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Sample records for alborz mountain range

  1. P-wave Local Earthquake Tomography in the Central Alborz Mountains, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafanejad, A.; Hosein Shomali, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The Alborz Mountain ranges in the southern margin of the Caspian Sea, as a part of the Alpine- Himalayan orogenic belt is an arc of parallel synclines and anticlines. Among the major tectonic and geological features of the Alborz Mountains are the Damavand quaternary volcano, and active and seismic faults like the Mosha, and North Tehran faults. In this study, the first 3D P-wave velocity model of the upper crust in the Central Alborz Mountains is obtained using a local travel-time earthquake tomography method. A data set of 895 earthquakes recorded on a local 19 station short-period network between 1996 and 2006 provided by the Iranian Seismological Centre (ISC) is used in this inversion. The result of tomography shows considerable velocity anomalies in this region. These anomalies show remarkable features in the vicinity of the Mosha and North Tehran faults, as well as in the Damavand volcanic area. In depth of 15 kilometer a low velocity region is observed parallel to the above two mentioned faults. This can be caused by the crushed rocks along these two faults. In the place of splitting North Tehran fault from the Mosha fault, a very noticeable low velocity anomaly represents intense fracturing in rocks. In the Damavand volcanic area and in the northern side of the summit an anomalous high velocity body found to the depth of 20 kilometer. According to its considerable correlation with the position of the old Damavand cone, it is related to the older and crystallized magma chamber of the Damavand volcano. A low velocity anomaly exactly beneath the present cone to the depth of seven kilometer, with another low velocity anomaly in depth of 10 to 20 kilometer constitutes the present magma chamber of the Damavand volcano.

  2. Clinoptilolite zeolitized tuff from Central Alborz Range, North Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghipour, Batoul

    2010-05-01

    Zeolites are hydrated alumino-silicates of the alkaline and alkaline earth cations, principally sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium (Iijima 1980; Hay 1981). Zeolites occur principally in unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks and are particularly widespread in volcani-clastic strata (Hay, 1978). Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite of the heulandite group with the simplified formula of (Na, K)6 Si30 Al6 O72 .nH2. It is the most common natural zeolite found mainly in sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin. Alborz zone is one of the important geological divisions in Iran. This zone is restricted to Kopeh dagh zone in North & Central Iranian zone in South and is a region of active deformation within the broad Arabian-Eurasia collision zone (Allen et al. 2003). The zeolitized green tuff belt from Central Alborz which introduce here are made of volcanoclastic sequence of Karaj Formation. This belt is about 40 km long along Alborz Range and is Eocene in age. Zeolites and associated minerals of this altered vitric tuff studied. Zeolitization took place in some beds of Karaj Formations, with average range of 3 to 300 meters thickness. There are several gypsum lenses which interbed with a widespread green tuff succession in the studied area. On the basis of chemical composition these tuffs are in the range of acid to intermediate volcanic rocks. Also magmatic affinity is calc-alkaline and geological setting of the area belongs to volcanic arc granitoid. Petrographic data has shown that various shape and size of shard glass are the main component of tuffs. Based on the field studies, detail microscopy, XRD and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), the following main minerals are determined: Clinoptilolite+montmorillonite+crystobalite. Clinoptilolite and smectite are predominant minerals in all altered samples. Concerning the Si/Al ratio of 40 point analyses of glass shards the Alborz tuff has clinoptilolite composition. Otherwise the chemical composition of altered shard glass

  3. The gabbro (shoshonitic)-monzonite-granodiorite association of Khankandi pluton, Alborz Mountains, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghazadeh, Mehraj; Castro, Antonio; Omran, Nematallah Rashidnejad; Emami, Mohamad Hashem; Moinvaziri, Hossien; Badrzadeh, Zahra

    2010-05-01

    The Khankandi pluton forms part of a group of gabbro-granodiorite intrusions in the Alborz Mountains of NW Iran. A petrographical and geochemical study of this plutonic association reveals the existence of several magmatic cycles with different origins and slight differences in age. The oldest cycle (C1) is represented by granodiorites. A second cycle (C2) is formed by a gabbro-monzonite association, with a clear shoshonitic affinity, that dominates most of the intrusive volume. Gabbros and monzonites form a co-magmatic association. Zircons from the monzonites were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS for U-Pb dating. An average age of 28.9 Ma, ranging from 23.7 to 33.6 Ma was obtained. Gabbros, monzonites and granodiorites share a nearly common isotopic ratio for Sr and Nd. Both initial Sr and Nd ratios are clustered within a narrow range from 0.7045 to 0.7047 for the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio and ɛNd from 1.46 to 1.89. Comparison with experimental studies, together with mantle-like isotopic ratios and comparisons of REE patterns, points to an origin by variable melting rates from a common metasomatised mantle source for gabbros and monzonites. Melting of a subducted mélange is suggested for the granodiorite magmas predating the gabbro-monzonite intrusion. The two sources, a metasomatised mantle and ascending silicic plumes, are direct consequence of subduction.

  4. Enhanced moment tensor retrieval: a case study in the Alborz Mountains, Northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, Stefanie; Rößler, Dirk; Ghods, Abdolreza; Krüger, Frank; Strecker, Manfred; Landgraf, Angela; Ballato, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Seismotectonic and seismic hazard analysis are crucial tasks in, often increasingly, densely populated, seismically active regions. The understanding of earthquake source mechanisms is an important key element for such analyses. Seismic moment tensors provide a general description of the physical processes and the magnitude of earthquakes. The feasibility of moment tensor retrieval is controlled by several factors, such as wavefield modelling, source location, and station distribution. Inappropriate velocity models and inhomogeneous station distribution limits the inversion and the availability of seismic moment tensors in many regions worldwide. The Alborz Mountains of northern Iran are a tectonically active, bivergent orogen in the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. It is located between the aseismic blocks of the South Caspian Basin and Central Iran. A complex and not well understood system of strike-slip and thrust faults accommodates NNE-SSW oriented shortening. There are indicators that deformation in the high sectors of the Alborz Mountains is partitioned into reverse and left-lateral strike-slip faulting. Studies of earthquake source mechanisms will provide further insights in the complex fault geometry, their kinematic behaviour, and the tectonics of this intracontinental orogen. In addition, the internal domain of the central Alborz seems to be affected by very young, active transtension. To date, a heterogeneous seismic network with non-uniform distribution and a lack of appropriate methods have prevented detailed and comprehensive moment tensor studies in this region. So far, only 26 seismic moment tensors are available in the Harvard CMT catalogue since 1976. This restriction is due to the magnitude threshold of M4.5 for data processing and due to low data availability. Uncertainties in earthquake location are significant. Depth determination is sometimes impossible. Therefore, earthquakes cannot be associated with faults and the recent kinematic behaviour

  5. Dinosaur tracks from the Jurassic Shemshak Group in the Central Alborz Mountains (Northern Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbassi, Nasrollah; Madanipour, Saeed

    2014-04-01

    The Shemshak Group includes alternating layers of coal-bearing shale and siliciclastic sediments in the Baladeh area in the central Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. A diverse and abundant Jurassic dinosaur footprint assemblage is now recognized in the group, which is Toarcian to Bajocian in age in the northern Baladeh. This is the first report of a diverse dinosaur ichnoassemblage from Iran that includes the footprints of sauropods. These tracks can be assigned to three groups of trackmakers: theropods, ornithopods and sauropods. Those of theropods are typically tridactyl in shape, their trackways reflecting bipedal movement. Theropod footprints are very abundant in both northern and western Baladeh. The studied theropod tracks themselves are divided into three major dimensional groups. The medium sized footprints (footprint length, 11-15 cm) are abundant and have a stride length, digit and pace angles like the coelurosaurs footprints and trackway. Theropod footprints were identified as similar to Schizograllator otariensis, Talmontopus tersi and Wildeichnus isp. Ornithopod footprints are tridactyl with rounded and thick toes and belong to bipeds. Some didactyl imprints were also observed. Skin imprints were well preserved in these footprints. The ornithopod tracks resemble Jiayinosorupus johnsoni, as well as Velociraptorichnus sichuanensis for didactyl footprints. Sauropod footprints found in the western part of Baladeh are assigned here to Eosauropus isp., which are pentadactyl pes imprints of a quadruped. The assemblage from Iran resembles similar associations from eastern Asia.

  6. The growth of a mountain belt forced by base-level fall: Tectonics and surface processes during the evolution of the Alborz Mountains, N Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballato, Paolo; Landgraf, Angela; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Fox, Matthew; Ghassemi, Mohammad R.; Kirby, Eric; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2015-09-01

    The idea that climatically modulated erosion may impact orogenic processes has challenged geoscientists for decades. Although modeling studies and physical calculations have provided a solid theoretical basis supporting this interaction, to date, field-based work has produced inconclusive results. The central-western Alborz Mountains in the northern sectors of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone constitute a promising area to explore these potential feedbacks. This region is characterized by asymmetric precipitation superimposed on an orogen with a history of spatiotemporal changes in exhumation rates, deformation patterns, and prolonged, km-scale base-level changes. Our analysis suggests that despite the existence of a strong climatic gradient at least since 17.5 Ma, the early orogenic evolution (from ∼36 to 9-6 Ma) was characterized by decoupled orographic precipitation and tectonics. In particular, faster exhumation and sedimentation along the more arid southern orogenic flank point to a north-directed accretionary flux and underthrusting of Central Iran. Conversely, from ∼6 to 3 Ma, erosion rates along the northern orogenic flank became higher than those in the south, where they dropped to minimum values. This change occurred during a ∼3-Myr-long, km-scale base-level lowering event in the Caspian Sea. We speculate that mass redistribution processes along the northern flank of the Alborz and presumably across all mountain belts adjacent to the South Caspian Basin and more stable areas of the Eurasian plate increased the sediment load in the basin and ultimately led to the underthrusting of the Caspian Basin beneath the Alborz Mountains. This underthrusting in turn triggered a new phase of northward orogenic expansion, transformed the wetter northern flank into a new pro-wedge, and led to the establishment of apparent steady-state conditions along the northern orogenic flank (i.e., rock uplift equal to erosion rates). Conversely, the southern mountain front

  7. Quaternary evolution of mechanical fault-linkage between the North Tehran Thrust (NTT) and Mosha Fasham Fault (MFF), Alborz Mountains, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, A.; Ballato, P.; Strecker, M. R.; Friedrich, A.; Tabatabaei, S. H.

    2006-12-01

    The kinematic relationship between the neighboring MFF and the NTT is an open question in the fault interaction during the late Cenozoic evolution of the Alborz Mountains. Despite numerous Quaternary faults and their importance for hazard mitigation, the interaction and linkage between these structures are not understood. The ENE-striking NTT is a frontal thrust that delimits the Alborz Mountains to the south, but no instrumentally recorded earthquakes are known here. The E-striking MFF, with a double-bend toward a NW- strike in its central part, is located within the Alborz Mountains. Sinistral motion along its eastern part is corroborated by microseismicity and fault kinematic data, documenting ongoing transtension. Four possible kinematic scenarios may be inferred for both fault systems: (1) each is a separate entity without interaction, (2) progressive eastward propagation of the NTT and linkage with the MFF, resulting in a "master" fault, (3) a "triple junction" with three interacting blocks or (4) a transpressional duplex involving the NW- prolongation of the NTT as frontal, and the ENE-striking NTT segments as lateral ramps between the E-striking east-central and westernmost MFF. The eastern MFF is characterized by sinistral offsets and stream deflections. However, these phenomena are absent in the central-western fault branch. Structural observations along the eastern, slightly north-convex NTT imply dip-slip faulting, where Eocene volcanic units were thrust onto Plio-Pleistocene conglomerates. In addition, fluvial knickpoints, narrow bedrock channels, fluvial terrace remnants, and wineglass-shaped canyons in the hanging wall suggest Quaternary uplift along this fault. However, there must have been a Pleistocene kinematic change along the NTT, involving sinistral reactivation as shown by 80m stream-offsets and horizontal striations on dip-slip faults. NE-trending ravines are sigmoidally shaped, suggesting conjugate shearing by shortening oblique to the

  8. Assessing tectonic and climatic causal mechanisms in foreland-basin stratal architecture: insights from the Alborz Mountains, northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballato, Paolo; Strecker, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    The southern foreland basin of the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran is characterized by an approximately 7.3-km-thick sequence of Miocene sedimentary rocks, constituting three basin-wide coarsening-upward units spanning a period of 106 years. We assess available magnetostratigraphy, paleoclimatic reconstructions, stratal architecture, records of depositional environments, and sediment-provenance data to characterize the relationships between tectonically-generated accommodation space (A) and sediment supply (S). Our analysis allows an inversion of the stratigraphy for particular forcing mechanisms, documenting causal relationships, and providing a basis to decipher the relative contributions of tectonics and climate (inferred changes in precipitation) in controlling sediment supply to the foreland basin. Specifically, A/S > 1, typical of each basal unit (17.5-16.0, 13.8-13.1 and 10.3-9.6 Ma), is associated with sharp facies retrogradation and reflects substantial tectonic subsidence. Within these time intervals, arid climatic conditions, changes in sediment provenance, and accelerated exhumation in the orogen suggest that sediment supply was most likely driven by high uplift rates. Conversely, A/S < 1 (13.8 and 13.8-11 Ma, units 1, and 2) reflects facies progradation during a sharp decline in tectonic subsidence caused by localized intra-basinal uplift. During these time intervals, climate continued to be arid and exhumation active, suggesting that sediment supply was again controlled by tectonics. A/S < 1, at 11-10.3 Ma and 9-6-7.6 Ma (and possibly 6.2; top of units 2 and 3), is also associated with two episodes of extensive progradation, but during wetter phases. The first episode appears to have been linked to a pulse in sediment supply driven by an increase in precipitation. The second episode reflects a balance between a climatically-induced increase in sediment supply and a reduction of subsidence through the incorporation of the proximal foreland into the

  9. Post-Cimmerian (Jurassic-Cenozoic) paleogeography and vertical axis tectonic rotations of Central Iran and the Alborz Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattei, Massimo; Cifelli, Francesca; Muttoni, Giovanni; Rashid, Hamideh

    2015-04-01

    mechanism is proposed for the origin of the curved Alborz Mountains, which acquired most of its curvature in the last 8 Myr.

  10. Structural and drainage pattern evolution of the Alborz Mountains (N Iran) inferred from provenance data and magnetostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballato, P.; Landgraf, A.; Strecker, M. R.; Friedrich, A.; Tabatabaei, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Alborz Mts, N Iran, constitute an active, E-W-oriented, double verging orogen, within the continental collision zone between Arabia and Eurasia. GPS data show that currently convergence is partitioned in the Alborz by 6 mmyr-1 of NNE directed shortening and 4 mmyr-1 of left-lateral motion. The growth of the Alborz was associated with the development of adjacent foreland basins. Here, we discuss the evolution of the southern Alborz and its foreland basin. We present a sandstone and conglomerate provenance study, combined with sedimentary facies analysis, and magnetostratigraphy of a 7200-m-thick sedimentary section in the foreland basin, previously thought to be Mio- Pleistocene in age. This section includes three first-order coarsening and thickening upward units and documents a gradual transition from restricted marine to lacustrine, braided river (U1 and U2), and alluvial fan depositional environments (U3). These units were deposited between 17.5 and 7.8 Ma. Assuming a constant accumulation rate for the alluvial-fan conglomerates of U3, the top of the section is approximately 6 m.y. old. The derived accumulation rates correlate with the cyclicity of the recognized units: at the bottom of each cycle in association with the fine-grained facies, the accumulation rates are faster, while with the appearance of coarse- grained facies the accumulation rates decrease. Fifty sandstone samples were analyzed using the Gazzi-Dickinson sandstone provenance method. The detrital modes of lithic grains indicate at least two first-order variations in the source area. The first major change occurred at the bottom of U1 and is characterised by an increase of low-grade metamorphic clasts and a concomitant decrease in volcanoclastic grains. The second major change is manifested at the base of U3 with a progressive decrease in low-grade metamorphic clasts and the increase of carbonates and volcanic lithics. The analysis of conglomerate clasts shows a relatively uniform composition

  11. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  12. 3D joint inversion modeling of the lithospheric density structure based on gravity, geoid and topography data — Application to the Alborz Mountains (Iran) and South Caspian Basin region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motavalli-Anbaran, Seyed-Hani; Zeyen, Hermann; Ebrahimzadeh Ardestani, Vahid

    2013-02-01

    We present a 3D algorithm to obtain the density structure of the lithosphere from joint inversion of free air gravity, geoid and topography data based on a Bayesian approach with Gaussian probability density functions. The algorithm delivers the crustal and lithospheric thicknesses and the average crustal density. Stabilization of the inversion process may be obtained through parameter damping and smoothing as well as use of a priori information like crustal thicknesses from seismic profiles. The algorithm is applied to synthetic models in order to demonstrate its usefulness. A real data application is presented for the area of northern Iran (with the Alborz Mountains as main target) and the South Caspian Basin. The resulting model shows an important crustal root (up to 55 km) under the Alborz Mountains and a thin crust (ca. 30 km) under the southernmost South Caspian Basin thickening northward to the Apsheron-Balkan Sill to 45 km. Central and NW Iran is underlain by a thin lithosphere (ca. 90-100 km). The lithosphere thickens under the South Caspian Basin until the Apsheron-Balkan Sill where it reaches more than 240 km. Under the stable Turan platform, we find a lithospheric thickness of 160-180 km.

  13. Atlas Mountain Range, Mali, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    ATLAS pallets are backdropped against the Atlas Mountains (31.0N, 1.0W). ATLAS is an acronym for ATmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science. Taken from a point over Mali, in the western Sahara, the northwest looking view shows dunes in the Iguidi dune sea and colors characteristic of the Saharan side of the Atlas Mountains. The edge of a large sandstorm, that transported sand and dust to Yugoslavia and beyond, can also be seen.

  14. Post-collisional transition from an extensional volcano-sedimentary basin to a continental arc in the Alborz Ranges, N-Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiabanha, Abbas; Foden, John

    2012-09-01

    The Alborz Magmatic Assemblage (AMA) is an Eocene volcanic complex in northern Iran, and is situated at the site of the closure of the Tethyan basin. The magmatic rocks of the Alborz assemblage exhibit a distinct progression in style, from shallow submarine explosive eruptions to more effusive sub-aerial eruptions. Their chemical compositions indicate that they belong to the high-K calc-alkaline (shoshonitic) suite, and are related to either a subduction regime or continental collision. This conclusion is verified by major and trace element abundances, such as enrichments in Light Rare Earth Elements (LREEs) and Large Ion Lithophile Elements (LILEs) (e.g., K, U, and Sr) and depletion in High Field Strength Elements (HFSEs) (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, and Zr). However, HFSE plots suggest that the source region of the AMA magmas was affected by multiple processes, including deeply subducted lithosphere and the partial melts of extensional lithosphere in a back-arc environment. The isotopic composition of this suite and their trace element ratios suggest that the primary magmas were derived from a depleted mantle source and were subsequently affected by both fractional crystallization (ol + cpx in basic magmas and plg + bio ± hbl in intermediate magmas) and assimilation during magmatic evolution. Assimilation and fractional crystallization modeling, based on isotopic and trace element ratios, indicates that the ascending magmas were contaminated by approximately 40% continental crust. The petrography and geochemical composition of the Eocene Alborz magmatic assemblage indicate that it developed in a back-arc basin, in which explosive eruptions produced various pyroclastic and epiclastic deposits. A subsequent stage of volcanism then produced more effusive sub-aerial eruptions, as well as sporadic explosions that generated ignimbritic sheets.

  15. Strong Genetic Differentiation of Submerged Plant Populations across Mountain Ranges: Evidence from Potamogeton pectinatus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Shabnam; Afsharzadeh, Saeed; Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Biogeographic barriers for freshwater biota can be effective at various spatial scales. At the largest spatial scale, freshwater organisms can become genetically isolated by their high mountain ranges, vast deserts, and inability to cross oceans. Isolation by distance of aquatic plants is expected to be stronger across than alongside mountain ridges whereas the heterogeneity of habitats among populations and temporary droughts may influence connectivity and hamper dispersal. Suitable aquatic plant habitats became reduced, even for the widespread submerged Potamogeton pectinatus L. (also named Stuckenia pectinata) giving structure to various aquatic habitats. We compared the level of genetic diversity in a heterogeneous series of aquatic habitats across Iran and tested their differentiation over distances and across mountain ranges (Alborz and Zagros) and desert zones (Kavir), with values obtained from temperate region populations. The diversity of aquatic ecosystems across and along large geographic barriers provided a unique ecological situation within Iran. P. pectinatus were considered from thirty-six sites across Iran at direct flight distances ranging from 20 to 1,200 km. Nine microsatellite loci revealed a very high number of alleles over all sites. A PCoA, NJT clustering and STRUCTURE analysis revealed a separate grouping of individuals of southeastern Iranian sites and was confirmed by their different nuclear ITS and cpDNA haplotypes thereby indicating an evolutionary significant unit (ESU). At the level of populations, a positive correlation between allelic differentiation Dest with geographic distance was found. Individual-based STRUCTURE analysis over 36 sites showed 7 genetic clusters. FST and RST values for ten populations reached 0.343 and 0.521, respectively thereby indicating that allele length differences are more important and contain evolutionary information. Overall, higher levels of diversity and a stronger differentiation was revealed among

  16. Strong Genetic Differentiation of Submerged Plant Populations across Mountain Ranges: Evidence from Potamogeton pectinatus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Shabnam; Afsharzadeh, Saeed; Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Biogeographic barriers for freshwater biota can be effective at various spatial scales. At the largest spatial scale, freshwater organisms can become genetically isolated by their high mountain ranges, vast deserts, and inability to cross oceans. Isolation by distance of aquatic plants is expected to be stronger across than alongside mountain ridges whereas the heterogeneity of habitats among populations and temporary droughts may influence connectivity and hamper dispersal. Suitable aquatic plant habitats became reduced, even for the widespread submerged Potamogeton pectinatus L. (also named Stuckenia pectinata) giving structure to various aquatic habitats. We compared the level of genetic diversity in a heterogeneous series of aquatic habitats across Iran and tested their differentiation over distances and across mountain ranges (Alborz and Zagros) and desert zones (Kavir), with values obtained from temperate region populations. The diversity of aquatic ecosystems across and along large geographic barriers provided a unique ecological situation within Iran. P. pectinatus were considered from thirty-six sites across Iran at direct flight distances ranging from 20 to 1,200 km. Nine microsatellite loci revealed a very high number of alleles over all sites. A PCoA, NJT clustering and STRUCTURE analysis revealed a separate grouping of individuals of southeastern Iranian sites and was confirmed by their different nuclear ITS and cpDNA haplotypes thereby indicating an evolutionary significant unit (ESU). At the level of populations, a positive correlation between allelic differentiation Dest with geographic distance was found. Individual-based STRUCTURE analysis over 36 sites showed 7 genetic clusters. FST and RST values for ten populations reached 0.343 and 0.521, respectively thereby indicating that allele length differences are more important and contain evolutionary information. Overall, higher levels of diversity and a stronger differentiation was revealed among

  17. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  18. Himalayan Mountain Range, India/China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The frontier between India (Kashmir) and China (Tibet) (33.5N, 79.5E) lies across the narrow land bridge between the two lakes near the center of this photo. Many of the peaks in this region of the Karakoram and Latakh ranges of the Himalayan Mountains, exceed 20,000 ft. making it one of the most remote regions of the Earth. The large end lake is the Kako in China and the long narrow lake is the Pangong in India.

  19. Relief Evolution in Tectonically Active Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Kelin X.

    2004-01-01

    The overall aims of this 3-yr project, as originally proposed were to: (1) investigate quantitatively the roles of fluvial and glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions, and (2) test rigorously the quality and accuracy of SRTM topographic data in areas of rugged relief - both the most challenging and of greatest interest to geomorphic, neotectonic, and hazards applications. Natural laboratories in both the western US and the Southern Alps of New Zealand were identified as most promising. The project has been both successful and productive, despite the fact that no SRTM data for our primary field sites in New Zealand were released on the time frame of the work effort. Given the delayed release of SRTM data, we pursued the scientific questions of the roles of fluvial and, especially, glacial erosion in the evolution of relief in mountainous regions using available digital elevation models (DEMs) for the Southern Alps of New Zealand (available at both 25m and 50m pixel sizes), and USGS 10m and 30m DEMs within the Western US. As emphasized in the original proposal, we chose the emphasis on the role of glacial modification of topographic relief because there has been little quantitative investigation of glacial erosion processes at landscape scale. This is particularly surprising considering the dramatic sculpting of most mid- and high-latitude mountain ranges, the prodigious quantities of glacially-derived sediment in terrestrial and marine basins, and the current cross-disciplinary interest in the role of denudational processes in orogenesis and the evolution of topography in general. Moreover, the evolution of glaciated landscapes is not only a fundamental problem in geomorphology in its own right, but also is at the heart of the debate over Late Cenozoic linkages between climate and tectonics.

  20. Evolution of Topography in Glaciated Mountain Ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brocklehurst, Simon H.

    2002-01-01

    This thesis examines the response of alpine landscapes to the onset of glaciation. The basic approach is to compare fluvial and glacial laudscapes, since it is the change from the former to the latter that accompanies climatic cooling. This allows a detailed evaluation of hypotheses relating climate change to tectonic processes in glaciated mountain belts. Fieldwork was carried out in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, and the Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado, alongside digital elevation model analyses in the western US, the Southern Alps of New Zealand, and the Himalaya of northwestern Pakistan. hypothesis is overstated in its appeal to glacial erosion as a major source of relief production and subsequent peak uplift. Glaciers in the eastern Sierra Nevada and the western Sangre de Cristos have redistributed relief, but have produced only modest relief by enlarging drainage basins at the expense of low-relief topography. Glaciers have lowered valley floors and ridgelines by similar amounts, limiting the amount of "missing mass' that can be generated, and causing a decrease in drainage basin relief. The principal response of glaciated landscapes to rapid rock uplift is the development of towering cirque headwalls. This represents considerable relief production, but is not caused by glacial erosion alone. Large valley glaciers can maintain their low gradient regardless of uplift rate, which supports the "glacial buzzsaw" hypothesis. However, the inability of glaciers to erode steep hillslopes as rapidly can cause mean elevations to rise. Cosmogenic isotope dating is used to show that (i) where plucking is active, the last major glaciation removed sufficient material to reset the cosmogenic clock; and (ii) former glacial valley floors now stranded near the crest of the Sierra Nevada are at varying stages of abandonment, suggesting a cycle of drainage reorganiszation and relief inversion due to glacial erosion similar to that observed in river networks. Glaciated

  1. Updated Long Term Fault Slip Rates and Seismic Hazard in the Central Alborz, Iran: New Constraints From InSAR and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, J. M.; Shirzaei, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Alborz mountain range, located south of the Caspian Sea, accommodates 30% of the 25 mm/yr convergence between Arabia and Eurasia. The resulting shortening and left lateral motion is distributed over several active fault zones within the Central Alborz. Despite earlier efforts using only GPS data, little is known about the long term rate of vertical deformation and aseismic slip. Several historical earthquakes have affected this region, some of the largest of these events occurred on the Mosha fault which is close to the capital city, Tehran, which has a population of over eight million. Thus, constraining the interseismic slip rates in this region is particularly important. In this study we complement existing horizontal velocities from a regional GPS network, with line of sight velocities from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), to provide additional constraints on the vertical deformation and enhance the spatial coverage. Assuming a seismogenic depth of 30 km, based on microseismicity data, we solve for the geometry and long term slip rates on four major fault strands in this region. We obtain a long term slip rate of ~ 3 mm/yr for the Mosha and North Alborz faults, and ~ 10 mm/yr for the Khazar fault and Parchin faults. These rates and fault geometries are in agreement with earlier works, and fit the GPS data well. However, close to the fault traces there are large residuals in the InSAR data, suggesting that there is shallow creep (< 30 km). Therefore, we carry out a subsequent inversion using only the residual InSAR displacements to solve for the distribution of creep within the seismogenic zones on these faults. We find that the Mosha and North Alborz faults remain locked between 0 - 30 km depth, whilst the Parchin and Khazar faults are creeping. This new observation of fault creep has direct implications for the seismic hazard in the region. On the Mosha fault we estimate a slip deficit equivalent to a Mw 7.0 event. The combination of In

  2. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  3. Climate dominated topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, B. A.; Ehlers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The broad spatial trend in channel steepness values suggests that the locus of high rock uplift rates is coincident with the rugged range core, in a similar position as high temperature and pressure lithologies, but not in the low lying foothills as has been previously suggested by low-temperature thermochronometry. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns. We demonstrate the same topographic effects are recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on topography makes the argument of mountain range steadiness untenable in significantly glaciated settings. Furthermore, our results suggest that most glaciated Cenozoic ranges are likely still in a mode of readjustment as fluvial systems change topography and erosion rates to equilibrate with rock uplift rates.

  4. Glacial reorganization of topography in a tectonically active mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, Byron; Ehlers, Todd

    2016-04-01

    Tests of the interactions between tectonic and climate forcing on Earth's topography often focus on the concept of steady-state whereby processes of rock deformation and erosion are opposing and equal. However, when conditions change such as the climate or tectonic rock uplift, then surface processes act to restore the balance between rock deformation and erosion by adjusting topography. Most examples of canonical steady-state mountain ranges lie within the northern hemisphere, which underwent a radical change in the Quaternary due to the onset of widespread glaciation. The activity of glaciers changed erosion rates and topography in many of these mountain ranges, which likely violates steady-state assumptions. With new topographic analysis, and existing patterns of climate and rock uplift, we explore a mountain range previously considered to be in steady-state, the Olympic Mountains, USA. The details of our analysis suggest the dominant topographic signal in the Olympic Mountains is a spatial, and likely temporal, variation in erosional efficiency dictated by orographic precipitation, and Pleistocene glacier ELA patterns, and not tectonic rock uplift rates. Alpine glaciers drastically altered the relief structure of the Olympic Mountains. The details of these relief changes are recorded in channel profiles as overdeepenings, reduced slopes, and associated knickpoints. We find the position of these relief changes within the orogen is dependent on the position of the Pleistocene ELA. While alpine glaciers overdeepened valleys in regions near the Pleistocene ELA (which has a tendency to increase relief), headward erosion of west and north flowing glacier systems captured significant area from opposing systems and caused drainage divide lowering. This divide lowering reduced relief throughout the range. We demonstrate similar topographic effects recorded in the basin hypsometries of other Cenozoic mountain ranges around the world. The significant glacial overprint on

  5. Moonrise over the Coastal Mountain Range, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This scenic moonrise scene was taken over the Coastal Mountain Range, British Columbia (56.0N, 135W) and shows the moon at the day/night terminator. The moon appears as a tiny dot on the earth limb, partially intersected by the thin blue line of airglow.

  6. Acute pulmonary oedema on the Ruwenzori mountain range.

    PubMed Central

    Naeije, R; Mélot, C

    1990-01-01

    A 40 year old man had an episode of severe pulmonary oedema at 4000-5000 m during the ascent of the Margherita peak (5109 m) of Mount Stanley on the Ruwenzori. He had taken acetazolamide and high dose dexamethasone to treat symptoms of acute mountain sickness. Six years before he had been studied by right heart catheterisation as a healthy volunteer during hypoxic breathing at sea level. His pulmonary vascular reactivity had been within the normal range for 32 healthy subjects. This man had high altitude pulmonary oedema despite currently recommended treatments for acute mountain sickness and normal pulmonary vascular reactivity to hypoxia at sea level. PMID:2271350

  7. Makran Mountain Range, Indus River Valley, Pakistan, India

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The enormous geologic pressures exerted by continental drift can be very well illustrated by the long northward curving parallel folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Range of Pakistan (27.0N, 66.0E). As a result of the collision of the northward bound Indian sub-continent into the Asian Continent, the east/west parallel range has been bent in a great northward arc and forming the Indus River valley at the interface of the collision.

  8. Sedimentary Rocks of the Buckeye Range, Horlick Mountains, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Long, W E

    1962-04-27

    In the Buckeye Range of the Horlick Mountains, 4000 feet of sedimentary rocks nonconformably overlie a granitic basement and underlie a thick diabasic sill. The sedimentary section consists of Devonian sandstone and shale (Horlick formation), Carboniferous (?) tillite (Buckeye formation), Permian (?) platy and carbonaceous shale (Discovery Ridge formation), and Permian arkose, shale, and numerous coal beds (Mount Glossopteris formation). This apparently is the first report of a Paleozoic tillite in Antarctica. PMID:17745908

  9. Environmental exposures to agrochemicals in the Sierra Nevada mountain range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeNoir, J.; Aston, L.; Data, S.; Fellers, G.; McConnell, L.; Sieber, J.

    2000-01-01

    The release of pesticides into the environment may impact human and environmental health. Despite the need for environmental exposure data, few studies quantify exposures in urban areas and even fewer determine exposures to wildlife in remote areas. Although it is expected that concentrations in remote regions will be low, recent studies suggest that even low concentrations may have deleterious effects on wildlife. Many pesticides are known to interfere with the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife, adversely affecting growth, development, and behavior. This chapter reviews the fate and transport of pesticides applied in the Central Valley of California and quantifies their subsequent deposition into the relatively pristine Sierra Nevada Mountain Range.

  10. Understanding Mountain Range Spatial Variability of Surface Hoar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrikx, J.

    2014-12-01

    Surface hoar, once buried often produce a persistent weak layer that is a common instability problem in the snow pack in SW Montana and many other areas around the world. Surface hoar is a common weak layer type in avalanche accidents in a continental and intermountain snowpack. It is however relatively well understood that aspect plays an important role in the spatial location of the growth, and survival of these grain forms, due to the unequal distribution of incoming radiation. However this factor alone does not explain the complex and often confusing spatial pattern of these grains forms throughout the landscape at larger, mountain range spatial scales. In this paper we present a unique data set including over one hundred days of manual observations of surface hoar at sixteen locations on Pioneer Mountain at the Yellowstone Club in southwestern Montana. Using this wealth of observational data located on different aspects, elevations and exposures, coupled with detailed meteorological observations, detailed site scale observations (e.g. Sky view plots) we examine the spatial variability of surface hoar at this scale, and examine the factors that control its spatial distribution. Our results further supports our preliminary work, which shows that small-scale meteorological differences, site scale differences, and local scale lapse rates can greatly influence the spatial variability of surface hoar, over and above that which aspect alone can explain. These results highlight our incomplete understanding of the processes at this large, mountain range scale, and are likely to have implications for both regional and local scale avalanche forecasting in environments where surface hoar cause ongoing instabilities.

  11. Sierra Nevada Mountain Range as seen from STS-58

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The Sierra Nevada Mountain Range can be seen in this north-looking high oblique view taken in October, 1993, by the STS-58 crew. Visible in the view to the west of the Sierra Nevada are the San Joaquin and Sacramento Valleys of central California. The San Francisco/Oakland Bay Area can be seen to the west of the valley at the extreme left of the photograph. To the east or right of the Sierra Nevada, the basin and Range Region of central and northern Nevada is visible. Mono Lake, Lake Tahoe and Pyramid lake are also visible in this scene. The long northwest/southeast trending Walker Lane Shear Zone, which lies just to the east (right) of the Sierra Nevada is also visible. Near the top of the view (near the horizon), the snow covered volcanic peak Mount Shasta can be seen.

  12. Climate and Floristic Variation in Great Basin Mountain Ranges (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlet, D. A.; Leary, P.

    2010-12-01

    are 316 in the Snake Range transect, and 425 along the Sheep Range transect. Near the Sheep Range lies the Spring Mountains where 769 samples were obtained. More than 30,000 geo-referenced photographs document the sites, and nearly 1000 vascular plant taxa have been encountered and their distributions documented. Recently completed soil maps, the PRISM precipitation model, and 10m Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) of the study areas exist. As a result, many environmental conditions can be explored with multivariate statistical methods. Preliminary results indicate that different kinds of physical data may be appropriate only at certain scales. Most useful for fine-scale investigations on mountains appears to be measures of irradiance at the solstices and equinox derived from the 10m DEM. Past climate in Nevada is readily evident on its landscapes, featuring glacial, periglacial and pluvial features. Pollen and remains left by woodrats provide vegetation records dating up to 40,000 years before present. The vegetation work described here provides a snapshot of biodiversity at fine scale of several mountain ranges. Efforts of the physical scientists and physiologists now, and repeat visits to the sample sites of this study later, will help us track the processes and manifestations of landscape change as responses to climate.

  13. Erosion of an ancient mountain range, the Great Smoky Mountains, North Carolina and Tennessee

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matmon, A.; Bierman, P.R.; Larsen, J.; Southworth, S.; Pavich, M.; Finkel, R.; Caffee, M.

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of 10Be and 26Al in bedrock (n=10), colluvium (n=5 including grain size splits), and alluvial sediments (n=59 including grain size splits), coupled with field observations and GIS analysis, suggest that erosion rates in the Great Smoky Mountains are controlled by subsurface bedrock erosion and diffusive slope processes. The results indicate rapid alluvial transport, minimal alluvial storage, and suggest that most of the cosmogenic nuclide inventory in sediments is accumulated while they are eroding from bedrock and traveling down hill slopes. Spatially homogeneous erosion rates of 25 - 30 mm Ky-1 are calculated throughout the Great Smoky Mountains using measured concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be and 26Al in quartz separated from alluvial sediment. 10Be and 26Al concentrations in sediments collected from headwater tributaries that have no upstream samples (n=18) are consistent with an average erosion rate of 28 ?? 8 mm Ky-1, similar to that of the outlet rivers (n=16, 24 ?? 6 mm Ky-1), which carry most of the sediment out of the mountain range. Grain-size-specific analysis of 6 alluvial sediment samples shows higher nuclide concentrations in smaller grain sizes than in larger ones. The difference in concentrations arises from the large elevation distribution of the source of the smaller grains compared with the narrow and relatively low source elevation of the large grains. Large sandstone clasts disaggregate into sand-size grains rapidly during weathering and downslope transport; thus, only clasts from the lower parts of slopes reach the streams. 26Al/10Be ratios do not suggest significant burial periods for our samples. However, alluvial samples have lower 26Al/10Be ratios than bedrock and colluvial samples, a trend consistent with a longer integrated cosmic ray exposure history that includes periods of burial during down-slope transport. The results confirm some of the basic ideas embedded in Davis' geographic cycle model, such as the reduction of relief

  14. Landscape of a Glaciated Rift Flank: Structure of the Transantarctic Mountains From the Royal Society Range to the Churchill Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demyanick, E.; Wilson, T. J.

    2006-12-01

    Multiphase tectonic activity has shaped the regional landscape of the Transantarctic Mountains in Paleozoic, Jurassic, and Cenozoic times. The Antarctic ice sheets have covered the continent for the last 34 m.y. and coeval glacial activity and tectonism have affected mountain landscape evolution. Large-scale linear morphologic features within the mountains are controlled by bedrock structure. Satellite imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs) have been used in this study to map regional, linear morphologic trends along the mountain chain between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains. ASTER imagery was mosaicked and processed to enhance linear features and lineament analysis was employed to quantify major trends in the mountains. These trends were then compared to geologic maps and other structural and geomorphic data for the area. A low-resolution DEM derived from topographic map contours and new, higher- resolution DEMs created from ASTER imagery were used to create contour, shaded relief, slope steepness, and slope aspect maps. Geomorphology was assessed using these maps and related to mapped lineaments. Linear features that parallel known rift-related faults, or form typical rift-fault patterns, were used to develop a structural model for the architecture of this sector of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank.

  15. A gravity model of the deep structure of South Caspian Basin along submeridional profile Alborz-Absheron Sill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadirov, F. A.; Gadirov, A. H.

    2014-03-01

    The South-Caspian Basin (SCB) underlies the southern part of the Caspian Sea, between the ranges of the eastern Greater Caucasus, Talysh, Alborz, and Kopet Dagh. A 2-D regional gravity model along a profile from the Alborz Mountains to the Absheron Ridge has been constructed, constrained by deep (20 s TWT) seismic reflection data. The deep structure model has been evaluated in terms of earthquake focal mechanisms and GPS velocity data to elucidate active tectonic processes and the geodynamic evolution of the SCB. We believe that the rapid increase in the thickness of Mesozoic sediments along the profile from ~ 8 km in the middle part of the profile up to ~ 15 km in the area of the Absheron-Ridge can be explained by inherent basin geometry created by thermal subsidence followed by sediment loading as well as additional effect of tectonic related shortening of sedimentary succession. Near the boundary of oceanic and continental crust in the northern SCB, flexure of oceanic crust is inferred from the observed seismic data and gravity modeling, most probably connected to ongoing subduction of lithosphere of the South Caspian underneath the Scythian Plate of the Mid-Caspian. Subduction beneath the Absheron Ridge is accompanied by the delamination of sediments from the oceanic crust (“basaltic” layer) and creation of accretionary wedge in the overlaying sedimentary succession. The focal mechanisms of the larger earthquakes (M > 6) occurring along the northern boundary of the SCB show steep normal-type faulting above the bend of the downgoing slab while, along the southern boundary, thrust faults are inferred. Some thrust-type earthquakes near the northern boundary occur in the lower crust or uppermost mantle and may be associated with compression in the lower part of the brittle lithosphere due to plate flexure. Displacements measured along the coastline of the Caspian Sea by GPS are consistent with the direction of potential oblique subduction of oceanic crust of

  16. Observed Changes in Mountain Hydrology Following a Mountain Pine Beetle Epidemic in the Snowy Range of Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klatt, A. L.; Miller, S. N.; Paige, G. B.; Kelleners, T.; Ohara, N.; Hayes, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    A mountain pine beetle epidemic in the Snowy Range Mountains of Wyoming peaked in 2008 coinciding with changes in climate. The combination of the two effects have potentially changed hydrologic response in mountain watersheds. Shorter snowmelt duration and an earlier onset of snowmelt are hypothesized to occur as results of both mountain pine beetle epidemics and global climate change, while beetle effects likely point to increased total flows, baseflows, and peak flows. We used statistical analysis to identify changes in hydrologic response over the past four decades by comparing hydrograph components from 2012-2014 water years to hydrograph components from the 1960's-1980's water years using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) including a precipitation covariate. The 2012-2014 group was found to be associated with (1) shorter snowmelt duration, (2) earlier onset of snowmelt, and (3) increased baseflows. No differences in total discharge, snowmelt discharge, stormflow discharge, peak discharge, or day of peak discharge were detected. Pearson's correlation coefficients between watershed and runoff characteristics for six mountain watersheds were calculated for the 2013 and 2014 water years. Watershed characteristics include percent green conifers, percent red phase conifers, and percent grey phase conifers derived from a Random Forest land classification map. For the 2013 water year, watershed area expressed as percent red phase conifer was found to be significantly correlated to watershed discharge expressed as percent baseflow with a Pearson's Correlation Coefficient of +0.95 (alpha level = 0.05). The positive correlation between red phase conifer and baseflow may be considered corroborating evidence of a mountain pine beetle induced change on mountain hydrology detected in the ANOVA/ANCOVA analysis. No significant correlations between beetle phase and either snowmelt duration or onset of snowmelt were detected.

  17. Variation of coda wave attenuation in the Alborz region and central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, H.; Motaghi, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Hamzehloo, H.

    2010-06-01

    More than 340 earthquakes recorded by the Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran (IGUT) short period stations from 1996 to 2004 were analysed to estimate the S-coda attenuation in the Alborz region, the northern part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogen in western Asia, and in central Iran, which is the foreland of this orogen. The coda quality factor, Qc, was estimated using the single backscattering model in frequency bands of 1-25 Hz. In this research, lateral and depth variation of Qc in the Alborz region and central Iran are studied. It is observed that in the Alborz region there is absence of significant lateral variation in Qc. The average frequency relation for this region is Qc = 79 +/- 2f1.07+/-0.08. Two anomalous high-attenuation areas in central Iran are recognized around the stations LAS and RAZ. The average frequency relation for central Iran excluding the values of these two stations is Qc = 94 +/- 2f0.97+/-0.12. To investigate the attenuation variation with depth, Qc value was calculated for 14 lapse times (25, 30, 35,... 90s) for two data sets having epicentral distance range R < 100 km (data set 1) and 100 < R < 200 km (data set 2) in each area. It is observed that Qc increases with depth. However, the rate of increase of Qc with depth is not uniform in our study area. Beneath central Iran the rate of increase of Qc is greater at depths less than 100 km compared to that at larger depths indicating the existence of a high attenuation anomalous structure under the lithosphere of central Iran. In addition, below ~180 km, the Qc value does not vary much with depth under both study areas, indicating the presence of a transparent mantle under them.

  18. Lifespan of mountain ranges scaled by feedbacks between landsliding and erosion by rivers.

    PubMed

    Egholm, David L; Knudsen, Mads F; Sandiford, Mike

    2013-06-27

    An important challenge in geomorphology is the reconciliation of the high fluvial incision rates observed in tectonically active mountain ranges with the long-term preservation of significant mountain-range relief in ancient, tectonically inactive orogenic belts. River bedrock erosion and sediment transport are widely recognized to be the principal controls on the lifespan of mountain ranges. But the factors controlling the rate of erosion and the reasons why they seem to vary significantly as a function of tectonic activity remain controversial. Here we use computational simulations to show that the key to understanding variations in the rate of erosion between tectonically active and inactive mountain ranges may relate to a bidirectional coupling between bedrock river incision and landslides. Whereas fluvial incision steepens surrounding hillslopes and increases landslide frequency, landsliding affects fluvial erosion rates in two fundamentally distinct ways. On the one hand, large landslides overwhelm the river transport capacity and cause upstream build up of sediment that protects the river bed from further erosion. On the other hand, in delivering abrasive agents to the streams, landslides help accelerate fluvial erosion. Our models illustrate how this coupling has fundamentally different implications for rates of fluvial incision in active and inactive mountain ranges. The coupling therefore provides a plausible physical explanation for the preservation of significant mountain-range relief in old orogenic belts, up to several hundred million years after tectonic activity has effectively ceased. PMID:23803847

  19. Tectonic evolution of the central Brooks Range mountain front: Evidence from the Atigun Gorge region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mull, C.G.; Glenn, R.K.; Adams, K.E.

    1997-01-01

    Atigun Gorge, at the northern front of the eastern Endicott Mountains, contains well-exposed rocks of the upper part of the Endicott Mountains allochthon and rocks of the structurally higher Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon. These allochthons contain rocks as young as Early Cretaceous (Valanginian) and are separated by a nearly vertical fault zone that contains exotic blocks of Triassic and Jurassic chert and silicified mudstone. Siliceous rocks of this type are not present in the Endicott Mountains allochthon but are characteristic of the Picnic Creek, Ipnavik River, and some of the other allochthons that structurally overlie the Endicott Mountains allochthon in the central and western Brooks Range. These exotic blocks, therefore indicate that structurally higher rocks of either the Picnic Creek or Ipnavik River allochthon were emplaced during the Early Cretaceous and are preserved along the northern flank of the eastern Endicott Mountains. The deformed thickness of this higher allochthon in the subsurface north of the mountains is unknown but probably exceeds 2 kilometers. Similar relations are mapped east of Atigun Gorge in an area of structural transition from the eastern Endicott Mountains into the northern Philip Smith Mountains, which are formed by the parautochthonous North Slope stratigraphic assemblage. The allochthonous rocks at the mountain front are regionally unconformably overlain by proximal Lower Cretaceous (Albian) foredeep conglomerate at the southern flank of the Colville basin, but at Atigun Gorge, the base of these deposits is interpreted as a possible back thrust at a triangle zone. Conglomerate clasts in the foredeep deposits are dominantly chert, mafic igneous rock, and other lithologies characteristic of the Picnic Creek and Ipnavik River allochthons and scattered clasts from the Endicott Mountains allochthon. The conglomerates show that the chert-rich allochthonous rocks and the Endicott Mountains allochthon were emplaced in the

  20. The impact of embedded valleys on daytime pollution transport over a mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Moritz N.; Gohm, Alexander; Wagner, Johannes S.

    2016-04-01

    Idealized large-eddy simulations were performed to investigate the impact of different mountain geometries on daytime pollution transport by thermally driven winds. The main objectives of this study were (i) to investigate the interactions between plain-to-mountain and slope wind systems and (ii) to analyze their influence on daytime pollution distribution over complex terrain. For this purpose, tracer analyses were conducted over a quasi-two-dimensional mountain range with embedded valleys bordered by ridges with different crest heights and a flat foreland in cross-mountain direction. The valley depth was varied systematically. It was found that different flow regimes develop dependent on the valley floor height. In the case of elevated valley floors, the plain-to-mountain wind descends into the potentially warmer valley and replaces the opposing upslope wind. This superimposed plain-to-mountain wind increases the pollution transport towards the main ridge by additional 20 \\unit{%} compared to the regime with a deep valley. Due to mountain and advective venting, a more than threefold increased earth-atmosphere exchange is found over the various mountain geometries when compared to the reference plain simulation. However, the calculated vertical exchange is strongly sensitive to the definition of the convective boundary layer height.

  1. Variability of the isotopic lapse rate across the mountain ranges in Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brian, H.; Fan, M.

    2012-12-01

    Stable isotope based paleoaltimetry studies require knowledge of the isotope-elevation gradient during the time of interest, but this information is rarely available. As a result, many studies often apply the modern local lapse rate or a global average lapse rate and assume these values are valid for the area of interest and that they hold through time. However, natural variability in local-scale climate and mountain geometry and morphology can influence the isotope-elevation (and temperature-elevation) gradient. We evaluate the inter- and intra-mountain range variability of modern climate and isotope values of stream water for three Laramide ranges in Wyoming (Wind River Range, Bighorn and Laramie Mountains), as well as for a regional elevation transect across the central Rocky mountain front. Samples of steam water were taken from major catchments across Wyoming in 2007, 2011, and 2012. We find that the modern lapse rate for these ranges is -1.7‰/km, -2.2‰/km and -1.8‰/km respectively. Although these values are very similar to one another and to the global isotopic lapse rate (-2.1‰/km), large variation (up to 6‰/km) exists among individual small river catchments of the Bighorn Mountains. The variability in catchment-scale lapse rate does not appear to be systematically related to annual, or seasonal surface air temperature, precipitation amount, or catchment area. However, the range-scale lapse rates may yet reflect the regional climate, which is generally coolest and driest in the Wind River Range (lowest lapse rate) and warmest and wettest in the Bighorn Mountains (highest lapse rate). Similar d-excess values exist across individual mountain ranges, but inter-mountain range differences indicate that the Laramie Mountains (and regions of western Nebraska) receive evaporatively enriched rainwater compared to those in the Wind River Range and Bighorn Mountains. These differences do not necessarily require separate vapor sources as the lower d

  2. The impact of embedded valleys on daytime pollution transport over a mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, M. N.; Gohm, A.; Wagner, J. S.

    2015-10-01

    Idealized large-eddy simulations were performed to investigate the impact of different mountain geometries on daytime pollution transport by thermally driven winds. The main objective was to determine interactions between plain-to-mountain and slope wind systems, and their influence on the pollution distribution over complex terrain. For this purpose, tracer analyses were conducted over a quasi-two-dimensional mountain range with embedded valleys bordered by ridges with different crest heights and a flat foreland in cross-mountain direction. The valley depth was varied systematically. It was found that different flow regimes develop dependent on the valley floor height. In the case of elevated valley floors, the plain-to-mountain wind descends into the potentially warmer valley and replaces the opposing upslope wind. This superimposed plain-to-mountain wind increases the pollution transport towards the main ridge by an additional 20 % compared to the regime with a deep valley. Due to mountain and advective venting, the vertical exchange is 3.6 times higher over complex terrain than over a flat plain. However, the calculated vertical exchange is strongly sensitive to the definition of the convective boundary layer height. In summary, the impact of the terrain geometry on the mechanisms of pollution transport confirms the necessity to account for topographic effects in future boundary layer parameterization schemes.

  3. Flat-topped mountain ranges: Their global distribution and value for understanding the evolution of mountain topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvet, Marc; Gunnell, Yanni; Farines, Bernard

    2015-07-01

    Extensive tracts of low-gradient topography in steep mountain ranges, either forming rangetop plateaus or terraced pediments on range flanks, are widely distributed in mountain belts around the world. Before the advent of plate tectonics, such populations of planar landforms were interpreted as vestiges of a post-orogenic raised peneplain, i.e., a low-gradient land surface resulting from the decay, during long intervals of base-level stability, of a previous mountain range that was subsequently raised once again to great elevations-thus forming a new mountain range. This two-stage model has been challenged by theories that advocate continuity in tectonic processes and more gradual changes in base level, and thus expect a more immediate and proportionate response of geomorphic systems. Here we present a global survey of erosion surfaces in mountain ranges and put existing theories and empirical evidence into a broad perspective calling for further research into the rates and regimes of long-term mountain evolution. The resulting library of case studies provides opportunities for comparative analysis and helps to classify the landform mosaics that are likely to arise from the interplay between (i) crustal regimes, which at convergent plate margins need be neither uniform nor steady at all times; (ii) radiation-driven and gravity-driven geomorphic regimes, which are mainly determined by crustal boundary conditions and climate; and (iii) paleogeography, through which clues about base-level changes can be obtained. We examine intracratonic and plate-margin settings, with examples from thin-skinned fold belts, thick-skinned fold belts, island-arc and other subduction-related settings, and bivergent collisional orogens. Results reveal that the existence of erosion surfaces is not a simple function of geodynamic setting. Although some erosion surfaces are pre-orogenic, evidence about their predominantly post-orogenic age is supported by apatite fission-track and helium

  4. Studying of tritium content in snowpack of Degelen mountain range.

    PubMed

    Turchenko, D V; Lukashenko, S N; Aidarkhanov, A O; Lyakhova, O N

    2014-06-01

    The paper presents the results of investigation of tritium content in the layers of snow located in the streambeds of the "Degelen" massif contaminated with tritium. The objects of investigation were selected watercourses Karabulak, Uzynbulak, Aktybai located beyond the "Degelen" site. We studied the spatial distribution of tritium relative to the streambed of watercourses and defined the borders of the snow cover contamination. In the centre of the creek watercourses the snow contamination in the surface layer is as high as 40 000 Bq/L. The values of the background levels of tritium in areas not related to the streambed, which range from 40 to 50 Bq/L. The results of snow cover measurements in different seasonal periods were compared. The main mechanisms causing tritium transfer in snow were examined and identified. The most important mechanism of tritium transfer in the streams is tritium emanation from ice or soil surface. PMID:24657814

  5. Hydroclimate of the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moreo, Michael T.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Flint, Alan L.; Damar, Nancy A.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Hurja, James

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and actual evapotranspiration often are used to characterize the hydroclimate of a region. Quantification of these parameters in mountainous terrains is difficult because limited access often hampers the collection of representative ground data. To fulfill a need to characterize ecological zones in the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range of southern Nevada, spatially and temporally explicit estimates of these hydroclimatic parameters are determined from remote-sensing and model-based methodologies. Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation estimates for this area ranges from about 100 millimeters (mm) in the low elevations of the study area (700 meters [m]) to more than 700 mm in the high elevations of the Spring Mountains (> 2,800 m). The PRISM model underestimates precipitation by 7–15 percent based on a comparison with four high‑elevation precipitation gages having more than 20 years of record. Precipitation at 3,000-m elevation is 50 percent greater in the Spring Mountains than in the Sheep Range. The lesser amount of precipitation in the Sheep Range is attributed to partial moisture depletion by the Spring Mountains of eastward-moving, cool-season (October–April) storms. Cool-season storms account for 66–76 percent of annual precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration estimates by the Basin Characterization Model range from about 700 mm in the high elevations of the Spring Mountains to 1,600 mm in the low elevations of the study area. The model realistically simulates lower potential evapotranspiration on northeast-to-northwest facing slopes compared to adjacent southeast-to-southwest facing slopes. Actual evapotranspiration, estimated using a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer based water-balance model, ranges from about 100 to 600 mm. The magnitude and spatial variation of simulated, actual evapotranspiration was validated by comparison to PRISM precipitation

  6. Monitoring glacier variations in the Urubamba and Vilcabamba Mountain Ranges, Peru, using "Landsat 5" images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suarez, Wilson; Cerna, Marcos; Ordoñez, Julio; Frey, Holger; Giráldez, Claudia; Huggel, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The Urubamba and Vilcabamba mountain ranges are two geological structures belonging to the Andes in the southern part of Peru, which is located in the tropical region. These mountain ranges are especially located within the transition area between the Amazon region (altitudes close to 1'000 m a.s.l.) and the Andes. These mountains, with a maximum height of 6'280 m a.s.l. (Salkantay Snow Peak in the Vilcabamba range), are characterized by glaciers mainly higher than 5000 m a.s.l. Here we present a study on the evolution of the ice cover based on "Landsat 5" images from 1991 and 2011 is presented in this paper. These data are freely available from the USGS in a georeferenced format and cover a time span of more than 25 years. The glacier mapping is based on the Normalized Difference Snow Index (NDSI). In 1991 the Vilcabamba mountain range had 221 km2 of glacier cover, being reduced to 116.4 km2 in 2011, which represents a loss of 48%. In the Urubamba mountain range, the total glacier area was 64.9 km2 in 1991 and 29.4 km2 in 2011, representing a loss of 54.7%. It means that the glacier area was halved during the past two decades although precipitation patterns show an increase in recent years (the wet season lasts from September to April with precipitation peaks in February and March). Glacier changes in these two tropical mountain ranges also impact from an economic point of view due to small local farming common in this region (use of water from the melting glacier). Furthermore, potential glacier related hazards can pose a threat to people and infrastructure in the valleys below these glaciers, where the access routes to Machu Picchu Inca City, Peru's main tourist destination, are located too.

  7. The Rudbār Mw 7.3 earthquake of 1990 June 20; seismotectonics, coseismic and geomorphic displacements, and historic earthquakes of the western `High-Alborz', Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberian, Manuel; Walker, Richard

    2010-09-01

    The Rudbār earthquake of 1990 June 20, the first large-magnitude earthquake with 80 km left-lateral strike-slip motion in the western `High-Alborz' fold-thrust mountain belt, was one of the largest, and most destructive, earthquakes to have occurred in Iran during the instrumental period. We bring together new and existing data on macroseismic effects, the rupture characteristics of the mainshock, field data, and the distribution of aftershocks, to provide a better description of the earthquake source, its surface ruptures, and active tectonic characteristics of the western `High-Alborz'. The Rudbār earthquake is one of three large magnitude events to have occurred in this part of the Alborz during recorded history. The damage distribution of the 1485 August 15 Upper Polrud earthquake suggests the east-west Kelishom left-lateral fault, which is situated east of the Rudbār earthquake fault, as a possible source. The 1608 April 20 Alamutrud earthquake may have occurred on the Alamutrud fault farther east. Analysis of satellite imagery suggests that total left-lateral displacements on the Rudbār fault are a maximum of ~1 km. Apparent left-lateral river displacements of ~200 m on the Kashachāl fault and up to ~1.5 km of the Kelishom fault, which are situated at the eastern end of the Rudbār earthquake fault, also appear to indicate rather small cumulative displacements. Given the relatively small displacements, the presently active left-lateral strike-slip faults of the western High-Alborz fold-thrust belt, may be younger than onset of deformation within the Alborz Mountains as a whole.

  8. For Sale--Scotland's Most Famous Mountain Range: Land "Ownership" in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slattery, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    The nature of land ownership is infrequently discussed by practitioners of outdoor education, though it is often central to the way they work. The recent controversy over the proposed sale of the Cuillin mountain range on the Isle of Skye in Scotland provoked heated discussion over rights to and benefits of this important place. The main point at…

  9. Long-range atmospheric transport and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Changbai Mountain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangai; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Zhu, Weihong; Kannan, Narayanan; Li, Donghao

    2015-01-01

    The Changbai (also known as "Baekdu") Mountain, on the border between China and North Korea, is the highest mountain (2750 m) in northeastern China. Recently, this mountain region has experienced a dramatic increase in air pollution, not only because of increasing volumes of tourism-derived traffic but also because of the long-range transport of polluted westerly winds passing through major industrial and urban cities in the eastern region of China. To assess the relative importance of the two sources of pollution, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model substances were determined in the mountain soil. A total of 32 soil samples were collected from different sides of the mountain at different latitudes between July and August of 2009. The ∑PAH concentrations were within the range 38.5-190.1 ng g(-1) on the northern side, 117.7-443.6 ng g(-1) on the southern side, and 75.3-437.3 ng g(-1) on the western side. A progressive increase in the level of ∑PAHs with latitude was observed on the southern and western sides that face the westerly wind with abundant precipitation. However, a similar concentration gradient was not observed on the northern side that receives less rain and is on the leeward direction of the wind. The high-molecular-weight PAH compounds were predominant in the soils on the southern and western sides, while low-molecular-weight PAHs dominated the northern side soils. These findings show that the distribution of PAHs in the mountain soil is strongly influenced by the atmospheric long-range transport and cold trapping. PMID:25036943

  10. Turkish Children's Drawing of Nature in a Certain Way: Range of Mountains in the Back, the Sun, Couple of Clouds, a River Rising from the Mountains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulker, Riza

    2012-01-01

    This study reveals that Turkish kindergarten through 8th Grade (K-8) students draw nature pictures in a certain way; range of mountains in the background, a sun, a couple of clouds, a river rising from the mountains. There are similarities in the K-8 students' nature drawings in the way these nature items are organized on a drawing paper. We…

  11. Study of the extensive air shower mass sensitive parameters in prototype of ALBORZ array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegarzadeh, G.; Nemati, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this work we have used muon production depth distribution as well as the lateral distribution of the secondary particles of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) as two main parameters to infer the mass composition of primary cosmic rays. In order to achieve a realistic estimate of the mass composition, a sample of showers initiated by proton and iron particles as primaries have been simulated by CORSIKA code with zenith angle between 0° and 18° and discrete energies in a range between 1014 and 1016 eV for ALBORZ (1200 m a.s.l, Tehran, Iran) and KASKADE (110 m a.s.l, Karlsruhe, Germany) observation levels. Moreover lateral density distribution functions of energy for charged particles of air showers have been proposed for both proton and Iron primaries. We have indicated that among these two EAS parameters, lateral distribution of secondary particles provides better mass discrimination.

  12. The large karstic holes at the top of the Syrian coastal Mountain Range. Importance of structural setting for the karstogenesis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mocochain, Ludovic; Blanpied, Christian; Bigot, Jean-Yves; Peyronel, Olivier; Gorini, Christian; Abdalla, Abdelkarim Al; Azki, Fawaz

    2015-04-01

    Along the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, the Syria Coastal Mountain Range spreads from north to south over 150 km of long. This range is a monocline structure stopped by a major escarpment that domines Al-Gahb Graben to the East. The Coastal Mountain Range is mainly formed by Mesozoic limestone that show a major unconformity between the Upper Jurassic and Aptien deposits, and important erosions in the Upper Cretaceous deposits. Locally, the Juro-Cretaceous unconformity is characterized by a layer of continental basalts with fossil woods that reveal a long emersion of the platform. The most recent carbonate deposits at the top of the Coastal Mountain Range are Turonian age. In the center part of the Coastal Mountain Range, in a small area, the Cretaceous carbonates are affected by large karstic dolines. These dolines are curiously located at the top of the mountain range. This position is not beneficial for the development of large karstic holes.

  13. Devonian-Mississippian carbonate sequence in the Maiyumerak Mountains, western Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Dumoulin, J.A. ); Harris, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    Essentially continuous, dominantly carbonate sedimentation occurred from at least the Early Devonian through the Mississippian in the area that is now the Maiyumerak Mountains, western Brooks Range. This succession is in striking contrast to Paleozoic sequences in the eastern Brooks Range and in the subsurface across northern Alaska, where uppermost Devonian-Mississippian clastic and Carboniferous carbonates unconformably overlie Proterozoic or lower Paleozoic metasedimentary or sedimentary rocks. Conodonts obtained throughout the Maiyumerak Mountains sequence indicate that any hiatus is less than a stage in duration, and there is no apparent physical evidence of unconformity within the succession. The sequence is best exposed northwest of the Eli River, where Emsian-Eifelian dolostones (Baird Group) are conformably overlain by Kinderhookian-Osagian sandy limestones (Utukok Formation) and Osagian-Chesterian fossiliferous limestones (Kogruk Formation) of the Lisburne Group. Conodont species assemblages and sedimentary structures indicate deposition in a range of shallow-water shelf environments. The sequence extends at least 30 km, from the Noatak Quadrangle northeast into the Baird Mountains Quadrangle; its easternmost extent has not been definitively determined. The Ellesmerian orogeny, thought to have produced the extensive middle Paleozoic unconformity seen through much of northern Alaska apparently had little effect on this western Brooks Range sedimentary succession.

  14. A geological reconnaissance across the Bitterroot Range and Clearwater Mountains in Montana and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindgren, Waldemar

    1904-01-01

    This report describes, in a preliminary way, a belt of country extending westward from the Bitterroot Valley, across the dividing range and the rugged mountains of the Clearwater system, down to the fertile plateaus which border the canyon of Snake River. It thus presents a reconnaissance section from western Montana across northern Idaho, and deals chiefly with areas about which, thus far, little geological information has been available.

  15. A geochemical perspective of Red Mountain: an unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Alaska Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Giles, Stuart A.; Eppinger, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has investigated the environmental geochemistry of a group of unmined volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits in the Bonnifield mining district, Alaska Range, east-central Alaska. The spectacularly colored Red Mountain deposit is the best exposed of these and provides excellent baseline geochemical data for natural environmental impacts of acidic rock drainage, metal dissolution and transport, and acidic salt and metal precipitation from an exposed and undisturbed VMS deposit.

  16. Regional significance of Mississippian rocks at Pentagon Mountain, Lewis and Clark Range, northwestern Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, K.M.

    1985-05-01

    Pentagon Mountain exposes one of the best of the few sections of Mississippian rocks in the Lewis and Clark Range of northwestern Montana. This section consists of 225 m (738 ft) of marine carbonate rocks from which conodonts, ranging in age from earliest Osagean to early Meramecian, have been identified. Its stratigraphic base is well exposed, but the top has been eroded. Five units are recognized in this sequence, in ascending order: (1) phosphatized coarsely crinoidal and spiculitic wackestone, (2) dolomitic lime mudstone or wackestone, thinly interbedded with spiculitic biogenic chert, (3) partly dolomitized lime bioclastic wackestone showing much pressure-solution compaction, (4) partly dolomitized lime bioclastic packstone or wackestone, also showing much pressure-solution compaction, and (5) dolomitic mudstone. The Mississippian sequence at Pentagon Mountain can be readily correlated lithologically, across the Lewis thrust system with Mississippian rocks that crop out to the east in the Sawtooth Range. This implies either that Mississippian units were originally widespread or that the magnitude of thrusting between the Mississippian rocks in the Lewis and Clark Range and those in the Sawtooth Range was insignificant. However, Mississippian rocks at Pentagon Mountain exhibit extreme pressure-solution compaction, which suggests greater stratigraphic or structural burial of these rocks than their Mississippian counterparts in the Sawtooth Range. Secondary dolomite is pervasive in the lower part of the Mississippian section in the Lewis and Clark Range, and spectacular solution breccias locally disrupt the base of the section. These breccias and the adjacent dolomite are probably related, as both are thought to result from the passage of fluids through these rocks during Laramide uplift and/or post Laramide erosion and extension.

  17. Middle Jurassic U-Pb crystallization age for Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, T.E. ); Aleinikoff, J.N.; Walter, M. )

    1993-04-01

    The authors report here a U-Pb age for the Siniktanneyak Mountain Ophiolite klippe in the west-central Brooks Range, the first U-Pb ophiolite age in northern Alaska. Like klippen of mafic and ultramafic rocks in the Brooks Range, the Siniktanneyak Mountain klippe is composed of a lower allochthon of Devonian and younger( ) diabase and metabasalt with trace-element characteristics of seamount basalts and an upper allochthon of ophiolite. The ophiolite is partial, consisting of (1) abundant dunite and subordinate harzburgite and wehrlite; (2) cumulate clinopyroxene gabbro, and (3) minor noncumulate clinopyroxene gabbro and subordinate plagiogranite; no sheeted dikes or volcanic rocks are known in the ophilitic allochthon. The plagiogranite forms small dikes and stocks that intrude the noncumulate gabbro and consists of zoned Na-rich plagioclase + clinopyroxene with interstial quartz and biotite. Five fractions of subhedral, tan zircon from the plagiogranite yield slightly discordant U-Pb data with an upper intercept age of 170 [+-] 3 Ma. The U-Pb data indicate that the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite crystallized in the Middle Jurassic and was emplaced by thrusting onto mafic accretionary prism rocks within about 10 m.y. of crystallization. The U-Pb data provide an upper limit to the age of initiation of the Brookian orogeny.

  18. Evolution of basin and range structure in the Ruby Mountains and vicinity, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, D. D.; Reese, N. M.; Kelley, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Results from various age dating techniques, seismic reflection profiling hydrocarbon maturation studies, and structural analysis were used to evaluate the Cenozoic deformation in the Ruby Mountains and adjoining ranges (pinyon Range and Cortez Range) in Elko and Eureka Counties, Nevada. Age dating techniques used include potassium-argon ages of biotites from granites published by Kistler et al. (1981) and fission track ages from apatite and zircon. Fission track ages from apatite reflect a closing temperature of 100 plus or minus 20 deg C. Zircon fission track ages reflect a closing temperature of 175 plus or minus 25 deg C and potassium-argon ages from brotite reflect a closing temperature of 250 plus or minus 30 deg C. Thus these results allow a reasonably precise tracking of the evolution of the ranges during the Cenozoic. Seismic reflection data are available from Huntington Valley. Access to seismic reflection data directly to the west of the Harrison Pass Pluton in the central Ruby Mountains was obtained. In addition results are available from several deep exploration holes in Huntington Valley.

  19. An integrated remote sensing approach for identifying ecological range sites. [parker mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaynes, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    A model approach for identifying ecological range sites was applied to high elevation sagebrush-dominated rangelands on Parker Mountain, in south-central Utah. The approach utilizes map information derived from both high altitude color infrared photography and LANDSAT digital data, integrated with soils, geological, and precipitation maps. Identification of the ecological range site for a given area requires an evaluation of all relevant environmental factors which combine to give that site the potential to produce characteristic types and amounts of vegetation. A table is presented which allows the user to determine ecological range site based upon an integrated use of the maps which were prepared. The advantages of identifying ecological range sites through an integrated photo interpretation/LANDSAT analysis are discussed.

  20. Multi-Temporal Monitoring of Slow Moving Landslides in South Pindus Mountain Range, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Psychogyiou, Christina; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Kontoes, Charalambos; Poyiadji, Eleftheria; Spanou, Natalia; Klimis, Nikolaos

    2015-05-01

    The high frequency of landslide occurrences in Central and Western Greece, part of the Pindus mountain range, is now approached by exploiting the high temporal sampling rate of historical ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT SAR imagery in combination with the Multi Temporal Interferometry (MTI) technique. An existing well-established ground truth dataset is updated and enriched with the diachronic MTI results. Critical areas prone to slide are evaluated through susceptibility assessment and mapping taking into consideration the challenging environmental factors which dominate at the area of interest. A set of supplementary interesting geophysical and structural MTI detections at the region of analysis are additionally discussed.

  1. Interpreting climate-driven aggradation and incision along the fringes of a decaying mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langston, A.; Tucker, G. E.; Anderson, R. S.; Foster, M. A.; Anderson, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    Flights of terraces that flank range fronts throughout the Rocky Mountains record episodic stream incision over at least the past 1.5 Ma. Recent work using cosmogenic radionuclides to date the ages of terraces in the Denver Basin along the Colorado Front Range suggests that these high surfaces were formed during glacial intervals and rapidly incised during interglacials. Climate change related to glacial-interglacial cycles has been suggested as a possible driver for the repeated aggradation and incision of these high surfaces. Potential mechanisms for increasing sediment supply and transport in rivers include variations over time in (1) periglacial weathering and hillslope transport, (2) the magnitude and timing of runoff and stream flow, and (3) sediment flux from intermittently glaciated major valleys. Lower temperatures during glacial intervals may increase physical weathering and transport of regolith downslope through frost cracking and frost creep, respectively, thus supplying the upland rivers with sediment that can be delivered to the basins. Frozen ground could generate enhanced runoff, leading to increased peak stream discharge during glacial intervals, and allowing the rivers to flush sediment from the mountains to the plains more effectively. Cold-period aggradation of the high surfaces in the basins and in mountain channels could also be linked to enhanced sediment flux derived from glaciers in the headwaters of the catchment. These three possible mechanisms raise the question of which of them (if any) is primarily responsible for the cycles of aggradation and incision that appear to have created the staircase-like terrace surfaces along the range front. In this study, we use a landscape evolution model to determine whether any of these processes, in isolation, is sufficient to explain the observed rates and patterns of terrace formation and abandonment along the Colorado piedmont. We also use the model to determine whether the presumed rapid incision

  2. PBO Facility Construction: Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain Regions Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, B.; Jenkins, F.; Kasmer, D.; Feaux, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the larger NSF-funded EarthScope project, will study the three- dimensional strain field resulting from active plate boundary deformation across the Western United States. PBO is a large construction project involving the reconnaissance, permitting, installation, documentation, and maintenance of 852 permanent GPS stations in five years. 163 of these stations lie within the Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain Regions consisting of the states of Montana, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. During the third year of the project, the Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain regions of PBO accelerated production goals in reconnaissance, permitting, and installation activities. The summer of 2006 saw the completion of nearly all of the reconnaissance field work for the regions, with permits submitted to landholders for 88% of the total number of stations. A major milestone in the permitting phase of the construction project was the approval of 33 GPS stations located on Bureau of Land Management controlled public lands in Nevada. This transect is located along Highway 50 and will profile the extension of the Basin and Range province. Construction of these stations will be conducted throughout the fall of 2006. The focus for construction efforts in year 3 was in the state of Montana, where many of the backbone and Yellowstone cluster stations were completed. To date, construction is complete for 80 of 163 GPS stations.

  3. PBO Facility Construction: Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain Regions Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friesen, B.; Jenkins, F.; Kasmer, D.; Feaux, K.

    2007-12-01

    The Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO), part of the larger NSF-funded EarthScope project, will study the three- dimensional strain field resulting from active plate boundary deformation across the western United States. PBO is a large construction project involving the reconnaissance, permitting, installation, documentation, and maintenance of 875 permanent GPS stations in five years. 163 of these stations lie within the Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain Regions consisting of the states of Montana, Idaho, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona. During the fourth year of the project, the Basin and Range and Rocky Mountain regions of PBO completed reconnaissance and nearly all permitting activities, and maintained a fast pace of station installations. The fall of 2006 and spring of 2007 were devoted to the construction of a large push of 50 stations, most located on Bureau of Land Management controlled public lands in Nevada. This transect is located along Highway 50 and will profile the extension of the Basin and Range province. The Yellowstone area, including surrounding National Parks and Forests was the target of summer 2007, during which time 10 remote stations with difficult logistics were installed. To date, construction is complete for 135 of 163 GPS stations.

  4. Tertiary volcanic rocks and uranium in the Thomas Range and northern Drum Mountains, Juab County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.

    1982-01-01

    The Thomas Range and northern Drum Mountains have a history of volcanism, faulting, and mineralization that began about 42 m.y. (million years) ago. Volcanic activity and mineralization in the area can be divided into three stages according to the time-related occurrence of rock types, trace-element associations, and chemical composition of mineral deposits. Compositions of volcanic rocks changed abruptly from rhyodacite-quartz latite (42-39 m.y. ago) to rhyolite (38-32 m.y. ago) to alkali rhyolite (21 and 6-7 m.y. ago); these stages correspond to periods of chalcophile and siderophile metal mineralization, no mineralization(?), and lithophile metal mineralization, respectively. Angular unconformities record episodes of cauldron collapse and block faulting between the stages of volcanic activity and mineralization. The youngest angular unconformity formed between 21 and 7 m.y. ago during basin-and-range faulting. Early rhyodacite-quartz latite volcanism from composite volcanoes and fissures produced flows, breccias, and ash-flow tuff of the Drum Mountains Rhyodacite and Mt. Laird Tuff. Eruption of the Mt. Laird Tuff about 39 m.y. ago from an area north of Joy townsite was accompanied by collapse of the Thomas caldera. Part of the roof of the magma chamber did not collapse, or the magma was resurgent, as is indicated by porphyry dikes and plugs in the Drum Mountains. Chalcophile and siderophile metal mineralization, resulting in deposits of copper, gold, and manganese, accompanied early volcanism. Te middle stage of volcanic activity was characterized by explosive eruption of rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs and collapse of the Dugway Valley cauldron. Eruption of the Joy Tuff 38 m.y. ago was accompanied by subsidence of this cauldron and was followed by collapse and sliding of Paleozoic rocks from the west wall of the cauldron. Landslides in The Dell were covered by the Dell Tuff, erupted 32 m.y. ago from an unknown source to the east. An ash flow of the Needles Range

  5. Mountain gorilla ranging patterns: influence of group size and group dynamics.

    PubMed

    Caillaud, Damien; Ndagijimana, Felix; Giarrusso, Anthony J; Vecellio, Veronica; Stoinski, Tara S

    2014-08-01

    Since the 1980s, the Virunga mountain gorilla population has almost doubled, now reaching 480 individuals living in a 430-km(2) protected area. Analysis of the gorillas' ranging patterns can provide critical information on the extent and possible effects of competition for food and space. We analyzed 12 years of daily ranging data and inter-group encounter data collected on 11 gorilla groups monitored by the Karisoke Research Center in Rwanda. During that period, the study population increased in size by almost 50% and the number of groups tripled. Groups had small yearly home ranges compared to other known gorilla populations, with an average 90% kernel density estimate of 8.07 km2 and large between-group variations (3.17-23.59 km2). Most groups had consistent home range location over the course of the study but for some, we observed gradual range shifts of up to 4 km. Neighboring groups displayed high home range overlap, which increased dramatically after the formation of new groups. On average, each group used only 28.6% of its 90% kernel home range exclusively, and in some areas up to six different groups had overlapping home ranges with little or no exclusive areas. We found a significant intra-group positive relationship between the number of weaned individuals in a group and the home range size, but the fitted models only explained 17.5% and 13.7% of the variance in 50% and 90% kernel home range size estimates, respectively. This suggests that despite the increase in size, the study population is not yet experiencing marked effects of feeding competition. However, the increase in home range overlap resulting from the formation of new groups led to a sixfold increase in the frequency of inter-group encounters, which exposes the population to elevated risks of fight-related injuries and infanticide. PMID:24573634

  6. Home range characteristics of Mexican Spotted Owls in the Rincon Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willey, David W.; Van Riper, Charpes III

    2014-01-01

    We studied a small isolated population of Mexican Spotted Owls (Strix occidentalis lucida) from 1996–1997 in the Rincon Mountains of Saguaro National Park, southeastern Arizona, USA. All mixed-conifer and pine-oak forest patches in the park were surveyed for Spotted Owls, and we located, captured, and radio-tagged 10 adult birds representing five mated pairs. Using radio-telemetry, we examined owl home range characteristics, roost habitat, and monitored reproduction within these five territories. Breeding season (Mar–Sep) home range size for 10 adult owls (95% adaptive kernel isopleths) averaged 267 ha (±207 SD), and varied widely among owls (range 34–652 ha). Mean home range size for owl pairs was 478 ha (±417 ha SD), and ranged from 70–1,160 ha. Owls that produced young used smaller home ranges than owls that had no young. Six habitat variables differed significantly between roost and random sites, including: percent canopy cover, number of trees, number of vegetation layers, average height of trees, average diameter of trees, and tree basal area. Radio-marked owls remained in their territories following small prescribed management fires within those territories, exhibiting no proximate effects to the presence of prescribed fire.

  7. Climate Change Effects on Treeline Communty Dynamics in Basin and Range Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smithers, B.; Millar, C.; North, M.

    2014-12-01

    Treeline advance is an expected sensitive indicator of climate change effects on species distributions. However, little evidence of treeline advance has been shown due to past disturbance or geomorphological limitations. The Basin and Range Mountains of Nevada and eastern California have seen minimal human impact and have been free of major glaciation, making these mountains an ideal location to test for climate change impacts on treeline. Great Basin treelines are dominated by bristlecone pine but recent observations show that usually downslope-growing limber pine appears to be pushing treeline upslope. In this study, we used modified belt transects at above and below adult treeline and at stand mid-elevation to compare species regeneration with adult, cone-bearing tree basal area. Our results show that limber pine regeneration surpasses bristlecone pine regeneration at treeline in terms of raw numbers of individuals. When adult basal area is taken into consideration, it appears that the very few adult limber pines have far more regeneration success at treeline than the bristlecone pine adults. This may have long-term ramifications on community composition of bristlecone pine forests, as these long-lived individuals largely exclude one another once established. Limber pine appears to be far better adapted to take advantage of rapid climate change. Even if bristlecone pine is ultimately better adapted to treeline in the long-term and this "changing of the guard" at treeline is temporary, due to their long lifespan, this effect could last thousands of years.

  8. Triangle zone and displacement transfer structures in the eastern Front Ranges, southern Canadian Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Sanderson, D.A. ); Spratt, D.A. )

    1992-06-01

    The geometry of a relict triangle zone at the boundary of the Foothills and Front Ranges in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains is constrained by detailed surface mapping over 700 m of relief and by seismic reflection data. The geometry and progressive development of the triangle zone along a strike length of 15-20 km, in the displacement transfer zone between the Coleman and Misty thrusts, is illustrated using closely spaced balanced cross sections, palinspastic restorations, and s sequentially restored cross section. Structural geometries show that a northeast- (foreland-) verging, mainly carbonate wedge of Mississippian to Triassic rock was inserted along a major upper detachment zone in shale, near the base of the Jurassic-Cretaceous clastic package. This was accompanied by southwest- (hinterland-) verging displacements along the upper detachment zone, tectonic thickening of the clastic package exceeding 200%, and backthrusting. Later northeast-verging deformation slightly modified the triangle zone by steepening structures, tightening folds, and minor thrusting. Recognition of relict triangle zones within the fold and thrust belt may document important changes in the rate of thrust front advancement, and aid in the delineation of potential hydrocarbon traps, similar to those discovered along the present-day thrust-belt margin in the southern Canadian Rocky Mountains.

  9. The crustal section of the Siniktanneyak Mountain ophiolite, Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Bickerstaff, D.; Harris, R.A.; Miller, M.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geography)

    1993-04-01

    Fragments of the upper crustal section of the Brooks Range Ophiolite on the west flank of Siniktanneyak Mountain expose important contact relations and paleohorizontal indicators. The nearly complete crustal sequence faces northwest. Based on field observations, the crustal units encountered at Siniktanneyak Mountain from bottom to top are: (1) layered gabbro, (2) isotropic gabbro, (3) high level and late-stage intrusions of diorite and diabase, (4) rare sheeted dikes, (5) basalt, and (6) a bedded volcanic tuff. Potassium feldspar-bearing pegmatites are also found. Of particular interest is the orientation of the layered gabbro, sheeted dikes, and the bedded volcanic tuff. The steeply dipping gabbro layers strike N-S, the adjacent vertical sheeted dikes strike NE-SW. Bedded volcanic tuff and lavas are flat lying. Contacts within the upper crust units are often covered by talus. Contacts between various plutonic rocks are both sharp and gradational, suggesting syn- and post-cooling intrusions. Contacts between plutonic rock and higher volcanic rock appear to be fault contacts.

  10. Managers' summary - ecological studies of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, 1992-1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, F.J.; Schoenecker, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    Ecological Studies of the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range, 1992-1997 provides a synthesis of key findings of landscape-scale, interdisciplinary studies of the effects of wild horses and native ungulates on a rugged, mountain ecosystem. This is perhaps the most comprehensive study of a wild horse herd conducted. This was a complex study and one involving a truly interagency approach. Six agencies either provided input to research priority setting, funding, or both. The agencies included the Bureau of Land Management, National Park Service, U.S. Geological Survey, Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Wyoming Game and Fish Department, and U.S. Forest Service. The major research direction and effort came from the U.S. Geological Survey and Natural Resources Ecology Lab, Colorado State University with Montana State University and the University of Kentucky also participating. Ungulate monitoring was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Bureau of Land Management, Billings Field Office and the Montana Fish and Wildlife Parks, with funding by Bighorn Canyon National Recreation Area. Many other individuals and groups were involved and deserve credit. The report printing was made possible with funds from the Bureau of Land Management, Wild Horse and Burro Program, Washington Office. This report was prepared by the Information Management Project, Midcontinent Ecological Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey.

  11. On the Geomorphological Status of the Central Mountain Range, Korean Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Jongmin; Paik, Kyungrock

    2015-04-01

    It has been known that the tectonic uplift forming the central mountain range (Taebaek Mtn.) in the Korean Peninsula has begun since the Tertiary (Kim, 1961). Recent studies suggest that most uplift events have occurred during the mid Miocene (Min et al., 2008). On the summits of the Taebaek mountain range are low-relief plateaus. They have long been interpreted as paleo erosional surfaces, and thus are considered as transient landscape. In other words, low-relief plateaus have been considered as evidences that the landscape has not responded to the tectonic uplift events yet. However, a recent study on the denudation rates of a plateau reported that the erosion rate of the plateau is much greater than several paleo surfaces reported in other parts of the world (Byun et al., under revision). Such high denudation rate raises a question on the previous hypothesis of paleo surfaces. To test these two contrasting hypotheses, we first identify characteristic features of the plateau landscape using topographic position index (Weiss, 2001). Then, we numerically evaluate the required time for the development into the plateau landscape starting from various initial reliefs. Our quantitative analysis shows that dominant features that compose the plateau are flat-convex ridge, straight mid slope, and slightly concave lower slope. Simulation results show that the highly weathered saprolite observed in the plateau accelerates the development into the representative hillslope profiles. As a result, we find that development from different initial reliefs into the representative profiles takes time less than expected by the previous paleo surfaces hypothesis. Such results reconfirm that the plateau is not originated from paleo surfaces, but from recent geomorphic processes aided by highly weathered saprolites. This can also imply that the plateau topography is not in transient state. References Byun, J., Heimsath, A. M., Seong, Y. B., and Lee, S. Y., Erosion of a high

  12. Effects of Landfall Location and Approach Angle of an Idealized Tropical Cyclone over a Long Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liping; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Chen, Shu-Hua

    2016-02-01

    Effects of landfall location and approach angle on track deflection associated with a tropical cyclone (TC) passing over an idealized and Central Appalachian Mountain is investigated by a series of idealized numerical experiments. When the TC landfalls on the central portion of the mountain range, it is deflected to the south upstream, passes over the mountain anticyclonically, and then moves westward downstream. The TC motion is steered by the positive vorticity tendency (VT) which is dominated by horizontal vorticity advection upstream and downstream, but with additional influence from the stretching and residual terms, which are mainly associated with diabatic heating and frictional effects. The track deflection mechanism upstream and downstream is similar to the dry flow in previous study, but is very different in the vicinity of the mountain. When the TC landfalls near the northern (southern) tip, it experiences less (more) southward deflection due to stronger (weaker) vorticity advection around the tip. When the TC approaches the mountain range from the southeast and landfalls on the northern tip, center, or southern tip, the track deflections are similar to those embedded in an easterly flow but with weaker orographic blocking. These results are similar to the cases simulated in the dry flow in previous study, except that there is no track discontinuity due to the weaker orographic blocking associated with strong TC convection. When a TC moves along the north-south mountain range from the south, it tends to deflect toward the mountain and then crosses over to the other side at later time. In these cases, the positive VT is influenced by all horizontal vorticity advection, vorticity stretching (diabatic heating) and residual (friction) terms due to longer and stronger interaction with the mountain range. The vorticity stretching is mainly caused by diabatic heating in the moist flow, instead of by lee slope vorticity stretching in the previous study for dry

  13. A new species of the genus Leptobrachium (Anura: Megophryidae) from the Gaoligongshan Mountain Range, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jian-Huan; Wang, Ying-Yong; Chan, Bosco Pui-Lok

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new species of the genus Leptobrachium from the Gaoligongshan Mountain Range, Yunnan Province of China based on molecular and morphological evidences. The new species, Leptobrachium tengchongense sp. nov., can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: (1) relatively small size (adult males SVL 41.7-51.5 mm); (2) head width slightly larger than head length; (3) tympanum indistinct; (4) two palmar tubercles oval and distinct, inner one larger than outer one; (5) sexually active males without spines on the upper lip; (6) dorsal skin smooth with distinct network of ridges; (7) dorsum pinkish grey and scattered with irregular black markings; (8) venter dark purplish-gray with numerous small white spots on tubercles, solid white chest; (9) iris bicolored, upper one-third light blue, lower two-third dark brown. With the description of the new species, the number of Leptobrachium species currently known from China adds up to ten. PMID:27515651

  14. Orographic precipitation, wind-blown snow, and landscape evolution in glaciated mountain ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocklehurst, S. H.; Rowan, A. V.; Plummer, M. A.; Foster, D.; Schultz, D. M.; MacGregor, K. R.

    2011-12-01

    Orographic precipitation and wind-blown snow appear to significantly influence the evolution of glaciated mountain ranges, and in narrow ranges the effect is opposite from orographic precipitation in non-glaciated ranges. While fluvially-eroded ranges tend to be exhumed more on the windward side, glacially-eroded ranges can experience greater erosion on the leeward side. On the timescale of an individual glaciation, the distribution of precipitation and settling is a key component of glacier mass balance and ice extent, while on longer timescales, the interaction of precipitation and topography can play a major role in landscape evolution and range morphology. Numerical modelling of last glacial maximum (LGM) ice extents for catchments on the eastern side of the Southern Alps, New Zealand, highlights the importance of the distribution of precipitation. The accumulation areas of the glaciers would have experienced much greater precipitation than lower elevations, because of the pronounced orographic precipitation gradient, so glacier length is very sensitive to the precipitation distribution employed for any given temperature change. This is particularly challenging given the lack of modern snow monitoring at high altitudes within the Southern Alps, the likelihood of steep accumulation gradients amongst high topography, below the resolution of current datasets, and the difficulty of extrapolating modern values to the LGM. The Sangre de Cristo Range, southern Colorado, and the Bitterroot Range on the Idaho-Montana border both run close to north-south, cross-cutting the prevailing westerly winds. Drainage basins on both sides of the ranges cover similar areas, but moraines are much more substantial on the eastern sides, indicating greater glacial incision, which we suggest at least partly reflects snow blown over the range crest. The Uinta Mountains, Utah, run west-east, parallel to prevailing winds, and show topographic asymmetry across individual catchments, rather

  15. Integrating soils and geomorphology in mountains - An example from the Front Range of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Birkeland, P.W.; Shroba, R.R.; Burns, S.F.; Price, A.B.; Tonkin, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    Soil distribution in high mountains reflects the impact of several soil-forming factors. Soil geomorphologists use key pedological properties to estimate ages of Quaternary deposits of various depositional environments, estimate long-term stability and instability of landscapes, and make inferences on past climatic change. Once the influence of the soil-forming factors is known, soils can be used to help interpret some aspects of landscape evolution that otherwise might go undetected. The Front Range of Colorado rises from the plains of the Colorado Piedmont at about 1700 m past a widespread, dissected Tertiary erosion surface between 2300 and 2800 m up to an alpine Continental Divide at 3600 to over 4000 m. Pleistocene valley glaciers reached the western edge of the erosion surface. Parent rocks are broadly uniform (granitic and gneissic). Climate varies from 46 cm mean annual precipitation (MAP) and 11 ??C mean annual temperature (MAT) in the plains to 102 cm and -4 ??C, respectively, near the range crest. Vegetation follows climate with grassland in the plains, forest in the mountains, and tundra above 3450 m. Soils reflect the bioclimatic transect from plains to divide: A/Bw or Bt/Bk or K (grassland) to A/E/Bw or Bt/C (forest) to A/Bw/C (tundra). Corresponding soil pH values decrease from 8 to less than 5 with increasing elevation. The pedogenic clay minerals dominant in each major vegetation zone are: smectite (grassland), vermiculite (forest), and 1.0-1.8 nm mixed-layer clays (tundra). Within the lower forested zone, the topographic factor (aspect) results in more leached, colder soils, with relatively thin O horizons, well-expressed E horizons and Bt horizons (Alfisols) on N-facing slopes, whereas soils with thicker A horizons, less developed or no E horizons, and Bw or Bt horizons (Mollisols) are more common on S-facing slopes. The topographic factor in the tundra results in soil patterns as a consequence of wind-redistributed snow and the amount of time it

  16. Conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), Sadlerochit Mountains, northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhardt, A.P. ); Harris, A.G. )

    1990-05-01

    The Wahoo Limestone forms the upper part of the Lisburne Group (Carboniferous) in the Sadlerochit Mountains. The Lisburne Group is a thick (> 600 m) sequence of platform carbonate rocks that extends across the Brooks Range of northern Alaska and beneath the North Slope. At Prudhoe Bay, the Lisburne Group forms a major hydrocarbon reservoir. In the easternmost Sadlerochit Mountains, the Wahool Limestone is divisible into informal lower (64 m) and upper (192 m) members. The basal 46 m is chiefly bryozoan and pelmatozoan packstone that formed on a relatively shallow platform during the latest Mississippian lower muricatus subzone (as shown by the occurrence of the zonal index with representatives of Cavusgnathus). Cavusgnathus is dominant in this part of the section and occurs with representatives of Kladognathus, Ghathodus, Adetognathus, Hindeodus, and Rhachistognathus (in order of decreasing abundance). Declinognathodus noduliferus, the index for the base of the Pennsylvanian, first occurs at 49 m above the base of the Wahoo and 1 m above a discontinuity surface that marks the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary. The unconformity represents the highest conodont subzone of the Mississippian and probably part of the earliest Pennsylvanian. Previously, the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary was placed t the lower-upper Wahoo contact based on endothyroids; conodont data now indicate that this boundary is 15 m lower. The remaining lower Wahoo is possibly of noduliferus-primus zone age and chiefly yields, in order of decreasing abundance, species of Adetognathus, Declinognathodus, and Rhachistognathus, as well as redeposited Mississipian conodonts. The lower 15 m of the upper member of the Wahoo contains silty (5-40%) carbonate rock types that yield very few conodonts. Conodonts no older than the minutus-sinuatus zone are relatively abundant from 15 to 106 m above the base of the upper Wahoo.

  17. Characterizing Controls of Riparian Width for Mountain Streams in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polvi, L. E.; Wohl, E. E.

    2007-12-01

    High variability of mountain streams causes riparian width to vary greatly from changes in drainage, valley and channel characteristics. GIS- based models for predicting flood-prone width, valley bottoms, or riparian zones may not accurately reflect processes at the reach scale, therefore field verification and reach-specific studies are needed. Management of riparian areas often designates a generalized width, which may under- or over-estimate the true riparian width. This study examines correlations between potential control variables and riparian zone width in the Colorado Front Range. Results from this study will be used to predict the riparian zone as a proxy for flood-prone width in the semi-arid Colorado Front Range. We hypothesize that local controls interact with large- scale controls to determine floodplain processes. Large-scale controls identified are elevation, which reflects hydroclimatology and glacial history, gradient and drainage area. Local controls are entrenchment, the ratio of the valley width to channel width, connectedness, defined as the distance from the channel to valley edge, presence of colluvium, and vegetation type, affecting roughness during flooding and bank stability. We chose twenty reaches based on elevation, connectedness, gradient and drainage area using a GIS base map in anthropogenically undisturbed areas of the Colorado Front Range, which included the Cache la Poudre and North St. Vrain drainages. Riparian width was defined using a three-tiered approach: evidence of fluvial processes and presence of riparian vegetation, compared with the Q100 stage. A longitudinal and two valley and channel cross-section surveys were completed at each stream reach to determine valley and channel geometry and bed gradient. Preliminary results show significant positive correlations between drainage area, entrenchment, and connectedness and riparian width, and negative correlations between gradient and riparian width, supporting the hypothesis

  18. Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Dang, Sophie; Davis, Corey S; Cooke, Barry J; Coltman, David W

    2011-01-01

    The current epidemic of the mountain pine beetle (MPB), an indigenous pest of western North American pine, has resulted in significant losses of lodgepole pine. The leading edge has reached Alberta where forest composition shifts from lodgepole to jack pine through a hybrid zone. The susceptibility of jack pine to MPB is a major concern, but there has been no evidence of host-range expansion, in part due to the difficulty in distinguishing the parentals and their hybrids. We tested the utility of a panel of microsatellite loci optimized for both species to classify lodgepole pine, jack pine and their hybrids using simulated data. We were able to accurately classify simulated individuals, and hence applied these markers to identify the ancestry of attacked trees. Here we show for the first time successful MPB attack in natural jack pine stands at the leading edge of the epidemic. This once unsuitable habitat is now a novel environment for MPB to exploit, a potential risk which could be exacerbated by further climate change. The consequences of host-range expansion for the vast boreal ecosystem could be significant. PMID:21457381

  19. Mountain pine beetle host-range expansion threatens the boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Cullingham, Catherine I; Cooke, Janice E K; Dang, Sophie; Davis, Corey S; Cooke, Barry J; Coltman, David W

    2011-05-01

    The current epidemic of the mountain pine beetle (MPB), an indigenous pest of western North American pine, has resulted in significant losses of lodgepole pine. The leading edge has reached Alberta where forest composition shifts from lodgepole to jack pine through a hybrid zone. The susceptibility of jack pine to MPB is a major concern, but there has been no evidence of host-range expansion, in part due to the difficulty in distinguishing the parentals and their hybrids. We tested the utility of a panel of microsatellite loci optimized for both species to classify lodgepole pine, jack pine and their hybrids using simulated data. We were able to accurately classify simulated individuals, and hence applied these markers to identify the ancestry of attacked trees. Here we show for the first time successful MPB attack in natural jack pine stands at the leading edge of the epidemic. This once unsuitable habitat is now a novel environment for MPB to exploit, a potential risk which could be exacerbated by further climate change. The consequences of host-range expansion for the vast boreal ecosystem could be significant. PMID:21457381

  20. Global Trends in Glacial Cirque Floor Altitudes and Their Relationships with Climate, Equilibrium Line Altitudes, and Mountain Range Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, S. G.; Humphries, E.

    2013-12-01

    Glacial erosion at the base of cirque headwalls and the creation of threshold slopes above cirque floors may contribute to the 'glacial buzzsaw' effect in limiting the altitude of some mountain ranges. Since glacial extent and therefore glacial erosion rate depends on the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of a region, the altitude of cirque formation should be a function of the ELA. Several regional studies have shown that cirque floors form at an altitude approximating average Quaternary ELAs in some mountain ranges, but a global correlation has not yet been demonstrated. We examined the correlation between cirque altitudes and global ELA trends by compiling existing and new cirque altitude and morphometry data from > 30 mountain ranges at a wide range of latitudes. Where available, we calculate or present the average cirque altitude, relief, and latitude. We compared these altitudes to both the global East Pacific ELA and local ELAs where available. For the locations analyzed, the majority of average cirque altitudes fall between the Eastern Pacific modern and LGM ELAs, and mountain range height is typically limited to < 600 m above that altitude. This evidence supports the hypothesis that cirque formation is dependent upon the ELA, and that cirques likely form as a result of average, rather than extreme, glacial conditions. Furthermore, the correlation between cirque altitude and ELA, along with the restricted window of relief, implies that cirque formation is a factor in limiting peak altitude in ranges that rise above the ELA.

  1. Morphotectonic architecture of the Transantarctic Mountains rift flank between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains based on geomorphic analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Demyanick, Elizabeth; Wilson, Terry J.

    2007-01-01

    Extensional forces within the Antarctic Plate have produced the Transantarctic Mountains rift-flank uplift along the West Antarctic rift margin. Large-scale linear morphologic features within the mountains are controlled by bedrock structure and can be recognized and mapped from satellite imagery and digital elevation models (DEMs). This study employed the Antarctic Digital Database DEM to obtain slope steepness and aspect maps of the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) between the Royal Society Range and the Churchill Mountains, allowing definition of the position and orientation of the morphological axis of the rift-flank. The TAM axis, interpreted as a fault-controlled escarpment formed by coast-parallel retreat, provides a marker for the orientation of the faulted boundary between the TAM and the rift system. Changes in position and orientation of the TAM axis suggests the rift flank is segmented into tectonic blocks bounded by relay ramps and transverse accommodation zones. The transverse boundaries coincide with major outlet glaciers, supporting interpretation of rift structures between them. The pronounced morphological change across Byrd Glacier points to control by structures inherited from the Ross orogen.

  2. Quantifying Sediment Delivery History in Mediterranean Mountain Watersheds from Lake Records (Iberian Range, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valero-Garcés, Blas; Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Moreno, Ana; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Giralt, Santiago; Nadal-Romero, Estela

    2016-04-01

    Land degradation and soil erosion are key environmental problems in Mediterranean mountains with long history of human occupation and strong seasonality of hydrological regimes. Monitoring studies in experimental catchments in the Pyrenees have identified main controlling factors on erosion dynamics but, because of the short time span, they do not integrate the diverse temporal and spatial variability of these environments. We propose a novel strategy based on multi-proxy analyses of lake sediments aimed to quantify sediment delivery and erosion dynamics. Karstic lakes in the Iberian Range (Spain) provide the opportunity to reconstruct the depositional evolution of Mediterranean mountain watersheds and to evaluate the response to both, anthropogenic and climate forcings during the last millennia. Precipitation (rainfall intensity, seasonality, runoff production) and land cover (forest area, degraded areas, land uses) are key factors controlling erosion in both experimental and lake catchments. Values for Minimum Denuded Mass (Mdc) and Total Denudation Rate (DRt) measured in experimental catchments and reconstructed from lake sequences are comparable. In both settings, most sediment yield occurs during flooding events. The reconstructed sediment delivery to the lakes during flood events spans several orders or magnitude (less than 100 T to 98000 T) and the denudation rate ranges from 6 to 480 T km-2 yr-1. Reconstructed mass denudation values per event in the forested lake catchments are similar (less than 30 T km-2 yr-1) to sediment yields from a high altitude experimental watershed. Flood sediment yield values from an abandoned farmland experimental catchment (69 T km2) are in the lower range of lake watersheds (from 60 to 480 T km-2 yr-1). No lake watershed has reached the values documented for the badland catchment (3094 T km-2). These results underline the punctuated nature of sediment dynamics in Mediterranean landscapes at decadal and centennial scales. Major

  3. The Growth of Simple Mountain Ranges: 2. Geomorphic Evolution at Fault Linkage Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawers, N. H.; Densmore, A. L.; Davis, A. M.; Gupta, S.

    2002-12-01

    Large normal faults grow partly through linkage of fault segments and partly by fault tip propagation. The process by which fault segments interact and link is critical to understanding how topography is created along fault-bounded ranges. Structural studies and numerical models have shown that fault linkage is accompanied by localised increased displacement rate, which in turn drives rapid base level fall at the evolving range front. The changes in both along-strike fault structure and base level are most pronounced at and adjacent to sites of fault linkage. These areas, known as relay zones, thus preserve clues to both the tectonic history and the geomorphic evolution of large fault-bounded mountain ranges. We discuss the temporal and spatial constraints on the evolution of footwall-range topography, by comparing a number of active fault linkage sites, using field and DEM observations of the spatial pattern of footwall denudation. In particular, we focus on sites in Pleasant Valley, Nevada (Pearce and Tobin fault segments) and in the northeastern Basin and Range (the Beaverhead fault, Idaho, and the Star Valley fault, Wyoming). The study areas represent different stages in the structural and geomorphic evolution of relay zones, and allow us to propose a developmental model of large fault evolution and landscape response. Early in the growth of fault segments into an overlapping geometry, catchments may form within the evolving relay. However, increasing displacement rate associated with fault interaction and linkage makes these catchments prone to capture by streams that have incised headward from the range front. This scenario leads to locally increased footwall denudation in the vicinity of the capture site. Longitudinal profiles of streams differ with respect to position along relays and whether or not any particular stream has been able to capture early-formed drainages. The restricted space between interacting en echelon fault segments helps preserve close

  4. Neogene paleoelevation of intermontane basins in a narrow, compressional mountain range, southern Central Andes of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoke, Gregory D.; Giambiagi, Laura B.; Garzione, Carmala N.; Mahoney, J. Brian; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2014-11-01

    The topographic growth of mountain ranges at convergent margins results from the complex interaction between the motion of lithospheric plates, crustal shortening, rock uplift and exhumation. Constraints on the timing and magnitude of elevation change gleaned from isotopic archives preserved in sedimentary sequences provide insight into how these processes interact over different timescales to create topography and potentially decipher the impact of topography on atmospheric circulation and superposed exhumation. This study uses stable isotope data from pedogenic carbonates collected from seven different stratigraphic sections spanning different tectonic and topographic positions in the range today, to examine the middle to late Miocene history of elevation change in the central Andes thrust belt, which is located immediately to the south of the Altiplano-Puna Plateau, the world's second largest orogenic plateau. Paleoelevations are calculated using previously published local isotope-elevation gradients observed in modern rainfall and carbonate-formation temperatures determined from clumped isotope studies in modern soils. Calculated Neogene basin paleoelevations are between 1 km and 1.9 km for basins that today are located between 1500 and 3400 m elevation. Considering the modern elevation and δ18O values of precipitation at the sampling sites, three of the intermontane basins experienced surface uplift between the end of deposition during the late Miocene and present. The timing of elevation change cannot be linked to any documented episodes of large-magnitude crustal shortening. Paradoxically, the maximum inferred surface uplift in the core of the range is greatest where the crust is thinnest. The spatial pattern of surface uplift is best explained by eastward migration of a crustal root via ductile deformation in the lower crust and is not related to flat-slab subduction.

  5. Diversity and gradients in cedar forests on Taurus mountain range (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Kavgai, Ali; Earni, Andra

    2012-09-01

    Cedrus libani forests have been under anthropogenic pressure for thousands of years. The unattainable topography of the Taurus mountain range (Southern Anatolia) has prevented cedar in this region from being extirpated, in contrast to its other distribution areas in Syria and Lebanon. Numerical analyses of relevés confirmed the individuality of associations, as well as the division of C. libani forests into two ecological and floristically different groups/alliances (Abieti-Cedrion and Lonicero-Cedrion). Abieti-Cedrion is distributed in the middle and eastern Taurus whereas Lonicero-Cedrion appears in the Western Taurus. The main gradients of C. libani forests were detected. It was noticed that the distribution and floristic composition of C. libani forests is strongly affected by the geographical factors. Topographical factors are also influential on their distribution. C. libani forests are fundemantal components of the Mediterranean phytogeographical region and floral elements, but under more continental conditions, where the influence of the Mediterranean climate decreased, the proportion of Iran-Turanian and Euro-Siberian floral elements increase, especially towards the east and north, as well at higher altitudes and on steeper sites. PMID:23734468

  6. STS-56 ESC Earth observation of a portion of the Himalayan mountain range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-56 electronic still camera (ESC) Earth observation image taken aboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, shows a portion of the Himalayan mountain range. The image was recorded with a 180mm lens on the Hand-held, Earth-oriented, Real-time, Cooperative, User-friendly, Location-targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES). HERCULES is a device that makes it simple for Shuttle crewmembers to take pictures of Earth as they merely point a modified 35mm camera and shoot any interesting feature, whose latitude and longitude are automatically determined in real time. In this observation, the center coordinates are 27.822 degrees north latitude and 84.173 degrees east longitude. Geolocation accuracy on this image is 0.7 nautical miles. The Kali River runs from the east (top left corner) to the west (bottom right corner). Nepal's capital city of Kathmandu lies (out of frame) about 96 nautical miles east of the center point. Digital file name is ESC01039.IMG.

  7. Export of earthquake-triggered landslides in active mountain ranges: insights from 2D morphodynamic modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croissant, Thomas; Lague, Dimitri; Davy, Philippe; Steer, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In active mountain ranges, large earthquakes (Mw > 5-6) trigger numerous landslides that impact river dynamics. These landslides bring local and sudden sediment piles that will be eroded and transported along the river network causing downstream changes in river geometry, transport capacity and erosion efficiency. The progressive removal of landslide materials has implications for downstream hazards management and also for understanding landscape dynamics at the timescale of the seismic cycle. The export time of landslide-derived sediments after large-magnitude earthquakes has been studied from suspended load measurements but a full understanding of the total process, including the coupling between sediment transfer and channel geometry change, still remains an issue. Note that the transport of small sediment pulses has been studied in the context of river restoration, but the magnitude of sediment pulses generated by landslides may make the problem different. Here, we study the export of large volumes (>106 m3) of sediments with the 2D hydro-morphodynamic model, Eros. This model uses a new hydrodynamic module that resolves a reduced form of the Saint-Venant equations with a particle method. It is coupled with a sediment transport and lateral and vertical erosion model. Eros accounts for the complex retroactions between sediment transport and fluvial geometry, with a stochastic description of the floods experienced by the river. Moreover, it is able to reproduce several features deemed necessary to study the evacuation of large sediment pulses, such as river regime modification (single-thread to multi-thread), river avulsion and aggradation, floods and bank erosion. Using a synthetic and simple topography we first present how granulometry, landslide volume and geometry, channel slope and flood frequency influence 1) the dominance of pulse advection vs. diffusion during its evacuation, 2) the pulse export time and 3) the remaining volume of sediment in the catchment

  8. Distributional changes and range predictions of downy brome (Bromus tectorum) in Rocky Mountain National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bromberg, J.E.; Kumar, S.; Brown, C.S.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    2011-01-01

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.), an invasive winter annual grass, may be increasing in extent and abundance at high elevations in the western United States. This would pose a great threat to high-elevation plant communities and resources. However, data to track this species in high-elevation environments are limited. To address changes in the distribution and abundance of downy brome and the factors most associated with its occurrence, we used field sampling and statistical methods, and niche modeling. In 2007, we resampled plots from two vegetation surveys in Rocky Mountain National Park for presence and cover of downy brome. One survey was established in 1993 and had been resampled in 1999. The other survey was established in 1996 and had not been resampled until our study. Although not all comparisons between years demonstrated significant changes in downy brome abundance, its mean cover increased nearly fivefold from 1993 (0.7%) to 2007 (3.6%) in one of the two vegetation surveys (P = 0.06). Although the average cover of downy brome within the second survey appeared to be increasing from 1996 to 2007, this slight change from 0.5% to 1.2% was not statistically significant (P = 0.24). Downy brome was present in 50% more plots in 1999 than in 1993 (P = 0.02) in the first survey. In the second survey, downy brome was present in 30% more plots in 2007 than in 1996 (P = 0.08). Maxent, a species-environmental matching model, was generally able to predict occurrences of downy brome, as new locations were in the ranges predicted by earlier generated models. The model found that distance to roads, elevation, and vegetation community influenced the predictions most. The strong response of downy brome to interannual environmental variability makes detecting change challenging, especially with small sample sizes. However, our results suggest that the area in which downy brome occurs is likely increasing in Rocky Mountain National Park through increased frequency and cover

  9. Timescale of erosion in high mountain range. What do U-series tell us

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomies, C.; Bickle, M. J.; Tipper, E. T.; Chapman, H. J.; Fairchild, I. J.; Harris, N.

    2003-04-01

    We aim is to better understand the feedbacks which control long term climate by studying weathering yields in a rapidly eroding mountainous environment. This study focuses on one of the large Nepalese river, the Marsyandi which drains all the main structural units of the Nepalese Himalaya. Here we use, in addition to major element, Sr and Sr isotopes, the disequilibria of the 234U/238U and 238U/230Th activity ratios of river water, suspended load, bedload and rocks in an attempt to determine the weathering inputs and the timescale of the weathering processes. In addition a weekly sampling of the dissolved load at four sites enables us to measure the impact of the monsoon seasonality on the uranium activity of the dissolved load. This sampling helps to quantify the groundwater inputs and therefore the erosion processes involved. Throughout the dry and the monsoon season the main U source to the Marsyandi is the Dhudh khola which drains the uranium rich Manaslu granite. The uranium concentrations of the river waters exhibit a trend explicable in term of mixing of a silicate and carbonate end members. Surprisingly (234U/238U)a<1 in water and (234U/238U)a>1 in bedload suggest that, in parts of the range, the bedrock undergoes a first stage of weathering by groundwater at depth followed by further chemical weathering at the surface. The main uranium fractionation occurs during the first stage of groundwater weathering. The duration of this stage, within the last 1.5Ma, is mainly controlled by the uplift rate of the range currently estimated at 3mm/y. Highly variable (234U/238U) activity found in the dissolved load of rivers draining the TSS formation reflects the complexity of the interactions between weathering processes, lithology and tectonics.

  10. Numerical modeling of cosmogenic deglaciation records, Front Range and San Juan mountains, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Dylan J.; Anderson, Robert S.; Guido, Zackry S.; Briner, Jason P.

    2009-03-01

    We use cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) exposure ages from polished, striated bedrock to constrain numerical simulations of deglaciation in the Middle Boulder Creek Valley, Colorado Front Range, and the Animas River Valley, San Juan Mountains, Colorado. In both valleys, the cosmogenic ages suggest initiation of deglaciation ˜20 ka and ongoing retreat until 12-13 ka. While the first-order trend in CRN concentrations in each valley suggests a monotonic glacial retreat, we evaluate other retreat scenarios with different implications for post-Last Glacial Maximum regional climate. We use a 2-D numerical glacier simulation with a CRN layer to investigate how CRN-based deglaciation records are affected by retreat histories that are punctuated by periods of glacier readvance. The CRN layer simulates both production during periods of exposure and reduction by glacial erosion during readvances. We simulate glacial occupation of the valleys as they respond to equilibrium line altitude (ELA) histories characterized by stepwise change, gradual rise, or a rise punctuated by short periods of lowering. Each scenario generates a distinct spatial pattern of concentrations in the CRN layer. These results and the spatial pattern of measured concentrations in bedrock constrain the range of ELA histories that reproduce the CRN pattern in each valley. In the Animas River Valley, the exposure ages are well explained by a linear ELA rise from full glacial to deglacial conditions. Ages in Middle Boulder Creek Valley are best explained by a deglaciation history including a stillstand or partial readvance between 16 and 14 ka, followed by rapid retreat.

  11. Experiments with clustering of catchments in PCA-reduced space and regionalization of a hydrological model (Central Alborz region, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Mohammad; Solomatine, Dimitri; Salajegheh, Ali; Mohseni Saravi, Mohsen; Malekian, Arash; Corzo, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the possibility of simulating time series of daily streamflows in ungauged catchments based on climatic and physiographic similarity. The study area is located in central Alborz region in Iran. Fourteen (14) proper catchments, with the area ranged between 16 to 827Km2, in this region selected for testing. After applying Principal Component Analysis for selecting the most important parameters among the different climatic and physiographic parameters, five components which could explain more than 90% of variances of the data were selected and according to the values of the coefficients in selected PCA components, five parameters including: Area, Annual Rainfall, Annual temperature, gravelius compactness coefficient and mean elevation, were selected as the measures for clustering. Then mentioned parameters entered in K-means clustering analysis method to classify the catchments. Finally the catchments divided in three different clusters. Using the well known HBV model, we built a model for the closest catchment to the center of each cluster. Then, the thirteen (13) HBV model parameters were calibrated using Genetic Algorithm. We assumed that the remained catchments in each cluster are ungauged, and using the calibrated model, the daily time series of streamflows simulated in the remained catchments in the considered cluster (as the receiver catchments). Nash Sutcliffe and RMSE indices used to comparing the simulated and recorded data. The experiments with the considered case study confirmed that the model regionalization based on the physiographic and climatic characteristics could be a useful instrument in hydrological studies. Key words: Regionalization, HBV, PCA, Cluster, Catchment, central Alborz region

  12. The Significance of High, Isolated, Low-relief Surfaces in Glaciated Mountain Ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocklehurst, S. H.

    2015-12-01

    The highest regions of glaciated mountain ranges are characterised by cirques, arêtes and steep hillslopes. In addition, though, many ranges exhibit high, isolated, low-relief surfaces, which may provide an important record of landscape evolution. Broad, low-curvature surfaces, for example in the Laramide Ranges of the western United States, reflect periglacial regolith production and transport (e.g., Anderson, 2002). Here, the focus is on smaller surfaces that appear to be out of equilibrium with current/recent surface processes, and are interpreted as former glacial valley floors isolated from the current valley network. The low-relief surfaces at the crest of the Sierra Nevada, California, are diamict covered. The top of Sardine Canyon is a beheaded cirque, while the cirque on the western side of Baxter Pass is in the process of being beheaded. Meanwhile, the isolated patch of diamict on the northeastern ridge of University Peak is surrounded on all sides by steep cliffs, and presumably represents a more evolved surface. It is inferred that the glaciated eastern Sierra Nevada is subject to a cycle of drainage capture and relief inversion, driven by headward erosion by cirque glaciers. The central Himalaya contains a number of low-relief, ice-covered surfaces far above the rest of the glacial valley network (e.g., the Sakyetang Glacier, >6,600m, above the Kazhen Glacier, <5,400m). The ice at > 6,000m is frozen to the bedrock, so sub-glacial erosion will be outpaced by rock uplift. The extreme relief and active tectonics of the central Himalaya mean that drainage capture is not necessarily required in the generation of high, isolated, low-relief surfaces; glacial steps can become exaggerated to form reconstituted glaciers. High, isolated, low-relief surfaces are found across the Southern Alps, New Zealand, from Miserable Ridge and Kelly Saddle close to the western range front, through Urquhart Peak and Lake Browning near the Main Divide, to Kaimakamaka Peaks east

  13. Remagnetization of the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California, during accretion near 10 degree N paleolatitude

    SciTech Connect

    Hagstrum, J.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Paleomagnetic data are presented for a 50-m-thick sequence of Oxfordian to Tithonian sedimentary rocks conformably overlying Upper Jurassic pillow basalt within the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California. These new data are similar in direction and polarity to previously published paleomagnetic data for the pillow basalt. The Jurassic sedimentary rocks were deposited during a mixed-polarity interval of the geomagnetic field, and uniformity of the remanent magnetization within the entire section of pillow basalt and sedimentary rocks indicates later remagnetization. Remagnetization of the Coast Range ophiolite is interpreted to have occurred during accretion to the continental margin, possibly by burial and low-temperature alteration related to this event. Similar paleolatitudes calculated for the ophiolite (11{degree} {plus minus} 3{degree}) and for mid-Cretaceous sedimentary rocks of the Stanley Mountain terrane at Figueroa Mountain (6{degree} {plus minus} 5{degree}) are consistent with remagnetization of the ophiolite in southern California and elsewhere along the Pacific coast imply that these rocks were also overprinted, and their magnetic inclinations suggest remagnetization at low paleolatitudes as well. The Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain is thus inferred to have been remagnetized along the North American margin near 10{degree}N paleolatitude between earliest and mid-Cretaceous time and subsequently transported northward by strike-slip faulting related to relative motions between the Farallon, Kula, Pacific, and North American plates.

  14. Integrative geomorphological mapping approach for reconstructing meso-scale alluvial fan palaeoenvironments at Alborz southern foothill, Damghan basin, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büdel, Christian; Majid Padashi, Seyed; Baumhauer, Roland

    2013-04-01

    Alluvial fans and aprons are common depositional features in general Iranian geomorphology. The countries major cities as well as settlements and surrounding area have often been developed and been built up on this Quaternary sediment covers. Hence they periodically face the effects of varying fluvial and slope-fluvial activity occurring as part of this geosystem. The Geological Survey of Iran therefore supports considerable efforts in Quaternary studies yielding to a selection of detailed mapped Quaternary landscapes. The studied geomorphologic structures which are settled up around an endorheic basin in Semnan Province represent a typical type of landform configuration in the area. A 12-km-transect was laid across this basin and range formation. It is oriented in north-south direction from the southern saltpan, called "Kavir-e-Haj Aligholi"/"Chah-e-Jam" ("Damghan Kavir"), across a vast sandy braided river plain, which is entering from the north east direction of the city of Shahroud. At its northern rim it covers alluvial sediment bodies, which are mainly constituted by broad alluvial aprons, fed by watersheds in Alborz Mountains and having their genetic origins in Mio-/Pliocene times. During this study a fully analytical mapping system was used for developing a geodatabase capable of integrating geomorphological analyses. Therefore the system must provide proper differentiation of form, material and process elements as well as geometric separation. Hence the German GMK25 system was set up and slightly modified to fit to the specific project demands. Due to its structure it offers most sophisticated standards and scale independent hierarchies, which fit very well to the software-determinated possibilities of advanced geodatabase applications. One of the main aspects of mapping Quaternary sediments and structures is to acquire a proper description and systematic correlation and categorization of the belonging mapping-objects. Therefore the team from GSI and

  15. Exhumation History of the Taebaek Mountain Range in Korean Peninsula: Implications for Miocene Tectonic Evolution of East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, K. K.; Cho, M.; Reiners, P. W.

    2008-12-01

    The Taebaek mountain range is the major, N-S trending belt running along the eastern margin of the Korean Peninsula. This range has a relatively gentle slope to the west (inland) whereas its eastern side is significantly steeper being bounded by the East Sea (or Japan Sea). The Daegwanryeong, a ~850-m- high mountain located approximately in the middle (latitude 37.5°N) of the Taebaek range, is mainly composed of a single body of Jurassic granite. In order to study exhumation histories of the Taebaek mountain range, we applied single-grain apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry to the eastern crustal section of the Daegwanryeong. Apatite samples from the elevation of 25 - 500 m yielded average (U-Th)/He ages in the range of ~21 - 26 Ma with an overall weighted mean age of ~23 Ma. The variation of ages over this elevation span is negligible. In contrast, two samples collected at higher elevations show apparently older ages of 30 Ma (770 m) and 36 Ma (840 m). The elevation-independent ages below 500 m suggest a pulse of rapid exhumation at ~23 Ma, and the positive correlation between age and elevation detected above 700 m indicates a less intense cooling event prior to ~23 Ma. By extrapolating the observed patterns for the low (<500 m) and high (>700 m) elevation data in the age-elevation plot, we inferred a breakage of the slope near the elevation of 600 - 700 m which is interpreted as the base of the previous He partial retention zone (He- PRZ) of apatite. The inferred onset of rapid exhumation in the Daegwanryeong is coeval with the opening of East Sea (or Japan Sea). Although the exact timing of initial separation of the Japanese islands from the Eurasian continent is controversial, several lines of evidence support Late Oligocene - Early Miocene development of initial rift as a precursor of the East Sea. The remarkable temporal match between the exhumation of Daegwanryeong and the opening of East Sea provides an example for the coupled development of mountain

  16. Paleoenvironment of the Permian rocks: a comparison between central and eastern Alborz, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankarani, M.; Amini, A.; Mosadegh, H.

    2009-04-01

    The succession of Permian rocks in Alborz region is composed of siliciclastic and carbonate facies. All of the sediments were deposited in the Paleotethyan passive continental margin but they show different facies architecture and paleoenvironmental condition in various parts of the region. This study, as part of a wider project, has investigated sedimentary facies and paleoenvironment of the Permian rocks in central and eastern Alborz. The Permian rocks in central Alborz are dominated by siliciclastic facies (Doroud Formation) in the lower, and carbonate facies (Ruteh Formation) in the upper half. Field studies and laboratory measurements resulted in recognition of 4 terrigenous and 13 carbonate facies in the succession. A siliciclastic shallow marine system was determined as depositional environment of the terrigenous facies. A homoclinal carbonate ramp, with scattered patch reefs, was determined as depositional environment of the carbonate facies. Dasycladacean green algae, ancestral red algae, hermatypic corals and bryozoans were the major bioconstructors of the ramp. The abundance of skeletal shoals respect to ooidal shoals in the ramp margin was high. The Permian rocks in eastern Alborz are dominated by mixed siliciclastic-carbonate facies (Ruteh Formation) in the lower, and siliciclastic facies (Nesen Formation) in the upper half. The studies resulted in recognition of 5 terrigenous and 6 carbonate facies in the succession. A mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf with high sediment influx was determined as depositional environment of the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate facies. Occurrence of the small patch reefs with high coral diversity in this mixed shelf indicates normal marine (hyposaline) condition. Upper terrigenous facies were deposited in fluvial-flood plain system. Difference in paleoclimate and tectonic activity of two sub-basins seems to be the major cause of the differences between the Permian facies in central and eastern Alborz.

  17. Characterization of Groundwater Flow at a Mountainous Watershed, Niwot Ridge, Front Range, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, S. G.; Ge, S.

    2013-12-01

    We present a 3D coupled flow and solute transport hydrogeologic model for the Niwot Ridge Watershed in the Front Range of Colorado. This is the first 3D modeling attempt at detailing groundwater recharges at this site. The 7.6 km2 watershed ranges in elevation from 3241 to 4082 m and is representative of an alpine setting. Its climate is characterized by a mean annual precipitation of 1.95 m, mean annual air temperature of -2.1 °C, and extensive snow coverage six months of the year with 80% of the precipitation falling as snow. At the study site, Proterozoic metamorphic and igneous bedrock is intruded by Tertiary stocks and overlain by Quaternary deposits. In the middle of the watershed are six paternoster lakes connected by North Boulder Creek, the headwaters of the South Platte River. We use a steady state 3D finite element coupled flow and solute transport model to characterize the groundwater and solute transport systems and quantify mountain recharge under averaged long-term conditions. Field data including effective porosity, hydraulic conductivity, and solute concentration in surface water are utilized to constrain and calibrate model parameters. We conduct model sensitivity analysis to examine how uncertainties in model input parameters may influence model results. Preliminary model results indicate that regional groundwater flow is from northwest to southeast, towards North Boulder Creek. This groundwater flow pattern is consistent with field observations. The average hydraulic head gradient over the entire modeled area is approximately 0.12 m/m. Groundwater velocity varies from 1.4 x 10-6 to 1.8 x 10-3 m/s. Groundwater flow is primarily driven by a topographically influenced precipitation regime, with 7% of the total precipitation recharging into the subsurface. Groundwater contribution to baseflow of North Boulder Creek is at an average rate of 0.03 m3/s, which is on the same magnitude as observed values. Modeled discharge solute concentration (Na

  18. The Nazeris Fauna of the Luoxiao Mountain Range, China. (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Paederinae)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jia-Yao; Li, Li-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Fourteen species of Nazeris Fauvel are recorded from the Luoxiao Mountains. Twelve of them are described as new: N. luoxiaoshanus, N. pengzhongi, N. divisus, N. paradivisus, N. xiaobini, N. congchaoi, N. nannani, N. rufus, N. ziweii, N. daweishanus, N. prominens, and N. zekani. N. inaequalis Assing, 2014 is newly recorded from Hunan Province. PMID:26161533

  19. Strong effect of climate on ectomycorrhizal fungal composition: evidence from range overlap between two mountains.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yumiko; Sakai, Atsushi; Hattori, Masahira; Nara, Kazuhide

    2015-08-01

    Separating the effects of environmental factors and spatial distance on microbial composition is difficult when these factors covary. We examined the composition of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi along elevation gradients on geographically distant mountains to clarify the effect of climate at the regional scale. Soil cores were collected from various forest types along an elevation gradient in southwestern Japan. Fungal species were identified by the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA using direct sequencing. The occurrence of fungal species in this study was compared with a previous study conducted on a mountain separated by ∼550 km. In total, we recorded 454 EM fungi from 330 of 350 soil cores. Forty-seven fungal species (∼20% of the total excluding singletons) were shared between two mountains, mostly between similar forest types on both mountains. Variation partitioning in redundancy analysis revealed that climate explained the largest variance in EM fungal composition. The similarity of forest tree composition, which is usually determined by climatic conditions, was positively correlated with the similarity of the EM fungal composition. However, the lack of large host effects implied that communities of forest trees and EM fungi may be determined independently by climate. Our data provide important insights that host plants and mutualistic fungi may respond to climate change idiosyncratically, potentially altering carbon and nutrient cycles in relation to the plant-fungus associations. PMID:25647348

  20. Dataset of MIGRAME Project (Global Change, Altitudinal Range Shift and Colonization of Degraded Habitats in Mediterranean Mountains).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Zamora, Regino; Bonet, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    In this data paper, we describe the dataset of the Global Change, Altitudinal Range Shift and Colonization of Degraded Habitats in Mediterranean Mountains (MIGRAME) project, which aims to assess the capacity of altitudinal migration and colonization of marginal habitats by Quercus pyrenaica Willd. forests in Sierra Nevada (southern Spain) considering two global-change drivers: temperature increase and land-use changes. The dataset includes information of the forest structure (diameter size, tree height, and abundance) of the Quercus pyrenaica ecosystem in Sierra Nevada obtained from 199 transects sampled at the treeline ecotone, mature forest, and marginal habitats (abandoned cropland and pine plantations). A total of 3839 occurrence records were collected and 5751 measurements recorded. The dataset is included in the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this mountain range. PMID:26491387

  1. Dataset of MIGRAME Project (Global Change, Altitudinal Range Shift and Colonization of Degraded Habitats in Mediterranean Mountains)

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Luque, Antonio Jesús; Zamora, Regino; Bonet, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Pérez, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, we describe the dataset of the Global Change, Altitudinal Range Shift and Colonization of Degraded Habitats in Mediterranean Mountains (MIGRAME) project, which aims to assess the capacity of altitudinal migration and colonization of marginal habitats by Quercus pyrenaica Willd. forests in Sierra Nevada (southern Spain) considering two global-change drivers: temperature increase and land-use changes. The dataset includes information of the forest structure (diameter size, tree height, and abundance) of the Quercus pyrenaica ecosystem in Sierra Nevada obtained from 199 transects sampled at the treeline ecotone, mature forest, and marginal habitats (abandoned cropland and pine plantations). A total of 3839 occurrence records were collected and 5751 measurements recorded. The dataset is included in the Sierra Nevada Global-Change Observatory (OBSNEV), a long-term research project designed to compile socio-ecological information on the major ecosystem types in order to identify the impacts of global change in this mountain range. PMID:26491387

  2. Long-range Transport of Aerosol at a Mountain Site in the Western Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Greg; Corrigan, Craig; Ritchie, John; Pont, Véronique; Claeys, Marine; Sciare, Jean; Dulac, François

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Region has been identified as sensitive to changes in the hydrological cycle, which could affect the water resources for millions of people by the turn of the century. However, prior to recent observations, most climate models have not accounted for the impacts of aerosol in this region. Past airborne studies have shown that aerosol sources from Europe and Africa are often transported throughout the lower troposphere; yet, because of their complex vertical distribution, it is a challenge to capture the variability and quantify the contribution of these sources to the radiative budget and precipitation processes. The PAEROS ChArMEx Mountain Experiment (PACMEx) complemented the regional activities by collecting aerosol data from atop a mountain on the island of Corsica, France in order to assess boundary layer / free troposphere atmospheric processes. In June/July 2013, PACMEx instruments were deployed at 2000 m.asl near the center of Corsica, France to complement ground-based aerosol observations at 550 m.asl on the northern peninsula, as well as airborne measurements. Comparisons between the peninsula site and the mountain site show similar general trends in aerosol properties; yet, differences in aerosol properties reveal the myriad transport mechanisms over the Mediterranean Basin. Using aerosol physicochemical data coupled with back trajectory analysis, different sources have been identified including Saharan dust transport, residual dust mixed with sea salt, anthropogenic emissions from Western Europe, and a period of biomass burning from Eastern Europe. Each period exhibits distinct signatures in the aerosol related to transport processes above and below the boundary layer. In addition, the total aerosol concentrations at the mountain site revealed a strong diurnal cycling the between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere, which is typical of mountain-top observations. PACMEx was funded by the National Science Foundation

  3. Millennial-scale Denudation Rates of the Santa Lucia Mountains, CA: Implications for Landscape Thresholds from a Steep, High Relief, Coastal Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, H.; Hilley, G. E.; Kiefer, K.; Blisniuk, K.

    2015-12-01

    We report new, 10-Be-derived denudation rates measured from river sands in basins of the Santa Lucia Range, central California. The Santa Lucia Mountains of the California Coast Range are an asymmetrical northwest-southeast trending range bounded by the San Gregorio-Hosgri (SG-HFZ ) and Rinconada-Reliz faults. This area provides an additional opportunity to analyze the relationships between topographic form, denudation rates, and mapped underlying geologic substrate in an actively deforming landscape. Analysis of in situ-produced 10-Be from alluvial sand samples collected in the Santa Lucia Mountains has yielded measurements of spatially varying basin-scale denudation rates. Despite the impressive relief of the Santa Lucia's, denudation rates within catchments draining the coastal side of the range are uniformly low, generally varying between ~90 m/Myr and ~350 m/Myr, with one basin eroding at ~500 m/Myr. Preliminary data suggest the lowest erosion rates are located within the northern interior of the range in sedimentary and granitic lithologies, while higher rates are located directly along the coast in metasedimentary bedrock. This overall trend is punctuated by a single high denudation rate, which is hosted by a watershed whose geometry suggests that it previously has, and continues to experience divide migration as it captures the adjacent watershed's area. Spatial distribution of basins with higher denudation rates is inferred to indicate a zone of uplift adjacent to the SG-HFZ. We compare erosion rates to basin mean channel steepness index, extracted from a 10 m digital elevation model. Denudation rate generally increases with channel steepness index until ~250 m/Myr, at which point the relationship becomes invariant, suggesting a non-linear erosion model may best characterize this region. These hypotheses will be tested further as additional denudation rate results are analyzed.

  4. Multi-Faceted Geophysical Analysis of a Mountain Watershed in the Snowy Range, WY: from Airborne Electromagnetics to NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, R. S.; Holbrook, W. S.; Flinchum, B. A.; Provart, M.; Carr, B. J.; Auken, E.; Pedersen, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Surface/groundwater interactions are an important, but poorly understood, facet of mountain hydrology. We utilize ground electrical resistivity data as a key tool for mapping groundwater pathways and aquifers. However, surface resistivity profiling is limited in both spatial extent and depth, especially in mountainous headwater environments because of inaccessibility and terrain. Because this important groundwater recharge environment is poorly understood, WyCEHG has focused efforts to increase knowledge about the dynamics and location of groundwater recharge. Currently, traditional hydrologic measurements estimate that only 10% of annual snowmelt enters the groundwater system while the rest is immediately available to surface flow. The Wyoming Center for Environmental Hydrology and Geophysics (WyCEHG) collected a 40 sq. km survey of helicopter transient electromagnetic (HTEM) and aeromagnetic data during the fall of 2013 as the first step in a "top down" geophysical characterization of a mountainous headwater catchment in the Snowy Range, Wyoming. Furthermore, mountain springs in the Snowy Range suggests that the "groundwatershed" acts as both a sink and source to surface watersheds. HTEM data show horizontal electrical conductors at depth, which are currently interpreted as fluid-filled subsurface fractures. Because these fractures eventually connect to the surface, they could be geophysical evidence of connectivity between the watershed and "groundwatershed." However, current HTEM inversion techniques assume a layered homogenous subsurface model, which directly contradicts two characteristics of the Snowy Range: the subvertical bedding of the Cheyenne Belt and heterogeneous distribution of surface water. Ground electrical resistivity surveys and surface nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements collected during the summer of 2014 target these anomalies to determine their validity and further understand the complicated dynamic of surface and groundwater flow.

  5. Peneplains of the Front Range and Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Willis T.

    1923-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to call attention to some of the major surface features in the Rocky Mountain National Park and to point out their probable correlation with similar features in neighboring regions. The observations on which the paper is based were made in the summer of 1916, during an investigation in which other work demanded first consideration. This paper may therefore be considered a by-product. For the same reason many of the observations were not followed to conclusions, yet the data obtained seem to be sufficient to establish a certain order of events, the recognition of which may be of assistance in working out in detail the geologic and geographic history of the Rocky Mountain region.

  6. Redistribution of Snowfall across a Mountain Range by Artificial Seeding: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, P V; Radke, L F

    1973-09-14

    Clouds over the western slopes of the Cascade Mountains were artificially seeded to reduce the riming and fall speeds of snow crystals and to divert snowfall across the crest. Aircraft observations showed that the clouds were glaciated by the seeding. The crystal habits and the degrees of riming of snow crystals reaching the target area were modified. Snowfall rates decreased at the crest and simultaneously increased 20 kilometers east of the crest. PMID:17731264

  7. A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt Yuan-Hsi Lee1, Wei Lo2, Wei-Hau Wang1, Tim-Byrne 3, Ruey-Juen Rau 41. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, R.O.C. 2. Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Taipei, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C. 3. Center for Integrative Geosciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA 4. Department of Earth Science, National Chen-Kung University, Taiwan, R.O.C. Taiwan mountain belt results from collision between Eurasia continental crust and Philippine Sea plate that result in exposing the metamorphic complex with high exhumation rate in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. In this study we combine with field survey, zircon fission track (ZFT), metamorphic grade, and tomography data to identify there exists a major out of sequence fault (MOSF) in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. This MOSF extends from north to south of eastern central Range with several segments and the total length is more than 250 km. The ZFT shows total annealing age of ca.1-3 Ma on the hanging wall and partial annealing ages on the foot wall. The seismicity data indicates the MOSF is still active from central to southern central Range. We consider that the MOSF is related with crustal channel flow in depth. To the western side of crustal flow it shows thrusting mechanism associated with MOSF and the normal faults (or normal shearing zone) develop in eastern side of the crustal channel flow. This crustal channel flow is also related with exposing the metamorphic complex in Central Range that is important mechanism for the mountain building process of Taiwan orogenic belt.

  8. High rates of energy expenditure and water flux in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crocker, D.E.; Kofahl, N.; Fellers, G.D.; Gates, N.B.; Houser, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    We measured water flux and energy expenditure in free-ranging Point Reyes mountain beavers Aplodontia rufa phaea by using the doubly labeled water method. Previous laboratory investigations have suggested weak urinary concentrating ability, high rates of water flux, and low basal metabolic rates in this species. However, free-ranging measurements from hygric mammals are rare, and it is not known how these features interact in the environment. Rates of water flux (210 ?? 32 mL d-1) and field metabolic rates (1,488 ?? 486 kJ d-1) were 159% and 265%, respectively, of values predicted by allometric equations for similar-sized herbivores. Mountain beavers can likely meet their water needs through metabolic water production and preformed water in food and thus remain in water balance without access to free water. Arginine-vasopressin levels were strongly correlated with rates of water flux and plasma urea : creatinine ratios, suggesting an important role for this hormone in regulating urinary water loss in mountain beavers. High field metabolic rates may result from cool burrow temperatures that are well below lower critical temperatures measured in previous laboratory studies and suggest that thermoregulation costs may strongly influence field energetics and water flux in semifossorial mammals. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  9. Refugial isolation and range expansions drive the genetic structure of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lihua; Chen, Gang; Li, Zhonghu; Yang, Yongping; Wang, Zhengkun; Wang, Liuyang

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide and climatic oscillations in Pleistocene were the main drivers for the contemporary diversity and genetic structure of plants in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM). To identify the relative roles of the two historical events in shaping population history of plants in HHM, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of Oxyria sinensis, a perennial plant endemic to the HHM. Sixteen chloroplast haplotypes were identified and were clustered into three phylogenetic clades. The age of the major clades was estimated to be in the Pleistocene, falling into several Pleistocene glacial stages and postdating the formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide. Range expansions occurred at least twice in the early and middle Pleistocene, but the spatial genetic distribution rarely changed since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results suggest that temporary mountain glaciers may act as barriers in promoting the lineage divergence in O. sinensis and that subsequential range expansions and secondary contacts might reshape the genetic distribution in geography and blur the boundary of population differentiation created in the earlier glacial stages. This study demonstrates that Pleistocene climatic change and mountain glaciers, rather than the Mekong-Salween Divide, play the primary role in shaping the spatial genetic structure of O. sinensis. PMID:26013161

  10. Refugial isolation and range expansions drive the genetic structure of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Lihua; Chen, Gang; Li, Zhonghu; Yang, Yongping; Wang, Zhengkun; Wang, Liuyang

    2015-01-01

    The formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide and climatic oscillations in Pleistocene were the main drivers for the contemporary diversity and genetic structure of plants in the Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM). To identify the relative roles of the two historical events in shaping population history of plants in HHM, we investigated the phylogeographic pattern of Oxyria sinensis, a perennial plant endemic to the HHM. Sixteen chloroplast haplotypes were identified and were clustered into three phylogenetic clades. The age of the major clades was estimated to be in the Pleistocene, falling into several Pleistocene glacial stages and postdating the formation of the Mekong-Salween Divide. Range expansions occurred at least twice in the early and middle Pleistocene, but the spatial genetic distribution rarely changed since the Last Glacial Maximum. Our results suggest that temporary mountain glaciers may act as barriers in promoting the lineage divergence in O. sinensis and that subsequential range expansions and secondary contacts might reshape the genetic distribution in geography and blur the boundary of population differentiation created in the earlier glacial stages. This study demonstrates that Pleistocene climatic change and mountain glaciers, rather than the Mekong-Salween Divide, play the primary role in shaping the spatial genetic structure of O. sinensis. PMID:26013161

  11. Effects of urban development on stream ecosystems alongthe Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, Colorado and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sprague, Lori A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Dupree, Jean A.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted a study from 2002 through 2003 through its National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program to determine the effects of urbanization on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of stream ecosystems along the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. The objectives of the study were to (1) examine physical, chemical, and biological responses at sites ranging from minimally to highly developed; (2) determine the major physical, chemical, and landscape variables affecting aquatic communities at these sites; and (3) evaluate the relevance of the results to the management of water resources in the South Platte River Basin.

  12. Idealised large-eddy-simulation of thermally driven flows over an isolated mountain range with multiple ridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Moritz N.; Gohm, Alexander; Wagner, Johannes S.; Leukauf, Daniel; Posch, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Two dimensional idealised large-eddy-simulations are performed using the WRF model to investigate thermally driven flows during the daytime over complex terrain. Both the upslope flows and the temporal evolution of the boundary layer structure are studied with a constant surface heat flux forcing of 150 W m-2. In order to distinguish between different heating processes the flow is Reynold decomposed into its mean and turbulent part. The heating processes associated with the mean flow are a cooling through cold-air advection along the slopes and subsidence warming within the valleys. The turbulent component causes bottom-up heating near the ground leading to a convective boundary layer (CBL) inside the valleys. Overshooting potentially colder thermals cool the stably stratified valley atmosphere above the CBL. Compared to recent investigations (Schmidli 2013, J. Atmos. Sci., Vol. 70, No. 12: pp. 4041-4066; Wagner et al. 2014, manuscript submitted to Mon. Wea. Rev.), which used an idealised topography with two parallel mountain crests separated by a straight valley, this project focuses on multiple, periodic ridges and valleys within an isolated mountain range. The impact of different numbers of ridges on the flow structure is compared with the sinusoidal envelope-topography. The present simulations show an interaction between the smaller-scale upslope winds within the different valleys and the large-scale flow of the superimposed mountain-plain wind circulation. Despite a smaller boundary layer air volume in the envelope case compared to the multiple ridges case the volume averaged heating rates are comparable. The reason is a stronger advection-induced cooling along the slopes and a weaker warming through subsidence at the envelope-topography compared to the mountain range with multiple ridges.

  13. Key to the species of Eotrechinae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerridae) of Thailand and review of the fauna of the Phetchabun Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Nakthong, La-Au; Vitheepradit, Akekawat; Sites, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    Water striders of the subfamily Eotrechinae from the Phetchabun Mountain Range can be found at the margins of rock pools and puddles, and in hygropetric habitats including waterfalls. Twenty-two species in three genera are known from Thailand. In the Phetchabun Mountain Range, 12 species representing all three genera were recorded from over a decade of collections (2002-2012). This paper provides taxonomic, biological, and ecological information for taxa of the Phetchabun Mountain Range in Thailand and a taxonomic key to all known species from Thailand.  PMID:25283189

  14. Seismicity Near the Bighorn Mountain Range, Wyoming, During the Earthscope USArray Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, C. T.; Nakai, J.; Sheehan, A. F.; Erslev, E.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we combine a temporary seismic array with the existing USArray network in order to establish a more complete earthquake record for northern Wyoming and to better understand the current state of stress in the area. To accomplish this, we incorporate data gathered during a temporary array of 35 broadband and 156 short-period seismometers deployed across the Bighorn Mountains and flanking basins in northern Wyoming as part of the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment (BASE). These stations were installed in an array designed to densify the existing USArray network in the area, achieving a spatial resolution of ~30km (broadband) and ~5km spacing (short-period) vs. ~70km of a typical USArray grid. We focus on the area surrounding the Bighorn Mountains, ~250km east of Yellowstone, which is listed as a moderate seismic hazard by the USGS and has a record of several intensity-V earthquakes in the past several decades. The area is also poorly covered by the World Stress Map; to help fill this gap in data we solve for focal mechanisms and collect industry borehole breakout and fracture data to provide a better picture of the overall stress of the area. The Bighorn Mountains were created during the late Eocene and are considered to be an archetype of Laramide basement-involved foreland arches. Though the Bighorn Mountain region appears to tectonically inactive today, the USArray Array Network Facility (ANF) has identified several dozen small-magnitude earthquakes (and many mine blasts) that occurred during the USArray deployment. We believe this list can be improved by using a lower station threshold and other improved detection parameters, as well as the inclusion of the dense BASE array. We perform initial hypocenter relocation calculations using detection, association, and location algorithms that are part of the Antelope Environmental Data Collection Software, which present a simple user interface and allow for quick event identification and relocation. This study

  15. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Areas of Alborz Province of Iran and Implication to Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Aliehsan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Kabir, Kourosh; Barati, Hojatallah; Soultani, Yousef; Keshavarz, Hossein; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Reisi, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar mainly affects children in endemic areas. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of VL using direct agglutination test (DAT) in children living in rural districts of Alborz Province located 30 km from Tehran capital city of Iran. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was applied. Blood samples were randomly collected from 1,007 children under 10 years of age in the clusters. A total of 37 (3.7%) of the studied population showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of ≥1:800. There was a significant association between positive sera and various parts of the rural areas of Alborz Province (P<0.002). Two children with anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies titers of ≥1:3,200 indicated kala-azar clinical features and treated with anti-leishmaniasis drugs in pediatric hospital. The findings of this study indicated that Leishmania infection is prevalent in rural areas of Alborz Province. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the awareness and alertness among physicians and public health managers, particularly in high-risk rural areas of the province in Iran. PMID:26323835

  16. The influence of mountain meteorology on precipitation chemistry at low and high elevations of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Denning, A. Scott

    1993-01-01

    We explored the seasonal characteristics in wet deposition chemistry for two sites located at different elevations along the east slope of the Colorado Front Range in Rocky Mountain National Park. Seasonally separated precipitation was stratified into highly concentrated (high salt), dilute (low salt), or acid-dominated precipitation groups. These groups and unstratified precipitation data were related to mean easterly or westerly zonal winds to determine direction of local transport. Strong acid anion associations were also determined for the stratified and unstratified precipitation data sets. We found that strong acid anions, acidity, ammonium, and high salt concentrations originate to the east of Rocky Mountain National Park, and are transported via up-valley funneling winds or convective instability from differential heating of the mountains and the plains to the east. These influence the composition of precipitation at Beaver Meadows, the low elevation site, throughout the year, while their effect on precipitation at Loch Vale, the high elevation site, is felt most strongly during the summer. During the winter, Loch Vale precipitation is very dilute, and occurs in conjunction with westerly winds resulting from the southerly location of the jet stream.

  17. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight over snow-capped Sierra Nevada mountain range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The DC-8 in flight near Lone Pine, Calif. In the foreground are the Sierra Nevada Mountains, covered with winter snow. In the distance are the White Mountains. The DC-8's fuselage is painted white with a dark blue stripe down the side. The wings are silver, while the engine pods are white. In this view of the airplane's right-hand side, only a few of its antennas are visible. The experimental payload can be as great as 30,000 pounds of equipment for gathering data of various sorts. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  18. Geologic, biogeomorphic, and hydrologic controls on floodplain organic carbon retention in mountainous headwater streams of the Colorado Front Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutfin, N. A.; Wohl, E.

    2014-12-01

    Unaltered mountainous streams provide insight into natural processes and mechanisms of organic carbon (OC) retention in riparian ecosystems. Our prior work indicates that downed large wood and soil OC are the primary reservoirs for OC storage in mountainous headwaters streams of the Colorado Front Range. We surveyed downed large wood and floodplain soil along 24 study reaches in mountainous headwater streams in and around Rocky Mountain National Park, CO. Comparison of study reaches with various degrees of valley confinement in old growth (>200 yrs) and younger subalpine and montane forests reveals geologic and biogeomorphic controls for OC retention. Preliminary results indicate that unconfined valley segments store much more OC per area (783 Mg/ha) compared to partly confined and confined valley segments (153 Mg/ha). Unconfined valley segments store a significant amount of OC along single thread channels and facilitate potential for development of multithread channels. Multithread channels in old-growth forests, with trees large enough to create persistent channel-spanning logjams, store relatively little sediment and a disproportionately large amount of OC as large wood. Beaver dams also facilitate the development of multithread channels and high soil OC content in beaver meadows constitutes the largest OC pools among all channel types. Preliminary reach-average radiocarbon ages from charcoal in floodplain sediment of three study reaches with drainage areas <20 km2 (1438 ± 84 yBP), 20 - 100 km2 (539 ± 110 yBP), and >100 km2 (887 ± 84 yBP) indicate that floodplain sediment turnover time is much longer in small streams at higher, subalpine elevations. Snowmelt-dominated hydrographs in these high-elevation streams rarely exhibit bimodal characteristics typical of the hydrologic disturbance regime in lower elevation montane forests of the region, which are influenced by large convective thunderstorms and monsoons of the southwestern US. The downstream cumulative

  19. DC-8 Airborne Laboratory in flight over snow-capped Sierra Nevada mountain range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA's DC-8 Airborne Laboratory during a flight over the snow-covered Sierra Nevada Mountains. Over the past several years the DC-8 has conducted research missions in such diverse places as the Pacific in spring and Sweden in winter. NASA is using a DC-8 aircraft as a flying science laboratory. The platform aircraft, based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., collects data for many experiments in support of scientific projects serving the world scientific community. Included in this community are NASA, federal, state, academic and foreign investigators. Data gathered by the DC-8 at flight altitude and by remote sensing have been used for scientific studies in archeology, ecology, geography, hydrology, meteorology, oceanography, volcanology, atmospheric chemistry, soil science and biology.

  20. Treeline advances along the Urals mountain range - driven by improved winter conditions?

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, Frank; Shiyatov, Stepan G; Mazepa, Valeriy S; Devi, Nadezhda M; Grigor'ev, Andrey A; Bartysh, Alexandr A; Fomin, Valeriy V; Kapralov, Denis S; Terent'ev, Maxim; Bugman, Harald; Rigling, Andreas; Moiseev, Pavel A

    2014-11-01

    High-altitude treelines are temperature-limited vegetation boundaries, but little quantitative evidence exists about the impact of climate change on treelines in untouched areas of Russia. Here, we estimated how forest-tundra ecotones have changed during the last century along the Ural mountains. In the South, North, Sub-Polar, and Polar Urals, we compared 450 historical and recent photographs and determined the ages of 11,100 trees along 16 altitudinal gradients. In these four regions, boundaries of open and closed forests (crown covers above 20% and 40%) expanded upwards by 4 to 8 m in altitude per decade. Results strongly suggest that snow was an important driver for these forest advances: (i) Winter precipitation has increased substantially throughout the Urals (~7 mm decade(-1) ), which corresponds to almost a doubling in the Polar Urals, while summer temperatures have only changed slightly (~0.05°C decade(-1) ). (ii) There was a positive correlation between canopy cover, snow height and soil temperatures, suggesting that an increasing canopy cover promotes snow accumulation and, hence, a more favorable microclimate. (iii) Tree age analysis showed that forest expansion mainly began around the year 1900 on concave wind-sheltered slopes with thick snow covers, while it started in the 1950s and 1970s on slopes with shallower snow covers. (iv) During the 20th century, dominant growth forms of trees have changed from multistemmed trees, resulting from harsh winter conditions, to single-stemmed trees. While 87%, 31%, and 93% of stems appearing before 1950 were from multistemmed trees in the South, North and Polar Urals, more than 95% of the younger trees had a single stem. Currently, there is a high density of seedlings and saplings in the forest-tundra ecotone, indicating that forest expansion is ongoing and that alpine tundra vegetation will disappear from most mountains of the South and North Urals where treeline is already close to the highest peaks. PMID

  1. Glacial modifications of short-wavelength topography and potential feedbacks on the denudation of a deglaciated mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcher, Bernhard; Kober, Florian; Kissling, Eduard; Willett, Sean

    2014-05-01

    Distinct erosional landforms in the European Alps and other mid- to high-latitude mountain belts highlight the importance of glacial erosion in shaping mountain topography. Here we focus on the glacially induced modifications to the short-wavelength topography of the European Central Alps in an attempt to characterize the impact of glacial erosion on topography and to highlight potential feedback mechanisms on the denudation of the deglaciated mountain range. Glacial induced changes to the short-wavelength topography were analyzed by measuring the variations of drainage density and hillslope relief across the range. Variations of denudation rates were analyzed by compiling catchment-averaged concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be from existing studies covering Alpine and Foreland basins. Our results underline the importance of the LGM ELA elevation (i.e. the Equilibrium Line Altitude at the Late Glacial Maximum) as an important limit for the destruction of short-wavelength topography: The cumulative impact of glacial erosion above the LGM ELA has progressively decreased (i) drainage density, (ii) channel integration and (iii) commensurately increased hillslopes length (or hillslope relief). Exceptions from this trend are the highest and steepest peaks and ridges, nunataks even during the LGM. Alpine catchments in the orogen parts below this limit (i.e. Alpine foothills) lack strong modifications by glaciers. Here, glacial erosion is largely restricted to glacial troughs. There is also a statistically significant correlation between drainage density (or hillslope length) and catchment-wide denudation rates. The correlation does not define a single-valued function; rather there are two populations above and below the LGM ELA, one with a positive correlation for low-elevation, fluvially-dominated landscapes and a second for high-elevation, glacially-eroded basins in which this correlation is negative. We speculate that the commensurate lengthening of hillslopes increase

  2. Denudation of Actively Growing Mountain Ranges in the Foreland of NE Tibet Inferred From in- Situ Produced Cosmogenic Be-10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, L.; Hetzel, R.; Tao, M.; Li, X.

    2007-12-01

    At the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau ranges bounded by active thrust faults offer the unique opportunity to study the competing effects of uplift and erosion during the early stages of mountain building. Owing to along- strike variations in relief, slope, and lithology, these ranges are an ideal target for studying the influence of topography, lithology, and active faulting on denudation. Here we report spatially-averaged erosion rates for catchments situated along two of these ranges based on Be-10 concentrations of quartz in stream sediments. The Yumu Shan and the western Long Shou Shan are about 60 km long and their overall shape as well as the presence of wind gaps illustrates their vertical-lateral growth during Plio-Quaternary thrust faulting (Hetzel et al. 2004a). Erosion rates determined so far for 20 small catchments are variable and range from 20 to 550 mm/kyr. The observed variability results from at least three factors: (1) the erosion rate in catchments exposing the same lithology is positively correlated with relief and mean slope, (2) weakly consolidated Cretaceous sediments generally erode faster than low-grade Paleozoic bedrock, and (3) the erosion rate seems to decrease from the centre of the fault-bounded ranges towards their propagating tips. As rates of thrust faulting and rock uplift in the region (600-1200 mm/kyr; Hetzel et al., 2004a, b) exceed the denudation rates, the active growth of mountains and the lateral growth of Tibet has not yet come to rest. References Hetzel, R., Tao, M., Niedermann, S., Strecker, M.R., Ivy-Ochs, S., Kubik, P.W., Gao, B. (2004a). Implications of the fault scaling law for the growth of topography: Mountain ranges in the broken foreland of NE Tibet, Terra Nova 16, 157-162. Hetzel, R., Tao, M., Stokes, S., Niedermann, S., Ivy-Ochs, S., Gao, B., Strecker, M.R., Kubik, P.W. (2004b). Late Pleistocene-Holocene slip rate of the Zhangye thrust (Qilian Shan, China) and implications for the active growth of the

  3. Mountain Meadows Dacite: Oligocene intrusive complex that welds together the Los Angeles Basin, northwestern Peninsular Ranges, and central Transverse Ranges, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCulloh, Thane H.; Beyer, Larry A.; Morin, Ronald W.

    2001-01-01

    Dikes and irregular intrusive bodies of distinctive Oligocene biotite dacite and serially related hornblende latite and felsite occur widely in the central and eastern San Gabriel Mountains, southern California, and are related to the Telegraph Peak granodiorite pluton. Identical dacite is locally present beneath Middle Miocene Topanga Group Glendora Volcanics at the northeastern edge of the Los Angeles Basin, where it is termed Mountain Meadows Dacite. This study mapped the western and southwestern limits of the dacite distribution to understand the provenance of derived redeposited clasts, to perceive Neogene offsets on several large strike-slip faults, to test published palinspastic reconstructions, and to better understand the tectonic boundaries that separate contrasting pre-Tertiary rock terranes where the Peninsular Ranges meet the central and western Transverse Ranges and the Los Angeles Basin. Transported and redeposited clasts of dacite-latite occur in deformed lower Miocene and lower middle Miocene sandy conglomerates (nonmarine, nearshore, and infrequent upper bathyal) close to the northern and northeastern margins of the Los Angeles Basin for a distance of nearly 60 km. Tie-lines between distinctive source suites and clast occurrences indicate that large tracts of the ancestral San Gabriel Mountains were elevated along range-bounding faults as early as 16–15 Ma. The tie-lines prohibit very large strike-slip offsets on those faults. Transport of eroded dacite began south of the range as early as 18 Ma. Published and unpublished data about rocks adjacent to the active Santa Monica-Hollywood-Raymond oblique reverse left-lateral fault indicate that cumulative left slip totals 13–14 km and total offset postdates 7 Ma. This cumulative slip, with assembly of stratigraphic and paleogeographic data, invalidates prior estimates of 60 to 90 km of left slip on these faults beginning about 17–16 Ma. A new and different palinspastic reconstruction of a region

  4. The High Variability of Hydrologic Response in Mountain Watersheds: Snowy Range, Wyoming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. N.

    2015-12-01

    Three adjacent mountain streams that coalesce to form a single river have been monitored with a nested watershed design comprised of ten runoff stations for the past three years. Some of the stations are co-located on previous monitoring sites that allow for an extended period of record. Stage-discharge relationships have been built with high degrees of confidence at each station, and stream isotope data have been taken to better determine sources of water and fractionation of precipitation into runoff components. In addition to runoff observations we have multiple weather stations and use geophysical methods to investigate the subsurface and better characterize potential flow pathways and remote sensing and field methods to characterize the watersheds. From these data we have observed a high degree in variability in runoff characteristics among these sites, including significant differences in annual runoff, proportion of baseflow, rainfall/runoff efficiency, and hydrologic regime. Analyses of nested runoff data reveal longitudinal and seasonal changes in surface and subsurface flow, which allow us to identify the timing and location of groundwater contributions and channel transmission to regional aquifers. Differences among the watershed responses are augmented by precipitation, and we identify stream reaches that change from effluent to influent depending on timing and magnitude of runoff. We explored physical interpretations for the observed variability, including management, beetle impacts, and subsurface characteristics as inferred from geophysical data.

  5. Development of the archean crust in the medina mountain area, wind river range, wyoming (U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koesterer, M.E.; Frost, C.D.; Frost, B.R.; Hulsebosch, T.P.; Bridgwater, D.; Worl, R.G.

    1987-01-01

    Evidence for an extensive Archean crustal history in the Wind River Range is preserved in the Medina Mountain area in the west-central part of the range. The oldest rocks in the area are metasedimentary, mafic, and ultramafic blocks in a migmatite host. The supracrustal rocks of the Medina Mountain area (MMS) are folded into the migmatites, and include semi-pelitic and pelitic gneisses, and mafic rocks of probable volcanic origin. Mafic dikes intrude the older migmatites but not the MMS, suggesting that the MMS are distinctly younger than the supracrustal rocks in the migmatites. The migmatites and the MMS were engulfed by the late Archean granite of the Bridger, Louis Lake, and Bears Ears batholiths, which constitutes the dominant rock of the Wind River Range. Isotopic data available for the area include Nd crustal residence ages from the MMS which indicate that continental crust existed in the area at or before 3.4 Ga, but the age of the older supracrustal sequence is not yet known. The upper age of the MMS is limited by a 2.7 Ga RbSr age of the Bridger batholith, which was emplaced during the waning stages of the last regional metamorphism. The post-tectonic Louis Lake and Bears Ears batholiths have ages of 2.6 and 2.5 Ga, respectively (Stuckless et al., 1985). At least three metamorphic events are recorded in the area: (1) an early regional granulite event (M1) that affected only the older inclusions within the migmatites, (2) a second regional amphibolite event (M2) that locally reached granulite facies conditions, and (3) a restricted, contact granulite facies event (M3) caused by the intrusion of charnockitic melts associated with the late Archean plutons. Results from cation exchange geobarometers and geothermometers yield unreasonablu low pressures and temperatures, suggesting resetting during the long late Archean thermal evenn. ?? 1987.

  6. 75 FR 27361 - Notice of Public Meeting, Whiskey Mountain Bighorn Sheep Range Locatable Mineral Withdrawal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... range and capital investments on the land described in the Public Land Order (PLO) at 55 FR 37878 (1990..., which was published in the Federal Register on January 8, 2010 (76 FR 1076-1077), is hereby modified to... Mineral Withdrawal Extension, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY:...

  7. Origin and dissemination across the Colombian Andes mountain range of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Corredor, Vladimir; Murillo, Claribel; Echeverry, Diego F; Benavides, Julie; Pearce, Richard J; Roper, Cally; Guerra, Angela P; Osorio, Lyda

    2010-08-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in treating uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria is unevenly distributed in Colombia. The Andes mountain range separates regions in the west where malaria is endemic from those in the east and constitutes a barrier against gene flow and the dispersal of parasite populations. The distribution of dhfr and dhps genotypes of 146 P. falciparum samples from the eastern Amazon and Orinoco basins and Northwest and Southwest Pacific regions of Colombia was consistent with the documented levels of therapeutic efficacy of SP. The diversity of four dhfr- and dhps-linked microsatellites indicated that double- and triple-mutant alleles for both resistance loci have a single origin. Likewise, multilocus association genotypes, including two unlinked microsatellite loci, suggested that genetic exchanges between the eastern Orinoco and Northwest Pacific populations has taken place across the Andes, most probably via migration of infected people. PMID:20498318

  8. Late Pleistocene Earthquakes Along the Simpson Park Mountains Fault: Long-term Contribution to Basin and Range Extension, Nevada.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, R. D.; Wesnousky, S. G.

    2006-12-01

    Technological advances in remote sensing fields of GPS and InSAR have advanced our understanding of short- term strain accumulation rates related to Pacific/North American Plate boundary deformation. In Central Nevada, a region characterized by distributed, active faulting, efforts to compare geodetic observations to late Quaternary fault slip rates have been encumbered by slow deformation rates and insufficient paleoseismic data. Therefore, we have performed Quaternary geologic mapping along parts of 8 ranges across HWY 50 in order to identify sites that record long-term deformation and are amenable to paleoseismic investigation. We have excavated fault trenches along the Eastern Toiyabe Range and Simpson Park Range Faults. Additional ranges mapped and planned for future paleoseismic investigation include the Antelope, Monitore, Fish Creek, Butte, Egan, and Schell Creek Ranges. Preliminary paleoseismic results from two recent trench excavations along the Simpson Park Mountains fault suggest the occurrence of two earthquakes in late Pleistocene time. The first trench, SPT1, excavated across a recessional shoreline of pluvial lake Gilbert exposed a package of nearshore pluvial deposits overlain by beach gravels and soil. The penultimate event is evidenced by juxtaposition of nearshore deposits along a nearly vertical fault plane. The topographic expression of the penultimate event was modified by beach processes, prior to the most recent earthquake; noted by offset of the beach gravels (~1.8 m), fissure fills, and a graben feature. Tephra correlated to the Maazama ash within lagoonal mud deposited on Lake Gilbert highstand beach gravels suggest that the highstand may be as young as 7 ka. Alternatively, the highstand may correlate to the timing of the highstand of Lake Lahontan, ~13 ka. Because the offset shoreline is lower than the highstand, the MRE postdates the highstand, which is broadly constrained between 7 and 13 ka. Based on the lack of soil development in

  9. Elevation-Dependent Temperature Trends in the Rocky Mountain Front Range: Changes over a 56- and 20-Year Record

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Chris R.; Nufio, César R.; Bowers, M. Deane; Guralnick, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the magnitude of climate change patterns across elevational gradients is essential for an improved understanding of broader climate change patterns and for predicting hydrologic and ecosystem changes. We present temperature trends from five long-term weather stations along a 2077-meter elevational transect in the Rocky Mountain Front Range of Colorado, USA. These trends were measured over two time periods: a full 56-year record (1953–2008) and a shorter 20-year (1989–2008) record representing a period of widely reported accelerating change. The rate of change of biological indicators, season length and accumulated growing-degree days, were also measured over the 56 and 20-year records. Finally, we compared how well interpolated Parameter-elevation Regression on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) datasets match the quality controlled and weather data from each station. Our results show that warming signals were strongest at mid-elevations over both temporal scales. Over the 56-year record, most sites show warming occurring largely through increases in maximum temperatures, while the 20-year record documents warming associated with increases in maximum temperatures at lower elevations and increases in minimum temperatures at higher elevations. Recent decades have also shown a shift from warming during springtime to warming in July and November. Warming along the gradient has contributed to increases in growing-degree days, although to differing degrees, over both temporal scales. However, the length of the growing season has remained unchanged. Finally, the actual and the PRISM interpolated yearly rates rarely showed strong correlations and suggest different warming and cooling trends at most sites. Interpretation of climate trends and their seasonal biases in the Rocky Mountain Front Range are dependent on both elevation and the temporal scale of analysis. Given mismatches between interpolated data and the directly measured station data, we caution

  10. Paleomagnetism of Jurassic radiolarian chert above the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California, and implications for its paleogeographic origins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagstrum, J.T.; Murchey, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    Upper Jurassic red tuffaceous chert above the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain, California (lat 35??N, long 240??E), contains three components of remanent magnetization. The first component (A; removed by ???100-???200 ??C) has a direction near the present-day field for southern California and is probably a recently acquired thermoviscous magnetization. A second component (B; removed between ???100 and ???600 ??C) is identical to that observed by previous workers in samples of underlying pillow basalt and overlying terrigenous sedimentary rocks. This component has constant normal polarity and direction throughout the entire section, although these rocks were deposited during a mixed polarity interval of the geomagnetic field. The B magnetization, therefore, is inferred to be a secondary magnetization acquired during accretion, uplift, or Miocene volcanism prior to regional clockwise rotation. The highest temperature component (C; removed between ???480 and 680 ??C) is of dual polarity and is tentatively interpreted as a primary magnetization, although it fails a reversal test possibly due to contamination by B. Separation of the B and C components is best shown by samples with negative-inclination C directions, and a corrected mean direction using only these samples indicates an initial paleolatitude of 32??N ?? 8??. Paleobiogeographic models relating radiolarian faunal distribution patterns to paleolatitude have apparently been incorrectly calibrated using the overprint B component. Few other paleomagnetic data have been incorporated in these models, and faunal distribution patterns are poorly known and mostly unqualified. The available data, therefore, do not support formation of the Coast Range ophiolite at Stanley Mountain near the paleoequator or accretion at ???10??N paleolatitude, as has been previously suggested based on paleomagnetic data, but indicate deposition near expected paleolatitudes for North America (35??N ?? 4??) during Late Jurassic

  11. 3D Virtual Reality Applied in Tectonic Geomorphic Study of the Gombori Range of Greater Caucasus Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukhishvili, Lasha; Javakhishvili, Zurab

    2016-04-01

    Gombori Range represents the southern part of the young Greater Caucasus Mountains and stretches from NW to SE. The range separates Alazani and Iori basins within the eastern Georgian province of Kakheti. The active phase of Caucasian orogeny started in the Pliocene, but according to alluvial sediments of Gombori range (mapped in the Soviet geologic map), we observe its uplift process to be Quaternary event. The highest peak of the Gombori range has an absolute elevation of 1991 m, while its neighboring Alazani valley gains only 400 m. We assume the range has a very fast uplift rate and it could trigger streams flow direction course reverse in Quaternary. To check this preliminary assumptions we are going to use a tectonic and fluvial geomorphic and stratigraphic approaches including paleocurrent analyses and various affordable absolute dating techniques to detect the evidence of river course reverses and date them. For these purposes we have selected river Turdo outcrop. The river itself flows northwards from the Gombori range and nearby region`s main city of Telavi generates 30-40 m high continuous outcrop along 1 km section. Turdo outcrop has very steep walls and requires special climbing skills to work on it. The goal of this particularly study is to avoid time and resource consuming ground survey process of this steep, high and wide outcrop and test 3D aerial and ground base photogrammetric modelling and analyzing approaches in initial stage of the tectonic geomorphic study. Using this type of remote sensing and virtual lab analyses of 3D outcrop model, we roughly delineated stratigraphic layers, selected exact locations for applying various research techniques and planned safe and suitable climbing routes for getting to the investigation sites.

  12. Climate Change Impacts on the Cryosphere of Mountain Regions: Validation of a Novel Model Using the Alaska Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosier, T. M.; Hill, D. F.; Sharp, K. V.

    2015-12-01

    Mountain regions are natural water towers, storing water seasonally as snowpack and for much longer as glaciers. Understanding the response of these systems to climate change is necessary in order to make informed decisions about prevention or mitigation measures. Yet, mountain regions are often data sparse, leading many researchers to implement simple or enhanced temperature index (ETI) models to simulate cryosphere processes. These model structures do not account for the thermal inertia of snowpack and glaciers and do not robustly capture differences in system response to climate regimes that differ from those the model was calibrated for. For instance, a temperature index calibration parameter will differ substantially in cold-dry conditions versus warm-wet ones. To overcome these issues, we have developed a cryosphere hydrology model, called the Significantly Enhanced Temperature Index (SETI), which uses an energy balance structure but parameterizes energy balance components in terms of minimum, maximum and mean temperature, precipitation, and geometric inputs using established relationships. Additionally, the SETI model includes a glacier sliding model and can therefore be used to estimate long-term glacier response to climate change. Sensitivity of the SETI model to changing climate is compared with an ETI and a simple temperature index model for several partially-glaciated watersheds within Alaska, including Wolverine glacier where multi-decadal glacier stake measurements are available, to highlight the additional fidelity attributed to the increased complexity of the SETI structure. The SETI model is then applied to the entire Alaska Range region for an ensemble of global climate models (GCMs), using representative concentration pathways 4.5 and 8.5. Comparing model runs based on ensembles of GCM projections to historic conditions, total annual snowfall within the Alaska region is not expected to change appreciably, but the spatial distribution of snow

  13. A paleomagnetic investigation of rocks from the Ohio Range and the Dry Valleys, Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, K.S.

    1988-01-01

    Two well-deinfed virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) for East Antarctica were obtained from the Middle Jurassic Ferrar Dolerite, sampled from a thick sill on Mt Schofp in the Ohio Range, and from a horizontal sheet intruding Paleozoic granitic rocks at Mt Cerberus in the Dry Valleys. The VGP from the sill at Mt Schopf lies at lat. 58??.0S, long. 129??.0W (dm = 13??, dp = 12??), and the VGP from Mt Cerberus lies at lat. 57??.8S, long. 135??.7W (dm = 6??, dp = 6??). These data, together with 15 other acceptable pole positions reported in the literature, define a Middle Jurassic paleomagnetic pole at 52??.7S, 139??.6W (??95 = 4??.4). -from Author

  14. Structure of Franciscan complex in the Stanley Mountain window, Southern Coast ranges, California

    SciTech Connect

    Korsch, R.J.

    1982-11-01

    Three sets of deformational events are recognized in the Franciscan Complex of the Stanley Mt. area, S. Coast ranges, California. First, in pre-melange time, shortening of the relatively cohesive sequence of interbedded graywacke and mudstone formed isoclinal folds and an axial-plane slaty cleavage. Second, fragmentation of the once cohesive sequence, probably over a considerable period of time, produced the configuration now considered a melange. Third, after the melange developed, the Franciscan Complex was deformed along with the surrounding upper Mesozoic Great Valley sequence into the Stanley Mt. antiform. In the cohesive Upper Cretaceous Carrie Creek Formation, macroscopic and mesoscopic folds have 2 predominant orientations. The less cohesive Franciscan Complex attempted to fold, as shown by the distribution of shear foliations on stereographic projections, but lack of lithologic continuity and slip along previously formed shear fractures prevents the recognition of macroscopic folds. Hence, in the Franciscan Complex of the Stanley Mt. window, several lines of evidence show that the melange structure is tectonic in origin, not just a tectonic imprint superimposed upon already chaotic rocks of sedimentary origin (olistostromes). 43 references.

  15. Looking at the roots of the highest mountains: the lithospheric structure of the Himalaya-Tibet and the Zagros orogens. Results from a geophysical-petrological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunini, L.; Jimenez-Munt, I.; Fernandez, M.; Villasenor, A.; Afonso, J. C.; Verges, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Himalaya-Tibet and Zagros orogens are the two most prominent mountain belts built by continental collision. They are part of a huge belt of Cenozoic age which runs from the Pyrenees to Burma. In its central sector, the collision with the southern margin of the Eurasian plate has resulted not only in the building of mountain ranges over the north-eastern edges of the Arabian and Indian plates but also in widespread deformation 1000-3000 km from the suture zones. Zagros and Himalaya-Tibet orogens share many geodynamic processes but at different rates, amount of convergence and stage of development. The study of their present-day structures provides new insights into their quasi coeval collisional event pointing out differences and similarities in the mountain building processes. We present 2D crust and upper mantle cross-sections down to 400 km depth, along four SW-NE trending profiles. Two profiles cross the Zagros Mountains, running from the Mesopotamian Foreland Basin up to the Alborz and Central Iran. Two other profiles run through the Himalaya-Tibetan orogen: the western transect crosses the western Himalaya, Tarim Basin, Tian Shan Mountains and Junggar Basin; the eastern transect runs from the Indian shield to the Beishan Basin, crossing the eastern Himalaya, Tibetan Plateau, Qaidam Basin and Qilian Mountains. We apply the LitMod-2D code which integrates potential fields (gravity and geoid), isostasy (elevation) and thermal (heat flow and temperature distribution) equations, and mantle petrology. The resulting crust and upper mantle structure is constrained by available data on elevation, Bouguer anomaly, geoid height, surface heat flow and seismic data including P- and S-wave tomography models. Our results show distinct deformation patterns between the crust and the lithospheric mantle beneath the Zagros and Himalaya-Tibetan orogens, indicating a strong strain partitioning in both areas. At crustal level, we found a thickening beneath the Zagros and the

  16. Modeling Potential Climatic Treeline of Great Basin Bristlecone Pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruening, J. M.; Tran, T. J.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a valuable paleoclimate resource due to the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Recent work has shown that low growing season temperatures limit tree growth at the upper treeline ecotone. The presence of precisely dated remnant wood above modern treeline shows that this ecotone shifts at centennial timescales; in some areas during the Holocene climatic optimum treeline was 100 m higher than at present. A recent model from Paulsen and Körner (2014, doi:10.1007/s00035-014-0124-0) predicts global potential treeline position as a function of climate. The model develops three parameters necessary to sustain a temperature-limited treeline; a growing season longer than 94 days, defined by all days with a mean temperature >0.9 °C, and a mean temperature of 6.4 °C across the entire growing season. While maintaining impressive global accuracy in treeline prediction, these parameters are not specific to the semi-arid Great Basin bristlecone pine treelines in Nevada. In this study, we used 49 temperature sensors arrayed across approximately one square kilometer of complex terrain at treeline on Mount Washington to model temperatures using topographic indices. Results show relatively accurate prediction throughout the growing season (e.g., July average daily temperatures were modeled with an R2 of 0.80 and an RMSE of 0.29 °C). The modeled temperatures enabled calibration of a regional treeline model, yielding different parameters needed to predict potential treeline than the global model. Preliminary results indicate that modern Bristlecone pine treeline on and around Mount Washington occurs in areas with a longer growing season length (~160 days defined by all days with a mean temperature >0.9 °C) and a warmer seasonal mean temperature (~9 °C) than the global average. This work will provide a baseline data set on treeline position in the Snake Range derived only from parameters physiologically relevant to

  17. Fission track thermochronologic constraints on the timing and nature of major Middle Tertiary extension, Ruby Mountains - East Humboldt Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Dokka, R.K.; Mahaffie, M.J.; Snoke, A.W.

    1985-01-01

    Fission Track (FT) apatite, zircon, and sphene ages were determined from both mylonitic and non-mylonitic rocks of the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range metamorphic core complex. The analyzed sample suite included various mylonitic orthogneisses as well as amphibolitic orthogneisses from the non-mylonitic infrastructural core. Porphyritic biotite granodiorite of the Oligocene Harrison Pass pluton was also dated. FT ages are concordant and range in age from 27 - 24 Ma. These dates reflect rapid cooling of the lower plate from temperatures above 250/sup 0/C to below 100/sup 0/C during the early Miocene. The general concordance of the FT dates with /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar biotite and hornblende plateau ages from the same sample suite suggest an even more pronounced cooling history. This rapid cooling history is considered to reflect large-scale tectonic denudation (intracrustal thinning), a manifestation of intense crustal extension. Mylonitic rocks that originally formed along ductile shear zones in the middle crust (10-15 km) were quickly brought near the surface and juxtaposed against brittly distended rocks deformed under upper crustal conditions. FT data firmly establish the upper age limit on the timing of mylonitization during the shear zone deformation. This rapid cooling interval also coincides with the inferred age of extensive landscape disruption and the development of an alluvial fan-lacustrine system which included the periodic emplacement of landslide deposits (megabreccias).

  18. Basin and range-age reactivation of the ancestral Rocky Mountains in Texas Panhandle: evidence from Ogallala Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Budnik, R.T.

    1984-04-01

    The Ogallala Formation (Neogene) is a widespread syntectonic alluvial apron that was shed eastward from the Rio Grande rift and related uplifts in Colorado and New Mexico during Basin and Range extension. In the Texas Panhandle, the Ogallala completely buried Ancestral Rocky Mountain (Pennsylvanian) structures. Renewed movement on these older structures during the Neogene influenced the thickness and facies distribution of the Ogallala. The Ogallala thickens into the Palo Duro, Dalhart, and Anadarko basins. Major distributary channels on Ogallala alluvial fans coincide with the axes of these basins, whereas major interchannel areas overlie intervening uplifts. Second-order structures subtly influenced the unit as well. For example, the Carson basin, a Pennsylvanian rhomb graben along the Amarillo uplift, the Ogallala is over 250 m (820 ft) thick compared with 90 m (275 ft) in adjacent areas. Within the Palo Duro basin, local highs controlled the distribution of thin, interchannel flood-basin and lacustrine deposits. Thicker, braided-stream channel deposits follow local lows. Later movement on the Amarillo uplift broadly folded the Ogallala. The southern high plains surface subtly reflects basement structure, with topographic highs overlying basement highs, suggesting post-Ogallala deformation within the Palo Duro basin. The Amarillo uplift is approximately perpendicular to the Rio Grande rift and parallel to the direction of Basin and Range extension. Thus, the stress field that produced the rift may have caused strike-slip movement and reactivation of the Carson basin along the Amarillo uplift.

  19. K-Ar geochronology of the Survey Pass, Ambler River and Eastern Baird Mountains quadrangles, southwestern Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turner, Donald L.; Forbes, R.B.; Mayfield, C.F.

    1978-01-01

    We report 76 previously unpublished K-Ar mineral ages from 47 metamorphic and igneous rocks in the southwestern Brooks Range. The pattern of radiometric ages is complex, reflecting the complex geologic history of this area. Local and regional radiometric evidence suggests that the southern Brooks Range schist belt has, at least in part, undergone a late Precambrian metamorphism and that the parent sedimentary and igneous rocks for the metamorphic rocks dated as late Precambrian are at least this old (Precambrian Z). This schist terrane experienced a major thermal event in mid-Cretaceous time, causing widespread resetting of nearly all K-Ar mica ages. A series of apparent ages intermediate between late Precambrian and mid-Cretaceous are interpreted as indicating varying amounts of partial argon loss from older rocks during the Cretaceous event. The schist belt is characterized by dominant metasediments and subordinate metabasites and metafelsites. Blueschists occur within the schist belt from the Chandalar quadrangle westward to the Baird Mountains quadrangle, but geologic evidence does not support the existence of a fossil subduction zone.

  20. Reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPÉ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prenni, A. J.; Benedict, K. B.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Zhou, Y.; Sullivan, A.; Day, D.; Sive, B. C.; Zondlo, M. A.; Schichtel, B. A.; Vimont, J.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) took place in July-August 2014. This collaborative study was aimed at characterizing those processes which control air quality along Colorado's Front Range. Although the study was largely focused on ozone, an additional goal of the study included characterizing contributions from Front Range sources and long-range transport to total reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). Import of reactive nitrogen into ROMO and other pristine, high elevation areas has the potential to negatively impact terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We present measurements of reactive nitrogen species measured within ROMO during FRAPPÉ, and compare these data to measurements made in the surrounding areas. At our monitoring site in ROMO, co-located with IMPROVE and CASTNet monitoring, measurements of NO, NO2, NOx, NOy, NH3, and total reactive nitrogen (TNx) were made at high time resolution. Additional measurements of NH3, HNO3 and PM2.5 ions were made at hourly resolution using a MARGA and also at 24-hour time resolution using URG denuder-filter pack sampling. Precipitation samples also were collected to quantify wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen. Finally, measurements of organic gases were made using online gas chromatography and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. Preliminary results for ammonia show both a diel pattern, with concentrations increasing each morning, and a strong dependence on wind direction, implicating the importance of transport. Higher concentrations of NOx and NOy also were observed in the daytime, but in general these patterns differed from that of ammonia. Several upslope events were observed during the measurement period during which NOx, NH3, 2-propylnitrate, 2-butylnitrate, ethane, butane, and pentane were observed to increase in concentration along with ozone.

  1. Inferring the colonization of a mountain range--refugia vs. nunatak survival in high alpine ground beetles.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Konrad; Nicholls, James A; Stone, Graham N

    2011-01-01

    It has long been debated whether high alpine specialists survived ice ages in situ on small ice-free islands of habitat, so-called nunataks, or whether glacial survival was restricted to larger massifs de refuge at the periphery. We evaluate these alternative hypotheses in a local radiation of high alpine carabid beetles (genus Trechus) in the Orobian Alps, Northern Italy. While summits along the northern ridge of this mountain range were surrounded by the icesheet as nunataks during the last glacial maximum, southern areas remained unglaciated. We analyse a total of 1366 bp of mitochondrial (Cox1 and Cox2) data sampled from 150 individuals from twelve populations and 530 bp of nuclear (PEPCK) sequence sampled for a subset of 30 individuals. Using Bayesian inference, we estimate ancestral location states in the gene trees, which in turn are used to infer the most likely order of recolonization under a model of sequential founder events from a massif de refuge from the mitochondrial data. We test for the paraphyly expected under this model and for reciprocal monophyly predicted by a contrasting model of prolonged persistence of nunatak populations. We find that (i) only three populations are incompatible with the paraphyly of the massif de refuge model, (ii) both mitochondrial and nuclear data support separate refugial origins for populations on the western and eastern ends of the northern ridge, and (iii) mitochondrial node ages suggest persistence on the northern ridge for part of the last ice age. PMID:21073591

  2. 1. Characterizing contributions of glacier melt and groundwater in alpine glacierized watersheds of the Saint-Elias Mountain range (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchard, Emilie; Baraer, Michel; Chesnokova, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Changes in the hydrological processes of alpine glacierized watersheds have been observed in most regions of the world; these have an important impact on water resources and can affect downstream ecosystems and populations. Subarctic catchments such as those found in southern Yukon (Canada) are particularly sensitive to climate related hydrological changes. To further understand the ongoing evolution of subarctic hydrological systems, we applied natural tracers based investigations in the Saint-Elias mountain range of the Yukon. The main goal was to identify water sources and their relative contributions to outflows in an alpine glacierized catchment. During the summer of 2015, we collected more than 100 water samples in two sub-watersheds of the glacier-fed Duke River watershed. Samples were analyzed for organic carbon, major ions and stable water isotopes (δ18O and δ2H). The resulting dataset was then processed using statistical methods and the hydrochemical basin characterization method (HBCM). Results show that on the sampling period, watershed outflows consisted mainly of glacier meltwater with a non-negligible contribution of other water sources such as icings and ice-cored moraines. In this study, supraglacial processes are shown playing a particularly important role in the watersheds' hydrology.

  3. Evidence for rapid displacement on Himalayan normal faults and the importance of tectonic denudation in the evolution of mountain ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, Kip; Bowring, Samuel; Davidek, Kathleen; Hawkins, David; Krol, Michael

    1998-06-01

    East-striking, low-angle normal faults of the South Tibetan detachment system have played an important role in exposing the high-grade metamorphic core of the Himalayan orogen. In the Mount Everest region of southern Tibet, granites both pre- and postdate an important fault of the system, the Qomolangma detachment. New U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronologic data for these rocks constrain the age of brittle faulting to between 16.67 ± 0.04 and 16.37 ± 0.40 Ma, significantly expanding the known age range for extension in the central Himalaya (widely regarded as ca. 20 22 Ma). More importantly, they indicate an average displacement rate of ≥47 mm/yr and a consequent tectonic unroofing rate of ≥8.2 mm/yr. Such unroofing is faster than all but the highest estimates of combined physical and chemical erosion rates in mountainous regions, suggesting that large-displacement normal faulting can be an extremely efficient agent of mass redistribution in orogenic systems.

  4. A study on the structure and precipitation of Morakot (2009) induced by the Central Mountain Range of Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yi-Chih; Lin, Yuh-Lang

    2014-02-01

    The three-dimensional structures and ingredients leading to extremely heavy precipitation associated with the passage of Typhoon Morakot (2009) over the Central Mountain Range (CMR) of Taiwan are investigated. Using a numerical model, the track, track deflection, characteristic rainbands, and precipitation patterns and maxima are successfully reproduced after verification against observational data. The high-level outward flow of the secondary circulation around the eyewall is not very clear even during Morakot's strongest stage. In the control case, the eyewall collapses within 5 h after landfall that is closely associated with limited precipitation along the track after landfall. During the early stage of landfall, the deep convection on the windward (west) side of the CMR helps strengthening the secondary circulation. A quantitative comparison of total precipitable water, translation speed, and orographic lifting among 12 typhoons in recent years causing large accumulated rainfall in Taiwan shows that the abundant water vapor around Taiwan outweighs translation speed and orographic lifting in resulting in the record-breaking precipitation. It is found that the major processes leading to strong upward motion in the extremely heavy precipitation during 0000 UTC 8 August-0000 UTC 9 August are initiated by orographic lifting by CMR.

  5. PERSISTENCE AND FATE OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS DEPOSITED ON SLASH BURN SITES IN THE CASCADE MOUNTAINS AND COAST RANGE OF OREGON

    EPA Science Inventory

    The persistence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAH) on slash burn sites and movement of these compounds between compartments of the sites has been investigated in the Cascade Mountains and Coast Range of Oregon. Phenanthrene and fluoranthene were gradually lost from the l...

  6. Cross-Scale Analysis of the Region Effect on Vascular Plant Species Diversity in Southern and Northern European Mountain Ranges

    PubMed Central

    Lenoir, Jonathan; Gégout, Jean-Claude; Guisan, Antoine; Vittoz, Pascal; Wohlgemuth, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Dullinger, Stefan; Pauli, Harald; Willner, Wolfgang; Grytnes, John-Arvid; Virtanen, Risto; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2010-01-01

    Background The divergent glacial histories of southern and northern Europe affect present-day species diversity at coarse-grained scales in these two regions, but do these effects also penetrate to the more fine-grained scales of local communities? Methodology/Principal Findings We carried out a cross-scale analysis to address this question for vascular plants in two mountain regions, the Alps in southern Europe and the Scandes in northern Europe, using environmentally paired vegetation plots in the two regions (n = 403 in each region) to quantify four diversity components: (i) total number of species occurring in a region (total γ-diversity), (ii) number of species that could occur in a target plot after environmental filtering (habitat-specific γ-diversity), (iii) pair-wise species compositional turnover between plots (plot-to-plot β-diversity) and (iv) number of species present per plot (plot α-diversity). We found strong region effects on total γ-diversity, habitat-specific γ-diversity and plot-to-plot β-diversity, with a greater diversity in the Alps even towards distances smaller than 50 m between plots. In contrast, there was a slightly greater plot α-diversity in the Scandes, but with a tendency towards contrasting region effects on high and low soil-acidity plots. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that there are strong regional differences between coarse-grained (landscape- to regional-scale) diversity components of the flora in the Alps and the Scandes mountain ranges, but that these differences do not necessarily penetrate to the finest-grained (plot-scale) diversity component, at least not on acidic soils. Our findings are consistent with the contrasting regional Quaternary histories, but we also consider alternative explanatory models. Notably, ecological sorting and habitat connectivity may play a role in the unexpected limited or reversed region effect on plot α-diversity, and may also affect the larger-scale diversity components. For

  7. Shallow seismic reflection profiling over a Mylonitic Shear Zone, Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range Metamorphic Core Complex, NE Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawman, Robert B.; Ahmed, Hishameldin O.

    Seismic reflection profiling carried out with a sledgehammer source has imaged Tertiary extensional structures over a depth range of 45-500 m within lower plate rocks of the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range metamorphic core complex. The 400-m CMP profile straddles an exposed contact between tectonic slices of dolomitic marble and metaquartzite emplaced by low-angle ductile-brittle normal faulting. Subhorizontal reflections from layering within the tectonic slices give way at 160 ms (160-220 m depth) to reflections that dip 15-45° to the east, in contrast with dips indicated in a poorly imaged segment of a coincident regional seismic line but in agreement with dips of foliation mapped for nearby up-plunge exposures of a late Proterozoic - early Cambrian sequence of metaquartzites, marbles, schists, and granitic rocks that forms the bulk of the underlying shear zone. Differences with the regional profile are attributed to the higher frequencies (30-100 Hz) generated by the smaller hammer source and the enhanced lateral resolution provided by the straighter profile and much smaller shot-receiver offsets (46-157 m) contributing to the stack for each CMP. The results suggest that the near-surface, east-dipping component of the anastomozing shear zone extends at least 2 km farther east than previously interpreted. Rough estimates of interval velocities (1500-4500 m/s) inferred from stacking velocities are consistent with velocities of mylonitic rocks measured perpendicular to foliation at low confining pressures when the effects of macroscopic fractures and joints are taken into account. Peaks in amplitude spectra of stacked traces suggest long-wavelength components of layering resolved at scales from 5-8 m (depth: 50 m) to 15-25 m (depth: 500 m).

  8. Testing the Climate Sensitivity of Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) Near the Southern Limit of Its Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleton, S.; St George, S.

    2014-12-01

    This study investigates the climate sensitivity of mountain hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carr.) near the southern limit of its range, tests the stability of its climate-tree relations over the last few decades, and explores its potential as a hydroclimatic proxy for Crater Lake National Park. We collected tree cores at seven locations around the caldera rim, focusing on hemlock growing at higher elevations (2000-2400 masl). The median length of all ring-width series is 283 years, and the oldest hemlock sample extends back to C.E. 1450. Several types of anatomical anomalies, including frost rings, traumatic resin ducts, false rings, and light late-wood bands were observed within the specimens, the most common feature being a false ring in C.E. 1810. Each set of standardized ring-width measurements has a strong common signal, with between-tree correlations (r-bar) ranging from 0.31 to 0.49. Preliminary analysis suggests hemlock growth across the park is strongly and inversely related to total cool-season precipitation, and is also influenced positively (albeit more weakly) by mean summer temperature. Most sites are significantly and negatively correlated with total December-to-February precipitation (r = -0.41) and total precipitation from December to August (r = -0.48). Compared to other ring-width records exhibiting similar negative responses to winter precipitation, these hemlocks appear to track that specific signal quite clearly and, as a result, these data may be suitable to reconstruct past changes in cool-season moisture in Crater Lake National Park and across the broader southern Cascades.

  9. In utero transmission and tissue distribution of chronic wasting disease-associated prions in free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk.

    PubMed

    Selariu, Anca; Powers, Jenny G; Nalls, Amy; Brandhuber, Monica; Mayfield, Amber; Fullaway, Stephenie; Wyckoff, Christy A; Goldmann, Wilfred; Zabel, Mark M; Wild, Margaret A; Hoover, Edward A; Mathiason, Candace K

    2015-11-01

    The presence of disease-associated prions in tissues and bodily fluids of chronic wasting disease (CWD)-infected cervids has received much investigation, yet little is known about mother-to-offspring transmission of CWD. Our previous work demonstrated that mother-to-offspring transmission is efficient in an experimental setting. To address the question of relevance in a naturally exposed free-ranging population, we assessed maternal and fetal tissues derived from 19 elk dam-calf pairs collected from free-ranging Rocky Mountain elk from north-central Colorado, a known CWD endemic region. Conventional immunohistochemistry identified three of 19 CWD-positive dams, whereas a more sensitive assay [serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification (sPMCA)] detected CWD prion seeding activity (PrPCWD) in 15 of 19 dams. PrPCWD distribution in tissues was widespread, and included the central nervous system (CNS), lymphoreticular system, and reproductive, secretory, excretory and adipose tissues. Interestingly, five of 15 sPMCA-positive dams showed no evidence of PrPCWD in either CNS or lymphoreticular system, sites typically assessed in diagnosing CWD. Analysis of fetal tissues harvested from the 15 sPMCA-positive dams revealed PrPCWD in 80 % of fetuses (12 of 15), regardless of gestational stage. These findings demonstrated that PrPCWD is more abundant in peripheral tissues of CWD-exposed elk than current diagnostic methods suggest, and that transmission of prions from mother to offspring may contribute to the efficient transmission of CWD in naturally exposed cervid populations. PMID:26358706

  10. Installation restoration program, remedial investigation/feasibility study report addendum for Indian Mountain Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Final report, 1 August-18 December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    The following report is an addendum to the Indian Mountain Long Range Radar Station (LRRS) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) report dated October 1995 (Air Force 1995a). This report and the activities described were undertaken to fulfill the goals and objectives of the Air Force Installation Restoration Program (IRP). This report includes findings from additional characterization activities conducted in August 1995 at five of 11 Indian Mountain IRP source areas and revisions to RI/FS report conclusions for those source areas.

  11. D- 18O enriched waters of the Coast Range Mountains, northern California: Connate and ore-forming fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, E. Kirsten

    1993-03-01

    D and 18O enriched waters of several weight percent salinity issue from hot and cold springs in Franciscan Complex and Great Valley Sequence rocks in the northern Coast Range Mountains of California. Although these waters have been described separately in the past and called "metamorphic," "connate," and "serpentinizing fluids," this study shows that the hot and cold springs are all fed by one source of water—trapped Cretaceous seawater modified by a variety of reactions. The district is an example of the complexities of subsurface waters and their importance for our understanding of metamorphic fluid sources, oil-field waters, and ore transport problems. The subsurface waters have a range of δ 34S values, including some near marine sulfate values (+20%.), and δ 13C near marine calcite values (0%.). Strontium isotopic signatures in the spring waters are derived from the Great Valley Sequence ( 87Sr /86Sr values near 0.705). The most saline spring pool is lined with serpentine phases found together as a fine white precipitate and has a pH of 11. One portion of the subsurface water is heated and reduced; it transports Au, Ag, Sb, As, and Hg to the surface (gold grades of the hot spring precipitates range from less than 1 ppm to over 10 ppm). These heated waters are chemically and isotopically similar to the fluids which formed Au mineralization at the nearby McLaughlin gold mine. The hot springs precipitate pyrite and native sulfur and are supersaturated with respect to calcite. Other springs are less saline and are oxidized, cooler, and diluted versions of the hot spring fluid. They do not carry ore metals but they are supersaturated with respect to silica and calcite. 3He /4He ratios of the springs gases are all above atmospheric values and indicate a possible magmatic component, consistent with the presence of Quaternary Clear Lake Volcanics. 129I data yield a minimum age of 60-80 Ma for the source of the iodide in the waters, consistent with the connate

  12. Deglaciation and postglacial environmental changes in the Teton Mountain Range recorded at Jenny Lake, Grand Teton National Park, WY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larsen, Darren J.; Finkenbinder, Matthew S.; Abbott, Mark B.; Ofstun, Adam R.

    2016-04-01

    Sediments contained in lake basins positioned along the eastern front of the Teton Mountain Range preserve a continuous and datable record of deglaciation and postglacial environmental conditions. Here, we develop a multiproxy glacier and paleoenvironmental record using a combination of seismic reflection data and multiple sediment cores recovered from Jenny Lake and other nearby lakes. Age control of Teton lake sediments is established primarily through radiocarbon dating and supported by the presence of two prominent rhyolitic tephra deposits that are geochemically correlated to the widespread Mazama (∼7.6 ka) and Glacier Peak (∼13.6 ka) tephra layers. Multiple glacier and climate indicators, including sediment accumulation rate, bulk density, clastic sediment concentration and flux, organic matter (concentration, flux, δ13C, δ15N, and C/N ratios), and biogenic silica, track changes in environmental conditions and landscape development. Sediment accumulation at Jenny Lake began centuries prior to 13.8 ka and cores from three lakes demonstrate that Teton glacier extents were greatly reduced by this time. Persistent ice retreat in Cascade Canyon was slowed by an interval of small glacier activity between ∼13.5 and 11.5 ka, prior to the end of glacial lacustrine sedimentation ∼11.5 ka. The transition to non-glacial sediments marks the onset of Holocene conditions at Jenny Lake and reflects a shift toward warmer summers, increased vegetation cover, and landscape stability in the Tetons. We discuss the Teton lake sediment records within the context of other regional studies in an effort to construct a comprehensive overview of deglaciation and postglacial environmental conditions at Grand Teton National Park.

  13. Lithostratigraphy, microlithofacies, and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), eastern Sadlerochit Mountains, Northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhardt, A.P.; Harris, A.G.; Watts, K.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Lisburne Group (chiefly Carboniferous) is a wide-spread succession of platform carbonate rocks that apparently developed along a south-facing passive continental margin in northern Alaska. Marine transgressions onlapped northward across northeast Alaska allowing the Lisburne platform to extend over terrigenous deposits of the Endicott Group and local pre-Mississippian paleotopographic highs. The Wahoo Limestone is the youngest formation of the Lisburne Group in northeasternmost Alaska, ranging from latest Mississippian (latest Chesterian) to Middle Pennsylvanian (at least early Atokan) in age. The Wahoo Limestone was systematically sampled for lithostratigraphy and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies at a relatively continuous section (about 262 m in thickness) in the eastern Sadlerochit Mountains. Existing Carboniferous conodont zonations could not be readily applied to the study section because most zonal indicators are absent. Species diversity is low for a section that spans at least 10 million years. Twenty-four species, distributed among 14 genera, were identified in 72 productive samples; no new species were distinguished. The following biostratigraphic zones and faunal intervals were recognized: Upper muricatus Subzone (latest Chesterian); noduliferus-primus Zone (earliest Morrowan); minutus Fauna (Morrowan) containing a lower subdivision (lower minutus Fauna of early to middle? Morrowan age); and an Idiognathodus Fauna (Morrowan? to early Atokan). The presence of Idiognathodus incurvus? and Rhachistognathus minutus subspp. above the first occurrence of the foraminifer Pseudostaffella sp. in the uppermost part of the Wahoo Limestone indicates that the youngest beds are early Atokan in age. The Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary is placed at 56 m above the base of the lower member of the Wahoo Limestone on the basis of the lowest occurrence of Declinognathodus noduliferus japonicus above forms transitional from Gnathodus girtyl simplex.

  14. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrill, D.A.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Stamatakos, J.; Morris, A.P.; Spivey, K.H.; Wernicke, B.P.

    1996-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections 3.2.1.5 through 3.2.1.9 and 3.2.2.8). These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses` ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

  15. Analysis of the genetic diversity of the nematode parasite Baylisascaris schroederi from wild giant pandas in different mountain ranges in China

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Baylisascaris schroederi is one of the most common nematodes of the giant panda, and can cause severe baylisascarosis in both wild and captive giant pandas. Previous studies of the giant pandas indicated that this population is genetically distinct, implying the presence of a new subspecies. Based on the co-evolution between the parasite and the host, the aim of this study was to investigate the genetic differentiation in the B. schroederi population collected from giant pandas inhabiting different mountain ranges, and further to identify whether the evolution of this parasite correlates with the evolution of giant pandas. Methods In this study, 48 B. schroederi were collected from 28 wild giant pandas inhabiting the Qinling, Minshan and Qionglai mountain ranges in China. The complete sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (mtCytb) gene was amplified by PCR, and the corresponding population genetic diversity of the three mountain populations was determined. In addition, we discussed the evolutionary relationship between B. schroederi and its host giant panda. Results For the DNA dataset, insignificant Fst values and a significant, high level of gene flow were detected among the three mountain populations of B. schroederi, and high genetic variation within populations and a low genetic distance were observed. Both phylogenetic analyses and network mapping of the 16 haplotypes revealed a dispersed pattern and an absence of branches strictly corresponding to the three mountain range sampling sites. Neutrality tests and mismatch analysis indicated that B. schroederi experienced a population expansion in the past. Conclusions Taken together, the dispersed haplotype map, extremely high gene flow among the three populations of B. schroederi, low genetic structure and rapid evolutionary rate suggest that the B. schroederi populations did not follow a pattern of isolation by distance, indicating the existence of physical connections before these populations

  16. Chronology of rock falls and slides in a desert mountain range: Case study from the Sonoran Desert in south-central Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Ronald I.

    2014-10-01

    In order to respond to the general paucity of information on the chronology of ubiquitous small rock falls and slides that litter the slopes of desert mountain ranges, a case study in the Sonoran Desert reveals new insight into the desert geomorphology of mountain slopes. Rock falls and rock slides in the McDowell Mountains that abut metropolitan Phoenix, USA, fall in three chronometric groupings dated by conventional radiocarbon and rock varnish microlamination methods. First, the oldest events are > 74 ka and take the form of stable colluvial boulder fields - positive relief features that are tens of meters long and a few meters wide. Second, randomly sampled slides and falls of various sizes and positions wasted during wetter periods of the terminal Pleistocene and Holocene. Third, an anomalous clustering of slides and falls occurred during the late Medieval Warm Period (Medieval Climatic Anomaly) when an extreme storm was a possible but unlikely trigger. One speculative hypothesis for the cluster of Medieval Warm Period events is that a small to moderate sized earthquake shook heavily shattered bedrock - close to failure - just enough to cause a spate of rock falls and slides. A second speculative hypothesis is that this dry period enhanced physical weathering processes such as dirt cracking. However, the reasons for the recent clustering of rock falls remain enigmatic. While the temporal distribution of slides and falls suggests a minimal hazard potential for homes and roads on the margins of the McDowell Mountains, this finding may not necessary match other desert ranges in metropolitan Phoenix or mountains with different rock types and structures that abut other arid urban centers.

  17. Diurnal activity of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) grazing a northeastern Oregon summer range

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus) and beef cattle (Bos taurus) exist in a complex social environment that is marked by diurnal activities such as periods of foraging, ruminating, resting, and sheltering. Elk unlike cattle, must be continually alert to potential predators. We hypothesize that elk...

  18. Multi-scale responses of vegetation to removal of horse grazing from Great Basin (USA) mountain ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beever, E.A.; Tausch, R.J.; Thogmartin, W.E.

    2008-01-01

    Although free-roaming equids occur on all of the world's continents except Antarctica, very few studies (and none in the Great Basin, USA) have either investigated their grazing effects on vegetation at more than one spatial scale or compared characteristics of areas from which grazing has been removed to those of currently grazed areas. We compared characteristics of vegetation at 19 sites in nine mountain ranges of the western Great Basin; sites were either grazed by feral horses (Equus caballus) or had had horses removed for the last 10-14 years. We selected horse-occupied and horse-removed sites with similar aspect, slope, fire history, grazing pressure by cattle (minimal to none), and dominant vegetation (Artemisia tridentata). During 1997 and 1998, line-intercept transects randomly located within sites revealed that horse-removed sites exhibited 1.1-1.9 times greater shrub cover, 1.2-1.5 times greater total plant cover, 2-12 species greater plant species richness, and 1.9-2.9 times greater cover and 1.1-2.4 times greater frequency of native grasses than did horse-occupied sites. In contrast, sites with horses tended to have more grazing-resistant forbs and exotic plants. Direction and magnitude of landscape-scale results were corroborated by smaller-scale comparisons within horse-occupied sites of horse-trail transects and (randomly located) transects that characterized overall site conditions. Information-theoretic analyses that incorporated various subsets of abiotic variables suggested that presence of horses was generally a strong determinant of those vegetation-related variables that differed significantly between treatments, especially frequency and cover of grasses, but also species richness and shrub cover and frequency. In contrast, abiotic variables such as precipitation, site elevation, and soil erodibility best predicted characteristics such as forb cover, shrub frequency, and continuity of the shrub canopy. We found species richness of plants

  19. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final report, August 1, 1978-February 28, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Marlin, J.M.; Cunniff, R.; McDevitt, P.; Nowotny, K.; O'Dea, P.

    1981-01-01

    The work accomplished from August 1978 to February 1980 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program are described. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams and special analyses in support of several federal agencies.

  20. Regional operations research program for commercialization of geothermal energy in the Rocky Mountain basin and range. Final technical report, January 1980-March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  1. Depositional framework and regional correlation of pre-Carboniferous metacarbonate rocks of the Snowden Mountain area, central Brooks Range, Northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dumoulin, J.A.; Harris, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes lithofacies, conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies, and depositional environments of Proterozoic(?) through Devonian metacarbonate rocks in the Snowden Mountain area. These rocks are correlated with successions on the Seward Peninsula and across the Brooks Range. Lithologic and paleobiogeographic data suggest that these successions formed along a single continental margin which had faunal exchange with both North America and Siberia, rather than on a series of discrete platforms juxtaposed by later tectonic events.

  2. Comparison of lodgepole and jack pine resin chemistry: implications for range expansion by the mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pitt, Caitlin; Carroll, Allan L.; Lindgren, B. Staffan; Huber, Dezene P.W.

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle, Dendroctonus ponderosae, is a significant pest of lodgepole pine in British Columbia (BC), where it has recently reached an unprecedented outbreak level. Although it is native to western North America, the beetle can now be viewed as a native invasive because for the first time in recorded history it has begun to reproduce in native jack pine stands within the North American boreal forest. The ability of jack pine trees to defend themselves against mass attack and their suitability for brood success will play a major role in the success of this insect in a putatively new geographic range and host. Lodgepole and jack pine were sampled along a transect extending from the beetle’s historic range (central BC) to the newly invaded area east of the Rocky Mountains in north-central Alberta (AB) in Canada for constitutive phloem resin terpene levels. In addition, two populations of lodgepole pine (BC) and one population of jack pine (AB) were sampled for levels of induced phloem terpenes. Phloem resin terpenes were identified and quantified using gas chromatography. Significant differences were found in constitutive levels of terpenes between the two species of pine. Constitutive α-pinene levels – a precursor in the biosynthesis of components of the aggregation and antiaggregation pheromones of mountain pine beetle – were significantly higher in jack pine. However, lower constitutive levels of compounds known to be toxic to bark beetles, e.g., 3-carene, in jack pine suggests that this species could be poorly defended. Differences in wounding-induced responses for phloem accumulation of five major terpenes were found between the two populations of lodgepole pine and between lodgepole and jack pine. The mountain pine beetle will face a different constitutive and induced phloem resin terpene environment when locating and colonizing jack pine in its new geographic range, and this may play a significant role in the ability of the insect to

  3. Land use pattern at Alacam mountainous range land (submediterranean-Turkey) due to edaphic and physiographical factors.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Osman Yalcin; Sevgi, Orhan; Tecimen, Huseyin Baris; Carus, Serdar; Kavgaci, Ali

    2012-04-01

    Soil degradation is perceived as a major threat in the Mediterranean region due to land use pattern and projected climate change. As the high altitudinal mountainous lands are sensitive lands, the land use patterns atAlaçam mountains were investigated in this study. The assessment of land use distribution is arranged with the altitude, exposure, slope and bedrock parameters. The spatial database of project was created using GRASS GIS open source software (GRASS Development Team, 2008). The scanned land use and main rock map of the project area rectified, digitized, and attributes of land use and bedrocks were entered into the database tables. Also raster SRTM3 data were imported into these databases for making physiographical factor (elevation, slope, aspect) maps. Our findings illustrated thatthe whole area of Alaçam mountains is 282 480 ha where most of the area of the mass is located between 700-1300 m asl with 200 585 ha corresponding to 71% of the whole area. We detected two kinds of mis-land use; (1) agricultural activities applied at the slopes above 17% (representing 35 220 ha) and agricultural activities applied on metamorphic rocks (representing 872 ha). Total misuse of lands reached 36 092 ha comprised 12.77% of the whole area. PMID:23424838

  4. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Wallace M; Eble, Jeffrey A; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B; Brantley, Sandra L; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E; Hall, W Eugene; Olson, Carl A; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M; Brusca, Richard C; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11-25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  5. Ground-Dwelling Arthropod Communities of a Sky Island Mountain Range in Southeastern Arizona, USA: Obtaining a Baseline for Assessing the Effects of Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Wallace M.; Eble, Jeffrey A.; Franklin, Kimberly; McManus, Reilly B.; Brantley, Sandra L.; Henkel, Jeff; Marek, Paul E.; Hall, W. Eugene; Olson, Carl A.; McInroy, Ryan; Bernal Loaiza, Emmanuel M.; Brusca, Richard C.; Moore, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    The few studies that have addressed past effects of climate change on species distributions have mostly focused on plants due to the rarity of historical faunal baselines. However, hyperdiverse groups like Arthropoda are vital to monitor in order to understand climate change impacts on biodiversity. This is the first investigation of ground-dwelling arthropod (GDA) assemblages along the full elevation gradient of a mountain range in the Madrean Sky Island Region, establishing a baseline for monitoring future changes in GDA biodiversity. To determine how GDA assemblages relate to elevation, season, abiotic variables, and corresponding biomes, GDA were collected for two weeks in both spring (May) and summer (September) 2011 in the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, using pitfall traps at 66 sites in six distinct upland (non-riparian/non-wet canyon) biomes. Four arthropod taxa: (1) beetles (Coleoptera), (2) spiders (Araneae), (3) grasshoppers and crickets (Orthoptera), and (4) millipedes and centipedes (Myriapoda) were assessed together and separately to determine if there are similar patterns across taxonomic groups. We collected 335 species of GDA: 192/3793 (species/specimens) Coleoptera, 102/1329 Araneae, 25/523 Orthoptera, and 16/697 Myriapoda. GDA assemblages differed among all biomes and between seasons. Fifty-three percent (178 species) and 76% (254 species) of all GDA species were found in only one biome and during only one season, respectively. While composition of arthropod assemblages is tied to biome and season, individual groups do not show fully concordant patterns. Seventeen percent of the GDA species occurred only in the two highest-elevation biomes (Pine and Mixed Conifer Forests). Because these high elevation biomes are most threatened by climate change and they harbor a large percentage of unique arthropod species (11–25% depending on taxon), significant loss in arthropod diversity is likely in the Santa Catalina Mountains and other isolated

  6. Simulation and design of pre-ionization systems for Alborz tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahshenas, Shiva; Amrollahi, Reza

    2015-04-01

    Alborz tokamak is an educational system for studying plasma phenomena in many physics and engineering experiments. A hot filament and a reverse discharge loop are used in the tokamak as the pre-ionization system. The hot cathode prepares a local initial electron density, then the reverse discharge loop trigger the ionization avalanche by means of inducing a toroidal electric field. The parameters of the hot filament are determined in order to produce the desired electron source. Filament temperature is simulated by using three-dimensional finite element method. The average values of filament temperature and electron density at the plasma core (at the end of pre-ionization process) were calculated and are about 2750 K and 1019 m-3, respectively. The resultant electron density and equivalent plasma resistivity due to reverse discharge loop are also calculated. In this paper, the simulation results, optimum structural style, the obtained parameters, the temperature of different parts of the filament and produced electron density are presented and discussed.

  7. Separation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation in the crust of central and eastern Alborz region, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhi, M.; Hamzehloo, H.; Rahimi, H.; Allameh Zadeh, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, more than 380 local earthquakes (2 < ML < 4.5) have been used to estimate the direct-shear waves (Qd), coda (Qc), intrinsic (Qi) and scattering quality factor (QSc) in the crust of central and eastern Alborz region. The events were recorded by one temporary and two permanent networks. The quality factors of shear and coda waves have been individually estimated at different frequency bands by using coda normalization (CNM) method and single backscattering (SBS) method, respectively. Average frequency-dependent relationships have been estimated for Qd and Qc as 111 ± 4f0.85±0.04 and 112 ± 8f1.02±0.06, respectively. The intrinsic quality factor, Qi, has been separated from the scattering quality factor QSc by using individually estimated Qc and Qd values. The average frequency-dependent relationships of Qi and QSc have been calculated in the form of 108f1.00 and 784f0.56, respectively. The results of this study suggest that S-wave's attenuation (Qd-1) is dominated by the intrinsic attenuation. The attenuation of coda waves has been observed similar to the intrinsic attenuation, which indicates, the coda decay is mostly caused by the intrinsic attenuation. It has been observed that the scattering mean free path is frequency independent at frequencies greater than 6 Hz. The results of this study are similar to the tectonically active regions.

  8. A Comparison of Aerosol-Layer and Convective Boundary-Layer Structure over a Mountain Range during STAAARTE '97

    SciTech Connect

    De Wekker, Stephan; Steyn, D. G.; Nyeki, Stephan

    2004-11-01

    The temporal evolution and spatial structure of the aerosol layer (AL) height as observed with an airborne downlooking lidar over the Swiss Alps was investigated with a three dimensional mesoscale numerical model and a particle dispersion model. Convective boundary layer (CBL) heights were derived from the mesoscale model output, and the behavior of surface-released particles was investigated with the particle dispersion model. While a previous investigation, using data from the same field study, equated the observed AL height with the CBL height, the results of the current investigation indicate that there is a considerable difference between AL and CBL heights caused by mixing and transport processes between the CBL and the free atmosphere. CBL heights show a more terrain-following behavior and are lower than AL heights. We argue that processes causing the difference between AL and CBL heights are common over mountainous terrain and that the AL height is a length scale that needs t o be considered in air pollution studies in mountainous terrain.

  9. Mountain research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The newly incorporated International Mountain Society (IMS) will in May begin publication of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, Mountain Research and Development. The quarterly will be copublished with the United National University; additional support will come from UNESCO.A primary objective of IMS is to ‘help solve mountain land-use problems by developing a foundation of scientific and technical knowledge on which to base management decisions,’ according to Jack D. Ives, president of the Boulder-based organization. ‘The Society is strongly committed to the belief that a rational worldwide approach to mountain problems must involve a wide range of disciplines in the natural and human sciences, medicine, architecture, engineering, and technology.’

  10. Regional Operations Research Program for Commercialization of Geothermal Energy in the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range. Final Technical Report, January 1980--March 1981

    SciTech Connect

    1981-07-01

    This report describes the work accomplished from January 1980 to March 1981 in the Regional Operations Research efforts for the Rocky Mountain Basin and Range Geothermal Commercialization Program. The scope of work is as described in New Mexico State University Proposal 80-20-207. The work included continued data acquisition and extension of the data base, enhancement and refinement of the economic models for electric and direct use applications, site-specific and aggregated analyses in support of the state teams, special analyses in support of several federal agencies, and marketing assistance to the state commercialization teams.

  11. Installation restoration program, construction report for interim remedial action and treatability study for Indian Mountain Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Final report, 1 August-8 December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-13

    During the summer of 1995, two construction tasks were conducted at Indian Mountain Long Range Radar Station (LRRS). This work was completed under the U.S. Air Force (Air Force) Installation Restoration Program (IRP). The construction tasks included excavation of a water diversion ditch as an interim remedial action (IRA). Also, a biotreatment cell was constructed to conduct a treatability study of contaminated soils excavated during 1994 sampling activities. This report describes the completion of these two construction tasks, analytical results from associate soil and water sampling, and conclusions based on observations and sampling results.

  12. Statistical tables and charts showing geochemical variation in the Mesoproterozoic Big Creek, Apple Creek, and Gunsight formations, Lemhi group, Salmon River Mountains and Lemhi Range, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.; Tysdal, Russell G.; Taggart, Joseph E., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    The principal purpose of this report is to provide a reference archive for results of a statistical analysis of geochemical data for metasedimentary rocks of Mesoproterozoic age of the Salmon River Mountains and Lemhi Range, central Idaho. Descriptions of geochemical data sets, statistical methods, rationale for interpretations, and references to the literature are provided. Three methods of analysis are used: R-mode factor analysis of major oxide and trace element data for identifying petrochemical processes, analysis of variance for effects of rock type and stratigraphic position on chemical composition, and major-oxide ratio plots for comparison with the chemical composition of common clastic sedimentary rocks.

  13. Nutrient addition does not enhance leaf decomposition in a Southeastern Brazilian stream (Espinhaço mountain range).

    PubMed

    Abelho, M; Moretti, M; França, J; Callisto, M

    2010-10-01

    A decomposition experiment using eucalyptus leaves was carried out in a Southeastern Brazilian mountain stream located at the transition between the Cerrado and the Atlantic Forest to test whether nutrient addition increases microbial and invertebrate colonisation and accelerates breakdown rates. The results show that none of the tested variables was significantly affected by nutrient addition, despite the average increase in ATP concentrations and invertebrate colonisation observed in the fertilised leaf bags. This could mean that breakdown in the stream was already at its maximum due to the relatively high water temperature and nutrient content, or that the breakdown rate of eucalyptus leaves was too fast to allow the detection of any effects of nutrient addition. Breakdown rates of eucalyptus leaves were much faster than the values reported in literature for most species in Brazilian Cerrado streams, suggesting that the replacement of the natural vegetation by eucalyptus may affect nutrient dynamics in the region. PMID:21085781

  14. Map showing mineral-resource potential of the King Range and Chemise Mountain Instant Study Areas, Humboldt and Mendocino counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McLaughlin, R.J.; Sorg, D.H.; Ohlin, H.N.; Beutner, E.C.

    1981-01-01

    Minor manganese resources occur adjacent to the southeast corner of the King Range Instant Study Area near Queen Peak. The manganese forms small stratabound deposits associated with radiolarian chert and pillow basalt. The known deposits are too small and the manganese too low in concentration for further economic exploitation. Similar manganese mineralization may be within the belt of melange in the southeast corner of the King Range area and within the Chemise Mountain Instant Study Area, but economic deposits are unlikely. Although there has been historical base- and precious-metal exploration activity north of the King Range in the Mattole River drainage, our geologic and geochemical field data indicate almost no gold potential and low potentials for lead, zinc, copper, and silver. During this investigation, one high-grade vein and several minor veins containing lead, zinc, copper, and silver were discovered at Point Delgada immediately south of the King Range Instant Study Area. The vein mineralization is Miocene and cuts Cretaceous basalt flows, dikes, flow breccia, and younger overlying sedimentary rocks of the King Range. The vein mineralization at Point Delgada could be remobilized from more extensive unexposed stratabound base-metal mineralization at depth. Traces of lead and zinc detected within the King Range Instant Study Area may have similar stratabound or vein origins, but no resource potential is indicated. Minor copper mineralization with associated lead, zinc, and manganese anomalies within the Chemise Mountain Instant Study Area is of low economic potential because of the shearing, isolation, and lenticularity of the basaltic and cherty rocks within the melange mineralization.

  15. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. METHODS: An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method. RESULTS: In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks. PMID:27188308

  16. Structure, production and resource use in some old-growth spruce/fir forests in the front range of the Rocky Mountains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Binkley, D.; Olsson, U.; Rochelle, R.; Stohlgren, T.; Nikolov, N.

    2003-01-01

    Old-growth forests of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii Parry ex. Engelm.) and subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt.) dominate much of the landscape of the Rocky Mountains. We characterized the structure, biomass and production of 18 old-growth (200-450-year-old) spruce/fir forests in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, as well as the stand-level supply and use of light and nitrogen. Stands were chosen to span a broad range of elevation, aspect, and topography. Aboveground tree biomass in these old-growth forests averaged 253 Mg/ha (range 130-488 Mg/ha), with aboveground net primary production of 3700 kg ha-1 yr-1 (range from 2700 to 5200 kg ha-1 yr-1). Within stands, trees >35 cm in diameter accounted for 70% of aboveground biomass, but trees <35 cm contributed 70% of the production of woody biomass. Differences in slope and aspect among sites resulted in a range of incoming light from 58 to 74 TJ ha-1 yr-1, and tree canopies intercepted an average of 71% of incoming light (range 50-90%). Aboveground net primary production (ANPP) of trees did not relate to the supply of light or N, but ANPP correlated strongly with the amount of light and N used (r2 = 0.45-0.54, P < 0.01). Uptake of 1 kg of N was associated with about 260 kg of ANPP, and one TJ of intercepted shortwave radiation produced about 78 kg of ANPP. Across these old-growth stands, stands with greater biomass showed higher rates of both ANPP and resource use; variation in aboveground biomass was associated with 24% of the variation in N use (P = 0.04), 44% of the light use (P = 0.003), and 45% of the ANPP (P = 0.002). ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Contributions of local sources, long-range and mountain wind transport for aerosols over an eastern Himalayan high-altitude station in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Abhijit; Sarkar, Chirantan; Singh, Ajay; Ghosh, Sanjay; Raha, Sibaji; Das, Sanat

    A long-term study (2010-2013) on aerosols mass concentrations (PM2.5), number concentrations of size segregated aerosols and mass concentration of total suspended black carbon aerosols has been made over Darjeeling (27.01 N, 88.15 E), a high altitude (2200 m asl) station at eastern Himalaya in India. Seasonal and diurnal variation of all types of aerosols, their chemical composition and source apportionment revealed that aerosols over this part of Himalaya are mainly of two types; locally generated and long-range transported aerosols. The diurnal variation of aerosols including black carbon showed distinct feature of up-slope mountain wind transport mainly during premonsoon (Mar-May) which brings aerosol particles from low land regions. This present study focuses on the estimation of the individual contributions from local emissions (LE), long-range transport (LRT) and mountain wind transport (MWT) towards the total aerosol loading over Darjeeling. Several strike events (called by local political party) were observed at Darjeeling over the entire period of study (2008-2013) when all the local activities (schools, colleges, offices, vehicular, industrial etc) were stopped fully. Most of the strike events occurred during premonsoon. We have observed three types of events during premonsoon over the entire study period; 1) strike events with the contribution of LRT+MWT with zero local emissions (LE=0), 2) normal days with the contribution of LE+LRT+MWT, 3) normal days with the contribution of LE+MWT with zero long-range contribution (LRT=0). On normal days, the diurnal variation of aerosols during premonsoon showed sharp morning and evening peaks associated to local anthropogenic activities with the effect of up-slope mountain wind during afternoon. During strike events, the morning and evening peaks were absent but a broad peak was observed during afternoon associated to up-slope mountain wind. The increase in aerosol concentrations during afternoon on strike days

  18. Magnificent Mountains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    One way to increase awareness of endangered national heritage is to teach youth the importance of the land through the study of selected works of art. This article describes a lesson, in which students will study the work of Thomas Moran and create a mountain range collage. A short biography of Thomas Moran is included.

  19. Uplift and denudation rates of an actively growing mountain range inferred from in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be: the Yumu Shan (NE Tibetan Plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, L.; Hetzel, R.; Minxing, T.; Li, X.; Guo, J.

    2009-04-01

    Located in the foreland of the Quilian Shan (NE Tibet), the Yumu Shan is an isolated mountain range bounded by an active NW-SE striking thrust fault. Geomorphic and structural features such as fault scarps and wind gaps suggest that the ~70 km long range is actively growing (Hetzel et al., 2004; Tapponnier et al., 1990), hence the tectonic uplift should exceed the rate of denudation. Here we quantify the rate of these two competing processes using in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be. Catchment-wide denudation rates are derived from 10Be concentrations in stream sediments, whereas rock uplift rates are obtained by combining scarp topographic profiles with dating of geomorphic surfaces deformed by active thrust faults at the Yumu Shan mountain front. Both denudation and rock uplift rates integrate over a similar temporal scale (~10-100 ka) and thus over many earthquake cycles. Our data document that catchment wide-denudation rates vary from ~100 to ~400 mm ka-1 as a function of morphology and lithology, while rock uplift takes place at the rate of ~0.7 mm ka-1. The difference between these values confirms that the Yumu Shan is in a topographic pre-steady state and in accordance with geomorphic and structural features. Tectonic features indicate that over few millions of years the Yumu Shan may rise to a similar height as the main ranges of the Qilian Shan farther south, which have peaks with elevations between ~5 and ~5.5 km. References: Hetzel R., Tao M., Niedermann S., Strecker M.R., Ivy-Ochs S., Kubik P.W., Gao B. (2004). Implications of the fault scaling law for the growth of topography: Mountain ranges in the broken foreland of NE Tibet, Terra Nova, 16, 157-162. Tapponnier P., Meyer B., Avouac J.P., Peltzer G., Gaudemer Y., Guo S., Xiang H., Yin K., Chen Z., Cai S., Dai H. (1990). Active thrusting and folding in the Quilian Shan, and decoupling between upper crust and mantle in northeastern Tibet, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 97, 382-403.

  20. Gravitational slope deformation in the western Swiss Alps: characterization, spatial distribution and implication for recent mountain range evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedrazzini, A.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Humair, F.

    2014-12-01

    The influence of Gravitational Slope Deformations (GSD) on mountain belts' erosion rate has been identified worldwide and more particularly in valleys that were affected by quaternary glacial retreat. However, owing to the lack of comprehensive identification of the predisposing factor influencing their spatial distribution, size and failure mechanisms, their effective impact on the landscape evolution remain difficult to quantify. In this contribution, we present the first regional-scale detailed GSD inventory of the entire upper Rhone catchment (Western Switzerland). The detection and mapping of GSD are performed by combining different remote sensing approaches. Moreover, a detailed characterization of the different inventoried events is proposed, taking into account their geometry, morphology and failure mechanism. Based on these analyses, more than 300 GSDs, corresponding to 11% of the entire study area, are identified. Spatial and statistical analyses highlight that GSDs are not uniformly distributed within the study area but that six clusters, encompassing more than 80% of the detected instabilities, can be highlighted. Our investigations demonstrate that the GSD clusters are mainly related to the coexistence of active tectonic processes (including high uplift gradients and seismic activity), large scale brittle tectonic weakness zones and high local relief. In addition, climate forcing is also identified to influence the distribution of GSD, via relief creation and in particular by the formation of overdeepened areas operated by glaciers during LGM. Conversely, lithological and structural conditions appear to primarily control the failure mechanism and the size of the detected GSDs but do not influence their spatial distribution. The strong impact of active tectonic processes on GSD distribution suggests that its effective role needs to be revaluated in order to better understand and quantify post-glacial erosion rate.

  1. Alpine plant community trends on the elk summer range of Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado: An analysis of existing data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the elk (Cervus elaphus) population of Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado summer in the park’s high-elevation alpine and subalpine meadows and willow krummholz. The park’s population of white-tailed ptarmigan (Lagopus leucurus altipetens) depends on both dwarf and krummholz willows for food and cover. Concern about the effects of elk herbivory on these communities prompted the monitoring of 12 vegetation transects in these regions from 1971 to 1996. Over this 25-year period, data were collected on plant species cover and frequency and shrub heights. These data have not been statistically analyzed for trends in the measured variables over time to determine changes in species abundance. Krummholz willow species (Salix planifolia, S. brachycarpa) declined 17–20 percent in cover and about 25 centimeters in height over the study period. Graminoids (particularly Deschampsia caespitosa, Carex, and Poa) increased slightly from 1971 to 1996. No significant increases of nonnative plant species were observed. An increase in presence of bare ground over the 25-year period warrants continued measurement of these transects. Lack of good data on elk density, distribution, or use levels precludes correlating changes in plant species cover, frequency, or heights with elk population trends. I recommend development of a more rigorously designed monitoring program that includes these transects as well as others chosen on a random or stratified design and consistent measurement protocol and sampling intervals. Some method of quantifying elk use, either through measurement of plant utilization, pellet counts, or census-type surveys, would allow correlation of changes in plant species over time with changes in elk distribution and density on the park’s alpine and subalpine regions.

  2. Caucasus Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Often regarded as the southeastern border of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains can be seen here stretching from the Black Sea (left) to the Caspian Sea (right). The mountain range spans 700 miles (1125 km), crossing the countries of Russian Federation, Georgia, and Azerbaijan from left to right respectively. With a snowline of approximately 11,000 feet and peaks such as Mt. Elbrus, that reach 15,000 feet, much of the snow visible in this image is present year round. Also visible in this image are apparent phytoplankton blooms in the Caspian Sea, marked by blue-green swirls.

  3. Hungry Horse Dam Wildlife Habitat Enhancement Project: Long-Term Habitat Management Plan, Elk and Mule Deer Winter Range Enhancement, Firefighter Mountain and Spotted Bear Winter Ranges.

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Daniel; Malta, Patrick

    1990-06-01

    Project goals are to rehabilitate 1120 acres of big game (elk and mule deer, Odocoileus hemionus) winter range on the Hungry Horse and Spotted Bear Districts of Flathead National Forest lands adjacent to Hungry Horse Reservoir. This project represents the initial phase of implementation toward the mitigation goal. A minimum of 547 acres Trust-funded enhancements are called for in this plan. The remainder are part of the typical Forest Service management activities for the project area. Monitor and evaluate the effects of project implementation on the big game forage base and elk and mule deer populations in the project area. Monitor enhancement success to determine effective acreage to be credited against mitigation goal. Additional enhancement acreage will be selected elsewhere in the Flathead Forest or other lands adjacent'' to the reservoir based on progress toward the mitigation goal as determined through monitoring. The Wildlife Mitigation Trust Fund Advisory Committee will serve to guide decisions regarding future enhancement efforts. 7 refs.

  4. Late glacial 10Be ages for glacial landforms in the upper region of the Taibai glaciation in the Qinling Mountain range, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Liang; Chen, Yixin; Liu, Beibei; Harbor, Jonathan M.; Cui, Zhijiu; Liu, Rui; Liu, Xiao; Zhao, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Glacial landforms are well preserved on Taibai Mountain (3767 m), the main peak of the Qinling mountain range located south of the Loess Plateau and east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The timing and extent of Quaternary glaciation in the study area is important for reconstructing Quaternary environmental change however numerical ages for glaciation in this study area have not previously been well resolved. Using terrestrial in situ cosmogenic nuclides we dated four samples collected from two glacially eroded rock steps in the upper part of a valley near the main peak, in an area previously identified as having been occupied by ice during the Taibai glaciation. The 10Be results are all late glacial in age: 18.6 ± 1.1 ka, 16.9 ± 1.0 ka, 16.9 ± 1.1 ka and 15.1 ± 1.0 ka. The spatial pattern of ages in the valley suggests fast retreat, with horizontal and vertical retreat rates estimated to be on the order of 0.4 and 0.09 m a-1, respectively. A simple extrapolation of these retreat rates from the ages at the two sample sites suggests that the glacier retreat began during Last Glacial Maximum and that glaciers disappeared from the main peak by about 15 ka.

  5. Flexural rigidity of the Basin and Range-Colorado Plateau-Rocky Mountain transition from coherence analysis of gravity and topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, Anthony R.; Smith, Robert B.

    1994-01-01

    Stochastic inversion for flexural loads and flexural rigidity of the continental elastic layer can be accomplished most effectively by using the coherence of gravity and topography. However, the spatial resolution of coherence analysis has been limited by use of two-dimensional periodogram spectra from very large (greater than 10(exp 5)sq km) windows that generally include multiple tectonic features. Using a two-dimensional spectral estimator based on the maximum entropy method, the spatial resolution of flexural proerties can be enhanced by a factor of 4 or more, enabling more detailed analysis at the scale of individual tectonic features. This new approach is used to map the spatial variation of flexural rigidity along the Basin and Range transition to the Colorado Plateau and Middle Rocky Mountains physiographic provinces. Large variations in flexural isostatic responses are found, with rigidities ranging from as low as 8.7 x 10(exp 20) N m (elastic thickness (T(sub e) = 4.6 km) in the Basin and Range to as high as 4.1 x 10(exp 24) N m T(sub e) = 77 km) in the Middle Rocky Mountains. These results compare favorably woith independent determinations of flexural rigidity in the region. Areas of low flexural rigidity correlate strongly with areas of high surface heat flow, as is expected from the contingence of flexural rigidity on a temperature-dependent flow law. Also, late Cenozoic normal faults with large displacements are found primarily in area of low flexural rigidity region. The highest flexural rigidity is found within the Archean Wyoming craton, where evidence suggests that deeply rooted cratonic lithosphere may play a role in determining the distribution of tectonism at the surface.

  6. Thermal evolution of a portion of the Sevier hinterland: The northern Ruby Mountains - east Humboldt Range and Wood Hills, northwestern Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, K. V.; Snoke, A. W.; Hurlow, H. A.

    1992-02-01

    Conventional thermobarometry and Gibbs' Method modeling have been used to obtain new information pertaining to the Mesozoic-Tertiary thermal evolution of the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range and Wood Hills metamorphic complexes, northeastern Nevada. Kyanite-grade assemblages from Clover Hill, in the extreme northeastern part of the East Humboldt Range, were produced at temperatures of 780-810 K and depths in excess of 35 km; previously published geochronologic data suggest an Early Cretaceous or Late Jurassic age for this event. The Clover Hill area subsequently experienced a major unroofing interval prior to Late Cretaceous time, during which it was brought roughly 20 km closer to the surface. The lack of stratigraphic evidence for substantial Cretaceous erosion in the region and the topology of the pressure-temperature paths for the Clover Hill samples suggest that the unroofing mechanism may have been tectonic denudation related to the relaxation of large topographic gradients produced by crustal thickening in the hinterland of the Sevier orogen. Metamorphic rocks at Clover Hill and within the Wood Hills core complex equilibrated at 820-900 K and 500-640 MPa (18-24 km) in Cretaceous time, prior to 115 Ma. Other parts of the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range metamorphic complex, presently structurally separated from the Clover Hill sequence, were intruded extensively by Late Cretaceous granitic magmas and attained substantially higher temperatures than the Clover Hill-Wood Hills block. Sillimanite-grade assemblages from these areas apparently underwent roughly 10 km of unroofing and 130 K of cooling prior to final equilibration at 820-920 K and 360-430 MPa (13-16 km) during Oligocene extension.

  7. Lithostratigraphy, microlithofacies, and conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone (Carboniferous), eastern Sadlerochit Mountains, Northeast Brooks Range, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krumhardt, A.P.; Harris, A.G.; Watts, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    The lithostratigraphy, microlithofacies, and conodonts are described in a key section of the Wahoo Limestone (Middle Carboniferous); this unit forms a hydrocarbon reservoir at Prudhoe Bay. The Wahoo was deposited in a range of environments on the inner part of a high-energy carbonate ramp. Microfacies and conodont biofacies used together refine paleoenvironmental interpretations. Only 24 conodont species distributed among 14 genera were recognized in a section that spans about 10 million years. Significant conodont collections from the Wahoo across the Northeast Brooks Range are described in an appendix.

  8. Ellesmerian (. ) and Brookian deformation in the Franklin Mountains, northeastern Brooks Range, Alaska, and its bearing on the origin of the Canada Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Oldow, J.S.; Ave Lallemant, H.G.; Julian, F.E.; Seidensticker, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    Structural analysis of deformed rocks in the Franklin Mountains, northeastern Alaska, indicates that (1) pre-Carboniferous rocks were transported southeastward during mid-Devonian (Ellesmerian.) thrusting, (2) Cretaceous and older rocks were transported northward during Mesozoic-Cenozoic Brookian thrusting, and (3) the pre-Carboniferous rocks were strongly involved in the Brookian deformation. The strong involvement of these rocks in Brookian structures suggests that the magnitude of northward thrusting during Brookian tectonism is virtually uniform from west to east along the axis of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt. In addition, the newly recognized southern vergence of pre-Carboniferous structures is comparable with that of coeval structures exposed in Arctic Canada to the east. These data are not easily reconciled with the orocline model for the origin of the Canada Basin but are consistent with left-lateral transport on a north-south-striking transform fault along the Canadian Arctic islands. 19 references.

  9. Tertiary tectonics of the Border Ranges Fault system, north-central Chugach Mountains, Alaska: Sedimentation, deformation and uplift along the inboard edge of a subduction complex

    SciTech Connect

    Little, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    In south-central Alaska the Border Ranges Fault system (BRFS) separates lower Paleogene rocks of a forearc basin sequence from a Cretaceous subduction complex. In a north-central part of the Chugach Mountains the upper Paleocene-lower Eocene Chickaloon Formation was deposited along the seaward margin of the forearc basin as an alluvial fan complex. A field study combining geologic mapping of a {approximately}200 km{sup 2} region, stratigraphic studies, K-Ar and fission-track geochronology, metamorphic petrology, and detailed structural analysis of deformed rocks on both sides of the BRFS has been used to reconstruct the Tertiary history of displacements and uplift events along the inboard edge of Alaska's subduction-accretion complex.

  10. Climate impacts on groundwater storage, hydrochemistry and residence time in geologically variable, snowmelt-dominated mountain catchments, Front Range, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeliff, M. M.; Williams, M. W.

    2012-12-01

    Groundwater storage, hydrochemistry and residence time are all known to vary widely depending on hydrogeologic conditions. In mountainous terrain hydrogeology can vary greatly over short distances, from bedrock aquifers on ridge tops to colluvial and fluvial aquifers in valleys. Determining how climate alters groundwater in the context of variable hydrogeologic conditions is needed to understand in-stream flows and biogeochemical cycles in these climactically sensitive alpine settings. In 2005 at the Niwot LTER six piezometers were installed in surficial diamicton and colluvium at the base of a semi-permanent snowfield at the Martinelli site (3440 m). Eight piezometers were also installed at the Saddle on a ridge-top in the alpine tundra (3528 m). In 2010 12 piezometers were installed at the C1 site (3025 m) in the subalpine atop moraine deposits. Groundwater monitoring for all sites is year-round and is comprised of depth-to-water measurements by hand and pressure transducers for select wells, as well as chemistry samples for major solutes including dissolved organic matter and stable isotopes of water, δ18O and δD. Across the Niwot LTER precipitation falls predominately as snow creating a strongly snowmelt-dominated hydrograph. Groundwater response to this seasonality is reflected in both physical and hydrochemical groundwater measurements. Snowmelt leads to sharp increases in water level in all piezometers including up to 7 m of water table change at the Saddle, up to 3 m of change at Martinelli and up to 5 m of water table change at C1. Minimum water table levels are not always measureable as the water table can drop below the extent of the piezometers, however, at the Saddle there are decreasing trends in annual minimum groundwater level in 3 of the 4 deep piezometers, possibly reflecting a decrease in total aquifer storage. Hydrochemical groundwater response to snowmelt is evident in distinct harmonic trends in major solute and isotope chemistry. Time

  11. Variations in foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Spencer; Najar, Ahmed; Godbout, Julie; Bousquet, Jean; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus) can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae) that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA) and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae), which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine's distribution, (−):(+)-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine's range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest. PMID:26042134

  12. Detection of aspen/conifer forest mixes from multitemporal LANDSAT digital data. [Bear River Range, Rocky Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merola, J. A.; Jaynes, R. A.; Harniss, R. O.

    1983-01-01

    Aspen, conifer and mixed aspen/conifer forests were mapped for a 15-quadrangle study area in the Utah-Idaho Bear River Range using LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data. The digital MSS data were utilized to devise quantitative indices which correlate with apparently stable and seral aspen forests. The extent to which a two-date LANDSAT MSS analysis may permit the delineation of different categories of aspen/conifer forest mix was explored. Multitemporal analyses of MSS data led to the identification of early, early to mid, mid to late, and late seral stages of aspen/conifer forest mixing.

  13. Escaping to the summits: phylogeography and predicted range dynamics of Cerastium dinaricum, an endangered high mountain plant endemic to the western Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Kutnjak, Denis; Kuttner, Michael; Niketić, Marjan; Dullinger, Stefan; Schönswetter, Peter; Frajman, Božo

    2014-09-01

    The Balkans are a major European biodiversity hotspot, however, almost nothing is known about processes of intraspecific diversification of the region's high-altitude biota and their reaction to the predicted global warming. To fill this gap, genome size measurements, AFLP fingerprints, plastid and nuclear sequences were employed to explore the phylogeography of Cerastium dinaricum. Range size changes under future climatic conditions were predicted by niche-based modeling. Likely the most cold-adapted plant endemic to the Dinaric Mountains in the western Balkan Peninsula, the species has conservation priority in the European Union as its highly fragmented distribution range includes only few small populations. A deep phylogeographic split paralleled by divergent genome size separates the populations into two vicariant groups. Substructure is pronounced within the southeastern group, corresponding to the area's higher geographic complexity. Cerastium dinaricum likely responded to past climatic oscillations with altitudinal range shifts, which, coupled with high topographic complexity of the region and warmer climate in the Holocene, sculptured its present fragmented distribution. Field observations revealed that the species is rarer than previously assumed and, as shown by modeling, severely endangered by global warming as viable habitat was predicted to be reduced by more than 70% by the year 2080. PMID:24857887

  14. Multi-proxy record of Holocene glacial history of the Spearhead and Fitzsimmons ranges, southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osborn, Gerald; Menounos, Brian; Koch, Johannes; Clague, John J.; Vallis, Vanessa

    2007-02-01

    Evidence from glacier forefields and lakes is used to reconstruct Holocene glacier fluctuations in the Spearhead and Fitzsimmons ranges in southwest British Columbia. Radiocarbon ages on detrital wood and trees killed by advancing ice and changes in sediment delivery to downstream proglacial lakes indicate that glaciers expanded from minimum extents in the early Holocene to their maximum extents about two to three centuries ago during the Little Ice Age. The data indicate that glaciers advanced 8630-8020, 6950-6750, 3580-2990, and probably 4530-4090 cal yr BP, and repeatedly during the past millennium. Little Ice Age moraines dated using dendrochronology and lichenometry date to early in the 18th century and in the 1830s and 1890s. Limitations inherent in lacustrine and terrestrial-based methods of documenting Holocene glacier fluctuations are minimized by using the two records together.

  15. Pleistocene divergence across a mountain range and the influence of selection on mitogenome evolution in threatened Australian freshwater cod species.

    PubMed

    Harrisson, K; Pavlova, A; Gan, H M; Lee, Y P; Austin, C M; Sunnucks, P

    2016-06-01

    Climatic differences across a taxon's range may be associated with specific bioenergetic demands and may result in genetics-based metabolic adaptation, particularly in aquatic ectothermic organisms that rely on heat exchange with the environment to regulate key physiological processes. Extending down the east coast of Australia, the Great Dividing Range (GDR) has a strong influence on climate and the evolutionary history of freshwater fish species. Despite the GDR acting as a strong contemporary barrier to fish movement, many species, and species with shared ancestries, are found on both sides of the GDR, indicative of historical dispersal events. We sequenced complete mitogenomes from the four extant species of the freshwater cod genus Maccullochella, two of which occur on the semi-arid, inland side of the GDR, and two on the mesic coastal side. We constructed a dated phylogeny and explored the relative influences of purifying and positive selection in the evolution of mitogenome divergence among species. Results supported mid- to late-Pleistocene divergence of Maccullochella across the GDR (220-710 thousand years ago), bringing forward previously reported dates. Against a background of pervasive purifying selection, we detected potentially functionally relevant fixed amino acid differences across the GDR. Although many amino acid differences between inland and coastal species may have become fixed under relaxed purifying selection in coastal environments rather than positive selection, there was evidence of episodic positive selection acting on specific codons in the Mary River coastal lineage, which has consistently experienced the warmest and least extreme climate in the genus. PMID:26883183

  16. Thermal and unroofing history of a thick, tilted Basin-and-Range crustal section in the Tortilla Mountains, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, K.A.; Foster, D.A.

    1996-01-01

    We estimate here a geothermal gradient of only 17 ?? 5??C km-1 for the tilted Grayback fault block in southeastern Arizona when extension began ???25 Ma. This gradient is lower than preextension gradients estimated elsewhere in the Basin and Range, is only about 50% of typical gradients in the Basin and Range today, and needs to be accounted for in models of continental extension. The Grayback block exposes a 12-km-thick crustal section of Proterozoic and Cretaceous granitoids, which was tilted 90?? during extension between 25 and 15 Ma. Zircon fission-track ages decrease structurally downward (westward) across the block and were all within a zone of partial track annealing prior to tilting and quenching. The zircon age gradient suggests that the 220??-240??C isotherm migrated downward 5-6 km during Paleogene erosion and regional cooling. Apatite fission-track ages decrease westward from ???83 Ma in the structurally highest crystalline rocks to ???24 Ma at ???6-km paleodepth and then to ???15 Ma another 6 km farther west. Track-length analysis confirms that apatites above the break in slope in age at ???5.7-km paleodepth resided in a zone of partial annealing prior to tilting, and deeper apatites record rapid cooling upon tilting and unroofing beginning ???25 Ma. At that time the 110 ?? 10??C isotherm determined by the depth at which tracks in apatite were fully erased was at a basement paleodepth of ???5.7 km, and the 220 ?? 30??C isotherm as estimated from zircon data resided at a pretilting basement depth of ???12.15 km. From consistent values of paleogeothermal gradient for two depth intervals we estimate the pretilt gradient was 17 ?? 5??C km-1. From 25 to 15 Ma the rotating Grayback block cooled rapidly as higher, westward moving blocks unroofed it tectonically at a rate of ???1 km m.y.-1.

  17. High resolution, high frequency, close-range laser scanning to monitor bedrock erosion after mountain river dam removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, K. L.; Stark, C. P.

    2011-12-01

    The Chijiawan river, located in the Hsuehshan Range in central Taiwan, is a steep, coarse-grained, mixed bedrock-alluvial channel subject to heavy monsoonal rainfall, occasional typhoons and frequent floods. In May 2011, a 15m-high check dam holding back around 200,000m3 of sediment was removed. To monitor subsequent channel response, an array of instruments were deployed prior to dam removal. Given the anticipated magnitude of sediment transport and excellent empirical constraints, the Chijiawan channel is an ideal location to study fluvial incision processes into bedrock. There is abundant bedrock exposed in the river bed downstream of the dam, and we are interested in how the pulse of sediment following dam removal will impact bedrock erosion rates. We monitor erosion using repeat high resolution laser scanning at 8 sites spread along a 3 km long reach, 2 sites upstream of the dam and 6 downstream. We scan two sites with a Konica Minolta Vivid 910 scanner (with an accuracy of 1.4mm), and the remaining sites with a Faro Photon 120 scanner (with an accuracy of 2mm). Scanning at ranges of ~1m (Vivid) to ~10m (Faro), we obtain resolutions of 1 to 3mm. Based on the system developed by Wilson and Hovius (2010), reference frames for repeat surveys consist of permanent stainless steel sockets installed in 14 cm deep holes drilled into the bedrock, combined with removable targets that screw into the sockets for scanning. Vivid data are processed and 3D models are constructed using Rapidform 2004 software. Faro data is processed using Faro's Scene software. In order to compare the high resolution scanning with more traditional low-tech monitoring methods, we have also installed two sets of concrete expansion bolts. We obtain profiles between bolts with both a contour gauge and the scanners. The high accuracy and resolution of these scanners, and the system of precise benchmarks enable us to detect extremely small amounts of erosion. By repeat scanning after individual

  18. Thermal and unroofing history of a thick, tilted Basin-and-Range crustal section in the Tortilla Mountains, Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Keith A.; Foster, David A.

    1996-01-01

    We estimate here a geothermal gradient of only 17 ± 5°C km-1 for the tilted Grayback fault block in southeastern Arizona when extension began ˜25 Ma. This gradient is lower than preextension gradients estimated elsewhere in the Basin and Range, is only about 50% of typical gradients in the Basin and Range today, and needs to be accounted for in models of continental extension. The Grayback block exposes a 12-km-thick crustal section of Proterozoic and Cretaceous granitoids, which was tilted 90° during extension between 25 and 15 Ma. Zircon fission-track ages decrease structurally downward (westward) across the block and were all within a zone of partial track annealing prior to tilting and quenching. The zircon age gradient suggests that the 220°-240°C isotherm migrated downward 5-6 km during Paleogene erosion and regional cooling. Apatite fission-track ages decrease westward from ˜83 Ma in the structurally highest crystalline rocks to ˜24 Ma at ˜6-km paleodepth and then to ˜15 Ma another 6 km farther west. Track-length analysis confirms that apatites above the break in slope in age at ˜5.7-km paleodepth resided in a zone of partial annealing prior to tilting, and deeper apatites record rapid cooling upon tilting and unroofing beginning ˜25 Ma. At that time the 110 ± 10°C isotherm determined by the depth at which tracks in apatite were fully erased was at a basement paleodepth of ˜5.7 km, and the 220 ± 30°C isotherm as estimated from zircon data resided at a pretilting basement depth of ˜12.15 km. From consistent values of paleogeothermal gradient for two depth intervals we estimate the pretilt gradient was 17 ± 5°C km-1. From 25 to 15 Ma the rotating Grayback block cooled rapidly as higher, westward moving blocks unroofed it tectonically at a rate of ˜1 km m.y.-1.

  19. Evolution of Cretaceous granitoids in the western cordillera: An example from the Santa Rose Mountain Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Stuck, R.J.; Hart, W.K. )

    1992-01-01

    The Santa Rosa Range is located in Humboldt County, Nevada. Two textural/compositional groups exist within the granitoid suite. The bulk of the granitoids, exposed in the main stock and a smaller flanking stock, belong to the Santa Rosa/Andorno (SR/A) group. These rocks are primarily met- to peraluminous, equigranular, hornblende-biotite granodiorite. These granitoids are enclave bearing and are cross cut by syn-plutonic rholite/dacite dikes and fine grained aplite dikes. The second group exposed in the Sawtooth (ST) and Granite Peak (GP) stocks, are primarily met- to peraluminous, equigranular to porphyritic biotite granite/granodiorite. The rocks of this group are also cut by fine grained aplite dikes. Petrographic and elemental analyses indicate a broad northward evolutionary trend with rocks of the GP stock being the most highly evolved of the suite. Major element variation diagrams show patterns of enrichment or depletion consistent with fractional crystallization. There is a change in the slope of these trends, however, at the SR/A and ST/GP transition indicating these two groups many not be petrogenetically linked. Sr vs SiO[sub 2] displays two distinct, overlapping, sub parallel trends of Sr depletion with increasing SiO[sub 2] again indicating the two granitoid groups are not related. Trace element characteristics suggest that it is not possible to derive the most evolved granitoid in the SR/A group from the least evolved sample available by fractional crystallization alone. Crustal contamination of the magma, or the mixing of an additional liquid(s), coupled with fractionation of both plagioclase and biotite are required to produce the trace element trends observed in the SR/A groups. In contrast, the GP/ST group has undergone K-feldspar fractionation.

  20. Spatiotemporal characteristics and synchronization of extreme rainfall in South America with focus on the Andes Mountain range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boers, Niklas; Bookhagen, Bodo; Marwan, Norbert; Kurths, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    The South American Andes are frequently exposed to intense rainfall events with varying moisture sources and precipitation-forming processes. In this study, we assess the spatiotemporal characteristics and geographical origins of rainfall over the South American continent. Using high-spatiotemporal resolution satellite data (TRMM 3B42 V7), we define four different types of rainfall events based on their (1) high magnitude, (2) long temporal extent, (3) large spatial extent, and (4) high magnitude, long temporal and large spatial extent combined. In a first step, we analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of these events over the entire South American continent and integrate their impact for the main Andean hydrologic catchments. Our results indicate that events of type 1 make the overall highest contributions to total seasonal rainfall (up to 50 %). However, each consecutive episode of the infrequent events of type 4 still accounts for up to 20 % of total seasonal rainfall in the subtropical Argentinean plains. In a second step, we employ complex network theory to unravel possibly non-linear and long-ranged climatic linkages for these four event types on the high-elevation Altiplano-Puna Plateau as well as in the main river catchments along the foothills of the Andes. Our results suggest that one to two particularly large squall lines per season, originating from northern Brazil, indirectly trigger large, long-lasting thunderstorms on the Altiplano Plateau. In general, we observe that extreme rainfall in the catchments north of approximately 20°S typically originates from the Amazon Basin, while extreme rainfall at the eastern Andean foothills south of 20°S and the Puna Plateau originates from southeastern South America.

  1. Mineral weathering experiments to explore the effects of vegetation shifts in high mountain region (Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavris, Christian; Furrer, Gerhard; Dahms, Dennis; Anderson, Suzanne P.; Blum, Alex; Goetze, Jens; Wells, Aaron; Egli, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Climate change influences the evolution of soil and landscape. With changing climate, both flora and fauna must adapt to new conditions. It is unknown in many respects to what extent soils will react to warming and vegetation change. The aim of this study was to identify possible consequences for soils in a dry-alpine region with respect to weathering of primary minerals and leaching of elements under expected warming climate conditions due to shifts in vegetation. To achieve this, a field empirical approach was used in combination with laboratory weathering experiments simulating several scenarios. Study sites located in Sinks Canyon and in Stough Basin of the Wind River Range, Wyoming, USA, encompass ecotones that consist of tundra, forest, or sagebrush (from moist to dry, with increasing temperature, respectively). All soils are developed on granitoid moraines. The mineralogy of the soils along the altitudinal sequence was analysed using cathodoluminescence and X-ray diffraction, and revealed clear mineral transformations: biotite and plagioclase were both weathered to smectite while plagioclase also weathered to kaolinite. Cooler, wetter, altitude-dependent conditions seemed to promote weathering of these primary minerals. To test the impact of soil solutions from different ecotones on mineral weathering, aqueous extracts from topsoils (A horizons) were reacted with subsoils (B horizons) in batch experiments. Aqueous extracts of topsoil samples were generated for all three ecotones, and these solutions were characterized. For the batch experiments, the topsoil extracts were reacted for 1800 hours with the subsoil samples of the same ecotone, or with the subsoil samples from higher altitude ecotones. Solutions collected periodically during the experiments were measured using ICP-OES and ion chromatography. Dissolved Ca, Mg and K were mainly controlled by the chemical weathering of oligoclase, K-feldspar and biotite. With increasing altitude (and consequently

  2. A new species of Crossodactylodes (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from Minas Gerais, Brazil: first record of genus within the Espinhaço Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Barata, Izabela M; Santos, Marcus T T; Leite, Felipe S F; Garcia, Paulo C A

    2013-01-01

    The genus Crossodactylodes comprises three species of Atlantic Rainforest endemic frogs strictly dependent on bromeliads where they spend their entire life cycle. The current geographic distribution of the genus covers highland areas of Atlantic Rainforest in the States of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil. We describe a new species of the genus from Parque Estadual do Pico do Itambé, at Santo Antônio do Itambé municipality, State of Minas Gerais, Southeastern Brazil. Crossodactylodes itambe sp. nov. is characterized by the following combination of traits: male SVL 16.2 ± 1.3 (14.0-17.6 mm, n = 10), female SVL 16.2 ± 1.0 (13.5-18.0 mm, n = 15); snout short, rounded in dorsal view, sloping in lateral view; absence of vocal sac and vocal slits in males; absence of vomerine teeth; males with upper arms and forearms hypertrophied; cloacal flap prominent, simple; dorsal skin coarsely granular. The new species inhabits rupicolous bromeliads in open areas of rocky fields, and is recorded in altitudes between 1836 and 2062 m above sea level. This record extends the genus distribution for about 325 km northwest from where it was known. Crossodactylodes sp. nov. is the only species of the genus that occurs in open field habitats (campos rupestres), in very high altitudes of a non-costal mountain range (the Espinhaço Range).  PMID:25277590

  3. Simulations of Orographic Mixed-Phase Clouds at Mountain Range Site using COSMO-ART-M7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henneberg, Olga; Henneberger, Jan; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2015-04-01

    Aerosol-cloud interactions constitute the highest uncertainties in radiative forcing estimation since preindustrial times. Clouds living in temperature range between 0° C and -38° C may contain supercooled water drops as well as ice particles formed by heterogeneous freezing. The coexistence of the three water-phases: vapor, liquid and ice in mixed-phase clouds (MPCs) leads to an enhanced number of microphysical processes that further complicates the estimation of radiative effects furthermore and challenges models on every scale. Due to a lower saturation pressure over ice than over water ice growth is favoured and a rapid glaciation of MPCs is expected. Even though MPCs are considered unstable, observations have shown that they can persist over long periods up to several hours. In-situ measurements at the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch (JFJ) show the occurrence of MPCs under certain conditions. In addition to the longevity of MPCs an unexpected high ice crystal concentration exceeding the number of ice nuclei was also observed. Due to the lack of information about updraft velocities in this complex orographic region and the constraint of measurements on a single location it is not fully understood how MPCs can persist over such a long time in this region, whether microphysical or dynamical processes are dominantly determining their longevity and what causes the high ice crystal concentration. The measurements taken at JFJ delivering mass content as well as number concentration of particles on one hand require a detailed model study to fully understand processes of mixed phase clouds and on the other hand deliver a great opportunity to study the performance of the newly developed COSMO version: COSMO-ART-M7 on the kilometer-scale in comparison with measurement results. Furthermore it has to be proven whether a resolution of 1 km is sufficient enough to capture relevant processes in MPC. First model simulations with COSMO, including the two

  4. The Contribution of Trans-Pacific Submicron Aerosols and Local Particle Nucleation Bursts to California's Air Quality as Seen from the Pacific Coast Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, E. C. C.; Christensen, J. N.; Post, A.; Faloona, I. C.

    2015-12-01

    The long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols to the Western US has received considerable attention due to the growing disparity between North American and Asian air quality. Using MODIS and space-borne LIDAR measurements some have argued that the transcontinental transport of dust from Asia, Africa, and Europe outweighs that of locally produced combustion aerosols (Yu et al. 2012). This study seeks to compare the aerosol composition, number, and size distribution of locally derived submicron aerosols (including particle nucleation events) vs. long-range transported aerosols observed at a remote mountain site near the Pacific Coast. Toward this aim, rotating drum impactor (RDI) and scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements of size-segregated elemental compositions and size spectra were collected from February to November of 2012 at Chews Ridge (elevation 1450 m) in Monterey County, California. This mountaintop site experiences two main wind modes. The main mode is ohshore-directed winds from the southwest, which are most likely to bring trans-Pacific aerosols to the site; and offshore-directed, northeasterly winds that bring continental aerosols to the site from the interior of California. Elemental ratios (normalized to Al), matrix factorization, and a k-cluster analysis of these data suggest distinct crustal, combustion, and marine sources with considerable seasonal as well as short-term variability. HYSPLIT model back trajectories support the hypothesized sources of these submicron aerosols. Locally, SMPS data reveal consistent nucleation bursts and subsequent growth in the 20-60 nm range during the afternoons. A distinct but weaker diel cycle was observed in the 70 - 100 nm range, corresponding to the smallest RDI impactor stage. Finally, the Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb) of aerosol samples from selected dates will be measured by MC-ICPMS to further identify aerosol origins (e.g. Ewing et al. 2010).

  5. An expeditious risk analysis of intense rainfall events in low mountain ranges of Central German Uplands under the aspect of a sustainable and decentralised flood retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertermann, D.; Bialas, C.; Zacherl, A.

    2012-04-01

    Due to increasing settlement pressure, intensifying pressure as a result of the utilisation of flood-threatened surfaces and also in consequence of the climate change with its effects even on local scales an accumulation of flood events is to be expected. Areas that have not been influenced by flood events in the past, like low mountain ranges, can certainly be affected in the near future. Against this background applicable solution and adjustment strategies are required in practice to mitigate such events or to even prevent them. The key aim of the research activities is the development of a standardised and expeditious risk analysis of intense rainfall events in low mountain ranges of Central German Uplands under the aspect of sustainable and decentralised flood retention and protection. Hydrologic characteristics, expressed by the 'run-off-coefficient' and the 'surface roughness', for clearly defined biotope types of German low mountain ranges should be derived with the help of already existing standardised soil/utilisation/vegetation units. According to the current state-of-the-art of flood models land use changes do not have great impact on the slow-flowing, large flood events in widespread watersheds. On the contrary, small, swift-flowing floods in small watersheds can be influenced by land use or management changes. Thus, the focus of the research work is aimed on these small quick flood events. However, also differentiated information for the solution of flood problems in large watersheds can be reached by the summation of statements about small watersheds. The development of a standardised planning method (incl. the GI-System implementation) for the optimization of the drain regulation serves for the reduction of the flood danger. Land use and vegetation is so optimised in adaptation to soil and land management and by taking into account prevailing drain roads that an essential contribution to the regulation of the surface run-off can be performed. The

  6. The world mountain Damavand: documentation and monitoring of human activities using remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostka, Robert

    The use of different remote sensing data is demonstrated by example of the world mountain, Mt. Damavand (5671 m) in the Alborz Mountains, Iran. Several types of satellite data were required to master the complex task of preparing a monograph of this mountain: SSEOP images of NASA, Russian KFA-1000 pictures, CORONA panoramic images of NASA and Russian KVR-1000 orthoimages. Examples of climatic studies, transportation routes, water resources, conservation areas and relicts of human land-use are presented in order to show the potential of remote sensing data. The right choice of image data is a top priority in applied remote sensing in order to obtain significant results in the documentation and monitoring of human activities.

  7. Geochemical Characteristics of Overbank Deposits after a Flood Event in a Small, Mountainous River System in the Oregon Coast Range, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, F. J.; Hatten, J. A.; Goni, M. A.; Gray, A. B.; Pasternack, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    The geochemical characteristics of particulate organic matter (POM) transported by rivers has broad implications in our understanding of aquatic nutrient dynamics, the fate of contaminants, environmental change in watersheds, and carbon export to depositional environments. The major fraction of this POM is mobilized during storms, especially in small mountainous river systems (SMRS) producing complex spatial-temporal POM patterns poorly documented due to logistical difficulties. In this study, we examine the use of overbank flood deposits as a surrogate of a quasi-Lagrangian POM sampling scheme to supplement the conventional Eulerian sampling scheme for POM. We report on the geochemical characteristics of 11 overbank deposits created after a significant flood (10 X mean discharge) along 80 km in the Alsea River, a SMRS in the Oregon Coast Range. We measure organic carbon, nitrogen, stable isotopes, and biomarkers such as lignin-derived phenols as well as particle size distribution and surface area of the deposited sediments. We compared those characteristics with the POM sampled during several storms at a fixed location. Our results suggest that despite the differences in local depositional conditions inferred from particle size distributions and texture, the geochemical properties of overbank deposits resemble the properties of the material in transport, mainly derived from a terrestrial source with a clear signal of gymnosperm wood. Furthermore, the normalized ranges of the geochemical indicators measured across space for one single event are comparable to, or even higher than, the normalized range of the same indicators measured along time at the fixed location. The implications of the amount and quality of the additional information offered by the overbank deposits in POM dynamics in watershed is discussed.

  8. Fault kinematics and active tectonics at the southeastern boundary of the eastern Alborz (Abr and Khij fault zones): Geodynamic implications for NNE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidfakhr, Bita; Bellier, Olivier; Shabanian, Esmaeil; Siame, Lionel; Léanni, Laëtitia; Bourlès, Didier; Ahmadian, Seiran

    2011-10-01

    The Alborz is a region of active deformation within the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. The Abr and the Khij Faults are two NE-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults in the eastern Alborz that correspond to the Shahrud fault system extended through an area of about 95 km × 55 km. Tectonic landforms typically associated with active strike-slip faults, such as deflected stream channels, offset ridges and fault scarps are documented along the mentioned faults. Detailed analyses of satellite images and digital topographic data accompanied by field surveys allowed us to measure horizontal offsets of about 420 ± 50 m and 400 ± 50 m for the Abr and Khij Faults, respectively. A total of 8 quartz-rich samples were sampled and dated from two different fan surfaces using in situ-produced 10Be cosmogenic dating method. Minimum exposure ages for the abandonment of the alluvial fan surfaces of 115 ± 14 kyr along the Abr Fault and of 230 ± 16 kyr along the Khij Fault imply that both faults are active with slip rates of about 3-4 mm yr -1 and 1-3 mm yr -1, respectively. The results of our study provide the first direct quantitative geological estimates of slip rate along these two active faults and place a new constraint on slip distribution between the faults in the eastern Alborz. Fault kinematic studies (from fault slip data) indicate a N35°E-trending maximum stress axis comprising a dominant strike-slip regime in agreement with the geomorphological analyses. The left-lateral strike-slip faulting along the Abr and Khij Faults and their associated fault zones in the eastern Alborz can be due to the westward component of motion of the South Caspian Basin with respect to Eurasia and Central Iran.

  9. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rafe M; Siler, Cameron D; Oliveros, Carl H; Welton, Luke J; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C

    2013-01-01

    We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  10. Revealing the diversity of Cloeodes Traver, 1938 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) in the Neotropics: description of eleven new species from Brazilian mountain ranges.

    PubMed

    Salles, F F; Massariol, F C; Angeli, K B; Lima, M M; Gattolliat, J-L; Sartori, M

    2015-01-01

    In the present work, based on material from distinct mountain ranges in Brazil, 11 new species of Cloeodes with hind wings or hind wing pads are described, illustrated and discussed. Among the new species, in C. aiuruoca, C. amantykyra, C. atlanticus, C. boldrinii and C. ioachimi, the apex of the fore femora in the nymphs is extremely projected (a characteristic previously found only in two species of the genus). Cloeodes guara and C. tracheatus share the presence of unusual large and dark gills. Cloeodes melanotarsus is readily distinguished by conspicuous blackish tarsi, C. lucifer by the bright yellow coloration of tergum I, and C. xyrognathos by blade-like incisors. Cloeodes magnus, besides being the largest species of the genus, with a body size reaching 12 mm, possess short maxillary palp. Comments on the presence of C. irvingi and C. opacus in Brazil are also provided. An interactive online key is provided for the nymphs of all the species of Cloeodes in which hind wing pads are present. PMID:26624088

  11. The amphibians and reptiles of Luzon Island, Philippines, VIII: the herpetofauna of Cagayan and Isabela Provinces, northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rafe M.; Siler, Cameron D.; Oliveros, Carl. H; Welton, Luke J.; Rock, Ashley; Swab, John; Weerd, Merlijn Van; van Beijnen, Jonah; Jose, Edgar; Rodriguez, Dominic; Jose, Edmund; Diesmos, Arvin C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We provide the first report on the herpetological biodiversity (amphibians and reptiles) of the northern Sierra Madre Mountain Range (Cagayan and Isabela provinces), northeast Luzon Island, Philippines. New data from extensive previously unpublished surveys in the Municipalities of Gonzaga, Gattaran, Lasam, Santa Ana, and Baggao (Cagayan Province), as well as fieldwork in the Municipalities of Cabagan, San Mariano, and Palanan (Isabela Province), combined with all available historical museum records, suggest this region is quite diverse. Our new data indicate that at least 101 species are present (29 amphibians, 30 lizards, 35 snakes, two freshwater turtles, three marine turtles, and two crocodilians) and now represented with well-documented records and/or voucher specimens, confirmed in institutional biodiversity repositories. A high percentage of Philippine endemic species constitute the local fauna (approximately 70%). The results of this and other recent studies signify that the herpetological diversity of the northern Philippines is far more diverse than previously imagined. Thirty-eight percent of our recorded species are associated with unresolved taxonomic issues (suspected new species or species complexes in need of taxonomic partitioning). This suggests that despite past and present efforts to comprehensively characterize the fauna, the herpetological biodiversity of the northern Philippines is still substantially underestimated and warranting of further study. PMID:23653519

  12. Alborz-I array: A simulation on performance and properties of the array around the knee of the cosmic ray spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, Soheila; Bahmanabadi, Mahmud; Pezeshkian, Yousef; Mortazavi Moghaddam, Saba

    2016-03-01

    The first phase of the Alborz Observatory Array (Alborz-I) consists of 20 plastic scintillation detectors each one with surface area of 0.25 m2spread over an area of 40 × 40 m2 realized to the study of Extensive Air Showers around the knee at the Sharif University of Technology campus. The first stage of the project including construction and operation of a prototype system has now been completed and the electronics that will be used in the array instrument has been tested under field conditions. In order to achieve a realistic estimate of the array performance, a large number of simulated CORSIKA showers have been used. In the present work, theoretical results obtained in the study of different array layouts and trigger conditions are described. Using Monte Carlo simulations of showers the rate of detected events per day and the trigger probability functions, i.e., the probability for an extensive air shower to trigger a ground based array as a function of the shower core distance to the center of array are presented for energies above 1 TeV and zenith angles up to 60°. Moreover, the angular resolution of the Alborz-I array is obtained.

  13. Do Small Mammals and Vegetation Metacommunity Dynamics Determine the Extent and Pattern of Treeline in the High Elevation Zone of the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, R. C.; Chase, J. T.

    2014-12-01

    There has been a general expectation that warming temperatures will facilitate transformation of high elevation meadows to woody dominated communities. We have been using observational and experimental approaches to analyze potential state changes of meadows and the role seed and seedling predation play in conifer expansion in the high elevation zone of the Sierra Nevada mountain range of the western United States. The observational component consists of 256 plots spanning 3 degrees of latitude and an elevation range from 3000 m to 4000 m. The experimental component consists of mammal seed predator exclosures (N = 252) allocated among three arrays at each of two sites separated by > 100 km. Three cohorts of seeds at five seed densities (1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 seeds per 0.25 m2) and one seedling cohort were placed within and immediately outside the exclosures at each site. Trend surface and distance decay analyses of community composition indicate vegetation communities in the high elevation zone have not assembled predictably along environmental or spatial gradients. Rather, we have found strong support for neutral dynamics, implying that communities assemble more stochastically as a result of dispersal limitation or priority effects. Density of mature and sapling conifers decrease as a function of distance from conifer patches, but seedling density has no relationship with distance from conifer patches. Germination of seeds outside of the exclosures was 19% compared to 65% within, and these were mainly at densities of 1 seed per 0.25 m2. None of the seeds that germinated outside the exclosures survived more than 1.5 years compared to 23% within the exclosures. Virtually all of the seedlings planted outside the exclosures were removed within a year. Collectively, these findings indicate a highly patchy rather than uniform pattern of treeline extension in the high elevation zone of the Sierra Nevada. Moreover, smaller mammals appear to be playing a critical role in

  14. Style and magnitude of Mesozoic thrust faulting in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt Pequop Mountains-Wood Hills-East Humboldt Range region, northeast Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Camilleri, P.A. . Dept. of Geology and Geophysics)

    1993-04-01

    The Pequop Mountains (PM), Wood Hills (WH) and East Humboldt Range (EHR), NE Nevada, provide evidence that the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt experienced large-magnitude Mesozoic shortening ([>=]55 km) and crustal thickening ([>=] 30 km). These ranges expose a structurally continuous crustal cross section of unmetamorphosed to high pressure upper amphibolite facies Triassic to Precambrian miogeoclinal strata. This sequence lies structurally beneath unmetamorphosed extensional klippen that omit metamorphic grade and crustal section, but also repeat stratigraphic units. Because they repeat stratigraphic units, the underlying miogeoclinal section, or footwall, must have once lain beneath a thrust fault (herein named the Windermere thrust). The footwall of the Windermere thrust was exhumed by two generations of top-to-the-W-NW low-angle normal faults that are distinguished by whether they are depositionally overlapped by Eocene volcanic rocks or if they cut the volcanic rocks in their hanging walls. The latter phase is associated with development of the mid-Tertiary extensional mylonitic shear zone in the EHR. An integration of geobarometric, metamorphic, and map data suggest (1) a NW dip of the footwall of the Windermere thrust with metamorphic facies belts trending perpendicular to dip direction and metamorphic grade increasing down dip, and (2) a top-to-the-SE sense-of-slip for the Windermere thrust. Assuming that the Windermere thrust comprised a flat on the youngest rocks exposed in the footwall (Triassic), the Mesozoic depth to the Windermere thrust in the northern PM is [>=] 7 km, in WH is [approximately]10--16 km, and in the EHR[>=]30 km. The Windermere thrust accommodated a minimum of 50 km of shortening associated with the Independence thrust is [>=] 5 km. These data indicate that the amount of hinterland shortening in NE Nevada greatly exceeds that to the south in the Eureka belt.

  15. Sediment delivery and lake dynamics in a Mediterranean mountain watershed: Human-climate interactions during the last millennium (El Tobar Lake record, Iberian Range, Spain).

    PubMed

    Barreiro-Lostres, Fernando; Brown, Erik; Moreno, Ana; Morellón, Mario; Abbott, Mark; Hillman, Aubrey; Giralt, Santiago; Valero-Garcés, Blas

    2015-11-15

    Land degradation and soil erosion are key environmental problems in Mediterranean mountains characterized by a long history of human occupation and a strong variability of hydrological regimes. To assess recent trends and evaluate climatic and anthropogenic impacts in these highly human modified watersheds we apply an historical approach combining lake sediment core multi-proxy analyses and reconstructions of past land uses to El Tobar Lake watershed, located in the Iberian Range (Central Spain). Four main periods of increased sediment delivery have been identified in the 8m long sediment sequence by their depositional and geochemical signatures. They took place around 16th, late 18th, mid 19th and early 20th centuries as a result of large land uses changes such as forest clearing, farming and grazing during periods of increasing population. In this highly human-modified watershed, positive synergies between human impact and humid periods led to increased sediment delivery periods. During the last millennium, the lake depositional and geochemical cycles recovered quickly after each sediment delivery event, showing strong resilience of the lacustrine system to watershed disturbance. Recent changes are characterized by large hydrological affections since 1967 with the construction of a canal from a nearby reservoir and a decreased in anthropic pressure in the watershed as rural areas were abandoned. The increased fresh water influx to the lake has caused large biological changes, leading to stronger meromictic conditions and higher organic matter accumulation while terrigenous inputs have decreased. Degradation processes in Iberian Range watersheds are strongly controlled by anthropic activities (land use changes, soil erosion) but modulated by climate-related hydrological changes (water availability, flood and runoff frequency). PMID:26186465

  16. Petrogenesis of Tarom high-potassic granitoids in the Alborz-Azarbaijan belt, Iran: Geochemical, U-Pb zircon and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabatian, Ghasem; Ghaderi, Majid; Neubauer, Franz; Honarmand, Maryam; Liu, Xiaoming; Dong, Yunpeng; Jiang, Shao-Yong; von Quadt, Albrecht; Bernroider, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale Upper Eocene plutons in the Western Alborz-Azarbaijan orogenic belt mostly show calc-alkaline and I-type geochemical features contrasted by the Tarom complex with its high-potassic to shoshonitic affinity. The pluton was emplaced in the Tarom subzone of the orogenic belt and its laser ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of 41 Ma is interpreted as the age of magma crystallization. The Tarom complex is composed of quartz monzodiorite, quartz-monzonite and monzogranite, the SiO2 contents range from 57 to 70 wt.%, the K2O + Na2O content is high (5.0-8.9 wt.%) and K2O/Na2O ratio ranges from 0.4 to 1.9. All the investigated rocks are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs), large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs), and bear a weak Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.46 to 1.38) in chondrite-normalized trace element patterns. The samples display some variety in initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions, marked with low ISr = 0.704-0.705 and ɛNd (40 Ma) = - 4.2 to + 3.4 (- 5.7 for an enclave) values. The Pb isotopic ratios are (206Pb/204Pb) = 18.52-18.86, (207Pb/204Pb) = 15.57-15.72 and (208Pb/204Pb) = 38.47-39.08. Comparison with experimental studies, together with mantle-like isotopic ratios and comparisons of REE patterns, points to an origin of chemically enriched lithospheric mantle source for the Tarom plutonic complex. Partial melting process involving different partial melting degrees affecting heterogeneously metasomatized mantle is a process that seems likely to have occurred in the studied complex as the major differentiation process. The Tarom monzonitic plutons are considered to be post-orogenic intrusions that were emplaced in an environment of lithospheric extension, causing asthenospheric upwelling. Asthenospheric upwelling induced a thermal anomaly which caused partial melting of metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle in the Tarom area.

  17. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with a long-range transported biomass burning plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Fialho, P.; China, S.; Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Kumar, S.; Perlinger, J. A.; Kramer, L. J.; Dziobak, M. P.; Ampadu, M. T.; Olsen, S.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

    2015-05-01

    Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m above mean sea level on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory is located ~ 3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon, and inorganic ions. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 ± 0.7 μg m-3. On average, organic aerosol components represent the largest mass fraction of the total measured aerosol (60 ± 51%), followed by sulfate (23 ± 28%), nitrate (13 ± 10%), chloride (2 ± 3%), and elemental carbon (2 ± 2%). Water-soluble organic matter (WSOM) extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas had unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. FLEXPART retroplume analyses showed the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). These aged aerosol WSOM compounds had an average O/C ratio of ~ 0.45, which is relatively low compared to O/C ratios of other aged aerosol. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in the WSOM and with the morphology and mixing state of particles as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The presence of markers characteristic of aqueous-phase reactions of phenolic species suggests

  18. Molecular characterization of free tropospheric aerosol collected at the Pico Mountain Observatory: a case study with long range transported biomass burning plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzepina, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Fialho, P.; China, S.; Zhang, B.; Owen, R. C.; Helmig, D.; Hueber, J.; Kumar, S.; Perlinger, J. A.; Kramer, L.; Dziobak, M. P.; Ampadu, M. T.; Olsen, S.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Mazzoleni, L. R.

    2014-09-01

    Free tropospheric aerosol was sampled at the Pico Mountain Observatory located at 2225 m a.m.s.l. on Pico Island of the Azores archipelago in the North Atlantic. The observatory (38°28'15'' N; 28°24'14'' W) is located ∼3900 km east and downwind of North America, which enables studies of free tropospheric air transported over long distances, mainly from North America. Aerosol samples collected on filters from June to October 2012 were analyzed to characterize organic carbon, elemental carbon and inorganic ion species. The average ambient concentration of aerosol was 0.9 μg m-3; on average organic aerosol contributes the majority of mass (57%), followed by sulfate (21%) and nitrate (17%). Filter-collected aerosol measurements were positively correlated (with an r2 ≥ 0.80) with continuous aerosol measurements of black carbon, aerosol light scattering and number concentration. Water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) species extracted from two aerosol samples (9/24 and 9/25) collected consecutively during a pollution event were analyzed using ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. FLEXPART retroplume analysis shows the sampled air masses were very aged (average plume age > 12 days). Approximately 4000 molecular formulas were assigned to each of the mass spectra in the range of m/z 100-1000. The majority of the assigned molecular formulas have unsaturated structures with CHO and CHNO elemental compositions. These aged WSOC compounds have an average O / C ratio of ∼0.45, which is relatively low compared to O / C ratios of other aged aerosol and might be the result of evaporation and increased fragmentation during long-range transport. The increase in aerosol loading during the measurement period of 9/24 was linked to biomass burning emissions from North America by FLEXPART retroplume analysis and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) fire counts. This was confirmed with biomass burning markers detected in

  19. Bacteria influence mountain pine beetle brood development through interactions with symbiotic and antagonistic fungi: implications for climate-driven host range expansion.

    PubMed

    Therrien, Janet; Mason, Charles J; Cale, Jonathan A; Adams, Aaron; Aukema, Brian H; Currie, Cameron R; Raffa, Kenneth F; Erbilgin, Nadir

    2015-10-01

    Bark beetles are associated with diverse communities of symbionts. Although fungi have received significant attention, we know little about how bacteria, and in particular their interactions with fungi, affect bark beetle reproduction. We tested how interactions between four bacterial associates, two symbiotic fungi, and two opportunistic fungi affect performance of mountain pine beetles (Dendroctonus ponderosae) in host tissue. We compared beetle performance in phloem of its historical host, lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta), and its novel host recently accessed through warming climate, jack pine (Pinus banksiana). Overall, beetles produced more larvae, and established longer ovipositional and larval galleries in host tissue predominantly colonized by the symbiotic fungi, Grosmannia clavigera, or Ophiostoma montium than by the opportunistic colonizer Aspergillus and to a lesser extent, Trichoderma. This occurred in both historical and naïve hosts. Impacts of bacteria on beetle reproduction depended on particular fungus-bacterium combinations and host species. Some bacteria, e.g., Pseudomonas sp. D4-22 and Hy4T4 in P. contorta and Pseudomonas sp. Hy4T4 and Stenotrophomonas in P. banksiana, reduced antagonistic effects by Aspergillus and Trichoderma resulting in more larvae and longer ovipositional and larval galleries. These effects were not selective, as bacteria also reduced beneficial effects by symbionts in both host species. Interestingly, Bacillus enhanced antagonistic effects by Aspergillus in both hosts. These results demonstrate that bacteria influence brood development of bark beetles in host tissue. They also suggest that climate-driven range expansion of D. ponderosae through the boreal forest will not be significantly constrained by requirements of, or interactions among, its microbial associates. PMID:26037523

  20. Cluster analyses of 20th century growth patterns in high elevation Great Basin bristlecone pine in the Snake Mountain Range, Nevada, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, T. J.; Bruening, J. M.; Bunn, A. G.; Salzer, M. W.; Weiss, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    Great Basin bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva) is a useful climate proxy because of the species' long lifespan (up to 5000 years) and the climatic sensitivity of its annually-resolved rings. Past studies have shown that growth of individual trees can be limited by temperature, soil moisture, or a combination of the two depending on biophysical setting at the scale of tens of meters. We extend recent research suggesting that trees vary in their growth response depending on their position on the landscape to analyze how growth patterns vary over time. We used hierarchical cluster analysis to examine the growth of 52 bristlecone pine trees near the treeline of Mount Washington, Nevada, USA. We classified growth of individual trees over the instrumental climate record into one of two possible scenarios: trees belonging to a temperature-sensitive cluster and trees belonging to a precipitation-sensitive cluster. The number of trees in the precipitation-sensitive cluster outnumbered the number of trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster, with trees in colder locations belonging to the temperature-sensitive cluster. When we separated the temporal range into two sections (1895-1949 and 1950-2002) spanning the length of the instrumental climate record, we found that most of the 52 trees remained loyal to their cluster membership (e.g., trees in the temperature-sensitive cluster in 1895-1949 were also in the temperature sensitive cluster in 1950-2002), though not without exception. Of those trees that do not remain consistent in cluster membership, the majority changed from temperature-sensitive to precipitation-sensitive as time progressed. This could signal a switch from temperature limitation to water limitation with warming climate. We speculate that topographic complexity in high mountain environments like Mount Washington might allow for climate refugia where growth response could remain constant over the Holocene.

  1. Brittle structures and their role in controlling porosity and permeability in a complex Precambrian crystalline-rock aquifer system in the Colorado Rocky Mountain front range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caine, J.S.; Tomusiak, S.R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Expansion of the Denver metropolitan area has resulted in substantial residential development in the foothills of the Rocky Mountain Front Range. This type of sub-urban growth, characteristic of much of the semiarid intermountain west, often relies on groundwater from individual domestic wells and is exemplified in the Turkey Creek watershed. The watershed is underlain by complexly deformed and fractured crystalline bedrock in which groundwater resources are poorly understood, and concerns regarding groundwater mining and degradation have arisen. As part of a pilot project to establish quantitative bounds on the groundwater resource, an outcrop-based geologic characterization and numerical modeling study of the brittle structures and their controls on the flow system was initiated. Existing data suggest that ground-water storage, flow, and contaminant transport are primarily controlled by a heterogeneous array of fracture networks. Inspections of well-permit data and field observations led to a conceptual model in which three dominant lithologic groups underlying sparse surface deposits form the aquifer system-metamorphic rocks, a complex array of granitic intrusive rocks, and major brittle fault zones. Pervasive but variable jointing of each lithologic group forms the "background" permeability structure and is an important component of the bulk storage capacity. This "background" is cut by brittle fault zones of varying structural styles and by pegmatite dikes, both with much higher fracture intensities relative to "background" that likely make them spatially complex conduits. Probabilistic, discrete-fracture-network and finite-element modeling was used to estimate porosity and permeability at the outcrop scale using fracture network data collected in the field. The models were conditioned to limited aquifer test and borehole geophysical data and give insight into the relative hydraulic properties between locations and geologic controls on storage and flow

  2. Mineral and Vegetation Maps of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada, Generated from ASTER Satellite Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2010-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were analyzed to identify and map minerals, vegetation groups, and volatiles (water and snow) in support of geologic studies of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada. Digital mineral and vegetation mapping results are presented in both portable document format (PDF) and ERDAS Imagine format (.img). The ERDAS-format files are suitable for integration with other geospatial data in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. The ERDAS files showing occurrence of 1) iron-bearing minerals, vegetation, and water, and 2) clay, sulfate, mica, carbonate, Mg-OH, and hydrous quartz minerals have been attributed according to identified material, so that the material detected in a pixel can be queried with the interactive attribute identification tools of GIS and image processing software packages (for example, the Identify Tool of ArcMap and the Inquire Cursor Tool of ERDAS Imagine). All raster data have been orthorectified to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection using a projective transform with ground-control points selected from orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper data and a digital elevation model from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (1/3 arc second, 10 m resolution). Metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standards for all ERDAS-format files have been included, and contain important information regarding geographic coordinate systems, attributes, and cross-references. Documentation regarding spectral analysis methodologies employed to make the maps is included in these cross-references.

  3. Zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic constraints on petrogenesis of the Tarom-Olya pluton, Alborz magmatic belt, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabatian, Ghasem; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Honarmand, Maryam; Neubauer, Franz

    2016-02-01

    A petrological, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic study was carried out on the Tarom-Olya pluton, Iran, in the central part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. The pluton is composed of diorite, monzonite, quartz-monzonite and monzogranite, which form part of the Western Alborz magmatic belt. LA-ICP-MS analyses of zircons yield ages from 35.7 ± 0.8 Ma to 37.7 ± 0.5 Ma, interpreted as the ages of crystallization of magmas. Rocks from the pluton have SiO2 contents ranging from 57.0 to 69.9 wt.%, high K2O + Na2O (5.5 to 10.3 wt.%) and K2O/Na2O ratio of 0.9 to 2.0. Geochemical discrimination criteria show I-type and shoshonitic features for the studied rocks. All investigated rocks are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs), large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), depleted in high-field strength elements (HFSEs), and show weak or insignificant Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.57-1.02) in chondrite-normalized trace element patterns. The Tarom-Olya pluton samples also show depletions in Nb, Ta and Ti typical of subduction-related arc magmatic signatures. The samples have relatively low ISr (0.7047-0.7051) and positive εNd(36 Ma) (+ 0.39 to + 2.10) values. The Pb isotopic ratios show a (206Pb/204Pb)i ratio of 18.49-18.67, (207Pb/204Pb)i ratio of 15.58-15.61 and (208Pb/204Pb)i ratio of 38.33-38.77. The εHf(t) values of the Tarom-Olya pluton zircons vary from - 5.9 to + 8.4, with a peak at + 2 to + 4. The depleted mantle Hf model ages for the Tarom-Olya samples are close to 600 Ma. These isotope evidences indicate contribution of juvenile sources in petrogenesis of the Tarom-Olya pluton. Geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the parental magma of the Tarom-Olya pluton was mainly derived from a sub-continental lithospheric mantle source, which was metasomatized by fluids and melts from the subducted Neotethyan slab with a minor crustal contribution. Subsequent hot asthenospheric upwelling and lithospheric extension caused decompression melting in the final stage of

  4. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats

    PubMed Central

    Chomel, Bruno B.; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W.; Borgo, Gina M.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E.

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined. PMID:26981874

  5. Isolation of Bartonella henselae and Two New Bartonella Subspecies, Bartonellakoehlerae Subspecies boulouisii subsp. nov. and Bartonella koehlerae Subspecies bothieri subsp. nov. from Free-Ranging Californian Mountain Lions and Bobcats.

    PubMed

    Chomel, Bruno B; Molia, Sophie; Kasten, Rickie W; Borgo, Gina M; Stuckey, Matthew J; Maruyama, Soichi; Chang, Chao-Chin; Haddad, Nadia; Koehler, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    Domestic cats are the natural reservoir of Bartonella henselae, B. clarridgeiae and B. koehlerae. To determine the role of wild felids in the epidemiology of Bartonella infections, blood was collected from 14 free-ranging California mountain lions (Puma concolor) and 19 bobcats (Lynx rufus). Bartonella spp. were isolated from four (29%) mountain lions and seven (37%) bobcats. These isolates were characterized using growth characteristics, biochemical reactions, molecular techniques, including PCR-RFLP of selected genes or interspacer region, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), partial sequencing of several genes, and DNA-DNA hybridization. Two isolates were identical to B. henselae genotype II. All other isolates were distinguished from B. henselae and B. koehlerae by PCR-RFLP of the gltA gene using endonucleases HhaI, TaqI and AciI, with the latter two discriminating between the mountain lion and the bobcat isolates. These two novel isolates displayed specific PFGE profiles distinct from B. henselae, B. koehlerae and B. clarridgeiae. Sequences of amplified gene fragments from the three mountain lion and six bobcat isolates were closely related to, but distinct from, B. henselae and B. koehlerae. Finally, DNA-DNA hybridization studies demonstrated that the mountain lion and bobcat strains are most closely related to B. koehlerae. We propose naming the mountain lion isolates B. koehlerae subsp. boulouisii subsp. nov. (type strain: L-42-94), and the bobcat isolates B. koehlerae subsp. bothieri subsp. nov. (type strain: L-17-96), and to emend B. koehlerae as B. koehlerae subsp. koehlerae. The mode of transmission and the zoonotic potential of these new Bartonella subspecies remain to be determined. PMID:26981874

  6. Culturable and culture-independent bacterial diversity and the prevalence of cold-adapted enzymes from the Himalayan mountain ranges of India and Nepal.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Siddarthan; Gowdaman, Vasudevan; Prabagaran, Solai Ramatchandirane

    2015-04-01

    Bacterial diversity of soil samples collected from different geographical regions of Himalayan mountains was studied through culturable (13 samples) and culture-independent approaches (5 samples based on abundance of diversity indices in each ecological niche). Shannon-Wiener diversity index and total bacterial count ranged from 1.50 ± 0.1 to 2.57 ± 0.15 and 7.8 ± 1.6 × 10(5) to 30.9 ± 1.7 × 10(5) cfu ml(-1) of soil, respectively. Based on morphology and pigmentation, 406 isolates were selected by culturing in different cultivable media at various strengths and concentrations. All the strains were subjected to amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and the representative isolates from each cluster were chosen for 16S rRNA gene sequence-based identification. Soil habitat in Himalayan foot hills was dominated by the genera Arthrobacter, Exiguobacterium, Bacillus, Cedecea, Erwinia, and Pseudomonas. Five 16S rRNA gene libraries from the selected five samples yielded 268 clones and were grouped into 53 phylotypes covering 25 genera including the genus of Ferribacterium, Rothia, and Wautersiella, which were reported for the first time in Himalayan tracks. Principal coordinates analysis indicates that all the clone libraries were clearly separated and found to be significantly different from each other. Further, extracellular investigation of cold-active enzymes showed activity of cellulase (23.71%), pectinase (20.24%), amylase (17.32%), phytase (13.87%), protease (12.72%), and lipase (23.71%) among the isolates. Four isolates namely Exiguobacterium mexicanum (BSa14), Exiguobacterium sibiricum (BZa11), Micrococcus antarcticus (BSb10), and Bacillus simplex (BZb3) showed multiple enzyme activity for five different types of enzymes. In addition, various genera like Exiguobacterium, Erwinia, Mycetecola, Cedecea, Pantoea, and Trichococcus have also shown novel hydrolytic enzyme activity in the Himalayan foothills. PMID:25204748

  7. The Impact of Biomass Burning and North American Monsoon On the Surface Ozone in the Western U.S. mountain ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, M.; Li, Q.; Zhang, L.; Mao, Y.; Murray, L. T.; Martin, R.; Lamsal, L. N.

    2013-12-01

    We analyze the surface O3 observations from the Clean Air Status and Trend Network (CASTNet) using a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) to investigate the impact of biomass burning on surface O3 in the western U.S. (WUS) mountain ranges during the June-October fire season of 2007, one of the stronger fire years in the WUS in the past decade. GEOS-Chem O3 captures the observed seasonal, synoptic and daily variations. Model daily afternoon average surface O3 concentrations at the CASTNet sites are within 2 ppb of the observations, with correlation coefficients of 0.51-0.83 and Taylor scores of 0.64-0.92. Model results show July-September maximum surface O3 enhancement of ~9 ppb on average because of biomass burning. Peaks in fire-contributed surface O3 correspond broadly with high levels of potassium (K), reaffirming a strong fire influence. We find a policy relevant background (PRB) O3 of 45.6 ppb on average during July-September. Fire-contributed O3 accounts for up to 30% of the PRB O3, highest in the intense fire region (Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming) with maxima in August and September. At most of the CASTNet sites in the Southwestern (SW) U.S. including the state of Utah, Nevada, Arizona, Colorado and New Mexico, we find sudden decreases in surface O3 from late July through early August, when North American (NA) summer monsoon is at its peak strength. This corresponds to the period when model results are biased high by up to 30 ppb these sites in the SW U.S. Sensitivity simulation indicates that the overestimation is primarily due to the excessive lightning NOx emission in the model. After redistributing the lightning flash rates with that from National Lightning Data Network, the model better agrees with observation. We use CMAP and GPCP precipitation as a proxy for NA monsoon, and find there is a strong anti-correlation between surface O3 and precipitation (-0.5~-0.7 averaged over 2003~2012 for CASTNet sites in SW U.S.). We use GEOS-Chem simulation to

  8. TranSCorBe Project: A high-resolution seismic-passive profile to study the variation of the crustal and upper mantle structures under the Betic mountain ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, José; Martín, Rosa; Stich, Daniel; Heit, Benjamín; Yuan, Xiaohui; Mancilla, Flor; Benito, José; Carrion, Francisco; Serrano, Inmaculada; López-Comino, Jose Angel; Abreu, Rafael; Alguacil, Gerardo; Almendros, Javier; Carmona, Enrique; Ontiveros, Alfonso; García-Quiroga, Daniel; García-Jerez, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this project is to study the crustal and upper mantle structures under the Betic mountain ranges and their variations between the different geological domains. We deployed 50 broadband and short period seismic stations during 18 months following two profiles. We collect teleseismic events to perform a high-resolution P-to-S and S-to-P receiver function analysis. The main profile (TranSCorBe), of 160 km length, starts near the coast in Mazarrón (Murcia) and follows a NW-SE direction, crossing the Cazorla mountain range. It probes, from south to north, the Alboran domain (metamorphic rocks), the External zones (sedimentary rocks) and the Variscan terrains of the Iberian Massif. The spacing between stations is around 3-4 km. This inter-station distance allows us mapping with high accuracy the variations of the crust and upper mantle discontinuities in the Betic Range and their transition to the Iberian Massif. A second profile (HiRe II) with a larger spacing between seismic stations, is a continuation of a previously installed HiRe I profile, a NS profile starting near the Mediterranean coast in Adra (Almería) through Sierra Nevada Mountains. HiRe II profile prolongs HiRe I profile until the Variscan intersecting with TranSCorBe profile near Cazorla.

  9. Christmas Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Christmas Mountains     View Larger Image ... New Brunswick. Located above image center are the Christmas Mountains, a region of old-growth forest nestled in a remote wilderness. Within ...

  10. Appalachian Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Appalachian Mountains     View Larger Image Multi-angle views of the Appalachian Mountains, March 6, 2000 . The true-color image at left is a ... from Lake Ontario to northern Georgia, and spanning the Appalachian Mountains. The three images to the right are also in true-color, ...

  11. Evidence of climate-induced range contractions in bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in a Rocky Mountain watershed, U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Eby, Lisa A; Helmy, Olga; Holsinger, Lisa M; Young, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    Many freshwater fish species are considered vulnerable to stream temperature warming associated with climate change because they are ectothermic, yet there are surprisingly few studies documenting changes in distributions. Streams and rivers in the U.S. Rocky Mountains have been warming for several decades. At the same time these systems have been experiencing an increase in the severity and frequency of wildfires, which often results in habitat changes including increased water temperatures. We resampled 74 sites across a Rocky Mountain watershed 17 to 20 years after initial samples to determine whether there were trends in bull trout occurrence associated with temperature, wildfire, or other habitat variables. We found that site abandonment probabilities (0.36) were significantly higher than colonization probabilities (0.13), which indicated a reduction in the number of occupied sites. Site abandonment probabilities were greater at low elevations with warm temperatures. Other covariates, such as the presence of wildfire, nonnative brook trout, proximity to areas with many adults, and various stream habitat descriptors, were not associated with changes in probability of occupancy. Higher abandonment probabilities at low elevation for bull trout provide initial evidence validating the predictions made by bioclimatic models that bull trout populations will retreat to higher, cooler thermal refuges as water temperatures increase. The geographic breadth of these declines across the region is unknown but the approach of revisiting historical sites using an occupancy framework provides a useful template for additional assessments. PMID:24897341

  12. (U-Th)/He Apatite Age Data From the Inyo Mountains, California: Implications for the Timing of Extension and Dextral Slip Rates Along the Western Boundary of the Basin Range Province/Eastern California Shear Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, J.; Stockli, D.

    2006-12-01

    With topographic relief of ~2.7 km, the Inyo Mountains, California is one of the largest mountains within the western part of the Basin Range Province (BRP) and Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ). This rugged range is underlain by Paleozoic sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks, Mesozoic plutons, and Quaternary alluvial deposits. An active, east-dipping normal fault, the eastern Inyo fault zone (EIFZ), defines the eastern flank of the range; the Saline Valley pull-apart basin is exposed in its hanging wall. To the south, the dextral Hunter Mountain fault (HMF) connects the EIFZ to the Panamint Valley fault. We completed the first (U-Th)/He apatite thermochronometric study on 24 samples collected from the Pat Keyes pluton across the range that bear on the timing of normal slip along the EIFZ and provide insight into the distribution of dextral shear across the ECSZ. Samples from the west-side of the range yield an elevation invariant (U-Th)/He age of 50.9±0.9 Ma. In contrast, samples from the east side of the range define two exhumed Partial Retention Zones (PRZ) and inflection points. From the top of the range ages systematically decrease from ~50 Ma at the top of the range to ~15 Ma. Below this upper inflection point, samples yield invariant (U-Th)/He ages of 15.0±0.3 Ma over a vertical distance of 0.8 km. (U-Th)/He ages then decrease again from ~15 Ma to ~3 Ma defining a Miocene-Pliocene PRZ. At the range front, below this lower inflection point, samples yield an invariant age of 2.8±0.1 Ma. We interpret these age patterns as indicating: (a) slow cooling (0.03- 0.06 mm/yr) through an older PRZ at high structural levels between >50 and 15.0 Ma; (b) rapid cooling, exhumation, and normal slip along the EIFZ at 15.0 Ma accommodated by westward tilting; (c) slow cooling (0.03-0.06 mm/yr) between 15.0 and 2.8 Ma through a younger PRZ; and (d) rapid cooling, exhumation, and renewed normal slip along the EIFZ at 2.8 Ma. The two episodes of exhumation along the EIFZ

  13. Fissured Rocks and Water Reservoirs in Eastern Thessaly Mountain Range, Greece (Olympus, Ossa, Maurovouni and Pelion): The Role of Tectonic Deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanikolaou, I.; Migiros, G.; Stamatis, G.; Yoxas, G.

    2009-04-01

    The storage capacity of fractured hard rocks is lower than porous media and karst formations, though they can yield groundwater of sufficiently good quality for drinking purposes and may host important water resources, even if they are often of low permeability. In particular, for countries like Greece, where water needs for the local population and the tourist industry are excessive and waterfall limited, these reservoirs are of strategic importance. The mountain Range in Eastern Thessaly comprises an extensive nappe of metamorphic rocks, consisting of schists, gneisses, involving partly some ophiolithic rocks and marble intercalations. The thickness of the nappe exceeds 600 m in Ossa, whereas in the area of Pelion is estimated up to 3.000 m. This nappe rests on top of the Autochthonous Olympus- Ossa unit, which forms a massive Mesozoic carbonate sequence. Extensive fieldwork data supported by the analysis of the physical and chemical properties of a large number of springs and combined by the study of the geological structure both local and regional, resulted in important outcomes regarding the fissured rocks permeability, water flow and springs distribution. Schists are characterized by heterogeneity regarding their permeability features. They are divided into hard-rocks where quartz, epidote and amphiboles prevail, displaying higher permeability and soft-rocks where clay minerals prevail, exhibiting low permeability features, because the presence of clay blocks the fissures and prevent any infiltration process. The marbles are of high permeability, but are of limited extent. A few springs are located in marbles, but the vast majority of the springs are associated to the hard-rock schists, are scattered and characterized by high seasonal discharges. In the area of Ossa in particular, the most important reservoirs exist at the bordering zones of the metamorphic and the post-alpine formations due to the enrichment of the sedimentary post-alpine formations. In the

  14. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  15. Geochemical and Isotopic Data for Oligocene Ignimbrites, Calderas, and Granitic Plutons, Southern Stillwater Range and Clan Alpine Mountains: Insights into the Volcanic-Plutonic Connection and Crustal Evolution in Western Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, D. A.; Colgan, J. P.; Watts, K. E.; Henry, C.; Cousens, B.

    2015-12-01

    Oligocene calderas and underlying plutons in the southern Stillwater Range (SSR) and Clan Alpine Mountains (CAM) in western Nevada were tilted (40->90°) by large-magnitude Miocene extension and unconformably overlain by 15-13 Ma intermediate and mafic lava flows. New geologic mapping, geochemistry, and Ar-Ar and U-Pb dating document 2 brief periods of magmatism resulting in 5 nested calderas and related plutons in sections locally ≥9 km thick. Early magmatism at ~29 Ma included the Deep Canyon caldera in CAM, and in the SSR, pre-caldera rhyolites, ~5 km of pre- and post-collapse intermediate lavas and rhyolite tuff that filled Job Canyon caldera (JC, ~29.4 to 28.8 Ma), and the >4-5 km thick IXL pluton (~28.5 Ma) that intruded JC and is compositionally similar to the tuff and lava flows. The second period included 3 ignimbrite units in 3 calderas: small-volume tuff of Louderback Mountains (LM, low-silica rhyolite; ≥600 m thick; ~25.3 Ma); multiple cooling units of tuff of Poco Canyon (PC, high-silica rhyolite; ≤4.5 km thick; ~25.3 Ma); and ≥2500 km3 of tuff of Elevenmile Canyon (EC, trachydacite to rhyolite; ≤4.5 km thick; 25.1 Ma) that covers ~1600 km2 and extends east from SSR to the northern Desatoya Mountains. The composite Freeman Creek pluton (granodiorite, ~25.0 Ma; granite, ~24.8 Ma) and Chalk Mountain rhyolite porphyry (~25.2 Ma) and granite (~24.8 Ma) plutons intruded LM, PC and EC calderas. Radiogenic isotopes in all caldera units are similar (Sri~0.7050, ΕNd~0.0), while oxygen isotope compositions are variable (δ18Oquartz=5.7-8.4‰, δ18Ozircon=4.1-6.3‰), corresponding to a magmatic range of 5.6-7.6‰, including <6‰ values for JC and lower PC rhyolites. U-Pb zircon dating shows homogeneous age populations and few/no xenocrysts or antecrysts. These data show that (1) thick plutons (>2-5 km) underlie compositionally and temporally related caldera-filling ignimbrites, (2) caldera-forming cycles are isotopically variable, requiring

  16. Microbial ecology of á-Proteobacteria ammonia-oxidizers along a concentration gradient of dry atmospheric nitrogen deposition in the San Bernadino Mountain Range.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, F. L.; Fenn, M. E.; Stein, L. Y.

    2002-12-01

    The fate of atmospherically-deposited nitrogen from industrial pollution is of major concern in the montane ecosystems bordering the South Coast California Air Basin. Nitrogen deposition rates in the more exposed regions of the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM) are among the highest in North America often exceeding 40 kg ha-1 year-1 in throughfall deposition of nitrate and ammonium (Fenn and Poth, 1999). Forest ecosystems with elevated N deposition generally exhibit elevated accumulation of soil nitrate, leaching and runoff, elevated emissions of nitrogenous gases, increased nitrification, and decreased litter decomposition rates. The role of nitrifying microbial populations, especially those taxonomically associated with the beta-Proteobacteria ammonia-oxidizers (AOB), will provide insight into nitrogen-cycling in these extremely N-saturated environments. Using 16S ribosomal DNA-based molecular techniques (16S rDNA clone library construction and Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism), we are comparing AOB community diversity at 3 different locations along a natural atmospheric N-deposition concentration gradient in the SBM: from high at Camp Paviaka (CP), medium at Strawberry Peak (SP) to low at Dogwood (DW). As observed for wet N-deposition systems on the east coast, we hypothesized a negative correlation between AOB community diversity, abundance and function with nitrogen loading in the dry N deposition system of SBM. Nitrification potentials determined for the 3 sites along the N-deposition gradient were in the order of CP less than SP less than DW. Preliminary results indicate no correlation between diversity of AOB and increased nitrogen loading. Shannon-Weiner diversity indices calculated for ammonia-oxidizer RFLP group units were 2.22, 2.66 and 1.80 for CP, SP and DW, respectively.

  17. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  18. Evidence for large-magnitude, post-Eocene extension in the northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, and its implications for Carlin-type gold deposits in the lower plate of the Roberts Mountains allochthon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.; John, David A.

    2014-01-01

    The northern Shoshone and Toiyabe Ranges in north-central Nevada expose numerous areas of mineralized Paleozoic rock, including major Carlin-type gold deposits at Pipeline and Cortez. Paleozoic rocks in these areas were previously interpreted to have undergone negligible postmineralization extension and tilting, but here we present new data that suggest major post-Eocene extension along west-dipping normal faults. Tertiary rocks in the northern Shoshone Range crop out in two W-NW–trending belts that locally overlie and intrude highly deformed Lower Paleozoic rocks of the Roberts Mountains allochthon. Tertiary exposures in the more extensive, northern belt were interpreted as subvertical breccia pipes (intrusions), but new field data indicate that these “pipes” consist of a 35.8 Ma densely welded dacitic ash flow tuff (informally named the tuff of Mount Lewis) interbedded with sandstones and coarse volcaniclastic deposits. Both tuff and sedimentary rocks strike N-S and dip 30° to 70° E; the steeply dipping compaction foliation in the tuffs was interpreted as subvertical flow foliation in breccia pipes. The southern belt along Mill Creek, previously mapped as undivided welded tuff, includes the tuff of Cove mine (34.4 Ma) and unit B of the Bates Mountain Tuff (30.6 Ma). These tuffs dip 30° to 50° east, suggesting that their west-dipping contacts with underlying Paleozoic rocks (previously mapped as depositional) are normal faults. Tertiary rocks in both belts were deposited on Paleozoic basement and none appear to be breccia pipes. We infer that their present east tilt is due to extension on west-dipping normal faults. Some of these faults may be the northern strands of middle Miocene (ca. 16 Ma) faults that cut and tilted the 34.0 Ma Caetano caldera ~40° east in the central Shoshone Range (

  19. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  20. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  1. A late Frasnian (Late Devonian) radiolarian, sponge spicule, and conodont fauna from the Slaven Chert, northern Shoshone Range, Roberts Mountains allochthon, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boundy-Sanders, S. Q.; Sandberg, C.A.; Murchey, B.L.; Harris, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Co-occuring conodonts, radiolarians, and sponge spicules from the type locality of the Slaven Chert, northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, indicate that the radiolarian and sponge spicule assemblage described herein correlates with the Late rhenana conodont Zone (late Frasnian). The moderately well preserved radiolarians are the first Frasnian-age fauna described from the Western Hemisphere. They include spumellarians, Ceratoikiscum, and Paleoscenidium, and a radiolarian which we have assigned to a new genus, Durahelenifore Boundy-Sanders and Murchey, with its type species, Durahelenifore robustum Boundy-Sanders and Murchey. Sponge spicules include umbellate microscleres of the Subclass Amphidiscophora, Order Hemidiscosa, previously documented only in Pennsylvanian and younger rocks.

  2. Managing a Scarce Natural Resource: The High Altitude Mountaineering Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewert, Alan

    This study identifies some characteristics of mountaineering visitors, climbers' perceptions of the mountain environment, and certain preferred management options affecting both the mountain environment and the mountaineer on Mt. McKinley and adjacent Alaska Range peaks. Approximately 360 registered climbers were asked to complete a 26-item…

  3. Impact of natural climate change and historical land use on vegetation cover and geomorphological process dynamics in the Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehren, U.; Sattler, D.; Heinrich, J.

    2010-03-01

    The Serra dos Órgãos mountain range in the hinterland of Rio de Janeiro contains extensive remnants of the Atlantic Forest (Mata Atlântica) biome, which once covered about 1.5 million km² from Northeast to South Brazil and further inland to Paraguay and Argentina. As a result of historical deforestation and recent land use intensification processes today only 5 to 8% of the original Atlantic Forest remains. Despite the dramatic habitat loss and a high degree of forest fragmentation, the remnants are among the Earth’s most diverse habitats in terms of species richness. Furthermore, they are characterized by a high level of endemism. Therefore, the biome is considered a "hotspot of biodiversity". In the last years many efforts have been taken to investigate the Mata Atlântica biome in different spatial and time scales and from different scientific perspectives. We are working in the Atlantic Forest of Rio de Janeiro since 2004 and focus in our research particularly on Quaternary landscape evolution and landscape history. By means of landscape and soil archives we reconstruct changes in the landscape system, which are mainly the result of Quaternary climate variability, young tectonic uplift and human impact. The findings throw light on paleoecological conditions in the Late Quaternary and the impact of pre-colonial and colonial land use practices on these landscapes. In this context, a main focus is set on climate and human-driven changes of the vegetation cover and its consequences for the geomorphological process dynamics, in particular erosion and sedimentation processes. Research methods include geomorphological field studies, interpretation of satellite images, physical and chemical sediment and soil analyses as well as relative and absolute dating (Feo/Fed ratio and 14C dating). For the Late Quaternary landscape evolution, the findings are compared with results from paleoclimatic and paloecological investigations in Southeast and South Brazil using other

  4. Human impacts to mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  5. Burial history and thermal maturity, Rocky Mountain front ranges, foothills, and foreland, east-central British Columbia and adjacent Alberta, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Kalkreuth, W.; McMechan, M.

    1988-11-01

    The regional pattern of maturation of Cretaceous strata in the study area was determined from vitrinite-reflectance measurements. Maturation increases from west to east across the Foothills to a maximum near the eastern limit of Foothills deformation and decreases farther east. Maturation along the eastern limit of deformation also decreases northward significantly. Reflectance measurements from Carboniferous strata exposed in the Front Ranges are much lower than values from the Lower Cretaceous near the eastern limit of deformation. Modeling using burial history curves indicates the regional maturation pattern largely reflects variations in the depth and/or duration of burial beneath Maastrichtian-Eocene foredeep deposits. However, differential vertical movements associated with the Peace River arch/embayment in the Carboniferous, Triassic, Early Cretaceous and Maastrichtian-Eocene had an important effect on the maturation pattern. Determined and estimated maturation levels for reservoir strata are consistent with the known occurrences of gas fields and oil pools, except along the relatively unexplored western margin of the study area. There, moderate maturation levels indicate a potential for wet-gas or oil preservation in shallow structures containing Triassic and Lower Carboniferous carbonates in the south. In the north, structures in the western Foothills deforming Triassic strata with lower levels of maturation are breached. 15 figures.

  6. Oxygen and hydrogen isotope evidence for meteoric water infiltration during mylonitization and uplift in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range core complex, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Henry C.; Wickham, Stephen M.; O'Neil, James R.

    1992-06-01

    Stable isotope analyses of rocks and minerals associated with the detachment fault and underlying mylonite zone exposed at Secret Creek gorge and other localities in the Ruby-East Humboldt Range metamorphic core complex in northeastern Nevada provide convincing evidence for meteoric water infiltration during mylonitization. Whole-rock δ18O values of the lower plate quartzite mylonites (≥95% modal quartz) have been lowered by up to 10 per mil compared with structurally lower, compositionally similar, unmylonitized material. Biotite from these rocks has δD values ranging from -125 to -175, compared to values of -55 to-70 in biotite from unmylonitized rocks. Mylonitized leucogranites have large disequilibrium oxygen isotope fractionations ( Δ quartz-feldspar up to ˜8 per mil) relative to magmatic values ( Δ quartz-feldspar˜1 to 2 per mil)). Meteoric water is the only major oxygen and hydrogen reservoir with an isotopic composition capable of generating the observed values. Fluid inclusion water from unstrained quartz in silicified breccia has a δD value of-119 which provides a plausible estimate of the δD of the infiltrating fluid, and is similar to the isotopic composition of present-day and Tertiary local meteoric water. The quartzite mylonite biotites would have been in equilibrium with such a fluid at temperatures of 480 620° C, similar to independent estimates of the temperature of mylonitization. The relatively high temperatures required for isotopic exchange between quartz and water, the occurrence of fluid inclusion trails and deformed veins in quartzite mylonites, and the spatial association of the low-18O, low-D rocks with the shear zone all constrain isotopic exchange to the mylonitic (plastic) deformation event. These observations suggest thata significant amount of meteoric water infiltrated the shear zone during mylonitization to depths of at least 5 to 10 km below the surface. The depth of penetration of meteoric fluids into the lower plate

  7. Association of Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection with population-limiting respiratory disease in free-ranging Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis).

    PubMed

    Besser, Thomas E; Cassirer, E Frances; Potter, Kathleen A; VanderSchalie, John; Fischer, Allison; Knowles, Donald P; Herndon, David R; Rurangirwa, Fred R; Weiser, Glen C; Srikumaran, Subramaniam

    2008-02-01

    Bronchopneumonia is a population-limiting disease in bighorn sheep in much of western North America. Previous investigators have isolated diverse bacteria from the lungs of affected sheep, but no single bacterial species is consistently present, even within single epizootics. We obtained high-quality diagnostic specimens from nine pneumonic bighorn sheep in three populations and analyzed the bacterial populations present in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens of seven by using a culture-independent method (16S rRNA gene amplification and clone library analyses). Mycoplasma ovipneumoniae was detected as a predominant member of the pneumonic lung flora in lambs with early lesions of bronchopneumonia. Specific PCR tests then revealed the consistent presence of M. ovipneumoniae in the lungs of pneumonic bighorn sheep in this study, and M. ovipneumoniae was isolated from lung specimens of five of the animals. Retrospective application of M. ovipneumoniae PCR to DNA extracted from archived formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tissues of historical adult bighorn sheep necropsy specimens supported the association of this agent with bronchopneumonia (16/34 pneumonic versus 0/17 nonpneumonic sheep were PCR positive [P < 0.001]). Similarly, a very strong association was observed between the presence of one or more M. ovipneumoniae antibody-positive animals and the occurrence of current or recent historical bronchopneumonia problems (seropositive animals detected in 9/9 versus 0/9 pneumonic and nonpneumonic populations, respectively [P < 0.001]). M. ovipneumoniae is strongly associated with bronchopneumonia in free-ranging bighorn sheep and is a candidate primary etiologic agent for this disease. PMID:18057131

  8. Air quality at a snowmobile staging area and snow chemistry on and off trail in a Rocky Mountain subalpine forest, Snowy Range, Wyoming.

    PubMed

    Musselman, Robert C; Korfmacher, John L

    2007-10-01

    A study was begun in the winter of 2000-2001 and continued through the winter of 2001-2002 to examine air quality at the Green Rock snowmobile staging area at 2,985 m elevation in the Snowy Range of Wyoming. The study was designed to evaluate the effects of winter recreation snowmobile activity on air quality at this high elevation site by measuring levels of nitrogen oxides (NO( x ), NO), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O(3)) and particulate matter (PM(10) mass). Snowmobile numbers were higher weekends than weekdays, but numbers were difficult to quantify with an infrared sensor. Nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide were significantly higher weekends than weekdays. Ozone and particulate matter were not significantly different during the weekend compared to weekdays. Air quality data during the summer was also compared to the winter data. Carbon monoxide levels at the site were significantly higher during the winter than during the summer. Nitrogen oxides and particulates were significantly higher during the summer compared to winter. Nevertheless, air pollutants were well dispersed and diluted by strong winds common at the site, and it appears that snowmobile emissions did not have a significant impact on air quality at this high elevation ecosystem. Pollutant concentrations were generally low both winter and summer. In a separate study, water chemistry and snow density were measured from snow samples collected on and adjacent to a snowmobile trail. Snow on the trail was significantly denser and significantly more acidic with significantly higher concentrations of sodium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, and sulfate than in snow off the trail. Snowmobile activity had no effect on nitrate levels in snow. PMID:17286173

  9. Spatial modelling of organic carbon in burned mountain soils using hyperspectral images, field datasets and NiR spectroscopy (Cantabrian Range; NW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Susana; Peón, Juanjose; Recondo, Carmen; Calleja, Javier

    2014-05-01

    In the North-West of the Cantabrian Range (north of Spain) the climate is oceanic and vegetation cover is continuous. Nevertheless, in the western part of the territory fires are very common, although small in size; their recurrence affects severely to soil properties. Soil organic matter is seriously affected by fires and suffers changes in stock, composition and distribution. In former researches stocks of oxidizable organic carbon increases in these burnt soils (32 Mg/ha in non-burned in front of 90 Mg/ha of oxidizable carbon measured in burned forest soils); however, biochart compounds, which are typically produced by fires, have not been found in all the fire-affected soils. In order to perfect a cartographic technique to identify areas with increases in soil carbon stocks caused by historical fire management we try to test a technique to transfer spectral calibrated model of soil organic carbon to hyperspectral images (AHS sensor). Total (TOC) and oxidizable carbon (OC) were measured in a population of 89 soil samples. OC mean was 19, 48 with STD 10,32. The samples were scanning with VNIR-SWIR spectrometer (350-2500nm) and chemometric model of OC was calibrated with very high level of adjust (R2 0,85) using Unscrambler 10.3. In order to transfer the chemiometric model to the hyperspectral images the model was recalculated using only the wavelengths present in the hyperspectral images (AHS sensor with cannels in 0,43-1,03;1,55-1,75;1,99-2,54 and 3,3-5,4nm of wavelengths). The most highlighting result was the increase in the adjust of model (R2 0,89) when the wavelengths were restricted between 2200 to 2400 nm. The model was regionalized to a large area using Arc Map 10 and crossing validate with RMSE 10. Finally, in order to analyze the influence of the relief in the OC landscape pattern the slope steepness was considered. Digital Terrain Model with 10m of resolution was used. Those areas with long, steep hillsides covered with heaths have lower amounts of OC

  10. Terrestrial cosmogenic surface exposure dating of glacial and associated landforms in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range of central Nevada and along the northeastern flank of the Sierra Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesnousky, Steven G.; Briggs, Richard W.; Caffee, Marc W.; Ryerson, F. J.; Finkel, Robert C.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2016-09-01

    Deposits near Lamoille in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range of central Nevada and at Woodfords on the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada each record two distinct glacial advances. We compare independent assessments of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) surface exposure ages for glacial deposits that we have determined to those obtained by others at the two sites. At each site, TCN ages of boulders on moraines of the younger advance are between 15 and 30 ka and may be associated with marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 2. At Woodfords, TCN ages of boulders on the moraine of the older advance are younger than ~ 60 ka and possibly formed during MIS 4, whereas boulders on the correlative outwash surface show ages approaching 140 ka (~ MIS 6). The TCN ages of boulders on older glacial moraine at Woodfords thus appear to severely underestimate the true age of the glacial advance responsible for the deposit. The same is possibly true at Lamoille where clasts sampled from the moraine of the oldest advance have ages ranging between 20 and 40 ka with a single outlier age of ~ 80 ka. The underestimations are attributed to the degradation and denudation of older moraine crests. Noting that boulder ages on the older advances at each site overlap significantly with MIS 2. We speculate that erosion of the older moraines has been episodic, with a pulse of denudation accompanying the inception of MIS 2 glaciation.

  11. [Modeling of species distribution using topography and remote sensing data, with vascular plants of the Tukuringra Range low mountain belt (Zeya state Nature Reserve, Amur Region) as a case study].

    PubMed

    Dudov, S V

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of maximum entropy method embedded in MaxEnt software, the cartographic models are designed for spatial distribution of 63 species of vascular plants inhabiting low mountain belt of the Tukuringra Range. Initial data for modeling were actual points of a species occurrence, data on remote sensing (multispectral space snapshots by Landsat), and a digital topographic model. It is found out that the structure of factors contributing to the model is related to species ecological amplitude. The distribution of stenotopic species is determined, mainly, by the topography, which thermal and humidity conditions of habitats are associated with. To the models for eurytopic species, variables formed on the basis of remote sensing contribute significantly, those variables encompassing the parameters of the soil-vegetable cover. In course of the obtained models analyzing, three principal groups of species are revealed that have similar distribution pattern. Species of the first group are restricted in their distribution by the slopes of the. River Zeya and River Giluy gorges. Species of the second group are associated with the southern macroslope of the range and with southern slopes of large rivers' valleys. The third group incorporates those species that are distributed over the whole territory under study. PMID:27266017

  12. 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb Ages and Isotopic Data for Oligocene Ignimbrites, Calderas, and Granitic Plutons, Southern Stillwater Range and Clan Alpine Mountains: Insights into the Volcanic-Plutonic Connection and Crustal Evolution in Western Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, D. A.; Watts, K. E.; Henry, C.; Colgan, J. P.; Cousens, B.

    2014-12-01

    Calderas in the southern Stillwater Range (SSR) and Clan Alpine Mountains (CAM) were formed during the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flareup and subsequently tilted (40->90°) by large-magnitude extension. New geologic mapping, geochemistry, and 40Ar/39Ar and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating document 2 periods of magmatism resulting in 4 nested calderas and related granitoid plutons in sections up to 10 km thick. The first period included pre-caldera rhyolite lava domes (30(?) Ma), ~5 km of pre- and post-collapse intermediate lavas and rhyolite tuff that filled the Job Canyon caldera (~29.4 to 28.8 Ma), and the >4-5 km thick, geochemically similar IXL pluton (28.9±0.4 Ma) that intruded the Job Canyon caldera. The second period included pre-caldera rhyolite lava domes and dikes (~25.5 Ma) and 3 ignimbrite units in 3 calderas: tuff of the Louderback Mountains (low-silica rhyolite; ≥600 m thick; ~25.2 Ma); tuff of Poco Canyon (high-silica rhyolite; up to 4.3 km thick; 25.27±0.05 Ma); and ≥2000 km3 tuff of Elevenmile Canyon (trachydacite to rhyolite; up to 4.5 km thick; 25.12±0.01 Ma). The composite Freeman Creek pluton (granite, 24.8±0.4 Ma; granodiorite, 25.0±0.2 Ma) and Chalk Mountain rhyolite porphyry (25.2±0.2 Ma) and granite (24.8±0.3 Ma) plutons intruded the Poco Canyon and Elevenmile Canyon calderas. Early (30 Ma) rhyolites have the least radiogenic compositions (Sri~0.7040), whereas other units are relatively homogeneous (Sri~0.7050, ENd~0.0). Oxygen isotope compositions for SSR and CAM calderas are highly variable (d18Oquartz=5.6-8.2‰, d18Osanidine=5.5-7.0‰, d18Ozircon= 4.1-6.3‰), corresponding to a magmatic range of 5.7-7.9‰. U-Pb dating of zircons indicates homogeneous age populations and few/no xenocrysts and antecrysts. These data show that (1) thick plutons (>2-5 km) underlie compositionally and temporally related caldera-filling ignimbrites, (2) caldera-forming cycles are isotopically variable, requiring divergent magmatic sources in relatively

  13. Timing of Pleistocene glacial oscillations recorded in the Cantabrian Mountains (North Iberia): correlation of glacial and periglacial sequences from both sides of the range using a multiple-dating method approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Laura; Jiménez-Sánchez, Montserrat; José Domínguez-Cuesta, María; Rinterknecht, Vincent; Pallàs, Raimón; Bourlès, Didier

    2015-04-01

    The Cantabrian Mountains is a coastal mountain range up to 2648 m altitude located at 43oN latitude and directly influenced by the North Atlantic climate oscillations. Although nowadays it is fully deglaciatied, glacial sediments and landforms are clearly preserved elsewhere above 1600 m. Particularly, glacial evidence in the central Cantabrian Mountains suggests the formation of an icefield in the headwaters of the Porma and Esla catchments drained by glaciers up to 1-6 km in length in the northern slope and 19 km-long in the southern slope, with their fronts at minimum altitudes of 900 and 1150 m asl respectively (Rodríguez-Rodríguez et al., 2014). Numerical ages obtained from the base of the Brañagallones ice-dammed deposit and one of the lateral moraines that are damming this deposit suggest that the local glacial maximum was prior to ca 33.5 cal ka BP in the Monasterio Valley (see data compiled in Rodriguez-Rodríguez et al., in press). Currently, our research is focused on developing a full chronology of glacial oscillations in both sides of the range and investigating their paleoclimate significance and relationship with glacial asymmetry through the combined use of surface exposure, OSL and radiocarbon dating methods. In this work, we present 47 10Be surface exposure ages obtained from boulders in moraines, glacial erratic boulders and rock glaciers in the Monasterio and Porma valleys. The glacial record of these valleys was chosen because of: (i) its good preservation state; (ii) the occurrence of a quartz-rich sandstone formation; and (iii) the availability of previous 14C and OSL numerical ages. Sampling sites were selected considering the relative age of glacial stages to cover as complete as possible the history of Pleistocene glaciations in the studied area, from the glacial maximum stage to the prevalence of periglacial conditions. Preliminary results suggest the occurrence of several glacial advances of similar extent at ca 150 - 50 ka followed

  14. [Mountain sickness].

    PubMed

    Bultas, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mountaineering brings many health risks, one of which is mountain sickness. Its mildest form - acute mountain sickness - is mainly characterized by subjective symptoms (headache, loss of appetite, insomnia, weakness, nausea and rarely also vomiting). Advanced and life-threatening forms are characterized by tissue edema - cerebral or pulmonary high altitude edema. The common denominator of these acute forms is the low oxygen tension leading to hypoxemia and tissue ischemia. Sum of maladaptive or adaptive processes can modify the clinical picture. Underlying mechanisms of the chronic forms of pulmonary disease are the adaptation processes - pulmonary hypertension and polycythemia leading to heart failure.The only causal therapeutic intervention is to restore adequate oxygen tension, descend to lower altitudes or oxygen therapy. Pharmacotherapy has only a supportive effect. The prophylaxis includes stimulation of the respiratory center by carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (acetazolamide) antiedematous treatment with glucocorticoids (dexamethasone), increase lymphatic drainage of the lungs and brain by β2-agonists (salmeterol) or mitigation of pulmonary hypertension by calcium channel blockers or phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (sildenafil or tadalafil). PMID:26750624

  15. Uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, E.

    1987-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains, a major continental range, extend approximately 3,000 kilometers, vary from less than 50 to more than 400 kilometers wide, and have elevations of up to 4,500 meters. Earth scientists have generally defined the stratigraphy of the range and recognize that uplift of the region occurred after the Jurassic period but still know very little about the processes that effected uplift. Unlike other major mountain chains, the Transantarctic Mountains show no evidence of thrusting, folding, regional metamorphism, and andesitic volcanism associated with their uplift. The objectives during austral summer 1987-1988 are to map the uplift geometry of the Transantarctic Mountains using erosion surfaces (pre-Devonian Kukir peneplain) and widespread terrace levels as datum planes and to determine the uplift rates for the mountain range using fission-track dating of apatites. Presently, fission-track dating provides only quantitative data on the initiation time, amount, and rate of uplift. Through research, the authors hopes to extend data from Victoria Land through 1,600 kilometers of the Transantarctic Mountains. This study also has implications for the glacial history of Antarctica, because the uplift occurred during the inception, growth, and subsequent fluctuations of the east and west antarctic ice sheets. It will also add to our understanding of the nature of the East-West Antarctic boundary and to the knowledge of the sedimentation history in the Ross embayment and the basins beneath polar plateau.

  16. [Socio-environmental vulnerability, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building: lessons from the earthquake in Haiti and torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil].

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Carlos Machado; de Carvalho, Mauren Lopes; Ximenes, Elisa Francioli; Arraes, Eduardo Fonseca; Gomes, José Orlando

    2012-06-01

    Data on disasters around the world reveal greater seriousness in countries with lower social and economic development levels. In this context, disaster risk-reduction and resilience-building policies are priorities in the sustainable development agenda, featuring among the topics selected for the Rio+20 Summit. By means of a contribution of a conceptual nature and from examples of disasters in countries with different development levels, namely the Haiti earthquake and the torrential rains in the mountain range close to Rio de Janeiro in Brazil, the scope of this article is to demonstrate how socio-environmental vulnerability creates conditions for disasters, while at the same time limiting strategies for their prevention and mitigation. Lastly, some of the measures that disaster risk reduction and resilience-building demand in a socio-environmental vulnerability context are highlighted. These involve changes in the current patterns of social, economic and environmental development geared toward ecological sustainability and social justice as pillars of sustainable development. PMID:22699648

  17. The Natural Thermoluminescence Survey of Antarctic Meteorites: Ordinary Chondrites at the Grosvenor Mountains, MacAlpine Hills, Pecora Escarpment and Queen Alexandra Range, and New Data New Data for the Elephant Moraine, Ice Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    2000-01-01

    chondrites from Grosvenor Mountains (39 meteorites), MacAlpine Hills (70 meteorites), Pecora Escarpment (60 meteorites), and Queen Alexandra Range (173 meteorites) and we have data for a further 101 samples from Elephant Moraine. The results are summarized in Table 1. We also have fairly minimal databases (10-15 meteorites) for Dominion Range, Graves Nunataks, Reckling Peak and Wisconsin Range that will not be discussed here.

  18. The Natural Thermoluminescence Survey of Antarctic Meteorites: Ordinary Chondrites at the Grosvenor Mountains, Macalpine Hills, Pecora Escarpment and Queen Alexandra Range, and New Data for the Elephant Moraine, Ice Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benoit, Paul H.; Sears, Derek W. G.

    1999-01-01

    number of ordinary chondrites from Grosvenor Mountains (39 meteorites), MacAlpine Hills (70 meteorites), Pecora Escarpment (60 meteorites), and Queen Alexandra Range (173 meteorites) and we have data for a further 101 samples from Elephant Moraine. The results are summarized. We also have fairly minimal databases (10-15 meteorites) for Dominion Range, Graves Nunataks, Reckling Peak and Wisconsin Range that will not be discussed here.

  19. 2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  20. Mountain Goats (Oreamnos americanum) at the livestock/wildlife interface: A susceptible species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanum) were first introduced into the East Humboldt and Ruby Mountains of Elko County, Nevada in the 1960’s. These contiguous mountain ranges are also home to introduced Rocky Mountain bighorn sheep and native mule deer and are surrounded by both public and private rang...

  1. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  2. Plight of the Cabinet Mountains grizzlies

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of mineral and petroleum exploration and development and logging on grizzly bears in the Cabinet Mountains region of Montana is discussed. The author points out that such activities might cut the bears off from other bear populations in the Glacier National park and the Bob Marshall Wilderness. It is maintained, that in order for the bears to survive, they must range beyond the Cabinet Mountains and that extensive human activities in the area would damage their range. (JMT)

  3. A sightability model for mountain goats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  4. Recent population trends of mountain goats in the Olympic Mountains, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt J.; Happe, Patricia J.; Beirne, Katherine F.; Hoffman, Roger A.; Griffin, Paul C.; Baccus, William T.; Fieberg, John

    2012-01-01

    Mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) were introduced in Washington's Olympic Mountains during the 1920s. The population subsequently increased in numbers and expanded in range, leading to concerns by the 1970s over the potential effects of non-native mountain goats on high-elevation plant communities in Olympic National Park. The National Park Service (NPS) transplanted mountain goats from the Olympic Mountains to other ranges between 1981 and 1989 as a means to manage overabundant populations, and began monitoring population trends of mountain goats in 1983. We estimated population abundance of mountain goats during 18–25 July 2011, the sixth survey of the time series, to assess current population status and responses of the population to past management. We surveyed 39 sample units, comprising 39% of the 59,615-ha survey area. We estimated a population of 344 ± 72 (90% confidence interval [CI]) mountain goats in the survey area. Retrospective analysis of the 2004 survey, accounting for differences in survey area boundaries and methods of estimating aerial detection biases, indicated that the population increased at an average annual rate of 4.9% since the last survey. That is the first population growth observed since the cessation of population control measures in 1990. We postulate that differences in population trends observed in western, eastern, and southern sections of the survey zone reflected, in part, a variable influence of climate change across the precipitation gradient in the Olympic Mountains.

  5. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a type of bacteria carried by ticks. ... Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. The ...

  6. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  7. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000654.htm Rocky Mountain spotted fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a ...

  8. Influence of mountains on Arctic tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabrook, Jeffrey; Whiteway, James

    2016-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone was measured above Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic during spring of 2008 using a differential absorption lidar. The observations were carried out at Eureka Weather Station, which is located between various mountain ranges. Analysis of the observations revealed that mountains had a significant effect on the vertical distribution of ozone. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletions were not observed during periods when mountains blocked the flow of air from over the sea ice. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the midtroposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies from spring of 2008 are described.

  9. Preliminary results of chronostratigraphic field work, OSL-dating and morphogenetic reconstruction of an alluvial apron at Alborz southern foothill, Damghan basin, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büdel, Christian; Fuchs, Markus; Majid Padashi, Seyed; Baumhauer, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Here we present preliminary results of a chronostratigraphic study of an alluvial fan in the Damghan Basin, northern Iran. The basin sediments date back to the Mio- and Pliocene and therefore represent the starting point of alluvial fan aggradation. Today, the still active alluvial fans prograde from the Albors Mountain ranges and sit on the older sediment bodies. In this study, our focus is on the late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial fan sedimentation history. The upper stratigraphy of the alluvial fans and intercalated lake deposits is characterized by six individual layers of gravels and fines, representing six different stratigraphic units. These units are described and classified by detailed geomorphological and stratigraphic mapping. To establish an alluvial fan chronology, six profiles were sampled for OSL dating. As expected, due to the high-energy transport system of alluvial fan aggradation in semi-desert environments, OSL dating of these sediments is challenging due to the problem of insufficient bleaching. Consequently, most of the samples are interpreted as maximum ages. However, the measurements show a consistent internal age structure and the overall OSL-based chronology is in agreement with the age model derived from our geomorphological analysis. As a first interpretation, based on surveyed geomorphological features and chronological analysis, we could identify seven morphodynamic phases, leading to a genetic model of alluvial fan aggradation. The oldest Pleistocene age estimate is derived from a former lake terrace. The following ages represent ongoing lake sediment deposition and the development of a proximal and mid-fan gravel cover. After the youngest lake deposits were accumulated within the Holocene, the lake starts to retreat and small alluvial fans are filling up the former lake bottom. This last sedimentation phase can be divided in at least two sub-phases, probably coupled to a lateral shifting of the active depositional lobe and to the

  10. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  11. Spatial and seasonal variations of atmospheric organochlorine pesticides along the plain-mountain transect in central China: Regional source vs. long-range transport and air-soil exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Chengkai; Xing, Xinli; Albanese, Stefano; Doherty, Angela; Huang, Huanfang; Lima, Annamaria; Qi, Shihua; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2015-12-01

    Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers (PAS) were deployed to measure spatiality and seasonality of atmospheric OCPs in Jianghan Plain (JHP) and Western Hubei Mountain (WHM), to make a preliminary explorative study of the source-sink relationship of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and their association with the monsoon. The concentrations of individual OCPs in the JHP were generally higher than those in the WHM. Significantly high levels of DDTs and Endosulfan were found in the spring and summer, HCB was found in autumn and winter, and HCHs displayed uniform distributions. Compared with the levels of 2005, a significant decrease of atmospheric HCHs, DDTs and HCB was observed, whereas an increase in Endosulfan was observed. The air-soil equilibrium status of OCPs suggested that Dajiuhu (DJH) soils are likely to be a sink for OCPs, and JHP soils are acting as the emitter, contaminating the atmosphere at certain monitoring stations. Backward air trajectory analysis demonstrated that the seasonal fluctuation of atmospheric DDTs, HCB and Endosulfan at the DJH site were closely associated with the variations of the East Asian monsoon.

  12. MARBLE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.; Hale, William N.

    1984-01-01

    The Marble Mountain Wilderness is located in the north-central Klamath Mountains of northern California. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral investigations indicate that the wilderness has areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for placer gold, for chromite, and for marble. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

  13. The current evolution of complex high mountain debris-covered glacier systems and its relation with ground ice nature and distribution: the case of Rognes and Pierre Ronde area (Mont-Blanc range, France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosson, Jean-Baptiste; Lambiel, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    The current climate forcing, through negative glacier mass balance and rockfall intensification, is leading to the rapid burring of many small glacier systems. When the debris mantle exceeds some centimeters of thickness, the climate control on ice melt is mitigated and delayed. As well, debris-covered glaciers respond to climate forcing in a complex way. This situation is emphasised in high mountain environments, where topo-climatic conditions, such as cold temperatures, amount of solid precipitation, duration of snow cover, nebulosity or shadow effect of rockwalls, limit the influence of rising air temperatures in the ground. Beside, due to Holocene climate history, glacier-permafrost interactions are not rare within the periglacial belt. Glacier recurrence may have removed and assimilated former ice-cemented sediments, the negative mass balance may have led to the formation of ice-cored rock glaciers and neopermafrost may have formed recently under cold climate conditions. Hence, in addition to sedimentary ice, high mountain debris-covered glacier systems can contain interstitial magmatic ice. Especially because of their position at the top of alpine cascade systems and of the amount of water and (unconsolidated) sediment involved, it is important to understand and anticipate the evolution of these complex landforms. Due to the continuous and thick debris mantle and to the common existence of dead ice in deglaciated areas, the current extent of debris-covered glacier can be difficult to point out. Thus, the whole system, according to Little Ice Age (LIA) extent, has sometimes to be investigated to understand the current response of glacier systems to the climate warming. In this context, two neighbouring sites, Rognes and Pierre Ronde systems (45°51'38''N, 6°48'40''E; 2600-3100m a.s.l), have been studied since 2011. These sites are almost completely debris-covered and only few ice outcrops in the upper slopes still witness the existence of former glaciers

  14. Precipitation and Runoff Simulations of the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains, and Updated Estimates of Ground-Water Inflow and the Ground-Water Budgets for Basin-Fill Aquifers of Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, Nevada, and California, from the adjacent Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains ranged from 22,000 to 40,000 acre-feet per year using water-yield and chloride-balance methods. In this study, watershed models were developed for watersheds with perennial streams and for watersheds with ephemeral streams in the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains to provide an independent estimate of ground-water inflow. This report documents the development and calibration of the watershed models, presents model results, compares the results with recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, and presents updated estimates of the ground-water budget for basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley. The model used for the study was the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Geographic Information System software was used to manage spatial data, characterize model drainages, and to develop Hydrologic Response Units. Models were developed for * Two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Carson Range and two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Pine Nut Mountains using measured daily mean runoff, * Ten watersheds with ungaged perennial streams using estimated daily mean runoff, * Ten watershed with ungaged ephemeral streams in the Carson Range, and * A large area of ephemeral runoff near the Pine Nut Mountains. Models developed for the gaged watersheds were used as index models to guide the calibration of models for ungaged watersheds. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for 4 gaged watersheds and for 10 ungaged watersheds in the Carson Range estimated in a previous study. The models were further constrained by annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study to provide

  15. Habitat selection by mountain plovers in shortgrass steppe

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much of the breeding range of the mountain plover occurs in shortgrass steppe and mixed-grass prairie in the western Great Plains of North America. Studies of mountain plovers in shortgrass steppe during the 1970s and 1990s focused on public lands in Weld County, Colorado, which were considered to ...

  16. Mountaineering fatalities on Denali.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott E; Campbell, Aaron D; Dow, Jennifer; Grissom, Colin K

    2008-01-01

    Mount McKinley, or Denali, is the tallest mountain in North America and attracts over 1,000 climbers annually from around the world. Since Denali is located within a national park, the National Park Service (NPS) manages mountaineering activities and attempts to maintain a balance of an adventurous experience while promoting safety. We retrospectively reviewed the fatalities on Denali from 1903 to 2006 to assist the NPS, medical personnel, and mountaineers improve safety and reduce fatalities on the mountain. Historical records and the NPS climber database were reviewed. Demographics, mechanisms, and circumstances surrounding each fatality were examined. Fatality rates and odds ratios for country of origin were calculated. From 1903 through the end of the 2006 climbing season, 96 individuals died on Denali. The fatality rate is declining and is 3.08/1,000 summit attempts. Of the 96 deaths, 92% were male, 51% occurred on the West Buttress route, and 45% were due to injuries sustained from falls. Sixty-one percent occurred on the descent and the largest number of deaths in 1 year occurred in 1992. Climbers from Asia had the highest odds of dying on the mountain. Fatalities were decreased by 53% after a NPS registration system was established in 1995. Although mountaineering remains a high-risk activity, safety on Denali is improving. Certain groups have a significantly higher chance of dying. Registration systems and screening methods provide ways to target at-risk groups and improve safety on high altitude mountains such as Denali. PMID:18331224

  17. Mountain goat abundance and population trends in the Olympic Mountains, Washington, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt; Happe, Patricia; Griffin, Paul C.; Beirne, Katherine; Hoffman, Roger; Baccus, William

    2011-01-01

    We conducted an aerial helicopter survey between July 18 and July 25, 2011, to estimate abundance and trends of introduced mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in the Olympic Mountains. The survey was the first since we developed a sightability correction model in 2008, which provided the means to estimate the number of mountain goats present in the surveyed areas and not seen during the aerial surveys, and to adjust for undercounting biases. Additionally, the count was the first since recent telemetry studies revealed that the previously defined survey zone, which was delineated at lower elevations by the 1,520-meter elevation contour, did not encompass all lands used by mountain goats during summer. We redefined the lower elevation boundary of survey units before conducting the 2011 surveys in an effort to more accurately estimate the entire mountain goat population. We surveyed 39 survey units, comprising 39 percent of the 59,615-hectare survey area. We estimated a mountain goat population of 344±44 (standard error, SE) in the expanded survey area. Based on this level of estimation uncertainty, the 95-percent confidence interval ranged from 258 to 430 mountain goats at the time of the survey. To permit comparisons of mountain goat populations between the 2004 and 2011 surveys, we recomputed population estimates derived from the 2004 survey using the newly developed bias correction methods, and we computed the 2004 and 2011 surveys based on comparable survey zone definitions (for example, using the boundaries of the 2004 survey). The recomputed estimates of mountain goat populations were 217±19 (SE) in 2004 and 303±41(SE) in 2011. The difference between the current 2011 population estimate (344±44[SE]) and the recomputed 2011 estimate (303±41[SE]) reflects the number of mountain goats counted in the expanded lower elevation portions of the survey zone added in 2011. We conclude that the population of mountain goats has increased in the Olympic Mountains at

  18. Environmental geochemical study of Red Mountain--an undisturbed volcanogenic massive sulfide deposit in the Bonnifield District, Alaska range, east-central Alaska: Chapter I in Recent U.S. Geological Survey studies in the Tintina Gold Province, Alaska, United States, and Yukon, Canada--results of a 5-year project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Giles, Stuart A.; Gough, Larry P.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2007-01-01

    Water samples with the lowest pH values, highest specific conductances, and highest major- and trace-element concentrations are from springs and streams within the quartz-sericite-pyrite alteration zone. Aluminum, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Y, and particularly Zn and the REEs are all found in high concentrations, ranging across four orders of magnitude. Waters collected upstream from the alteration zone have near-neutral pH values, lower specific conductances, lower metal concentrations, and measurable alkalinities. Water samples collected downstream of the alteration zone have pH values and metal concentrations intermediate between these two extremes. Stream sediments are anomalous in Zn, Pb, S, Fe, Cu, As, Co, Sb, and Cd relative to local and regional background abundances. Red Mountain Creek and its tributaries do not support, and probably never have supported, significant megascopic faunal aquatic life.

  19. Work plan and sampling and analysis plan for interim remedial actions for Indian Mountain Long Range Radar Station, Elmendorf AFB, Alaska. Addendum to RI/FS work plan (July 1994) and sampling and analysis plan (July 1994). Final report, 1 May-13 July 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-13

    The purpose of the report is to describe and detail the activities to be conducted as part of the Interim Remedial Action at Indian Mountain Long Range Radar Station, Alaska. Section 1.0 provides introduction and background information, and states the objectives for the work. Section 2.0 describes the interim remedial action, including construction specifications. Section 3.0 details the description and construction of the containment cell. Additional characterization of Source Areas SS02, SS10, OT08, SS11 and SS09 is described in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 provides information regarding decontamination and waste management procedures. Sections 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0 provide information on project organization and schedule, reporting, and references, respectively.

  20. SANDIA MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedlund, D.C.; Kness, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations in the Sandia Mountains in New Mexico indicate that a small part of the area has a probable mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineral occurrences are small barite-fluorite veins that occur along faults on the eastern slope of the range. The barite veins in the Landsend area and in the Tunnel Spring area are classed as having a probable mineral-resource potential. Fluorite veins which occur at the La Luz mine contain silver-bearing galeana and the area near this mine is regarded as having a probable resource potential for silver. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  1. Mountain-Top Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussen, John P.

    1976-01-01

    Described is the Talcott Mountain Science Center for Student Involvement, Inc., near Hartford, Connecticut, and the programs in natural science offered at the facility and by center personnel in local schools. (SL)

  2. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... If you have fluid in your lungs (pulmonary edema), treatment may include: Oxygen A high blood pressure ...

  3. Petroleum occurrences associated with Uinta mountains, Utah and Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Osmond, J.C.

    1984-07-01

    The Uinta Mountains in northeastern Utah and northwestern Colorado are among the rare major structures in the western United States with east-west trends. The east-west trend may have an ancestry in a Precambrian aulacogen and a lower Paleozoic arch. The area was quiescent until the Paleocene or Eocene when the mountain block began to rise and the basins on the trending arches formed during the Cretaceous, and it uplifted the belt of Sevier-Laramide overthrusts. The eastern part of the mountain block collapsed during the mid-Tertiary. The range is an anticline with a core of Precambrian metasediments and steeply dipping Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks on the flanks. Tertiary debris from the mountains overlaps onto older rocks. Anticlines along the flanks of the mountains produce oil and gas from Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks. Stratigraphic traps on the structures cut by the mountain block are enhanced by the intersection, and they produce from Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks. Uplift of the mountains was important in creating unconformity and stratigraphic traps in several oil and gas fields and in bituminous sand deposits. Geophysical work and drilling have shown the flanks of the mountains to be thrust over or to overhand the adjacent basins. The numerous structural intersections, overhanging flanks, and the facies changes caused by the Uinta Mountains provide good opportunities for continued exploration and success.

  4. Geological map of Bare Mountain, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Monsen, S.A.; Carr, M.D.; Reheis, M.C.; Orkild, P.P.

    1992-12-31

    Bare Mountain comprises the isolated complex of mountain peaks southeast of the town of Beatty in southern Nye County, Nevada. This small mountain range lies between the alluvial basins of Crater Flat to the east and the northern Amargosa Desert to the southwest. The northern boundary of the range is less well defined, but for this report, the terrane of faulted Miocene volcanic rocks underlying Beatty Mountain and the unnamed hills to the east are considered to be the northernmost part of Bare Mountain. The southern tip of the mountain range is at Black Marble, the isolated hill at the southeast corner of the map. The main body of the range, between Fluorspar Canyon and Black Marble, is a folded and complexly faulted, but generally northward-dipping (or southward-dipping and northward-overturned), sequence of weakly to moderately metamorphosed upper Proterozoic and Paleozoic marine strata, mostly miogeoclinal (continental shelf) rocks. The geology of Bare Mountain is mapped at a scale of 1:24,000.

  5. Characterization of microsatellite loci isolated in Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, J. St; Kysela, R.F.; Oyler-McCance, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Primers for 15 microsatellite loci were developed for Mountain Plover, a species whose distribution and abundance have been reduced drastically in the past 30 years. In a screen of 126 individuals collected from four breeding locales across the species' range, levels of polymorphism ranged from two to 13 alleles per locus. No two loci were found to be linked, although one locus revealed significant departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. These microsatellite loci can be used in population genetic studies, ultimately aiding in management efforts for Mountain Plover. Additionally, these markers can potentially be used in studies investigating the mating system of Mountain Plover. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. High altitude pulmonary edema in mountain climbers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Nitsch-Osuch, Aneta; Guzek, Aneta; Juszczak, Dariusz

    2015-04-01

    Every year thousands of ski, trekking or climbing fans travel to the mountains where they stay at the altitude of more than 2500-3000m above sea level or climb mountain peaks, often exceeding 7000-8000m. High mountain climbers are at a serious risk from the effects of adverse environmental conditions prevailing at higher elevations. They may experience health problems resulting from hypotension, hypoxia or exposure to low temperatures; the severity of those conditions is largely dependent on elevation, time of exposure as well as the rate of ascent and descent. A disease which poses a direct threat to the lives of mountain climbers is high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE). It is a non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema which typically occurs in rapidly climbing unacclimatized lowlanders usually within 2-4 days of ascent above 2500-3000m. It is the most common cause of death resulting from the exposure to high altitude. The risk of HAPE rises with increased altitude and faster ascent. HAPE incidence ranges from an estimated 0.01% to 15.5%. Climbers with a previous history of HAPE, who ascent rapidly above 4500m have a 60% chance of illness recurrence. The aim of this article was to present the relevant details concerning epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical symptoms, prevention, and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema among climbers in the mountain environment. PMID:25291181

  7. Possible uranium mineralization, Mineral Mountains, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, W. Roger; McHugh, John B.; Ficklin, Walter H.

    1979-01-01

    The Mineral Mountains block in west-central Utah is a horst whose core stands structurally high relative to all nearby basin-and-range fault blocks. Rocks of the Mineral Mountains range from Precambrian to Quaternary in age, but mostly consist of Tertiary granitic rocks. The range lies with the Wah Wah-Tusher mineral belt. Lead, silver, gold, and tungsten have been mined commercially. During a geochemical survey conducted in the summer of 1978, 30 water samples and 29 stream-sediment samples were collected from the Mineral Mountains area. The interpretation of simple plots of uranium concentrations and the results of a Q-mode factor analysis indicate that potential exists for uranium mineral deposits within the Mineral Mountains. The most favorable areas are in the granitic pluton near its contacts with sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The most likely source of the uranium anomalies is uraninite-bearing epigenic veins along faults and fractures within the pluton. Three hypothetical models are proposed to account for the uranium mineralization.

  8. Mountain Home Well - Photos

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-01-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  9. The oldest know Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata Engelm. )

    SciTech Connect

    Brunstein, F.C. ); Yamaguchi, D.K. )

    1992-08-01

    We have found 12 living Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines (Pinus aristata) more than 1600 yr old, including four that are more than 2 1 00 yr old, on Black Mountain, near South Park, and on Almagre Mountain, in the southern Front Range, Colorado. A core from the oldest of these trees has an inner-ring date of 442 B.C. This tree is therefore at least 2435 yr old and exceeds the age of the oldest previously reported Rocky Mountain bristlecone pine by 846 yr, The ages of these trees show that Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, under arid environmental conditions, achieve much older ages than have been previously reported. The ages also show that previously inferred trends in bristlecone pine ages, where maximum ages in the eastern range of Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines are much less than maximum ages in the western range of Great Basin bristlecone pines (Pinus longaea), are less strong than previously supposed. Ancient Rocky Mountain bristlecone pines, such as those found in this study, have the potential to expand our knowledge of late Holocene climatic conditions in western North America.

  10. A new network on mountain geomorphosites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giusti, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Since about two decades, the value of geoheritage in mountain areas has been re-discovered in various parts of the Alps (Reynard et al., 2010) and other mountain ranges, and various initiatives (protection of sites worthy of protection, inventories of geomorphosites, geotourist promotion, creation of geoparks, etc.) to conserve or promote mountain geoheritage have been developed. As mountains are recognized as natural areas with a very high geodiversity, and at the same time as areas with a great potential for the development of soft tourism, a new Network on Mountain Geomorphosites was created in October 2012 in conclusion to a workshop organized by the University of Lausanne (Switzerland). The Network is open to all researchers active in geoheritage, geoconservation and geotourism studies in mountain areas. For the first years research will focus on three main issues: - Geoheritage and natural processes: Mountains are very sensitive areas where climate change impacts are very acute and where active geomorphological processes rapidly modify landscapes. It is hypothesized that geoheritage will be highly impacted by global change in the future. Nevertheless, at the moment, very little research is carried out on the evolution of landforms recognized as geoheritage and no specific management measures have been developed. Also, the tourist activities related to geoheritage, especially the trails developed to visit geomorphosites, are sensitive to geomorphological processes in mountain areas in a context of global change, and need, therefore, to be better addressed by geomorphologists. - Geotourism: During the last two decades numerous initiatives have developed geotourism in mountain areas. Nevertheless, studies addressing issues such as the needs of the potential public(s) of geotourism, the evaluation of the quality of the geotourist products developed by scientists and/or local authorities, and the assessment of the economic benefits of geotourism for the regional

  11. Biogeographical and evolutionary importance of the European high mountain systems

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Europe is characterised by several high mountain systems dominating major parts of its area, and these structures have strongly influenced the evolution of taxa. For species now restricted to these high mountain systems, characteristic biogeographical patterns of differentiation exist. (i) Many local endemics are found in most of the European high mountain systems especially in the Alps and the more geographically peripheral regions of Europe. Populations isolated in these peripheral mountain ranges often have strongly differentiated endemic genetic lineages, which survived and evolved in the vicinity of these mountain areas over long time periods. (ii) Populations of taxa with wide distributions in the Alps often have two or more genetic lineages, which in some cases even have the status of cryptic species. In many cases, these lineages are the results of several centres of glacial survival in the perialpine areas. Similar patterns also apply to the other geographically extended European high mountain systems, especially the Pyrenees and Carpathians. (iii) Populations from adjoining high mountain systems often show similar genetic lineages, a phenomenon best explained by postglacial retreat to these mountains from one single differentiation centre between them. (iv) The populations of a number of species show gradients of genetic diversity from a genetically richer East to a poorer West. This might indicate better glacial survival conditions for this biogeographical group of species in the more eastern parts of Europe. PMID:19480666

  12. Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This is a compilation of petrographic slides detailing the microstructure and petrographic character of the tuff deposits associated with the Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. It describes crystal structures, clay alterations, and mineral associations. The paper contains a description of the petrographic thin-sections but contains no narrative or conclusions of what the slides suggest with regards to the facility.

  13. DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

  14. The Strongest Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnes, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

  15. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  16. Collision and mountain building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, V. G.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial, chronological, and genetic relationships of recent (Late Alpine) collisions to mountain building are considered at three levels of scale: (i) in separate zones of the Arabian-Caucasus segment of the Alpine-Himalayan Orogenic Belt, (ii) throughout the central segment of this belt from the Alps to the Himalalayas, and (iii) in Central Asia and other mountain belts of continents. Three stages of mountain building are distinguished at all three levels. The first stage starts with widespread collision and similar plate interactions from the end of the Eocene to the middle Miocene and is expressed in the formation of uplifts, commonly no higher than the moderately elevated level in regions that concentrate deformations of transverse shortening induced by compression. The second short stage, which embraces the Pliocene-Quaternary and occasionally the end of the Miocene, differs in general, though differentiated in the value and intensification of vertical movements, when the height of mountains increases by 2-3 times. Elevations are spread over certain platform territories and even frameworks of rift zones. This is related not so much to the intensity of compression and shortening as to the compositional transformation of the upper mantle and the lower crust, leading to their decompaction. Comparison with the Hercynian and Caledonian orogenic stages shows that the second phase, predetermined by widespread collision, reflects a more important geodynamic event expressed in a change of the global plate interaction system and its deep-seated sources.

  17. Rocky Mountain Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutkiewicz, Jody Steiner, Ed.

    This publication features articles detailing the state of educational programs in the Rocky Mountain area. The articles address: 1) the impact of physical geography on culture, education, and lifestyle; 2) the education of migrant and/or agricultural workers and their children; 3) educational needs of children in rural areas; 4) outdoor education;…

  18. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  19. [Mountaineering and altitude sickness].

    PubMed

    Maggiorini, M

    2001-06-01

    Almost every second trekker or climber develops two to three symptoms of the high altitude illness after a rapid ascent (> 300 m/day) to an altitude above 4000 m. We distinguish two forms of high altitude illness, a cerebral form called acute mountain sickness and a pulmonary form called high altitude pulmonary edema. Essentially, acute mountain sickness is self-limiting and benign. Its symptoms are mild to moderate headache, loss of appetite, nausea, dizziness and insomnia. Nausea rarely progresses to vomiting, but if it does, this may anticipate a progression of the disease into the severe form of acute mountain sickness, called high altitude cerebral edema. Symptoms and signs of high altitude cerebral edema are severe headache, which is not relieved by acetaminophen, loss of movement coordination, ataxia and mental deterioration ending in coma. The mechanisms leading to acute mountain sickness are not very well understood; the loss of cerebral autoregulation and a vasogenic type of cerebral edema are being discussed. High altitude pulmonary edema presents in roughly twenty percent of the cases with mild symptoms of acute mountain sickness or even without any symptoms at all. Symptoms associated with high altitude pulmonary edema are incapacitating fatigue, chest tightness, dyspnoe at the minimal effort that advances to dyspnoe at rest and orthopnoe, and a dry non-productive cough that progresses to cough with pink frothy sputum due to hemoptysis. The hallmark of high altitude pulmonary edema is an exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Successful prophylaxis and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema using nifedipine, a pulmonary vasodilator, indicates that pulmonary hypertension is crucial for the development of high altitude pulmonary edema. The primary treatment of high altitude illness consists in improving hypoxemia and acclimatization. For prophylaxis a slow ascent at a rate of 300 m/day is recommended, if symptoms persist, acetazolamide at a

  20. The Geologic Story of the Uinta Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1969-01-01

    The opening of the West after the Civil War greatly stimulated early geologic exploration west of the 100th Meridian. One of the areas first studied, the Uinta Mountains region, gained wide attention as a result of the explorations of three Territorial Surveys, one headed by John Wesley Powell, one by Clarence King, and one by Ferdinand V. Hayden. Completion of the Union Pacific Railroad across southern Wyoming 100 years ago, in 1869, materially assisted geologic exploration, and the railheads at Green River and Rock Springs greatly simplified the outfitting of expeditions into the mountains. The overlap of the Powell, King, and Hayden surveys in the Uinta Mountains led to efforts that were less concerted than competitive and not without acrimony. Many parts of the area were seen by all three parties at almost the same time. Duplication was inevitable, of course, but all three surveys contributed vast quantities of new knowledge to the storehouse of geology, and many now-basic concepts arose from their observations. Powell's area of interest extended mainly southward from the Uinta Mountains to the Grand Canyon, including the boundless plateaus and canyons of southern Utah and northern Arizona. King's survey extended eastward from the High Sierra in California to Cheyenne, Wyoming, and encompassed a swath of country more than 100 miles wide. Hayden's explorations covered an immense region of mountains and basins from Yellowstone Park in Wyoming southeast throughout most of Colorado. Powell first entered the Uinta Mountains in the fall of 1868, having traveled north around the east end of the range from the White River country to Green River, Wyoming, then south over a circuitous route to Flaming Gorge and Browns Park, and finally back to the White River, where he spent the winter. In 1869, after reexamining much of the area visited the previous season, Powell embarked on his famous 'first boat trip' down the Green and Colorado Rivers. This trip was more exploratory

  1. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaobo

    2007-06-01

    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  2. Thrust faults of southern Diamond Mountains, central Nevada: Implications for hydrocarbons in Diamond Valley and at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    French, D.E.

    1993-04-01

    Overmature Mississippian hydrocarbon source rocks in the southern Diamond Mountains have been interpreted to be a klippe overlying less mature source rocks and represented as an analogy to similar conditions near Yucca Mountain (Chamberlain, 1991). Geologic evidence indicates an alternative interpretation. Paleogeologic mapping indicates the presence of a thrust fault, referred to here as the Moritz Nager Thrust Fault, with Devonian rocks emplaced over Permian to Mississippian strata folded into an upright to overturned syncline, and that the overmature rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in the footwall of this thrust. The upper plate has been eroded from most of the Diamond Mountains but remnants are present at the head of Moritz Nager Canyon and at Sentinel Mountain. Devonian rocks of the upper plate comprised the earliest landslide megabreccia. Later, megabreccias of Pennsylvanian and Permian rocks of the overturned syncline of the lower plate were deposited. By this interpretation the maturity of lower-plate source rocks in the southern Diamond Mountains, which have been increased by tectonic burial, is not indicative of conditions in Diamond Valley, adjacent to the west, where upper-plate source rocks might be present in generating conditions. The interpretation that overmature source rocks of the Diamond Mountains are in a lower plate rather than in a klippe means that this area is an inappropriate model for the Eleana Range near Yucca Mountain.

  3. [Death by avalanche in the minor mountain range].

    PubMed

    Geisenberger, Dorothee; Kramer, Lena; Pircher, Rebecca; Pollak, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    On 30 Jan 2015, two avalanche accidents happened in the Black Forest (at the foot of the 1493 m high Feldberg and the Herzogenhorn situated next to it), in which experienced ski tourers--a 58-year-old woman and a 20-year-old man--were completely buried by snow masses. Both victims were recovered dead after nearly 2 hours under the snow. The avalanches were promoted by strong snowfalls, snowdrift by the wind and steep downwind slopes. One of the victims, the 20-year-old man, underwent a forensic autopsy. The findings suggested death by protracted asphyxiation with agonal hypothermia. A mechanical traumatization with internal injuries suspected by the emergency doctor at the scene could not be confirmed at autopsy. The possible causes of death in the avalanche are discussed using the reported case as an example and in reference to the relevant literature. PMID:26548036

  4. Tabletop Tectonics: Diverse Mountain Ranges Using Flour and Graphite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, D. M.

    2006-12-01

    It has been recognized for some time that the frontal deformation zones where plates converge (foreland fold- and-thrust belts on continents and accretionary wedges at subduction zones) involve shortening over a decoupling layer, or decollement. A simple but successful way of explaining many aspects of their behavior is called the critical Coulomb wedge model, which regards these contractional wedges as analogous to the wedge-shaped mass of soil accreted in front of a bulldozer, or the wedge of snow that piles up in front of a snow plow. The shape and deformation history of the accreted wedge of soil or snow will depend upon the frictional strength of the material being plowed up and the surface over which it is being plowed. The same is true of `bulldozer' wedges consisting of many km thick piles of sediment at convergent plate margins. Using flour (or powdered milk), sandpaper, graphite, transparency sheets, and athletic field marker chalk, manipulated with sieves, brushes, pastry bags and blocks and sheets of wood, it is possible to demonstrate a wide variety of processes and tectonic styles observed at convergent plate boundaries. Model fold-and-thrust belts that behave like natural examples with a decollement that is strong (e.g., in rock without high pore fluid pressure) or weak (e.g., in a salt horizon or with elevated pore fluid pressure) can be generated simply by placing wither sandpaper or graphite beneath the flour that is pushed across the tabletop using a block of wood (the strong basement and hiterland rocks behind the fold-thrust belt). Depending upon the strength of the decollement, the cross-sectional taper of the deforming wedge will be thin or broad, the internal deformation mild or intense, and the structures either close to symmetric or strongly forward-vergent, just as at the analogous natural fold-thrust belts. Including a horizontal sheet of wood or Plexiglas in front of the pushing block allows generation of an accretionary wedge, outer-are high, and forearc basin, just as over a subduction zone. Any dark material emplaced (a pastry bag works well) atop the experiment before deformation in the form of football-field `hash marks' every 10 cm allows for easy calculation of strain distribution at any time during or after the experiment. Finally, the entire orogen can be excavated using a plastic photocopier transparency sheet. If the original set-up included occasional thin layers of red and blue field marker chalk within sedimentary column (the rest of which consists of white flour or powdered milk), excavation reveals (quite colorfully) many internal details of the fold-thrust belts that have been generated.

  5. Western Mountain Initiative: predicting ecosystem responses to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.; Peterson, David L.; Wilson, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems of the western United States provide irreplaceable goods and services such as water, timber, biodiversity, and recreational opportunities, but their responses to climatic changes are complex and not well understood. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI), a collaboration between USGS and U.S. Forest Service scientists, catalyzes assessment and synthesis of the effects of disturbance and climate change across western mountain areas, focusing on national parks and surrounding national forests. The WMI takes an ecosystem approach to science, integrating research across science disciplines at scales ranging from field studies to global trends.

  6. The Mysterious Martian Mountains of Mitchel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image covers an 800 by 300 km (500 by 190 mi) area located deep within the boundary of the seasonal south polar frost cap of Mars. Centered at 70oS, 320oW, this view--taken in early spring when sunlight has just begun to shine on the region for the first time in many months--includes a bright region (diagonal from center-left to lower right) known for nearly two centuries as the 'Mountains of Mitchel.' This feature was named for Ormsby McKnight Mitchel (1809-1862), an astronomer at the University of Cincinnati, Ohio, who discovered it while observing Mars through a telescope in 1846. Mitchel noticed that this area is typically 'left behind' as a bright peninsula when the rest of the polarcap recedes past this area later in the spring.

    Mitchel deduced that this area might be mountainous because it seemed analogous to the snow that is left on Earth's mountain ranges in late spring and into summer. Snow can remain on high peaks because the air temperature decreases with elevation (or altitude). MGS Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) observations of this region show the bright 'Mountains of Mitchel' to be a somewhat elevated region of rough, heavily cratered southern highlands. However, the 'Mountains of Mitchel' do not appear to be mountains-there are other areas nearby at similar elevation that do not retain frost well into southern spring. Part of the Mountains of Mitchel feature includes a prominent, south-facing scarp (at center-left) that would tend to retain frost longer in the spring because it is somewhat protected from sunlight (which comes from the north). The persistence of frost on the Mountains of Mitchel remains mysterious, but new observations from the MGS MOC are helping to unravel the story. Thus far, it seems that the frost here--for whatever reason--tends to be brighter than frost in most other places within the polar cap. This brighter frost reflects sunlight and thus sublimes more

  7. Mountain wave-induced turbulence: Elevated turbulence zones over a double mountain ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strauss, Lukas; Grubišić, Vanda; Serafin, Stefano

    2015-04-01

    In their seminal 1974 paper on "Lower Turbulent Zones Associated with Mountain Lee Waves", P. F. Lester and W. A. Fingerhut attempted to characterize regions of low-level turbulence in the lee of mountain ranges, using in situ measurements by research aircraft. Their "Lower Turbulent Zones" (LTZs), associated with large-amplitude mountain waves and ensuing atmospheric rotors, encompass the turbulent flow on the lee side of an obstacle that reaches all the way to the ground. This work is based on aircraft measurements collected during the Terrain-Induced Rotor Experiment (T-REX, Sierra Nevada, California, 2006) that was focused on the investigation of the coupled mountain-wave, rotor, and boundary-layer system. The analysis of airflow during several T-REX Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) reveals a variety of mountain-flow scenarios, underlining the influence of the secondary orographic obstacle (the White and Inyo Mountains east of the Sierra Nevada) on the formation of wave-induced turbulence zones. In the present contribution, we focus on a scenario characterized by an inversion-capped valley atmosphere documented during T-REX IOPs 1 and 2. The valley inversion imposes an additional positive buoyancy force on the downslope flow in the lee of the primary ridge and prevents it from penetrating deep into the valley. Consequently, the flow separates higher up along the lee slope, forming an elevated turbulence zone that resides above the "virtual valley floor", represented by the inversion. The elevated turbulence zone shares some characteristics of the well-known low-level turbulence zone such as turbulence intensity being highest below the ascending part of the lee wave. However, clear indication of flow reversal at the bottom of the turbulent region, suggestive of a rotor circulation, is missing. For sufficiently short wavelength of the lee wave, multiple wave crests can fit between the primary and secondary mountain ridge and can give rise to several elevated

  8. Development of Archean crust in the Wind River Mountains, Wyoming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, C. D.; Koesterer, M. E.; Koesterer, M. E.; Koesterer, M. E.; Koesterer, M. E.

    1986-01-01

    The Wind River Mountains are a NW-SE trending range composed almost entirely of high-grade Archean gneiss and granites which were thrust to the west over Phanerozoic sediments during the Laramide orogeny. Late Archean granites make up over 50% of the exposed crust and dominates the southern half of the range, while older orthogneisses and magnatites form most of the northen half of the range. Locally these gneisses contain enclaves of supracrustal rocks, which appear to be the oldest preserved rocks in the range. Detailed work in the Medina Mountain area of the central Wind River Mountains and reconnaissance work throughout much of the northern part of the range has allowed definition of the sequence of events which marked crustal development in this area. The sequence of events are described.

  9. Flood elevation limits in the rocky mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, Robert D.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of 77,987 station-years of streamflow-gaging station data from 3,748 stations in the Rocky Mountains indicates that there is a latitude-dependent elevation limit to substantial rainfall-produced flooding. The elevation limit ranges from about 1,650 m in Montana to about 2,350 m in New Mexico. Above this elevation limit, large rainfall-produced floods occur very infrequently and maximum unit discharge is 1.7 m3/s/km2 or less. Below this elevation limit, large-magnitude flooding is more common and maximum unit discharge ranges from to 30 m3/s/km2 in Idaho and Montana to 59 m3/s/km2 in New Mexico. These results emphasize the critical need for additional research to increase our knowledge of floods, and have important implications in water-resources investigations in the Rocky Mountains.

  10. Yucca Mountain Milestone

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Rod

    1997-06-09

    The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ``holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state.

  11. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  12. Patient-centred mountain medicine.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Piotr; Hillebrandt, David

    2016-08-01

    Venturing into the mountains, doctors have accompanied expeditions to provide routine care to the teams, undertake research and occasionally take on a rescue role. The role of doctors practicing mountain medicine is evolving. Public health issues involving concepts of health and safety have become necessary with the coming of commercial and youth expeditions. Increasingly individuals with a disability or a medical diagnosis choose to ascend to high altitudes. Doctors become involved in assessment of risk and providing advice for such individuals. The field of mountain medicine is perhaps unique in that acceptance of risk is part of the ethos of climbing and adventure. The pursuit of mountaineering goals may represent the ultimate conquest of a disability. Knowledge of mountain environment is essential in facilitating mountain ascents for those who choose to undertake them, in spite of a disability or medical condition. PMID:27234206

  13. Range Ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    After more than two hundred years, grazing remains California’s most extensive land use. The ‘Range Ecosystems’ chapter in the ‘Ecosystems of California’ sourcebook provides an integrated picture of the biophysical, social, and economic aspects of lands grazed by livestock in the state. Grazing mana...

  14. Mammoth Mountain, California broadband seismic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, P. B.; Pitt, A. M.; Wilkinson, S. K.; Chouet, B. A.; Hill, D. P.; Mangan, M.; Prejean, S. G.; Read, C.; Shelly, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Mammoth Mountain is a young cumulo-volcano located on the southwest rim of Long Valley caldera, California. Current volcanic processes beneath Mammoth Mountain are manifested in a wide range of seismic signals, including swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, upper and mid-crustal long-period earthquakes, swarms of brittle-failure earthquakes in the lower crust, and shallow (3-km depth) very-long-period earthquakes. Diffuse emissions of C02 began after a magmatic dike injection beneath the volcano in 1989, and continue to present time. These indications of volcanic unrest drive an extensive monitoring effort of the volcano by the USGS Volcano Hazards Program. As part of this effort, eleven broadband seismometers were deployed on Mammoth Mountain in November 2011. This temporary deployment is expected to run through the fall of 2013. These stations supplement the local short-period and broadband seismic stations of the Northern California Seismic Network (NCSN) and provide a combined network of eighteen broadband stations operating within 4 km of the summit of Mammoth Mountain. Data from the temporary stations are not available in real-time, requiring the merging of the data from the temporary and permanent networks, timing of phases, and relocation of seismic events to be accomplished outside of the standard NCSN processing scheme. The timing of phases is accomplished through an interactive Java-based phase-picking routine, and the relocation of seismicity is achieved using the probabilistic non-linear software package NonLinLoc, distributed under the GNU General Public License by Alomax Scientific. Several swarms of shallow volcano-tectonic earthquakes, spasmodic bursts of high-frequency earthquakes, a few long-period events located within or below the edifice of Mammoth Mountain and numerous mid-crustal long-period events have been recorded by the network. To date, about 900 of the ~2400 events occurring beneath Mammoth Mountain since November 2011 have

  15. Minerals in the Foods Eaten by Mountain Gorillas (Gorilla beringei)

    PubMed Central

    Cancelliere, Emma C.; DeAngelis, Nicole; Nkurunungi, John Bosco; Raubenheimer, David; Rothman, Jessica M.

    2014-01-01

    Minerals are critical to an individual’s health and fitness, and yet little is known about mineral nutrition and requirements in free-ranging primates. We estimated the mineral content of foods consumed by mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in the Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Mountain gorillas acquire the majority of their minerals from herbaceous leaves, which constitute the bulk of their diet. However, less commonly eaten foods were sometimes found to be higher in specific minerals, suggesting their potential importance. A principal component analysis demonstrated little correlation among minerals in food items, which further suggests that mountain gorillas might increase dietary diversity to obtain a full complement of minerals in their diet. Future work is needed to examine the bioavailability of minerals to mountain gorillas in order to better understand their intake in relation to estimated needs and the consequences of suboptimal mineral balance in gorilla foods. PMID:25372712

  16. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mountain Sickness, and Headache Print Email Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness, and Headache ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... entering your e-mail address below. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness, and Headache David W. Dodick, MD, FAHS, ...

  17. Simulation of katabatic flow and mountain waves

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.

    1995-05-01

    It is well-known that both mountain waves and katabatic flows frequently form in the severe relief of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains. Occasionally these phenomena have been found to occur simultaneously. Generally, however, the large body of literature regarding them has treated each individually, seldom venturing into the regime of their potential interaction. The exceptions to this rule are Arritt and Pielke (1986), Barr and Orgill (1989). Gudiksen et al. (1992), Moriarty (1984), Orgill et al. (1992), Orgill and Schreck (1985). Neff and King (1988), Stone and Hoard (1989), Whiteman and Doran (1993) and Ying and Baopu (1993). The simulations overviewed here attempt to reproduce both atmospheric features simultaneously for two case days during the 1993 ASCOT observational program near Rocky Flats, Colorado.

  18. Rail Access to Yucca Mountain: Critical Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, R. J.; Dilger, F.; Moore, R. C.

    2003-02-25

    The proposed Yucca Mountain repository site currently lacks rail access. The nearest mainline railroad is almost 100 miles away. Absence of rail access could result in many thousands of truck shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. Direct rail access to the repository could significantly reduce the number of truck shipments and total shipments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) identified five potential rail access corridors, ranging in length from 98 miles to 323 miles, in the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for Yucca Mountain. The FEIS also considers an alternative to rail spur construction, heavy-haul truck (HHT) delivery of rail casks from one of three potential intermodal transfer stations. The authors examine the feasibility and cost of the five rail corridors, and DOE's alternative proposal for HHT transport. The authors also address the potential for rail shipments through the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

  19. Causal Chains Arising from Climate Change in Mountain Regions: the Core Program of the Mountain Research Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, G. B.

    2014-12-01

    Mountains are a widespread terrestrial feature, covering from 12 to 24 percent of the world's terrestrial surface, depending of the definition. Topographic relief is central to the definition of mountains, to the benefits and costs accruing to society and to the cascade of changes expected from climate change. Mountains capture and store water, particularly important in arid regions and in all areas for energy production. In temperate and boreal regions, mountains have a great range in population densities, from empty to urban, while tropical mountains are often densely settled and farmed. Mountain regions contain a wide range of habitats, important for biodiversity, and for primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy. Climate change interacts with this relief and consequent diversity. Elevation itself may accentuate warming (elevationi dependent warming) in some mountain regions. Even average warming starts complex chains of causality that reverberate through the diverse social ecological mountain systems affecting both the highlands and adjacent lowlands. A single feature of climate change such as higher snow lines affect the climate through albedo, the water cycle through changes in timing of release , water quality through the weathering of newly exposed material, geomorphology through enhanced erosion, plant communities through changes in climatic water balance, and animal and human communities through changes in habitat conditions and resource availabilities. Understanding these causal changes presents a particular interdisciplinary challenge to researchers, from assessing the existence and magnitude of elevation dependent warming and monitoring the full suite of changes within the social ecological system to climate change, to understanding how social ecological systems respond through individual and institutional behavior with repercussions on the long-term sustainability of these systems.

  20. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  1. Application of large benthic foraminifera as a tool for interpretation of paleoclimate and water depth, in the Ziyarat Formation, Alborz, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatibi Mehr, M.; Adabi, M. H.

    2009-04-01

    of Nummulite packstone, red algae nummulite packstone, Discocyclina nummulite wackestone, and Nummulite discocyclina wackestone to packstone; and outer ramp microfacies consist of benthic foraminifera packstone and radiolar sponge spicule wackestone. The ramp model proposed here for the Ziyarat Formation represent an example of a foraminifera dominated ramp system. The Paleogene was a time of particular abundance and radiation of miliolid and larger hyaline foraminifera and, especially during the Eocene they occurred in rock-forming quantities. Among L.B.F typical of Early Cenozoic carbonate platforms, Nummulites occupied a broad range of open marine environments on both ramps and shelves, and was generally absent from more restricted waters. Assilina and discocyclina in relatively deep water environments, while smaller lenticular Nummulites occur in shallower, inner ramp/shelf settings, often co-existing with Alveolina. Nummulites in the Ziyarat Formation showing variation in test shape, along the paleoenvironmental gradient. Nummulites from inner ramp have robust ovate shape with thick walls, while by increasing water depth, lower temperature, decreasing light levels and water energy, the test shape becomes flatter and elongate.

  2. Reinterpretation of Mormon Peak detachment in Mormon Mountains, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, J.A.

    1988-02-01

    Brian Wernicke proposed that the Meadow Valley Mountains are part of a west-directed Mormon Peak extensional allochthon and that low-angle normal faults control basin-and-range structure. He suggested the Meadow Valley Mountains detached off the Mormon Mountains and moved 20 km during the middle to late Miocene, along a low-angle normal fault - the Mormon Peak detachment - dipping 20/degrees/-25/degrees/ west. In this interpretation, the updip source area for the paleozoic klippen of the Mormon Peak extensional allochthon now exposed in the Mormon Mountains requires an origin from heights greater than 9 km (30,000 ft) above the present Virgin Valley basin. K-Ar and seismic reflection data document syntectonic sedimentary in-filling of the Virgin Valley basin beginning during the early Oligocene in response to the high-angle (60/degrees/) Virgin-Beaver Dam Mountains normal fault. Klippen of the purported Mormon Peak extensional allochthon that veneer the Mormon Mountains represent gravity-slide blocks that have source areas within the Mormon Mountains and require only 0.5-4 km displacements. These gravity-slide blocks moved in various downslope directions on rootless denudational faults resulting from the loss of lateral support because of high-angle basin-range faulting and associated erosion. Detailed mapping of Wernicke's easternmost klippe of the Mormon Peak extensional allochthon reveals east-vergent structural features rather than west-vergent, as necessary in his uniform sense-core complex model. Geologic and geophysical data show that high-angle normal faults exert primary control over basin-and-range structure, whereas gravitational sliding is a secondary surficial (rootless) feature of minor significance.

  3. Range and range rate system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Olin L. (Inventor); Russell, Jim K. (Inventor); Epperly, Walter L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A video controlled solid state range finding system which requires no radar, high power laser, or sophisticated laser target is disclosed. The effective range of the system is from 1 to about 200 ft. The system includes an opto-electric camera such as a lens CCD array device. A helium neon laser produces a source beam of coherent light which is applied to a beam splitter. The beam splitter applies a reference beam to the camera and produces an outgoing beam applied to a first angularly variable reflector which directs the outgoing beam to the distant object. An incoming beam is reflected from the object to a second angularly variable reflector which reflects the incoming beam to the opto-electric camera via the beam splitter. The first reflector and the second reflector are configured so that the distance travelled by the outgoing beam from the beam splitter and the first reflector is the same as the distance travelled by the incoming beam from the second reflector to the beam splitter. The reference beam produces a reference signal in the geometric center of the camera. The incoming beam produces an object signal at the camera.

  4. Geodesy and contemporary strain in the Yucca Mountain region, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Keefer, W.R.; Coe, J.A.; Pezzopane, S.K.; Hunter, W.C.

    1997-10-01

    Geodetic surveys provide important information for estimating recent ground movement in support of seismotectonic investigations of the potential nuclear-waste storage site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Resurveys of established level lines document up to 22 millimeters of local subsidence related to the 1992 Little Skull Mountain earthquake, which is consistent with seismic data that show normal-slip rupture and with data from a regional trilateration network. Comparison of more recent surveys with a level line first established in 1907 suggests 3 to 13 centimeters of subsidence in the Crater Flat-Yucca Mountain structural depression that coincides with the Bare Mountain fault; small uplifts also were recorded near normal faults at Yucca Mountain. No significant deformation was recorded by a trilateration network over a 10-year period, except for coseismic deformation associated with the Little Skull Mountain earthquake, but meaningful results are limited by the short temporal period of that data set and the small rate of movement. Very long baseline interferometry that is capable of measuring direction and rates of deformation is likewise limited by a short history of observation, but rates of deformation between 8 and 13 millimeters per year across the basin and Range province are indicated by the available data.

  5. View east over the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A color oblique view looking east over the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains (40.0N, 106.0W). This view covers a portion of the States of Colorado, Wyoming, and Nebraska. This entire region, covered with snow, depicts much of the structural and topographic features of the Rocky Mountain chain. Only change to snow pattern seen here is the (right center) metropolitan areas of Denver and Colorado Springs, Colorado, which can be observed along the eastern edge of the mountain front. The major inter-montane valleys of South Park (right center), Middle Park (center), and North Park (left center) are clearly visible and separate the Colorado Rockies Front Range from the high rugged mountains that form the core of the Rocky Mountains. Individual mountains can be discovered such as Pikes Peak near right border (center), Mt. Cunnison region, circular feature accentuated by the Cunnison River (dark) in the right center (bottom) of the photograph. The snow covered peaks of Mts. Harvard, Princeton,

  6. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  7. Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gail Heath

    2012-07-01

    Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

  8. ESTIMATES OF CLOUD WATER DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM SITES IN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY, Whitetop Mountain, VA, and Clingrnan's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). ...

  9. Using noble gases to investigate mountain-front recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manning, A.H.; Solomon, D.K.

    2003-01-01

    Mountain-front recharge is a major component of recharge to inter-mountain basin-fill aquifers. The two components of mountain-front recharge are (1) subsurface inflow from the mountain block (subsurface inflow), and (2) infiltration from perennial and ephemeral streams near the mountain front (stream seepage). The magnitude of subsurface inflow is of central importance in source protection planning for basin-fill aquifers and in some water rights disputes, yet existing estimates carry large uncertainties. Stable isotope ratios can indicate the magnitude of mountain-front recharge relative to other components, but are generally incapable of distinguishing subsurface inflow from stream seepage. Noble gases provide an effective tool for determining the relative significance of subsurface inflow, specifically. Dissolved noble gas concentrations allow for the determination of recharge temperature, which is correlated with recharge elevation. The nature of this correlation cannot be assumed, however, and must be derived for the study area. The method is applied to the Salt Lake Valley Principal Aquifer in northern Utah to demonstrate its utility. Samples from 16 springs and mine tunnels in the adjacent Wasatch Mountains indicate that recharge temperature decreases with elevation at about the same rate as the mean annual air temperature, but is on average about 2??C cooler. Samples from 27 valley production wells yield recharge elevations ranging from the valley elevation (about 1500 m) to mid-mountain elevation (about 2500 m). Only six of the wells have recharge elevations less than 1800 m. Recharge elevations consistently greater than 2000 m in the southeastern part of the basin indicate that subsurface inflow constitutes most of the total recharge in this area. ?? 2003 Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  10. Application of LANDSAT MSS to elk habitat management. [Blue Mountains, Oregon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schrumpf, B. J.

    1981-01-01

    The utilization of information derived from LANDSAT multispectral scanner data to estimate the impact of proposed timber harvests on potential elk use is briefly discussed. The evaluations were conducted in Northeastern Oregon where several herds of Rocky Mountain elk range in the Blue Mountains. The inventory product is a geographically referenced data base containing land cover types and habitat components (cover/forage).

  11. The Granite Mountain Atmospheric Sciences Testbed (GMAST): A Facility for Long Term Complex Terrain Airflow Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajic, D.; Pace, J. C.; Whiteman, C. D.; Hoch, S.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation describes a new facility at Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), Utah that can be used to study airflow over complex terrain, and to evaluate how airflow over a mountain barrier affects wind patterns over adjacent flatter terrain. DPG's primary mission is to conduct testing, training, and operational assessments of chemical and biological weapon systems. These operations require very precise weather forecasts. Most test operations at DPG are conducted on fairly flat test ranges having uniform surface cover, where airflow patterns are generally well-understood. However, the DPG test ranges are located alongside large, isolated mountains, most notably Granite Mountain, Camelback Mountain, and the Cedar Mountains. Airflows generated over, or influenced by, these mountains can affect wind patterns on the test ranges. The new facility, the Granite Mountain Atmospheric Sciences Testbed, or GMAST, is designed to facilitate studies of airflow interactions with topography. This facility will benefit DPG by improving understanding of how mountain airflows interact with the test range conditions. A core infrastructure of weather sensors around and on Granite Mountain has been developed including instrumented towers and remote sensors, along with automated data collection and archival systems. GMAST is expected to be in operation for a number of years and will provide a reference domain for mountain meteorology studies, with data useful for analysts, modelers and theoreticians. Visiting scientists are encouraged to collaborate with DPG personnel to utilize this valuable scientific resource and to add further equipment and scientific designs for both short-term and long-term atmospheric studies. Several of the upcoming MATERHORN (MountAin TERrain atmospHeric mOdeling and obseRvatioNs) project field tests will be conducted at DPG, giving an example of GMAST utilization and collaboration between DPG and visiting scientists.

  12. Mountains and Plateaus on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These two views of Io were acquired by NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its seventh orbit (G7) of Jupiter. The images were designed to view large features on Io at low sun angles when the lighting conditions emphasize the topography or relief of the volcanic satellite. Sun angles are low near the terminator which is the day-night boundary near the left side of the images. These images reveal that the topography is very flat near the active volcanic centers such as Loki Patera (the large dark horseshoe-shaped feature near the terminator in the left-hand image) and that a variety of mountains and plateaus exist elsewhere.

    North is to the top of the picture. The resolution is about 6 kilometers per picture element (6.1 for the left hand image and 5.7 for the right). The images were taken on April 4th, 1997 at a ranges of 600,000 kilometers (left image) and 563,000 kilometers (right image) by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  13. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  14. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  15. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  16. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  17. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  18. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  19. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  20. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  1. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  2. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  3. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  4. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  5. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  6. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  7. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  8. Spatial and temporal interactions of sympatric mountain lions in Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholson, Kerry L.; Krausman, Paul R.; Munguia-Vega, Adrian; Culver, Melanie

    2011-01-01

    Spatial and temporal interactions among individual members of populations can have direct applications to habitat management of mountain lions (Puma concolor). Our objectives were to evaluate home range overlap and spatial/temporal use of overlap zones (OZ) of mountain lions in Arizona. We incorporated spatial data with genetic analyses to assess relatedness between mountain lions with overlapping home ranges. We recorded the space use patterns of 29 radio-collared mountain lions in Arizona from August 2005 to August 2008. We genotyped 28 mountain lions and estimated the degree of relatedness among individuals. For 26 pairs of temporally overlapping mountain lions, 18 overlapped spatially and temporally and eight had corresponding genetic information. Home range overlap ranged from 1.18% to 46.38% (x̄=2443, SE = 2.96). Male–male pairs were located within 1 km of each other on average, 0.04% of the time, whereas male–female pairs on average were 3.0%. Two male–male pairs exhibited symmetrical spatial avoidance and two symmetrical spatial attractions to the OZ. We observed simultaneous temporal attraction in three male–male pairs and four male–female pairs. Individuals from Tucson were slightly related to one another within the population (n = 13, mean R = 0.0373 ± 0.0151) whereas lions from Payson (n = 6, mean R = -0.0079 ± 0.0356) and Prescott (n = 9, mean R = -0.0242 ± 0.0452) were not as related. Overall, males were less related to other males (n = 20, mean R = -0.0495 ± 0.0161) than females were related to other females (n = 8, mean R = 0.0015 ± 0.0839). Genetic distance was positively correlated with geographic distance (r2 = 0.22, P = 0.001). Spatial requirements and interactions influence social behavior and can play a role in determining population density.

  9. Monitoring the Snowpack in Remote, Ungauged Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dozier, J.; Davis, R. E.; Bair, N.; Rittger, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Our objective is to estimate seasonal snow volumes, relative to historical trends and extremes, in snow-dominated mountains that have austere infrastructure, sparse gauging, challenges of accessibility, and emerging or enduring insecurity related to water resources. The world's mountains accumulate substantial snow and, in some areas, produce the bulk of the runoff. In ranges like Afghanistan's Hindu Kush, availability of water resources affects US policy, military and humanitarian operations, and national security. The rugged terrain makes surface measurements difficult and also affects the analysis of remotely sensed data. To judge feasibility, we consider two regions, a validation case and a case representing inaccessible mountains. For the validation case, we use the Sierra Nevada of California, a mountain range of extensive historical study, emerging scientific innovation, and conflicting priorities in managing water for agriculture, urban areas, hydropower, recreation, habitat, and flood control. For the austere regional focus, we use the Hindu Kush, where some of the most persistent drought in the world causes food insecurity and combines with political instability, and occasional flooding. Our approach uses a mix of satellite data and spare modeling to present information essential for planning and decision making, ranging from optimization of proposed infrastructure projects to assessment of water resources stored as snow for seasonal forecasts. We combine optical imagery (MODIS on Terra/Aqua), passive microwave data (SSM/I and AMSR-E), retrospective reconstruction with energy balance calculations, and a snowmelt model to establish the retrospective context. With the passive microwave data we bracket the historical range in snow cover volume. The rank orders of total retrieved volume correlates with reconstructions. From a library of historical reconstruction, we find similar cases that provide insights about snow cover distribution at a finer scale than

  10. Extinction of Harrington's Mountain Goat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  11. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  12. Mid-pacific mountains revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroenke, Loren W.; Kellogg, James N.; Nemoto, Kenji

    1985-06-01

    The Mid-Pacific Mountains are guyots whose volcanic pedestals have been constructed on a broad basement plateau, the flanks of which are downfaulted. Edifice construction may have been controlled by an orthogonal system of intersecting faults trending roughly ENE and NNW. Low amplitude gravity anomalies observed over the Mid-Pacific Mountains indicate complete Airy-Heiskanen isostatic compensation, crustal thickening, and eruption on thin elastic lithosphere. Tholeiites of the Mid-Pacific Mountains resemble lavas of Iceland and the Galapagos Islands. The orthogonal fault system, low gravity anomalies, and lava chemistry of the Mid-Pacific Mountains can be explained by eruption on or near a great ENE-trending rift system.

  13. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  14. Geography and Weather: Mountain Meterology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogil, H. Michael; Collins, H. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Provided are 26 ideas to help children explore the effects of mountains on the weather. Weather conditions in Nepal and Colorado are considered separately. Nine additional sources of information are listed. (CW)

  15. Vertical Profile of Aerosol Properties at Pico Mountain, Azores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, K.; Mazzoleni, C.; Mazzoleni, L. R.; Dzepina, K.; Hueber, J.; China, S.; Sharma, N.

    2013-12-01

    Pico Mountain (2325m asl) is a dormant volcano in the archipelago of the Azores1500 km west of Lisbon, Portugal in the North Atlantic. It differs from typical mountain ranges such as the Alps or the Rockies, which are large and present a complex orography. Pico Mountain has a simple cone-like structure with only one main peak and is thousands of kilometers away from any other significant mountain range. In summer months, it is typical for air masses to move around the mountain rather than traveling up its face. This implies that often the peak of the mountain lies above the marine boundary layer in the free troposphere, while the lower part of the mountain is affected by marine clouds and marine air-masses. An atmospheric monitoring station, the Pico Mountain Observatory was established in 2001 in the summit caldera of the volcano at 2225m above sea level. The observatory is far from large populations or pollution sources, which makes the station ideal to study atmospheric gases and aerosols transported over long-ranges in the free troposphere. The station is reachable only by foot following a steep and strenuous hiking trail. In the summer of 2013 we began to collect vertical profiles of aerosol by carrying an instrumented backpack up to the summit of the mountain, with the goal of studying the vertical structure of atmospheric aerosols from the marine boundary layer to the free troposphere. The backpack was carried from the base of trail at 1200m asl. The backpack was equipped with the following instruments: 1. Nephelometer to measure light scattering from aerosol 2. 2-size optical particle counter (300-500 nm) 3. Portable micro-aethalometer to measure absorbing aerosols 4. SEM/TEM sampler to collect particles for off-line electron microscopy analysis 5. Battery powered data logger to measure relative humidity, temperature and pressure 6. GPS tracking device We provide a preliminary analysis of data collected in 2013 to gain insight on the vertical distribution

  16. How the mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) breached the Canadian Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    Janes, Jasmine K; Li, Yisu; Keeling, Christopher I; Yuen, Macaire M S; Boone, Celia K; Cooke, Janice E K; Bohlmann, Joerg; Huber, Dezene P W; Murray, Brent W; Coltman, David W; Sperling, Felix A H

    2014-07-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), a major pine forest pest native to western North America, has extended its range north and eastward during an ongoing outbreak. Determining how the MPB has expanded its range to breach putative barriers, whether physical (nonforested prairie and high elevation of the Rocky Mountains) or climatic (extreme continental climate where temperatures can be below -40 °C), may contribute to our general understanding of range changes as well as management of the current epidemic. Here, we use a panel of 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess population genetic structure, connectivity, and signals of selection within this MPB range expansion. Biallelic SNPs in MPB from southwestern Canada revealed higher genetic differentiation and lower genetic connectivity than in the northern part of its range. A total of 208 unique SNPs were identified using different outlier detection tests, of which 32 returned annotations for products with putative functions in cholesterol synthesis, actin filament contraction, and membrane transport. We suggest that MPB has been able to spread beyond its previous range by adjusting its cellular and metabolic functions, with genome scale differentiation enabling populations to better withstand cooler climates and facilitate longer dispersal distances. Our study is the first to assess landscape-wide selective adaptation in an insect. We have shown that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this forest pest species. PMID:24803641

  17. How the Mountain Pine Beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) Breached the Canadian Rocky Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Janes, Jasmine K.; Li, Yisu; Keeling, Christopher I.; Yuen, Macaire M.S.; Boone, Celia K.; Cooke, Janice E.K.; Bohlmann, Joerg; Huber, Dezene P.W.; Murray, Brent W.; Coltman, David W.; Sperling, Felix A.H.

    2014-01-01

    The mountain pine beetle (MPB; Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins), a major pine forest pest native to western North America, has extended its range north and eastward during an ongoing outbreak. Determining how the MPB has expanded its range to breach putative barriers, whether physical (nonforested prairie and high elevation of the Rocky Mountains) or climatic (extreme continental climate where temperatures can be below −40 °C), may contribute to our general understanding of range changes as well as management of the current epidemic. Here, we use a panel of 1,536 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to assess population genetic structure, connectivity, and signals of selection within this MPB range expansion. Biallelic SNPs in MPB from southwestern Canada revealed higher genetic differentiation and lower genetic connectivity than in the northern part of its range. A total of 208 unique SNPs were identified using different outlier detection tests, of which 32 returned annotations for products with putative functions in cholesterol synthesis, actin filament contraction, and membrane transport. We suggest that MPB has been able to spread beyond its previous range by adjusting its cellular and metabolic functions, with genome scale differentiation enabling populations to better withstand cooler climates and facilitate longer dispersal distances. Our study is the first to assess landscape-wide selective adaptation in an insect. We have shown that interrogation of genomic resources can identify shifts in genetic diversity and putative adaptive signals in this forest pest species. PMID:24803641

  18. Io: Mountains and crustal extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is argued that there is good reason to conclude that mountains on Io, like those on Earth, are subject to growth and decay. The decay of mountains will be assisted by the ability of SO sub 2 to rot silicate rock and by explosive escape of sub-surface SO sub 2 from aquifers (Haemus Mons is seen to be covered by bright material, presumably fallout from a SO sub 2 rich plume which had been active on the mountain flanks). On the west side of the massif at 10 degrees S, 270 degrees W a rugged surface consists of long ridges running perpendicular to the downslope direction, suggesting tectonic denudation with crustal blocks sliding down the mountain flank. Tectonic denudation may be assisted, as in the case of the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana by overloading mountain flanks with volcanic products. The surfaces of some massifs exhibit a well developed, enigmatic corrugated terrain, consisting of complex ridge systems. Ridges may bifurcate, anastomose to form closed depressions and form concentric loops. Taken together, observations of morphology, heat flux, surface deposits and styles of volcanism may point to the existence of lithosphere domains with distinct compositions and tectonic regimes.

  19. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Comer, K M

    1991-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an endemic tickborne disease found throughout the United States and other regions of the world. Exposure may result in a spectrum of disease from subclinical infection to severe or fatal multiorgan collapse. The disease is maintained in nature in Ixodid tick vectors and their hosts. The most important ticks in the United States are Dermacentor variabilis and Dermacentor andersoni. Small mammals are the natural reservoirs in the wild. Dogs become infected when a tick harboring Rickettsia rickettsii feeds on the dog. Dogs do not develop sufficient rickettsemia to act as a reservoir in the transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii. Thus, although dogs act as sentinels to the presence of the disease, they cannot directly transmit infection. Signs in early stages of disease often are nonspecific. The most characteristic laboratory abnormality is thrombocytopenia, but serologic testing is necessary for confirmation of infection. Tetracycline and chloramphenicol are effective antibiotics to treat infection. Treatment should continue for 14 to 21 days to allow host immune defenses to develop and eradicate the organism. Prevention requires avoidance of tick-infested areas and rapid removal of ticks should exposure occur. PMID:2014623

  20. Estimating abundance of mountain lions from unstructured spatial sampling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Robin E.; Royle, J. Andrew; Desimone, Richard; Schwartz, Michael K.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Pilgrim, Kristy P.; Mckelvey, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are often difficult to monitor because of their low capture probabilities, extensive movements, and large territories. Methods for estimating the abundance of this species are needed to assess population status, determine harvest levels, evaluate the impacts of management actions on populations, and derive conservation and management strategies. Traditional mark–recapture methods do not explicitly account for differences in individual capture probabilities due to the spatial distribution of individuals in relation to survey effort (or trap locations). However, recent advances in the analysis of capture–recapture data have produced methods estimating abundance and density of animals from spatially explicit capture–recapture data that account for heterogeneity in capture probabilities due to the spatial organization of individuals and traps. We adapt recently developed spatial capture–recapture models to estimate density and abundance of mountain lions in western Montana. Volunteers and state agency personnel collected mountain lion DNA samples in portions of the Blackfoot drainage (7,908 km2) in west-central Montana using 2 methods: snow back-tracking mountain lion tracks to collect hair samples and biopsy darting treed mountain lions to obtain tissue samples. Overall, we recorded 72 individual capture events, including captures both with and without tissue sample collection and hair samples resulting in the identification of 50 individual mountain lions (30 females, 19 males, and 1 unknown sex individual). We estimated lion densities from 8 models containing effects of distance, sex, and survey effort on detection probability. Our population density estimates ranged from a minimum of 3.7 mountain lions/100 km2 (95% Cl 2.3–5.7) under the distance only model (including only an effect of distance on detection probability) to 6.7 (95% Cl 3.1–11.0) under the full model (including effects of distance, sex, survey effort, and

  1. Convective transport of pollutants from eastern Colorado concentrated animal feeding operations into the Rocky Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pina, A.; Denning, A.; Schumacher, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    As the population of the urban corridor along the eastern Front Range grows at an unprecedented rate, concern about pollutant transport into the Rocky Mountains is on the rise. The confluence of mountain meteorology and major pollution sources conspire to transport pollutants across the Front Range, especially nitrogen species (NH3, NH4+, orgN, and NO3-) from concentrated animal feeding operations and urban regions, into the Rocky Mountains. The Rocky Mountains have coarse-textured soils which disallow the uptake nitrogen-rich precipitation, allowing most ions in precipitation to reach, be stored in, and eutrophicate alpine terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The focus of this study was to examine the meteorological conditions in which atmospheric deposition of pollutants at two mountain sites was anomalously high due to convective transport. We looked at 19 years (1994-2013) of precipitation and wet deposition data from two National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NAPD) sites in the Rocky Mountains: Beaver Meadows (CO19) and Loch Vale (CO98). Loch Vale (3159 m) and Beaver Meadows (2477 m) are located approximately 11 km apart but differ in height by 682 m resulting in different seasonal precipitation composition and totals. The Advanced Research WRF model was used to simulate the meteorology at a high resolution for the progression of the upslope event that led to high nitrogen deposition in the Rocky Mountains. Data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) was used to observe and verify synoptic conditions produced by the WRF model that influenced the high-deposition events. Dispersion plumes showed a mesoscale mountain circulation caused by differential heating between mountains-tops and the plains was the main driver of the westward convective transport towards the mountains. Additionally and unexpectedly, a lee trough and high precipitable water values associated with a cold front played significant roles in the nitrogen deposition into the Rocky

  2. Petrology, geochemistry, and tectonic setting of granitic rocks from the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains crustal block and Thiel Mountains, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennum, Walter R.; Storey, Bryan C.

    Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains crustal block (EWM) is a belt of small mountain ranges, hills, and nunataks which trend northward 500 km from the Thiel Mountains of the Transantarctic range to the Ellsworth Mountains. Granitic rocks compose most of the Pirrit Hills, Nash Hills, and Whitmore Mountains, and all of Pagano Nunatak. Mount Woollard is a migmatized complex of biotite schist, amphibolite, pegmatite, and massive biotite granite. A rhyodacite stock crops out in the Martin Hills. The Mount Seelig hornblende-bearing biotite granite of the Whitmore Mountains and the Mount Woollard biotite granite are metaluminous diopside-normative granitoids. All other granitic rocks of the EWM are mildly peraluminous, corundum-normative biotite (locally muscovite-bearing) leucogranites. Previously published radiometric ages range from 163 to 190 Ma. Petrography, geochemistry, and isotopic data suggest that these rocks are largely highly differentiated leucocratic S-type granites formed by anatexis of either metasedimentary rocks or more deeply seated, more mafic, plagioclase-rich granitoids. In these aspects they strongly resemble granites developed in intracontinental terranes such as the Hercynian belt of Europe and in continental collision-type settings such as the Bhutan and Nepalese Himalaya and the Seward Peninsula of western Alaska. We ascribe their origin to post-tectonic emplacement in a neutral or extensional (rifted) within-plate setting following deformation of the EWM. S-type Cambro-Ordovician granitic rocks and Precambrian quartz monzonite porphyries of the Thiel Mountains are geochemically similar to the EWM granites, but are correlative with the Granite Harbour Intrusive Series of the Transantarctic Mountains and the Wyatt Formation of the nearby La Gorce Mountains, respectively.

  3. Age constraints on fluid inclusions in calcite at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Neymark, Leonid A.; Amelin, Yuri V.; Paces, James B.; Peterman, Zell E.; Whelan, Joseph F.

    2001-04-29

    The {sup 207}Pb/{sup 235}U ages for 14 subsamples of opal or chalcedony layers younger than calcite formed at elevated temperature range between 1.88 {+-} 0.05 and 9.7 {+-} 1.5 Ma with most values older than 6-8 Ma. These data indicate that fluids with elevated temperatures have not been present in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain since about 1.9 Ma and most likely since 6-8 Ma. Discordant U-Pb isotope data for chalcedony subsamples representing the massive silica stage in the formation of the coatings are interpreted using a model of the diffusive loss of U decay products. The model gives an age estimate for the time of chalcedony formation around 10-11 Ma, which overlaps ages of clay minerals formed in tuffs below the water table at Yucca Mountain during the Timber Mountain thermal event.

  4. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

    PubMed

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-08-20

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and 'evolutionary rescue' in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios. PMID:26266979

  5. Rock glaciers and the sediment dynamics in arid mountain belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blöthe, Jan Henrik; Höser, Thorsten; Rosenwinkel, Swenja; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    Rock glaciers are common periglacial features in highest elevations of semiarid to arid mountain ranges. Rock glaciers predominate in realms where precipitation values fall below thresholds that allow for ice glacier formation, then even outranging ice glaciers in size and number. The influence of ice glaciers on high-mountain's sediment dynamics is manifold: ice-glacier-driven erosion produces large amounts of clastic material; ice glaciers act as a conveyor belt for sediments, delivering material from their source regions to their terminus; ice glaciers entering trunk valleys form efficient dams that interrupt sediment delivery. While these mechanisms have been addressed in numerous earlier studies, the role of rock glaciers for the sediment dynamics of arid mountain belts remains elusive. We address this shortcoming by analysing a rock glacier inventory that we compiled for the Himalaya-Karakoram ranges and the Tien Shan ranges in Central Asia. Our inventory comprises more than 1000 specimen, a large number of which form dams of large trunk rivers and minor tributaries, disconnecting the sediment fluxes from upstream. In certain regions that are nearly devoid of ice-glaciers, like the Gamugah surface of NW Pakistan, rock glaciers of >10^4-m length occupy valley bottoms entirely, constituting the only mode of transport for sediments produced in headwaters. In conclusion, we call for a better understanding of the role that rock glaciers take in the sediment dynamics of arid mountain belts.

  6. Deciphering the Tectonic History of the Northern Transantarctic Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Samantha; Graw, Jordan; Brenn, Gregory; Kenyon, Lindsey; Park, Yongcheol; DuBay, Brian

    2016-04-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains (TAMs) are the largest non-compressional mountain range in the world, and their structure plays a key role in the climatic and tectonic development of Antarctica. While numerous uplift mechanisms for the TAMs have been proposed, there is little consensus on their origin. Over the past three years, we have operated a network of 15 broadband seismic stations within a previously unexplored portion of the northern TAMs. Using data collected by this array, we have undertaken numerous studies to further assess the crustal and lithospheric structure beneath the mountain range and to differentiate between competing origin models. Receiver functions indicate crustal thickening inland from the Ross Sea coast but comparable crustal thickness beneath the TAMs and the East Antarctic plateau, indicating little evidence for a substantial crustal root beneath the mountain range. Body and surface wave analyses show a pronounced low-velocity anomaly beneath Terror Rift, adjacent to the TAMs, and extending beneath Victoria Land in the upper mantle. Together, these findings support a thermally-buoyant source of uplift for the northern TAMs and broad flexure of the East Antarctic lithosphere.

  7. Three-year movement patterns of adult desert tortoises at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.A.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.

    1995-12-31

    We studied the home-range size and site fidelity of adult desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, during 1992-1994. Of 67 adult tortoises monitored at Yucca Mountain during this period, we evaluated the movements of 22 female and 16 male radiomarked tortoises that were located >50 times during each of the 1992, 1993, and 1994 activity seasons. We measured annual and three-year home range sizes by either 100% minimum convex polygon (MCP) or by 95% cluster.

  8. Hydrometeorology of Rocky Mountain floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, Robert D.

    Climatology and flood hydrology of the Rocky Mountains were the topics of a workshop held in Lakewood, Colo., October 4-5, 1990. Ninety-one people participated in the workshop, which was organized by Robert Jarrett, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver; John Liou, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Denver; and Doug Laiho, Delta Environmental Consultants, Boulder, representing the American Society of Civil Engineers.The workshop was held to address some of the recognized complexities in the hydrometeorology of floods in the Rocky Mountains. The complexities are caused by the effects of rough mountain terrain on meteorology, snowmelt and rainfall flooding, and limited rainfall and streamflow data. The current theories and methods used to estimate flood flows in the Rocky Mountains, particularly estimation of the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and the probable maximum flood (PMF), have been questioned by hydrologists and engineers for some time. Purposes of the workshop were to review the current understanding and ongoing research of floods—both frequent and extreme, including the PMF, in the Rocky Mountains; to bring together scientists, engineers, and flood-plain managers in government, industry, consulting firms, and universities; and to provide a mechanism for the exchange of ideas and technology between climatologists, meteorologists, hydrologists, engineers, and managers.

  9. Mountain biking injuries: an update.

    PubMed

    Kronisch, Robert L; Pfeiffer, Ronald P

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the available literature regarding injuries in off-road bicyclists. Recent progress in injury research has allowed the description of several patterns of injury in this sport. Mountain biking remains popular, particularly among young males, although sales and participation figures have decreased in the last several years. Competition in downhill racing has increased, while cross-country racing has decreased somewhat in popularity. Recreational riders comprise the largest segment of participants, but little is known about the demographics and injury epidemiology of noncompetitive mountain cyclists. Most mountain bikers participating in surveys reported a history of previous injuries, but prospective studies conducted at mountain bike races have found injury rates of <1%. The most common mechanism of injury involves a forward fall over the handlebars, usually while riding downhill, which can result in direct trauma to the head, torso and upper extremities. A variety of factors can be associated with this type of fall, including trail surface irregularities, mechanical failures and loss of control. In mountain bike racing the risk of injury may be higher for women than men. Minor injuries such as abrasions and contusions occur frequently, but are usually of little consequence. Fractures usually involve the torso or upper extremities, and shoulder injuries are common. Head and face injuries are not always prevented by current helmet designs. Fatal injuries are rare but have been reported. Improvements in safety equipment, rider training and racecourse design are suggested injury prevention measures. The authors encourage continued research in this sport. PMID:12076178

  10. Mountaineer`s gas facilities decision support system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Mountaineer Gas Co. of Charleston, W.Va., is justifiably proud of its capacity to combine electronic maps with a full database of information about its facilities and customers, and use that mix to make the decisions required in operating a gas company with better information and more quickly. Determining when a pipeline needs replacement or repair used to take several days at Mountaineer. With the new system in place, the decision can be made in a matter of minutes. The paper describes the system and its development, then discusses adding customer information as the next step.

  11. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  12. Geologic Map of the Sulphur Mountain Quadrangle, Park County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohannon, Robert G.; Ruleman, Chester A.

    2009-01-01

    The main structural element in the Sulphur Mountain quadrangle is the Elkhorn thrust. This northwest-trending fault is the southernmost structure that bounds the west side of the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary Front Range basement-rock uplift. The Elkhorn thrust and the Williams Range thrust that occurs in the Dillon area north of the quadrangle bound the west flank of the Williams Range and the Front Range uplift in the South Park area. Kellogg (2004) described widespread, intense fracturing, landsliding, and deep-rooted scarps in the crystalline rocks that comprise the upper plate of the Williams Range thrust. The latter thrust is also demonstrably a low-angle structure upon which the fractured bedrock of the upper plate was translated west above Cretaceous shales. Westward thrusting along the border of the Front Range uplift is probably best developed in that area. By contrast, the Elkhorn in the Sulphur Mountain quadrangle is poorly exposed and occurs in an area of relatively low relief. The thrust also apparently ends in the central part of the quadrangle, dying out into a broad area of open, upright folds with northwest axes in the Sulphur Mountain area.

  13. 10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE AUXILIARY STRUCTURES. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  14. White Mountain Wilderness, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Segerstrom, K.; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey made during 1971-1973, the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. In mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significantly, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  15. BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeppen, Robert P.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

  16. Yearly report, Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, J.N.

    1992-09-30

    We proposed to (1) Develop our data logging and analysis equipment and techniques for analyzing seismic data from the Southern Great Basin Seismic Network (SGBSN), (2) Investigate the SGBSN data for evidence of seismicity patterns, depth distribution patterns, and correlations with geologic features (3) Repair and maintain our three broad band downhole digital seismograph stations at Nelson, nevada, Troy Canyon, Nevada, and Deep Springs, California (4) Install, operate, and log data from a super sensitive microearthquake array at Yucca Mountain (5) Analyze data from micro-earthquakes relative to seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain.

  17. Oroclinal bending, distributed deformation, and Arabia-Eurasia convergence in NE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Niocaill, C.; Alimohammadian, H.; Walker, R. T.; Hollingsworth, J.

    2013-05-01

    The collision of Arabia with Eurasia has produced significant region shortening across wide areas of Iran. These plates converge in a N-S direction at about 25mm/yr, and virtually the entire active collision zone is contained with the geographical and political boundaries of the country. Many features of continental tectonics are well preserved within the region, such as the partitioning of oblique motions onto parallel strike-slip and thrust faults, the concentration of deformation around the boundaries of rigid blocks, and the rotations of tectonic blocks around vertical axes. The collision zone terminates abruptly in the NE of the country, with active deformation trending N-S along the border with Afghanistan, and this is converted into shortening in the Kopeh Dagh and Alborz mountains. There mountain ranges changing from a NW-SE trend along the border with Turkmenistan to an E-W trend in Northern Iran. In the eastern Alborz mountains, the overall pattern of N-S shortening is accommodated on major thrust systems bounding the eastern branch of the Alborz (east of 57°E), Sabzevar, andKuh-e-Sorkh mountain ranges, which lie south of the Kopeh Dagh mountains. This shortening has resulted in significant crustal thickening, forming peaks up to 3000m high. To the west of 57°E much of the convergence seems to be accommodated on large left-lateral strike-slip faults. Active shortening dies out eastward into Afghanistan, which is thought to belong to stable Eurasia. This change in deformation style has given rise to a significant curvature of the eastern Alborz, and a major issue of contention is whether this curvature reflects a component of oroclinal bending of an originally linear mountain belt that has been rotated to its present configuration of whether the motion is purely translational. We present new palaeomagnetic data from Neogene sediments, distributed across NE Iran that provide new constraints on the deformation of the region. A complex pattern of both

  18. Lake Buchannan, Great Dividing Range, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Lake Buchannan, a small but blue and prominent in the center of the view, lies in the Great Dividing of Queensland, Australia (22.0S, 146.0E). The mountain range in this case is a low plateau of no more than 2,000 to 3,000 ft altitude. The interior is dry, mostly in pasture but the coastal zone in contrast, is wet tropical country where bananas and sugarcane are grown.

  19. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  20. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  1. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  2. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  3. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  4. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  5. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  6. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  7. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  8. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  9. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  10. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  11. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  12. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  13. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  14. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  15. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  16. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  17. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  18. Mountain hydrology of the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bales, R.C.; Molotch, N.P.; Painter, T.H.; Dettinger, M.D.; Rice, R.; Dozier, J.

    2006-01-01

    Climate change and climate variability, population growth, and land use change drive the need for new hydrologic knowledge and understanding. In the mountainous West and other similar areas worldwide, three pressing hydrologic needs stand out: first, to better understand the processes controlling the partitioning of energy and water fluxes within and out from these systems; second, to better understand feedbacks between hydrological fluxes and biogeochemical and ecological processes; and, third, to enhance our physical and empirical understanding with integrated measurement strategies and information systems. We envision an integrative approach to monitoring, modeling, and sensing the mountain environment that will improve understanding and prediction of hydrologic fluxes and processes. Here extensive monitoring of energy fluxes and hydrologic states are needed to supplement existing measurements, which are largely limited to streamflow and snow water equivalent. Ground-based observing systems must be explicitly designed for integration with remotely sensed data and for scaling up to basins and whole ranges. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Weather observations on Whistler Mountain during five storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thériault, Julie M.; Rasmussen, Kristen L.; Fisico, Teresa; Stewart, Ronald E.; Joe, Paul; Gultepe, Ismail; Clément, Marilys; Isaac, George A.

    2014-01-01

    A greater understanding of precipitation formation processes over complex terrain near the west coast of British Colombia will contribute to many relevant applications, such as climate studies, local hydrology, transportation, and winter sport competition. The phase of precipitation is difficult to determine because of the warm and moist weather conditions experienced during the wintertime in coastal mountain ranges. The goal of this study is to investigate the wide range of meteorological conditions that generated precipitation on Whistler Mountain from 4-12 March 2010 during the SNOW-V10 field campaign. During this time period, five different storms were documented in detail and were associated with noticeably different meteorological conditions in the vicinity of Whistler Mountain. New measurement techniques, along with the SNOW-V10 instrumentation, were used to obtain in situ observations during precipitation events along the Whistler mountainside. The results demonstrate a high variability of weather conditions ranging from the synoptic-scale to the macro-scale. These weather events were associated with a variation of precipitation along the mountainside, such as events associated with snow, snow pellets, and rain. Only two events associated with a rain-snow transition along the mountainside were observed, even though above-freezing temperatures along the mountainside were recorded 90 % of the time. On a smaller scale, these events were also associated with a high variability of snowflake types that were observed simultaneously near the top of Whistler Mountain. Overall, these detailed observations demonstrate the importance of understanding small-scale processes to improve observational techniques, short-term weather prediction, and longer-term climate projections over mountainous regions.

  20. Mountains on Io: High-resolution Galileo observations, initial interpretations, and formation models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turtle, E.P.; Jaeger, W.L.; Keszthelyi, L.P.; McEwen, A.S.; Milazzo, M.; Moore, J.; Phillips, C.B.; Radebaugh, J.; Simonelli, D.; Chuang, F.; Schuster, P.; Alexander, D.D.A.; Capraro, K.; Chang, S.-H.; Chen, A.C.; Clark, J.; Conner, D.L.; Culver, A.; Handley, T.H.; Jensen, D.N.; Knight, D.D.; LaVoie, S.K.; McAuley, M.; Mego, V.; Montoya, O.; Mortensen, H.B.; Noland, S.J.; Patel, R.R.; Pauro, T.M.; Stanley, C.L.; Steinwand, D.J.; Thaller, T.F.; Woncik, P.J.; Yagi, G.M.; Yoshimizu, J.R.; Alvarez Del Castillo, E.M.; Beyer, R.; Branston, D.; Fishburn, M.B.; Muller, Birgit; Ragan, R.; Samarasinha, N.; Anger, C.D.; Cunningham, C.; Little, B.; Arriola, S.; Carr, M.H.; Asphaug, E.; Morrison, D.; Rages, K.; Banfield, D.; Bell, M.; Burns, J.A.; Carcich, B.; Clark, B.; Currier, N.; Dauber, I.; Gierasch, P.J.; Helfenstein, P.; Mann, M.; Othman, O.; Rossier, L.; Solomon, N.; Sullivan, R.; Thomas, P.C.; Veverka, J.; Becker, T.; Edwards, K.; Gaddis, L.; Kirk, R.; Lee, E.; Rosanova, T.; Sucharski, R.M.; Beebe, R.F.; Simon, A.; Belton, M.J.S.; Bender, K.; Fagents, S.; Figueredo, P.; Greeley, R.; Homan, K.; Kadel, S.; Kerr, J.; Klemaszewski, J.; Lo, E.; Schwarz, W.; Williams, D.; Williams, K.; Bierhaus, B.; Brooks, S.; Chapman, C.R.; Merline, B.; Keller, J.; Tamblyn, P.; Bouchez, A.; Dyundian, U.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Showman, A.; Spitale, J.; Stewart, S.; Vasavada, A.; Breneman, H.H.; Cunningham, W.F.; Johnson, T.V.; Jones, T.J.; Kaufman, J.M.; Klaasen, K.P.; Levanas, G.; Magee, K.P.; Meredith, M.K.; Orton, G.S.; Senske, D.A.; West, A.; Winther, D.; Collins, G.; Fripp, W.J.; Head, J. W., III; Pappalardo, R.; Pratt, S.; Prockter, L.; Spaun, N.; Colvin, T.; Davies, M.; DeJong, E.M.; Hall, J.; Suzuki, S.; Gorjian, Z.; Denk, T.; Giese, B.; Koehler, U.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Roatsch, T.; Tost, W.; Wagner, R.; Dieter, N.; Durda, D.; Geissler, P.; Greenberg, R.J.; Hoppa, G.; Plassman, J.; Tufts, R.; Fanale, F.P.; Granahan, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    During three close flybys in late 1999 and early 2000 the Galileo spacecraft ac-quired new observations of the mountains that tower above Io's surface. These images have revealed surprising variety in the mountains' morphologies. They range from jagged peaks several kilometers high to lower, rounded structures. Some are very smooth, others are covered by numerous parallel ridges. Many mountains have margins that are collapsing outward in large landslides or series of slump blocks, but a few have steep, scalloped scarps. From these observations we can gain insight into the structure and material properties of Io's crust as well as into the erosional processes acting on Io. We have also investigated formation mechanisms proposed for these structures using finite-element analysis. Mountain formation might be initiated by global compression due to the high rate of global subsidence associated with Io's high resurfacing rate; however, our models demonstrate that this hypothesis lacks a mechanism for isolating the mountains. The large fraction (???40%) of mountains that are associated with paterae suggests that in some cases these features are tectonically related. Therefore we have also simulated the stresses induced in Io's crust by a combination of a thermal upwelling in the mantle with global lithospheric compression and have shown that this can focus compressional stresses. If this mechanism is responsible for some of Io's mountains, it could also explain the common association of mountains with paterae. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. The Geologic Story of Colorado's Sangre de Cristo Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lindsey, David A.

    2010-01-01

    There is no record of the beginning of time in the Sangre de Cristo Range. Almost 3 billion years of Earth history are missing, but the rest is on spectacular display in this rugged mountain landscape. This is the geologic story of the Sangre de Cristo Range.

  2. Lone Mountain processing boosts recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgarth, T.; Bethell, P.; Gupta, B.K.

    2005-08-01

    A new deslime column flotation circuit installed at Arch Coal's Lone Mountain preparation plant in St. Charles, Va., USA recovers an additional 20 tph. The article describes how this column technology was selected. It explains the circuit design, start-up and post upgrade distant testing. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Artifical Mountains: A Synthetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipiera, Paul P.; Aumann, John A.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a secondary science unit which uses an urban environment to develop a comparison between naturally formed mountains and man-constructed skyscrapers. The unit is one in a series of fifty laboratory activities designed to stimulate students of earth science by interrelating scientific principles and procedures to a familiar environment.…

  4. Gearing Up for Mountain Biking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Examines the gear system of a mountain bike to discover any redundancy in the many gear settings available to the cyclist. Suggests a best strategy for changing up through the gears on a typical 21-gear system and an adjustment to the available gears that would result in a smoother change. (Author/ASK)

  5. The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

  6. The interaction of katabatic winds and mountain waves

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.

    1997-01-01

    The variation in the oft-observed, thermally-forced, nocturnal katabatic winds along the east side of the Rocky Mountains can be explained by either internal variability or interactions with various other forcings. Though generally katabatic flows have been studied as an entity protected from external forcing by strong thermal stratification, this work investigates how drainage winds along the Colorado Front Range interact with, in particular, topographically forced mountain waves. Previous work has shown, based on measurements taken during the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain 1993 field program, that the actual dispersion in katabatic flows is often greater than reflected in models of dispersion. The interaction of these phenomena is complicated and non-linear since the amplitude, wavelength and vertical structure of mountain waves developed by flow over the Rocky Mountain barrier are themselves partly determined by the evolving atmospheric stability in which the drainage flows develop. Perturbations to katabatic flow by mountain waves, relative to their more steady form in quiescent conditions, are found to be caused by both turbulence and dynamic pressure effects. The effect of turbulent interaction is to create changes to katabatic now depth, katabatic flow speed, katabatic jet height and, vertical thermal stratification. The pressure effect is found to primarily influence the variability of a given katabatic now through the evolution of integrated column wave forcing on surface pressure. Variability is found to occur on two scales, on the mesoscale due to meso-gamma scale mountain wave evolution, and on the microscale, due to wave breaking. Since existing parameterizations for the statically stable case are predominantly based on nearly flat terrain atmospheric measurements under idealized or nearly quiescent conditions, it is no surprise that these parameterizations often contribute to errors in prediction, particularly in complex terrain.

  7. Blue Mountains Ecoregion: Chapter 16 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soulard, Christopher E.

    2012-01-01

    The Blue Mountains Ecoregion encompasses approximately 65,461 km² (25,275 mi²) of land bordered on the north by the Columbia Plateau Ecoregion, on the east by the Northern Rockies Ecoregion, on the south by the Snake River Basin and the Northern Basin and Range Ecoregions, and on the west by the Cascades and the Eastern Cascades Slopes and Foothills Ecoregions (fig. 1) (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). Most of the Blue Mountains Ecoregion is located within Oregon (83.5 percent); 13.8 percent is in Idaho, and 2.7 percent is in Washington. The Blue Mountains are composed of primarily Paleozoic volcanic rocks, with minor sedimentary, metamorphic, and granitic rocks. Lower mountains and numerous basin-and-range areas, as well as the lack of Quaternary-age volcanoes, distinguish the Blue Mountains from the adjacent Cascade Range (Thorson and others, 2003).

  8. Twin Peaks Monadnocks. Crowders Mountain State Park: An Environmental Education Learning Experience Designed for Grades 5-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarver, Deidri

    This learning packet, one in a group of eight, was developed by the Crowders Mountain State Park in North Carolina for Grades 5-7 to introduce students to the geology of the Kings Mountain range in the park. Loose-leaf pages are presented in nine sections that contain: (1) introductions to the North Carolina State Park System, the Crowders…

  9. INFLUENCE OF HABITAT CHARACTERISTICS ON DETECTED SITE OCCUPANCY OF THE NEW MEXICO ENDEMIC SACRAMENTO MOUNTAINS SALAMANDER, ANEIDES HARDII

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Sacramento Mountains Salamander (Aneides hardii) is a state-listed threatened species endemic to three mountain ranges in south central New Mexico. Information about the ecological requirements of this species is inadequate for managers to make informed conservation decisions, yet changes in ma...

  10. Holocene glacier activity in the British Columbia Coast Mountains, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mood, Bryan J.; Smith, Dan J.

    2015-11-01

    The Coast Mountains flank the Pacific Ocean in western British Columbia, Canada. Subdivided into the southern Pacific Ranges, central Kitimat Ranges and northern Boundary Ranges, the majority of large glaciers and icefields are located in the Boundary and Pacific ranges. Prior descriptions of the Holocene glacial history of this region indicate the Holocene was characterized by repeated episodes of ice expansion and retreat. Recent site-specific investigations augment our understanding of the regional character and duration of these events. In this paper, previously reported and new radiocarbon evidence is integrated to provide an updated regional assessment. The earliest evidence of glacier expansion in the Coast Mountains comes from the Boundary Ranges at 8.9 and 7.8 ka and in the Pacific Ranges at 8.5-8.2 ka, with the latter advance corresponding to an interval of rapid, global climate deterioration. Although generally warm and dry climates from 7.3 to 5.3 ka likely limited the size of glaciers in the region, there is radiocarbon evidence for advances over the interval from 7.3 to 6.0 and at 5.4-5.3 ka in the Pacific Ranges. Following these advances, glaciers in the Pacific Ranges expanded down valley at 4.8-4.6, 4.4-4.0, 3.5-2.6, 1.4-1.2, and 0.8-0.4 ka, while glaciers in Boundary Ranges were advancing at 4.1-4.0, 3.7-3.4, 3.1-2.8, 2.3, 1.7-1.1, and 0.8-0.4 ka. After 0.4 ka, it appears that most glaciers in the Coast Mountains continued to expand to attain their maximum Holocene extents by the early 18th to late 19th centuries. This enhanced record of Holocene glacier activity highlights the temporal synchrony in the Coast Mountains. Individual expansion events in the mid-to late Holocene broadly correspond to intervals of regional glacier activity reported in the Canadian Rocky Mountains, in Alaska, and on high-elevation volcanic peaks in Washington State.

  11. The geologic structure of part of the southern Franklin Mountains, El Paso County, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.R.; Julian, F.E. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1993-02-01

    The Franklin Mountains are a west tilted fault block mountain range which extends northwards from the city of El Paso, Texas. Geologic mapping in the southern portion of the Franklin Mountains has revealed many previously unrecognized structural complexities. Three large high-angle faults define the boundaries of map. Twenty lithologic units are present in the field area, including the southernmost Precambrian meta-sedimentary rocks in the Franklin Mountains (Lanoria Quartzite and Thunderbird group conglomerates). The area is dominated by Precambrian igneous rocks and lower Paleozoic carbonates, but Cenozoic ( ) intrusions are also recognized. Thin sections and rock slabs were used to describe and identify many of the lithologic units. The Franklin Mountains are often referred to as a simple fault block mountain range related to the Rio Grande Rift. Three critical regions within the study area show that these mountains contain structural complexities. In critical area one, Precambrian granites and rhyolites are structurally juxtaposed, and several faults bisecting the area affect the Precambrian/Paleozoic fault contact. Critical area two contains multiple NNW-trending faults, three sills and a possible landslide. This area also shows depositional features related to an island of Precambrian rock exposed during deposition of the lower Paleozoic rocks. Critical area three contains numerous small faults which generally trend NNE. They appear to be splays off of one of the major faults bounding the area. Cenozoic kaolinite sills and mafic intrusion have filled many of the fault zones.

  12. Rocks above the clouds: A hiker's and climber's guide to Colorado mountain geology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reed, Jack; Ellis, Gene

    2008-01-01

    Rocks Above the Clouds is the first geology book written for climbers, scramblers and hikers. It is an exploration of how the nature of mountains and the challenges they present to the climber and hiker are influenced by the rocks that form them, in other words, by their geology. After describing the types of rocks found in mountains, the authors of Rocks Above the Clouds cover the geologic process from the big bang through the processes that continue to shape the mountains today. This mountain geology primer is a range-by-range description of what to expect in the Colorado mountains followed by some very curious information on the Colorado 14ers. Whether you travel in the mountains as a casual hiker, peak bagging scrambler, or technical climber, knowledge of mountain geology can help in planning your route, selecting your campsite and evaluating the hazards you face. Knowing something about different rock types might enable you to pick a route that avoids loose rock. Knowing that when wet, a particular rock surface will feel like oil might encourage you to forgo that siesta on the summit and head down before the afternoon thunderstorm.

  13. Ellsworth mountains: Position in West Antarctica due to sea-floor spreading

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schopf, J.M.

    1969-01-01

    Similarities of middle and upper Paleozoic deposits of the Ellsworth Mountains with those of the Pensacola, Horlick, and other Transantarctic mountains indicate that all these ranges may have had a related geologic history. A tentative explanation is now suggested which involves sea-floor spreading and translocation of the Ellsworth crustal block from its original location adjacent to the East Antarctic Shield. Accordingly, the islands of West Antarctica may differ in origin and the Transantarctic Mountains of East Antarctica may represent one margin of an ancient rift.

  14. Lyman Spitzer: Astronomer, Physicist, Engineer, and Mountaineer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's naming of the Spitzer Space Telescope after Lyman Spitzer was a most appropriate choice, recognizing an outstanding scientist who also contributed extensively to space astronomy. As an astronomer he was a leading authority in the physics of both the interstellar medium and stellar dynamics, wrote textbooks for both fields, and guided many research students. As a physicist he conceived the Stellarator for magnetic confinement, managed a laboratory for controlled fusion, and wrote a textbook on plasma physics. As an engineer he led the development of the payload for the successful Copernicus satellite, which fulfilled his 1946 proposal for an extraterrestrial observatory. His mountaineering included first ascents on Baffin Island and in the Canadian Rockies as well as the summit of the challenging Mt Waddington in the Coast Range.

  15. Utility of microfossils in Rocky Mountain exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Wornardt, W.W. Jr.

    1983-08-01

    Prior to 1960, exploration geologists in the Rocky Mountain area primarily used lithology, E-logs, geophysics, and a few microfossil groups (fusulinids, invertebrates) for stratigraphic correlations. From 1960 to about 1968, these exploration geologists added several additional groups of microfossils (spores, pollen, and foraminifers) to their tools for correlation. During the past 15 yrs, there has been an explosion in the scientific study of microfossils ranging in age from Cambrian to Holocene. Currently, oil finders are integrating the age-dates and paleoenvironmental information obtained from analyzing 20 different groups of microfossils with the stratigraphy, sedimentology, structure, and geophysical data to create a synergistic exploration program. The addition of micropaleontology and paleoenvironmental data into an exploration program has helped managers make better management decisions, save millions of dollars for the company, and find economical pools of hydrocarbons.

  16. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  17. Drainage flows: A mountain-plains interface numerical case study

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.; Bossert, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    In January/February, 1991 an intensive set of measurements was taken around Rocky Flats near Denver, CO, USA under the auspices of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. This region of the country is known as the Front Range, and is characterized by a transition from the relatively flat terrain of the Great Plains to the highly varied terrain of the Rocky Mountains. The mountains are oriented north-south and rise from 1800m above mean sea level (MSL) to 3600m MSL at the Continental Divide. Numerous east-west oriented valleys begin in the mountains and end at the plains interface. This terrain makes the Front Range a challenging region to model. One of the more important flows created by this severe terrain are the highly-varying drainage flows found during stagnant, wintertime conditions. These flows can interact with larger-scale mountain and synoptic winds. One goal of the ASCOT 1991 program was to gain insight into multi-scale meteorological interaction by observing wintertime drainage conditions at the mountain-valley-plains interface. ASCOT data included surface and upper air measurements on approximately a 50km{sup 2} scale. Simultaneously, an SF{sub 6} tracer release study was being conducted around Rocky Flats, a nuclear materials production facility. Detailed surface concentration measurements were completed for the SF{sub 6} plume. This combination of meteorological and tracer concentration data provided a unique data set for comparisons of mesoscale and dispersion modeling results with observations and for evaluating our capability to predict pollutant transport. Our approach is to use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model to simulate atmospheric conditions and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) to model the dispersion of the SF{sub 6}.

  18. Drainage flows: A mountain-plains interface numerical case study

    SciTech Connect

    Poulos, G.S.; Bossert, J.E.

    1992-09-01

    In January/February, 1991 an intensive set of measurements was taken around Rocky Flats near Denver, CO, USA under the auspices of the Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program. This region of the country is known as the Front Range, and is characterized by a transition from the relatively flat terrain of the Great Plains to the highly varied terrain of the Rocky Mountains. The mountains are oriented north-south and rise from 1800m above mean sea level (MSL) to 3600m MSL at the Continental Divide. Numerous east-west oriented valleys begin in the mountains and end at the plains interface. This terrain makes the Front Range a challenging region to model. One of the more important flows created by this severe terrain are the highly-varying drainage flows found during stagnant, wintertime conditions. These flows can interact with larger-scale mountain and synoptic winds. One goal of the ASCOT 1991 program was to gain insight into multi-scale meteorological interaction by observing wintertime drainage conditions at the mountain-valley-plains interface. ASCOT data included surface and upper air measurements on approximately a 50km{sup 2} scale. Simultaneously, an SF{sub 6} tracer release study was being conducted around Rocky Flats, a nuclear materials production facility. Detailed surface concentration measurements were completed for the SF{sub 6} plume. This combination of meteorological and tracer concentration data provided a unique data set for comparisons of mesoscale and dispersion modeling results with observations and for evaluating our capability to predict pollutant transport. Our approach is to use the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) mesoscale model to simulate atmospheric conditions and the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) to model the dispersion of the SF{sub 6}.

  19. Reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, Churchill County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Voegtly, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    A geological reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas (KGRA's), resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. This reconnaissance took place during June-December 1975. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by US Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie basement rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present.

  20. Oil and gas prospecting beneath the Precambrian of foreland thrust plates in the Rocky Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Gries, R.

    1981-01-01

    Only 15 wells in the Rocky Mountain region have drilled through Precambrian to test the 3 to 6 million acres of sedimentary rocks that are concealed and virtually unexplored beneath mountain front thrusts. More than half of these wells had oil and gas shows and one was a producing oil well. These wells have not only set up an exciting play for the future, they have also helped define the structural geometry of the mountain front thrusts, including the angle of the thrust and the presence or absence of fault slivers of overturned Mesozoic or Paleozoic rocks. Most important for further geophysical exploration, these wells have provided vital data on seismic velocities in Precambrian rocks. Analysis of these data will stimulate further exploration along the fronts already drilled: the Emigrant Trail Thrust, the Washakie Thrust, the Wind River Thrust, the Uinta Mountain Thrust, and the thrust at the north end of the Laramie Range. The geologic success of these wells has encouraged leasing and seismic acquisition on every other mountain front thrust in the Rockies. Wells are presently drilling on the Casper Arch and the west flank of the Big Horn Basin adjacent Oregon Basin Field. An unsuccessful attempt to drill through the Arlington Thrust of the Medicine Bow Range will probably only momentarily daunt that play, and the attempted penetration of the Axial Arch in Colorado has not condemned that area. Untested areas that will be explored in the near future are: the south flank of the Owl Creek Range, the northeast flank of the Beartooth Mountains in Montana, the east and west flanks of the Big Horn Mountains, the north flank of the Hanna Basin, the south flank of the Uinta Mountains, the White River Uplift, the north flank of North Park Basin, and the Front Range.

  1. Measurement of tectonic surface uplift rate in a young collisional mountain belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, L.D.; Silver, E.A.; Anderson, R. Scott; Smith, R.; Ingle, J.C.; Kling, S.A.; Haig, D.; Small, E.; Galewsky, J.; Sliter, W.

    1997-01-01

    Measurement of the rate of tectonically driven surface uplift is crucial to a complete understanding of mountain building dynamics. The lack of a suitable rock record typically prevents determination of this quantity, but the unusual geology of Papua New Guinea's Finisterre mountains makes measurement of this rate possible. The tectonic surface uplift rate at the Finisterre range is 0.8-2.1 mm yr-1, approximately that expected to arise from crustal thickening.

  2. Uranium and Neptunium Desorption from Yucca Mountain Alluvium

    SciTech Connect

    C.D. Scism; P.W. Reimus; M. Ding; S.J. Chipera

    2006-03-16

    Uranium and neptunium were used as reactive tracers in long-term laboratory desorption studies using saturated alluvium collected from south of Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The objective of these long-term experiments is to make detailed observations of the desorption behavior of uranium and neptunium to provide Yucca Mountain with technical bases for a more realistic and potentially less conservative approach to predicting the transport of adsorbing radionuclides in the saturated alluvium. This paper describes several long-term desorption experiments using a flow-through experimental method and groundwater and alluvium obtained from boreholes along a potential groundwater flow path from the proposed repository site. In the long term desorption experiments, the percentages of uranium and neptunium sorbed as a function of time after different durations of sorption was determined. In addition, the desorbed activity as a function of time was fit using a multi-site, multi-rate model to demonstrate that different desorption rate constants ranging over several orders of magnitude exist for the desorption of uranium from Yucca Mountain saturated alluvium. This information will be used to support the development of a conceptual model that ultimately results in effective K{sub d} values much larger than those currently in use for predicting radionuclide transport at Yucca Mountain.

  3. Near-infrared spectral mapping of Titan's mountains and channels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, J.W.; Radebaugh, J.; Brown, R.H.; Wall, S.; Soderblom, L.; Lunine, J.; Burr, D.; Sotin, C.; Le, Mouelic S.; Rodriguez, S.; Buratti, B.J.; Clark, R.; Baines, K.H.; Jaumann, R.; Nicholson, P.D.; Kirk, R.L.; Lopes, R.; Lorenz, R.D.; Mitchell, Ken; Wood, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate the spectral reflectance properties of channels and mountain ranges on Titan using data from Cassini's Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) obtained during the T9 encounter (26 December 2005). We identify the location of channels and mountains using synthetic aperture radar maps obtained from Cassini's RADAR instrument during the T13 (30 April 2006) flyby. Channels are evident even in VIMS imaging with spatial resolution coarser than the channel size. The channels share spectral characteristics with Titan's dark blue terrain (e.g., the Huygens landing site) that is consistent with an enhancement in water ice content relative to the rest of Titan. We use this fact to measure widths of ???1 km for the largest channels. Comparison of the data sets shows that in our study area within the equatorial bright spectral unit east of Xanadu, mountains are darker and bluer than surrounding smooth terrain. These results are consistent with the equatorial bright terrain possessing a veneer of material that is thinner in the regions where there are mountains and streambeds that have likely undergone more recent and extensive erosion. We suggest a model for the geographic relationship of the dark blue, dark brown, and equatorial bright spectral units based on our findings. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  5. Recompression therapy of mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Marković, Dubravko; Kovacević, Hasan

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes the treatment of a severe case of acute mountain sickness with a portable hyperbaric chamber. A 37-year old climber was treated for acute high altitude pulmonary oedema, which developed on the North Col of Mount Everest, at an altitude of 7,060 m. The treatment in the portable Gamow bag hyperbaric chamber lasted two hours, with a bag pressure of 103 mm Hg (0.136 kg/cm2 or 2 psig) using ambient air, without the addition of oxygen. With this pressure increase, the hyperbaric chamber lowered the patient's effective ambient altitude from 6,050 to 4,400 m. The treatment was successful and the pulmonary oedema disappeared. Outside the hyperbaric chamber, the patient recovered fully when he reached the altitude of 2,000 m. Portable hyperbaric chamber is recommended for the treatment of severe cases of acute mountain sickness, as well as for risky descent to lower altitudes. PMID:12150075

  6. Mountain geomorphosites in Odle Group (Dolomites, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coratza, Paola; Ghinoi, Alessandro; Marchetti, Mauro; Soldati, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    The area, considered in the present study, is located in the north-eastern sector of the Gardena valley, in the Odle Group, a popular destination of summer and winter tourism (more than 3000 m a.s.l.). The area has a strong hiking-tourism vocation thanks to its spectacular high-mountain landscape and a dense network of hiking tracks. The well-developed network of hiking paths and slopes for many different climbing skills offers a lot of possibilities for high-mountain excursions. Permanent dwelling-places are absent with the exceptions of a few tourist structures nearby opened during certain periods of the year. This area, as all Dolomites, which became UNESCO Word Heritage Site in 2009, represent landscape mosaics, which express the summation of landscape histories and processes offering an almost complete educational open-air laboratory due to the variety and complexity of phenomena and processes taking place during present climate conditions and during recent geological periods. These mountains, due to the aggregation of relict, recent and active landforms constitute an outstanding geoheritage, suitable for educational and tourist purposes. Landforms typical of past morphoclimatic conditions (inherited geomorphosites) share the stage with forms and processes active in the current morphoclimatic conditions (active geomorphosites); their spatial and geometrical relationships may be sufficient to trace a relative time-line of the geomorphological history of the area. Several glacial landforms testify for the presence and the activity of a glacial tongue hosted in the valley during the Lateglacial, mainly located in the northern sector of the area, where altitudes range from about 2000 m to about 2300 m a.s.l. Among these, worth of note are the well-preserved glacial cirques of Val dla Roa and those located at the southern margin of the Odle Group. Quite well preserved moraine ridges are present at a mean altitude of some 2000 m at the Alpe di Cisles as well as

  7. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography

  8. Micrometeorites from the Transantarctic Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Rochette, P.; Folco, L.; Suavet, C.; van Ginneken, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Perchiazzi, N.; Braucher, R.; Harvey, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of large accumulations of micrometeorites on the Myr-old, glacially eroded granitic summits of several isolated nunataks in the Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains. The number (>3,500) of large (>400 μm and up to 2 mm in size) melted and unmelted particles is orders of magnitudes greater than other Antarctic collections. Flux estimates, bedrock exposure ages and the presence of ≈0.8-Myr-old microtektites suggest that extraterrestrial dust collection occurred over the last 1 Myr, taking up to 500 kyr to accumulate based on 2 investigated find sites. The size distribution and frequency by type of cosmic spherules in the >200-μm size fraction collected at Frontier Mountain (investigated in detail in this report) are similar to those of the most representative known micrometeorite populations (e.g., South Pole Water Well). This and the identification of unusual types in terms of composition (i.e., chondritic micrometeorites and spherulitic aggregates similar to the ≈480-kyr-old ones recently found in Antarctic ice cores) and size suggest that the Transantarctic Mountain micrometeorites constitute a unique and essentially unbiased collection that greatly extends the micrometeorite inventory and provides material for studies on micrometeorite fluxes over the recent (≈1 Myr) geological past. PMID:19011091

  9. The hydrology of Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Fabryka-Martin, J.M.

    2000-12-04

    Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr(-1) under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (similar to 300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominantly through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

  10. Front Range of the Rockies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These MISR images from May 12, 2001 (Terra orbit 7447) include portions of southern Wyoming, central Colorado, and western Nebraska. The top view is from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. The bottom image is a stereo 'anaglyph' generated using data from the nadir and 46-degree-forward cameras. Viewing the anaglyph with red/blue glasses (red filter over your left eye) gives a 3-D effect. To facilitate stereo viewing, the images have been oriented with north at the left. Each image measures 422 kilometers x 213 kilometers.

    The South Platte River enters just to the right of center at the top of the images. It wends its way westward (down), then turns southward (right) where it flows through the city of Denver. Located at the western edge of the Great Plains, Denver is nicknamed the 'Mile High City', a consequence of its 1609-meter (5280-foot) elevation above sea level. It shows up in the imagery as a grayish patch surrounded by numerous agricultural fields to the north and east. Denver is situated just east of the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, located in the lower right of the images. The Rockies owe their present forms to tectonic uplift and sculpting by millions of years of erosion. Scattered cumulus clouds floating above the mountain peaks are visible in these images, and stand out most dramatically in the 3-D stereo view.

    To the north of Denver, other urban areas included within these images are Boulder, Greeley, Longmont, and Fort Collins, Colorado; Cheyenne and Laramie, Wyoming; and Scottsbluff, Nebraska.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  11. Volcanism Studies: Final Report for the Yucca Mountain Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce M. Crowe; Frank V. Perry; Greg A. Valentine; Lynn M. Bowker

    1998-12-01

    defined and described as one of many alternative models of the structural controls of the distribution of Plio-Quaternary basalt centers in the YMR. Geophysical data are described for the YMR and are used as an aid to understand the distribution of basaltic volcanic centers. Chapter 4 discusses the petrologic and geochemical features of basaltic volcanism in the YMR, the southern Great Basin and the Basin and Range province. Geochemical and isotopic data are presented for post-Miocene basalts of the Yucca Mountain region. Alternative petrogenetic models are assessed for the formation of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center. Based on geochemical data, basaltic ash in fault trenches near Yucca Mountain is shown to have originated from the Lathrop Wells center. Chapter 5 synthesizes eruptive and subsurface effects of basaltic volcanism on a potential repository and summarizes current concepts of the segregation, ascent, and eruption of basalt magma. Chapter 6 synthesizes current knowledge of the probability of disruption of a potential repository at Yucca Mountain. In 1996, an Expert Elicitation panel was convened by DOE that independently conducted PVHA for the Yucca Mountain site. Chapter 6 does not attempt to revise this PVHA; instead, it further examines the sensitivity of variables in PVHA. The approaches and results of PVHA by the expert judgment panel are evaluated and incorporated throughout this chapter. The disruption ratio (E2) is completely re-evaluated using simulation modeling that describes volcanic events based on the geometry of basaltic feeder dikes. New estimates of probability bounds are developed. These comparisons show that it is physically implausible for the probability of magmatic disruption of the Yucca Mountain site to be > than about 7 x 10{sup {minus}8} events yr{sup {minus}1} . Simple probability estimates are used to assess possible implications of not drilling aeromagnetic anomalies in the Amargosa Valley. The sensitivity of the disruption

  12. Massanutten Mountain, Virginia, USA (Anaglyph)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Massanutten Mountain lies in the Shenandoah Valley of northern Virginia. Rock layers in the mountain are folded downward in an overall 'U' shape (called a syncline) which accounts for its peculiar double ridge shape with a highly elongated valley between. The ridges have formed because they are capped with a sandstone layer which is resistant to weathering and erosion. Limestones and shales are less resistant and form the lowlands and valleys. The north and south forks of the Shenandoah River flank Massanutten Mountain and display unusually pronounced meander patterns. Other layered sedimentary rocks form other ridgeline patterns in the Allegheny Mountains, to the upper left. But the igneous and metamorphic (crystalline) rocks of the Blue Ridge Mountains erode into a very different topographic pattern to the southeast. This small area provides an excellent example rock type, geologic structure, and fluvial (stream) processes all influencing landform development.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C

  13. Mountain-Top-to-Mountain-Top Optical Link Demonstration. Part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, A.; Wright, M. W.

    2002-01-01

    A mountain-top-to-mountain-top optical link was demonstrated between JPL's Table Mountain Facility (TMF), Wrightwood, California, and Strawberry Peak (SP), Lake Arrowhead, California, during the months of June, August, and September of 2000. The bidirectional laser link was nearly horizontal at an altitude of 2 km and spanned a range of 46.8 km. The 780-nm beacon laser transmitted from TMF comprised eight co-propagating mutually incoherent laser beams. The normalized variance or scintillation index (SI) of the individual beacon lasers measured by recording the signal received through 8.50-cm-diameter spotting telescopes on three different nights (June 28-30, 2000) was 1.05 +/- 0.2, 1.76 +/- 0.6, and 0.96 +/- 0.24, respectively. These measurements agreed with values predicted by a heuristic model. The SI of the signal received at SP was found to decrease progressively with an increasing number of beams, and a factor of 3 to 3.5 reduction was achieved for all eight beams. The beam divergence determined by mapping out the point spread function of a few of the individual laser footprints received at SP was 85 to 150 microrad, compared to a design goal of 120 microrad. The 852-nm communications laser beam received at TMF through a 60-cm-diameter telescope on the nights of August 4 and September 14 and 15, 2000, yielded SI values of 0.23 +/- 0.04, 0.32 +/- 0.01, and 0.49 +/- 0.18, respectively, where the reduction was attributed to aperture averaging. The probability distribution functions of the received signal at either end, mitigated by multi-beam averaging in one direction and by aperture averaging in the other direction, displayed lognormal behavior. Consequently, the measured fade statistics showed good agreement with a lognormal model.

  14. Geology of the Yucca Mountain Region, Chapter in Stuckless, J.S., ED., Yucca Mountain, Nevada - A Proposed Geologic Repository for High-Level Radioactive Waste

    SciTech Connect

    J.S. Stuckless; D. O'Leary

    2006-09-25

    Yucca Mountain has been proposed as the site for the Nation's first geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. This chapter provides the geologic framework for the Yucca Mountain region. The regional geologic units range in age from late Precambrian through Holocene, and these are described briefly. Yucca Mountain is composed dominantly of pyroclastic units that range in age from 11.4 to 15.2 Ma. The proposed repository would be constructed within the Topopah Spring Tuff, which is the lower of two major zoned and welded ash-flow tuffs within the Paintbrush Group. The two welded tuffs are separated by the partly to nonwelded Pah Canyon Tuff and Yucca Mountain Tuff, which together figure prominently in the hydrology of the unsaturated zone. The Quaternary deposits are primarily alluvial sediments with minor basaltic cinder cones and flows. Both have been studied extensively because of their importance in predicting the long-term performance of the proposed repository. Basaltic volcanism began about 10 Ma and continued as recently as about 80 ka with the eruption of cones and flows at Lathrop Wells, approximately 10 km south-southwest of Yucca Mountain. Geologic structure in the Yucca Mountain region is complex. During the latest Paleozoic and Mesozoic, strong compressional forces caused tight folding and thrust faulting. The present regional setting is one of extension, and normal faulting has been active from the Miocene through to the present. There are three major local tectonic domains: (1) Basin and Range, (2) Walker Lane, and (3) Inyo-Mono. Each domain has an effect on the stability of Yucca Mountain.

  15. Geology of the central Mineral Mountains, Beaver County, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Sibbett, B.S.; Nielson, D.L.

    1980-03-01

    The Mineral Mountains are located in Beaver and Millard Counties, southwestern Utah. The range is a horst located in the transition zone between the Basin and Range and Colorado Plateau geologic provinces. A multiple-phase Tertiary pluton forms most of the range, with Paleozoic rocks exposed on the north and south and Precambrian metamorphic rocks on the west in the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA (Known Geothermal Resource Area). Precambrian banded gneiss and Cambrian carbonate rocks have been intruded by foliated granodioritic to monzonitic rocks of uncertain age. The Tertiary pluton consists of six major phases of quartz monzonitic to leucocratic granitic rocks, two diorite stocks, and several more mafic units that form dikes. During uplift of the mountain block, overlying rocks and the upper part of the pluton were partially removed by denudation faulting to the west. The interplay of these low-angle faults and younger northerly trending Basin and Range faults is responsible for the structural control of the Roosevelt Hot Springs geothermal system. The structural complexity of the Roosevelt Hot Springs KGRA is unique within the range, although the same tectonic style continues throughout the range. During the Quaternary, rhyolite volcanism was active in the central part of the range and basaltic volcanism occurred in the northern portion of the map area. The heat source for the geothermal system is probably related to the Quaternary rhyolite volcanic activity.

  16. A seismic study of Yucca Mountain and vicinity, southern Nevada; data report and preliminary results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoffman, L.R.; Mooney, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    From 1980 to 1982, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted seismic refraction studies at the Nevada Test Site to aid in an investigation of the regional crustal structure at a possible nuclear waste repository site near Yucca Mountain. Two regionally distributed deployments and one north-south deployment recorded nuclear events. First arrival times from these deployments were plotted on a location map and contoured to determine traveltime delays. The results indicate delays as large as 0.5 s in the Yucca Mountain and Crater Flat areas relative to the Jackass Flats area. A fourth east-west deployment recorded a chemical explosion and was interpreted using a two-dimensional computer raytracing technique. Delays as high as 0.7 s were observed over Crater Flat and Yucca Mountain. The crustal model derived from this profile indicates that Paleozoic rocks, which outcrop to the east at Skull Mountain and the Calico Hills, and to the west at Bare Mountain, lie at a minimum depth of 3 km beneath part of Yucca Mountain. These results confirm earlier estimates based on the modeling of detailed gravity data. A mid-crustal boundary at 15 ? 2 km beneath Yucca Mountain is evidenced by a prominent reflection recorded beyond 43 km range at 1.5 s reduced time. Other mid-crustal boundaries have been identified at 24 and 30 km and the total crustal thickness is 35 km.

  17. SRTM Anaglyph: Laguna Mellquina, Andes Mountains, Argentina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This anaglyph of an area south of San Martin de Los Andes, Argentina, is the first Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) view of the Andes Mountains, the tallest mountain chain in the western hemisphere. This particular site does not include the higher Andes peaks, but it does include steep-sided valleys and other distinctive landforms carved by Pleistocene glaciers. Elevations here range from about 700 to 2,440 meters (2,300 to 8,000 feet). This region is very active tectonically and volcanically, and the landforms provide a record of the changes that have occurred over many thousands of years. Large lakes fill the broad mountain valleys, and the spectacular scenery here makes this area a popular resort destination for Argentinians.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary SRTM elevation model. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11,2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed

  18. Space Radar Image of Rocky Mountains, Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a three-dimensional perspective of the eastern front range of the Rocky Mountains, about 120 kilometers (75 miles) west of Great Falls, Montana. The image was created by combining two spaceborne radar images using a technique known as interferometry. Visualizations like this are useful to scientists because they show the shapes of the topographic features such as mountains and valleys. This technique helps to clarify the relationships of the different types of materials on the surface detected by the radar. The view is looking south-southeast. Along the right edge of the image is the valley of the north fork of the Sun River. The western edge of the Great Plains appears on the left side. The valleys in the lower center, running off into the plains on the left, are branches of the Teton River. The highest mountains are at elevations of 2,860 meters (9,390 feet), and the plains are about 1,400 meters (4,500 feet) above sea level. The dark brown areas are grasslands, bright green areas are farms, light brown, orange and purple areas are scrub and forest, and bright white and blue areas are steep rocky slopes. The two radar images were taken on successive days by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on board the space shuttle Endeavour in October 1994. The digital elevation map was produced using radar interferometry, a process in which radar data are acquired on different passes of the space shuttle. The two data passes are compared to obtain elevation information. Radar image data are draped over the topography to provide the color with the following assignments: red is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; green is C-band vertically transmitted, vertically received; and blue are the differences seen in the L-band data between the two days. This image is centered near 47.7 degrees north latitude and 112.7 degrees west longitude. No vertical exaggeration factor has been applied to the data. SIR-C/X-SAR, a

  19. Mountain Weather and Climate, Third Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastenrath, Stefan

    2009-05-01

    For colleagues with diverse interests in the atmosphere, glaciers, radiation, landforms, water resources, vegetation, human implications, and more, Mountain Weather and Climate can be a valuable source of guidance and literature references. The book is organized into seven chapters: 1, Mountains and their climatological study; 2,Geographical controls of mountain meteorological elements; 3, Circulation systems related to orography; 4, Climatic characteristics of mountains; 5, Regional case studies; 6, Mountain bioclimatology; and 7, Changes in mountain climates. These chapters are supported by l78 diagrams and photographs, 47 tables, and some 2000 literature references. The volume has an appendix of units and energy conversion factors and a subject index, but it lacks an author index.

  20. SANTA LUCIA WILDERNESS, AND GARCIA MOUNTAIN, BLACK MOUNTAIN, LA PANZA, MACHESNA MOUNTAIN, LOS MACHOS HILLS, BIG ROCKS, AND STANLEY MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frizzell, Virgil A., Jr.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    The Santa Lucia Wilderness Area and Garcia Mountain, Black Mountain, La Panza, Machesna Mountain, Los Machos Hills, Big Rocks, and Stanley Mountain Roadless Areas together occupy an area of about 218 sq mi in the Los Padres National Forest, California. On the basis of a mineral-resource evaluation a small area in the Black Mountain Roadless Area has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium, and a small area in the Stanley Mountain Roadless Area has probable potential for low-grade mercury resources. Although petroleum resources occur in rocks similar to those found in the study area, no potential for petroleum resources was identified in the wilderness or any of the roadless areas. No resource potential for other mineral resources was identified in any of the areas. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling probably would increase knowledge about distribution and modes of occurrence of uranium and cinnabar in those areas, respectively.

  1. Changes in vegetation cover and composition in the Swedish mountain region.

    PubMed

    Hedenås, Henrik; Christensen, Pernilla; Svensson, Johan

    2016-08-01

    Climate change, higher levels of natural resource demands, and changing land use will likely lead to changes in vegetation configuration in the mountain regions. The aim of this study was to determine if the vegetation cover and composition have changed in the Swedish region of the Scandinavian Mountain Range, based on data from the long-term landscape biodiversity monitoring program NILS (National Inventory of Landscapes in Sweden). Habitat type and vegetation cover were assessed in 1740 systematically distributed permanent field plots grouped into 145 sample units across the mountain range. Horvitz-Thompson estimations were used to estimate the present areal extension of the alpine and the mountain birch forest areas of the mountain range, the cover of trees, shrubs, and plants, and the composition of the bottom layer vegetation. We employed the data from two subsequent 5-year monitoring periods, 2003-2007 and 2008-2012, to determine if there have been any changes in these characteristics. We found that the extension of the alpine and the mountain birch forest areas has not changed between the inventory phases. However, the total tree canopy cover increased in the alpine area, the cover of graminoids and dwarf shrubs and the total cover of field vegetation increased in both the alpine area and the mountain birch forest, the bryophytes decreased in the alpine area, and the foliose lichens decreased in the mountain birch forest. The observed changes in vegetation cover and composition, as assessed by systematic data in a national and regional monitoring scheme, can validate the results of local studies, experimental studies, and models. Through benchmark assessments, monitoring data also contributes to governmental policies and land-management strategies as well as to directed cause and effect analyses. PMID:27387190

  2. How the eastern Qilian Shan Mountain was deformed, revealed by deformed fluvial terraces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, X.; Pan, B.; Gao, H.; Hu, Z.; Geng, H.; Cao, B.

    2012-12-01

    The northwest-southeastern treading Qilian Shan Mountain, margining the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, has been uplifting and deforming related to thrust faults bordering the mountain range in the north. By now, the fault thrust rate and how the mountain was uplifted and deformed is poorly documented along the eastern Qilian Shan. In this study, several flights of late Quaternary fluvial terraces along two rivers (Xiying River and Jinta River), sourced from the mountain crest and flowing transecting these thrust faults and folds, are surveyed by differential GPS with the accuracy of lower than 10 centimeters. Meanwhile, the abandonment times of terrace surfaces were dated by OSL dating on the overlying loess above the fluvial deposits. Analysis results of height data show that fluvial terrace surfaces were obviously deformed related to thrusting and folding. At first, we derive an average uplift rate of 0.05~0.2 mm/yr, which is contributed by folding along the low-mountain range since 120 ka B.P. When the uplift contributed by thrust is added, the total rate of uplift would be 0.45-0.60 mm/yr. The second, by the geometry of terrace surface height, the thrust geometry under the surface is deduced. Along the low-mountain range (with elevation from 2000 m to 3000 m), the dip angle of thrust is bended from ~30° to ~50° at the depth of around 15 km, and at the depth of ~20 km, the thrust dip angle is changed to ~26°. Along the Huangcheng-Taerzhuang Fault, which bordering the high-mountain range (with elevation from 3000 m to 5000 m) and the low-mountain range, the dip angle is bended from ~70° at the surface to ~47° below the depth of ~5 km, and at the depth below 23 km, the dip angel of the thrust is >30°. We conclude that in the late Quaternary, the deforming of mountain range along the eastern Qilian Shan is accomplished both by thrusting and folding; the different uplift rate is mainly caused by different thrust angle in the depth along the eastern Qilian Shan

  3. Seasonal distribution and aerial surveys of mountain goats in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jenkins, Kurt; Beirne, Katherine; Happe, Patricia; Hoffman, Roger; Rice, Cliff; Schaberl, Jim

    2011-01-01

    We described the seasonal distribution of Geographic Positioning System (GPS)-collared mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus) in Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks to evaluate aerial survey sampling designs and provide general information for park managers. This work complemented a companion study published elsewhere of aerial detection biases of mountain goat surveys in western Washington. Specific objectives reported here were to determine seasonal and altitudinal movements, home range distributions, and temporal dynamics of mountain goat movements in and out of aerial survey sampling frames established within each park. We captured 25 mountain goats in Mount Rainier (9), North Cascades (5), and Olympic (11) National Parks, and fitted them with GPS-collars programmed to obtain 6-8 locations daily. We obtained location data on 23 mountain goats for a range of 39-751 days from 2003 to 2008. Altitudinal distributions of GPS-collared mountain goats varied individually and seasonally, but median altitudes used by individual goats during winter ranged from 817 to 1,541 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,215 to 1,787 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. Median altitudes used by GPS-collared goats during summer ranged from 1,312 to 1,819 meters in Olympic and North Cascades National Parks, and 1,780 to 2,061 meters in Mount Rainier National Park. GPS-collared mountain goats generally moved from low-altitude winter ranges to high-altitude summer ranges between June 11 and June 19 (range April 24-July 3) and from summer to winter ranges between October 26 and November 9 (range September 11-December 23). Seasonal home ranges (95 percent of adaptive kernel utilization distribution) of males and female mountain goats were highly variable, ranging from 1.6 to 37.0 kilometers during summers and 0.7 to 9.5 kilometers during winters. Locations of GPS-collared mountain goats were almost 100 percent within the sampling frame used for

  4. Survival of mountain quail translocated from two distinct source populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troy, Ronald J.; Coates, Peter S.; Connelly, John W.; Gillette, Gifford; Delehanty, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Translocation of mountain quail (Oreortyx pictus) to restore viable populations to their former range has become a common practice. Because differences in post-release vital rates between animals from multiple source populations has not been well studied, wildlife and land managers may arbitrarily choose the source population or base the source population on immediate availability when planning translocation projects. Similarly, an understanding of the optimal proportion of individuals from different age and sex classes for translocation would benefit translocation planning. During 2006 and 2007, we captured and translocated 125 mountain quail from 2 ecologically distinct areas: 38 from southern California and 87 from southwestern Oregon. We released mountain quail in the Bennett Hills of south-central Idaho. We radio-marked and monitored a subsample of 58 quail and used them for a 2-part survival analysis. Cumulative survival probability was 0.23 ± 0.05 (SE) at 150 days post-release. We first examined an a priori hypothesis (model) that survival varied between the 2 distinct source populations. We found that source population did not explain variation in survival. This result suggests that wildlife managers have flexibility in selecting source populations for mountain quail translocation efforts. In a post hoc examination, we pooled the quail across source populations and evaluated differences in survival probabilities between sex and age classes. The most parsimonious model indicated that adult male survival was substantially less than survival rates of other mountain quail age and sex classes (i.e., interaction between sex and age). This result suggests that translocation success could benefit by translocating yearling males rather than adult males, perhaps because adult male breeding behavior results in vulnerability to predators

  5. Geographic Information Science and Mountain Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scuderi, Louis A.

    Mountain areas are among the most threatened environments worldwide.These sensitive systems suffer from human encroachment, resource extraction, and subsequent environmental degradation. Mountain ecosystems are also extremely sensitive to climate variability with impacts on snow and ice cover, hydrologic response, and sediment yield. From this perspective, mountain environments can be viewed as one of the “canaries in the coal mine” for the entire global environmental system.

  6. Landscape, Mountain Worship and Astronomy in Socaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano, Ricardo

    The spatiotemporal analysis of mountain worship in the indigenous community of Socaire, Atacama, northern Chile, relates to cultural, geographical, climatic, psychological, and astronomical information gathered from ethno archaeological studies. We identify a system of offerings to the mountains that incorporates concepts such as ceque (straight line), mayllku (mountain lord or ancestor), and pacha (space and time). Here, the mountains on the visible horizon (Tumisa, Lausa, Chiliques, Ipira, and Miñiques) feature as the fingers on the left hand (PAH Triad). This structure regulates annual activities and rituals and sets the basis for the Socaireños' worldview raised on a humanized landscape.

  7. Mountain Pine Beetle Host Selection Between Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pines in the Southern Rocky Mountains.

    PubMed

    West, Daniel R; Briggs, Jennifer S; Jacobi, William R; Negrón, José F

    2016-02-01

    Recent evidence of range expansion and host transition by mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins; MPB) has suggested that MPB may not primarily breed in their natal host, but will switch hosts to an alternate tree species. As MPB populations expanded in lodgepole pine forests in the southern Rocky Mountains, we investigated the potential for movement into adjacent ponderosa pine forests. We conducted field and laboratory experiments to evaluate four aspects of MPB population dynamics and host selection behavior in the two hosts: emergence timing, sex ratios, host choice, and reproductive success. We found that peak MPB emergence from both hosts occurred simultaneously between late July and early August, and the sex ratio of emerging beetles did not differ between hosts. In two direct tests of MPB host selection, we identified a strong preference by MPB for ponderosa versus lodgepole pine. At field sites, we captured naturally emerging beetles from both natal hosts in choice arenas containing logs of both species. In the laboratory, we offered sections of bark and phloem from both species to individual insects in bioassays. In both tests, insects infested ponderosa over lodgepole pine at a ratio of almost 2:1, regardless of natal host species. Reproductive success (offspring/female) was similar in colonized logs of both hosts. Overall, our findings suggest that MPB may exhibit equally high rates of infestation and fecundity in an alternate host under favorable conditions. PMID:26546596

  8. Sultan Mountain mine, western San Juan Mountains, Colorado: A fluid inclusion and stable isotope study

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, J.A. ); Thompson, T.B. . Dept. of Earth Resources)

    1991-01-01

    The Sultan Mountain (SM) mine, in the western San Juan Mountains of Colorado, has produced Cu-Pb-Zn-Ag-Au ores from the mid-1870s until the 1950s. Production was from veins filling faults and fissures along the southern margin of the Silverton caldera. The principal host rock to the veins is a quartz monzonite stock. Five periods of hypogene mineralization have been recognized: (1) early quartz-pyrite; (2) quartz-pyrite; (3) rhodochrosite-siderite; (4) main ore-stage chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite, galena, sphalerite, and gold; and (5) quartz-fluorite. Evidence of open-space filling (banding, crustification, vugs) is widespread. Heating studies of fluid inclusions in quartz, rhodochrosite-siderite, sphalerite, and fluorite indicate temperatures were approximately 200 C for stages 1 to 4 and 186 C for stage 5. Stages 1, 2, and 4 show evidence of boiling. Crushing studies indicate that high-pressure gas, probably CO[sub 2], is present in the fluid inclusions. Freezing point depression estimates of salinity, corrected for CO[sub 2], indicate a range of 13.6 to 1.3 wt percent NaCl equiv. These data together with P-V-T data for saline solutions and P[sub CO[sub 2

  9. Geologic map of the Valley Mountain 15’ quadrangle, San Bernardino and Riverside Counties, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Keith A.; Bacheller, John; Fitzgibbon, Todd T.; Powell, Robert E.; Allen, Charlotte M.

    2013-01-01

    The Valley Mountain 15’ quadrangle straddles the Pinto Mountain Fault, which bounds the eastern Transverse Ranges in the south against the Mojave Desert province in the north. The Pinto Mountains, part of the eastern Transverse Ranges in the south part of the quadrangle expose a series of Paleoproterozoic gneisses and granite and the Proterozoic quartzite of Pinto Mountain. Early Triassic quartz monzonite intruded the gneisses and was ductiley deformed prior to voluminous Jurassic intrusion of diorite, granodiorite, quartz monzonite, and granite plutons. The Jurassic rocks include part of the Bullion Mountains Intrusive Suite, which crops out prominently at Valley Mountain and in the Bullion Mountains, as well as in the Pinto Mountains. Jurassic plutons in the southwest part of the quadrangle are deeply denuded from midcrustal emplacement levels in contrast to supracrustal Jurassic limestone and volcanic rocks exposed in the northeast. Dikes inferred to be part of the Jurassic Independence Dike Swarm intrude the Jurassic plutons and Proterozoic rocks. Late Cretaceous intrusion of the Cadiz Valley Batholith in the northeast caused contact metamorphism of adjacent Jurassic plutonic rocks. The Tertiary period saw emplacement of basanitoid basalt at about 23 Ma and deposition of Miocene and (or) Pliocene ridge-capping gravels. An undated east-dipping low-angle normal fault zone in the Pinto Mountains drops hanging-wall rocks eastward and may account for part of the contrast in uplift history across the quadrangle. The eastern Transverse Ranges are commonly interpreted as severely rotated clockwise tectonically in the Neogene relative to the Mojave Desert, but similar orientations of Jurassic dike swarms suggest that any differential rotation between the two provinces is small in this quadrangle. The late Cenozoic Pinto Mountain Fault and other strike-slip faults cut Quaternary deposits in the quadrangle, with two northwest-striking faults cutting Holocene deposits

  10. Plasma cholinesterase levels of mountain plovers (Charadrius montanus) wintering in central California, USA.

    PubMed

    Iko, William M; Archuleta, Andrew S; Knopf, Fritz L

    2003-01-01

    Declines of over 60% in mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) populations over the past 30 years have made it a species of concern throughout its current range and a proposed species for listing under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. Wintering mountain plovers spend considerable time on freshly plowed agricultural fields where they may potentially be exposed to anticholinesterase pesticides. Because of the population status and wintering ecology of plovers, the objectives of our study were to use nondestructive methods to report baseline plasma cholinesterase (ChE) levels in free-ranging mountain plovers wintering in California, USA, and to assess whether sampled birds showed signs of ChE inhibition related to anticholinesterase chemical exposure. We compared plasma ChE activity for mountain plovers sampled from the Carrizo Plain (an area relatively free of anticholinesterase pesticide use) with similar measures for plovers from the Central Valley (where anticholinesterase pesticides are widely used). Analyses for ChE inhibition indicated that none of the plovers had been recently exposed to these chemicals. However, mean ChE levels of plovers from the Central Valley were significantly higher (32%) than levels reported for plovers from the Carrizo Plain. This result differs from our original assumption of higher exposure risk to mountain plovers in the Central Valley but does suggest that some effect is occurring in the ChE activity of mountain plovers wintering in California. PMID:12503754

  11. Lichen communities on conifers in Southern California mountains: an ecological survey relative to oxidant air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, L.L.; Nash, T.H. III

    1983-01-01

    In comparison with collections from the early 1900's when oxidant air pollution was essentially absent, 50% fewer lichen species were found on conifers during 3 yr (1976-1979) of collecting and sampling in the mountains of Southern California. Among the five mountain ranges studied, the San Bernardino Mountains, the region with the highest oxidant levels, had lower lichen frequency and cover values. Within the San Bernardino study sites, lichen cover was inversely related to estimated oxidant doses. Furthermore, at sites with high oxidant levels, marked morphological deterioration of the common species Hypogymnia enteromorpha was documented. Transplants of this species from the relatively unpolluted Cuyamaca Rancho State Park into the San Bernardino Mountains exhibited similar deterioration after a year's exposure. 4 figures, 9 tables.

  12. Lichen communities on conifers in Southern California mountains: an ecological survey relative to oxidant air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Sigal, L.L.; Nash T.H. III

    1983-01-01

    In comparison with collections from the early 1900's when oxidant air pollution was essentially absent, 50% fewer lichen species were found on conifers during 3 yr (1976-1979) of collecting and sampling in the mountains of Southern California. Among the five mountain ranges studied, the San Bernardino Mountains, the region with the highest oxidant levels, had lower lichen frequency and cover values. Within the San Bernardino study sites, lichen cover was inversely related to estimated oxidant doses. Furthermore, at sites with high oxidant levels, marked morphological deterioration of the common species Hypogymnia enteromorpha was documented. Transplants of this species from the relatively unpolluted Cuyamaca Rancho State Park in the San Bernardino Mountains exhibited similar deterioration after a year's exposure.

  13. Late Quaternary geomorphology and soils in Crater Flat, Yucca mountain area, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, F.F.; Bell, J.W.; Ramelli, A.R.; Dorn, R.I.; Ku, T.L.

    1995-04-01

    Crater Flat is an alluvium-filled structural basin on the west side of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, which is under consideration for a high-level nuclear waste repository. North-trending, late Quaternary faults offset alluvium in Crater Flat both along the canyons of the western flanks of Yucca Mountain and out on the piedmont slope. We believe the initial lack of young offsets at Yucca Mountain was in part due to unrecognized late Quaternary stratigraphy. We hypothesize that alluviation in the Yucca Mountain region was more active during the late Quaternary than previously thought. Several techniques were tried to test this hypothesis. Results are compared with previous soils and surface-exposure dating studies, and correlated to stratigraphy of other late Quaternary units in the southern Nevada, Death Valley, and Mojave Desert areas, and provide new stratigraphic data relevant to understanding climatic-alluvial processes in the Basin and Range Province during the late Quaternary. 76 refs., 7 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Humps and hollows: basalt weathering in low-latitude mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Jasper; Grab, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    Physical, chemical and biological weathering processes are significant contributors to landscape development in mountain blocks worldwide, and over long time scales, but the interplay between different weathering processes is uncertain. Jurassic-age basalt lava flows underlie the Drakensberg mountain range of eastern Lesotho, southern Africa (summits 3200-3400 m asl), and weathered bedrock is commonly exposed on flat plateau surfaces. Subaerial weathering throughout the Quaternary and Holocene has resulted in a range of weathering forms, some of which exploit pre-existing cooling fractures within the basalts, and some of which are independent of geological control. These forms include pseudokarst-style potholes, karren and other microforms. The geometry, chemistry of water contained within the potholes, seasonal presence of ice, sediment and organic residues all suggest that physical, chemical and biological weathering processes are significant at different times and in different ways in subaerial weathering. Moreover, it is also likely that these process-types show pronounced seasonal variability that means that the interplay between different processes is subtle. Aggregated rates of land surface denudation or geomorphic development of single landforms therefore hide this subtle interplay between different processes. Changes in mountain summit soil depth (through soil erosion), ecosystems and climate will change this balance between different processes, and will operate over different spatial and temporal scales.

  15. Yucca Mountain and The Environment

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2005-04-12

    The Yucca Mountain Project places a high priority on protecting the environment. To ensure compliance with all state and federal environmental laws and regulations, the Project established an Environmental Management System. Important elements of the Environmental Management System include the following: (1) monitoring air, water, and other natural resources; (2) protecting plant and animal species by minimizing land disturbance; (3) restoring vegetation and wildlife habitat in disturbed areas; (4) protecting cultural resources; (5) minimizing waste, preventing pollution, and promoting environmental awareness; and (6) managing of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. Reducing the impacts of Project activities on the environment will continue for the duration of the Project.

  16. Getting Beyond Yucca Mountain - 12305

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, Robert J.; Williams, James M.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has terminated the Yucca Mountain repository project. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has indefinitely suspended the Yucca Mountain licensing proceeding. The presidentially-appointed Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future is preparing a report, due in January 2012, to the Secretary of Energy on recommendations for a new national nuclear waste management and disposal program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). However, the BRC Draft Report fails to provide detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. The comments submitted to the BRC by the State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects provide useful details on how the US national nuclear waste program can get beyond the failed Yucca Mountain repository project. A detailed siting process, consisting of legislative elements, procedural elements, and 'rules' for volunteer sites, could meet the objectives of the BRC and the Western Governors Association (WGA), while promoting and protecting the interests of potential host states. The recent termination of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository provides both an opportunity and a need to re-examine the United States' nuclear waste management program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for SNF and HLW. It is anticipated that the BRC Final report in January 2012 will recommend a new general course of action, but there will likely continue to be a need for detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. Getting the nation's nuclear waste program back on track

  17. Doctor on a mountaineering expedition.

    PubMed Central

    A'Court, C. H.; Stables, R. H.; Travis, S.

    1995-01-01

    Doctors are welcome members on mountaineering expeditions to remote areas, but practical advice on how to prepare and what kit to take can be difficult to find. This article is a ragbag of useful advice on diverse topics. It explains the necessary preparation, provides tips for a healthy expedition, and summarises the common disorders encountered at high altitude. The comprehensive drug and equipment lists and first aid kit for climbers were used for the 1992 Everest in winter expedition. They are there to be sacrificed to personal preference and the experience and size of individual expeditions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7767198

  18. DRAGOON MOUNTAINS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drewes, Harald; Kreidler, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral and hydrocarbon resource potential of the Dragoon Mountains Roadless Area was assessed and six areas of probable mineral-resource potential were identified. The area may contain metamorphic skarn-type mineralization of copper, lead, molybdenum, and zinc, and some of these may contain silver and gold. More remotely, the area could also contain stockwork molybdenum mineralization and replacement or vein-type mineralization of beryllium, fluorite, thorium, tin, and tungsten. Rock products exist within the area and are discussed due to the proximity of a railroad, but similar materials occur outside the area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  19. Tracing the maternal roots of the domestic Red Mountain Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Arne; Lieckfeldt, Dietmar; Hesse, Uwe G W; Froelich, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The Red Mountain Cattle (RHV) is an important native ancient breed from the lower mountain ranges of Central Europe, which was originally raised for milk and meat production and as draught animal. In the 1980s, the RHV was close to extinction and only the sperm of a single purebreed bull and a few cows were available for breed formation. In this study the mitogenomes were sequenced of RHV from six maternal founder lineages. We observed six novel mitogenomes which have not been found in any other cattle breed so far. The RHV mitogenomes are grouped phylogenetically in the T-haplogroup indicating a South European origin and supporting their primitive position within the taurine breeds. PMID:24971777

  20. Protection of the Mountain Ridgelines Utilizing GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Korean peninsula is characterized by numerous hills and mountains. The longest mountain ridgeline starting from Mt. Baekdusan to Mt. Jirisan is called Baekdudaegan which is similar to the continental divide or topographical watershed. In this study, GIS data, such as remotesensing images, national digital map, and watershed map, are used to analyze Korean mountain ridgelines structure and one Baekdudaegan data and nine Ridgelines are extracted. When extracted Baekdudaegan and other Ridgelines are overlaid on geologic maps, granite and gneiss are main components on the mountain ridgelines. The main mountain ridgelines are considered as the spiritual heritage overlapped in the land in Korea. As the environmental state is relatively better than those of other region in Korea, so many mountain ridgelines are legally protected by national legislation. The mountain ridgelines has hierarchical system; Baekdudaegan, Jeongmaek, Gimaek and Jimaek etc. according to their scale and total lengths of ridgelines. As only part of mountain ridgelines are currently protected by law or managed in environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure, we think that most part of them should be under protection. Considering the environmental state of the ridgelines, we think that some protective measures should be set up nearby 1 km on both sides of them. If there goes a development plan or project near the main mountain ridgelines, topographical change index (TCI) and topographical scale index (TSI) etc. are to be applied in EIA. This study intends: firstly, to analyze the topological characteristics of the Korean mountain ridgelines using GIS, secondly, to analyze the geological characteristics of nearby mountain ridgelines, and lastly, to find a way to utilize the results on EIA.

  1. Convective boundary layer heights over mountainous terrain – A review of concepts –

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wekker, Stephan; Kossmann, Meinolf

    2015-12-01

    Mountainous terrain exerts an important influence on the Earth's atmosphere and affects atmospheric transport and mixing at a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. The vertical scale of this transport and mixing is determined by the height of the atmospheric boundary layer, which is therefore an important parameter in air pollution studies, weather forecasting, climate modeling, and many other applications. It is recognized that the spatio-temporal structure of the daytime convective boundary layer (CBL) height is strongly modified and more complex in hilly and mountainous terrain compared to flat terrain. While the CBL over flat terrain is mostly dominated by turbulent convection, advection from multi-scale thermally driven flows plays an important role for the CBL evolution over mountainous terrain. However, detailed observations of the CBL structure and understanding of the underlying processes are still limited. Characteristics of CBL heights in mountainous terrain are reviewed for dry, convective conditions. CBLs in valleys and basins, where hazardous accumulation of pollutants is of particular concern, are relatively well-understood compared to CBLs over slopes, ridges, or mountain peaks. Interests in the initiation of shallow and deep convection, and of budgets and long-range transport of air pollutants and trace gases, have triggered some recent studies on terrain induced exchange processes between the CBL and the overlying atmosphere. These studies have helped to gain more insight into CBL structure over complex mountainous terrain, but also show that the universal definition of CBL height over mountains remains an unresolved issue. The review summarizes the progress that has been made in documenting and understanding spatio-temporal behavior of CBL heights in mountainous terrain and concludes with a discussion of open research questions and opportunities for future research.

  2. Smoke in the Bitterroot Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    By late August 2000, severe forest fires had been burning in Montana and Idaho for more than a month. As of Aug. 29, a total of 57 fires were burning in both states. The smoke from these fires is considered a health risk, especially for the very young and very old, and health advisory has been issued for those with respiratory problems who live in the area. This image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows smoke in the Bitterroot Mountains on the morning of August 21, 2000. Even though forest fires normally taper off overnight, these blazes are burning so fiercely that opaque pillars of smoke are rising into the morning air. More smoke fills the low-lying valleys, with the mountains rising out of the smoke into clear air. In the full size image, note the irrigated fields and ancient basalt lava flows that line the Snake River Plain to the south of the fires. Image by Reto Stockli and the MODIS science team

  3. Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

  4. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  5. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  6. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  7. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit...

  8. Summiteers--Moving Mountains with Bereaved Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    Summiteers are people who rush to the top. There is a mountain summit and a metaphorical summit inside us which we can climb. In the area of mountain summits, Reinhold Messner is surely the best known and most successful summiteer. He climbed, among other things, the highest peak on earth without supplemental oxygen. In the language of the country…

  9. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit...

  10. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit...

  11. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit...

  12. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit...

  13. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  14. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  15. A Mountain Cultural Curriculum: Telling Our Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Christine Ballengee

    1997-01-01

    Studies the development and implementation of a six-week curriculum to expose denigrating Appalachian Mountain stereotypes and supplant them with images that children create after investigating their West Virginia mountain cultural history of oppression and rebellion. Bases the development of the curriculum on multiple conceptions of multicultural…

  16. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108 Section 9.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.108 Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of...

  17. 78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation filed additional information in support of its request...

  18. Determining Learning Styles of the Professional Mountaineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore learning styles of the professional mountaineers. The research was carried out according to the survey model. The research group composed of 61 professional mountaineers (n[subscript (men)] = 45, n[subscript (women)] = 16) who attended Advanced Snow Ice Education Camp in Rize on September 1-7, 2012, the last camp of…

  19. Quantity and location of groundwater recharge in the Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico (USA), and their relation to the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawling, Geoffrey C.; Newton, B. Talon

    2016-06-01

    The Sacramento Mountains and the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin, in south-central New Mexico (USA), comprise a regional hydrologic system, wherein recharge in the mountains ultimately supplies water to the confined basin aquifer. Geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and climatologic data were used to delineate the area of recharge in the southern Sacramento Mountains. The water-table fluctuation and chloride mass-balance methods were used to quantify recharge over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Extrapolation of the quantitative recharge estimates to the entire Sacramento Mountains region allowed comparison with previous recharge estimates for the northern Sacramento Mountains and the Roswell Artesian Basin. Recharge in the Sacramento Mountains is estimated to range from 159.86 × 106 to 209.42 × 106 m3/year. Both the location of recharge and range in estimates is consistent with previous work that suggests that ~75 % of the recharge to the confined aquifer in the Roswell Artesian Basin has moved downgradient through the Yeso Formation from distal recharge areas in the Sacramento Mountains. A smaller recharge component is derived from infiltration of streamflow beneath the major drainages that cross the Pecos Slope, but in the southern Sacramento Mountains much of this water is ultimately derived from spring discharge. Direct recharge across the Pecos Slope between the mountains and the confined basin aquifer is much smaller than either of the other two components.

  20. Quantity and location of groundwater recharge in the Sacramento Mountains, south-central New Mexico (USA), and their relation to the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawling, Geoffrey C.; Newton, B. Talon

    2016-04-01

    The Sacramento Mountains and the adjacent Roswell Artesian Basin, in south-central New Mexico (USA), comprise a regional hydrologic system, wherein recharge in the mountains ultimately supplies water to the confined basin aquifer. Geologic, hydrologic, geochemical, and climatologic data were used to delineate the area of recharge in the southern Sacramento Mountains. The water-table fluctuation and chloride mass-balance methods were used to quantify recharge over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Extrapolation of the quantitative recharge estimates to the entire Sacramento Mountains region allowed comparison with previous recharge estimates for the northern Sacramento Mountains and the Roswell Artesian Basin. Recharge in the Sacramento Mountains is estimated to range from 159.86 × 106 to 209.42 × 106 m3/year. Both the location of recharge and range in estimates is consistent with previous work that suggests that ~75 % of the recharge to the confined aquifer in the Roswell Artesian Basin has moved downgradient through the Yeso Formation from distal recharge areas in the Sacramento Mountains. A smaller recharge component is derived from infiltration of streamflow beneath the major drainages that cross the Pecos Slope, but in the southern Sacramento Mountains much of this water is ultimately derived from spring discharge. Direct recharge across the Pecos Slope between the mountains and the confined basin aquifer is much smaller than either of the other two components.

  1. OBLIQUE VIEW, REAR ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST Mountain Home Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW, REAR ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Mountain Home Air Force Base 1958 Senior Officers' Housing, General's Residence, Rabeni Street (originally Ivy Street), Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  2. VIEW, FRONT ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTHSOUTHEAST Mountain Home Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW, FRONT ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST - Mountain Home Air Force Base 1958 Senior Officers' Housing, Colonel's Residence, Tuck Street (originally Locust Street), Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  3. Mountaineering fatalities on Aconcagua: 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Westensee, Jeffrey; Rogé, Ignacio; Van Roo, Jon D; Pesce, Carlos; Batzli, Sam; Courtney, D Mark; Lazio, Matthew P

    2013-09-01

    High altitude mountaineering is a dangerous endeavor due to the hypoxic hypobaric environment, extreme weather, and technical skills required. One of the seven summits, Aconcagua (6962 m) is the highest mountain outside of Asia. Its most popular route is nontechnical, attracting >3000 mountaineers annually. Utilizing data from the Servicio Médico Aconcagua (park medical service), we performed a retrospective descriptive analysis with the primary objective of deriving a fatality rate on Aconcagua from 2001 to 2012. The fatality rate on Aconcagua was then compared to other popular mountains. For climbers who died, we report all available demographic data, mechanisms of death, and circumstances surrounding the death. Between 2001 and 2012, 42,731 mountaineers attempted to summit Aconcagua. There were 33 fatalities. The fatality rate was 0.77 per 1000, or 0.077%. The fatality rate on Aconcagua is lower than that on Everest or Denali but higher than that on Rainier. PMID:24028641

  4. Miocene calc-alkaline magmatism, calderas, and crustal extension in the Kofa and Castle Dome Mountains, southwestern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Grubensky, M.J. ); Bagby, W.C. )

    1990-11-10

    Two widespread lower Miocene rhyolite ash flow tuffs in the Kofa and Castle Dome Mountains of southwestern Arizona are products of caldera-forming eruptions. These closely erupted tuffs, the tuff of Yaqui Tanks and the tuff of Ten Ewe Mountain, are approximately 22 Ma in age and their eruptions culminate a 1- to 2-m.y.-long burst of calc-alkaline volcanic activity centered on the northern Castle Dome Mountains. Exotic blocks of Proterozoic and Mesozoic crystalline rocks up to 20 m across are present in exposures of the tuff of Yaqui Tanks exposed in the central Castle Dome Mountains and the southern Kofa Mountains. A single, thick cooling unit of the tuff of Ten Ewe Mountain that includes thick lenses of mesobreccia marks the location of the younger caldera that extends from Palm Canyon in the western Kofa Mountains eastward more than 7 km along strike to the central part of the range. Large residual Bouguer gravity anomalies, one beneath each inferred caldera, are interpreted as batholithic rocks or low-density caldera fill. Caldera-related volcanism in the Kofa region occurred during a transition in extensional tectonic regimes: From a regime of east-west trending uplifts and basins to a regime manifest primarily by northwest striking normal faults. A narrow corridor of folding and strike-slip faulting formed during volcanism in the southern Kofa Mountains. Upper Oligocene or lower Miocene coarse sedimentary rocks along the southern flank of the Chocolate Mountains anticlinorium in the southern Castle Dome Mountains mark the periphery of a basin similar to other early and middle Tertiary basins exposed in southern California. The volcanic section of the Kofa region was dissected by high-angle normal faults related to northeast-southwest oriented crustal extension typical of the southern Basin and Range province.

  5. San Gabriel Mountains, California, Shaded relief, color as height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic image shows the relationship of the urban area of Pasadena, California to the natural contours of the land. The image includes the alluvial plain on which Pasadena and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory sit, and the steep range of the San Gabriel Mountains. The mountain front and the arcuate valley running from upper left to the lower right are active fault zones, along which the mountains are rising. The chaparral-covered slopes above Pasadena are also a prime area for wildfires and mudslides. Hazards from earthquakes, floods and fires are intimately related to the topography in this area. Topographic data and other remote sensing images provide valuable information for assessing and mitigating the natural hazards for cities along the front of active mountain ranges.

    This shaded relief image was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. A computer-generated artificial light source illuminates the elevation data to produce a pattern of light and shadows. Slopes facing the light appear bright, while those facing away are shaded. On flatter surfaces, the pattern of light and shadows can reveal subtle features in the terrain. Colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C

  6. San Gabriel Mountains, California, Radar image, color as height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This topographic radar image shows the relationship of the urban area of Pasadena, California to the natural contours of the land. The image includes the alluvial plain on which Pasadena and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory sit, and the steep range of the San Gabriel Mountains. The mountain front and the arcuate valley running from upper left to the lower right are active fault zones, along which the mountains are rising. The chaparral-covered slopes above Pasadena are also a prime area for wildfires and mudslides. Hazards from earthquakes, floods and fires are intimately related to the topography in this area. Topographic data and other remote sensing images provide valuable information for assessing and mitigating the natural hazards for cities along the front of active mountain ranges.

    This image combines two types of data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The image brightness corresponds to the strength of the radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM. Colors range from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains about 2300 meters (7500 feet) of total relief. White speckles on the face of some of the mountains are holes in the data caused by steep terrain. These will be filled using coverage from an intersecting pass.

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), launched on February 11,2000, uses the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The mission is designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, an additional C-band imaging antenna and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Imagery and Mapping Agency

  7. Transverse ranges and neotectonics of southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, M.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Transverse Ranges and the east-trending folds and reverse faults that elevate them began forming in mid-Pleistocene time by regional north-south crustal shortening. The adjacent Mojave Desert and Basin and Range provinces continue to respond to this regional strain by east-west crustal extension. Before {approximately}5 Ma the regional structure was characterized by conjugate northwest-trending right-slip faults (San Andreas set) and northeast-trending left-slip faults (Garlock set). Thereafter, the San Andreas set of faults became simple shears separating the North American and Pacific plates. With the mid-Pleistocene inception of the Transverse Ranges, the San Andreas fault deviated from its N40{degree} - 45{degree}W trend in short N75{degree}W-trending segments on the north and south sides of these mountains in response to the new, and local, strain system of upward crustal extension.

  8. Erosion as a driving mechanism of intracontinental mountain growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avouac, J. P.; Burov, E. B.

    1996-08-01

    In nature, mountains can grow and remain as localized tectonic features over long periods of time (>10 m.y.). By contrast, according to current knowledge of lithospheric rheology and neglecting surface processes, any intracontinental range with a width that exceeds that which can be supported by the strength of the lithosphere should collapse within a few tens of millions of years. For example, assuming a quartz-dominated crustal rheology, the relief of a range initially 3 km high and 300-400 km wide is reduced by half in about 15 m.y. as a result of lateral spreading of its crustal root. We suggest that surface processes might actually prevent such a "subsurface collapse." Removal of material from topographic heights and deposition in the foreland oppose spreading of the crustal root and could eventually drive a net influx of material toward the orogeny. We performed a set of numerical experiments in order to validate this hypothesis. A section of a lithosphere, with a brittle-elasto-ductile rheology, initially loaded by a mountain range is submitted to horizontal shortening and to surface processes. If erosion is intense, material is removed more rapidly than it can be supplied by crustal thickening below the range, and the topography is rapidly smoothed. For example, a feature 3 km high and 300-400 km wide is halved in height in about 15 m.y. for an erosion coefficient k = 103 m2/yr (the erosion rate is of the order of a few 0.1 mm/yr). This regime might be called "erosional collapse." If erosion is not active enough, the crustal root spreads out laterally and "subsurface collapse" occurs. In the third intermediate regime, removal of the material by erosion is dynamically compensated by isostatic rebound and inward flow in the lower crust so that the range can grow. In this "mountain growth" regime the range evolves toward a characteristic graded shape that primarily depends on the erosion law. The erosion rate may be high (e.g., 0.5-0.9 mm/yr), close to the

  9. Habitat selection by mountain plovers in shortgrass steppe

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Augustine, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Much of the breeding range for the mountain plover (Charadrius montanus) occurs in shortgrass steppe and mixed-grass prairie in the western Great Plains of North America. Studies of mountain plovers in shortgrass steppe during the 1970s and 1990s were focused in Weld County, Colorado, which was considered a key breeding area for the species. These studies, however, did not include habitats influenced by black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) or prescribed fire. The role of these 2 rangeland disturbance processes has increased substantially over the past 15 years. During 2008–2009, I used radial distance point count surveys to estimate mountain plover densities early in the nesting season in 4 habitats on public lands in Weld County, Colorado. All 4 habitats were grazed by cattle during the growing season at moderate stocking rates but had different additional disturbances consisting of 1) dormant-season prescribed burns, 2) active black-tailed prairie dog colonies, 3) black-tailed prairie dog colonies affected by epizootic plague in the past 1–2 years, and 4) rangeland with no recent history of fire or prairie dogs. Mountain plover densities were similar on active black-tailed prairie dog colonies (x = 6.8 birds/km2, 95% CI = 4.3–10.6) and prescribed burns (x = 5.6 birds/km2, 95% CI = 3.5–9.1). In contrast, no plovers were detected at randomly selected rangeland sites grazed by cattle but lacking recent disturbance by prairie dogs or fire, even though survey effort was highest for this rangeland habitat. Mountain plover densities were intermediate (2.0 birds/km2, 95% CI = 0.8–5.0) on sites where black-tailed prairie dogs had recently been extirpated by plague. These findings suggest that prescribed burns and active black-tailed prairie dog colonies may enhance breeding habitat for mountain plovers in shortgrass steppe and illustrate the potential for suppressed or altered disturbance processes to influence habitat

  10. Cirque-driven erosion of the Scandinavian mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, John D.; Codilean, Alexandru T.; Egholm, David L.; Knudsen, Mads F.; Korup, Oliver; Stroeven, Arjen; Goodfellow, Bradley; Andersen, Jane L.; Ugelvig, Sofie V.; Klein, Josefin

    2015-04-01

    Climatic versus tectonic explanations for Scandinavian topography have sustained a century-long dispute. Here, at high-latitudes, the more recent question of whether Late-Cenozoic cooling has influenced mountain erosion rates is especially apt because glaciations commenced earlier: >10 Myr and possibly ~34 Myr according to marine palaeorecords. Although selective glacial incision along valley troughs is well recognised in Scandinavia, the legacy of glacial cirque erosion has yet to be fully investigated. We examine the topographic legacy of mountain glaciation in seven massifs of the Caledonian Scandes (western Scandinavia ~61-70° N): Lyngen, Kebnekaise, Sarek, Saltfjellet, Dovrefjell, Jostedalsbreen, and Jotunheimen. Glacial cirques are the product of discrete alpine glaciers and so the elevation of ice-free cirques provides a guide to past fluctuations in regional equilibrium line altitude (ELA). The Scandes currently hosts >3400 mountain glaciers and the distribution of >10,000 ice-free cirques indicates that glaciers have extended much lower and farther in the past. Previous workers argue that alpine glaciations focus erosion selectively at and above a zone of cirques, which approximates the long-term average 'palaeo-ELA'. First, we set out to examine the topographic relationships between mountain peak elevation, ELA, cirque-floor elevations, and the distribution of low-slope (<10°) terrain. To estimate the regional ELA for each massif, inclined planar trend-surfaces (first-order polynomial) were fitted to median elevations of existing glaciers. A total of ~4000 ice-free cirques were mapped and plotted relative to the ELA surfaces. For all seven massifs, cirque-floors cluster within a discrete elevational range: 240-490 m (25-75th percentiles) below ELA, suggesting a well-defined 'palaeo-ELA'. Hypsometric analyses show that this 'palaeo-ELA' closely matches the maximum frequency of low-slope terrain. Consistent with studies elsewhere, terrain surface area

  11. Estimates of mountain-front streamflow available for potential recharge to the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waltemeyer, Scott D.

    2001-01-01

    Streamflow in the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico, infiltrates into alluvial-basin aquifers at or near mountain fronts. Streamflow at or near mountain fronts is a substantial component of potential recharge to these aquifers. Streamflow response from precipitation differs substantially between the streams draining the Sacramento Mountains on the eastern side of the basin and those draining the San Andres Mountains on the western side. Mean annual streamflow at mountain fronts that is available for potential recharge to the Tularosa Basin was estimated using two regional regression methods. The method for estimating mean annual streamflow using basin-climatic characteristics was applied to 46 subbasins in the Tularosa Basin. Drainage areas for the subbasins ranged from 0.87 to 157 square miles, and mean annual precipitation ranged from 11.80 to 24.89 inches. Mean annual streamflow to the basin is estimated to be about 95 cubic feet per second or 68,800 acre-feet using the basin-climatic characteristics method. The method for estimating mean annual streamflow using channel-geometry characteristics was applied to 12 subbasins in the Tularosa Basin. Of the 46 basins, 31 had drainage areas less than 20.7 square miles and 3 had active-channel widths less than 15 feet, which were outside the ranges used to develop the regression equations.

  12. Turbulence and Mountain Wave Conditions Observed with an Airborne 2-Micron Lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teets, Edward H., Jr.; Ashburn, Chris; Ehernberger, L. J.; Bogue, Rodney K.

    2006-01-01

    Joint efforts by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the Department of Defense, and industry partners are enhancing the capability of airborne wind and turbulence detection. The Airborne Coherent Lidar (light detection and ranging) for Advanced In-Flight Measurements was flown on three series of flights to assess its capability over a range of altitudes, air mass conditions, and gust phenomena. This report describes the observation of mountain waves and turbulence induced by mountain waves over the Tehachapi and Sierra Nevada mountain ranges by lidar on board the NASA Airborne Science DC-8 (McDonnell Douglas Corporation, Long Beach, California) airplane during two flights. The examples in this report compare lidar-predicted mountain waves and wave-induced turbulence to subsequent airplane-measured true airspeed. Airplane acceleration data is presented describing the effects of the wave-induced turbulence on the DC-8 airplane. Highlights of the lidar-predicted airspeed from the two flights show increases of 12 m/s at the mountain wave interface and peak-to-peak airspeed changes of 10 m/s and 15 m/s in a span of 12 s in moderate turbulence.

  13. The upper mountain forest and tree response to climate change in south Siberian Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharuk, V.; Ranson, J.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate topographic features of high elevation mountain environments govern spatial distribution and climate-driven dynamics of the forests growing there. The study area included upper mountain forest stands formed by larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb) and Siberian pine(Pinus sibirica Du Tour) (elevation range 1800-2600 m) in the mountains of southern Siberia. We used archive maps, satellite and on-ground data from 1960-2002. Data were normalized to avoid bias caused by uneven distribution of elevation, and slope steepness within the analyzed area. Spatial distribution of forest stands were analyzed with respect to topography based on a DEM. The primary results show that mountain forest spatial patterns are anisotropic with respect to topography. At a given elevation, the majority of forests occupied slopes with greater than mean slope values. As the elevation increased forests shifted to steeper slopes. The forest azimuth distribution orientation changed clockwise with elevation increase (total shift was 120 deg) indicating a combined effect of wind and water stress on the observed forest patterns. Warming caused changes in the forest distribution patterns during the last four decades. The area of closed forests increased 1.5 times, which was attributed to increased stand density and tree migration. The migration rate was 1.5 ± 0.9 m yr^-1 and caused a mean forest line shift of 63 ± 37m. Along with upward migration, downward tree migration onto hill slopes was observed. Changes in tree morphology were also noted as wide-spread transformation of the prostrate forms of Siberian pine and larch into erect forms. An analysis of the radial growth increments showed that the widespread vertical transformation of krummholz began in the mid -1980s. Radial and apical growth increments correlated with increase in air temperature (summer and “cold period”) and CO2 concentration. Regeneration responded to temperature increase of 1 deg C by migration

  14. Yucca Mountain project canister material corrosion studies as applied to the electrometallurgical treatment metallic waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Keiser, D.D.

    1996-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada is currently being evaluated as a potential site for a geologic repository. As part of the repository assessment activities, candidate materials are being tested for possible use as construction materials for waste package containers. A large portion of this testing effort is focused on determining the long range corrosion properties, in a Yucca Mountain environment, for those materials being considered. Along similar lines, Argonne National Laboratory is testing a metallic alloy waste form that also is scheduled for disposal in a geologic repository, like Yucca Mountain. Due to the fact that Argonne`s waste form will require performance testing for an environment similar to what Yucca Mountain canister materials will require, this report was constructed to focus on the types of tests that have been conducted on candidate Yucca Mountain canister materials along with some of the results from these tests. Additionally, this report will discuss testing of Argonne`s metal waste form in light of the Yucca Mountain activities.

  15. A New Stonefly Species, Rhopalopsole tricuspis (Leuctridae: Plecoptera), and Three New Records of Stoneflies from the Qinling Mountains of Shaanxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Yu-Han; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Plecopteran species (Leuctridae) were collected from the Qinling Mountains in southern Shaanxi Province, China. This mountain range is home to nine species of Leuctridae belonging to two genera, and the species identified in this work include one new species and three new records for the Qinling Mountains, all belonging to the genus Rhopalopsole. The new species is named R. tricuspis Qian and Du, sp. nov. A redescription of R. basinigra Yang and Yang 1995 is supplemented. A key is provided for the adult males of Leuctridae from the Qinling Mountains. PMID:22957649

  16. Major-ion chemistry of the Rocky Mountain snowpack, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turk, J.T.; Taylor, H.E.; Ingersoll, G.P.; Tonnessen, K.A.; Clow, D.W.; Mast, M.A.; Campbell, D.H.; Melack, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    During 1993-97, samples of the full depth of the Rocky Mountain snowpack were collected at 52 sites from northern New Mexico to Montana and analyzed for major-ion concentrations. Concentrations of acidity, sulfate, nitrate, and calcium increased from north to south along the mountain range. In the northern part of the study area, acidity was most correlated (negatively) with calcium. Acidity was strongly correlated (positively) with nitrate and sulfate in the southern part and for the entire network. Acidity in the south exceeded the maximum acidity measured in snowpack of the Sierra Nevada and Cascade Mountains. Principal component analysis indicates three solute associations we characterize as: (1) acid (acidity, sulfate, and nitrate), (2) soil (calcium, magnesium, and potassium), and (3) salt (sodium, chloride, and ammonium). Concentrations of acid solutes in the snowpack are similar to concentrations in nearby wetfall collectors, whereas, concentrations of soil solutes are much higher in the snowpack than in wetfall. Thus, dryfall of acid solutes during the snow season is negligible, as is gypsum from soils. Snowpack sampling offers a cost-effective complement to sampling of wetfall in areas where wetfall is difficult to sample and where the snowpack accumulates throughout the winter. Copyright ?? 2001 .

  17. Yucca Mountain Project Site characterization and exploratory shaft program

    SciTech Connect

    Gertz, C.P.

    1989-01-01

    The Yucca Mountain Project site characterization phase officially began May 28, 1986, when President Reagan recommended Yucca Mountain be studied as a potential site for a high-level nuclear repository. Site characterization activities are defined in the NWPA as those research activities, whether in the field or in the laboratory, that are undertaken to establish the geologic condition and the range of parameters relevant to an evaluation of the suitability of a candidate site. In December 1988, a major program milestone was achieved when the statutory site characterization plan (SCP) was released on schedule to the NRC, State of Nevada, and the public. The SCP describes the studies necessary to determine the suitability of Yucca Mountain for isolating high-level nuclear waste. The site characterization testing program includes activities to establish the geologic conditions and history of the site. New site characterization activities include surface-based tests and exploratory shaft tests. Tests conducted in the exploratory shaft facility (ESF) will study the processes and phenomena contributing to waste isolation performance and the effects of ESF construction and underground conditions at the ESF location. The surface-based tests will extend the results of the ESF test to the entire site area.

  18. Water levels in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tucci, P.; Goemaat, R.L.; Burkhardt, D.J.

    1996-07-01

    Water levels were monitored in 28 wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during 1993. Seventeen wells were monitored periodically, generally on a monthly basis, and 11 wells representing 18 intervals were monitored hourly. All wells monitor wa