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Sample records for alboran sea western

  1. New evidence of delamination in the Western Alboran Sea. Geodynamic evolution of the Alboran domain and its margins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timoulali, Youssef; Djellit, Hamou; Hahou, Youssef; Jabour, Nacer; Merrouch, Redouane

    2014-07-01

    The presence of continuous upper crustal blocks between the Iberian Betics and Moroccan Rif in the western and middle Alboran Sea, detected with tomography, can add new information about the lithosphere structure and geodynamic evolution in this region. A large volume of seismic data (P and S wave arrival times) has been collected for the period between 1 December 1988 and 31 December 2008 by 57 stations located in northern Morocco (National Institute of Geophysics, CNRST, Rabat), southern Portugal (Instituto de Meteorologia, Lisbon) and Spain (Instituto Geografico National, Madrid) and used to investigate the lithosphere in the western Alboran Sea region. We use a linearized inversion procedure comprising two steps: (1) finding the minimal 1-D model and simultaneous relocation of hypocenters and (2) determination of local velocity structure using linearized inversion. The model parameterization in this method assumes a continuous velocity field. The resolution tests indicate that the calculated images give near true structure imaged at 5 km depth for the Tanger peninsula, the Alhoceima region and southern Spain. At 15, 30 and 45 km depth we observe a near true structure imaged in northern Morocco, and southern Spain. At 60 and 100 km, southern Spain and the SW region of the Alboran Sea give a near true structure. The resulting tomographic image shows the presence of two upper crustal bodies (velocity 6.5 km/s) at 5-10 km depth between the Betics, Rif, western and central Alboran Sea. Low velocities at the base of these two bodies favor the presence of melt. This new evidence proves that the Tethysian ocean upper crust was not totally collapsed or broken down during the late Oligocene-early Miocene. These two blocks of upper crust were initially one block. The geodynamic process in the eastern of the Mediterranean is driven by slab rollback. The delamination process of the lithospheric mantle terminates with the proposed slab rollback in the western part of the

  2. Atmospheric patterns driving Holocene productivity in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean): a multiproxy approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausin, Blanca; Flores, Jose-Abel; Sierro, Francisco Javier; Cacho, Isabel; Hernández-Almeida, Iván; Martrat, Belén; Grimalt, Joan

    2014-05-01

    This study is aimed to reconstruct productivity during the Holocene in the Western Mediterranean as well as to investigate what processes account for its short-term variability. Fossil coccolithophore assemblages have been studied along with Mg/Ca and Uk'37-estimated Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and other paleoenvironmental proxies. The study site is located in a semi-permanent area of upwelling in the Alboran Sea. This productive cell is of special interest since is closely related to local hydrological dynamics driven by the entering Atlantic Jet (AJ). The onset of this productive cell is suggested at 7.7 ka cal. B.P. and linked to the establishment of the anticyclonic gyres. From 7.7 ka cal. BP to present, the N ratio and accumulation rate of Florisphaera profunda show successive upwelling and stratification events. This alternation is simultaneous to changes in the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) formation rate in the Gulf of Lions [Frigola et al., 2007], along with changes in Mg/Ca-estimated SST, relative abundance of reworked nannoliths, pollen grains record [Fletcher et al., 2012] and n-hexacosan-1-ol index. Two scenarios are proposed to explain short-term climatic and oceanographic variability: [1] Wetter climate and weaker north-westerlies blowing over the Gulf of Lions trigger a slackening of the WMDW formation. Consequently, a minor AJ inflows the Alboran Sea leading to less vertical mixing and a deepening of the nutricline and hence, long-term stratification events. [2] Arid climate and stronger north-westerlies enable WMDW reinforcement. In turn, increased AJ triggers vertical mixing and nutricline shoaling, and therefore, productive periods. Finally, changes in atmospheric patterns (e.g. the winter North Atlantic Oscillation; [Olsen et al., 2012]) prove to be useful in explaining the WMDW formation in the Gulf of Lions and associated short-term productivity variations in the Alboran Sea. References Fletcher, W. J., M. Debret, and M. F

  3. Turbulent mixing in the eddy transport of Western Mediterranean Intermediate Water to the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forryan, A.; Allen, J. T.; Edhouse, E.; Silburn, B.; Reeve, K.; Tesi, E.

    2012-09-01

    Western Mediterranean Intermediate Water (WIW) is formed in winter in the North-Western Mediterranean. WIW, identifiable as a distinct temperature minimum layer between Atlantic-Mediterranean Interface waters and the denser Levantine Intermediate Water, is carried down the east coast of Spain in anticyclonic mode water eddies, or “weddies” eventually reaching the Alboran sea. A previous detailed analysis of a weddy in the vicinity of the Almeria-Oran front indicated that it could have accounted for 10% of a winter's production of WIW, but this analysis was unable to consider turbulent dissipation. In this study we present microstructure measurements across a similar observation of WIW in the vicinity of the Almeria-Oran front and show that this figure could be conservative by 15-50% due to the turbulent dissipation associated with a weddy.

  4. Tidal motions and tidally induced fluxes through La Línea submarine canyon, western Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, Jesús GarcíA.; Sarhan, Tarek; Vargas, Manuel; Vargas, Juan M.; Plaza, Francisco

    1999-02-01

    Detailed observations from two mooring lines deployed in La Línea submarine canyon, western Alboran Sea, are presented. This is a narrow canyon in the sense that its width is always less than the internal radius of deformation. Tidal currents within the canyon are polarized in the along-canyon direction according to its narrow nature. They have considerable amplitude (values of around 0.5 m/s are often observed) and are forced by the internal pressure gradients associated with the baroclinic tide that is generated in the surroundings. Subsequent amplification of onshore baroclinic currents within the canyon accounts for the large amplitude observed. Cross-shelf exchange through the canyon due to tidal motions is different from zero despite the close to zero mean of tidal currents. The explanation is based on the asymmetry of water properties flowing up-canyon and down-canyon (some sort of tidal rectification). Regarding the energy flux, the canyon seems to be an adequate conduit to carry energy to the shore. Estimations made from our observations indicate that energy input onto the shelf per unit length parallel to the shore at the canyon head is enough to maintain mixing on the shelf at intermediate depths.

  5. Origin of lipid biomarkers in mud volcanoes from the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Rodríguez, C.; Stadnitskaia, A.; De Lange, G. J.; Martínez-Ruíz, F.; Comas, M.

    2014-06-01

    Mud volcanoes (MVs) are the most prominent indicators of active methane/hydrocarbon venting at the seafloor on both passive and active continental margins. Their occurrence in the western Mediterranean is patent at the West Alboran Basin, where numerous MVs develop overlaying a major sedimentary depocentre containing overpressured shales. Although some of these MVs have been studied, the detailed biogeochemistry of expelled mud so far has not been examined in detail. This work provides the first results on the composition and origin of organic matter, anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) processes and general characteristics on MV dynamics using lipid biomarkers as the main tool. Lipid biomarker analysis was performed on MV expelled material (mud breccias) and interbedded hemipelagic sediments from Perejil, Kalinin and Schneider's Heart MVs located in the northwest margin of the Alboran Sea. The n alkane distributions and n alkane-derived indices (CPI and ACL), in combination with the epimerization degree of hopanes (22S/(22S+22R)) indicate that all studied mud breccia have a similar biomarker composition consisting of mainly thermally immature organic matter with an admixture of petroleum-derived compounds. This concordant composition indicates that common source strata must feed all three studied MVs. The past or present AOM activity was established using lipid biomarkers specific for anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (irregular isoprenoids and dialkyl glycerol diethers) and the depleted carbon isotope composition (δ13C) of crocetane/phytane. The presence of these lipid biomarkers, together with the low amounts of detected glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers, is consistent with the dominance of anaerobic methanotrophs of the ANME-2 over ANME-1, at least in mud breccia from Perejil MVs. In contrast, the scarce presence or lack of these AOM-related lipid biomarkers in sediments from Kalinin and Schneider's Heart MVs, suggests that no recent active methane seepage

  6. Fueling plankton production by a meandering frontal jet: a case study for the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Oguz, Temel; Macias, Diego; Garcia-Lafuente, Jesus; Pascual, Ananda; Tintore, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    A three dimensional biophysical model was employed to illustrate the biological impacts of a meandering frontal jet, in terms of efficiency and persistency of the autotrophic frontal production, in marginal and semi-enclosed seas. We used the Alboran Sea of the Western Mediterranean as a case study. Here, a frontal jet with a width of 15-20 km, characterized by the relatively low density Atlantic water mass, flows eastward within the upper 100 m as a marked meandering current around the western and the eastern anticyclonic gyres prior to its attachment to the North African shelf/slope topography of the Algerian basin. Its inherent nonlinearity leads to the development of a strong ageostrophic cross-frontal circulation that supplies nutrients into the nutrient-starved euphotic layer and stimulates phytoplankton growth along the jet. Biological production is larger in the western part of the basin and decreases eastwards with the gradual weakening of the jet. The higher production at the subsurface levels suggests that the Alboran Sea is likely more productive than predicted by the satellite chlorophyll data. The Mediterranean water mass away from the jet and the interiors of the western and eastern anticyclonic gyres remain unproductive.

  7. Fueling Plankton Production by a Meandering Frontal Jet: A Case Study for the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean)

    PubMed Central

    Oguz, Temel; Macias, Diego; Garcia-Lafuente, Jesus; Pascual, Ananda; Tintore, Joaquin

    2014-01-01

    A three dimensional biophysical model was employed to illustrate the biological impacts of a meandering frontal jet, in terms of efficiency and persistency of the autotrophic frontal production, in marginal and semi-enclosed seas. We used the Alboran Sea of the Western Mediterranean as a case study. Here, a frontal jet with a width of 15–20 km, characterized by the relatively low density Atlantic water mass, flows eastward within the upper 100 m as a marked meandering current around the western and the eastern anticyclonic gyres prior to its attachment to the North African shelf/slope topography of the Algerian basin. Its inherent nonlinearity leads to the development of a strong ageostrophic cross-frontal circulation that supplies nutrients into the nutrient-starved euphotic layer and stimulates phytoplankton growth along the jet. Biological production is larger in the western part of the basin and decreases eastwards with the gradual weakening of the jet. The higher production at the subsurface levels suggests that the Alboran Sea is likely more productive than predicted by the satellite chlorophyll data. The Mediterranean water mass away from the jet and the interiors of the western and eastern anticyclonic gyres remain unproductive. PMID:25372789

  8. Tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Western Alboran Sea basin since the last 25 Myrs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Couto, Damien; Gorini, Christian; Jolivet, Laurent; Lebret, Noëmie; Augier, Romain; Gumiaux, Charles; D'Acremont, Elia; Ammar, Abdellah; Auxietre, Jean-Luc

    2016-04-01

    The Western Alboran Basin (WAB) formation has always been a matter of debate and was either considered as a backarc or a forearc basin. Based on stratigraphic analysis of high-resolution 2D seismic profiles mostly located offshore Morocco, the tectonic and stratigraphic history of the WAB is clarified. A thick pre-rift sequence is observed beneath the Miocene basin and interpreted as the topmost Malaguide/Ghomaride complex composing the Alboran domain. The structural position of this unit compared with the HP-LT exhumed Alpujarride/Sebtide metamorphic basement, leads us to link the Early Miocene subsidence of the basin with an extensional detachment. Above the Early Miocene, a thick Serravallian sequence marked by siliciclastic deposits is nearly devoid of extensional structures. Its overall landward to basinward onlap geometry indicates that the WAB has behaved as a sag basin during most of its evolution, from the Serravallian to the Late Tortonian. Tectonic reconstructions in map view and cross-section further suggest that the basin has always represented a strongly subsiding topographic low without internal deformation that has migrated westward together with the retreating slab. We propose that the subsidence of the WAB was controlled by the pull of the dipping subducting lithosphere explaining the large thickness (10 km) of the mostly undeformed sedimentary infill.

  9. Tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Western Alboran Sea Basin in the last 25 Myrs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Couto, Damien; Gorini, Christian; Jolivet, Laurent; Lebret, Noëmie; Augier, Romain; Gumiaux, Charles; d'Acremont, Elia; Ammar, Abdellah; Jabour, Haddou; Auxietre, Jean-Luc

    2016-05-01

    The Western Alboran Basin (WAB) formation has always been the subject of debate and considered either as a back-arc or a forearc basin. Stratigraphic analyses of high-resolution 2D seismic profiles mostly located offshore Morocco, enabled us to clarify the tectonic and stratigraphic history of the WAB. The thick pre-rift sequence located beneath the Miocene basin is interpreted as the topmost Malaguide/Ghomaride complex composing the Alboran domain. The structural position of this unit compared with the HP-LT exhumed Alpujarride/Sebtide metamorphic basement, leads us to link the Early Miocene subsidence of the basin with an extensional detachment. Above the Early Miocene, a thick Serravallian sequence marked by siliciclastic deposits is nearly devoid of extensional structures. Its overall landward to basinward onlap geometry indicates that the WAB has behaved as a sag basin during most of its evolution from the Serravallian to the late Tortonian. Tectonic reconstructions in map view and in cross section further suggest that the basin has always represented a strongly subsiding topographic low without internal deformation that migrated westward together with the retreating slab. We propose that the subsidence of the WAB was controlled by the pull of the dipping subducting lithosphere hence explaining the considerable thickness (10 km) of the mostly undeformed sedimentary infill.

  10. Seismicity and active tectonics in the Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean: Constraints from an offshore-onshore seismological network and swath bathymetry data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevemeyer, Ingo; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Villaseñor, Antonio; Leuchters, Wiebke; Watts, Anthony B.

    2015-12-01

    Seismicity and tectonic structure of the Alboran Sea were derived from a large amphibious seismological network deployed in the offshore basins and onshore in Spain and Morocco, an area where the convergence between the African and Eurasian plates causes distributed deformation. Crustal structure derived from local earthquake data suggests that the Alboran Sea is underlain by thinned continental crust with a mean thickness of about 20 km. During the 5 months of offshore network operation, a total of 229 local earthquakes were located within the Alboran Sea and neighboring areas. Earthquakes were generally crustal events, and in the offshore domain, most of them occurred at crustal levels of 2 to 15 km depth. Earthquakes in the Alboran Sea are poorly related to large-scale tectonic features and form a 20 to 40 km wide NNE-SSW trending belt of seismicity between Adra (Spain) and Al Hoceima (Morocco), supporting the case for a major left-lateral shear zone across the Alboran Sea. Such a shear zone is in accord with high-resolution bathymetric data and seismic reflection imaging, indicating a number of small active fault zones, some of which offset the seafloor, rather than supporting a well-defined discrete plate boundary fault. Moreover, a number of large faults known to be active as evidenced from bathymetry, seismic reflection, and paleoseismic data such as the Yusuf and Carboneras faults were seismically inactive. Earthquakes below the Western Alboran Basin occurred at 70 to 110 km depth and hence reflected intermediate depth seismicity related to subducted lithosphere.

  11. A study of models and controls for basin formation during continental collision: (1) Australian lithosphere along Banda orogen (Indonesia) and (2) Alboran Sea basin (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, Kush

    Mechanisms for the formation of a foreland basin at the beginning of continental collision (Pliocene-Recent Australian continental foreland along the Banda orogen) and a post-orogenic, continental, Miocene extensional basin (Alboran Sea) are studied. Such a study investigates the controls on the basin formation during the start of the Wilson cycle and later during the break up of a thickened continent in a collisional environment. Effective Elastic Thickness (EET) of the Australian continental lithosphere from Roti to the Kai Plateau ({˜}121sp°{-}137sp°E longitude) are estimated using an elastic-half beam model to match the sea floor bathymetry and the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Range of constant EET values from 27-75 km across the shelf of Australian lithosphere shows a variation of 64% with the highest value in the vicinity of central Timor where the collision is most advanced. Downdip on the Australian continental lithosphere from shelf to beneath the Banda orogen, the reduction in EET is from ˜90 km-˜30 km (66%). Variations in EET can be explained by inelastic yielding (brittle and plastic failure, crust-mantle decoupling in the lower crust and brittle-ductile decoupling in the upper-middle crust) in the Australian lithosphere. Change in EET occurred at the start of continental subduction due to change in curvature, both in map and cross-sectional view. Oroclinal bending of the continental Australian lithosphere increased the inelastic failure in the eastern end. Different mechanisms of basin formation at a site of post-orogenic collapse are studied by constraining the timing of rifting in the western, eastern, and northern parts of the Alboran Sea basin on seismic reflectors via synthetic seismograms using ODP Leg 161 and Andalucia A-1 data. Regions of adjacent coeval compression and extension are found in the Alboran Sea basin. Normal faulting continues in parts of the eastern Alboran Sea basin later than in the western Alboran Sea basin. The development

  12. The Physical Oceanography of the Alboran Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    geostrophic adjustment in sea de Alboran. Revista Las Ciencias XXV(4):765-779. straits and wide estuaries: theory and laboratory experi- Stevenson, R. E. (1977... Comunicaciones 3, Zaragoza: Whitehead, J. A. and A. R. Miller (1979). Labora- 1151-1166. tory simulation of the gyre in the Alboran Sea. Jour- Parrilla, G

  13. How is the surface Atlantic water inflow through the Gibraltar Strait forecasted? A lagrangian validation of operational oceanographic services in the Alboran Sea and the Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotillo, M. G.; Amo-Baladrón, A.; Padorno, E.; Garcia-Ladona, E.; Orfila, A.; Rodríguez-Rubio, P.; Conti, D.; Madrid, J. A. Jiménez; de los Santos, F. J.; Fanjul, E. Alvarez

    2016-11-01

    An exhaustive validation of some of the operational ocean forecast products available in the Gibraltar Strait and the Alboran Sea is here presented. The skill of two ocean model solutions (derived from the Eulerian ocean forecast systems, such as the regional CMEMS IBI and the high resolution PdE SAMPA) in reproducing the complex surface dynamics in the above areas is evaluated. To this aim, in-situ measurements from the MEDESS-GIB drifter buoy database (comprising the Lagrangian positions, derived velocities and SST values) are used as the observational reference and the temporal coverage for the validation is 3 months (September to December 2014). Two metrics, a Lagrangian separation distance and a skill score, have been applied to evaluate the performance of the modelling systems in reproducing the observed trajectories. Furthermore, the SST validation with in-situ data is carried out by means of validating the model solutions with L3 satellite SST products. The Copernicus regional IBI products are evaluated in an extended domain, beyond the Alboran Sea, and covering western Mediterranean waters. This analysis reveals some strengths of the presented regional solution (i.e. realistic values of the Atlantic Jet in the Strait of Gibraltar area, realistic simulation of the Algerian Current). However, some shortcomings are also identified, with the major one being related to the simulated geographical position and intensity of the Alboran Gyres, particularly the western one. This performance limitation affects the IBI-modelled surface circulation in the entire Alboran Sea. On the other hand, the SAMPA system shows a more accurate model performance and it realistically reproduces the observed surface circulation in the area. The results reflect the effectiveness of the dynamical downscaling performed through the SAMPA system with respect to the regional IBI solution (in which SAMPA is nested), providing an objective measure of the potential added values introduced by

  14. Evolution of the Alboran Sea hydrographic structures during July 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuente, Jesús García.; Cano, Natalio; Vargas, Manuel; Rubín, Juan P.; Hernández-Guerra, Alonso

    1998-01-01

    During the ICTIOALBORAN-0793 multidisciplinary oceanographic survey carried out in July 1993 by the Instituto Español de Oceanografı´a (IEO) in the Alboran Sea, some anomalous features were detected. One was the presence of a small cyclonic eddy in the western Alboran Basin, close to the African coast. The upper layer of the eddy consisted of Mediterranean Surface Water and was separated from its supposed source (the northern Alboran Sea) by the Atlantic Jet. Another feature was the probable temporary interruption of the flow of fresh Atlantic Water (S≈36.5) into the eastern Alboran Basin and its replacement by a modified (saltier) Atlantic Water. These features can be explained assuming a time evolution of the surface circulation in the Alboran Sea forced by speed variations in the inflowing Atlantic Water through the Strait of Gibraltar. A collection of satellite images covering the survey period and across-strait sea level difference data, indicative of the geostrophic velocity of the inflow through the Strait, were used to check this assumption. Both sets of data supplied independent but compatible information in the sense that they complemented each other and gave support to the proposed evolving model. Finally, some speculative ideas attempting to correlate the inferred variability in the Alboran Sea with the state of the baroclinic water exchange through the Strait of Gibraltar (maximal or submaximal) are discussed.

  15. Last glacial to Holocene productivity and oxygen changes based on benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the western Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Asensio, José N.; Cacho, Isabel; Frigola, Jaime; Pena, Leopoldo D.; Asioli, Alessandra; Kuhlmann, Jannis; Huhn, Katrin

    2016-04-01

    Late glacial to Holocene productivity and oxygen changes in the Alboran Sea were investigated analyzing benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the marine sediment core HER-GC-UB06. This 255 cm-long core was recovered at 946 m water depth in the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean Sea) and includes homogeneous greyish clays from the last 23 ka. Nowadays, the core site is bathed by the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) and near the overlying Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW). Benthic foraminifera from the size fraction >63 μm were identified at species level and counted until reaching at least 300 individuals. Q-mode principal component analyses (PCA) was performed to establish benthic foraminiferal assemblages. In addition, benthic foraminifera were classified according to their microhabitat preferences. Diversity was assessed with several diversity indices. Four benthic foraminiferal assemblages have been identified along the core. The distribution of these assemblages records changes in productivity and oxygen conditions during the last 23 ka. The last glacial and deglaciation interval, 23-12.5 ka, shows low diversity and is characterized by the Nonionella iridea assemblage, which includes Cassidulina laevigata, Bolivina dilatata, Nonionoides turgida and Cibicides pachyderma as secondary taxa. This assemblage can be interpreted as a moderately oxygenated mesotrophic environment with episodic pulses of fresh organic matter. Although general mesotrophic conditions prevail, the Last Glacial Maximum shows a more oligotrophic and better oxygenated setting as suggested by higher abundance of epifaunal-shallow infaunal taxa. In contrast, along the Bølling-Allerød eutrophic conditions with higher productivity and lower oxygenation are recorded by a deep infaunal taxa maximum. During the Younger Dryas (YD) and the earliest Holocene (12.5-10.5 ka), the Bolivina dilatata assemblage dominates coinciding with a lower diversity, especially during the YD. This species

  16. Controls of picophytoplankton abundance and composition in a highly dynamic marine system, the Northern Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amorim, Ana L.; León, Pablo; Mercado, Jesús M.; Cortés, Dolores; Gómez, Francisco; Putzeys, Sebastien; Salles, Soluna; Yebra, Lidia

    2016-06-01

    The Alboran Sea is a highly dynamic basin which exhibits a high spatio-temporal variability of hydrographic structures (e.g. fronts, gyres, coastal upwellings). This work compares the abundance and composition of picophytoplankton observed across the northern Alboran Sea among eleven cruises between 2008 and 2012 using flow cytometry. We evaluate the seasonal and longitudinal variability of picophytoplankton on the basis of the circulation regimes at a regional scale and explore the presence of cyanobacteria ecotypes in the basin. The maximal abundances obtained for Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes (12.7 × 104, 13.9 × 104 and 8.6 × 104 cells mL- 1 respectively) were consistent with those reported for other adjacent marine areas. Seasonal changes in the abundance of the three picophytoplankton groups were highly significant although they did not match the patterns described for other coastal waters. Higher abundances of Prochlorococcus were obtained in autumn-winter while Synechococcus and picoeukaryotes exhibited a different seasonal abundance pattern depending on the sector (e.g. Synechococcus showed higher abundance in summer in the west sector and during winter in the eastern study area). Additionally, conspicuous longitudinal gradients were observed for Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, with Prochlorococcus decreasing from west to east and Synechococcus following the opposite pattern. The analysis of environmental variables (i.e. temperature, salinity and inorganic nutrients) and cell abundances indicates that Prochlorococcus preferred high salinity and nitrate to phosphate ratio. On the contrary, temperature did not seem to play a role in Prochlorococcus distribution as it was numerically important during the whole seasonal cycle. Variability in Synechococcus abundance could not be explained by changes in any environmental variable suggesting that different ecotypes were sampled during the surveys. In particular, our data would indicate

  17. Magnetotelluric Measurements in the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, R. L.; Jegen, M. D.; Garcia, X. A.; Matsuno, T.; Elsenbeck, J.; Worzewski, T. W.

    2010-12-01

    The PICASSO program aims to understand the tectonic history of the western Mediterranean, between Spain and Morocco, where conflicting models have suggested that the region is either a relict subduction system or a zone of mantle delamination. As part of this program we successfully deployed 12 seafloor MT instruments in water depths greater than 800m in the Alboran sea. We plan to deploy additional instruments in the fall of 2010. An initial analysis of the data shows complex MT response functions with strong distortion due to seafloor topography and coast effect. This coast effect suggests a fairly resistive lithosphere beneath the seafloor, which is confirmed after inspection of the preliminary responses. We will present the data collected thus far, along with preliminary models of the profiles collected.

  18. Mantle structure beneath the Alboran Sea from shear wave splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpert, L. A.; Becker, T. W.; Miller, M. S.; Allam, A. A.

    2011-12-01

    New seismological investigations in the Alboran domain of the western Mediterranean, as part of the PICASSO experiment, support geodynamic models which constrain the mantle structure beneath the Alboran Sea. We evaluate global circulation models in the context of seismic anistropy as inferred from SKS/SKKS splitting observations. Using instantaneous velocity fields from 3-D flow models with variable mantle density based on several tomography and seismicity based models, we calculate the predicted anisotropy, fast polarization direction (FPD), and delay times in order to explain the complex tectonic and geologic history of the Alboran Sea region. Slab rollback, delamination, and convective removal processes have been invoked to explain the synorogenic extension in the Alboran and recently published splitting measurements show north-east trending FPD across the Iberian margin with a rotation to the southeast that follows the curve of the Gibraltar arc, suggested by the authors as supporting west-directed slab rollback. Our new measurements from 39 stations substantiate the measurements in southern Spain, but we find a striking, nearly 90 degree rotation in azimuth and reduced delay times across the High Atlas Mountains in northern Morocco. These splitting patterns define three distinct regions we attempt to predict with our geodynamic models. Here, we test several differently-oriented subduction, slab break-off, and delamination scenarios. Our preliminary results show that density models which include a curved, northeast trending slab predict the east-northeast oriented measurements along the Iberian margin. Imposing a drip structure beneath the Alboran Sea also predicts these orientations. In order to predict the rotation of the FPD we find in Morocco, however, most models require a stiff keel beneath the African craton.

  19. Interaction between seabed morphology and water masses around the seamounts on the Motril Marginal Plateau (Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomino, Desirée; Vázquez, Juan-Tomás; Ercilla, Gemma; Alonso, Belén; López-González, Nieves; Díaz-Del-Río, Víctor

    2011-12-01

    The seabed morphology in the vicinity of the seamounts on the Motril Marginal Plateau (northern Alboran Sea) was investigated using high-resolution (sparker) and very high-resolution (TOPAS) seismic reflection profiles and multibeam bathymetry. The aim of the study was to determine the recent geological processes, and in particular those that control the contourite depositional system associated with the intermediate and deep Mediterranean water masses. Six groups of morphological features were identified: structural features (seamount tops, tectonic depressions), fluid escape-related features (pockmarks), mass-movement features (gullies, slides), bottom-current features (moats, scour marks, terraces, elongated and separated drifts, plastered drifts, confined drifts, sheeted drifts), mixed features (ridges) and biogenic features (including evidence of (dead) cold water corals such as Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata). The main processes controlling the formation of these features are recent tectonic activity and the interaction of Mediterranean water masses with the seafloor topography. Seamounts act as topographic barriers that affect the pathway and velocity of the deep Mediterranean water masses, which are divided into strands that interact with the surrounding seafloor. The influence of the intermediate Mediterranean water mass, by contrast, is restricted mainly to the tops of the seamounts. Sediment instability and fluid-escape processes play a minor role, their occurrence being probably related to seismicity.

  20. Looking for long-term changes in hydroid assemblages (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) in Alboran Sea (South-Western Mediterranean): a proposal of a monitoring point for the global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Duarte, Manuel María; Megina, Cesar; Piraino, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    In the last 20-30 years, the temperature of the Mediterranean Sea has increased and global warming is allowing the establishment of tropical-affinity species into more temperate zones. Sessile communities are particularly useful as a baseline for ecological monitoring; however, a lack of historical data series exists for sessile marine organisms without commercial interest. Hydroids are ubiquitous components of the benthic sessile fauna on rocky shores and have been used as bio-indicators of environmental conditions. In this study on the benthic hydroid assemblages of the Chafarinas Islands (Alboran Sea, South-Western Mediterranean), we characterized the hydroid assemblages, identified the bathymetric gradients, and compared them with a previous study carried out in 1991. Hydroid assemblages showed a significant difference both between year and among depths. Furthermore, eight species not present in 1991 were found, including two possible new species and the tropical and subtropical species Sertularia marginata. Due to its strategic position at the entrance of the Mediterranean and the existence of previous data on hydroid assemblages, the Chafarinas Islands are proposed as a possible monitoring point for entrance of Atlantic tropical species into the Mediterranean Sea.

  1. Scenarios for earthquake-generated tsunamis on a complex tectonic area of diffuse deformation and low velocity: The Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez-Gomez, J. A.; Aniel-Quiroga, I.; Gonzalez, M.; Olabarrieta, M.; Carreno, E.

    2011-01-01

    The tsunami impact on the Spanish and North African coasts of the Alboran Sea generated by several reliable seismic tsunamigenic sources in this area was modeled. The tectonic setting is complex and a study of the potential sources from geological data is basic to obtain probable source characteristics. The tectonic structures considered in this study as potentially tsunamigenic are: the Alboran Ridge associated structures, the Carboneras Fault Zone and the Yusuf Fault Zone. We characterized 12 probable tsunamigenic seismic sources in the Alboran Basin based on the results of recent oceanographical studies. The strain rate in the area is low and therefore its seismicity is moderate and cannot be used to infer characteristics of the major seismic sources. These sources have been used as input for the numerical simulation of the wave propagation, based on the solution of the nonlinear shallow water equations through a finite-difference technique. We calculated the Maximum Wave Elevations, and Tsunami Travel Times using the numerical simulations. The results are shown as maps and profiles along the Spanish and African coasts. The sources associated with the Alboran Ridge show the maximum potential to generate damaging tsunamis, with maximum wave elevations in front of the coast exceeding 1.5. m. The Carboneras and Yusuf faults are not capable of generating disastrous tsunamis on their own, although their proximity to the coast could trigger landslides and associated sea disturbances. The areas which are more exposed to the impact of tsunamis generated in the Alboran Sea are the Spanish coast between Malaga and Adra, and the African coast between Alhoceima and Melilla. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  2. A new diagnosis of the genus Delectona (Porifera, Demospongiae), with a description of a new species from the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosell, D.

    1996-12-01

    A redescription of the genus Delectona is provided, based on information gained by the finding of a new species, D. alboransis, from the Alboran Sea (southwestern Mediterranean Sea). Up to now, this genus contained only one species: Delectona higgini, from the Indian Ocean, which has not been recorded since 1880. The presence of megascleres in the new species and the different ranges of amphiaster lengths of the two species are the main features allowing a differentiation. In addition, the excavating capability of sponges of this genus is questioned, following the observations on the external morphology of D. alboransis. Our results support the hypothesis of other authors that some areas of the circalittoral level of the Alboran Sea may represent a redoubt of relict species with Indo-Pacific affinities.

  3. Miocene shale tectonics in the Moroccan margin (Alboran Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Couto, D.; El Abbassi, M.; Ammar, A.; Gorini, C.; Estrada, F.; Letouzey, J.; Smit, J.; Jolivet, L.; Jabour, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Betic (Southern Spain) and Rif (Morocco) mountains form an arcuate belt that represents the westernmost termination of the peri-mediterranean Alpine mountain chain. The Miocene Alboran Basin and its subbasins is located in the hinterland of the Betic-Rif belt. It is considered to be a back-arc basin that developed during the coeval westward motion of the Alboran domain and the extensional collapse of previously thickened crust of the Betic-Rif belt. The Western Alboran Basin (WAB) is the major sedimentary depocenter with a sediment thickness in excess of 10 km, it is bordered by the Gibraltar arc, the volcanic Djibouti mounts and the Alboran ridge. Part of the WAB is affected by shale tectonics and associated mud volcanism. High-quality 2D seismic profiles acquired on the Moroccan margin of the Alboran Basin during the last decade reveal the multiple history of the basin. This study deals with the analysis of a number of these seismic profiles that are located along and orthogonal to the Moroccan margin. Seismic stratigraphy is calibrated from industrial wells. We focus on the interactions between the gravity-driven tectonic processes and the sedimentation in the basin. Our seismic interpretation confirms that the formation of the WAB began in the Early Miocene (Aquitanian - Burdigalian). The fast subsidence of the basin floor coeval to massive sedimentation induced the undercompaction of early miocene shales during their deposition. Downslope migration of these fine-grained sediments initiated during the deposition of the Langhian siliciclastics. This gravity-driven system was accompanied by continuous basement subsidence and induced disharmonic deformation in Mid Miocene units (i.e. not related to basement deformation). The development of shale-cored anticlines and thrusts in the deep basin is the result of compressive deformation at the front of the gravity-driven system and lasted for ca. 15 Ma. The compressive front has been re-activated by strong

  4. Modeling the impact of tidal flows on the biological productivity of the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Garrido, José C.; Naranjo, C.; Macías, D.; García-Lafuente, J.; Oguz, T.

    2015-11-01

    The control of phytoplankton production by tidal forcing in the Alboran Sea is investigated with a high-resolution ocean circulation model coupled to an ecosystem model. The aim of the modeling efforts was to elucidate the role of tides in sustaining the high biological productivity of the Alboran Sea, as compared with the rest of the Mediterranean subbasins. It is shown that tidal forcing accounts for an increase of phytoplankton biomass and primary productivity in the basin of about 40% with respect to a nontidal circulation, and about 60% in the western Alboran Sea alone. The tidal dynamics of the Strait of Gibraltar is shown to be the primary factor in determining the enhancement of productivity, pumping nutrients from depth to the photic zone in the Alboran Sea. Model results indicate that the biological implications of the propagating internal tides are small. These results imply that nutrient transports through the Strait of Gibraltar have to be parametrized in ocean models that do not resolve tides in order to properly represent the biochemical budgets of the Alboran Sea.

  5. Evolution of a Miocene sag basin in the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do Couto, D.; Gorini, C.; Jolivet, L.; Letouzey, J.; Smit, J.; d'Acremont, E.; Auxietre, J. L.; Le Pourhiet, L.; Estrada, F.; Elabassi, M.; Ammar, A.; Jabour, H.; Vendeville, B.

    2012-04-01

    The Alboran domain represents the westernmost termination of the peri-Mediterranean Alpine orogen. Its arcuate shape, delimited to the North by the Betic range and to the South by the Rif range, is the result of subduction, collision and slab migration processes. During the Neogene, several sedimentary basins formed on the Betics metamorphic basement, mainly due to the extensional collapse of the previously thickened crust of the Betic-Rif belt. The major sedimentary depocentre, the Western Alboran Basin (WAB), is surrounded by the Gibraltar arc, the volcanic Djibouti mounts and the Alboran ridge, and is partly affected by shale tectonics and associated mud volcanism. High-quality 2-D seismic profiles acquired along the Moroccan margin during the last decade reveal a complete history of the basin. Our study deals with the analysis of seismic profiles oriented parallel and orthogonal to the Mediterranean Moroccan margin. The stratigraphy was calibrated using well data from offshore Spain and Morocco. Our study focuses particularly on the tectono-stratigraphic reconstruction of the basin. The formation of the WAB began in the Early Miocene (Aquitanian - Burdigalian). A massive unit of Early Miocene to Lower Langhian shales and olistostromes forms a thick mobile décollement layer that controls and accommodates deformation of the basin fill. From the Upper Langhian to the Upper Tortonian, the basin is filled by a thick sequence of siliciclastic deposits. Stratigraphic geometries identified on seismic data clearly indicate that deformation of the basin fill started during deposition of Upper Langhian to the Upper Tortonian clastics. Shale tectonic deformation was re-activated recently, during the Messinian desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea (and the following catastrophic Pliocene reflooding) or during the Quaternary contourite deposition The sedimentary layers gently dip towards the basin centre and "onlaps" onto the basin margin, especially onto the basement high

  6. Distribution and Taxonomy of Zooplankton in the Alboran Sea and Adjacent Western Mediterranean: A Literature Survey and Field Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    tunicates and crustaceans in 7 regions of the Western Mediterranean. Bioluminescent properties of the organisms are indicated where known. An...22 5. Polychaetes and nudibranchs 25 6. Pelagic tunicates 27 7. Crustaceans 31 I Illustrated systematic guide 36 Hydromedusae and Scyphomedusae 37...Siphonophores 71 Ctenophores 91Polychaeteq and Nudibranchs 101 Pelagic Tunicates 105 Crustaceans 121 I Acknowledgments 139 References 139 I I I I I 4I

  7. The Physical Oceanography of the Alboran Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-01

    Spanish version is being issued simultaneously by al ititclo lOi : 2re in the % estern Alboran that nearly the Instituto Espa ol de Oceanografia in...Gregorio Parrilla Instituto Espan- ol de Oceanografia Madrid, Spain ToThomas H. Kinder Oceanography Division Ocean Science Directorate Approved for public...in t he w estern .Alboran. ;i it:plcd at 540-rn depth from V1 eerlgclefcso h lk 6I ’,el 0 tC ai ’ oL ! 4 47’ N. ihese instruments I. eto loia efeton h

  8. Understanding the Patterns and Causes of Variability in Distribution, Habitat Use, Abundance, Survival and Reproductive Rates of Three Species of Cetacean in the Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Distribution, Habitat Use, Abundance, Survival and Reproductive Rates of Three Species of Cetacean in the Alborán Sea, Western Mediterranean...changes in distribution, habitat use, abundance, survival and reproductive rates of three species of cetacean in the Alborán Sea (western Mediterranean...to environmental change, particularly climate change, focusing on distribution, abundance and estimated reproductive and survival rates. The two

  9. Geodynamics of the Gibraltar Arc and the Alboran Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsini, M.; Chalouan, A.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.

    2014-07-01

    Located at the Westernmost tip of the Mediterranean sea, the Gibraltar Arc is a very complex zone. The Betics in Spain and the Rif belt in Morocco surround the Alboran sea characterized by a thinned continental crust. The geodynamic evolution of this region results from the convergence of African and Iberian margins since the Late Cretaceous. It is controlled both by plate convergence and mantle dynamics, which significantly impact on morphology, sedimentary environments, tectonics, metamorphism and magmatism. We present here the contents of the special issue on the Gibraltar Arc and nearby regions, following the workshop organized at the University Abdelmalek Essaadi of Tetouan in Morocco from 27 to 28 October, 2011. The goal of this international workshop was to have an overview of the actual advance in research concerning the Rif and Betics chains, the Alboran basin, and their influence on the Iberian and African forelands.

  10. The structure of the Alboran Sea: an interpretation from seismological and geological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Casado, C.; Sanz de Galdeano, C.; Molina Palacios, S.; Henares Romero, J.

    2001-08-01

    Almost all the earthquakes included in the catalog for the Iberian-Maghrebian area up to 2000 have been used in order to know the structure of the Alboran Sea area after the verification of the aleatory nature of the errors in their spatial localization. A new focal mechanisms catalog has also been used as well as many of the available geological data. During the Mesozoic and till the Oligocene, the Betic-Rif Internal Zone was situated further E, but with the opening of the Algero-Provençal basin in the early Miocene, the Betic-Rif Internal Zone moved to the W. Contemporary, the Alboran Sea was created as the western prolongation of the Algero-Provençal basin. The Betic-Rif Internal Zone overthrused part of the Iberian and African plates, producing the partial sinking of both plates and being responsible of the intermediate seismicity existing in the western sector of the Alboran Sea. The intermediate earthquakes in the Atlas towards the NE and WSW are not related to lithospheric sinking but to significant deep faults limiting a subplate in NW Africa. In the Atlantic, the intermediate earthquakes between the Gorringe sector and Gibraltar are produced in the contact between the Iberian and African plates and by the important faults crossing it. The existence of four very deep earthquakes is related to the previous sinking of the lithosphere originally associated to the domain in which the Betic-Rif Internal Zone was situated.

  11. Geotechnical properties and preliminary assessment of sediment stability on the continental slope of the northwestern Alboran Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baraza, J.; Ercilla, G.; Lee, H.J.

    1992-01-01

    Laboratory analysis of core samples from the western Alboran Sea slope reveal a large variability in texture and geotechnical properties. Stability analysis suggests that the sediment is stable under static gravitational loading but potentially unstable under seismic loading. Slope failures may occur if horizontal ground accelerations greater than 0.16 g are seismically induced. The, Alboran Sea is an active region, on which earthquakes inducing accelerations big enough to exceed the shear strength of the soft soil may occur. Test results contrast with the apparent stability deduced from seismic profiles. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  12. The Alboran Sea Gyre: Ship, Satellite and Historical Data,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-15

    Track of the MARIA PAOLINA G. in the Alboran Sea during 1977 5 (dashed line) and 1978 ( solid line). 2. NOAA 5 images received by the University of...34󈧋 FIG. 1 TRCK OF THE M~IA PAOLINA G. IN THE ALBORN SEA DURING 1977 (dashed line) AND 1978 ( solid line) I r o 2 DATA Figures 2 and 3 are the NOAA 5...In the enlargement of the infrared ( IR ) image it is apparent that the front was encountered at a 450 angle along this track and the average slope may

  13. The Alboran Sea mesoscale in a long term high resolution simulation: Statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peliz, Alvaro; Boutov, Dmitri; Teles-Machado, Ana

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the Alboran Sea mesoscale variability in a 2-decade high resolution (2 km) simulation. The circulation modes and eddies are described from a statistical perspective. The double-gyre quasi-steady state is confirmed as the most common circulation mode in the Alboran Sea (48% of the time), followed by single-gyre mode in about 24% of the situations. These persistent modes are compared in terms of structure, frequency of occurrence and seasonality, energetics, and their links to inflow variability and wind forcing. The double-gyre state is the most stable situation with higher kinetic and potential energy and lower eddy kinetic energy and seems to be limited by a critical value of the Rossby radius (∼12 km). The transitions between the quasi-steady states are studied and typified with a particular focus on the Western Alboran Gyre migration which stands out as the major contributor for flow transitions. A typical sequence of flow types and transients is proposed: The double-gyre is usually canceled after a migration event occurring in late summer or autumn. The Western Alboran Gyre is not immediately replaced by a new born anticyclone. Instead, there is a cycle of migration-merging events with the Eastern Alboran Gyre which eventually force the latter to move westward and form a single-gyre situation. The generation of a second Eastern Alboran Gyre in spring-early summer sets the beginning of a new double-gyre stable period. An analysis of coherent mesoscale eddies is conducted and their statistics, sites and processes of generation are described. Cyclones (anticyclones) mean radius are in the range of ∼12 km (∼15 km), they are much more frequent in winter time and cyclones significantly outnumber the anticyclones. The link of mesoscale processes and transients (in particular of migrations) with the inflow is analyzed, and no clear relationship of transient events with inflow magnitude is disclosed. On the other hand, the large majority of transitions

  14. Surface mesoscale pico-nanoplankton patterns at the main fronts of the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, P.; Blanco, J. M.; Flexas, M. M.; Gomis, D.; Reul, A.; Rodríguez, V.; Jiménez-Gómez, F.; Allen, J. T.; Rodríguez, J.

    2015-03-01

    The mesoscale (10-100 km, days-weeks) plays a key role in the Ocean's ecosystem structure and dynamics. This work compares the pico-nanoplankton patterns observed in the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean) during three oceanographic cruises. We analyse its response to different expressions of mesoscale circulation associated with the three major hydrodynamic features in the basin; namely the Northwestern Alboran Front (NWAF, surveyed in OMEGA-1 cruise), the Almeria-Oran Front (AOF, surveyed in OMEGA-2 cruise) and the Western Alboran Gyre (WAG, surveyed in BIOMEGA cruise). The first two surveys were carried out under the most typical quasi-stationary twin gyre conditions of the Alboran Sea, whereas the third cruise was performed after an eastward migration of the WAG. The analysis of pico and nanoplankton populations was carried out using flow cytometry. The patchiness observed in the three cruises indicates an association of phytoplankton peaks with the main frontal structures: abundances were higher in the NWAF/upwelling area in OMEGA-1, at the Mediterranean side of the AOF in OMEGA-2, and at a tongue of recent Atlantic Water west of the WAG in BIOMEGA. However, a more detailed analysis reveals that different factors explain the origin of the phytoplankton biomass in each front/cruise. Mixing processes at the Strait of Gibraltar and the subsequent advection of water properties into the Western Alboran Sea were the mechanisms responsible for the abundances observed in the NWAF. The highest concentrations observed in the AOF were related to the intrusion of Mediterranean Surface Waters to the north of the front. During the migrating WAG the phytoplankton distribution was influenced by the formation of a new gyre. The relation between phytoplankton and mesoscale dynamics is further explored in terms of vertical velocity diagnosis. In all cases, intense vertical motion is negatively correlated with the abundance of phytoplankton populations. This resulted from the

  15. Deep Water Mass Circulation in the Western Alboran Basin: Measurements in July and September 1980 (Alboran I Experiment),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-15

    that area and that it accelerates towards Gibraltar. ClO and STD data showed an upward bending of isolines towards the Moroccan continental slope...currentmeters were acoustically tracked in the southwestern part of the Alboran Sea to measure the deep currents near the Moroccan continental slope...the slope, as predicted P y Bryden and Stomel. by deploying free-floating verticalI currentmeters (VCN%) near the Moroccan continental slope. Third

  16. Impacts of reprocessed altimetry on the surface circulation and variability of the Western Alboran Gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juza, Mélanie; Escudier, Romain; Pascual, Ananda; Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Taburet, Guillaume; Troupin, Charles; Mourre, Baptiste; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2016-08-01

    New altimetry products in semi-enclosed seas are of major interest given the importance of the coastal-open ocean interactions. This study shows how reprocessed altimetry products in the Mediterranean Sea from Archiving, Validation and Interpolation of Satellite Oceanographic data (AVISO) have improved the representation of the surface circulation over the 1993-2012 period. We focus on the Alboran Sea, which is the highest mesoscale activity area of the western Mediterranean. The respective impacts of the new mean dynamic topography (MDT) and mapped sea level anomaly (MSLA) on the description of the Western Alboran Gyre (WAG) are quantitatively evaluated. The temporal mean and variability of the total kinetic energy have been significantly increased in the WAG considering both the new MDT and MSLA (by more than 50%). The new MDT has added 39% to the mean kinetic energy, while the new MSLA has increased the eddy kinetic energy mean (standard deviation) by 53% (30%). The new MSLA has yielded higher variability of total (eddy) kinetic energy, especially in the annual frequency band by a factor of 2 (3). The MDT reprocessing has particularly increased the low-frequency variability of the total kinetic energy by a factor of 2. Geostrophic velocities derived from the altimetry products have also been compared with drifter data. Both reprocessed MDT and MSLA products intensify the velocities of the WAG making them closer to the in situ estimations, reducing the root mean square differences and increasing the correlation for the zonal and meridional components. The results obtained using refined coastal processing of altimetry products and new observational data are very encouraging to better understand the ocean circulation variability and coastal-open ocean interactions, and for potential improvements in other sub-basins, marginal seas and coastal global ocean.

  17. Understanding the Patterns and Causes of Variability in Distribution, Habitat Use, Abundance, Survival and Reproductive Rates of Three Species of Cetacean in the Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    species that feed at lower trophic levels ; (3) Explore the relative contribution of environmental variation and anthropogenic activities on...predators is an important one because of their role within ecosystems and their potential to influence community structure and biodiversity (Heithaus...southern Spain. The Alborán Sea is a highly productive and distinct ecosystem that plays an important role in the oceanography of the Mediterranean basin

  18. The depiction of Alboran Sea Gyre during Donde Va? using remote sensing and conventional data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laviolette, P. E.

    1984-01-01

    Experienced oceanographic investigators have come to realize that remote sensing techniques are most successful when applied as part of programs of integrated measurements aimed at solving specific oceanographic problems. A good example of such integration occurred during the multi-platform international experiment, Donde Va? in the Alboran Sea during the period June through October, 1982. The objective of Donde Va? was to derive the interrelationship of the Atlantic waters entering the Mediterranean Sea and the Alboran Sea Gyre. The experimental plan conceived solely with this objective in mind consisted of a variety of remote sensing and conventional platforms: three ships, three aircraft, five current moorings, two satellites and a specialized beach radar (CODAR). Integrated analyses of these multiple-data sets are still being conducted. However, the initial results show detailed structure of the incoming Atlantic jet and Alboran Sea Gyre that would not have been possible by conventional means.

  19. Identification of T-Waves in the Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, Enrique; Almendros, Javier; Alguacil, Gerardo; Soto, Juan Ignacio; Luzón, Francisco; Ibáñez, Jesús M.

    2015-11-01

    Analyses of seismograms from ~1,100 north-Moroccan earthquakes recorded at stations of the Red Sísmica de Andalucía (Southern Spain) reveal the systematic presence of late phases embedded in the earthquake codas. These phases have distinctive frequency contents, similar to the P and S spectra and quite different to the frequency contents of the earthquake codas. They are best detected at near-shore stations. Their amplitudes decay significantly with distance to the shoreline. The delays with respect to the P-wave onsets of the preceding earthquakes are consistently around 85 s. Late phases are only detected for earthquakes located in a small region of about 100 × 60 km centered at 35.4°N, 4.0°W near the northern coast of Morocco. Several hypotheses could, in principle, explain the presence of these late phases in the seismograms, for example, the occurrence of low-energy aftershocks, efficient wave reflections, or Rayleigh waves generated along the source-station paths. However, we conclude that the most-likely origin of these phases corresponds to the incidence of T-waves (generated by conversion from elastic to acoustic energy in the north-Moroccan coast) in the southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. T-waves are thought to be generated by energy trapping in low-velocity channels along long oceanic paths; in this case, we demonstrate that they can be produced in much shorter paths as well. Although T-waves have been already documented in other areas of the Mediterranean Sea, this is the first time that they have been identified in the Alboran Sea.

  20. Processes driving submarine landslide geohazards in Alboran Sea: A complex interaction between fluid pressure, contouritic sedimentation and seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafosse, M.; Gorini, C.

    2015-12-01

    The active Eurasia-Nubia plate boundary runs across the Alboran Sea in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Earthquakes of magnitude Mw >6, fluid escape and thick accumulations are potential triggers of submarine landslides along the Alboran contouritic margins. Over the last decade, international collaboration between Spanish, French and Moroccan marine geologists working has allowed a large amount of high-resolution multibeam and multi- and single channel seismic data to be collected from the Alboran Sea. Multibeam and echosounder data collected during the SARAS Eurofleet cruise reveal the distribution of slope failures along the northern flank of the Xauen-Tofiño bank along the Moroccan margin and the southern flank of the Alboran ridge. Those highs are active folds located on both sides of the Trans Alboran Shear Zone (TASZ). Here we provide a detailed mapping and description of the morphology of the Xauen-Tofiño landslides, including volumetric estimates of the failed mass and the related mass transport deposits over the last 2 myr. The most voluminous Holocene landslide mobilized ~0.5 km3 of sediment at the initial stage of slope failure, and formed a ~2.2-2.4 km3 mass transport deposit. Twenty-eight and thirty-eight Mass Transport Deposits (MTD) were described from the Xauen and Tofiño banks, respectively. Boreholes analysis of ODP sites 976 and 979 allowed the calibration of some of the reflectors and relative ages of the pulses of tectonic activity and MTD's events. Active uplift pulses are observed at 1.19, 0.79 and 0.46 Ma for the Alboran ridge, and at 1.19 and 0.79 Ma for the Xauen-Tofiño Bank. We compute different parameters for each MTD's from the literature, including the volume of sediments involved and the porosity, thanks to physical laws. For few MTD's, we also map associated slump scars and compute parameters such as the run-off and the volume of sediments, deduced from the scar with a simple geometric reconstitution of the paleo-topography. The

  1. Well log interpretation and seismic character of the cenozoic sequence in the northern Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurado, M. J.; Comas, M. C.

    1992-06-01

    Seismic stratigraphic and main lithological features of the sedimentary cover overlying the basement of the Alboran Sea were established via the analysis of commercial multichannel seismic surveys, geophysical well logs, and well data. Six seismic stratigraphics units (VI to I), bounded by unconformities, form the marine sediments that range in age from early Miocene to Quaternary. They are dated by extrapolation of commercial drilling results from the northern Alboran Sea. Volcanic activity is recorded within sedimentary sequences of units V to II. Undercompaction features are detected in the two basal units.

  2. Evolution of the continental margin of southern Spain and the Alboran Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Robb, James M.; Greene, H. Gary; Lucena, Juan Carlos

    1980-01-01

    Seismic reflection profiles and magnetic intensity measurements were collected across the southern continental margin of Spain and the Alboran basin between Spain and Africa. Correlation of the distinct seismic stratigraphy observed in the profiles to stratigraphic information obtained from cores at Deep Sea Drilling Project site 121 allows effective dating of tectonic events. The Alboran Sea basin occupies a zone of motion between the African and Iberian lithospheric plates that probably began to form by extension in late Miocene time (Tortonian). At the end of Miocene time (end of Messinian) profiles show that an angular unconformity was cut, and then the strata were block faulted before subsequent deposition. The erosion of the unconformity probably resulted from lowering of Mediterranean sea level by evaporation when the previous channel between the Mediterranean and Atlantic was closed. Continued extension probably caused the block faulting and, eventually the opening of the present channel to the Atlantic through the Strait of Gibraltar and the reflooding of the Mediterranean. Minor tectonic movements at the end of Calabrian time (early Pleistocene) apparently resulted in minor faulting, extensive transgression in southeastern Spain, and major changes in the sedimentary environment of the Alboran basin. Active faulting observed at five locations on seismic profiles seems to form a NNE zone of transcurrent movement across the Alboran Sea. This inferred fault trend is coincident with some bathymetric, magnetic and seismicity trends and colinear with active faults that have been mapped on-shore in Morocco and Spain. The faults were probably caused by stresses related to plate movements, and their direction was modified by inherited fractures in the lithosphere that floors the Alboran Sea.

  3. The Climatological Annual Cycle of Satellite-derived Phytoplankton Pigments in the Alboran Sea: A Physical Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia-Gorriz, E.; Carr, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    The circulation and upwelling processes (coastal and gyre-induced) that control the phytoplankton distribution in the Alboran sea are examined by analyzing monthly climatological patterns of Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) pigment concentrations, sea surface temperatures, winds, and seasonal geostrophic fields.

  4. Role of structural inheritances and major transfer fault-zones in the tectonic history of the Alboran Basin (Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comas, Menchu; Crespo-Blanc, Ana; Balanya, Juan Carlos

    2014-05-01

    The geodynamic evolution of the Gibraltar Arc System (GAS), which involves the origin and development of the Alboran back-arc basin, occurred during the Neogene related to the westward moving of the Alboran Domain (the Betic-Rifean hinterland) within a context of NNW-SSE plate-tectonic convergence. In this contribution we document shallow-crustal structures, deformation partitioning, and the different structural domains from the tectonic framework beneath the Alboran Sea. Furthermore, we focus the critical role of inherited crustal structures and major transfer faults within a coherent sequence of Miocene to Recent deformation phases. Early Miocene extensional processes conditioned substantial thinning and the exhumation of the metamorphic Alboran Domain before the opening of the Alboran Basin. Beneath the Alboran Sea, an ENE-SSW directed back-arc extension (from about 16 to 8.5 Ma, late Burdigalian to late Tortonian) affected both the metamorphic basement (the crustal Alboran Domain) and the overlying Miocene sedimentary units. This extension resulted in major low-angle normal faults, and NNW-SSE trending grabens connected by ENE-SSW transtensional transfer-faults, both happening in concomitance with the westward migration (around 200 km) of the Alboran Domain. The geometry of the extensional structures constrains the manner, timing and amount of the coeval crustal thinning. In the late Tortonian (about 8.5 Ma) a dominant N-S directed compressional phase caused inversions of former extensional faults, discrete folding, and strike-slip faulting. This compressional event triggered the spectacular West Alboran shale-diapirism from over-pressured basal units. At the South and Eastern Alboran and at the transition to the Algeria basins, a pervasive period of NW-SE directed compressional deformation (from about 7 Ma onwards) that affected the whole basin is patent. Long lasting compressional conditions since the late Tortonian resulted in a dramatic structural

  5. Magmatic evolution of the Alboran region: The role of subduction in forming the western Mediterranean and causing the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duggen, Svend; Hoernle, Kaj; van den Bogaard, Paul; Harris, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The magmatic evolution of the Alboran region (westernmost Mediterranean) contains important clues for improving our understanding of the origin of Mediterranean-style back-arc basins and the desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea in the Messinian. We use new laser 40Ar/ 39Ar age and geochemical (major and trace element and O-Sr-Nd-Pb isotope) data from igneous rocks from southern Spain, the Alboran Sea and northern Morocco to reconstruct the magmatic evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean since the Eocene. Lower Oligocene dikes near Malaga (33.6±0.6 Ma) and Middle to Upper Miocene volcanic rocks from the Alboran Sea area (6.57±0.04 to 11.8±0.4 Ma) can be subdivided into two groups: (1) LREE-depleted (relative to N-MORB), primarily tholeiitic series, and (2) LREE-enriched, primarily calc-alkaline series volcanic rocks. Both groups are generally enriched in fluid-mobile elements (e.g. Rb, Th, U, K and Pb) relative to fluid-immobile elements (e.g. Nb, Ta, LREE). The LREE-depleted group has 143Nd/ 144Nd (0.5128-0.5130) isotope ratios similar to Atlantic MORB but higher 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.7046-0.7100). In contrast, the LREE-enriched group has less radiogenic Nd (0.5121-0.5126) and tend to more radiogenic Sr (0.7066-0.7205) isotopic composition. Pb isotope ratios are surprisingly uniform and have compositions similar to marine sediments. Analyses of mineral separates show that mafic melts with relatively low δ 18O (5.6-7.2‰) had high 87Sr/ 86Sr (0.7048-0.7088), Δ7/4 (10.6-14.1) and Δ8/4 (40.0-49.3). Modeling of the trace elements and Sr-Nd-Pb-O isotopic compositions provides compelling evidence for the contamination of the mantle source with hydrous fluids/melts, which can be explained through subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath the Alboran Basin but not through detachment/delamination of lithospheric mantle. We present a geodynamic model that reconstructs the Late Eocene to Quaternary evolution of the western Mediterranean through westward roll-back of

  6. Role of the Alboran Sea volcanic arc choking the Mediterranean to the Messinian salinity crisis and foundering biota diversification in North Africa and Southeast Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, Cesar R.; Grevemer, Ingo

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Sea desiccated ~5.96 million years ago when it became isolated from the world oceans during the Messinian salinity crisis. This event permitted the exchange of terrestrial biota between Africa and Iberia contributing to the present rich biodiversity of the Mediterranean region. The cause chocking the Mediterranean has been proposed to be tectonic uplift and dynamic topography but the driving mechanism still remains debated. We present a new wide-angle seismic profile that provides a detailed image of the thickness and seismic velocity distribution of the crust in the eastern Alboran basin. The velocity model shows a characteristic structure of a subduction-related volcanic arc with a high-velocity lower crust and a 16-18 km total-thickness igneous crust that magmatic accreted mostly between ~10-6 Ma across the eastern Alboran basin. Estimation of the isostatically corrected depth of the arc crust taking into account the original thermal structure and sediment-loading subsidence since 6 Ma places a large area of the eastern Alboran basin above sea level at the time. This estimation is supported by geophysical data showing subaereal erosional unconformities for that time. This model may explain several up-to-now-disputed features of the Messinian salinity crisis, including: the progressive isolation of the Mediterranean since 7.1 Ma with the disappearance of open marine taxa, the existence of evaporites mostly to the east of the volcanic arc, the evidence that the Gibraltar straits were not a land bridge offered by continuous Messinian open marine sediments at ODP site 976 in the western Alboran basin, the importance of southeastern Iberia and North Africa as centres of biota diversification since before the salinity crisis, and patterns of speciation irradiating from SE Iberia and the eastern Rif in some taxons.

  7. Prediction of sea surface temperatures in the western Mediterranean Sea by neural networks using satellite observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Garcia-Sanchez, Joan

    2007-06-01

    We use artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the western Mediterranean Sea. The ANNs are trained with meteorological variables as input and concurrent satellite-derived SSTs as target. The trained ANNs predict well both the seasonal and the interannual variability of SST in that region. We also reproduce the impact of the heat wave that occurred during the summer of 2003 on the SSTs of the western Mediterranean Sea. The ANN technique allows us to predict SST maps in the western Alboran Sea for time coordinates before SST satellite availability. The presence and later partial collapse of the western Alboran gyre throughout 1980 is detected with good agreement by both the ANN predictions and the concurrent results from a 3-D circulation model. The same methodology is used to reconstruct incomplete SST satellite images.

  8. Numerical Modeling of physical-biological interactions in the Alboran Sea with a submesoscale-resolving model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez Garrido, José Carlos; Naranjo Rosa, Cristina; Sammartino, Simone; Macias Moy, Diego

    2014-05-01

    Ageostrophic motion, such those associated to internal hydraulic jumps, propagating nonlinear internal waves, and submesoscale vortices, are recognized to efficiently supply nutrients to the euphotic zone and thereby fuel biological productivity. These processes are ubiquitous in the Strait of Gibraltar and the adjacent Alboran Sea, and therefore are expected to play an important role in the overall biomass budget of the basin. This has been investigated with a three-dimensional, tidally-forced, high-resolution model [O(1km)] ocean model embedded with an ecosystem NPZD module. We found that tidal mixing in the Strait of Gibraltar enhances remarkably local primary production and drive a net flow of biomass to the Alboran Sea. Additionally, tides also cause an inflow of nutrients confined to the photic layer, which increase further the Alboran Sea biomass through the enhancement of local primary productivity. Subinertial accelerations of the Atlantic flow are also found to temporary enhance biological productivity through the advection of shear vorticity (and submesoscale eddies) from the Strait to the Alboran Sea.

  9. Seafloor morphology related to recent tectonics in the Alboran Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, Juan-Tomás; Estrada, Ferran; Vegas, Ramon; Ercilla, Gemma; Medialdea, Teresa; d'Acremont, Elia; Alonso, Belen; Fernández-Salas, Luis-Miguel; Gómez-Ballesteros, María; Somoza, Luis; Bárcenas, Patricia; Palomino, Desirée; Gorini, Christian

    2014-05-01

    A detailed geomorphological study of the northern part of the Alboran Sea Basin has been realized based on the combined analysis of multibeam swath bathymetric data and medium to very high resolution seismic profiles (singled Sparker, Airgun, TOPAS and Atlas PARASOUND P35). This has enabled us to define several tectonic-related seafloor features and their role in the recent tectonics. The observed morpho-tectonic features correspond to: i) lineal scarps with a wide range of dimensions and following several trends ,WNW-ESE, NE-SW, NNE-SSW and N-S; ii) NE-SW to NNE-SSW-oriented compressive ridges; iii) ENE-WSW to NE-SW-striking antiforms; iv) NNE-SSW-oriented lineal depressions; v) rhomb-shaped depressions; vi) lineal valleys, canyons and gullies with WNW-ESE, and N-S orientations; and vii) N-S directed dissected valleys, canyons and gullies. Three families of faults and related folds, with NE-SW, WNW-ESE and NNE-SSW to N-S have been interpreted within this geomorphological scheme. The NE-SW family corresponds to: a) major scarps in both flanks of the Alboran Ridge and b) the offshore prolongation of La Serrata Fault, and both have been considered as a set of sinistral strike-slip faults. To this family, some compressive ridges, antiforms and occasionally reverse faults have been correlated. The WNW-ESE family corresponds to a set of faulted valleys (occasionally with rhomb-shaped depressions), fault scarps and linear inflection points occurring in the northern Alboran margin and the Yusuf-Habibas corridor. This family has been interpreted as transtensive dextral strike-slip faults. The NNE-SSW to N-S family corresponds to a penetrative system of linear fault scarps and tectonic depressions that cross-cut the Alboran Ridge and the Djibouti-Motril marginal plateau. This family can be considered as more recent since it offsets the other two families and shows a minor importance with regard to the main reliefs. This communication is a contribution to the Spanish R + D

  10. Architectures of the Moroccan continental shelf of the Alboran Sea: insights from high-resolution bathymetry and seismic data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafosse, Manfred; Gorini, Christian; Leroy, Pascal; d'Acremont, Elia; Rabineau, Marina; Ercilla, Gemma; Alonso, Belén; Ammar, Abdellah

    2016-04-01

    The MARLBORO and the SARAS oceanographic surveys have explored the continental shelf in the vicinity of the transtensive Nekor basin (South Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean) and over three submarine highs located at several tens of kilometers from the shelf. Those surveys have produced high-resolution (≤29m²/pixel) bathymetry maps. Simultaneously, seismic SPARKER and TOPAS profiles were recorded. To quantify and understand Quaternary vertical motions of this tectonically active area, we searched for morphological and sedimentary paleobathymetric or paleo-elevations markers. Shelf-edge wedges associated marine terraces and paleo-shorelines have been identified on the bathymetry and on seismic cross-sections. These features reflect the trends of long term accommodation variations. Along the Moroccan continental shelf the lateral changes of shelf-edges geometries and the spatial distribution of marine landforms (sedimentary marine terraces, sediment wave fields, marine incisions) reflect the interaction between sea level changes and spatial variations of subsidence rates. Positions of paleo-shorelines identified in the studied area have been correlated with the relative sea-level curve (Rohling et al., 2014). Several still stands or slow stands periods have been recognized between -130-125m, -100-110m and -85-80m. The astronomical forcing controls the architecture of Mediterranean continental shelves. Marine landforms distribution also reveals the way sea level changed since the LGM. The comparison with observations on other western Mediterranean margins (e.g. the Gulf of Lion, the Ionian-Calabrian shelf) allowed a first order access to vertical motion rates.

  11. Shewanella woodyi sp. nov., an exclusively respiratory luminous bacterium isolated from the Alboran Sea.

    PubMed

    Makemson, J C; Fulayfil, N R; Landry, W; Van Ert, L M; Wimpee, C F; Widder, E A; Case, J F

    1997-10-01

    Thirty-four strains of nonfermentative, respiratory, luminous bacteria were isolated from samples of squid ink and seawater from depths of 200 to 300 m in the Alboran Sea. Although these strains had a few properties similar to properties of Shewanella (Alteromonas) hanedai, they did not cluster phenotypically with any previously described bacterium. The nucleotide sequence of a 740-bp segment of luxA was not homologous with other known luxA sequences but clustered with the luxA sequences of Shewanella hanedai, Vibrio logei, Vibrio fischeri, and Photobacterium species. The 16S RNA gene from two strains was sequenced and was found to be most closely related to the S. hanedai 16S RNA gene. Based on the differences observed, we describe the new isolates as members of new species, Shewanella woodyi sp. nov. Strain ATCC 51908 (= MS32) is the type strain of this new species.

  12. Highly diverse molluscan assemblages of Posidonia oceanica meadows in northwestern Alboran Sea (W Mediterranean): Seasonal dynamics and environmental drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urra, Javier; Mateo Ramírez, Ángel; Marina, Pablo; Salas, Carmen; Gofas, Serge; Rueda, José L.

    2013-01-01

    The seasonal dynamics of the molluscan fauna associated with the westernmost populations of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica, has been studied throughout an annual cycle in the northwestern coasts of the Alboran Sea. Samples were collected seasonally (5 replicated per season) using a non-destructive sampling technique (airlift sampler) on quadrats of 50 × 50 cm at 2 sites located 7 km apart. Several environmental variables from the water column (temperature, chlorophyll a), the sediment (percentage of organic matter) and the seagrass meadows (shoot density, leaf height and width, number of leaves per shoot) were also measured in order to elucidate their relationships with the dynamics of the molluscan assemblages. In these meadows, a total of 17,416 individuals of molluscs were collected, belonging to 71 families and 171 species, being Rissoidae, Pyramidellidae and Trochidae the best-represented families, and Mytilidae, Nassaridae and Trochidae the dominant ones in terms of abundance. The assemblages were dominated by micro-algal grazers, filter feeders and ectoparasites (including those feeding on sessile preys). The species richness and the abundance displayed significant maximum values in summer, whereas evenness and diversity displayed maximum values in spring, being significant for the evenness. Both abundance and species richness values were positively correlated to seawater temperature and percentage organic matter, only for the latter, and negatively to leaf width. Significant seasonal groupings were obtained with multivariate analyses (MDS, Cluster, ANOSIM) using qualitative and quantitative data that could be mainly related to biological aspects (i.e. recruitment) of single species. The molluscan assemblages are influenced by the biogeographical location of the area (Alboran Sea), reflected in the absence or scarcity of most Mediterranean species strictly associated with P. oceanica (e.g. Tricolia speciosa, Rissoa ventricosa) and by the

  13. Crossing the Iberian Plate from the Bay of Biscay to the Alboran Sea: a lithospheric geotransect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carballo, Alberto; Fernandez, Manel; Torne, Montserrat; Jiménez-Munt, Ivone; Vergés, Jaume; Pedreira, David; Díaz, Jordi; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    A ~1000-km-long lithospheric transect running from the North-Iberian Margin to the Neogene Alboran Basin (W- Mediterranean) is investigated. The main goal is to image the lateral changes in the crustal and lithospheric structure occurring in: i) the North-Iberian margin, whose deformation in Alpine times gave rise to the uplift of the Cantabrian Mountains related to incipient subduction; ii) the Spanish Meseta, characterized by the presence of Cenozoic basins on top of a Variscan basement with weak Alpine deformation in the Spanish Central System and localized Neogene-Quaternary deep volcanism; and iii) the Betic-Alboran system related to the roll-back of the Ligurian-Tethyan domain. The modeling approach based on the LitMod package combines potential fields, elevation, thermal, seismic and petrological data under a self-consistent scheme. The crustal structure is mainly constrained by active and passive seismic experiments whereas the upper mantle is constrained by tomography models. The results highlight the lateral variations in the topography of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), suggesting a strong lithospheric mantle strain below the Cantabrian and Betic mountain belts. The LAB depth ranges from 160 km beneath the Cantabrian Mountains to 110-90 km beneath Iberia Meseta deepenly again to values of 190 km beneath Betic Mountain. The Spanish Central System, with elevations higher than 1400 m, has no noticeable signature on the LAB depth. We have considered three lithospheric mantle compositions: a predominantly average Phanerozoic in the continental mainland, and two more fertile PUM (primitive upper mantle) compositions in the oceanic domains of Cantabrian and Mediterranean seas, and in the Calatrava volcanic field. These compositional differences allowed us to reproduce the main trends of the geophysical observables as well as the inferred P-, Pn- and S-wave seismic velocities from tomography models and seismic experiments available in the study

  14. Contributions to the Oceanography of the Western Alboran Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    Biological and nutrient concentrations also had a complicated and variable I. structure. Phosphate concentrations were...d’Histoire Naturelle , Paris. Haltiner, G.J. and F.L. Martin, 1957. Dynamical and Physical Meteorology. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 470pp. Hurlburt, H.E. and J.D

  15. XRF geochemistry of Maya mud volcano (SAGAS 08 cruise Alboran Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Germade, Isabel; Fátima López Rodríguez, Carmen; Rubio, Belén.; Comas, Menchu; Rey, Daniel; Vilas, Federico; Álvarez, Paula

    2010-05-01

    Mud ascent as the result of active diapirism and mud volcanoes on the seafloor are common features in the Alboran Sea. It is thought that these have been developed during a compressional tectonic setting that produced folding and wrench tectonics throughout the basin. During the TTR 17 cruise of the R/V Professor Logachev (2008), several new and previously discovered mud volcanoes and structure mounds were sampled in the southwest sector of Alboran Basin. Most of the investigated mud volcanic deposits, such as Melilla and Maya structures, were covered by a thick drape of hemipelagic mud, suggesting that volcanoes are currently inactive. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the ability of high-resolution XRF core scanning based geochemical depth profiles to discriminate between mud volcanoes, mounds and hemipelagic sediments, and also to show high resolution geochemical profiles of the core 419G from Maya mud volcano. For our purpose U-channels were subsampled from the centre of half-split gravity cores. High-resolution XRF data of 28 major and trace elements were acquired for each core on an Itrax Core Scanner at the University of Vigo by using Mo and Cr lamps. The acquisition was performed with in this case a 300 µm resolution and provided about 100,000 data point (i.e. XRF spectra), for each meter of core. We used carbon dating to estimate the age of the Maya mud volcano sediments. We also used a scanning electron microscope to do microanalysis and to study mineralogy. The results show that down-core high resolution XRF scanner based geochemical profiles represented a good and quick screening tool for identifying authigenic methane-related carbonate-rich layers that may represent paleo-indicators for ancient methane seepage. Sedimentary Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios have also been explored to infer the presence of authigenic aragonite (Sr-rich) and Mg-rich carbonate phases (high-Mg calcite, dolomite). The coexistence of methane anaerobic oxidation process and

  16. Microfossils, a Key to Unravel Cold-Water Carbonate Mound Evolution through Time: Evidence from the Eastern Alboran Sea

    PubMed Central

    Stalder, Claudio; Vertino, Agostina; Rosso, Antonietta; Rüggeberg, Andres; Pirkenseer, Claudius; Spangenberg, Jorge E.; Spezzaferri, Silvia; Camozzi, Osvaldo; Rappo, Sacha; Hajdas, Irka

    2015-01-01

    Cold-water coral (CWC) ecosystems occur worldwide and play a major role in the ocean's carbonate budget and atmospheric CO2 balance since the Danian (~65 m.y. ago). However their temporal and spatial evolution against climatic and oceanographic variability is still unclear. For the first time, we combine the main macrofaunal components of a sediment core from a CWC mound of the Melilla Mounds Field in the Eastern Alboran Sea with the associated microfauna and we highlight the importance of foraminifera and ostracods as indicators of CWC mound evolution in the paleorecord. Abundances of macrofauna along the core reveal alternating periods dominated by distinct CWC taxa (mostly Lophelia pertusa, Madrepora oculata) that correspond to major shifts in foraminiferal and ostracod assemblages. The period dominated by M. oculata coincides with a period characterized by increased export of refractory organic matter to the seafloor and rather unstable oceanographic conditions at the benthic boundary layer with periodically decreased water energy and oxygenation, variable bottom water temperature/density and increased sediment flow. The microfaunal and geochemical data strongly suggest that M. oculata and in particular Dendrophylliidae show a higher tolerance to environmental changes than L. pertusa. Finally, we show evidence for sustained CWC growth during the Alleröd-Younger-Dryas in the Eastern Alboran Sea and that this period corresponds to stable benthic conditions with cold/dense and well oxygenated bottom waters, high fluxes of labile organic matter and relatively strong bottom currents PMID:26447699

  17. High resolution simulations and glider observations in the eastern Alboran Sea (Mediterranean Sea): implications for vertical velocity estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, Evan; Pascual, Ananda; McWilliams, James C.

    2013-04-01

    The transition region between the Alboran Sea and the Algerian sub-basin to the east is characterised by strong fronts and mesoscale anticyclonic eddies, and has correspondingly raised levels of eddy kinetic energy. The transient Almería-Orán front separates Atlantic Water (AW) flowing into the Mediterranean Sea, and recirculating Mediterranean Water (MW) that intrudes southwestward along the Spanish coast. Quasi-geostrophic vertical motions estimated from a combination of altimetry and glider observations by Ruiz et al. (2009) are of the order of ±1 m day-1, although higher velocities (up to 20-25 m day-1) can be assumed for smaller scale structures embedded within the front, as revealed by chlorophyll data and pointed out by Tintoré et al. (1991). In order to further investigate the vertical velocity spectrum we present results from a high resolution nested modelling study that focuses on the Almería-Orán front. The model is the primitive equation Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). We identify the conditions under which the front forms using a 5 km resolution Mediterranean climatological solution that is run for 15 years. A series of one-way nested simulations then lead to a sub-km solution that permits a high resolution characterisation of the 3D structure of the front. These are then compared with glider observations collected during July 2009. Further, this work will support a high-resolution multi-platform experiment to sample the Almería-Orán front that is to take place in Spring 2014 as part of the European project FP7 PERSEUS.

  18. Crustal and upper mantle shear velocities of Iberia, the Alboran Sea, and North Africa from ambient noise and ballistic finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomeras, I.; Villasenor, A.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; mimoun, H.

    2013-12-01

    The complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic Alpine deformation in the western Mediterranean extends from the Pyrenees in northern Spain to the Atlas Mountains in southern Morocco. The Iberian plate was accreted to the European plate in late Cretaceous, resulting in the formation of the Pyrenees. Cenozoic African-European convergence resulted in subduction of the Tethys oceanic plate beneath Europe. Rapid Oligocene slab rollback from eastern Iberia spread eastward and southward, with the trench breaking into three segments by the time it reached the African coast. One trench segment moved southwestward and westward creating the Alboran Sea, floored by highly extended continental crust, and building the encircling Betics Rif mountains comprising the Gibraltar arc, and the Atlas mountains, which formed as the inversion of a Jurassic rift. A number of recent experiments have instrumented this region with broad-band arrays (the US PICASSO array, Spanish IberArray and Siberia arrays, the University of Munster array), which, including the Spanish, Portuguese, and Moroccan permanent networks, provide a combined array of 350 stations having an average interstation spacing of ~60 km. Taking advantage of this dense deployment, we have calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise for short periods (4 s to 40 s) and teleseismic events for longer periods (20 s to 167 s). Approximately 50,000 stations pairs were used to measure the phase velocity from ambient noise and more than 160 teleseismic events to measure phase velocity for longer periods. The inversion of the phase velocity dispersion curves provides a 3D shear velocity for the crust and uppermost mantle. Our results show differences between the various tectonic regions that extend to upper mantle depths (~200 km). In Iberia we obtain, on average, higher upper mantle shear velocities in the western Variscan region than in the younger eastern part. We map high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) beneath the

  19. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of the peripheral basins of the Alboran Sea in the arc of Gibraltar during the latest Messinian-Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerra-Merchán, Antonio; Serrano, Francisco; Hlila, Rachid; El Kadiri, Khalil; Sanz de Galdeano, Carlos; Garcés, Miguel

    2014-07-01

    In the peripheral basins of the Alboran Sea, five stratigraphic units (latest Messinian-Pliocene) separated by discontinuities and representing transgressive-regressive cycles have been recognized. The first unit (LM) is latest Messinian in age and precisely characterizes the Lago-Mare event at the end of the Messinian Salinity Crisis, i.e. just before the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar at the beginning of the Pliocene. The three following units (Pl-1, Pl-2 and Pl-3) are Zanclean in age, whereas the last one (Pl-4) is Piacenzian. These four Pliocene units consist of alluvial, deltaic, and littoral deposits in the marginal areas, changing to open marine deposits with planktonic components in the basinal areas, although their extension varies in each basin. Regionally, these units do not necessarily stack in a single stratigraphic succession because of tectonics that controlled their hosting basins. Thus, the LM and Pl-1 units occur only in the Malaga and Estepona-Marbella basins, revealing that the onset of the sedimentation after the Messinian evaporitic stage and the Pliocene transgression was not a single and synchronous event in the western Alboran Sea. Moreover, the Pl-3 and Pl-4 units do not appear in all basins, so that the subsequent continentalization process of these Alboran peripheral areas during the Pliocene was also diachronous. The sedimentary evolution of the peripheral basins was controlled mainly by tectonics. During the latest Messinian-early Pliocene, the sedimentation took place in a context marked by a NNW-SSE compression and ENE-WSW perpendicular tension. The onset of the sedimentation (LM and Pl-1 units) could be linked to preexisting E-W faults that mark part of the borders of the Malaga basin and the Estepona-Marbella sector. During the deposition of the Pl-2 unit, the movements of E-W, NW-SE, and NE-SW normal faults determined a continuous subsidence in several basins, resulting in the accumulation of thick clastic marine sequences (i

  20. Atmospheric forcing and Sea Surface Temperature response in the Gulf of Cadiz-Alboran Sea system in a 20 years simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutov, D.; Peliz, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the frame of MedEX ("Inter-basin exchange in the changing Mediterranean Sea") Project a 20 years (1989-2008) simulation at 2km resolution covering Gulf of Cadiz and Alboran Sea, forced by 9 km winds (WRF downscaling of ERA-Interim reanalysis), is analyzed and compared with observations. Statistical methods, EOF techniques and two harmonic (including annual and semi-annual frequencies) data fit were performed for the analysis. Modeled SST fields are also compared with long-term (1996-2008) in-situ buoy observations provided by Puertos del Estado (Spain) and satellite derived Pathfinder SST database. Model SSTs generally follow observations data at annual and inter-annual scales with a global error not exceeding 0.17°C (model warmer than SST). No significant warming tendency was observed in both basins during the 20 years and the Interanual variability dominates, with the series showing a cooling period from 1991 to 1993 followed by a warming period started from 1994. In particular we show that SST cooling observed in the early 1990's in the Gulf of Cadiz - Alboran system is associated with the 1991 catastrophic eruption of Pinatubo volcano (Philippines).

  1. The seasonal cycle of the Atlantic Jet dynamics in the Alboran Sea: direct atmospheric forcing versus Mediterranean thermohaline circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, Diego; Garcia-Gorriz, Elisa; Stips, Adolf

    2016-02-01

    The Atlantic Jet (AJ) is the inflow of Atlantic surface waters into the Mediterranean Sea. This geostrophically adjusted jet fluctuates in a wide range of temporal scales from tidal to subinertial, seasonal, and interannual modifying its velocity and direction within the Alboran Sea. At seasonal scale, a clearly defined cycle has been previously described, with the jet being stronger and flowing towards the northeast during the first half of the year and weakening and flowing more southwardly towards the end of the year. Different hypothesis have been proposed to explain this fluctuation pattern but, up to now, no quantitative assessment of the importance of the different forcings for this seasonality has been provided. Here, we use a 3D hydrodynamic model of the entire Mediterranean Sea forced at the surface with realistic atmospheric conditions to study and quantify the importance of the different meteorological forcings on the velocity and direction of the AJ at seasonal time scale. We find that the direct effects of local zonal wind variations are much more important to explain extreme collapse events when the jet dramatically veers southward than to the seasonal cycle itself while sea level pressure variations over the Mediterranean seem to have very little direct effect on the AJ behavior at monthly and longer time scales. Further model results indicate that the annual cycle of the thermohaline circulation is the main driver of the seasonality of the AJ dynamics in the model simulations. The annual cycles in local wind forcing and SLP variations over the Mediterranean have no causal relationship with the AJ seasonality.

  2. Characterization of the submesoscale energy cascade in the Alboran Sea thermocline from spectral analysis of high-resolution MCS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallares, Valenti; Mojica, Jhon F.; Biescas, Berta; Klaeschen, Dirk; Gràcia, Eulàlia

    2016-06-01

    Part of the kinetic energy that maintains ocean circulation cascades down to small scales until it is dissipated through mixing. While most steps of this downward energy cascade are well understood, an observational gap exists at horizontal scales of 103-101 m that prevents characterizing a key step in the chain: the transition from anisotropic internal wave motions to isotropic turbulence. Here we show that this observational gap can be covered using high-resolution multichannel seismic (HR-MCS) data. Spectral analysis of acoustic reflectors imaged in the Alboran Sea thermocline shows that this transition is likely caused by shear instabilities. In particular, we show that the averaged horizontal wave number spectra of the reflectors vertical displacements display three subranges that reproduce theoretical spectral slopes of internal waves (λx > 100 m), Kelvin-Helmholtz-type shear instabilities (100 m > λx > 33 m), and turbulence (λx < 33 m), indicating that the whole chain of events is occurring continuously and simultaneously in the surveyed area.

  3. Deep Chlorophyll Maximum distribution in the Alboran sea and its relationship with mesoscale and frontal features through syncronous glider observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olita, Antonio; Ribotti, Alberto; Ruiz, Simon; Pascual, Ananda

    2015-04-01

    May 25 2014, two gliders were launched in the framework of the multiplatform and multidisciplinary experiment in the Alboran sea named ALBOREX (a PERSEUS project sampling) and of the JERICO TNA FRIPP project. The two instruments glided for 6 days, during which ADCP, ship based CTD, ARGO floats and surface drifters also sampled surface to deep waters allowing, togheter with bottle water samples, to collect a comprehensive dataset of oceanographic multidisciplinary quasi-synoptic data at (sub-)mesoscale. This preliminary work presents the results related to the two glider launched at approximatively 20 km each other. The two gliders intercepted in their pathway a frontal structure belonging to the northern margin of a quite large and strong anticyclonic structure originating by the meandering of Atlantic Waters entering in Mediterranean through Gibraltar. The vertical structure of Chlorophyll-a (as derived by fluorimeter measurements) shows the area of subsidence across the front and the deepening of isolines in the eddy interior. The analysis of the relatively low-cost glider data, combined with synoptic satellite measurements, shed light on the dynamics determining the re-distribution of the phytoplanktonic biomass and provide pretious hints, combined with dissolved oxygen data also collected by the unmanned autonomous vehicles, about the influence of such dynamical features on Primary Production.

  4. The Messinian erosional surface and early Pliocene reflooding in the Alboran Sea: New insights from the Boudinar basin, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Münch, Philippe; Achalhi, Mohammed; Merzeraud, Gilles; Azdimousa, Ali; Quillévéré, Frédéric; Melinte-Dobrinescu, Mihaela; Chaix, Christian; Moussa, Abdelkhalak Ben; Lofi, Johanna; Séranne, Michel; Moissette, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    New investigations in the Neogene Boudinar basin (Morocco) provide new information about the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and Zanclean reflooding in the southern part of the Alboran realm (westernmost Mediterranean). Based on a new field, sedimentological and palaeontological analyses, the age and the geometry of both the Messinian erosional surface (MES) and the overlying deposits have been determined. The MES is of late Messinian age and was emplaced in subaerial settings. In the Boudinar basin, a maximum of 200 m of Miocene sediments was eroded, including late Messinian gypsum blocks. The original geometry of the MES is preserved only when it is overlain by late Messinian continental deposits, conglomeratic alluvial fans or lacustrine marly sediments. These sediments are interpreted as indicators of the sea-level fall during the MSC. Elsewhere in the basin, the contact between late Messinian and early Pliocene deposits is a low-angle dipping, smooth surface that corresponds to the early Pliocene transgression surface that subsequently re-shaped the regressive MES. The early Pliocene deposits are characterized by: (i) their onlap onto either the basement of the Rif chain or the late Miocene deposits; (ii) lagoonal deposits at the base to offshore marls and sands at the top (earliest Pliocene; 5.33-5.04 Ma interval; foraminifer zone PL1); (iii) marine recovery occurring in the 5.32-5.26 Ma interval; and (iv) the change from lagoonal to offshore environments occurring within deposits tens of metres thick. This information indicates that at least the end of the reflooding period was progressive, not catastrophic as previously thought.

  5. Beaked Whales and Pilot Whales in the Alboran Sea SW Mediterranean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-30

    dorsal fin and other distinguishing features (for example, pigmentation patterns and scars) of individual pilot whales were usually taken by 5 or 6...and photosynthetically available radiation (PAR) measurements from the SeaWiFS sensor aboard the GeoEye spacecraft, SST measurements from the NOAA

  6. Aerosol Characteristics on the Alboran Sea, 9-18 October 1982

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    8217FALO NY AerosDi Characteristics on tne Aiboran Sea, 9—13 Q c t o d e r 19 S 2» (u) tractor rspc, 1/ bep ti’Z—/ cisp S-::-, u...Boundary Layer in the Gulf of Mexico ," Calspan Report, 64 pp. 11. Mack, E.J., R.J. Anderson, C.K. Akers, and T.A. Niziol, 1978: "Aerosol...COMMANDER & DIRECTOR ATTN: DELAS-AS-P U.S. ARMY ATMOS. SCI. LAB WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE, NEW MEXICO 88002 USAFETAC/TS SCOTT AFB, IL 62225

  7. Spatial variability and response to anthropogenic pressures of assemblages dominated by a habitat forming seaweed sensitive to pollution (northern coast of Alboran Sea).

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Ricardo; de la Fuente, Gina; Ramírez-Romero, Eduardo; Vergara, Juan J; Hernández, Ignacio

    2016-04-15

    The Cystoseira ericaefolia group is conformed by three species: C. tamariscifolia, C. mediterranea and C. amentacea. These species are among the most important habitat forming species of the upper sublittoral rocky shores of the Mediterranean Sea and adjacent Atlantic coast. This species group is sensitive to human pressures and therefore is currently suffering important losses. This study aimed to assess the influence of anthropogenic pressures, oceanographic conditions and local spatial variability in assemblages dominated by C. ericaefolia in the Alboran Sea. The results showed the absence of significant effects of anthropogenic pressures or its interactions with environmental conditions in the Cystoseira assemblages. This fact was attributed to the high spatial variability, which is most probably masking the impact of anthropogenic pressures. The results also showed that most of the variability occurred on at local levels. A relevant spatial variability was observed at regional level, suggesting a key role of oceanographic features in these assemblages.

  8. Acoustic and seismic imaging of the Adra Fault (NE Alboran Sea): in search of the source of the 1910 Adra earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gràcia, E.; Bartolome, R.; Lo Iacono, C.; Moreno, X.; Stich, D.; Martínez-Diaz, J. J.; Bozzano, G.; Martínez-Loriente, S.; Perea, H.; Diez, S.; Masana, E.; Dañobeitia, J. J.; Tello, O.; Sanz, J. L.; Carreño, E.; Event-Shelf Team

    2012-11-01

    Recently acquired swath-bathymetry data and high-resolution seismic reflection profiles offshore Adra (Almería, Spain) reveal the surficial expression of a NW-SE trending 20 km-long fault, which we termed the Adra Fault. Seismic imaging across the structure depicts a sub-vertical fault reaching the seafloor surface and slightly dipping to the NE showing an along-axis structural variability. Our new data suggest normal displacement of the uppermost units with probably a lateral component. Radiocarbon dating of a gravity core located in the area indicates that seafloor sediments are of Holocene age, suggesting present-day tectonic activity. The NE Alboran Sea area is characterized by significant low-magnitude earthquakes and by historical records of moderate magnitude, such as the Mw = 6.1 1910 Adra Earthquake. The location, dimension and kinematics of the Adra Fault agree with the fault solution and magnitude of the 1910 Adra Earthquake, whose moment tensor analysis indicates normal-dextral motion. The fault seismic parameters indicate that the Adra Fault is a potential source of large magnitude (Mw ≤ 6.5) earthquakes, which represents an unreported seismic hazard for the neighbouring coastal areas.

  9. Hydrographic Measurements in the Western Arlboran Sea, October 1982.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    SALINITY(ppt) Figures 42a and 42b 92 CRVI~SC 131142 STATION 215149 ALSOAN SEA CTO DATA * StOMA -T * SAL(PPT) 30 3p. J!, M ? 33 s ke 3! Sn 3 TI4CA(DG-C...STATEMENT (of the abstrect entered In Block 20, It different free Report) 18. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES * 0 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side ft neceasy mid...Identify by block n,,ber) density Alboran Sea temperature Mediterranean Sea salinity * 0 20. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse side If neceseery and

  10. Seismostratigraphy and tectonic architecture of the Carboneras Fault offshore based on multiscale seismic imaging: Implications for the Neogene evolution of the NE Alboran Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Ximena; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Bartolomé, Rafael; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Perea, Héctor; de la Peña, Laura Gómez; Iacono, Claudio Lo; Piñero, Elena; Pallàs, Raimon; Masana, Eulàlia; Dañobeitia, Juan José

    2016-10-01

    In the SE Iberian Margin, which hosts the convergent boundary between the European and African Plates, Quaternary faulting activity is dominated by a large left-lateral strike-slip system referred to as the Eastern Betic Shear Zone. This active fault system runs along more than 450 km and it is characterised by low to moderate magnitude shallow earthquakes, although large historical events have also occurred. The Carboneras Fault is the longest structure of the Eastern Betic Shear Zone, and its southern termination extends further into the Alboran Sea. Previously acquired high-resolution data (i.e. swath-bathymetry, TOBI sidescan sonar and sub-bottom profiler) show that the offshore Carboneras Fault is a NE-SW-trending upwarped zone of deformation with a length of 90 km long and a width of 0.5 to 2 km, which shows geomorphic features typically found in subaerial strike-slip faults, such as deflected drainage, pressure ridges and "en echelon" folds. However, the neotectonic, depth architecture, and Neogene evolution of Carboneras Fault offshore are still poorly known. In this work we present a multiscale seismic imaging of the Carboneras Fault (i.e. TOPAS, high-resolution multichannel-seismic reflection, and deep penetration multichannel-seismic reflection) carried out during three successive marine cruises, from 2006 to 2010. The new dataset allowed us to define a total of seven seismostratigraphic units (from Tortonian to Late Quaternary) above the basement, to characterise the tectonic architecture and structural segmentation of the Carboneras Fault, and to estimate its maximum seismic potential. We finally discuss the role of the basement in the present-day tectonic evolution of the Carboneras Fault, and explore the northern and southern terminations of the fault and how the strain is transferred to nearby structures.

  11. Development of coccolithophore-based transfer functions in the Western Mediterranean Sea: a sea surface salinity reconstruction for the last 15.5 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausín, B.; Hernández-Almeida, I.; Flores, J.-A.; Sierro, F.-J.; Grosjean, M.; Francés, G.; Alonso, B.

    2015-08-01

    A new dataset of 88 marine surface sediment samples and related oceanic environmental variables (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, oxygen, etc.) was studied to quantify the relationship between assemblages of coccolithophore species and modern environmental conditions in the Western Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, west of the Strait of Gibraltar. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed that coccolithophore species were primarily related to the sea surface salinity (SSS) gradient, which explains an independent and significant proportion of variance in the coccolithophore data. A quantitative coccolithophore-based transfer function to estimate SSS was developed using the Modern Analog Technique (MAT) and weighted-averaging partial-least square regression (WA-PLS). The bootstrapped regression coefficient (R2boot) was 0.85MAT and 0.80WA-PLS, with root-mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.29MAT and 0.30WA-PLS (psu). The resulting transfer function was applied to fossil coccolithophore assemblages in the highly resolved (∼ 65 yr) sediment core CEUTA10PC08 from the Alboran Sea (Western Mediterranean) in order to reconstruct SSS for the last 25 kyr. The reliability of the reconstruction was evaluated by assessing the degree of similarity between fossil and modern coccolithophore assemblage, and comparison of reconstruction with fossil ordination scores. Analogs were poor for the stadials associated with Heinrich Event 2 and 1 and part of the Last Glacial Maximum. Good analogs indicate more reliable reconstruction of the SSS for the last 15.5 kyr. During this period, several millennial and centennial SSS changes were observed and associated with variations in the Atlantic Water entering the Alboran Sea, sea-level oscillations, and arid or humid atmospheric conditions in the Western Mediterranean.

  12. Development of coccolithophore-based transfer functions in the western Mediterranean sea: a sea surface salinity reconstruction for the last 15.5 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ausín, B.; Hernández-Almeida, I.; Flores, J.-A.; Sierro, F.-J.; Grosjean, M.; Francés, G.; Alonso, B.

    2015-12-01

    A new data set of 88 marine surface sediment samples and related oceanic environmental variables (temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, oxygen, etc.) was studied to quantify the relationship between assemblages of coccolithophore species and modern environmental conditions in the western Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, west of the Strait of Gibraltar. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed that coccolithophore species were primarily related to sea surface salinity (SSS), explaining an independent and significant proportion of variance in the coccolithophore data. A quantitative coccolithophore-based transfer function to estimate SSS was developed using the modern analog technique (MAT) and weighted-averaging partial least square regression (WA-PLS). The bootstrapped regression coefficient (R2boot) was 0.85MAT and 0.80WA-PLS, with a root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.29MAT and 0.30WA-PLS (psu). The resulting transfer function was applied to fossil coccolithophore assemblages in the highly resolved (~ 65 years) sediment core CEUTA10PC08 from the Alboran Sea (western Mediterranean) in order to reconstruct SSS for the last 25 kyr. The reliability of the reconstruction was evaluated by assessing the degree of similarity between fossil and modern coccolithophore assemblages and by a comparison of reconstructions with fossil ordination scores. Analogs were poor for the stadials associated with Heinrich events 2 and 1 and part of the Last Glacial Maximum. Good analogs indicate a more reliable reconstruction of the SSS for the last 15.5 kyr. During this period, several millennial and centennial SSS changes were observed and associated with sea-level oscillations and variations in the Atlantic Water entering the Alboran.

  13. Assessment and intercomparison of numerical simulations in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Renault, Lionel; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2014-05-01

    The Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System (SOCIB, www.socib.es) is developing high resolution numerical simulations (hindcasts and forecasts) in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMOP). WMOP uses a regional configuration of the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS, Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) with a high spatial resolution of 1/50º (1.5-2km). Thus, theses simulations are able to reproduce mesoscale and in some cases sub-mesoscale features that are key in the Mediterranean Sea since they interact and modify the basin and sub-basin circulation. These simulations are initialized from and nested in either the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS, 1/16º) or Mercator-Océan simulations (MERCATOR, 1/12º). A repeated glider section in the Ibiza Channel, operated by SOCIB, has revealed significant differences between two WMOP simulations using either MFS or MERCATOR (hereafter WMOP-MFS and WMOP-MERC). In this study, MFS, MERCATOR, WMOP-MFS and WMOP-MERC are compared and evaluated using available multi-platform observations such as satellite products (Sea Level Anomaly, Sea Surface Temperature) and in situ measurements (temperature and salinity profiles from Argo floats, CTD, XBT, fixed moorings and gliders; velocity fields from HF radar and currentmeters). A quantitative comparison is necessary to evaluate the capacity of the simulations to reproduce observed ocean features, and to quantify the possible simulations biases. This will in turn allow to improve the simulations, so as to produce better ocean forecast systems, to study and better understand ocean processes and to address climate studies. Therefore, various statistical diagnostics have been developed to assess and intercompare the simulations at various spatial and temporal scales, in different sub-regions (Alboran Sea, Western and Eastern Algerian sub-basins, Balearic Sea, Gulf of Lion), in different dynamical zones (coastal areas, shelves and "open" sea), along key sections (Ibiza and

  14. Monitoring the mesoscale circulation of the Western Mediterranean Sea using SSS derived from SMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmedo, Estrella; Isern-Fontanet, Jordi; Turiel, Antonio; Portabella, Marcos; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim

    2016-04-01

    The circulation in the Mediterranean Sea is characterized by the inflow of fresh waters from the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar. These waters, characterized by their lower salinity, create baroclinic instabilities that spawn eddies with sizes of the order of 100 km. These eddies have been widely analyzed using Sea Surface Temperature (SST) observations. Recent improvements in the Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) retrieval and bias correction methodologies applied to the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite data have led, for the first time, to the generation of SSS maps that capture the signature of these structures. This opens the door for the generation of high spatial and temporal density maps in the Mediterranean, which can be used in a wide variety of oceanographic applications. In particular, the signature of the Alboran gyre and the eddy propagation across the Algerian coast are well reproduced, allowing for the first time to characterize the baroclinicity of the flow. The SMOS data are strongly affected by Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) and land-sea contamination in the Mediterranean Sea. Two important SSS retrieval algorithm improvements are proposed in this study. First, with more than six years of SMOS data acquisitions, there is enough data to empirically characterize and correct systematic biases. Second, the filtering criterion has been modified to account for the statistical distributions of SSS at each ocean grid point. This allows retrieving a value of SSS which is less affected by outliers originated from RFI and other effects. In this study, high level (spatio-temporally consistent) SSS maps are obtained by averaging the SMOS SSS retrievals using a classical objective analysis scheme and then combining the resulting maps with Sea Surface Temperature (SST) maps by means of multifractal fusion. The SSS fused maps contain well-defined spatial structures, suitable for studying the mesoscale activity in the Western

  15. Taxonomic study of the Pagurus forbesii "complex" (Crustacea: Decapoda: Paguridae). Description of Pagurus pseudosculptimanus sp. nov. from Alborán Sea (Southern Spain, Western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, J Enrique García; Cuesta, Jose A; Raso, J Enrique García

    2014-01-03

    Study of hermit crabs from Alboran Sea has allowed recognition of two different morphological forms under what had been understood as Pagurus forbesii. Based on morphological observations with various species of Pagurus, and molecular studies, a new species is described as P. pseudosculptimanus. An overview of species of Pagurus from the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea is provided.

  16. Airborne Expendable Bathythermogragh Surveys, 1981, Western Tasman Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    No. 2/82 AIRBORNE EXPENDABLE BATHYTHERMOGRAGH SURVEYS, 1981, WESTERN TASMAN SEA BY P.J. MULHEARN APPROVED DTIC ELECTE FOR PUTBLI I ~LT -i~ COPY• N. 7...NO. 2/82 AIRBORNE EXPENDABLE BATHYTHERMOGRAPH SURVEYS, 1981, WESTERN TASMAN SEA P.J. MULHEARN ABSTRACT On four occasions in 1981 AXBT surveys were...conducted in the western Tasman Sea in support of the RAN’s ocean analysis scheme. The results of these surveys show that the limited number of probes

  17. From basin to sub-basin scale assessment and intercomparison of numerical simulations in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Lellouche, Jean-Michel; Tonani, Marina; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2015-09-01

    This study describes a quantitative evaluation of simulations in the western Mediterranean Sea at basin and sub-basin scales. The Mediterranean Forecasting System and the Mercator-Océan simulations provide operational ocean forecasts and hindcasts in the Mediterranean, and are also used as initial and boundary conditions for regional models. In this context, hindcast simulations from 2009 to 2012 are compared with available multi-platform observations at various spatial and temporal scales to evaluate their performance. Both simulations reproduce well the observed mean conditions and variability over the last years. The sub-basin scale analyses of the three-dimensional ocean structures and water mass properties reveal seasonal and regional temperature and salinity errors at the surface in both simulations, as well as significant biases at intermediate and deep layers in the Mediterranean Forecasting System. The simulated surface geostrophic velocities are weaker than those derived from altimetry, and circulation biases persist in the Balearic Sea. Additionally, the seasonal existence of the Alboran gyres is not well reproduced in either simulation. The identification of regional simulation biases is essential to advance from global to regional and local scale forecasting, in particular, improving the representation of the local physical processes and their interactions with the sub-basin dynamics and the general circulation.

  18. Hydrological variations of the intermediate water masses of the western Mediterranean Sea during the past 20 ka inferred from neodymium isotopic composition in foraminifera and cold-water corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois-Dauphin, Quentin; Montagna, Paolo; Siani, Giuseppe; Douville, Eric; Wienberg, Claudia; Hebbeln, Dierk; Liu, Zhifei; Kallel, Nejib; Dapoigny, Arnaud; Revel, Marie; Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Taviani, Marco; Colin, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    We present the neodymium isotopic composition (ɛNd) of mixed planktonic foraminifera species from a sediment core collected at 622 m water depth in the Balearic Sea, as well as ɛNd of scleractinian cold-water corals (CWC; Madrepora oculata, Lophelia pertusa) retrieved between 280 and 442 m water depth in the Alboran Sea and at 414 m depth in the southern Sardinian continental margin. The aim is to constrain hydrological variations at intermediate depths in the western Mediterranean Sea during the last 20 kyr. Planktonic (Globigerina bulloides) and benthic (Cibicidoides pachyderma) foraminifera from the Balearic Sea were also analyzed for stable oxygen (δ18O) and carbon (δ13C) isotopes. The foraminiferal and coral ɛNd values from the Balearic and Alboran seas are comparable over the last ˜ 13 kyr, with mean values of -8.94 ± 0.26 (1σ; n = 24) and -8.91 ± 0.18 (1σ; n = 25), respectively. Before 13 ka BP, the foraminiferal ɛNd values are slightly lower (-9.28 ± 0.15) and tend to reflect higher mixing between intermediate and deep waters, which are characterized by more unradiogenic ɛNd values. The slight ɛNd increase after 13 ka BP is associated with a decoupling in the benthic foraminiferal δ13C composition between intermediate and deeper depths, which started at ˜ 16 ka BP. This suggests an earlier stratification of the water masses and a subsequent reduced contribution of unradiogenic ɛNd from deep waters. The CWC from the Sardinia Channel show a much larger scatter of ɛNd values, from -8.66 ± 0.30 to -5.99 ± 0.50, and a lower average (-7.31 ± 0.73; n = 19) compared to the CWC and foraminifera from the Alboran and Balearic seas, indicative of intermediate waters sourced from the Levantine basin. At the time of sapropel S1 deposition (10.2 to 6.4 ka), the ɛNd values of the Sardinian CWC become more unradiogenic (-8.38 ± 0.47; n = 3 at ˜ 8.7 ka BP), suggesting a significant contribution of intermediate waters originated from the western basin

  19. Plio-Quaternary tectonic evolution off Al Hoceima, Moroccan Margin of the Alboran Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafosse, Manfred; d'Acremont, Elia; Rabaute, Alain; Mercier de Lépinay, Bernard; Gorini, Christian; Ammar, Abdellah; Tahayt, Abdelilah

    2015-04-01

    We use data from a compilation of industrial and academic 2D surveys and recent data from MARLBORO-1 (2011), MARLBORO-2 (2012), and SARAS (2012) surveys, which provide high resolution bathymetry and 2D seismic reflexion data. We focus on the key area located south of the Alboran Ridge and the Tofiño Bank, and encompassing the Nekor and Boudinar onshore-offshore basins on the Moroccan side of the Alboran Sea. The Nekor basin is a present pull-apart basin in relay between inherited N050° sinistral strike-slip faults. We consider that these faults define the Principal Displacement Zones (PDZ). The northern PDZ marks the position of the crustal Bokkoya fault, which is connected to the Al-Idrisi Fault Zone en relais with the Adra and Carboneras Fault Zones. On the seabed, right-stepping non-coalescent faults characterize the sinistral kinematics of the northern PDZ and give a general N050° azimuth for the crustal discontinuity. The southern PDZ corresponds to the Nekor fault Zone, a Miocene sinistral strike-slip fault acting as the structural limit of the External Rif. On its eastern edge, the Nekor basin is bounded by the N-S onshore-offshore Trougout fault, connecting the northern and the southern PDZ. The western boundary of the Nekor basin is marked by the Rouadi and El-Hammam Quaternary active N-S normal faults. In the offshore Nekor basin, recent N155° conjugated normal faults affect the seabed. Further east, the Boudinar basin is a Plio-Quaternary uplifted Neogene basin. The northeastern segment of the Nekor fault bounds this basin to the south but is inactive in the Quaternary. Normal east-dipping N150° faults are visible offshore in the continuity of the Boudinar fault. From our perspective, the orientation of major tectonic structures (Bokkoya, Nekor and Carboneras faults and the Alboran ridge) under the present compressive regime due to the Europe/Africa convergence is not compatible with a strike-slip motion. The orientation of the most recent Plio

  20. Beaked Whales and Pilot Whales in the Alboran Sea (SW Mediterranean): Research Towards Improved Science-Based Mitigation Strategies for Risks from Man-Made Sound

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    sighting, and compiling and organizing all the data in an excel spreadsheet in a format more easily usable for analysis. Tagging of pilot whales...Sea (SGM), the National Scientific Council (CSIC) the Spanish Oceanographic Institute (IEO) and the NGOs SEO Birdlife, WWF Adena, OCEANA, SECAC

  1. South-western African climate depends on Antarctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuut, J.-B. W.; Crosta, X.; van der Borg, K.; Schneider, R. R.

    2003-04-01

    The typical Fynbos vegetation of the Cape region of South-western Africa is brought about by the local Mediterranean (winter rainfall) climate and its associated sharp seasonal contrasts, especially in precipitation. This biome is bordered by hyper-arid deserts which may rapidly expand in response to future global warming, such as during the last warm period 125.000 years ago. It is therefore essential to understand the mechanisms that drive the winter rainfall in such a restricted area. We relate variations in South-western African humidity to changes in Antarctic sea-ice extent. New records of Antarctic sea-ice extent compared to existing palaeoclimate records of South-western Africa reveal a coherent signal during the last 50 kyr BP, with enhanced continental humidity and trade-wind intensity during periods of increased sea-ice presence. We propose that greater glacial Antarctic sea-ice extent causes a Northward shift of oceanic and atmospheric frontal zones, thereby increasing latitudinal temperature and pressure gradients, leading to enhanced trade-wind intensities. In addition, the equatorward shift and increased intensity of the Southern Westerlies causes an expansion of the winter-rain region and increased precipitation in South-western Africa. This relationship implies enhanced desertification in South-western Africa in response to retreating sea-ice edge in the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean if global warming continues.

  2. Gulf Stream eddies - Recent observations in the western Sargasso Sea.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, P. L.; Knauss, J. A.; Strong, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    A cyclonic Gulf Stream eddy was observed in the western Sargasso Sea by satellite infrared measurements and later confirmed by ship measurements. Fourteen months of observations indicate that the eddy moved southwestward at an average rate of 1 mile per day. The evidence suggests that the eddy was absorbed by the Gulf Stream off Florida.

  3. Severe rainfall events over the western Mediterranean Sea: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riesco Martín, Jesús; Mora García, Manuel; de Pablo Dávila, Fernando; Rivas Soriano, Luis

    2013-06-01

    A study of severe rainfall (≥ 100 mm in 24 h) over the Spanish provinces of Malaga, Granada y Almeria (close to the Alboran Sea, the westernmost part of the Mediterranean Sea) has been performed using 5 years (2006-2010) of data. The episodes of heavy rainfall were classified using the moisture flux at the 850 hPa pressure level and the lifted index. This gave three types, associated with situations of intense moisture flux and little static instability, moderate moisture flux and static instability, and moderate moisture flux and strong static instability. Representative cases of each type were analyzed, and it was found that both non-convective (41% of cases) and convective (59% of cases) systems caused the episodes of severe precipitation considered in this study. The convective structures included isolated and persistent convective systems, multicellular convective systems, and mesoscale convective systems.

  4. Simulation of Coastal Polynyas in the Western Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haid, Verena; Timmermann, Ralph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal polynyas play a prominent role in the formation and modification of water masses in the polar oceans. A coastal polynya is usually kept open mechanically, primarily by winds, and the ocean surface is at freezing point. Thus a major fraction of the annual ice production of the high-latitude oceans occurs in polynyas and hence the duration and extent of their appearance has a substantial effect on bottom water formation. In the western Weddell Sea, recurring coastal polynyas are formed in front of the Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf and in the area of the decayed Larsen A/B Ice Shelf. Simulations to study polynya formation and their impact on ice production and bottom water formation in the western Weddell Sea were performed with the Finite Element Sea ice-Ocean Model (FESOM) of Alfred-Wegener-Institute (AWI). FESOM is a fully coupled system of a primitive-equation, hydrostatic ocean model and a dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model. The simulations were conducted on a global grid with a resolution varying between roughly 300 km in tropical latitudes and <5 km along the coast of the southwestern Weddell Sea. In vertical direction, the grid uses terrain-following coordinates. The model results give insight into the mechanisms governing the formation of transient and persistent polynyas and their influence on ice production and deep water formation. Water mass formation and ice export rates are quantified and compared to observation-based estimates.

  5. Bathymetry and Canyons of the western Solomon Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, H. L.; Keene, J. B.; Hashimoto, K.; Joshima, M.; Stuart, J. E.; Tiffin, D. L.

    1986-12-01

    The floor of the western Solomon Sea (for new bathymetric map see inside back cover of this issue) is dominated by the arched and ridged basement of the Solomon Sea Basin, the partly-sediment-filled New Britain Trench, and a more completely filled trench, the Trobriand Trough. There is a deep basin where the trenches join (149° Embayment), and a silled basin west of the New Britain Trench (Finsch Deep). Submarine canyons descend from the west and south to the 149° Embayment. Abyssal fans and plains are structurally defined and locally disturbed by young faults. Probable submerged pinnacle reefs stand in water depths as great as 1,200 m.

  6. Comparison of Several Geoid Models over the Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Termens, A.; Martinez-Benjamin, J. J.

    2011-07-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a semi-enclosed true ocean. Recent Mediterranean circulation and sea level studies using various observations and ocean general circulation models show good coherence and agreement. The satellite altimetry and tide gauge observed and model predicted sea level show good coherent with correlation coefficient of 0.6. The barotropic pressure response accounts for about 66% of the Mediterranean sea level rise (1948-2001). The estimated sea level trend (1.54 ± 0.75 mm/yr) using decadal altimetry (1985-2001) after correcting the interannual/decadal signals reconstructed using tide gauge data, agrees well with the long term trend (1948-2001) estimated using tide gauges (1.43 ± 0.09 mm/yr) in the Mediterranean Sea, and is in better agreement than before with the global long-term sea level trend (1.7 - 1.8 mm/yr). Simulation studies indicate that the time-varying mass variations of Mediterranean Sea likely are sensitive to GOCE at the few mEötvös level. One of GOCE's primary high-level data products is the global gravity model with anticipated geoid accuracy of 1 cm RMS and a spatial resolution of 130 km or longer. Actually, the International Centre for Global Earth Models (ICGEM) distributes some GOCE's Global Gravity field Models (GGMs) like GO_CONS_GCF_2_DIR (Bruinsma et al, 2010), GO_CONS_GCF_2_TIM (Pail et al, 2010a), GO_CONS_GCF_2_SPW (Migliaccio et al, 2010), GOCO01S (Pail et al, 2010b). The work focuses on the comparison between these GOCE's GGMs, EGM2008 and EIGEN-51C, with sea gravity anomalies and geoid undulations provided by existing local and regional geoids - like IBERGEO (Sevilla, 2008), IGG (Corchete et al, 2005), etc. - in the Western Mediterranean Sea in order to find the GGM that best fits this area. We also try to estimate how the GOCE geoid data, provided by ESA, works on the Western Mediterranean Sea in order to prepare future geomatic issues.

  7. Observations of sea ice and icebergs in the western Barents Sea during the winter of 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Loeset, S.; Carstens, T.

    1995-12-31

    A multisensor ice data acquisition program for the western Barents Sea was carried out during three field campaigns in the mid winter and fall of 1987. The main purpose of the program was to obtain comprehensive information about the ice in the area at that time. The reasoning was that prior to any oil/gas exploration and production in the Barents Sea, the physical environment has to be quantitatively surveyed in order to ensure safe operations related to human safety, the regular operability and safety of the structure and protection of the environment. Prior to this field investigation program in 1987 data on sea ice and icebergs for engineering purposes for the western Barents Sea were meager. The present paper highlights some of the findings with emphasis on ice edge speeds, ice edge displacement and ice drift. For icebergs, the paper focuses on population, size distributions and geometric parameters.

  8. Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances in the Western Mediterranean Sea waters.

    PubMed

    Brumovský, Miroslav; Karásková, Pavlína; Borghini, Mireno; Nizzetto, Luca

    2016-09-01

    The spatial and temporal distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the open Western Mediterranean Sea waters was investigated in this study for the first time. In addition to surface water samples, a deep water sample (1390 m depth) collected in the center of the western basin was analyzed. Perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) were detected in all samples and were the dominant PFASs found. The sum of PFAS concentrations (ΣPFASs) ranged 246-515 pg/L for surface water samples. PFASs in surface water had a relatively homogeneous distribution with levels similar to those previously measured in the Atlantic near the Strait of Gibraltar, in water masses feeding the inflow to the Mediterranean Sea. Higher concentrations of PFHxA, PFHpA and PFHxS were, however, found in the present study. Inflowing Atlantic water and river/coastal discharges are likely the major sources of PFASs to the Western Mediterranean basin. Slightly lower (factor of 2) ΣPFASs was found in the deep water sample (141 pg/L). Such a relatively high contamination of deep water is likely to be linked to recurring deep water renewal fed by downwelling events in the Gulf of Lion and/or Ligurian Sea.

  9. Diminishing sea ice in the western Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, R.S.; Belchansky, G.I.; Drobot, Sheldon; Douglas, D.C.; Levinson, D.H.; Waple, A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Since the advent of satellite passive microwave radiometry (1978), variations in sea ice extent and concentration have been carefully monitored from space. An estimated 7.4% decrease in sea ice extent has occurred in the last 25 yr (Johannessen et al. 2004), with recent record minima (e.g., Maslanik et al. 1999; Serreze et al. 2003) accounting for much of the decline. Comparisons between the time series of Arctic sea ice melt dynamics and snowmelt dates at the NOAA–CMDL Barrow Observatory (BRW) reveal intriguing correlations.Melt-onset dates over sea ice (Drobot and Anderson 2001) were cross correlated with the melt-date time series from BRW, and a prominent region of high correlation between snowmelt onset over sea ice and the BRW record of melt dates was approximately aligned with the climatological center of the Beaufort Sea Anticyclone (BSA). The BSA induces anticyclonic ice motion in the region, effectively forcing the Beaufort gyre. A weak gyre caused by a breakdown of the BSA diminishes transport of multiyear ice into this region (Drobot and Maslanik 2003). Similarly, the annual snow cycle at BRW varies with the position and intensity of the BSA (Stone et al. 2002, their Fig. 6). Thus, variations in the BSA appear to have far-reaching effects on the annual accumulation and subsequent melt of snow over a large region of the western Arctic.A dramatic increase in melt season duration (Belchansky et al. 2004) was also observed within the same region of high correlation between onset of melt over the ice pack and snowmelt at BRW (Fig. 5.7). By inference, this suggests linkages between factors that modulate the annual cycle of snow on land and processes that influence melting of snow and ice in the western Arctic Ocean.

  10. Imaging the crustal and lithospheric structures beneath the Alboran Domain and its surrounding area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dündar, Süleyman; Kind, Rainer; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2010-05-01

    The knowledge of the crustal and lithospheric structures plays an important role in understanding the geodynamic evolution of the Earth's interiors within the framework of plate tectonics. The receiver function method is used to resolve the seismic discontinuity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath a recording station and to infer possible geodynamic processes within the Earth. The methodology is developed based on the conversion of elastic body waves (P and S) at an interface which represents a boundary between different elastic properties. In this study, we analyze the P- and S-wave receiver functions in order to investigate seismic deep structures beneath the Alboran Domain which is still in debate despite a large amount of research effort conducted along the region of interest. The Alboran Domain is located at the western end of the Mediterranean and Betic-Rif orogenic system. The study area is on the edge of a prominent plate boundary, which is dominated by the tectonic interaction between the Africa and Iberian plates. Thus, it represents a complex tectonic process consisting of composite compressional and extensional regimes. The teleseismic recordings are extracted from the database of IRIS and GEOFON data centers according to the earthquake catalog obtained from U.S. Geological Survey. We analyzed totally 4976 P- and 12673 S- receiver functions.To achieve the sufficient energy in waveforms, we analyze events greater than M5.7, located at epicentral distance ranging from 35° to 90°, from 60° to 85° and from 85° to 120° for P-, S- and SKS phases, respectively. The data quality is manually checked to restrict the event database to the clear P-, S and SKS- onsets. The seismograms are rotated into P-, SH- and SV components of local ray coordinate system in order to get the highest energy of converted phases. We perform a time-domain deconvolution approach to derive the receiver functions in order to eliminate the source and path effects. Move

  11. Payload Bay and Great Western Sand Sea, Algeria, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Patterns of yellow and orange dunes of the Great Western Sand Sea of Algeria (29.5N, 1.5W) contrast with the black folded sedimentary rocks in the central Sahara Desert. A small dry riverbed, along the line between the thick sands and the black rocks brings in sediment from the Atlas Mountains of Morocco. Southwest winds blow sand from the bed to form a thick sand sheet on the downwind side of the river to contrast with the thin upwind dune strips.

  12. Changes in sea-ice cover and temperature in the Western Ross Sea during the Holocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Sophie; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Gal, Jong-Ku; Mezgec, Karin; Belt, Simon; Smik, Lukas; Stenni, Barbara; Melis, Romana; Crosta, Xavier; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2016-04-01

    Although changes in sea-ice cover contribute to global climatic variations, they are poorly constrained for periods earlier than the last decades. More records are especially required around Antarctica, where the formation of Antarctic Bottom Waters participates to global thermohaline circulation. However, this region provided only a few marine sediment cores spanning the entire Holocene, especially because of generally low sedimentation rates. This study focuses on marine sediment core ANTA99-CJ5 (73°49'S; 175°39'E), located in the open sea ice zone (OSIZ) of the western Ross Sea. We analyzed several lipid biomarkers: highly branched isoprenoids (HBIs), sterols, diols and GDGTs. The combination of several biomarkers and the comparison of these results with a diatom record previously published on the same core enabled us to trace past changes in temperatures as well as in sea-ice condition over the last 11,600 years.

  13. Comparisons between Patterns of Sea-Surface Temperature and Sub-Surface Parameters in the Western Tasman Sea.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-07-01

    EXTERNAL) No. 5/82 COMPARISONS BETWEEN PATTERNS OF SEA -SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND SUB-SURFACE PARAMETERS IN THE WESTERN TASMAN SEA (U) BY DTIC P. J. Ep~~3...PARAMETERS IN THE WESTERN TASMAN SEA (U) P.J.NULHARNAccession For P.J MLHERNNTIS GRA&I L and DTIC TAB L.J. HAMILTON Unannou ed QJustification...emperature, temperature at 250m, mixed-layer depth and dynamic height f the western Tasman Sea . Data are from ship cruises and aerial su a. It is shown by

  14. Understanding the Patterns and Causes of Variability in Distribution, Habitat use, Abundance, Survival and Reproductive Rates of Three Species of Cetacean in the Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Cañadas ALNILAM Research and Conservation Ltd. Cándamo 116 28240 Hoyo de Manzanares Madrid, Spain phone: +34 676481284 email: anacanadas...predators is an important one because of their role within ecosystems and their potential to influence community structure and biodiversity (Heithaus et... Conservation Ltd,Candamo 116, 28240 Hoyo de Manzanares,Madrid, Spain, 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S

  15. Understanding the Patterns and Causes of Variability in Distribution, Habitat Use, Abundance, Survival and Reproductive Rates of Three Species of Cetacean in the Alboran Sea, Western Mediterranean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Kilograms for each of the 11 main fishing ports of Andalucía including more than 150 fish, shellfish and cephalopods commercial species. The monthly...generate graphics on the fish catches evolution for each prey species. 0.00 100000.00 200000.00 300000.00 400000.00 500000.00 600000.00 e n e -0 0 a b r... Evolution 23 (4): 202-210. Navarro, A., Vázquez, A.. Macías, D. Bruno, M. and Ruiz, J. 2011. Understanding the patterns of biological response to

  16. Structure of the mantle beneath the Alboran Basin from magnetotelluric soundings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, X.; Seillé, H.; Elsenbeck, J.; Evans, R. L.; Jegen, M.; Hölz, Sebastian; Ledo, J.; Lovatini, A.; Marti, A.; Marcuello, A.; Queralt, P.; Ungarelli, C.; Ranero, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present results of marine MT acquisition in the Alboran sea that also incorporates previously acquired land MT from southern Spain into our analysis. The marine data show complex MT response functions with strong distortion due to seafloor topography and the coastline, but inclusion of high resolution topography and bathymetry and a seismically defined sediment unit into a 3-D inversion model has allowed us to image the structure in the underlying mantle. The resulting resistivity model is broadly consistent with a geodynamic scenario that includes subduction of an eastward trending plate beneath Gibraltar, which plunges nearly vertically beneath the Alboran. Our model contains three primary features of interest: a resistive body beneath the central Alboran, which extends to a depth of ˜150 km. At this depth, the mantle resistivity decreases to values of ˜100 Ohm-m, slightly higher than those seen in typical asthenosphere at the same depth. This transition suggests a change in slab properties with depth, perhaps reflecting a change in the nature of the seafloor subducted in the past. Two conductive features in our model suggest the presence of fluids released by the subducting slab or a small amount of partial melt in the upper mantle (or both). Of these, the one in the center of the Alboran basin, in the uppermost-mantle (20-30 km depth) beneath Neogene volcanics and west of the termination of the Nekkor Fault, is consistent with geochemical models, which infer highly thinned lithosphere and shallow melting in order to explain the petrology of seafloor volcanics.

  17. Interannual to decadal variation of spring sea level anomaly in the western South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Fuwen; Fang, Wendong; Pan, Aijun; Cha, Jing; Zhang, Shanwu; Huang, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Satellite observations of sea level anomalies (SLA) from January 1993 to December 2012 are used to investigate the interannual to decadal changes of the boreal spring high SLA in the western South China Sea (SCS) using the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) method. We find that the SLA variability has two dominant modes. The Sea Level Changing Mode (SLCM) occurs mainly during La Niña years, with high SLA extension from west of Luzon to the eastern coast of Vietnam along the central basin of the SCS, and is likely induced by the increment of the ocean heat content. The Anticyclonic Eddy Mode (AEM) occurs mainly during El Niño years and appears to be triggered by the negative wind curl anomalies within the central SCS. In addition, the spring high SLA in the western SCS experienced a quasi-decadal change during 1993-2012; in other words, the AEM predominated during 1993-1998 and 2002-2005, while the La Niña-related SLCM prevailed during 1999-2001 and 2006-2012. Moreover, we suggest that the accelerated sea level rise in the SCS during 2005-2012 makes the SLCM the leading mode over the past two decades.

  18. PICASSO: Shear velocities in the Western Mediterranean from Rayleigh Wave tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomeras, I.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Western Mediterranean has been affected by complex subduction and slab rollback, simultaneously with compression due to African-European convergence. The deformed region occupies a wide area from the intra-continental Atlas mountain belt in Morocco to the southern Iberian Massif in Spain. Evolutionary models of the Western Mediterranean invoke extensive slab rollback and compression in the Cenozoic, as well as likely upper mantle delamination scenarios during formation of the Alboran domain, the Betics, Rif, and Atlas Mountains. PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) is a multidisciplinary, international investigation of the Alboran System and surrounding areas. In this study we have analyzed data from the 95 PICASSO broadband stations with data from the Spanish IberArray and Siberia Array in Spain and Morocco, the University of Muenster array in the Atlas Mountains and the permanent Spanish and Portuguese networks. We present Rayleigh wave tomography results made from 168 teleseimic events recorded by 237 stations from April 2009 to April 2011. We measured Rayleigh phase velocities using the two-plane-wave method to remove complications due to multi-pathing, and finite-frequency kernels to improve lateral resolution. Phase velocities were then inverted for shear velocity structure on a grid of 0.5 by 0.5 degree to form a well-resolved 3D shear velocity model to 230 km depth. Our results show low S-velocities (2.9 km/s) in the crust beneath the Gibraltar Strait. Low upper mantle S-velocities are mapped beneath the Middle and High Atlas at ~60 km depth suggesting an elevated asthenosphere beneath these young mountain belts, in agreement with receiver functions analysis (Thurner et al, this session). Beneath the Western Alboran Sea, upper-mantle velocities change laterally from high velocities (>4.5 km/s) in the east to lower velocities to the west (~4.3 km/s). The Rayleigh wave tomography is consistent with P-tomography that

  19. Deep Water Mass Circulation in the Alboran Basin: Measurements - August to November 1983. Alboran III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    ern Alboran displayed slow and variable current speed. Floats deployed on the Moroccan continental slope moved swiftly along the slope towards...Gibraltar with accelerating speed, and then passed through the Strait of Gibraltar i~t’into the Atlantic. tUpward bading of isolines across the Moroccan ...circulation o Igeostrophic current o Levantine o Mediterranean o modelling o moroccan continental slope o remote sensing o sound propagation o Spanish

  20. The imprint of sea-level changes in the Southeastern Iberian continental shelf, Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinna, Andrea; Lastras, Galderic; Acosta, Juan; Muñoz, Araceli; Canals, Miquel

    2014-05-01

    A detailed morphologic analysis of the Southeastern Iberian continental shelf, Western Mediterranean Sea, between the Mar Menor and the Gulf of Almería, based on swath bathymetry data, has revealed a number of seafloor features that we attribute to the imprint of sea-level changes since the last glacial maximum. The continental shelf has been divided in four different domains with contrasting characteristics: the Mar Menor sector, the Mazarrón and Vera sector, the Gata Cape shelf and the Gulf of Almería shelf. The Mar Menor sector displays an up to 40 km wide shelf with a very low slope gradient, which contrasts with the Mazarrón and Vera shelf, with a width ranging between 0.4 and 5 km, severely incised by the different branches of the Garrucha submarine canyon. On each of these sectors, a variety of morphologies such as crests and escarpments have been identified. Most of these crests and escarpments can be followed for distances exceeding 15 km, and are located at constant, characteristic water depths. We interpret these structures as the result of relatively short-lived sea-level still-stands and thus as palaeo-coastlines. Taking into account subsidence, we have correlated their bathymetric position with published post-MIS-5 Mediterranean sea-level evolution curves, allowing the attribution of an approximate age for each interpreted palaeo-coastline. The last sea-level regression is partially registered in the smooth Mar Menor shelf, where different crests and escarpments are cut by a LGM palaeo-channel, whereas all the sectors display structures related to the last sea-level transgression. The continuity of these structures along all the sectors has allowed reconstructing the evolution of the coastline during the last sea-level transgression, and thus inferring the palaeo-landscape of this sector of the Southeastern Iberian coast at different stages since 18 ka BP until the present.

  1. Interannual differences for sea turtles bycatch in Spanish longliners from Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Báez, José C; Macías, David; García-Barcelona, Salvador; Real, Raimundo

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed that regional abundance of loggerhead and leatherback turtles could oscillate interannually according to oceanographic and climatic conditions. The Western Mediterranean is an important fishing area for the Spanish drifting longline fleet, which mainly targets swordfish, bluefin tuna, and albacore. Due to the spatial overlapping in fishing activity and turtle distribution, there is an increasing sea turtle conservation concern. The main goal of this study is to analyse the interannual bycatch of loggerhead and leatherback turtles by the Spanish Mediterranean longline fishery and to test the relationship between the total turtle by-catch of this fishery and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the 14 years covered in this study, the number of sea turtle bycatches was 3,940 loggerhead turtles and 8 leatherback turtles, 0.499 loggerhead turtles/1000 hooks and 0.001014 leatherback turtles/1000 hooks. In the case of the loggerhead turtle the positive phase of the NAO favours an increase of loggerhead turtles in the Western Mediterranean Sea. However, in the case of leatherback turtle the negative phase of the NAO favours the presence of leatherback turtle. This contraposition could be related to the different ecophysiological response of both species during their migration cycle.

  2. Interannual Differences for Sea Turtles Bycatch in Spanish Longliners from Western Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Báez, José C.; García-Barcelona, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies showed that regional abundance of loggerhead and leatherback turtles could oscillate interannually according to oceanographic and climatic conditions. The Western Mediterranean is an important fishing area for the Spanish drifting longline fleet, which mainly targets swordfish, bluefin tuna, and albacore. Due to the spatial overlapping in fishing activity and turtle distribution, there is an increasing sea turtle conservation concern. The main goal of this study is to analyse the interannual bycatch of loggerhead and leatherback turtles by the Spanish Mediterranean longline fishery and to test the relationship between the total turtle by-catch of this fishery and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). During the 14 years covered in this study, the number of sea turtle bycatches was 3,940 loggerhead turtles and 8 leatherback turtles, 0.499 loggerhead turtles/1000 hooks and 0.001014 leatherback turtles/1000 hooks. In the case of the loggerhead turtle the positive phase of the NAO favours an increase of loggerhead turtles in the Western Mediterranean Sea. However, in the case of leatherback turtle the negative phase of the NAO favours the presence of leatherback turtle. This contraposition could be related to the different ecophysiological response of both species during their migration cycle. PMID:24764769

  3. Continent-ocean transition at the western Barents Sea/Svalbard continental margin

    SciTech Connect

    Eldholm, O.; Faleide, J.I.; Myhre, A.M.

    1987-12-01

    The change in crustal type at the western Barents Sea/Svalbard margin takes place over a narrow zone related to primary rift and shear structures reflecting the stepwise opening of the Greenland Sea. Regionally, the margin is composed of two large shear zones and a central rifted-margin segment. Local transtension and transpression at the plate boundary caused the early Cenozoic tectonism in Svalbard and the western Barents Sea, and might explain the prominent marginal gravity and velocity anomalies.

  4. Airborne gravity measurement over sea-ice: The western Weddel Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Brozena, J.; Peters, M. ); LaBrecque, J.; Bell, R.; Raymond, C. )

    1990-10-01

    An airborne gravity study of the western Weddel Sea, east of the Antarctic Peninsula, has shown that floating pack-ice provides a useful radar altimetric reference surface for altitude and vertical acceleration corrections surface for alititude and vertical acceleration corrections to airborne gravimetry. Airborne gravimetry provides an important alternative to satellite altimetry for the sea-ice covered regions of the world since satellite alimeters are not designed or intended to provide accurate geoidal heights in areas where significant sea-ice is present within the radar footprint. Errors in radar corrected airborne gravimetry are primarily sensitive to the variations in the second derivative of the sea-ice reference surface in the frequency pass-band of interest. With the exception of imbedded icebergs the second derivative of the pack-ice surface closely approximates that of the mean sea-level surface at wavelengths > 10-20 km. With the airborne method the percentage of ice coverage, the mixture of first and multi-year ice and the existence of leads and pressure ridges prove to be unimportant in determining gravity anomalies at scales of geophysical and geodetic interest, provided that the ice is floating and not grounded. In the Weddell study an analysis of 85 crosstrack miss-ties distributed over 25 data tracks yields an rms error of 2.2 mGals. Significant structural anomalies including the continental shelf and offsets and lineations interpreted as fracture zones recording the early spreading directions within the Weddell Sea are observed in the gravity map.

  5. Fish communities across a spectrum of habitats in the western Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logerwell, E.; Busby, M.; Carothers, C.; Cotton, S.; Duffy-Anderson, J.; Farley, E.; Goddard, P.; Heintz, R.; Holladay, B.; Horne, J.; Johnson, S.; Lauth, B.; Moulton, L.; Neff, D.; Norcross, B.; Parker-Stetter, S.; Seigle, J.; Sformo, T.

    2015-08-01

    The increased scientific interest in the Arctic due to climate change and potential oil and gas development has resulted in numerous surveys of Arctic marine fish communities since the mid-2000s. Surveys have been conducted in nearly all Arctic marine fish habitats: from lagoons, beaches and across the continental shelf and slope. This provides an opportunity only recently available to study Arctic fish communities across a spectrum of habitats. We examined fish survey data from lagoon, beach, nearshore benthic, shelf pelagic and shelf benthic habitats in the western Beaufort Sea and Chukchi Sea. Specifically, we compare and contrast relative fish abundance and length (a proxy for age) among habitats and seas. We also examined ichthyoplankton presence/absence and abundance of dominant taxa in the shelf habitat. Our synthesis revealed more similarities than differences between the two seas. For example, our results show that the nearshore habitat is utilized by forage fish across age classes, and is also a nursery area for other species. Our results also indicated that some species may be expanding their range to the north, for example, Chinook Salmon. In addition, we documented the presence of commercially important taxa such as Walleye Pollock and flatfishes (Pleuronectidae). Our synthesis of information on relative abundance and age allowed us to propose detailed conceptual models for the life history distribution of key gadids in Arctic food webs: Arctic and Saffron Cod. Finally, we identify research gaps, such as the need for surveys of the surface waters of the Beaufort Sea, surveys of the lagoons of the Chukchi Sea, and winter season surveys in all areas. We recommend field studies on fish life history that sample multiple age classes in multiple habitats throughout the year to confirm, resolve and interpret the patterns in fish habitat use that we observed.

  6. Effect of Internal Solitary Waves on Mine Detection in the Western Philippine Sea East of Taiwan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Philippine Sea, Internal Waves, Internal Solitary Waves, Mine Detection, Multi- Fractal Characteristics, Power Spectra, Structure Function, Singular...4 Figure 4. The geography and bathymetry of East Asia and the western Pacific Area...........7 Figure 5. Topography of the western...formed. Figure 4. The geography and bathymetry of East Asia and the western Pacific Area. The composition of the water in the Philippine

  7. Past and recent trends in the western Black Sea storminess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valchev, N. N.; Trifonova, E. V.; Andreeva, N. K.

    2012-04-01

    Storms are one of the most important phenomena producing coastal hazards and endangering human life and activities. In recent decades storm climate has become a subject of increased public awareness and knowledge of this issue can help the society to meet future challenges related to extreme storm manifestation. Therefore, the goal of this study is to assess trends in past and recent storminess in the western Black Sea. The analysis of storm climate is based on a continuous hindcast dataset covering a substantial historical time-span of 63 yr (1948-2010). It was used to create a storm population and to estimate properties describing storminess (proxies). This was done by introduction of criteria allowing separation of events with low probability of occurrence and at the same time keeping the information on their pattern, i.e. properties of storm phases. Eleven storminess proxies were analysed and the most indicative appeared to be storm duration; integral, mean and specific storm wave energy; and wind velocity and direction, which were obtained for each storm season. While experiencing significant variability on a quasi-decadal scale, no significant upward or downward trends in storminess were detected. For almost all proxies, an increasing trend until the 1980s or the 1990s and a return to average or even calm conditions in the late 2000s are traceable. On this background, a steady although not significant increase of wind velocity was detected. Results also indicate an alteration of storm pattern, manifested as shortening of storm duration due to a shift of the prevailing direction of storm forcing winds to the north. Nevertheless, incident wave energy in the storms' most intense phase remains significant. The obtained results are discussed with regard to the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on the hydrometeorological pattern of the Black Sea region as a part of the European-Atlantic area, in particular with respect to the cyclonic activity.

  8. Structure and sediment distribution in the western Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rabinowitz, P. D.; Cooper, A.

    1977-01-01

    Eleven seismic reflection profiles across Shirshov Ridge and the adjacent deep-water sedimentary basins (Komandorsky and Aleutian Basins) are presented to illustrate the sediment distribution in the western Bering Sea. A prominent seismic reflecting horizon, Reflector P (Middle-Late Miocene in age), is observed throughout both the Aleutian and Komandorsky Basins at an approximate subbottom depth of 1 km. This reflector is also present, in places, on the flanks and along the crest of Shirshov Ridge. The thickness of sediments beneath Reflector P is significantly different within the two abyssal basins. In the Aleutian Basin, the total subbottom depth to acoustic basement (basalt?) is about 4 km, while in the Komandorsky Basin the depth is about 2 km. Shirshov Ridge, a Cenozoic volcanic feature that separates the Aleutian and Komandorsky Basins, is an asymmetric bathymetric ridge characterized by thick sediments along its eastern flank and steep scarps on its western side. The southern portion of the ridge has more structural relief that includes several deep, sediment-filled basins along its summit. Velocity data from sonobuoy measurements indicate that acoustic basement in the Komandorsky Basin has an average compressional wave velocity of 5.90 km/sec. This value is considerably larger than the velocities measured for acoustic basement in the northwestern Aleutian Basin (about 5.00 km/sec) and in the central Aleutian Basin (5.40-5.57 km/sec). In the northwestern Aleutian Basin, the low-velocity acoustic basement may be volcaniclastic sediments or other indurated sediments that are overlying true basaltic basement. A refracting horizon with similar velocities (4.6-5.0 km/sec) as acoustic basement dips steeply beneath the Siberian continental margin, reaching a maximum subbottom depth of about 8 km. The thick welt of sediment at the base of the Siberian margin may be the result of sediment loading or tectonic depression prior to Late Cenozoic time. ?? 1977.

  9. Offshore Seismic Observation in the Western Marmara Sea, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Takahashi, N.; Citak, S.; Kalafat, D.; Pinar, A.; Gurbuz, C.; Kaneda, Y.

    2014-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) extends 1600 km westward from a junction with the East Anatolian Fault at the Karliova Triple Junction in eastern Turkey, across northern Turkey and into the Aegean Sea, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured NAF westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk and the Duzce earthquakes in the Marmara region. Considering the fault segments ruptured by the May 24th, 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake, the only un-ruptured segments left behind NAF locate beneath the Marmara Sea and those segments keep their mystery due to their underwater location. To clarify the detailed fault geometry beneath the western Marmara Sea, we started to operate a series of ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) observations. As a first step, we deployed 3 pop-up type OBSs on 20th of March 2014 as a trial observation, and recovered them on 18thof June 2014. Although one of the OBSs worked only 6 days from the start of the observation, other two OBSs functioned properly during the whole 3-month observation period. Only 8 earthquakes were reported near the OBS network in 3 months periods according to the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute catalogue. Thus, we first searched for the microearthquakes missing by the land seismic network and estimated their precious location by using the initial 6 days data. We could identify about 50 earthquakes with more than 5 picking data of P and S first arrivals, and half of them located near the NAF. We also tested the hypocenter relocation by combining the land and OBS seismic data for the 8 earthquakes, and found that these earthquakes are located in between 12-24 km depths. Next, we are planning to deploy 10 OBSs from September 2014 to June 2015 as a second step for our observation. At the AGU fall meeting, we will be able to

  10. Topographic enhancement of tidal motion in the western Barents Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowalik, Z.; Proshutinsky, A. YU.

    1995-01-01

    A high-resolution numerical lattice is used to study a topographically trapped motion around islands and shallow banks of the western Barents Sea caused both by the semidiurnal and diurnal tidal waves. Observations and model computations in the vicinity of Bear Island show well-developed trapped motion with distinctive tidal oscillatory motion. Numerical investigations demonstrate that one source of the trapped motion is tidal current rectification over shallow topgraphy. Tidal motion supports residual currents of the order of 8 cm/s around Bear Island and shallow Spitsbergenbanken. The structures of enhanced tidal currents for the semidiurnal components are generated in the shallow areas due to topographic amplification. In the diurnal band of oscillations the maximum current is associated with the shelf wave occurrence. Residual currents due to diurnal tides occur at both the shallow areas and the shelf slope in regions of maximum topographic gradients. Surface manifestation of the diurnal current enhancement is the local maximum of tidal amplitude at the shelf break of the order of 5 to 10 cm. Tidal current enhancement and tidally generated residual currents in the Bear Island and Spitsbergenabanken regions cause an increased generation of ice leads, ridges and, trapped motion of the ice floes.

  11. Neustonic microplastic and zooplankton in the North Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Amandine; Hecq, Jean-Henri; Glagani, François; Voisin, Pierre; Collard, France; Goffart, Anne

    2012-04-01

    Neustonic microplastic and zooplankton abundance was determined in the North Western Mediterranean Sea during a summer cruise between July 9th and August 6th 2010, with a break between July 22 th and 25th due to a strong wind event. Ninety percent of the 40 stations contained microplastic particles (size 0.3-5mm) of various compositions: e.g., filaments, polystyrene, thin plastic films. An average concentration of 0.116 particles/m(2) was observed. The highest abundances (>0.36 particles/m(2)) were observed in shelf stations. The neustonic plastic particles concentrations were 5 times higher before than after the strong wind event which increased the mixing and the vertical repartition of plastic particles in the upper layers of the water column. The values rise in the same order of magnitude than in the North Pacific Gyre. The average ratio between microplastics and mesozooplankton weights was 0.5 for the whole survey and might induce a potential confusion for zooplankton feeders.

  12. Sperm whale assessment in the Western Ionian Sea using acoustic data from deep sea observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Francesco; Bellia, Giorgio; Beranzoli, Laura; De Domenico, Emilio; Larosa, Giuseppina; Marinaro, Giuditta; Papale, Elena; Pavan, Gianni; Pellegrino, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Sara; Riccobene, Giorgio; Scandura, Danila; Sciacca, Virginia; Viola, Salvatore

    2015-04-01

    The Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) operates two deep sea infrastructures: Capo Passero, Western Ionian Sea 3,600 meters of depth, and Catania Wester Ionian Sea 2,100 m depth. At the two sites, several research observatories have been run: OnDE, NEMO-SN1, SMO, KM3NeT-Italia most of them jointly operated between INFN and INGV. In all these observatories, passive acoustic sensors (hydrophones) have been installed. Passive Acoustics Monitoring (PAM) is nowadays the main tool of the bioacoustics to study marine mammals. In particular, receiving the sounds emitted by cetaceans from a multi-hydrophones array installed in a cabled seafloor observatory, a research about the ecological dynamics of the species may be performed. Data acquired with the hydrophones installed aboard the OnDE, SMO and KM3NeT-Italia observatories will be reported. Thanks to acquired data, the acoustic presence of the sperm whales was assessed and studied for several years (2005:2013). An "ad hoc" algorithm was also developed to allow the automatic identification of the "clicks" emitted by the sperm whales and measure the size of detected animals. According to the results obtained, the sperm whale population in the area is well-distributed in size, sex and sexual maturity. Although specimens more than 14 meters of length (old males) seem to be absent.

  13. WMOP: The SOCIB Western Mediterranean Sea OPerational forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renault, Lionel; Juza, Mélanie; Garau, Bartolomé; Sayol, Juan Manuel; Orfila, Alejandro; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    Development of science based ocean-forecasting systems at global, regional, sub-regional and local scales is needed to increase our understanding of ocean processes and to support knowledge based management of the marine environment. In this context, WMOP (Western Mediterranean sea /Balearic OPerational system) is the forecasting subsystem component of SOCIB, the new Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System. The WMOP system is operational since the end of 2010. The ROMS model is forced every 3 hours with atmospheric forcing derived from AEMET/Hirlam and daily boundary conditions provided by MFS2 from MyOcean/MOON. Model domain is implemented over an area extending from Gibraltar strait to Corsica/Sardinia (from 6°W to 9°E and from 35°N to 44.5°N), including Balearic Sea and Gulf of Lion. The grid is 631 x 539 points with a resolution of ~1.5km, which allows good representation of mesoscale and submesoscale features (first baroclinic Rossby radius ~10-15 km) of key relevance in this region. The model has 30 sigma levels, and the vertical s coordinate is stretched for boundary layer resolution, also essential to capture extreme events water masses formation and dynamical effects. Bottom topography is derived from a 2' resolution database. Online validation procedures based on inter-comparison of model outputs against observing systems and reference models such as MFS and Mercator are used to assess at what level the numerical models are able to reproduce the features observed from in-situ systems and remote sensing. The intrinsic three-dimensional variability of the coastal ocean and open-ocean exchanges imply the need of muti-plaform observing systems covering a variety of scales. Fixed moorings provide a good temporal resolution but poor spatial coverage, while satellite products provide a good spatial coverage but just on the surface layer. Gliders can provide a reasonable spatial variability in both horizontal and vertical axes. Thus, inter

  14. Sea Power and American Interests in the Western Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    owing to China’s expanding power, so is the nature of sea power changing. As a consequence, great uncertainty surrounds the question of who will...technology is changing the nature of sea power, globalization is changing its assumptions. Relationships between states with power- ful fleets, or between...seas are essentially the same as those to deny others such control. For Mahan, sea power was power upon the surface of the seas— naturally enough

  15. Failure Mechanisms of Ana Slide, Eivissa Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafuerza, S.; Sultan, N.; Canals, M.; Lastras, G.; Cattaneo, A.; Frigola, J.; Costa, S.; Berndt, C.

    2011-12-01

    Fluid seepage has been considered as the most plausible explanation to account for slope instabilities in the Eivissa Channel in between the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean Sea. In situ geotechnical tests and sediment cores obtained in the Ana Slide area, on the Balearic slope of the Eivissa Channel, suggest that the development of the basal failure surface (BFS) was favoured by contrasting hydro-mechanical properties between a coarse unit (U7) charged with methane and a fine-grained unit above (U6). The presence of past methane seepage has been inferred from high magnetic susceptibility values found in sediments from the headwall area and is supported by seismic reflection data. Geotechnical data from piezocone tests, laboratory analyses and numerical calculations indicate degradation of the undrained shear strength generated by methane exsolution and expansion as the only plausible mechanism to explain the origin of Ana Slide. The probability of failure for different critical failure surfaces has been investigated by using the SAMU-3D slope stability model taking into account the role of free gas in the development of the landslide. According to SAMU-3D, the most probable failure surface is related to a minimum degradation of the undrained shear strength of units U6 and U7 of 95% and a basal failure surface developed at the base of U6, which acted as a weak layer. Wheeler's theory suggests that 9% of free-gas saturation in U7 is enough to reduce the undrained shear strength by 95%. However, using the theory of the undrained equilibrium behaviour of gassy sediments we conclude that the excess fluid pressure generated by gas exsolution and expansion is not relevant to bring the slope to fail.

  16. Mesoscale Dynamics, Lateral and Vertical Mixing in China Seas and Western Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-30

    Mixing in China Seas and Western Pacific Iossif Lozovatsky University of Notre Dame, Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences Notre...other transects were taken ~ 30 and 60 miles to the west (see Fig. 1). 1 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...AND SUBTITLE Mesoscale Dynamics, Lateral and Vertical Mixing in China Seas and Western Pacific 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM

  17. Methane in the South China Sea and the Western Philippine Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Hsiao-Chun; Chen, Chen-Tung Arthur; Borges, Alberto V.; DelValls, T. Angel; Chang, Yu-Chang

    2017-03-01

    Approximately 700 water samples from the South China Sea (SCS) and 300 water samples from the western Philippine Sea (wPS) were collected during eight cruises from August 2003 to July 2007 to determine methane (CH4) distributions from the surface to a depth of 4250 m. The surface CH4 concentrations exceeded atmospheric equilibrium, both in the SCS and the wPS, and the concentrations were 4.5±3.6 and 3.0±1.2 nmol L-1, respectively. The sea-to-air fluxes were calculated, and the SCS and the wPS were found to emit CH4 to the atmosphere at 8.6±6.4 μmol m-2 d-1 and 4.9±4.9 μmol m-2 d-1, respectively. In the SCS, CH4 emissions were higher over the continental shelf (11.0±7.4 μmol m-2 d-1) than over the deep ocean (6.1±6.0 μmol m-2 d-1), owing to greater biological productivity and closer coupling with the sediments on the continental shelf. The SCS emitted 30.1×106 mol d-1 CH4 to the atmosphere and exported 1.82×106 mol d-1 CH4 to the wPS. The concentrations of both CH4 and chlorophyll a were high in the 150 m surface layer of the wPS, but were not significantly correlated with each other. CH4 concentrations generally declined with increasing depth below the euphotic zone but remained constant below 1,000 m, both in the SCS and the wPS. Some high CH4 concentrations were observed at mid-depths and bottom waters in the SCS, and were most likely caused by the release of CH4 from gas hydrates or gas seepage.

  18. Finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography of the western Mediterranean: Mapping its lithospheric structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomeras, I.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Liu, K.; Villasenor, A.; Carbonell, R.; Harnafi, M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a 3-D shear wave velocity model for the crust and upper mantle of the western Mediterranean from Rayleigh wave tomography. We analyzed the fundamental mode in the 20-167 s period band (6.0-50.0 mHz) from earthquakes recorded by a number of temporary and permanent seismograph arrays. Using the two-plane wave method, we obtained phase velocity dispersion curves that were inverted for an isotropic Vs model that extends from the southern Iberian Massif, across the Gibraltar Arc and the Atlas mountains to the Saharan Craton. The area of the western Mediterranean that we have studied has been the site of complex subduction, slab rollback, and simultaneous compression and extension during African-European convergence since the Oligocene. The shear velocity model shows high velocities beneath the Rif from 65 km depth and beneath the Granada Basin from ˜70 km depth that extend beneath the Alboran Domain to more than 250 km depth, which we interpret as a near-vertical slab dangling from beneath the western Alboran Sea. The slab appears to be attached to the crust beneath the Rif and possibly beneath the Granada Basin and Sierra Nevada where low shear velocities (3.8 km/s) are mapped to >55 km depth. The attached slab is pulling down the Gibraltar Arc crust, thickening it, and removing the continental margin lithospheric mantle beneath both Iberia and Morocco as it descends into the deeper mantle. Thin lithosphere is indicated by very low upper mantle velocities beneath the Alboran Sea, above and east of the dangling slab and beneath the Cenozoic volcanics.

  19. Dynamical downscaling of future sea-level change in the western North Pacific using ROMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Z.

    2014-12-01

    The western North Pacific to the east of Japan is one of the regions where sea-level rise is predicted to the larger than the global mean in CMIP5 models as shown in IPCC AR5. One of the causes of the spatial variations of the sea-level is change in ocean circulation, and this effect can be important in western boundary regions, where changes of strong western boundary current can cause large sea-level changes. However, the current climate models cannot properly represent western boundary currents due to coarse model resolution. Therefore, it is desirable to perform downscaling of future sea-level changes using a regional ocean model with a high model resolution for western boundary current regions using forcings and boundary conditions taken from climate model outputs. This study investigates future regional sea-level rise by performing dynamical downscaling in the western North Pacific, using the regional ocean model system (ROMS) with eddy-permitting 0.25-degree resolution over the North Pacific. In order to evaluate possible extremely large regional sea-level rise, the Model for Interdisciplinary Research on Climate Earth System Model (MIROC-ESM) under RCP8.5 scenario is chosen because this model exhibits large sea-level rise among CMIP5 models in this region. ROMS are run for two epochs; one is 1950-2000 and the other is 2051-2100, and the last 20-years are analyzed. The model integration is now ongoing, and the major differences between the two runs will be reported at the meeting.

  20. Deuterium excess as a proxy for sea ice extent in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, 1882-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, K. E.; Bertler, N.; Zwartz, D.; Trompetter, B.; Millet, M.; Davy, P.

    2011-12-01

    Deuterium excess in a high-resolution ice core extracted from the Whitehall Glacier (WHG) is highly sensitive to sea ice extent since observations began in 1979. Seasonal sea ice extent has increased significantly in the Ross Sea since 1995, creating a dipole between the Ross Sea and the Amundsen and Bellinghausen Sea Coasts, which have experienced significant sea ice loss. The reasons for the spatial differences in sea ice anomalies is thought to be primarily related to the phase of the Southern Annular Mode (SAM), the primary climate driver in this sector of Antarctica, and the complex interactions of SAM with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). A positive phase of SAM leads to deeper low pressure anomalies in the Amundsen Sea; cooler and stronger southerly winds in the western Ross Sea, and wind-driven sea ice advance, particularly when it is reinforced by La Nina conditions. In the WHG ice core, deuterium excess has mean values of 9.5 per mil from 1979 until 1994 and 5.2 per mil after 1995. This ~5 per mil shift is concurrent with a change from negative to positive sea ice extent anomalies in the Ross Sea and a concurrent decrease in marine trace elements (Na, Mg, V, Rb). We argue that increased southerly winds since 1995 (related to a more positive SAM) have increased the area of the Ross Sea and Terra Nova Bay polynas resulting in increased sea ice extent. Because sea surface temperatures (SST) are very low over these polynas, particularly in the austral autumn and winter, the deuterium excess signal at the Whitehall Glacier is highly sensitive to the amount of local moisture input and the seasonality of this moisture contribution. Increased local moisture, with low SST, results in low deuterium excess and therefore an inverse relationship with sea ice extent. In the context of the 125-year span of the WHG record, (1882-2006), deuterium excess is markedly high (and sea ice coverage is therefore expected to have been anomalously low) in the 1950s, '60s

  1. Pollutant lad sources and deposition in the Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miralles, J.; Radakovitch, O.; Véron, A.; Cochran, J. K.; Masqué, P.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.

    2003-05-01

    Long term measurements of atmospheric fluxes of contaminants such as lead are difficult to sustain in terms of logistic and experimental strategy. We collected a soil core in the Camargue (Rhone Delta) and used multiple geocheinical tracers (^{210}Pb, ^{239}Pu, ^{239}Pu and stable lead isotopes) to estimate the atmospheric supply of pollutant lead at 93μg.cm^{-2}). We compared this inventoly to pollutant lead inventorie in sediment cores from the Gulf of Lions continental margin and the Alboran Sea. The results showed the atmospheric value in the former area while the latter area showed enhanced inventories. We hypothesize that the large inventory in the Alboran Sea is due to specific hydrographic conditions (including up-welling and a geostrophic front) in this region of the Western Mediterranean that result in enhanced scavenging of lead and other reactive tracers. Despite these different level of accumulations, lead isotope imprints in surficial sediments demonstrate the dominance of atmospheric deposition to the sites.

  2. STS-32 Earth observation of the western Coral Sea and the Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-32 Earth observation taken onboard Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, is of the western Coral Sea and the Great Barrier Reef. The scene shows phytoplankton or algal bloom in the northwest Coral Sea. The western Coral Sea and the Great Barrier Reef waters offshore Queensland, Australia are the sites of some of the larger concentrations or 'blooms' of phytoplankton and algae in the open ocean. In the instance illustrated here, the leading edge of a probable concentration of algae or phytoplankton is seen as a light irregular line and sheen between the offshore Great Barrier Reef and the Queensland coast. Previous phytoplankton concentrations in this area have been reported by ships at sea as having formed floating mats as thick as two meters.

  3. Genetic stock identification of immature chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) in the western Bering Sea, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Minho; Kim, Suam; Low, Loh-Lee

    2016-03-01

    Genetic stock identification studies have been widely applied to Pacific salmon species to estimate stock composition of complex mixed-stock fisheries. In a September-October 2004 survey, 739 chum salmon ( Oncorhynchus keta) specimens were collected from 23 stations in the western Bering Sea. We determined the genetic stock composition of immature chum salmon based on the previous mitochondria DNA baseline. Each regional estimate was computed based on the conditional maximum likelihood method using 1,000 bootstrap resampling and then pooled to the major regional groups: Korea - Japan - Primorie (KJP) / Russia (RU) / Northwest Alaska (NWA) / Alaska Peninsula - Southcentral Alaska - Southeast Alaska - British Columbia - Washington (ONA). The stock composition of immature chum salmon in the western Bering Sea was a mix of 0.424 KJP, 0.421 RU, 0.116 NWA, and 0.039 ONA stocks. During the study period, the contribution of Asian chum salmon stocks gradually changed from RU to KJP stock. In addition, North American populations from NWA and ONA were small but present near the vicinity of the Russian coast and the Commander Islands, suggesting that the study areas in the western Bering Sea were an important migration route for Pacific chum salmon originating both from Asia and North America during the months of September and October. These results make it possible to better understand the chum salmon stock composition of the mixed-stock fisheries in the western Bering Sea and the stock-specific distribution pattern of chum salmon on the high-seas.

  4. Distribution of the bacteria Listeria monocytogenes in the western part of the Sea of Okhotsk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terekhova, V. E.; Sosnin, V. A.; Buzoleva, L. S.; Shakirov, R. B.

    2010-04-01

    The Amur River’s influence on the distribution of the opportunistic bacteria Listeria monocytogenes in the western part of the Sea of Okhotsk is discussed. The presence of Listeria in the seawater, sea ice, and sediments on the northeastern Sakhalin shelf and slope supports the idea of its connection with the Amur River discharge. The hypothesis of the allochtonic parentage of L. monocytogenes in the sea’s development is proved.

  5. Hydrography and biological resources in the western Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khen, G. V.; Basyuk, E. O.; Vanin, N. S.; Matveev, V. I.

    2013-10-01

    The variability of temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and nutrients (phosphate and silicate) in the west Bering Sea in the Russian Exclusive Economic Zone (REZ) since 1950 and the influence of these factors on the distribution and dynamics of hydrobionts were studied. Since 1950, the sea surface temperature has been gradually increasing, although non-significant cooling occurred in the last decade. In contrast, in the 50-200 m depth range, the temperature has been cooling. During the last 60 years, the salinity decreased by 0.30, 0.06-0.10 and 0.04 at the sea surface, at the 100-200 m layer and at the depth of 500 m, respectively, resulting in a strengthening of the vertical stability and weakening of the vertical water exchange. As a consequence, the oxygen concentrations at depths down to 1000 m decreased during this period. Phosphate and silicate concentrations increased during the last 40 years. The water exchange with the North Pacific (based on the discharge through the Kamchatka Strait) from the mid-1960s to the early 1990s was 2-3-fold higher than in the 1950s or from the mid-1990s to 2010. During the periods of weakened water exchange, the herring population sharply increased, while during periods of strengthened water exchange, pollock biomass increased. The increase of codfishes, flounders and sculpin biomass at the sea shelf during the second half of the 20th century coincided with sea surface warming. Since 2007, the westward water transport from the Aleutian Basin was almost half that during 2002-06, while the northward stream from Near Strait noticeably increased. The populations of immature chum, sockeye and chinook in the REZ declined because of their weakened input from the US zone, and these species were distributed mainly in the northern and eastern Russian waters. Taking into account the cooling since the middle of the last decade, the change in the intensity and direction of the Aleutian Low and Siberian High trends, and the westward

  6. Simulation of aerosol chemical compositions in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrit, Mounir; Kata Sartelet, Karine; Sciare, Jean; Marchand, Nicolas; Pey, Jorge; Sellegri, Karine

    2016-04-01

    This work aims at evaluating the chemical transport model (CTM) Polair3d of the air-quality modelling platform Polyphemus during the ChArMex summer campaigns of 2013, using ground-based measurements performed at ERSA (Cape Corsica, France), and at determining the processes controlling organic aerosol concentrations at ERSA. Simulations are compared to measurements for concentrations of both organic and inorganic species, as well as the ratio of biogenic versus anthropogenic particles, and organic aerosol properties (oxidation state). For inorganics, the concentrations of sulphate, sodium, chloride, ammonium and nitrate are compared to measurements. Non-sea-salt sulphate and ammonium concentrations are well reproduced by the model. However, because of the geographic location of the measurement station at Cape Corsica which undergoes strong wind velocities and sea effects, sea-salt sulphate, sodium, chloride and nitrate concentrations are strongly influenced by the parameterizations used for sea-salt emissions. Different parameterizations are compared and a parameterization is chosen after comparison to sodium measurements. For organics, the concentrations are well modelled when compared to experimental values. Anthropogenic particles are influenced by emission of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOC). Measurements allow us to refine the estimation of those emissions, which are currently missing in emission inventories. Although concentrations of biogenic particles are well simulated, the organic chemical compounds are not enough oxidised in the model. The observed oxidation state of organics shows that the oligomerisation of pinonaldehyde was over-estimated in Polyphemus. To improve the oxidation property of organics, the formation of extremely low volatile organic compounds from autoxidation of monoterpenes is added to Polyphemus, using recently published data from chamber experiments. These chemical compounds are highly oxygenated and are formed rapidly, as first

  7. Salinity dependence of recruitment success of the sea star Asterias rubens in the brackish western Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casties, Isabel; Clemmesen, Catriona; Melzner, Frank; Thomsen, Jörn

    2015-06-01

    Salinity strongly influences development and distribution of the sea star Asterias rubens. In Kiel Fjord, located in the western Baltic Sea, A. rubens is the only echinoderm species and one of the main benthic predators controlling blue mussel ( Mytilus edulis) abundance. However, Kiel Fjord with an average salinity of about 15 is located close to the eastern distribution boundary of A. rubens in the Baltic Sea. In this study, we combined field and laboratory investigations to test whether the salinity of Kiel Fjord is high enough to enable successful development of A. rubens. Sea star eggs were fertilized in vitro, and development was monitored in the laboratory at four salinities (9, 12, 15 and 18) for 10 weeks. At a salinity of 9, development ceased prior to the blastula stage. At a salinity of 12, no larvae reached metamorphosis. At higher salinities, larvae developed normally and metamorphosed into juvenile sea stars. Abundances of A. rubens larvae and settled juveniles were also observed in Kiel Fjord and correlated to salinity values measured from March until June during 6 years (2005-2010). Results revealed high A. rubens settlement rates only in 2009, the year when salinity was the highest and least variable during the period of spawning and larval development. It appears that only years with high and stable salinities permit recruitment of A. rubens in Kiel Fjord. Projected desalination of the Baltic Sea could shift the distribution of A. rubens in the western Baltic Sea north-westwards and may lead to local extinction of a keystone species of the benthic ecosystem.

  8. Abrupt climate shift in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, K; Chiggiato, J; Bryden, H L; Borghini, M; Ben Ismail, S

    2016-03-11

    One century of oceanographic measurements has evidenced gradual increases in temperature and salinity of western Mediterranean water masses, even though the vertical stratification has basically remained unchanged. Starting in 2005, the basic structure of the intermediate and deep layers abruptly changed. We report here evidence of reinforced thermohaline variability in the deep western basin with significant dense water formation events producing large amounts of warmer, saltier and denser water masses than ever before. We provide a detailed chronological order to these changes, giving an overview of the new water masses and following their route from the central basin interior to the east (toward the Tyrrhenian) and toward the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence of this climate shift, new deep waters outflowing through Gibraltar will impact the North Atlantic in terms of salt and heat input. In addition, modifications in the Mediterranean abyssal ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles are to be expected.

  9. Abrupt climate shift in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, K.; Chiggiato, J.; Bryden, H. L.; Borghini, M.; Ben Ismail, S.

    2016-03-01

    One century of oceanographic measurements has evidenced gradual increases in temperature and salinity of western Mediterranean water masses, even though the vertical stratification has basically remained unchanged. Starting in 2005, the basic structure of the intermediate and deep layers abruptly changed. We report here evidence of reinforced thermohaline variability in the deep western basin with significant dense water formation events producing large amounts of warmer, saltier and denser water masses than ever before. We provide a detailed chronological order to these changes, giving an overview of the new water masses and following their route from the central basin interior to the east (toward the Tyrrhenian) and toward the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence of this climate shift, new deep waters outflowing through Gibraltar will impact the North Atlantic in terms of salt and heat input. In addition, modifications in the Mediterranean abyssal ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles are to be expected.

  10. Abrupt climate shift in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, K.; Chiggiato, J.; Bryden, H. L.; Borghini, M.; Ben Ismail, S.

    2016-01-01

    One century of oceanographic measurements has evidenced gradual increases in temperature and salinity of western Mediterranean water masses, even though the vertical stratification has basically remained unchanged. Starting in 2005, the basic structure of the intermediate and deep layers abruptly changed. We report here evidence of reinforced thermohaline variability in the deep western basin with significant dense water formation events producing large amounts of warmer, saltier and denser water masses than ever before. We provide a detailed chronological order to these changes, giving an overview of the new water masses and following their route from the central basin interior to the east (toward the Tyrrhenian) and toward the Atlantic Ocean. As a consequence of this climate shift, new deep waters outflowing through Gibraltar will impact the North Atlantic in terms of salt and heat input. In addition, modifications in the Mediterranean abyssal ecosystems and biogeochemical cycles are to be expected. PMID:26965790

  11. The Cretaceous Polar and Western Interior seas: paleoenvironmental history and paleoceanographic linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder-Adams, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    This study reviews the Cretaceous histories of the Polar and Western Interior seas as recorded in the Canadian High Arctic Sverdrup Basin, Beaufort-Mackenzie Basin of northwest Canada and Western Canadian Foreland Basin. Newly emerging stratigraphic, paleoclimatic and paleoenvironmental interpretations from the polar realm allow for a fresh look at the response of this oceanic system to global climatic trends and sea-level histories over 35 Ma. Sverdrup basin localities on Axel Heiberg and Ellef Ringnes islands represent shelf to slope environments that contrasted with the shallow water and low gradient settings of the Canadian Western Interior Sea. Both marine systems, connected throughout Aptian to Maastrichtian time, responded to global transgressive-regressive cycles resulting in dynamic paleogeographic changes. The upper Aptian to Campanian succession of the Polar Sea shows at least two unconformable boundaries; one at the Albian/Cenomanian transition and another within the upper Cenomanian. The shallow basin setting and in particular the forebulge and backbulge settings of the Western Canadian Foreland Basin are characterized by multiple erosional surfaces throughout the Cretaceous succession. The Upper Albian disconformity is widely discernible close to the entrance of the Western Interior Sea to the Polar Sea. This suggests a short-lived closure of the latest Albian Mowry Sea that might have been responsible for the large loss of benthic foraminiferal species at this time. Several oceanic anoxic events are documented in these basins representing their response to global climate dynamics. During the Late Cretaceous temperature maximum benthic foraminiferal communities were severely restricted by bottom water hypoxia in both basins. A stratified water column might have been the result of increased freshwater runoff under warm, humid conditions. These conditions supported vegetation up into the polar latitudes that added abundant organic matter to marine shelf

  12. No evidence of metabolic depression in Western Alaskan juvenile Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus).

    PubMed

    Hoopes, Lisa A; Rea, Lorrie D; Christ, Aaron; Worthy, Graham A J

    2014-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) populations have undergone precipitous declines through their western Alaskan range over the last four decades with the leading hypothesis to explain this decline centering around changing prey quality, quantity, or availability for this species (i.e., nutritional stress hypothesis). Under chronic conditions of reduced food intake sea lions would conserve energy by limiting energy expenditures through lowering of metabolic rate known as metabolic depression. To examine the potential for nutritional stress, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition were measured in free-ranging juvenile Steller sea lions (N = 91) at three distinct geographical locations (Southeast Alaska, Prince William Sound, Central Aleutian Islands) using open-flow respirometry and deuterium isotope dilution, respectively. Average sea lion RMR ranged from 6.7 to 36.2 MJ d(-1) and was influenced by body mass, total body lipid, and to a lesser extent, ambient air temperature and age. Sea lion pups captured in the Aleutian Islands (region of decline) had significantly greater body mass and total body lipid stores when compared to pups from Prince William Sound (region of decline) and Southeast Alaska (stable region). Along with evidence of robust body condition in Aleutian Island pups, no definitive differences were detected in RMR between sea lions sampled between eastern and western populations that could not be accounted for by higher percent total body lipid content, suggesting that that at the time of this study, Steller sea lions were not experiencing metabolic depression in the locations studied.

  13. No Evidence of Metabolic Depression in Western Alaskan Juvenile Steller Sea Lions (Eumetopias jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Hoopes, Lisa A.; Rea, Lorrie D.; Christ, Aaron; Worthy, Graham A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) populations have undergone precipitous declines through their western Alaskan range over the last four decades with the leading hypothesis to explain this decline centering around changing prey quality, quantity, or availability for this species (i.e., nutritional stress hypothesis). Under chronic conditions of reduced food intake sea lions would conserve energy by limiting energy expenditures through lowering of metabolic rate known as metabolic depression. To examine the potential for nutritional stress, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and body composition were measured in free-ranging juvenile Steller sea lions (N = 91) at three distinct geographical locations (Southeast Alaska, Prince William Sound, Central Aleutian Islands) using open-flow respirometry and deuterium isotope dilution, respectively. Average sea lion RMR ranged from 6.7 to 36.2 MJ d−1 and was influenced by body mass, total body lipid, and to a lesser extent, ambient air temperature and age. Sea lion pups captured in the Aleutian Islands (region of decline) had significantly greater body mass and total body lipid stores when compared to pups from Prince William Sound (region of decline) and Southeast Alaska (stable region). Along with evidence of robust body condition in Aleutian Island pups, no definitive differences were detected in RMR between sea lions sampled between eastern and western populations that could not be accounted for by higher percent total body lipid content, suggesting that that at the time of this study, Steller sea lions were not experiencing metabolic depression in the locations studied. PMID:24416394

  14. First record of a Vestimentifera (Polychaeta: Siboglinidae) from chemosynthetic habitats in the western Mediterranean Sea—Biogeographical implications and future exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilário, A.; Comas, M. C.; Azevedo, L.; Pinheiro, L.; Ivanov, M. K.; Cunha, M. R.

    2011-02-01

    A new population of vestimentiferan tubeworms was discovered during a recent expedition to a mud volcano field in the Alboran Sea, western Mediterranean Sea. Morphological data and mitochondrial cytochrome-c-oxidase subunit 1 (COI) sequences show that the Alboran tubeworm is essentially identical to Lamellibrachia sp. found in the eastern Mediterranean. This is the first record of a vestimentiferan species in the western basin of the Mediterranean, an area with direct connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar and therefore of great importance to the study of distributional patterns and evolution of Mediterranean species. We examine the current hypotheses on the biogeographic distribution of vestimentiferan species in the eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea and conclude that independently of when Lamellibrachia colonized the Mediterranean, neither the present hydrological settings of both Mediterranean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, nor vestimentiferans reproductive biology are impeditive to the presence of the Mediterranean species of Lamellibrachia in the NE Atlantic. The West African and Lusitanian margins are the most likely places to find living populations of this species in the NE Atlantic.

  15. A Sea-Surface Radiation Data Set for Climate Applications in the Tropical Western Pacific and South China Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Chan, Pui-King; Yan, Michael M.-H.

    2000-01-01

    The sea-surface shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes have been retrieved from the radiances measured by Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 5. The surface radiation data set covers the domain 40S-40N and 90E-170W. The temporal resolution is 1 day, and the spatial resolution is 0.5 deg x 0.5 deg latitude-longitude. The retrieved surface radiation have been validated with the radiometric measurements at the Atmospheric Radiation Measuring (ARM) site on Manus island in the equatorial western Pacific for a period of 15 months. It has also been validated with the measurements at the radiation site on Dungsha island in the South China Sea during the South China Sea Monsoon Experiment (SCSMEX) Intensive Observing Period (May and June 1998). The data set is used to study the effect of El Nino and East Asian Summer monsoon on the heating of the ocean in the tropical western Pacific and the South China Sea. Interannual variations of clouds associated with El Nino and the East Asian Summer monsoon have a large impact on the radiative heating of the ocean. It has been found that the magnitude of the interannual variation of the seasonal mean surface radiative heating exceeds 40 W/sq m over large areas. Together with the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) shortwave fluxes at top of the atmosphere and the radiative transfer calculations of clear-sky fluxes, this surface radiation data set is also used to study the impact of clouds on the solar heating of the atmosphere. It is found that clouds enhance the atmospheric solar heating by approx. 20 W/sq m in the tropical western Pacific and the South China Sea. This result is important for evaluating the accuracy of solar flux calculations in clear and cloudy atmospheres.

  16. Western Pacific Air-Sea Interaction Study (W-PASS), Introduction and Highlights (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuda, A.

    2010-12-01

    Western Pacific Air-Sea Interaction Study (W-PASS), Introduction and Highlights Atsushi Tsuda Atmosphere and Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo In the western Pacific (WESTPAC) region, dust originating from Asian and Australian arid regions to the North and South Pacific, biomass burning emissions from the Southeast Asia to sub-tropical Pacific, and other anthropogenic substances are transported regionally and globally to affect cloud and rainfall patterns, air quality, and radiative budgets downwind. Deposition of these compounds into the Asian marginal seas and onto the Pacific Ocean influence surface primary productivity and species composition. In the WESTPAC region, subarctic, subtropical oceans and marginal seas are located relatively narrow latitudinal range and these areas are influenced by the dust and anthropogenic inputs. Moreover, anthropogenic emission areas are located between the arid region and the oceans. The W-PASS (Western Pacific Air-Sea interaction Study) project has been funded for 5 years as a part of SOLAS-Japan activity in the summer of 2006. We aim to resolve air-sea interaction through field observation studies mainly using research vessels and island observatories over the western Pacific. We have carried out 5 cruises to the western North Pacific focusing on air-sea interactions. Also, an intensive marine atmospheric observation including direct atmospheric deposition measurement was accomplished by a dozen W-PASS research groups at the NIES Atmospheric and Aerosol Monitoring Station of Cape Hedo in the northernmost tip of the Okinawa main Island facing the East China Sea in the spring 2008. A few weak Kosa (dust) events, anthropogenic air outflows, typical local air and occupation of marine background air were identified during the campaign period. The W-PASS has four research groups mainly focusing on VOC emissions, air-sea gas exchange processes, biogeochemical responses to dust depositions and its modeling. We also

  17. The distribution and composition of deep-sea microbenthos in a bathyal region of the western Coral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, Daniel M.

    1987-07-01

    The distribution and composition of bathyal (298-1610 m) microbenthos were examined on the Queensland continental slope, the Coral Sea Plateau and the adjacent Queensland and Townsville troughs in the western Coral Sea. Two conspicuous changes in community composition were recorded: (1) ciliates were undetected below 700 m and (2) yeasts and yeast-like cells were undetected above 1150 m. Densities of flagellates decreased, whereas amoebae densities increased significantly with water depth. Densities of living Foraminifera ( overlinex = 56 cm-2) increased significantly from the continental slope to the adjacent troughs. Bacterial numbers ranged from 0.1 to 71.0 × 10 8 cells g -1 dry wt of sediment and decreased significantly with water depth. Chlorophyll a (0.0-19.0 μg g -1 dry wt) and phaeopigment (0.0-4.9 μg g -1 dry wt) concentrations suggest that phytodetritus is a major source of organic matter in this tropical region. Concentrations of organic carbon (0.22-0.52%) and nitrogen (<0.01-0.02%) were low compared to most other deep-sea sediments, with a shallow sediment depth distribution indicating little burial of organic matter. These findings, coupled with the presence of abundant protozoan populations (˜10 6 m -2), suggest the potential for rapid microbial activity and dentrital utilization in bathyal surface sediments of the western Coral Sea.

  18. Amount and distribution of neustonic micro-plastic off the western Sardinian coast (Central-Western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    de Lucia, Giuseppe Andrea; Caliani, Ilaria; Marra, Stefano; Camedda, Andrea; Coppa, Stefania; Alcaro, Luigi; Campani, Tommaso; Giannetti, Matteo; Coppola, Daniele; Cicero, Anna Maria; Panti, Cristina; Baini, Matteo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Marsili, Letizia; Massaro, Giorgio; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Matiddi, Marco

    2014-09-01

    A plethora of different sampling methodologies has been used to document the presence of micro-plastic fragments in sea water. European Marine Strategy suggests to improve standard techniques to make future data comparable. We use Manta Trawl sampling technique to quantify abundance and distribution of micro-plastic fragments in Sardinian Sea (Western Mediterranean), and their relation with phthalates and organoclorine in the neustonic habitat. Our results highlight a quite high average plastic abundance value (0.15 items/m(3)), comparable to the levels detected in other areas of the Mediterranean. "Site" is the only factor that significantly explains the differences observed in micro-plastic densities. Contaminant levels show high spatial and temporal variation. In every station, HCB is the contaminant with the lowest concentration while PCBs shows the highest levels. This work, in line with Marine Strategy directives, represents a preliminary study for the analysis of plastic impact on marine environment of Sardinia.

  19. Trends in sea ice cover within habitats used by bowhead whales in the western Arctic.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sue E; Laidre, Kristin L

    2006-06-01

    We examined trends in sea ice cover between 1979 and 2002 in four months (March, June, September, and November) for four large (approximately 100,000 km2) and 12 small (approximately 10,000 km2) regions of the western Arctic in habitats used by bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus). Variation in open water with year was significant in all months except March, but interactions between region and year were not. Open water increased in both large and small regions, but trends were weak with least-squares regression accounting for < or =34% of the total variation. In large regions, positive trends in open water were strongest in September. Linear fits were poor, however, even in the East Siberian, Chukchi, and Beaufort seas, where basin-scale analyses have emphasized dramatic sea ice loss. Small regions also showed weak positive trends in open water and strong interannual variability. Open water increased consistently in five small regions where bowhead whales have been observed feeding or where oceanographic models predict prey entrainment, including: (1) June, along the northern Chukotka coast, near Wrangel Island, and along the Beaufort slope; (2) September, near Wrangel Island, the Barrow Arc, and the Chukchi Borderland; and (3) November, along the Barrow Arc. Conversely, there was very little consistent change in sea ice cover in four small regions considered winter refugia for bowhead whales in the northern Bering Sea, nor in two small regions that include the primary springtime migration corridor in the Chukchi Sea. The effects of sea ice cover on bowhead whale prey availability are unknown but can be modeled via production and advection pathways. Our conceptual model suggests that reductions in sea ice cover will increase prey availability along both pathways for this population. This analysis elucidates the variability inherent in the western Arctic marine ecosystem at scales relevant to bowhead whales and contrasts basin-scale depictions of extreme sea ice

  20. Eastern-western Arctic sea ice analysis, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This publication is the 20th edition of the annual Arctic sea-ice atlases prepared by the JIC. The atlas contains weekly charts depicting Northern Hemisphere ice conditions and extent. The significant use of high resolution satellite imagery, combined with valuable ice reconnaissance data from various sources, has greatly improved the accuracy of these analyses. The purpose of this atlas is to provide the user with reliable weekly hemispheric ice analyses. These charts are prepared by experienced Navy and NOAA ice analysts who plot and evaluate numerous data sources: (a) Conventional shore station, ship, and aerial reconnaissance observations; and (b) Satellite data from various sensors. Table I, located on the inside back cover, lists these sensors and their availability. A final product is synthesized from the inputs described above. When insufficient data is available, estimated boundaries are plotted, using meteorological data and computer generated ice drift vectors to determine estimated ice position.

  1. Late quaternary oceanographic conditions in the Western Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsepyan, E. A.; Ivanova, E. V.; Max, L.; Riethdorf, J.-R.; Nürnberg, D.; Tiedemann, R.

    2013-03-01

    The benthic and planktonic foraminiferal assemblages and the distribution of coarse grain-size factions were studied in the upper 4.5 m of the Core SO201-2-85KL (57°30.30' N, 170°24.79' E, water depth 968 m) retrieved from the Shirshov Ridge. This part of the core covers 7.5 to 50 kyr BP. The glacial period is established to be characterized by low surface water productivity, the wide distribution of sea ice and/or icebergs in this area, and a high oxygen concentration in the bottom layer. Enhanced productivity is inferred from the maximum abundance of planktonic foraminifers at the very beginning of the deglaciation. The late Bølling-Allerød interstadial and the early Holocene were marked by the further two-phase increase in the surface productivity and the weakened ventilation of the bottom water.

  2. Floating plastic debris in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Orejón, Luis F; Sardá, Rafael; Ramis-Pujol, Juan

    2016-09-01

    In two sea voyages throughout the Mediterranean (2011 and 2013) that repeated the historical travels of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria (1847-1915), 71 samples of floating plastic debris were obtained with a Manta trawl. Floating plastic was observed in all the sampled sites, with an average weight concentration of 579.3 g dw km(-2) (maximum value of 9298.2 g dw km(-2)) and an average particle concentration of 147,500 items km(-2) (the maximum concentration was 1,164,403 items km(-2)). The plastic size distribution showed microplastics (<5 mm) in all the samples. The most abundant particles had a surface area of approximately 1 mm(2) (the mesh size was 333 μm). The general estimate obtained was a total value of 1455 tons dw of floating plastic in the entire Mediterranean region, with various potential spatial accumulation areas.

  3. Midwater Bioluminescence Assessment in the West Alboran Gyre (Mediterranean Sea)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Mediterranean (see Mills and Goy, m 1988, for review), moving up into the upper 100 m during the night. Our night dive observations tented to support that...413 484.7 91.4I 57)491 Nepheloctena white- tent -ade 2939-CGS Creno 511 491.2 86.3 P42)491 Ocyropsis macalata BWI-4 Creno 356 492.2 86.3 F39)491...umbrellar margin. Solmissus (the single most abundant medusa) is also transparent and brightly luminescent from the lateral umbrellar margin,the velum

  4. Structure of the central Terror Rift, western Ross Sea, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Jerome; Wilson, Terry; Henrys, Stuart

    2007-01-01

    The Terror Rift is a zone of post-middle Miocene faulting and volcanism along the western margin of the West Antarctic Rift System. A new seismic data set from NSF geophysical cruise NBP04-01, integrated with the previous dataset to provide higher spatial resolution, has been interpreted in this study in order to improve understanding of the architecture and history of the Terror Rift. The Terror Rift contains two components, a structurally-controlled rollover anticlinal arch intruded by younger volcanic bodies and an associated synclinal basin. Offsets and trend changes in fault patterns have been identified, coincident with shifts in the location of depocenters that define rift sub-basins, indicating that the Terror Rift is segmented by transverse structures. Multiple phases of faulting all post-date 17 Ma, including faults cutting the seafloor surface, indicating Neogene rifting and possible modern activity.

  5. The impact of the Indonesian Throughflow and tidal mixing on the summertime sea surface temperature in the western Indonesian Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kida, Shinichiro; Wijffels, Susan

    2012-09-01

    A numerical model is used to investigate how the Indonesian Throughflow and tidal mixing are affecting the seasonal cycle of the sea surface temperature (SST) in the Indonesian Seas. The SST in these seas is considered to play a major role on the development of the Australian Summer Monsoon. Based on a quantitative assessment of the heat budget, the Indonesian Throughflow is found to affect the SST in the western Indonesian Seas primarily during Austral summer. The Throughflow advects the warm water from the Pacific and maintains the warm SST when the Northwestern Monsoonal wind induces coastal upwelling along the northern side of the Nusa Tenggara and cools the SST. Such balance is supported by observations. The hydrographic sections show the isotherms tilting upward toward the northern coast of the Nusa Tenggara when satellite observations show slight decrease of the SST in the region. Tidal mixing is found to cool the SST during summer the most. This is because the Northwest Monsoonal wind induces coastal upwelling near where strong tidal mixing above seamount occurs and brings the tidally well-mixed upper thermocline water to the surface. The surface Ekman flow also spreads this cool water around the Banda Sea where tidal mixing does not occur. The impact of tidal mixing on the SST is also found to come largely from that occurring above seamounts. The impact of tidal mixing on the continental shelves is limited to shelf-breaks because cold subsurface water is necessary for enhanced vertical mixing to cool the SST.

  6. Overflow dynamics and bottom water formation in the western Ross Sea: Influence of tides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Danilov, S.; Hellmer, H. H.; SchröTer, J.

    2010-10-01

    The tidal impact on overflow dynamics and bottom water production in the western Ross Sea is studied with the Finite Element Ocean Model, which allows embedding a mesh with 0.5 km resolution in a coarse resolution (30 km) setup without nesting. The simulated overflow properties inside and downstream of the western Ross Sea are described. The overflow exhibits pronounced variability at both daily and spring-neap tidal time scales in the western Ross Sea. Tides increase mixing over both the outer shelf and upper slope there. Plume jets are shaped by tidal currents at a bathymetric bend west of the Drygalski Trough mouth, descending rapidly and supplying the bottom water. A fraction of shelf water remains over the shelf and propagates westward from the Ross Sea, but it does not contribute significantly to bottom water formation because of energetic mixing over the upper slope. Compared to a simulation without tidal forcing, tides (with the major K1 and O1 constituents) increase the outflow rate over the continental slope off Cape Adare by about 70%. A set of sensitivity experiments show that the rate of bottom water production is not a monotonic function of the tidal currents amplitude. Tidal forcing with intermediate strength leads to the most efficient bottom water formation.

  7. Shifts in nursery habitat utilization by 0-group plaice in the western Dutch Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Vânia; Witte, Johannes I. J.; Tulp, Ingrid; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2016-05-01

    Since the mid-1980s major changes in spatiotemporal patterns of distribution of juvenile plaice have occurred in the Wadden Sea. Large juvenile (I- and II-group) plaice have almost completely disappeared from the intertidal flats in spring and summer and are no longer found in subtidal and tidal channels in autumn, consistent with an offshore movement reported in the nearshore coastal zone. In this paper we evaluate the present functional importance of the western Wadden Sea as a nursery for young-of-the-year (0-group) plaice and the changes over time compared to the mid-1980s period by analyzing abundance, growth and distribution patterns in various intertidal, subtidal and tidal channel areas. Spatiotemporal changes in habitat use were observed compared to 1986 based on a depth-stratified sampling repeated two decades later, in 2009. Present results showed that the utilization of the western Wadden Sea has greatly changed, with changing patterns of depth distribution of the 0-group. Settlement of 0-group plaice still occurred in the intertidal, however, shortly thereafter, they moved to deeper waters. Such shift in habitat use did not seem to have affected growth rates. Overall, it seems that the western Wadden Sea can still support young-of-the-year plaice population and in spite of changes in habitat use, the functional importance of the area for this group has not been affected.

  8. Hydrodynamic modelling of coastal seas: the role of tidal dynamics in the Messina Strait, Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucco, Andrea; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Olita, Antonio; Fazioli, Leopoldo; Ribotti, Alberto; Sinerchia, Matteo; Tedesco, Costanza; Sorgente, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    This work explores the importance of considering tidal dynamics when modelling the general circulation in the Messina Strait, a narrow passage connecting the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian subbasins in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The tides and the induced water circulation in this Strait are among the most intense oceanographic processes in the Mediterranean Sea. The quantification of these effects can be particularly relevant for operational oceanographic systems aimed to provide short-term predictions of the main hydrodynamics in the Western Mediterranean subbasins. A numerical approach based on the use of a high-resolution hydrodynamic model was followed to reproduce the tides propagation and the wind-induced and thermohaline water circulation within the Strait and in surrounding areas. A set of numerical simulations was carried out to quantify the role of the Strait dynamics on the larger-scale water circulation. The obtained results confirmed the importance of a correct representation of the hydrodynamics in the Messina Strait even when focusing on predicting the water circulation in the external sea traits. In fact, model results show that tidal dynamics deeply impact the reproduction of the instantaneous and residual circulation pattern, waters thermohaline properties and transport dynamics both inside the Messina Strait and in the surrounding coastal and open waters.

  9. Sea surface temperature variability in the North Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion) during the Common Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Jalali, Bassem; Martrat, Belen; Schmidt, Sabine; Bassetti, Maria-Angela; Kallel, Nejib

    2016-12-01

    This study investigates the multidecadal-scale variability of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the convection region of the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea) over the full past 2000 yr (Common Era) using alkenone biomarkers. Our data show colder SSTs by 1.7 °C over most of the first millennium (200-800 AD) and by 1.3 °C during the Little Ice Age (LIA; 1400-1850 AD) than the 20th century mean (17.9 °C). Although on average warmer, those of the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (1000-1200 AD) were lower by 1 °C. We found a mean SST warming of 2 °C/100 yr over the last century in close agreement with the 0.22 and 0.26 °C/decade values calculated for the western Mediterranean Sea from in situ and satellite data, respectively. Our results also reveal strongly fluctuating SSTs characterized by cold extremes followed by abrupt warming during the LIA. We suggest that the coldest decades of the LIA were likely caused by prevailing negative EA states and associated anticyclone blocking over the North Atlantic resulting in cold continental northeasterly winds to blow over Western Europe and the Mediterranean region.

  10. Hierarchical modeling of bycatch rates of sea turtles in the western North Atlantic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gardner, B.; Sullivan, P.J.; Epperly, S.; Morreale, S.J.

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that the locations of the endangered loggerhead Caretta caretta and critically endangered leatherback Dermochelys coriacea sea turtles are influenced by water temperatures, and that incidental catch rates in the pelagic longline fishery vary by region. We present a Bayesian hierarchical model to examine the effects of environmental variables, including water temperature, on the number of sea turtles captured in the US pelagic longline fishery in the western North Atlantic. The modeling structure is highly flexible, utilizes a Bayesian model selection technique, and is fully implemented in the software program WinBUGS. The number of sea turtles captured is modeled as a zero-inflated Poisson distribution and the model incorporates fixed effects to examine region-specific differences in the parameter estimates. Results indicate that water temperature, region, bottom depth, and target species are all significant predictors of the number of loggerhead sea turtles captured. For leatherback sea turtles, the model with only target species had the most posterior model weight, though a re-parameterization of the model indicates that temperature influences the zero-inflation parameter. The relationship between the number of sea turtles captured and the variables of interest all varied by region. This suggests that management decisions aimed at reducing sea turtle bycatch may be more effective if they are spatially explicit. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  11. Valencia gorge: possible Messinian refill channel for the western Mediterranean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, M.E.; Gardner, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    A deeply incised gorge is buried nearly 800 m beneath the floor of the Valencia Trough in the western Mediterranean Sea. The gorge is steeply cut more than 200 m into Messinian evaporite deposits and has been mapped for more than 40 km. Published and unpublished seismic profiles show the total length to be nearly 300 km. It may have been connected near Valencia with the Betic Strait, the portal in southern Spain proposed to link the Atlantic and the western Mediterranean. -from Authors

  12. Neogene Development of the Terror Rift, western Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauli, C.; Sorlien, C. C.; Busetti, M.; De Santis, L.; Wardell, N.; Henrys, S. A.; Geletti, R.; Wilson, T. J.; Luyendyk, B. P.

    2015-12-01

    Terror Rift is a >300 km-long, 50-70 km-wide, 14 km-deep sedimentary basin at the edge of the West Antarctic Rift System, adjacent to the Transantarctic Mountains. It is cut into the broader Victoria Land Basin (VLB). The VLB experienced 100 km of mid-Cenozoic extension associated with larger sea floor spreading farther north. The post-spreading (Neogene) development of Terror Rift is not well understood, in part because of past use of different stratigraphic age models. We use the new Rossmap seismic stratigraphy correlated to Cape Roberts and Andrill cores in the west and to DSDP cores in the distant East. This stratigraphy, and new fault interpretations, was developed using different resolutions of seismic reflection data included those available from the Seismic Data Library System. Depth conversion used a new 3D velocity model. A 29 Ma horizon is as deep as 8 km in the south, and a 19 Ma horizon is >5 km deep there and 4 km-deep 100 km farther north. There is a shallower northern part of Terror Rift misaligned with the southern basin across a 50 km right double bend. It is bounded by steep N-S faults down-dropping towards the basin axis. Between Cape Roberts and Ross Island, the Oligocene section is also progressively-tilted. This Oligocene section is not imaged within northern Terror Rift, but the simplest hypothesis is that some of the Terror Rift-bounding faults were active at least during Oligocene through Quaternary time. Many faults are normal separation, but some are locally vertical or even reverse-separation in the upper couple of km. However, much of the vertical relief of the strata is due to progressive tilting (horizontal axis rotation) and not by shallow faulting. Along the trend of the basin, the relief alternates between tilting and faulting, with a tilting margin facing a faulted margin across the Rift, forming asymmetric basins. Connecting faults across the basin form an accommodation zone similar to other oblique rifts. The Neogene basin is

  13. Characterization of the lipid fraction of wild sea urchin from the Sardinian Sea (western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Angioni, Alberto; Addis, Pierantonio

    2014-02-01

    The fatty acid (FA) composition of Spatangus purpureus, Echinus melo, Sphaerechinus granularis, and Paracentrotus lividus, sea urchins, has been studied. Sea urchins were collected at different depth along Sardinia coast in the Mediterranean sea, and their gonad was measured, separated, and analyzed for FA composition by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 53 FAs were detected, 16 saturated (SFA), 10 monounsaturated (MUFA), 9 polyunsaturated (PUFA), and 13 highly unsaturated (HUFA). Moreover, 5 furan FAs (FFAs) were revealed for the first time in sea urchin. The HUFA and PUFA classes were the most represented accounting for almost 80% of total FAs. Among these compounds, C20:4 n6 (19.64, 20.52, 23.37, and 8.48 mg/g, respectively) and C22:6 n3 (19.68, 20.05, 3.83, and 1.78 mg/g, respectively) were the most abundant. The results of principal component analysis indicated that the sea urchin samples could be clearly discriminated with respect to their FAs composition.

  14. Sea surface temperature and salinity seasonal changes in the western Solomon and Bismarck Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcroix, Thierry; Radenac, Marie-Hélène; Cravatte, Sophie; Alory, Gaël.; Gourdeau, Lionel; Léger, Fabien; Singh, Awnesh; Varillon, David

    2014-04-01

    We analyze mean and seasonal change of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Salinity (SSS) in the Solomon and Bismarck Seas, using 1977-2009 in situ data collected from Voluntary Observing Ships. Covariability of these two variables with surface wind, altimeter-derived and model-derived horizontal currents, precipitation, and Sepik River discharge are examined. SST and SSS show large annual oscillations in the Solomon Sea, with the coldest and saltiest waters occurring in July/August mainly due to horizontal advection. In contrast, they show large semiannual oscillations in the Bismarck Sea. There, the coldest and saltiest waters happen in January/February, when the northwest monsoon winds drive coastal upwelling, and in July/August, when the New Guinea Coastal Current advects cold and high-salinity waters from the Solomon Sea through Vitiaz Strait. The low SSS values observed in April/May, stuck between the January/February and July/August SSS maxima, are further enhanced by the Sepik River discharge annual maximum. A high-resolution model strengthens the conclusions we derive from observations. The impacts of ENSO on SST and SSS are also discussed with, for instance, saltier-than-average and fresher-than-average waters during the 2002-2003 El Niño and 2007-2008 La Niña, respectively.

  15. Assessment of impact from the Fukushima nuclear plant accidental emission on western Arctic seas (Barents Sea case study)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, G. G.; Il'in, G. V.; Kasatkina, N. E.; Usyagina, I. S.; Pavel'skaya, E. V.

    2012-10-01

    In March-April 2011, isotopes typical for the Fukushima-1 nuclear power plant (NPP) were found in high-latitude areas of Europe (Svalbard and Kola Peninsula). The background characteristics of the spectrum and activity of radionuclides in the components of the marine environment and the Barents Sea biota were studied for the rest of 2011. It has been shown that these characteristics are within the limits of the stable background formed by the global circulation of radionuclides. Radionuclides that can reliably indicate a trace from the Fukushima-1 NPP have not been found. It is concluded that the probable humid and dry precipitation of isotopes into the land water-catchment area and the marine basin had no effect on the radioecological situation in the coastal zones and in the open-sea parts of the western Arctic.

  16. Ecosystem model of the western Wadden Sea: A bridge between science and management?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindeboom, H. J.; van Raaphorst, W.; Ridderinkhof, H.; van der Veer, H. W.

    1989-09-01

    This paper describes the construction, validation and application of a mathematical ecosystem model of the western Wadden Sea. This model is based upon the Ems-Dollard ecosystem model, but also includes a two-dimensional transport submodel, a benthic and epibenthic sublitoral submodel and nutrient regeneration. In 1986, an extensive field programme was executed to collect data for model validation. Apart from the subtidal processes the validation indicates that the model simulates the different state variables reasonably well. The applicability of the model for management purposes was tested in four case studies concerning: dredging activities, eutrophication, commercial mussel cultrue and oil spills and other calamities. It is concluded that the western Wadden Sea model in general is a useful tool in evaluating the impact of certain anthropogenic activities in the area.

  17. Causes and consequences of hypoxia on the Western Black Sea Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; Gomoiu, Marian-Trajan; Naeher, Sebastian; Secrieru, Dan; Teaca, Adrian

    2013-04-01

    The Black Sea, containing the world's largest natural anoxic basin since ca 7500 years (Jones & Gagnon 1994), suffers from combined effects of anthropogenic eutrophication, overfishing and climate variability (Oguz & Gilbert 2007). We discuss causes for hypoxia in western shelf waters. Freshwater runoff by the large rivers Danube, Dniester and Dnieper results in strong thermohaline stratification that limits bottom water ventilation on the north-western shelf during warm seasons. This makes the western shelf generally prone to oxygen deficiency. During autumn and winter, the thermohaline stratification is eroded by frequent storms and the water column is re-oxygenated. The causal chain of anthropogenic eutrophication since the 1970s led to seasonal hypoxia on the western shelf for more than 20 years causing the catastrophic decline of key shelf habitats (Mee et al. 2005). More frequent and intense algal blooms, red tides (i.e. Noctiluca, Prorocentrum cordatum) and changes in species composition in phytoplankton resulted in deposition of surplus organic matter on the seafloor increasing the oxygen demand, with serious consequences for pelagic and benthic ecosystem structure and functioning. During hypoxia, release of reduced substances like ammonia and phosphate from the sediment to the water fuelled eutrophication internally (Friedrich et al. 2002). The combination of existing data with those gained during EU FP7 HYPOX on the Romanian shelf enables to assess the development of bottom water hypoxia and changes in benthic community and hence, the current state and trends in recovery of the Romanian Black Sea shelf ecosystem. Mud worms are the winners of eutrophication and hypoxia, whereas filter feeders like Mytilus galloprovincialis and Acanthocardia paucicostata are the losers. The western shelf benthic ecosystem showed a significant reduction in species diversity, a reduction of biofilter strength due to the loss of filter-feeder populations and flourishing of

  18. Assessment of Tsunami Hazard for Western coast of the Black sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaytsev, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim; Yalciner, Ahmet; Ionescu, Constantin; Iren, Moldovan

    2015-04-01

    Tsunami hazard in the Black Sea is considered low to moderate but not negligible. At present, New European Tsunami Catalogue counts 29 historical tsunami events in the Black Sea, 22 of which are considered as reliable. Some of them can be affected Romanian coast including a strong neares earthquakes event 544/545 of offshore Varna (Bulgaria). In this study we discuss a forecast of possible tsunami wave heights at Romanian coasts of the Black Sea. In the analysis, the prognostic numerical simulations are performed by using 55 tsunami events. In the simulations non-linear Boussinesq equation model in the Black Sea is used. All tsunami sources are selected as uniformly distributed in the Black Sea basin. The results of prognostic numerical simulations are compared with the results of numerical modelling of two instrumentally measured tsunami events (1939 and 1966). On this basis a preliminary forecast of tsunami inundation map along the Romanian coast of the Black Sea is developed. As the summary the level of tsunami risk is discussed by considering recent development of the coastal utilization in the Black sea.On this basis a preliminary forecast of tsunami inundation map along the Western coast of the Black Sea is given developed. Certainly a the tsunami the risk in the Black Sea is not too high but considering development of the European coastal infrastructure and utilization it becomes important. This work is funded by project ASTARTE-Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839

  19. Biweekly Sea Surface Temperature over the South China Sea and its association with the Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaid, B. H.

    2017-02-01

    The association of the biweekly intraseasonal (BWI) oscillation in the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) over the South China Sea (SCS) and the Western North Pacific Summer Monsoon is authenticated using version 4 the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Microwave Imager data (SST and rain) and heat fluxes from Ocean Atmosphere Flux project data during 1998-2012. The results suggest that the SCS involves ocean-atmosphere coupling on biweekly timescales. The positive biweekly SST anomalies lead the rain anomalies over the SCS by 3 days, with a significant correlation coefficient ( r = 0.6, at 99 % significance levels) between the SST-rain anomalies. It is evident from lead/lag correlation between biweekly SST and zonal wind shear that warm ocean surface induced by wind shear may contribute to a favorable condition of the convective activity over the SCS. The present study suggests that ocean-to-atmospheric processes induced by the BWI oscillation in the SCS SST results in enhanced sea level pressure and surface shortwave radiation flux during the summer monsoon. Besides, it is observed that the SCS BWI oscillation in the changes of SST causes a feedback in the atmosphere by modifying the atmospheric instability. This suggests that the active/break biweekly cycle of the SST over the SCS is related by sea level pressure, surface heat fluxes and atmospheric instability. The potential findings here indicate that the biweekly SST over the SCS play an important role in the eastward and the southward propagation of the biweekly anomalies in the Western North Pacific.

  20. Recent seasonal hypoxia on the Western Black Sea shelf recorded in adjacent slope sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roepert, Anne; Jilbert, Tom S.; Slomp, Caroline P.

    2015-04-01

    Bottom water hypoxia is a major environmental problem afflicting estuarine and marine environments across the globe (Diaz and Rosenberg, 2008). Hypoxia is often attributed to human-induced increased nutrient discharge from rivers and related eutrophication. The Western Black Sea shelf is a typical example of a system where such anthropogenic impacts are thought to have contributed to the development of seasonal hypoxia in the late 20th century. However, due to the lack of spatially and temporally consistent monitoring in the region, questions remain about the evolution, causes and consequences of the seasonal hypoxia on the Western Black Sea shelf and whether or not the ecological state has recently improved (Capet et al., 2013). In this study a resin-embedded sediment core from a location below the chemocline on the Western Black Sea slope (water depth 377 m) was analyzed for its elemental composition by means of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), recovering a continuous geochemical record at a sub-annual resolution for the last 100 years. Relative enrichments in organic carbon, Pb, Fe, S, and Mo were observed in the depth interval corresponding to the 1970s until the 1990s, suggesting an increased carbon flux to the sediments as well as an anthropogenic pollution signal. We propose that the expansion of eutrophication on the Western Black Sea shelf was responsible for the enhanced carbon flux to our study site, while the associated hypoxia enhanced the shuttling of redox-sensitive elements to locations below the chemocline. The subsequent decrease in organic carbon and metal enrichments at the core top suggests a recent rise in oxygen concentrations and improvement of the ecological state of the Western Black Sea shelf. References: Capet, A., Beckers, J.-M., Grégoire, M. (2013). "Drivers, mechanisms and long-term variability of seasonal hypoxia on the Black Sea northwestern shelf-is there any recovery after eutrophication

  1. Penultimate and last glacial cycles in the western Bering Sea: evidence from micropaleontological and sedimentary records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsepyan, Ekaterina; Ivanova, Elena; Murdmaa, Ivar

    2014-05-01

    The short- and long-term variability of sea-surface bioproductivity, intermediate-water oxygenation, sea ice conditions and bottom current velocities are inferred from the high-resolution multi-proxy study based on benthic (BF) and planktonic (PF) foraminiferal assemblages and sedimentary record of the 18m-long Core SO201-2-85KL (western Bering Sea). Early MIS 6 is characterized by a very low seasonal bioproductivity, moderate bottom-water oxygenation, and expanded seasonal sea ice conditions, as documented by the abundant phytodetritus species Alabaminella weddelensis, Islandiella norcrossi and Epistominella arctica, suboxic group of BF, and high accumulation rates of gravel grains, respectively. Middle MIS 6 is represented by intercalation of green diatomaceous ooze and grey clayey silt layers with sharp peaks of BF abundance in green interbeds. These spikes might result either from short-term events of enhanced sea surface bioproductivity or from lateral BF transport by intensified bottom currents, as it is demonstrated by high-amplitude variations of the clay/silt ratio. Rather high seasonal productivity and northward migration of the sea ice margin are reconstructed for the late MIS 6 that is also characterized by a slight increase in the Northern Hemisphere summer insolation. Strong dissolution of calcareous microfossils is revealed for MIS 5.5-5.1 when the Bering Strait was open. Dissolution might be caused by an excess of carbon dioxide in the bottom-water due to an abundant organic matter decay and/or to an influence of the old CO2-rich deep water. MIS 4 - early Termination I is characterized by a dominance of glacial benthic foraminiferal assemblages that implies low bioproductivity conditions. A prevalence of suboxic BF group suggests moderate bottom-water oxygenation. Sea ice rafting occurred in the western Bering Sea during MIS 4 - early Termination I but the drifted ice was not so dense as during MIS 6. The well-known productivity spikes at B

  2. Paleoceanographic conditions in the western Bering Sea as a response to global sea level changes and remote climatic signals during the last 180 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovsepyan, E. A.; Ivanova, E. V.; Gulev, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    We present results from the sediment core SO201-2-85KL retrieved from the western Bering Sea that recovered the past 180 000 years. For the first time, the intense dissolution of calcareous microfossils has been established when the Bering Strait was open during the glacioeustatic sea level rise. Possible mechanisms of climatic teleconnections between remote regions are considered.

  3. Northern Victoria Land (western Ross Sea-Antarctica): inner shelf fine sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colizza, E.; Finocchiaro, F.; Ivaldi, R.; Pittà, A.; Tolotti, R.; Brambati, A.

    2003-04-01

    The Holocene sedimentation conditions are represented, in the western Ross Sea, by diatomaceous ooze in the uppermost part of sedimentary sequences, while diamicton deposited during Last Glacial Maximum are the basal unit of most cores. Thick layer (> 2 m) of diatomaceous ooze were sampled in the northern Joides Basin and into Granite Harbour. In Drygalski Ice Tongue area and along the coasts of northern Victoria Land, prevails coarse sedimentation, due to seaward flowing of large outlet glacier that drain the Transantarctic Mountain. During 1998-99 and 2001-02 PNRA antarctic cruises, favourable sea ice conditions, has allowed to sample inner shelf area, both in Wood Bay and south of Drygalski ice tongue (Nordenskjold basin). In both sites fine laminated diatomaceous mud are present. Preliminary seismostratigraphy and sedimentological data are here reported. This is the first note of new sites of fine sedimentation in the Ross Sea inner shelf.

  4. Offshore seismicity in the western Marmara Sea, Turkey, revealed by ocean bottom observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Takahashi, Narumi; Citak, Seckin; Kalafat, Doğan; Pinar, Ali; Gurbuz, Cemil; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-09-01

    The faults' geometry and their seismic activity beneath the Marmara Sea have been under debate for a couple of decades. We used data recorded by three ocean bottom seismographs (OBSs) over a period of 3 months in 2014 to investigate the relationship of fault geometry to microseismicity under the western Marmara Sea in Turkey. We detected a seismic swarm at 13 to 20 km depth beneath the main Marmara fault (MMF), and the maximum depth of seismogenic zone was 25 km within the OBS observation area. These results provided evidence that the dip of the MMF is almost vertical and that the seismogenic zone in this region extends into the lower crust. Our analysis of past seismicity indicated that the seismic swarm we recorded is the most recent of an episodic series of seismic activity with an average recurrence interval of 2-3 years. The repetitive seismicity indicates that the MMF beneath the western Marmara Sea is coupled and that some of the accumulated strain is released every 2 to 3 years. Our study shows that OBS data can provide useful information about seismicity along the MMF, but more extensive studies using more OBSs deployed over a wider area are needed to fully understand the fault geometry and stick-slip behavior of faults under the Marmara Sea.

  5. Ecology of the Atlantic black skipjack Euthynnus alletteratus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) in the western Mediterranean Sea inferred by parasitological analysis.

    PubMed

    Mele, Salvatore; Pennino, M Grazia; Piras, M Cristina; Macías, David; Gómez-Vives, M José; Alemany, Francisco; Montero, Francisco E; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

    2016-09-01

    Between 2008 and 2011, the head of 150 Euthynnus alletteratus (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) caught inshore off the southeastern Iberian coast (western Mediterranean Sea) were examined for parasites. Two monogeneans, four didymozoid trematodes and four copepods were found. Parasite abundance showed a positive relationship with the annual sea surface temperature, except for Pseudocycnus appendiculatus, but negative with the sea depth (Capsala manteri, Neonematobothrium cf. kawakawa and Caligus bonito). Prevalences and mean abundances differed significantly among sampling areas, except for C. manteri, Oesophagocystis sp. 2 and Ceratocolax euthynni, and sampling years (Melanocystis cf. kawakawa, N.cf. kawakawa, P. appendiculatus and Unicolax collateralis). Results indicate that the parasite abundances of E. alletteratus in the western Mediterranean Sea depend mainly on regional environmental variables, which can show interannual variations. The presence of pelagic parasites, i.e. didymozoids and P. appendiculatus, could indicate that E. alletteratus migrates between inshore and offshore pelagic domains. The different parasite faunas reported in E. alletteratus populations from the western Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea appear to point out the geographical host isolation. These results suggest that E. alletteratus inhabiting the western Mediterranean Sea performs inshore-offshore small-scale migrations, and not transoceanic migrations between the western Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea.

  6. Kinematics of back-arc inversion of the Western Black Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, I.; Matenco, L.; Dinu, C.; Cloetingh, S.

    2011-10-01

    Back-arc basin evolution is driven by processes active at the main subduction zone typically assuming the transition from an extensional back-arc, during the retreat of a mature slab, to a contractional basin, during high-strain collisional processes. Such a transition is observed in the Black Sea, where the accurate quantification of shortening effects is hampered by the kinematically unclear geometries of Cenozoic inversion. By means of seismic profiles interpretation, quantified deformation features and associated syn-tectonic geometries on the Romanian offshore, this study demonstrates that uplifted areas, observed by exploration studies, form a coherent thick-skinned thrust system with N-ward vergence. Thrusting inverted an existing geometry made up by successive grabens that were inherited from the Cretaceous extensional evolution. The shortening started during late Eocene times and gradually affected all areas of the Western Black Sea Basin during Oligocene and Miocene times, deformation being coherently correlated across its western margin. The mechanism of this generalized inversion is the transmission of stresses during the collision recorded in the Pontides-Balkanides system. Syn-tectonic sedimentation in the Western Black Sea demonstrates that this process was continuous and took place through the onset of gradual shortening migrating northward. Although the total amount of shortening is roughly constant in an E-W direction, individual thrusts have variable offsets, deformation being transferred between structures located at distance across the strike of the system. The Black Sea example demonstrates that the vergence and offset of thrusts can change rapidly along the strike of such a compressional back-arc system. This generates apparently contrasting geometries that accommodate the same orogenic shortening.

  7. Atmospheric deposition of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the North Western, East Mediterranean and Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violaki, Kalliopi; Moncheva, Snejana; Loÿe-Pilot, Marie-Dominique; Bourrin, François; Nikolaou, Panayiota; Delsaut, Nicole; Kanakidou, Maria; Mihalopoulos, Nikos

    2014-05-01

    With humans having an increasing impact on Earth, the perturbation of biogeochemical cycles of nutrients (phosphorus, nitrogen and carbon) was inevitable. The interactions between nutrients and climate are expected to become an important determinant of the Earth biogeochemical cycles, while atmosphere is considered as an important nutrient path, especially for Mediterranean Sea. Since P & N is the limiting factor for many oligotrophic marine environments, valuable information could be arisen by studying the role of organic and inorganic forms in atmospheric deposition samples This study aims to investigate the sources, forms and the biogeochemical significance of soluble atmospheric P & N over the North Western and East Mediterranean & Black Sea. Bulk deposition samples have been collected at Cape Bear (Perpignan, France), Crete (Finokalia station) and Black Sea (Varna) and analyzed for P and N speciation. In NW Mediterranean important contribution of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen (DIN:NO3-,NH4+) to Total Dissolved N was observed during the seven year period, while the average percentage contribution of NO3-, NH4+ and DON to TDN was estimated 53%, 28% and 19%, respectively. Accordingly, was observed important contribution of Dissolved organically bound phosphorus (DOP) to Total Dissolved Phosphorus. Inorganic Nutrients are much higher in NW Mediterranean comparing with the East part, especially in NH4+ deposition, mainly due to local sources. Additionally preliminary results show that the atmospheric deposition of inorganic nutrients is much higher over Black Sea, comparing with Mediterranean Sea, suggesting that atmospheric deposition is an important nutrients path for that marine ecosystem.

  8. Quaternary history of sea ice in the western Arctic Ocean based on foraminifera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polyak, Leonid; Best, Kelly M.; Crawford, Kevin A.; Council, Edward A.; St-Onge, Guillaume

    2013-11-01

    Sediment cores from the Northwind Ridge, western Arctic Ocean, including uniquely preserved calcareous microfossils, provide the first continuous proxy record of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean encompassing more than half of the Quaternary. The cores were investigated for foraminiferal assemblages along with coarse grain size and bulk chemical composition. By combination of glacial cycles and unique events reflected in the stratigraphy, the age of the foraminiferal record was estimated as ca 1.5 Ma. Foraminiferal abundances, diversity, and composition of benthic assemblages, especially phytodetritus and polar species, were used as proxies for sea-ice conditions. Foraminiferal Assemblage Zone 2 in the Lower Pleistocene indicates diminished, mostly seasonal sea ice, probably facilitated by enhanced inflow of Pacific waters. A gradual decrease in ice-free season with episodes of abrupt ice expansion is interpreted for the Mid-Pleistocene Transition, consistent with climatic cooling and ice-sheet growth in the Northern Hemisphere. A principal faunal and sedimentary turnover occurred near the Early-Middle Pleistocene boundary ca 0.75 Ma, with mostly perennial sea ice indicated by the overlying Assemblage Zone 1. Two steps of further increase in sea-ice coverage are inferred from foraminiferal assemblage changes in the "Glacial" Pleistocene by ca 0.4 and 0.24 Ma, possibly related to hemispheric (Mid-Brunhes Event) and Laurentide ice sheet growth, respectively. These results suggest that year-round ice in the western Arctic was a norm for the last several 100 ka, in contrast to rapidly disappearing summer ice today.

  9. The main characteristics, problems, and prospects for Western European coastal seas.

    PubMed

    Dauvin, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Located to the far West of Western Europe, France has a western maritime coastal zone of more than 3800 km, which is widely influenced by the North-eastern Atlantic. The English Channel, an epi-continental shallow sea with very strong tides, runs along 650 km of the French coast and 1100 km of the English coast. It is also a bio-geographical crossroad encompassing a much wider range of ecological conditions than other European seas. France's Atlantic coast north of the Gironde estuary is a succession of rocky and sandy shorelines, including a sizeable intertidal zone, a wide continental shelf, and two major estuaries (Loire and Gironde). South of the Gironde, the 260 km of coastline is low, sandy and straight, with a narrowing continental shelf further on South due to the presence of the Cape Breton canyon in the bathyal and abyssal zones. Interface between the continental and oceanic systems, these bordering seas--North Sea, English Channel and Atlantic Ocean--have been the subject of many recent research programmes (the European Mast-FLUXMANCHE and INTERREG programmes; the national coastal environment programme and the LITEAU programme in France), designed to improve comprehension of the functions, production, and dynamics of these seas as well as their future evolution. Given the many conflicting practices in these littoral zones, integrated coastal zone management appears to be essential in order to cope with both natural phenomena, such as the infilling of estuarine zones, cliff erosion, and rising sea levels, and chronic anthropogenic pressures, such as new harbour installations (container dikes, marinas), sea aggregate extraction for human constructions, and offshore wind mill farms. This article provides as complete an overview as possible of the research projects on these bordering seas, both those that have recently been accomplished and those that are currently in progress, in order to highlight the main characteristics of these ecosystems and to

  10. Species diversity variations in Neogene deep-sea benthic foraminifera at ODP Hole 730A, western Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugm, Yuvaraja; Gupta, Anil K.; Panigrahi, Mruganka K.

    2014-10-01

    Deep-sea benthic foraminifera are an important and widely used marine proxy to understand paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic changes on regional and global scales, owing to their sensitivity to oceanic and climatic turnovers. Some species of benthic foraminifera are sensitive to changes in water mass properties whereas others are sensitive to organic fluxes and deep-sea oxygenation. Benthic faunal diversity has been found closely linked to food web, bottom water oxygen levels, and substrate and water mass stability. The present study is aimed at analyzing species diversity trends in benthic foraminifera and their linkages with Indian monsoon variability during the Neogene. Species diversity of benthic foraminifera is examined in terms of number of species (S), information function (H), equitability (E) and Sanders' rarefied values, which were combined with relative abundances of high and low productivity benthic foraminifera at Ocean Drilling Program Hole 730A, Oman margin, western Arabian Sea. The Oman margin offers the best opportunity to understand monsoon-driven changes in benthic diversity since summer monsoon winds have greater impact on the study area. The species diversity was higher during the early Miocene Climatic Optimum (˜17.2-16.4 Ma) followed by a decrease during 16.4-13 Ma coinciding with a major increase in Antarctic ice volume and increased formation of Antarctic Bottom Water. All the diversity parameters show an increase during 13-11.6 Ma, a gradual decrease during 11.6-9 Ma and then an increase with a maximum at 7 Ma. Thereafter the values show little change until 1.2 Ma when all the parameters abruptly decrease. The benthic foraminiferal populations and diversity at Hole 730A were mainly driven by the Indian monsoon, and polar waters might have played a minor or no role since early Neogene period as the Arabian Sea is an enclosed basin.

  11. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sediments from the western Adriatic Sea: Sources, historical trends and inventories.

    PubMed

    Combi, Tatiane; Miserocchi, Stefano; Langone, Leonardo; Guerra, Roberta

    2016-08-15

    Sources, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were investigated in sediments collected in five transects along the north-south axis of the western Adriatic Sea. The concentration of total PCBs (∑28 PCBs) ranged from western Adriatic Sea. This is further corroborated by the estimated inventories of PCBs, which were ~4-7 times higher in the Po River prodelta (256ngcm(-2)) in comparison to the middle and southern Adriatic, respectively, and about 100 times higher than the in the deep Adriatic Sea.

  12. The Pre-Messinian Total Petroleum System of the Provence Basin, Western Mediterranean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The Provence Basin is in that portion of the western Mediterranean Sea that is deeper than 2 kilometers. The basin lies essentially beyond the outer continental shelf, between the countries of France, Italy, and Algeria, the Balearic Islands, and the islands of Sardinia and Corsica. It encompasses nearly 300,000 square kilometers and includes the Rhone River submarine fan on the continental slope of southern France. It is province 4068 in the World Energy study. A single, hypothetical, total petroleum system (TPS), the Pre-Messinian TPS (406801), was described for the Provence Basin. The designation hypothetical is used because there is no hydrocarbon production from the basin. The Provence Basin is a deep-water Tertiary rift basin in which the geothermal gradients vary regionally. The Red Sea Basin shares a similar geologic and thermal history with the rifted western Mediterranean Sea and was used as an analog to better understand the genesis of the Provence Basin and as a guide to estimating possible undiscovered amounts of hydrocarbons. For this assessment the basin was given a potential, at the mean, for undiscovered resources of 51 trillion cubic feet (1.4 trillion cubic meters) gas, 0.42 billion barrels oil, and 2.23 million barrels natural gas liquids.

  13. Holocene Paleoceanography of the Chukchi Sea / Alaskan Margin, Western Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKay, J. L.; Hillaire-Marcel, C.; de Vernal, A.; Polyak, L.; Darby, D.

    2006-12-01

    A multi-proxy approach to the analysis of deep-sea sediment cores has been used to investigate paleoceanographical changes in the western Arctic. This approach includes stable isotopic analysis of{ \\it Neogloboquadrina pachyderma} (Np), the dominant planktonic foraminifera in the Arctic, which lives along the pycnocline that separates the cold, low salinity surface water from the underlying warmer water mass of North Atlantic origin. Palynological analyses focus on dinocyst assemblages that are usually well preserved in Arctic seas and include several species, thus allowing treatment of data (modern analogue technique) for quantitative reconstruction of sea-surface parameters, including maximum summer temperature and seasonal extent of sea-ice cover (cf. de Vernal et al., Paleoceanography, 2005). Work in the Chukchi Sea has shown that larger (i.e., heavier, possibly mature) specimens of Np are characterized by a lower oxygen isotopic composition relative to smaller (i.e., possibly juvenile) specimens that live at shallower depths, reflecting calcification of larger Np shells on top of the warmer North Atlantic Water mass (cf. Hillaire-Marcel et al., Quat. Sci. Rev., 2004). These results suggest that a reverse thermocline (warmer water underlying colder water) persisted throughout the Holocene, and that the gradients between surface and subsurface waters were stronger during the early Holocene, which may indicate greater influx of North Atlantic Water at this time. It is also possible that the isotopic composition of the planktonic foraminifera was influenced by enhanced sea-ice formation and sinking of isotopically-light brines during the early Holocene. This second hypothesis is compatible with reconstructions from dinocysts that suggest maximum sea-ice extent during the early Holocene. Preliminary results from core HLY0501-05 collected in the Beaufort Sea off the Alaskan Margin during Leg 1 of the HOTRAX 2005 Expedition show results consistent with those of the

  14. Radiocesium in the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Yuichiro; Aoyama, Michio; Hamajima, Yasunori; Nishino, Shigeto; Murata, Akihiko; Kikuchi, Takashi

    2017-02-27

    We measured radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) in seawater from the western subarctic area of the North Pacific Ocean, Bering Sea, and Arctic Ocean in 2013 and 2014. Fukushima-derived (134)Cs in surface seawater was observed in the western subarctic area and Bering Sea but not in the Arctic Ocean. Vertical profile of (134)Cs in the Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean implies that Fukushima-derived (134)Cs intruded into the basin from the Bering Sea through subsurface (150m depth) in 2014.

  15. Faunistic Composition, Ecological Properties, and Zoogeographical Composition of the Elateridae (Coleoptera) Family in the Western Black Sea Region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kabalak, Mahmut; Sert, Osman

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to understand the faunistic composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical composition of the family Elateridae (Coleoptera) of the Western Black Sea region of Turkey. As a result, 44 species belonging to 5 subfamilies and 19 genera were identified. After adding species reported in the literature to the analysis, the fauna in the research area consists of 6 subfamilies, 23 genera and 72 species. Most of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region were classified in the subfamilies Elaterinae and Dendrometrinae. The genus Athous was the most species-rich genus. The species composition of the Elateridae fauna of the Western Black Sea region partially overlaps with the known Elateridae fauna of Turkey. The Western Black Sea region shares the most species with the European part of the Western Palaearctic region, including many of those in the Elateridae family, compared to other regions. Comparisons of the three geographical regions of Turkey show that fauna composition, ecological properties, and zoogeographical compositions of the Middle and Western Black Sea regions are more similar to each other than to those of the Central Anatolian region. PMID:24787627

  16. Sedimentological imprint on subseafloor microbial communities in Western Mediterranean Sea Quaternary sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciobanu, M.-C.; Rabineau, M.; Droz, L.; Révillon, S.; Ghiglione, J.-F.; Dennielou, B.; Jorry, S.-J.; Kallmeyer, J.; Etoubleau, J.; Pignet, P.; Crassous, P.; Vandenabeele-Trambouze, O.; Laugier, J.; Guégan, M.; Godfroy, A.; Alain, K.

    2012-09-01

    An interdisciplinary study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between geological and paleoenvironmental parameters and the bacterial and archaeal community structure of two contrasting subseafloor sites in the Western Mediterranean Sea (Ligurian Sea and Gulf of Lion). Both depositional environments in this area are well-documented from paleoclimatic and paleooceanographic point of views. Available data sets allowed us to calibrate the investigated cores with reference and dated cores previously collected in the same area, and notably correlated to Quaternary climate variations. DNA-based fingerprints showed that the archaeal diversity was composed by one group, Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotic Group (MCG), within the Gulf of Lion sediments and of nine different lineages (dominated by MCG, South African Gold Mine Euryarchaeotal Group (SAGMEG) and Halobacteria) within the Ligurian Sea sediments. Bacterial molecular diversity at both sites revealed mostly the presence of the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria within Proteobacteria phylum, and also members of Bacteroidetes phylum. The second most abundant lineages were Actinobacteria and Firmicutes at the Gulf of Lion site and Chloroflexi at the Ligurian Sea site. Various substrates and cultivation conditions allowed us to isolate 75 strains belonging to four lineages: Alpha-, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. In molecular surveys, the Betaproteobacteria group was consistently detected in the Ligurian Sea sediments, characterized by a heterolithic facies with numerous turbidites from a deep-sea levee. Analysis of relative betaproteobacterial abundances and turbidite frequency suggested that the microbial diversity was a result of main climatic changes occurring during the last 20 ka. Statistical direct multivariate canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) showed that the availability of electron acceptors and the quality of electron donors (indicated by age

  17. State of the benthic ecosystem on western Black Sea shelf in spring 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, J.; Aleynik, D.; Eulenburg, A.; Kusch, St.; Mee, L. D.; Minicheva, G.; Stevens, T. F.; Teaca, A.; Shapiro, G. I.; Soloviev, D.

    2009-04-01

    Since the changes in the economies in the Black Sea countries in the 1990's, the momentarily associated decrease in anthropogenic pressures has put the ecosystem of Black Sea western shelf on a trajectory to recovery. However, the suspected non-linearity of recovery and the ecological instability of the benthic shelf ecosystem in particular became evident in the field surveys supported by the BSERP in 2003, 2004, 2005 and 2006, e.g. in the spread of opportunistic species taking new niches and the re-occurrence of large-scale bottom water hypoxia like in 2001. The temporal dynamics of the recovery (as well as of the decline) may also be tied to climatic effects. The Black Sea is known to respond to north Atlantic oscillation (NAO) forcing and decadal climate changes. The target of the 363th cruise of R/V Poseidon in March 2008 has been to map the current state of the benthic ecosystem in a quasi-winter situation. We assessed: a) the current state of the benthic ecosystem on the north-western shelf; to what degree it recovered during the past decade from its collapse in the 1980's. In this respect, we investigated the role of the seabed as storage media of nutrients from past eutrophication, and the role of the sediments as internal source of nutrients to the pelagic system. We focused on zoo- and phytobenthos distribution, the interaction of benthic biota with the sediment, accumulation of nutrients in the sediment, and the flux of nutrients from the sediments to the water. b) The benthic-pelagic coupling, i.e. how the nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus and silica for algal growth are transported from the seafloor to the sea surface and thus fuel biologic productivity. c) The exchange of water between the shelf and the open Black Sea, and hence the transport of nutrients, i.e. the fertilization of the open Black Sea with nutrients from the shelf. Here, we are presenting results from the spring 2008 survey and compare them to findings from a summer survey in 2006

  18. Cetacean response to summer maritime traffic in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Campana, I; Crosti, R; Angeletti, D; Carosso, L; David, L; Di-Méglio, N; Moulins, A; Rosso, M; Tepsich, P; Arcangeli, A

    2015-08-01

    Maritime traffic is one of many anthropogenic pressures threatening the marine environment. This study was specifically designed to investigate the relationship between vessels presence and cetacean sightings in the high sea areas of the Western Mediterranean Sea region. We recorded and compared the total number of vessels in the presence and absence of cetacean sightings using data gathered during the summer season (2009-2013) along six fixed transects repeatedly surveyed. In locations with cetacean sightings (N = 2667), nautical traffic was significantly lower, by 20%, compared to random locations where no sightings occurred (N = 1226): all cetacean species, except bottlenose dolphin, were generally observed in locations with lower vessel abundance. In different areas the species showed variable results likely influenced by a combination of biological and local environmental factors. The approach of this research helped create, for the first time, a wide vision of the different responses of animals towards a common pressure.

  19. Parasites of the head of Scomber colias (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Mele, Salvatore; Pennino, Maria Grazia; Piras, Maria Cristina; Bellido, José María; Garippa, Giovanni; Merella, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    The metazoan parasite assemblage of the head of 30 specimens of the Atlantic chub mackerel (Scomber colias) from the western Mediterranean Sea was analysed. Eight species of parasites were found, four mazocraeid monogeneans: Grubea cochlear (prevalence = 10%), Kuhnia scombercolias (59%), K. scombri (52%), Pseudokuhnia minor (86%); three didymozoid trematodes: Nematobothrium cf. faciale (21%), N. filiforme (41%), N. scombri (7%); and one laerneopodid copepod: Clavelissa scombri (7%). Results were compared with previously published data from 14 localities of the eastern Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, using non-parametric univariate and multivariate analyses, and the whole parasite fauna of S. colias was compared with that of the congeners (S. australasicus, S. japonicus and S. scombrus). Parasites showed to reflect the biogeographical and phylogenetic history of host. From a methodological point of view, the use of both non-parametric univariate and multivariate techniques proved to be effective tools to detect dissimilarities between parasite assemblages.

  20. Photographs of the Sea Floor of Western Massachusetts Bay, Offshore of Boston, Massachusett, July 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Butman, Bradford; Blackwood, Dann S.

    2001-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains photographs and sediment sample analyses of the sea floor obtained at 142 sites in western Massachusetts Bay (Figure 1) during a research cruise (USGS cruise ISBL99024) aboard the Fishing Vessel (FV) Isabel S. (Figure 2) conducted July 18-21, 1999. These photographs and samples provide critical ground truth information for the interpretation of shaded relief and backscatter intensity maps created using data collected with a multibeam echo sounder system (Butman and others, in press, a, b, c; Valentine and others, in press, a, b, c). Collection of these photographs and samples was undertaken in support of a large project whose overall objective is to map and describe the sea floor of Massachusetts Bay.

  1. Ageostrophic Frontal Processes Controlling Phytoplankton Production in the Catalano-Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean)

    PubMed Central

    Oguz, Temel; Macias, Diego; Tintore, Joaquin

    2015-01-01

    Buoyancy-induced unstable boundary currents and the accompanying retrograde density fronts are often the sites of pronounced mesoscale activity, ageostrophic frontal processes, and associated high biological production in marginal seas. Biophysical model simulations of the Catalano-Balearic Sea (Western Mediterranean) illustrated that the unstable and nonlinear southward frontal boundary current along the Spanish coast resulted in a strain-driven frontogenesis mechanism. High upwelling velocities of up to 80 m d-1 injected nutrients into the photic layer and promoted enhanced production on the less dense, onshore side of the front characterized by negative relative vorticity. Additional down-front wind stress and heat flux (cooling) intensified boundary current instabilities and thus ageostrophic cross-frontal circulation and augmented production. Specifically, entrainment of nutrients by relatively strong buoyancy-induced vertical mixing gave rise to a more widespread phytoplankton biomass distribution within the onshore side of the front. Mesoscale cyclonic eddies contributed to production through an eddy pumping mechanism, but it was less effective and more limited regionally than the frontal processes. The model was configured for the Catalano-Balearic Sea, but the mechanisms and model findings apply to other marginal seas with similar unstable frontal boundary current systems. PMID:26065688

  2. Recent 121-year variability of western boundary upwelling in the northern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Peng, Zicheng; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Zhou, Renjun; Song, Shaohua; Shi, Zhengguo; Chen, Tegu; Wei, Gangjian; Delong, Kristine L.

    2013-06-01

    upwelling is typically related to the eastern boundary upwelling system, whereas the powerful southwest Asian summer monsoon can also generate significant cold, nutrient-rich deep water in western coastal zones. Here we present a sea surface temperature record (A.D. 1876-1996) derived from coral Porites Sr/Ca for an upwelling zone in the northern South China Sea. The upwelling-induced sea surface temperature anomaly record reveals prominent multidecadal variability driven by Asian summer monsoon dynamics with an abrupt transition from warmer to colder conditions in 1930, and a return to warmer conditions after 1960. Previous studies suggest the expected increase in atmospheric CO2 for the coming decades may result in intensification in the eastern boundary upwelling system, which could enhance upwelling of CO2-rich deep water thus exacerbating the impact of acidification in these productive zones. In contrast, the weakening trend since 1961 in the upwelling time series from the northern South China Sea suggests moderate regional ocean acidification from upwelling thus a stress relief for marine life in this region.

  3. High-resolution geophysical data from the sea floor surrounding the Western Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Twichell, David C.; Foster, David S.; Worley, Charles R.; Irwin, Barry J.; Danforth, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Geophysical and geospatial data were collected in the nearshore area surrounding the western Elizabeth Islands, Massachusetts on the U.S. Geological Survey research vessel Rafael during September 2010 in a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts, Office of Coastal Zone Management. This report describes the results of the short-term goals of this collaborative effort, which were to map the geology of the inner shelf zone of the western Elizabeth Islands and study the geologic processes that have contributed to its evolution. Data collected during the survey include: Bathymetric and sidescan-sonar data, chirp seismic-reflection data , sound velocity profiles, and navigation data. The long-term goals of this project are to provide high-resolution geophysical data that will support research on the influence of sea-level change and sediment supply on coastal evolution and inventory subtidal marine habitat type and distribution within the coastal zone of Massachusetts.

  4. Mid-Piacenzian sea surface temperature record from ODP Site 1115 in the western equatorial Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoll, Danielle

    2010-01-01

    Planktic foraminifer assemblages and alkenone unsaturation ratios have been analyzed for the mid-Piacen-zian (3.3 to 2.9 Ma) section of Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1115B, located in the western equatorial Pacific off the coast of New Guinea. Cold and warm season sea surface temperature (SST) estimates were determined using a modern analog technique. ODP Site 1115 is located just south of the transition between the planktic foraminifer tropical and subtropical faunal provinces and approximates the southern boundary of the western equatorial Pacific (WEP) warm pool. Comparison of the faunal and alkenone SST estimates (presented here) with an existing nannofossil climate proxy shows similar trends. Results of this analysis show increased seasonal variability during the middle of the sampled section (3.22 to 3.10 Ma), suggesting a possible northward migration of both the subtropical faunal province and the southern boundary of the WEP warm pool.

  5. Shallow geology, sea-floor texture, and physiographic zones of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baldwin, Wayne E.; Foster, David S.; Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Barnhardt, Walter A.; Schwab, William C.; Andrews, Brian D.; Ackerman, Seth D.

    2016-09-02

    Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor of Vineyard and western Nantucket Sounds, Massachusetts. These maps were derived from interpretations of seismic-reflection profiles, high-resolution bathymetry, acoustic-backscatter intensity, bottom photographs/video, and surficial sediment samples collected within the 494-square-kilometer study area. Interpretations of seismic stratigraphy and mapping of glacial and Holocene marine units provided a foundation on which the surficial maps were created. This mapping is a result of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management to characterize the surface and subsurface geologic framework offshore of Massachusetts.

  6. Anomalous hydrographic conditions in the western Barents Sea observed in March 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrynin, Mikhail; Pohlmann, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Observational data have been collected during a cruise to the western Barents Sea in March 2014 covering 33 stations along three west-east sections at 76.34°N, 77.26°N and 78.49°N and along one south-north section at 19.47°E. Our observations suggest a wedge-like water masses structure with colder and fresher Arctic Water moving southward, gliding over warmer and more saline Atlantic Water which below the surface moves to the north. Atlantic Water in the Storfjorden Trench reached farther north than 76.5°N and was present on the eastern and western slopes of the Spitsbergen Bank. Our measurements indicate limited dense water formation in the Storfjorden. A comparison with historical data over the years 1923-2011 reveal an anomalous northern location of the Polar Front for this time of the year in March 2014. A point by point comparison with ten historical stations in 1983 and 1986 shows significantly warmer (by up to 3.8 °C) and saltier (by up to 2.49 psu) conditions in 2014 for nine out of ten stations. Moreover, stations dominated by the Atlantic inflow experienced the largest changes, whereas in stations located in the area of the Arctic outflow the changes were smallest. Furthermore, we used satellite and decadal reanalysis data to estimate the climate variability defined by a range of two standard deviations. We found that in the Storfjorden Trench in March 2014 the water transport was within the range, while the water temperature exceeded the upper limit of climate variability. The sea ice extent in the western Barents Sea was below the lower limit of climate variability from mid-February to mid-March 2014. Combining in situ, satellite and model data, we were able to attribute the warm anomaly observed in March 2014 to two main reasons: (1) an increase of Atlantic water temperature which was evident already in the beginning of 2014 and (2) very little cooling in February and March 2014. From these results we conclude that the north-western Barents Sea

  7. Holocene palynomorph records since the last deglaciation from the Chukchi Sea shelf sediments, western Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, So-Young; Nam, Seung-Il; Polyak, Leonid; Delusina, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Organic-walled microscopic organisms in marine sediments such as dinoflagellate cysts, pollen, spores and freshwater algae from the Chukchi Sea shelf sediment document spatial and temporal variations in the paleoenvironmental history in relation to regional climatic changes during the Holocene. The records presented here are derived from a sediment core from the shallow shelf of the Chukchi Sea in the western Arctic (core ARA02B/01A-GC), a site which allows us to assess the timing of the Bering Strait opening and its influence over the regional environmental system during the last post glacial interval. The sediment core contains a rich concentration of terrestrially derived pollen and spores, indicating considerable changes in vegetation over the catchment area including the territories of both North America (Alaska and Northern Canadian Arctic) and Northern Siberia (Chukotka peninsula and Northern East-Siberian coast) during the last 10 kyr BP. We speculate that the palynomorphs were predominantly supplied from eroded shelf sediments during intervals of extensive sea-ice coverage, while they were carried to the shelves by large rivers (Yukon, Mackenzie and Siberian rivers) and then transferred by oceanic currents during low sea-ice coverage intervals. In particular, the percentage ratio between tree-herb pollen and spores, and the algae Pediastrum in the palynomorph assemblages represent significant changes in the western Arctic vegetation associated with freshwater inputs, including increased forest vegetation between ~8 and 4 kyr BP, a climatic optimum at ~5 kyr BP and a termination of the low sea-ice interval at ~3 kyr BP. In parallel, marine palynomorphs (dinoflagellate cysts) document significant changes in the marine environments, typically for a prominent increase in dinoflagellate cyst concentrations as well as total organic carbon and nitrogen contents since ca. 8 kyr BP suggesting increased nutrient inputs and marine productivity in the study area. Our

  8. Selected anthropogenic and natural radioisotopes in the Barents Sea and off the western coast of Svalbard.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Ari-Pekka; Kasatkina, Nadezhda; Vaaramaa, Kaisa; Matishov, Gennady G; Solatie, Dina

    2013-12-01

    The Murmansk Marine Biological Institute (MMBI) performed high-latitude expeditions to the Barents Sea during 2007-2009 where a scientist from the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) participated. The aim of the expeditions was to study and map the current radiological situation throughout the Barents Sea. In the expeditions, samples of seawater, sediment and biota were collected for radioactivity studies. The (90)Sr and (137)Cs isotopes were analysed from the seawater samples and no spatial distribution in the concentrations of (90)Sr and (137)Cs was found. The sediment samples were analysed for γ-emitting isotopes. In the statistical analysis performed only the (90)Sr was found to have no spatial distribution. In the (137)Cs concentrations two areas containing higher concentrations were observed: one in the western part of Svalbard and another in Franz Victoria Trough near the Franz Josef Land archipelago. The increase in the western coast of Svalbard suggests an Atlantic influence while in the Franz Victoria Trough source regions are possibly more complex. Since (137)Cs in marine sediments mainly originates from terrestrial sources, finding higher concentrations in the northern part of the Barents Sea may also suggest a contribution of (137)Cs carried by the ocean currents and by sea ice from the outside Barents Sea. In addition to γ spectrometric measurements, the sediment samples were radiochemically analysed for (210)Pb. It was found that the unsupported fraction of (210)Pb showed significant spatial variation. The fraction of unsupported (210)Pb was reduced to 40-70% near Bear Island, Edge Island and in the Franz Josef Land archipelago. In these regions the sea is typically covered with sea ice during winter. The relatively low fraction of unsupported (210)Pb is possibly caused by blocking of wet and dry deposition of (210)Pb onto the sea by winter sea ice. In biota samples, only small traces, at the level of 0.2 Bq/kg w.w. of (137)Cs, were found

  9. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengwei; Wang, Weiguo; Liu, Yanguang; Dong, Linsen; Jiao, Liping; Hu, Limin; Fan, Dejiang

    2016-03-15

    To analyze the distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and evaluate their potential ecological risks, the concentrations of 16 PAHs were measured in 43 surface sediment samples from the Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean. Total PAH (tPAH) concentrations ranged from 36.95 to 150.21 ng/g (dry weight). In descending order, the surface sediment tPAH concentrations were as follows: Canada Basin>northern Chukchi Sea>Chukchi Basin>southern Chukchi Sea>Aleutian Basin>Makarov Basin>Bering Sea shelf. The Bering Sea and western Arctic Ocean mainly received PAHs of pyrogenic origin due to pollution caused by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels. The concentrations of PAHs in the sediments of the study areas did not exceed effects range low (ERL) values.

  10. How does the SST variability over the western North Atlantic Ocean control Arctic warming over the Barents–Kara Seas?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Ok; Sung, Mi-Kyung; Sato, Kazutoshi; Lim, Young-Kwon; Kim, Seong-Joong; Baek, Eun-Hyuk; Jeong, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Baek-Min

    2017-03-01

    Arctic warming over the Barents–Kara Seas and its impacts on the mid-latitude circulations have been widely discussed. However, the specific mechanism that brings the warming still remains unclear. In this study, a possible cause of the regional Arctic warming over the Barents–Kara Seas during early winter (October–December) is suggested. We found that warmer sea surface temperature anomalies over the western North Atlantic Ocean (WNAO) modulate the transient eddies overlying the oceanic frontal region. The altered transient eddy vorticity flux acts as a source for the Rossby wave straddling the western North Atlantic and the Barents–Kara Seas (Scandinavian pattern), and induces a significant warm advection, increasing surface and lower-level temperature over the Eurasian sector of the Arctic Ocean. The importance of the sea surface temperature anomalies over the WNAO and subsequent transient eddy forcing over the WNAO was also supported by both specially designed simple model experiments and general circulation model experiments.

  11. Ongoing lithospheric removal in the western Mediterranean: Evidence from Ps receiver functions and thermobarometry of Neogene basalts (PICASSO project)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurner, Sally; Palomeras, Imma; Levander, Alan; Carbonell, Ramon; Lee, Cin-Ty

    2014-04-01

    western Mediterranean tectonic system consists of the Betic Mountains in southern Spain and the Rif Mountains in northern Morocco curved around the back-arc extensional Alboran basin. Multiple tectonic models have been developed to explain the coeval compressional and extensional tectonic processes that have affected the western Mediterranean since the Oligocene. In order to provide constraints on these evolutionary models, we use Ps teleseismic receiver functions (RF), thermobarometric analyses of post-Oligocene basalts, and previous teleseismic tomography images to investigate the lithospheric structure of the region. Ps RFs were calculated using seismic data from 239 broadband seismic stations in southern Iberia and northern Morocco and thermobarometric analysis was performed on 19 volcanic samples distributed throughout the region. The RF images reveal a highly variable Moho depth (˜25 to ˜55 km), as well as a strong positive, sub-Moho horizon between ˜45 and ˜80 km depth beneath the central Betic and Rif Mountains, which we interpret to be the top of the previously imaged Alboran Sea slab. Thermobarometric constraints from magmas in the eastern Betics and Rif indicate mantle melting depths between 40 and 60 km, typical of melting depths beneath mid-oceanic ridges where little to no lithosphere exists. Together, the RF and thermobarometric data suggest ongoing and recent slab detachment resulting from delamination of the continental lithosphere.

  12. Post-glacial variability of sea ice cover, river run-off and biological production in the western Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean) - A high-resolution biomarker study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörner, T.; Stein, R.; Fahl, K.; Birgel, D.

    2016-07-01

    Multi-proxy biomarker measurements were applied on two sediment cores (PS51/154, PS51/159) to reconstruct sea ice cover (IP25), biological production (brassicasterol, dinosterol) and river run-off (campesterol, β-sitosterol) in the western Laptev Sea over the last ∼17 ka with unprecedented temporal resolution. The absence of IP25 from 17.2 to 15.5 ka, in combination with minimum concentration of phytoplankton biomarkers, suggests that the western Laptev Sea shelf was mostly covered with permanent sea ice. Very minor river run-off and restricted biological production occurred during this cold interval. From ∼16 ka until 7.5 ka, a long-term decrease of terrigenous (riverine) organic matter and a coeval increase of marine organic matter reflect the gradual establishment of fully marine conditions in the western Laptev Sea, caused by the onset of the post-glacial transgression. Intensified river run-off and reduced sea ice cover characterized the time interval between 15.2 and 12.9 ka, including the Bølling/Allerød warm period (14.7-12.9 ka). Prominent peaks of the DIP25 Index coinciding with maximum abundances of subpolar foraminifers, are interpreted as pulses of Atlantic water inflow on the western Laptev Sea shelf. After the warm period, a sudden return to severe sea ice conditions with strongest ice-coverage between 11.9 and 11 ka coincided with the Younger Dryas (12.9-11.6 ka). At the onset of the Younger Dryas, a distinct alteration of the ecosystem (reflected in a distinct drop in terrigenous and phytoplankton biomarkers) was detected. During the last 7 ka, the sea ice proxies reflect a cooling of the Laptev Sea spring/summer season. This cooling trend was superimposed by a short-term variability in sea ice coverage, probably representing Bond cycles (1500 ± 500 ka) that are related to solar activity changes. Hence, atmospheric circulation changes were apparently able to affect the sea ice conditions on the Laptev Sea shelf under modern sea level

  13. Sea level variability influencing coastal flooding in the Swan River region, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliot, Matt

    2012-02-01

    Coastal flooding refers to the incidence of high water levels produced by water level fluctuations of marine origin, rather than riverine floods. An understanding of the amplitude and frequency of high water level events is essential to foreshore management and the design of many coastal and estuarine facilities. Coastal flooding events generally determine public perception of sea level phenomena, as they are commonly associated with erosion events. This investigation has explored the nature of coastal flooding events affecting the Swan River Region, Western Australia, considering water level records at four sites in the estuary and lower river, extending from the mouth of the Swan River to 40 km upstream. The analysis examined the significance of tides, storms and mean sea level fluctuations over both seasonal and inter-annual time scales. The relative timing of these processes is significant for the enhanced or reduced frequency of coastal flooding. These variations overlie net sea level rise previously reported from the coastal Fremantle record, which is further supported by changes to the distribution of high water level events at an estuarine tidal station. Seasonally, coastal flooding events observed in the Swan River region are largely restricted to the period from May to July due to the relative phases of the annual mean sea fluctuation and biannual tidal cycle. Although significant storm surge events occur outside this period, their impact is normally reduced, as they are superimposed on lower tidal and mean sea level conditions. Over inter-annual time scales tide, storminess and mean sea level produce cycles of enhanced and depressed frequency of coastal flooding. For the Swan River region, the inter-annual tidal variation is regular, dominated by the 18.6 year lunar nodal cycle. Storminess and mean sea level variations are independent and irregular, with cycles from 3 to 10 year duration. Since 1960, these fluctuations have not occurred in phase

  14. Determination of organochlorine pesticide concentrations in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the western Black Sea coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Bozcaarmutlu, Azra; Turna, Sema; Sapmaz, Canan; Yenisoy-Karakaş, Serpil

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of 14 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in flathead mullet (Mugil cephalus) caught from the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. The fish samples were caught from five different locations of the western Black Sea coast of Turkey in August 2009. Organochlorine pesticides were extracted from the liver tissues, and then the levels of OCPs were measured using gas chromatography with an electron capture detector. Organochlorine pesticides were detected in all locations. The levels of total OCPs in fish samples ranged between 0.224 and 1.103 μg g(-1) dry weight in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. DDT, beta-HCH, and endosulfan I were the dominant OCPs in the fish samples. The levels of DDT in fish samples ranged between 0.081 and 0.186 μg g(-1) dry weight. The levels of total HCH in fish samples ranged between 0.007 and 0.376 μg g(-1) dry weight in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey. Although the usage of OCPs was banned in Turkey, the results of this study clearly indicated the presence of OCPs in the western Black Sea coast of Turkey and exposure of living organisms to these chemicals.

  15. Glacial-to-Holocene evolution of sea surface temperature and surface circulation in the subarctic northwest Pacific and the Western Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Vera D.; Max, Lars; Hefter, Jens; Tiedemann, Ralf; Mollenhauer, Gesine

    2016-07-01

    It has been proposed that North Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) evolution was intimately linked to North Atlantic climate oscillations during the last glacial-interglacial transition. However, during the early deglaciation and the Last Glacial Maximum, the SST development in the subarctic northwest Pacific and the Bering Sea is poorly constrained as most existing deglacial SST records are based on alkenone paleothermometry, which is limited prior to 15 ka B.P. in the subarctic North Pacific realm. By applying the TEXL86 temperature proxy we obtain glacial-Holocene-SST records for the marginal northwest Pacific and the Western Bering Sea. Our TEXL86-based records and existing alkenone data suggest that during the past 15.5 ka, SSTs in the northwest Pacific and the Western Bering Sea closely followed millennial-scale climate fluctuations known from Greenland ice cores, indicating rapid atmospheric teleconnections with abrupt climate changes in the North Atlantic. Our SST reconstructions indicate that in the Western Bering Sea SSTs drop significantly during Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1), similar to the known North Atlantic climate history. In contrast, progressively rising SST in the northwest Pacific is different to the North Atlantic climate development during HS1. Similarities between the northwest Pacific SST and climate records from the Gulf of Alaska point to a stronger influence of Alaskan Stream waters connecting the eastern and western basin of the North Pacific during this time. During the Holocene, dissimilar climate trends point to reduced influence of the Alaskan Stream in the northwest Pacific.

  16. Sea ice cover variability and river run-off in the western Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean) since the last 18 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörner, T.; Stein, R.; Fahl, K.; Birgel, D.

    2015-12-01

    Multi-proxy biomarker measurements were performed on two sediment cores (PS51/154, PS51/159) with the objective reconstructing sea ice cover (IP25, brassicasterol, dinosterol) and river-runoff (campesterol, β-sitosterol) in the western Laptev Sea over the last 18 ka with unprecedented temporal resolution. The sea ice cover varies distinctly during the whole time period. The absence of IP25 during 18 and 16 ka indicate that the western Laptev Sea was mostly covered with permanent sea ice (pack ice). However, a period of temporary break-up of the permanent ice coverage occurred at c. 17.2 ka (presence of IP25). Very little river-runoff occurred during this interval. Decreasing terrigenous (riverine) input and synchronous increase of marine produced organic matter around 16 ka until 7.5 ka indicate the gradual establishment of a marine environment in the western Laptev Sea related to the onset of the post-glacial transgression of the shelf. Strong river run-off and reduced sea ice cover characterized the time interval between 15.2 and 12.9 ka, including the Bølling/Allerød warm period (14.7 - 12.9 ka). Moreover, the DIP25 Index (ratio of HBI-dienes and IP25) might document the presence of Atlantic derived water at the western Laptev Sea shelf area. A sudden return to severe sea ice conditions occurred during the Younger Dryas (12.9 - 11.6 ka). This abrupt climate change was observed in the whole circum-Arctic realm (Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Fram Strait and Laptev Sea). At the onset of the Younger Dryas, a distinct alteration of the ecosystem (deep drop in terrigenous and phytoplankton biomarkers) may document the entry of a giant freshwater plume, possibly relating to the Lake Agassiz outburst at 13 ka. IP25 concentrations increase and higher values of the PIP25 Index during the last 7 ka reflect a cooling of the Laptev Sea spring season. Moreover, a short-term variability of c. 1.5 thousand years occurred during the last 12 ka, most probably following Bond Cycles.

  17. An evaluation of surface micro- and mesoplastic pollution in pelagic ecosystems of the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Faure, Florian; Saini, Camille; Potter, Gaël; Galgani, François; de Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Hagmann, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    This study examines the distribution, abundance and characteristics of surface micro- and mesoplastic debris in the Western Mediterranean Sea. 41 samples were collected in 2011 (summer) and 2012 (summer). Results, firstly, revealed that micro- (<5 mm) and mesoplastic debris were widely and uniformly distributed in this area with average concentrations of 130,000 parts/km(2) and 5700 parts/km(2), respectively. Importantly, a strong correlation between micro- and mesoplastic concentrations was identified. Secondly, a classification based on the shape and appearance of microplastics indicated the predominant presence of fragments (73%) followed by thin films (14%). Thirdly, the average mass ratio of microplastic to dry organic matter has been measured at 0.5, revealing a significant presence of microplastics in comparison to plankton. Finally, a correction method was applied in order to correct wind mixing effect on microplastics' vertical distribution. This data allows for a comprehensive view, for the first time, of the spatial distribution and nature of plastic debris in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

  18. Overlapping distributions of cryptic Scoloplos cf. armiger species in the western Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luttikhuizen, Pieternella C.; Bol, Anneke; Cardoso, Joana F. M. F.; Dekker, Rob

    2011-10-01

    Unknowingly lumping cryptic species in biological monitoring studies hinders progress in understanding their functioning in a wide range of research fields including population dynamics, ecophysiology and community ecology. The common polychaete worm Scoloplos cf. armiger is a cryptic species complex comprising entirely different developmental modes: holobenthic and pelago-benthic development. In the northeast Atlantic, three putative species have been described on the basis of molecular data and a breeding study. We report on the development of a fast genotyping assay and on the occurrence and distribution of different molecular types in the western Wadden Sea. The genotyping assay consists of PCR-RFLP analysis by two enzymes of a mitochondrial ( cox3-trnQ-nad6) DNA segment. A new, fourth type was observed and this was the only type whose geographical distribution was not uniform but instead skewed toward the eastern part of the study area. All three hitherto known types were also observed and these three displayed a significant difference in depth distribution within the study area. This is the first ecological difference reported for the 'Subtidal Clade' (SC) versus the 'Type Locality Clade' (TLC). The new type ('Intertidal Clade 2') had a similar distribution to what is known as the Intertidal Clade (IC). However, the most striking observation is the large degree of overlap between the depth distributions in the western Wadden Sea, where the clade names 'Intertidal' and 'Subtidal' do not necessarily reflect local species composition. The necessity to genotype Scoloplos cf. armiger in monitoring programs is emphasized.

  19. Connection of sea level height between Western Pacific and South Indian Ocean in recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DU, Y.; Wang, T.; Zhuang, W.; Wang, J.

    2014-12-01

    Based on merged altimetry data and in site observations from tide gauges, we analyzed the fast increasing trend of sea surface height (SSH) in the recent two decades in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean. The results of analysis indicated a dynamic connection of SSH between the tropical western Pacific and the southeastern Indian Ocean. The low-frequency variations of SSH propagate westward in the tropical Pacific, enter the Indonesian Seas through the waveguide, and influence the southeastern India Ocean with the Kelvin-Rossby wave transformation. The thermal structure of upper ocean reveals the above adjustment mainly occur in the thermocline. However, the impacts from the Pacific are limited in the southeast Indian Ocean. In the central and west of the south Indian Ocean, local wind dominates the SSH changes in the last two decades. By lead-lag statistic analyses, we identified the cause of interdecadal from the interannual SSH variations. The interannual SSH variations is dominated by ENSO, forced by the anomalous wind along the equatorial Pacific. Whereas, the interdecadal SSH variations results from the off-equatorial wind stress curl, which is closely related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The dynamic connections between the western Pacific and the south Indian Ocean were tested in the baroclinic Rossby wave solution and the numerical experiments based on the nonlinear reduced-gravity dynamics model.

  20. Changes in Phytoplankton Community Structure in Western South China Sea Over the Past 450 Kyrs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L.; Wang, H.; Li, J.; Zhao, M.; Wang, P.; Zhang, C.

    2008-12-01

    Molecular biomarkers (brassicasterol, dinosterol, alkenones, C30 1,15-diol/keto-ol and cholesterol) were measured in an IMAGES core MD05-2901 (14°22.50'N, 110°44.60'E, w.d. 1454 m), to reconstruct the phytoplankton community structure over the past 450 kyrs in the western South China Sea on the eastern slope off Vietnam. Our results showed that diatoms, which are most sensitive to nutrition supply, exhibited relatively high productivity in interglacial period and lower productivity in glacial period, possibly caused by summer monsoon-induced upwelling. Dinoflagellates exhibited simillar phenomena as diatoms. But, coccolithphorids did not show clear glacial/intergalcial patterns and had a gradual increasing trend from 450 kyrs to 200 kyrs followed by a gradual decreasing trend until the present. Eustigmatophytes exhibited higher contents in glacial than interglacial periods and almost the same variations with terrestrial n- alkanes. Relationships among the major biomarker groups indicated complex responses of different phytoplanktons to changes in paleoclimate and paleoenvironment in the past 450 kyrs in western South China Sea.

  1. The Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Echinometra (Camarodonta: Echinometridae) from the Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Bronstein, Omri; Loya, Yossi

    2013-01-01

    The number of valid species in the genus Echinometra (Echinodermata, Echinoidea) and their associated identification keys have been debated in the scientific literature for more than 180 years. As the phylogeny and dispersal patterns of these species have been widely used as a prominent model for marine speciation, new insights into their taxonomy have the potential to deepen our understanding of marine speciation processes. In this study we examine Echinometra taxonomy, combining morphology and molecular tools. We present the taxonomy and phylogeny of Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean Echinometra. The currently available morphological keys were found to be limited in their ability to delineate all species within this genus. Nonetheless, morphological similarities between the Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean populations were high, and delimited them from the other species. These latter populations together formed a monophyletic clade, genetically distant from any of the other Echinometra species by more than 3%. Combining both traditional taxonomy and molecular evidence, we found that these populations were neither Echinometra mathaei nor E. oblonga, as previously considered. The morphological discrepancies of these populations, and their genetic divergence from the other Echinometra species, suggest that they should be considered as a new Echinometra species. PMID:24116225

  2. The formation and inversion of the western Greater Caucasus Basin and the uplift of the western Greater Caucasus: Implications for the wider Black Sea region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Stephen J.; Braham, William; Lavrishchev, Vladimir A.; Maynard, James R.; Harland, Melise

    2016-12-01

    The western Greater Caucasus formed by the tectonic inversion of the western strand of the Greater Caucasus Basin, a Mesozoic rift that opened at the southern margin of Laurasia. Subsidence analysis indicates that the main phase of rifting occurred during the Aalenian to Bajocian synchronous with that in the eastern Alborz and, possibly, the South Caspian Basin. Secondary episodes of subsidence during the late Tithonian to Berriasian and Hauterivian to early Aptian are tentatively linked to initial rifting within the western, and possibly eastern, Black Sea and during the late Campanian to Danian to the opening of the eastern Black Sea. Initial uplift, subaerial exposure, and sediment derivation from the western Greater Caucasus occurred at the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Oligocene and younger sediments on the southern margin of the former basin were derived from the inverting basin and uplifted parts of its northern margin, indicating that the western Greater Caucasus Basin had closed by this time. A predominance of pollen representing a montane forest environment (dominated by Pinacean pollen) within these sediments suggests that the uplifting Caucasian hinterland had a paleoaltitude of around 2 km from early Oligocene time. The closure of the western Greater Caucasus Basin and significant uplift of the range at approximately 34 Ma is earlier than stated in many studies and needs to be incorporated into geodynamic models for the Arabia-Eurasia region.

  3. Population Genetic History of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda) in the Western and Central Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Marra, Annamaria; Mona, Stefano; Sà, Rui M.; D’Onghia, Gianfranco; Maiorano, Porzia

    2015-01-01

    Aristeus antennatus is an ecologically and economically important deep-water species in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we investigated the genetic variability of A. antennatus sampled from 10 sampling stations in the Western and Central Mediterranean. By comparing our new samples with available data from the Western area, we aim to identify potential genetic stocks of A. antennatus and to reconstruct its historical demography in the Mediterranean. We analyzed two regions of mitochondrial DNA in 319 individuals, namely COI and 16S. We found two main results: i) the genetic diversity values consistent with previous data within the Mediterranean and the absence of barriers to gene flow within the Mediterranean Sea; ii) a constant long-term effective population size in almost all demes but a strong signature of population expansion in the pooled sample about 50,000 years B.P./ago. We propose two explanation for our results. The first is based on the ecology of A. antennatus. We suggest the existence of a complex meta-population structured into two layers: a deeper-dwelling stock, not affected by fishing, which preserves the pattern of historical demography; and genetically homogeneous demes inhabiting the fishing grounds. The larval dispersal, adult migration and continuous movements of individuals from “virgin” deeper grounds not affected by fishing to upper fishing areas support an effective ‘rescue effect’ contributing to the recovery of the exploited stocks and explain their genetic homogeneity throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The second is based on the reproduction model of this shrimp: the high variance in offspring production calls for a careful interpretation of the data observed under classical population genetics and Kingman’s coalescent. In both cases, management policies for A. antennatus will therefore require careful evaluation of the meta-population dynamics of all stocks in the Mediterranean. In the future, it will be particularly

  4. Climatic aspects of the variability of extreme storm occurrence and intensity in the western Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valchev, Nikolay; Trifonova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Nataliya; Eftimova, Petya

    2010-05-01

    The study considers potential changes in the storm occurrence and intensity over the western Black Sea through analysis of long term series of wind and wave conditions simulated with relatively high resolution. It is a result of coupling of atmospheric and wave models and spans period of more than 62 years (1948-2009). The wave hincast is driven with the global reanalysis data produced by ECMWF and NCEP/NCAR. The continuous dataset is reduced to a series of storms of considerable intensity and/or destructive potential through application of thresholds for filtration of weak seas. They are primarily based on storm impact on the coastal environment and principles for statistical representativeness. The climatic variability of occurrence and intensity of the selected extreme events is analyzed using different criteria such as number of stormy days, wind speed and wave height extremes. Particular consideration is paid to the mean wave energy per storm season and specific storm energy that are found to be more indicative for understanding of the storm pattern variability. Despite of the overall tendency for storminess decrease, there are no incontestable evidences corroborating a marked reduction of the storm intensity. While the total number of stormy hours diminishes, an increase of the mean wave energy is discernible. This is found to be caused by a change of the storm pattern: storms with short growth stage, energetic stage of full development and fast decay are more frequently observed. This storm type still provides significant energy input in the coastal zone and is able of producing considerable morphological impact, including damages. Such storms develop abruptly, therefore, timely prediction and mitigation of hazard effects become more complex to tackle with. Hence, little potential seems to exist for reducing the vulnerability to storms in the western Black Sea. That means the societies must begin to take such far-reaching implications into serious

  5. Spatially Explicit Modeling Reveals Cephalopod Distributions Match Contrasting Trophic Pathways in the Western Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Puerta, Patricia; Hunsicker, Mary E.; Quetglas, Antoni; Álvarez-Berastegui, Diego; Esteban, Antonio; González, María; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Populations of the same species can experience different responses to the environment throughout their distributional range as a result of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in habitat conditions. This highlights the importance of understanding the processes governing species distribution at local scales. However, research on species distribution often averages environmental covariates across large geographic areas, missing variability in population-environment interactions within geographically distinct regions. We used spatially explicit models to identify interactions between species and environmental, including chlorophyll a (Chla) and sea surface temperature (SST), and trophic (prey density) conditions, along with processes governing the distribution of two cephalopods with contrasting life-histories (octopus and squid) across the western Mediterranean Sea. This approach is relevant for cephalopods, since their population dynamics are especially sensitive to variations in habitat conditions and rarely stable in abundance and location. The regional distributions of the two cephalopod species matched two different trophic pathways present in the western Mediterranean Sea, associated with the Gulf of Lion upwelling and the Ebro river discharges respectively. The effects of the studied environmental and trophic conditions were spatially variant in both species, with usually stronger effects along their distributional boundaries. We identify areas where prey availability limited the abundance of cephalopod populations as well as contrasting effects of temperature in the warmest regions. Despite distributional patterns matching productive areas, a general negative effect of Chla on cephalopod densities suggests that competition pressure is common in the study area. Additionally, results highlight the importance of trophic interactions, beyond other common environmental factors, in shaping the distribution of cephalopod populations. Our study presents a valuable

  6. Spatially Explicit Modeling Reveals Cephalopod Distributions Match Contrasting Trophic Pathways in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Puerta, Patricia; Hunsicker, Mary E; Quetglas, Antoni; Álvarez-Berastegui, Diego; Esteban, Antonio; González, María; Hidalgo, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Populations of the same species can experience different responses to the environment throughout their distributional range as a result of spatial and temporal heterogeneity in habitat conditions. This highlights the importance of understanding the processes governing species distribution at local scales. However, research on species distribution often averages environmental covariates across large geographic areas, missing variability in population-environment interactions within geographically distinct regions. We used spatially explicit models to identify interactions between species and environmental, including chlorophyll a (Chla) and sea surface temperature (SST), and trophic (prey density) conditions, along with processes governing the distribution of two cephalopods with contrasting life-histories (octopus and squid) across the western Mediterranean Sea. This approach is relevant for cephalopods, since their population dynamics are especially sensitive to variations in habitat conditions and rarely stable in abundance and location. The regional distributions of the two cephalopod species matched two different trophic pathways present in the western Mediterranean Sea, associated with the Gulf of Lion upwelling and the Ebro river discharges respectively. The effects of the studied environmental and trophic conditions were spatially variant in both species, with usually stronger effects along their distributional boundaries. We identify areas where prey availability limited the abundance of cephalopod populations as well as contrasting effects of temperature in the warmest regions. Despite distributional patterns matching productive areas, a general negative effect of Chla on cephalopod densities suggests that competition pressure is common in the study area. Additionally, results highlight the importance of trophic interactions, beyond other common environmental factors, in shaping the distribution of cephalopod populations. Our study presents a valuable

  7. Holocene intermediate and bottom water mass reconstructions of the western Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groot, D. E.; Aagaard Sørensen, S.; Husum, K.; Hald, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) is an important component of the Earth's climate system. It brings warm and saline water to the northern latitudes by the North Atlantic Current (NAC) and causes the formation of deep water which flows back to the south. Variability in the AMOC can affect the convective formation of deep water in the Nordic Seas and thereby the global ocean circulation. Additionally, the inflow of the NAC is essential for the ecological conditions at higher latitudes as any changes of this warm inflow have large consequences. Hence, it is crucial to establish the natural range of oceanographic fluctuations. During the Holocene both atmospheric and oceanic temperatures generally decreased. However, many smaller temperature fluctuations have been observed superimposed on this general cooling trend. Warm Atlantic water flows into the Barents Sea as the northern continuation of the NAC. The warm Atlantic waters are separated from the colder Arctic waters by the Polar Front. We have chosen a core location close to the Polar Front in order to study any changes in the inflow of Atlantic Water to the Barents Sea during the Holocene. A sediment core from the Kveithola trough, western Barents Sea margin, is studied at decadal to centennial time scale. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages have been analyzed in addition to stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C) and Mg/Ca ratios. The first results of the benthic foraminiferal assemblages show a general Holocene warming trend for the western Barents Sea. Cold water associated species such as Elphidium excavatum are replaced by cooled Atlantic Water associated species (Cassidulina neoteretis, Cassidulina reniforme) around 9500 cal. yr. BP. A lithological shift and a drop in total organic carbon (TOC) is observed around 8400 cal. yr. BP and might indicate a change in water mass. The benthic foraminiferal assemblages show a stable trend during mid-Holocene and the assemblage is dominated by C

  8. Competition among penguins and cetaceans reveals trophic cascades in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Ainley, David G; Ballard, Grant; Dugger, Katie M

    2006-08-01

    An apparent trophic cascade that appears during summer in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, explains why the Antarctic silverfish (Pleuragramma antarcticum) there becomes cannibalistic; its principal prey, crystal krill (Euphausia crystallorophias) becomes scarce; and the diatom community is minimally grazed compared to adjacent areas. The krill is the major grazer of diatoms. On the basis of fieldwork at Ross Island, we suggest that the cascade results from foraging by unusually numerous Adélie Penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae), minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis), and fish-eating killer whales (Orcinus orca). These species and other top predators apparently deplete the krill and silverfish. In drawing our conclusions, we were aided by two "natural experiments." In one "experiment," large, grounded icebergs altered the seasonal pattern of change in regional sea-ice cover, but not the seasonal change in penguin diet and foraging behavior that was also detected during the pre-iceberg era. In the other "experiment," a short-term polynya (opening in the ice) brought penguins and whales together in a confined area, this time altering both penguin diet and foraging behavior. We conclude that the foraging of penguins and whales, and not a formerly hypothesized seasonal decrease in sea-ice cover, explains (1) the annual switch in the penguins' prey from krill to silverfish, (2) the subsequent lengthening of penguin foraging trips, and (3) a marked decline of cetaceans in the area later in the season. Reduction in the middle-trophic-level prey is expressed in the relaxed grazing pressure on phytoplankton.

  9. Ozone over the Western Mediterranean Sea - results from two years of shipborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velchev, K.; Cavalli, F.; Hjorth, J.; Marmer, E.; Vignati, E.; Dentener, F.; Raes, F.

    2011-01-01

    Ozone, along with other air pollutants, has been measured for two years from a monitoring station placed on a cruise ship that follows a regular track in the Western Mediterranean between April and October. Conditions favouring high ozone levels have been studied by analysis of weather maps and back trajectories. This analysis was focused on a transect over the open sea in the South Western Mediterranean between Tunis and Palma de Mallorca. High ozone levels were found in situations with an anticyclonic circulation over the Western Mediterranean when subsidence brings air masses down from altitudes between 1000 and 3500 m a.s.l. Analysis of composite meteorological maps suggests a relevant contribution of breeze circulation to subsidence during events with high surface ozone concentrations; this points to an important contribution from local ozone formation. A detailed back trajectory analysis of the origin of air masses with high ozone concentrations was carried out for two "hot spots" for ozone pollution, in the Gulf of Genoa and between Naples and Palermo, respectively. The main cause of high ozone levels in the Gulf of Genoa was found to be outflow from the Po Valley and the Genoa area while such episodes along the Naples-Palermo transect were most often associated with trajectories from the Rome or Naples areas. Analysis of the relationship between measured concentrations of Black Carbon and ozone allowed to evaluate the degree of photochemical "ageing" of the air masses encountered along the route of the cruise ship.

  10. Ozone over the Western Mediterranean Sea - results from two years of shipborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velchev, K.; Cavalli, F.; Hjorth, J.; Marmer, E.; Vignati, E.; Dentener, F.; Raes, F.

    2010-03-01

    Ozone, along with other air pollutants, has been measured for two years from a monitoring station placed on a cruise ship that follows a regular track in the Western Mediterranean between April and October. Conditions favoring high ozone levels have been studied by analysis of weather maps and back trajectories. This analysis was focused on a transect over the open sea in the South Western Mediterranean between Tunis and Palma de Mallorca. High ozone levels were found in situations with an anticyclonic circulation over the Western Mediterranean when subsidence brings air masses down from altitudes between 1000 and 3500 m a.s.l. Analysis of composite meteorological maps suggest a relevant contribution of breeze circulation to subsidence during events with high surface ozone concentrations; this points to an important contribution from local ozone formation. A detailed back trajectory analysis of the origin of air masses with high ozone concentrations was carried out for two "hot spots" for ozone pollution, found along the coast south of Genova and between Napoli and Palermo, respectively. While it was found that the influence of plumes from areas with high pollutant levels might explain most episodes in the Northwestern transect, such "local" influences appeared to be of minor importance within the Napoli-Palermo transect.

  11. Fragmentation of sea bass populations in the western and eastern Mediterranean as revealed by microsatellite polymorphism.

    PubMed Central

    Bahri-Sfar, L; Lemaire, C; Ben Hassine, O K; Bonhomme, F

    2000-01-01

    We studied the genetic structure at six microsatellite loci of the Mediterranean sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) on 19 samples collected from different localities in the western and eastern Mediterranean basins. Significant divergence was found between the two basins. The distance tree showed two separate clusters of populations which matched well with geography, with the noticeable exception of one Egyptian sample which grouped within the western clade, a fact attributable to the introduction of aquaculture broodstock. No heterogeneity was observed within the western basin (theta = 0.0014 and n.s.). However, a significant level of differentiation was found among samples of the eastern Mediterranean (theta = 0.026 and p < 0.001). These results match with water currents but probably not with the dispersal abilities of this fish species. We thus hypothesize that selective forces are at play which limit long-range dispersal, a fact to be taken into account in the debate about speciation processes in the marine environment. PMID:10853737

  12. High-resolution record of last post-glacial variations of sea-ice cover and river discharge in the western Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, R. H.; Hörner, T.; Fahl, K.

    2014-12-01

    Here, we provide a high-resolution reconstruction of sea-ice cover variations in the western Laptev Sea, a crucial area in terms of sea-ice production in the Arctic Ocean and a region characterized by huge river discharge. Furthermore, the shallow Laptev Sea was strongly influenced by the post-glacial sea-level rise that should also be reflected in the sedimentary records. The sea Ice Proxy IP25 (Highly-branched mono-isoprenoid produced by sea-ice algae; Belt et al., 2007) was measured in two sediment cores from the western Laptev Sea (PS51/154, PS51/159) that offer a high-resolution composite record over the last 18 ka. In addition, sterols are applied as indicator for marine productivity (brassicasterol, dinosterol) and input of terrigenous organic matter by river discharge into the ocean (campesterol, ß-sitosterol). The sea-ice cover varies distinctly during the whole time period and shows a general increase in the Late Holocene. A maximum in IP25 concentration can be found during the Younger Dryas. This sharp increase can be observed in the whole circumarctic realm (Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Fram Strait and Laptev Sea). Interestingly, there is no correlation between elevated numbers of ice-rafted debris (IRD) interpreted as local ice-cap expansions (Taldenkova et al. 2010), and sea ice cover distribution. The transgression and flooding of the shelf sea that occurred over the last 16 ka in this region, is reflected by decreasing terrigenous (riverine) input, reflected in the strong decrease in sterol (ß-sitosterol and campesterol) concentrations. ReferencesBelt, S.T., Massé, G., Rowland, S.J., Poulin, M., Michel, C., LeBlanc, B., 2007. A novel chemical fossil of palaeo sea ice: IP25. Organic Geochemistry 38 (1), 16e27. Taldenkova, E., Bauch, H.A., Gottschalk, J., Nikolaev, S., Rostovtseva, Yu., Pogodina, I., Ya, Ovsepyan, Kandiano, E., 2010. History of ice-rafting and water mass evolution at the northern Siberian continental margin (Laptev Sea) during Late

  13. Post-glacial variations of sea ice cover and river discharge in the western Laptev Sea (Arctic Ocean) - a high-resolution study over the last 18 ka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörner, Tanja; Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten

    2015-04-01

    Here, we provide a high-resolution reconstruction of sea-ice cover variations in the western Laptev Sea, a crucial area in terms of sea-ice production in the Arctic Ocean and a region characterized by huge river discharge. Furthermore, the shallow Laptev Sea was strongly influenced by the post-glacial sea-level rise that should also be reflected in the sedimentary records. The sea Ice Proxy IP25 (Highly-branched mono-isoprenoid produced by sea-ice algae; Belt et al., 2007) was measured in two sediment cores from the western Laptev Sea (PS51/154, PS51/159) that offer a high-resolution composite record over the last 18 ka. In addition, sterols are applied as indicator for marine productivity (brassicasterol, dinosterol) and input of terrigenous organic matter by river discharge into the ocean (campesterol, ß-sitosterol). The sea-ice cover varies distinctly during the whole time period and shows a general increase in the Late Holocene. A maximum in IP25 concentration can be found during the Younger Dryas. This sharp increase can be observed in the whole circumarctic realm (Chukchi Sea, Bering Sea, Fram Strait and Laptev Sea). Interestingly, there is no correlation between elevated numbers of ice-rafted debris (IRD) interpreted as local ice-cap expansions (Taldenkova et al. 2010), and sea ice cover distribution. The transgression and flooding of the shelf sea that occurred over the last 16 ka in this region, is reflected by decreasing terrigenous (riverine) input, reflected in the strong decrease in sterol (ß-sitosterol and campesterol) concentrations. References Belt, S.T., Massé, G., Rowland, S.J., Poulin, M., Michel, C., LeBlanc, B., 2007. A novel chemical fossil of palaeo sea ice: IP25. Organic Geochemistry 38 (1), 16e27. Taldenkova, E., Bauch, H.A., Gottschalk, J., Nikolaev, S., Rostovtseva, Yu., Pogodina, I., Ya, Ovsepyan, Kandiano, E., 2010. History of ice-rafting and water mass evolution at the northern Siberian continental margin (Laptev Sea) during Late

  14. A major increase in winter snowfall during the middle Holocene on western Greenland caused by reduced sea ice in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Elizabeth K.; Briner, Jason P.; Ryan-Henry, John J.; Huang, Yongsong

    2016-05-01

    Precipitation is predicted to increase in the Arctic as temperature increases and sea ice retreats. Yet the mechanisms controlling precipitation in the Arctic are poorly understood and quantified only by the short, sparse instrumental record. We use hydrogen isotope ratios (δ2H) of lipid biomarkers in lake sediments from western Greenland to reconstruct precipitation seasonality and summer temperature during the past 8 kyr. Aquatic biomarker δ2H was 100‰ more negative from 6 to 4 ka than during the early and late Holocene, which we interpret to reflect increased winter snowfall. The middle Holocene also had high summer air temperature, decreased early winter sea ice in Baffin Bay and the Labrador Sea, and a strong, warm West Greenland Current. These results corroborate model predictions of winter snowfall increases caused by sea ice retreat and furthermore suggest that warm currents advecting more heat into the polar seas may enhance Arctic evaporation and snowfall.

  15. Late Eocene sea surface cooling of the western North Atlantic (ODP Site 647A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwinska, Kasia K.; Coxall, Helen K.; Schouten, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    The initial shift out of the early Cenozoic greenhouse and into a glacial icehouse climate occurred during the middle to late Eocene and culminated in the abrupt growth of a continental-scale ice cap on Antarctica, during an episode known as the Oligocene Isotope Event 1 (Oi-1) ˜33.7 Ma. Documenting the patterns of global and regional cooling prior to Oi-1 is crucial for understanding the driving force and feedback behind the switch in climate mode. Well-dated high-resolution temperature records, however, remain sparse and the climatic response in some of the most climatically sensitive regions of the Earth, including the high latitude North Atlantic (NA), where today large amounts of ocean heat are exchanged, are poorly known. Here we present a sea surface palaeotemperature record from the late Eocene to the early Oligocene (32.5 Ma to 35 Ma) of ODP Hole 647A based on archaeal tetraether lipids (TEX86H). The site is located in the western North Atlantic (Southern Labrador Sea) and is the most northerly located (53° N) open ocean site with a complete Eocene-Oligocene sequence which yields both calcareous and organic microfossils suitable for detailed proxy reconstructions. Our record agrees with the magnitude of temperature decrease (˜3 ° C sea surface cooling) recorded by alkenones and pollen data from the Greenland Sea, but our higher resolution study reveals that the high latitude NA cooling step occurred about 500 kyrs prior to the Oi-1 Antarctic glaciation, at around ˜34.4 Ma. This cooling can be explained by regional effects related to local NA tectonics including ocean gateways, known to have changed at the time, with potential to effect NA overturning circulation due to adjustments in the thermohaline density balance. Alternatively, the cooling itself may be due to changes in NA circulation, suggesting that global ocean circulation played a role in pre-conditioning the Earth for Antarctic glaciation.

  16. Life history of the deep-sea cephalopod family Histioteuthidae in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quetglas, Antoni; de Mesa, Aina; Ordines, Francesc; Grau, Amàlia

    2010-08-01

    The life cycle of the two species of the deep-sea family Histioteuthidae inhabiting the Mediterranean Sea ( Histioteuthis reversa and Histioteuthis bonnellii) was studied from monthly samples taken throughout the year during daytime hours by bottom trawl gears. A small sample of individuals found floating dead on the sea surface was also analyzed. Both species were caught exclusively on the upper slope at depths greater than 300 m. Their frequency of occurrence increased with depth and showed two different peaks, at 500-600 m and 600-700 m depth in H. bonnellii and H. reversa, respectively, which might indicate spatial segregation. Maturity stages were assigned using macroscopic determination and confirmed with histological analyses. Although mature males were caught all year round, no mature females were found, which suggests that their sexual maturation in the western Mediterranean takes place deeper than the maximum depth sampled (800 m). In fact, the increase in mean squid size with increasing depth in H. reversa indicates an ontogenetic migration to deeper waters. The individuals of both species found floating dead on the sea surface were spent females which had a relatively large cluster of small atresic eggs and a small number of remaining mature eggs scattered in the ovary and mantle cavity. The sizes of these females were clearly larger than the largest individuals caught with bottom trawls. A total of 12 and 7 different types of prey, belonging to three major taxonomic groups (crustaceans, osteichthyes and cephalopods), were identified in the stomach contents of H. reversa and H. bonnellii, respectively. In both species fishes were by far the main prey followed by crustaceans, whereas cephalopods were found only occasionally. The preys identified, mainly myctophids and natantian crustaceans, indicate that both histioteuthids base their diet on pelagic nictemeral migrators.

  17. From the North-Iberian Margin to the Alboran Basin: A lithosphere geo-transect across the Iberian Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carballo, A.; Fernandez, M.; Jiménez-Munt, I.; Torne, M.; Vergés, J.; Melchiorre, M.; Pedreira, D.; Afonso, J. C.; Garcia-Castellanos, D.; Díaz, J.; Villaseñor, A.; Pulgar, J. A.; Quintana, L.

    2015-11-01

    A ~ 1000-km-long lithospheric transect running from the North-Iberian Margin to the Alboran Basin (W-Mediterranean) is investigated. The main goal is to image the changes in the crustal and upper mantle structure occurring in: i) the North-Iberian margin, whose deformation in Alpine times gave rise to the uplift of the Cantabrian Mountains related to Iberia-Eurasia incipient subduction; ii) the Spanish Meseta, characterized by the presence of Cenozoic basins on top of a Variscan basement with weak Alpine deformation in the Central System, and localized Neogene-Quaternary deep volcanism; and iii) the Betic-Alboran system related to Africa-Iberia collision and the roll-back of the Ligurian-Tethyan domain. The modeling approach, combines potential fields, elevation, thermal, seismic, and petrological data under a self-consistent scheme. The crustal structure is mainly constrained by seismic data whereas the upper mantle is constrained by tomographic models. The results highlight the lateral variations in the topography of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB), suggesting a strong lithospheric mantle strain below the Cantabrian and Betic mountain belts. The LAB depth ranges from 180 km beneath the Cantabrian Mountains to 135-110 km beneath Iberia Meseta deepening again to values of 160 km beneath the Betic Cordillera. The Central System, with a mean elevation of 1300 m, has a negligible signature on the LAB depth. We have considered four lithospheric mantle compositions: a predominantly average Phanerozoic in the continental mainland, two more fertile compositions in the Alboran Sea and in the Calatrava Volcanic Province, and a hydrated uppermost mantle in the North-Iberian Margin. These compositional differences allowed us to reproduce the main trends of the geophysical observables as well as the inferred P- and S-wave seismic velocities from tomography models and seismic experiments available in the study transect. The high mean topography of Iberia can be

  18. The genus Litophyton Forskål, 1775 (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea, Nephtheidae) in the Red Sea and the western Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    van Ofwegen, Leen P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Litophyton species of the Red Sea and the western Indian Ocean are revised, which includes species previously belonging to the genus Nephthea, which is synonymized with Litophyton. A neotype for both Litophyton arboreum, the type species of Litophyton, and Nephthea chabrolii, the type species of Nephthea, are designated. The new species Litophyton curvum sp. n. is described and depicted, and a key to all Litophyton species is provided. Of the 26 species previously described from the western Indian Ocean and Red Sea, 13 species are considered valid and 13 have been synonymized or placed in other genera. PMID:27103869

  19. A New Record for Occurrence of Symphodus bailloni (Osteichthyes: Perciformes: Labridae) in the Western Black Sea Coast of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Göktürk, Didem; Karakulak, F. Saadet; Ünsal, Nuran; Kahraman, Abdullah E.

    2012-01-01

    The fish species Symphodus bailloni (Valenciennes, 1839) reported in the present study were collected between June 2010 and June 2011 from the western Black Sea coasts which were previously not recorded from the Black Sea coast of Turkey. A total of 717 specimens of S. bailloni were measured, ranging between 8.9 and 15.4 cm TL. Morphometrics, meristics, and diagnostic characteristics of the species are presented. PMID:22593703

  20. Features and variability of the South China Sea western boundary current from 1992 to 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Qi; Xue, Huijie; Qin, Huiling; Zeng, Xuezhi; Peng, Shiqiu

    2016-07-01

    Different from the traditional definition of the South China Sea western boundary current (SCSWBC), in this paper, only the southwestward and southward currents along the northern and western slopes in the SCS, which are closely associated with the basin-wide wind stress curl, are defined as the SCSWBC, while the flows on the southwestern shelf driven directly by the local wind stress are regarded as part of the shelf circulation. Using a new reanalysis dataset of the SCS in conjunction with the in situ and remote sensing data, the main features and variability of the SCSWBC from 1992 to 2011 were studied. Dictated by the prevailing monsoonal winds and in- and outflows, the SCSWBC in winter extended the full length of the western slope and reached its maximum intensity off the southeast coast of Vietnam, while in summer the main body of the SCSWBC was limited to the northern half of the western slope and merged with the northward coastal current to form the Vietnam Offshore Current (VOC) at about 12° N. Moreover, the respective seasonal patterns of the SCSWBC showed pronounced interannual variations in its structure, including the axis, the width, and the maximum depth. The strength of the SCSWBC, with the transport of -11.8 ± 3.5 Sv in winter and -3.0 ± 1.6 Sv in summer off the central coast of Vietnam, also varied significantly from year to year. It was demonstrated that the monsoonal forcing over the SCS, the interannual variability of which was closely associated with El Niño events, played an important role in modulating the interannual variability of the SCSWBC, whereas the influence from the upper-layer Luzon Strait transport was secondary.

  1. Intensification of decadal and multi-decadal sea level variability in the western tropical Pacific during recent decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Weiqing; Meehl, Gerald A.; Hu, Aixue; Alexander, Michael A.; Yamagata, Toshio; Yuan, Dongliang; Ishii, Masayoshi; Pegion, Philip; Zheng, Jian; Hamlington, Benjamin D.; Quan, Xiao-Wei; Leben, Robert R.

    2014-09-01

    Previous studies have linked the rapid sea level rise (SLR) in the western tropical Pacific (WTP) since the early 1990s to the Pacific decadal climate modes, notably the Pacific Decadal Oscillation in the north Pacific or Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO) considering its basin wide signature. Here, the authors investigate the changing patterns of decadal (10-20 years) and multidecadal (>20 years) sea level variability (global mean SLR removed) in the Pacific associated with the IPO, by analyzing satellite and in situ observations, together with reconstructed and reanalysis products, and performing ocean and atmosphere model experiments. Robust intensification is detected for both decadal and multidecadal sea level variability in the WTP since the early 1990s. The IPO intensity, however, did not increase and thus cannot explain the faster SLR. The observed, accelerated WTP SLR results from the combined effects of Indian Ocean and WTP warming and central-eastern tropical Pacific cooling associated with the IPO cold transition. The warm Indian Ocean acts in concert with the warm WTP and cold central-eastern tropical Pacific to drive intensified easterlies and negative Ekman pumping velocity in western-central tropical Pacific, thereby enhancing the western tropical Pacific SLR. On decadal timescales, the intensified sea level variability since the late 1980s or early 1990s results from the "out of phase" relationship of sea surface temperature anomalies between the Indian and central-eastern tropical Pacific since 1985, which produces "in phase" effects on the WTP sea level variability.

  2. Using very high resolution satellite images to identify coastal zone dynamics at North Western Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin Zoran, Liviu; Ionescu Golovanov, Carmen; Zoran, Maria

    2010-05-01

    The availability of updated information about the extension and characteristics of land cover is a crucial issue in the perspective of a correct landscape planning and management of marine coastal zones. Satellite remote sensing data can provide accurate information about land coverage at different scales and the recent availability of very high resolution images definitely improved the precision of coastal zone spatio-temporal changes. The Romanian North Western coastal and shelf zones of the Black Sea and Danube delta are a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, rich natural resources and socio-economic activity. Dramatic changes in the Black Sea's ecosystem and resources are due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). A scientific management system for protection, conservation and restoration must be based on reliable information on bio-geophysical and geomorphologic processes, coastal erosion, sedimentation dynamics, mapping of macrophyte fields, water quality, and climatic change effects. Use of satellite images is of great help for coastal zone monitoring and environmental impact assessment. Synergetic use of in situ measurements with multisensors satellite data could provide a complex assessment of spatio-temporal changes. In this study was developed a method for extracting coastal zone features information as well as landcover dynamics from IKONOS, very high resolution images for North-Western Black Sea marine coastal zone. The main objective was obtaining reliable data about the spatio-temporal coastal zone changes in two study areas located in Constanta urban area and Danube Delta area. We used an object-oriented approach based on preliminary segmentation and classification of the resulting object. First of all, segmentation parameters were tested and selected comparing segmented polygons with

  3. Wave ensemble forecast in the Western Mediterranean Sea, application to an early warning system.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pallares, Elena; Hernandez, Hector; Moré, Jordi; Espino, Manuel; Sairouni, Abdel

    2015-04-01

    The Western Mediterranean Sea is a highly heterogeneous and variable area, as is reflected on the wind field, the current field, and the waves, mainly in the first kilometers offshore. As a result of this variability, the wave forecast in these regions is quite complicated to perform, usually with some accuracy problems during energetic storm events. Moreover, is in these areas where most of the economic activities take part, including fisheries, sailing, tourism, coastal management and offshore renewal energy platforms. In order to introduce an indicator of the probability of occurrence of the different sea states and give more detailed information of the forecast to the end users, an ensemble wave forecast system is considered. The ensemble prediction systems have already been used in the last decades for the meteorological forecast; to deal with the uncertainties of the initial conditions and the different parametrizations used in the models, which may introduce some errors in the forecast, a bunch of different perturbed meteorological simulations are considered as possible future scenarios and compared with the deterministic forecast. In the present work, the SWAN wave model (v41.01) has been implemented for the Western Mediterranean sea, forced with wind fields produced by the deterministic Global Forecast System (GFS) and Global Ensemble Forecast System (GEFS). The wind fields includes a deterministic forecast (also named control), between 11 and 21 ensemble members, and some intelligent member obtained from the ensemble, as the mean of all the members. Four buoys located in the study area, moored in coastal waters, have been used to validate the results. The outputs include all the time series, with a forecast horizon of 8 days and represented in spaghetti diagrams, the spread of the system and the probability at different thresholds. The main goal of this exercise is to be able to determine the degree of the uncertainty of the wave forecast, meaningful

  4. Distribution of total mercury in surface sediments of the western Jade Bay, Lower Saxonian Wadden Sea, southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huafang; Liebezeit, Gerd; Ziehe, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    A total of 114 surface sediment samples was equidistantly collected in the western part of the Jade Bay, southern North Sea, to analyse total mercury contents as well as grain size distribution and total organic carbon (TOC) contents. Total mercury was determined by oxygen combustion-gold amalgamation. Validation, precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated and controlled with two certified reference materials (HISS-1 and MESS-3). Total mercury contents varied between 8 and 243 ng/g dry sediment with a mean value of 103 ng/g dw. The mercury levels in surface sediments showed an inhomogeneous spatial distribution with higher contents in near-dike areas. The values are mostly in the range of natural background values (50–100 ng/g dw) and positively related to TOC and clay/silt contents (<63 μm). The present total mercury contents are compared to those of previous studies, in order to estimate possible temporal trends of mercury contents in the study area over the last decades. Moreover, the comparison to sediment quality guidelines indicated that the surface sediments of the Jade Bay are not mercury contaminated. These results also suggested that the current mercury contents of Jade Bay surficial sediments are mostly affected by atmospheric deposition and re-emission.

  5. Influence of submarine morphology on bottom water flow across the western Ross Sea continental margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davey, F.J.; Jacobs, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    Multibeam sonar bathymetry documents a lack of significant channels crossing outer continental shelf and slope of the western Ross Sea. This indicates that movement of bottom water across the shelf break into the deep ocean in this area is mainly by laminar or sheet flow. Subtle, ~20 m deep and up to 1000 m wide channels extend down the continental slope, into tributary drainage patterns on the upper rise, and then major erosional submarine canyons. These down-slope channels may have been formed by episodic pulses of rapid down slope water flow, some recorded on bottom current meters, or by sub-ice melt water erosion from an icesheet grounded at the margin. Narrow, mostly linear furrows on the continental shelf thought to be caused by iceberg scouring are randomly oriented, have widths generally less than 400 m and depths less than 30m, and extend to water depths in excess of 600 m.

  6. Reservoir characters of the Ypresian carbonates, Western Libyan Offshore, Central Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Mriheel, I.Y.

    1995-08-01

    Significant hydrocarbon accumulations have been discovered in Western Libyan offshore in the Ypresian carbonate reservoirs of Jdeir Formation and Jirani Dolomite. The discoveries of hydrocarbons are mainly in structural traps where the Jdeir nummulitic facies and Jirani dolomitic facies B have been structured by salt domes or underlying positive fault blocks. This study investigates the relationship between environments of deposition, diagenesis and reservoir characters of the two main hydrocarbon producing units of the Jdeir and Jirani formations. Petrographic and petrophysical studies indicate that porosity in the Jirani Dolomite is related to diagenesis in meteoric environments, while in the Jdeir reservoir is the result of the environment of deposition and diagenesis. Excellent reservoir porosity of Jdeir nummulitic facies and Jirani dolomitic facies B is related to diagenesis in meteoric water during exposure to subaerial conditions which is considered to be due to lowering of sea level and possibly local uplifting.

  7. One decade of thermohaline variability in the deep western Mediterranean Sea (2004-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, Katrin; Ismail, S. Ben; Bryden, Harry; Borghini, Mireno; Sparnocchia, Stefania; Chiggiato, Jacopo; Ribotti, Alberto

    2015-04-01

    Recent intense deep water formation events in the western Mediterranean have produced a huge amount of a new deep water. Significantly warmer and saltier than previously, it substituted the resident deep water. The deep structure and properties began to change after winter 2004/2005 and the water rapidly spread towards the interior of the basin, in the direction of the Strait of Gibraltar and within the Tyrrhenian Sea. The changes observed over the past 10 years are substantial: since 2004 we witnessed increases in deep water temperature and salinity 3-4 times faster than during 1961-2004. The possible impacts these changes could have on a global scale are still an open issue.

  8. Phosphorus limitation during a phytoplankton spring bloom in the western Dutch Wadden Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ly, Juliette; Philippart, Catharina J. M.; Kromkamp, Jacco C.

    2014-04-01

    Like many aquatic ecosystems, the western Dutch Wadden Sea has undergone eutrophication. Due to changes in management policy, nutrient loads, especially phosphorus decreased after the mid-80s. It is still under debate, however, whether nutrients or light is limiting phytoplankton production in the western Wadden Sea, as studies using monitoring data delivered sometimes opposite conclusions and outcomes were related to years, seasons and approaches used. Clearly, the monitoring data alone were not sufficient. We therefore examined the limiting factors for the phytoplankton spring bloom using different experimental approaches. During the spring bloom in April 2010, we investigated several nutrient regimes on natural phytoplankton assemblages at a long term monitoring site, the NIOZ-Jetty sampling (Marsdiep, The Netherlands). Four bioassays, lasting 6 days each, were performed in controlled conditions. From changes in phytoplankton biomass, chlorophyll-a (Chla), we could conclude that the phytoplankton in general was mainly P-limited during this period, whereas a Si-P-co-limitation was likely for the diatom populations, when present. These results were confirmed by changes in the photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm), in the expression of alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) measured with the fluorescent probe ELF-97, and in the 13C stable isotope incorporation in particulate organic carbon (POC). During our bioassay experiments, we observed a highly dynamic phytoplankton community with regard to species composition and growth rates. The considerable differences in net population growth rates, occurring under more or less similar environmental incubation conditions, suggest that phytoplankton species composition and grazing activity by small grazers were important structuring factors for net growth during this period.

  9. Drilling below the salt in the Western Mediterranean Sea: the GOLD project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabineau, M.; Droxler, A. W.; Kuroda, J.; Eguchi, N.; Aslanian, D.; Alain, K.; Gorini, C.

    2011-12-01

    In recent years the Gulf of Lion within the western Mediterranean Sea has become a unique natural laboratory to study both the evolution and interaction of deep processes (geodynamics, tectonics, subsidence, isostasy) and surficial processes (river behavior, sedimentary fluxes, sea-level changes, climatic impacts). We present the three main objectives for the GOLD deep drilling project at the foot of the continental slope (2400 m water depth) in the Gulf of Lion, the only place where the complete high-resolution history of the last 30 Ma of Mediterranean history is recorded in some 7.7 km of sedimentary archive 1) For the substratum: the upper continental crust thins to less than 5 km, and changes laterally to a relatively thin crust with high velocities whose precise nature is still undetermined (Gailler et al., 2009). The aim of the drilling is to reach this crucial zone, which is essential for the understanding of margin formation and the evolution of sedimentary basin (Aslanian et al., 2009). 2) The drilling will allow the dating and characterization of the impact of climate variations on sedimentation in the deep basin. For the Miocene and older sediments the drilling, will yield information about the nature, paleoenvironments and age of deposits enabling an astronomically-tuned Neogene time scale to be refined for the period of Aquitanian through Langhian interval. The Messinian extreme event represents a unique crisis in Earth history. It is a unique case to study the impact of sea-level drop (more than 1000 m, one order of magnitude greater than Late Quaternary glaciations) on sedimentary river behavior, deltaic and evaporitic deposition and ensuing biotic crisis. Deep drilling with the R/V Chikyu is the only way to go through the complete series of evaporites in the Provence Basin, sample the initiation and evolution of the crises, the first deposits related to the lowering of sea-level on the one hand and to the salinity crisis on the other. 3) The

  10. A survey of the summer coccolithophore community in the western Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraudeau, Jacques; Hulot, Vivien; Hanquiez, Vincent; Devaux, Ludovic; Howa, Hélène; Garlan, Thierry

    2016-06-01

    The Barents Sea is particularly vulnerable to large-scale hydro-climatic changes associated with the polar amplification of climate change. Key oceanographical variables in this region are the seasonal development of sea-ice and the location and strength of physico-chemical gradients in the surface and subsurface water layers induced by the convergence of Arctic- and Atlantic-derived water masses. Remote sensing imagery have highlighted the increasing success of calcifying haptophytes (coccolithophores) in the summer phytoplankton production of the Barents Sea over the last 20 years, as a response to an overall larger contribution of Atlantic waters to surface and sub-surface waters, as well as to enhanced sea-ice melt-induced summer stratification of the photic layer. The present study provides a first thorough description of coccolithophore standing stocks and diversity over the shelf and slope of the western Barents Sea from two sets of surface and water column samples collected during August-September 2014 from northern Norway to southern Svalbard. The abundance and composition of coccolithophore cells and skeletal remains (coccoliths) are discussed in view of the physical-chemical-biological status of the surface waters and water column based on in-situ (temperature, salinity, fluorescence) and shore-based (microscope enumerations, chemotaxonomy) measurements, as well as satellite-derived data (Chl a and particulate inorganic carbon contents). The coccolithophore population is characterized by a low species diversity and the overwhelming dominance of Emiliania huxleyi. Coccolithophores are abundant both within the well stratified, Norwegian coastal water - influenced shallow mixed layer off northern Norway, as well as within well-mixed cool Atlantic water in close vicinity of the Polar Front. Bloom concentrations with standing stocks larger than 4 million cells/l are recorded in the latter area north of 75°N. Our limited set of chemotaxonomic data suggests

  11. Monsoon-driven vertical fluxes of organic pollutants in the western Arabian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Dachs, J.; Bayona, J.M.; Ittekkot, V.; Albaiges, J.

    1999-11-15

    A time series of sinking particles from the western Arabian Sea was analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, 4,4{prime}-DDT and 4,4{prime}-DDE, to assess the role of monsoons on their vertical flux in the Indian Ocean. Concurrently, molecular markers such as sterols and linear and branched alkanes were analyzed enabling the characterization of the biogenic sources and biogeochemical processes occurring during the sampling period. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the data set of concentrations and fluxes of these compounds confirmed a seasonal variability driven by the SW and NE monsoons. Moreover, the influence of different air masses is evidenced by the occurrence of higher concentrations of DDT, PCBs, and pyrolytic PAHs during the NE monsoon and of fossil hydrocarbons during the SW monsoon. Total annual fluxes to the deep Arabian Sea represent an important removal contribution of persistent organic pollutants, thus not being available for the global distillation process (volatilization and atmospheric transport from low or mid latitudes to cold areas). Therefore, monsoons may play a significant role on the global cycle of organic pollutants.

  12. Clouds, radiation, and the diurnal cycle of sea surface temperature in the tropical Western Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, P.J.; Clayson, C.A.; Curry, J.A.

    1996-04-01

    In the tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Ocean, the clouds and the cloud-radiation feedback can only be understood in the context of air/sea interactions and the ocean mixed layer. Considerable interest has been shown in attempting to explain why sea surface temperature (SST) rarely rises above 30{degrees}C, and gradients of the SST. For the most part, observational studies that address this issue have been conducted using monthly cloud and SST data, and the focus has been on intraseasonal and interannual time scales. For the unstable tropical atmosphere, using monthly averaged data misses a key feedback between clouds and SST that occurs on the cloud-SST coupling time scale, which was estimated to be 3-6 days for the unstable tropical atmosphere. This time scale is the time needed for a change in cloud properties, due to the change of ocean surface evaporation caused by SST variation, to feed back to the SST variation, to feed back to the SST through its effect on the surface heat flux. This paper addresses the relationship between clouds, surface radiation flux and SST of the TWP ocean over the diurnal cycle.

  13. Hydrochemical characteristics of the waters in the western part of the Kara Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makkaveev, P. N.; Melnikova, Z. G.; Polukhin, A. A.; Stepanova, S. V.; Khlebopashev, P. V.; Chultsova, A. L.

    2015-07-01

    Hydrochemical study in the Kara Sea was part of the program of the integrated expedition of the 59th cruise of the RV Akademik Mstislav Keldysh. Primary hydrochemical surveys were performed on the sections in the Yenisei Gulf, along the eastern and western branches of the St. Anna Trough, and across the Novozemel'skii Trough. Moreover, a flow-through system throughout, in which pH values of the surface waters were measured and samples for hydrochemical analyses were collected, was operated during vessel movement. A wide set of hydrochemical analyses was carried out, including tests for key nutrients (silicon and different forms of nitrogen and phosphorus), dissolved oxygen, and values of pH and total alkalinity. The report describes the hydrochemical conditions in the southwestern part of the Kara Sea. The basic results are presented and compared to those of the preceding integrated expeditions (49th cruise of the RV Dmitrii Mendeleev in 1993 and 54th cruise of the RV Akademik Mstislav Keldysh in 2007).

  14. Characterization of a Strain of Fukuyoa paulensis (Dinophyceae) from the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Laza-Martínez, Aitor; David, Helena; Riobó, Pilar; Miguel, Irati; Orive, Emma

    2016-07-01

    A single cell of the dinoflagellate genus Fukuyoa was isolated from the island of Formentera (Balearic Islands, west Mediterranean Sea), cultured, and characterized by morphological and molecular methods and toxin analyses. This is the first report of the Gambierdiscus lineage (genera Fukuyoa and Gambierdiscus) from the western Mediterranean Sea, which is cooler than its eastern basin. Molecular analyses revealed that the Mediterranean strain belongs to F. paulensis and that it bears LSU rDNA sequences identical to New Zealand, Australian, and Brazilian strains. It also shared an identical sequence of the more variable ITS-rDNA with the Brazilian strain. Toxin analyses showed the presence of maitotoxin, 54-deoxyCTX1B, and gambieric acid A. This is the first observation of the two latter compounds in a Fukuyoa strain. Therefore, both Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa should be considered when as contributing to ciguatera fish poisoning. Different strains of Fukuyoa form a complex of morphologically cryptic lineages where F. paulensis stands as the most distantly related nominal species. The comparison of the ITS2 secondary structures revealed the absence of CBCs among strains. The study of the morphological and molecular traits depicted an unresolved taxonomic scenario impacted by the low strains sampling.

  15. Enhanced cross-shelf exchange by tides in the western Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Danilov, S.; Hellmer, H.; Sidorenko, D.; Schröter, J.; Jung, T.

    2013-11-01

    The western Ross Sea is one of the key sites for cross-shelf water exchange around Antarctica. The mechanism through which tides affect the cross-shelf exchange in the northwestern Ross Sea is investigated using numerical simulations. Tides are found to increase the high-salinity shelf water (HSSW) outflow through the impact on the warm water intrusion of open ocean origin. The residual tidal currents are onshore along the Modified Circumpolar Deep Water pathway and therefore enhance its intrusion. Lighter ambient water adjacent to the HSSW increases the cross-flow density gradient, thus strengthening the HSSW export. At the same time, the onshore residual current and increased dilution of the HSSW have the potential to reduce the export rate. Owing to the existence of opposite tidal effects, the strongest HSSW export happens at the intermediate tidal forcing strength. The amplification of tides on cross-shelf exchange indicates that the relevant dynamical processes should be simulated or parameterized in climate models in order to adequately predict the ocean.

  16. Reversal process of the South China Sea western boundary current in autumn 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhixin; Guo, Jingsong; Guo, Binghuo

    2016-05-01

    Using merged sea level anomaly and absolute geostrophic velocity products from satellite altimetry and Argos drifter data, we analyzed the reversal process of the South China Sea (SCS) western boundary current (SCSwbc) from a summer to winter pattern in 2011 and important oceanic phenomena during this process. Results show that the outbreak time of the northeast monsoon over the southern SCS lagged that over the northern SCS by about 1 month. During the SCS monsoon reversal period, the SCSwbc reversed rapidly into the winter pattern at the Guangdong continental slope in late September. Subsequently, the southward Vietnam coastal boundary current strengthened. However, the northward Natuna Current maintained a summer state until mid-October. Thus, the balance between the southward and northward currents was lost when they met, their junction moved gradually southward. However, a loop current formed southeast of Vietnam because the main stream of the Vietnam Offshore Current (VOC) remained near its original latitude. Meanwhile, the VOC and associated dipole circulation system strengthened. After mid-October, the northward Natuna Current began to weaken, the loop current finally shed, becoming a cool ring. The VOC and its associated dipole sub-basin circulation system also weakened gradually until it disappeared.

  17. Surface ventilation of the Black Sea's cold intermediate layer in the middle of the western gyre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, M. C.; Yakushev, E.

    2005-02-01

    Understanding the origin of the shallow temperature minimum, known as the Cold Intermediate Layer (CIL), in the Black Sea has long been hampered by the scarcity of winter observations. During March 2003, we observed a cold-air outbreak over the center of the Black Sea's Western Gyre. Freezing winds drove convection that cooled the surface mixed layer to 6.1°C and deepened it to 40 m, directly ventilating the upper 80% of the CIL, whose lower boundary was at 49 m. Concentrations of dissolved oxygen were 350 μM in the mixed layer and decreased rapidly to 70 μM at the base of the CIL, 9 m below the mixed layer. A few meters deeper, at the top of the Sub-Oxic Layer (SOL), both oxygen and hydrogen sulfide became undetectable (<5 μM and <1 μM, respectively). Microstructure profiles revealed intermittent turbulence in the oxycline below the mixed layer. Average rates of turbulent dissipation were 10-9-10-8 W kg-1. The accompanying mixing produced diapycnal diffusivities, Kρ, that were only (1-4) × 10-6 m2 s-1. Consequently, turbulent fluxes were too weak to renew significantly either the lower 20% of the CIL or the SOL, whose top was 4 m below the bottom of the CIL and hence well-removed from direct surface replenishment.

  18. Observations of sound-speed fluctuations in the western Philippine Sea in the spring of 2009.

    PubMed

    Colosi, John A; Van Uffelen, Lora J; Cornuelle, Bruce D; Dzieciuch, Matthew A; Worcester, Peter F; Dushaw, Brian D; Ramp, Steven R

    2013-10-01

    As an aid to understanding long-range acoustic propagation in the Philippine Sea, statistical and phenomenological descriptions of sound-speed variations were developed. Two moorings of oceanographic sensors located in the western Philippine Sea in the spring of 2009 were used to track constant potential-density surfaces (isopycnals) and constant potential-temperature surfaces (isotherms) in the depth range 120-2000 m. The vertical displacements of these surfaces are used to estimate sound-speed fluctuations from internal waves, while temperature/salinity variability along isopycnals are used to estimate sound-speed fluctuations from intrusive structure often termed spice. Frequency spectra and vertical covariance functions are used to describe the space-time scales of the displacements and spiciness. Internal-wave contributions from diurnal and semi-diurnal internal tides and the diffuse internal-wave field [related to the Garrett-Munk (GM) spectrum] are found to dominate the sound-speed variability. Spice fluctuations are weak in comparison. The internal wave and spice frequency spectra have similar form in the upper ocean but are markedly different below 170-m depth. Diffuse internal-wave mode spectra show a form similar to the GM model, while internal-tide mode spectra scale as mode number to the minus two power. Spice decorrelates rapidly with depth, with a typical correlation scale of tens of meters.

  19. In situ autonomous optical radiometry measurements for satellite ocean color validation in the Western Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibordi, G.; Mélin, F.; Berthon, J.-F.; Talone, M.

    2015-03-01

    The accuracy of primary satellite ocean color data products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on-board Aqua (MODIS-A) and the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is investigated in the Western Black Sea using in situ measurements from the Gloria site included in the ocean color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC). The analysis is also extended to an additional well-established AERONET-OC site in the northern Adriatic Sea characterized by optically complex coastal waters exhibiting similarities to those observed at the Gloria site. Results from the comparison of normalized water-leaving radiance LWN indicate biases of a few percent between satellite-derived and in situ data at the center wavelengths relevant for the determination of chlorophyll a concentrations (443-547 nm, or equivalent). Remarkable is the consistency between the annual cycle determined with time series of satellite-derived and in situ LWN ratios at these center wavelengths. Contrarily, the differences between in situ and satellite-derived LWN are pronounced at the blue (i.e., 412 nm) and red (i.e., 667 nm, or equivalent) center wavelengths, confirming difficulties in confidently applying satellite-derived radiometric data from these spectral regions for quantitative analysis in optically complex waters.

  20. The asymmetric distribution of phytoplankton in anticyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fenfen; Tang, Shilin; Huang, Rui Xin; Yin, Kedong

    2017-02-01

    An anticyclonic eddy's periphery is characterized by large horizontal density gradients, strain and vertical velocity. In this paper we document the asymmetric distribution of phytoplankton around the periphery of anticyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea based on 432 eddies detected from satellite data. The high level of phytoplankton occurs consistently at the northwestern periphery of eddies, with a maximum positive chlorophyll anomaly greater than 0.01 mg m-3. The asymmetric distribution of phytoplankton primarily tags the non-uniform surface velocity field varying from 0.15 m s-1 to 0.3 m s-1 along the eddy's periphery. The coastal boundary and off-coast jet may be the primary cause of the non-uniform flow. Associated with the non-uniform flow speed, the combined effects of the velocity convergence and steepened northwestern part of the eddies act to sharpen the density fronts and tend to result in an ageostrophic secondary circulation at the northwestern edge of the eddy. The upward component of the ageostrophic secondary circulation can enhance the nutrient flux into the euphotic layer, thereby increasing phytoplankton productivity. Anticyclonic eddy-induced ageostrophic secondary circulation appears to be an important mechanism for increasing phytoplankton productivity in the oligotrophic waters of the South China Sea.

  1. Keep up or drown: adjustment of western Pacific coral reefs to sea-level rise in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    van Woesik, R; Golbuu, Y; Roff, G

    2015-07-01

    Since the Mid-Holocene, some 5000 years ago, coral reefs in the Pacific Ocean have been vertically constrained by sea level. Contemporary sea-level rise is releasing these constraints, providing accommodation space for vertical reef expansion. Here, we show that Porites microatolls, from reef-flat environments in Palau (western Pacific Ocean), are 'keeping up' with contemporary sea-level rise. Measurements of 570 reef-flat Porites microatolls at 10 locations around Palau revealed recent vertical skeletal extension (78±13 mm) over the last 6-8 years, which is consistent with the timing of the recent increase in sea level. We modelled whether microatoll growth rates will potentially 'keep up' with predicted sea-level rise in the near future, based upon average growth, and assuming a decline in growth for every 1°C increase in temperature. We then compared these estimated extension rates with rates of sea-level rise under four Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). Our model suggests that under low-mid RCP scenarios, reef-coral growth will keep up with sea-level rise, but if greenhouse gas concentrations exceed 670 ppm atmospheric CO2 levels and with +2.2°C sea-surface temperature by 2100 (RCP 6.0 W m(-2)), our predictions indicate that Porites microatolls will be unable to keep up with projected rates of sea-level rise in the twenty-first century.

  2. Potential new production in two upwelling regions of the western Arabian Sea: Estimation and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Xiaomei; Zhan, Haigang; Du, Yan

    2016-07-01

    Using satellite-derived and in situ data, the wind-driven potential new production (nitrate supply) for the 300 km wide coastal band in two upwelling regions of the western Arabian Sea (AS) during the southwest monsoon is estimated. The upward nitrate flux to the euphotic zone is generally based on the physical processes of coastal transport (Ekman transport and geostrophic transport) and offshore Ekman pumping. The coastal geostrophic current in the western AS influences the upwelling intensity and latitudinal distributions of nitrate supply. The Oman and Somalia upwelling regions have similar level of potential new production (nitrate supply) during the summer monsoon, while the satellite estimates of primary production off Oman are 2 times greater than those off Somalia. The much higher potential f-ratio in the Somalia upwelling region indicates that the primary production could be limited by availability of other macronutrients (e.g., silicate). The correlation analysis of the primary production and the aerosol optical thickness shows that the Oman upwelling region displays a stronger coupling between the atmospheric deposition and the phytoplankton abundance. The high summertime dust levels in the atmosphere are suggested to contribute to the high primary production in the Oman upwelling region.

  3. Satellite observations of the small-scale cyclonic eddies in the western South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Tang, S.; Chen, C.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution ocean color observations offer an opportunity to investigate the oceanic small-scale processes. In this study, the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) daily 300 m data were used to study small-scale processes in the western South China Sea. It is indicated that the cyclonic eddies with horizontal scales of 10 km are frequently observed during the upwelling season of each year over the 2004-2009 period. These small-scale eddies were generated in the vicinity of the southern front of the cold tongue, and then propagated eastward with a speed of approximately 12 cm s-1. This propagation speed was consistent with the velocity of the western boundary current. As a result, the small-scale eddies kept the high levels of phytoplankton rotating away from the coastal areas, resulting in the accumulation of phytoplankton in the interior of the eddies. The generation of the small-scale eddies may be associated with strengthening of the relative movement between the rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies and the offshore transport. With the increases of the normalized rotation speed of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies relative to the offshore transport, the offshore current became a meander under the impacts of the anticyclonic mesoscale eddies. The meandered cold tongue and instability front may stimulate the generation of the small-scale eddies. Unidirectional uniform wind along the cold tongue may also contribute to the formation of the small-scale eddies.

  4. Tidal and residual flows in the western Dutch Wadden Sea III: Vorticity balances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridderinkhof, H.

    A vorticity-dynamics approach is used to examine the origin of the small-scale residual current field in the western Dutch Wadden Sea. For a representative part of the Wadden Sea, the magnitude of vorticity and of terms in the balance equation for vorticity is determined on the basis of results from a two-dimensional numerical model. The torque from bottom friction along the side walls of the tidal channels appears to be the dominating mechanism in generating tidal relative vorticity, the magnitude of which is much larger than planetary vorticity. Especially near a tidal inlet, stretching and squeezing of fluid columns is of importance in increasing/decreasing relative vorticity. Averaging over a tidal period shows, compared to the tidal equations, an increased influence of the non-linear advective and streching/squeezing terms in the tidally-averaged balance. However, although the relative influence of these strong non-linear terms increases, the influence of the weak non-linear terms originating in bottom friction cannot be ignored. The mechanism responsible for the headland eddies near a tidal inlet and the topographical eddies in the channels of the Wadden Sea is essentially the same, viz. the transfer of vorticity from a source region where this vorticity is produced by differential bottom friction, to adjacent regions. This transfer of tidal vorticity, or advection, is most effective near a transition from straight to curved isobaths where a gradient in the production of tidal vorticity occurs. This is illustrated by showing the vorticity possessed by a particular fluid column during a tidal excursion. The dominant influence of the bathymetry on the small scale residual current pattern is used for a qualitative discussion of the residual flow field in other parts of our numerical model.

  5. Quantifying the Bering Strait Oceanic Fluxes and their Impacts on Sea-Ice and Water Properties in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas and Western Arctic Ocean for 2013-2014

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Impacts on Sea- Ice and Water Properties in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas and Western Arctic Ocean for 2013-2014 Rebecca Woodgate Polar Science...from the Pacific, are critical to the water properties of the Chukchi Sea, act as a trigger of sea- ice melt in the Chukchi, provide a subsurface...source of heat to the Arctic in winter (with possible impacts on sea- ice ), and are a major component of freshwater input to the Arctic (Figures 1 and 2

  6. A remote-sensing/GIS application for analysis of sea surface temperature off the western coast of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent work reports a warming trend in Pacific Ocean temperatures over the last 50 years. Coastal regions along western North America are particularly sensitive to climatic change, an important indicator of which is sea surface temperature (SST). In situ SST measurements (typica...

  7. Eastern and Western Boundary Currents in the Labrador Sea, 1995-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, M. M.; Torres, D. J.; Yashayaev, I.

    2010-12-01

    Since 1995, the annual occupation of AR7W in the Labrador Sea has usually included LADCP data in addition to hydrographic measurements and tracers. We have previously presented results discussing the section-wide circulation for particular years, comparison with geostrophic velocities, and heat flux as determined from individual as well as composite sections. In this work, we present boundary current transports for a sampling of AR7W sections from 1995 through 2008. Both eastern and western boundary currents (EBCs, WBCs) are examined by combining LADCP data with density (or hydrographic) measurements from ships and profiling floats (Argo, PALACE). The transport estimates from LADCP data are also compared with the currents based on along-track multi-mission altimetry and with the lagrangian velocities from historic float and drifter trajectories. We find that WBC transports are mostly weaker than EBC transports, with slightly less variability year to year. Transports may be underestimated by 2 - 4 Sv when LADCP data are not available far enough onshore, so we extrapolate the velocities (carefully) to improve our estimate. Geostrophic velocities from hydrographic data can also be used to extend the coverage. WBC transports are about 32 Sv in the mean, but range from 22 to as much as 55 Sv. EBC transports range from 26 to 70 (!) Sv, with a mean of about 45 Sv. Higher transports, year to year, result from a combination of greater current width and faster velocities. Baroclinic transport relative to 1500 dbars for the upper level current ranges from 2.5 - 4.6 Sv, in good agreement with Lazier and Wright (1993). Using hydrographic data to determine transport in prescribed density layers, we find reasonable agreement with other recent observations in the Labrador Sea: for the western boundaries, Fischer et al. (2004) and Dengler et al. (2006) (CTD, LADCP and moored array data near 53 N and 56 N, respectively); for the eastern boundaries, Holliday et al. (2009), their

  8. Multiproxy assessment of Holocene relative sea-level changes in the western Mediterranean: sea-level variability and improvements in the definition of the isostatic signal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacchi, Matteo; Rovere, Alessio; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Spada, Giorgio; Fontana, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    After the review of 918 radiocarbon dated Relative Sea-Level (RSL) data-points we present here the first quality-controlled database constraining the Holocene sea-level histories of the western Mediterranean Sea (Spain, France, Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Malta and Tunisia). We reviewed and standardized the geological RSL data-points using a new multi-proxy methodology based on: (1) modern taxa assemblages in Mediterranean lagoons and marshes; (2) beachrock characteristics (cement fabric and chemistry, sedimentary structures); and (3) the modern distribution of Mediterranean fixed biological indicators. These RSL data-points were coupled with the large number of archaeological RSL indicators available for the western Mediterranean. We assessed the spatial variability of RSL histories for 22 regions and compared these with the ICE-5G VM2 GIA model. In the western Mediterranean, RSL rose continuously for the whole Holocene with a sudden slowdown at ~7.5 ka BP and a further deceleration during the last ~4.0 ka BP, after which time observed RSL changes are mainly related to variability in isostatic adjustment. The sole exception is southern Tunisia, where data show evidence of a mid-Holocene high-stand compatible with the isostatic impacts of the melting history of the remote Antarctic ice sheet. Our results indicate that late-Holocene sea-level rise was significantly slower than the current one. First estimates of GIA contribution indicate that, at least in the northwestern sector, it accounts at least for the 25-30% of the ongoing sea-level rise recorded by Mediterranean tidal gauges. Such contribution is less constrained at lower latitudes due to the lower quality of the late Holocene index points. Future applications of spatio-temporal statistical techniques are required to better quantify the gradient of the isostatic contribution and to provide improved context for the assessment of 20th century acceleration of Mediterranean sea-level rise.

  9. Wind-driven interannual variability of sea ice algal production in the western Arctic Chukchi Borderland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, E.; Onodera, J.; Harada, N.; Aita, M. N.; Ishida, A.; Kishi, M. J.

    2015-10-01

    Seasonal and interannual variability in the biogenic particle sinking flux was recorded using multi-year bottom-tethered sediment trap mooring systems in the Northwind Abyssal Plain (Station NAP: 75° N, 162° W, 1975 m water depth) of the western Arctic Chukchi Borderland. Trapped particle flux at a median depth of 184 m had an obvious peak and dominance of sea ice-related diatom assemblages in August 2011. The observed particle flux was considerably suppressed throughout summer 2012. In the present study, the response of ice algal production and biomass to wind-driven changes in the physical environment was addressed using a pan-Arctic sea ice-ocean modeling approach. A sea ice ecosystem with ice algae was newly incorporated into the lower-trophic marine ecosystem model, which was previously coupled with a high-resolution (i.e., 5 km horizontal grid size) sea ice-ocean general circulation model. Seasonal model experiments covering 2-year mooring periods indicated that primary productivity of ice algae around the Chukchi Borderland depended on basin-scale wind patterns via various processes. Easterly winds in the southern part of a distinct Beaufort High supplied nutrient-rich water for euphotic zones of the NAP region via both surface Ekman transport of Chukchi shelf water and vertical turbulent mixing with underlying nutricline water in 2011. In contrast, northwesterly winds flowing in the northern part of an extended Siberian High transported oligotrophic water within the Beaufort Gyre circulation toward the NAP region in 2012. The modeled ice algal biomass during summer reflected the differences in nutrient distribution. The modeled sinking flux of particulate organic nitrogen (PON) was comparable with the time series obtained from sediment trap data in summer 2011. In contrast, lateral advection of ice algal patches of shelf origin during a great cyclone event may have caused a modeled PON flux bias in 2012. Sensitivity experiments revealed several

  10. Total Mercury in Surface and Deep Waters in the Western and Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varde', M.; Cofone, F.; Servidio, A.; Rosselli, A.; Hedgecock, I. M.; Ammoscato, I.; Mannarino, V.; Sprovieri, F.; Gensini, M.; Pirrone, N.

    2014-12-01

    In the framework of the Italian National Research Council (CNR) Med-Oceanor measurement program and as part of the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) objectives, we performed two cruise campaigns with the CNR's Research Vessel (RV) Urania, in the western and eastern Mediterranean Basin, in the summers of 2012 and 2013. Total Mercury (THg) concentration in seawater was systematically measured at different depths from the sea bottom to the surface. A total of 155 surface and deep seawater samples at 25 selected stations were collected during the cruise campaigns using a stainless-steel rosette system on which 24 Niskin bottles (10L) were mounted. Continuous monitoring of temperature, conductivity, salinity and oxygen with depth were obtained by CTD measurements. All fluorinated containers were cleaned prior to use following GMOS SOPs. The chemical reagents used were suitable for ultra-trace Hg analysis. After sampling, samples were preserved by adding HCl solution to the sample bottles, which were refrigerated during transportation and analyzed within four weeks of the end of the oceanographic campaign. Sea water samples were analyzed in the laboratory following the US-EPA 1631 method revision E (US-EPA, 2002). To assess the critical issues related to mercury (Hg) contamination and to prevent leakage of Hg through volatilization we used all necessary precautions for sampling, sample stabilization, preservation and subsequent analysis in the laboratory. Quality assurance and quality control were performed using transport blanks, laboratory blanks and use of seawater certified reference materials. The accuracy of the analytical procedures for the determination of THg in sea water was corroborated by participation in a global inter-laboratory comparison study for THg in natural waters. THg concentrations in surface and deep waters found in the Mediterranean basin during the last two cruise campaigns Med-Oceanor as well as the THg measurements in sea water

  11. IBAMar 2.0: 36 years sampling on the Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, A.; López-Jurado, J. L.; Balbín, R.; Jansá, J.; Amengual, B.

    2012-04-01

    IBAMar 2.0 is a new database created from the oceanographic data obtained during the development of different oceanographic projects by the Balearic Center of Spanish Institute of Oceanography (IEO) and conducted from 1974 and ongoing in the Western Mediterranean basin (Balearic Sea and Algerian Basin). This database collects data from 27 research projects with 134 oceanographic surveys and 6463 sampling stations. IBAMar 2.0 database covers 36 year sampling and approximately 210,846 km2 in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WM). The effort applied for obtaining this data was growing from less than 100 station/year to more than 700 in the year 2009. IBAMar 2.0 database includes main hydrographic parameters such as pressure, temperature, salinity and others as dissolved oxygen, turbidity, chlorophyll-a and nutrients (nitrates, nitrites, phosphates and silicates). Most of the data from 1990 until now were obtained with multiparametric CTDs, although earlier data corresponding to cast sampling with Niskin bottles were incorporated too. The main goal of this database is to establish a climatology for the most significant variables to study the existence of decadal cycles or long-term trends, trying to better understand the behaviour of the hydrographic conditions of the Spanish Mediterranean coast, at both seasonal and interannual time scale and long term. From these studies is possible to provide answers on topical issues as the thermohaline anomaly of the deep waters of WM, the spatial distribution of dissolved oxygen minimum, or the effects of the Climate Change on the hydrodynamics characteristics of the study area [1]. Future work includes data quality control based on standard protocols like [2] and publishing IBAMar 2.0 (including next surveys) on the website of the Mediterranean Group on Climate Change of IEO (http://www.ma.ieo.es/gcc/). There, the data could be obtained summarized as seasonal climatology. These will include horizontal sections at standard depths

  12. PICASSO Rayleigh wave tomography of the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomeras, I.; Liu, K.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.

    2011-12-01

    The western Mediterranean comprises a diffusive plate boundary between the African and Eurasian plates. The area was under extension in the Mesozoic, when the Atlantic and Tethys oceans opened, and under compression from Cenozoic times to present due African-European convergence. The deformation occupies a wide area from the intra-continental Atlas mountain belt in Morocco to the southern Iberian Massif in Spain. The tectonic history of the area is complicated and several geodynamic models have been suggested. PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) is a multidisciplinary, international investigation of the Alboran System and surrounding areas. As part of this program a deployment of a dense array of 83 broadband seismic stations in the area has been done. The stations are deployed in a north-south line from central Spain to the Morocco-Algerian border, crossing part of the Iberian Massif in Spain, the Gibraltar Arc (Betics Mountains in Spain and Rif Mountains in Morocco) and the Middle and High Atlas in Morocco. Additional stations form an areal array around the Alboran Sea, in the Betic Mountains and the Rif Mountains. These stations recorded more than 115 teleseismic events since April 2009, of which we chose 30 with a good signal to noise ratio for the study of the lithosphere and asthenosphere with surface waves. To complement our data and to increase the coverage, the data recorded by the IberArray experiment have also been used. The latter experiment, of the Spanish seismological community, has covered the same region with a uniform 50 km x 50 km grid of broadband stations recording from mid-2007 to mid-2009. Rayleigh phase velocities have been measured using the two-plane-wave method to remove complications due to multi-pathing, and finite-frequency kernels to improve lateral resolution. The phase velocities were inverted for 1D structure on a grid of 0.25 by 0.25 degree. The resulting 3D shear velocity models provide first

  13. Methodology for filling gaps and forecast in sea level: Applications to the eastern English Channel and the North Atlantic Sea (western France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Imen; Laignel, Benoit; Kakeh, Nabil; Chevalier, Laetitia; Costa, Stephane

    2014-05-01

    This research was carried out in the framework of the program Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) which is a partnership between NASA and CNES. Sea level is a key variable in marine, climate, and coastal process studies. In this research, a new methodology was implemented for filling gaps and forecasting the sea level by combining classical harmonic models to high statistical methods. In agreement with previous studies, this work indicates that sea level heights are correlated to climate conditions of sea level pressures (SLP). After averaging out surface waves from the mean sea level, the deterministic tides and the stochastic processes of residual surges were investigated using classical harmonic analyses and a statistical model of autoregressive moving average (ARMA), respectively. The estimation of the residual surges was also investigated together with the SLP. This new methodology was applied to the Atlantic sea and the eastern English Channel (western France). Results have shown that the developed model reproduces the observations with RMSE of 4.5 cm and 7 cm for 12 days and 30 days of gaps, respectively. For medium scales of 6 months, the RMSE reaches 9,2 cm. Larger scales more than 10 months were also statistically reproduced. Accordingly, the proposed model seems to be more promising for filling gaps and estimating the sea level at short- to large- time scales. This new methodology presents a coherent, simple, and easy tool to estimate the deterministic nature of tidal processes and the stochastic framework of residual surges. Key words: sea level forecast, astronomical tides, residual surges, ARMA, sea level pressure.

  14. Speleothem records of western Mediterranean. Hydrological variability along the Last Interglacial Period and marine linkages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torner, Judit; Cacho, Isabel; Moreno, Ana; Stoll, Heather; Belmonte, Anchel; Sierro, Francisco J.; Frigola, Jaime; Martrat, Belen; Fornós, Joan; Arnau Fernández, Pedro; Hellstrom, John; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to identify and characterize regional hydrological variability in the western Mediterranean region in base to different geochemical parameters (δ18O, δ13C, and Mg/Ca ratios). Speleothems have been recovered from several caves located in southern central Pyrenees one and the others form the Balearic Islands. Their chronologies have been constructed in base on U/Th absolute dating and indicate that the speleothem sequences cover the end of the last interglacial and the glacial inception. One of the most remarkable features of the records is the intense and abrupt shift toward more arid conditions that marks the end of the last interglacial (MIS 5e). Furthermore, our speleothem records also show relatively humid but highly variable hydrological conditions during the interstadial periods from MIS 5c to 5a. These speleothem records have been compared with new generated western Mediterranean marine records from the Balearic Sea (MD99-2343) and Alboran Sea (OPD-977). Marine records include (1) proxies of sea surface temperature and changes in evaporation-precipitation rates based on pair analysis of δ18O and the Mg/Ca ratios in planktonic foraminifera Globigerina bulloides; (2) proxies of deep-water currents associated with the Western Mediterranean Deep Water (WMDW) based on grain size analyses. The results reveal that arid conditions on land were coeval with cold sea surface sub-stages (MIS 5b and 5d), and also with increases in the intensity of the WMDW-related currents. By contrast, humid and hydrological unstable atmosphere conditions were synchronous with sea surface warm sub-stages, and lower WMDW-related currents intensities (MIS 5a, c and e). Consequently, our results highly evidence a strong atmospheric-oceanic coupling, involving parallel changes in both surface but also deep western Mediterranean Sea conditions during the last interglacial period and the glacial inception.

  15. SSMI Wind Speed Climatology of the Time of Monsoon Wind Offset in the Western Arabian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, David

    2000-01-01

    Forecasting the time of onset of monsoon wind in the western Arabian Sea, which is believed to precede the onset of rainfall along the west coast of India, is an important unsolved problem. Prior to measurements of the surface wind field by satellite, there was an absence of suitable surface wind observations. NASA scatterometer (NSCAT) surface wind vectors revealed that the time of the 1997 onset of 12 m/s southwest monsoon wind speeds in the western Arabian Sea preceded the onset of monsoon rainfall in Goa, India, by 3 - 4 days. Wind speed and direction data were necessary to establish a dynamical mechanism between times of onset of 12 m/s wind speed off Somalia and rainfall in Goa. Except for NSCAT, no satellite scatterometer wind product recorded adequately sampled 2-day 1deg x 1deg averaged wind vectors, which are the required space and time scales, to examine the wind-rain relationship in other years. However, the greater-than-95% steadiness of summer monsoon winds allows an opportunity to use satellite measurements of surface wind speed. The Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSMI) recorded surface wind speed with adequate sampling to produce a 1-day, 1deg x 1deg data product during 1988 - 1998. SSMI data had been uniformly processed throughout the period. Times of onset of 12 m/s wind speed off Somalia determined with the SSMI data set were 21 May 1988, 24 May 1989, 17 May 1990, 28 May 1991, 8 June 1992, 28 May 1993, 30 May 1994, 7 June 1995, 29 May 1996, 12 June 1997, and 15 May 1998. Uncertainty of the 1992 and 1996 times of onset were increased because of the absence of SSMI data on 6 and 7 June 1992 and on 30 May 1996. Correlations of timing of monsoon wind onset with El Nino will be described. Variability of the time difference between times of onset of 12 m/s wind speed and Goa rainfall will be discussed. At the time of submission of the abstract, the Goa rainfall data have not arrived from the India Meteorological Department.

  16. PICASSO: Lithosphere Structure in the Western Mediterranean from Ps Receiver Functions and Rayleigh Wave Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomeras, I.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Humphreys, E.; Miller, M. S.; Carbonell, R.; Gallart, J.

    2012-04-01

    The western Mediterranean is a diffuse plate boundary separating the African and Eurasian plates. Cenozoic deformation is centered on the Gibraltar arc and Alboran Sea, and occupies a wide area from the southern Iberian Massif in Spain to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco. We present a model of the lithospheric structure of this region derived from Rayleigh wave tomography and Ps receiver functions, using data from the PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) linear broadband array of ~100 seismographs. This array is deployed from central Spain to the Morocco-Algerian border. We complement these data with some of that recorded by IberArray, an areal broadband array, operated by the Spanish seismological community, covering the same region with a uniform 50 km x 50 km grid of stations. Rayleigh phase velocities have been measured from 20-167s period using the two-plane-wave method to remove complications due to multi-pathing, and finite-frequency kernels to improve lateral resolution. The phase velocities were inverted for 1D structure on a 0.25 by 0.25 degree grid. Ps receiver functions at 1Hz and 2Hz were calculated for the same area using water-level and time-domain iterative deconvolution, and were then CCP stacked. The Rayleigh wave shear velocity model, jointly interpreted with the discontinuity structure from the CCP stack, shows the first-order lithospheric structure, and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB). From north to south along the PICASSO profile: The lithosphere is ~120 km thick beneath the Iberian Massif, where it has the highest shear velocity, 4.45 km/s. To the south the lithosphere thins dramatically beneath the Betic Mountains to ~85 km, and then varies in thickness and decreases in velocity beneath the Alboran Sea and Gibraltar Arc. The thinnest lithosphere, ~60 km, is observed beneath the Rif mountains and Middle Atlas, with a low velocity feature (4.2 km/s) at ~60 km depth beneath a site of Late Cenozoic

  17. Atmospheric structure favoring high sea surface temperatures in the western equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirasatriya, Anindya; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Shimada, Teruhisa; Hosoda, Kohtaro

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the atmospheric processes over high sea surface temperature called Hot Event (HE) in the western equatorial Pacific from climatological analysis and a case study of the HE which began on 28 May 2003 (hereafter, HE030528). Climatological analysis shows that during the development stage of HE, solar radiation inside the HE area is higher than its climatology and wind speed is lower than the decay stage. During the decay stage, strong westerly wind often occurs inside HE area. The case study of HE030528 shows that the suppressed convection above high SST area resulted from the deep convection from the northern and southern areas outside HE. The suppressed convection created a band-shaped structure of low cloud cover along HE area increasing solar radiation during the development stage. Thus, the theory of "remote convection" was supported for the HE030528 formation mechanisms. The large sea level pressure gradient magnitude between the southern side of the terrain gap and the northern coast of the Solomon Islands, through which strong wind blew, indicated the role of land topography for the increase of wind speed during the decay of HE030528. Moreover, surface wind had an important role to influence the variability of solar radiation during the occurrence of HE030528 by controlling the water vapor supply in the upper troposphere through surface evaporation and surface convergence variation. Thus, surface wind was the key factor for HE030528 occurrence. The representativeness of HE030528 and the possible relation between HE and Madden-Julian Oscillation are also discussed.

  18. Sea birds as proxies of marine habitats and food webs in the western Aleutian Arc

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Springer, Alan M.; Piatt, John F.; Van Vliet, Gus B.

    1996-01-01

    We propose that ocean conditions of the Near Islands in the western Aleutian Arc mimic those of the shallow continental shelf of the eastern Bering Sea to the extent that the marine community, including assemblages of forage fishes and their avian predators, has distinctly coastal characteristics. In contrast, marine avifauna and their prey at neighbouring Buldir Island are distinctly oceanic. For example, at the Near Islands, the ratio of thick-billed to common murres, Vria lomvia and U. aalge, is low and black-legged kittiwakes, Rissa tridactyla, but not red-legged kittiwakes, R. brevirostris, nest there. Diets of murres and kittiwakes are dominated by sand lance, Ammodytes hexapterus, an abundant coastal species. At Buldir Island, thick-billed murres greatly outnumber common murres, red-legged kittiwakes and black-legged kittiwakes are both abundant, and diets of the birds consist primarily of oceanic squid and lantern-fish (Myctophidae). This mesoscale difference in food webs is apparently a consequence of the local physiography. A broad escarpment on the Near physiographic block creates a comparatively expansive, shallow, shelflike habitat around the Near Islands, where a pelagic community typical of coastal regions flourishes. Buldir Island is the only emergent feature of the Buldir physiographic block, with little shallow water surrounding it and, apparently, little opportunity for other than oceanic species to exist. Patterns in the distribution of fishes, and thus of sea birds, throughout the Aleutian Islands might be largely explained by the presence or absence of shelf-like habitat and the relationship between physical environments and food webs. In the larger context of fisheries oceanography, this model for the Aleutian Islands improves our ability to interpret physical and biological heterogeneity in the ocean and its relationship to regional community dynamics and trends in the abundance and productivity of individual species at higher trophic levels.

  19. Concentrations of plutonium and americium in plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert; Merino, Juan; Masqué, Pere; Mitchell, Peter I; Vintró, L León; Schell, William R; Cross, Lluïsa; Calbet, Albert

    2003-07-20

    Understanding the transfer of radionuclides through the food chain leading to man and in particular, the uptake of transuranic nuclides by plankton, is basic to assess the potential radiological risk of the consumption of marine products by man. The main sources of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean Sea in the past were global fallout and the Palomares accident, although at present smaller amounts are released from nuclear establishments in the northwestern region. Plankton from the western Mediterranean Sea was collected and analyzed for plutonium and americium in order to study their biological uptake. The microplankton fractions accounted for approximately 50% of the total plutonium contents in particulate form. At Garrucha (Palomares area), microplankton showed much higher 239,240 Pu activity, indicating the contamination with plutonium from the bottom sediments. Concentration factors were within the range of the values recommended by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Continental shelf mesoplankton was observed to efficiently concentrate transuranics. In open seawaters, concentrations were much lower. We speculate that sediments might play a role in the transfer of transuranics to mesoplankton in coastal waters, although we cannot discard that the difference in species composition may also play a role. In Palomares, both 239,240 Pu and 241Am showed activities five times higher than the mean values observed in continental shelf mesoplankton. As the plutonium isotopic ratios in the contaminated sample were similar to those found in material related to the accident, the contamination was attributed to bomb debris from the Palomares accident. Concentration factors in mesoplankton were also in relatively good agreement with the ranges recommended by IAEA. In the Palomares station the highest concentration factor was observed in the sample that showed predominance of the dynoflagellate Ceratium spp. Mean values of the enrichment factors showed, on

  20. Ocean acidification impacts on nitrogen fixation in the coastal western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Andrew P.; Turk-Kubo, Kendra A.; Al-Moosawi, Lisa; Alliouane, Samir; Gazeau, Frédéric; Hogan, Mary E.; Zehr, Jonathan P.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of ocean acidification on nitrogen (N2) fixation rates and on the community composition of N2-fixing microbes (diazotrophs) were examined in coastal waters of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea. Nine experimental mesocosm enclosures of ∼50 m3 each were deployed for 20 days during June-July 2012 in the Bay of Calvi, Corsica, France. Three control mesocosms were maintained under ambient conditions of carbonate chemistry. The remainder were manipulated with CO2 saturated seawater to attain target amendments of pCO2 of 550, 650, 750, 850, 1000 and 1250 μatm. Rates of N2 fixation were elevated up to 10 times relative to control rates (2.00 ± 1.21 nmol L-1d-1) when pCO2 concentrations were >1000 μatm and pHT (total scale) < 7.74. Diazotrophic phylotypes commonly found in oligotrophic marine waters, including the Mediterranean, were not present at the onset of the experiment and therefore, the diazotroph community composition was characterised by amplifying partial nifH genes from the mesocosms. The diazotroph community was comprised primarily of cluster III nifH sequences (which include possible anaerobes), and proteobacterial (α and γ) sequences, in addition to small numbers of filamentous (or pseudo-filamentous) cyanobacterial phylotypes. The implication from this study is that there is some potential for elevated N2 fixation rates in the coastal western Mediterranean before the end of this century as a result of increasing ocean acidification. Observations made of variability in the diazotroph community composition could not be correlated with changes in carbon chemistry, which highlights the complexity of the relationship between ocean acidification and these keystone organisms.

  1. Messinian seismic Markers in the Western Tyrrhenian Sea: preliminary results from the "METYSS" Cruise (June 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lofi, Johanna; Gaullier, Virginie; Sage, Françoise; Chanier, Franck; Deverchere, Jacques; Gorini, Christian; Maillard, Agnès.; Pascucci, Vincenzo; Sellier, Nicolas; Thinon, Isabelle

    2010-05-01

    This work has been undertaken in the framework of an integrated study of the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, Hsu et al., 1973) seismic makers at the scale of the Mediterranean basin. This new approach is based on multi-site comparative studies and on a unified nomenclature for Messinian sedimentary units and surfaces (Lofi et al., accepted). The objectives are to establish the impact of the MSC event on margins and basins that are characterized by various geodynamical, structural and sedimentary settings. In this scientific context, the Tyrrhenian Sea and especially its western part, constitutes a major target because of its geodynamical evolution. This area is a Neogene back-arc basin opened by continental rifting and oceanic spreading related to the eastward migrating Apennine subduction system (Jolivet et al., 2006). Rifting of the Tyrrhenian Sea started first on the Eastern Sardinian margin during the Tortonian-Messinian times, thus including Messinian deposits potentially syn-rift in some places. For these reasons, the western part of the Tyrrhenian basin is a key-area to document relationships between Messinian deposits and tectonic activity. In addition, this geodynamical evolution rises the question of the paleogeography and paleo-connections with the East Corsica basin, that may have worked as an independent lacustrine basin during the MSC, a topic that is questioned (Thinon et al., 2004). The dataset used in this study consists of 15 seismic high-resolution reflection profiles (±1200 km). They have been acquired during the "METYSS" cruise (June 2009) along the Eastern Sardinian and South-Eastern Corsican margins on the R/V "Téthys II" (INSU-CNRS/CIRMED) (Gaullier et al., 2009). These profiles penetrate up to 1 second TWT below the sea-floor, allowing to clearly image the Plio-Quaternary sequence, Messinian Salinity Crisis deposits and erosion surfaces, down to the basement top. Here, we describe the characteristics (seismic facies, geometry

  2. New relative sea-level curves for the southern Scott Coast, Antarctica: evidence for Holocene deglaciation of the western Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Brenda L.; Denton, George H.

    1999-12-01

    Here we present new relative sea-level (RSL) curves developed from Holocene-aged raised beaches along the southern Scott Coast of the western Ross Sea, Antarctica. Fifty-four dates of marine shells, seal skin and elephant seal remains incorporated within raised beaches during storms afford a chronology for these curves. All of the curves show the same pattern and timing of RSL change within a small range of error. The best-dated curve suggests that final unloading of grounded Ross Sea ice from the southern Scott Coast and McMurdo Sound region occurred shortly before 6500 14C yr BP. This age is consistent with glacial geological evidence that places deglaciation between 5730 and 8340 14C yr BP. Our data strongly suggest that grounding-line retreat of the Ross Sea ice sheet southward through the McMurdo Sound region occurred in mid- and late Holocene time. If this is correct, then rising sea level could not have driven ice recession to the present-day grounding line on the Siple Coast, because global deglacial sea-level rise was essentially accomplished by mid-Holocene time.

  3. The two-fold sea surface temperature change associated with interannual cyclone activities in the Western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.

    2013-05-01

    Concurrent with most large El Nino events, cold Sea Surface Temperature anomalies are observed over the western Pacific region. Composite of 14 El Nino events during 1955-2003 reveals that there are two stage development of sea surface temperature cooling during the El Nino year: the first peak of cooling appears in August-September of Nino(0) year, while the second peak in January-February of Nino(1) year. A few findings suggested that the local air-sea interaction feedback is potent in this region (Wang et al., 2001; Hsu et al., 2001). It is proposed that the increase in evaporation cooling associated with the presence of the anomalous atmospheric anticyclone during the El Nino winter leads to cold sea surface temperature anomalies in the Philippine Sea, in turn the oceanic anomalies feedback on the overlying atmospheric circulation. The wind-evaporation-sea surface temperature (WES) feedback (Xie and Philander, 1994) seems to be the major mechanism for the sea surface temperature cooling during the second peak when the atmospheric anticyclone anomaly straddling the Philippine Sea and South China Sea appears, causing warming(cooling) in the South China Sea(Philippine Sea) (Wang et al., 2003). However, the formation of the cooling in August and September (the first cooling peak) is not clear. The impact of cyclone activities on the regional sea surface temperature change during the first peak is investigated. The time scale of the sea surface temperature restoring time following tropical cyclones is approximately 30-35 days for a tropical storm to 50-60 days for a category 3-5 hurricane, with significant storm-specific and basin-specific variability (Hart et al., 2007). It is also known that there is a tendency in El Niño years toward tropical cyclones that are both more intense and longer-lived than in La Niña years (Carmargo et al., 2004). The long-lasting of cyclones' self-induced ocean cooling would reflect onto the monthly average; in a sense that for the

  4. Viral abundance and distribution in mesopelagic and bathypelagic waters of the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magagnini, Mirko; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Monticelli, Luis S.; De Domenico, Emilio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2007-08-01

    Despite the fact that marine viruses have been increasingly investigated in the last decade, knowledge on virus abundance, biomass and distribution in mesopelagic and bathypelagic waters is limited. We report here the results of a large-spatial-scale study (covering more than 3000 km) on the virioplankton distribution in epi-, meso- and bathypelagic waters in 19 areas of the Mediterranean Sea, from the Alboran Sea and Western Mediterranean, to the Tyrrhenian Sea, Sicily Channel and Ionian Sea. Integrated viral abundance in epipelagic waters was significantly higher than in deep-sea waters (on average, 2.4 vs. 0.5×10 12 viruses m -3). However, abundance of viruses in the deep-Mediterranean waters was the highest reported so far for deep seas worldwide (7.0 and 3.1×10 11 viruses m -3 in mesopelagic and bathypelagic waters, respectively) and their biomass accounted for 13-18% of total prokaryotic C biomass. The significant relationship between viral abundance and prokaryotic abundance and production in deep waters suggests that also deep-sea viruses are closely dependent on the abundance and metabolism of their hosts. Moreover, virus to prokaryote (and nucleoid-containing cell (NuCC)) abundance ratio increased with increasing depths suggesting that deep waters may represent optimal environments for viral survival or proliferation. Overall, our results indicate that deep waters may represent a significant reservoir of viruses and open new perspectives for future investigations of viral impact on the functioning of meso-bathypelagic ecosystems.

  5. Time-Series Photographs of the Sea Floor in Western Massachusetts Bay, 1996 - 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Bothner, Michael H.; Lange, William N.

    2008-01-01

    Time-series photographs of the sea floor were obtained from an instrumented tripod deployed in western Massachusetts Bay at LT-A (42? 22.6' N, 70? 47.0' W; 32 m water depth; fig. 1) from December 1989 through September 2005. The photographs provide time-series observations of physical changes of the sea floor, near-bottom water turbidity, and life on the sea floor. Two reports present these photographs in digital form (table 1) and chronological order. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 265 (Butman and others, 2008a) contains the photographs obtained from December 1989 to October 1996. This report, U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 266 (Butman and others, 2008b), contains photographs obtained from October 1996 through September 2005. The photographs are published in separate reports because the data files are too large for distribution on a single DVD. This report also contains photographs that were published previously in an uncompressed format (Butman and others 2004a, b, and c; table 1); they have been compressed and included in this publication so that all of the photographs are available in the same format. The photographs, obtained every 4 or every 6 hours, are presented as individual photographs (in .png format, each accessible through a page of thumbnails) and as a movie (in .avi format). The time-series photographs taken at LT-A were collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study to understand the transport and fate of sediments and associated contaminants in Massachusetts Bay and Cape Cod Bay (Bothner and Butman, 2007). This long-term study was carried out by the USGS in partnership with the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) (http://www.mwra.state.ma.us/) and with logistical support from the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). Long-term oceanographic observations help to identify the processes causing bottom sediment resuspension and transport and provide data for developing and testing numerical models. The observations document seasonal

  6. Tsunami modeling Scenarios for the Western Black Sea, Shabla seismic area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Partheniu, Raluca; Diaconescu, Mihai; Ioane, Dumitru; Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    Although a rare natural phenomenon, tsunami type events in the Black Sea had been generated, past studies showing more than twenty events (Altinok Y., 1999). The western Black Sea could mostly be affected by earthquakes generated in Shabla area, the most known event being generated on 31st of March 1901, when an earthquake with Mw = 7.2 triggered tsunami waves up to 5 m height (Papadopoulos et al., 2011). In order to generate a tsunami in the Black Sea area, earthquakes should mainly follow some conditions: a) to have a magnitude Mw > 6.5; b) to have a focal depth h < 40 km and c) to have an inverse or normal fault focal mechanism. A recent earthquake generated in Shabla area on 05.08.2009, at 07:49 UTC, was taken into consideration for running tsunami scenarios. The following parameters were used as initial conditions: earthquake location (Latitude and Longitude) and one plane solution with preset fault parameters (Strike, Dip, Rake, Width, Length). A set of 18 different tsunami modeling scenarios have been run, varying the Magnitude (Mw = 7, 7.5 and 8) and the Depth (5 km, 10 km and 30 km). The software used for generating the tsunami modeling scenarios is Tsunami Analysis Tool (TAT), developed by Joint Research Centre (JRC) of the European Commission. After analyzing and comparing the generated tsunami modeling scenarios, minimum values of magnitude for tsunami waves generation were evaluated for the Shabla seismic source. For some of the scenarios no tsunami waves were generated. The worst case scenario is for a depth of 5 km, a magnitude Mw = 8, the tsunami waves heights reaching 0.8 m in Kranevo (Bulgaria). The maximum wave heights and some of the affected locations for this scenario show that at Costinesti, Mangalia, Techirghiol cities the waves will reach 0.6 m height and respectively 0.5 m at Constanta city. According to these scenarios, the tsunami generated waves can vary as follows: increasing the depth from 5 to 10 and 30 km will lead to lower heights

  7. Review: Potential catastrophic reduction of sea ice in the western Arctic Ocean: Its impact on biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harada, Naomi

    2016-01-01

    The reduction of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean, which has progressed more rapidly than previously predicted, has the potential to cause multiple environmental stresses, including warming, acidification, and strengthened stratification of the ocean. Observational studies have been undertaken to detect the impacts on biogeochemical cycles and marine ecosystems of these environmental stresses in the Arctic Ocean. Satellite analyses show that the reduction of sea ice has been especially great in the western Arctic Ocean. Observations and model simulations have both helped to clarify the impact of sea-ice reductions on the dynamics of ecosystem processes and biogeochemical cycles. In this review, I focus on the western Arctic Ocean, which has experienced the most rapid retreat of sea ice in the Arctic Ocean and, very importantly, has a higher rate of primary production than any other area of the Arctic Ocean owing to the supply of nutrient-rich Pacific water. I report the impact of the current reduction of sea ice on marine biogeochemical cycles in the western Arctic Ocean, including lower-trophic-level organisms, and identify the key mechanism of changes in the biogeochemical cycles, based on published observations and model simulations. The retreat of sea ice has enhanced primary production and has increased the frequency of appearance of mesoscale anticyclonic eddies. These eddies enhance the light environment and replenish nutrients, and they also represent a mechanism that can increase the rate of the biological pump in the Arctic Ocean. Various unresolved issues that require further investigation, such as biological responses to environmental stressors such as ocean acidification, are also discussed.

  8. δ(34)S values in recent sea sediments and their significance using several sediment profiles from the western Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Martin; Nielsen, Heimo

    2012-01-01

    The isotope ratios of various sulphur components (total sulphur content in the sediment, sulphate and H(2)S in the pore-water) were measured in a number of cores from recent marine sediments taken from the Kieler Bucht (Kiel Bay) region in the western Baltic Sea. Additionally, the quantitative contents of total sulphur, sulphate, sulphide, chloride, organic carbon, iron and water in the sediment and in the pore-water solutions, respectively, were determined. These investigations provided the following results: 1. The sulphur contained in the sediment (∼ 0.3-2% of the dry sample) was for the most part introduced only after sedimentation. This confirms the deliberations of Kaplan et al. [The Distribution and Isotopic Abundance of Sulfur in Recent Marine Sediments off Southern California, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 27, 297 (1963)]. The organic substance contributes to the sulphur content of the sediment only to an insignificant degree (in our samples with ∼5-10% of the total sulphur). 2. The sulphate in the pore-waters has been identified as a source for sulphur in the sediment. During normal sedimentation, the exchange of sulphate by diffusion significant for changes in the sulphur content goes down to a sediment depth of 4-6 cm. In this process, the sulphate consumed by reduction and formation of sulphide or pyrite is mostly replaced. The uppermost sediment layer thus represents a partially open system for the total sulphur. The diagenesis of the sulphur is allochemical. At depths below 4-6 cm, we are dealing with a closed system. The further diagenesis of sulphur here is isochemical. 3. The isotope values of the sediment sulphur are influenced primarily by sulphur which comes into the sediment by diffusion and which is bound by subsequent bacteriological reduction as either sulphide or pyrite. As a consequence of the prevailing reduction of (32)S and reverse-diffusion of sulphate into the open sea water, a (32)S enrichment takes place in the uppermost layer of

  9. Holocene History of the Bering Sea Bowhead Whale ( Balaena mysticetus) in Its Beaufort Sea Summer Grounds off Southwestern Victoria Island, Western Canadian Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyke, Arthur S.; Savelle, James M.

    2001-05-01

    The fossil remains of 43 bowhead whales were mapped on the raised beaches of western Wollaston Peninsula, Victoria Island, Canadian Arctic, near the historic summer range limit of the Bering Sea stock in the Beaufort Sea. The elevations and radiocarbon ages of the remains demonstrate that the bowhead ranged commonly into the region following the submergence of Bering Strait at ca. 10,000 14C yr B.P. until ca. 8500 14C yr B.P. During the same interval, bowheads ranged widely from the Beaufort Sea to Baffin Bay. Subsequently, no whales reached Wollaston Peninsula until ca. 1500 14C yr B.P. Late Holocene populations evidently were small, or occupations were brief, in comparison to those of the early Holocene. Although the late Holocene recurrence may relate to the expansion of pioneering Thule whalers eastward from Alaska, there are few Thule sites and limited evidence of Thule whaling in the area surveyed to support this suggestion.

  10. Tuberculosis in sea lions and fur seals from the south-western Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Bernardelli, A; Bastida, R; Loureiro, J; Michelis, H; Romano, M I; Cataldi, A; Costa, E

    1996-09-01

    Diverse pathological conditions causing the strandings and/or deaths of several species of sea lions and seals on the northern coast of the province of Buenos Aires are being studied. Tuberculosis was diagnosed in six cases of strandings, involving two otariid seal species (one Otaria flavescens and five Arctocephalus australis), between March 1989 and December 1992. Necropsies were performed on all six cases. Granulomatous lesions were observed in the prescapular and hepatic lymph nodes. Lesions were also seen in the lungs, pleura, liver, spleen and peritoneum. Bacteriological isolation was attempted from all the samples. The isolates were identified as belonging to the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Some showed characteristics consistent with M. bovis, whereas others demonstrated properties of M. tuberculosis. Genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from these strains was analysed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), using IS6110, a genetic marker found only in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. Using the IS6110 probe, similar fingerprints were obtained, suggesting a common source of infection. However, the pattern of DNA differed from DNA patterns of M. bovis isolated from humans and cattle in Argentina, which generally contain a unique 1.9 kbp band. These results suggest that mycobacteria isolated from wild seals form a different grouping inside the M. tuberculosis complex. This is the first time that tuberculosis has been detected in wild seals from the south-western Atlantic coast.

  11. Community structure of mesozooplankton in the western part of the Sea of Okhotsk in summer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Hiroshi; Nishioka, Jun; Tsuda, Atsushi

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the community structure of mesozooplankton in the western part of the Sea of Okhotsk in late summer, 2006. We recognized four communities belonging to two assemblages. A coastal assemblage dominated by the arctic planktonic snail Limacina helicina consisted of a gulf community characterized by brackish copepods and a continental shelf community characterized by the hydrozoan medusa Aglantha digitale and the arctic copepod Calanus glacialis. The other assemblage, characterized by the oceanic copepod Neocalanus plumchrus, consisted of a continental slope community characterized by a diverse species composition and a basin community characterized by the oceanic copepod N. cristatus. The continental slope community contained species from the coastal waters and was distributed along the course of the East Sakhalin current. This community may have been assembled by the incorporation of coastal water into the oceanic waters by the strong current. Small coastal copepods such as Oithona similis and Pseudocalanus spp. were the main components in all communities in terms of numbers, but larger copepods such as Neocalanus spp. and Metridia okhotensis were important in terms of weight, especially in the continental slope and basin communities. The population structures of the dominant species suggest that overall biological production is maintained by continuous reproduction or growth (or both) of L. helicina and small coastal copepods after the onset of seasonal dormancy of the large oceanic copepods in late summer.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments and mussels of the western Mediterranean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Baumard, P.; Budzinski, H.; Garrigues, P.

    1998-05-01

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been investigated in superficial sediments and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) of the western Mediterranean sea. The analyses were performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The PAH concentrations ranged from 1 to 20,500 ng/g in the sediments. Different molecular indices allowed differentiation between the different pollutant sources. On the French coast, PAHs originated mainly from incomplete combustion of organic matter (pyrolytic origin), whereas for some sites in Corsica and Sardinia an overimposition of petrogenic PAHs occurred. The mussel PAH concentrations ranged from 25 to 390 ng/g. The total and individual PAH bioaccumulation factors were calculated. The correlation between sediment and mussel PAH content was discussed in terms of bioavailability. It was possible to distinguish different absorption routes for the xenobiotics according to their physicochemical properties. Because the mussel distribution of phenanthrene and anthracene seems to be governed by their water solubility, these compounds were probably mainly absorbed as the water-dissolved form, whereas the heavier molecular weight PAHs (more than four aromatic rings), whose sediment and mussel concentrations are correlated with higher correlation coefficients than for phenanthrene and anthracene, were probably mainly absorbed as adsorbed on particles. Furthermore, a possible preferential biotransformation of benzo[a]pyrene over benzo[e]pyrene is discussed.

  13. Bathymetric patterns of morphological disparity in deep-sea gastropods from the western North Atlantic basin.

    PubMed

    McClain, Craig R

    2005-07-01

    Understanding patterns of species richness requires knowledge of the individual roles species play in community structure. Here, I use gastropod shells as a source of information about both their ecological and their evolutionary functions in generating bathymetric gradients of diversity. Specifically, morphological disparity of shell architecture in deep-sea gastropods is evaluated over a depth gradient in the western North Atlantic by constructing an empirical morphospace based on an eigenshape analysis. Morphological disparity is quantified by calculating the centroid, total range, and dispersion of the morphospace at each station along the depth gradient. The results indicate that local faunas are drawn from a regional pool with the same variance but that average dissimilarity in forms reflects the number of species in the sample. The range of the morphospace at local scales is also less than at regional scales, resulting from the variability of the morphospace centroid over depth. Although the position of the morphospace changes with depth, morphological disparity remains unaffected. Despite the lack of bathymetric patterns in variance, patterns in nearest neighbor distance persist. The findings suggest the importance of interacting ecological and evolutionary processes at varying spatiotemporal scales for both morphological disparity and species richness.

  14. Atmospheric fluxes of 210Pb to the western Mediterranean Sea and the Saharan dust influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Orellana, J.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J. A.; Masqué, P.; ÀVila, A.; Costa, E.; Loã¿E-Pilot, M. D.; Bruach-MenchéN, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    Pb 210 is a well known tracer of particle dynamics in the marine environment. Geochemical models partially rely on the knowledge of its atmospheric input. Unfortunately, this is poorly known in the western Mediterranean Sea, especially regarding long-term records. In this work we have evaluated the 210Pb annual atmospheric flux to this region from the analysis of 12 soil cores collected from coastal and island sites and total atmospheric deposition collected in Corsica during 1 year. The 210Pb fluxes ranged from 34 ± 3 to 121 ± 12 Bq m-2 yr-1, with an average of 75 Bq m-2 yr-1, and were strongly correlated (R2 = 0.95) with mean annual rainfall. This provides the possibility to determine 210Pb fluxes in a given location if the mean annual rainfall is well known, a useful outcome for both marine biogeochemical and soil erosion studies in this region. We have also estimated the mean annual atmospheric flux of 210Pb due to Saharan dust events registered in total deposition north of Barcelona during the last 17 years, yielding a value of 20 Bq m-2 yr-1. This flux represents a fraction of about 16% of the total atmospheric deposition of 210Pb in this area, but it could be up to 50% in sites with lower rainfall.

  15. Genetic structure of giant clam ( Tridacna maxima) populations from reefs in the Western Coral Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzie, John A. H.; Williams, Suzanne T.

    1992-09-01

    Allozyme variation at six polymorphic loci was examined in 10 populations of Tridacna maxima from reefs in the Western Coral Sea, to test whether patterns of relatedness previously reported for foraminiferan populations reflected a fundamental structuring of the fauna in the region. Genetic distances (Nei's D) among populations of T. maxima ranged from 0 0.065 and increased with increasing geographical separation. No significant differences in gene frequencies were observed among populations within two groups of reefs identified by cluster analysis: the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and among the offshore reefs excluding Lihou and Osprey. Significant genetic differences among these groups and the outliers Lihou and Osprey were consistent with the greater geographical separation of populations between areas than within areas. There was no evidence of differentiation along a north-south axis as reported for the foraminiferan Marginopora vertebralis, nor did populations from offshore reefs on the Queensland Plateau form a well-defined group that was genetically distinct from the GBR. The patterns observed for M. vertebralis do not appear to reflect a fundamental structuring of biota in the region. The differences in the pattern of genetic variation for M. vertebralis as compared with those for T. maxima may be due to several differences in the biological characteristics of the two species. The time of breeding in particular may influence the extent to which the divergence of the East Australian Current restricts larval dispersal among reefs in the central Queensland Plateau.

  16. Acoustic and visual surveys for bowhead whales in the western Beaufort and far northeastern Chukchi seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sue E.; Stafford, Kathleen M.; Munger, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    Two types of passive-acoustic survey were conducted to investigate the seasonal occurrence of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus) in the western Beaufort and far northeastern Chukchi seas: (1) an over-winter (2003-04) survey using autonomous recorders deployed northeast of Barrow, Alaska, and (2) a summertime dipping-hydrophone survey along the 2005 NOAA Ocean Exploration (OE) cruise track northwest of Barrow. The longest continuous sampling period from the over-winter survey was 3 October 2003 to 12 May 2004. During that period, bowhead whale calls were recorded from 3 to 23 October, intermittently on 6-7 and 22-23 November, then not again until 25 March 2004. Bowhead calls were recorded almost every hour from 19 April to 12 May 2004, with a call rate peak on 30 April ( ca. 9400 calls) and a few instances of patterned calling (or, "song") detected in early May. Bowhead whale calls were never detected during the NOAA OE cruise, but calls of beluga whales ( Delphinapterus leucas) were recorded at 3 of 16 acoustic stations. Opportunistic visual surveys for marine mammals were also conducted during the NOAA OE cruise from the ship (65 h) and helicopter (7.8 h), resulting in single sightings of bowhead whales (3-5 whales), beluga (16-20 whales), walrus (1), polar bear (2=sow/cub), and 17 sightings of 87 ringed seals from the ship and 15 sightings of 67 ringed seals from the helicopter.

  17. Taxonomy of quaternary deep-sea ostracods from the Western North Atlantic ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yasuhara, Moriaki; Okahashi, H.; Cronin, T. M.

    2009-01-01

    Late Quaternary sediments from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 1055B, Carolina Slope, western North Atlantic (32??47.041??? N, 76??17.179??? W; 1798m water depth) were examined for deep-sea ostracod taxonomy. A total of 13933 specimens were picked from 207 samples and c. 120 species were identified. Among them, 87 species were included and illustrated in this paper. Twenty-eight new species are described. The new species are: Ambocythere sturgio, Argilloecia abba, Argilloecia caju, Argilloecia keigwini, Argilloecia robinwhatleyi, Aversovalva carolinensis, Bythoceratina willemvandenboldi, Bythocythere eugeneschornikovi, Chejudocythere tenuis, Cytheropteron aielloi, Cytheropteron demenocali, Cytheropteron didieae, Cytheropteron richarddinglei, Cytheropteron fugu, Cytheropteron guerneti, Cytheropteron richardbensoni, Eucytherura hazeli, Eucytherura mayressi, Eucytherura namericana, Eucytherura spinicorona, Posacythere hunti, Paracytherois bondi, Pedicythere atroposopetasi, Pedicythere kennettopetasi, Pedicythere klothopetasi, Pedicythere lachesisopetasi, Ruggieriella mcmanusi and Xestoleberis oppoae. Taxonomic revisions of several common species were made to reduce taxonomic uncertainty in the literature. This study provides a robust taxonomic baseline for application to palaeoceanographical reconstruction and biodiversity analyses in the deep and intermediate-depth environments of the North Atlantic Ocean. ?? The Palaeontological Association, 2009.

  18. PCB concentrations in plankton size classes, a temporal study in Marseille Bay, Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Tiano, Marion; Tronczyński, Jacek; Harmelin-Vivien, Mireille; Tixier, Céline; Carlotti, François

    2014-12-15

    PCB levels in plankton were investigated in the Bay of Marseille, Western Mediterranean Sea, between September 2010 and October 2011. Concentrations of PCB congeners (CB 18, CB 52, CB 101, CB 118, CB 138, CB 153, CB 180) were determined in three plankton size-classes (60-200, 200-500 and 500-1000μm) together with different parameters: chlorophyll content, plankton dry-weight biomass, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios and plankton-community structure. The ∑PCB7 concentrations ranged between 14.2 and 88.1ngg(-1)d.w., for all size classes and all sampling periods. The results do not show the biomass dilution effect and indicate moderate but significant biomagnification with plankton trophic position estimated by δ(15)N signatures. Equilibrium with water phase may notably contribute in controlling the PCB levels in the plankton. More generally, presented results imply that PCB accumulation in the plankton is an effect of abiotic and trophic complex interactions in the Bay of Marseille.

  19. Preliminary study on PAH degradation by bacteria from contaminated sediments in Xiamen Western Sea, Fujian, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalid, Maskaoui; Zheng, Tianling; Hong, Huasheng; Yu, Zhiming; Yuan, Jianjun; Hu, Zhong

    2004-12-01

    In order to estimate the biodegradation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) compounds, bacterial strains were isolated from marine sediments in three heavily contaminated sites (Yuandang Lake, Dongdu Port and Aquacultural zones in Maluan Bay) in Xiamen Western Sea. The results show three bacterial strains, which used pyrene as the sole carbon source, were identified as strains of Aureobacterium sp., Arthrobacter sp., Rhodococcus sp. The PAH-degrading bacteria isolated had a strong ability to degrade phenanhrene, fluoranthene and pyrene at different degradation rates. The highest degradation rate was observed when three PAH compounds were mixed with an individual strain in the medium. The three PAHs were degraded after one week with a degradation rate of 89.94% for phenanthrene and 93.4% for both of fluoranthene and pyrene. In addition, after 25 days of incubation, the degradation rate was 99.98% for phenanthrene and 99.97% for both of fluoranthene and pyrene. Optical density was measured to estimate bacterial growth during the degradation of PAHs. Highest levels of bacterial growth were observed with a three PAH mixture in the culture, suggesting that the concentration of PAHs influenced bacterial growth and the highest levels of degradation for most series were detected after one week of incubation.

  20. Dynamics of hourly sea level at Hillarys Boat Harbour, Western Australia: a chaos theory perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatibi, Rahman; Ghorbani, Mohammad Ali; Aalami, Mohammad Taghi; Kocak, Kasim; Makarynskyy, Oleg; Makarynska, Dina; Aalinezhad, Mahdi

    2011-11-01

    Water level forecasting using recorded time series can provide a local modelling capability to facilitate local proactive management practices. To this end, hourly sea water level time series are investigated. The records collected at the Hillarys Boat Harbour, Western Australia, are investigated over the period of 2000 and 2002. Two modelling techniques are employed: low-dimensional dynamic model, known as the deterministic chaos theory, and genetic programming, GP. The phase space, which describes the evolution of the behaviour of a nonlinear system in time, was reconstructed using the delay-embedding theorem suggested by Takens. The presence of chaotic signals in the data was identified by the phase space reconstruction and correlation dimension methods, and also the predictability into the future was calculated by the largest Lyapunov exponent to be 437 h or 18 days into the future. The intercomparison of results of the local prediction and GP models shows that for this site-specific dataset, the local prediction model has a slight edge over GP. However, rather than recommending one technique over another, the paper promotes a pluralistic modelling culture, whereby different techniques should be tested to gain a specific insight from each of the models. This would enable a consensus to be drawn from a set of results rather than ignoring the individual insights provided by each model.

  1. A new hybrid model for filling gaps and forecast in sea level: application to the eastern English Channel and the North Atlantic Sea (western France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turki, Imen; Laignel, Benoit; Kakeh, Nabil; Chevalier, Laetitia; Costa, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    This research is carried out in the framework of the program Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) which is a partnership between NASA and CNES. Here, a new hybrid model is implemented for filling gaps and forecasting the hourly sea level variability by combining classical harmonic analyses to high statistical methods to reproduce the deterministic and stochastic processes, respectively. After simulating the mean trend sea level and astronomical tides, the nontidal residual surges are investigated using an autoregressive moving average (ARMA) methods by two ways: (1) applying a purely statistical approach and (2) introducing the SLP in ARMA as a main physical process driving the residual sea level. The new hybrid model is applied to the western Atlantic sea and the eastern English Channel. Using ARMA model and considering the SLP, results show that the hourly sea level observations of gauges with are well reproduced with a root mean square error (RMSE) ranging between 4.5 and 7 cm for 1 to 30 days of gaps and an explained variance more than 80 %. For larger gaps of months, the RMSE reaches 9 cm. The negative and the positive extreme values of sea levels are also well reproduced with a mean explained variance between 70 and 85 %. The statistical behavior of 1-year modeled residual components shows good agreements with observations. The frequency analysis using the discrete wavelet transform illustrate strong correlations between observed and modeled energy spectrum and the bands of variability. Accordingly, the proposed model presents a coherent, simple, and easy tool to estimate the total sea level at timescales from days to months. The ARMA model seems to be more promising for filling gaps and estimating the sea level at larger scales of years by introducing more physical processes driving its stochastic variability.

  2. Satellite and hydrography observations of the riverine water dynamics in the Black Sea north-western shelf

    SciTech Connect

    Ilyin, Y.P.; Lemeshko, E.M.; Allewijn, R.

    1997-08-01

    Satellite thermal and visible imagery allow to describe the spatial distribution and time evolution of the turbid desalinated water plumes expanding from the principal rivers (Danube, Dnieper and Dniester). The main amount of river inflows is transported to the south along the western coast of the Black Sea. But in spring and summer, they often turn eastward and flow within thin surface layer into the outer shelf region. Their expansion is under the wind control (enforcing of western, Southwestern winds). Coastal upwelling of the underlying cold transparent water is produced under these conditions which separates the river plum from the shore. Sometimes, the intensive small-scale eddies generation is observed at the outer front of plum. The part of turbid desalinated water is trapped by quasi-stationary anticyclonic eddies at the shelf edge and transferred into the central (deep-water) region of the sea.

  3. Molecular and epidemiological data on Anisakis spp. (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in commercial fish caught off northern Sardinia (western Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Piras, M C; Tedde, T; Garippa, G; Virgilio, S; Sanna, D; Farjallah, S; Merella, P

    2014-06-16

    Anisakiasis is a fish-borne zoonosis caused by third stage larvae of the nematode Anisakis sp. present in fish or cephalopods. This is the first contribution to the molecular identification and epidemiology of Anisakis spp. in commercial fish from the Gulf of Asinara (Sardinia, western Mediterranean Sea). Between April 2006 to November 2011, 777 specimens of 10 fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Merluccius merluccius, Micromesistius poutassou, Phycis blennoides, Sardina pilchardus, Sardinella aurita, Scomber colias, Sphyraena viridensis, Trachurus mediterraneus, Trachurus trachurus) were examined for Anisakis sp. larvae. A total of 1286 larvae were found in 218 fish. The great majority of larvae were located in the body cavity, and only a small part (60, 4.7%) in the muscle. All the Type I larvae (1272) were identified as Anisakis pegreffii and all the Type II (14) as Anisakis physeteris, confirming that A. pegreffii is the dominant species and the most important agent of human anisakiasis in the western Mediterranean Sea.

  4. A new bathyal mysid of the family Petalophthalmidae (Crustacea: Mysida) from the Bismarck Sea (Western Tropical Pacific Ocean).

    PubMed

    San Vicente, Carlos; Corbari, Laure

    2015-02-27

    A new species of the genus Petalophthalmus (Crustacea: Mysida: Petalophthalmidae) is described, based on one specimen collected from the Bismarck Sea (Papua New Guinea, Western Pacific Ocean). This species can be distinguished from the other species of the genus Petalophthalmus by the globular cornea and the armature of the telson. This new species lives between 800 and 1065 m depth. A discussion on the geographic and bathymetric distribution and an identification key to world species of Petalophthalmus are provided.

  5. Offshore seismicity in the western Marmara Sea, Turkey, revealed by ocean bottom observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Yojiro; Takahashi, Narumi; Citak, Seckin; Kalafat, Doǧan; Pinar, Ali; Gürbüz, Cemil; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2015-04-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF) extends 1600 km westward from a junction with the East Anatolian Fault at the Karliova Triple Junction in eastern Turkey, across northern Turkey and into the Aegean Sea, accommodating about 25 mm/yr of right-lateral motion between Anatolia and the Eurasian plate. Since 1939, devastating earthquakes with magnitude greater than seven ruptured NAF westward, starting from 1939 Erzincan (Ms=7.9) at the eastern Turkey and including the latest 1999 Izmit-Golcuk (Ms=7.7) and the Duzce (Ms=7.4) earthquakes in the Marmara region. Considering the fault segments ruptured by the May 24th, 2014 Northern Aegean earthquake (Mw=6.9), the only un-ruptured segments left behind the 1600 km long NAF locate beneath the Marmara Sea and those segments keep their mystery due to their underwater location. To consider the earthquake hazard and disaster mitigation, the detailed information about fault geometry and its stick-slip behavior beneath the western Marmara Sea is very important. Thus, we started to operate a series of ocean bottom seismographic (OBS) observations to estimate the fault geometry from microearthquake distribution. As a first step, we deployed 3 pop-up type OBSs on 20th of March 2014 as a trial observation, and recovered them on 18th of June 2014. Although one of the OBSs worked only 6 days from the start of the observation, other two OBSs functioned properly during the whole 3-month observation period. We first searched for the microearthquakes missing by the land seismic network and estimated their precious location by using the initial 6 days data, i.e., using all the temporary OBS stations. Although there are only 3 earthquakes listed on the Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) catalogue, we could identify 41 earthquakes with more than 5 picking data of P and S first arrivals, and two-third of them located within the OBS network. We found the earthquake cluster along the main NAF and whose depth interval is 12

  6. Distinct protistan assemblages characterize the euphotic zone and deep sea (2500 m) of the western North Atlantic (Sargasso Sea and Gulf Stream).

    PubMed

    Countway, Peter D; Gast, Rebecca J; Dennett, Mark R; Savai, Pratik; Rose, Julie M; Caron, David A

    2007-05-01

    Protistan diversity was characterized at three locations in the western North Atlantic (Sargasso Sea and Gulf Stream) by sequencing 18S rRNA genes in samples from euphotic (< or = 125 m) and bathypelagic depths (2500 m). A total of 923 partial-length protistan sequences were analysed, revealing 324 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) determined by an automated OTU-calling program set to 95% sequence similarity. Most OTUs were comprised of only one or two sequences suggesting a large but rare pool of protistan diversity. Many OTUs from both depth strata were associated with recently described novel alveolate and stramenopile lineages while many OTUs from the bathypelagic were affiliated with Acantharea, Polycystinea and Euglenozoa and were not observed in euphotic zone libraries. Protistan assemblages from the euphotic zone and the deep sea were largely composed of distinct OTUs; only 28 of the 324 protistan OTUs were detected in both shallow and deep sea clone libraries. The diversity of protistan assemblages in the deep sea was distinctly lower than the diversity of euphotic zone assemblages. Protistan assemblages from the Gulf Stream were the most diverse for either depth strata. Overall, protistan assemblages from different stations but comparable depths were more similar than the assemblages from different depths at the same station. These data suggest that particular groups of protistan OTUs formed distinct 'shallow' and 'deep-sea' assemblages across widely spaced oceanic locales.

  7. Ecological state of North -Western Black Sea macrobenthos on offshore bottoms deeper than 50 m

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomoiu, M.-T.; Begun, T.; Teaca, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the last 10-15 years researches concerning benthos in the north-western Black Sea were focused mainly on inshore bottoms, usually less than 50 m deep, where important ecological changed occurred. The offshore bottoms, deeper than 50 m, and especially the periazoic level at the edge of the continental shelf have been less known, the information being scarce. The present study gathers the results of the researches carried out in the past 12 years on the Modiolus phaseolinus community, including the periazoic level, and allows a comparison to be drawn with the situation of the so-called "ecological stability" period at the beginning of the 1960s, before the ecosystemic disturbances began in the Black Sea. In 1995-2007, a number of 133 quantitative macro-benthos samples were collected at depths of 50 - 213 m by means of the van Veen-type grab and box corer; these samples were taken during several cruises (R/V "Prof.Vodyanitskyi" EROS 1995, 1997, R/V „Akademik" 2003, R/V „Parshin" 2005, R/V „Akademik" 2006 R/V „Mare Nigrum" 2006 and 2007), the researches aiming at the assessment of the benthic ecosystem state. The analyses of the 133 samples helped identify 191 taxa (Vermes - 88, Mollusca - 24, Crustacea - 32 and Varia - 47), approximately 60% of the total number of species recorded in the north-western Black Sea during the period of "ecological prosperity". The mean abundance of the benthic populations was 4,836.2 indvs.m-2 for density and 189.9 g.m-2 for biomass. Most macrobenthic taxa occurred in the samples accidentally; out of the 191 taxa recorded, 60 taxa had a frequency of 1-2%, 37 taxa 2-5%, 28 taxa 5-10%, 32 taxa 10-20%, 26 taxa 20-50% and only eight species had a frequency over 50% (Modiolus phaseolinus, Terebelides stroemi, Capitella capitata, Nephtys hombergi, Amphiura stepanovi, Sphaerosyllis bulbosa, Apseudes ostroumovi and Phyllodoce lineata). Numerical abundances were dominated by worms (2,606.9 indvs.m-2) and molluscs (1,398.7 indvs.m-2

  8. Natural background and anthropogenic inputs of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in sediments of South-Western Barents Sea.

    PubMed

    Boitsov, Stepan; Jensen, H K B; Klungsøyr, Jarle

    2009-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in sediment cores from 13 locations in South-Western Barents Sea as part of a detailed study of the Norwegian seabed under the MAREANO program. The generally low PAH levels found, an average around 200 ng g(-1) dry weight for sum PAH, indicate low inputs of petroleum hydrocarbons to the marine environment in the area. Differences in PAH composition and various PAH ratios indicate a natural, mostly petrogenic origin of PAH in sediments from the open sea locations, while the fjord locations show higher pyrogenic PAH contents with an increase towards upper sediment layers, indicating low inputs from human activities. Petrogenic PAH levels increase in deeper sediments at open sea locations, also when normalised to total organic carbon (TOC) contents, suggesting natural leakages of oil-related hydrocarbons in the area.

  9. Methane in water columns and sediments of the north western Sea of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereshchagina, Olga F.; Korovitskaya, Elena V.; Mishukova, Galina I.

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the results of methane measurements in water and sediments, first performed along the north western continental slope and abyssal plain of the Sea of Japan. Methane concentrations in the study area were very low. However, some features of its distribution are revealed. The highest dissolved methane concentrations (10-14 nmol kg-1) are characteristic of the pycnocline layer at a depth of 30-50 m in the northern shallow stations. With increasing depth, the methane is reduced to minimum values (0.5-1.0 nmol kg-1). The greatest variability in methane concentrations was observed in the layers at 0-500 m, which can be explained by the hydrodynamic conditions of the environment on the slope. Methane plumes (1.7 and 1.3 nmol kg-1) on the northern section were recorded at the depth of 1250 and 1495 m, respectively. Plumes (1.2 nmol kg-1) are also observed on near bottom layers at the deepest (more than 3000 m) stations. CH4 concentration in bottom sediments is also low (from 1 nmol kg-1 at 7 cm level to 752 nmol kg-1 at the 53 cm level of the core sediment in the northern part). Reduced sediments in the southern part of the study region have maximal methane concentration for sediment (2549 nmol kg-1) at the horizon 44 cm bsf (below sea floor) with a smell of H2S. These results assume a close relation of CH4 with sediment properties. A few stations with maximum methane (86-101 nmol kg-1) in the surface sediment layer are at the foot of a steep slope. Herewith, the highest abundance of some pericarid species was observed at the points with the highest values of methane concentrations in the surface sediment layer. Weak methane seepage can cause anoxic marine waters. Methane emission from water to the atmosphere is low because its concentration is close to equilibrium in surface water. An improved formula for calculating the methane flux of water into the atmosphere, taking into account high wind speeds, is presented in the paper.

  10. Interaction Between Surface Heat Budgets, Sea Surface Temperature and Deep Convection in the Tropical Western Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Shu-Hsien; Chou, Ming-Dah; Lin, Po-Hsiung; Starr, David OC. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The surface heat budgets, sea surface temperature (SST), clouds and winds in the tropical western Pacific are analyzed and compared for the periods April-June 1998 and 1999. The spring of 1998 is in the later phase of a strong El Nino, whereas the spring of 1999 is in a period of a La Nina. The surface shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiative fluxes are retrieved from Japanese Geostationary Meteorological Satellite radiance measurements, while the surface turbulent fluxes (latent and sensible heat) are derived from SSM/I-Inferred surface air humidity and winds. The SST and sea-air temperature differences are taken from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. Deep convection is inferred from the outgoing longwave radiation of NOAA's polar-orbiting satellites. The longitudinal shift in maximum SST, deep convection and winds during El Nino and La Nina have a large impact on the spatial distribution of surface heating. Changes in clouds between these two periods have a large impact on the monthly-mean radiative heating, exceeding 60 W m(exp -2) over large oceanic regions. Similarly, the differences in wind speeds and SST have a large impact on the latent cooling, exceeding 40 W m(exp -2) over large oceanic areas. However, the maximum impacts on radiative and latent heat fluxes occur in different regions. The regions of maximum impact on radiative fluxes coincide with the regions of maximum change in clouds, whereas regions of maximum impact on turbulent heat fluxes coincide with the regions of maximum change in trade winds. The time-evolution of SST in relation to that of surface heat fluxes and winds are investigated and compared between the two El Nino and La Nina periods. In regions where wind speeds (or wind stresses) are large, the change in SST agrees well with the change in the net surface heating, indicating a deep ocean mixed layer associated with strong trade winds. On the other hand, in regions where radiative fluxes are large, the change in SST does not agree well with the

  11. Bathyal meiobenthos of the western Coral Sea: distribution and abundance in relation to microbial standing stocks and environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alongi, Daniel M.; Pichon, Michel

    1988-04-01

    The distribution and abundance of meiobenthos in relation to microbial densities and environmental factors were examined at 24 stations in a bathyal (298-1610 m) region of the western Coral Sea. Densities of metazoan meiofauna were low ( overlinex = 57 ; range: 19-170 individuals 10 cm -2) compared with other bathyal communtiesm but when densities of living Foraminifera ( overlinex = 560 ; range: 0-3410 individuals 10 cm -2) were included, total faunal densities were high ( overlinex = 610 10 cm-2) and ranged from 73 to 3465 individuals 10 cm -2. Soft-bodied (non-chitinous) taxa (e.g. turbellarians) were not detected beyond the continental slope. Densities of all metazoan taxa, excluding nematodes, decreased significantly with bathymetric depth. When the effect of ocean depth was held constant, only a few significant correlations of meiobenthos with microbes and sediment characteristics were found. Our data, coupled with earlier findings of low bacterial densities and organic conditions, suggest that low densities of metazoan meiobenthos in the western Coral Sea are due to low rates of detrital input. However, densities of Foraminifera and other protozoans increased with bathymetric depth ( ALONGI, 1987, Deep-Sea Research, 34, 1245-1254), indicating their ability to exploit oligotrophic conditions and to gain numerical dominance in benthic food webs of the deep sea.

  12. Observations on the Rim Current structure, CIW formation and transport in the western Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguz, Temel; Besiktepe, Sukru

    1999-10-01

    CTD and ADCP measurements together with a sequence of satellite images indicate pronounced current meandering and eddy activity in the western Black Sea during April 1993. The Rim Current is identified as a well-defined meandering jet stream confined over the steepest topographic slope and associated cyclonic-anticyclonic eddy pairs located on both its sides. It has a form of highly energetic and unstable flow system, which, as it propagates cyclonically along the periphery of the basin, is modified in character. It possesses a two-layer vertical structure with uniform upper layer speed in excess of 50 cm/s (maximum value ˜100 cm/s), followed by a relatively sharp change across the pycnocline (between 100 and 200 m) and the uniform sub-pycnocline currents of 20 cm/s (maximum value ˜40 cm/s) observed up to the depth of ˜350 dbar, being the approximate limit of ADCP measurements. The cross-stream velocity structure exhibits a narrow core region (˜30 km), flanked by a narrow zone of anticyclonic shear on its coastal side and a broader region of cyclonic shear on its offshore side. The northwestern shelf circulation is generally decoupled from the influence of the basinwide circulation and is characterized by much weaker currents, less than 10 cm/s. The southward coastal flow associated with the Danube and Dinepr Rivers is weak during the measurement period and is restricted to a very narrow coastal zone. The data suggest the presence of temperature-induced overturning prior to the measurements, and subsequent formation of the Cold Intermediate Water mass (CIW) within the Northwestern Shelf (NWS) and interior of the western basin. The newly formed shelf CIW is transported in part along the shelf by the coastal current system, and in part it flows downslope across the shelf and intrudes into the Rim Current convergence zone. A major part of the cold water mass, however, seems to be trapped within the northwestern shelf. The CIW mass, injected into the Rim Current

  13. Differences in Late Quaternary primary productivity between the western tropical Pacific and the South China Sea: Evidence from coccoliths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Xiang; Liu, Chuanlian; Beaufort, Luc; Barbarin, Nicolas; Jian, Zhimin

    2015-12-01

    Changes in Late Quaternary oceanic primary productivity in the western tropical Pacific were reconstructed using coccolith counts from the improved SYRACO system in piston core MD01-2386 retrieved from the Halmahera Sea near northwest New Guinea. The calculated primary productivity exhibits cycles on obliquity and precession timescales over the last 192 ka. There are marked differences between primary productivity records from the western tropical Pacific and the South China Sea (SCS), with the former being dominated by precession, and the latter showing all three Milankovitch cycles (eccentricity, obliquity and precession). Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses reveal two significant EOF modes in the western tropical Pacific and SCS records. EOF-1 accounts for 38% of the total variance and exhibits obvious precessional cycles corresponding to Northern Hemisphere summer insolation, while EOF-2 accounts for 22% of the total variance and exhibits strong 41-kyr periodicity, suggesting different biological responses to hydroclimate changes in the two regions. A more complex hydroclimate regime influenced by the East Asian monsoon and the large contrast in regional topography and circulation during glacial cycles are considered to be the primary drivers of the stronger temporal variability in productivity in the SCS compared to the relatively stable western tropical Pacific.

  14. Forecasting database for the tsunami warning regional center for the western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, A.; Hebert, H.; Loevenbruck, A.; Hernandez, B.

    2010-12-01

    Improvements in the availability of sea-level observations and advances in numerical modeling techniques are increasing the potential for tsunami warnings to be based on numerical model forecasts. Numerical tsunami propagation and inundation models are well developed, but they present a challenge to run in real-time, partly due to computational limitations and also to a lack of detailed knowledge on the earthquake rupture parameters. Through the establishment of the tsunami warning regional center for NE Atlantic and western Mediterranean Sea, the CEA is especially in charge of providing rapidly a map with uncertainties showing zones in the main axis of energy at the Mediterranean scale. The strategy is based initially on a pre-computed tsunami scenarios database, as source parameters available a short time after an earthquake occurs are preliminary and may be somewhat inaccurate. Existing numerical models are good enough to provide a useful guidance for warning structures to be quickly disseminated. When an event will occur, an appropriate variety of offshore tsunami propagation scenarios by combining pre-computed propagation solutions (single or multi sources) may be recalled through an automatic interface. This approach would provide quick estimates of tsunami offshore propagation, and aid hazard assessment and evacuation decision-making. As numerical model accuracy is inherently limited by errors in bathymetry and topography, and as inundation maps calculation is more complex and expensive in term of computational time, only tsunami offshore propagation modeling will be included in the forecasting database using a single sparse bathymetric computation grid for the numerical modeling. Because of too much variability in the mechanism of tsunamigenic earthquakes, all possible magnitudes cannot be represented in the scenarios database. In principle, an infinite number of tsunami propagation scenarios can be constructed by linear combinations of a finite number of

  15. Midwater food web in the vicinity of a marginal ice zone in the western Weddell Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Thomas L.; Torres, Joseph J.

    1989-04-01

    The structure of the food web in the vicinity of a marginal ice zone was investigated in the western Weddell Sea during austral autumn 1986. The diets of 40 species of zooplankton and micronekton occurring in the epipelagic zone were examined and compared using non-hierarchical clustering procedures. Over half the species were in three clusters of predominantly small-particle (phytoplankton; protozoans) grazers. These included biomass dominants Calanoides acutus, Calanus propinquus, Metridia gerlachei and Salpa thompsoni. Six clusters contained omnivores that had diets consisting of small particles as well as a substantial fraction of metazoan food. Among these was Euphausia superba. Seven groups were carnivorous, including species of copepods (1), chaetognaths (3), and fishes (5). Copepods were the most frequent food of carnivores; however krill also were important in the diets of three fish species. Among small-particle grazers, phytoplankton occurred more frequently in guts of individuals from open water; carnivory was more in evidence in samples collected under the pack ice. Regional comparisons of material taken on this and several previous cruises indicate that, in most of the dominant species, diets remain relatively consistent with respect to major food categories. Seasonal impact on feeding dynamics appears to be great: the guts of grazing species were generally much more full (visual evidence) during summer bloom conditions than during the autumn. The following trophic sequence is suggested for grazing zooplankton species in ice-covered regions of the Antarctic: (1) Active small-particle grazing during the summer bloom period; (2) reduced ingestion rates in autumn as primary production declines and the system becomes more oligotrophic, with some species augmenting grazing with carnivory; (3) descent of zooplankton biomass species into the mesopelagic zone in late autumn-early winter with feeding largely terminated. The sequence applies to the dominant

  16. Diversity, distribution and population size structure of deep Mediterranean gorgonian assemblages (Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinyó, Jordi; Gori, Andrea; Ambroso, Stefano; Purroy, Ariadna; Calatayud, Clara; Dominguez-Carrió, Carlos; Coppari, Martina; Lo Iacono, Claudio; López-González, Pablo J.; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2016-06-01

    Gorgonians are a key group of organisms in benthic marine communities with a wide bathymetric and geographical distribution. Although their presence on continental shelves and slopes has been known for more than 100 years, knowledge concerning the ecology of deep gorgonian species is still in a very preliminary stage. To overcome this situation, gorgonian assemblages located at 40-360 m depth were studied over a large geographical area on the continental shelf and upper slope of the Menorca Channel (Western Mediterranean Sea). A quantitative analysis of video transects recorded by a manned submersible and a remotely operated vehicle, were used to examine the diversity, distribution and demography of gorgonian species. Results showed high gorgonian diversity within this depth range (a total of nine species were observed) compared to Mediterranean coastal areas. Gorgonian assemblages on the continental shelf and upper slope were mostly monospecific (respectively 73% and 76% of occupied sampling units contained one single species), whereas shelf edge assemblages were highly multispecific (92% of occupied sampling units contained several species). This contrasts with the monospecificity of Mediterranean coastal gorgonian assemblages. Gorgonian populations on the continental shelf were mostly dominated by small colonies (88% of measured colonies) with few intermediate and large colonies (12% of measured colonies). In deeper areas small colonies were still dominant (60% of measured colonies), but intermediate and large colonies were much more abundant (40% of measured colonies). This suggests high recruitment rates on the continental shelf, but perturbations (trammel nets, long lines and strong storms) may limit the presence of intermediate and large colonies. Conversely, on the shelf edge and upper slope a more stable environment may allow colonies to reach larger dimensions. The identification and ecological characterization of these deep assemblages further extends

  17. Response of Tropical Cyclone Tracks to Sea Surface Temperature in the Western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inatsu, Masaru; Katsube, Kotaro

    2016-04-01

    A set of short-term experiments using a regional atmospheric model (RAM) were carried out to investigate the response of tropical cyclone (TC) tracks to sea surface temperature (SST) in the western North Pacific. For ten selected TC cases occurring during 2002-2007, a warm and a cold run are performed with 2 K and -2 K added to the SSTs uniformly over the model domain, respectively. The cases can be classified into three groups in terms of recurvature: recurved tracks in the warm and cold runs, a recurved track in the warm run and a non-recurved track in the cold run, and non-recurved tracks in both runs. Commonly the warm run produced northward movement of the TC faster than the cold run. The rapid northward migration can be mainly explained by the result that cyclonic circulation to the west of the TC is found in the steering flow in the warm run and it is not in the cold run. The beta effect is also activated under the warm SST environment. For the typical TC cases, a linear baroclinic model experiment is performed to examine how the cyclonic circulation is intensified in the warm run. The stationary linear response to diabatic heating obtained from the RAM experiment reveals that the intensified TC by the warm SST excites the cyclonic circulation in the lower troposphere to the west of the forcing position. The vorticity and thermodynamic equation analysis shows the detailed mechanism. The time scale of the linear response and the teleconnection are also discussed.

  18. Crustal structure of the western Yamato Basin, Japan Sea, revealed from seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    No, T.; Sato, T.; Kodaira, S.; Miura, S.; Ishiyama, T.; Sato, H.

    2015-12-01

    The Yamato Basin is the second largest basin of the Japan Sea. This basin is important to clarify its formation process. Some studies of crustal structure had been carried out in the Yamato Basin (e.g. Ludwig et al., 1975; Katao, 1988; Hirata et al., 1989; Sato et al., 2006). However, the relationship between formation process and crustal structure is not very clear, because the amount of seismic exploration data is very limited. In addition, since there is ODP Leg 127 site 797 (Tamaki et al., 1990) directly beneath our seismic survey line, we contributed to the study on the formation of the Yamato Basin by examining the relation between the ODP results and our results. During July-August 2014, we conducted a multi-channel seismic (MCS) survey and ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) survey to study the crustal structure of the western Yamato Basin. We present an outline of the data acquisition and results of the data processing and preliminary interpretations from this study. As a result of our study, the crust, which is about 12 km thick, is thicker than standard oceanic crust (e.g., Spudich and Orcutt, 1980; White et al., 1992) revealed from P-wave velocity structure by OBS survey. A clear reflector estimated to be the Moho can be identified by MCS profiles. The characteristics of the sedimentary layer are common within the survey area. For example, a strong coherent reflector that is estimated to be an opal-A/opal-CT BSR (bottom simulating reflector) (Kuramoto et al., 1992) was confirmed in the sediment of all survey lines. On the other hand, a coherent reflector in the crust was confirmed in some lines. It is identified as this reflector corresponding with the deformation structure in the sediment and basement.

  19. New insights on the petrology of submarine volcanics from the Western Pontine Archipelago (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conte, A. M.; Perinelli, C.; Bianchini, G.; Natali, C.; Martorelli, E.; Chiocci, F. L.

    2016-11-01

    The Pontine Islands form a volcanic archipelago in the Tyrrhenian Sea. It consists of two edifices, the islands of Ponza, Palmarola and Zannone and the islands of Ventotene and Santo Stefano, respectively. The Archipelago developed during two main volcanic cycles in the Plio-Pleistocene: 1) the Pliocene episode erupted subalkaline, silica-rich volcanic units, which constitute the dominant products in the western edifice (Ponza and Zannone Islands); 2) the Pleistocene episode erupted more alkaline products, represented by evolved rocks (trachytes to peralkaline rhyolites) in the islands of Ponza and Palmarola and by basic to intermediate rocks in the eastern edifice (Ventotene and Santo Stefano Islands). In this paper we present new geochemical and petrological data from submarine rock samples collected in two oceanographic cruises and a scuba diving survey. The main result is the recovery of relatively undifferentiated lithotypes that provide further insights on the magmatic spectrum existing in the Pontine Archipelago, allowing modelling of the whole suite of rocks by fractional crystallization processes. New major and trace element data and thermodynamic constrains (by the software PELE) indicate the existence of three distinct evolutionary trends corresponding to a HK calcalkaline series in the Pliocene, followed by a transitional and then by a shoshonite series in the Pleistocene. In particular, the transitional series, so far overlooked in the literature, is required in order to explain the genesis of several peralkaline felsic rocks recognized in the Archipelago. On the whole, the new geochemical data i) confirm the orogenic signature of the suites, ii) allow to rule out an anatectic origin for both subalkaline and peralkaline rhyolites and iii) indicate highly heterogeneous mantle sources, due to crustal components variously recycled in the mantle via subduction.

  20. The evaluation of Pat-Pat related injuries in the western black sea region of Turkey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Accidents caused by motorized vehicle in the agricultural sector are frequently observed. In Turkey; accidents arising from motorized vehicles, named Pat-Pat, which are used by farmers in the Western Black Sea region is not unusual. Methods One hundred five patients who were brought into the Emergency Department of Duzce University, Medical Faculty Hospital between September 2009 and August 2010 due to Pat-Pat related accidents were evaluated. Results The cases consisted of 73 (69.5%) males and 32 (30.5%) females, ranging from 2 to 73 years of age. In the 10-39 age group, a total of 63 (60.0%) cases were determined. The months when the greatest rate of cases applied to the hospital consisted of July, August, September and the season is summer. The cases were exposed to trauma in roads in 54 (51.4%), and 51 (48.6%) occurred in agricultural area without roads. Eighty seven (82.9%) cases were injured due to the overturning of vehicle. The patients were brought to the hospital using a private vehicle in 54 (51.4%) of the cases and in 51 (48.6%) cases, 112 ambulance system was used. The cases were determined to apply to the hospital most frequently between 6 pm-12 am. The injuries frequently consisted of head-neck and spine traumas, thorax traumas and upper extremity traumas. In 55 (52.4%) cases, open wound-laceration was determined. Seventy five (71.4%) cases were treated in the Emergency Department, and 28 (26.7%) were hospitalized. Three (2.9%) cases were deceased. Conclusions Serious injuries can occur in Pat-Pat related accidents, and careful systematic physical examination should be conducted. In order to prevent these accidents, education of farm operators and engineering studies on the mechanics and safety of these vehicles should be taken and legal regulations should be created. PMID:21699689

  1. Neogene Fault and Feeder Dike Patterns in the Western Ross Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, W. R.; Wilson, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    In Antarctica, where much of the continent is covered by water and ice, geophysical data from the Antarctic submarine continental shelf is a fundamental part of reconstructing geological history. Multibeam sonar from the western Ross Sea has revealed elongate volcanic edifices and fields of elongate submarine hills on the seafloor. Origin of the submarine hills as carbonate mounds and drumlins have been proposed. The hills are up to ~8000m long and ~3500m wide, and rise 50-100m above the seafloor. Morphometric analysis of the hills shows they are elongate, with axial ratios ranging from 1.2:1 to 2:1, and some hills are linked to form elongate ridges. Seismic profiles show significant pull-ups directly below the hills, consistent with narrow, higher-density magmatic bodies; thus we favor an origin as volcanic seamounts above subsurface feeder dikes. If this volcanic hypothesis is correct, feeder dikes below the hills and elongate volcanic ridges may document magmatically-forced extension within the Terror Rift. The seamount field forms part of a regional en echelon array of volcanic ridges extending NNW from Beaufort Island toward Drygalski Ice Tongue. The ridges and elongate seamount cluster trend NNE, subparallel to mapped fault trends in this sector of the Terror Rift. This geometry is compatible with right-lateral transtension along this zone, as previously proposed for the Terror Rift as a whole. Volcanic islands and dredged volcanic ridges within the en echelon array are dated at ~7-4 Ma, implying Neogene deformation. We are completing a detailed analysis of orientation patterns and cross-cutting relations between faults and volcanic hills and their feeder systems to test this model for Neogene rift kinematics.

  2. Changes in ventilation of the Mediterranean Sea during the past 25 year

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, A.; Tanhua, T.; Roether, W.; Steinfeldt, R.

    2014-01-01

    Significant changes in the overturning circulation of the Mediterranean Sea has been observed during the last few decades, the most prominent phenomena being the Eastern Mediterranean Transient (EMT) in the early 1990s and the Western Mediterranean Transition (WMT) during the mid-2000s. During both of these events unusually large amounts of deep water were formed, and in the case of the EMT, the deep water formation area shifted from the Adriatic to the Aegean Sea. Here we synthesize a unique collection of transient tracer (CFC-12, SF6 and tritium) data from nine cruises conducted between 1987 and 2011 and use these data to determine temporal variability of Mediterranean ventilation. We also discuss biases and technical problems with transient tracer-based ages arising from their different input histories over time; particularly in the case of time-dependent ventilation. We observe a period of low ventilation in the deep eastern (Levantine) basin after it was ventilated by the EMT so that the age of the deep water is increasing with time. In the Ionian Sea, on the other hand, we see evidence of increased ventilation after year 2001, indicating the restarted deep water formation in the Adriatic Sea. This is also reflected in the increasing age of the Cretan Sea deep water and decreasing age of Adriatic Sea deep water since the end of the 1980s. In the western Mediterranean deep basin we see the massive input of recently ventilated waters during the WMT. This signal is not yet apparent in the Tyrrhenian Sea, where the ventilation seems to be fairly constant since the EMT. Also the western Alboran Sea does not show any temporal trends in ventilation.

  3. Human impact on dynamics of western coast of Yamal, Kara sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Dmitry; Noskov, Alexey; Belova, Nataliya; Kamalov, Anatoly; Arkhipov, Vasily; Ogorodov, Stanislav

    2010-05-01

    The western coast of Yamal around the site of Bovanenkovo-Ukhta gas pipeline landfall (Baydarata bay, Kara sea) consists of two types of shore, with specific kind of human impact for each of them. These are low and gentle accumulative shores, which in this case are most influenced since the landfall site is situated within this type, and high bluffy abrasion shores. The heaviness of impact depends on degree of anthropogenic activity influencing the topography (this degree relates to proximity to main construction sites and intensity of human activity), and natural relief features, mainly its resistance to anthropogenic destruction and ability to restore itself. Accumulative shores are more resistant to destruction; main morphogenetic processes are marine accumulation (mainly within tideland) and aeolian transport, especially in areas without vegetation (tideland, beach and often the onshore sand bar). In the meantime, most part of construction (dams, roads, buildings, infrastructural sites) is located within accumulative coast, since it's generally more stable and good for construction. Abrasion coast is more prone to destruction because of human activity, but is much less subject to human impact since no direct construction activity is held here, and main types of this impact are usually traffic of heavy motor transport and allocation of construction waste (often brought by the sea). There are the following types of direct human impact on topography at pipeline landfall construction sites: 1) construction of large artificial accumulative bodies (dams, banks, sand deposits), which leads to additional sediment inflow at the site; 2) creation of negative forms like pits and trenches while taking sand material for construction (leads to erosion and decrease in tideland and beach width, rebuilding of submerged bar system); 3) change of surface properties during construction and traffic, destruction or suppression of vegetation (leads to activation of erosion). The

  4. Investigation of the shelf break and continental slope in the Western part of the Black Sea using acoustic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutu, F.; Ion, G.; Jugaru Tiron, L.

    2009-04-01

    The Black Sea is a large marginal sea surrounded by a system of Alpine orogenic chains, including the Balkanides-Pontides, Caucasus, Crimea and North Dobrogea located to the south, northeast, north and northwest, respectively (Dinu et al., 2005). The north-western part of the Black Sea is the main depocentre for sediment supply from Central Europe via the Danube River, but also from Eastern Europe through the Ukrainian rivers Dniepr, Dniestr and Southern Bug (Popescu et al., 2004). The shelfbreak is located at water depths of 120-140 m southward of the Danube Canyon, and up to 170 m northward of the canyon possibly due to recent faulting which is very common in this area. The continental slope is dissected by numerous canyons, each of which is fed by several tributaries. The Danube Canyon (also known as Viteaz Canyon) is a large shelf-indenting canyon located in the north-western Black Sea and connected to the youngest channel-levee system of the Danube Fan (Popescu et al., 2004). The acoustic methods are a useful way for investigate the shelf break and the continental slope giving us information about landslides on the continental slope, the topography of the investigated area, the sedimentary zones affected by instability and to quantify the geometry of the underwater landslides. The measurements made on the continental slope from north-western part of the Black Sea gave us the possibility to make a digital terrain model. After processing the data the model offer information about the main access ways of the sediments through gravitational slide on the submarines canyons, with forming of turbidity currents, debris flows and also other transport/transformation phenomena of the sediments on the continental slope like submarine landslides and submarine collapse. References Dinu, C., Wong, H.K., Tambrea, D., Matenco, L., 2005. Stratigraphic and structural characteristics of the Romanian Black Sea shelf. Tectonophysics 410, 417-435. Popescu, I., Lericolais, G., Panin

  5. Understanding how physical-biological coupling influences harmful algal blooms, low oxygen and fish kills in the Sea of Oman and the Western Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Paul J; Piontkovski, Sergey; Al-Hashmi, Khalid

    2017-01-15

    In the last decade, green Noctiluca scintillans with its symbiont and other dinoflagellates such as Cochlodinium polykrikoides, Prorocentrum micans and Scrippsiella trochoidea have become the dominant HABs, partially replacing the previously dominant diatoms and red Noctiluca scintillans, especially during the northeast monsoon. Fish kills in the Sea of Oman are linked to a slow seasonal decline in oxygen concentration from January to November, probably due to the decomposition of a series of algal blooms and the deep, low oxygen waters periodically impinging the Omani shelf. In the western Arabian Sea, cyclonic eddies upwell low oxygen, nutrient-rich water and the subsequent algal bloom decays and lowers the oxygen further and leads to fish kills. Warming of the surface waters by 1.2°C over the last 5 decades has increased stratification and resulted in a shoaling of the oxycline. This has increased the probability and frequency of upwelling low oxygen water and subsequent fish kills.

  6. Sea surface temperature variability in the central-western Mediterranean Sea during the last 2700 years: a multi-proxy and multi-record approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, Mercè; Cacho, Isabel; Frigola, Jaime; Canals, Miquel; Masqué, Pere; Martrat, Belen; Casado, Marta; Grimalt, Joan O.; Pena, Leopoldo D.; Margaritelli, Giulia; Lirer, Fabrizio

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the reconstructed evolution of sea surface conditions in the central-western Mediterranean Sea during the late Holocene (2700 years) from a set of multi-proxy records as measured on five short sediment cores from two sites north of Minorca (cores MINMC06 and HER-MC-MR3). Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) from alkenones and Globigerina bulloides Mg / Ca ratios are combined with δ18O measurements in order to reconstruct changes in the regional evaporation-precipitation (E-P) balance. We also revisit the G. bulloides Mg / Ca-SST calibration and re-adjusted it based on a set of core-top measurements from the western Mediterranean Sea. Modern regional oceanographic data indicate that Globigerina bulloides Mg / Ca is mainly controlled by seasonal spring SST conditions, related to the April-May primary productivity bloom in the region. In contrast, the alkenone-SST signal represents an integration of the annual signal. The construction of a robust chronological framework in the region allows for the synchronization of the different core sites and the construction of "stacked" proxy records in order to identify the most significant climatic variability patterns. The warmest sustained period occurred during the Roman Period (RP), which was immediately followed by a general cooling trend interrupted by several centennial-scale oscillations. We propose that this general cooling trend could be controlled by changes in the annual mean insolation. Even though some particularly warm SST intervals took place during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), the Little Ice Age (LIA) was markedly unstable, with some very cold SST events mostly during its second half. Finally, proxy records for the last centuries suggest that relatively low E-P ratios and cold SSTs dominated during negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phases, although SSTs seem to present a positive connection with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index.

  7. Sea surface temperature variability in the central-western Mediterranean Sea during the last 2700 years: a multi-proxy and multi-record approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cisneros, M.; Cacho, I.; Frigola, J.; Canals, M.; Masqué, P.; Martrat, B.; Lirer, F.; Margaritelli, G.

    2015-11-01

    This study analyses the evolution of sea surface conditions during the last 2700 years in the central-western Mediterranean Sea based on six records as measured on five short sediment cores from two sites north of Minorca (cores MINMC06 and HER-MC-MR3). Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) were obtained from alkenones and Globigerina bulloides-Mg/Ca ratios combined with δ18O measurements to reconstruct changes in the regional Evaporation-Precipitation (E-P) balance. We reviewed the G. bulloides Mg/Ca-SST calibration and re-adjusted it based on a set of core top measurements from the western Mediterranean Sea. According to the regional oceanographic data, the estimated Mg/Ca-SSTs are interpreted to reflect spring seasonal conditions mainly related to the April-May primary productivity bloom. In contrast, the Alkenone-SSTs signal likely integrates the averaged annual signal. A combination of chronological tools allowed synchronizing the records in a common age model. Subsequently a single anomaly stack record was constructed for each proxy, thus easing to identify the most significant and robust patterns. The warmest SSTs occurred during the Roman Period (RP), which was followed by a general cooling trend interrupted by several centennial-scale oscillations. This general cooling trend could be controlled by changes in the annual mean insolation. Whereas some particularly warm SST intervals took place during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) the Little Ice Age (LIA) was markedly unstable with some very cold SST events mostly during its second half. The records of the last centuries suggest that relatively low E-P ratios and cold SSTs dominated during negative North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) phases, although SST records seem to present a close positive connection with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation index (AMO).

  8. Alongshore and cross-shore circulations and their response to winter monsoon in the western East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Daji; Zeng, Dingyong; Ni, Xiaobo; Zhang, Tao; Xuan, Jiliang; Zhou, Feng; Li, Jia; He, Shuangyan

    2016-02-01

    An array of four bottom-mounted acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) were deployed during the winter of 2008 (28 December 2008 to 12 March 2009) along a cross-shelf section in the western East China Sea to investigate the winter circulation and its response to wind. During the observation period, the observed subtidal currents exhibit coherent spatial structure and temporal variation in terms of their mean (seasonal), trend (intra-seasonal), and synoptic variability. The subtidal currents are polarized roughly in the alongshore direction parallel to local isobaths, and the weak cross-shore current is closely linked to the alongshore component. The temporal variation of the currents follows the rhythm of wind stress, sea level, and sea level difference at the synoptic scale. The mean currents are basically composed of two anti-parallel currents in the alongshore direction: the East China Sea coastal current (ECSCC) flows southwestward along the inner shelf and the Taiwan warm current (TWC) flows in the opposite direction along the outer-shelf. The strongest current occurs over the mid-shelf as a coastal jet. The intra-seasonal currents exhibit an expansion and intensification of the ECSCC along with shrinking and weakening the alongshore component of the TWC. There is a significant increase in onshore current particularly over the mid-shelf. The fluctuations of synoptic currents show a significant positive correlation with wind stress, and the fluctuations are negatively correlated with sea level and sea level difference. The coherent spatial structure of the currents indicates that the depth-independent column motion is related to the sea level difference through a barotropic pressure gradient. The vertical shear of currents is related to the density-related baroclinic pressure gradient in the whole water column and to the friction within the surface and bottom boundary layers.

  9. Broad-scale climate influences on spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus, L.) recruitment in the Western Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Gröger, Joachim P; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Polte, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Climate forcing in complex ecosystems can have profound implications for ecosystem sustainability and may thus challenge a precautionary ecosystem management. Climatic influences documented to affect various ecological functions on a global scale, may themselves be observed on quantitative or qualitative scales including regime shifts in complex marine ecosystems. This study investigates the potential climatic impact on the reproduction success of spring-spawning herring (Clupea harengus) in the Western Baltic Sea (WBSS herring). To test for climate effects on reproduction success, the regionally determined and scientifically well-documented spawning grounds of WBSS herring represent an ideal model system. Climate effects on herring reproduction were investigated using two global indices of atmospheric variability and sea surface temperature, represented by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO), respectively, and the Baltic Sea Index (BSI) which is a regional-scale atmospheric index for the Baltic Sea. Moreover, we combined a traditional approach with modern time series analysis based on a recruitment model connecting parental population components with reproduction success. Generalized transfer functions (ARIMAX models) allowed evaluating the dynamic nature of exogenous climate processes interacting with the endogenous recruitment process. Using different model selection criteria our results reveal that in contrast to NAO and AMO, the BSI shows a significant positive but delayed signal on the annual dynamics of herring recruitment. The westward influence of the Siberian high is considered strongly suppressing the influence of the NAO in this area leading to a higher explanatory power of the BSI reflecting the atmospheric pressure regime on a North-South transect between Oslo, Norway and Szczecin, Poland. We suggest incorporating climate-induced effects into stock and risk assessments and management strategies as part

  10. Autumn orientation behaviour of paddyfield warblers, Acrocephalus agricola, from a recently expanded breeding range on the western Black Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Zehtindjiev, Pavel; Ilieva, Mihaela; Akesson, Susanne

    2010-10-01

    The paddyfield warbler, Acrocephalus agricola, has extended its breeding range from Central Asia to the western Black Sea coast. The Balkan population offers a unique chance to test the effect of breeding range expansion on the genetically programmed migratory direction. We studied 21 paddyfield warblers at Durankulak Lake, NE Bulgaria, by recording their autumn migratory orientation in circular orientation cages. Our data show that the preferred migratory orientation is directed along a NE-SW axis. Paddyfield warblers seem to avoid direct crossing of the Black Sea by following the western coast. The mean bearing was parallel to the nearest coastline and corresponds to the direction of the historical breeding range expansion of the species. In our experiment many individuals showed south-western orientation in autumn, a course which would potentially lead the birds to exploratory movements outside the current breeding range. An axial orientation response has been often shown in circular cage tests, and can be due to factors such as coastal orientation or reverse orientation triggered by the physiological condition of some individuals. However, it might also be one of the driving mechanisms for range expansion. Hence, we can expect the future expansion of Balkan paddyfield warblers to continue towards south-west.

  11. Hydrographic controls on marine organic matter fate and microbial diversity in the western Irish Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, Shane; Szpak, Michal; Monteys, Xavier; Flanagan, Paul; Allen, Christopher; Kelleher, Brian

    2014-05-01

    Cycling of organic matter (OM) is the key biological process in the marine environment1 and knowledge of the sources and the reactivity of OM, in addition to factors controlling its distribution in estuarine, coastal and shelf sediments are of key importance for understanding global biogeochemical cycles2. With recent advances in cultivation-independent molecular approaches to microbial ecology, the key role of prokaryotes in global biogeochemical cycling in marine ecosystems has been emphasised3,4. However, spatial studies combining the distribution and fate of OM with microbial community abundance and diversity remain rare. Here, a combined spatial lipid biomarker and 16S rRNA tagged pyrosequencing study was conducted in surface sediments and particulate matter across hydrographically distinct zones associated with the seasonal western Irish Sea gyre. The aim was to assess the spatial variation of, and factors controlling, marine organic cycling and sedimentary microbial communities across these distinct zones. The distribution of phospholipid fatty acids, source-specific sterols, wax esters and C25 highly branched isoprenoids indicate that diatoms, dinoflagellates and green algae were the major contributors of marine organic matter, while the distribution of cholesterol, wax esters and C20 and C22 polyunsaturated fatty acids have highlighted the importance of copepod grazing for mineralizing organic matter in the water column5. This marine OM production and mineralisation was greatest in well-mixed waters compared to offshore stratified waters. Lipid analysis and 16S rRNA PCR-DGGE profiling also suggests that sedimentary bacterial abundance increases while community diversity decreases in offshore stratified waters. The major bacterial classes are the Deltaproteobacteria, Clostridia, Flavobacteriia, Gammaproteobactera and Bacteroiidia. At the family/genus level most groups appear to be associated with organoheterotrophic processing of sedimentary OM, ranging

  12. A new Holocene relative sea-level curve for western Brittany (France): Insights on isostatic dynamics along the Atlantic coasts of north-western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goslin, Jérôme; Van Vliet Lanoë, Brigitte; Spada, Giorgio; Bradley, Sarah; Tarasov, Lev; Neill, Simon; Suanez, Serge

    2015-12-01

    This study presents new Relative Sea Level (RSL) data that were obtained in the Finistère region (Western tip of Brittany, France) and the implications those data have for the understanding of the isostatic dynamics across north-western Europe, and more specifically along the Atlantic and Channel coasts. New stratigraphic sequences were obtained and analyzed to derive 24 new Sea-level Index Points, in which 6 are basal. These new data considerably increase the knowledge we have of the RSL evolution along the coasts of Western Brittany since the last 8 kyr B.P. From this new dataset, RSL was estimated to rise continuously over the last 8 kyr with a major inflection at ca. 6 kyr cal. BP. Our results show large vertical discrepancies between the RSL records of Brittany and South-Western UK, with the latter plotting several meters below the new data. From this comparison we suggest that the two regions underwent a very different pattern and/or amplitude of subsidence during the last 8 kyr which has implications for the spatial and temporal pattern of the peripheral bulge of the European ice sheets. We compared our data against predictions from Glacio-Isostatic Adjustment models (GIA models). There are large misfits between RSL observations and the predictions of the global (ICE-5G (VM2a) - Peltier, 2004, GLAC1-b - Tarasov and Peltier, 2002; Tarasov et al., 2012, Briggs et al., 2014) and regional UK models ("BIIS" - Bradley et al., 2009; Bradley et al., 2011; "Kuchar"- Kuchar et al., 2012), which can't be resolved through significant changes to the deglaciation history and size of the British-Irish Ice sheet. Paleo-tidal modelling corrections indicate regional changes in the tidal ranges played a negligible role in the data-model misfits. Hence, we propose that the misfits are due to some combination of: (i) unaccounted mass-loss of far-field ice-sheets (Antarctic ice-Sheet or Laurentide Ice-Sheet), (ii) unresolved differences in the deglaciation history and size of

  13. Affects of Changes in Sea Ice Cover on Bowhead Whales and Subsistence Whaling in the Western Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, S.; Suydam, R.; Overland, J.; Laidre, K.; George, J.; Demaster, D.

    2004-12-01

    Global warming may disproportionately affect Arctic marine mammals and disrupt traditional subsistence hunting activities. Based upon analyses of a 24-year time series (1979-2002) of satellite-derived sea ice cover, we identified significant positive trends in the amount of open-water in three large and five small-scale regions in the western Arctic, including habitats where bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) feed or are suspected to feed. Bowheads are the only mysticete whale endemic to the Arctic and a cultural keystone species for Native peoples from northwestern Alaska and Chukotka, Russia. While copepods (Calanus spp.) are a mainstay of the bowhead diet, prey sampling conducted in the offshore region of northern Chukotka and stomach contents from whales harvested offshore of the northern Alaskan coast indicate that euphausiids (Thysanoessa spp.) advected from the Bering Sea are also common prey in autumn. Early departure of sea ice has been posited to control availability of zooplankton in the southeastern Bering Sea and in the Cape Bathurst polynya in the southeastern Canadian Beaufort Sea, with maximum secondary production associated with a late phytoplankton bloom in insolatoin-stratified open water. While it is unclear if declining sea-ice has directly affected production or advection of bowhead prey, an extension of the open-water season increases opportunities for Native subsistence whaling in autumn. Therefore, bowhead whales may provide a nexus for simultaneous exploration of the effects sea ice reduction on pagophillic marine mammals and on the social systems of the subsistence hunting community in the western Arctic. The NOAA/Alaska Fisheries Science Center and NSB/Department of Wildlife Management will investigate bowhead whale stock identity, seasonal distribution and subsistence use patterns during the International Polar Year, as an extension of research planned for 2005-06. This research is in response to recommendations from the Scientific

  14. 77 FR 60637 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Revised Limits on Sea Turtle Interactions in the Hawaii...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... Fisheries; Revised Limits on Sea Turtle Interactions in the Hawaii Shallow-Set Longline Fishery AGENCY... Pacific loggerhead sea turtles. NMFS also makes administrative housekeeping changes to the regulations... turtles, seabirds, and marine mammals. NMFS may issue a maximum of 164 longline permits for the deep-...

  15. 77 FR 34334 - Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries; Revised Limits on Sea Turtle Interactions in the Hawaii...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... Fisheries; Revised Limits on Sea Turtle Interactions in the Hawaii Shallow-Set Longline Fishery AGENCY... fishery and leatherback and loggerhead sea turtles. NMFS also proposes administrative housekeeping changes... turtle, seabird, and marine mammal handling and mitigation gear and techniques. NMFS may issue a...

  16. Crustal structure and evolution of the Mawson Sea, western Wilkes Land margin, East Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leitchenkov, G.L.; Gandyukhin, V.V.; Guseva, Yu. B.; Kazankov, A. Yu

    2007-01-01

    3 to 11 mm/yr. Three major unconformities are identified in the sedimentary cover of the Mawson Sea and are interpreted to be caused by break-up between Australia and Antarctica at about 81 Ma ago (WL1), the first arrival of the ice sheet to the Mawson Sea (WL3) and continental scale glaciation at about 34 Ma ago (WL4).

  17. Extreme sea events during the last millennium in the northeast of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raji, O.; Dezileau, L.; Von Grafenstein, U.; Niazi, S.; Snoussi, M.; Martinez, P.

    2015-02-01

    The Moroccan Mediterranean coast is located in one of the area's most vulnerable to extreme weather events or tsunami hazards. The objective of this research is to reconstruct the historical extreme submersion-event record using sea-induced deposits preserved in coastal lagoon. The Nador lagoon is the largest Moroccan lagoon (115 km2). It is located along the western Mediterranean, which has a high cyclogenetic character and is exposed to tsunamis from the Alboran Sea. The sandy barrier which separates the lagoon from the Mediterranean Sea is marked by much overwash, which indicate how intensely it has been exposed to the adverse sea events through history. Using the UWITEC© gravity coring platform, an undisturbed MC4.5 core (1.15 m long) was successfully sampled in the studied lagoon. To identify extreme sea events, a multi-proxy approach was applied combining sedimentological and geochemical data. Three paleoevents were identified; all of them are concentrated over the last 500 years, and the most recent event corresponds to the 1889 storm. For the others deposits, it is difficult to determine exactly their origin; however, the high frequency of storm events over the relevant period and the absence of historical tsunamis evidence is more in favor of the meteorological origin.

  18. Sea extreme events during the last millennium in north-east of Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raji, O.; Dezileau, L.; Von Grafenstein, U.; Niazi, S.; Snoussi, M.; Martinez, P.

    2014-03-01

    The Moroccan Mediterranean coast is located in one of the most vulnerable area to extreme weather events or tsunami hazards. The objective of this research is to reconstruct the historical extreme submersion-events record using sea-induced deposits preserved in coastal lagoon. The Nador lagoon is the largest Moroccan lagoon (115 km2) located along the Western Mediterranean which presents a high cyclogenetic character and is exposed to tsunamis from Alboran Sea. The sandy barrier which separates the lagoon from the Mediterranean Sea is marked by many overwashes, which indicate how intensely has been exposed to the adverse sea events through history. Using the UWITEC coring platform, an undisturbed MC4.5 core (1.15 m long) was successfully sampled in the studied lagoon. To identify sea extreme events, a multi-proxy approach was applied combining sedimentogical and geochemical data. The preliminary results show that the identified paleo-events are concentrated over the last 500 years. The challenge that remains now is to distinguish between the tsunami and the storm deposits.

  19. Structural differences between the western and eastern Qiongdongnan Basin: evidence of Indochina block extrusion and South China Sea seafloor spreading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Cuimei; Wang, Zhenfeng; Sun, Zhipeng; Sun, Zhen; Liu, Jianbao; Wang, Zhangwen

    2013-12-01

    Located at the intersection between a NW-trending slip system and NE-trending rift system in the northern South China Sea, the Qiongdongnan Basin provides key clues for us to understand the proposed extrusion of the Indochina Block along with Red River Fault Zone and extensional margins. In this paper we for the first time systematically reveal the striking structural differences between the western and eastern sector of the Qiongdongnan Basin. Influenced by the NW-trending slip faults, the western Qiongdongnan Basin developed E-W-trending faults, and was subsequently inverted at 30-21 Ma. The eastern sector was dominated by faults with NE orientation before 30 Ma, and thereafter with various orientations from NE, to EW and NW during the period 30-21 Ma; rifting display composite symmetric graben instead of the composite half graben or asymmetric graben in the west. The deep and thermal structures in turn are invoked to account for such deformation differences. The lithosphere of the eastern Qiongdongnan Basin is very hot and thinned because of mantle upwelling and heating, composite symmetric grabens formed and the faults varied with the basal plate boundary. However, the Southern and Northern Uplift area and middle of the central depression is located on normal lithosphere and formed half grabens or simple grabens. The lithosphere in the western sector is transitional from very hot to normal. Eventually, the Paleogene tectonic development of the Qiongdongnan Basin may be summarized into three stages with dominating influences, the retreat of the West Pacific subduction zone (44-36 Ma), slow Indochina block extrusion together with slab-pull of the Proto-South China Sea (36-30 Ma), rapid Indochina block extrusion together with the South China Sea seafloor spreading (30-21 Ma).

  20. Free and Forced Rossby Waves in the Western South China Sea Inferred from Jason-1 Satellite Altimetry Data.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangyu; Xie, Qiang; He, Zhigang; Wang, Dongxiao

    2008-06-01

    Data from a subsurface mooring deployed in the western South China Sea shows clear intra-seasonal oscillations (ISO) at the period of 40~70 days. Analysis of remotelysensed sea surface height (SSH) anomalies in the same area indicates that these ISO signals propagate both eastward and westward. Time-longitude diagrams of ISO signals in SSH anomalies and wind-stress curl indicate that the eastward propagating SSH anomalies is forced by wind-stress curl. This is also confirmed by lag correlation between SSH anomalies and the wind-stress-curl index (wind stress curl averaged over 109.5ºE -115ºE and 12ºN -13.5ºN). Lag correlation of SSH anomaly suggests that the westward propagating signals are free Rossby waves.

  1. Marine pollution as indicated by oil accumulated on clams collected from the western coasts of the Red Sea, Egypt

    SciTech Connect

    Shimy, T.M.

    1997-02-01

    In order to save the environment from pollution, many techniques are used for identifying oil accumulated on clams along the western coast of the Red Sea. Gas chromatography (GC), infrared (IR), and ultraviolet (UV) absorption spectrophotometry are three different techniques used to analyze the collected samples, GC chromatograms for oil extracted from these animals indicate that the source of pollution is petroleum, and a few peaks reveal a mixture of biogenic and petrogenic hydrocarbons. These results are confirmed by the characteristic IR spectra profiles, high concentrations of the aromatic compounds, and the UV absorption spectra of these samples.

  2. Land-sea correlations in the Australian region: post-glacial onset of the monsoon in northwestern Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Deckker, Patrick; Barrows, Timothy T.; Rogers, John

    2014-12-01

    Deep-sea core Fr10/95-GC17, collected offshore North West Cape at the western tip of Western Australia, is located beneath the path of the Leeuwin Current. This shallow, warm and low salinity current is an offshoot of the Indonesian Throughflow that transfers water and heat from the West Pacific Ocean into the Indian Ocean. The location is at the edge of the Indo Pacific Warm Pool, the source of large-scale transfer of moisture and heat from the ocean to the atmosphere. For this core, we combine previously published data with new research and use a revised chronology to re-examine the timing of climate change during the last 34,000 years in the tropics of northern Australia. The age model for the core is based on 15 radiocarbon dates complemented by luminescence ages and an oxygen isotope record. This study draws on an extensive range of analyses that have been performed on the core, including micropalaeontology of planktic and benthic foraminifera and coccoliths, stable isotopes analysis of foraminifera and their faunal composition, clay content, sediment composition and pollen analyses. Sea-surface and land temperatures are estimated from the foraminifer faunal analyses and from pollen spectra, respectively. The clay fraction and sediment composition and radiogenic isotopes of that fraction helped identify changes both on land and at sea: changes such as rainfall as shown by river discharge, and oceanic current tracing by neodymium, strontium and lead isotopes obtained from sediments. The most significant finding is that a major threshold was crossed at 13 ka BP. Prior to that time, rainfall over NW Western Australia was low as was sea-surface temperature (SST); river discharge to the ocean was also low as a result of the lack of monsoonal activity and finally, ocean alkalinity would have been lower than at present due to the uptake of atmospheric CO2. By 13 ka BP, the entire system moved away from glacial period conditions. The Indo-Australian monsoon commenced

  3. Effects of earlier sea ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Regehr, E.V.; Lunn, N.J.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, I.

    2007-01-01

    Some of the most pronounced ecological responses to climatic warming are expected to occur in polar marine regions, where temperature increases have been the greatest and sea ice provides a sensitive mechanism by which climatic conditions affect sympagic (i.e., with ice) species. Population-level effects of climatic change, however, remain difficult to quantify. We used a flexible extension of Cormack-Jolly-Seber capture-recapture models to estimate population size and survival for polar bears (Ursus maritimus), one of the most ice-dependent of Arctic marine mammals. We analyzed data for polar bears captured from 1984 to 2004 along the western coast of Hudson Bay and in the community of Churchill, Manitoba, Canada. The Western Hudson Bay polar bear population declined from 1,194 (95% CI = 1,020-1,368) in 1987 to 935 (95% CI = 794-1,076) in 2004. Total apparent survival of prime-adult polar bears (5-19 yr) was stable for females (0.93; 95% CI = 0.91-0.94) and males (0.90; 95% CI = 0.88-0.91). Survival of juvenile, subadult, and senescent-adult polar bears was correlated with spring sea ice breakup date, which was variable among years and occurred approximately 3 weeks earlier in 2004 than in 1984. We propose that this correlation provides evidence for a causal association between earlier sea ice breakup (due to climatic warming) and decreased polar bear survival. It may also explain why Churchill, like other communities along the western coast of Hudson Bay, has experienced an increase in human-polar bear interactions in recent years. Earlier sea ice breakup may have resulted in a larger number of nutritionally stressed polar bears, which are encroaching on human habitations in search of supplemental food. Because western Hudson Bay is near the southern limit of the species' range, our findings may foreshadow the demographic responses and management challenges that more northerly polar bear populations will experience if climatic warming in the Arctic continues as

  4. A large channel system in the western the Riiser Larsen Sea, East Antarctica: Paleoceanographic and sedimentary aspects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. Christian; Klages, Johann P.; Kuhn, Gerhard; Forwick, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    We investigated seafloor morphology and sedimentary processes at the continental margin in the western Riiser Larsen Sea, Antarctica, to reconstruct processes of channel/levee development, and to evaluate the influence of climate through the past 5 marine isotope stages on these processes. Shallow seismic (parametric subbottom profiler) investigations reveal that channels and associated levees form the principal morphological structures in the western Riiser Larsen Sea. The channels are up to several kilometers wide and hundreds of meters deep. They stretch from the upper continental slope towards the Enderby Abyssal Plain. Sediment cores (taken from levee tops) reveal increased amounts of sand and coarser silt during warmer climate phases (MIS 1, 3, 5). The sand is mainly composed of planktic foraminifers and IRD, both suggesting seasonally open waters (interglacials). The carbonate-free sortable silt mean grain size suggests increased bottom current speed during the warmer climate phases. We postulate, that the occurrence of coastal polynyas and strong sea-ice formation through katabatic winds promote the formation of cold waters and brines. These are channeled on the continental slope and intensify turbidity currents that occur on the steep slopes. Alternatively, the newly formed dense waters can be taken up by westward flowing contour currents and thus support the formation of turbidity currents. It is suggested that either process supports downslope sediment transport and levee growth during warm climate phases. Under cold climates a permanent ice cover is suggested at least for the positions of the sediment cores (seasonally open waters today). These reveal significantly IRD and carbonate-depleted sediments during the cold climate phases. Hence, polynyas may have formed further to the north over deeper waters. The volume of the cooled-down waters and brines was likely smaller and probably not able to reach the sea floor due to mixing with upwelling warmer

  5. Temporal variation of genetic composition in Atlantic salmon populations from the Western White Sea Basin: influence of anthropogenic factors?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of the temporal patterns of population genetic structure assist in evaluating the consequences of demographic and environmental changes on population stability and persistence. In this study, we evaluated the level of temporal genetic variation in 16 anadromous and 2 freshwater salmon populations from the Western White Sea Basin (Russia) using samples collected between 1995 and 2008. To assess whether the genetic stability was affected by human activity, we also evaluated the effect of fishing pressure on the temporal genetic variation in this region. Results We found that the genetic structure of salmon populations in this region was relatively stable over a period of 1.5 to 2.5 generations. However, the level of temporal variation varied among geographical regions: anadromous salmon of the Kola Peninsula exhibited a higher stability compared to that of the anadromous and freshwater salmon from the Karelian White Sea coast. This discrepancy was most likely attributed to the higher census, and therefore effective, population sizes of the populations inhabiting the rivers of the Kola Peninsula compared to salmon of the Karelian White Sea coast. Importantly, changes in the genetic diversity observed in a few anadromous populations were best explained by the increased level of fishing pressure in these populations rather than environmental variation or the negative effects of hatchery escapees. The observed population genetic patterns of isolation by distance remained consistent among earlier and more recent samples, which support the stability of the genetic structure over the period studied. Conclusions Given the increasing level of fishing pressure in the Western White Sea Basin and the higher level of temporal variation in populations exhibiting small census and effective population sizes, further genetic monitoring in this region is recommended, particularly on populations from the Karelian rivers. PMID:24053319

  6. Acidification of the Mediterranean Sea from anthropogenic carbon penetration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassoun, Abed El Rahman; Gemayel, Elissar; Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Goyet, Catherine; Abboud-Abi Saab, Marie; Guglielmi, Véronique; Touratier, Franck; Falco, Cédric

    2015-08-01

    This study presents an estimation of the anthropogenic CO2 (CANT) concentrations and acidification (ΔpH=pH2013-pHpre-industrial) in the Mediterranean Sea, based upon hydrographic and carbonate chemistry data collected during the May 2013 MedSeA cruise. The concentrations of CANT were calculated using the composite tracer TrOCA. The CANT distribution shows that the most invaded waters (>60 μmol kg-1) are those of the intermediate and deep layers in the Alboran, Liguro- and Algero-Provencal Sub-basins in the Western basin, and in the Adriatic Sub-basin in the Eastern basin. Whereas the areas containing the lowest CANT concentrations are the deep layers of the Eastern basin, especially those of the Ionian Sub-basin, and those of the northern Tyrrhenian Sub-basin in the Western basin. The acidification level in the Mediterranean Sea reflects the excessive increase of atmospheric CO2 and therefore the invasion of the sea by CANT. This acidification varies between -0.055 and -0.156 pH unit and it indicates that all Mediterranean Sea waters are already acidified, especially those of the Western basin where ΔpH is rarely less than -0.1 pH unit. Both CANT concentrations and acidification levels are closely linked to the presence and history of the different water masses in the intermediate and deep layers of the Mediterranean basins. Despite the high acidification levels, both Mediterranean basins are still highly supersaturated in calcium carbonate minerals.

  7. Active rollback in the Gibraltar Arc: Evidences from CGPS data in the western Betic Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Castillo, L.; Galindo-Zaldivar, J.; de Lacy, M. C.; Borque, M. J.; Martinez-Moreno, F. J.; García-Armenteros, J. A.; Gil, A. J.

    2015-11-01

    The Gibraltar Arc, located in the western Mediterranean Sea, is an arcuate Alpine orogen formed by the Betic and Rif Cordilleras, separated by the Alboran Sea. New continuous GPS data (2008-2013) obtained in the Topo-Iberia stations of the western Betic Cordillera allow us to improve the present-day deformation pattern related to active tectonics in this collision area between the Eurasian and African plates. These data indicate a very consistent westward motion of the Betic Cordillera with respect to the relatively stable Iberian Massif foreland. The displacement in the Betics increases toward the south and west, reaching maximum values in the Gibraltar Strait area (4.27 mm/yr in Ceuta, CEU1, and 4.06 mm/yr in San Fernando, SFER), then progressively decreasing toward the northwestern mountain front. The recent geological structures and seismicity evidence moderate deformation in a roughly NW-SE to WNW-ESE compressional stress setting in the mountain frontal areas, and moderate extension toward the internal part of the cordillera. The mountain front undergoes progressive development of folds affecting at least up to Pliocene deposits, with similar recent geological and geodetical rates. This folded strip helps to accommodate the active deformation with scarce associated seismicity. The displacement pattern is in agreement with the present-day clockwise rotation of the tectonic units in the northern branch of the Gibraltar Arc. Our data support that the westward emplacement of the Betic Cordillera continues to be active in a rollback tectonic scenario.

  8. Input of Terrestrial Palynomorphs since the Last Deglaciation from Sediments of the Chukchi Sea Shelf, Western Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delusina, I.; Kim, S. Y.; Nam, S. I.; Woo, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    We report the palynology of marine sediment core ARA02B/01A-GC from the Western margin of the shallow shelf of the Chukchi Sea in the Arctic, a site which was synchronously influenced by climatic changes during the last deglaciation with those in the Bering Strait. The core contains a rich concentration of continental palynomorphs, even though the coring location is quite a distance from land. The catchment area for the observed palynomorphs includes the territories of both North America (Alaska and North Canada) and Northern Siberia (Chukotka peninsula and Northern East-Siberian coast). Based on this fact, we can reconstruct a common paleoenvironmental history for this location and the Bering Strait during the postglacial interval. We hypothesize that palynomorphs were carried to the sea during low sea-ice coverage intervals by large rivers (Yukon, Mackenzie and Siberian rivers) and were then transferred by oceanic currents. During intervals of extensive sea-ice coverage the source of the palynomorphs was predominantly eroded shelf sediments. The percentage ratio of tree-herb pollen and spores in the palynomorph assemblages shows that favorable conditions for an increase in forest vegetation took place between ~8 and 4 kyr BP, which coincides with maximum freshwater input to the sea. During a climatic optimum at ~5 kyr BP, as inferred from the total dominance of tree and herb pollen, the Chukchi Sea was apparently warmer than today. This represents the maximum ice-free period for the sea. The low sea-ice interval ended ~3 kyr BP, as suggested by a sharp drop in tree pollen, a reduction in fresh water input, and a drop in the concentration of the algae Pediastrum. Our data correlate well with data from marine core HLY0501-5 from the Bering Strait (Polyak et al., 2009) for the interval of 10-8 kyr BP, but shows a divergence since ~4 kyr BP, which may correspond to the beginning of the differentiation of North American and East-Siberian ecosystem zones.

  9. Low densities of sea urchins influence the structure of algal assemblages in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacín, Cruz; Giribet, Gonzalo; Carner, Susanna; Dantart, Luis; Turon, Xavier

    1998-06-01

    Numerous studies of interactions between urchins and algae in temperate areas have shown an important structuring effect of sea urchin populations. These studies focused almost wholly on the effect of high urchin densities on laminarian forests. In contrast, algal communities below 5-6 m depth in the northwestern Mediterranean are characterised by low sea urchin densities (<5 ind m -2) and the absence of laminarian forests. No previous research has addressed sea urchin/algal interactions in this type of community. To determine the effect of the most abundant echinoid species, Paracentrotus lividus, on well-established algal communities in this area, we performed a removal-reintroduction experiment in rocky patches located between 13 and 16 m depth in the northwestern Mediterranean, where sea urchin densities ranged between 0.9 and 3.4 ind m -2. After 6 months, the cover of non-crustose algae was significantly higher in the plots from which sea urchins had been removed than in control plots (84 vs 67% cover). These removal plots reverted to their original state upon reintroduction of sea urchins. The non-crustose algae consisted of turfing and frondose forms, with the former representing some 70% of the non-crustose algal cover. Change in the cover of turfing algae was responsible for the significant increase in algal development in the sea urchin removal plots. The response of frondose algae to the treatment varied between algal species. It is concluded that grazing by P. lividus exerts a significant effect on habitat structure, even in communities with low sea urchin densities, such as those found in vast areas of the Mediterranean sublittoral.

  10. Drifter Studies of the Western Pacific, Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-30

    Arabian Sea Principal Investigator: Dr. Luca Centurioni The Scripps Institution of Oceanography, 0213 La Jolla, CA 92093-0213 Email...in the Indian Ocean and in the Arabian Sea to improve the dynamical knowledge and predictability of the near-surface circulation in these regions and...have an impact on the boundary current observed on the east side of Palau? 3) Can the island rule provide a plausible explanation for observations of

  11. The 100-ka and rapid sea level changes recorded by prograding shelf sand bodies in the Gulf of Lions (western Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassetti, M. A.; Berné, S.; Jouet, G.; Taviani, M.; Dennielou, B.; Flores, J.-A.; Gaillot, A.; Gelfort, R.; Lafuerza, S.; Sultan, N.

    2008-11-01

    Thick forced regressive units on the wide continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions (western Mediterranean) recorded the composite effect of sea level changes during the Quaternary. They are mostly composed of coastal siliciclastic and bioclastic wedges showing clinoform geometry. These deposits have been intensively explored through high-resolution seismic investigations, but only recently it was possible to ground truth seismic interpretations, based on a long (100 m) borehole that crossed the succession and recovered a large part of the mainly sandy deposits (˜84% recovery). A multiproxy analysis of the sedimentary succession shows that (1) the stratal architecture of the shelf margin is defined by major bounding surfaces that are polygenic erosion surfaces associated with coarse-grained material incorporating abundant and diverse shells, including cold-water fauna (presently absent from the Mediterranean Sea). Between each surface, coarsening upward units with steep (up to 5°) foresets are made of massive (more than 20 m thick) sands with possible swaley and hummocky cross-stratification, passing seaward to sands with muddy intervals and, further offshore, alternating highly boiturbated sands and silts. Each prograding wedge corresponds to a forced-regressive shoreface (or delta front/prodelta), deposited during the overall sea level falls occurring at (relatively slow) interglacial/glacial transition and therefore represents the record of 100 ka cyclicity. Higher-frequency Milankovitch cyclicities are also probably represented by distinct shoreface/delta front wedges; (2) detailed examination of the architecture and chronostratigraphy of the most recent sequence shows that minor bounding surfaces, corresponding to abrupt shallowing of sedimentary facies, separate downward stepping parasequences within the last 100 ka sequence. These events are in phase with millennial-scale glacial climatic and sea level variability, the downward shift surfaces corresponding to

  12. Weakest winter South China Sea western boundary current caused by the 2015-2016 El Niño event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ruixiang; Zhu, Xiao-Hua

    2016-10-01

    During the winter of 2015-2016, the strongest El Niño event of the twenty-first century occurred. At the same time, volume transport (VT) time series of the South China Sea western boundary current (SCSWBC) exhibited a minimum value of 3.7 Sv (1 Sv = 1 × 106 m3 s-1) toward the southwest, indicating the weakest strength ever recorded in boreal winter (from November to February). The South China Sea (SCS) cyclonic gyre, inferred from the satellite-derived surface absolute geostrophic current, was significantly reduced. It was considered that the weakened wind stress curl (negative anomaly) over the SCS resulting from an anticyclone over the Philippine Sea played an essential role. The anticyclone arose from a Rossby-wave response to a negative sea surface temperature anomaly in the northwest Pacific. This idea is further supported by composite analysis, which shows that during El Niño (La Niña) winter, negative (positive) wind stress curl anomalies prevail in the Philippine Sea and the SCS; thus, the wind stress curl over the SCS is reduced (strengthened), leading to a weaker (stronger) SCS cyclonic gyre and SCSWBC. The mean VT of SCSWBC is 4.7 Sv (5.6 Sv), which is smaller (larger) than 5.2 Sv in normal years. This study provides robust observational evidence from long-term in situ volume transport monitoring that El Niño can have a significant impact on the SCSWBC through an atmosphere-bridged teleconnection.

  13. ENSURF: multi-model sea level forecast - implementation and validation results for the IBIROOS and Western Mediterranean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, B.; Brower, R.; Beckers, J.; Paradis, D.; Balseiro, C.; Lyons, K.; Cure, M.; Sotillo, M. G.; Hacket, B.; Verlaan, M.; Alvarez Fanjul, E.

    2011-04-01

    ENSURF (Ensemble SURge Forecast) is a multi-model application for sea level forecast that makes use of existing storm surge or circulation models today operational in Europe, as well as near-real time tide gauge data in the region, with the following main goals: - providing an easy access to existing forecasts, as well as to its performance and model validation, by means of an adequate visualization tool - generation of better forecasts of sea level, including confidence intervals, by means of the Bayesian Model Average Technique (BMA) The system was developed and implemented within ECOOP (C.No. 036355) European Project for the NOOS and the IBIROOS regions, based on MATROOS visualization tool developed by Deltares. Both systems are today operational at Deltares and Puertos del Estado respectively. The Bayesian Modelling Average technique generates an overall forecast probability density function (PDF) by making a weighted average of the individual forecasts PDF's; the weights represent the probability that a model will give the correct forecast PDF and are determined and updated operationally based on the performance of the models during a recent training period. This implies the technique needs the availability of sea level data from tide gauges in near-real time. Results of validation of the different models and BMA implementation for the main harbours will be presented for the IBIROOS and Western Mediterranean regions, where this kind of activity is performed for the first time. The work has proved to be useful to detect problems in some of the circulation models not previously well calibrated with sea level data, to identify the differences on baroclinic and barotropic models for sea level applications and to confirm the general improvement of the BMA forecasts.

  14. Lithology and chronology of ice-sheet fluctuations (magnetic susceptibility of cores from the western Ross Sea)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Anne E.

    1993-01-01

    The goals of the marine geology part of WAIS include reconstructing the chronology and areal extent of ice-sheet fluctuations and understanding the climatic and oceanographic influences on ice-sheet history. As an initial step toward attaining these goals, down-core volume magnetic susceptibility (MS) logs of piston cores from three N-S transects in the western Ross Sea are compared. The core transects are within separate petrographic provinces based on analyses of till composition. The provinces are thought to reflect the previous locations of ice streams on the shelf during the last glaciation. Magnetic susceptibility is a function of magnetic mineral composition, sediment texture, and sediment density. It is applied in the western Ross Sea for two purposes: (1) to determine whether MS data differentiates the three transects (i.e., flow lines), and thus can be used to make paleodrainage reconstructions of the late Wisconsinan ice sheet; and (2) to determine whether the MS data can aid in distinguishing basal till diamictons from diamictons of glacial-marine origin and thus, aid paleoenvironmental interpretations. A comparison of the combined data of cores in each transect is presented.

  15. Abundance and diversity of sedimentary bacterial communities in a coastal productive setting in the Western Irish Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Reilly, S. S.; Pentlavalli, P.; Flanagan, P. V.; Allen, C. C. R.; Monteys, X.; Szpak, M. T.; Murphy, B. T.; Jordan, S. F.; Kelleher, B. P.

    2016-02-01

    The bacterial community composition and biomass abundance from a depositional mud belt in the western Irish Sea and regional sands were investigated by phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiling, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and barcoded pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The study area varied by water depth (12-111 m), organic carbon content (0.09-1.57% TOC), grain size, hydrographic regime (well-mixed vs. stratified), and water column phytodetrital input (represented by algal polyunsaturated PLFA). The relative abundance of bacterial-derived PLFA (sum of methyl-branched, cyclopropyl and odd-carbon number PLFA) was positively correlated with fine-grained sediment, and was highest in the depositional mud belt. A strong association between bacterial biomass and eukaryote primary production was suggested based on observed positive correlations with total nitrogen and algal polyunsaturated fatty acids. In addition, 16S rRNA genes affiliated to the classes Clostridia and Flavobacteria represented a major proportion of total 16S rRNA gene sequences. This suggests that benthic bacterial communities are also important degraders of phytodetrital organic matter and closely coupled to water column productivity in the western Irish Sea.

  16. Fog water collection under sea breeze conditions in the Western Mediterranean basin (Valencia region, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, C.; Corell, D.; Estrela, M. J.; Valiente, J. A.

    2010-07-01

    Orographic fog occurrences associated with sea breezes determine water collection potential over the mountain ranges near the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Previous works have confirmed that the effect of sea breezes on cloud genera is to increase the frequency of low (Stratus) and convective (Cumulus) clouds. The primary impact of sea breeze flows corresponds to low stratiform clouds (Stratus, St, and Stratocumulus, Sc) formed in the convective internal boundary layer due to the inflow of moist sea air at lower levels. The formation of Sc clouds is caused by the rising and cooling of turbulent moist sea air over the highest slopes of the mountains at the end of the day. In the most Sc formation, we also observed dense fog banks of Stratus nebulosus (St neb) and dew during the early next morning, covering the inland topographical depressions. The aim of this study is to statistically analyze the impact of sea breezes on fog water collection in the convective internal boundary layer. The study area is located in the eastern of the Iberian Peninsula (Valencia region, Spain) and the survey corresponds to a 7-yr study period (2003-2009). This research is based upon a small network of eight passive fog water collectors distributed over 6 coastal- and 2 inland-mountain areas. A cylindrical fog water instrument (i.e. omnidirectional collection efficiency) based on the ASRC (Atmospheric Science Research Centre, State University of New York) string collector is used to sample fog water volumes on a daily basis. These stations also sampled temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction and precipitation measurements. The current study used these meteorological measurements to apply an automated and manual selection methodologies for identifying past sea breeze episodes. The dataset created by means of these selection techniques allows for the study of fog water volumes associated with sea breeze situations. A detailed statistical characterization of the

  17. Evidence of low density sub-crustal underplating beneath western continental region of India and adjacent Arabian Sea: Geodynamical considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, O. P.; Agrawal, P. K.; Negi, J. G.

    1996-07-01

    The known high mobility of the Indian subcontinent during the period from 80 to 53 Ma has evoked considerable interest in recent times. It appears to have played an important role in shaping the subcontinental structures of western India and the adjoining Arabian Sea. During this period, a major catastrophic event took place in the form of Deccan volcanism, which coincides with the biological mass extinction at the K-T boundary, including the death of dinosaurs. The origin of Deccan volcanism is still being debated. Geophysically, western India and its offshore regions exhibit numerous prominent anomalies which testify to the abnormal nature of the underlying crust-lithosphere. In this work, we develop a two-dimensional structural model of these areas along two long profiles extending from the eastern basin of the Arabian Sea to about 1000 km inland. The model, derived from the available gravity data in the oceanic and continental regions, is constrained by seismic and other relevant information in the area, and suggests, for the first time, the presence of an extensive low-density (2.95-3.05 g/cm 3) sub-crustal underplating. Such a layer is found to occur between depths of 11 and 20 km in the eastern basin of the Arabian Sea, and betweeen 45 and 60 km in the continental region where it is sandwiched in the lower lithosphere. The low density may have been caused as a result of serpentinization or fractionation of magma by a process related in some way to the Deccan volcanic event. Substantial depletion of both oceanic and continental lithosphere is indicated. We hypothesize that the present anatomy of the deformed lithosphere of the region at the K-T boundary is the result of substantial melt generated owing to frictional heat possibly giving rise to a hot cell like condition at the base of the lithosphere, resulting from the rapid movement of the Indian subcontinent between 80 and 53 Ma.

  18. Understanding the patterns of biological response to physical forcing in the Alborán Sea (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro, Gabriel; Vázquez, Águeda; Macías, Diego; Bruno, Miguel; Ruiz, Javier

    2011-12-01

    A singular value decomposition (SVD) analysis was performed to determine the coupled modes of variability of satellite surface chlorophyll (CHL) and absolute dynamic topography (ADT) data for the Alborán Sea (western Mediterranean) during a 12-year period (1998-2009). From this analysis we have been able to detect features of the Alborán Sea dynamics that had not been recognized in previous research on the primary production of this basin. We have found that the two leading SVD modes represent more than 97% of the total squared covariance. The first mode is associated with the inverse barometer and its impact on chlorophyll distribution, whereas the second physical mode can explain the distribution of eutrophic and oligotrophic waters in the Alborán Sea. The results also confirm that the phytoplankton in the basin is very tightly controlled by meteorological and physical processes, via the advection of properties through the Strait, by the influence of Atlantic Jet intensity, which controls the gyres of the basin, and by the activation of up- or down-welling coastal processes by wind.

  19. Seasonality of blue and fin whale calls and the influence of sea ice in the Western Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Širović, Ana; Hildebrand, John A.; Wiggins, Sean M.; McDonald, Mark A.; Moore, Sue E.; Thiele, Deborah

    2004-08-01

    The calling seasonality of blue ( Balaenoptera musculus) and fin ( B. physalus) whales was assessed using acoustic data recorded on seven autonomous acoustic recording packages (ARPs) deployed from March 2001 to February 2003 in the Western Antarctic Peninsula. Automatic detection and acoustic power analysis methods were used for determining presence and absence of whale calls. Blue whale calls were detected year round, on average 177 days per year, with peak calling in March and April, and a secondary peak in October and November. Lowest calling rates occurred between June and September, and in December. Fin whale calling rates were seasonal with calls detected between February and June (on average 51 days/year), and peak calling in May. Sea ice formed a month later and retreated a month earlier in 2001 than in 2002 over all recording sites. During the entire deployment period, detected calls of both species of whales showed negative correlation with sea ice concentrations at all sites, suggesting an absence of blue and fin whales in areas covered with sea ice. A conservative density estimate of calling whales from the acoustic data yields 0.43 calling blue whales per 1000 n mi 2 and 1.30 calling fin whales per 1000 n mi 2, which is about one-third higher than the density of blue whales and approximately equal to the density of fin whales estimated from the visual surveys.

  20. Links Between the Deep Western Boundary Current, Labrador Sea Water Formation and Export, and the Meridional Overturning Circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, Paul G.; Kulan, Nilgun

    2010-05-01

    Based on an isopyncal analysis of historical data, 3-year overlapping triad fields of objectively analysed temperature and salinity are produced for the Labrador Sea, covering 1949-1999. These fields are then used to spectrally nudge an eddy-permitting ocean general circulation model of the sub-polar gyre, otherwise forced by inter annually varying surface forcing based upon the Coordinated Ocean Reference Experiment (CORE). High frequency output from the reanalysis is used to examine Labrador Sea Water formation and its export. A number of different apprpoaches are used to estimate Labrador Sea Water formation, including an instanteous kinematic approach to calculate the annual rate of water mass subduction at a given density range. Historical transports are computed along sections at 53 and 56N for several different water masses for comparison with recent observations, showing a decline in the stength of the deep western boundary current with time. The variability of the strength of the meridional overturning circulation (MOC) from the reanalysis is also examined in both depth and density space. Linkages between MOC variability and water mass formation variability is considered.

  1. Sidescan-Sonar Imagery and Surficial Geologic Interpretations of the Sea Floor in Western Rhode Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMullen, K.Y.; Poppe, L.J.; Haupt, T.A.; Crocker, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) have been working together to interpret sea-floor geology along the northeastern coast of the United States. In 2004, the NOAA Ship RUDE completed survey H11322, a sidescan-sonar and bathymetric survey that covers about 60 square kilometers of the sea floor in western Rhode Island Sound. This report interprets sidescan-sonar and bathymetric data from NOAA survey H11322 to delineate sea-floor features and sedimentary environments in the study area. Paleozoic bedrock and Cretaceous Coastal Plain sediments in Rhode Island Sound underlie Pleistocene glacial drift that affects the distribution of surficial Holocene marine and transgressional sediments. The study area has three bathymetric highs separated by a channel system. Features and patterns in the sidescan-sonar imagery include low, moderate, and high backscatter; sand waves; scarps; erosional outliers; boulders; trawl marks; and dredge spoils. Four sedimentary environments in the study area, based on backscatter and bathymetric features, include those characterized by erosion or nondeposition, coarse-grained bedload transport, sorting and reworking, and deposition. Environments characterized by erosion or nondeposition and coarse-grained bedload transport are located in shallower areas and environments characterized by deposition are located in deeper areas; environments characterized by sorting and reworking processes are generally located at moderate depths.

  2. Seismic stratigraphy of the Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean Sea) based on ODP leg results: Consequences for the basin evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Mascle, J.; Rehault, J.

    1988-08-01

    A revision of the seismic stratigraphy of the Tyrrehenian Sea is based on detailed calibrations between a dense network of single-channel seismic reflection lines, about 2,000 km of recent multichannel seismic profiles, and the seven sites drilled within the Tyrrhenian in 1986 during the Ocean Drilling Program Leg 107. These correlations substantiate that the basin has been submitted to a succession of short-lived rifting episodes progressively shifting toward the southeast and leading to the local creation of discrete oceanic crust floored basins. Most of the Tyr-rhenian basins and margins have been created in a very short time (between 8 and 2 m.y. in age) and are much younger than previously anticipated. Rifting processes have been acting on a very heterogeneous continental basement (including several suture zones); drifting has created small oceanic subbasins also floored by a very heterogeneous magmatic basement (including serpentinized peridotites). The hypothesis of an asymmetric evolution facilitated by one or several crustal detachment fault systems and driven by geodynamic mechanisms of the bordering collision/subduction is considered.

  3. ENSURF: multi-model sea level forecast - implementation and validation results for the IBIROOS and Western Mediterranean regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez, B.; Brouwer, R.; Beckers, J.; Paradis, D.; Balseiro, C.; Lyons, K.; Cure, M.; Sotillo, M. G.; Hackett, B.; Verlaan, M.; Fanjul, E. A.

    2012-03-01

    ENSURF (Ensemble SURge Forecast) is a multi-model application for sea level forecast that makes use of several storm surge or circulation models and near-real time tide gauge data in the region, with the following main goals: 1. providing easy access to existing forecasts, as well as to its performance and model validation, by means of an adequate visualization tool; 2. generation of better forecasts of sea level, including confidence intervals, by means of the Bayesian Model Average technique (BMA). The Bayesian Model Average technique generates an overall forecast probability density function (PDF) by making a weighted average of the individual forecasts PDF's; the weights represent the Bayesian likelihood that a model will give the correct forecast and are continuously updated based on the performance of the models during a recent training period. This implies the technique needs the availability of sea level data from tide gauges in near-real time. The system was implemented for the European Atlantic facade (IBIROOS region) and Western Mediterranean coast based on the MATROOS visualization tool developed by Deltares. Results of validation of the different models and BMA implementation for the main harbours are presented for these regions where this kind of activity is performed for the first time. The system is currently operational at Puertos del Estado and has proved to be useful in the detection of calibration problems in some of the circulation models, in the identification of the systematic differences between baroclinic and barotropic models for sea level forecasts and to demonstrate the feasibility of providing an overall probabilistic forecast, based on the BMA method.

  4. Sequence and expression analyses of Cytophaga-like hydrolases in a Western arctic metagenomic library and the Sargasso Sea.

    PubMed

    Cottrell, Matthew T; Yu, Liying; Kirchman, David L

    2005-12-01

    Sequence analysis of environmental DNA promises to provide new insights into the ecology and biogeochemistry of uncultured marine microbes. In this study we used the Sargasso Sea Whole Genome Sequence (WGS) data set to search for hydrolases used by Cytophaga-like bacteria to degrade biopolymers such as polysaccharides and proteins. Analysis of the Sargasso WGS data for contigs bearing both the 16S rRNA genes of Cytophaga-like bacteria and hydrolase genes revealed a cellulase gene (celM) most similar to the gene found in Cytophaga hutchinsonii. A BLAST search of the entire Sargasso Sea WGS data set indicated that celM was the most abundant cellulase-like gene in the Sargasso Sea. However, the similarity between CelM-like cellulases and peptidases belonging to metalloprotease family M42 led us to question whether CelM is involved in the degradation of polysaccharides or proteins. PCR primers were designed for the celM genes in the Sargasso Sea WGS data set and used to identify celM in a fosmid library constructed with prokaryotic DNA from the western Arctic Ocean. Expression analysis of the Cytophaga-like Arctic CelM, which is 63% identical and 77% similar to CelM in C. hutchinsonii, indicated that there was peptidase activity, whereas cellulase activity was not detected. Our analysis suggests that the celM gene plays a role in the degradation of protein by Cytophaga-like bacteria. The abundance of peptidase genes in the Cytophaga-like fosmid clone provides further evidence for the importance of Cytophaga-like bacteria in the degradation of protein in high-molecular-weight dissolved organic matter.

  5. Tectonic configuration of the western Arabian continental margin, southern Red Sea, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    A tectonic reconstruction of pre-Red Sea Afro/Arabia suggests that the early rift was narrow with intense extension confined to an axial belt 20 to 40 km wide. Steep Moho slopes probably developed during rift formation as indicated by published gravity data, two published seismic interpretations and the surface geology.

  6. Biogeography of Persephonella in deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the Western Pacific.

    PubMed

    Mino, Sayaka; Makita, Hiroko; Toki, Tomohiro; Miyazaki, Junichi; Kato, Shingo; Watanabe, Hiromi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Watsuji, Tomo-O; Nunoura, Takuro; Kojima, Shigeaki; Sawabe, Tomoo; Takai, Ken; Nakagawa, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are areas on the seafloor with high biological productivity fueled by microbial chemosynthesis. Members of the Aquificales genus Persephonella are obligately chemosynthetic bacteria, and appear to be key players in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles in high temperature habitats at deep-sea vents. Although this group of bacteria has cosmopolitan distribution in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystem around the world, little is known about their population structure such as intraspecific genomic diversity, distribution pattern, and phenotypic diversity. We developed the multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme for their genomic characterization. Sequence variation was determined in five housekeeping genes and one functional gene of 36 Persephonella hydrogeniphila strains originated from the Okinawa Trough and the South Mariana Trough (SNT). Although the strains share >98.7% similarities in 16S rRNA gene sequences, MLSA revealed 35 different sequence types (ST), indicating their extensive genomic diversity. A phylogenetic tree inferred from all concatenated gene sequences revealed the clustering of isolates according to the geographic origin. In addition, the phenotypic clustering pattern inferred from whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis can be correlated to their MLSA clustering pattern. This study represents the first MLSA combined with phenotypic analysis indicative of allopatric speciation of deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria.

  7. Biogeography of Persephonella in deep-sea hydrothermal vents of the Western Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Mino, Sayaka; Makita, Hiroko; Toki, Tomohiro; Miyazaki, Junichi; Kato, Shingo; Watanabe, Hiromi; Imachi, Hiroyuki; Watsuji, Tomo-o; Nunoura, Takuro; Kojima, Shigeaki; Sawabe, Tomoo; Takai, Ken; Nakagawa, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vent fields are areas on the seafloor with high biological productivity fueled by microbial chemosynthesis. Members of the Aquificales genus Persephonella are obligately chemosynthetic bacteria, and appear to be key players in carbon, sulfur, and nitrogen cycles in high temperature habitats at deep-sea vents. Although this group of bacteria has cosmopolitan distribution in deep-sea hydrothermal ecosystem around the world, little is known about their population structure such as intraspecific genomic diversity, distribution pattern, and phenotypic diversity. We developed the multi-locus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme for their genomic characterization. Sequence variation was determined in five housekeeping genes and one functional gene of 36 Persephonella hydrogeniphila strains originated from the Okinawa Trough and the South Mariana Trough (SNT). Although the strains share >98.7% similarities in 16S rRNA gene sequences, MLSA revealed 35 different sequence types (ST), indicating their extensive genomic diversity. A phylogenetic tree inferred from all concatenated gene sequences revealed the clustering of isolates according to the geographic origin. In addition, the phenotypic clustering pattern inferred from whole-cell matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) analysis can be correlated to their MLSA clustering pattern. This study represents the first MLSA combined with phenotypic analysis indicative of allopatric speciation of deep-sea hydrothermal vent bacteria. PMID:23630523

  8. Genome sequence of Oceanicaulis sp. strain HTCC2633, isolated from the Western Sargasso Sea.

    PubMed

    Oh, Hyun-Myung; Kang, Ilnam; Vergin, Kevin L; Lee, Kiyoung; Giovannoni, Stephen J; Cho, Jang-Cheon

    2011-01-01

    The genus Oceanicaulis represents dimorphic rods that were originally isolated from a marine dinoflagellate. Here, we announce the genome sequence of Oceanicaulis sp. strain HTCC2633, isolated by dilution-to-extinction culturing from the Sargasso Sea. The genome information of strain HTCC2633 indicates a chemoorganotrophic way of life of this strain.

  9. Population model for sea otters in western Prince William sound. Restoration project 93043-3. Sea otter demographics. Exxon Valdez oil spill restoration project final report

    SciTech Connect

    Udevitz, M.S.; Ballachey, B.E.; Bruden, D.L.

    1996-05-01

    A large portion of the western Prince William Sound (PWS) sea otter population was killed by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in March 1989, but little is known about the dynamics of the population before the spill in March 1989, or the rate at which the population can be expected to recover. We estimated age-specific reproductive and survival rates for the western PWS population before the spill based on examinations or reproductive tracts and the age structure of carcasses collected in 1989. We developed a new technique for estimating survival rates that uses age-structure and age-at-death data, and does not require the assumption of a stable age structure. Because of the lack of data for estimating juvenile survival rates, were considered a series of 4 potential scenarios. The population was projected to decrease slightly during the first year under all of the scenarios and then begin increasing, achieving maximum rates of increase ranging from 10% to 14% per year and recovering to its estimated 1985 population size in 10 to 23 years. Projected population sizes during the first few years after the spill are in broad agreement with estimates based on boat surveys in 1990, 1991, and 1993.

  10. Aptian-Albian sea level history from Guyots in the western Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    RöHl, Ursula; Ogg, James G.

    1996-10-01

    Relative sea level fluctuations are an important control on patterns of sedimentation on continental margins and provide a valuable tool for regional correlations. One of the main objectives of combined Ocean Drilling Program Legs 143 and 144 was drilling the thick carbonate caps of a suite of seamounts, called guyots, scattered over the northwestern Pacific. The array of drowned Cretaceous banks includes four carbonate banks of Aptian-Albian age. These particular carbonate banks display emergent surfaces if regional sea level falls faster than the rate of guyot subsidence, or intervals of condensed parasequences and well-cemented peritidal crypto-algal flats if the rate of sea level fall is slightly less than guyot subsidence. Rapid rises of sea level following these sequence boundaries are recorded as drowning of the emergent horizons or as pronounced deepening of facies. The cored lithologies and downhole geophysical and geochemical logs were used to identify depositional sequences and surfaces of exceptional shallowing or deepening. A combination of biostratigraphic datums, carbon and strontium isotope curves, relative magnitude of surfaces of emergence, relative thicknesses of depositional sequences, sea level events, and counts of upward shallowing cycles or parasequences were used to correlate sequences among the four sites. After compensating for thermal subsidence rates at each guyot, an identical pattern of major Aptian-Albian eustatic sea level events is evident throughout this large portion of the Pacific Ocean. There are approximately 12 Aptian and 12 Albian significant sequence boundaries, of which a third were associated with major episodes of emergence. When these events are compared with Aptian-Albian relative sea level changes observed in European shelf successions, the major sequence boundaries and transgressive surges can be easily correlated, and it appears that both regions also display the same number of minor events. Therefore we can apply

  11. Relative sea-level fluctuations since deglaciation in western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugar, D. H.; Walker, I. J.; Lian, O. B.; Eamer, J.; Neudorf, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    We synthesize the state of knowledge regarding post-glacial sea-level changes on the Pacific coast of North America based on more than 2,000 radiocarbon dates from Oregon to Alaska. Relative sea-level (RSL) history over the late Quaternary is complex owing to regional differences in crustal deformation (neotectonics), changes in global ocean volumes (eustasy) and the depression and rebound of the Earth's crust in response to ice sheets on land (isostasy). The RSL history is further complicated by the diachronous timing of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and subsequent ice retreat across the region. For instance, the LGM ranged in timing from as early as 25 ka (14C years) BP in south-central Alaska, to between 15-14 ka BP at its southernmost extent in southwest BC and northern Washington. During this time, the Cordilleran Ice Sheet depressed the crust over which it formed and, as the ice thinned and retreated, the sea rapidly transgressed isostatically depressed lowland areas. Early-postglacial RSL highstands within the region range from ~25 masl in Cook Inlet, Alaska, to approximately 200 masl at fjord head locations such as Kitimat and in the Lower Mainland of southern BC. As the crust rebounded, RSL dropped. In contrast to the BC mainland, sea levels at the LGM were 150 m lower than present in Haida Gwaii on BC's north coast, due to an isostatic forebulge raising the land. Forebulge collapse led to a rise in relative sea level, up to about 15-18 masl by 9.5 ka BP. Spatial and temporal gaps exist in our understanding of post-glacial sea-level change and landscape evolution along the Pacific coast as data constraining RSL fluctuations around the LGM are limited (e.g. south-central Alaska). Similarly, we lack understanding of post-glacial sea-level fluctuations on BC's central coast. We present an overview of the differences in RSL patterns from Oregon to south-central Alaska and discuss the geophysical foundations for them, as well as present new data filling data

  12. The Role of Middle and Late Holocene North Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures on Precipitation Patterns in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, J. A.; Anderson, L.; Starratt, S.; Wahl, D.; Anderson, L.; Addison, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Comparative analyses of marine and terrestrial proxy records reveal regional changes in precipitation seasonality and relationships with sea surface temperatures (SSTs) as indicators of ocean-atmosphere dynamics. Enhanced La Niña-like conditions and cooler SSTs characterized the middle Holocene (~8.O to 4.0 ka) waters off northern California and in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Terrestrial records suggest that winters in the western US were generally dry, although wetter intervals attributed to winter precipitation beginning at ~5.5 ka are documented in coastal Oregon and Washington and in the northern Great Basin. Proxy studies suggest that the North American Monsoon (NAM) intensified beginning at ~7.5 ka, coinciding with warming Gulf of California SSTs coupled with a more northerly position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). If monsoonal precipitation spread northward into the eastern Great Basin and the western Rockies of Colorado, it is possible that wetter intervals of the middle Holocene in Nevada, Utah, and western Colorado may reflect increases in both summer and winter precipitation. El Niño event frequency and intensity began increasing between 4.0 and 3.0 ka, when modern ocean-atmosphere dynamics appear to have been established along the California coastal margin. Effects included cool, wet winters, enhanced spring coastal upwelling that extended into the summer, and higher September-October SSTs corresponding with the end of the coastal upwelling season. Winters became wetter in both the coastal and interior regions of the western US, while spring and summers generally became drier. The intensity of NAM precipitation also declined due to a more southerly mean position of the ITCZ. By ~3.0 cal ka the modern climatology of the margins of eastern North Pacific was established, resulting in intensification of the northwest-southwest precipitation dipole and the development of distinct Pacific Decadal Oscillation cycles.

  13. Subduction- vs- Intraplate-Type Melt Migration in the Alboran Lithospheric Mantle: Insights From the Tallante Xenoliths (Betic Cordillera, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rampone, E.; Vissers, R. L.; Poggio, M.; Scambelluri, M.; Zanetti, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Alboran Sea region has been affected since the late Oligocene by widespread eruption of tholeiitic to calc-alkaline magmas followed by Late Neogene alkaline basalts. These magmatic episodes are related to Neogene lithospheric extension beneath the Alboran domain, as a consequence of slab roll-back. According to recent models, subduction of oceanic lithosphere caused continental-edge delamination of subcontinental lithosphere, associated with upwelling of plume-type mantle sources. The Alboran lithospheric mantle thus constitutes a unique setting to investigate the effects of subduction- and intraplate-type metasomatism. Here we present a microstructural and geochemical study of mantle xenoliths from the Cabezo Tallante Late Neogene alkaline volcanic center (SE Spain). These xenoliths record multiple episodes of reactive porous melt percolation, and melt entrapment, tracking their progressive extension-related uplift from P > 20 Kb to 7-10 Kb. This is documented by i) crystallization of undeformed olivine replacing pyroxene porphyroclasts, and unstrained opx overgrowing undeformed olivine and pyroxene porphyroclasts, in porphyroclastic spinel peridotites, ii) development of annealed equigranular structure, likely enhanced by heating during melt percolation, iii) crystallization of interstitial (plag±ol±opx) aggregates between mantle minerals in porphyroclastic and equigranular xenoliths. Cpx in equigranular peridotites have smooth trace element spectra characterized by slight LREE depletion; computed equilibrium liquids have a tholeiitic-transitional affinity. Diffuse melt percolation was followed by intrusion of melts with distinct chemical affinity. The first event is documented by the intrusion of cm-sized gabbronoritic veins, showing a fine-grained opx reaction rim against the host peridotite. Similar gabbronoritic lithotypes were previously documented and ascribed to slab-derived melts. A quite remarkable textural feature in these veins is the occurrence

  14. Satellite observation of bio-optical indicators related to North-Western Black Sea coastal zone changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoran, Maria

    Satellite remote sensing provides a means for locating, identifying and mapping certain coastal zone features and assessing of spatio-temporal changes.The Romanian coastal zone of the Black Sea is a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, exposed to dramatic changes due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). This study focuses on the assessment of coastal zone land cover changes based on the fusion of satellite remote sensing data.The evaluation of coastal zone landscapes is based upon different sub-functions which refer to landscape features such as water, soil, land-use, buildings, groundwater, biotope types. Mixed pixels result when the sensor's instantaneous field-of-view includes more than one land cover class on the ground. Based on different satellite data (Landsat TM, ETM, SAR ERS, IKONOS, Quickbird, and MODIS) was performed object recognition for North-Western Black Sea coastal zone. Preliminary results show significant coastline position changes of North Western Black Sea during the period of 1987-2007 and urban growth of Constantza town. Also the change in the position of the coastline is examined and linked to the urban expansion in order to determine if the changes are natural or anthropogenic. A distinction is made between landfill/sedimentation processes on the one hand and dredging/erosion processes on the other. Waves play an important role for shoreline configuration. Wave pattern could induce erosion and sedimentation. A quasi-linear model was used to model the rate of shoreline change. The vectors of shoreline were used to compare with wave spectra model in order to examine the accuracy of the coastal erosion model. The shoreline rate modeled from vectors data of SAR ERS-1 has a good correlation with a quasi-linear model. Wave refraction patterns are a good index for shoreline erosion. A coast

  15. Gravity field of the Western Weddell Sea: Comparison of airborne gravity and Geosat derived gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R. E.; Brozena, J. M.; Haxby, W. F.; Labrecque, J. L.

    1989-01-01

    Marine gravity surveying in polar regions was typically difficult and costly, requiring expensive long range research vessels and ice-breakers. Satellite altimetry can recover the gravity field in these regions where it is feasible to survey with a surface vessel. Unfortunately, the data collected by the first global altimetry mission, Seasat, was collected only during the austral winter, producing a very poor quality gravitational filed for the southern oceans, particularly in the circum-Antarctic regions. The advent of high quality airborne gravity (Brozena, 1984; Brozena and Peters, 1988; Bell, 1988) and the availability of satellite altimetry data during the austral summer (Sandwell and McAdoo, 1988) has allowed the recovery of a free air gravity field for most of the Weddell Sea. The derivation of the gravity field from both aircraft and satellite measurements are briefly reviewed, before presenting along track comparisons and shaded relief maps of the Weddell Sea gravity field based on these two data sets.

  16. Coralligenous "atolls": discovery of a new morphotype in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Bonacorsi, Marina; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Clabaut, Philippe; Pergent, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    Coralligenous habitat and rhodoliths beds are very important in terms of biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea. During an oceanographic campaign, carried out in northern Cap Corse, new coralligenous structures have been discovered. These structures, never previously identified in the Mediterranean Sea, are named "coralligenous atolls" because of their circular shape. The origin and growth dynamics of these atolls are still unknown but their form does not appear to result from hydrodynamic action and an anthropogenic origin also seems unlikely. However, this kind of shape seems rather closer to that of other circular structures (e.g. pockmarks) the origin of which is related to gaseous emissions. Further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis through chemical analysis.

  17. Water quality assessment by pollution-index method in the coastal waters of Hebei Province in western Bohai Sea, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuguang; Lou, Sha; Kuang, Cuiping; Huang, Wenrui; Chen, Wujun; Zhang, Jianle; Zhong, Guihui

    2011-10-01

    Sources of pollution discharges and water quality samples at 27 stations in 2006 in the coastal waters of Hebei Province, western Bohai Sea, have been analyzed in this study. Pollutant loads from industrial sewages have shown stronger impact on the water environment than those from the general sewages. Analysis indicates that pollution of COD is mainly resulted from land-based point pollutant sources. For phosphate concentration, non-point source pollution from coastal ocean (fishing and harbor areas) plays an important role. To assess the water quality conditions, Organic Pollution Index and Eutrophication Index have been used to quantify the level of water pollution and eutrophication conditions. Results show that pollution was much heavier in the dry season than flood season in 2006. Based on COD and phosphate concentrations, results show that waters near Shahe River, Douhe River, Yanghe River, and Luanhe River were heavily polluted. Water quality in the Qinhuangdao area was better than those in the Tangshan and Cangzhou areas.

  18. Identification of biophysical regions in the south-western part of the Okhotsk Sea by satellite imagery classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustapha, M. A.; Lihan, T.; Tangang, Fredolin; Saitoh, S.

    2015-03-01

    Water properties in the south-western part of the Okhotsk Sea show strong seasonal variability. This study applied a method based on Hierarchical Ascending Classification to classify biophysical regions using satellite data and to determine the seasonal variation of the characteristics of water masses in the area. Water masses in the same biophysical region have similar physical and biological characteristics and are able to explain the biological and physical processes in the ocean. This method provided classification of chlorophyll a, SST and SST gradient satellite data. Six classes explained the main patterns and important characteristics of the region. The method was also able to determine interannual variability in existence and area size of the classes which indicated occurrences of the major circulation patterns in the area and its influence on the variations of the classes.

  19. Bioaccumulation of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) by gray whale and Pacific walrus from the western part of the Bering Sea.

    PubMed

    Tsygankov, Vasiliy Yu; Boyarova, Margarita D; Lukyanova, Olga N

    2015-10-15

    The feeding habits of a gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) and a Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), caught from the western Bering Sea in the summers of 2010 and 2011, have been studied, and concentration of persistent organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in their organs determined. The total OCP concentration (∑HCH+∑DDT) in muscles and liver of the gray whales varies from 297 to 3581 and from 769 to 13,808 ng/g lipids, respectively. The total OCP concentration (∑HCH+∑DDT) in muscles and liver of the Pacific walruses varies from 197 to 5659 and from 4856 to 90,263 ng/g lipids, respectively. The specifics of diet as a source of pesticide accumulation in these two marine mammal species are discussed.

  20. Relationship between historical sea-surface temperature variability and climate change-induced coral mortality in the western Indian Ocean.

    PubMed

    Ateweberhan, M; McClanahan, Tim R

    2010-07-01

    Many of the world's coral reefs suffered high coral mortality during the 1998 ENSO, with the highest mortality in the western Indian Ocean (WIO). A meta-analysis of field data on change in coral cover across the 1998 ENSO event was conducted for 36 major reef areas in the WIO, and relationship of the change with the historical sea-surface temperature (SST) variability investigated. WIO reefs were categorized into three major SST groups of differing coral cover change. Cover change was negatively associated with standard deviation (SD) SST until about SD 2.3, with increasing flatness of the SST frequency distributions. It increased with further increase in SD as the SST distributions became strongly bimodal in the Arabian/Persian Gulf area. The study indicates that environmental resistance/tolerance to extreme anomalous events could be predicted and management priorities directed accordingly for a warmer and more variable future climate.

  1. [Strong genetic differentiation of the gilthead sea bream Sparus aurata (L., 1758) between the two western banks of the Mediterranean].

    PubMed

    Chaoui, Lamya; Kara, M Hichem; Quignard, Jean Pierre; Faure, Eric; Bonhomme, François

    2009-04-01

    We characterised four samples of gilthead sea bream from the two western Mediterranean banks with three microsatellite loci and two RAPDs systems. Contrarily to what could be predicted for a highly mobile species with a planktonic larval dispersal phase, we observed a strong and significant genetic differentiation at all loci between the two banks (F(st)=0.069(***)), whereas two samples from the Gulf of Lions were almost identical (F(st)=0.003 ns) while the two from the Gulf of Annaba displayed varied levels of differentiation according to the molecular marker considered. RAPDs showed a similar trend as microsatellites. The reasons for this surprisingly strong genetic differentiation, as compared to what has been observed in other species over comparable geographical distance, may be sought for either in a smaller as suspected larval dispersal, or in the non-neutrality of the loci studied.

  2. Lithospheric deformation in the Africa-Iberia plate boundary: Improved neotectonic modeling testing a basal-driven Alboran plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neres, M.; Carafa, M. M. C.; Fernandes, R. M. S.; Matias, L.; Duarte, J. C.; Barba, S.; Terrinha, P.

    2016-09-01

    We present an improved neotectonic numerical model of the complex NW Africa-SW Eurasia plate boundary segment that runs from west to east along the Gloria Fault up to the northern Algerian margin. We model the surface velocity field and the ongoing lithospheric deformation using the most recent version of the thin-shell code SHELLS and updated lithospheric model and fault map of the region. To check the presence versus the absence of an independently driven Alboran domain, we develop two alternative plate models: one does not include an Alboran plate; another includes it and determines the basal shear tractions necessary to drive it with known velocities. We also compare two alternative sets of Africa-Eurasia velocity boundary conditions, corresponding to geodetic and geological-scale averages of plate motion. Finally, we perform an extensive parametric study of fault friction coefficient, trench resistance, and velocities imposed in Alboran nodes. The final run comprises 5240 experiments, each scored to geodetic velocities (estimated for 250 stations and here provided), stress direction data, and seismic strain rates. The model with the least discrepancy to the data includes the Alboran plate driven by a basal WSW directed shear traction, slightly oblique to the westward direction of Alboran motion. We provide estimates of long-term strain rates and slip rates for the modeled faults, which can be useful for further hazard studies. Our results support that a mechanism additional to the Africa-Eurasia convergence is required to drive the Alboran domain, which can be related to subduction processes occurring within the mantle.

  3. Western Canadian Arctic ringed seal organic contaminant trends in relation to sea ice break-up.

    PubMed

    Gaden, A; Ferguson, Steve H; Harwood, L; Melling, H; Alikamik, J; Stern, G A

    2012-04-17

    The association between changing sea ice conditions and contaminant exposure to Arctic animals interests Inuvialuit harvesters, communities, and researchers. We examined organochlorine contaminant (OC) concentrations in the blubber of 90 male adult ringed seals (Phoca hispida) sampled from the subsistence harvest in Ulukhaktok (formerly Holman), NT, Canada, just prior to break-up of the sea ice (1993-2008). OC blubber concentrations were assessed with respect to year and sea ice break-up date. HCB and age- and blubber-adjusted concentrations of p,p'-DDT and ΣCHB (chlorobornane) significantly decreased over the study period. With respect to the timing of the spring break-up, highly lipophlic OCs, such as p,p'-DDE and PCB 153, were higher during years of early ice clearing (at least 12 days earlier than the mean annual break-up date), whereas no trends were observed for α, β, and γ isomers of HCH, trans- and cis-chlordane, oxychlordane, or ΣCHB. The higher contaminant concentrations found in earlier break-up years is likely due to earlier and/or increased foraging opportunities. This situation also has potential for enhancing bioaccumulation and biomagnification of contaminants over the long-term if projected changes continue to result in lighter and earlier ice conditions.

  4. Mercury contamination in the Yatsushiro Sea, south-western Japan: spatial variations of mercury in sediment.

    PubMed

    Tomiyasu, T; Nagano, A; Yonehara, N; Sakamoto, H; Rifardi; Oki, K; Akagi, H

    2000-08-10

    Mercury-contaminated effluent was discharged into Minamata Bay from a chemical plant over a 20-year period until 1965 (from 1958 to 1959, effluent was discharged into Minamata River), causing Minamata disease. In an effort to characterize the extent of the contamination in the Yatsushiro Sea, the vertical and horizontal distributions of mercury in sediment were investigated. Sediment was sampled at 62 locations in the southern part of the sea from 4 to 6 March 1996. In the lower layers of the long cores of sediment, the total amount of mercury was at a relatively uniform low concentration. We interpret these low values to represent the background concentration absent of anthropogenic influence. The background value thus estimated for the Yatsushiro Sea was 0.059 +/- 0.013 mg kg(-1) (mean +/- S.D., n = 51). The highest concentration in each sample ranged from 0.086 to 3.46 mg kg(-1) (mean, 0.57 mg kg(-1)). The higher values were obtained at stations near Minamata Bay and the Minamata River (the sources of the pollution). Concentrations decreased with distance from the source. An inspection of the vertical profiles of mercury concentration in cores suggested that the deposited mercury had not been fixed in sediment but had been transported, despite 30 years having past since the last discharge of contaminated effluent. At nine stations, extractable inorganic and organic mercury concentrations were determined differentially. Inorganic mercury is the predominant species in sediment and organic mercury comprising approximately 1% of the total.

  5. Eutrophication and mussel culture in the western Dutch Wadden Sea: Impact on the benthic ecosystem; a hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Veer, Henk W.

    1989-09-01

    Since 1950, two large-scale changes have taken place in the western Dutch Wadden Sea, namely the eutrophication of the area and the introduction of an extensive mussel culture. Although eutrophication in the fresh waters started already around 1950, nutrient concentrations in the western Wadden Sea remained fairly constant until about 1970, due to the retention of nutrients in Lake IJssel, the main source. From 1970 1980 concentrations increased strongly, and during the last years the situation has stabilized. Mussel culture was introduced in 1950 and expanded during the next decade to an area of 70 km2, all situated in the sublittoral area. From 1960 the area of mussel culture remained about constant with fluctuating yields of between 35 and 120 millions of kg fresh weight. Due to a lack of data for the period until 1970 the impact of eutrophication and mussel culture on the ecosystem cannot be assessed. From 1970 onwards an increased biomass and production of the macrofauna in the intertidal zone has been observed, which is attributed to eutrophication. The hypothesis is postulated that the introduction of mussel culture between 1950 and 1960 has resulted in an increased food competition in the area, leading to a decreased stock of the macrofauna in the intertidal. Eutrophication from about 1970 onwards has improved the food conditions and as a result both the macrofauna in the intertidal and the mussel in the sublittoral area would have increased in biomass, allowing higher maximum yields of the mussel culture. The importance of monitoring programs is stressed to follow these trends in the near future and to check the above hypothesis in areas where it is decided to introduce or intensify mussel culture.

  6. Genetic relatedness of foraminiferan ( Marginopora vertebralis) populations from reefs in the Western Coral Sea and Great Barrier Reef

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzie, John A. H.

    1991-07-01

    Allozyme variation at four loci and phenetic variation for esterase were examined in M. vertebralis populations from 10 reefs from the Western Coral Sea and two from the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Genetic distances (Nei's D) among populations on different reefs ranged from 0 0.932 and was neither related to geographical separation of reefs nor to depth of water separating reefs. These findings suggest long-distance dispersal by some means is sufficient to prevent genetic differentiation of M. vertebralis populations, and that M. vertebralis populations need not be connected by habitats suitable for the continued existence of the foraminiferan for genetic differentiation to be prevented. The Western Coral Sea reef populations did not form a related group that were genetically distinct from those on the GBR but were differentiated latitudinally. Reefs to the extreme north and south formed outliers while those on the northern half of the Queensland Plateau showed some differentiation from those on the southern half of the Plateau. This pattern of genetic variation appeared to reflect the distribution of populations north and south of the southern limit of the Southern Equatorial Current. Further work will be required to establish the soundness of this relationship, and to exclude other possible explanations related to historical events or the effects of selection. Relatively high dispersal was inferred between the Southern Queensland Plateau reefs and those sampled on the GBR (average Neis D=0.011). Holmes and Marion reefs formed discrete genetic outliers (average Neis D=0.69 and 0.20 respectively). In the case of Holmes reef other factors (e.g. history of recruitment) will need to be investigated to account for its marked genetic differentiation from the other reefs in the Queensland Plateau.

  7. Density of pack-ice seals and penguins in the western Weddell Sea in relation to ice thickness and ocean depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Hauke; Haas, Christian; van Franeker, Jan Andries; Meesters, Erik

    2008-04-01

    Aerial band transect censuses were carried out parallel with ice thickness profiling surveys in the pack ice of the western Weddell Sea during the ISPOL (Ice Station POLarstern) expedition of R.V. Polarstern from November 2004 to January 2005. Three regions were surveyed: the deep sea of the Weddell Sea, a western continental shelf/slope region where R.V. Polarstern passively drifted with an ice floe (ISPOL), and a northern region (N). Animal densities were compared among regions and in relation to bathymetry and ice thickness distribution. Crabeater seals Lobodon carcinophaga were the most abundant species in all three regions. Their density was significantly lower in the deep sea (0.50 km -2) than in the ISPOL (1.00 km -2) and northern regions (1.21 km -2). Weddell seals Leptonychotes weddellii were not sighted in the deep-sea region, their density elsewhere ranging from 0.03 (N) to 0.08 km -2 (ISPOL). Leopard seals Hydrurga leptonyx were observed in all three areas, but could only be quantified in the deep-sea (0.05 km -2) and northern regions (0.06 km -2). The abundance of emperor penguins Aptenodytes forsteri was markedly higher in the northern (0.75 km -2) than in the ISPOL (0.13 km -2) and the deep-sea region (not quantified). Crabeater seal density was significantly related to ocean depth and modal ice thickness.

  8. Multi-platform operational validation of the Western Mediterranean SOCIB forecasting system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Renault, Lionel; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2014-05-01

    The development of science-based ocean forecasting systems at global, regional, and local scales can support a better management of the marine environment (maritime security, environmental and resources protection, maritime and commercial operations, tourism, ...). In this context, SOCIB (the Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System, www.socib.es) has developed an operational ocean forecasting system in the Western Mediterranean Sea (WMOP). WMOP uses a regional configuration of the Regional Ocean Modelling System (ROMS, Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) nested in the larger scale Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFS) with a spatial resolution of 1.5-2km. WMOP aims at reproducing both the basin-scale ocean circulation and the mesoscale variability which is known to play a crucial role due to its strong interaction with the large scale circulation in this region. An operational validation system has been developed to systematically assess the model outputs at daily, monthly and seasonal time scales. Multi-platform observations are used for this validation, including satellite products (Sea Surface Temperature, Sea Level Anomaly), in situ measurements (from gliders, Argo floats, drifters and fixed moorings) and High-Frequency radar data. The validation procedures allow to monitor and certify the general realism of the daily production of the ocean forecasting system before its distribution to users. Additionally, different indicators (Sea Surface Temperature and Salinity, Eddy Kinetic Energy, Mixed Layer Depth, Heat Content, transports in key sections) are computed every day both at the basin-scale and in several sub-regions (Alboran Sea, Balearic Sea, Gulf of Lion). The daily forecasts, validation diagnostics and indicators from the operational model over the last months are available at www.socib.es.

  9. PICASSSO Ps Receiver Function Analysis of the Lithospheric Structure Beneath the Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurner, S.; Palomeras, I.; Levander, A.

    2011-12-01

    The western Mediterranean, consisting of the Betic Mountains in southern Spain, the Gibraltar Arc, the Alboran Sea, and the Rif and Atlas Mountains in northern Africa, has been affected by many different geodynamic processes throughout the Cenozoic. The ongoing collision between Africa and Iberia initiated ~60 Ma and resulted in crustal thickening. During this same time period (~30 Ma), slab rollback began in the Tethys Sea, causing significant extension. It is the juxtaposition of these coeval extensional and compressional regimes that has motivated numerous studies of the Mediterranean tectonic environment. Multiple geodynamic models, that include slab roll-back (Royden, 1993; Lonergan and White, 1997; Gutscher et al., 2002), accompanied and followed by lithospheric convective downwelling (Seber et al., 1996; Calvert et al., 2000), and delamination (Platt et al., 1996), have been invoked to explain the tectonics. It is hypothesized that a succession of small-scale convection processes initiated beneath the Alboran Sea ~20-25 Ma, and have continued most recently under the Atlas Mountains. PICASSO (Program to Investigate Convective Alboran Sea System Overturn) is a multi-disciplinary, international investigation seeking to improve our understanding of the geodynamics of the western Mediterranean, including the small-scale convection processes associated with slab rollback. We use Ps teleseismic receiver functions to investigate the crustal and lithospheric structure beneath the Atlas, Rif, and Betic Mountains. Data was collected from 33 earthquake events recorded between May 2009 and February 2011 at 83 PICASSO broadband seismic stations. 1 Hz receiver functions were calculated using both frequency domain and iterative deconvolution methods, and were CCP stacked to create a 3D image volume of the region. These results indicate crustal thicknesses between ~42-47 km in southern Spain beneath the Betic Mountains and ~35-45 km across the Gibraltar Arc. Beneath both the

  10. Effects of neotectonic and sedimentary processes on the seafloor geomorphology of the Tekirdag Basin of the western Marmara Sea (Turkey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergin, Mustafa; Yigit-Faridfathi, Füsun

    2010-05-01

    This study forms part of a project (TUBITAK YDABCAG 101Y071) with the main purpose of investigation of late Quaternary slope stability, sediment mass movements and turbidite formations in the tectonically active Tekirdag Basin and its margins from the western Marmara Sea. The results were also intended to relate to the major earthquakes and sea-level changes. During this project, in 2001 aboard the former R/V MTA Sismik-1, a total of 100 km seismic reflection profiles were obtained along three tracklines representing from shelf to slope to deep basin environments. A multichannel airgun seismic system and well-known methods and principles of seismic stratigraphy was used for interpretations. At 11 sites from 29 to 1111 m water depths gravity sediment cores were taken having 100 to 359 cm recoveries and textural and structural characteristics were determined using standard petrographic methods. The NEE-SWW directed seismic profile (TKD-01) which runs parallel to the North Anatolian Fault zone displayed syntectonic sedimentation with negative flower structure that increased in thickness toward the Ganos Fault and pinched out in the east. ENE section of this profile also bears structures of underwater landslides with slump facies. Seismic profile TKD-02 which crosses the Tekirdag Basin in WNW-ESE direction most likely displays major 3 fault segments of the NAF zone. Many faults and syntectonic sedimentation structure can be recognized on this profile. A morphological feature of a sediment wedge or former lowstand delta at the present shelf edge can be related to the effects of last sea-level change. Mounded and chaotic seismic reflection configurations which indicate channel and slope-front fill as well as slump facies are thought to reflect submarine slides and slumps. Other morphological features such as incised submarine valleys or channels running E-W direction are also present on this profile. The seismic profile (TKD-03) runs from NNW to SSE across the basin and

  11. Time-Series Photographs of the Sea Floor in Western Massachusetts Bay: June 1998 to May 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Alexander, P. Soupy; Bothner, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents time-series photographs of the sea floor obtained from an instrumented tripod deployed at Site A in western Massachusetts Bay (42? 22.6' N., 70? 47.0' W., 30 m water depth, figure 1) from June 1998 through May 1999. Site A is approximately 1 km south of an ocean outfall that began discharging treated sewage effluent from the Boston metropolitan area into Massachusetts Bay in September 2000. Time-series photographs and oceanographic observations were initiated at Site A in December 1989 and are anticipated to continue to September 2005. This one of a series of reports that present these images in digital form. The objective of these reports is to enable easy and rapid viewing of the photographs and to provide a medium-resolution digital archive. The images, obtained every 4 hours, are presented as a movie (in .avi format, which may be viewed using an image viewer such as QuickTime or Windows Media Player) and as individual images (.tif format). The images provide time-series observations of changes of the sea floor and near-bottom water properties.

  12. Time-Series Photographs of the Sea Floor in Western Massachusetts Bay: June 1997 to June 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Alexander, P. Soupy; Bothner, Michael H.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents time-series photographs of the sea floor obtained from an instrumented tripod deployed at Site A in western Massachusetts Bay (42? 22.6' N., 70? 47.0' W., 30 m water depth, figure 1) from June 1997 through June 1998. Site A is approximately 1 km south of an ocean outfall that began discharging treated sewage effluent from the Boston metropolitan area into Massachusetts Bay in September 2000. Time-series photographs and oceanographic observations were initiated at Site A in December 1989 and are anticipated to continue to September 2005. This is the first in a series of reports planned to summarize and distribute these images in digital form. The objective of these reports is to enable easy and rapid viewing of the photographs and to provide a medium-resolution digital archive. The images, obtained every 4 hours, are presented as a movie (in .avi format, which may be viewed using an image viewer such as QuickTime or Windows Media Player) and as individual images (.tif format). The images provide time-series observations of changes of the sea floor and near-bottom water properties.

  13. Geochemical index of trace metals in the surficial sediments from the western continental shelf of India, Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Laluraj, C M; Nair, S M

    2006-12-01

    The present study focuses on the determination and abundance of trace metals (viz. Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Co, Cd, Mn and Fe) in the surficial sediments of west coast of Arabian Sea along the Indian subcontinent. Sediment samples were collected from three transects along the western continental shelf of Arabian Sea. The enrichment of Fe and Mn in coastal oxic-sediments indicates the precipitation of these redox sensitive elements as Fe- and Mn-hydroxides and oxides, whereas the low Fe and Mn concentrations in the oxygen deficient sediments of deeper stations reflects the dissolution of their hydroxides and oxides. Concentrations of fairly redox insensitive trace metals like Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr and Cd (with the exceptions of Cr) showed higher values at nearshore sediments, then it decreased towards seaward and again showed a slight increase at oxygen minimum stations in all the three transects. This geochemical variability in their distributional characteristics is mainly associated with the extent to which the precipitation or dissolution of Fe- and Mn-oxides/hydroxides occur since the scavenging or releasing effects of Fe- and Mn-oxides/hydroxides act as significant 'sinks' or 'sources' of heavy metals. The change in wind pattern, coastal upwelling and increased productivity are also the reported factors which influence the biogeochemical cycling of trace metals in the surface sediments of west coast of India. Enrichment factor generally showed a high gradient accumulation from nearshore to shelf.

  14. Aerial surveys of endangered whales in the Alaskan Chukchi and western Beaufort Seas, 1990. Final report, Oct-Nov 90

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, S.E.; Clarke, J.T.

    1991-06-01

    In keeping with the National Environmental Policy Act (1969), the Marine Mammal Protection Act (1972) and the Endangered Species Act (1973), the OCS Lands Act Amendments (1978) established a management policy that included studies in OCS lease sale areas to ascertain potential environmental impacts of oil and gas development on OCS marine coastal environments. The Minerals Management Service (MMS) is the agency responsible for these studies and for the leasing of submerged Federal lands. The report summarizes the 1990 investigations of the distribution, abundance, migration, behavior and habitat relationships of endangered whales in the Alaskan Chukchi and western Beaufort Seas (hereafter, study area); 1990 was the second of a three year (1989-91) study. The Bering Sea stock of bowhead whales (Balaena mysticetus) was the principal species studied, with incidental sightings of all other marine mammals routinely recorded. The 1990 season was compromised by circumstances that restricted the availability of the survey aircraft (Grumman Goose, model G21G) to the period 26 October - 7 November; opportunistic surveys were flown in the study area from 3-25 October. In 1990, there were 14 sightings of 19 bowheads from 9-29 October; 5 whales, including 2 calves, were seen north of the study area. One gray whale, 110 belukhas and 53 polar bears were also seen. Over nine survey seasons (1982-90), there were 240 sightings of 520 bowhead whales and 148 sightings of 398 gray whales.

  15. Metazoan parasites in the head region of the bullet tuna Auxis rochei (Osteichthyes: Scombridae) from the western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Mele, S; Saber, S; Gómez-Vives, M J; Garippa, G; Alemany, F; Macías, D; Merella, P

    2015-11-01

    The head region of 72 bullet tuna Auxis rochei from the western Mediterranean Sea (south-east Spain and the Strait of Gibraltar) was examined for parasites. Seven metazoan species were found in the fish from south-east Spain: three monogeneans, two trematodes and two copepods, whereas only three species were isolated in the fish from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the levels of infection of the parasites according to fish size in south-east Spain showed that the prevalence of Didymozoon auxis and the mean abundance of Allopseudaxine macrova were higher in the larger hosts (range of fork length = 38-44 cm) than in the smaller ones (33-37 cm). A comparison of the parasite infections according to geographical region showed that the mean abundances of Nematobothriinae gen. sp. and Caligus bonito were higher in fish from south-east Spain than in those from the Strait of Gibraltar. A comparison of the parasite fauna of A. rochei from the Mediterranean Sea with the published data on Auxis spp. from the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans revealed the closest similarity between the Mediterranean A. rochei and the Atlantic A. thazard.

  16. Lithospheric-scale effects of a subduction-driven Alboran plate: improved neotectonic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neres, Marta; Carafa, Michele; Terrinha, Pedro; Fernandes, Rui; Matias, Luis; Duarte, João; Barba, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    The presence of a subducted slab under the Gibraltar arc is now widely accepted. However, discussion still remains on whether subduction is active and what is its influence in the lithospheric processes, in particular in the observed geodesy, deformation rates and seismicity. Aiming at bringing new insights into the discussion, we have performed a neotectonic numerical study of a segment of the Africa-Eurasia plate boundary, from the Gloria fault to the Northern Algerian margin. Specifically, we have tested the effect of including or excluding an independently driven Alboran plate, i.e. testing active subduction versus inactive subduction (2plates versus 3plates scenarios). We used the dynamic code SHELLS (Bird et al., 2008) to model the surface velocity field and the ongoing deformation, using a new up-to-date simplified tectonic map of the region, new available lithospheric data and boundary conditions determined from two alternative Africa-Eurasia angular velocities, respectively: SEGAL2013, a new pole based on stable Africa and stable Eurasia gps data (last decades); and MORVEL, a geological-scale pole (3.16 Ma). We also extensively studied the variation within the parametric space of fault friction coefficient, subduction resistance and surface velocities imposed to the Alboran plate. The final run comprised a total of 5240 experiments, and each generated model was scored against geodetic velocities, stress direction data and seismic strain rates. The preferred model corresponds to the 3plates scenario, SEGAL2013 pole and fault friction of 0.225, with scoring results: gps misfit of 0.78 mm/yr; SHmax misfit of 13.6° and correlation with seismic strain rate of 0.62, significantly better than previous models. We present predicted fault slip rates for the recognized active structures and off-faults permanent strain rates, which can be used for seismic and tsunami hazard calculations (the initial motivation for this work was contributing for calculation of

  17. On Blaps Fabricius, 1775 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) from Western Kazakhstan with description of a new species from Tyuleniy Archipelago (Caspian Sea).

    PubMed

    Chigray, Ivan A; Abdurakhmanov, Gayirbeg M; Nabozhenko, Maxim; Shapovalov, Andrey M

    2016-10-02

    A new species of darkling beetles Blaps caspica sp. n. from Western Kazakhstan Kulaly Island (Tyuleniy Archipelago, Caspian Sea) is described. This new taxon belongs to the 6th group of the 2nd section according to Seidlitz's classification and is most similar to Blaps kadyrbekovi G. Medvedev, 2004, B. lethifera Marsham, 1802 and B. parvicollis Zoubkoff, 1829. Blaps caspica sp. n. differs from B. kadyrbekovi by the presence of a hair tuft between male abdominal ventrites 1 and 2, from B. parvicollis by having narrow acute short spurs on the mesotibiae, the structure of the gastral spicula, ovipositor and female genital tubes, from B. lethifera by the slender elliptic body, punctated (not granulated) epipleura and the structure of the female genital tubes. Images, an identification key and local distribution are given for ten Western Kazakhstan species of the genus Blaps Fabricius, 1775.

  18. Active geodynamics of the central Mediterranean Sea: Tensional tectonic evidences in western Sicily from mantle-derived helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caracausi, A.; Favara, R.; Italiano, F.; Nuccio, P. M.; Paonita, A.; Rizzo, A.

    2005-02-01

    We report results on the measured high 3He/4He isotope ratio in western Sicily, interpreted together with the heat data. The study of this sector of the Europe-Africa interaction is crucial to a better understanding of the tectonics and the geodynamical evolution of the central Mediterranean area. The estimated mantle-derived helium fluxes in the investigated areas are up to 2-3 orders of magnitude greater than those of a stable continental area. The highest flux, found in the southernmost area near the Sicily Channel, where recent eruptions of the Ferdinandea Island occurred 20 miles out to sea off Sciacca, has been associated with a clear excess of heat flow. Our results indicate that there is an accumulation of magma below the continental crust of western Sicily that is possibly intruding and out-gassing through roughly N-S trending deep fault systems linked to the mantle, that have an extensional component. Although the identification of these faults is not sufficiently constrained by our data, they could possibly be linked to the pre-existing faults that originated during the Mesozoic extensional-transtensional tectonic phases.

  19. Observed evidence of the anomalous South China Sea western boundary current during the summers of 2010 and 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Yeqiang; Xue, Huijie; Wang, Dongxiao; Xie, Qiang; Chen, Ju; Li, Jian; Chen, Rongyu; He, Yunkai; Li, Daning

    2016-02-01

    Seven years of directly measured current data from a mooring in the Xisha area of the South China Sea (SCS), together with shipboard ADCP and satellite data, have shown the western boundary current (WBC) anomaly and its vertical structure during the summers of 2010 and 2011. The observed WBC presented obvious year-to-year variability, especially in the summer. Overall, the summer mean velocity at the mooring site over 7-year (2007-2013) was northeastward. The moored ADCP showed that the northeastward velocity was particularly strong in the summer of 2010, but the increase was confined in the upper 120 m. In contrast, the northeastward current disappeared throughout the observed depth range (from 50 to 450 m) in the summer of 2011. Even at the deepest observed position, the monthly velocity anomalies reached 14 cm s-1 westward and 12 cm s-1 southward in the zonal and meridional directions, respectively. Both the Vietnam offshore current (VOC) and double gyres in the western SCS disappeared and the southern anticyclonic gyre expanded to strengthened the northward WBC in the summer of 2010. However, in summer of 2011, the VOC intensified, and the northern cyclonic gyre enlarged with its northern edge reaching 18°N, slightly north of mooring site, which weakened the northeastward WBC. The observed SCS circulation anomalies during 2010 and 2011 were mainly induced by the basin-scale wind field anomalies associated with the 2009/2010 El Niño and 2010/2011 La Niña.

  20. Surface circulation in the Iroise Sea (western Brittany) derived from high resolution current mapping by HF radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sentchev, Alexei; Forget, Philippe; Barbin, Yves; Marié, Louis; Ardhuin, Fabrice

    2010-05-01

    The use of high frequency radar (HFR) systems for near-real-time coastal ocean monitoring necessities that short time scale motions of the radar-derived velocities are better understood. While the ocean radar systems are able to describe coastal flow patterns with unprecedented details, the data they produce are often too sparse or gappy for applications such as the identification of coherent structures and fronts or understanding transport and mixing processes. In this study, we address two challenges. First, we report results from the HF radar system (WERA) which is routinely operating since 2006 on the western Brittany coast to monitor surface circulation in the Iroise Sea, over an area extending up to 100 km offshore. To obtain more reliable records of vector current fields at high space and time resolution, the Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC) direction finding algorithm is employed in conjunction with the variational interpolation (2dVar) of radar-derived velocities. This provides surface current maps at 1 km spacing and time resolution of 20 min. Removing the influence of the sea state on radar-derived current measurements is discussed and performed on some data sequences. Second, we examine in deep continuous 2d velocity records for a number of periods, exploring the different modes of variability of surface currents in the region. Given the extent, duration, and resolution of surface current velocity measurements, new quantitative insights from various time series and spatial analysis on higher frequency kinematics will be discussed. By better characterizing the full spectrum of flow regimes that contribute to the surface currents and their shears, a more complete picture of the circulation in the Iroise Sea can be obtained.

  1. Future sea ice conditions in Western Hudson Bay and consequences for polar bears in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Castro de la Guardia, Laura; Derocher, Andrew E; Myers, Paul G; Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Arjen D; Lunn, Nick J

    2013-09-01

    The primary habitat of polar bears is sea ice, but in Western Hudson Bay (WH), the seasonal ice cycle forces polar bears ashore each summer. Survival of bears on land in WH is correlated with breakup and the ice-free season length, and studies suggest that exceeding thresholds in these variables will lead to large declines in the WH population. To estimate when anthropogenic warming may have progressed sufficiently to threaten the persistence of polar bears in WH, we predict changes in the ice cycle and the sea ice concentration (SIC) in spring (the primary feeding period of polar bears) with a high-resolution sea ice-ocean model and warming forced with 21st century IPCC greenhouse gas (GHG) emission scenarios: B1 (low), A1B (medium), and A2 (high). We define critical years for polar bears based on proposed thresholds in breakup and ice-free season and we assess when ice-cycle conditions cross these thresholds. In the three scenarios, critical years occur more commonly after 2050. From 2001 to 2050, 2 critical years occur under B1 and A2, and 4 under A1B; from 2051 to 2100, 8 critical years occur under B1, 35 under A1B and 41 under A2. Spring SIC in WH is high (>90%) in all three scenarios between 2001 and 2050, but declines rapidly after 2050 in A1B and A2. From 2090 to 2100, the mean spring SIC is 84 (±7)% in B1, 56 (±26)% in A1B and 20 (±13)% in A2. Our predictions suggest that the habitat of polar bears in WH will deteriorate in the 21st century. Ice predictions in A1B and A2 suggest that the polar bear population may struggle to persist after ca. 2050. Predictions under B1 suggest that reducing GHG emissions could allow polar bears to persist in WH throughout the 21st century.

  2. Large-scale single incised valley from a small catchment basin on the western Adriatic margin (central Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, Vittorio; Trincardi, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    The Manfredonia Incised Valley (MIV) is a huge erosional feature buried below the Apulian shelf, on the western side of the Adriatic margin. The incision extends more than 60 km eastward, from the Tavoliere Plain to the outer shelf, not reaching the shelf edge. High-resolution chirp sonar profiles allow reconstruction of the morphology of the incision and its correlation at regional scale. The MIV records a single episode of incision, induced by the last glacial-interglacial sea level fall that forced the rivers draining the Tavoliere Plain to advance basinward, reaching their maximum extent at the peak of the Last Glacial Maximum. The valley was filled during a relatively short interval of about 10,000 yr during the Late Pleistocene-Holocene sea level rise and almost leveled-off at the time of maximum marine ingression, possibly recording the short-term climatic fluctuations that occurred. The accommodation space generated by the lowstand incision was exploited during the following interval of sea level rise by very high rates of sediment supply that allowed the preservation of up to 45 m of valley fill. High-resolution chirp sonar profiles highlight stratal geometries that are consistent with a typical transgressive valley fill of an estuary environment, including bay-head deltas, central basin and distal barrier-island deposits, organized in a backstepping configuration. The highest complexity of the valley fill is reached in the shallowest and most proximal area, where a kilometric prograding wedge formed during a period dominated by riverine input, possibly connected to high precipitation rates. Based on the depth of the valley margins during this interval, the fill was likely isochronous with the formation of sapropel S1 in the Mediterranean region and may have recorded significant fluctuations within the hydrological cycle.

  3. Spatial and temporal variations of model-derived diurnal amplitude of sea surface temperature in the western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Yoshimi; Kawamura, Hiroshi

    2005-08-01

    The diurnal amplitude of sea surface temperature (SST) at 1-m depth is estimated with a simple empirical model in the region of 80°E-160°W, 60°S-60°N covering the western Pacific Ocean using 4 years of satellite-derived wind speed, solar radiation, and latent heat flux data. The advantage of this indirect method is that the diurnal amplitude of SST (ΔSST) can be obtained even in cloudy areas. ΔSST is large in the tropics through the year. Summer ΔSST in the middle and high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, especially around Japan, is larger than that of the Southern Hemisphere. However, ΔSST in the Kuroshio and its extension regions is smaller compared with that in its surrounding ones because of higher wind speed. In the Bay of Bengal, the South China Sea, and the Timor Sea, ΔSST becomes largest in spring, when the surface wind becomes weak in the transition of the monsoon. The period of about 35-50 days is clearly seen in the temporal variation of ΔSST in the tropics. This reflects the Madden-Julian oscillation. Furthermore, there are some differences in ΔSST between El Niño and La Niña periods. The authors then investigate how clouds affect the detection of ΔSST. If sampling is limited to clear areas only, the areas of strong solar radiation and weak wind are selectively picked up, and the probability that larger ΔSST is sampled increases. The mean of the ΔSST sampled from clear areas only is greater by 0.2-0.3 K compared with the actual mean.

  4. Holocene tropical western Indian Ocean sea surface temperatures in covariation with climatic changes in the Indonesian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhnert, Henning; Kuhlmann, Holger; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Meggers, Helge; Baumann, Karl-Heinz; Pätzold, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    The sea surface temperature (SST) of the tropical Indian Ocean is a major component of global climate teleconnections. While the Holocene SST history is documented for regions affected by the Indian and Arabian monsoons, data from the near-equatorial western Indian Ocean are sparse. Reconstructing past zonal and meridional SST gradients requires additional information on past temperatures from the western boundary current region. We present a unique record of Holocene SST and thermocline depth variations in the tropical western Indian Ocean as documented in foraminiferal Mg/Ca ratios and δ18O from a sediment core off northern Tanzania. For Mg/Ca and thermocline δ18O, most variance is concentrated in the centennial to bicentennial periodicity band. On the millennial time scale, an early to mid-Holocene (~7.8-5.6 ka) warm phase is followed by a temperature drop by up to 2°C, leading to a mid-Holocene cool interval (5.6-4.2 ka). The shift is accompanied by an initial reduction in the difference between surface and thermocline foraminiferal δ18O, consistent with the thickening of the mixed layer and suggestions of a strengthened Walker circulation. However, we cannot confirm the expected enhanced zonal SST gradient, as the cooling of similar magnitude had previously been found in SSTs from the upwelling region off Sumatra and in Flores air temperatures. The SST pattern probably reflects the tropical Indian Ocean expression of a large-scale climate anomaly rather than a positive Indian Ocean Dipole-like mean state.

  5. Contrasting patterns of α- and β-diversity in deep-sea bivalves of the eastern and western North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brault, Solange; Stuart, Carol T.; Wagstaff, Martine C.; McClain, Craig R.; Allen, John A.; Rex, Michael A.

    2013-08-01

    We analyzed patterns of α- and β-diversity in deep-sea bivalves collected by epibenthic sleds from the western North Atlantic south of New England, and from the eastern North Atlantic in the Rockall Trough, Porcupine Seabight and Porcupine Abyssal Plain. In the western North Atlantic, species diversity, measured as the normalized expected number of species, shows a unimodal bathymetric trend peaking at mid-bathyal depths. In the eastern North Atlantic, diversity increases monotonically with depth reaching a maximum at abyssal depths. We used Baselga's (2010) metrics to distinguish two separate components of β-diversity along depth gradients, species dissimilarity among sites due to spatial replacement (turnover) and species loss leading to nestedness. We also examined the rank order of nestedness with depth using Rodríguez-Gironés and Santamaría's (2006) BINMATNEST. The primary difference in β-diversity between west and east centers on the composition of abyssal communities. In the western North Atlantic, abyssal assemblages are nested subsets of bathyal assemblages. In the eastern North Atlantic, turnover dominates at all depths. These very fundamental differences in community structure between the basins may be attributable to differences in food supply, which is greater in the eastern North Atlantic region sampled. POC-flux to abyssal depths in the east may not reach levels low enough to depress species diversity as it does in the west. In the west, the abyssal fauna is largely an impoverished nested subset of the bathyal fauna that shows less endemism and may be maintained partly by source-sink dynamics.

  6. Towards an Archaeology of Early Islamic Ports on the Western Red Sea Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breen, Colin

    2013-12-01

    Against a background of developing research on Red Sea ports, a hypothetical model of the morphology of port towns during the early Islamic period is presented here. These places went through constant cycles of change as economic and political frameworks fluctuated. While their physical shape and form was strongly influenced by architectural features of the Islamic world their functionality was more aligned to commercial interaction. These were dynamic spaces where the daily life of their inhabitants was guided by trade, religion, weather and politics. The ports were intrinsically tied to the trade networks that connected Africa with Arabia and the broader Indian Ocean world.

  7. Maps Showing Sea Floor Topography, Sun-Illuminated Sea Floor Topography, and Backscatter Intensity of Quadrangles 1 and 2 in the Great South Channel Region, Western Georges Bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valentine, Page C.; Middleton, Tammie J.; Malczyk, Jeremy T.; Fuller, Sarah J.

    2002-01-01

    The Great South Channel separates the western part of Georges Bank from Nantucket Shoals and is a major conduit for the exchange of water between the Gulf of Maine to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the south. Water depths range mostly between 65 and 80 m in the region. A minimum depth of 45 m occurs in the east-central part of the mapped area, and a maximum depth of 100 m occurs in the northwest corner. The channel region is characterized by strong tidal and storm currents that flow dominantly north and south. Major topographic features of the seabed were formed by glacial and postglacial processes. Ice containing rock debris moved from north to south, sculpting the region into a broad shallow depression and depositing sediment to form the irregular depressions and low gravelly mounds and ridges that are visible in parts of the mapped area. Many other smaller glacial featuresprobably have been eroded by waves and currents at worksince the time when the region, formerly exposed bylowered sea level or occupied by ice, was invaded by the sea. The low, irregular and somewhat lumpy fabric formed by the glacial deposits is obscured in places by drifting sand and by the linear, sharp fabric formed by modern sand features. Today, sand transported by the strong north-south-flowing tidal and storm currents has formed large, east-west-trending dunes. These bedforms (ranging between 5 and 20 m in height) contrast strongly with, and partly mask, the subdued topography of the older glacial features.

  8. Deep-sea scavenging amphipod assemblages from the submarine canyons of the Western Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, G. A.; Horton, T.; Billett, D. S. M.

    2012-11-01

    Submarine canyons have often been identified as hotspots of secondary production with the potential to house distinct faunal assemblages and idiosyncratic ecosystems. Within these deep-sea habitats, assemblages of scavenging fauna play a vital role in reintroducing organic matter from large food falls into the wider deep-sea food chain. Free-fall baited traps were set at different depths within three submarine canyons on the Iberian Margin. Amphipods from the traps were identified to species level and counted. Scavenging amphipod assemblages were compared at different depths within each canyon and between individual canyon systems. Using data from literature, abyssal plain assemblages were compared to submarine canyon assemblages. Samples from canyons were found to contain common abyssal plain species but in greater than expected abundances. It is proposed that this is a result of the high organic carbon input into canyon systems owing to their interception of sediment from the continental shelf and input from associated estuarine systems. Community composition differed significantly between the submarine canyons and abyssal plains. The cause of this difference cannot be attributed to one environmental variable due to the numerous inherent differences between canyons and abyssal plains.

  9. Holocene climate variability in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, B.; Sicre, M.-A.; Bassetti, M.-A.; Kallel, N.

    2016-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and land-derived input time series were generated from the Gulf of Lions inner-shelf sediments (NW Mediterranean Sea) using alkenones and high-molecular-weight odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (TERR-alkanes), respectively. The SST record depicts three main phases: a warm Early Holocene ( ˜ 18 ± 0.4 °C) followed by a cooling of ˜ 3 °C between 7000 and 1000 BP, and rapid warming from ˜ 1850 AD onwards. Several superimposed multi-decadal to centennial-scale cold events of ˜ 1 °C amplitude were also identified. TERR-alkanes were quantified in the same sedimentary horizons to identify periods of high Rhone River discharge and compare them with regional flood reconstructions. Concentrations show a broad increase from the Early Holocene towards the present with a pronounced minimum around 2500 BP and large fluctuations during the Late Holocene. Comparison with Holocene flood activity reconstructions across the Alps region suggests that sediments of the inner shelf originate mainly from the Upper Rhone River catchment basin and that they are primarily delivered during positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).

  10. Holocene climate variability in the North-Western Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lions)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, B.; Sicre, M.-A.; Bassetti, M.-A.; Kallel, N.

    2015-07-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and land-derived input time series were generated from the Gulf of Lions inner-shelf sediments (NW Mediterranean Sea) using alkenones and high-molecular-weight odd-carbon numbered n-alkanes (TERR-alkanes), respectively. The SST record depicts three main phases: a warm Early Holocene (∼ 18 ± 0.4 °C) followed by a cooling of ∼ 3 °C (from 7000 to 1000 BP) and rapid warming from ∼ 1850 AD onwards. Several superimposed multi-decadal cooling events of ∼ 1 °C amplitude were also identified. TERR-alkanes were also quantified to identify periods of high river discharge in relation with flood events of the Rhone River and precipitations. Their concentrations show a broad increase from the early Holocene towards present with a pronounced minimum around 2500 BP and large fluctuations during the second part of the Holocene. Comparison with Holocene flood activity reconstructions across the Alps region suggests that sediments of the inner shelf originate mainly from the Upper Rhone River catchment basin and that they are primarily delivered during positive NAO.

  11. Distribution of detrital minerals and sediment color in western Arctic Ocean and northern Bering Sea sediments: Changes in the provenance of western Arctic Ocean sediments since the last glacial period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Masanobu; Irino, Tomohisa; Nam, Seung-Il; Park, Yu-Hyeon; Harada, Naomi; Nagashima, Kana; Chikita, Kazuhisa; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi

    2016-12-01

    This paper describes the distribution of detrital minerals and sediment color in the surface sediments of the western Arctic Ocean and the northern Bering Sea and investigates the relationship between mineral composition and sediment provenance. This relationship was used to determine the provenance of western Arctic Ocean sediments deposited during the last glacial period. Sediment color is governed by water depth, diagenesis, and mineral composition. An a*-b* diagram was used to trace color change during diagenesis in the Arctic Ocean sediments. The mineral composition of surface sediments is governed by grain size and provenance. The feldspar/quartz ratio of the sediments studied was higher on the Siberian side than on the North American side of the western Arctic Ocean. The (chlorite + kaolinite)/illite and chlorite/illite ratios were high in the Bering Sea but decrease northwards in the Chukchi Sea. Thus, these ratios are useful for provenance studies in the Chukchi Sea area as indices of the Beaufort Gyre circulation and the Bering Strait inflow. The sediments deposited during the last glacial period have a lower feldspar/quartz ratio and a higher dolomite intensity than Holocene sediments on the Chukchi Plateau, suggesting a greater contribution of North American grains during the last glacial period.

  12. Transfer of deformation in back-arc basins with a laterally variable rheology: Constraints from analogue modelling of the Balkanides-Western Black Sea inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munteanu, Ioan; Willingshofer, Ernst; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Matenco, Liviu; Dinu, Corneliu; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2013-08-01

    The balance between extension and contraction in back-arc basins is very sensitive to a number of parameters related to on-going subduction and collision processes. This leads to complex back-arc geometries, where a lateral transition between crustal blocks with contrasting rheologies is often recorded. One good example is the back-arc region of the Balkanides-Pontides orogens, where lateral variations in rheologies are observed between the Balkanides-Moesian block and the Pontides-Western Black Sea Basin. The latter opened during Cretaceous-Eocene, and has been inverted together with the former starting during late Middle Eocene. The inversion generated contrasting geometries along the orogenic strike, with a narrow zone of high deformation in the Balkanides-Moesia region, wide areas of thrusting with low offsets in the Pontides-Western Black Sea Basin and a transitional zone characterized by highly curved geometries. This overall type of inversion is investigated here by the means of analogue modelling testing the role of inherited crustal geometries during inversion. Our modelling suggests that the contrasting architecture of inverted structures observed in the Balkanides-Pontides domain are the result of pre-existing crustal stretching geometries of various blocks inherited from the Cretaceous-Eocene extension. The stretched and weak back-arc basins can transfer contraction deformation at large distances, explaining structures derived by observational studies. The collisional deformation recorded in the Pontides was transmitted at large distances that are in the range of the contraction structures observed in the centre and northern part of the Western Black Sea. In the light of analogue modelling results we argue that the Western Black Sea was a rheologically weaker domain when compared with the adjacent western onshore at the beginning of the inversion, in contrast with previous results derived from numerical modelling studies that argued for a strong West

  13. Geochemical assessment of hydrocarbon migration phenomena: Case studies from the south-western margin of the Dead Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokol, Ella; Kozmenko, Olga; Smirnov, Sergey; Sokol, Ivan; Novikova, Sofya; Tomilenko, Anatoliy; Kokh, Svetlana; Ryazanova, Tatyana; Reutsky, Vadim; Bul'bak, Taras; Vapnik, Yevgeny; Deyak, Michail

    2014-10-01

    Calcite veins with fluid and solid bitumen inclusions have been discovered in the south-western shoulder of the Dead Sea rift within the Masada-Zohar block, where hydrocarbons exist in small commercial gas fields and non-commercial fields of heavy and light oils. The gas-liquid inclusions in calcite are dominated either by methane or CO2, and aqueous inclusions sometimes bear minor dissolved hydrocarbons. The enclosed flake-like solid bitumen matter is a residue of degraded oil, which may be interpreted as “dead carbon”. About 2/3 of this matter is soot-like amorphous carbon and 1/3 consists of n-C8sbnd C18 carboxylic acids and traces of n-alkanes, light dicarboxylic acids, and higher molecular weight (>C20) branched and/or cyclic carboxylic acids. Both bitumen and the host calcites show genetic relationship with mature Maastrichtian chalky source rocks (MCSRs) evident in isotopic compositions (δ13C, δ34S, and δ18O) and in REE + Y patterns. The bitumen precursor may have been heavy sulfur-rich oil which was generated during the burial compaction of the MCSR strata within the subsided blocks of the Dead Sea graben. The δ18O and δ13C values and REE + Y signatures in calcites indicate mixing of deep buried fluids equilibrated with post-mature sediments and meteoric waters. The temperatures of fluid generation according to Mg-Li-geothermometer data range from 55 °С to 90 °С corresponding to the 2.5-4.0 km depths, and largely overlap with the oil window range (60-90 °С) in the Dead Sea rift (Hunt, 1996; Gvirtzman and Stanislavsky, 2000; Buryakovsky et al., 2005). The bitumen-rich vein calcites originated in the course of Late Cenozoic rifting and related deformation, when tectonic stress triggers damaged small hydrocarbon reservoirs in the area, produced pathways, and caused hydrocarbon-bearing fluids to rise to the subsurface; the fluids filled open fractures and crystallized to calcite with entrapped bitumen. The reported results are in good agreement

  14. Integrated stratigraphic reconstruction for the last 80 kyr in a deep sector of the Sardinia Channel (Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budillon, F.; Lirer, F.; Iorio, M.; Macrì, P.; Sagnotti, L.; Vallefuoco, M.; Ferraro, L.; Garziglia, S.; Innangi, S.; Sahabi, M.; Tonielli, R.

    2009-05-01

    A quantitative analysis of planktonic foraminifera, coupled with petrophysical and paleomagnetic measurements and 14C-AMS calibrations, was carried out on a deep core recovered in the Sardinia Channel (Western Mediterranean Sea), during the CIESM Sub2 survey, providing an integrated stratigraphic time-framework over the last 80 kyr. Significant changes in the quantitative distribution of planktonic foraminifera allowed the identification of several eco-bioevents useful to accurately mark the boundaries of the eco-biozones widely recognized in the Western Mediterranean records and used for large-scale correlations. Namely, 10 eco-biozones were identified based on the relative abundance of selected climate-sensitive planktonic foraminiferal species. Sixteen codified eco-bioevents were correlated with Alboran Sea planktonic foraminiferal data and several climatic global events (Sapropel S1, Younger Dryas, Greenland Isotope Interstadial 1, Greenland Isotope Stadial 2, Heinrich event H1-H6) were recognized. The eco-bioevents together with the 14C-AMS calibrations allowed us to define an accurate age model, spanning between 2 and 83 kyr. The reliability of the age model was confirmed by comparing the colour reflectance (550 nm%) data of the studied record with the astronomically tuned record from the Ionian Sea (ODP-Site 964). A mean sedimentation rate of about 7 cm/kyr included three turbidite event beds that were chronologically constrained within the relative low stand and regressive sea-level phases of MIS 4 and 3. The deep-sea sedimentary record includes a distinct tephra occurring at the base of the core that dates 78 ka cal. BP. The paleomagnetic data provide a well-defined record of the characteristic remanent magnetization that may be used to reconstruct the geomagnetic paleosecular variation for the Mediterranean back to 83 kyr.

  15. Development from the seafloor to the sea surface of the cabled NEMO-SN1 observatory in the Western Ionian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparnocchia, Stefania; Beranzoli, Laura; Borghini, Mireno; Durante, Sara; Favali, Paolo; Giovanetti, Gabriele; Italiano, Francesco; Marinaro, Giuditta; Meccia, Virna; Papaleo, Riccardo; Riccobene, Giorgio; Schroeder, Katrin

    2015-04-01

    A prototype of cabled deep-sea observatory has been operating in real-time since 2005 in Southern Italy (East Sicily, 37°30' N - 15°06'E), at 2100 m water depth, 25 km from the harbor of the city of Catania. It is the first-established real-time node of the "European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water column Observatory" (EMSO, http://www.emso-eu.org) a research infrastructure of the Sector Environment of ESFRI. In the present configuration it consists of two components: the multi-parametric station NEMO-SN1 (TSN branch) equipped with geophysical and environmental sensors for measurements at the seafloor, and the NEMO-OνDE station (TSS branch) equipped with 4 wideband hydrophones. A 28 km long electro-optical cable connects the observatory to a shore laboratory in the Catania harbor, hosting the data acquisition system and supplying power and data transmission to the underwater instrumentation. The NEMO-SN1 observatory is located in an area particularly suited to multidisciplinary studies. The site is one of the most seismically active areas of the Mediterranean (some of the strongest earthquakes occurred in 1169, 1693 and 1908, also causing very intense tsunami waves) and is close to Mount Etna, one of the largest and most active volcanoes in Europe. The deployment area is also a key site for monitoring deep-water dynamics in the Ionian Sea, connecting the Levantine basin to the southern Adriatic basin where intermediate and deep waters are formed, and finally to the western Mediterranean Sea via the Strait of Sicily. The observatory is being further developed under EMSO MedIT (http://www.emso-medit.it/en/), a structural enhancement project contributing to the consolidation and enhancement of the European research infrastructure EMSO in Italian Convergence Regions. In this framework, a new Junction Box will be connected to the TSN branch and will provide wired and wireless (acoustic connections) for seafloor platforms and moorings. This will allow the

  16. How dangerous are slope failures offshore western Thailand (Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, J.; Krastel, S.; Grün, M.; Gross, F.; Pananont, P.; Jintasaeranee, P.; Bunsomboonsakul, S.; Weinrebe, W.; Winkelmann, D.

    2012-12-01

    The Thai west coast is well known for being hit by tsunami waves triggered by earthquakes arising from the nearby Sunda Trench. However, so far little has been known about additional factors that may trigger tsunamis in the area, such as submarine landslides at the shelf slope area. In order to assess the stability of the slope and evaluate the tsunamigenic potential of submarine landslides off western Thailand, 2D seismic data from the top and the western slope of a bathymetric high (Mergui Ridge about 200 km off the Thai west coast) have been investigated. These data were the basis for mapping locations and approximate volumes of mass transport deposits (MTDs). In total, 17 mass transport deposits were found. The estimated minimum volumes of individual MTDs range between 0.3 cbkm and 14 cbkm. MTDs have been identified in three different settings: i) stacked MTDs within disturbed and faulted basin sediments at the transition of the Mergui Ridge to the adjacent East Andaman Basin, ii) MTDs within a pile of drift sediments at the basin-ridge transition, and iii) MTDs near the edge of/on top of Mergui Ridge in relatively shallow water depths (<1000m). Our data indicate that the Mergui Ridge-slope area seems to have been generally unstable. Slide events occurred repeatedly and slope failures may occur again in the future. We find that the most likely causes for slope instabilities are the presence of unstable drift sediments, excess pore pressure in the sediments, and active tectonics. Most MTDs are located in large water depths (> 1000 m) and/or comprise small volumes; hence it is very unlikely that they triggered significant tsunamis in the past. Moreover, the recurrence rates of failure events seem to be low. Some MTDs with tsunami potential, however, have been identified on top of Mergui Ridge in water depths below 1000 m. Mass-wasting events that may occur in the future at similar locations do have a tsunami potential if they comprise sufficient volumes

  17. Resonant Third-Degree Diurnal Tides in the Seas Off Western Europe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Third-degree diurnal tides are estimated from long time series of sea level measurements at three North Atlantic tide gauges. Although their amplitudes are only a few mm or less, their admittances are far larger than those of second-degree diurnal tides, just as Cartwright discovered for the M(sub 1) constituent. The tides are evidently resonantly enhanced owing to high spatial correlation between the third-degree spherical harmonic of the tidal potential and a near-diurnal oceanic normal mode that is most pronounced in the North Atlantic. By estimating the ocean tidal response across the diurnal band (5 tidal constituents plus nodal modulations), the period and Q of this mode and one nearby mode are estimated.

  18. Bottom water export from the western Ross Sea, 2007 through 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Arnold L.; Huber, Bruce A.; Busecke, Julius

    2015-07-01

    Bottom water export from the Ross Sea, February 2007 to January 2011, exhibits seasonal and interannual variability. Temperature minima coupled to salinity maxima in late austral summer, into the fall, indicate input from High-Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). Secondary temperature minima lacking the high-salinity trait, characteristic of Low-Salinity Shelf Water (LSSW), appear in the spring. Warmer bottom water similar to modified Circumpolar Deep Water (mCDW) is observed in winter and in early summer. The LSSW and mCDW may be drawn from the Drygalski Basin, as the HSSW pool retreats poleward from the shelf break in response to increased winter polar easterlies allowing these less dense overlying waters to spill into the deep ocean within the benthic layer. Bottom salinity decreased from 2007 to 2011 by 0.007 year-1 significantly higher than regional decadal trends, which we propose is a result of HSSW retreat induced by strengthening polar easterlies.

  19. Lead in the western South China Sea: Evidence of atmospheric deposition and upwelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mengli; Goodkin, Nathalie F.; Boyle, Edward A.; Switzer, Adam D.; Bolton, Annette

    2016-05-01

    In recent decades, rapid industrial developments have increased lead (Pb) inputs to the South China Sea. To quantify the increasing variability, we investigated 170 years of skeletal Pb and Pb isotopes from an offshore, central Vietnamese coral. The Pb/Ca in the coral was 10-16 nmol/mol before the mid-1950s and increased to more than 30 nmol/mol by 2000. While the regional phaseout of leaded petrol commenced in 2000, coral Pb/Ca continued increasing until 2004, possibly due to regional upwelling and the transport of previously emitted Pb from tropical Pacific waters. The 206Pb/207Pb ratio in the coral was 1.191-1.195 before mid-1950s, suggesting natural sources. Since then, the ratio decreased, reaching ~1.165 in 2004. Lead isotopes show high linearity between natural and Chinese emitted Pb, with the latter contributing ~40%~60% of the skeletal Pb after 2000.

  20. New geological estimates of Pliocene sea levels from the Western and Northern Cape Provinces, Republic of South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearty, P. J.; O'Leary, M.; Raymo, M. E.; Rovere, A.; Inglis, J.; Roberts, D.; Bergh, E.

    2012-12-01

    The mid-late Pliocene warm period (MPWP) is the most recent geologic interval when global atmospheric CO2 reached ~400 ppmv. The MPWP is of great interest to paleoclimatologists and modelers because accurate geological data would help to explain the behavior of sea level (SL) and ice sheets in a past warmer climates. Our modern industrial Earth is rapidly approaching this ominous benchmark (395.77 ppmv 6/2012). The trailing continental margin and far-field sites of western and southern Republic of South Africa (RSA) yield abundant coastal imprints of Miocene to Pleistocene seastands. Existing literature identifies zone fossils, and a few unpublished Sr-isotope ages that correlate these shoreline deposits with Pliocene highstands. Younger Pleistocene SL benchmarks provide indications of the regional tectonic stability, with MIS 5e (125 ka) deposits widely correlated along RSA coasts at about +3 m asl. Precise elevations of geomorphic, sedimentary, and biological SL indicators were measured in Western and Northern Cape Provinces of RSA with decimeter accuracy using an OmniStar differential GPS. High-resolution SL indicators (within 0.5 m of paleo-SL) include abrasion platforms (Fig 1), marine terraces, sub-, inter-, and supratidal sedimentary structures, and in situ marine invertebrates such as shallow water oysters and intertidal barnacles. The coastal geomorphic expression of the MPWP is profound. For more than 0.5 Ma, we hypothesize that high frequency (20-40 ka), low amplitude oscillations of Pliocene SL acted as a shoreline "buzz saw", laterally incising older bedrock, forming extensive planation surfaces along the coastline. We propose these broad geomorphic features are diagnostic of this prolonged interval of low amplitude but consistent SL along relatively stable, non-sediment-dominated coastlines of the world. Although currently uncorrected for post-depositional effects including GIA and dynamic topography, our PLIOMAX team (www.pliomax.org) has documented

  1. Subduction initiation and recycling of Alboran domain derived crustal components prior to the intra-crustal emplacement of mantle peridotites in the Westernmost Mediterranean: isotopic evidence from the Ronda peridotite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Garrido, Carlos J.; Bosch, Delphine; Marchesi, Claudio Claudio; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Hidas, Károly; Barich, Amel

    2014-05-01

    -Rif cordillera crustal rocks that might have been potentially subducted beneath the Alborán domain before the emplacement of Ronda peridotites. Isotopic data rules out potential crustal sources coming from pre-early Miocene Flysch Trough sediments and crustal rocks from the Blanca Unit currently underlying peridotite. Crustal rocks from the Jubrique Unit overlying the Ronda peridotite are the only crustal samples that may account for the relatively high 207Pb-208Pb/204Pb and low 206Pb/204Pb characteristic of the crustal contaminant added to the mantle source of late Cr-pyroxenites. These data strongly support Alboran geodynamic models that envisage slab roll-back as the tectonic mechanism responsible for Miocene lithospheric thinning, and provides a scenario where back-arc inversion leading to self-subduction of crustal units at the front of the Alboran wedge. REFERENCES 1. Durand-Delga, M., P. Rossi, P. Olivier, and D. Puglisi, Situation structurale et nature ophiolitique de roches basiques jurassiques associées aux flyschs maghrébins du Rif (Maroc) et de Sicile (Italie). Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences - Series IIA - Earth and Planetary Science, 2000. 331(1): p. 29-38. 2. Lenoir, X., C. Garrido, J.L. Bodinier, J.M. Dautria, and F. Gervilla, The Recrystallization Front of the Ronda Peridotite: Evidence for Melting and Thermal Erosion of Subcontinental Lithospheric Mantle beneath the Alboran Basin. Journal of Petrology, 2001. 42(1): p. 141-158. 3. Garrido, C.J., F. Gueydan, G. Booth-Rea, J. Precigout, K. Hidas, J.A. Padrón-Navarta, and C. Marchesi, Garnet lherzolite and garnet-spinel mylonite in the Ronda peridotite: Vestiges of Oligocene backarc mantle lithospheric extension in the western Mediterranean. Geology, 2011. 4. Balanyá, J.C., V. García-Dueñas, J.M. Azañón, and M. Sánchez-Gómez, Alternating contractional and extensional events in the Alpujarride nappes of the Alboran Domain (Betics, Gibraltar Arc). Tectonics, 1997. 16(2): p. 226-238. 5. Platt, J

  2. Ophiolites of the deep-sea trenches of the western Pacific

    SciTech Connect

    Chudaev, O.

    1990-06-01

    Igneous and metamorphic rocks of ophiolites are widespread in the basement of the Izu-Bonin, Volcano, Mariana, Philippine, Yap, Palau, New Hebrides, West Melanesian, Tonga, and Mussau trenches. Ophiolite in the trenches includes (1) metamorphic rocks ranging from low-T and low P to high-T and moderate P; (2) serpentinites after harzburgite; (3) ultramafic-mafic layered series; (4) tholeiitic basalts, dolerites, and their metamorphosed varieties; and (5) rocks of the boninitic series. Two geodynamic stages could be distinguished in the formation of the ophiolites of the Western Pacific. At the rifting stage, mantle diapir ascended during rifting and magmatic series were formed. In this period, rocks underwent intense low-temperature metasomatic alterations in the zones of heated seawater circulation. At the compression stage (subduction zone) regional pressure metamorphism of the ophiolites superimposed on the low-temperature metasomatic processes.

  3. Submarine mass wasting and associated tsunami risk offshore western Thailand, Andaman Sea, Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, J. M.; Krastel, S.; Grün, M.; Gross, F.; Pananont, P.; Jintasaeranee, P.; Bunsomboonsakul, S.; Weinrebe, W.; Winkelmann, D.

    2012-08-01

    2-D seismic data from the top and the western slope of Mergui Ridge in water depths between 300 and 2200 m off the Thai west coast have been investigated in order to identify mass transport deposits (MTDs) and evaluate the tsunamigenic potential of submarine landslides in this outer shelf area. Based on our newly collected data, 17 mass transport deposits have been identified. Minimum volumes of individual MTDs range between 0.3 km3 and 14 km3. Landslide deposits have been identified in three different settings: (i) stacked MTDs within disturbed and faulted basin sediments at the transition of the East Andaman Basin to the Mergui Ridge; (ii) MTDs within a pile of drift sediments at the basin-ridge transition; and (iii) MTDs near the edge of/on top of Mergui Ridge in relatively shallow water depths (< 1000 m). Our data indicate that the Mergui Ridge slope area seems to have been generally unstable with repeated occurrence of slide events. We find that the most likely causes for slope instabilities may be the presence of unstable drift sediments, excess pore pressure, and active tectonics. Most MTDs are located in large water depths (> 1000 m) and/or comprise small volumes suggesting a small tsunami potential. Moreover, the recurrence rates of failure events seem to be low. Some MTDs with tsunami potential, however, have been identified on top of Mergui Ridge. Mass-wasting events that may occur in the future at similar locations may trigger tsunamis if they comprise sufficient volumes. Landslide tsunamis, emerging from slope failures in the working area and affecting western Thailand coastal areas therefore cannot be excluded, though the probability is very small compared to the probability of earthquake-triggered tsunamis, arising from the Sunda Trench.

  4. Dissolved organic carbon in the South China Sea and its exchange with the Western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kai; Dai, Minhan; Chen, Junhui; Meng, Feifei; Li, Xiaolin; Liu, Zhiyu; Du, Chuanjun; Gan, Jianping

    2015-12-01

    Based on a large and high quality dataset of total organic carbon (TOC, an approximation of dissolved organic carbon) collected from three cruises in spring, fall and winter in 2009-2011, we examined the distribution of TOC and its seasonality in the oligotrophic regime of the Northern South China Sea (NSCS) as well as its exchanges with the West Philippine Sea (WPS) in the Northwest Pacific Ocean through the Luzon Strait, the only deep channel linking the South China Sea (SCS) and the Pacific Ocean. Surface TOC concentration in the slope and basin areas of the NSCS varied from 65 to 75 μmol L-1 with relatively high values in the northeast part (southwest of Taiwan Island) in spring, and in the eastern parts of the NSCS during fall and winter. The TOC inventory in the upper 100 m of the water column ranged from 6.0-7.5 mol m-2 with a similar distribution pattern as the surface TOC concentration. There were two most significant differences in the TOC profiles between the SCS and the WPS. One was in the upper 200 m, where more TOC was accumulated in the WPS; the other was in the intermediate layer at ~1000-1500 m, where the gradient of TOC concentration was still persistent below 1000 m in the SCS, a feature which did not exist in the WPS. At this intermediate layer, there also appeared an excess of TOC in the SCS as compared with that in the WPS. The TOC concentration below 2000 m in the SCS was identical to that in the Northwestern Pacific, both of which were ~40 μmol L-1 without significant difference among stations and seasons, suggesting that this deep water TOC was homogeneously distributed in the deep SCS basin owing to the fast replenishment of the deep water from the WPS. We adopted an isopycnal mixing model to derive the water proportion contributed respectively from the SCS and Kuroshio along individual isopycnal plane and examined the impact of the Kuroshio intrusion on the TOC in the NSCS. The upper 100 m TOC inventory in the NSCS was overall

  5. New insights into the organic carbon export in the Mediterranean Sea from 3-D modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyennon, A.; Baklouti, M.; Diaz, F.; Palmieri, J.; Beuvier, J.; Lebaupin-Brossier, C.; Arsouze, T.; Béranger, K.; Dutay, J.-C.; Moutin, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is one of the most oligotrophic regions of the oceans, and nutrients have been shown to limit both phytoplankton and bacterial activities, resulting in a potential major role of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export in the biological pump. Strong DOC accumulation in surface waters is already well documented, though measurements of DOC stocks and export flux are still sparse and associated with major uncertainties. This study provides the first basin-scale overview and analysis of organic carbon stocks and export fluxes in the Mediterranean Sea through a modeling approach based on a coupled model combining a mechanistic biogeochemical model (Eco3M-MED) and a high-resolution (eddy-resolving) hydrodynamic simulation (NEMO-MED12). The model is shown to reproduce the main spatial and seasonal biogeochemical characteristics of the Mediterranean Sea. Model estimations of carbon export are also of the same order of magnitude as estimations from in situ observations, and their respective spatial patterns are mutually consistent. Strong differences between the western and eastern basins are evidenced by the model for organic carbon export. Though less oligotrophic than the eastern basin, the western basin only supports 39 % of organic carbon (particulate and dissolved) export. Another major result is that except for the Alboran Sea, the DOC contribution to organic carbon export is higher than that of particulate organic carbon (POC) throughout the Mediterranean Sea, especially in the eastern basin. This paper also investigates the seasonality of DOC and POC exports as well as the differences in the processes involved in DOC and POC exports in light of intracellular quotas. Finally, according to the model, strong phosphate limitation of both bacteria and phytoplankton growth is one of the main drivers of DOC accumulation and therefore of export.

  6. Pliocene Transgression in the Western Mediterranean Sea: Strontium Isotopes from Cuevas Del Almanzora (Se Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Daniel W.

    1993-02-01

    The deposition of marine sediments in the deep Mediterranean basins following the Messinian salinity crisis ("Zanclean Deluge") began at 4.9 Ma and continued until normal marine conditions prevailed at 4.6 Ma. The Betic Strait of southeast Spain, the Rif Strait of northern Morocco, and the Strait of Gibraltar have been postulated as possible entry ways for the marine waters into the Mediterranean. Two possible explanations have been offered for the timing of the deposition of marine hemipelagic marls in the Vera Basin (Cuevas del Almanzora section) within the Betic Strait: (1) early Pliocene, representing the "Zanclean Deluge" (Cita et al., 1980), (2) Messinian (˜5.7 Ma), representing the last marine stage before the Messinian salinity crisis (Benson and Rakic-El Bied, 1991; Benson et al., 1991). The strontium isotopic ratio on mixed assemblages of foraminifers from these marine marls was determined in order to assess their ages. The average 87Sr/86Sr (0.709033±24) of the seven measured samples is, compared to the base of the Miocene/Pliocene boundary stratotype at Capo Rossello, Sicily, higher by 38 × 10-6 and yields an age of 4.6±0.5 Ma when compared to the established open ocean Sr seawater curve. The determined age indicates that (1) the first 3.6 m of marine deposits of the Cuevas del Almanzora section sensu Cita et al. (1980) including the passage zone are Pliocene, (2) the earliest marine Pliocene might not be represented at Cuevas del Almanzora indicating that this marginal basin at the edge of the Mediterranean Sea, yet within the former Betic Strait, was filled progressively by a marine transgression originating from the Mediterranean Sea around 4.6 Ma. The absence of lowermost Pliocene sediments could suggest that the Betic Strait did not serve as a conduit for the water masses entering the Mediterranean basins during the early Pliocene; and (3) the presence of an early evolutionary stage of Globorotalia margaritae in the Moroccan Bou Regreg section

  7. Benthic prokaryotic community dynamics along the Ardencaple Canyon, Western Greenland Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quéric, Nadia-Valérie; Soltwedel, Thomas

    2012-07-01

    The Ardencaple Canyon, emanating from the Eastern Greenland continental rise over a distance of about 200 km towards the Greenland Basin, was investigated to determine the effect of enhanced down-slope transport mechanisms on deep-sea benthic prokaryotic communities. The concentration of viable bacterial cells (Live/Dead®BacLight) and prokaryotic incorporation rates (3H-thymidine, 14C-leucine) increased with increasing distance from the continental shelf. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) results from terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis indicated a spatial coherence between the benthic bacterial community structure, prokaryotic incorporation rates, water content, protein concentration and the total organic matter in the sediments. The community complexity in sediments at 4-5 cm depth was lower in the central parts of the channel compared with the northern and the southern levees, while richness in surface sediments of all stations was similar. Lacking any clear indications for a recent mass sediment transport or funneled shelf drainage flows, high similarities between bacterial assemblages in sediments along the canyon course may thus be governed by a combination of an ice-edge induced particle flux, episodic down-slope and canyon-guided transport mechanisms.

  8. Seawater-derived neodymium isotope records in the Chukchi Sea, western Arctic Ocean during Holocene: implications for oceanographic circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Borom; Nam, Seung-Il; Huh, Youngsook; Lee, Mi Jung

    2015-04-01

    Changes in oceanographic circulation in the Artic have a large influence on the global oceanic and climate system of the Earth through the geological times. In particular, freshwater input from the North Pacific to the western Arctic Ocean affects the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) after the opening of the Bering Strait. Seawater-derived neodymium isotope in marine sediments has been used as a proxy to trace the origin of water masses and oceanic circulation system. The global average residence time of Nd is shorter than the global ocean mixing time and dissolved Nd in seawater behaves quasi-conservatively. In the modern Arctic Ocean, the Nd isotope distribution is dominated by Atlantic source water, although the circum-Arctic riverine discharge and Pacific-derived waters also have noticeable impacts. In this study, we investigated seawater-derived neodymium isotope records from a sediment core recovered from the Chukchi Sea to understand the changes in hydrograhic circulation of the western Arctic during the Holocene. A gravity core, ARA02B 01A, was collected on the northern shelf of the Chukchi Sea (73°37.8939'N, 166°30.9838'W, ca. 111 m in water depth) during the RV Araon expedition in 2011. To obtain seawater-derived Nd records, we extracted Fe-Mn oxide coatings as an authigenic fraction from bulk sediments by leaching with acid-reducing solution after removing carbonate by leaching with acetic acid. Our preliminary results might show a general pattern of increasing radiogenic ɛNd values through Holocene intervals. Therefore, it implies that ɛNd results may be related with variations in the intensity of Bering Strait inflow during the last ~9.31 ka BP. The radiogenic trend was strongly pronounced from the late Holocene (ɛNd -7.23; ca. 8.84 ka BP) to the middle Holocene (ɛNd -4.78; ca. 6.18 ka BP) and vaguely during the middle Holocene. After 4.13 ka BP, ɛNd values were increased again from -4.86 to -4.03 at 0.57 ka BP. But 87Sr/86Sr

  9. High-resolution seismic-reflection interpretations of some sediment deposits, Antarctic continental margin: Focus on the western Ross Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karl, Herman A.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution seismic-reflection data have been used to a varying degree by geoscientists to interpret the history of marine sediment accumulations around Antarctica. Reconnaissance analysis of 1-, 3.5-, and 12-kHz data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in the western Ross Sea has led to the identification of eight echo-character facies and six microtopographic facies in the sediment deposits that overlie the Ross Sea unconformity. Three depositional facies regions, each characterized by a particular assemblage of echo-character type and microtopographic facies, have been identified on the continental shelf. These suites of acoustic facies are the result of specific depositional processes that control type and accumulation of sediment in a region. Evidence of glacial processes and products is uncommon in regions 1 and 2, but is abundant in region 3. McMurdo Sound, region 1, is characterized by a monospecific set of acoustic facies. This unique assemblage probably represents turbidity current deposition in the western part of the basin. Most of the seafloor in region 2, from about latitude 77??S to 75??S, is deeper than 600 m below sealevel. The microtopographic facies and echo-character facies observed on the lower slopes and basin floor there reflect the thin deposits of pelagic sediments that have accumulated in the low-energy conditions that are typical of deep-water environments. In shallower water near the boundary with region 3, the signature of the acoustic facies is different from that in deeper water and probably indicates higher energy conditions or, perhaps, ice-related processes. Thick deposits of tills emplaced by lodgement during the most recent advance of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet are common from latitude 75??S to the northern boundary of the study area just south of Coulman Island (region 3). The signature of microtopographic facies in this region reflects the relief of the base of the grounded ice sheet prior to decoupling from the

  10. Sun-Illuminated Sea Floor Topography of Quadrangle 1 in the Great South Channel, Western Georges Bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valentine, Page C.; Middleton, Tammie J.; Malczyk, Jeremy T.

    2002-01-01

    The Great South Channel separates the western part of Georges Bank from Nantucket Shoals and is a major conduit for the exchange of water between the Gulf of Maine to the north and the Atlantic Ocean to the south. Water depths range mostly between 65 and 80 m in the region. A minimum depth of 45 m occurs in the east-central part of the mapped area, and a maximum depth of 100 m occurs in the northwest corner. The channel region is characterized by strong tidal and storm currents that flow dominantly north and south. Major topographic features of the seabed were formed by glacial and postglacial processes. Ice containing rock debris moved from north to south, sculpting the region into a broad shallow depression and depositing sediment to form the irregular depressions and low gravelly mounds and ridges that are visible in parts of the mapped area. Many other smaller glacial featuresprobably have been eroded by waves and currents at worksince the time when the region, formerly exposed bylowered sea level or occupied by ice, was invaded by the sea. The low, irregular and somewhat lumpy fabric formed by the glacial deposits is obscured in places by drifting sand and by the linear, sharp fabric formed by modern sand features. Today, sand transported by the strong north-south-flowing tidal and storm currents has formed large, east-west-trending dunes. These bedforms (ranging between 5 and 20 m in height) contrast strongly with, and partly mask, the subdued topography of the older glacial features.

  11. Localized accumulation and a shelf-basin gradient of particles in the Chukchi Sea and Canada Basin, western Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Yosuke; Fukuda, Hideki; Uchimiya, Mario; Motegi, Chiaki; Nishino, Shigeto; Kikuchi, Takashi; Nagata, Toshi

    2015-07-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), particulate organic carbon (POC), and particles (size range: 5.2-119 μm) as determined by laser in situ scattering and transmissometry (LISST) were measured in the water column from the Chukchi Sea to the Canada Basin in the western Arctic Ocean, during the late summer of 2012. In general, the percentages of TEP-carbon to POC were high (the mean values for the shelf and slope-basin regions were 135.4 ± 58.0% (± standard deviation, n = 36) and 187.6 ± 73.3% (n = 58), respectively), relative to the corresponding values reported for other oceanic regions, suggesting that TEP play an important role in regulating particle dynamics. A hotspot (extremely high concentration) of particles, accompanied by high prokaryote abundance and production, was observed near the seafloor (depth 50 m) of the shelf region. Localized accumulation of particles was also found in the thin layer near the pycnocline (depth 10-30 m) and on the slope. Over a broader spatial scale, particle concentration gradients were identified from the shelf to the basin in the upper water column (<50 m). The particle-size distribution analysis indicated that relatively small particles were dominant in the shelf region compared to the slope-basin region. These results suggest that particles containing large amounts of TEP are produced in the shelf region and are potentially delivered to the slope-basin region along the pycnocline, which might support productivity and material cycles in the nutrient-depleted basin region of the western Arctic Ocean.

  12. Volcanic activity recorded in deep-sea sediments and the geodynamic evolution of western Pacific island arcs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cambray, Hervé; Pubellier, Manuel; Jolivet, Laurent; Pouclet, André

    A compilation of volcanic ashes interbedded in deep-sea sediments was carried out from DSDP-IPOD and ODP data collected along the western Pacific margin. Using a tephrochronological method, we attempted to reconstruct the Cenozoic and Quaternary volcanic activity of major western Pacific arcs. For every arc, established volcanic episodes and volcanic-tectonic evolution recorded on land were compared. This study reveals close connections between tectonic events and volcanic activity of arcs, as well a temporal relationship between the opening of marginal basins and arc volcanism. In the Tohoku (NE Japan) and Bonin arcs (SE Japan), arc volcanic activity clearly vanishes during backarc spreading. In contrast, intense volcanism occurs during both arc rifting and intervals of no spreading. Detailed comparisons show that the maximum volcanic output is closely connected with the stress field evolution recorded on land. The case of Seinan arc (SW Japan) shows a good fit between volcanic episodes and periods of release of the compressional stress field after major orogenic events. Furthermore, in the marine sediments off Japan, a systematic late Miocene volcanic hiatus interpreted as a quiescence of volcanic activity corresponds to a changing stress field on the Tohoku and Bonin arcs. These correlations between volcanic episodicity and tectonic evolution of island arcs allow us to discuss the influence of subduction process on arc volcanism. In the Philippines, the volcanic signal in marine sediments is compromised by rapid alteration and diagenesis of ashes. Nonetheless, only the main events of arc volcanic activity are preserved. A comparison with on land volcanism shows that this filtered volcanic signal in different places corresponds to incipient subduction (transition from passive to active margins) or to the final stages of basin closure.

  13. New estimation of N2 fixation in the western and central Pacific Ocean and its marginal seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, Takuhei; Furuya, Ken; Kodama, Taketoshi; Kitajima, Satoshi; Takeda, Shigenobu; Takemura, Toshihiko; Kanda, Jota

    2010-03-01

    The distribution of N2 fixation was examined using a 15N2 tracer with accompanying measurements of abundance of Trichodesmium spp. and Richelia intracellularis, nitrate plus nitrite (N+N) and soluble reactive phosphorus at the nanomolar level, and primary production in the western and central Pacific Ocean. N2 fixation occurred only in >˜20°C oligotrophic (i.e., N+N < 100 nM) waters except at a station in the equatorial upwelling zone where N+N was 1880 nM. High N2 fixation rates were observed in the Kuroshio and East China Sea (KECS) and near Fiji and other isolated islands with concomitant high abundance of Trichodesmium spp. In contrast, N2 fixation in the western and central oligotrophic North Pacific (WCONP) was significantly lower, and Trichodesmium spp. were rarely observed. These observations hint that KECS and waters around isolated islands are N2 fixation "hot spots" because of the occurrence of Trichodesmium spp. The average N2 fixation rate in the KECS of 232 ± 54.8 (±SE, n = 13) μmol N m-2 d-1 was almost 1 order of magnitude higher than that in the WCONP of 39.2 ± 7.51 (n = 26) μmol N m-2 d-1. On the basis of these estimates and reported values obtained using 15N2, depth-integrated N2 fixation in the North Pacific was estimated to be 2.6 ± 0.3 × 109 (n = 63) mol N d-1, which is less than half of previous estimates. This difference was ascribed primarily to the unavailability of N2 fixation rates in the WCONP, which occupies a vast area of the subtropical North Pacific, and the use of data obtained in the hot spots which represent small areas that likely led to the previous overestimation.

  14. Precessional changes in the western equatorial Pacific Hydroclimate: A 240 kyr marine record from the Halmahera Sea, East Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Haowen; Jian, Zhimin; Kissel, Catherine; Bassinot, Franck

    2015-01-01

    the precession band, an interhemispheric antiphase pattern in the tropical hydroclimate is supported by many paleorecords, and optimally explained by the forcing of precessional insolation change. However, scenarios within the western equatorial Pacific (WEP), which plays the role of the ascending center of atmospheric convection, remain poorly determined. In this study, a marine sediment core from the Halmahera Sea, East Indonesia, was analyzed with high-resolution XRF scanning, quantitative discrete XRF, and ICP-AES/MS measurements. The terrigenous fractions in this core are constrained by their trace elemental characteristics to be locally sourced from Halmahera Island, and hence reflect variations in the local riverine runoff and precipitation. On this basis, a continuous record of precipitation changes of the western equatorial Pacific was reconstructed with multidecadal resolution over the last ˜240 ka, using an age model established by the correlation between an adjusted ice volume model and benthic δ18O constrained by 14C dating. The records of terrigenous input show a dominant ˜23 kyr periodicity with a 90°˜100° phase lag to the boreal summer (i.e., in-phase with the boreal autumn) insolation change. This pattern can be explained by the variability in the convective activity over the WEP, which might be primarily controlled by precessional changes in the El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) system. A dynamic linkage is implied between the precessional variations in the convective activity in the WEP and the East Asian and Australia-Indonesian summer monsoons (EASM and AISM), in the sense of their distinct stable phase relationship to precession.

  15. Millennial-scale variability of marine productivity and terrigenous matter supply in the western Bering Sea over the past 180 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riethdorf, J.-R.; Nürnberg, D.; Max, L.; Tiedemann, R.; Gorbarenko, S. A.; Malakhov, M. I.

    2012-12-01

    We used piston cores recovered in the western Bering Sea to reconstruct millennial-scale changes in marine productivity and terrigenous matter supply over the past ~180 kyr. Based on a geochemical multi-proxy approach our results indicate closely interacting processes controlling marine productivity and terrigenous matter supply comparable to the situation in the Okhotsk Sea. Overall, terrigenous inputs were high, whereas primary production was low. Minor increases in marine productivity occurred during warm intervals of stage 5 and interstadials, but pronounced maxima were recorded during interglacials and Termination I. Seasonal sea-ice is suggested to act as the dominant transport agent for terrigenous material. From our results we propose glacial, deglacial, and interglacial scenarios for environmental change in the Bering Sea. These changes seem to be primarily controlled by insolation and sea-level forcing which affect the strength of atmospheric pressure systems and sea-ice growth. The opening history of the Bering Strait and the Aleutian passes is considered to have had an additional impact. Sea-ice dynamics are thought to drive changes in surface productivity, terrigenous inputs, and upper-ocean stratification. High-resolution core logging data (color b*, XRF scans) strongly correspond to the Dansgaard-Oeschger climate variability registered in the NGRIP ice core and support an atmospheric coupling mechanism of Northern Hemisphere climates.

  16. Millennial-scale variability of marine productivity and terrigenous matter supply in the western Bering Sea over the past 180 kyr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riethdorf, J.-R.; Nürnberg, D.; Max, L.; Tiedemann, R.; Gorbarenko, S. A.; Malakhov, M. I.

    2013-06-01

    We used piston cores recovered in the western Bering Sea to reconstruct millennial-scale changes in marine productivity and terrigenous matter supply over the past ~180 kyr. Based on a geochemical multi-proxy approach, our results indicate closely interacting processes controlling marine productivity and terrigenous matter supply comparable to the situation in the Okhotsk Sea. Overall, terrigenous inputs were high, whereas export production was low. Minor increases in marine productivity occurred during intervals of Marine Isotope Stage 5 and interstadials, but pronounced maxima were recorded during interglacials and Termination I. The terrigenous material is suggested to be derived from continental sources on the eastern Bering Sea shelf and to be subsequently transported via sea ice, which is likely to drive changes in surface productivity, terrigenous inputs, and upper-ocean stratification. From our results we propose glacial, deglacial, and interglacial scenarios for environmental change in the Bering Sea. These changes seem to be primarily controlled by insolation and sea-level forcing which affect the strength of atmospheric pressure systems and sea-ice growth. The opening history of the Bering Strait is considered to have had an additional impact. High-resolution core logging data (color b*, XRF scans) strongly correspond to the Dansgaard-Oeschger climate variability registered in the NGRIP ice core and support an atmospheric coupling mechanism of Northern Hemisphere climates.

  17. New evidence for the postglacial lowstand of sea level in the western Gulf of Maine

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhardt, W.A.; Belknap, D.F.; Bund, S. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Kelley, J.T. )

    1992-01-01

    Emergent glaciomarine deltas in Maine exhibit variable geometry and internal architecture related to differing accommodation space and the irregular topography of underlying Paleozoic bedrock. Recently, 1,024 km of new side-scan sonar records and 235 km of seismic reflection profiles were used to map the distribution of surficial sediments, to understand their relationship to the region's Quaternary stratigraphy, and to refine models of delta evolution during times of rapidly changing base-level. These lowstand deposits are as variable as their highstand counterparts, and their morphology and seismic stratigraphy appear controlled by local bedrock topography. Seaward of the Kennebec River, a large fan-shaped paleodelta overlies the eroded surface of older glacial sediments. Fine-grained materials, unconformably overlying glaciomarine sediments and interpreted as prodeltaic muds, comprise a significant portion of the delta's volume. Although multi-lobate and initially conceived as a classic Gilbert type delta, seaward-dipping reflectors above the inferred prodeltaic deposits are generally interpreted as channel-fill deposits, not foresets. Holocene erosion has removed most evidence of topset beds except in a few areas sheltered by linear bedrock shoals and islands. Erosion has also locally exhumed portions of the underlying glacial sediments, creating a palimpsest of rippled gravel ribbons across the otherwise sandy delta top. Sandy paleodeltas do not exist seaward of other Maine rivers which drain similar terrain. The absence of thick, sandy deltas seaward of these rivers and the presence of regressive sand deposits in their upper valleys implies local differences in sediment supply and in the timing of their formation with respect to deglaciation and relative sea-level changes.

  18. Biologically active warm-core anticyclonic eddies in the marginal seas of the western Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuh-ling Lee; Chen, Houng-Yung; Jan, Sen; Lin, Yen-Huei; Kuo, Tien-Hsia; Hung, Jia-Jang

    2015-12-01

    Our investigations in the northern South China Sea (SCS) have revealed warm-core anticyclonic eddies that had a depressed pycnocline and a high biological productivity and phytoplankton abundance. With an elliptical shape of 420-430 km in major axis and 240-260 km in minor axis, these eddies were formed in the winter as the Kuroshio Current intruded through the Luzon Strait into the SCS under the prevailing northeast monsoon. They were characterized by a deep mixed layer up to 140-180 m, in which nitrate was relatively abundant. Although chlorophyll a concentration per volume of seawater was not always higher inside than outside the eddies, water-column (0-200 m) integrated chlorophyll a concentration and abundances of Synechococcus, coccolithophores, and diatoms were higher inside than outside the eddies. Primary productivity and nitrate-uptake new production inside the eddies were higher than or equal to those outside the eddies. Unlike the mode-water anticyclonic eddy that is biologically productive with a domed shallow seasonal pycnocline, the eddies we investigated had high surface temperatures and depressed pycnoclines in the upper water column. Possible explanations for these biological aspects were that the eddies were at their decaying stage, the eddies re-incorporated intermittently with an intruding Kuroshio branch, or the passage of the prevalent high amplitude internal tides introduced nutrients to the eddies. Frequent occurrences of eddies in oceanic regimes, especially cold eddies, are associated with high biological activity. Some warm eddies, such as these investigated in the present study, also have high biological activities, indicating that more rigorous in situ studies relating to eddy biological activity are needed in ocean regimes such as the SCS, where a half of the eddies are warm eddies.

  19. Critical storm thresholds for morphological changes in the western Black Sea coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonova, Ekaterina V.; Valchev, Nikolay N.; Andreeva, Nataliya K.; Eftimova, Petya T.

    2012-03-01

    Storms are one of the phenomena determining the short-term evolution of coasts by influencing the erosion and accretion patterns of the beaches. Some severe storms could cause loss of beach sediments, partial or complete destruction of coastal structures and even threaten human life and occupation. Bearing this in mind, it is essential to comprehend, which storms could evoke transient, although in some instances, significant morphological changes, and which could be considered as hazardous and result in catastrophic damage. This issue implies establishment of a set of critical thresholds for storm impact on coastal morphology. The paper presents a regional scale analysis of the near-shore morphological response of five beaches to storms of varying intensity. The analysis is accomplished by coupling of offshore wave and cross-shore profile data obtained for the Bulgarian Black sea coast. The historical storm pattern is reconstructed through hindcast using a coupled wave model system, while resulting morphological changes, such as shoreline alteration and cross-shore profile evolution, are estimated by analysis of long-term series of coastal measurements performed in 1970-1977 and 2008-2010. The storm impact thresholds are set in terms of integral wave energy taking into account both storm pattern and duration. It was found that the morphological response to storm impact is site specific and single-value thresholds are difficult to be established even at regional scale. Nevertheless, a range of critical storm thresholds is proposed. Thus, storms with integral wave energy varying within threshold values 0.4-0.7 × 106 J m-2 are regarded as capable of significant morphological changes, while less energetic events are supposed to influence predominately the seasonal beach dynamics. Furthermore, storms with integral wave energy higher than 0.7 × 106 J m-2 represent potentially destructive events that can change irreversibly the beach pattern or damage impact.

  20. Time-series photographs of the sea floor in western Massachusetts Bay, version 2, 1989-1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Dalyander, P. Soupy; Bothner, Michael H.; Lange, William N.

    2008-01-01

    Time-series photographs of the sea floor were obtained from an instrumented tripod deployed in western Massachusetts Bay at LT-A (42° 22.6' N, 70° 47.0' W; nominal water depth of 32 m; fig. 1) from December 1989 through September 2005. The photographs provide time-series observations of physical changes of the sea floor, near-bottom water turbidity, and life on the sea floor. Several reports present these photographs in digital form (table 1). This report, U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 265, Version 2.0, contains the photographs obtained from December 1989 to October 1996, adding to (and replacing) Version 1 of Data Series 265 (Butman and others, 2007a) that contained photographs from 1989 through 1993. Data Series 266 (Butman and others, 2008b) contains photographs obtained from October 1996 through September 2005. The photographs are published in separate reports because the data files are too large for distribution on a single DVD. These reports present the photographs, originally collected on 35-mm film, in digital form to enable easy viewing and to provide a medium-resolution digital archive. The photographs, obtained every 4 or every 6 hours, are presented as individual photographs (in .png format) and as a movie (in .avi format). The time-series photographs taken at LT-A were collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study to understand the transport and fate of sediments and associated contaminants in Massachusetts Bay and Cape Cod Bay (Bothner and Butman, 2007). This long-term study was carried out by the USGS in partnership with the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) (http://www.mwra.state.ma.us/) and with logistical support from the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG). Long-term oceanographic observations help to identify the processes causing bottom sediment resuspension and transport and provide data for developing and testing numerical models. The observations document seasonal and interannual changes in currents, hydrography

  1. 3D multidisciplinary numerical model of polychlorinated biphenyl dynamics on the Black Sea north-western shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagaiev, Andrii; Ivanov, Vitaliy

    2014-05-01

    The Black Sea north-western shelf plays a key role in economics of the developing countries such as Ukraine due to food supply, invaluable recreational potential and variety of the relevant maritime shipping routes. On the other hand, a shallow flat shelf is mostly affected by anthropogenic pollution, eutrophication, hypoxia and harmful algae blooms. The research is focused on modeling the transport and transformation of PCBs (PolyChlorinated Biphenyls) because they are exceedingly toxic and highly resistant to degradation, hence cumulatively affect marine ecosystems. Being lipophilic compounds, PCBs demonstrate the distinguishing sorption/desorption activity taking part in the biogeochemical fluxes via the organic matter particles and sediments. In the framework of the research, the coastal in-situ data on PCB concentration in the water column and sediments are processed, visualized and analyzed. It is concluded that the main sources of PCBs are related to the Danube discharge and resuspension from the shallow-water sediments. Developed 3D numerical model is aimed at simulation of PCB contamination of the water column and sediment. The model integrates the full physics hydrodynamic block as well as modules, which describe detritus transport and transformation and PCB dynamics. Three state variables are simulated in PCB transport module: concentration in solute, on the settling particles of detritus and in the top layer of sediments. PCB adsorption/desorption on detritus; the reversible PCB fluxes at the water-sediment boundary; destruction of detritus are taken into consideration. Formalization of PCB deposition/resuspension in the sediments is adapted from Van Rijn's model of the suspended sediment transport. The model was spun up to reconstruct the short term scenario of the instantaneous PCB release from the St. George Arm of Danube. It has been shown that PCB transport on sinking detritus represents the natural buffer mechanism damping the spreading PCB

  2. Collapse of the sea surface stability during the Miocene to Quartenary in the Western Pacific Ocean, indicated by Discoaster abundance and Coccolith size change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, T.; Pratiwi, S. D.; Farida, M.

    2013-12-01

    We describe in detail the middle Miocene to Pleistocene paleoceanography of the Western Pacific Ocean based on calcareous nannofossils. Abundantly occurrence of discoasters, which indicates the stable sea surface stratification and the development of thermo- and nutri-cline, are found in the interval from NN2 to NN4 zones of the early Miocene. The relative abundance of discoaster is decreased in the NN4-5 zone and it changed to very rare above NN10 (B in Fig.1). These characteristics are found in both Sites 805 and 782. Focusing to the mean size of Reticulofenestra species, it decreased at NN4-5 zone (A in Fig 2), and lower part of NN11 (B in Fig. 2). The presence of larger size Reticulofenestra species also show the oligotrophic conditions of sea surface with thermocline. On the basis of these results, the collapse of the stability of the sea surface stratification in the Western Pacific Ocean progressed throughout the Miocene to Quaternary. As the results, nutrient conditions of sea surface in these area were changed in steps from oligotrophic to eutrophic conditions at NN4-5 and lower part of NN11 (A and B in Fig. 2). These datum related to collapse of sea surface conditions, is cleary correlated to the timing of the end of Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (A) and the intensify of the Asian Monsoon (B; Fig. 2).

  3. Segregation of herring larvae from inshore and offshore spawning grounds in the north-western North Sea — Implications for stock structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, M.

    Herring larvae hatching from spawning sites around the Scottish coast are dispersed by water currents during the weeks following hatching. Hydrographic data, observations on the distribution of caesium-137 and measurements of current velocities by moored meters and drifting buoys, suggest that larvae from offshore spawning sites around the north of Scotland should be more rapidly dispersed than those hatching in inshore areas. This has been confirmed by direct observations on the advection of herring larvae in different regions of the north western North Sea. The conclusion is that larvae hatching in inshore areas, especially in the Moray Firth, are most likely to contribute to nearby juvenile populations, whereas larvae from offshore spawning sites should be widely dispersed over the North Sea. Tagging and parasitology investigations have shown that adult herring spawning in the north-western North Sea have been widely dispersed in the North Sea and adjacent waters as juveniles (six months — one and a half years old). However, a high proportion of adult fish caught at inshore spawning sites and in the Moray Firth were found to have been recruited from more local areas. Taken together with the observations on larval drift, these observations suggest that the stock structure of herring in the northern North Sea may in part be a consequence of the physical oceanography of the area.

  4. Cooling in the western Bering Sea in 1999: quick propagation of La Niña signal or compensatory processes effect?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchenko, V. I.; Khen, G. V.; Slabinsky, A. M.

    In 1999, synoptic and hydrological conditions in the western Bering Sea were characterized by negative SST and air temperature anomalies, extensive ice coverage and late melting. Biological processes were also delayed. In 1999, the average zooplankton biomass was 1.76 g/m 3, approximately half the average 3.07 g/m 3 in 1998. Pacific salmon migrated to the northeastern Kamchatka streams two weeks later. This contrasts with 1997 (spring and summer) and 1998 (summer) when positive SST anomalies were widely distributed throughout the northwestern Bering Sea shelf. Since the second half of the 1990s, seasonal atmospheric processes developed over the western Bering Sea that were similar to those of the cold decades of the 1960-1970s. A meridional atmospheric circulation pattern began to replace zonal transport. Colder Arctic air masses have shifted over the Bering Sea region and shelf water temperatures have cooled considerably with the weakening of zonal atmospheric circulation. Temperature decreased in the cold intermediate layer during its renewal in winter. Besides, oceanic water inflow intensified into the Bering Sea in intermediate layers. Water temperature warmed to 4°C and a double temperature maximum existed in the warm intermediate layer in late summer in both 1997 and 1998. Opposing trends of cold water temperature and a warm intermediate layer led to an increase of vertical gradients in the main thermocline and progressing frontogenesis. It accelerates frontal transport and can be regarded as a chief cause of increased water exchange with the Pacific Ocean.

  5. Hypothermic stunning of green sea turtles in a western Gulf of Mexico foraging habitat.

    PubMed

    Shaver, Donna J; Tissot, Philippe E; Streich, Mary M; Walker, Jennifer Shelby; Rubio, Cynthia; Amos, Anthony F; George, Jeffrey A; Pasawicz, Michelle R

    2017-01-01

    Texas waters provide one of the most important developmental and foraging habitats for juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the western Gulf of Mexico, but hypothermic stunning is a significant threat and was the largest cause of green turtle strandings in Texas from 1980 through 2015; of the 8,107 green turtles found stranded, 4,529 (55.9%) were victims of hypothermic stunning. Additionally, during this time, 203 hypothermic stunned green turtles were found incidentally captured due to power plant water intake entrapment. Overall, 63.9% of 4,529 hypothermic stunned turtles were found alive, and 92.0% of those survived rehabilitation and were released. Numbers of green turtles recorded as stranded and as affected by hypothermic stunning increased over time, and were most numerous from 2007 through 2015. Large hypothermic stunning events (with more than 450 turtles documented) occurred during the winters of 2009-2010, 2010-2011, 2013-2014, and 2014-2015. Hypothermic stunning was documented between November and March, but peaked at various times depending on passage of severe weather systems. Hypothermic stunning occurred state-wide, but was most prevalent in South Texas, particularly the Laguna Madre. In the Laguna Madre, hypothermic stunning was associated with an abrupt drop in water temperatures strong northerly winds, and a threshold mean water temperature of 8.0°C predicted large turtle hypothermic stunning events. Knowledge of environmental parameters contributing to hypothermic stunning and the temporal and spatial distribution of turtles affected in the past, can aid with formulation of proactive, targeted search and rescue efforts that can ultimately save the lives of many affected individuals, and aid with recovery efforts for this bi-national stock. Such rescue efforts are required under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and respond to humanitarian concerns of the public.

  6. Hypothermic stunning of green sea turtles in a western Gulf of Mexico foraging habitat

    PubMed Central

    Tissot, Philippe E.; Streich, Mary M.; Walker, Jennifer Shelby; Rubio, Cynthia; Amos, Anthony F.; George, Jeffrey A.; Pasawicz, Michelle R.

    2017-01-01

    Texas waters provide one of the most important developmental and foraging habitats for juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the western Gulf of Mexico, but hypothermic stunning is a significant threat and was the largest cause of green turtle strandings in Texas from 1980 through 2015; of the 8,107 green turtles found stranded, 4,529 (55.9%) were victims of hypothermic stunning. Additionally, during this time, 203 hypothermic stunned green turtles were found incidentally captured due to power plant water intake entrapment. Overall, 63.9% of 4,529 hypothermic stunned turtles were found alive, and 92.0% of those survived rehabilitation and were released. Numbers of green turtles recorded as stranded and as affected by hypothermic stunning increased over time, and were most numerous from 2007 through 2015. Large hypothermic stunning events (with more than 450 turtles documented) occurred during the winters of 2009–2010, 2010–2011, 2013–2014, and 2014–2015. Hypothermic stunning was documented between November and March, but peaked at various times depending on passage of severe weather systems. Hypothermic stunning occurred state-wide, but was most prevalent in South Texas, particularly the Laguna Madre. In the Laguna Madre, hypothermic stunning was associated with an abrupt drop in water temperatures strong northerly winds, and a threshold mean water temperature of 8.0°C predicted large turtle hypothermic stunning events. Knowledge of environmental parameters contributing to hypothermic stunning and the temporal and spatial distribution of turtles affected in the past, can aid with formulation of proactive, targeted search and rescue efforts that can ultimately save the lives of many affected individuals, and aid with recovery efforts for this bi-national stock. Such rescue efforts are required under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and respond to humanitarian concerns of the public. PMID:28306747

  7. Preliminary hydrocarbon source rock assessment of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations of the western Black Sea region of Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Harput, B.O.; Demirel, I.H.; Karayigit, A.I.; Aydin, M.; Sahintuerk, O.; Bustin, R.M.

    1999-12-01

    Source rock maturity and potential of Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations in the Eregli, Zonguldak, Bartin, Ulus, and Eflani subregions of the western Black Sea region (WBSR), have been investigated by rock-eval pyrolysis, reflected-light microscopy, and palynofacies analyses. The % Ro values of dispersed organic matter of the Paleozoic formations primarily range from 0.72 to 1.8%, but values as high as 2.6% occur locally in the Silurian Findikli Formation in the Eregli subregion. The % Ro values of Namurian-Westphalian coal seams in the K20/H well drilled in the Zonguldak subregion range from 0.87 to 1.52%, with increasing depth consistent with sedimentary depth of burial. Most Cretaceous age samples have reflectance values ranging from 0.44 to 1.6% Ro that indicates they are marginally mature to mature with respect to the oil window. Rock-eval pyrolysis demonstrates that the Paleozoic formations have limited oil-generation potential (HI values {le} 200 mg HC/g C{sub org}), but good gas potential (TOC values up to 3%). Cretaceous formations have better petroleum source rock characteristics, but they too are primarily gas prone. Variations in the source rock maturity probably reflect variable burial histories in different localities of the WBSR.

  8. The fate of Cystoseira crinita, a forest-forming Fucale (Phaeophyceae, Stramenopiles), in France (North Western Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanfuné, A.; Boudouresque, C. F.; Verlaque, M.; Thibaut, T.

    2016-11-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea, Fucales, and in particular the species of the genus Cystoseira C. Agardh, are habitat-forming species dominating several benthic assemblages from the littoral fringe down to 70-80 m depth in the clearest waters. They generate high primary production involved in the maintenance of diversified trophic levels, they provide shelter, food, habitat and nursery areas to many species, and they are long-lived species that constitute a good model for studying human impact on species diversity. Cystoseira crinita Duby is a Mediterranean endemic cespitose species, living in shallow waters (0-5 m depth), in places with little wave action and high solar irradiance. To reconstruct the long-term patterns of change in its distribution along the French Mediterranean coast (French Catalonia, Languedoc, Provence, French Riviera and Corsica), all the historical data (published articles, unpublished reports and herbarium vouchers) collected since the 18th century were searched and analysed. To assess the current status of the species, several field surveys were conducted between 2010 and 2016 by snorkelling and SCUBA diving. Cystoseira crinita is currently extinct in French Catalonia, near-extinct in Languedoc and western Provence, and functionally extinct on the French Riviera coast, while the eastern Provence and Corsican populations have remained stable. The main probable causes of decline are habitat destruction and overgrazing by herbivores.

  9. Helminth communities of loggerhead turtles (Caretta caretta) from Central and Western Mediterranean Sea: the importance of host's ontogeny.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Badillo, Francisco J; Mattiucci, Simonetta; Nascetti, Giuseppe; Bentivegna, Flegra; Insacco, Gianni; Travaglini, Andrea; Paoletti, Michela; Kinsella, John M; Tomás, Jesús; Raga, Juan A; Aznar, Francisco J

    2010-09-01

    We investigated the factors providing structure to the helminth communities of 182 loggerhead sea turtles, Caretta caretta, collected in 6 localities from Central and Western Mediterranean. Fifteen helminth taxa (10 digeneans, 4 nematodes and 1 acanthocephalan) were identified, of which 12 were specialist to marine turtles; very low numbers of immature individuals of 3 species typical from fish or cetaceans were also found. These observations confirm the hypothesis that phylogenetic factors restrict community composition to helminth species specific to marine turtles. There were significant community dissimilarities between turtles from different localities, the overall pattern being compatible with the hypothesis that parasite communities reflect the ontogenetic shift that juvenile loggerheads undergo from oceanic to neritic habitats. The smallest turtles at the putative oceanic, pelagic-feeding stage harboured only the 2 digenean species that were regionally the most frequent, i.e. Enodiotrema megachondrus and Calycodes anthos; the largest turtles at the putative neritic, bottom-feeding stage harboured 11 helminth taxa, including 3 nematode species that were rare or absent in turtles that fed partially on pelagic prey. Mean species richness per host was low (range: 1.60-1.89) and did not differ between localities. Variance ratio tests indicated independent colonization of each helminth species. Both features are expected in ectothermic and vagrant hosts living in the marine environment.

  10. Growth conditions of 0-group plaice Pleuronectes platessa in the western Wadden Sea as revealed by otolith microstructure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Joana F. M. F.; Freitas, Vânia; de Paoli, Hélène; Witte, Johannes IJ.; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2016-05-01

    Growth studies based on population-based growth estimates are limited by the fact that they do not take into account differences in age/size structure within the population. To overcome these problems, otolith microstructure analysis is often used to estimate individual growth. Here, we analyse growth of 0-group plaice in the western Wadden Sea in two years: a year preceded by a mild winter (1995) and a year preceded by a severe winter (1996). Growth was analysed by combining information on individual growth based on otolith analysis with predictions of maximum growth (= under optimal food conditions) based on a Dynamic Energy Budget model. Otolith analysis revealed that settlement occurred earlier in 1995 than in 1996. In both years, one main cohort was found, followed by a group of late settlers. No differences in mean length-at-age were found between these groups. DEB modelling suggested that growth was not maximal during the whole growing season: realized growth (the fraction of maximum growth realized by 0-group plaice) declined in the summer, although this decline was relatively small. In addition, late settling individuals exhibited lower realized growth than individuals from the main cohort. This study confirms that growth conditions for 0-group plaice are not optimal and that a growth reduction occurs in summer, as suggested in previous studies.

  11. Decapod crustacean larval communities in the Balearic Sea (western Mediterranean): Seasonal composition, horizontal and vertical distribution patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Asvin P.; Dos Santos, Antonina; Balbín, Rosa; Alemany, Francisco; Massutí, Enric; Reglero, Patricia

    2014-10-01

    Decapod crustaceans are the main target species of deep water bottom trawl fisheries in the Balearic Sea but little is known about their larval stages. This work focuses on the species composition of the decapod larval community, describing the main spatio-temporal assemblages and assessing their vertical distribution. Mesozooplankton sampling was carried out using depth-stratified sampling devices at two stations located over the shelf break and the mid slope, in the north-western and southern Mallorca in late autumn 2009 and summer 2010. Differences among decapod larvae communities, in terms of composition, adult's habitat such as pelagic or benthic, and distribution patterns were observed between seasons, areas and station. Results showed that for both seasons most species and developmental stages aggregated within the upper water column (above 75 m depth) and showed higher biodiversity in summer compared to late autumn. Most abundant species were pelagic prawns (e.g., Sergestidae) occurring in both seasons and areas. The larval assemblages' distributions were different between seasonal hydrographic scenarios and during situations of stratified and non-stratified water column. The vertical distribution patterns of different larval developmental stages in respect to the adult's habitat were analyzed in relation to environmental variables. Fluorescence had the highest explanatory power. Four clearly