from a white hydrothermal vent. Ribosomal tag pyrosequencing based on DNA and RNA showed statistically significant differences between the bacterial and archaeal communities of the different hydrothermal plumes. The bacterial and archaeal communities from the white hydrothermal plume were dominated by sulfur-reducing Nautilia and Thermococcus, whereas the yellow hydrothermal plume and the surface water were dominated by sulfide-oxidizing Thiomicrospira and Euryarchaeota Marine Group II, respectively. Canonical correspondence analyses indicate that methane (CH4) concentration was the only statistically significant variable that explains all community cluster patterns. However, the results of pyrosequencing showed an essential absence of methanogens and methanotrophs at the two vent fields, suggesting that CH4 was less tied to microbial processes in this shallow-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal <span class="hlt">system</span>. We speculated that mixing between hydrothermal fluids and the <span class="hlt">sea</span> or meteoric water leads to distinctly different CH4 concentrations and redox niches between the yellow and white vents, consequently influencing the distribution patterns of the free-living Bacteria and Archaea. We concluded that sulfur-reducing and sulfide-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophs accounted for most of the primary biomass synthesis and that microbial sulfur metabolism fueled microbial energy flow and element cycling in the shallow hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> off the coast of NE Taiwan. PMID:22970260</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5801L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.5801L"><span id="translatedtitle">The Met Office Coupled Atmosphere/Land/Ocean/<span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Ice Data Assimilation <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lea, Daniel; Mirouze, Isabelle; King, Robert; Martin, Matthew; Hines, Adrian</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The Met Office has developed a weakly-coupled data assimilation (DA) <span class="hlt">system</span> using the global coupled model HadGEM3 (Hadley Centre Global Environment Model, version 3). At present the analysis from separate ocean and atmosphere DA <span class="hlt">systems</span> are combined to produced coupled forecasts. The aim of coupled DA is to produce a more consistent analysis for coupled forecasts which may lead to less initialisation shock and improved forecast performance. The HadGEM3 coupled model combines the atmospheric model UM (Unified Model) at 60 km horizontal resolution on 85 vertical levels, the ocean model NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) at 25 km (at the equator) horizontal resolution on 75 vertical levels, and the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice model CICE at the same resolution as NEMO. The atmosphere and the ocean/<span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice fields are coupled every 1-hour using the OASIS coupler. The coupled model is corrected using two separate 6-hour window data assimilation <span class="hlt">systems</span>: a 4D-Var for the atmosphere with associated soil moisture content nudging and snow analysis schemes on the one hand, and a 3D-Var FGAT for the ocean and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice on the other hand. The background information in the DA <span class="hlt">systems</span> comes from a previous 6-hour forecast of the coupled model. To isolate the impact of the coupled DA, 13-month experiments have been carried out, including 1) a full atmosphere/land/ocean/<span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice coupled DA run, 2) an atmosphere-only run forced by OSTIA SSTs and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice with atmosphere and land DA, and 3) an ocean-only run forced by atmospheric fields from run 2 with ocean and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice DA. In addition, 5-day and 10-day forecast runs, have been produced from initial conditions generated by either run 1 or a combination of runs 2 and 3. The different results have been compared to each other and, whenever possible, to other references such as the Met Office atmosphere and ocean operational analyses or the OSTIA SST data. The performance of the coupled DA is similar to the existing separate ocean and atmosphere</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...132..106K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMS...132..106K"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of dissolved organic matter on the acid-base <span class="hlt">system</span> of the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kuliński, Karol; Schneider, Bernd; Hammer, Karoline; Machulik, Ulrike; Schulz-Bull, Detlef</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>To assess the influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the acid-base <span class="hlt">system</span> of the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, 19 stations along the salinity gradient from Mecklenburg Bight to the Bothnian Bay were sampled in November 2011 for total alkalinity (AT), total inorganic carbon concentration (CT), partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), and pH. Based on these data, an organic alkalinity contribution (Aorg) was determined, defined as the difference between measured AT and the inorganic alkalinity calculated from CT and pH and/or CT and pCO2. Aorg was in the range of 22-58 μmol kg- 1, corresponding to 1.5-3.5% of AT. The method to determine Aorg was validated in an experiment performed on DOM-enriched river water samples collected from the mouths of the Vistula and Oder Rivers in May 2012. The Aorg increase determined in that experiment correlated directly with the increased DOC concentration caused by enrichment of the > 1 kDa DOM fraction. To examine the effect of Aorg on calculations of the marine CO2 <span class="hlt">system</span>, the pCO2 and pH values measured in Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> water were compared with calculated values that were based on the measured alkalinity and another variable of the CO2 <span class="hlt">system</span>, but ignored the existence of Aorg. Large differences between measured and calculated pCO2 and pH were obtained when the computations were based on AT and CT. The calculated pCO2 was 27-56% lower than the measured value whereas the calculated pH was overestimated by more than 0.4 pH units. Since biogeochemical models are based on the transport and transformations of AT and CT, the acid-base properties of DOM should be included in calculations of the CO2 <span class="hlt">system</span> in DOM-rich basins like the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. In view of our limited knowledge about the composition and acid/base properties of DOM, this is best achieved using a bulk dissociation constant, KDOM, that represents all weakly acidic functional groups present in DOM. Our preliminary results indicated that the bulk KDOM in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is 2.94 · 10- 8 mol kg- 1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22573993','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22573993"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sea</span> clutter reduction and target enhancement by neural networks in a marine radar <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Vicen-Bueno, Raúl; Carrasco-Álvarez, Rubén; Rosa-Zurera, Manuel; Nieto-Borge, José Carlos</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The presence of <span class="hlt">sea</span> clutter in marine radar signals is sometimes not desired. So, efficient radar signal processing techniques are needed to reduce it. In this way, nonlinear signal processing techniques based on neural networks (NNs) are used in the proposed clutter reduction <span class="hlt">system</span>. The developed experiments show promising results characterized by different subjective (visual analysis of the processed radar images) and objective (clutter reduction, target enhancement and signal-to-clutter ratio improvement) criteria. Moreover, a deep study of the NN structure is done, where the low computational cost and the high processing speed of the proposed NN structure are emphasized. PMID:22573993</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813001A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813001A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonics of Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Shelf sedimentary basins and its influence on petroleum <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agasheva, Mariia; Antonina, Stoupakova; Anna, Suslova; Yury, Karpov</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Shelf placed in the East Arctic offshore of Russia between East Siberian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Shelf and North Slope Alaska. The Chukchi margin is considered as high petroleum potential play. The major problem is absence of core material from drilling wells in Russian part of Chukchi Shelf, hence strong complex geological and geophysical analyses such as seismic stratigraphy interpretation should be provided. In addition, similarity to North Slope and Beaufort Basins (North Chukchi) and Hope Basin (South Chukchi) allow to infer the resembling sedimentary succession and petroleum <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Shelf include North and South Chukchi Basins, which are separated by Wrangel-Herald Arch and characterized by different opening time. The North Chukchi basin is formed as a general part of Canada Basin opened in Early Cretaceous. The South Chukchi Basin is characterized by a transtensional origin of the basin, this deformation related to motion on the Kobuk Fault [1]. Because seismic reflections follow chronostratigraphic correlations, it is possible to achieve stratigraphic interpretation. The main seismic horizons were indicated as: PU, JU, LCU, BU, mBU marking each regional unconformities. Reconstruction of main tectonic events of basin is important for building correct geological model. Since there are no drilling wells in the North and South Chukchi basins, source rocks could not be proven. Referring to the North Chukchi basin, source rocks equivalents of Lower Cretaceous Pebble Shale Formation, Lower Jurassic Kingdak shales and Upper Triassic Shublik Formation (North Slope) is possible exhibited [2]. In the South Chukchi, it is possible that Cretaceous source rocks could be mature for hydrocarbon generation. Erosions and uplifts that could effect on hydrocarbon preservation was substantially in Lower Jurassic and Early Cretaceous periods. Most of the structures may be connected with fault and stratigraphy traps. The structure formed at Wrangel-Herald Arch to</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5290860','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5290860"><span id="translatedtitle">Continental sequence stratigraphy of a wet eolian <span class="hlt">system</span> -- A key to relative <span class="hlt">sea</span> level change</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Crabaugh, M.; Kocurek, G. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)</p> <p>1993-04-01</p> <p>The Jurassic Entrada Sandstone, as studied in detail along a 2.7 km traverse in NE Utah, is interpreted as having formed as a wet eolian <span class="hlt">system</span>, with depositional sequences defined by accumulations and bounding super surfaces. In a wet <span class="hlt">system</span>, accumulation occurs during a relative rise of the water table, whereas super surfaces mark periods of a static or falling water table when sediment bypass or erosion occur, respectively. The ratio of dune to interdune accumulations within a depositional sequence is an estimate of the available sand supply, which in turn is a function of rates of sediment supply and water-table fluctuations. For the Entrada, variables of sand supply and water table should be regional in nature; moreover, the coastal position of the Entrada suggests relative <span class="hlt">sea</span> level as the control. Verifying this hypothesis, an 80 km transect of the Entrada from north of Monticello southward to Bluff, Utah, shows a similar sequence architecture as in NE Utah. The geometry and composition of sequences along the transect identify components of a relative water table rise that occurred because of differential subsidence rates and an overall relative rise in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. The coupling of eolian sequences with their controls allows not only an understanding of the resultant facies architecture, but also shows the response of continental <span class="hlt">systems</span> on basin margins to basin interior events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1999/ofr-99-0050/OF99-50A/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1999/ofr-99-0050/OF99-50A/"><span id="translatedtitle">The Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Basin Province: Sudr-Nubia(!) and Maqna(!) Petroleum <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Lindquist, Sandra J.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>The Sudr-Nubia(!) oil-prone total petroleum <span class="hlt">system</span> dominates the densely explored Gulf of Suez part of the rifted Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Basin Province. Upper Cretaceous to Eocene source rocks, primarily the Senonian Sudr Formation, are organic-rich, areally uniform marine carbonates that have generated known ultimate recoverable reserves exceeding 11 BBOE. The name Nubia is used for sandstone reservoirs with a wide range of poorly constrained, pre-rift geologic ages ranging from Early Paleozoic to Early Cretaceous. Syn- and post-rift Tertiary reservoirs, especially the Kareem Formation, also contain significant reserves. Partly overlapping Sudr-Nubia(!) is the areally larger and geochemically distinct, oil-and-gas-prone Maqna(!) total petroleum <span class="hlt">system</span> within the southern Gulf of Suez basin and the sparsely explored remaining Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> basin. Known ultimate recoverable reserves are 50-100 MMBOE and more than 900 MMBOE, respectively, in those areas. Both the source and reservoir rocks in this petroleum <span class="hlt">system</span> are Tertiary, dominantly Miocene, in age. Maqna(!) has the greater potential for future resource development.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUSMOS51A..03B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUSMOS51A..03B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A physical view of La Guajira Upwelling <span class="hlt">System</span>, Colombian Basin, Caribbean <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bernal, G.; Beier, E.; Barton, E. D.; Ruiz-Ochoa, M.; Correa, J. G.</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>La Guajira Peninsula lies within a large upwelling <span class="hlt">system</span> along the South Caribbean Coast, created by the NE trade winds. In this location, <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) exhibits the lowest mean value and the highest variability in the whole Colombian Basin. The seasonal variation of SST explains up to 75 % of the total variability. La Guajira coastal zone also experiences the highest values of wind stress and wind stress curl, with the greatest annual and semiannual variability in the Colombian Basin. It has been shown that wind stress curl enhances the upwelling over the region. Near 90% of the variability of SST in La Guajira can be explained by the seasonality plus the first three EOFs interannual modes: the first, synchronous throughout the Basin, is dominant, and consists of a uniform interannual variation in phase with the North Tropical Atlantic Index; the second co-varies strongly with the second mode of wind stress curl; and the third reflects the role of the vertical atmospheric circulation cell associated with the Caribbean Low Level Jet off Central America. The inclusion of wind stress curl with its maximum offshore of La Guajira explains in part the extension of cool coastal water into the Colombian Basin, with advection in filaments, eddies and meanders. In order to complement the physical knowledge of La Guajira upwelling <span class="hlt">system</span>, an analysis of water masses, <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface height, Ekman suction, Ekman transport and coastal upwelling index (CUI) was performed. Hydrographic data was obtained from gridded climatologies from the National Oceanographic Data Center (WOD01); <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface height anomalies from the Archiving, Validation, and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanography (AVISO) data; and wind data from the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform Ocean Surface Wind Velocity Product for Meteorological and Oceanographic Applications (CCMP). The upwelling forms a local water mass, La Guajira surface water (LGSW), with the mixing of subtropical underwater and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811737N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1811737N"><span id="translatedtitle">Progress of KOERI Tsunami Warning <span class="hlt">System</span> for the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black <span class="hlt">Seas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Necmioglu, Ocal; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Ozer Sozdinler, Ceren; Yilmazer, Mehmet; Cokacar, Tulay; Comoglu, Mustafa; Pinar, Ali; Kekovali, Kivanc</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>This presentation provides a progress report on the activities of the Bogazici University / Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute - Regional Earthquake and Tsunami Monitoring Center (KOERI-RETMC) which provides services as a Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) of ICG/NEAMTWS in the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black <span class="hlt">Seas</span> since 1 July 2012. KOERI continues to operate 178 BB and 97 strong motion and 6 short period sensors and the regional coverage includes 77 stations from GFZ and additional 16 stations through bilateral agreements. One radar-type tide-gauge has been installed in Fethiye within the framework of "Inexpensive Device for <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Level Measurement" (IDSL) initiative offered as donation by the EC/JRC and planning is in progress for the possible installation of three more IDSLs in selected locations in the Aegean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coast of Turkey. The capabilities and the limitations of HF Radar technology for the purpose of tsunami detection in the Eastern Mediterranean has been identified and the maturity and the applicability of these <span class="hlt">systems</span> for the possible use under the Tsunami Warning <span class="hlt">System</span> has been determined. The development of the TsuComp as a user-friendly interface to be used in the assessment of tsunamigenic potential and as a single-point entry for message dissemination has been finalized. The work towards the creation of Tsunami Inundation Maps at the Tsunami Forecast Points in Turkey is near finalization. This work is partially funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839. The authors would like to thank EC/JRC and Mr. Alessandro Annunziato for their continuous support in the operational activities of RETMC and IDSL initiative.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/433672','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/433672"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of an optical beam <span class="hlt">system</span> for deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> data acquisition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shibata, Yozo</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>Remotely Operated Vehicles (ROV) are an ideal method for acquiring data from instruments located on the seabed. Electrical, acoustic or optical signals can be used to communicate with the data acquisition <span class="hlt">system</span>. While optical signals have high capacity, the power of the optical beam decreases rapidly with distance in <span class="hlt">sea</span> water; however, the ROV`s ability to approach the instruments eliminates this problem. To investigate a feasibility of an optical beam <span class="hlt">system</span> for underwater data acquisition, the author has developed and manufactured a prototype data acquisition instrument which the ROV can control. Based on the communication test results, he concludes that such a <span class="hlt">system</span> is a practical means of short-range underwater data acquisition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPA.802...82S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPA.802...82S"><span id="translatedtitle">FPGA-based trigger <span class="hlt">system</span> for the Fermilab <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Quest experimentz</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shiu, Shiuan-Hal; Wu, Jinyuan; McClellan, Randall Evan; Chang, Ting-Hua; Chang, Wen-Chen; Chen, Yen-Chu; Gilman, Ron; Nakano, Kenichi; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Su-Yin</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Quest experiment (Fermilab E906) detects pairs of energetic μ+ and μ- produced in 120 GeV/c proton-nucleon interactions in a high rate environment. The trigger <span class="hlt">system</span> consists of several arrays of scintillator hodoscopes and a set of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based VMEbus modules. Signals from up to 96 channels of hodoscope are digitized by each FPGA with a 1-ns resolution using the time-to-digital convertor (TDC) firmware. The delay of the TDC output can be adjusted channel-by-channel in 1-ns step and then re-aligned with the beam RF clock. The hit pattern on the hodoscope planes is then examined against pre-determined trigger matrices to identify candidate muon tracks. Information on the candidate tracks is sent to the 2nd-level FPGA-based track correlator to find candidate di-muon events. The design and implementation of the FPGA-based trigger <span class="hlt">system</span> for <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Quest experiment are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1223257','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1223257"><span id="translatedtitle">FPGA-based Trigger <span class="hlt">System</span> for the Fermilab <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Quest Experimentz</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shiu, Shiuan-Hal; Wu, Jinyuan; McClellan, Randall Evan; Chang, Ting-Hua; Chang, Wen-Chen; Chen, Yen-Chu; Gilman, Ron; Nakano, Kenichi; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Su-Yin</p> <p>2015-09-10</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Quest experiment (Fermilab E906) detects pairs of energetic μ<sup>+</sup> and μ<sup>-</sup>produced in 120 GeV/c proton–nucleon interactions in a high rate environment. The trigger <span class="hlt">system</span> we used consists of several arrays of scintillator hodoscopes and a set of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based VMEbus modules. Signals from up to 96 channels of hodoscope are digitized by each FPGA with a 1-ns resolution using the time-to-digital convertor (TDC) firmware. The delay of the TDC output can be adjusted channel-by-channel in 1-ns step and then re-aligned with the beam RF clock. The hit pattern on the hodoscope planes is then examined against pre-determined trigger matrices to identify candidate muon tracks. Finally, information on the candidate tracks is sent to the 2nd-level FPGA-based track correlator to find candidate di-muon events. The design and implementation of the FPGA-based trigger <span class="hlt">system</span> for <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Quest experiment are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1223257-fpga-based-trigger-system-fermilab-seaquest-experimentz','SCIGOV-DOEP'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages/biblio/1223257-fpga-based-trigger-system-fermilab-seaquest-experimentz"><span id="translatedtitle">FPGA-based Trigger <span class="hlt">System</span> for the Fermilab <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Quest Experimentz</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/pages">DOE PAGESBeta</a></p> <p>Shiu, Shiuan-Hal; Wu, Jinyuan; McClellan, Randall Evan; Chang, Ting-Hua; Chang, Wen-Chen; Chen, Yen-Chu; Gilman, Ron; Nakano, Kenichi; Peng, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Su-Yin</p> <p>2015-09-10</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Quest experiment (Fermilab E906) detects pairs of energetic μ+ and μ-produced in 120 GeV/c proton–nucleon interactions in a high rate environment. The trigger <span class="hlt">system</span> we used consists of several arrays of scintillator hodoscopes and a set of field-programmable gate array (FPGA) based VMEbus modules. Signals from up to 96 channels of hodoscope are digitized by each FPGA with a 1-ns resolution using the time-to-digital convertor (TDC) firmware. The delay of the TDC output can be adjusted channel-by-channel in 1-ns step and then re-aligned with the beam RF clock. The hit pattern on the hodoscope planes is then examined againstmore » pre-determined trigger matrices to identify candidate muon tracks. Finally, information on the candidate tracks is sent to the 2nd-level FPGA-based track correlator to find candidate di-muon events. The design and implementation of the FPGA-based trigger <span class="hlt">system</span> for <span class="hlt">Sea</span>Quest experiment are presented.« less</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.B11J0571L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.B11J0571L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Insight from Genomics on Biogeochemical Cycles in a Shallow-<span class="hlt">Sea</span> Hydrothermal <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, G. S.; Amend, J.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Shallow-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal ecosystems are dynamic, high-energy <span class="hlt">systems</span> influenced by sunlight and geothermal activity. They provide accessible opportunities for investigating thermophilic microbial biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we report biogeochemical data from a shallow-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal <span class="hlt">system</span> offshore Paleochori Bay, Milos, Greece, which is characterized by a central vent covered by white microbial mats with hydrothermally influenced sediments extending into nearby <span class="hlt">sea</span> grass area. Geochemical analysis and deep sequencing provide high-resolution information on the geochemical patterns, microbial diversity and metabolic potential in a two-meter transect. The venting fluid is elevated in temperature (~70oC), low in pH (~4), and enriched in reduced species. The geochemical pattern shows that the profile is affected by not only seawater dilution but also microbial regulation. The microbial community in the deepest section of vent core (10-12 cm) is largely dominated by thermophilic archaea, including a methanogen and a recently described Crenarcheon. Mid-core (6-8 cm), the microbial community in the venting area switches to the hydrogen utilizer Aquificae. Near the sediment-water interface, anaerobic Firmicutes and Actinobacteria dominate, both of which are commonly associated with subsurface and hydrothermal sites. All other samples are dominated by diverse Proteobacteria. The sulfate profile is strongly correlated with the population size of delta- and episilon-proteobactia. The dramatic decrease in concentrations of As and Mn in pore fluids as a function of distance from the vent suggests that in addition to seawater dilution, microorganisms are likely transforming these and other ions through a combination of detoxification and catabolism. In addition, high concentrations of dissolved Fe are only measurable in the shallow <span class="hlt">sea</span> grass area, suggesting that iron-transforming microorganisms are controlling Fe mobility, and promoting biomineralization. Taken</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.6059N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.6059N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Tsunami Warning <span class="hlt">System</span> for the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black <span class="hlt">Seas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Necmioglu, Ocal; Meral Ozel, Nurcan; Kalafat, Dogan; Comoglu, Mustafa; Ozer Sozdinler, Ceren; Yılmazer, Mehmet; Cevdet Yalçıner, Ahmet</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Bogazici University - KOERI is providing a Tsunami Warning <span class="hlt">System</span> to Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black <span class="hlt">Seas</span> since 1 July 2012 as a Candidate Tsunami Service Provider (CTSP) within the ICG/NEAMTWS Framework. KOERI continues to operate 129 BB and 86 strong motion and 6 short period sensors. The regional coverage includes 77 stations from GFZ and additional 16 stations through bilateral agreements. During 2014, Romania and Russian Federation have subscribed to its services thanks to 2nd Tsunami Exercise of NEAMTWS - NEAMWave14, reaching a total of 11 NEAMTWS Member States as subscribers. No further progress could have been made in 2014 in the integration of the existing national-tide gauge stations due to the updated plans of the General Command of Mapping in charge of the operation of the national tide-gauge network. Collaborative activities with EC-JRC continued where a comprehensive tsunami scenario database for the Eastern Mediterranean, Aegean and Black <span class="hlt">Seas</span> has been produced. In addition, KOERI also participated in EC-JRCs Global Tsunami Informal Monitoring Service Project and analyzed 16 tsunamigenic events around the globe. CTSP-TR continued to participate in the Communication Test Exercises (CTE) and Regular CTEs (RegCTE), and acted as the Message Provider for the NEAMWave14 Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Scenario, where Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> was covered fort he first time in a NEAMTWS Tsunami Exercise. New Operational Centre has been built and full integration is expected in the first half of 2015. Data preparation activities for the inundation maps at TFPs continued. KOERI also continued to improve its TWS through its involvement of EC funded FP-7 Projects ASTARTE and MARSite and currently focuses on a detailed NEAMTWS Performance Monitoring Framework with associated Key Performance Indicators. This presentation provides a status overview of the operational <span class="hlt">system</span> while focusing on selected events, such as 12 October 2013 Mw 6.6 and 24 May 2014 Mw 6.9 Northern Aegean earthquakes</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT.......109A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2000PhDT.......109A"><span id="translatedtitle">Combining rock physics and sedimentology for seismic reservoir characterization of North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> turbidite <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Avseth, Per Age</p> <p></p> <p>The petroleum industry is increasing its focus on the exploration of reservoirs in turbidite <span class="hlt">systems</span>. However, these sedimentary environments are often characterized by very complex sand distributions. Hence, reservoir description based on conventional seismic and well-log interpretation may be very uncertain. There is a need to employ more quantitative seismic techniques to reveal reservoirs units in these complex <span class="hlt">systems</span> from seismic amplitude data. In this study we focus on North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> turbidite <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Our goal is to improve the ability to use 3D seismic data to map reservoirs in these <span class="hlt">systems</span>. A cross-disciplinary methodology for seismic reservoir characterization is presented that combines rock physics, sedimentology, and statistical techniques. We apply this methodology to two turbidite <span class="hlt">systems</span> of Paleocene age located in the South Viking Graben of the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. First, we investigate the relationship between sedimentary petrography and rock physics properties. Next, we define seismic scale sedimentary units, referred to as seismic lithofacies. These facies represent populations of data that have characteristic geologic and seismic properties. We establish a statistically representative training database by identifying seismic lithofacies from thin-sections, cores, and well-log data. This procedure is guided by diagnostic rock physics modeling. Based on the training data, we perform multivariate classification of data from several wells in the area. Next, we assess uncertainties in amplitude versus offset (AVO) response related to the inherent natural variability of each seismic lithofacies. We generate bivariate probability density functions (pdfs) of two AVO parameters for different facies combinations. By combining the bivariate pdfs estimated from well-logs with the AVO parameters estimated from seismic data, we use both quadratic discriminant analysis and Bayesian classification to predict lithofacies and pore fluids from seismic amplitudes. The final</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3819602M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011GeoRL..3819602M"><span id="translatedtitle">The role of ocean acidification in <span class="hlt">systemic</span> carbonate mineral suppression in the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mathis, Jeremy T.; Cross, Jessica N.; Bates, Nicholas R.</p> <p>2011-10-01</p> <p>Ocean acidification driven by absorption of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere is now recognized as a <span class="hlt">systemic</span>, global process that could threaten diverse marine ecosystems and a number of commercially important species. The change in calcium carbonate (CaCO3) mineral saturation states (Ω) brought on by the reduction of seawater pH is most pronounced in high latitude regions where unique biogeochemical processes create an environment more susceptible to the suppression of Ω values for aragonite and calcite, which are critical to shell building organisms. New observations from the eastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> shelf show that remineralization of organic matter exported from surface waters rapidly increases bottom water CO2 concentrations over the shelf in summer and fall, suppressing Ω values. The removal of CO2 from surface waters by high rates of phytoplankton primary production increases Ω values between spring and summer, but these increases are partly counteracted by mixing with <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice melt water and terrestrial river runoff that have low Ω values. While these environmental processes play an important role in creating seasonally low saturation states, ocean uptake of anthropogenic CO2 has shifted Ω values for aragonite to below the saturation horizon in broad regions across the shelf for at least several months each year. Furthermore, we also report that calcite became undersaturated in September of 2009 in the bottom waters over the shelf. The reduction in CaCO3 mineral saturation states could have profound implications for several keystone calcifying species in the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, particularly the commercially important crab fisheries.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2417J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.2417J"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards a unified modeling <span class="hlt">system</span> of predicting the transport of radionuclides in coastal <span class="hlt">sea</span> regions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jung, Kyung Tae; Brovchenko, Igor; Maderich, Vladimir; Kim, Kyeong Ok; Qiao, Fangli</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>We present in this talk a recent progress in developing a unified modeling <span class="hlt">system</span> of predicting three-dimensional transport of radionuclides coupled with multiple-scale circulation, wave and suspended sediment modules, keeping in mind the application to coastal <span class="hlt">sea</span> regions with non-uniform distribution of suspended and bed sediments of both cohesive and non-cohesive types. The model calculates the concentration fields of dissolved and particulate radionuclides in bottom sediment as well as in water column. The transfer of radioactivity between the water column and the pore water in the upper layer of the bottom sediment is governed by diffusion processes. The phase change between dissolved and particulate radionuclides is written in terms of absorption/desorption rates and distribution coefficients. The dependence of distribution coefficients is inversely proportional to the sediment particle size. The hydrodynamic numerical model SELFE that solves equations for the multiple-scale circulation, the wave action and sand transport on the unstructured grids has been used as a base model. We have extended the non-cohesive sediment module of SELFE to the form applicable to mixture of cohesive and non-cohesive sedimentary regimes by implementing an extended form of erosional rate and a flocculation model for the determination of settling velocity of cohesive flocs. Issues related to the calibration of the sediment transport model in the Yellow <span class="hlt">Sea</span> are described. The radionuclide transport model with one-step transfer kinetics and single bed layer has been initially developed and then applied to Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. The model has been in this study verified through the comparison with measurements of 137Cs concentration in bed sediments. Preliminary application to the Yellow and East China <span class="hlt">Seas</span> with a hypothetical release scenario are described. On-going development of the radionuclide transport model using two-step transfer kinetics and multiple bed layers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11.1635A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015CliPa..11.1635A"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of coccolithophore-based transfer functions in the western Mediterranean <span class="hlt">sea</span>: a <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface salinity reconstruction for the last 15.5 kyr</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ausín, B.; Hernández-Almeida, I.; Flores, J.-A.; Sierro, F.-J.; Grosjean, M.; Francés, G.; Alonso, B.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>A new data set of 88 marine surface sediment samples and related oceanic environmental variables (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, oxygen, etc.) was studied to quantify the relationship between assemblages of coccolithophore species and modern environmental conditions in the western Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and the Atlantic Ocean, west of the Strait of Gibraltar. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed that coccolithophore species were primarily related to <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface salinity (SSS), explaining an independent and significant proportion of variance in the coccolithophore data. A quantitative coccolithophore-based transfer function to estimate SSS was developed using the modern analog technique (MAT) and weighted-averaging partial least square regression (WA-PLS). The bootstrapped regression coefficient (R2boot) was 0.85MAT and 0.80WA-PLS, with a root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.29MAT and 0.30WA-PLS (psu). The resulting transfer function was applied to fossil coccolithophore assemblages in the highly resolved (~ 65 years) sediment core CEUTA10PC08 from the <span class="hlt">Alboran</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (western Mediterranean) in order to reconstruct SSS for the last 25 kyr. The reliability of the reconstruction was evaluated by assessing the degree of similarity between fossil and modern coccolithophore assemblages and by a comparison of reconstructions with fossil ordination scores. Analogs were poor for the stadials associated with Heinrich events 2 and 1 and part of the Last Glacial Maximum. Good analogs indicate a more reliable reconstruction of the SSS for the last 15.5 kyr. During this period, several millennial and centennial SSS changes were observed and associated with <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level oscillations and variations in the Atlantic Water entering the <span class="hlt">Alboran</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910065267&hterms=methods+numeric&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmethods%2Bnumeric','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19910065267&hterms=methods+numeric&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dmethods%2Bnumeric"><span id="translatedtitle">Mapping <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice leads with a coupled numeric/symbolic <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Key, J.; Schweiger, A. J.; Maslanik, J. A.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>A method is presented which facilitates the detection and delineation of leads with single-channel Landsat data by coupling numeric and symbolic procedures. The procedure consists of three steps: (1) using the dynamic threshold method, an image is mapped to a lead/no lead binary image; (2) the likelihood of fragments to be real leads is examined with a set of numeric rules; and (3) pairs of objects are examined geometrically and merged where possible. The processing ends when all fragments are merged and statistical characteristics are determined, and a map of valid lead objects are left which summarizes useful physical in the lead complexes. Direct implementation of domain knowledge and rapid prototyping are two benefits of the rule-based <span class="hlt">system</span>. The approach is found to be more successfully applied to mid- and high-level processing, and the <span class="hlt">system</span> can retrieve statistics about <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice leads as well as detect the leads.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS21A1093F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMOS21A1093F"><span id="translatedtitle">Gasometric anomalies in bottom sediments of the Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> as instrument of Modern Petroleum <span class="hlt">System</span> study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fokina, A.; Akhmanov, G.; Andreassen, K.; Yurchenko, A.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p> Southern Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> no gas anomalies were detected: low gas concentrations, the gas is of biogenic origin. Geochemical survey within North- Kildinsk field and Fedynskii high were unsuccessful. Petroleum <span class="hlt">system</span> in the surface geochemical field practically do not manifest due to the low permeability of dense clay silts.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1874651','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1874651"><span id="translatedtitle">Cloning of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin mitochondrial RNA polymerase and reconstitution of the transcription termination <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Polosa, Paola Loguercio; Deceglie, Stefania; Falkenberg, Maria; Roberti, Marina; Di Ponzio, Barbara; Gadaleta, Maria Nicola; Cantatore, Palmiro</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Termination of transcription is a key process in the regulation of mitochondrial gene expression in animal cells. To investigate transcription termination in <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin mitochondria, we cloned the mitochondrial RNA polymerase (mtRNAP) of Paracentrotus lividus and used a recombinant form of the enzyme in a reconstituted transcription <span class="hlt">system</span>, in the presence of the DNA-binding protein mtDBP. Cloning of mtRNAP was performed by a combination of PCR with degenerate primers and library screening. The enzyme contains 10 phage-like conserved motifs, two pentatricopeptide motifs and a serine-rich stretch. The protein expressed in insect cells supports transcription elongation in a promoter-independent assay. Addition of recombinant mtDBP caused arrest of the transcribing mtRNAP when the enzyme approached the mtDBP-binding site in the direction of transcription of mtDNA l-strand. When the polymerase encountered the protein-binding site in the opposite direction, termination occurred in a protein-independent manner, inside the mtDBP-binding site. Pulse-chase experiments show that mtDBP caused true transcription termination rather than pausing. These data indicate that mtDBP acts as polar termination factor and suggest that transcription termination in <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin mitochondria could take place by two alternative modes based on protein-mediated or sequence-dependent mechanisms. PMID:17392338</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.6633M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.6633M"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigations of The Structure of Mesoscale Convective <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Over The <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mezrin, M. Yu.; Starokoltsev, E. V.; Fujiyoshi, Yasushi</p> <p></p> <p>Under the Joint Research Agreement between the Central Aerological Observatory of the Russian Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring, Russia (CAO) and Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Japan (JST), investigations of the structure and formation/development mechanisms of mesoscale convective <span class="hlt">systems</span> in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan area were carried out in January- February 2001 from board a Russian research aircraft IL-18. The aircraft was equipped with navigation and research instruments to investigate diverse atmospheric and cloud parameters, including instrumentation to study turbulent transport of moisture, heat, etc. The meteorological situation was characterized by a surge of cold, dry continental air to the rear of a cold front (i.e., from Siberia to the open surface of the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan). Horizontal measurements were made during flights at altitudes of 100, 500, 1500, and 3000 m, between Vladivistok, Russia, and Sado Island of Japan. As a result of the investigations of turbulent moisture transport at a 100-m level, mesostructure features of the transport were observed having a horizontal scale of about 30 km and an amplitude of about 0.100 g/m2s. The shape and magnitude of such features repeated at a 500-m level, their position shifting windward with time. This phenomenon was evidently caused by cylindrical convection, whose spatial structure showed in the arrangement of cloud streets formed at a 1500-m level. Satellite pictures of the cloud streets were used.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAG....67..234H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009JAG....67..234H"><span id="translatedtitle">Helicopter-borne measurements of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness, using a small and lightweight, digital EM <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Haas, Christian; Lobach, John; Hendricks, Stefan; Rabenstein, Lasse; Pfaffling, Andreas</p> <p>2009-03-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice is an important climate variable and is also an obstacle for marine operations in polar regions. We have developed a small and lightweight, digitally operated frequency-domain electromagnetic-induction (EM) <span class="hlt">system</span>, a so-called EM bird, dedicated for measurements of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice thickness. It is 3.5 m long and weighs only 105 kg, and can therefore easily be shipped to remote places and operated from icebreakers and small helicopters. Here, we describe the technical design of the bird operating at two frequencies of f1 = 3.68 kHz and f2 = 112 kHz, and study its technical performance. On average, noise amounts to ± 8.5 ppm and ± 17.5 ppm for f1 and f2, respectively. Electrical drift amounts to 200 ppm/h and 2000 ppm/h for f1 and f2, during the first 0.5 h of operation. It is reduced by 75% after 2 h. Calibration of the Inphase and Quadrature ppm signals varies by 2 to 3%. A sensitivity study shows that all these signal variations do affect the accuracy of the ice thickness retrieval, but that it remains better than ± 0.1 m over level ice in most cases. This accuracy is also confirmed by means of comparisons of the helicopter EM data with other thickness measurements. The paper also presents the ice thickness retrieval from single-component Inphase data of f1.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009DokES.427..891B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009DokES.427..891B"><span id="translatedtitle">New data on the structure of the central part of the White <span class="hlt">Sea</span> paleorift <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baluev, A. S.; Zhuravlev, V. A.; Przhiyalgovskii, E. S.</p> <p>2009-08-01</p> <p>Complex geological and geophysical data obtained during recent research by the Marine Arctic Geological Survey Expedition OJSC (MAGSE) indicate that the Riphean Chapoma graben located on the southeastern shore of the Kola Peninsula has its extension under the Gorlo Strait of the White <span class="hlt">Sea</span> water area and joins the Leshukonsk riftogenous graben as an extended narrow trench in the crystal foundation of the platform. From this it follows that the Chapoma graben is the central segment of the White <span class="hlt">Sea</span> paleorift <span class="hlt">system</span>. Only the northwestern edge and probably the upper part of the graben section outcrop on the Kola Peninsula, which represents a highly elevated block of the platform foundation. To emphasize the unity of this paleorift zone, it makes sense to call it the Chapomo-Leshukonsk Paleorift in contrast to the traditional name Kerets-Leshukonsk. The echelon position of the riftogenous troughs of the Chapomo-Leshukonsk paleorift, the form itself of the Leshukonsk and Azopolsk troughs being close to pull-apart assumes their occurrence and development under transtension conditions with elements of the right-side shear along the steep northeastern edges of the grabens.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.188..850C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012GeoJI.188..850C"><span id="translatedtitle">Neotectonics of the SW Iberia margin, Gulf of Cadiz and <span class="hlt">Alboran</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: a reassessment including recent structural, seismic and geodetic data</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cunha, T. A.; Matias, L. M.; Terrinha, P.; Negredo, A. M.; Rosas, F.; Fernandes, R. M. S.; Pinheiro, L. M.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>We use a thin-shell approximation for the lithosphere to model the neotectonics of the Gulf of Cadiz, SW Iberia margin and the westernmost Mediterranean, in the eastern segment of the Azores-Gibraltar plate boundary. In relation to previous neotectonic models in the region, we utilize a better constrained structural map offshore, and the recent GPS measurements over NW Africa and Iberia have been taken into account, together with the seismic strain rate and stress data, to evaluate alternative geodynamic settings proposed for the region. We show that by assuming a relatively simple, two-plate tectonic framework, where Nubia and Eurasia converge NW-SE to WNW-ESE at a rate of 4.5-6 mm yr-1, the models correctly predict the amount of shortening and wrenching between northern Algeria-Morocco and southern Spain and between NW Morocco and SW Iberia, as estimated from both GPS data and geological constraints. The consistency between modelled and observed velocities in the vicinity of Gibraltar and NW Morocco indicates that forcing by slab sinking beneath Gibraltar is not required to reproduce current horizontal deformation in these areas. In the Gulf of Cadiz and SW Iberia, the modelling results support a diffuse Nubia-Eurasia Plate boundary, where the convergence is accommodated along NNE-SSW to NE-SW and ENE-WSW thrust faults and WNW-ESE right-lateral strike-slip faults, over an area >200 km wide, in good general agreement with the distribution of the seismic strain rate and associated faulting mechanisms. The modelling results are robust to regional uncertainties in the structure of the lithosphere and have important implications for the earthquake and tsunami hazard of Portugal, SW Spain and Morocco. We predict maximum, long-term average fault slip rates between 1-2 mm yr-1, that is, less than 50 per cent the average plate relative movement, suggesting very long return periods for high-magnitude (Mw > 8) earthquakes on individual structures.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMS....86...45Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JMS....86...45Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Copepod communities, production and grazing in the Turkish Straits <span class="hlt">System</span> and the adjacent northern Aegean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> during spring</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zervoudaki, S.; Christou, E. D.; Assimakopoulou, G.; Örek, H.; Gucu, A. C.; Giannakourou, A.; Pitta, P.; Terbiyik, T.; Yϋcel, N.; Moutsopoulos, T.; Pagou, K.; Psarra, S.; Özsoy, E.; Papathanassiou, E.</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>The Mediterranean and the Black <span class="hlt">Seas</span> are connected through Bosphorus, Marmara <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Dardanelles (Turkish Straits <span class="hlt">System</span>, TSS). In this study, we examined the spatial distribution of copepods and investigate their production and grazing. The aim was to understand the transfer of phytoplankton/microzooplankton production up the food chain in TSS and Aegean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> during spring. The phytoplankton and microzooplankton biomass and production showed a clear decreasing trend from Bosphorus to the Aegean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, whereas copepod biomass did not reveal any distinct trend and only the number of copepod species increased from Bosphorus to the Aegean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Production of copepods and egg production showed similar trends except for the Bosphorus, where production of copepods was very low due to the low copepod biomass in this area. In all areas, the copepod carbon demand was largely met by phytoplankton and microzooplankton production. However, only a low amount of primary production was consumed by copepods and production appeared to flow mostly through other pathways (microbial loop) and/or sediment on the bottom. The results of this study confirm the hypothesis that there is a substantial differentiation within pelagic food web structure and carbon flow from Bosphorus to the Aegean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MarGR..35..231S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MarGR..35..231S"><span id="translatedtitle">New compact ocean bottom cabled seismometer <span class="hlt">system</span> deployed in the Japan <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shinohara, Masanao; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Yamada, Tomoaki; Machida, Yuya; Shinbo, Takashi; Sakai, Shin'ichi</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>The Japanese islands are positioned near the subduction zones, and large earthquakes have repeatedly occurred in marine areas around Japan. However, the number of permanent earthquake observatories in the oceans is quite limited. It is important for understanding generation of large earthquakes to observe seismic activities on the seafloor just above these seismogenic zones. An ocean bottom cabled seismometer (OBCS) is the best solution because data can be collected in real-time. We have developed a new compact OBCS <span class="hlt">system</span>. A developed <span class="hlt">system</span> is controlled by a microprocessor, and signals from accelerometers are 24-bit digitized. Clock is delivered from the global positioning <span class="hlt">system</span> receiver on a landing station using a simple dedicated line. Data collected at each cabled seismometer (CS) are transmitted using standard Internet Protocol to landing stations. The network configuration of the <span class="hlt">system</span> adopts two dual methods. We installed the first practical OBCS <span class="hlt">system</span> in the Japan <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, where large earthquakes occurred in past. The first OBCS <span class="hlt">system</span> has a total length of 25 km and 4 stations with 5 km interval. Installation was carried out in August 2010. The CSs and single armored optical submarine cable were buried 1 m below the seafloor to avoid a conflict with fishing activity. The data are stored on a landing station and sent to Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo by using the Internet. After the installation, data are being collected continuously. According to burial of the CSs, seismic ambient noises are smaller than those observed on seafloor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016OcMod.104..171P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016OcMod.104..171P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance comparison of meso-scale ensemble wave forecasting <span class="hlt">systems</span> for Mediterranean <span class="hlt">sea</span> states</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pezzutto, Paolo; Saulter, Andrew; Cavaleri, Luigi; Bunney, Christopher; Marcucci, Francesca; Torrisi, Lucio; Sebastianelli, Stefano</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This paper compares the performance of two wind and wave short range ensemble forecast <span class="hlt">systems</span> for the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. In particular, it describes a six month verification experiment carried out by the U.K. Met Office and Italian Air Force Meteorological Service, based on their respective <span class="hlt">systems</span>: the Met Office Global-Regional Ensemble Prediction <span class="hlt">System</span> and the Nettuno Ensemble Prediction <span class="hlt">System</span>. The latter is the ensemble version of the operational Nettuno forecast <span class="hlt">system</span>. Attention is focused on the differences between the two implementations (e.g. grid resolution and initial ensemble members sampling) and their effects on the prediction skill. The cross-verification of the two ensemble <span class="hlt">systems</span> shows that from a macroscopic point of view the differences cancel out, suggesting similar skill. More in-depth analysis indicates that the Nettuno wave forecast is better resolved but, on average, slightly less reliable than the Met Office product. Assessment of the added value of the ensemble techniques at short range in comparison with the deterministic forecast from Nettuno, reveals that adopting the ensemble approach has small, but substantive, advantages.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOUC...14.1068W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JOUC...14.1068W"><span id="translatedtitle">Life cycle assessment of different <span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus Selenka) farming <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Guodong; Dong, Shuanglin; Tian, Xiangli; Gao, Qinfeng; Wang, Fang; Xu, Kefeng</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The life cycle assessment was employed to evaluate the environmental impacts of three farming <span class="hlt">systems</span> (indoor intensive, semi-intensive and extensive <span class="hlt">systems</span>) of <span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumber living near Qingdao, China, which can effectively overcome the interference of inaccurate background parameters caused by the diversity of economic level and environment in different regions. Six indicators entailing global warming potential (1.86E + 04, 3.45E + 03, 2.36E + 02), eutrophication potential (6.65E + 01, -1.24E + 02, -1.65E + 02), acidification potential (1.93E + 02, 4.33E + 01, 1.30E + 00), photochemical oxidant formation potential (2.35E-01, 5.46E -02, 2.53E-03), human toxicity potential (2.47E + 00, 6.08E-01, 4.91E + 00) and energy use (3.36E + 05, 1.27E + 04, 1.48E + 03) were introduced in the current study. It was found that all environmental indicators in the indoor intensive farming <span class="hlt">system</span> were much higher than those in semi-intensive and extensive farming <span class="hlt">systems</span> because of the dominant role of energy input, while energy input also contributed as the leading cause factor for most of the indicators in the semi-intensive farming <span class="hlt">system</span>. Yet in the extensive farming <span class="hlt">system</span>, infrastructure materials played a major role. Through a comprehensive comparison of the three farming <span class="hlt">systems</span>, it was concluded that income per unit area of indoor intensive farming <span class="hlt">system</span> was much higher than those of semi-intensive and extensive farming <span class="hlt">systems</span>. However, the extensive farming <span class="hlt">system</span> was the most sustainable one. Moreover, adequate measures were proposed, respectively, to improve the environmental sustainability of each farming <span class="hlt">system</span> in the present study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6993946','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6993946"><span id="translatedtitle">(Sulfide-oxide-silicate phase equilibria and associated fluid inclusion properties in the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> geothermal <span class="hlt">system</span>, California)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>McKibben, M.A.</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>Our studies involved petrographic, fluid inclusion, geochemical and stable isotopic studies of drillcores and fluids from the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> geothermal <span class="hlt">system</span>. Our initial studies revealed the presence of previously-unrecognized evaporitic anhydrite at depth throughout the geothermal <span class="hlt">system</span>. The high salinity of the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> geothermal brines previously had been attributed to low-temperature dissolution of surficial evaporitic deposits by meteoric waters. Our microthermometric studies of halite--containing fluid inclusions in the meta-evaporites indicated that the high salinity of the geothermal brines is derived in part from the hydrothermal metamorphism of relatively deeply-buried salt and evaporites. In addition, our research concentrated on mineralized fractures in drillcores.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812003O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1812003O"><span id="translatedtitle">On the Role of Arctic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Deformations: An Evaluation of the Regional Arctic <span class="hlt">System</span> Model Results with Observations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Osinski, Robert; Maslowski, Wieslaw; Roberts, Andrew</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The atmosphere - <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice - ocean fluxes and their contribution to rapid changes in the Arctic <span class="hlt">system</span> are not well understood and generally are not resolved by global climate models (GCMs). While many significant model refinements have been made in the recent past, including the representation of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice rheology, surface albedo and ice-albedo feedback, other processes such as <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice deformations, still require further studies and model advancements. Of particular potential interest here are linear kinematic features (LKFs), which control winter air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> heat exchange and affect buoyancy forces in the ocean. Their importance in Arctic climate change, especially under an increasing first-year ice cover, is yet to be determined and their simulation requires representation of processes currently at sub-grid scale of most GCMs. To address some of the GCM limitations and to better understand the role of LKFs in air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> exchange we use the Regional Arctic <span class="hlt">System</span> Model (RASM), which allows high spatio-temporal resolution and regional focus on the Arctic. RASM is a fully coupled regional climate model, developed to study dynamic and thermodynamic processes and their coupling across the atmosphere-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ice-ocean interface. It consists of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) atmospheric model, the Parallel Ocean Program (POP), the Community Ice Model (CICE) and the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) land hydrology model. The <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice component has been upgraded to the Los Alamos Community Ice Model version 5.1 (CICE5.1), which allows either Elastic-Viscous-Plastic (EVP) or a new anisotropic (EPA) rheology. RASM's domain is pan-Arctic, with the ocean and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice components configured at an eddy-permitting horizontal resolution of 1/12-degree as well as 1/48-degree, for limited simulations. The atmosphere and land model components are configured at 50-km grids. All the components are coupled at a 20-minute time step. Results from multiple RASM simulations are analyzed and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JOUC...13..503L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JOUC...13..503L"><span id="translatedtitle">Nitrogen and phosphorus budget of a polyculture <span class="hlt">system</span> of <span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Junwei; Dong, Shuanglin; Gao, Qinfeng; Zhu, Changbo</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>The nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) budget and the ecological efficiency of a polyculture <span class="hlt">system</span> of <span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumber ( Apostichopus japonicus), jellyfish ( Rhopilema esculenta) and shrimp ( Fenneropenaeus chinensis) were studied in a cofferdam, 120.2 ha in size. The nutrients were supplied by spring tide inflow. In total, 139600 kg N yr-1 and 9730 kg P yr-1 input to the <span class="hlt">system</span>; while 118900 kg N yr-1 and 2840 kg P yr-1 outflowed from the <span class="hlt">system</span> concurrently, thus the outflow was 85.7% (N) and 29.2% (P) of inflow. The production of N and P was 889.5 kg yr-1 and 49.28 kg yr-1 (<span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumber) and 204 kg yr-1 and 18.03 kg yr-1 (jellyfish and shrimp), respectively. The utilization rate of N and P by polycultured animals was 7.8‰ and 6.9‰, respectively, 21.9% and 38% higher than that of monocultured <span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumber. Our results indicated that the polyculture <span class="hlt">system</span> was an efficient culture <span class="hlt">system</span> of animals and a remediation <span class="hlt">system</span> of coastal environment as well; it scavenged 14.3% and 70.8% of N and P, respectively. Such an ecological efficiency may be improved further by increasing either the stocking density or the size of <span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumber or both.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7003912','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7003912"><span id="translatedtitle">Qualitative chaos in geomorphic <span class="hlt">systems</span>, with an example from wetland response to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Phillips, J.D. )</p> <p>1992-05-01</p> <p>The spatial and temporal complexity of earth surface processes and landforms and the presence of deterministic chaos in many fundamental physical processes provide reasons to suspect chaos in geomorphic <span class="hlt">systems</span>. A method is presented to assess the likelihood of chaotic behavior in a geomorphic <span class="hlt">system</span>. The method requires identification of the fundamental <span class="hlt">system</span> components, their positive, negative, or negligible influences on each other, and the relative strength or magnitudes of these links. Based on this information, the method can classify geomorphic <span class="hlt">systems</span> as stable and nonchaotic, unstable and potentially chaotic, or unstable and generally chaotic. Positive, self-enhancing feedback is a key diagnostic of the likelihood of chaotic behavior. A sample application of the method to the problem of coastal marsh response to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise is provided, which shows the marsh to be unstable. If changes in vegetation cover are partly dependent on vegetation density, the <span class="hlt">system</span> is generally chaotic if marsh vegetation exhibits self-enhancing feedback (for example, seed source effects) and potentially chaotic if vegetation exhibits self-limiting feedback (competitive effects). The attractors controlling the chaotic dynamics represent states of pronounced erosion/drowning or accretion/expansion.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.2385W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.2385W"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal variability of alongshore winds and <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature fronts in Eastern Boundary Current <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wang, Yuntao; Castelao, Renato M.; Yuan, Yeping</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Seven years of satellite observations (2003-2009) are used to describe variability in <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) fronts and in the alongshore component of ocean winds, and to investigate their relations in four Eastern Boundary Current <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (EBCS). The general patterns of SST frontal activity are remarkably similar in all EBCS, with high frontal probabilities along the coast decreasing with distance from the coastline. Results from empirical orthogonal function decompositions reveal that the seasonal evolution of SST fronts and wind stress are significantly correlated, with intensified upwelling favorable winds associated with an increase in frontal probabilities. An offshore migration of the region of high frontal activity is observed during the period of upwelling favorable alongshore wind stress in EBCS. In all regions, the seasonal variability of frontal activity and wind stress is stronger at mid than at low latitudes. The width of the region of high frontal activity is relatively broader in the California and Benguela Current <span class="hlt">Systems</span>, and narrower in the Canary and Humboldt Current <span class="hlt">Systems</span>. The width of the band of high frontal activity may be influenced by multiple factors, including wind forcing, flow topography interactions, and mesoscale dynamics. While seasonal variability in frontal activity in the California Current <span class="hlt">System</span> acts to reinforce or weaken the average pattern, they are substantially different in the Canary Current <span class="hlt">System</span>, where there is little overlap in the areas characterized by persistent and seasonally varying front activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000654','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70000654"><span id="translatedtitle">Ferrelo fan, California: Depositional <span class="hlt">system</span> influenced by Eustatic <span class="hlt">sea</span> level changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Howell, D.G.; Vedder, J.G.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Remnants of an Eocene fan <span class="hlt">system</span> are preserved onshore at San Diego and in the central part of the southern California borderland. Even though faults and erosion have truncated its margins, geophysical data and exploratory wells indicate that remaining parts of the fan extend beneath an offshore area nearly 400-km long and 40- to 100-km wide. Environments representing fluvial, fan-delta, shelf-channel, overlapping inner- to outer-fan, and basin-plain facies are recognized or inferred. Three progradational cycles onshore and two distinct pulses of sand accumulation offshore are attributable to eustatic low <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level stands rather than to tectonic uplift or shifts in depositional patterns. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/403094','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/403094"><span id="translatedtitle">Time domain simulation of nonlinear response of a coupled TLP <span class="hlt">system</span> in random <span class="hlt">seas</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kim, C.H.; Kim, M.H.; Liu, Y.H.; Zhao, C.T.</p> <p>1994-12-31</p> <p>This paper presents a result of an analysis of the nonlinear interaction and response of the coupled ISSC-TLP <span class="hlt">System</span> to the random <span class="hlt">seas</span> in the time domain. The environmental load also includes the effect of the concurrent steady winds and currents. The first- and second-order wave-exciting forces are calculated using a robust higher-order boundary element method (HOBEM), while the nonlinear tendon dynamic analysis is performed using the three-dimensional hybrid element method with the upgated Lagrangian formulation. The Morison equation is employed for the wave and current load on slender structures. The analysis is focused on the nonlinear responses due to the nonlinear environmental load and nonlinear interaction between the platform and tendons that includes the offset, setdown, large coupled surge-heave motion in the low frequency and resonant heave/pitch responses with the springing loads in the high frequency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011R%26QE...53..569K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011R%26QE...53..569K"><span id="translatedtitle">Measuring the parameters of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface roughness by underwater acoustic <span class="hlt">systems</span>: discussion of the device concept</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karaev, V. Yu.; Kanevsky, M. B.; Meshkov, E. M.</p> <p>2011-02-01</p> <p>We consider the concept of an underwater acoustic wave gauge designed to measure statistical characteristics of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface roughness. It is proposed to be based on a centimeter-wave underwater sonar sending probing signals vertically upwards. It is shown that the use of three antennas in such a <span class="hlt">system</span> is sufficient to measure all statistical second-order moments of <span class="hlt">sea</span> roughness which is large-scale compared with the acoustic-radiation wavelength. This method can be used for the first time to measure the <span class="hlt">sea</span> wave parameters which determine the characteristics of the reflected radar signals. The proposed acoustic wave gauge can be used as an independent measuring device, as well as an additional underwater unit of a conventional <span class="hlt">sea</span> buoy. This will allow one to increase the amount of information about surface waves, which is received from the buoy, at a minimal cost and will make it possible to calibrate new remote sounding <span class="hlt">systems</span> capable of measuring the variance of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface slopes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OcDyn..62..139C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OcDyn..62..139C"><span id="translatedtitle">Dynamics of the circulation in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara: numerical modeling experiments and observations from the Turkish straits <span class="hlt">system</span> experiment</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chiggiato, Jacopo; Jarosz, Ewa; Book, Jeffrey W.; Dykes, James; Torrisi, Lucio; Poulain, Pierre-Marie; Gerin, Riccardo; Horstmann, Jochen; Beşiktepe, Şükrü</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>During September 2008 and February 2009, the NR/V Alliance extensively sampled the waters of the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara within the framework of the Turkish Straits <span class="hlt">System</span> (TSS) experiment coordinated by the NATO Undersea Research Centre. The observational effort provided an opportunity to set up realistic numerical experiments for modeling the observed variability of the Marmara <span class="hlt">Sea</span> upper layer circulation at mesoscale resolution over the entire basin during the trial period, complementing relevant features and forcing factors revealed by numerical model results with information acquired from in situ and remote sensing datasets. Numerical model solutions from realistic runs using the Regional Ocean Modeling <span class="hlt">System</span> (ROMS) produce a general circulation in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara that is consistent with previous knowledge of the circulation drawn from past hydrographic measurements, with a westward meandering current associated with a recurrent large anticyclone. Additional idealized numerical experiments illuminate the role various dynamics play in determining the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara circulation and pycnocline structure. Both the wind curl and the strait flows are found to strongly influence the strength and location of the main mesoscale features. Large displacements of the pycnocline depth were observed during the <span class="hlt">sea</span> trials. These displacements can be interpreted as storm-driven upwelling/downwelling dynamics associated with northeasterly winds; however, lateral advection associated with flow from the Straits also played a role in some displacements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009HydJ...17..793H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009HydJ...17..793H"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporal response of hydraulic head, temperature, and chloride concentrations to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level changes, Floridan aquifer <span class="hlt">system</span>, USA</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hughes, J. D.; Vacher, H. L.; Sanford, Ward E.</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>Three-dimensional density-dependent flow and transport modeling of the Floridan aquifer <span class="hlt">system</span>, USA shows that current chloride concentrations are not in equilibrium with current <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and, second, that the geometric configuration of the aquifer has a significant effect on <span class="hlt">system</span> responses. The modeling shows that hydraulic head equilibrates first, followed by temperatures, and then by chloride concentrations. The model was constructed using a modified version of SUTRA capable of simulating multi-species heat and solute transport, and was compared to pre-development conditions using hydraulic heads, chloride concentrations, and temperatures from 315 observation wells. Three hypothetical, sinusoidal <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level changes occurring over 100,000 years were used to evaluate how the simulated aquifer responds to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level changes. Model results show that hydraulic head responses lag behind <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level changes only where the Miocene Hawthorn confining unit is thick and represents a significant restriction to flow. Temperatures equilibrate quickly except where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick and the duration of the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level event is long (exceeding 30,000 years). Response times for chloride concentrations to equilibrate are shortest near the coastline and where the aquifer is unconfined; in contrast, chloride concentrations do not change significantly over the 100,000-year simulation period where the Hawthorn confining unit is thick.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714671O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714671O"><span id="translatedtitle">Turkish Straits <span class="hlt">System</span> and Southern Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: Exchange. Mixing and Shelf / Canyon Interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Özsoy, Emin; Gürses, Özgür; Tutsak, Ersin</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Based largely on an experiment employing high-resolution measurements carried out in June-July 2013 and re-interpretation of past experiments, the oceanographic variability of the exchange through the Turkish Straits <span class="hlt">System</span> (TSS) and the interactions with the southern Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> are revealed through CTD, ADCP, oxygen and light transmission measurements. The exchange flow is primarily governed by the complex topography spanning two narrow straits, wide continental shelf regions, steep slopes and numerous canyons connecting deep basins. Water properties and currents in the high energy environment depends on the mosaic of fine-scale processes and pathways. The TSS, often approximated as a two-layer <span class="hlt">system</span> has a hydraulically controlled, upper ocean and straits intensified regime, leading to surface jets and bottom plumes participating in mixing and renewal processes. The exit of the 'Mediterranean effluent' onto the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> past a sill overflow from the Bosphorus passes through two subsequent hydraulic jumps and proceeds along a narrow canyon that veers to the west clear of the greater Bosphorus Canyon finally cascading down the few small canyons. A diffusive spread from the bottom vein of salty water reforms to the east and spills down the Bosphorus Canyon. The suspended particulate signature of the cascade, as well as its influence in hydrography is traced over the shelf and slope waters and through the numerous canyons into deep water where the reformed flow is found to sustain signatures of the past evolution of intrusive waters. An evaluation of the processes is given with reference to model development carried out in parallel to the analyses of the measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2063K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.2063K"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional forecasting <span class="hlt">system</span> of marine state and variability of dynamical processes in the easternmost part of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kordzadze, Avtandil; Demetrashvili, Demuri</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The regional forecasting <span class="hlt">system</span> for the easternmost part of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> developed at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics of I. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University under the EU framework projects ARENA and ECOOP is a part of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> basin-scale Nowcasting/Forecasting <span class="hlt">System</span>. A core of the regional forecasting <span class="hlt">system</span> is a baroclinic regional model of Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> dynamics with 1 km spacing based on hydrostatic primitive equations of ocean hydrothermodynamics, which are written in z-coordinates for deviations of thermodynamic values from their standard vertical distributions. To solve the problem the two-cycle method of splitting the model equation <span class="hlt">system</span> with respect to both physical processes and coordinate planes and lines is used. The regional model of M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics is nested in the basin-scale model of Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> dynamics of Marine Hydrophysical Institute (Sevastopol/Ukraine). The regional forecasting <span class="hlt">system</span> provides 3 days' forecasts of current, temperature and salinity for the easternmost part of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, which is limited to the Caucasian and Turkish coastal lines and the western liquid boundary coinciding with the meridian 39.080E. Data needed on liquid and upper boundaries, also the 3-D initial hydrophysical fields for the easternmost regional area are provided in near operative mode from Marine hydrophysical Institute via Internet. These data on the liquid boundary are values of velocity components, temperature and salinity predicted by the basin-scale model of Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> dynamics of Marine Hydrophysical Institute and on the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface 2-D meteorological boundary fields - wind stress, heat fluxes, evaporation and precipitation rates predicted by the regional atmospheric model ALADIN are used. The analysis of the results of modeling and forecast of dynamic processes developed for 2010-2014 showed that the easternmost water area of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is a dynamically very active zone, where continuously there are processes of generation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1607S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.1607S"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated modelling and management of nutrients and eutrophication in river basin - coast - <span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">systems</span>: A southern Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> perspective</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Schernewski, Gerald</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Odra river basin (area: 120,000 km2, average discharge: 550 m³/s, annual N-load 60,000 t) and the Oder (Szczecin) Lagoon (687 km²) are the eutrophication hot-spot in the south-western Baltic region. To be able to carry out large scale, spatially integrative analyses, we linked the river basin nutrient flux model MONERIS to the coastal 3D-hydrodynamic and ecosystem model ERGOM. Objectives were a) to analyse the eutrophication history in the river basin and the resulting functional changes in the coastal waters between early 1960's and today and b) to analyse the effects of nitrogen and phosphorus management scenarios in the Oder/Odra river basin on coastal and Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> water quality. The models show that an optimal river basin management with reduced nutrient loads (e.g. N-load reduction of 35%) would have positive effects on lagoon water quality and algae biomass. The availability of nutrients, N/P ratios and processes like denitrification and nitrogen-fixation would show spatial and temporal changes. It would have positive consequences for ecosystems functions, like the nutrient retention capacity, as well. However, this optimal scenario is by far not sufficient to ensure a good coastal water quality according to the European Water Framework Directive. A "good" water quality in the river will not be sufficient to ensure a "good" water quality in the coastal waters. Further, nitrogen load reductions bear the risk of increased potentially toxic, blue-green algae blooms. The presentation will a) summarize recent results (Schernewski et al. 2009, Schernewski et al. 2011, 2012), b) give an overview how the models were used to provide a comprehensive and consistent set of water quality thresholds and maximum allowable riverine loads for the Water Framework Directive and c) will show the implications for an optimised river basin - lagoon quality management.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015814','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70015814"><span id="translatedtitle">Double-diffusive convection in geothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span>: the salton <span class="hlt">sea</span>, California, geothermal <span class="hlt">system</span> as a likely candidate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Fournier, R.O.</p> <p>1990-01-01</p> <p>Much has been published about double-diffusive convection as a mechanism for explaining variations in composition and temperature within all-liquid natural <span class="hlt">systems</span>. However, relatively little is known about the applicability of this phenomenon within the heterogeneous rocks of currently active geothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> where primary porosity may control fluid flow in some places and fractures may control it in others. The main appeal of double-diffusive convection within hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> is-that it is a mechanism that may allow efficient transfer of heat mainly by convection, while at the same time maintaining vertical and lateral salinity gradients. The Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> geothermal <span class="hlt">system</span> exhibits the following reservoir characteristics: (1) decreasing salinity and temperature from bottom to top and center toward the sides, (2) a very high heat flow from the top of the <span class="hlt">system</span> that seems to require a major component of convective transfer of heat within the chemically stratified main reservoir, and (3) a relatively uniform density of the reservoir fluid throughout the <span class="hlt">system</span> at all combinations of subsurface temperature, pressure, and salinity. Double-diffusive convection can account for these characteristics very nicely whereas other previously suggested models appear to account either for the thermal structure or for the salinity variations, but not both. Hydrologists, reservoir engineers, and particularly geochemists should consider the possibility and consequences of double-diffusive convection when formulating models of hydrothermal processes, and of the response of reservoirs to testing and production. ?? 1990.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814331C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..1814331C"><span id="translatedtitle">Orthorhombic faults <span class="hlt">system</span> at the onset of the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> rifting</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Collanega, Luca; Breda, Anna; Massironi, Matteo</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The structures of the Late Mesozoic/Cenozoic Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> rifting have been investigated with multichannel 3D seismics, covering an area of 7700 sqKm in the Hoop Fault Complex, a transitional area between the platform and the marginal basins. The main structural lineaments have been mapped in a time domain 3D surface and their activity ranges have been constrained through the sin-sedimentary thickness variations detected in time-thickness maps. Two main fault <span class="hlt">systems</span> have been identified: an orthorhombic fault <span class="hlt">system</span> consisting of two fault sets trending almost perpendicularly one to the other (WNW-ESE and NNE-SSW) and a graben/half-graben <span class="hlt">system</span>, elongated approximately N-S in the central part of the study area. While the graben/half-graben <span class="hlt">system</span> can be explained through the theory of Anderson, this landmark theory fails to explain the simultaneous activity of the two fault sets of the orthorhombic <span class="hlt">system</span>. So far, the models that can better explain orthorhombic fault arrangements are the slip model by Reches (Reches, 1978; Reches, 1983; Reches and Dieterich, 1983) and the odd-axis model by Krantz (Krantz, 1988). However, these models are not definitive and a strong quest to better understand polymodal faulting is actual (Healy et al., 2015). In the study area, the presence of both a classical Andersonian and an orthorhombic <span class="hlt">system</span> indicates that these models are not alternative but are both effective and necessary to explain faulting in different circumstances. Indeed, the Andersonian plain strain and the orthorhombic deformation have affected different part of the succession during different phases of the rifting. In particular, the orthorhombic <span class="hlt">system</span> has affected only the Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic interval of the succession and it was the main active <span class="hlt">system</span> during the initial phase of the rifting. On the other hand, the graben/half-graben <span class="hlt">system</span> has affected the whole sedimentary succession, with an increasing activity during the development of the rifting. It has</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fresh+AND+water+AND+ecology&id=EJ121577','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fresh+AND+water+AND+ecology&id=EJ121577"><span id="translatedtitle">All That Unplowed <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>MOSAIC, 1975</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Hunting and gathering at <span class="hlt">sea</span> may fast be approaching their productive limits. Aquaculture - farming at <span class="hlt">sea</span> - linked to conservation represents the <span class="hlt">sea</span>'s promise. If the <span class="hlt">system</span> works, it might prove to be the key to supplying large amounts of food and fresh water at no cost in nonrenewable energy resources. (BT)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020071027','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020071027"><span id="translatedtitle">Convective <span class="hlt">Systems</span> Over the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: Cloud-Resolving Model Simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tao, Wei-Kuo; Shie, C.-L.; Johnson, D.; Simpson, J.; Braun, S.; Johnson, R.; Ciesielski, P. E.; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) was conducted in May-June 1998. One of its major objectives is to better understand the key physical processes for the onset and evolution of the summer monsoon over Southeast Asia and southern China. Multiple observation platforms (e.g., upper-air soundings, Doppler radar, ships, wind profilers, radiometers, etc.) during SCSMEX provided a first attempt at investigating the detailed characteristics of convective storms and air pattern changes associated with monsoons over the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region. SCSMEX also provided rainfall estimates which allows for comparisons with those obtained from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), a low earth orbit satellite designed to measure rainfall from space. The Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model (with 1-km grid size) is used to understand and quantify the precipitation processes associated with the summer monsoon over the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. This is the first (loud-resolving model used to simulate precipitation processes in this particular region. The GCE-model results captured many of the observed precipitation characteristics because it used a fine grid size. For example, the temporal variation of the simulated rainfall compares quite well to the sounding-estimated rainfall variation. The time and domain-averaged temperature (heating/cooling) and water vapor (drying/ moistening) budgets are in good agreement with observations. The GCE-model-simulated rainfall amount also agrees well with TRMM rainfall data. The results show there is more evaporation from the ocean surface prior to the onset of the monsoon than after the on-et of monsoon when rainfall increases. Forcing due to net radiation (solar heating minus longwave cooling) is responsible for about 25% of the precipitation in SCSMEX The transfer of heat from the ocean into the atmosphere does not contribute significantly to the rainfall in SCSMEX. Model sensitivity tests indicated that total rain production is</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/391085','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/391085"><span id="translatedtitle">A safety management <span class="hlt">system</span> for an offshore Azerbaijan Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Brasic, M.F.; Barber, S.W.; Hill, A.S.</p> <p>1996-11-01</p> <p>This presentation will describe the Safety Management <span class="hlt">System</span> that Azerbaijan International Operating Company (AIOC) has structured to assure that Company activities are performed in a manner that protects the public, the environment, contractors and AIOC employees. The Azerbaijan International Oil Company is a consortium of oil companies that includes Socar, the state oil company of Azerbaijan, a number of major westem oil companies, and companies from Russia, Turkey and Saudi Arabia. The Consortium was formed to develop and produce a group of large oil fields in the Caspian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The Management of AIOC, in starting a new operation in Azerbaijan, recognized the need for a formal HSE management <span class="hlt">system</span> to ensure that their HSE objectives for AIOC activities were met. As a consortium of different partners working together in a unique operation, no individual partner company HSE Management <span class="hlt">system</span> was appropriate. Accordingly AIOC has utilized the E & P Forum {open_quotes}Guidelines for the Development and Application of Health Safety and Environmental Management <span class="hlt">Systems</span>{close_quotes} as the framework document for the development of the new AIOC <span class="hlt">system</span>. Consistent with this guideline, AIOC has developed 19 specific HSE Management <span class="hlt">System</span> Expectations for implementing its HSE policy and objectives. The objective is to establish and continue to maintain operational integrity in all AIOC activities and site operations. An important feature is the use of structured Safety Cases for the design engineering activity. The basis for the Safety Cases is API RP 75 and 14 J for offshore facilities and API RP 750 for onshore facilities both complimented by {open_quotes}Best International Oilfield Practice{close_quotes}. When viewed overall, this approach provides a fully integrated <span class="hlt">system</span> of HSE management from design into operation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.6556L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.6556L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of decision support <span class="hlt">system</span> for oil spill management in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liubartseva, Svitlana; Coppini, Giovanni; Pinardi, Nadia; De Dominicis, Michela; Marra, Palmalisa; Lecci, Rita; Turrisi, Giuseppe; Creti, Sergio; Martinelli, Sara; Agostini, Paola; Palermo, Francesco</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p> developed as a part of TESSA Project portfolio providing the unified access to others services. Thus, SEACONDITIONS (http://www.<span class="hlt">sea</span>-conditions.com) performs visualization and on-line delivery of forecast of surface currents, <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature, significant wave height and direction, wave period and direction; air temperature, surface pressure, precipitation, cloud coverage, wind speed, etc. Apart from the basin scale visualization SEACONDITIONS supports the zooming capability. User feedback reports from fishermen, port authorities including Coast Guard, offshore companies, aquatic and coastal tourism managers, and academia have been collected and used for the <span class="hlt">system</span> improvements. User-friendliness of GUI, tooltips, an opportunity to vary the advanced parameters, efficiency of the visualization tool, and a help section were appreciated in these reports. In accordance with the users' requirements, a to-do list is composed for the further development of WITOIL. This work was performed in the framework of the TESSA Project (Sviluppo di TEcnologie per la Situational <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Awareness) supported by PON (Ricerca & Competitività 2007-2013) cofunded by UE (Fondo Europeo di sviluppo regionale), MIUR (Ministero Italiano dell'Università e della Ricerca), and MSE (Ministero dello Sviluppo Economico). References De Dominicis, M., Pinardi, N., Zodiatis, G., and Lardner, R., 2013. MEDSLIK-II, a Lagrangian marine surface oil spill model for short term forecasting - Part 1: Theory. Geosci. Model Dev. 6, 1851-1869.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16..253Z&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..16..253Z&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Special data base of Informational - Computational <span class="hlt">System</span> 'INM RAS - Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>' for solving inverse and data assimilation problems</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zakharova, Natalia; Piskovatsky, Nicolay; Gusev, Anatoly</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Development of Informational-Computational <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (ICS) for data assimilation procedures is one of multidisciplinary problems. To study and solve these problems one needs to apply modern results from different disciplines and recent developments in: mathematical modeling; theory of adjoint equations and optimal control; inverse problems; numerical methods theory; numerical algebra and scientific computing. The above problems are studied in the Institute of Numerical Mathematics of the Russian Academy of Science (INM RAS) in ICS for personal computers. In this work the results on the Special data base development for ICS "INM RAS - Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>" are presented. In the presentation the input information for ICS is discussed, some special data processing procedures are described. In this work the results of forecast using ICS "INM RAS - Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>" with operational observation data assimilation are presented. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project No 13-01-00753) and by Presidium Program of Russian Academy of Sciences (project P-23 "Black <span class="hlt">sea</span> as an imitational ocean model"). References 1. V.I. Agoshkov, M.V. Assovskii, S.A. Lebedev, Numerical simulation of Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> hydrothermodynamics taking into account tide-forming forces. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 5-31. 2. E.I. Parmuzin, V.I. Agoshkov, Numerical solution of the variational assimilation problem for <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature in the model of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> dynamics. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 69-94. 3. V.B. Zalesny, N.A. Diansky, V.V. Fomin, S.N. Moshonkin, S.G. Demyshev, Numerical model of the circulation of Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Azov. Russ. J. Numer. Anal. Math. Modelling (2012) 27, No.1, pp. 95-111. 4. Agoshkov V.I.,Assovsky M.B., Giniatulin S. V., Zakharova N.B., Kuimov G.V., Parmuzin E.I., Fomin V.V. Informational Computational <span class="hlt">system</span> of variational assimilation of observation data "INM RAS - Black <span class="hlt">sea</span>"// Ecological</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol12/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol12-sec600-1104.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title50-vol12/pdf/CFR-2014-title50-vol12-sec600-1104.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection <span class="hlt">system</span>. 600.1104 Section 600.1104 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol12/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol12-sec600-1104.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title50-vol12/pdf/CFR-2012-title50-vol12-sec600-1104.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">50 CFR 600.1104 - Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Aleutian Islands (BSAI) crab species fee payment and collection <span class="hlt">system</span>. 600.1104 Section 600.1104 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.C43A0791S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.C43A0791S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-year study of the carbonate <span class="hlt">system</span> in the Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span> with emphasizes on its western part</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Semiletov, I. P.; Pipko, I.; Pugach, S.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Variability of the Arctic climate has affected many aspects of the Arctic environment, especially in the Pacific sector of the Arctic. The primary implication is that today's Arctic cryosphere (glaciers, frozen ground, and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice) and biosphere (terrestrial, lacustrine, and marine) are not at steady state; they have changed and will continue to change in response to evolving Arctic climate. Over the decade 2004-2013 environmental changes in the Pacific sector of the Arctic have been dramatic enough to suggest that a 'new normal' climate is emerging (Wood et al., 2015). Like everywhere in the Arctic, understanding of environmental change in the Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is hindered by sparse data. Dynamics of the carbonate <span class="hlt">system</span> (CS) in the eastern Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (US EEZ) has been studied more extensively for a longer period and is better understood than in its western (Russian EEZ) part. Here we focus on the carbonate <span class="hlt">system</span> data collected in the Russian part of the Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span> over > 10 years (2000-2011). Our data exhibit a strong mesoscale and interannual dynamics of carbonate <span class="hlt">system</span> parameters in the surface seawater. The aragonite saturation state (WAr) was highly variable but also has generally been decreasing in the upper waters from 2000 to 2011. It was shown that despite strong <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice loss, waters heating and storm increasing, the surface waters in this area have been consistently undersaturated by CO2 with respect to the atmosphere. Notable localized exceptions, where CO2 outgassing occurs, include the well-mixed waters near Bering Strait. Combining our long-term carbonate <span class="hlt">system</span> data set (1996-2011) with the available literature data we felt in conclusion that the entire Chukchi <span class="hlt">Sea</span> during ice-free season absorbs ~12-15× 1012 g C and a significant part of this carbon was transferred to the deep layers and insulated from contact with the atmosphere for a long time. Note that the CO2 invasion is a similar value with the CO2 outgassing from the shallow eastern Laptev <span class="hlt">Sea</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715403V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715403V"><span id="translatedtitle">The seamod.ro operational stochastic forecasting <span class="hlt">system</span> of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Vandenbulcke, Luc; Barth, Alexander; Capet, Arthur; Gregoire, Marilaure</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Since the end of 2011, the GHER hydrodynamic model is ran daily to provide operational weekly forecasts of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> hydrodynamics, as well as the associated uncertainty. The model has ~4km horizontal resolution, 31 vertical layers, comprises 6 rivers with climatological fluxes, and is laterally forced with NCEP GFS atmospheric fields. The free model has been extensively validated in previous studies (Capet et al, 2012). Among others, it presents all the expected features in the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, and has also been shown to run 40 years without nudging or data assimilation while conserving total quantities and maintaining the mixed layer depth and the halocline. The operational model has been transformed into an ensemble, by perturbing the initial conditions with the Weakly Constrained Ensembles algorithm, by perturbing the wind (and other atmospheric forcing fields) using additive noise obtained from an EOF decomposition, and by perturbing viscosity and diffusion coefficients, and river fluxes. SST images and ARGO profiles are then assimilated daily, using the Ocean Assimilation Kit. Data assimilation is tuned so that it is not too brutal, and hence error magnitudes (computed a posteriori with independent observations) increase only slightly with lead days. The short-term ensemble forecasts are further validated (Rim Current and semi-permanent eddies, SST maps, mixed layer depth maps, cross-shelf exchanges...). The a priori model error, estimated by the ensemble spread, is also shown to correspond well to the a posteriori model errors (the difference between ensemble mean and independent observations). Future improvements to the forecasting <span class="hlt">system</span> may include better atmospheric forcing fields, the inclusion of a biological/optical model (critical for SST), a nested model in the shelf area, a non-gaussian and non-intrusive data assimilation scheme, and the inclusion of different hydrodynamical models in the ensemble.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890015413','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890015413"><span id="translatedtitle">Biooptical variability in the Greenland <span class="hlt">Sea</span> observed with the Multispectral Airborne Radiometer <span class="hlt">System</span> (MARS)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mueller, James L.; Trees, Charles C.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>A site-specific ocean color remote sensing algorithm was developed and used to convert Multispectral Airborne Radiometer <span class="hlt">System</span> (MARS) spectral radiance measurements to chlorophyll-a concentration profiles along aircraft tracklines in the Greenland <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The analysis is described and the results given in graphical or tabular form. Section 2 describes the salient characteristics and history of development of the MARS instrument. Section 3 describes the analyses of MARS flight segments over consolidated <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice, resulting in a set of altitude dependent ratios used (over water) to estimate radiance reflected by the surface and atmosphere from total radiance measured. Section 4 presents optically weighted pigment concentrations calculated from profile data, and spectral reflectances measured in situ from the top meter of the water column; this data was analyzed to develop an algorithm relating chlorophyll-a concentrations to the ratio of radiance reflectances at 441 and 550 nm (with a selection of coefficients dependent upon whether significant gelvin presence is implied by a low ratio of reflectances at 410 and 550 nm). Section 5 describes the scaling adjustments which were derived to reconcile the MARS upwelled radiance ratios at 410:550 nm and 441:550 nm to in situ reflectance ratios measured simultaneously on the surface. Section 6 graphically presents the locations of MARS data tracklines and positions of the surface monitoring R/V. Section 7 presents stick-plots of MARS tracklines selected to illustrate two-dimensional spatial variability within the box covered by each day's flight. Section 8 presents curves of chlorophyll-a concentration profiles derived from MARS data along survey tracklines. Significant results are summarized in Section 1.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..67..245Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhPro..67..245Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Study of the Thermosyphon Cooling <span class="hlt">System</span> with a Vessel in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> States</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yamaguchi, Kota; Sato, Ryo; Miki, Motohiro; Yamagata, Kotohiro; Ikeda, Tatsuya; Izumi, Mitsuru; Murase, Youhei; Umemoto, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Minoru</p> <p></p> <p>Thermosyphon cooling by using neon gas has been studied at temperatures between 25 K and 40 K, since it provides advantage of large capacity of heat transport, less complicated and compact construction. This cooling <span class="hlt">system</span> seems to suitable for a variety of on-board mechanical <span class="hlt">system</span> with superconductors such as rotating machines. However, it is necessary to clarify the effect of both pitching and rolling motions on thermosyphon. They are temperature stability and the maximum thermal load to maintain the target temperature. In this study, we introduced the thermosyphon cooling <span class="hlt">system</span> into the research vessel "Shioji-maru", a 425 ton vessel and studied its working properties. We focus on the heat load capability, which is applied to the evaporator, under the influence of the pitching and rolling of the vessel. The incremental or single step-wise heat load was systematically applied to study the effect of the neon quantity on the cooling performance at <span class="hlt">sea</span> states. The on-board testing results for cooling with the thermosyphon are comparatively discussed with those obtained on the ground. The finite pitching and rolling of the ship considerably encouraged the heat exchange. The obtained result is caused by enhanced thermal exchange on the effective surface area originating from the ship motions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960020491&hterms=vhs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dvhs','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19960020491&hterms=vhs&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3Dvhs"><span id="translatedtitle">A Unified Air-<span class="hlt">Sea</span> Visualization <span class="hlt">System</span>: Survey on Gridding Structures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Anand, Harsh; Moorhead, Robert</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>The goal is to develop a Unified Air-<span class="hlt">Sea</span> Visualization <span class="hlt">System</span> (UASVS) to enable the rapid fusion of observational, archival, and model data for verification and analysis. To design and develop UASVS, modelers were polled to determine the gridding structures and visualization <span class="hlt">systems</span> used, and their needs with respect to visual analysis. A basic UASVS requirement is to allow a modeler to explore multiple data sets within a single environment, or to interpolate multiple datasets onto one unified grid. From this survey, the UASVS should be able to visualize 3D scalar/vector fields; render isosurfaces; visualize arbitrary slices of the 3D data; visualize data defined on spectral element grids with the minimum number of interpolation stages; render contours; produce 3D vector plots and streamlines; provide unified visualization of satellite images, observations and model output overlays; display the visualization on a projection of the users choice; implement functions so the user can derive diagnostic values; animate the data to see the time-evolution; animate ocean and atmosphere at different rates; store the record of cursor movement, smooth the path, and animate a window around the moving path; repeatedly start and stop the visual time-stepping; generate VHS tape animations; work on a variety of workstations; and allow visualization across clusters of workstations and scalable high performance computer <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7068947','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7068947"><span id="translatedtitle">Activities of bioprotection <span class="hlt">systems</span> of marine organisms representative of coastal ecosystems in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Narbonne, J.F.; Garrigues, P.; Monod, J.L.; Lafaurie, M. )</p> <p>1988-09-01</p> <p>With a view to applying the biochemical tests under study to the monitoring of <span class="hlt">sea</span> pollutants, they have created, together with a number of laboratories, the G.I.C.B.E.M. (Groupe Interface Chimie Biologie Ecosystemes Marins). The special characteristic of this program is to provide a global evaluation of the health of a marine ecosystem by studying in situ the correlations existing between the activity levels of bioprotection <span class="hlt">systems</span> (biotransformation of organic pollutants, induction of metallothioneins) in coastal benthic organisms and the presence of potentially toxic molecules in the environment. A discerning selection of sampling sites in the Mediterranean exhibiting well-known pollution of various origins (heavy metals, HAP, PCB, lindane {hor ellipsis}) and at various degrees, should allow the determination of the bioprotection <span class="hlt">systems</span> as well as of their activity levels. Thus, a global evaluation of the health of a given <span class="hlt">system</span> and a quick warning as to the presence of potentially toxic substances in the environment will be made possible by applying a battery of suitable and simple tests on representative organisms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22448522','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22448522"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Systemic</span> mycosis in a California <span class="hlt">sea</span> lion (Zalophus californianus) with detection of cystofilobasidiales DNA.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Field, Cara L; Tuttle, Allison D; Sidor, Inga F; Nyaoke, Akinyi; Deering, Kathleen M; Gilbert-Marcheterre, Kelly; Risatti, Guillermo; Spoon, Tracey; Meegan, Jenny; Romano, Tracy A; Frasca, Salvatore; Dunn, J Lawrence</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>A 6-yr-old, intact male California <span class="hlt">sea</span> lion (Zalophus californianus) with a <span class="hlt">systemic</span> mycosis died after 5 wk of antifungal drug therapy. Antemortem clinical findings included hind flipper swelling, ring-lesions on skin of the flippers, and dermal nodules that increased in size and number spreading from the hind flippers and ventral abdomen to the foreflippers and muzzle. Lesions were accompanied by severe lymphadenopathy and development of <span class="hlt">systemic</span> clinical signs despite therapy using itraconazole and later voriconazole. Histopathologic evaluation of biopsies revealed granulomatous dermatitis due to infection by fungus-producing yeast cells in tissue. Isolation attempts, using biopsied skin and tissue samples collected at necropsy, failed to yield growth of a fungus producing yeast cells like those in histologic section. Consensus polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests of biopsied skin for fungal DNA produced an amplicon having significant sequence identity with a Cystofilobasidiales, a fungus belonging to a subclade that includes several Cryptococcus spp. Histopathologic evaluation of necropsy tissues revealed a <span class="hlt">systemic</span> mycosis with yeast cells disseminated throughout subcutis, lymph nodes, and viscera. Hepatic necrosis was identified associated with acute liver failure, possibly from the voriconazole administration. This is the first report documenting the clinical presentation, treatment, and pathologic findings of infection associated with Cystofilobasidiales in a marine mammal and serves to expand the understanding of mycoses in pinnipeds. PMID:22448522</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.B22B..02A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.B22B..02A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evolutionary strategies of cells and viruses in deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> revealed through comparative metagenomics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, R.; Sogin, M. L.; Baross, J. A.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal vent habitat hosts a diverse community of archaea and bacteria that withstand extreme fluctuations in environmental conditions. Abundant viruses in these <span class="hlt">systems</span> must also withstand these environmental extremes, and a high proportion of viruses in these <span class="hlt">systems</span> are lysogenic. Comparative analysis of a cellular and viral metagenome from a diffuse flow hydrothermal vent has provided insights into the evolutionary strategies of both cells and viruses in hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span>. We detected numerous mobile elements in the viral and cellular gene pools as well as a large number of prophage in the cellular fraction. We show that the hydrothermal vent viral gene pool is relatively enriched in genes related to energy metabolism, a feature that is unique to the hydrothermal vent viral gene pool compared to viral gene pools from other environments, indicating a potential for integrated prophage to enhance host metabolic flexibility. We also detected stronger purifying selection in the viral versus cellular gene pool, indicating selection pressures that promote prolonged viral integration in the host. Our results support the hypothesis that viruses enhance host genomic plasticity and adaptability in this extreme and dynamic environment. Finally, we will discuss general implications of this work for understanding the viral impact on biogeochemical cycles and evolutionary trajectories of microbial populations in the deep subsurface biosphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S13C2035S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFM.S13C2035S"><span id="translatedtitle">Real-time seismic observation using new compact ocean bottom cabled <span class="hlt">system</span> in Japan <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shinohara, M.; Kanazawa, T.; Yamada, T.; Sakai, S.; Shiobara, H.; Mochizuki, K.; Machida, Y.; Shinbo, T.; Nakahigashi, K.; Utada, H.; Yamazaki, K.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>Ocean Bottom Cabled Seismometers (OBCS), where the sensors are equipped in a hermetically-sealed case and these cases are connected with cables, is the best solution for seismic observation in marine area. A few OBCSs, consisting of a few cabled seismometers, were developed based on a submarine telecommunication cable technology, and have been used over the past 25 years in Japan. Although the existing OBCSs have realized a significant contribution to the study of seismic activity, the number of seismometers is insufficient for high resolution observations of a marine area. Therefore we developed a new OBCS <span class="hlt">system</span> to make a high density observation in the marine areas. In Japan, GPS observations with a dense station distribution revealed that the central coastal area of the Japan <span class="hlt">Sea</span> has large strain rate, which is named the Niigata-Kobe Tectonic Zone (NKTZ). The formation of the NKTZ is believed to be related to the plate subduction. In the NKTZ, there were several large earthquakes with magnitude greater than 7. For example, Niigata earthquake occurred in 1963, and gave large damage. Because the source region of the Niigata earthquake was located in the Japan <span class="hlt">Sea</span> off Niigata, central Japan and the number of seismic stations of the regional seismic network was limited at the occurrence, characteristics of the earthquake have not been revealed well. There is a possibility to clarify the nature of the Niigata earthquake by detailed research of the seismic activity at the present. Therefore we decided to install the first practical OBCS <span class="hlt">system</span> in the source area of the Niigata earthquake. The developed OBCS uses small three accelerometers as a seismic sensor. The CS is controlled by Linux <span class="hlt">system</span>. Data collected with a time stamp at each CS are transmitted using standard IP data transmission to landing station. The network of the OBCS has redundant configuration. The electronics unit, three seismometers, power unit including zener diodes, and six SPFs are mounted into</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.B13B0476L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013AGUFM.B13B0476L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial heterotrophy coupled to Fe-S-As cycling in a shallow-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lu, G.; Amend, J.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>To date, there are only a few known heterotrophic arsenite oxidizers and arsenate reducers. They utilize organic compounds as their carbon source and/or as important electron donors in the transfer arsenic in high temperature environments. Arsenic in hydrothermal vent <span class="hlt">systems</span> can be immobilized at low temperatures through (ad)sorption on iron oxide and other iron-bearing minerals. Interactions with sulfur species can also affect the redox state of arsenic species. A better understanding of microbially-catalyzed reactions involving carbon, arsenic, iron and sulfur would provide constraints on the mobility of arsenic in a wide variety of natural and engineered <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The aim of this study is to establish links between microbial distribution and in situ Fe-S-As cycling processes in a shallow-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal vent <span class="hlt">system</span>. We investigated three shallow-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal vents, Champagne Hot Spring (CHS), Soufriere Spring (SOU) and Portsmouth Spring (PM), located off the western coast of Dominica, Lesser Antilles. CHS and SOU are characterized by moderate temperatures (46oC and 55oC, respectively), and PM is substantially hotter (~90-111 oC). Two sediment cores (one close to and one far from the thermal source) were collected from CHS and from SOU. Porewaters in both background cores had low concentrations of arsenic (mostly As3+, to a lesser extent As5+, DMA, MMA) and ferrous iron. The arsenic concentrations (predominantly As3+) in the CHS high temperature core were 30-90 nM, tracking with dissolved iron. Similar to CHS, the arsenic concentration in the SOU high temperature core was dominated by As3+ and controlled by ferrous iron. However, the arsenic concentration at SOU is comparatively higher, up to 1.9 mM. At the hotter and deeper PM site, highly elevated arsenic levels (1-2.5 mM) were measured, values that are among the highest arsenic concentrations ever reported in a marine hydrothermal <span class="hlt">system</span>. Several autotrophic and heterotrophic media at two pHs (5.5 and 8</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS11A1175C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMOS11A1175C"><span id="translatedtitle">Sedimentary modeling and analysis of petroleum <span class="hlt">system</span> of the upper Tertiary sequences in southern Ulleung sedimentary Basin, East <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (<span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cheong, D.; Kim, D.; Kim, Y.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>The block 6-1 located in the southwestern margin of the Ulleung basin, East <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (<span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Japan) is an area where recently produces commercial natural gas and condensate. A total of 17 exploratory wells have been drilled, and also many seismic explorations have been carried out since early 1970s. Among the wells and seismic sections, the Gorae 1 well and a seismic section through the Gorae 1-2 well were chosen for this simulation work. Then, a 2-D graphic simulation using SEDPAK elucidates the evolution, burial history and diagenesis of the sedimentary sequence. The study area is a suitable place for modeling a petroleum <span class="hlt">system</span> and evaluating hydrocarbon potential of reservoir. Shale as a source rock is about 3500m deep from <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor, and sandstones interbedded with thin mud layers are distributed as potential reservoir rocks from 3,500m to 2,000m deep. On top of that, shales cover as seal rocks and overburden rocks upto 900m deep. Input data(<span class="hlt">sea</span> level, sediment supply, subsidence rate, etc) for the simulation was taken from several previous published papers including the well and seismic data, and the thermal maturity of the sediment was calculated from known thermal gradient data. In this study area, gas and condensate have been found and commercially produced, and the result of the simulation also shows that there is a gas window between 4000m and 6000m deep, so that three possible interpretations can be inferred from the simulation result. First, oil has already moved and gone to the southeastern area along uplifting zones. Or second, oil has never been generated because organic matter is kerogen type 3, and or finally, generated oil has been converted into gas by thermally overcooking. SEDPAK has an advantage that it provides the timing and depth information of generated oil and gas with TTI values even though it has a limit which itself can not perform geochemical modeling to analyze thermal maturity level of source rocks. Based on the result of our simulation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813759K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1813759K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonics of East Siberian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Basin and its influence on petroleum <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Karpov, Yury; Antonina, Stoupakova; Anna, Suslova; Mariia, Agasheva</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The East Siberian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> basin (ESSB) is the largest part of the Siberian Arctic shelf, extending for over 1000 km from New Siberian Islands archipelago to Wrangel Island. Nowadays East Siberian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> margin is considered as a region with probable high petroleum potential. This part of Russian Arctic shelf is the least studied. The major problems in geological investigation of East Siberian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> shelf are absence of deep wells in area and low seismic exploration maturity. Only general conclusions on its geology and hydrocarbon <span class="hlt">systems</span> can be drawn based on limited seismic, gravity and magnetic data, supported by projection of onshore geological data to offshore. So, that's why now only complex geological and seismic stratigraphy interpretations are provided. Today we have several concepts and can summarize the tectonic history of the basin. The basin is filled with siliclastic sediments. In the deepest depocentres sediments thickness exceed 8 km in average. Seismic data was interpreted using methods of seismic stratigraphy. Stratigraphic interpretation was possible to achieve because seismic reflections follow chronostratigraphic correlations. Finally, main seismic horizons were indicated. Each indicated horizon follows regional stratigraphic unconformity. In case of absence of deep wells in ESSB, we can only prove possible source rocks by projection of data about New Siberian Islands archipelago source rocks on offshore. The petroleum potential of these rocks was investigated by several authors [1, 2, 3]. Perspective structures, investigated in ESSB were founded out by comparing seismogeological cross-sections with explored analogs in other Russian and foreign onshore and offshore basins. The majority of structures could be connected with stratigraphic and fault traps. New data on possible petroleum plays was analyzed, large massif of data on geology and tectonic history of the region was collected, so now we can use method of basin modelling to evaluate hydrocarbon</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C51A0673B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C51A0673B"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmosphere - <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Coupling in the Navy's Global Coupled Modeling <span class="hlt">System</span>: Diagnosing Polar Prediction using the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice models, CICE4 and CICE5, coupled with the NAVGEM Atmospheric Model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barton, N. P.; Chen, J.; Whitcomb, T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The United States Naval Research Laboratory is developing a global coupled model for sub-seasonal to seasonal predictions under the Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Prediction Capability national program. The Navy's full Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> coupled model has a dynamic atmosphere, ocean, and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. This presentation only examines atmosphere - <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice coupling without using a dynamic ocean to isolate interactions. The Navy's Global Environmental Model (NAVGEM) is used for the atmospheric model and two versions of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Community <span class="hlt">sea</span> ICe Code (CICE version 4 and 5) are used for <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice model. Data assimilative five day hindcasts are performed from March 2014 to September 2014 using NAVGEM-CICE4 and NAVGEM-CICE5 configurations. Differences in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and low-level temperatures are examined in detail. The NAVGEM-CICE5 configuration results in a larger coverage of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice compared to the NAVGEM-CICE4 configuration, and this is consistent with thicker <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in the NAVGEM-CICE5 runs. Low-level temperatures in the NAVGEM-CICE4 are greater during Northern Hemisphere spring compared to the NAVGEM-CICE5 configuration. NAVGEM-CICE5 has larger albedos compared to the NAVGEM-CICE4 configuration and may be a primary cause in the lower low-level temperatures. Lastly, these results are discussed in relation to the stand-alone NAVGEM.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/624049','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/624049"><span id="translatedtitle">CO{sub 2} supply from deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Shitashima, Kiminori</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>Deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> are aimed as an on-site field analysis on the behavior and diffusion of CO{sub 2} in deep ocean. Through ocean ridge volcanism, a large amount of elements including carbon as a form of CO{sub 2} are supplied to deep ocean. Hydrothermal vent fluids at highly enriched in CO{sub 2} and show low pH ({approximately} pH 3) relative to seawater. Total carbonate, total CO{sub 2} in seawater, and pH were determined in samples at hydrothermal active area in S-EPR. The concentration of total carbonate and pH in the hydrothermal fluid samples ranged from 16 to 5 mM and from 3.1 to 7.6, respectively. The hydrothermal fluids discharged from the vents were rapidly diluted with ambient seawater, therefore total carbonate concentration and pH value in the plume waters become close to that of ambient seawater near the vents. The positive anomaly of total carbonate and negative anomaly of pH associated with hydrothermal plumes were observed on the seafloor along S-EPR axis. The diffusion of total carbonate plumes both westward and eastward in the bottom water along 15{degree}S across the S-EPR were also detected, but pH anomalies were not obtained in the plume. These suggest the possibility of discharging of CO{sub 2} through hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> to the ocean. Recent estimation of CO{sub 2} fluxes to the ocean through MOR was calculated at 0.7--15 {times} 10{sup 12} mol C year{sup {minus}1}. These values are 3--4 orders of magnitude smaller than the annual CO{sub 2} fluxes through terrestrial and marine respiration, therefore the importance of CO{sub 2} input from MOR on oceanic carbon cycle is thus minimal on shorter-term time scale. However, the CO{sub 2} input from MOR is significant at 10{sup 6}--10{sup 7} years scales, and CO{sub 2} concentration in hydrothermal fluids at hotspot and back-arc basin is 10--100 times higher than that of MOR. The flux of CO{sub 2} from deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> to the ocean may be significant.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EP%26S...68...13N&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EP%26S...68...13N&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Design and challenges for a tsunami early warning <span class="hlt">system</span> in the Marmara <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Necmioğlu, Öcal</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Since 1900, around 90,000 people have lost their lives in 76 earthquakes in Turkey, with a total affected population of around 7 million and direct losses of around 25 billion USD. Based on a time-dependent model that includes coseismic and post-seismic effects of the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake with moment magnitude Mw = 7.4, Parsons (J Geophys Res. 109, 2004) concluded that the probability of an earthquake with Mw > 7 in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Marmara near Istanbul is 35 to 70 % in the next 30 years. According to a 2011 study, an earthquake with Mw = 7.25 on the Main Marmara Fault is expected to heavily damage or destroy 2 to 4 % of around 1,000,000 buildings in Istanbul with a population around 13 million, with 9 to 15 % of the buildings receiving medium damage and 20 to 34 % of the buildings damaged lightly (Erdik, Science 341:72, 2013). In the absence of adequate post-earthquake assembly areas especially in the heavily urbanized Istanbul, it is evident that after a major earthquake, especially in the coastal parts of the city, citizens would be storming to landfill assembly and recreational areas. Besides earthquakes, around 30 tsunamis have been reported by Altınok et al. (Natural Hazards Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Science 11:273-293, 2011) in the Marmara <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Among those, catastrophic earthquakes such as 1509, 1766, and 1894 resulted in considerable tsunamis and some damage. The latest tsunami observed in Marmara was due to a triggered submarine landslide of the 1999 Mw = 7.4 Kocaeli earthquake which led to reported run-up heights of 1-3 m in most places (Tinti et al., Marine Geology 225:311-330, 2006). In this study, I propose a design for a tsunami warning <span class="hlt">system</span> specific for the Marmara region that is strongly coupled with the earthquake early warning <span class="hlt">system</span> (due to the short arrival times of tsunami) and stakeholders of the tsunami mitigation activities, such as local and regional components of disaster and emergency management and civil protection units, to ensure that the citizens</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009BGD.....611187S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009BGD.....611187S"><span id="translatedtitle">Plankton in the open Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: a review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siokou-Frangou, I.; Christaki, U.; Mazzocchi, M. G.; Montresor, M.; Ribera D'Alcalá, M.; Vaqué, D.; Zingone, A.</p> <p>2009-11-01</p> <p>We present an overview of the plankton studies conducted during the last 25 years in the epipelagic offshore waters of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. This quasi-enclosed <span class="hlt">sea</span> is characterized by a rich and complex physical dynamics that includes unique thermohaline features, particular multilayer circulation, topographic gyres, and meso- and sub-mesoscale activity. Recent investigations have basically confirmed the long-recognised oligotrophic character of this <span class="hlt">sea</span>, which enhances along both the west-east, and the north-south directions. Nutrient availability is low, especially for phosphorous (N:P up to 60), although limitation may be relaxed by inputs from highly populated coasts and from the atmosphere. Phytoplankton biomass as chl-a, generally displays low values (less than 0.2 μg chl-a l-1) over large areas, with a modest late winter increase. A large bloom (up to 3 μg l-1) throughout the late winter and early spring is only observed in the NW area. Relatively high biomass peaks are also recorded in fronts and cyclonic gyres. A deep chlorophyll maximum is a~permanent feature for the whole basin (except during the late winter mixing). It progressively deepens from the <span class="hlt">Alboran</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (30 m) to the easternmost Levantine basin (120 m). Primary production reveals a similar west-east decreasing trend and ranges from 59 to 150 g C m-2 y-1 (in situ measurements). Overall the basin is largely dominated by small-sized autotrophs, microheterotrophs and egg-carrying copepod species. The phytoplankton, the microbial (both autotrophic and heterotrophic) and the zooplankton components reveal a considerable diversity and variability over spatial and temporal scales, the latter less explored though. Examples are the wide diversity of dinoflagellates and coccolithophores, the multifarious role of diatoms or picoeukaryotes, and the distinct seasonal or spatial patterns of the species-reach copepod genera or families which dominate in the basin. Major dissimilarities between western and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGeo....7.1543S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010BGeo....7.1543S"><span id="translatedtitle">Plankton in the open Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: a review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siokou-Frangou, I.; Christaki, U.; Mazzocchi, M. G.; Montresor, M.; Ribera D'Alcalá, M.; Vaqué, D.; Zingone, A.</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>We present an overview of the plankton studies conducted during the last 25 years in the epipelagic offshore waters of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. This quasi-enclosed <span class="hlt">sea</span> is characterized by a rich and complex physical dynamics with distinctive traits, especially in regard to the thermohaline circulation. Recent investigations have basically confirmed the long-recognised oligotrophic nature of this <span class="hlt">sea</span>, which increases along both the west-east and the north-south directions. Nutrient availability is low, especially for phosphorous (N:P up to 60), though this limitation may be buffered by inputs from highly populated coasts and from the atmosphere. Phytoplankton biomass, as chl a, generally displays low values (less than 0.2 μg chl a l-1) over large areas, with a modest late winter increase. A large bloom (up to 3 μg l-1) is observed throughout the late winter and spring exclusively in the NW area. Relatively high biomass values are recorded in fronts and cyclonic gyres. A deep chlorophyll maximum is a permanent feature for the whole basin, except during the late winter mixing. It is found at increasingly greater depths ranging from 30 m in the <span class="hlt">Alboran</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span> to 120 m in the easternmost Levantine basin. Primary production reveals a west-east decreasing trend and ranges between 59 and 150 g C m-2 y-1 (in situ measurements). Overall, the basin is largely dominated by small autotrophs, microheterotrophs and egg-carrying copepod species. The microorganisms (phytoplankton, viruses, bacteria, flagellates and ciliates) and zooplankton components reveal a considerable diversity and variability over spatial and temporal scales, although the latter is poorly studied. Examples are the wide diversity of dinoflagellates and coccolithophores, the multifarious role of diatoms or picoeukaryotes, and the distinct seasonal or spatial patterns of the species-rich copepod genera or families which dominate the basin. Major dissimilarities between western and eastern basins have been</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1817244L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1817244L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface elevation from the analysis of the data collected by a wave radar <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ludeno, Giovanni; Soldovieri, Francesco; Serafino, Francesco; Lugni, Claudio; Fucile, Fabio; Bulian, Gabriele</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>X-band radar <span class="hlt">system</span> is able to provide information about direction and intensity of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface currents and dominant waves in a range of few kilometers from the observation point (up to 3 nautical miles). This capability, together with their flexibility and low cost, makes these devices useful tools for the <span class="hlt">sea</span> monitoring either coastal or off-shore area. The data collected from wave radar <span class="hlt">system</span> can be analyzed by using the inversion strategy presented in [1,2] to obtain the estimation of the following <span class="hlt">sea</span> parameters: peak wave direction; peak period; peak wavelength; significant wave height; <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface current and bathymetry. The estimation of the significant wave height represents a limitation of the wave radar <span class="hlt">system</span> because of the radar backscatter is not directly related to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface elevation. In fact, in the last period, substantial research has been carried out to estimate significant wave height from radar images either with or without calibration using in-situ measurements. In this work, we will present two alternative approaches for the reconstruction of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface elevation from wave radar images. In particular, the first approach is based on the basis of an approximated version of the modulation transfer function (MTF) tuned from a series of numerical simulation, following the line of[3]. The second approach is based on the inversion of radar images using a direct regularised least square technique. Assuming a linearised model for the tilt modulation, the <span class="hlt">sea</span> elevation has been reconstructed as a least square fitting of the radar imaging data[4]. References [1]F. Serafino, C. Lugni, and F. Soldovieri, "A novel strategy for the surface current determination from marine X-band radar data," IEEE Geosci.Remote Sens. Lett., vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 231-235, Apr. 2010. [2]Ludeno, G., Brandini, C., Lugni, C., Arturi, D., Natale, A., Soldovieri, F., Serafino, F. (2014). Remocean <span class="hlt">System</span> for the Detection of the Reflected Waves from the Costa</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2780860','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2780860"><span id="translatedtitle">Ethnomedicine in healthcare <span class="hlt">systems</span> of the world: a Semester at <span class="hlt">Sea</span> pilot survey in 11 countries</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Muleady-Mecham, Nancy E.; Schley, Stephanie</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background An understanding and appreciation for the varied healthcare <span class="hlt">systems</span> in use throughout the world are increasingly vital for medical personnel as patient populations are now composed of ethnically diverse people with wide-ranging belief <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Objective While not a statistically valid survey, this pilot study gives a global overview of healthcare differences around the world. Design A pilot study of 459 individuals from 11 different countries around the world was administered by 33 students in the upper division course, People, Pathology, and World Medicine from Semester at <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Fall 2007, to ascertain trends in healthcare therapies. Open-ended surveys were conducted in English, through an interpreter, or in the native language. Results Western hospital use ranked highly for all countries, while ethnomedical therapies were utilized to a lesser degree. Among the findings, mainland China exhibited the greatest overall percentage of ethnomedical therapies, while the island of Hong Kong, the largest use of Western hospitals. Conclusions The figures and trends from the surveys suggest the importance of understanding diverse cultural healthcare beliefs when treating individuals of different ethnic backgrounds. The study also revealed the increasingly complex and multisystem-based medical treatments being used internationally. PMID:20027263</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JHyd..536..222B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016JHyd..536..222B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Response of a coastal hydrogeological <span class="hlt">system</span> to a rapid decline in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level; the case of Zuqim springs - The largest discharge area along the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Burg, Avihu; Yechieli, Yoseph; Galili, Udi</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>The almost instantaneous response of a natural on-shore groundwater <span class="hlt">system</span> to an extremely rapid drop in the level of an adjacent lake is described in this study. The study is focused on the Zuqim (Feshcha) spring complex located on the northwestern shore of the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, which exhibits a drop of tens of meters in its water level over the last few decades. In this exceptional "field lab", fluctuations and trends in the flow regime are recognized, as well as the contemporaneous geochemical variations. Lithological facies variations have a pronounced effect on the underground flow regime. The following main processes were recognized: (a) slight shifting of the long-standing springs eastward, following the retreating shore; (b) extension of the hydrologic <span class="hlt">system</span> southward without significant change in the total discharge of the entire spring complex. The new seepages are characterized by high variability in salinity; and (c) continuous refreshing of the spring water as a result of prolonged flushing of old trapped brines. The water of the Zuqim springs lie on mixing lines between two local brine types and diluted brine of the Lisan Lake - the precursor of the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Based on our findings, future development processes in the spring complex are predicted, which is essential because of their impact on the endemic ecosystem that relies on this water. In addition, continuation of the rapid drop in lake level is expected to cause intensification of erosional processes, such as deepening of flow gullies. Shifting of the entire hydrological <span class="hlt">system</span> southward and migration along with the retreating shore is also expected to continue, as well as the continuous decrease in the water salinity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213380S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213380S"><span id="translatedtitle">Nutrients Seasonal Variability and Carbonate <span class="hlt">System</span> Dynamics in the Laptev <span class="hlt">Sea</span> coastal zone</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Savelieva, Nina; Pipko, Irina; Semiletov, Igor</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The Arctic ocean has the broadest shelf in the World ocean: the continental shelves occupy about 36% of the Arctic oceanic area. Morever, greater than 90% of all organic carbon burial occurs in sediments depositing on deltas, continental shelves , and upper continental slopes, and the significant portion of organic carbon withdraw is occurred over the Siberian shelf (Macdonald et al., 2008). The coastal zone plays an important role in the East Siberian Arctic land-shelf-basin <span class="hlt">system</span>, because the major transport of fresh water, dissolved and solid material into the Arctic Ocean is determined by 1) the riverine discharges, and 2) coastal erosion. Production in the Arctic is highly seasonal, and it is important to consider the magnitude of seasonal variations in nutrients. Here we present the results (nutrients, parameters of the carbonate <span class="hlt">system</span>, and oxygen) obtained during ice-covered season (April of 2002 and 2007) and open water season (September of 2000 and 2005) over the south-eastern part of the Laptev <span class="hlt">Sea</span> which is under strong influence of the Lena river and coastal erosion. High spatial-temporal variability in nutrients (ammonium, nitrates, nitrites, phosphate, and silicates) and carbonate parameters (pH, Talk, and pCO2) distributions has been found. We suggest that relatively high (vs entire oligotrophic Laptev and East Siberian <span class="hlt">seas</span>) productivity of the coastal zone is related not only to the influence of the river inputs, but also the coastal erosion, enriching the coastal waters in nutrients and terrestrial organic matter and to the close coupling between the water and sediment, assuring a rapid reutilization of regenerated elements. Highest anomalies of all parameters (for instance: pCO2 up to 4000mkatm) are associated with the areas strongly affected by coastal erosion. References Macdonald R.W., Anderson L.G., Christensen J.P., Miller L.A., Semiletov I.P., and R. Stein, 2008. The Arctic Ocean: budgets and fluxes, In "Carbon and Nutrient Fluxes in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4549L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.4549L"><span id="translatedtitle">Deltaic Depositional <span class="hlt">Systems</span>, Evolution Characteristics, and Petroleum Potential, Palaeogene Sub-Basin, South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Yuan; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Guotao</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Deltaic depositional <span class="hlt">systems</span> are detailed characterized by morphology and facies in a Palaeogene continental sub-basin of Beibuwan Basin, South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Based on examination of 435 m of conventional cores from 30 wells, three major types of deltaic facies have been recognized: delta, beach and shoreface. Morphology and facies asymmetry between the down-drift and the up-drift sides present a typical asymmetric delta <span class="hlt">system</span>:1) the down-rift, sourced primarily by the feeding river, are influenced by mixed river and wave processes. Deposits on this side are muddy and consist of barrier, bar, bay-fill, and bayhead delta facies with variable bioturbation intensity; 2)the up-rift, in contrast, is sourced by a second sediment source and typically consists of laterally continuous sandy beach and shoreface facies. Finally, two fundamentally different depositional models are established and reflect a different style of sequence stratigraphic patterns: 1) Multiple-stage faults slopes developed in the down-rift side feed fine grained sediment into two stages channelized front deltaic <span class="hlt">system</span>; 2) Flexure slope break of the up-rift side, combining with deeper gradual slopes, conversely, feed coarser grained sediment from larger drainages into sandy beach and shoreface <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Such a distinction has well explained the differentiation of the proven hydrocarbon reserves because the up-rift consists of well-sorted, mature, and laterally continuous homogeneous beach-shoreface reservoirs, whereas the down-rift, in contrast, is muddier and consists of less continuous, less mature, heterolithic reservoirs. The Delta asymmetry concepts and models don't only challenge the traditional definition of deltas in Fushan sub-basin, but also provides strong theoretical support for the future exploration. This process-based model may be applicable to many deep-water settings and provides a framework within which to interpret the stratigraphic and spatial distribution of these complex deposits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C51A0668P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.C51A0668P"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Ice Shelf Meltwater on Antarctic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice and the Southern Ocean in an Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pauling, A.; Bitz, C. M.; Smith, I.; Langhorne, P.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>It has been suggested that recent Antarctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice expansion resulted from an increase in fresh water reaching the Southern Ocean. This presentation investigates this conjecture in an Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Model. The freshwater flux from ice sheet and ice shelf mass imbalance is largely missing in models that participated in the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). However, CMIP5 models do account for the fresh water from precipitation minus evaporation (P-E). On average in CMIP5 models P- E reaching the Southern Ocean has increased to a present value of about 2600 Gt yr-1 greater than pre-industrial times and 3-8 times larger than estimates of the mass imbalance of Antarctic ice sheets and shelves. Two sets of model experiments were conducted from 1980-2013 in CESM1-CAM5 artificially distributing fresh water either at the ocean surface according to an estimate of iceberg melt, or at the ice shelf fronts at depth. An anomalous reduction in vertical advection of heat into the surface mixed layer resulted in <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface cooling at high southern latitudes, and an associated increase in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area. A freshwater enhancement of 1780 Gt yr-1 (approximately 1.3 times either present day basal melt or iceberg calving freshwater fluxes) raised the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice total area by 1×106 km2. Yet, even a freshwater enhancement up to 2670 Gt yr-1 was insufficient to offset the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice decline due to anthropogenic forcing for any period of 20 years or longer. Further, the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice response was found to be insensitive to the depth of fresh water injection.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984HM.....38..189S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1984HM.....38..189S"><span id="translatedtitle">Amino-acid uptake by mussels, Mytilus edulis, from natural <span class="hlt">sea</span> water in a flow-through <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Siebers, D.; Winkler, A.</p> <p>1984-03-01</p> <p>Natural Wadden <span class="hlt">Sea</span> water taken from the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (island of Sylt) was pumped at rates of 150 and 300 l h-1 through a 4 l plexiglass tube mounted on a wooden tripod on the beach. The tube was densely filled with numerous cleaned mussels, Mytilus edulis. HPLC analysis of <span class="hlt">sea</span> water showed that total dissolved amino acids are patchily distributed, varying by 100 % within 15 min, though proportions of individual amino acids were remarkably constant. Total amino-acid concentrations were 1528±669 nM (N=3) in October 1983 and 1198±597 nM (N=7) in July 1984. Samples taken at the entrance and the outlet of the experimental mussel bed revealed that the mussels had taken up 29 to 66 % of the amino acids dissolved in <span class="hlt">sea</span> water. Uptake was observed for all amino acids detected in the chromatograms. 78 % of uptake resulted from the 5 most concentrated amino acids: serine, alanine, glycine/threonine, ornithine, aspartic acid. The nutritional profit obtained from uptake of dissolved amino acids amounted to 12 % (N=5, range 5 23 %, flow rate 150 l h-1) and to 24 % (N=3, range 13 38 %, flow rate 300 l h-1) of metabolic rate. The present data suggest that amino-acid concentration predominantly determines the magnitude of the nutritional profit obtained from uptake, and to a smaller extent the flow rate. These findings are in contrast to results of previous studies on Asterias rubens, interacting in small-volume closed <span class="hlt">systems</span> with the natural bacterial <span class="hlt">sea</span> water flora (Siebers, 1982). In these experiments, bacteria, due to rapid uptake, outcompeted the <span class="hlt">sea</span> stars in absorption of dissolved amino acids. The present results suggest that bivalve mussels, can, due to their large gill surface areas and the great amounts of water pumped through their mantle cavity, successfully compete with bacteria in uptake of dissolved organic matter. Mussels, therefore, suggestedly play an important role in cycling dissolved organic matter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP43D0888L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMEP43D0888L"><span id="translatedtitle">From the Highest to the Deepest: A River-<span class="hlt">Sea</span> Dispersal <span class="hlt">System</span> that Links A Mountainous Catchment to the Deep-<span class="hlt">Sea</span> Basin (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Liu, J. T.; Hsu, R. T.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>. Consequently, a new paradigm is proposed that ';fresh sediments exported from highly disturbed catchments during floods are old sediments'. The upper reaches of the canyon act as a sink for coarser TC deposits (turbidites). Finer turbidites are abundant in the middle and lower reaches. These findings also suggest rapid transport of fluvial sediment from the GPR down the GPSC, delivered by hyperpycnal TCs. Earthquake-triggered episodic gravity flows are also important transport agents of reworked marine sediment in the GPSC. The GPR-GPSC represents a type of source-to-sink <span class="hlt">systems</span> in which terrestrial sediment in a mountainous catchment is promptly removed and transported to the river mouth by fluvial processes, and then efficiently and quickly transported to the deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> by turbidity currents along a submarine conduit during episodic typhoon events. This is also a pathway by which fresh terrestrial carbon could be quickly and effectively delivered to the deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> with little oxidation, which is a substantial step in the sequestration of carbon.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7259582','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/7259582"><span id="translatedtitle">The response of low to moderate sediment supply incised valley <span class="hlt">systems</span> to episodic <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rises</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Thomas, M.A.; Anderson, J.B.; Siringan, F.P. )</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>Low to moderate sediment supply incised valley <span class="hlt">systems</span> (e.g., the Trinity, Sabine, and Lavaca rivers) are characterized by mud-dominated estuarine fill and by sedimentation that is limited to the valley cut during low <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. In contrast, within the high sediment supply Brazos valley <span class="hlt">system</span> substantial sedimentation has occurred between the lowstand valleys for at least the last 7000 years. Within the Trinity/Sabine incised valley <span class="hlt">system</span>, sand prone facies include fluvial and tidal inlet deposits. Fluvial deposits are relatively uniform in thickness and distribution, while tidal inlets form discontinuous and pod-like deposits. The valley-fill stratigraphy consists of transgressive parasequences, whose bounding flooding surfaces can be mapped with core and high resolution seismic data. Each parasequences is represented by paired upper bay marsh/bayhead delta and tidal inlet/flood tidal delta facies. Coeval shoreline facies are reworked during the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise that terminates a particular parasequence. Over 200 sediment cores from the study area are used to define the shapes of these sand bodies, and to establish their origin based on grain sizes, sedimentary structures, and faunal assemblages. The stratigraphy interpreted from these low to moderate sediment supply incised valley <span class="hlt">systems</span> imply <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rose episodically during the last transgression. Rapid <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rises are responsible for development of isolated shelf sand deposits and may correlate to stream piracy events in the nearby Brazos <span class="hlt">system</span>. Ongoing investigations concentrate on the distal portions of the incised valleys where they become the feeders to shelf margin deposits within the lowstand <span class="hlt">systems</span> tract.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.9341S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..17.9341S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Integrated analysis of beach ridge and lagoon <span class="hlt">systems</span> as indicator of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level changes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sander, Lasse; Hede, Mikkel U.; Fruergaard, Mikkel; Morigi, Caterina; Johannessen, Peter N.; Nielsen, Lars; Clemmensen, Lars B.; Nielsen, Lars H.; Pejrup, Morten</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>Beach ridges and lagoons are common features of the modern coastal landscape in much of Denmark and represent an important part of the Holocene raised marine deposits. We here present our results from investigations into the possibilities of retrieving continuous relative <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level (RSL) information from these sedimentary archives, as facilitated by the analysis of surface morphology, coring, subsurface imaging, absolute chronology, and modern analogues. The island of Samsø (55˚51'N, 10˚36'E) was chosen as a case study example. While each of the used archives merely covers a part of the mid to late Holocene developments, their joint analysis allows identifying and separating periods of rapid RSL rise, stability and fall over most of the island's marine stage. We present possible correlations of the data from the lagoons with data from a wide beach-ridge <span class="hlt">system</span> and suggest causal relations of the RSL reconstruction with the spatial arrangements of marine and glacial landforms on Samsø. The integrated use of a geographical perspective combined with geological precision and methodology has proven to be of great value for understanding temporal, spatial, and process relations in the investigated coastal environment. The study stresses the value of analyzing genetically independent though complementary sedimentary archives to retrieve more complete and potentially more robust results. The presented approach may be useful in microtidal, sediment-surplus environments with a transgressive-regressive Holocene RSL history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510133D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1510133D"><span id="translatedtitle">The Etesian wind <span class="hlt">system</span> and wind energy potential over the Aegean <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dafka, Stella; Xoplaki, Elena; Garcia-Bustamante, Elena; Toreti, Andrea; Zanis, Prodromos; Luterbacher, Juerg</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The Mediterranean region lies in an area of great climatic interest since it is influenced by some of the most relevant mechanisms of the global climate <span class="hlt">system</span>. In the frame of the three Europe 2020 priorities for a smart, sustainable and inclusive economy delivering high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion, the Mediterranean energy plan is of paramount importance at the European level, being an area with a significant potential for renewable energy from natural sources that could play an important role in responding to climate change effects over the region. We present preliminary results on a study of the Etesian winds in the past, present and future time. We investigate the variability and predictability of the wind field over the Aegean. Statistical downscaling based on several methodologies will be applied (e.g. canonical correlation analysis and multiple linear regression). Instrumental time series, Era-Interim and the 20CR reanalyses will be used. Large-scale climate drivers as well as the influence of local/regional factors and their interaction with the Etesian wind field will be addressed. Finally, the Etesian wind resources on the present and future climate will be assessed in order to identify the potential areas suitable for the establishment of wind farms and the production of wind power in the Aegean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4895299','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4895299"><span id="translatedtitle">Temporal and spatial analysis of enteric nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> regeneration in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumber Holothuria glaberrima</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tossas, Karen; Qi‐Huang, Sunny; Cuyar, Eugenia</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Abstract There is limited information on the regeneration of the enteric nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> (ENS) following major reconstruction of the digestive tract. We have studied ENS regeneration in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumber Holothuria glaberrima which undergoes an organogenic process forming a new digestive tract at the tip of the mesentery. Our results show that (1) a degeneration of nerve fibers occurs early in the regeneration process, prior to eventual regeneration; (2) nerve fibers that innervate the regenerating intestine are of extrinsic and intrinsic origin; (3) innervation by extrinsic fibers occurs in a gradient that begins in the proximal area of the regenerate; (4) late events include the appearance of nerve fibers that project from the serosa into the connective tissue and of nerve bundles in the mesothelial layer; (5) neurons and neuroendocrine cells appear early following the formation of the epithelial layers. Our results provide not only a comparative biological approach to study ENS regeneration but also an alternative point of view for the study of enteric neuropathologies and for the innervation of organs made in vitro.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24169516','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24169516"><span id="translatedtitle">Corrosion of carbon steel by bacteria from North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> offshore seawater injection <span class="hlt">systems</span>: laboratory investigation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stipanicev, Marko; Turcu, Florin; Esnault, Loïc; Rosas, Omar; Basseguy, Régine; Sztyler, Magdalena; Beech, Iwona B</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Influence of sulfidogenic bacteria, from a North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> seawater injection <span class="hlt">system</span>, on the corrosion of S235JR carbon steel was studied in a flow bioreactor; operating anaerobically for 100days with either inoculated or filtrated seawater. Deposits formed on steel placed in reactors contained magnesium and calcium minerals plus iron sulfide. The dominant biofilm-forming organism was an anaerobic bacterium, genus Caminicella, known to produce hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide. Open Circuit Potentials (OCP) of steel in the reactors was, for nearly the entire test duration, in the range -800<E(OCP)/mV (vs. SCE)<-700. Generally, the overall corrosion rate, expressed as 1/(Rp/Ω), was lower in the inoculated seawater though they varied significantly on both reactors. Initial and final corrosion rates were virtually identical, namely initial 1/(Rp/Ω)=2×10(-6)±5×10(-7) and final 1/(Rp/Ω)=1.1×10(-5)±2.5×10(-6). Measured data, including electrochemical noise transients and statistical parameters (0.05<Localized Index<1; -5<Skewness<-5; Kurtosis>45), suggested pitting on steel samples within the inoculated environment. However, the actual degree of corrosion could neither be directly correlated with the electrochemical data and nor with the steel corrosion in the filtrated seawater environment. Further laboratory tests are thought to clarify the noticed apparent discrepancies. PMID:24169516</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMED41A0831H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMED41A0831H"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of Unmanned Aircraft <span class="hlt">Systems</span> in Observations of Glaciers, Ice Sheets, <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice and Snow Fields</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Herzfeld Mayer, M. U.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Unmanned Aircraft <span class="hlt">Systems</span> (UAS) are being used increasingly in observations of the Earth, especially as such UAS become smaller, lighter and hence less expensive. In this paper, we present examples of observations of snow fields, glaciers and ice sheets and of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in the Arctic that have been collected from UAS. We further examine possibilities for instrument miniaturization, using smaller UAS and smaller sensors for collecting data. The quality and type of data is compared to that of satellite observations, observations from manned aircraft and to measurements made during field experiments on the ground. For example, a small UAS can be sent out to observe a sudden event, such as a natural catastrophe, and provide high-resolution imagery, but a satellite has the advantage of providing the same type of data over much of the Earth's surface and for several years, but the data is generally of lower resolution. Data collected on the ground typically have the best control and quality, but the survey area is usually small. Here we compare micro-topographic measurements made on snow fields the Colorado Rocky Mountains with airborne and satellite data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950049157&hterms=Solar+Energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DSolar%2BEnergy','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950049157&hterms=Solar+Energy&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3DSolar%2BEnergy"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice on the solar energy budget in the astmosphere-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ice-ocean <span class="hlt">system</span>: A model study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jin, Z.; Stamnes, Knut; Weeks, W. F.; Tsay, Si-Chee</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>A coupled one-dimensional multilayer and multistream radiative transfer model has been developed and applied to the study of radiative interactions in the atmosphere, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice, and ocean <span class="hlt">system</span>. The consistent solution of the radiative transfer equation in this coupled <span class="hlt">system</span> automatically takes into account the refraction and reflection at the air-ice interface and allows flexibility in choice of stream numbers. The solar radiation spectrum (0.25 micron-4.0 micron) is divided into 24 spectral bands to account adequately for gaseous absorption in the atmosphere. The effects of ice property changes, including salinity and density variations, as well as of melt ponds and snow cover variations over the ice on the solar energy distribution in the entire <span class="hlt">system</span> have been studied quantitatively. The results show that for bare ice it is the scattering, determined by air bubbles and brine pockets, in just a few centimeters of the top layer of ice that plays the most important role in the solar energy absorption and partitioning in the entire <span class="hlt">system</span>. Ice thickness is important to the energy distribution only when the ice is thin, while the absorption in the atmosphere is not sensitive to ice thickness exceeds about 70 cm. The presence of clouds moderates all the sensitivities of the absorptive amounts in each layer to the variations in the ice properties and ice thickness. Comparisons with observational spectral albedo values for two simple ice types are also presented.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B13H0288A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.B13H0288A"><span id="translatedtitle">Coastal wetland response to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise in a marine and fluvial estuarine <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Alizad, K.; Hagen, S. C.; Morris, J. T.; Bilskie, M. V.; Passeri, D. L.; Medeiros, S. C.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>. Most of the salt marshes become flooded and some of them migrate under higher SLR scenarios. These examples show how this tool can be used in any estuarine <span class="hlt">system</span> to project salt marsh productivity and accretion under <span class="hlt">sea</span> level change scenarios to better interpret responses and improve restoration and planning management decisions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22566951','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22566951"><span id="translatedtitle">Innate immune complexity in the purple <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin: diversity of the sp185/333 <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Smith, L Courtney</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The California purple <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is a long-lived echinoderm with a complex and sophisticated innate immune <span class="hlt">system</span>. There are several large gene families that function in immunity in this species including the Sp185/333 gene family that has ∼50 (±10) members. The family shows intriguing sequence diversity and encodes a broad array of diverse yet similar proteins. The genes have two exons of which the second encodes the mature protein and has repeats and blocks of sequence called elements. Mosaics of element patterns plus single nucleotide polymorphisms-based variants of the elements result in significant sequence diversity among the genes yet maintains similar structure among the members of the family. Sequence of a bacterial artificial chromosome insert shows a cluster of six, tightly linked Sp185/333 genes that are flanked by GA microsatellites. The sequences between the GA microsatellites in which the Sp185/333 genes and flanking regions are located, are much more similar to each other than are the sequences outside the microsatellites suggesting processes such as gene conversion, recombination, or duplication. However, close linkage does not correspond with greater sequence similarity compared to randomly cloned and sequenced genes that are unlikely to be linked. There are three segmental duplications that are bounded by GAT microsatellites and include three almost identical genes plus flanking regions. RNA editing is detectible throughout the mRNAs based on comparisons to the genes, which, in combination with putative post-translational modifications to the proteins, results in broad arrays of Sp185/333 proteins that differ among individuals. The mature proteins have an N-terminal glycine-rich region, a central RGD motif, and a C-terminal histidine-rich region. The Sp185/333 proteins are localized to the cell surface and are found within vesicles in subsets of polygonal and small phagocytes. The coelomocyte proteome shows full</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012TCD.....6.5037R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012TCD.....6.5037R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Ikaite crystal distribution in Arctic winter <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and implications for CO2 <span class="hlt">system</span> dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rysgaard, S.; Søgaard, D. H.; Cooper, M.; Pućko, M.; Lennert, K.; Papakyriakou, T. N.; Wang, F.; Geilfus, N. X.; Glud, R. N.; Ehn, J.; McGinnnis, D. F.; Attard, K.; Sievers, J.; Deming, J. W.; Barber, D.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The precipitation of ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) in polar <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice is critical to the efficiency of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice-driven carbon pump and potentially important to the global carbon cycle, yet the spatial and temporal occurrence of ikaite within the ice is poorly known. We report unique observations of ikaite in unmelted ice and vertical profiles of ikaite abundance and concentration in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice for the crucial season of winter. Ice was examined from two locations: a 1 m thick land-fast ice site and a 0.3 m thick polynya site, both in the Young Sound area (74° N, 20° W) of NE Greenland. Ikaite crystals, ranging in size from a few µm to 700 µm were observed to concentrate in the interstices between the ice platelets in both granular and columnar <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. In vertical <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice profiles from both locations, ikaite concentration determined from image analysis, decreased with depth from surfaceice values of 700-900 µmol kg-1 ice (~ 25 × 106 crystals kg-1) to bottom-layer values of 100-200 µmol kg-1 ice (1-7 × 106 kg-1), all of which are much higher (4-10 times) than those reported in the few previous studies. Direct measurements of total alkalinity (TA) in surface layers fell within the same range as ikaite concentration whereas TA concentrations in bottom layers were twice as high. This depth-related discrepancy suggests interior ice processes where ikaite crystals form in surface <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice layers and partly dissolved in bottom layers. From these findings and model calculations we relate <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice formation and melt to observed pCO2 conditions in polar surface waters, and hence, the air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> CO2 flux.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26839748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26839748"><span id="translatedtitle">Trophic ecology of <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchins in coral-rocky reef <span class="hlt">systems</span>, Ecuador.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cabanillas-Terán, Nancy; Loor-Andrade, Peggy; Rodríguez-Barreras, Ruber; Cortés, Jorge</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> urchins are important grazers and influence reef development in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Diadema mexicanum and Eucidaris thouarsii are the most important <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchins on the Ecuadorian coastal reefs. This study provided a trophic scenario for these two species of echinoids in the coral-rocky reef bottoms of the Ecuadorian coast, using stable isotopes. We evaluated the relative proportion of algal resources assimilated, and trophic niche of the two <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchins in the most southern coral-rocky reefs of the ETP in two sites with different disturbance level. Bayesian models were used to estimate the contribution of algal sources, niche breadth, and trophic overlap between the two species. The <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchins behaved as opportunistic feeders, although they showed differential resource assimilation. Eucidaris thouarsii is the dominant species in disturbed environments; likewise, their niche amplitude was broader than that of D. mexicanum when conditions were not optimal. However, there was no niche overlap between the species. The Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR) indicated that both <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchins shared limiting resources in the disturbed area, mainly Dictyota spp. (contributions of up to 85% for D. mexicanum and up to 75% for E. thouarsii). The Stable Isotope Bayesian Ellipses in R (SIBER) analysis results indicated less interspecific competition in the undisturbed site. Our results suggested a trophic niche partitioning between sympatric <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin species in coastal areas of the ETP, but the limitation of resources could lead to trophic overlap and stronger habitat degradation. PMID:26839748</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4734443','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4734443"><span id="translatedtitle">Trophic ecology of <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchins in coral-rocky reef <span class="hlt">systems</span>, Ecuador</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Loor-Andrade, Peggy; Rodríguez-Barreras, Ruber; Cortés, Jorge</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> urchins are important grazers and influence reef development in the Eastern Tropical Pacific (ETP). Diadema mexicanum and Eucidaris thouarsii are the most important <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchins on the Ecuadorian coastal reefs. This study provided a trophic scenario for these two species of echinoids in the coral-rocky reef bottoms of the Ecuadorian coast, using stable isotopes. We evaluated the relative proportion of algal resources assimilated, and trophic niche of the two <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchins in the most southern coral-rocky reefs of the ETP in two sites with different disturbance level. Bayesian models were used to estimate the contribution of algal sources, niche breadth, and trophic overlap between the two species. The <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchins behaved as opportunistic feeders, although they showed differential resource assimilation. Eucidaris thouarsii is the dominant species in disturbed environments; likewise, their niche amplitude was broader than that of D. mexicanum when conditions were not optimal. However, there was no niche overlap between the species. The Stable Isotope Analysis in R (SIAR) indicated that both <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchins shared limiting resources in the disturbed area, mainly Dictyota spp. (contributions of up to 85% for D. mexicanum and up to 75% for E. thouarsii). The Stable Isotope Bayesian Ellipses in R (SIBER) analysis results indicated less interspecific competition in the undisturbed site. Our results suggested a trophic niche partitioning between sympatric <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin species in coastal areas of the ETP, but the limitation of resources could lead to trophic overlap and stronger habitat degradation. PMID:26839748</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7980L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7980L"><span id="translatedtitle">The NEMO-AROME WMED high-resolution air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> coupled <span class="hlt">system</span>: impact on dense water formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Léger, Fabien; Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy; Giordani, Hervé; Arsouze, Thomas; Beuvier, Jonathan; Bouin, Marie-Noëlle; Ducrocq, Véronique; Fourrié, Nadia</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The North-Western Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is a key location where intense air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> exchanges occur, especially during winter when the succession of strong northerly and north-westerly wind boosts the dense water formation. The second Special Observation Period (SOP2) of the HyMeX program, which took place between 1st February and 15th March 2013, was dedicated to the observation of the dense water formation and ocean deep convection processes. During this period, several platforms sampled the area, providing a unique dataset to better identify the coupled processes leading to dense water formation. This study investigates the impacts of the fine scale ocean-atmosphere coupled processes on dense water formation during winter 2012-2013. We developed the coupling between the NEMO-WMED36 ocean model (1/36° resolution) and the AROME-WMED numerical weather prediction model (2.5 km resolution) and ran the high-resolution air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> coupled <span class="hlt">system</span> over SOP2. The coupled simulation is compared to an ocean-only simulation forced by AROME-WMED operational forecasts and to air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> observations collected during the HyMeX SOP2. The results show small differences in term of surface fluxes. Dense water formation is slightly changed in the coupled simulation, whereas fine-scale ocean processes are significantly modified.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGeo...13..841B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016BGeo...13..841B"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of sedimentary alkalinity release on the water column CO2 <span class="hlt">system</span> in the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brenner, H.; Braeckman, U.; Le Guitton, M.; Meysman, F. J. R.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>It has been previously proposed that alkalinity release from sediments can play an important role in the carbonate dynamics on continental shelves, lowering the pCO2 of seawater and hence increasing the CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. To test this hypothesis, sedimentary alkalinity generation was quantified within cohesive and permeable sediments across the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> during two cruises in September 2011 (basin-wide) and June 2012 (Dutch coastal zone). Benthic fluxes of oxygen (O2), alkalinity (AT) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were determined using shipboard closed sediment incubations. Our results show that sediments can form an important source of alkalinity for the overlying water, particularly in the shallow southern North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, where high AT and DIC fluxes were recorded in near-shore sediments of the Belgian, Dutch and German coastal zone. In contrast, fluxes of AT and DIC are substantially lower in the deeper, seasonally stratified, northern part of the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Based on the data collected, we performed a model analysis to constrain the main pathways of alkalinity generation in the sediment, and to quantify how sedimentary alkalinity drives atmospheric CO2 uptake in the southern North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Overall, our results show that sedimentary alkalinity generation should be regarded as a key component in the CO2 dynamics of shallow coastal <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAESc..62..295H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JAESc..62..295H"><span id="translatedtitle">Sediment dispersal <span class="hlt">system</span> in the Taiwan-South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> collision zone along a convergent margin: A comparison with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hsiung, Kan-Hsi; Yu, Ho-Shing</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Through a large-scale examination of the morpho-sedimentary features on <span class="hlt">sea</span> floors in the Taiwan-Luzon convergent margin, we determined the main sediment dispersal <span class="hlt">system</span> which stretches from 23°N to 20°N and displays as an aligned linear sediment pathway, consisting of the Penghu Canyon, the deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> Penghu Channel and northern Manila Trench. The seafloor of South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> north of 21°N are underlain by a triangle-shaped collision marine basin, resulting from oblique collision between the Luzon Arc and Chinese margin, and are mainly occupied by two juxtaposed slopes, the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Kaoping Slopes, and a southward tilting basin axis located along the Penghu Canyon. Two major tributary canyons of the Formosa and Kaoping and small channels and gullies on both slopes join into the axial Penghu Canyon and form a dendritic canyon drainage <span class="hlt">system</span> in this collision marine basin. The canyon drainage <span class="hlt">system</span> is characteristic of lateral sediment supply from flank slopes and axial sediment transport down-canyon following the tilting basin axis. The significance of the collision marine basin in term of source to sink is that sediments derived from nearby orogen and continental margins are transported to and accumulated in the collision basin, serving as a temporary sediment sink and major marine transport route along the basin axis. The comparison of the Taiwan-South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> collision zone with the Papua New Guinea collision zone of the western Solomon <span class="hlt">Sea</span> reveals remarkable similarities in tectonic settings and sedimentary processes that have resulted in similar sediment dispersal <span class="hlt">systems</span> consisting of (1) a canyon drainage network mainly in the collision basin and (2) a longitudinal sediment transport <span class="hlt">system</span> comprising a linear connection of submarine canyon, deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> channel and oceanic trench beyond the collision marine basin.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.1318R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.1318R"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal and interannual variability of the West Greenland Current <span class="hlt">System</span> in the Labrador <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in 1993-2008</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rykova, Tatiana; Straneo, Fiammetta; Bower, Amy S.</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>The West Greenland Current <span class="hlt">System</span> (WGCS) transports heat and freshwater into the Labrador <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, influencing the formation of Labrador <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Water, a key component of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Notwithstanding its importance, relatively little is known about the structure and transport of this current <span class="hlt">system</span> and its seasonal and interannual variability. Here we use historical hydrographic data from 1992 to 2008, combined with AVISO satellite altimetry, to diagnose the mean properties as well as seasonal and interannual variability of the boundary current <span class="hlt">system</span>. We find that while the surface, fresh, cold West Greenland Current is amplified in summer, the subsurface warm, salty Irminger Current has maximum transport in winter, when its waters are also warmer and saltier. Seasonal changes in the total transport are thus mostly due to changes in the baroclinic structure of the current. By contrast, we find a trend toward warmer/saltier waters and a slowdown of the WGCS, within the period studied. The latter is attributed to changes in the barotropic component of the current. Superimposed on this trend, warm and salty anomalies transit through the <span class="hlt">system</span> in 1997 and 2003 and are associated with a rapid increase in the transport of the boundary current due to changes in the baroclinic component. The boundary current changes precede similar changes in the interior with a 1-2 year lag, indicating that anomalies advected into the region by the boundary current can play an important role in the modulation of convection in the Labrador <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1717c0017A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016AIPC.1717c0017A"><span id="translatedtitle">Feasibility study on wave energy power plant with oscillating water column <span class="hlt">system</span> in Bawean Island <span class="hlt">Seas</span> Indonesia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ali, A. F.; Hadi, S.</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>As a huge archipelago with 17,480 islands, Indonesia still has difficulties to electrify all of its islands especially on the remote ones (areas) because of a power grid coverage limitation of National Electrical Company (PLN). This research discusses the potential calculation of <span class="hlt">sea</span> wave power conversion by utilizing Oscillating Water Column (OWC) <span class="hlt">system</span> in remote islands, especially on Bawean Island <span class="hlt">Seas</span>. OWC <span class="hlt">system</span> is chosen because of its advantages compared to other <span class="hlt">systems</span> and also because of its suitability towards <span class="hlt">sea</span> and coast areas in Indonesia. Kim Nielsen and David Ross Law were used for the power calculation. The research took data sampling during one month in 2015 with the result of wave height average of 2.09 meters. That obtained data resulted wave energy of within 270.19 and electrical power output of about 52.7 kW by using Oscillating Water Column <span class="hlt">system</span>. Based on this result, Break Even Point (BEP) for one plant covering 117 houses will become zero in the period of 3 years 8 months.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12626273','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12626273"><span id="translatedtitle">Dust in the Earth <span class="hlt">system</span>: the biogeochemical linking of land, air and <span class="hlt">sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ridgwell, Andy J</p> <p>2002-12-15</p> <p>Understanding the response of the Earth's climate <span class="hlt">system</span> to anthropogenic perturbation has been a pressing priority for society since the late 1980s. However, recent years have seen a major paradigm shift in how such an understanding can be reached. Climate change demands analysis within an integrated 'Earth-<span class="hlt">system</span>' framework, taken to encompass the suite of interacting physical, chemical, biological and human processes that, in transporting and transforming materials and energy, jointly determine the conditions for life on the whole planet. This is a highly complex <span class="hlt">system</span>, characterized by multiple nonlinear responses and thresholds, with linkages often between apparently disparate components. The interconnected nature of the Earth <span class="hlt">system</span> is wonderfully illustrated by the diverse roles played by atmospheric transport of mineral 'dust', particularly in its capacity as a key pathway for the delivery of nutrients essential to plant growth, not only on land, but perhaps more importantly, in the ocean. Dust therefore biogeochemically links land, air and <span class="hlt">sea</span>. This paper reviews the biogeochemical role of mineral dust in the Earth <span class="hlt">system</span> and its interaction with climate, and, in particular, the potential importance of both past and possible future changes in aeolian delivery of the micro-nutrient iron to the ocean. For instance, if, in the future, there was to be a widespread stabilization of soils for the purpose of carbon sequestration on land, a reduction in aeolian iron supply to the open ocean would occur. The resultant weakening of the oceanic carbon sink could potentially offset much of the carbon sequestered on land. In contrast, during glacial times, enhanced dust supply to the ocean could have 'fertilized' the biota and driven atmospheric CO(2) lower. Dust might even play an active role in driving climatic change; since changes in dust supply may affect climate, and changes in climate, in turn, influence dust, a 'feedback loop' is formed. Possible feedback</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMSA...13..462C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JMSA...13..462C"><span id="translatedtitle">Nickel sulfide/graphene/carbon nanotube composites as electrode material for the supercapacitor application in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> flashing signal <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Hailong; Li, Ji; Long, Conglai; Wei, Tong; Ning, Guoqing; Yan, Jun; Fan, Zhuangjun</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>This work presents NiS/graphene/carbon nanotube (NiS/GNS/CNT) composites as electrode material for the supercapacitor application in <span class="hlt">sea</span> flashing signal <span class="hlt">systems</span>. NiS nanosheets were closely anchored on the conductive GNS-CNT networks. As a result, the NiS/GNS/CNT electrode showed a high specific capacitance of 2 377 F·g-1 at 2 mV·s-1 and good cycling stability compared with the pure NiS (1 599 F·g-1). The enhanced electrochemical performances are attributed to the synergetic effect between the conductive carbon and the pseudo-capacitive NiS. The high performance supercapacitor may provide application in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> flashing signal <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/83180','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/83180"><span id="translatedtitle">The effects of arctic stratus clouds on the solar energy budget in the atmosphere-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ice-ocean <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Jin, Z.; Stamnes, K.; Zak, B.D.</p> <p>1995-04-01</p> <p>This article describes a comprehensive radiative transfer model pertinent to the atmosphere-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ice-ocean <span class="hlt">system</span>. The main features of the model include: The atmosphere, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice, and ocean each represented by a sufficient number of layers to resolve the change in the optical properties of each stratum; An appropriate quadrature structure to take into account the total reflection at the air-ice or air-water interface, as well as to solve the radiative transfer equation in the coupled <span class="hlt">system</span> consistently; Provision for a different number of streams (quadrature points) in the atmosphere, ice, and ocean, chosen based on the optical properties in each stratum and the computational accuracy method.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713337U','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713337U"><span id="translatedtitle">The CO2 <span class="hlt">system</span> in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> inferred from a 3D coupled physical-biogeochemical model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ulses, Caroline; Kessouri, Fayçal; Estournel, Claude; Marsaleix, Patrick; Beuvier, Jonathan; Somot, Samuel; Touratier, Frank; Goyet, Catherine; Coppola, Laurent; Diamond, Emilie; Metzl, Nicolas</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The semi-enclosed Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> characterized by short residence times is considered as a region particularly sensitive to natural and anthropogenic forcing. Due to scarce CO2 measurements in the whole basin, the CO2 <span class="hlt">system</span>, for instance the air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> CO2 exchanges and the effects of the increase of atmospheric CO2, are poorly characterized. 3D physical-biogeochemical coupled models are unique tools that can provide integrated view and gain understanding in the temporal and spatial variation of the CO2 <span class="hlt">system</span> variables (dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, partial pressure of CO2 and pH). An extended version of the biogeochemical model Eco3m-S (Auger et al., 2014), that describes the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and silica, was forced by a regional circulation model (Beuvier et al., 2012) to investigate the CO2 <span class="hlt">system</span> in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> over a 13-years period (2001-2013). First, the quality of the modelling was evaluated through comparisons with satellite and in situ observations collected in the whole basin over the study period (Touratier and Goyet, 2009; 2011 ; Rivaro et al., 2010 ; Pujo-Pay et al., 2011 ; Alvarez et al, 2014). The model reasonably reproduced the various biological regimes (north-western phytoplanctonic bloom regime, oligotrophic eastern regime, etc.) as well as the recorded spatial distribution and temporal variations of the carbonate <span class="hlt">system</span> variables. The coupled model was then used to estimate the air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> pCO2 exchanges and the transport of DIC and TA towards the Atlantic Ocean at the Strait of Gibraltar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611959V','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1611959V"><span id="translatedtitle">Subduction initiation and recycling of <span class="hlt">Alboran</span> domain derived crustal components prior to the intra-crustal emplacement of mantle peridotites in the Westernmost Mediterranean: isotopic evidence from the Ronda peridotite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bosch, Delphine; Marchesi, Claudio Claudio; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Hidas, Károly; Barich, Amel</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>During Late Oligocene-Early Miocene different domains formed in the region between Iberia and Africa in the westernmost Mediterranean, including thinned continental crust and a Flysch Trough turbiditic deposits likely floored by oceanic crust [1]. At this time, the Ronda peridotite likely constituted the subcontinental lithospheric mantle of the <span class="hlt">Alboran</span> domain, which mantle lithosphere was undergoing strong thinning and melting [2] [3] coevally with Early Miocene extension in the overlying Alpujárride-Maláguide stacked crust [4, 5]. Intrusive Cr- rich pyroxenites in the Ronda massif records the geochemical processes occurring in the subcontinental mantle of the <span class="hlt">Alboran</span> domain during the Late Oligocene [6]. Recent isotopic studies of these pyroxenites indicate that their mantle source was contaminated by a subduction component released by detrital crustal sediments [6]. This new data is consistent with a subduction setting for the late evolution of the <span class="hlt">Alboran</span> lithospheric mantle just prior to its final intracrustal emplacement in the early Miocene Further detailed structural studies of the Ronda plagioclase peridotites-related to the initial stages of ductile emplacement of the peridotite-have led to Hidas et al. [7] to propose a geodynamic model where folding and shearing of an attenuated mantle lithosphere occurred by backarc basin inversion followed by failed subduction initiation that ended into the intracrustal emplacement of peridotite into the <span class="hlt">Alboran</span> wedge in the earliest Miocene. This hypothesis implies that the crustal component recorded in late, Cr-rich websterite dykes might come from underthrusted crustal rocks from the Flysch and/or Alpujárrides units that might have been involved in the earliest stages of this subduction initiation stage. To investigate the origin of crustal component in the mantle source of this late magmatic event recorded by Cr-pyroxenites, we have carried out a detail Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic study of a variety of Betic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T51D2931T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFM.T51D2931T"><span id="translatedtitle">High-Frequency CTD Measurements for Accurate GPS/acoustic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-floor Crustal Deformation Measurement <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tadokoro, K.; Yasuda, K.; Taniguchi, S.; Uemura, Y.; Matsuhiro, K.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The GPS/acoustic <span class="hlt">sea</span>-floor crustal deformation measurement <span class="hlt">system</span> has developed as a useful tool to observe tectonic deformation especially at subduction zones. One of the factors preventing accurate GPS/acoustic <span class="hlt">sea</span>-floor crustal deformation measurement is horizontal heterogeneity of sound speed in the ocean. It is therefore necessary to measure the gradient directly from sound speed structure. We report results of high-frequency CTD measurements using Underway CTD (UCTD) in the Kuroshio region. We perform the UCTD measurements on May 2nd, 2015 at two stations (TCA and TOA) above the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-floor benchmarks installed across the Nankai Trough, off the south-east of Kii Peninsula, middle Japan. The number of measurement points is six at each station along circles with a diameter of 1.8 nautical miles around the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-floor benchmark. The stations TCA and TOA are located on the edge and the interior of the Kuroshio current, respectively, judging from difference in <span class="hlt">sea</span> water density measured at the two stations, as well as a satellite image of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-surface temperature distribution. We detect a sound speed gradient of high speeds in the southern part and low speeds in the northern part at the two stations. At the TCA station, the gradient is noticeable down to 300 m in depth; the maximum difference in sound speed is +/- 5 m/s. The sound speed difference is as small as +/- 1.3 m/s at depths below 300 m, which causes seafloor benchmark positioning error as large as 1 m. At the TOA station, the gradient is extremely small down to 100 m in depth. The maximum difference in sound speed is less than +/- 0.3 m/s that is negligible small for seafloor benchmark positioning error. Clear gradient of high speed is observed to the depths; the maximum difference in sound speed is +/- 0.8-0.9 m/s, causing seafloor benchmark positioning error of several tens centimeters. The UCTD measurement is effective tool to detect sound speed gradient. We establish a method for accurate <span class="hlt">sea</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7377K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..12.7377K"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a GPS buoy <span class="hlt">system</span> for monitoring tsunami, <span class="hlt">sea</span> waves, ocean bottom crustal deformation and atmospheric water vapor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kato, Teruyuki; Terada, Yukihiro; Nagai, Toshihiko; Koshimura, Shun'ichi</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>We have developed a GPS buoy <span class="hlt">system</span> for monitoring tsunami for over 12 years. The idea was that a buoy equipped with a GPS antenna and placed offshore may be an effective way of monitoring tsunami before its arrival to the coast and to give warning to the coastal residents. The key technology for the <span class="hlt">system</span> is real-time kinematic (RTK) GPS technology. We have successfully developed the <span class="hlt">system</span>; we have detected tsunamis of about 10cm in height for three large earthquakes, namely, the 23 June 2001 Peru earthquake (Mw8.4), the 26 September 2003 Tokachi earthquake (Mw8.3) and the 5 September 2004 earthquake (Mw7.4). The developed GPS buoy <span class="hlt">system</span> is also capable of monitoring <span class="hlt">sea</span> waves that are mainly caused by winds. Only the difference between tsunami and <span class="hlt">sea</span> waves is their frequency range and can be segregated each other by a simple filtering technique. Given the success of GPS buoy experiments, the <span class="hlt">system</span> has been adopted as a part of the Nationwide Ocean Wave information <span class="hlt">system</span> for Port and HArborS (NOWPHAS) by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan. They have established more than eight GPS buoys along the Japanese coasts and the <span class="hlt">system</span> has been operated by the Port and Airport Research Institute. As a future scope, we are now planning to implement some other additional facilities for the GPS buoy <span class="hlt">system</span>. The first application is a so-called GPS/Acoustic <span class="hlt">system</span> for monitoring ocean bottom crustal deformation. The <span class="hlt">system</span> requires acoustic waves to detect ocean bottom reference position, which is the geometrical center of an array of transponders, by measuring distances between a position at the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface (vessel) and ocean bottom equipments to return the received sonic wave. The position of the vessel is measured using GPS. The <span class="hlt">system</span> was first proposed by a research group at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography in early 1980's. The <span class="hlt">system</span> was extensively developed by Japanese researchers and is now capable of detecting ocean</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1616839F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014EGUGA..1616839F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Towards a coastal ocean forecasting <span class="hlt">system</span> in Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian <span class="hlt">seas</span> based on unstructured-grid model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Federico, Ivan; Oddo, Paolo; Pinardi, Nadia; Coppini, Giovanni</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Southern Adriatic Northern Ionian Forecasting <span class="hlt">System</span> (SANIFS) operational chain is based on a nesting approach. The large scale model for the entire Mediterranean basin (MFS, Mediterranean Forecasting <span class="hlt">system</span>, operated by INGV, e.g. Tonani et al. 2008, Oddo et al. 2009) provides lateral open boundary conditions to the regional model for Adriatic and Ionian <span class="hlt">seas</span> (AIFS, Adriatic Ionian Forecasting <span class="hlt">System</span>) which provides the open-<span class="hlt">sea</span> fields (initial conditions and lateral open boundary conditions) to SANIFS. The latter, here presented, is a coastal ocean model based on SHYFEM (Shallow HYdrodynamics Finite Element Model) code, which is an unstructured grid, finite element three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (e.g. Umgiesser et al., 2004, Ferrarin et al., 2013). The SANIFS hydrodynamic model component has been designed to provide accurate information of hydrodynamics and active tracer fields in the coastal waters of Southern Eastern Italy (Apulia, Basilicata and Calabria regions), where the model is characterized by a resolution of about of 200-500 m. The horizontal resolution is also accurate in open-<span class="hlt">sea</span> areas, where the elements size is approximately 3 km. During the development phase the model has been initialized and forced at the lateral open boundaries through a full nesting strategy directly with the MFS fields. The heat fluxes has been computed by bulk formulae using as input data the operational analyses of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Short range pre-operational forecast tests have been performed in different seasons to evaluate the robustness of the implemented model in different oceanographic conditions. Model results are validated by means of comparison with MFS operational results and observations. The model is able to reproduce the large-scale oceanographic structures of the area (keeping similar structures of MFS in open <span class="hlt">sea</span>), while in the coastal area significant improvements in terms of reproduced structures and dynamics are</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4318S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.4318S"><span id="translatedtitle">Geodetic investigation of crustal deformation along the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Transform and the Carmel Fault <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sadeh, Maytal; Hamiel, Yariv; Ziv, Alon; Bock, Yehuda; Fang, Peng; Wdowinski, Shimon</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>We use GPS measurements and elastic modeling to study the crustal deformation in the Levant. In this region, large-scale crustal deformation is mainly related to the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Transform (DST) and the Carmel Fault <span class="hlt">System</span> (CFS). The former is an active left lateral transform, bounding the Arabian plate and the Sinai sub-plate, and the latter branches out of the former and separates the Sinai sub-plate into two tectonic domains. In this study we obtain the velocities of 33 permanent GPS stations and 145 survey stations that were surveyed in three campaigns between 1996 and 2008. We use a simple elastic dislocation model to infer the slip rate and locking depth along various segments of the DST. We infer a 3.1-4.5 mm/yr slip rate and a 7.8-16.4 km locking depth along the DST north of the CFS, and a slip rate of 4.6-5.9 mm/yr and locking depth of 11.8-24 km along the Jericho Valley, south of the CFS. Further south, along the Arava Valley we obtain a slip rate of 4.6-5.4 mm/yr and a locking depth of 12.1-22.5 km. We identify an oblique motion along the Carmel fault with about 0.7 mm/yr left-lateral and about 0.6 mm/yr extension rates, resulting in N-S extension across the Carmel fault. This result, together with the decrease in DST slip velocity from the Jericho fault to the Jordan fault confirms previous suggestions, according to which part of the slip between Arabia and Sinai is being transferred from the DST to the CFS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512889J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1512889J"><span id="translatedtitle">GNI - A <span class="hlt">System</span> for the Impaction and Automated Optical Sizing of Giant Aerosol Particles with Emphasis on <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Salt</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jensen, Jorgen</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Size distributions of giant aerosol particles (e.g. <span class="hlt">sea</span>-salt particles, dry radius larger than 0.5 μm) are not well characterized in the atmosphere, yet they contribute greatly to both direct and indirect aerosol effects. Measurements are problematic for these particles because they (i) occur in low concentrations, (ii) have difficulty in passing through air inlets, (iii) there are problems in discriminating between dry and deliquesced particles, (iv) and impaction sampling requires labor intensive methods. In this study, a simple, high-volume impaction <span class="hlt">system</span> called the Giant Nuclei Impactor (GNI), based on free-stream exposure of polycarbonate slides from aircraft is described, along with an automated optical microscope-based <span class="hlt">system</span> for analysis of the impacted particles. The impaction slides are analyzed in a humidity-controlled box (typically 90% relative humidity) that allows for deliquescence of <span class="hlt">sea</span> salt particles. A computer controlled optical microscope with two digital cameras is used to acquire and analyze images of the aerosol particles. Salt particles will form near-spherical cap solution drops at high relative humidity. The salt mass in each giant aerosol particle is then calculated using simple geometry and K ̈ohler theory by assuming a NaCl composition. The <span class="hlt">system</span> has a sample volume of about 10 L/s at aircraft speeds of 105 m/s. For salt particles, the measurement range is from about 0.7 μm dry radius to tens of micrometers, with a size-bin resolution of 0.2 μm dry radius. The sizing accuracy was tested using glass beads of known size. Characterizing the uncertainties of observational data is critical for applications to atmospheric science studies. A comprehensive uncertainty analysis is performed for the airborne GNI manual impaction and automatic optical microscope <span class="hlt">system</span> for sizing giant aerosol particles, with particular emphasis on <span class="hlt">sea</span>-salt particles. The factors included are (i) sizing accuracy, (ii) concentration accuracy, (iii</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015DSRI...97....1K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015DSRI...97....1K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Design, construction, and operation of an actively controlled deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> CO2 enrichment experiment using a cabled observatory <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kirkwood, William J.; Walz, Peter M.; Peltzer, Edward T.; Barry, James P.; Herlien, Robert A.; Headley, Kent L.; Kecy, Chad; Matsumoto, George I.; Maughan, Thom; O'Reilly, Thomas C.; Salamy, Karen A.; Shane, Farley; Brewer, Peter G.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>We describe the design, testing, and performance of an actively controlled deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment (dp-FOCE) <span class="hlt">system</span> for the execution of seafloor experiments relating to the impacts of ocean acidification on natural ecosystems. We used the 880 m deep MARS (Monterey Accelerated Research <span class="hlt">System</span>) cable site offshore Monterey Bay, California for this work, but the Free Ocean CO2 Enrichment (FOCE) <span class="hlt">system</span> concept is designed to be scalable and can be modified to be used in a wide variety of ocean depths and locations. The main frame is based on a flume design with active thruster control of flow and a central experimental chamber. The unit was allowed to free fall to the seafloor and connected to the cable node by remotely operated vehicle (ROV) manipulation. For operation at depth we designed a liquid CO2 containment reservoir which provided the CO2 enriched working fluid as ambient seawater was drawn through the reservoir beneath the more buoyant liquid CO2. Our design allowed for the significant lag time associated with the hydration of the dissolved CO2 molecule, resulting in an e-folding time, τ, of 97 s between fluid injection and pH sensing at the mean local T=4.31±0.14 °C and pHT of 7.625±0.011. The <span class="hlt">system</span> maintained a pH offset of ~0.4 pH units compared to the surrounding ocean for a period of ~1 month. The unit allows for the emplacement of deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> animals for testing. We describe the components and software used for <span class="hlt">system</span> operation and show examples of each. The demonstrated ability for active control of experimental <span class="hlt">systems</span> opens new possibilities for deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> biogeochemical perturbation experiments of several kinds and our developments in open source control <span class="hlt">systems</span> software and hardware described here are applicable to this end.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044115','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1044115"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting Land-Ice Retreat and <span class="hlt">Sea</span>-Level Rise with the Community Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lipscomb, William</p> <p>2012-06-19</p> <p>Coastal stakeholders need defensible predictions of 21st century <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise (SLR). IPCC assessments suggest 21st century SLR of {approx}0.5 m under aggressive emission scenarios. Semi-empirical models project SLR of {approx}1 m or more by 2100. Although some <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level contributions are fairly well constrained by models, others are highly uncertain. Recent studies suggest a potential large contribution ({approx}0.5 m/century) from the marine-based West Antarctic Ice Sheet, linked to changes in Southern Ocean wind stress. To assess the likelihood of fast retreat of marine ice sheets, we need coupled ice-sheet/ocean models that do not yet exist (but are well under way). CESM is uniquely positioned to provide integrated, physics based <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level predictions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032902','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032902"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise on ground water flow in a coastal aquifer <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Masterson, J.P.; Garabedian, S.P.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The effects of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise on the depth to the fresh water/salt water interface were simulated by using a density-dependent, three-dimensional numerical ground water flow model for a simplified hypothetical fresh water lens that is similar to shallow, coastal aquifers found along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Simulations of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise of 2.65 mm/year from 1929 to 2050 resulted in an increase in water levels relative to a fixed datum, yet a net decrease in water levels relative to the increased <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level position. The net decrease in water levels was much greater near a gaining stream than farther from the stream. The difference in the change in water levels is attributed to the dampening effect of the stream on water level changes in response to <span class="hlt">sea</span>-level rise. In response to the decreased water level altitudes relative to local <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, the depth to the fresh water/salt water interface decreased. This reduction in the thickness of the fresh water lens varied throughout the aquifer and was greatly affected by proximity to a ground water fed stream and whether the stream was tidally influenced. Away from the stream, the thickness of the fresh water lens decreased by about 2% from 1929 to 2050, whereas the fresh water lens thickness decreased by about 22% to 31% for the same period near the stream, depending on whether the stream was tidally influenced. The difference in the change in the fresh water/salt water interface position is controlled by the difference in the net decline in water levels relative to local <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. ?? 2007 National Ground Water Association.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013CorRe..32..281G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013CorRe..32..281G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Decline in <span class="hlt">sea</span> snake abundance on a protected coral reef <span class="hlt">system</span> in the New Caledonian Lagoon</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Goiran, C.; Shine, R.</p> <p>2013-03-01</p> <p>Monitoring results from a small reef (Ile aux Canards) near Noumea in the New Caledonian Lagoon reveal that numbers of turtle-headed <span class="hlt">sea</span> snakes ( Emydocephalus annulatus) have been in consistent decline over a 9-year period, with average daily counts of snakes decreasing from >6 to <2 over this period. Causal factors for the decline are unclear, because the site is a protected area used only for tourism. Our results suggest that wildlife management authorities should carefully monitor <span class="hlt">sea</span> snake populations to check whether the declines now documented for New Caledonia and in nearby Australian waters also occur around the islands of the Indo-Pacific.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26346804','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26346804"><span id="translatedtitle">Water quality assessment using water quality index and geographical information <span class="hlt">system</span> methods in the coastal waters of Andaman <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, India.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jha, Dilip Kumar; Devi, Marimuthu Prashanthi; Vidyalakshmi, Rajendran; Brindha, Balan; Vinithkumar, Nambali Valsalan; Kirubagaran, Ramalingam</p> <p>2015-11-15</p> <p>Seawater samples at 54 stations in the year 2011-2012 from Chidiyatappu, Port Blair, Rangat and Aerial Bays of Andaman <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, have been investigated in the present study. Datasets obtained have been converted into simple maps using coastal water quality index (CWQI) and Geographical Information <span class="hlt">System</span> (GIS) based overlay mapping technique to demarcate healthy and polluted areas. Analysis of multiple parameters revealed poor water quality in Port Blair and Rangat Bays. The anthropogenic activities may be the likely cause for poor water quality. Whereas, good water quality was witnessed at Chidiyatappu Bay. Higher CWQI scores were perceived in the open <span class="hlt">sea</span>. However, less exploitation of coastal resources owing to minimal anthropogenic activity indicated good water quality index at Chidiyatappu Bay. This study is an attempt to integrate CWQI and GIS based mapping technique to derive a reliable, simple and useful output for water quality monitoring in coastal environment. PMID:26346804</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JVGR..205...67M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011JVGR..205...67M"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluid origin, gas fluxes and plumbing <span class="hlt">system</span> in the sediment-hosted Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Geothermal <span class="hlt">System</span> (California, USA)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mazzini, Adriano; Svensen, Henrik; Etiope, Giuseppe; Onderdonk, Nathan; Banks, David</p> <p>2011-08-01</p> <p>The Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Geothermal <span class="hlt">System</span> (California) is an easily accessible setting for investigating the interactions of biotic and abiogenic geochemical processes in sediment-hosted hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span>. We present new temperature data and the molecular and isotopic composition of fluids seeping at the Davis-Schrimpf seep field during 2003-2008. Additionally, we show the first flux data for CO 2 and CH 4 released throughout the field from focused vents and diffuse soil degassing. The emitted gases are dominated by CO 2 (~ 98%) and CH 4 (~ 1.5%). By combining δ 13C CO2 (as low as - 5.4‰) and δ 13C CH4 (- 32‰ to - 17.6‰) with 3He/ 4He (R/Ra > 6) and δD CH4 values (- 216‰ to - 150‰), we suggest, in contrast to previous studies, that CO 2 may have a significant Sub-Continental Mantle source, with minimal crustal contamination, and CH 4 seems to be a mixture of high temperature pyrolitic (thermogenic) and abiogenic gas. Water seeps show that δD and δ 18O increase proportionally with salinity (Total Dissolved Solids in g/L) ranging from 1-3 g/L (gryphons) to 145 g/L (hypersaline pools). In agreement with elemental analyses, the isotopic composition of the waters indicate a meteoric origin, modified by surface evaporation, with little or no evidence of deep fossil or magmatic components. Very high Cl/Br (> 3,000) measured at many seeping waters suggests that increased salinities result from dissolution of halite crusts near the seep sites. Gas flux measurements from 91 vents (pools and gryphons) give a conservative estimate of ~ 2,100 kg of CO 2 and 11.5 kg of CH 4 emitted per day. In addition soil degassing measured at 81 stations (20x20 m grid over 51,000 m 2) revealed that 7,310 kg/d CO 2 and 33 kg/d CH 4 are pervasively released to the atmosphere. These results emphasise that diffuse gas emission from soil can be dominant (~ 75%) even in hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> with large and vigorous gas venting. Sediment-hosted hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> may represent an</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5578807','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5578807"><span id="translatedtitle">Polar versus temperate grounding-line sedimentary <span class="hlt">systems</span> and marine glacier stability during <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise by global warming</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Powell, R.D. . Geology Dept.); Pyne, A.R. . Antarctic Research Center); Hunter, L.E.; Rynes, N.R.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Marine-ending glaciers may retreat with global warming as <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rises by ocean thermal expansion. If the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor rises by sediment accumulation, then glaciers may not feel the effect of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise. A submersible ROV and other techniques have been used to collect data from temperate and polar glaciers to compare sediment production and mass balance of their grounding-line <span class="hlt">systems</span>. Temperature Alaskan valley glaciers flow at about 0.2--2 km/a and have high volumes of supraglacial, englacial and subglacial debris. However, most sediment contributed to the base of their tidewater cliffs comes from subglacial streams or squeezing out subglacial sediment and pushing it with other marine sediment into a morainal bank. Blue Glacier, a thin, locally fed polar glacier in Antarctica, flows slowly and has minimal glacial debris. The grounding-line <span class="hlt">system</span> at the tidewater cliff is a morainal bank that forms solely by pushing of marine sediment. An Antarctic polar outlet glacier, Mackay Glacier, terminating as a floating glacier-tongue, has similar volumes of basal debris to Alaskan temperature glaciers and flows at 250 m/a. However, no subglacial streams issued from Mackay's grounding line and all sedimentation was by rockfall and grainfall rainout from seawater undermelt of the tongue. A grounding-line wedge of glacimarine diamicton is deposited over subglacial (lodgement ) till. Although Antarctic grounding-line accumulation rates are three orders of magnitude smaller than Alaskan rates, both are capable of compensating for predicted rises in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level by thermal heating from global warming.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012CRGeo.344...99R&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012CRGeo.344...99R&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">The last glacial-interglacial transition and dinoflagellate cysts in the western Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Rouis-Zargouni, Imene; Turon, Jean-Louis; Londeix, Laurent; Kallel, Néjib; Essallami, Latifa</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Using the analysis of dinoflagellate cysts in three deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> sediments cores situated in the Sicilian-Tunisian Strait, in the Gulf of Lions and in the <span class="hlt">Alboran</span> <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, we reconstruct the paleoenvironmental changes that took place during the last glacial-interglacial transition in the western Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The development of the warm microflora Impagidinium aculeatum and especially Spiniferites mirabilis appears to be an important proxy for recognizing warm periods as the Bölling/Alleröd and the Early Holocene. Bitectatodinium tepikiense, Spiniferites elongatus and Nematosphaeropsis labyrinthus mark the end of the Heinrich event 1 and the Younger Dryas. This cold microfloral association confirms the drastic climate changes in the western Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> synchronous to the dry and cold climate which occurred in the South European margin. The dinocyst N. labyrinthus shows high percentages in all studied regions during the Younger Dryas. Its distribution reveals a significant increase from the South to the North of this basin during this cold brief event. Thus, we note that this species can be considered as a new eco-stratigraphical tracer of the Younger Dryas in the western Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMED42A..04B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFMED42A..04B"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Digital Globes to Explore the Deep <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Advance Public Literacy in Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Beaulieu, S. E.; Brickley, A.; Emery, M.; Spargo, A.; Patterson, K.; Joyce, K.; Silva, T.; Madin, K.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Digital globes are new technologies increasingly used in both informal and formal education to display global datasets. By creating a narrative using multiple datasets, linkages between Earth <span class="hlt">systems</span> - lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere - can be conveyed. But how effective are digital globes in advancing public literacy in Earth <span class="hlt">system</span> science? We addressed this question in developing new content for digital globes that interweaves imagery obtained by deep-diving vehicles with global datasets, including a new dataset locating the world's known hydrothermal vents. Our two narratives, "Life Without Sunlight" (LWS) and "Smoke and Fire Underwater" (SFU), each focus on STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) principles related to geology, biology, and exploration. We are preparing a summative evaluation for our content delivered on NOAA's Science on a Sphere as interactive presentations and as movies. We tested knowledge gained with respect to the STEM principles and the level of excitement generated by the virtual deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> exploration. We conducted a Post-test Only Design with quantitative data based on self-reporting on a Likert scale. A total of 75 adults and 48 youths responded to our questionnaire, distributed into test groups that saw either one of the two narratives delivered either as a movie or as an interactive presentation. Here, we report preliminary results for the youths, the majority (81%) of which live in towns with lower income and lower levels of educational attainment as compared to other towns in Massachusetts. For both narratives, there was knowledge gained for all 6 STEM principles and "Quite a Bit" of excitement. The mode in responses for knowledge gained was "Quite a Bit" for both the movie and the interactive presentation for 4 of the STEM principles (LWS geology, LWS biology, SFU geology, and SFU exploration) and "Some" for SFU biology. Only for LWS exploration was there a difference in mode between the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051305','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25051305"><span id="translatedtitle">Use of a free ocean CO₂ enrichment (FOCE) <span class="hlt">system</span> to evaluate the effects of ocean acidification on the foraging behavior of a deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barry, James P; Lovera, Chris; Buck, Kurt R; Peltzer, Edward T; Taylor, Josi R; Walz, Peter; Whaling, Patrick J; Brewer, Peter G</p> <p>2014-08-19</p> <p>The influence of ocean acidification in deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ecosystems is poorly understood but is expected to be large because of the presumed low tolerance of deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> taxa to environmental change. We used a newly developed deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> free ocean CO2 enrichment (dp-FOCE) <span class="hlt">system</span> to evaluate the potential consequences of future ocean acidification on the feeding behavior of a deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> echinoid, the <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin, Strongylocentrotus fragilis. The dp-FOCE <span class="hlt">system</span> simulated future ocean acidification inside an experimental enclosure where observations of feeding behavior were performed. We measured the average movement (speed) of urchins as well as the time required (foraging time) for S. fragilis to approach its preferred food (giant kelp) in the dp-FOCE chamber (-0.46 pH units) and a control chamber (ambient pH). Measurements were performed during each of 4 trials (days -2, 2, 24, 27 after CO2 injection) during the month-long period when groups of urchins were continuously exposed to low pH or control conditions. Although urchin speed did not vary significantly in relation to pH or time exposed, foraging time was significantly longer for urchins in the low-pH treatment. This first deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> FOCE experiment demonstrated the utility of the FOCE <span class="hlt">system</span> approach and suggests that the chemosensory behavior of a deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin may be impaired by ocean acidification. PMID:25051305</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.C54A..02O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.C54A..02O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Southern Hemisphere <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice and the Atmospheric Boundary Layer in a High-Resolution Simulation of the Community Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ordóñez, A.; Bitz, C. M.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Increasing the horizontal resolution of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and ocean components in a global climate model has been shown to affect the extent of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and the strength of atmosphere/ocean fluxes. Since existing high-resolution (0.1°) coupled simulations include a dynamical ocean, it is difficult to pinpoint how these results are influenced by the resolution of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. This project takes a closer look at the impact of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice resolution on ocean/atmosphere interactions in the Southern Hemisphere using the Community Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Model (CESM1-CAM5) in a slab ocean configuration. In this set-up, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and mixed layer ocean models on a 0.1° grid (high resolution) or 1° grid (standard resolution) are coupled with atmosphere and land models run at the same 0.5° resolution. The high resolution model can produce fine scale, open water areas within the ice pack that facilitate air/<span class="hlt">sea</span> flux exchanges and reduce the stability of the lower atmosphere in the model. Correlations between <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration and boundary layer variables will be described at different spatial scales to understand the effects of resolving small scale features. Finally, a kernel feedback analysis will be shown on a 0.1°, double CO2 run to look at the impact of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice resolution on the regional lapse rate feedback.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JSR....76..170A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2013JSR....76..170A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Functional traits of two co-occurring <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchins across a barren/forest patch <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Agnetta, D.; Bonaviri, C.; Badalamenti, F.; Scianna, C.; Vizzini, S.; Gianguzza, P.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>Temperate rocky reefs may occur in two alternative states (coralline barrens and erect algal forests), whose formation and maintenance are often determined by <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin grazing. The two <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin species Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula are considered to play a similar ecological role despite their differing morphological traits and diets. The patchy mosaic areas of Ustica Island, Italy, offer an ideal environment in which to study differences in the performance of P. lividus and A. lixula in barren versus forest states. Results show that the two <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin species differ in diet, trophic position, grazing adaptation, movement ability and fitness in both barren and forest patches. We confirmed herbivory in P. lividus and omnivory with a strong tendency to carnivory in A. lixula. When the <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin escape response to a predator was triggered, P. lividus responded faster in barren and forest patches. Forest patch restricted movement, especially in A. lixula (velocity in barren ≈ 10-fold greater than in forest). A large Aristotle's lantern, indicative of durophagy, confirmed adaptation of A. lixula to barren state.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS11E..03P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMOS11E..03P"><span id="translatedtitle">Discovery of 3 km long seafloor fracture <span class="hlt">system</span> in the Central North <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pedersen, R. B.; Blomberg, A.; Landschulze, K.; Baumberger, T.; Økland, I.; Reigstad, L.; Gracias, N.; Mørkved, P. T.; Stensland, A.; Lilley, M. D.; Thorseth, I. H.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>We have discovered a 3 km long seafloor fracture <span class="hlt">system</span> in the Central North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (block 16/4). The discovery was made using a synthetic aperture sonar (HISAS) mounted on a Kongsberg Hugin AUV. The surface expression of the structure - named the Hugin Fracture - changes along the strike and it is characterized by: 1) linear; 2) en echelon; and 3) branching segments. Ring-structures, that typically are 5-10 meters across, are common along the feature. Micro-bathymetry acquired using the HISAS <span class="hlt">system</span> demonstrates that sub-meter scale elevation changes occur across the fracture. Microbial mats occur along different parts of the structure showing that active seepage is taking place. AUV based photo-imaging of parts of the structure shows that the microbial mats predominantly are associated with ring structures and some of the linear fracture segments. Sediment pore waters extracted from push cores show Na, Cl and Mg contents that are 10-15% lower compared to background pore fluid concentrations. This points towards a fresh water input. The fracture pore fluid compositions are also characterized by elevated methane, ammonium and hydrogen sulphide contents compared to the background seawater. The presence of these volatiles is likely caused by subsurface microbial activity, and carbon isotope analyses confirm a biological source of the detected methane. However, the presence of ethane (CH4/C2H6 of 126) indicates a small input of a thermogenic carbon to these fluids. Subsurface imaging using a hull mounted parametric sub bottom profiler reveal Holocene stratified sediments overlying quaternary moraine in the area. The sub bottom profiler data show sub-meter scale vertical movements along the fracture. Associated with the structures are small bright spots that may reflect gas accumulations. No deep-seated fault <span class="hlt">system</span> is apparent below the fracture in 3D seismic data from the area. However, the 3D seismic data show that the structure is located above the boundary of a</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1629K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.1629K"><span id="translatedtitle">Multi-element study of sediments from the river Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine <span class="hlt">system</span>, South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Koukina, Sofia; Lobus, Nikolai; Peresypkin, Valery; Baturin, Gleb; Smurov, Andrey</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Major (Al, Fe, Ti, Mg, Ca, Na, K), minor (Mn) and trace (Cr, Ni, Cd, V, Zn, Cu, Pb, Sb, Bi, Sn, Ag, Li, Co, As, Zr, Mo, Hg) elements along with nutrients (TOC, TS, TP) and TIC were first determined in ten surface sediment samples from the Khai River - Nha Trang Bay estuarine <span class="hlt">system</span>, South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. According to the sediment quality guidelines and reference background values, most of the element contents that were studied were below the threshold levels, while the content of Ag exceeded significantly the hazardous levels in the most of the samples along the river - <span class="hlt">sea</span> transect. The local anthropogenic and/or environmental sources of Ag within the region need special study. Aluminum and lithium normalization indicated some specific features in the abundance and distribution of the elements along the salinity gradient. The mean grain size of the sediments decreased from the river part to the bay part of the transect. Sedimentary TOC was relatively low (1-2 %) and showed independent distribution along the river - <span class="hlt">sea</span> transect in relation to the other elements that were studied. Ca, Ba and Sr distribution showed some sporadic enrichment and were largely controlled by the TIC content in sediments. Sedimentary TP, Al, Fe, Mn, Ti, Na, K, Li, Co, Cs, Zn and V varied within the narrow range and tended to increase seaward. These elements are most likely controlled by the accumulation of their fine grained aluminosilicate host minerals and materials at sites determined by hydrodynamic conditions, i. e., in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor depression. TS, As, Sn, Bi, U, Cd and Mo were relatively low in the sediments studied and tended to decrease seaward with the slight elevation in the intermediate part of the transect. These elements can be scavenged by and/or co-precipitated with the dissolved and particulate materials of the river discharge and further deposited on the river - <span class="hlt">sea</span> geochemical barrier in the course of estuarine sedimentation. The distribution of Ni, Cr, Zr Cu, Pb, Sb, Hg and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3435416','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3435416"><span id="translatedtitle">Novel Insights into the Echinoderm Nervous <span class="hlt">System</span> from Histaminergic and FMRFaminergic-Like Cells in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Cucumber Leptosynapta clarki</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hoekstra, Luke A.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Heyland, Andreas</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Understanding of the echinoderm nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> is limited due to its distinct organization in comparison to other animal phyla and by the difficulty in accessing it. The transparent and accessible, apodid <span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumber Leptosynapta clarki provides novel opportunities for detailed characterization of echinoderm neural <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The present study used immunohistochemistry against FMRFamide and histamine to describe the neural organization in juvenile and adult <span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumbers. Histaminergic- and FMRFaminergic-like immunoreactivity is reported in several distinct cell types throughout the body of L. clarki. FMRFamide-like immunoreactive cell bodies were found in the buccal tentacles, esophageal region and in proximity to the radial nerve cords. Sensory-like cells in the tentacles send processes toward the circumoral nerve ring, while unipolar and bipolar cells close to the radial nerve cords display extensive processes in close association with muscle and other cells of the body wall. Histamine-like immunoreactivity was identified in neuronal somatas located in the buccal tentacles, circumoral nerve ring and in papillae distributed across the body. The tentacular cells send processes into the nerve ring, while the processes of cells in the body wall papillae extend to the surface epithelium and radial nerve cords. Pharmacological application of histamine produced a strong coordinated, peristaltic response of the body wall suggesting the role of histamine in the feeding behavior. Our immunohistochemical data provide evidence for extensive connections between the hyponeural and ectoneural nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumber, challenging previously held views on a clear functional separation of the sub-components of the nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>. Furthermore, our data indicate a potential function of histamine in coordinated, peristaltic movements; consistent with feeding patterns in this species. This study on L. clarki illustrates how using a broader range of neurotransmitter <span class="hlt">systems</span></p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615313L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615313L"><span id="translatedtitle">Augmenting an operational forecasting <span class="hlt">system</span> for the North and Baltic <span class="hlt">Seas</span> by in situ T and S data assimilation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Losa, Svetlana; Danilov, Sergey; Schröter, Jens; Nerger, Lars; Maßmann, Silvia; Janssen, Frank</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>In order to improve the hydrography forecast of the North and Baltic <span class="hlt">Seas</span>, the operational circulation model of the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) has been augmented by a data assimilation (DA) <span class="hlt">system</span>. The DA <span class="hlt">system</span> has been developed based on the Singular Evolution Interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter algorithm (Pham, 1998) coded within the Parallel Data Assimilation Framework (Nerger et al., 2004, Nerger and Hiller, 2012). Previously the only data assimilated were <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) measurements obtained with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aboard NOAA's polar orbiting satellites. While the quality of the forecast has been significantly improved by assimilating the satellite data (Losa et al., 2012, Losa et al., 2014), assimilation of in situ observational temperature (T) and salinity (S) profiles has allowed for further improvement. Assimilating MARNET time series and CTD and Scanfish measurements, however, required a careful calibration of the DA <span class="hlt">system</span> with respect to local analysis. The study addresses the problem of the local SEIK analysis accounting for the data within a certain radius. The localisation radius is considered spatially variable and dependent on the <span class="hlt">system</span> local dynamics. As such, we define the radius of the data influence based on the energy ratio of the baroclinic and barotropic flows. D. T. Pham, J. Verron, L. Gourdeau, 1998. Singular evolutive Kalman filters for data assimilation in oceanography, C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, Earth and Planetary Sciences, 326, 255-260. L. Nerger, W. Hiller, J. Schröter, 2004. PDAF - The Parallel Data Assimilation Framework: Experiences with Kalman Filtering, In: Zwieflhofer, W., Mozdzynski, G. (Eds.), Use of high performance computing in meteorology: proceedings of the Eleventh ECMWF Workshop on the Use of High Performance Computing in Meteorology. Singapore: World Scientific, Reading, UK, 63-83. L. Nerger, W. Hiller, 2012. Software for Ensemble-based Data</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1212395B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015BGD....1212395B"><span id="translatedtitle">The impact of sedimentary alkalinity release on the water column CO2 <span class="hlt">system</span> in the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brenner, H.; Braeckman, U.; Le Guitton, M.; Meysman, F. J. R.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Recently, it has been proposed that alkalinity release from sediments can play an important role in the carbonate dynamics on continental shelves, lowering the pCO2 of seawater and hence increasing the CO2 uptake from the atmosphere. To test this hypothesis, sedimentary alkalinity generation was quantified within permeable and muddy sediments across the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> during two cruises in September 2011 (basin-wide) and June 2012 (Dutch coastal zone). Benthic fluxes of alkalinity (AT) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were determined using shipboard closed sediment incubations. These results show that sediments can be an important source for alkalinity, particularly in the shallow southern North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, where high AT and DIC fluxes were recorded in near shore sediments of the Belgian, Dutch and German coastal zone. In contrast, fluxes of AT and DIC are substantially lower in the deeper, seasonally stratified, northern part of the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Overall, our results show that sedimentary alkalinity generation should be considered an important factor in the CO2 dynamics of shallow coastal <span class="hlt">systems</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26092553','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26092553"><span id="translatedtitle">Growth and immune <span class="hlt">system</span> performance to assess the effect of dispersed oil on juvenile <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dussauze, Matthieu; Danion, Morgane; Floch, Stéphane Le; Lemaire, Philippe; Theron, Michaël; Pichavant-Rafini, Karine</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The potential impact of chemically and mechanically dispersed oil was assessed in a model fish of European coastal waters, the <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Juvenile <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass were exposed for 48h to dispersed oil (mechanically and chemically) or dispersants alone. The impact of these exposure conditions was assessed using growth and immunity. The increase observed in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in bile indicated oil contamination in the fish exposed to chemical and mechanical dispersion of oil without any significant difference between these two groups. After 28 days of exposure, no significant differences were observed in specific growth rate,apparent food conversion efficiency and daily feeding). Following the oil exposure, fish immunity was assessed by a challenge with Viral Nervous Necrosis Virus (VNNV). Fish mortality was observed over a 42 day period. After 12 days post-infection, cumulative mortality was significantly different between the control group (16% p≤0.05) and the group exposed to chemical dispersion of oil (30% p≤0.05). However, at the end of the experiment, no significant difference was recorded in cumulative mortality or in VNNV antibodies secreted in fish in responses to the treatments. These data suggested that in our experimental condition, following the oil exposure, <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass growth was not affected whereas an impact on immunity was observed during the first days. However, this effect on the immune <span class="hlt">system</span> did not persist over time. PMID:26092553</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016InPhT..77..474X&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016InPhT..77..474X&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculating model for equivalent consumption efficiency in polarization measurement <span class="hlt">system</span> of oil-spilled on the <span class="hlt">sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Xu, Jiang; Qian, Weixian; Lu, Dongming; Lu, Yingcheng</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>As a new analytical method to identify oil spill on <span class="hlt">sea</span>, the main effect of polarization measurement <span class="hlt">system</span> is the scattering polarization information of different measured parts. This paper observed the polarization characteristic of oil film and seawater, and analyzed the transmission path of polarized light in the samples. Combined with Fresnel formula and law of Beer, the path of polarized light was divided into three parts, and the light propagation between the molecules was analyzed in detail. The results were affected by the capacity to change the polarization state. In order to quantify the equivalence, we defined an equivalent consumption efficiency (ECE). The ECE describes the ability of the molecules to weaken the polarization attribute of incident light. Then according to the polarization information in Mueller matrix, we inferred that the oil film and seawater had different polarization characteristics. In order to verify the correctness of the model, we applied it to detect the actual oil spill on <span class="hlt">sea</span> in the case of simulated sunlight finally. Research indicated that the propagation path of polarization light was in connection with the molecular structure and interactions of medium. Under the different measuring angles, the ECE of oil film and seawater have both differences and regularities, the experimental results indicated that it can be used for rapid detection of oil spill on <span class="hlt">sea</span>, and the data is accurate and reliable.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Geomo.141..134D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012Geomo.141..134D"><span id="translatedtitle">Anatomy of landslides along the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Transform Fault <span class="hlt">System</span> in NW Jordan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Dill, H. G.; Hahne, K.; Shaqour, F.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>In the mountainous region north of Amman, Jordan, Cenomanian calcareous rocks are being monitored constantly for their mass wasting processes which occasionally cause severe damage to the Amman-Irbid Highway. Satellite remote sensing data (Landsat TM, ASTER, and SRTM) and ground measurements are applied to investigate the anatomy of landslides along the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Transform Fault <span class="hlt">System</span> (DSTFS), a prominent strike-slip fault. The joints and faults pertinent to the DSTFS match the architectural elements identified in landslides of different size. This similarity attests to a close genetic relation between the tectonic setting of one of the most prominent fault zones on the earth and modern geomorphologic processes. Six indicators stand out in particular: 1) The fractures developing in N-S and splay faults represent the N-S lateral movement of the DSTFS. They governed the position of the landslides. 2) Cracks and faults aligned in NE-SW to NNW-SSW were caused by compressional strength. They were subsequently reactivated during extensional processes and used in some cases as slip planes during mass wasting. 3) Minor landslides with NE-SW straight scarps were derived from compressional features which were turned into slip planes during the incipient stages of mass wasting. They occur mainly along the slopes in small wadis or where a wide wadi narrows upstream. 4) Major landslides with curved instead of straight scarps and rotational slides are representative of a more advanced level of mass wasting. These areas have to be marked in the maps and during land management projects as high-risk area mainly and may be encountered in large wadis with steep slopes or longitudinal slopes undercut by road construction works. 5) The spatial relation between minor faults and slope angle is crucial as to the vulnerability of the areas in terms of mass wasting. 6) Springs lined up along faults cause serious problems to engineering geology in that they step up the behavior of marly</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T33C4711F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.T33C4711F"><span id="translatedtitle">A New <span class="hlt">System</span> of Marginal Arc in the North of the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> of Today</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fang, N.; Dong, H.; Zhao, H.; Liu, H.; Shen, P.; Liang, X.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (SCS) of today results from rupturing of the marginal continent of South China. Both its north and west margins are of typical passivity. Some records mirroring a Cretaceous active margin were reported in the study area. Generally they were attributed to westward subduction from the fossil Pacific plate. With respect of the problem, however, whether the subduction may induce response of an area far from the Pacific margin is an open question. The present approach has been primitively undertaken with the comparison of magmatic formation between the proto-SCS and the Pacific. The adakitic granite and Mg-rich andesite collected from the southern Hainan Island have their own petrologic and chemical characters as distinct from those igneous rocks from Zhejiang-Fujian province just bordering the western Pacific. Interestingly, the characters displayed in the Hainan are repeated in the Nha Trang-Tuy hoa area, South Vietnam. According to Tapponier's model (1986), Indo-China block was SE-ward slid 500-700km along the Red River Fault since the late Eocene. If restoring it, the Nha Trang-Tuy hoa area should be on the line extended westward from the Hainan Island. The above two sites constitute a latitudinal zone representing the active margin of the proto-SCS differing from the Pacific <span class="hlt">system</span>. Actually some elements can be concentrated as follows to illustrate the framework in the northern margin of the SCS (fig. 1): (1) the late Jurassic to late Cretaceous volcano-sedimentary sequence drilled from the Chaoshan depression 150 mile off the Pearl River Delta, accumulating in the fore-arc environment, (2) the arc-related granite, diorite and monzodiorite (118-72Ma) drilled from the northern continental shelf, the SCS, (3) the Cretaceous andesite, andesitic basalt, granite, and pyroclastic sediments, afore-said, outcropping both in Hainan and South Vietnam, (4) granite-gneiss (75Ma) drilled in the Xisha foundation of reef platform, which might be the output of</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008JHyd..357..207P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2008JHyd..357..207P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Applications of network analysis for adaptive management of artificial drainage <span class="hlt">systems</span> in landscapes vulnerable to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Poulter, Benjamin; Goodall, Jonathan L.; Halpin, Patrick N.</p> <p>2008-08-01</p> <p>SummaryThe vulnerability of coastal landscapes to <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise is compounded by the existence of extensive artificial drainage networks initially built to lower water tables for agriculture, forestry, and human settlements. These drainage networks are found in landscapes with little topographic relief where channel flow is characterized by bi-directional movement across multiple time-scales and related to precipitation, wind, and tidal patterns. The current configuration of many artificial drainage networks exacerbates impacts associated with <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise such as salt-intrusion and increased flooding. This suggests that in the short-term, drainage networks might be managed to mitigate <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise related impacts. The challenge, however, is that hydrologic processes in regions where channel flow direction is weakly related to slope and topography require extensive parameterization for numerical models which is limited where network size is on the order of a hundred or more kilometers in total length. Here we present an application of graph theoretic algorithms to efficiently investigate network properties relevant to the management of a large artificial drainage <span class="hlt">system</span> in coastal North Carolina, USA. We created a digital network model representing the observation network topology and four types of drainage features (canal, collector and field ditches, and streams). We applied betweenness-centrality concepts (using Dijkstra's shortest path algorithm) to determine major hydrologic flowpaths based off of hydraulic resistance. Following this, we identified sub-networks that could be managed independently using a community structure and modularity approach. Lastly, a betweenness-centrality algorithm was applied to identify major shoreline entry points to the network that disproportionately control water movement in and out of the network. We demonstrate that graph theory can be applied to solving management and monitoring problems associated with <span class="hlt">sea</span> level rise</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Tecto...9.1369C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990Tecto...9.1369C"><span id="translatedtitle">Crustal shortening in the Palmyride Fold Belt, Syria, and implications for movement along the Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Fault <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaimov, Thomas A.; Barazangi, Muawia; Al-Saad, Damen; Sawaf, Tarif; Gebran, Ali</p> <p>1990-12-01</p> <p>The Palmyride fold belt is a northeast-trending, 400 by 100 km transpressive belt in central Syria embedded in the northern Arabian platform, bounded to the north by the Aleppo plateau and to the south by the Rutbah uplift. Palinspastically restored cross sections from three transects across the Palmyride fold belt demonstrate a minimum NW-SE shortening of about 20% or 20 km across the southwestern segment of the belt, diminishing to 1-2 km in the northeast, close to the Euphrates graben <span class="hlt">system</span>. The cross sections are based on the 1∶200,000 scale geologic map of Syria and previously unavailable seismic reflection and well data, all provided by the Syrian Petroleum Company. These results differ significantly from those predicted by kinematic models of Middle East plate motions. In western Syria and eastern Lebanon the Palmyrides obliquely intersect (at about 45°) the roughly north-trending Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> transform fault <span class="hlt">system</span>. The Dead <span class="hlt">Sea</span> fault <span class="hlt">system</span> shows well-documented evidence of 105 km of left-lateral displacement since mid-Tertiary time south of its intersection with the Palmyrides, yet only about 25 km of motion has been documented north of that juncture in Lebanon and western Syria. Thus, kinematic models of Middle East plate motions predict 80 km of shortening in Syria, most of which should be accommodated in the Palmyride fold belt. Several possibilities exist to explain the discrepancy between the 80 km of predicted shortening and the only 20 km of shortening measured from restored cross sections. Restored cross sections offer only minimum shortening estimates, so the calculated 20 km may underestimate shortening. Second, evidence of strike-slip displacement recognized in minimum shortening estimates, so the calculated 20 km may underestimate shortening. Second, evidence of strike-slip displacement recognized in the field and reported in the literature, and indicated by new focal mechanism solutions of two recent earthquakes in the Palmyrides, indicates</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013020','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70013020"><span id="translatedtitle">Physiography and deposition on a distal deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>: The Valencia Fan (Northwestern Mediterranean)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Maldonado, A.; Palanques, A.; Alonso, B.; Kastens, K.A.; Nelson, C.H.; O'Connell, S.; Ryan, William B. F.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The Valencia Fan developed as the distal fill of a deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> valley, detached from the continental slope and the main sedimentary source. A survey of side-scan sonar, <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Beam and reflection seismics shows that the sediment is largely fed through the Valencia Valley. The upper fan comprises large channels with low-relief levees, and the middle fan has sinuous distributary channels. Depositional bedforms predominate on the valley floor and levees, and erosional bedforms are common in the valley walls. A change to slope on the fan apex and the presence of volcanoes on the upper fan are the main factors influencing fan-growth pattern. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP13A0941B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMEP13A0941B"><span id="translatedtitle">Sequence stratigraphic model and Evolution of the Channelized depositional <span class="hlt">systems</span> during Miocene in Ulleung Basin southeastern margin, East <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Baek, Y.; Lee, S. H.; Kim, H. J.; Jou, H. T.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The southwestern margin of Ulleung Basin consists of broad and gentle slope continental shelf and shelf break. The sedimentary succession of the continental shelf is divided into nine sequences (S1-S9). The sedimentary succession is consists of the lower pro-graded sequences (from S2 to S6; 16.5-8.2 Ma) and upper channelized depositional sequences (S7 and S8; 8.2-5.5 Ma) in the Miocene. It progressively thickens northeast ward, suggesting a significant contribution of sediments into the basin margin. The channelized depositional <span class="hlt">system</span> of S7 is divided into two subunits in which lower boundaries of each subunit are indicated by erosional truncation and channel incision. The underlying subunit 1 has two main streams; the progressive directions are to the NNE (a) and ENE (b). The main stream of subunit 2, developed after giving rise to the low-relief topography of the subunit 1, is only overlapping main stream (a) of subunit 1. The gentle sloped proximal-middle zone has different internal reflector, subunit 1 is characterized by parallel to chaotic reflections, whereas the subunit 2 is dominated by continuous and inclined reflectors, which can be interpreted that sediments supply is increase in subunit 2 than subunit 1. The steep sloped distal zone of channelized depositional <span class="hlt">systems</span> connected the shelf break. The slope gradient is more slanted subunit 2 than 1. The internal structures are dis-continuous and inclined chaotic internal reflectors, which is interpreted mass transport deposits (MTDs). The slope failures commonly start near the shelf break, but some others are connected perpendicular to the main stream. The upper boundary of subunit 2 is truncated by transgressive surface. The stacking pattern of sequence 7 suggests the type-1 sequence controlled by <span class="hlt">sea</span> level change, and the internal erosional surface in the channelized depositional <span class="hlt">systems</span> can be interpreted that formed by tectonic or relative <span class="hlt">sea</span> level flocculation during late Miocene in East <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..115...51C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012ECSS..115...51C"><span id="translatedtitle">Carbonate <span class="hlt">system</span> variability in the Gulf of Trieste (North Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cantoni, Carolina; Luchetta, Anna; Celio, Massimo; Cozzi, Stefano; Raicich, Fabio; Catalano, Giulio</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The seasonal variability of the carbonate <span class="hlt">system</span> in the waters of the Gulf of Trieste (GoT) was studied at PALOMA station from 2008 to 2009, in order to highlight the effects of biological processes, meteorological forcings and river loads on the dynamics of pHT, CO2 partial pressure (pCO2), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), carbonate ion concentration (CO3=), aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) and total alkalinity (AT). During winter, low seawater temperature (9.0 ± 0.4 °C) and a weak biological activity (-10.7 < AOU < 15.7 μmol O2 kg-1) in a homogeneous water column led to the lowest average values of pCO2 (328 ± 19 μatm) and ΩAr (2.91 ± 0.14). In summer, the water column in the area acted as a two-layer <span class="hlt">system</span>, with production processes prevailing in the upper layer (average AOU = -29.3 μmol O2 kg-1) and respiration processes in the lower layer (average AOU = 26.8 μmol O2 kg-1). These conditions caused the decrease of DIC (50 μmol kg-1) and the increase of ΩAr (1.0) values in the upper layer, whereas opposite trends were observed in the bottom waters. In August 2008, during a hypoxic event (dissolved oxygen DO = 86.9 μmol O2 kg-1), the intense remineralisation of organic carbon caused the rise of pCO2 (1043 μatm) and the decreases of pHT and ΩAr values down to 7.732 and 1.79 respectively. On an annual basis, surface pCO2 was mainly regulated by the pronounced seasonal cycle of seawater temperature. In winter, surface waters in the GoT were under-saturated with respect to atmospheric CO2, thus acting as a sink of CO2, in particular when strong-wind events enhanced air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> gas exchange (FCO2 up to -11.9 mmol m-2 d-1). During summer, the temperature-driven increase of pCO2 was dampened by biological CO2 uptake, as consequence a slight over-saturation (pCO2 = 409 μatm) turned out. River plumes were generally associated to higher AT and pCO2 values (up to 2859 μmol kg-1 and 606 μatm respectively), but their effect was highly variable in space and time</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9549K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..17.9549K"><span id="translatedtitle">The influence of dissolved organic matter on the acid-base <span class="hlt">system</span> of the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: A pilot study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kulinski, Karol; Schneider, Bernd; Hammer, Karoline; Schulz-Bull, Detlef</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>To assess the influence of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on the acid-base <span class="hlt">system</span> of the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, 19 stations along the salinity gradient from Mecklenburg Bight to the Bothnian Bay were sampled in November 2011 for total alkalinity (AT), total inorganic carbon concentration (CT), partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2), and pH. Based on these data, an organic alkalinity contribution (Aorg) was determined, defined as the difference between measured AT and the inorganic alkalinity calculated from CT and pH and/or CT and pCO2. Aorg was in the range of 22-58 µmol kg-1, corresponding to 1.5-3.5% of AT. The method to determine Aorg was validated in an experiment performed on DOM-enriched river water samples collected from the mouths of the Vistula and Oder Rivers in May 2012. The Aorg increase determined in that experiment correlated directly with the increase of DOC concentration caused by enrichment of the >1 kDa DOM fraction. To examine the effect of Aorg on calculations of the marine CO2 <span class="hlt">system</span>, the pCO2 and pH values measured in Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> water were compared with calculated values that were based on the measured alkalinity and another variable of the CO2 <span class="hlt">system</span>, but ignored the existence of Aorg. Large differences between measured and calculated pCO2 and pH were obtained when the computations were based on AT and CT. The calculated pCO2 was 27-56% lower than the measured values whereas the calculated pH was overestimated by more than 0.4 pH units. Since biogeochemical models are based on the transport and transformations of AT and CT, the acid-base properties of DOM should be included in calculations of the CO2 <span class="hlt">system</span> in DOM-rich basins like the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. In view of our limited knowledge about the composition and acid/base properties of DOM, this is best achieved using a bulk dissociation constant, KDOM, that represents all weakly acidic functional groups present in DOM. Our preliminary results indicated that the bulk KDOM in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is 2.94•10-8 mol kg-1</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5593O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..16.5593O"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Multi-Parameter Borehole <span class="hlt">System</span> to Evaluate the Expected Large Earthquake in the Marmara <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, Turkey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozel, Oguz; Guralp, Cansun; Parolai, Stefano; Bouchon, Michel; Karabulut, Hayrullah; Aktar, Mustafa; Meral Ozel, Nurcan</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>The Istanbul-Marmara region of northwestern Turkey with a population of more than 15 million faces a high probability of being exposed to an hazardous earthquake. The 1999 Izmit earthquake in Turkey is one of the best recorded in the world. For the first time, researchers from CNRS and Kandilli Observatory (Istanbul) observed that the earthquake was preceded by a preparatory phase that lasted 44 minutes before the rupture of the fault. This phase, which was characterized by a distinctive seismic signal, corresponds to slow slip at depth along the fault. Detecting it in other earthquakes might make it possible to predict some types of earthquakes several tens of minutes before fault rupture. In an attempt to understand where and when large earthquakes will occur, and the physics of the source process prior to large earthquakes, we proposed to install multi-parameter borehole instruments in the western part of Marmara <span class="hlt">Sea</span> in the frame of an EU project called MARSITE. This <span class="hlt">system</span> and surrounding small-aperture surface array is planned to capable of recording small deformations and tiny seismic signals near the active seismic zone of the North Anatolian Fault passing through the Marmara <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, which should enable us to address these issues. The objective is to design and build a multi-parameter borehole <span class="hlt">system</span> for observing slow deformation, low-frequency noise or tremors, and high frequency signals near the epicentral area of the expected Marmara earthquake. Furthermore, it is also aimed to identify the presence of repeating earthquakes and rupture nucleation, to measure continuously the evolution of the state of stress and stress transfer from east to west with high resolution data, and to estimate the near-surface geology effects masking the source related information. The proposed location of the borehole <span class="hlt">system</span> is right on the Ganos Fault and in a low ambient noise environment in Gazikoy in the western end of the North Anatolian Fault in the Marmara <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, where the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2705372','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2705372"><span id="translatedtitle">The central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> of <span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea) shows positive immunostaining for a chordate glial secretion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mashanov, Vladimir S; Zueva, Olga R; Heinzeller, Thomas; Aschauer, Beate; Naumann, Wilfried W; Grondona, Jesus M; Cifuentes, Manuel; Garcia-Arraras, Jose E</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background Echinoderms and chordates belong to the same monophyletic taxon, the Deuterostomia. In spite of significant differences in body plan organization, the two phyla may share more common traits than was thought previously. Of particular interest are the common features in the organization of the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>. The present study employs two polyclonal antisera raised against bovine Reissner's substance (RS), a secretory product produced by glial cells of the subcomissural organ, to study RS-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> of <span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumbers. Results In the ectoneural division of the nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>, both antisera recognize the content of secretory vacuoles in the apical cytoplasm of the radial glia-like cells of the neuroepithelium and in the flattened glial cells of the non-neural epineural roof epithelium. The secreted immunopositive material seems to form a thin layer covering the cell apices. There is no accumulation of the immunoreactive material on the apical surface of the hyponeural neuroepithelium or the hyponeural roof epithelium. Besides labelling the supporting cells and flattened glial cells of the epineural roof epithelium, both anti-RS antisera reveal a previously unknown putative glial cell type within the neural parenchyma of the holothurian nervous <span class="hlt">system</span>. Conclusion Our results show that: a) the glial cells of the holothurian tubular nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> produce a material similar to Reissner's substance known to be synthesized by secretory glial cells in all chordates studied so far; b) the nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> of <span class="hlt">sea</span> cucumbers shows a previously unrealized complexity of glial organization. Our findings also provide significant clues for interpretation of the evolution of the nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> in the Deuterostomia. It is suggested that echinoderms and chordates might have inherited the RS-producing radial glial cell type from the central nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> of their common ancestor, i.e., the last common ancestor of all the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SMaS...22e5031M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013SMaS...22e5031M"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic guided wave PPM communication <span class="hlt">system</span> for potential SHM of flooding members in sub-<span class="hlt">sea</span> oilrigs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mijarez, Rito; Gaydecki, Patrick</p> <p>2013-05-01</p> <p>An automatic guided wave pulse position modulation <span class="hlt">system</span>, using steel tubes as the communication channel, for detecting flooding in the hollow sub-<span class="hlt">sea</span> structures of newly built offshore oilrigs is presented. Underwater close visual inspections (CVI) are normally conducted during swim-round surveys in pre-selected areas or areas suspected of damage. An acceptable alternative to CVI is a non-destructive testing (NDT) technique called flood member detection (FMD). Usually, this NDT technique employs ultrasound or x-rays to detect the presence of seawater in the tubular structures, requiring divers or remote operating vehicles (ROVs). The field-proven FMD technique, integrated within the concept of structural health monitoring, offers an alternative to these traditional inspection methods. The <span class="hlt">system</span> employs two smart sensors and modulators, which transmit 40 kHz guided wave pulses, and a digital signal processing demodulator, which performs automatic detection of guided wave energy packets. Experiments were performed in dry conditions, inside and outside the laboratory; in the former using a steel tube 1.5 m×0.27 m×2 mm, and in the latter using a tubular steel heliport structure approximately 15 m×15 m in area and the base deck of an oilrig under construction. Results confirm that, although there was significant dispersion of the transmitted pulses, the <span class="hlt">system</span> successfully distinguished automatically guided wave encoded information that could potentially be used in sub-<span class="hlt">sea</span> oilrigs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QSRv..121...11F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015QSRv..121...11F"><span id="translatedtitle">Non-linear response of the Golo River <span class="hlt">system</span>, Corsica, France, to Late Quaternary climatic and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level variations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Forzoni, Andrea; Storms, J. E. A.; Reimann, Tony; Moreau, Julien; Jouet, Gwenael</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>Disentangling the impact of climatic and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level variations on fluvio-deltaic stratigraphy is still an outstanding question in sedimentary geology and geomorphology. We used the Golo River <span class="hlt">system</span>, Corsica, France, as a natural laboratory to investigate the impact of Late Quaternary climate and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level oscillations on sediment flux from a catchment and on fluvio-deltaic stratigraphy. We applied a numerical model, PaCMod, which calculates catchment sediment production and transport and compared modeling output to the sedimentary record of the Golo alluvial-coastal plain, whose chronology was reinterpreted using new optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages on feldspars. Our modeling, OSL ages, and geomorphological results indicate that the two main phases of braidplain development in the Golo alluvial-coastal plain occurred during the cold-dry phases of MIS5 and during the late MIS4-early MIS3, as a consequence of high catchment erosion rates and low water discharge. Incision and sediment reworking occurred during <span class="hlt">sea</span> level low stand periods (MIS4 and late MIS3-MIS2). High sediment flux pulses from the catchment outlet were generated during the Lateglacial and early Holocene, as a result of the release of sediments previously stored within the catchment and enhanced snowmelt. Our results suggest a non-linear response of the Golo River <span class="hlt">system</span> to climatic and eustatic changes, caused by sediment storage within the catchment and geomorphological thresholds. This indicates that a direct comparison between palaeo-climate and stratigraphy is not possible without considering catchment sediment storage and sediment transport delays out of the catchment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513041M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..1513041M"><span id="translatedtitle">Real time prediction of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level anomaly data with the Prognocean <span class="hlt">system</span> - comparison of results obtained using different prediction techniques</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mizinski, Bartlomiej; Niedzielski, Tomasz; Kosek, Wieslaw</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>Prognocean is a near-real time modeling and prediction <span class="hlt">system</span> elaborated and based at University of Wroclaw, Poland. It operates on gridded <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Level Anomaly (SLA) data obtained from the Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO), France. The data acquisition flow from AVISO to Prognocean is entirely automatic and is implemented in Python. The core of the <span class="hlt">system</span> - including data pre-processing, modeling, prediction, validation and visualization procedures - is composed of a series of R scripts that are interrelated and work at three levels of generalization. The objective of the work presented here is to show the results of our numerical experiment that have been carried out since early 2012. Four prediction models have been implemented to date: (1) extrapolation of polynomial-harmonic model and the extrapolation of polynomial-harmonic model with (2) autoregressive model, (3) threshold autoregressive model and (4) autocovariance procedure. Although the presentation is limited to four models and their predictive skills, Prognocean consists of modules and hence new techniques may be plugged in at any time. In this paper, the comparison of the results into forecasting <span class="hlt">sea</span> level anomaly maps is presented. Along with sample predictions, with various lead times up to two weeks, we present and discuss a set of root mean square prediction error maps computed in real time after the observations have been available. We identified areas where linear prediction models reveal considerable errors, which may indicate a non-linear mode of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level change. In addition, we have identified an agreement between the spatial pattern of large prediction errors and the spatial occurrence of key mesoscale ocean eddies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26278277','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26278277"><span id="translatedtitle">Sensitive periods for 17β-estradiol exposure during immune <span class="hlt">system</span> development in <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass head kidney.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Seemann, Frauke; Knigge, Thomas; Duflot, Aurélie; Marie, Sabine; Olivier, Stéphanie; Minier, Christophe; Monsinjon, Tiphaine</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>An increasing body of evidence suggests that sex steroids play an important role in the development and regulation of vertebrate immune defense. Therefore, compounds with estrogenic activity may influence the immune <span class="hlt">system</span> via receptor-mediated pathways. The presence of estrogen receptors in immune cells and organs during the early stages of development may indicate that female steroid hormones are involved in the maturation of the fish immune <span class="hlt">system</span>. This is of particular importance, as some marine fish are probably exposed to sources of exogenous estrogens while they reside in their estuarine nursery grounds. In this study, the influence of 17β-estradiol (E2) on estrogen receptor and cytokine gene expression was assessed in juvenile <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) together with characterization of the head kidney leukocyte populations and corresponding phagocytic activity during organ regionalization from 98 to 239 dph. E2 exposure, beginning at 90 dph resulted in indirect and delayed modifications of interleukin 1β and estrogen receptor α gene expression, which may affect B-lymphocyte proliferation in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass head kidney. The E2 treatment of 120 dph fish led to an increase in estrogen receptor β2 and a decrease in transforming growth factor β1 gene expression, which coincided with decreased phagocytic activity of head kidney lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Additionally, these changes were observed during developmental periods described as critical phases for B-lymphocyte development in mammals. Consequently, exogenous estrogens have the potential to modify the innate immune response in juvenile <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass and to exert detrimental effects on head kidney development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26278277</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071047SRP052','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/ofr20071047SRP052"><span id="translatedtitle">Regional seismic stratigraphic correlations of the Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: Implications for the tectonic history of the West Antarctic Rift <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Decesari, Robert C.; Sorlien, Christopher C.; Luyendyk, Bruce P.; Wilson, Douglas S.; Bartek, Louis; Diebold, John; Hopkins, Sarah E.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Using existing and new seismic reflection data, new and updated correlations of late Oligocene-early Miocene RSS-2 strata were made between the southern parts of Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span> basins. Previous studies documented Cretaceous extension across much of Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. We interpret that Cenozoic extension also occurred across Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Subsidence during and following this extension deepened existing basins and may have initiated basins in the west, subsiding ridges between basins below <span class="hlt">sea</span> level during the late Oligocene. Pre-Oligocene strata record cessation of L. Cretaceous extension in easternmost Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Successively younger Cenozoic extension occurred from east to west across the rest of Ross <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8677I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.8677I"><span id="translatedtitle">A 1/16° eddying simulation of the global ocean/<span class="hlt">sea</span> ice <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iovino, Dorotea; Masina, Simona; Storto, Andrea; Cipollone, Andrea; Stepanov, Vladimir N.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Analysis of a global eddy-resolving simulation using the NEMO general circulation model is presented. The model has 1/16° horizontal spacing at the equator, employs two displaced poles in the Northern Hemisphere, and uses 98 vertical levels. The simulation was spun up from rest and integrated for 11 model years, using ERA-Interim reanalysis as surface forcing. Primary intent of this hindcast is to test how the model represents upper ocean characteristics and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice properties. Numerical results show that, overall, the general circulation is well reproduced, with realistic values for overturning mass and heat transports. Analysis of the zonal averaged temperature and salinity, and the mixed layer depth indicate that the model average state is in good agreement with observed fields. Comparisons against observational estimates of mass transports through key straits indicate that most aspects of the model circulation are realistic. As expected, the simulation exhibits turbulent behaviour. The spatial distribution of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface height variability from the model is close to the observed pattern. Despite the increase in resolution, the variability amplitude is still weak, in particular in the Southern Ocean. The distribution and volume of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice are, to a large extent, comparable to observed values. Compared with a corresponding coarse-resolution configuration, the performance of the model is significantly improved, although relatively minor weaknesses still exist. We conclude that the model output is suitable for broader analysis to better understand upper ocean dynamics and ocean variability at global scales. This simulation represents a major step forward in the CMCC global ocean modelling, and constitutes the groundwork for future applications to short-range ocean forecasting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GMD.....9.2665I&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GMD.....9.2665I&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A 1/16° eddying simulation of the global NEMO <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice-ocean <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Iovino, Doroteaciro; Masina, Simona; Storto, Andrea; Cipollone, Andrea; Stepanov, Vladimir N.</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Analysis of a global eddy-resolving simulation using the NEMO general circulation model is presented. The model has 1/16° horizontal spacing at the Equator, employs two displaced poles in the Northern Hemisphere, and uses 98 vertical levels. The simulation was spun up from rest and integrated for 11 model years, using ERA-Interim reanalysis as surface forcing. Primary intent of this hindcast is to test how the model represents upper ocean characteristics and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice properties. Analysis of the zonal averaged temperature and salinity, and the mixed layer depth indicate that the model average state is in good agreement with observed fields and that the model successfully represents the variability in the upper ocean and at intermediate depths. Comparisons against observational estimates of mass transports through key straits indicate that most aspects of the model circulation are realistic. As expected, the simulation exhibits turbulent behaviour and the spatial distribution of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface height (SSH) variability from the model is close to the observed pattern. The distribution and volume of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice are, to a large extent, comparable to observed values. Compared with a corresponding eddy-permitting configuration, the performance of the model is significantly improved: reduced temperature and salinity biases, in particular at intermediate depths, improved mass and heat transports, better representation of fluxes through narrow and shallow straits, and increased global-mean eddy kinetic energy (by ˜ 40 %). However, relatively minor weaknesses still exist such as a lower than observed magnitude of the SSH variability. We conclude that the model output is suitable for broader analysis to better understand upper ocean dynamics and ocean variability at global scales. This simulation represents a major step forward in the global ocean modelling at the Euro-Mediterranean Centre on Climate Change and constitutes the groundwork for future applications to short</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9987815','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9987815"><span id="translatedtitle">A multi-purpose <span class="hlt">system</span> for water purification and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-water softening.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Barsky, L; Rubinstein, J; Barsky, S; Kirzhner, F; Bodul, O</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>A novel technique that can be used for reacting toxic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power plants and other combustion wastes with <span class="hlt">sea</span> water is described. A chemical interaction between CO2 and the cations in <span class="hlt">sea</span> water, with the pH electrolytically regulated, can precipitate almost all the calcium and magnesium ions, as well as some sodium and potassium ions, as carbonates and bicarbonates. The carbonates and bicarbonates thus prepared can then be mixed with ash to yield a building material. Sulfur ions will be neutralized with calcium and magnesium, and the remaining ions can be removed using reverse osmosis or some other method. The technology and equipment for purification are based on modules that can be used for industrial waste-water, <span class="hlt">sea</span> water, solutions, and otherwise. The module for separation of sand and suspended coarse substances consists of a tank for flocculation, coagulation, and precipitation of solid particles; and a low-pressure hydrocyclone. The module for purification from oil and fine suspensions is based on column flotation, flotation with a special ejector, and adhesion flotation. The module for ions and colloids consists of an absorbing filter with zeolite, fly ash, and other absorbing materials. Using a laboratory model consisting of a special mini-plant, we processed 10 L of factory-waste water containing more than 20 g/L organic content (compare with the upper limit of 0.02 g/L allowed by the Ministry of Environmental Protection in Israel). After the experimental solution was treated and evaporated to a small bulk, the water obtained was almost clear. On the basis of the results in the model, we present a scaled-up process for the design, development, and production of equipment for and the assembly of a large installation for drainage and water purification. PMID:9987815</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRI..102....1H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015DSRI..102....1H"><span id="translatedtitle">Acidification of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> from anthropogenic carbon penetration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hassoun, Abed El Rahman; Gemayel, Elissar; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Goyet, Catherine; Abboud-Abi Saab, Marie; Guglielmi, Véronique; Touratier, Franck; Falco, Cédric</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>This study presents an estimation of the anthropogenic CO2 (CANT) concentrations and acidification (ΔpH=pH2013-pHpre-industrial) in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, based upon hydrographic and carbonate chemistry data collected during the May 2013 MedSeA cruise. The concentrations of CANT were calculated using the composite tracer TrOCA. The CANT distribution shows that the most invaded waters (>60 μmol kg-1) are those of the intermediate and deep layers in the <span class="hlt">Alboran</span>, Liguro- and Algero-Provencal Sub-basins in the Western basin, and in the Adriatic Sub-basin in the Eastern basin. Whereas the areas containing the lowest CANT concentrations are the deep layers of the Eastern basin, especially those of the Ionian Sub-basin, and those of the northern Tyrrhenian Sub-basin in the Western basin. The acidification level in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> reflects the excessive increase of atmospheric CO2 and therefore the invasion of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> by CANT. This acidification varies between -0.055 and -0.156 pH unit and it indicates that all Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> waters are already acidified, especially those of the Western basin where ΔpH is rarely less than -0.1 pH unit. Both CANT concentrations and acidification levels are closely linked to the presence and history of the different water masses in the intermediate and deep layers of the Mediterranean basins. Despite the high acidification levels, both Mediterranean basins are still highly supersaturated in calcium carbonate minerals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213887B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1213887B"><span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution 3D seismic data characterize fluid flow <span class="hlt">systems</span> in the SW Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bünz, Stefan; Mienert, Jürgen; Rajan, Anupama</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The flow of fluids through marine sediments is one of the most dominant and pervasive processes in continental margins. These processes control the evolution of a sedimentary basin and its seafloor environment, and have implications for hydrocarbon exploration and seabed ecosystems. Many seep sites at the seafloor are associated with large but complex faunal communities that have received significant attention in recent years. However, there is a need for a better understanding of the driving mechanism of fluid flow in various geological settings, the accumulation of fluids in the subsurface and their focused flow through conduits and/or faults to the seabed. The Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is a large hydrocarbon-prone basin of the Norwegian Arctic region. A significant portion of the hydrocarbons has leaked or migrated into the shallow subsurface and is now trapped in gas-hydrate and shallow-gas reservoirs. Furthermore, there are few places in the Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, where methane gas is leaking from the seafloor into the oceanosphere. Accumulations of free gas in the shallow subsurface are considered a geohazard. They constitute a risk for safe drilling operations and they may pose a threat to global climate if the seal that is trapping them is breached. P-Cable 3D high-resolution seismic data from the Ringvassøya Fault Complex and the Polheim Sub-Platform provide new and detailed insight into fluid flow controls and accumulation mechanisms. The data shows a wide variety of fluid flow features, mostly in the form of pockmarks, bright spots, wipe-out zones or vertical zones of disturbed reflectivity. Fluids migrate by both diapiric mechanism and channelized along sedimentary layers. Glacigenic sediments generally form a strong boundary for fluid flow in the very shallow section. However, we can recognize pockmarks not only at the seafloor but also at one subsurface layer approximately 50 m below <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor indicating a former venting period in the SW Barents <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. At few locations high</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGP21B..02S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMGP21B..02S"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of precise measurement <span class="hlt">systems</span> for deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> electrical and magnetic explorations by ROV and AUV</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Sayanagi, K.; Goto, T.; Harada, M.; Kasaya, T.; Sawa, T.; Nakajima, T.; Isezaki, N.; Takeuchi, A.; Nagao, T.; Matsuo, J.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>It is generally not easy to obtain the fine-scale structure of the oceanic crust with accuracy better than several tens of meters, because the deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> prevents us from approaching the bottom in most parts of the oceans. The necessity of such detailed information, however, has increased in researches and developments of the ocean floor. For instance, it is essential in development of ocean floor resources like <span class="hlt">sea</span>-floor hydrothermal deposits and methane hydrate in order to estimate accurate abundance of those resources. Therefore, it is very important to develop some instruments for precise measurements of the oceanic crust. From this standpoint, we have developed new measurement <span class="hlt">systems</span> for electrical and magnetic explorations by Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV). In our project, the main target is <span class="hlt">sea</span>-floor hydrothermal deposits. We are working on research and development regarding measurement of the magnetic field with high resolution and high sampling rate, electrical exploration with accurately controlled source signals, electrical exploration tools for shallow and deep targets, versatile instruments of electrical and magnetic explorations with multi-platforms (deep-tow <span class="hlt">system</span>, ROV, and AUV), comprehensive analyses of electrical, magnetic, acoustic and thermal data, and so on. We finished basic designs of the magnetic and electrical observation <span class="hlt">systems</span> last year, and we have been manufacturing each instrument. So far, the first test of the magnetic exploration <span class="hlt">system</span> was carried out in the Kumano Basin during the R/V Yokosuka cruise in July, 2009. In the test, a vector magnetometer on AUV “Urashima” and a scalar magnetometer hung below towing vehicle “Yokosuka Deep-Tow” successfully detected magnetic anomaly produced by an artificial magnetic body set up on the ocean floor. Details will be reported in another paper by Harada, M. et al. in this meeting. In addition, various performance tests will be planned for</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.7964L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..18.7964L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Depositional architecture and evolution of inner shelf to shelf edge delta <span class="hlt">systems</span> since the Late Oliocene and their respone to the tectonic and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level change, Pear River Mouth Basin, northern South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Changsong; Zhang, Zhongtao; liu, Jingyan; Jiang, Jing</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Pear River Mouth Basin is located in the northern continent margin of the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Since the Late Oligocene, the long-term active fluvial <span class="hlt">systems</span> (Paleo-Zhujiang) from the western basin margin bebouched into the northern continental margin of the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and formed widespread deltaic deposits in various depositional geomorphologies and tectonic settings. Based of integral analysys of abundant seismic, well logging and drilling core data, Depositional architecture and evolution of these delta <span class="hlt">systems</span> and their respone to the tectonic and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level change are documented in the study. There are two basic types of the delta <span class="hlt">systems</span> which have been recognized: inner shelf delta deposited in shallow water enviroments and the outer shelf or shelf-edge delta <span class="hlt">systems</span> occurred in deep water settings. The paleowater depths of these delta <span class="hlt">systems</span> are around 30 to 80m (inner shelf delta) and 400-1000m (shelf-edge delta) estimated from the thickness (decompaction) of the delta front sequences. The study shows that the inner shelf delta <span class="hlt">systems</span> are characterized by relatively thin delta forests (20-40m), numereous stacked distributary channel fills, relative coarse river mouth bar deposits and thin distal delta front or distal bar and prodelta deposits. In contrast, the outer shelf or shelf edge delta <span class="hlt">systems</span> are characteristic of thick (300-800m) and steep (4-60) of deltaic clinoforms, which commonly display in 3D seismic profiles as "S" shape reflection. Large scale soft-sediment deformation structures, slump or debris flow deposits consisting mainly of soft-sediment deformed beds, blocks of sandstones and siltstones or mudstones widely developed in the delta front deposits. The shelf edge delta <span class="hlt">systems</span> are typically associated with sandy turbidite fan deposits along the prodelta slopes, which may shift basinwards as the progradation of the delta <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The delta <span class="hlt">systems</span> underwent several regional cycles of evolution from inner shelf deltas to shelf edge</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A53Q..06C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A53Q..06C"><span id="translatedtitle">A Regional Coupled Model <span class="hlt">System</span> to Examine Ocean-Atmosphere-<span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice, Ice Sheet and Permafrost Interactions in the Arctic: HIRHAM5 - HYCOM - CICE - PISM - GIPL</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Christensen, J. H.; Mottram, R.; Langen, P. L.; Madsen, K. S.; Stendel, M.; Rodehacke, C. B.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Marchenko, S. S.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>We introduce a high resolution fully coupled regional model <span class="hlt">system</span> that describes ocean, atmosphere and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice processes in the Arctic Ocean and North Atlantic and treats atmosphere / ocean / ice sheet interactions as well as land and sub-<span class="hlt">sea</span> permafrost processes in an advanced semi-coupled form. The <span class="hlt">system</span> has been developed using five existing model components: the high resolution regional climate model HIRHAM5, the regional ocean model HYCOM and the CICE model that describes <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice dynamics, the PISM ice sheet model and the GIPL permafrost model. These models have been interactively coupled which enables us to perform experiments examining the relative importance of ocean and atmospheric forcing as well as internal dynamics, to explain the recent rapid decline of Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice, recent changes in the Greenland ice sheet mass balance together with both land and sub-<span class="hlt">sea</span> permafrost conditions. Analysis of the model results indicates the model can successfully reproduce the interannual and seasonal variability in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent, describe recent changes in the Greenland ice sheet surface mass balance as well as permafrost conditions around Greenland and possibly under the Arctic Ocean <span class="hlt">sea</span> floor. This opens up the possibility of a range of process based experiments as well as simulations to project the future and study the past of Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice that we plan to run using the EC-Earth GCM as boundary forcing. Examples, focusing on various coupling issues will be presented and the need for further refinements will be assessed by highlighting processes that appear to be essential to the interactions and hence possibly important at climate scales.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1814695S&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1814695S&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">N-ICE2015: Multi-disciplinary study of the young <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice <span class="hlt">system</span> north of Svalbard from winter to summer.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Steen, Harald; Granskog, Mats; Assmy, Philipp; Duarte, Pedro; Hudson, Stephen; Gerland, Sebastian; Spreen, Gunnar; Smedsrud, Lars H.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Arctic Ocean is shifting to a new regime with a thinner and smaller <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice area cover. Until now, winter <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice extent has changed less than during summer, as the heat loss to the atmosphere during autumn and winter is large enough form an ice cover in most regions. The insulating snow cover also heavily influences the winter ice growth. Consequently, the older, thicker multi-year <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice has been replace by a younger and thinner <span class="hlt">sea</span>. These large changes in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover may have dramatic consequences for ecosystems, energy fluxes and ultimately atmospheric circulation and the Northern Hemisphere climate. To study the effects of the changing Arctic the Norwegian Polar Institute, together with national and international partners, launched from January 11 to June 24, 2015 the Norwegian Young <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ICE cruise 2015 (N-ICE2015). N-ICE2015 was a multi-disciplinary cruise aimed at simultaneously studying the effect of the Arctic Ocean changes in the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice, the atmosphere, in radiation, in ecosystems. as well as water chemistry. R/V Lance was frozen into the drift ice north of Svalbard at about N83 E25 and drifted passively southwards with the ice until she was broken loose. When she was loose, R/V Lance was brought back north to a similar starting position. While fast in the ice, she served as a living and working platform for 100 scientist and engineers from 11 countries. One aim of N-ICE2015 is to present a comprehensive data-set on the first year ice dominated <span class="hlt">system</span> available for the scientific community describing the state and changes of the Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice <span class="hlt">system</span> from freezing to melt. Analyzing the data is progressing and some first results will be presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN23A1421D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013AGUFMIN23A1421D"><span id="translatedtitle">Data access <span class="hlt">systems</span> in the real world: How distributed environmental and socio-economic data from the Dutch Wadden <span class="hlt">Sea</span> are being integrated and made accessible through one portal, using the <span class="hlt">Sea</span>DataNet infrastructure as a basis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>De Bruin, T.; Thijsse, P.</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>The Wadden <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, an UNESCO World Heritage Site along the Northern coasts of The Netherlands, Germany and Denmark, is a very valuable, yet also highly vulnerable tidal flats area. It is noted for its ecological diversity and value, being a stopover for large numbers of migrating birds. The Wadden <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is also used intensively for economic activities by inhabitants of the surrounding coasts and islands, as well as by the many tourists visiting the area every year. A whole series of monitoring programmes of both ecological and socio-economic parameters is carried out by a range of governmental bodies and institutes, to study the natural processes occuring in the Wadden <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ecosystems as well as the influence of human activities on those ecosystems. Yet, the monitoring programmes are scattered and it is difficult to get an overview of those monitoring activities or to get access to the data resulting from those monitoring programmes. The Wadden <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Long Term Ecosystem Research (WaLTER) project aims to: 1. Provide access through one data portal to a base set of consistent, standardized, long-term data on changes in the Wadden <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ecological and socio-economic <span class="hlt">systems</span>, in order to model and understand interrelationships with human use, climate variation and possible other drivers. 2. Provide a research infrastructure, open access to commonly shared databases, educational facilities and one or more field sites in which experimental, innovative and process-driven research can be carried out. This presentation will, after a short introduction of the WaLTER-project (2011-2015), focus on the distributed data access infrastructure which is being developed and used for WaLTER. This is based on and makes use of the existing data access infrastructure of the Netherlands National Oceanographic Data Committee (NL-NODC), which has been operational since early 2009. The NL-NODC <span class="hlt">system</span> is identical to and in fact developed by the European <span class="hlt">Sea</span>DataNet project, furthering standardisation</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70009959','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70009959"><span id="translatedtitle">Ore transport and deposition in the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> geothermal <span class="hlt">system</span>: a geochemical model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Shanks, Wayne C., III; Bischoff, J.L.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>Thermodynamic calculation of distribution of dissolved aqueous species in the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> geothermal brine provides a model of ore transport and deposition in good agreement with observed accumulations of base metal sulfides, anhydrite, and barite. The Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> brine is recirculated seawater that acquires high salinity by low-temperature interaction with Miocene evaporites and is subsequently heated to temperatures in excess of 200??C by interaction with recent rift zone intrusive rocks. At temperatures up to 250??C, NaSO-4 and MgSO04 are the dominant sulfur-bearing species. H2S forms by inorganic sulfate reduction at the higher temperatures but is maintained at a uniform concentration of about 2 ppm by the strength of the sulfate complexes. Chloride complexes solubilize metals at the higher temperatures, and thus sulfide and metals are carried together into the Atlantis II Deep. Below 150??C, the brine becomes supersaturated with respect to chalcopyrite, sphalerite, galena, and iron monosulfide due to chloride-complex dissociation. Sulfide precipitation rates, based on the rate of brine influx, are in good agreement with measured sedimentation rates. Anhydrite precipitates as crystalline fissure infillings from high-temperature inflowing brine. Barite forms from partial oxidation of sulfides at the interface between the lower hot brine and the transitional brine layer. ?? 1977.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1994JGR....99.7617G&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=1994JGR....99.7617G&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Summertime synoptic variability of frontal <span class="hlt">systems</span> in the northern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gawarkiewicz, Glen; Haney, J. Christopher; Caruso, Michael J.</p> <p>1994-04-01</p> <p>Hydrographic observations in the northern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> during August and September 1987 indicate the presence of a front dividing relatively warm, fresh Bering Shelf Water from relatively cool, saline Anadyr Water along the western and northern coasts of St. Lawrence Island near Anadyr Strait. A buoyant layer 20 m thick with surface salinities as low as 29.5 practical salinity units and a maximum temperature of 10°C was present adjacent to the island. The surface outcrop of the front migrated 80 km north during the nine-day time period of the hydrographic observations. Surface thermal patterns suggest that this front may extend the length of the northern coastline of St. Lawrence Island during the summer. The front veers north and passes through the Bering Strait, where temperature differences as large as 6°C exist across the strait. An examination of the water mass properties of the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> suggests that the buoyant water north of St. Lawrence Island is Bering Shelf Water which has been carried northward through Anadyr Strait. The baroclinic transport (assuming no flow at the bottom) associated with the front is 0.07 Sv, which is roughly a third of the seasonal increase in transport through the Bering Strait in the summer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...32a2003R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26ES...32a2003R"><span id="translatedtitle">A micro-hydropower <span class="hlt">system</span> model with PD load frequency controller for Resort Islands in the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Reyasudin Basir Khan, M.; Pasupuleti, Jagadeesh; Jidin, Razali</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>A model of high-penetration micro-hydropower <span class="hlt">system</span> with no storage is presented in this paper. This technology is designed in order to reduce the diesel fuel consumption and cost of electricity supply in a resort island located in the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The optimal hydropower generation for this <span class="hlt">system</span> depends on the available stream flow at the potential sites. At low stream flow, both the micro-hydropower <span class="hlt">system</span> and the currently installed diesel generators are required to feed the load. However, when the hydropower generation exceeds the load demand, the diesel generator is shut down. Meanwhile, the <span class="hlt">system</span> frequency is controlled by a secondary load bank that absorbs the hydropower which exceeds the consumer demand. This paper also presents a discrete frequency control <span class="hlt">system</span> using proportional-derivative (PD) controller. The controller is employed in order to manipulate the <span class="hlt">system</span> frequency by controlling the secondary load <span class="hlt">system</span>. The simulation results indicate that a variety of load conditions can be satisfactorily controlled by the PD controller. Hence, this particular type of controller is suitable to be implemented in micro-grid <span class="hlt">systems</span> for remote areas that require low cost and easy-to- maintain controllers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/red_sea','SCIGOV-ASDC'); return false;" href="https://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/project/misr/gallery/red_sea"><span id="translatedtitle">Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/">Atmospheric Science Data Center </a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-16</p> <p>article title:  The Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span>     View Larger Image ... Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) image of the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> was acquired on August 13, 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> got its name because the blooms of a type of algae,  Trichodesmium ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002410&hterms=Aquamarines&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DAquamarines','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002410&hterms=Aquamarines&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DAquamarines"><span id="translatedtitle">Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Much of the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is clear in this <span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS image. The large expanse of bright aquamarine water is clearly visible. Credit: Provided by the <span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002408&hterms=Aquamarines&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAquamarines','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-002408&hterms=Aquamarines&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DAquamarines"><span id="translatedtitle">Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The skies of the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> were relatively clear again in this <span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS image showing a band of aquamarine colored water. Credit: Provided by the <span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3972739','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3972739"><span id="translatedtitle">Tibetans living at <span class="hlt">sea</span> level have a hyporesponsive hypoxia-inducible factor <span class="hlt">system</span> and blunted physiological responses to hypoxia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Petousi, Nayia; Croft, Quentin P. P.; Cavalleri, Gianpiero L.; Cheng, Hung-Yuan; Formenti, Federico; Ishida, Koji; Lunn, Daniel; McCormack, Mark; Shianna, Kevin V.; Talbot, Nick P.; Ratcliffe, Peter J.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Tibetan natives have lived on the Tibetan plateau (altitude ∼4,000 m) for at least 25,000 years, and as such they are adapted to life and reproduction in a hypoxic environment. Recent studies have identified two genetic loci, EGLN1 and EPAS1, that have undergone natural selection in Tibetans, and further demonstrated an association of EGLN1/EPAS1 genotype with hemoglobin concentration. Both genes encode major components of the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcriptional pathway, which coordinates an organism's response to hypoxia. Patients living at <span class="hlt">sea</span> level with genetic disease of the HIF pathway have characteristic phenotypes at both the integrative-physiology and cellular level. We sought to test the hypothesis that natural selection to hypoxia within Tibetans results in related phenotypic differences. We compared Tibetans living at <span class="hlt">sea</span> level with Han Chinese, who are Tibetans' most closely related major ethnic group. We found that Tibetans had a lower hemoglobin concentration, a higher pulmonary ventilation relative to metabolism, and blunted pulmonary vascular responses to both acute (minutes) and sustained (8 h) hypoxia. At the cellular level, the relative expression and hypoxic induction of HIF-regulated genes were significantly lower in peripheral blood lymphocytes from Tibetans compared with Han Chinese. Within the Tibetans, we found a significant correlation between both EPAS1 and EGLN1 genotype and the induction of erythropoietin by hypoxia. In conclusion, this study provides further evidence that Tibetans respond less vigorously to hypoxic challenge. This is evident at <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and, at least in part, appears to arise from a hyporesponsive HIF transcriptional <span class="hlt">system</span>. PMID:24030663</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005DSRI...52.1515O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005DSRI...52.1515O"><span id="translatedtitle">High abundances of viruses in a deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal vent <span class="hlt">system</span> indicates viral mediated microbial mortality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ortmann, Alice C.; Suttle, Curtis A.</p> <p>2005-08-01</p> <p>Little is known about the distribution and abundance of viruses at deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal vents. Based on estimates made using epifluorescence microscopy and the dye YoPro-1, much higher viral abundances were observed at active hydrothermal vents than in the surrounding deep <span class="hlt">sea</span>. This indicates that viral production was occurring and that viruses were a source of microbial mortality. Samples collected from three actively venting sites (Clam Bed, S&M and Salut) within the Endeavour Ridge <span class="hlt">system</span> off the west coast of North America had viral abundances ranging from 1.45×10 5 to 9.90×10 7 ml -1, while the abundances of prokaryotes ranged from 1.30×10 5 to 4.46×10 6 ml -1. The abundances of viruses and prokaryotes in samples collected along the neutrally buoyant plume associated with the Main Endeavour Field were lower than at actively venting sites, with a mean of 5.3×10 5 prokaryotes ml -1 (s.d. 2.9×10 5, n=64) and 3.50×10 6 viruses ml -1 (s.d. 1.89×10 6, n=64), but were higher than non-plume samples (2.7×10 5 prokaryotes ml -1, s.d. 5.0×10 4, n=15 and 2.94×10 6 viruses ml -1, s.d. 1.08×10 6, n=15). Prokaryotic and viral abundances in non-hydrothermal regions were as much as 10-fold higher than found in previous studies, in which sample fixation likely resulted in underestimates. This suggests that viral infection may be a greater source of prokaryotic mortality throughout the deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> than previously recognized. Overall, our results indicate that virus-mediated mortality of prokaryotes at these hydrothermal-vent environments is significant and may reduce energy flow to higher trophic levels.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.2149Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2002EGSGA..27.2149Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Modern Formation of Isotope <span class="hlt">System</span> ( 40k, 137 Cs 226ra, 232th) In Exogenous Conditions Water Catch Basin of The White <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yudakhin, F. N.; Kiseljov, G. P.; Bazhenov, A. V.</p> <p></p> <p>Water modular basin of the White <span class="hlt">sea</span> occupies a number of geological provinces. Northern and western parts are combined archey-paleozoic complex of metamorphogenic and magmatogenic mountain rock, which is blocked sporadically by low-power tundra and taiga soils. Southern, southeast and east is combined by sedimentary Paleozoic complex ? ?zen sinecliza, partially blocked by <span class="hlt">sea</span> deposits of last freezing, on which the tundra's, southern tundra, northern and middle taiga settle down of ground actually. The ground deposits in rivers, lakes and White <span class="hlt">sea</span> are formed from the all variety of mountain rocks, composing the territory, and up soil horizon. We investigated a <span class="hlt">system</span> of isotopes (40K, 137Cs226Ra, 232Th,) in soils, bottom deposits of rivers, lakes and White <span class="hlt">sea</span>, on more than 1500 tests, that allows to consider the modern spatial formation of isotope <span class="hlt">systems</span> in soils and bottom deposits of the region. Findings about concentration of isotopes in genetic horizons of soils show the change of isotope sy stem depending on climatic zones and reflect an isotope status of environment, which basically delivers a material for bottom deposits of rivers and White <span class="hlt">sea</span>. For bottom deposits of rivers characteristic is the following - from the washed out sand is occurs carrying out of all radionuclides, in silt sand and ooze there is an accumulation radionuclides, including 137Cs. That the silt deposits in the rivers water catch basin of the White <span class="hlt">sea</span> occupy the subordinated situation among bottom deposits, radionucli des are actively taken out in White <span class="hlt">sea</span>, where they collect. As a result of modern soil destruction (natural and technogenic influence) and sediment accumulation in water basin, there is a modern migration of radioactive isotopes in horizontal and vertical directions, therefore the new isotope <span class="hlt">systems</span> are formed. Thus in soil horizons they are not steady and change at change of a climate and biological <span class="hlt">system</span>, and in bottom deposits they are steady and further pass</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..1714862B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015EGUGA..1714862B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">An observatory <span class="hlt">system</span> for physical and biogeochemical parameters in the northern Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benetazzo, Alvise; Barbariol, Francesco; Bastianini, Mauro; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bergamasco, Filippo; Bernardi Aubry, Fabrizio; Bertotti, Luciana; Bonaldo, Davide; Cavaleri, Luigi; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Finotto, Stefania; Lester, Graham; Licer, Matjaz; Malacic, Vlado; Minuzzo, Tiziano; Sclavo, Mauro</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The history of the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform (http://www.ismar.cnr.it/infrastructures/piattaforma-acqua-alta) started more than forty years ago, shortly after the dramatic surge that affected the city of Venice in late 1966. Since then, benefiting also from recent funding acquired within the National Flagship Project RITMARE, great efforts have been devoted to monitor the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions in the Northern Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (NA), in the proximity of the Venice lagoon. Nowadays the "Acqua Alta", located on a 16 m depth area, represents a success story of the Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), that manages the structure and used collected data to improve the knowledge of the fragile <span class="hlt">sea</span> environment that surrounds the Venetian littoral. The directional wave observations started in 1979, representing one of the world longest continuous series. On the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface, waves are now routinely observed by means of a submerged acoustic-Doppler <span class="hlt">system</span> that provides burst of directional wave data, including significant wave height, mean wave period and direction of propagation. Currently these wave parameters are integrated with the data collected by a stereo-video <span class="hlt">system</span> (namely Wave Acquisition Stereo <span class="hlt">System</span>, WASS) that provides the 3-D profile of the wavy <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface. WASS data are unleashing a "new view" for ocean waves providing the complete space-time dynamics of wave groups. Moreover, a series of multiparameters probes permits to measure the vertical distribution of <span class="hlt">sea</span> temperature (at nine depths from the surface to the bottom), salinity (three positions), dissolved oxygen (two positions), and turbidity close to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> bottom. The collected data are continuously used to track the water masses that enter, leave, and are produced within the NA. A striking example is provided by the temperature and salinity data used to follow the exceptional dense water formation that occurred in this basin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714862B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1714862B"><span id="translatedtitle">An observatory <span class="hlt">system</span> for physical and biogeochemical parameters in the northern Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Benetazzo, Alvise; Barbariol, Francesco; Bastianini, Mauro; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bergamasco, Filippo; Bernardi Aubry, Fabrizio; Bertotti, Luciana; Bonaldo, Davide; Cavaleri, Luigi; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Finotto, Stefania; Lester, Graham; Licer, Matjaz; Malacic, Vlado; Minuzzo, Tiziano; Sclavo, Mauro</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The history of the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform (http://www.ismar.cnr.it/infrastructures/piattaforma-acqua-alta) started more than forty years ago, shortly after the dramatic surge that affected the city of Venice in late 1966. Since then, benefiting also from recent funding acquired within the National Flagship Project RITMARE, great efforts have been devoted to monitor the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions in the Northern Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (NA), in the proximity of the Venice lagoon. Nowadays the "Acqua Alta", located on a 16 m depth area, represents a success story of the Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), that manages the structure and used collected data to improve the knowledge of the fragile <span class="hlt">sea</span> environment that surrounds the Venetian littoral. The directional wave observations started in 1979, representing one of the world longest continuous series. On the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface, waves are now routinely observed by means of a submerged acoustic-Doppler <span class="hlt">system</span> that provides burst of directional wave data, including significant wave height, mean wave period and direction of propagation. Currently these wave parameters are integrated with the data collected by a stereo-video <span class="hlt">system</span> (namely Wave Acquisition Stereo <span class="hlt">System</span>, WASS) that provides the 3-D profile of the wavy <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface. WASS data are unleashing a "new view" for ocean waves providing the complete space-time dynamics of wave groups. Moreover, a series of multiparameters probes permits to measure the vertical distribution of <span class="hlt">sea</span> temperature (at nine depths from the surface to the bottom), salinity (three positions), dissolved oxygen (two positions), and turbidity close to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> bottom. The collected data are continuously used to track the water masses that enter, leave, and are produced within the NA. A striking example is provided by the temperature and salinity data used to follow the exceptional dense water formation that occurred in this basin</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050179461','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050179461"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate <span class="hlt">system</span>, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1815456T&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1815456T&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">High-resolution wave forecasting <span class="hlt">system</span> for the seasonally ice-covered Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tuomi, Laura; Lehtiranta, Jonni</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>When forecasting surface waves in seasonally ice-covered <span class="hlt">seas</span>, the inclusion of ice conditions in the modelling is important. The ice cover affects the propagation and also changes the fetch over which the waves grow. In wave models the ice conditions are often still given as a boundary condition and handled by excluding areas where the ice concentration exceeds a certain threshold value. The ice data used are typically based on satellite analysis or expert analysis of local Ice Services who combine data from different sources. This type of data is sufficiently accurate to evaluate the near-real time ice concentrations, but when making forecasts it is also important to account for the possible changes in ice conditions. For example in a case of a high wind situation, there can be rapid changes in the ice field, when the wind and waves may push the ice towards shores and cause fragmentation of ice field. To enhance handling of ice conditions in the Baltic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> wave forecasts, utilisation of ice model data was studied. Ice concentration, thickness produced by FMI's operational ice model HELMI were used to provide ice data to wave model as follows: Wave model grid points where the ice concentration was more than or equal to 70% and the ice thickness more than1 cm, were excluded from calculations. Ice concentrations smaller than that were taken into account as additional grid obstructions by decreasing the wave energy passed from one grid cell to another. A challenge in evaluating wave forecast accuracy in partly ice covered areas it that there's typically no wave buoy data available, since the buoys have to be recovered well before the <span class="hlt">sea</span> area freezes. To evaluate the accuracy of wave forecast in partially ice covered areas, significant wave heights from altimeter's ERS2, Envisat, Jason-1 and Jason-2 were extracted from Ifremer database. Results showed that the more frequent update of the ice data was found to improve the wave forecast especially during high wind</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800018506&hterms=agricultural+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dagricultural%2Bpollution','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19800018506&hterms=agricultural+pollution&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3Dagricultural%2Bpollution"><span id="translatedtitle">Application of the Doppler lidar <span class="hlt">system</span> to agricultural burning and air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> interactions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Fitzjarrald, D.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>The Doppler lidar <span class="hlt">system</span> is potentially a very powerful measurement <span class="hlt">system</span>. Three areas concerning the <span class="hlt">system</span> are discussed: (1) error analysis of the <span class="hlt">system</span> to verify the results; (2) application of the <span class="hlt">system</span> to agricultural burning in California central valley; and (3) oceanographic possibilities of the <span class="hlt">system</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26375668','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26375668"><span id="translatedtitle">Microbial diversity in deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> sediments from the Menez Gwen hydrothermal vent <span class="hlt">system</span> of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cerqueira, Teresa; Pinho, Diogo; Egas, Conceição; Froufe, Hugo; Altermark, Bjørn; Candeias, Carla; Santos, Ricardo S; Bettencourt, Raul</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> hydrothermal sediments are known to support remarkably diverse microbial consortia. Cultureindependent sequence-based technologies have extensively been used to disclose the associated microbial diversity as most of the microorganisms inhabiting these ecosystems remain uncultured. Here we provide the first description of the microbial community diversity found on sediments from Menez Gwen vent <span class="hlt">system</span>. We compared hydrothermally influenced sediments, retrieved from an active vent chimney at 812 m depth, with non-hydrothermally influenced sediments, from a 1400 m depth bathyal plain. Considering the enriched methane and sulfur composition of Menez Gwen vent fluids, and the sediment physicochemical properties in each sampled area, we hypothesized that the site-associated microbes would be different. To address this question, taxonomic profiles of bacterial, archaeal and micro-eukaryotic representatives were studied by rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing. Communities were shown to be significantly different and segregated by sediment geographical area. Specific mesophilic, thermophilic and hyperthermophilic archaeal (e.g., Archaeoglobus, ANME-1) and bacterial (e.g., Caldithrix, Thermodesulfobacteria) taxa were highly abundant near the vent chimney. In contrast, bathyal-associated members affiliated to more ubiquitous phylogroups from deep-ocean sediments (e.g., Thaumarchaeota MGI, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria). This study provides a broader picture of the biological diversity and microbial biogeography, and represents a preliminary approach to the microbial ecology associated with the deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> sediments from the Menez Gwen hydrothermal vent field. PMID:26375668</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMS...111...69O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013JMS...111...69O"><span id="translatedtitle">Modelling the cycling of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> <span class="hlt">system</span>: Fluxes, loading, seasonality, trends</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>O'Driscoll, Kieran; Mayer, Bernhard; Ilyina, Tatiana; Pohlmann, Thomas</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>The fate and cycling of two selected POPs is investigated for the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> with an improved version of a fate and transport ocean model (FANTOM). The model uses atmospheric data from the EMEP MSC East POP model (Gusev et al., 2009), giving reasonable concentrations and seasonal distributions for the entire region, as opposed to the three observation stations that Ilyina et al. (2006) were limited to. Other model improvements include changes in the calculation of POP exchange between the water column and sediment. We chose to simulate the fate of two POPs with very different properties, γ-HCH and PCB 153. Since the fate and cycling of POPs are strongly affected by hydrodynamic processes, a high resolution version of the Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model (HAMSOM) was developed and utilised. Simulations were made for the period 1996-2005. Both models were validated by comparing results with available data, which showed that the simulations were of very satisfactory quality. Model results show that the North <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is a net sink for γ-HCH and a net source to the atmosphere of PCB 153. Total masses of γ-HCH and PCB 153 in 2005 are reduced to 30% and 50%, respectively, of 1996 values. Storms resuspending bottom sediments into the water column mobilise POPs into the atmosphere and have the potential to deliver substantial loads of these POPs into Europe.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4877842','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4877842"><span id="translatedtitle">The Health Status of the Reproductive <span class="hlt">System</span> in Women Living In the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Turdybekova, Yasminur G.; Dosmagambetova, Raushan S.; Zhanabayeva, Symbat U.; Bublik, Gena V.; Kubayev, Alik B.; Ibraibekov, Zhanbolat G.; Kopobayeva, Irina L.; Kultanov, Berikbay Zh.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In order to assess women’s reproductive health in the Kyzylorda region (the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span>) of Kazakhstan, 1406 women were involved in an integrated clinical-functional and laboratory examination, given regional and environmental ecological factors. The high level of endocrine gynecological pathology is indicated in the examined women. In both examined zones, there is a late menarche over 16 years old, which is 39%. It is indicated a trend towards younger age of menopause onset. Inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs affect a third of the examined women. In the zone of ecological disaster, every fourth woman has fetal losses, cases of spontaneous pregnancy termination and/or non-developing pregnancies in anamnesis, which can be repeated many times.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27275273','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27275273"><span id="translatedtitle">The Health Status of the Reproductive <span class="hlt">System</span> in Women Living In the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Region.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Turdybekova, Yasminur G; Dosmagambetova, Raushan S; Zhanabayeva, Symbat U; Bublik, Gena V; Kubayev, Alik B; Ibraibekov, Zhanbolat G; Kopobayeva, Irina L; Kultanov, Berikbay Zh</p> <p>2015-09-15</p> <p>In order to assess women's reproductive health in the Kyzylorda region (the Aral <span class="hlt">Sea</span>) of Kazakhstan, 1406 women were involved in an integrated clinical-functional and laboratory examination, given regional and environmental ecological factors. The high level of endocrine gynecological pathology is indicated in the examined women. In both examined zones, there is a late menarche over 16 years old, which is 39%. It is indicated a trend towards younger age of menopause onset. Inflammatory diseases of the female genital organs affect a third of the examined women. In the zone of ecological disaster, every fourth woman has fetal losses, cases of spontaneous pregnancy termination and/or non-developing pregnancies in anamnesis, which can be repeated many times. PMID:27275273</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23900344','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23900344"><span id="translatedtitle">Climate change and adaptational impacts in coastal <span class="hlt">systems</span>: the case of <span class="hlt">sea</span> defences.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Firth, Louise B; Mieszkowska, Nova; Thompson, Richard C; Hawkins, Stephen J</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>We briefly review how coastal ecosystems are responding to and being impacted by climate change, one of the greatest challenges facing society today. In adapting to rising and stormier <span class="hlt">seas</span> associated with climate change, coastal defence structures are proliferating and becoming dominant coastal features, particularly in urbanised areas. Whilst the primary function of these structures is to protect coastal property and infrastructure, they inevitably have a significant secondary impact on the local environment and ecosystems. In this review we outline some of the negative and positive effects of these structures on physical processes, impacts on marine species, and the novel engineering approaches that have been employed to improve the ecological value of these structures in recent years. Finally we outline guidelines for an environmentally sensitive approach to design of such structures in the marine environment. PMID:23900344</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000083422&hterms=epidemics&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Depidemics','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20000083422&hterms=epidemics&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Depidemics"><span id="translatedtitle">Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Science at NASA: Teleconnections Between <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature and Epidemics in Africa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meeson, Blanche W.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>The research carried out in the Earth Sciences in NASA and at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center will be the focus of the presentations. In addition, one research project that links <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature to epidemics in Africa will be highlighted. At GSFC research interests span the full breath of disciplines in Earth Science. Branches and research groups focus on areas as diverse as planetary geomagnetics and atmospheric chemistry. These organizations focus on atmospheric sciences (atmospheric chemistry, climate and radiation, regional processes, atmospheric modeling), hydrological sciences (snow, ice, oceans, and seasonal-to-interannual prediction), terrestrial physics (geology, terrestrial biology, land-atmosphere interactions, geophysics), climate modeling (global warming, greenhouse gases, climate change), on sensor development especially using lidar and microwave technologies, and on information technologies, that enable support of scientific and technical research.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26196268','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26196268"><span id="translatedtitle">Advancing Model <span class="hlt">Systems</span> for Fundamental Laboratory Studies of <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Spray Aerosol Using the Microbial Loop.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lee, Christopher; Sultana, Camille M; Collins, Douglas B; Santander, Mitchell V; Axson, Jessica L; Malfatti, Francesca; Cornwell, Gavin C; Grandquist, Joshua R; Deane, Grant B; Stokes, M Dale; Azam, Farooq; Grassian, Vicki H; Prather, Kimberly A</p> <p>2015-08-20</p> <p><span class="hlt">Sea</span> spray aerosol (SSA) particles represent one of the most abundant surfaces available for heterogeneous reactions to occur upon and thus profoundly alter the composition of the troposphere. In an effort to better understand tropospheric heterogeneous reaction processes, fundamental laboratory studies must be able to accurately reproduce the chemical complexity of SSA. Here we describe a new approach that uses microbial processes to control the composition of seawater and SSA particle composition. By inducing a phytoplankton bloom, we are able to create dynamic ecosystem interactions between marine microorganisms, which serve to alter the organic mixtures present in seawater. Using this controlled approach, changes in seawater composition become reflected in the chemical composition of SSA particles 4 to 10 d after the peak in chlorophyll-a. This approach for producing and varying the chemical complexity of a dominant tropospheric aerosol provides the foundation for further investigations of the physical and chemical properties of realistic SSA particles under controlled conditions. PMID:26196268</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26105807','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26105807"><span id="translatedtitle">LPXRFa peptide <span class="hlt">system</span> in the European <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass: A molecular and immunohistochemical approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paullada-Salmerón, José A; Cowan, Mairi; Aliaga-Guerrero, María; Gómez, Ana; Zanuy, Silvia; Mañanos, Evaristo; Muñoz-Cueto, José A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) is a neuropeptide that suppresses reproduction in birds and mammals by inhibiting GnRH and gonadotropin secretion. GnIH orthologs with a C-terminal LPXRFamide (LPXRFa) motif have been identified in teleost fish. Although recent work also suggests its role in fish reproduction, studies are scarce and controversial, and have mainly focused on cyprinids. In this work we cloned a full-length cDNA encoding an LPXRFa precursor in the European <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass, Dicentrarchus labrax. In contrast to other teleosts, the <span class="hlt">sea</span> bass LPXRFa precursor contains only two putative RFamide peptides, termed sbLPXRFa1 and sbLPXRFa2. sblpxrfa transcripts were expressed predominantly in the olfactory bulbs/telencephalon, diencephalon, midbrain tegmentum, retina, and gonads. We also developed a specific antiserum against sbLPXRFa2, which revealed sbLPXRFa-immunoreactive (ir) perikarya in the olfactory bulbs-terminal nerve, ventral telencephalon, caudal preoptic area, dorsal mesencephalic tegmentum, and rostral rhombencephalon. These sbLPXRFa-ir cells profusely innervated the preoptic area, hypothalamus, optic tectum, semicircular torus, and caudal midbrain tegmentum, but conspicuous projections also reached the olfactory bulbs, ventral/dorsal telencephalon, habenula, ventral thalamus, pretectum, rostral midbrain tegmentum, posterior tuberculum, reticular formation, and viscerosensory lobe. The retina, pineal, vascular sac, and pituitary were also targets of sbLPXRFa-ir cells. In the pituitary, this innervation was observed close to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) cells. Tract-tracing retrograde labeling suggests that telencephalic and preoptic sbLPXRFa cells might represent the source of pituitary innervation. The immunohistochemical distribution of sbLPXRFa cells and fibers suggest that LPXRFa peptides might be involved in some functions as well as reproduction, such as feeding, growth, and behavior. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcDyn..66..263K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016OcDyn..66..263K"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of model error representation in the Yellow and East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> modeling <span class="hlt">system</span> based on the ensemble Kalman filter</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kwon, Kyung Man; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Lee, Sang-Ho; Kim, Young Ho; Seo, Gwang-Ho; Cho, Yang-Ki</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>To increase the accuracy of ocean predictions in the Yellow and East China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (YES), the satellite-borne <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) data have been assimilated to an operational ocean modeling <span class="hlt">system</span> by applying an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF). As the observed SST was assimilated continuously into the model with time, the ensemble spread decreased and the efficiency of data assimilation degenerated. To increase liability of the <span class="hlt">system</span> and the ensemble spread, model uncertainties were represented stochastically by perturbing the model tendency parameters such as eddy viscosity, bottom drag coefficient, light attenuation depth, as well as atmospheric forcing. Data assimilation experiments were performed with forcing from a regional atmospheric model from September 2011 to February 2012. The assimilation results with and without the stochastically perturbed model parameters and atmospheric forcing were compared. The ensemble with the perturbations has larger spread and smaller root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) in temperature compared with the ensemble without the perturbations. The SST RMSD relative to anther supplementary SST dataset was reduced from 0.91 to 0.81 °C over the YES. The assimilation of the SST data improved the simulated SST compared with the observation at the ocean buoy stations, and also made the subsurface temperature profiles closer to the observed ones. The assimilation experiments showed that a stochastic representation of the model errors by the perturbations of the model parameters and atmospheric forcing increases the spread of the ensemble and improves the structure of background error covariance, which enhances the performance of the ensemble modeling <span class="hlt">system</span> in the YES.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DSRII..96...65Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013DSRII..96...65Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Diurnal and seasonal variations of carbonate <span class="hlt">system</span> parameters on Luhuitou fringing reef, Sanya Bay, Hainan Island, South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhang, Chenglong; Huang, Hui; Ye, Cheng; Huang, Liangmin; Li, Xiubao; Lian, Jiansheng; Liu, Sheng</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>The 3-day diurnal dynamics of carbonate <span class="hlt">system</span> and related parameters on Luhuitou fringing reef of Sanya Bay-adjacent to the South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (SCS) were observed in December of 2009 (early winter), April (spring), July (summer) and November (late-autumn) of 2010. The Luhuitou fringing reef ecosystem was generally dominated by macro and planktonic algae throughout the year except by coralline algae in winter. The <span class="hlt">system</span> parameters showed distinct diurnal trends in the four seasons. Averaged ranges of diurnal variation for dissolved oxygen and partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) were higher in the autumn, 4.67mgL-1 and 218.2μatm, respectively than other seasons. Averaged ranges of diurnal variation for normalized total alkalinity (NTA) was higher in the winter (61.3μmolkg-1), and lower in the spring (16.0μmolkg-1). The diurnal variations are mainly controlled by biological activities, especially by the processes of photosynthesis and respiration in the reef ecosystem. In winter, however, calcification and dissolution contributed more to the diurnal variations, compared with the other three seasons. Total alkalinity was largely related to seasonal changes in river inflow rates. Dissolved oxygen, pH, total CO2 and aragonite saturation also showed seasonal variations. These variations were mainly controlled by the seasonal changes of photosynthesis and respiration, which were mainly affected by changes in benthic community structure, temperature and river inflow rates. The oversaturated pCO2 in the reef ecosystem with respect to the atmosphere in the winter and summer resulted in CO2 discharge from the reef ecosystem to the SCS. The whole <span class="hlt">system</span> served as net source of CO2 to the atmosphere and the adjacent South China <span class="hlt">Sea</span> on an annual time scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26894563','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26894563"><span id="translatedtitle">The rise of the starlet <span class="hlt">sea</span> anemone Nematostella vectensis as a model <span class="hlt">system</span> to investigate development and regeneration.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Layden, Michael J; Rentzsch, Fabian; Röttinger, Eric</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Reverse genetics and next-generation sequencing unlocked a new era in biology. It is now possible to identify an animal(s) with the unique biology most relevant to a particular question and rapidly generate tools to functionally dissect that biology. This review highlights the rise of one such novel model <span class="hlt">system</span>, the starlet <span class="hlt">sea</span> anemone Nematostella vectensis. Nematostella is a cnidarian (corals, jellyfish, hydras, <span class="hlt">sea</span> anemones, etc.) animal that was originally targeted by EvoDevo researchers looking to identify a cnidarian animal to which the development of bilaterians (insects, worms, echinoderms, vertebrates, mollusks, etc.) could be compared. Studies in Nematostella have accomplished this goal and informed our understanding of the evolution of key bilaterian features. However, Nematostella is now going beyond its intended utility with potential as a model to better understand other areas such as regenerative biology, EcoDevo, or stress response. This review intends to highlight key EvoDevo insights from Nematostella that guide our understanding about the evolution of axial patterning mechanisms, mesoderm, and nervous <span class="hlt">systems</span> in bilaterians, as well as to discuss briefly the potential of Nematostella as a model to better understand the relationship between development and regeneration. Lastly, the sum of research to date in Nematostella has generated a variety of tools that aided the rise of Nematostella to a viable model <span class="hlt">system</span>. We provide a catalogue of current resources and techniques available to facilitate investigators interested in incorporating Nematostella into their research. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:408-428. doi: 10.1002/wdev.222 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26894563</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GMD.....9..161K&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016GMD.....9..161K&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">A fully coupled atmosphere-ocean wave modeling <span class="hlt">system</span> for the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: interactions and sensitivity to the resolved scales and mechanisms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Katsafados, P.; Papadopoulos, A.; Korres, G.; Varlas, G.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>It is commonly accepted that there is a need for a better understanding of the factors that contribute to air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> interactions and their feedbacks. In this context it is important to develop advanced numerical prediction <span class="hlt">systems</span> that treat the atmosphere and the ocean as a unified <span class="hlt">system</span>. The realistic description and understanding of the exchange processes near the ocean surface requires knowledge of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> state and its evolution. This can be achieved by considering the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface and the atmosphere as a continuously cross-talking dynamic <span class="hlt">system</span>. Following and adapting concepts already developed and implemented in large-scale numerical weather models and in hurricane simulations, this study aims to present the effort towards developing a new, high-resolution, two-way fully coupled atmosphere-ocean wave model in order to support both operational and research activities. A specific issue that is emphasized is the determination and parameterization of the air-<span class="hlt">sea</span> momentum fluxes in conditions of extremely high and time-varying winds. Software considerations, data exchange as well as computational and scientific performance of the coupled <span class="hlt">system</span>, the so-called WEW (worketa-wam), are also discussed. In a case study of a high-impact weather and <span class="hlt">sea</span>-state event, the wind-wave parameterization scheme reduces the resulted wind speed and the significant wave height as a response to the increased aerodynamic drag over rough <span class="hlt">sea</span> surfaces. Overall, WEW offers a more realistic representation of the momentum exchanges in the ocean wind-wave <span class="hlt">system</span> and includes the effects of the resolved wave spectrum on the drag coefficient and its feedback on the momentum flux.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3675134','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3675134"><span id="translatedtitle">Comprehensive Enzymatic Analysis of the Cellulolytic <span class="hlt">System</span> in Digestive Fluid of the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Hare Aplysia kurodai. Efficient Glucose Release from <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Lettuce by Synergistic Action of 45 kDa Endoglucanase and 210 kDa ß-Glucosidase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tsuji, Akihiko; Tominaga, Keiko; Nishiyama, Nami; Yuasa, Keizo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Although many endo-ß-1,4-glucanases have been isolated in invertebrates, their cellulolytic <span class="hlt">systems</span> are not fully understood. In particular, gastropod feeding on seaweed is considered an excellent model <span class="hlt">system</span> for production of bioethanol and renewable bioenergy from third-generation feedstocks (microalgae and seaweeds). In this study, enzymes involved in the conversion of cellulose and other polysaccharides to glucose in digestive fluids of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> hare (Aplysia kurodai) were screened and characterized to determine how the <span class="hlt">sea</span> hare obtains glucose from <span class="hlt">sea</span> lettuce (Ulva pertusa). Four endo-ß-1,4-glucanases (21K, 45K, 65K, and 95K cellulase) and 2 ß-glucosidases (110K and 210K) were purified to a homogeneous state, and the synergistic action of these enzymes during cellulose digestion was analyzed. All cellulases exhibited cellulase and lichenase activities and showed distinct cleavage specificities against cellooligosaccharides and filter paper. Filter paper was digested to cellobiose, cellotriose, and cellotetraose by 21K cellulase, whereas 45K and 65K enzymes hydrolyzed the filter paper to cellobiose and glucose. 210K ß-glucosidase showed unique substrate specificity against synthetic and natural substrates, and 4-methylumbelliferyl (4MU)-ß-glucoside, 4MU–ß-galactoside, cello-oligosaccharides, laminarin, and lichenan were suitable substrates. Furthermore, 210K ß-glucosidase possesses lactase activity. Although ß-glucosidase and cellulase are necessary for efficient hydrolysis of carboxymethylcellulose to glucose, laminarin is hydrolyzed to glucose only by 210K ß-glucosidase. Kinetic analysis of the inhibition of 210K ß-glucosidase by D-glucono-1,5-lactone suggested the presence of 2 active sites similar to those of mammalian lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Saccharification of <span class="hlt">sea</span> lettuce was considerably stimulated by the synergistic action of 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase. Our results indicate that 45K cellulase and 210K ß-glucosidase are the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004JGRC..109.3023A&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2004JGRC..109.3023A&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Real-time forecasting at weekly timescales of the SST and SLA of the Ligurian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> with a satellite-based ocean forecasting (SOFT) <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>ÁLvarez, A.; Orfila, A.; Tintoré, J.</p> <p>2004-03-01</p> <p>Satellites are the only <span class="hlt">systems</span> able to provide continuous information on the spatiotemporal variability of vast areas of the ocean. Relatively long-term time series of satellite data are nowadays available. These spatiotemporal time series of satellite observations can be employed to build empirical models, called satellite-based ocean forecasting (SOFT) <span class="hlt">systems</span>, to forecast certain aspects of future ocean states. SOFT <span class="hlt">systems</span> can predict satellite-observed fields at different timescales. The forecast skill of SOFT <span class="hlt">systems</span> forecasting the <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) at monthly timescales has been extensively explored in previous works. In this work we study the performance of two SOFT <span class="hlt">systems</span> forecasting, respectively, the SST and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level anomaly (SLA) at weekly timescales, that is, providing forecasts of the weekly averaged SST and SLA fields with 1 week in advance. The SOFT <span class="hlt">systems</span> were implemented in the Ligurian <span class="hlt">Sea</span> (Western Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>). Predictions from the SOFT <span class="hlt">systems</span> are compared with observations and with the predictions obtained from persistence models. Results indicate that the SOFT <span class="hlt">system</span> forecasting the SST field is always superior in terms of predictability to persistence. Minimum prediction errors in the SST are obtained during winter and spring seasons. On the other hand, the biggest differences between the performance of SOFT and persistence models are found during summer and autumn. These changes in the predictability are explained on the basis of the particular variability of the SST field in the Ligurian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Concerning the SLA field, no improvements with respect to persistence have been found for the SOFT <span class="hlt">system</span> forecasting the SLA field.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T54C..06S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.T54C..06S"><span id="translatedtitle">Tectonic development of the SW Arabian Plate margin within the central Arabian flank of the Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> rift <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Szymanski, E.; Stockli, D. F.; Johnson, P. R.; Kattan, F. H.; Cosca, M. A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>The Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> rift <span class="hlt">system</span> is a prime example of continental rifting and has contributed significantly to our understanding of the geologic processes that manage the rupture of continental lithosphere. Using a combined geo- and thermochronometric approach, we explore the modes and mechanisms of rift margin development by studying Red <span class="hlt">Sea</span> rift-related geologic products along the central Saudi Arabian flank of the rift <span class="hlt">system</span>, north of Jeddah. We use apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometry and whole-rock 40Ar/39Ar dating of basalt to define the spatiotemporal relationship between rift flank extensional structures and rift-related harrat volcanism. This technical approach permits the reconstruction of the tectonic margin from early rift architecture, to strain distribution during progressive rifting, and through subsequent whole-scale modifications of the rift flank due to thermal and isostatic factors. Constraints on the dynamics of rift flank deformation are achieved through the collection of geologic samples along long-baseline thermochronometric transects that traverse the entire Arabian shield from the coastal escarpment to the inland Paleozoic sedimentary cover sequences. Long-baseline transects resolve the timing of rift flank uplift and reveal the pattern of lithospheric modification during the rupturing of continental lithosphere. Locally, short-baseline elevation transects map the footwall exhumation of major normal faults that delineate both the modern rift margin and inland extensional basins such as the NW-trending Hamd-Jizil basin, a prominent syn-extensional basin comprised of two distinct half-grabens (Jizil and Hamd) located NW of Medina. Diffuse lithospheric extension during the Oligo-Miocene affected a widespread area well inboard from the modern rift margin; samples from footwall blocks that bound the inland Jizil and Hamd half-grabens yield apatite (U-Th)/He cooling ages of 14.7 ± 0.9 Ma and 24.5 ± 1.5 Ma, respectively. The mid-Miocene age</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ammi.conf..864L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ammi.conf..864L"><span id="translatedtitle">Research on the Multi-Flexible-Body <span class="hlt">System</span> Dynamics Model of Highline Cable of Alongside Replenishment at <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Li, Nan; Wei, Zhuobin; Zhang, Shiyun</p> <p></p> <p>In order to solve the problem that naval replenishment equipment could not be independent development and production, and In view of the present status that there is not a engineering model for sealift highline cable, the paper researched, The paper research multi-flexible-body <span class="hlt">system</span> dynamics model of the rope and used it to simulate sealift Highline cable based on the multi-body dynamics theory. Meanwhile the paper simulated to the transverse replenishment process for <span class="hlt">sea</span> dry cargo by using dynamics tools ADAMS, through the analysis of simulation results. Then the conclusion is gained, which the multi-flexible-body dynamic model is more close to the sealift highline cable and the dynamic calculation results is closer to the actual situation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6932052','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6932052"><span id="translatedtitle">Late quaternary depositional <span class="hlt">systems</span> and <span class="hlt">sea</span> level change-Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins, California continental borderland</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Nardin, T.R.</p> <p>1983-07-01</p> <p>A suite of seismic reflection data that provides different degrees of resolution and penetration was used to map the depositional <span class="hlt">systems</span> that have developed in Santa Monica and San Pedro basins during the late Quaternary. Submarine fan growth, particularly at the mouths of Hueneme and Redondo Canyons, has been the dominant mode of basin filling. Mass movement processes, ranging from creep to large-scale catastrophic slumping, have been important locally. In general, large-scale fan growth fits Normark's model in which the suprafan is the primary locus of coarse sediment deposition. Smaller scale morphologic and depositional patterns on the Hueneme and Redondo fans (e.g., distributary channels and coarse sediment concentrations basinward of the inner suprafan) suggest that a significant amount of coarse sediment presently bypasses the suprafans, however. Long-distance coarse sediment transport was particularly pronounced during late Wisconsinan lowstand of <span class="hlt">sea</span> level and resulted in progradation of lower mid-fan and lower fan deposits.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020045387','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20020045387"><span id="translatedtitle">Seasonal to Decadal-Scale Variability in Satellite Ocean Color and <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature for the California Current <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mitchell, B. Greg; Kahru, Mati; Marra, John (Technical Monitor)</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Support for this project was used to develop satellite ocean color and temperature indices (SOCTI) for the California Current <span class="hlt">System</span> (CCS) using the historic record of CZCS West Coast Time Series (WCTS), OCTS, WiFS and AVHRR SST. The ocean color satellite data have been evaluated in relation to CalCOFI data sets for chlorophyll (CZCS) and ocean spectral reflectance and chlorophyll OCTS and <span class="hlt">Sea</span>WiFS. New algorithms for the three missions have been implemented based on in-water algorithm data sets, or in the case of CZCS, by comparing retrieved pigments with ship-based observations. New algorithms for absorption coefficients, diffuse attenuation coefficients and primary production have also been evaluated. Satellite retrievals are being evaluated based on our large data set of pigments and optics from CalCOFI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMEP21D3570F&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014AGUFMEP21D3570F&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Insights into the ancient Mississippi drainage <span class="hlt">system</span> from detrital zircons analyses of the modern Mississippi deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> fan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fildani, A.; McKay, M. P.; Stockli, D. F.; Clark, J. D.; Weislogel, A. L.; Dykstra, M.; Hessler, A. M.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>The modern Mississippi deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> fan is a large-scale accumulation of Quaternary sediment deposited in the Gulf of Mexico by the modern Mississippi River via the Mississippi delta. The Mississippi River has a well-characterized drainage <span class="hlt">system</span> extending across North America from the western Rocky Mountains to the Appalachians in the east. Deep-water sand samples of buried channel-fill and lobe deposits of the Mississippi fan from selected Sites of Leg 96 of the Deep <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Drilling Project (DSDP) and were integrated with USGS piston core samples from the most recent lobe for detrital zircon U-Pb isotopic analysis. Since the modern Mississippi River has a well-known catchment, the detrital zircon age 'signal' observed in the deep-water sediments can therefore be used as an actualistic study of the detrital zircon provenance signatures resulting from modern drainage patterns. Based on this approach, we compare this dataset with published data and observe minor variability in the detrital zircon signature through time. Populations sourced from the Western North American Cordillera are consistent through time in terms of ages, however Paleocene sediments are slightly enriched in Yavapai-Mazatzal zircons sourced from southwestern continental U.S.. Grenville- and Appalachian-derived zircons reflect minor variation in sediment input from the Appalachian Mountains and related deposits in the eastern Mississippi River catchment. When compared to published Upper Jurassic Norphlet formation detrital zircon data, the Paleocene published dataset and the newly acquired modern sands are partly depleted of Appalachian-derived zircons. This paucity in Appalachian age zircon in Paleocene-to-modern sediments suggests a reconfiguration of the Mississippi River drainage prior to Tertiary time. Since this realignment, the Mississippi River drainage has remained relatively unchanged. Piston core samples from the most recent lobe yielded zircons indicating a recent influx of Appalachian</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5903894','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5903894"><span id="translatedtitle">The response of a high sediment yield depositional <span class="hlt">system</span> to episodic rises in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level: The record from the Brazos fluvial <span class="hlt">system</span>, central Texas coast</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Bartek, L.R.; Anderson, J.B.; Abdulah, K.C. )</p> <p>1991-03-01</p> <p>High resolution seismic data, cores, and platform borings have been utilized to investigate the response of the Brazos fluvial <span class="hlt">system</span>, a high sediment yield depositional <span class="hlt">system</span>, to late Pleistocene-Holocene episodic rises in <span class="hlt">sea</span> level. This investigation was conducted in order to provide control for a related study of the Trinity-Sabine fluvial <span class="hlt">system</span>, a low sediment yield depositional <span class="hlt">system</span>. The Brazos incised valley, which was carved during the Wisconsin eustatic lowstand, was abandoned during an interval of rapid eustatic rise. The fluvial-deltaic <span class="hlt">system</span> occupied the adjacent interfluve following abandonment of the incised valley. This behavior contrasts sharply with the responses of the Trinity-Sabine low sediment yield depositional <span class="hlt">system</span> to rapid base level rises. Stream piracy, triggered by the episodic eustatic rises, played an important role in diverting the fluvial <span class="hlt">system</span> of the high sediment yield <span class="hlt">system</span> out of the lowstand entrenched valley and onto the interfluve. The research presented in this paper suggests that exploration geologists working with up-dip portions of high sediments yield depositional <span class="hlt">systems</span> in the transgressive <span class="hlt">systems</span> tract may find prospects (slightly modified wave-dominated delta deposits encased in marine shales) by searching along strike, away from the abandoned incised valley, at positions along depositional dip that correspond to eustatic stillstands. Accretionary structures observed in recently acquired seismic data indicate that the down-dip portion of the high sediment yield incised valley also contains a large volume of sand.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032593','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70032593"><span id="translatedtitle">Mercury isotopic composition of hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> in the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and Guaymas Basin <span class="hlt">sea</span>-floor rift</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Sherman, L.S.; Blum, J.D.; Nordstrom, D.K.; McCleskey, R.B.; Barkay, T.; Vetriani, C.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>To characterize mercury (Hg) isotopes and isotopic fractionation in hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> we analyzed fluid and precipitate samples from hot springs in the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field and vent chimney samples from the Guaymas Basin <span class="hlt">sea</span>-floor rift. These samples provide an initial indication of the variability in Hg isotopic composition among marine and continental hydrothermal <span class="hlt">systems</span> that are controlled predominantly by mantle-derived magmas. Fluid samples from Ojo Caliente hot spring in Yellowstone range in δ202Hg from - 1.02‰ to 0.58‰ (± 0.11‰, 2SD) and solid precipitate samples from Guaymas Basin range in δ202Hg from - 0.37‰ to - 0.01‰ (± 0.14‰, 2SD). Fluid samples from Ojo Caliente display mass-dependent fractionation (MDF) of Hg from the vent (δ202Hg = 0.10‰ ± 0.11‰, 2SD) to the end of the outflow channel (&delta202Hg = 0.58‰ ± 0.11‰, 2SD) in conjunction with a decrease in Hg concentration from 46.6pg/g to 20.0pg/g. Although a small amount of Hg is lost from the fluids due to co-precipitation with siliceous sinter, we infer that the majority of the observed MDF and Hg loss from waters in Ojo Caliente is due to volatilization of Hg0(aq) to Hg0(g) and the preferential loss of Hg with a lower δ202Hg value to the atmosphere. A small amount of mass-independent fractionation (MIF) was observed in all samples from Ojo Caliente (Δ199Hg = 0.13‰ ±1 0.06‰, 2SD) but no significant MIF was measured in the <span class="hlt">sea</span>-floor rift samples from Guaymas Basin. This study demonstrates that several different hydrothermal processes fractionate Hg isotopes and that Hg isotopes may be used to better understand these processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214749E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010EGUGA..1214749E"><span id="translatedtitle">Tracking and responding to a changing Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice cover: How ice users can help the scientific community design better observing <span class="hlt">systems</span> (Louis Agassiz Medal Lecture)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Eicken, Hajo</p> <p>2010-05-01</p> <p>The Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice cover is undergoing a major transformation, with substantial reductions in summer ice extent reflecting changes in ice thickness, age, and circulation. These changes are impacting Arctic ecosystems and a range of human activities. Anticipating and responding to such impacts, exacerbated by increasing economic activity in parts of the Arctic, requires a foundation of environmental observations and model predictions. Recent increases in industrial activities such as shipping and resource development in parts of the Arctic have further highlighted the need for an integrated observing <span class="hlt">system</span>. In the case of a changing <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice cover, how would one best design and optimize such a <span class="hlt">system</span>? One of the challenges is to meet the information needs of the scientific community in furthering fundamental understanding of the Arctic <span class="hlt">system</span>, as well as those of key stakeholders and society, helping them to prepare for and respond to Arctic change. This presentation focuses on how the concept of <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice <span class="hlt">system</span> services, i.e., the uses and benefits (or harm) derived from <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice, may help guide the implementation of an effective observing <span class="hlt">system</span>. Principal service categories are (1) <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice as climate regulator, marine hazard, and coastal buffer; (2) transportation and use of ice as a platform; (3) cultural services obtained from the "icescape"; and (4) support of food webs and biological diversity by <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice. An analysis of the different ice services provided to different user groups can help prioritize different types of observations and determine optimal measurement strategies. Moreover, the focus on different uses of the ice cover may also help synthesize fundamental and applied research to help Arctic communities adapt in a changing environment. Alaska has experienced some of the most substantial changes in <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice conditions throughout the Arctic over the past three decades and is used to illustrate the concepts discussed above. Specifically, we have examined</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE..38M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010ems..confE..38M"><span id="translatedtitle">Cyclonic variability in the Mediterranean-Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region associated with global processes in the ocean-atmosphere <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Maslova, V. N.; Voskresenskaya, E. N.; Yurovskiy, A. V.</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p> November-December is responsible for about 24% of climate/weather anomalies in spring (r = 0.49); ENSO in May-July determines approximately 12% of autumn weather anomalies (r = 0.34). Thus, we can conclude that the joint NAO and ENSO influence is responsible for more than 50% of cyclonic variability in winter and spring in the Mediterranean-Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> region. Decadal variability of cyclonic activity was studied with the focus on PDO influence since its phase change reflects the shift in global climatic <span class="hlt">system</span>. Using composite analyses, quasi-decadal differences of values of the main parameters (frequency, area, depth and intensity) of the Mediterranean-Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> cyclones associated with the alteration of PDO phases were calculated for each month. It was shown that during the negative PDO phase frequency of winter cyclones is about twice greater, the area and depth (intensity) are about 500 thnd sq. km and ~5 hPa greater, respectively, than in the positive phase. Hence, climatic shift in the variability of parameters of cyclones associated with PDO phase change in the middle of 1970s was detected. Strong manifestations of the global climatic signals were also shown in different hydrometeorological fields in the studied regions which confirm the results obtained for the variability of cyclonic activity.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713370D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1713370D"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical simulation of circulation in Kara and Pechora <span class="hlt">Seas</span> using the <span class="hlt">system</span> of operational diagnosis and forecast of the marine dynamics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Diansky, Nikolay; Fomin, Vladimir; Kabatchenko, Ilya; Gusev, Anatoly</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">system</span> of operational diagnosis and forecast (SODaF) is presented for hydrometeorological characteristics of Kara and Pechora <span class="hlt">Seas</span>, which is implemented in the N.N.Zubov State Oceanography Institute (SOI). It includes the computation of atmospheric forcing using the WRF model, computation of currents, <span class="hlt">sea</span> level, temperature, salinity and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice using the model INMOM, and computation of wind wave parameters using Russian Wind Wave Model (RWWM).The results of the verification are presented including simulated hydrometeocharacteristics obtained by SODaF for Kara and Pechora <span class="hlt">Seas</span>. As well, the retrospective simulation was performed for thermohydrodynamical characteristics of these <span class="hlt">seas</span> for the ice-free period of 2003-2012. The important features of circulation in Kara and Pechora <span class="hlt">Seas</span> and the structure of water exchange between them in the ice-free period are shown. The use of non-hydrostatic atmospheric model WRF allows one to reproduce katabatic winds formed over the glaciers. In general, the direction and speed of katabatic winds are fairly permanent. In accordance with the nature of katabatic winds, they are intensified from warm to cold period that is well manifested in the wind map for August. The basis of the Kara <span class="hlt">Sea</span> circulation is NewLand, Yamal and Ob-Yenisey currents, which are well reproduced with the INMOM. It is shown that the main contribution to the monthly mean circulation of Kara and Pechora <span class="hlt">seas</span> is made by wind currents. In the western part of the Kara <span class="hlt">Sea</span> between the mainland and the New Land in the fall the pronounced cyclonic circulation is formed that is typical for closed <span class="hlt">seas</span>. The main components of the circulation are the NewLand and Yamal currents flowing respectively along the eastern coast of NewLand and the western coast of the Yamal Peninsula.It is caused by regional winds directed from the "cold" land to the "warm" <span class="hlt">sea</span>. In summer,such a circulation is broken along the coast of the mainland, so that the Yamal flow is reduced. This</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4720475','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4720475"><span id="translatedtitle">A Permanent Automated Real-Time Passive Acoustic Monitoring <span class="hlt">System</span> for Bottlenose Dolphin Conservation in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brunoldi, Marco; Bozzini, Giorgio; Casale, Alessandra; Corvisiero, Pietro; Grosso, Daniele; Magnoli, Nicodemo; Alessi, Jessica; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Mandich, Alberta; Morri, Carla; Povero, Paolo; Wurtz, Maurizio; Melchiorre, Christian; Viano, Gianni; Cappanera, Valentina; Fanciulli, Giorgio; Bei, Massimiliano; Stasi, Nicola; Taiuti, Mauro</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Within the framework of the EU Life+ project named LIFE09 NAT/IT/000190 ARION, a permanent automated real-time passive acoustic monitoring <span class="hlt">system</span> for the improvement of the conservation status of the transient and resident population of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) has been implemented and installed in the Portofino Marine Protected Area (MPA), Ligurian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The <span class="hlt">system</span> is able to detect the simultaneous presence of dolphins and boats in the area and to give their position in real time. This information is used to prevent collisions by diffusing warning messages to all the categories involved (tourists, professional fishermen and so on). The <span class="hlt">system</span> consists of two gps-synchronized acoustic units, based on a particular type of marine buoy (elastic beacon), deployed about 1 km off the Portofino headland. Each one is equipped with a four-hydrophone array and an onboard acquisition <span class="hlt">system</span> which can record the typical social communication whistles emitted by the dolphins and the sound emitted by boat engines. Signals are pre-filtered, digitized and then broadcast to the ground station via wi-fi. The raw data are elaborated to get the direction of the acoustic target to each unit, and hence the position of dolphins and boats in real time by triangulation. PMID:26789265</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1096175','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1096175"><span id="translatedtitle">Final Report DE-EE0005380: Assessment of Offshore Wind Farm Effects on <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface, Subsurface and Airborne Electronic <span class="hlt">Systems</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Ling, Hao; Hamilton, Mark F.; Bhalla, Rajan; Brown, Walter E.; Hay, Todd A.; Whitelonis, Nicholas J.; Yang, Shang-Te; Naqvi, Aale R.</p> <p>2013-09-30</p> <p>Offshore wind energy is a valuable resource that can provide a significant boost to the US renewable energy portfolio. A current constraint to the development of offshore wind farms is the potential for interference to be caused by large wind farms on existing electronic and acoustical equipment such as radar and sonar <span class="hlt">systems</span> for surveillance, navigation and communications. The US Department of Energy funded this study as an objective assessment of possible interference to various types of equipment operating in the marine environment where offshore wind farms could be installed. The objective of this project was to conduct a baseline evaluation of electromagnetic and acoustical challenges to <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface, subsurface and airborne electronic <span class="hlt">systems</span> presented by offshore wind farms. To accomplish this goal, the following tasks were carried out: (1) survey electronic <span class="hlt">systems</span> that can potentially be impacted by large offshore wind farms, and identify impact assessment studies and research and development activities both within and outside the US, (2) engage key stakeholders to identify their possible concerns and operating requirements, (3) conduct first-principle modeling on the interactions of electromagnetic signals with, and the radiation of underwater acoustic signals from, offshore wind farms to evaluate the effect of such interactions on electronic <span class="hlt">systems</span>, and (4) provide impact assessments, recommend mitigation methods, prioritize future research directions, and disseminate project findings. This report provides a detailed description of the methodologies used to carry out the study, key findings of the study, and a list of recommendations derived based the findings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789265','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26789265"><span id="translatedtitle">A Permanent Automated Real-Time Passive Acoustic Monitoring <span class="hlt">System</span> for Bottlenose Dolphin Conservation in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brunoldi, Marco; Bozzini, Giorgio; Casale, Alessandra; Corvisiero, Pietro; Grosso, Daniele; Magnoli, Nicodemo; Alessi, Jessica; Bianchi, Carlo Nike; Mandich, Alberta; Morri, Carla; Povero, Paolo; Wurtz, Maurizio; Melchiorre, Christian; Viano, Gianni; Cappanera, Valentina; Fanciulli, Giorgio; Bei, Massimiliano; Stasi, Nicola; Taiuti, Mauro</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Within the framework of the EU Life+ project named LIFE09 NAT/IT/000190 ARION, a permanent automated real-time passive acoustic monitoring <span class="hlt">system</span> for the improvement of the conservation status of the transient and resident population of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) has been implemented and installed in the Portofino Marine Protected Area (MPA), Ligurian <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The <span class="hlt">system</span> is able to detect the simultaneous presence of dolphins and boats in the area and to give their position in real time. This information is used to prevent collisions by diffusing warning messages to all the categories involved (tourists, professional fishermen and so on). The <span class="hlt">system</span> consists of two gps-synchronized acoustic units, based on a particular type of marine buoy (elastic beacon), deployed about 1 km off the Portofino headland. Each one is equipped with a four-hydrophone array and an onboard acquisition <span class="hlt">system</span> which can record the typical social communication whistles emitted by the dolphins and the sound emitted by boat engines. Signals are pre-filtered, digitized and then broadcast to the ground station via wi-fi. The raw data are elaborated to get the direction of the acoustic target to each unit, and hence the position of dolphins and boats in real time by triangulation. PMID:26789265</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14658689','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14658689"><span id="translatedtitle">New frontiers for mid-infrared sensors: towards deep <span class="hlt">sea</span> monitoring with a submarine FT-IR sensor <span class="hlt">system</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kraft, Martin; Jakusch, Michael; Karlowatz, Manfred; Katzir, Abraham; Mizaikoff, Boris</p> <p>2003-06-01</p> <p>A sub-<span class="hlt">sea</span> deployable fiber-optic sensor <span class="hlt">system</span> for the continuous determination of a range of environmentally relevant volatile organic compounds in seawater has been developed. The prototype of a robust, miniaturized Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer for in situ underwater pollution monitoring was designed, developed, and built in our research group. The assembled instrument is enclosed in a sealed aluminium pressure vessel and is capable of maintenance-free operation in an oceanic environment down to depths of at least 300 m. The whole <span class="hlt">system</span> can be incorporated either in a tow frame or a remotely operated vehicle (ROV). A suitable fiber-optic sensor head was developed, optimized in terms of sensitivity and hydrodynamics, and connected to the underwater FT-IR spectrometer. Due to a modular <span class="hlt">system</span> design, various other sensor head configurations could be realized and tested, ensuring facile adaptation of the instrument to future tasks. The sensor <span class="hlt">system</span> was characterized in a series of laboratory and simulated field tests. The sensor proved to be capable of quantitatively detecting a range of chlorinated hydrocarbons and monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seawater down to the low ppb (microg/L) concentration range, including mixtures of up to 6 components. It has been demonstrated that varying amounts of salinity, turbidity, or humic acids, as well as interfering seawater pollutants, such as aliphatic hydrocarbons or phenols, do not significantly influence the sensor characteristics. In addition, the sensor exhibits sufficient long-time stability and a low susceptibility to sensor fouling. PMID:14658689</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.8327H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JGRC..120.8327H"><span id="translatedtitle">Short-term <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice forecasting: An assessment of ice concentration and ice drift forecasts using the U.S. Navy's Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast <span class="hlt">System</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hebert, David A.; Allard, Richard A.; Metzger, E. Joseph; Posey, Pamela G.; Preller, Ruth H.; Wallcraft, Alan J.; Phelps, Michael W.; Smedstad, Ole Martin</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>In this study the forecast skill of the U.S. Navy operational Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice forecast <span class="hlt">system</span>, the Arctic Cap Nowcast/Forecast <span class="hlt">System</span> (ACNFS), is presented for the period February 2014 to June 2015. ACNFS is designed to provide short term, 1-7 day forecasts of Arctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice and ocean conditions. Many quantities are forecast by ACNFS; the most commonly used include ice concentration, ice thickness, ice velocity, <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature, <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface salinity, and <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface velocities. Ice concentration forecast skill is compared to a persistent ice state and historical <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice climatology. Skill scores are focused on areas where ice concentration changes by ±5% or more, and are therefore limited to primarily the marginal ice zone. We demonstrate that ACNFS forecasts are skilful compared to assuming a persistent ice state, especially beyond 24 h. ACNFS is also shown to be particularly skilful compared to a climatologic state for forecasts up to 102 h. Modeled ice drift velocity is compared to observed buoy data from the International Arctic Buoy Programme. A seasonal bias is shown where ACNFS is slower than IABP velocity in the summer months and faster in the winter months. In February 2015, ACNFS began to assimilate a blended ice concentration derived from Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2) and the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping <span class="hlt">System</span> (IMS). Preliminary results show that assimilating AMSR2 blended with IMS improves the short-term forecast skill and ice edge location compared to the independently derived National Ice Center Ice Edge product.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9.2709T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012BGD.....9.2709T"><span id="translatedtitle">Distributions of the carbonate <span class="hlt">system</span> properties, anthropogenic CO2, and acidification during the 2008 BOUM cruise (Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Touratier, F.; Guglielmi, V.; Goyet, C.; Prieur, L.; Pujo-Pay, M.; Conan, P.; Falco, C.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>We relate here the distributions of two carbonate <span class="hlt">system</span> key properties (total alkalinity, AT; and total dissolved inorganic carbon, CT) measured along a section in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, going from Marseille (France) to the south of the Cyprus Island, during the 2008 BOUM cruise. The three main objectives of the present study are (1) to draw and comment on the distributions of AT and CT in the light of others properties like salinity, temperature, and dissolved oxygen, (2) to estimate the distribution of the anthropogenic CO2 (CANT) in the intermediate and the deep waters, and (3) to calculate the resulting variation of pH (acidification) since the beginning of the industrial era. Since the calculation of CANT is always an intense subject of debate, we apply two radically different approaches to estimate CANT: the very simple method TrOCA and the MIX approach, the latter being more precise but also more difficult to apply. A clear picture for the AT and the CT distributions is obtained: the mean concentration of AT is higher in the oriental basin while that of CT is higher in the occidental basin of the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, fully coherent with the previous published works. Despite of the two very different approaches we use here (TrOCA and MIX), the estimated distributions of CANT are very similar. These distributions show that the minimum of CANT encountered during the BOUM cruise is higher than 46.3 μmol kg-1 (TrOCA) or 48.8 μmol kg-1(MIX). All Mediterranean water masses (even the deepest) appear to be highly contaminated by CANT, as a result of the very intense advective processes that characterize the recent history of the Mediterranean circulation. As a consequence, unprecedented levels of acidification are reached with an estimated decrease of pH since the pre-industrial era of -0.148 to -0.061 pH unit, which places the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> as one of the most acidified world marine ecosystem.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS31F..02B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006AGUFMOS31F..02B"><span id="translatedtitle">Advanced Water Quality Modelling in Marine <span class="hlt">Systems</span>: Application to the Wadden <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, the Netherlands</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Boon, J.; Smits, J. G.</p> <p>2006-12-01</p> <p>There is an increasing demand for knowledge and models that arise from water management in relation to water quality, sediment quality (ecology) and sediment accumulation (ecomorphology). Recently, models for sediment diagenesis and erosion developed or incorporated by Delft Hydraulics integrates the relevant physical, (bio)chemical and biological processes for the sediment-water exchange of substances. The aim of the diagenesis models is the prediction of both sediment quality and the return fluxes of substances such as nutrients and micropollutants to the overlying water. The resulting so-called DELWAQ-G model is a new, generic version of the water and sediment quality model of the DELFT3D framework. One set of generic water quality process formulations is used to calculate process rates in both water and sediment compartments. DELWAQ-G involves the explicit simulation of sediment layers in the water quality model with state-of-the-art process kinetics. The local conditions in a water layer or sediment layer such as the dissolved oxygen concentration determine if and how individual processes come to expression. New processes were added for sulphate, sulphide, methane and the distribution of the electron-acceptor demand over dissolved oxygen, nitrate, sulphate and carbon dioxide. DELWAQ-G also includes the dispersive and advective transport processes in the sediment and across the sediment-water interface. DELWAQ-G has been applied for the Wadden <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. A very dynamic tidal and ecologically active estuary with a complex hydrodynamic behaviour located at the north of the Netherlands. The predicted profiles in the sediment reflect the typical interactions of diagenesis processes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14528449','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14528449"><span id="translatedtitle">Expression of tryptophan 5-hydroxylase gene during <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin neurogenesis and role of serotonergic nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> in larval behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yaguchi, Shunsuke; Katow, Hideki</p> <p>2003-11-10</p> <p>Tryptophan 5-hydroxylase (TPH) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of serotonin. cDNA cloning of TPH was carried out, and the occurrence of spatiotemporal transcription of TPH message was examined in larvae of the <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus (HpTPH), with in situ hybridization by using the tyramide signal amplification (TSA) technique and Northern hybridization. Based on deduced amino acids sequence of HpTPH, phylogenetically <span class="hlt">sea</span> urchin locates at the closest position to vertebrates among invertebrates, and HpTPH had common conserved sequences in a catalytic domain. Initiation of HpTPH transcription occurred at the late gastrula stage exclusively in serotonin cells of apical ganglion (SAG) that was composed of a cluster of HpTPH-positive cells and the negative cells in between. In situ hybridization showed that the mRNA expression pattern was similar to the immunohistochemical localization of serotonin cells reported before (Bisgrove and Burke [1986] Dev. Growth Differ. 28:557-569; Yaguchi et al. [2000] Dev. Growth Differ. 42:479-488). p-Chlorophenylalanine (CPA), an irreversible inhibitor of TPH activity, considerably decreased serotonin content in the serotonin cells, whereas the HpTPH expression pattern and timing, and the extension of neurofibers from SAG cells were apparently unaffected, suggesting CPA exclusively perturbed synthesis of serotonin but not nervous <span class="hlt">system</span> organization. CPA-treated larvae did not swim, despite the occurrence of ciliary beating in culture chamber, suggesting that proper serotonin synthesis is necessary for normal swimming of the larvae. PMID:14528449</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029485','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70029485"><span id="translatedtitle">Atmospheric dry deposition in the vicinity of the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, California - II: Measurement and effects of an enhanced evaporation <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Alonso, R.; Bytnerowicz, A.; Yee, J.L.; Boarman, W.I.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>A study was conducted to determine the effects of salt spray drift from pilot technologies employed by the US Bureau of Reclamation on deposition rates of various air-born ions. An enhanced evaporation <span class="hlt">system</span> (EES) was tested in the field at the Salton <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, California. Dry deposition of NO3-, NH4+, SO42-, Cl-, Ca2+, Na+, K+ and Se was assessed by using nylon filters and branches of natural vegetation exposed for one-week long periods. The simultaneous exposure of both lyophilized branches and branches of live plants offered important information highlighting the dynamics of deposited ions on vegetation. The EES significantly increased the deposition rates of Cl-, SO42- and Na+ in an area of about 639-1062 m surrounding the sprayers. Similarly, higher deposition of Ca 2+ and K+ caused by the EES was detected only when deposition was assessed using nylon filters or lyophilized branches. Deposition fluxes of NO3-, NH4+ and Se were not affected by the spraying <span class="hlt">system</span>. Techniques for measuring dry deposition and calculating landscape-level depositional loads in non-forested <span class="hlt">systems</span> need further development. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMS...148..285W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JMS...148..285W"><span id="translatedtitle">Primary production response to seasonal-scale extremes in the Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> simulated by the Community Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Model, version 1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Walston, J. M.; Gibson, G. A.; Walsh, J. E.</p> <p>2015-08-01</p> <p>The biological response to long-term trends and the co-occurrence of seasonal extremes of the physical environment and primary production in the eastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, as simulated by the Community Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Model (CESM1), are presented. This analysis covers the late-twentieth century (1950-2005) and focuses on critical drivers of the eastern Bering <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ecosystem, including air temperature, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area, wind mixing, and mixed layer depth. Primary production showed strong linear relationships to both air temperature and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area during winter and spring. The only season that had a positive linear correspondence between wind mixing and primary production was summer. Over the fifty-five year period the CESM1 simulates a trend toward warmer air temperatures and a subsequent reduction in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice for every season; however, no trends were seen in seasonally averaged wind mixing or mixed layer depth. Corresponding to the air temperature increase was an increase in occurrence of positive seasonal extremes in primary production, as well as a reduction in negative production extremes. There were some instances of seasonal production extremes coinciding with seasonal extremes in the physical environment; however, neither these co-occurrences, nor the direction of the biological response to the physics, were robust throughout the study period.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1815522O&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016EGUGA..1815522O&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Monitoring the mesoscale circulation of the Western Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> using SSS derived from SMOS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Olmedo, Estrella; Isern-Fontanet, Jordi; Turiel, Antonio; Portabella, Marcos; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The circulation in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is characterized by the inflow of fresh waters from the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar. These waters, characterized by their lower salinity, create baroclinic instabilities that spawn eddies with sizes of the order of 100 km. These eddies have been widely analyzed using <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature (SST) observations. Recent improvements in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Salinity (SSS) retrieval and bias correction methodologies applied to the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite data have led, for the first time, to the generation of SSS maps that capture the signature of these structures. This opens the door for the generation of high spatial and temporal density maps in the Mediterranean, which can be used in a wide variety of oceanographic applications. In particular, the signature of the <span class="hlt">Alboran</span> gyre and the eddy propagation across the Algerian coast are well reproduced, allowing for the first time to characterize the baroclinicity of the flow. The SMOS data are strongly affected by Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) and land-<span class="hlt">sea</span> contamination in the Mediterranean <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. Two important SSS retrieval algorithm improvements are proposed in this study. First, with more than six years of SMOS data acquisitions, there is enough data to empirically characterize and correct systematic biases. Second, the filtering criterion has been modified to account for the statistical distributions of SSS at each ocean grid point. This allows retrieving a value of SSS which is less affected by outliers originated from RFI and other effects. In this study, high level (spatio-temporally consistent) SSS maps are obtained by averaging the SMOS SSS retrievals using a classical objective analysis scheme and then combining the resulting maps with <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature (SST) maps by means of multifractal fusion. The SSS fused maps contain well-defined spatial structures, suitable for studying the mesoscale activity in the Western</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.C51A0674L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AGUFM.C51A0674L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Investigating the Biases in the Antarctic <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice - Ocean <span class="hlt">System</span> of Climate Models using Process-oriented Diagnostics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lecomte, O.; Goosse, H.; Fichefet, T.; Holland, P.; Uotila, P.; Zunz, V.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Most analyses of Antarctic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in simulations of the CMIP5 archive have so far been oriented towards the quantification of the disagreement between model results and <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice observations only. Since the decomposition of those biases into distinct physical components is necessary to understand their origins, we propose here an ocean-<span class="hlt">sea</span> ice-atmosphere integrated and process-oriented approach. Not only the biases in variables essential to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice seasonal evolution are estimated regionally with regard to observations, but their contributions to the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration budget are estimated. Following a previously developed method, the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration balance over the autumn-winter seasons is decomposed into four terms, including the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration change during the period of interest, advection, divergence and a residual accounting for the net contribution of thermodynamics and ice deformation. Concurrently, correlations between trends in ocean temperature at depth and trends in ice concentration are calculated directly from various model output fields (including CMIP5 models) to disentangle the role of ice-ocean interactions. Results show that the geographical patterns of all mean <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice concentration budget terms over 1992-2005 are in qualitative agreement with the observed ones. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice thermodynamic growth is maintained by horizontal divergence near the continent and in the central ice pack, whereas melting close to the ice edge is led by <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice advection. However, significant errors in all budget terms are observed due to ice velocities that tend to be overestimated all around Antarctica in several models, leading to a relatively weak divergence in the inner ice pack and to an excessive advection in the marginal ice zone. Biases in ice drift speed and direction are ultimately related to biases in winds in all models. This method paves the way for a systematic assessment of forthcoming CMIP6 <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice model outputs in the Southern Hemisphere.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524991','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26524991"><span id="translatedtitle">The interplay between tectonics, sediment dynamics and gateways evolution in the Danube <span class="hlt">system</span> from the Pannonian Basin to the western Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Matenco, Liviu; Munteanu, Ioan; ter Borgh, Marten; Stanica, Adrian; Tilita, Marius; Lericolais, Gilles; Dinu, Corneliu; Oaie, Gheorghe</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>Understanding the natural evolution of a river-delta-<span class="hlt">sea</span> <span class="hlt">system</span> is important to develop a strong scientific basis for efficient integrated management plans. The distribution of sediment fluxes is linked with the natural connection between sediment source areas situated in uplifting mountain chains and deposition in plains, deltas and, ultimately, in the capturing oceans and <span class="hlt">seas</span>. The Danube River-western Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> is one of the most active European <span class="hlt">systems</span> in terms of sediment re-distribution that poses significant societal challenges. We aim to derive the tectonic and sedimentological background of human-induced changes in this <span class="hlt">system</span> and discuss their interplay. This is obtained by analysing the tectonic and associated vertical movements, the evolution of relevant basins and the key events affecting sediment routing and deposition. The analysis of the main source and sink areas is focused in particular on the Miocene evolution of the Carpatho-Balkanides, Dinarides and their sedimentary basins including the western Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The vertical movements of mountains chains created the main moments of basin connectivity observed in the Danube <span class="hlt">system</span>. Their timing and effects are observed in sediments deposited in the vicinity of gateways, such as the transition between the Pannonian/Transylvanian and Dacian basins and between the Dacian Basin and western Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>. The results demonstrate the importance of understanding threshold conditions driving rapid basins connectivity changes superposed over the longer time scale of tectonic-induced vertical movements associated with background erosion and sedimentation. The spatial and temporal scale of such processes is contrastingly different and challenging. The long-term patterns interact with recent or anthropogenic induced modifications in the natural <span class="hlt">system</span> and may result in rapid changes at threshold conditions that can be quantified and predicted. Their understanding is critical because of frequent occurrence during</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ClDy..tmp..274J&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016ClDy..tmp..274J&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">An assessment of Indian monsoon seasonal forecasts and mechanisms underlying monsoon interannual variability in the Met Office Glo<span class="hlt">Sea</span>5-GC2 <span class="hlt">system</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Johnson, Stephanie J.; Turner, Andrew; Woolnough, Steven; Martin, Gill; MacLachlan, Craig</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We assess Indian summer monsoon seasonal forecasts in Glo<span class="hlt">Sea</span>5-GC2, the Met Office fully coupled subseasonal to seasonal ensemble forecasting <span class="hlt">system</span>. Using several metrics, Glo<span class="hlt">Sea</span>5-GC2 shows similar skill to other state-of-the-art seasonal forecast <span class="hlt">systems</span>. The prediction skill of the large-scale South Asian monsoon circulation is higher than that of Indian monsoon rainfall. Using multiple linear regression analysis we evaluate relationships between Indian monsoon rainfall and five possible drivers of monsoon interannual variability. Over the time period studied (1992-2011), the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean dipole (IOD) are the most important of these drivers in both observations and Glo<span class="hlt">Sea</span>5-GC2. Our analysis indicates that ENSO and its teleconnection with Indian rainfall are well represented in Glo<span class="hlt">Sea</span>5-GC2. However, the relationship between the IOD and Indian rainfall anomalies is too weak in Glo<span class="hlt">Sea</span>5-GC2, which may be limiting the prediction skill of the local monsoon circulation and Indian rainfall. We show that this weak relationship likely results from a coupled mean state bias that limits the impact of anomalous wind forcing on SST variability, resulting in erroneous IOD SST anomalies. Known difficulties in representing convective precipitation over India may also play a role. Since Indian rainfall responds weakly to the IOD, it responds more consistently to ENSO than in observations. Our assessment identifies specific coupled biases that are likely limiting Glo<span class="hlt">Sea</span>5-GC2 Indian summer monsoon seasonal prediction skill, providing targets for model improvement.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3858T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013EGUGA..15.3858T"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a WebGIS-based monitoring and environmental protection and preservation <span class="hlt">system</span> for the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>: The ECO-Satellite project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tziavos, Ilias N.</p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>The ECO-Satellite project has been approved in the frame of the Joint Operational Program "Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Basin 2007-2013" and it is co-financed by the European Union through the European Neighborhood and Partnership Instrument and the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance and National Funds. The overall objective of the project is to contribute to the protection and preservation of the water <span class="hlt">system</span> of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, with its main emphasis given to river deltas and protected coastal regions at the seaside. More specifically, it focuses on the creation of an environmental monitoring <span class="hlt">system</span> targeting the marine, coastal and wetland ecosystems of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span>, thus strengthening the development of common research among the involved partners and increasing the intraregional knowledge for the corresponding coastal zones. This integrated multi-level <span class="hlt">system</span> is based on the technological assets provided by satellite Earth observation data and Geo-Informatics innovative tools and facilities, as well as on the development of a unified, easy to update geodatabase including a wide range of appropriately selected environmental parameters. Furthermore, a Web-GIS <span class="hlt">system</span> is under development aiming in principle to support environmental decision and policy making by monitoring the state of marine, coastal and wetland ecosystems of the Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and managing all the aforementioned data sources and derived research results. The <span class="hlt">system</span> is designed in a way that is easily expandable and adaptable for environmental management in local, regional national and trans-national level and as such it will increase the capacity of decision makers who are related to Black <span class="hlt">Sea</span> environmental policy. Therefore, it is expected that administrative authorities, scientifically related institutes and environmental protection bodies in all eligible areas will show interest in the results and applications of the information <span class="hlt">system</span>, since the ECO-Satellite project could serve as a support tool for the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ocean&pg=4&id=EJ1084606','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ocean&pg=4&id=EJ1084606"><span id="translatedtitle">Using Digital Globes to Explore the Deep <span class="hlt">Sea</span> and Advance Public Literacy in Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beaulieu, Stace E.; Emery, Emery; Brickley, Annette; Spargo, Abbey; Patterson, Kathleen; Joyce, Katherine; Silva, Tim; Madin, Katherine</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Digital globes are new technologies increasingly used in informal and formal education to display global datasets and show connections among Earth <span class="hlt">systems</span>. But how effective are digital globes in advancing public literacy in Earth <span class="hlt">system</span> science? We addressed this question by developing new content for digital globes with the intent to educate and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090017693&hterms=Evaluation+Impact+Environmental&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DEvaluation%2BImpact%2BEnvironmental','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20090017693&hterms=Evaluation+Impact+Environmental&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3DEvaluation%2BImpact%2BEnvironmental"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of Lake Okeechobee <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperatures on Numerical Predictions of Summertime Convective <span class="hlt">Systems</span> over South Florida</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Case, Jonathan L.; Splitt, Michael E.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Santos, Pablo; Lazarus, Steven M.; Jedlovec, Gary J.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center, the Florida Institute of Technology, and the NOAA/NWS Weather Forecast Office at Miami, FL (MFL) are collaborating on a project to investigate the impact of using high-resolution, 2-km Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) <span class="hlt">sea</span> surface temperature (SST) composites within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) prediction <span class="hlt">system</span>. The NWS MFL is currently running WRF in real-time to support daily forecast operations, using the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model dynamical core within the NWS Science and Training Resource Center's Environmental Modeling <span class="hlt">System</span> (EMS) software. Twenty-seven hour forecasts are run daily initialized at 0300, 0900, 1500, and 2100 UTC on a domain with 4-km grid spacing covering the southern half of Florida and adjacent waters of the Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic Ocean. The SSTs are initialized with the NCEP Real-Time Global (RTG) analyses at 1/12deg resolution. The project objective is to determine whether more accurate specification of the lower-boundary forcing over water using the MODIS SST composites within the 4-km WRF runs will result in improved <span class="hlt">sea</span> fluxes and hence, more accurate e\\olutiono f coastal mesoscale circulations and the associated sensible weather elements. SPoRT conducted parallel WRF EMS runs from February to August 2007 identical to the operational runs at NWS MFL except for the use of MODIS SST composites in place of the RTG product as the initial and boundary conditions over water. During the course of this evaluation, an intriguing case was examined from 6 May 2007, in which lake breezes and convection around Lake Okeechobee evolved quite differently when using the high-resolution SPoRT MODIS SST composites versus the lower-resolution RTG SSTs. This paper will analyze the differences in the 6 May simulations, as well as examine other cases from the summer 2007 in which the WRF</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615912C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1615912C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sea</span> ice radiative forcing, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area, and climate sensitivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caldeira, Ken; Cvijanovic, Ivana</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Changes in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover affect climate sensitivity by modifying albedo and surface heat flux exchange, which in turn affect the absorbed solar radiation at the surface as well as cloud cover, atmospheric water content and poleward atmospheric heat transport. Here, we use a configuration of the Community Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Model 1.0.4 with a slab ocean model and a thermodynamic-dynamic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice model to investigate the overall net effect of feedbacks associated with the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice loss. We analyze the strength of the overall <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice feedback in terms of two factors: the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area to changes in temperature, and the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice radiative forcing to changes in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area. In this model configuration, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area decreases by ~3 × 1012 m2 per K of global warming, while the effective global radiative forcing per square meter of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice loss is ~0.1 × 10-12 W m-2. The product of these two terms (~0.3 W m-2 K-1) approximately equals the difference in climate feedback parameter found in simulations with <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice response (1.05 W m-2 K-1) and simulations without <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice response (1.31 W m-2 K-1 or 1.35 W m-2 K-1, depending on the method used to disable changes in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover). Thus, we find that in our model simulations, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice response accounts for about 20% to 22% of the climate sensitivity to an imposed change in radiative forcing. In our model, the additional radiative forcing resulting from a loss of all <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice in the 'pre-industrial' state is comparable to but somewhat less than the radiative forcing from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A21H3127C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A21H3127C"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Radiative Forcing, <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Ice Area, and Climate Sensitivity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Caldeira, K.; Cvijanovic, I.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>Changes in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover affect climate sensitivity by modifying albedo and surface heat flux exchange, which in turn affect the absorbed solar radiation at the surface as well as cloud cover, atmospheric water content and poleward atmospheric heat transport. Here, we use a configuration of the Community Earth <span class="hlt">System</span> Model 1.0.4 with a slab ocean model and a thermodynamic-dynamic <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice model to investigate the overall net effect of feedbacks associated with the <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice loss. We analyze the strength of the overall <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice feedback in terms of two factors: the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area to changes in temperature, and the sensitivity of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice radiative forcing to changes in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area. In this model configuration, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice area decreases by ~3 × 1012 m2 per K of global warming, while the effective global radiative forcing per unit area of <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice loss is ~0.1 × 10-12 W m-2. The product of these two terms (~0.3 W m-2 K-1) approximately equals the difference in climate feedback parameter found in simulations with <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice response (1.05 W m-2 K-1) and simulations without <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice response (1.31 W m-2 K-1 or 1.35 W m-2 K-1, depending on the method used to disable the changes in <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice cover). Thus, we find that in our model simulations, <span class="hlt">sea</span> ice response accounts for about 20% to 22% of the climate sensitivity to an imposed change in radiative forcing. In our model, the additional radiative forcing resulting from a loss of all <span class="hlt">sea</span>-ice in the "pre-industrial" state is comparable to but somewhat less than the radiative forcing from a doubling of atmospheric CO2 content.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10107773','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10107773"><span id="translatedtitle">Handbook of methods for the analysis of the various parameters of the carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">system</span> in <span class="hlt">sea</span> water. Version 2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Dickson, A.G.; Goyet, C.</p> <p>1994-09-01</p> <p>The collection of extensive, reliable, oceanic carbon data is a key component of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS). A portion of the US JGOFS oceanic carbon dioxide measurements will be made during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Hydrographic Program. A science team has been formed to plan and coordinate the various activities needed to produce high quality oceanic carbon dioxide measurements under this program. This handbook was prepared at the request of, and with the active participation of, that science team. The procedures have been agreed on by the members of the science team and describe well tested methods. They are intended to provide standard operating procedures, together with an appropriate quality control plan, for measurements made as part of this survey. These are not the only measurement techniques in use for the parameters of the oceanic carbon <span class="hlt">system</span>; however, they do represent the current state-of-the-art for ship-board measurements. In the end, the editors hope that this handbook can serve widely as a clear and unambiguous guide to other investigators who are setting up to analyze the various parameters of the carbon dioxide <span class="hlt">system</span> in <span class="hlt">sea</span> water.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987MsT..........3C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1987MsT..........3C"><span id="translatedtitle">Optimizing HF antenna <span class="hlt">systems</span> on the Dolphin and <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Hawk helicopters</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crawford, James B.</p> <p>1987-09-01</p> <p>Making an aircraft available and modifying it to test various antenna <span class="hlt">systems</span> and configurations is extremely costly. The computer model is an excellent alternative means of analyzing antenna <span class="hlt">systems</span> for optimum communication <span class="hlt">system</span> performance. In this study electromagnetic wire grid computer models of two helicopters and eight HF antenna configurations are developed using Interactive Graphics Utility for Automated NEC Analysis (IGUANA). Numerical Electromagnetics Code (NEC) is used to obtain radiation patterns, and the Advanced Prophet program is used to develop the criteria for judging <span class="hlt">system</span> effectiveness. These computer results compare favorably with test range data, showing great savings of cost. They provide the additional advantage of showing radiation patterns at an elevated angle for sky wave propagation analysis (patterns which cannot be obtained on an antenna test range).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044239&hterms=Neptune&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DNeptune','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20060044239&hterms=Neptune&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DNeptune"><span id="translatedtitle">Lessons learned from the NEPTUNE power <span class="hlt">system</span> and other deep-<span class="hlt">sea</span> adventures</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Kirkham, Harold</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The development of underwater science <span class="hlt">systems</span> presents some challenging technical issues. It seems that the best efforts of the engineers and scientists involved are sometimes inadequate, and projects that once seemed straightforward end up being late, or overbudget, or cancelled. This paper will review some of the lessons that may be learned from the examples of three science projects in the deep ocean: the DUMAND neutrino detector, the H20 observatory, and the power <span class="hlt">system</span> part of the NEPTUNE regional cabled observatory.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614954R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014EGUGA..1614954R"><span id="translatedtitle">A Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean modelling <span class="hlt">system</span> to investigate the exceptional Winter 2012 conditions in the Northern Adriatic <span class="hlt">Sea</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ricchi, Antonio; Marcello Miglietta, M.; Benetazzo, Alvise; Warner, John C.; Zambon, Joseph B.; Bonaldo, Davide; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Bergamasco, Andrea; Sclavo, Mauro; Carniel, Sandro</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>During late January and early February 2012, a persistent cyclonic circulation associated with an exceptional cold anomaly dominated the Mediterranean region. Among the resulting effects, the northern Adriatic <span class="hlt">sea</span> basin (NA) experienced a very large energy losses, mostly related to the intense and cold Bora winds blowing from north-east. <span class="hlt">Sea</span> water temperature along the Italian coast dropped down to 6 °C, while part of the Venice lagoon got frozen. These series of exceptionally cold air outbreak episodes, as well as their effects on the NA circulation and dense water formation, are investigated by means of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling <span class="hlt">System</span>, where the oceanographic model ROMS, the atmospheric model WRF and the wave model SWAN are coupled via MCT. In this specific application to the NA <span class="hlt">sea</span> configuration, lasting from January 23 to February 23, 2012, particular emphasis was devoted to the analysis of the atmosphere-ocean-waves interactions. First, we employ the "stand alone" WRF atmospheric model in 4 different modes ("zero mode", i.e. using the skin temperature from the global atmospheric model without updating in the <span class="hlt">Sea</span> Surface Temperature (SST); "static mode", i.e. retaining the January 23 radiometer SST; "dynamic mode", updating every 6 hours the SST as deriv