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  1. Enhanced moment tensor retrieval: a case study in the Alborz Mountains, Northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donner, Stefanie; Rößler, Dirk; Ghods, Abdolreza; Krüger, Frank; Strecker, Manfred; Landgraf, Angela; Ballato, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    Seismotectonic and seismic hazard analysis are crucial tasks in, often increasingly, densely populated, seismically active regions. The understanding of earthquake source mechanisms is an important key element for such analyses. Seismic moment tensors provide a general description of the physical processes and the magnitude of earthquakes. The feasibility of moment tensor retrieval is controlled by several factors, such as wavefield modelling, source location, and station distribution. Inappropriate velocity models and inhomogeneous station distribution limits the inversion and the availability of seismic moment tensors in many regions worldwide. The Alborz Mountains of northern Iran are a tectonically active, bivergent orogen in the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. It is located between the aseismic blocks of the South Caspian Basin and Central Iran. A complex and not well understood system of strike-slip and thrust faults accommodates NNE-SSW oriented shortening. There are indicators that deformation in the high sectors of the Alborz Mountains is partitioned into reverse and left-lateral strike-slip faulting. Studies of earthquake source mechanisms will provide further insights in the complex fault geometry, their kinematic behaviour, and the tectonics of this intracontinental orogen. In addition, the internal domain of the central Alborz seems to be affected by very young, active transtension. To date, a heterogeneous seismic network with non-uniform distribution and a lack of appropriate methods have prevented detailed and comprehensive moment tensor studies in this region. So far, only 26 seismic moment tensors are available in the Harvard CMT catalogue since 1976. This restriction is due to the magnitude threshold of M4.5 for data processing and due to low data availability. Uncertainties in earthquake location are significant. Depth determination is sometimes impossible. Therefore, earthquakes cannot be associated with faults and the recent kinematic behaviour

  2. Dinosaur tracks from the Jurassic Shemshak Group in the Central Alborz Mountains (Northern Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbassi, Nasrollah; Madanipour, Saeed

    2014-04-01

    The Shemshak Group includes alternating layers of coal-bearing shale and siliciclastic sediments in the Baladeh area in the central Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. A diverse and abundant Jurassic dinosaur footprint assemblage is now recognized in the group, which is Toarcian to Bajocian in age in the northern Baladeh. This is the first report of a diverse dinosaur ichnoassemblage from Iran that includes the footprints of sauropods. These tracks can be assigned to three groups of trackmakers: theropods, ornithopods and sauropods. Those of theropods are typically tridactyl in shape, their trackways reflecting bipedal movement. Theropod footprints are very abundant in both northern and western Baladeh. The studied theropod tracks themselves are divided into three major dimensional groups. The medium sized footprints (footprint length, 11-15 cm) are abundant and have a stride length, digit and pace angles like the coelurosaurs footprints and trackway. Theropod footprints were identified as similar to Schizograllator otariensis, Talmontopus tersi and Wildeichnus isp. Ornithopod footprints are tridactyl with rounded and thick toes and belong to bipeds. Some didactyl imprints were also observed. Skin imprints were well preserved in these footprints. The ornithopod tracks resemble Jiayinosorupus johnsoni, as well as Velociraptorichnus sichuanensis for didactyl footprints. Sauropod footprints found in the western part of Baladeh are assigned here to Eosauropus isp., which are pentadactyl pes imprints of a quadruped. The assemblage from Iran resembles similar associations from eastern Asia.

  3. The gabbro (shoshonitic)-monzonite-granodiorite association of Khankandi pluton, Alborz Mountains, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghazadeh, Mehraj; Castro, Antonio; Omran, Nematallah Rashidnejad; Emami, Mohamad Hashem; Moinvaziri, Hossien; Badrzadeh, Zahra

    2010-05-01

    The Khankandi pluton forms part of a group of gabbro-granodiorite intrusions in the Alborz Mountains of NW Iran. A petrographical and geochemical study of this plutonic association reveals the existence of several magmatic cycles with different origins and slight differences in age. The oldest cycle (C1) is represented by granodiorites. A second cycle (C2) is formed by a gabbro-monzonite association, with a clear shoshonitic affinity, that dominates most of the intrusive volume. Gabbros and monzonites form a co-magmatic association. Zircons from the monzonites were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS for U-Pb dating. An average age of 28.9 Ma, ranging from 23.7 to 33.6 Ma was obtained. Gabbros, monzonites and granodiorites share a nearly common isotopic ratio for Sr and Nd. Both initial Sr and Nd ratios are clustered within a narrow range from 0.7045 to 0.7047 for the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio and ɛNd from 1.46 to 1.89. Comparison with experimental studies, together with mantle-like isotopic ratios and comparisons of REE patterns, points to an origin by variable melting rates from a common metasomatised mantle source for gabbros and monzonites. Melting of a subducted mélange is suggested for the granodiorite magmas predating the gabbro-monzonite intrusion. The two sources, a metasomatised mantle and ascending silicic plumes, are direct consequence of subduction.

  4. P-wave Local Earthquake Tomography in the Central Alborz Mountains, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafanejad, A.; Hosein Shomali, Z.

    2010-12-01

    The Alborz Mountain ranges in the southern margin of the Caspian Sea, as a part of the Alpine- Himalayan orogenic belt is an arc of parallel synclines and anticlines. Among the major tectonic and geological features of the Alborz Mountains are the Damavand quaternary volcano, and active and seismic faults like the Mosha, and North Tehran faults. In this study, the first 3D P-wave velocity model of the upper crust in the Central Alborz Mountains is obtained using a local travel-time earthquake tomography method. A data set of 895 earthquakes recorded on a local 19 station short-period network between 1996 and 2006 provided by the Iranian Seismological Centre (ISC) is used in this inversion. The result of tomography shows considerable velocity anomalies in this region. These anomalies show remarkable features in the vicinity of the Mosha and North Tehran faults, as well as in the Damavand volcanic area. In depth of 15 kilometer a low velocity region is observed parallel to the above two mentioned faults. This can be caused by the crushed rocks along these two faults. In the place of splitting North Tehran fault from the Mosha fault, a very noticeable low velocity anomaly represents intense fracturing in rocks. In the Damavand volcanic area and in the northern side of the summit an anomalous high velocity body found to the depth of 20 kilometer. According to its considerable correlation with the position of the old Damavand cone, it is related to the older and crystallized magma chamber of the Damavand volcano. A low velocity anomaly exactly beneath the present cone to the depth of seven kilometer, with another low velocity anomaly in depth of 10 to 20 kilometer constitutes the present magma chamber of the Damavand volcano.

  5. Post-Cimmerian (Jurassic-Cenozoic) paleogeography and vertical axis tectonic rotations of Central Iran and the Alborz Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattei, Massimo; Cifelli, Francesca; Muttoni, Giovanni; Rashid, Hamideh

    2015-04-01

    mechanism is proposed for the origin of the curved Alborz Mountains, which acquired most of its curvature in the last 8 Myr.

  6. The growth of a mountain belt forced by base-level fall: Tectonics and surface processes during the evolution of the Alborz Mountains, N Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballato, Paolo; Landgraf, Angela; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Stockli, Daniel F.; Fox, Matthew; Ghassemi, Mohammad R.; Kirby, Eric; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2015-09-01

    The idea that climatically modulated erosion may impact orogenic processes has challenged geoscientists for decades. Although modeling studies and physical calculations have provided a solid theoretical basis supporting this interaction, to date, field-based work has produced inconclusive results. The central-western Alborz Mountains in the northern sectors of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone constitute a promising area to explore these potential feedbacks. This region is characterized by asymmetric precipitation superimposed on an orogen with a history of spatiotemporal changes in exhumation rates, deformation patterns, and prolonged, km-scale base-level changes. Our analysis suggests that despite the existence of a strong climatic gradient at least since 17.5 Ma, the early orogenic evolution (from ∼36 to 9-6 Ma) was characterized by decoupled orographic precipitation and tectonics. In particular, faster exhumation and sedimentation along the more arid southern orogenic flank point to a north-directed accretionary flux and underthrusting of Central Iran. Conversely, from ∼6 to 3 Ma, erosion rates along the northern orogenic flank became higher than those in the south, where they dropped to minimum values. This change occurred during a ∼3-Myr-long, km-scale base-level lowering event in the Caspian Sea. We speculate that mass redistribution processes along the northern flank of the Alborz and presumably across all mountain belts adjacent to the South Caspian Basin and more stable areas of the Eurasian plate increased the sediment load in the basin and ultimately led to the underthrusting of the Caspian Basin beneath the Alborz Mountains. This underthrusting in turn triggered a new phase of northward orogenic expansion, transformed the wetter northern flank into a new pro-wedge, and led to the establishment of apparent steady-state conditions along the northern orogenic flank (i.e., rock uplift equal to erosion rates). Conversely, the southern mountain front

  7. Assessing tectonic and climatic causal mechanisms in foreland-basin stratal architecture: insights from the Alborz Mountains, northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballato, Paolo; Strecker, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    The southern foreland basin of the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran is characterized by an approximately 7.3-km-thick sequence of Miocene sedimentary rocks, constituting three basin-wide coarsening-upward units spanning a period of 106 years. We assess available magnetostratigraphy, paleoclimatic reconstructions, stratal architecture, records of depositional environments, and sediment-provenance data to characterize the relationships between tectonically-generated accommodation space (A) and sediment supply (S). Our analysis allows an inversion of the stratigraphy for particular forcing mechanisms, documenting causal relationships, and providing a basis to decipher the relative contributions of tectonics and climate (inferred changes in precipitation) in controlling sediment supply to the foreland basin. Specifically, A/S > 1, typical of each basal unit (17.5-16.0, 13.8-13.1 and 10.3-9.6 Ma), is associated with sharp facies retrogradation and reflects substantial tectonic subsidence. Within these time intervals, arid climatic conditions, changes in sediment provenance, and accelerated exhumation in the orogen suggest that sediment supply was most likely driven by high uplift rates. Conversely, A/S < 1 (13.8 and 13.8-11 Ma, units 1, and 2) reflects facies progradation during a sharp decline in tectonic subsidence caused by localized intra-basinal uplift. During these time intervals, climate continued to be arid and exhumation active, suggesting that sediment supply was again controlled by tectonics. A/S < 1, at 11-10.3 Ma and 9-6-7.6 Ma (and possibly 6.2; top of units 2 and 3), is also associated with two episodes of extensive progradation, but during wetter phases. The first episode appears to have been linked to a pulse in sediment supply driven by an increase in precipitation. The second episode reflects a balance between a climatically-induced increase in sediment supply and a reduction of subsidence through the incorporation of the proximal foreland into the

  8. Structural and drainage pattern evolution of the Alborz Mountains (N Iran) inferred from provenance data and magnetostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballato, P.; Landgraf, A.; Strecker, M. R.; Friedrich, A.; Tabatabaei, S.

    2007-12-01

    The Alborz Mts, N Iran, constitute an active, E-W-oriented, double verging orogen, within the continental collision zone between Arabia and Eurasia. GPS data show that currently convergence is partitioned in the Alborz by 6 mmyr-1 of NNE directed shortening and 4 mmyr-1 of left-lateral motion. The growth of the Alborz was associated with the development of adjacent foreland basins. Here, we discuss the evolution of the southern Alborz and its foreland basin. We present a sandstone and conglomerate provenance study, combined with sedimentary facies analysis, and magnetostratigraphy of a 7200-m-thick sedimentary section in the foreland basin, previously thought to be Mio- Pleistocene in age. This section includes three first-order coarsening and thickening upward units and documents a gradual transition from restricted marine to lacustrine, braided river (U1 and U2), and alluvial fan depositional environments (U3). These units were deposited between 17.5 and 7.8 Ma. Assuming a constant accumulation rate for the alluvial-fan conglomerates of U3, the top of the section is approximately 6 m.y. old. The derived accumulation rates correlate with the cyclicity of the recognized units: at the bottom of each cycle in association with the fine-grained facies, the accumulation rates are faster, while with the appearance of coarse- grained facies the accumulation rates decrease. Fifty sandstone samples were analyzed using the Gazzi-Dickinson sandstone provenance method. The detrital modes of lithic grains indicate at least two first-order variations in the source area. The first major change occurred at the bottom of U1 and is characterised by an increase of low-grade metamorphic clasts and a concomitant decrease in volcanoclastic grains. The second major change is manifested at the base of U3 with a progressive decrease in low-grade metamorphic clasts and the increase of carbonates and volcanic lithics. The analysis of conglomerate clasts shows a relatively uniform composition

  9. 3D joint inversion modeling of the lithospheric density structure based on gravity, geoid and topography data — Application to the Alborz Mountains (Iran) and South Caspian Basin region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motavalli-Anbaran, Seyed-Hani; Zeyen, Hermann; Ebrahimzadeh Ardestani, Vahid

    2013-02-01

    We present a 3D algorithm to obtain the density structure of the lithosphere from joint inversion of free air gravity, geoid and topography data based on a Bayesian approach with Gaussian probability density functions. The algorithm delivers the crustal and lithospheric thicknesses and the average crustal density. Stabilization of the inversion process may be obtained through parameter damping and smoothing as well as use of a priori information like crustal thicknesses from seismic profiles. The algorithm is applied to synthetic models in order to demonstrate its usefulness. A real data application is presented for the area of northern Iran (with the Alborz Mountains as main target) and the South Caspian Basin. The resulting model shows an important crustal root (up to 55 km) under the Alborz Mountains and a thin crust (ca. 30 km) under the southernmost South Caspian Basin thickening northward to the Apsheron-Balkan Sill to 45 km. Central and NW Iran is underlain by a thin lithosphere (ca. 90-100 km). The lithosphere thickens under the South Caspian Basin until the Apsheron-Balkan Sill where it reaches more than 240 km. Under the stable Turan platform, we find a lithospheric thickness of 160-180 km.

  10. Quaternary evolution of mechanical fault-linkage between the North Tehran Thrust (NTT) and Mosha Fasham Fault (MFF), Alborz Mountains, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, A.; Ballato, P.; Strecker, M. R.; Friedrich, A.; Tabatabaei, S. H.

    2006-12-01

    The kinematic relationship between the neighboring MFF and the NTT is an open question in the fault interaction during the late Cenozoic evolution of the Alborz Mountains. Despite numerous Quaternary faults and their importance for hazard mitigation, the interaction and linkage between these structures are not understood. The ENE-striking NTT is a frontal thrust that delimits the Alborz Mountains to the south, but no instrumentally recorded earthquakes are known here. The E-striking MFF, with a double-bend toward a NW- strike in its central part, is located within the Alborz Mountains. Sinistral motion along its eastern part is corroborated by microseismicity and fault kinematic data, documenting ongoing transtension. Four possible kinematic scenarios may be inferred for both fault systems: (1) each is a separate entity without interaction, (2) progressive eastward propagation of the NTT and linkage with the MFF, resulting in a "master" fault, (3) a "triple junction" with three interacting blocks or (4) a transpressional duplex involving the NW- prolongation of the NTT as frontal, and the ENE-striking NTT segments as lateral ramps between the E-striking east-central and westernmost MFF. The eastern MFF is characterized by sinistral offsets and stream deflections. However, these phenomena are absent in the central-western fault branch. Structural observations along the eastern, slightly north-convex NTT imply dip-slip faulting, where Eocene volcanic units were thrust onto Plio-Pleistocene conglomerates. In addition, fluvial knickpoints, narrow bedrock channels, fluvial terrace remnants, and wineglass-shaped canyons in the hanging wall suggest Quaternary uplift along this fault. However, there must have been a Pleistocene kinematic change along the NTT, involving sinistral reactivation as shown by 80m stream-offsets and horizontal striations on dip-slip faults. NE-trending ravines are sigmoidally shaped, suggesting conjugate shearing by shortening oblique to the

  11. Clinoptilolite zeolitized tuff from Central Alborz Range, North Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghipour, Batoul

    2010-05-01

    Zeolites are hydrated alumino-silicates of the alkaline and alkaline earth cations, principally sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium (Iijima 1980; Hay 1981). Zeolites occur principally in unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks and are particularly widespread in volcani-clastic strata (Hay, 1978). Clinoptilolite is a natural zeolite of the heulandite group with the simplified formula of (Na, K)6 Si30 Al6 O72 .nH2. It is the most common natural zeolite found mainly in sedimentary rocks of volcanic origin. Alborz zone is one of the important geological divisions in Iran. This zone is restricted to Kopeh dagh zone in North & Central Iranian zone in South and is a region of active deformation within the broad Arabian-Eurasia collision zone (Allen et al. 2003). The zeolitized green tuff belt from Central Alborz which introduce here are made of volcanoclastic sequence of Karaj Formation. This belt is about 40 km long along Alborz Range and is Eocene in age. Zeolites and associated minerals of this altered vitric tuff studied. Zeolitization took place in some beds of Karaj Formations, with average range of 3 to 300 meters thickness. There are several gypsum lenses which interbed with a widespread green tuff succession in the studied area. On the basis of chemical composition these tuffs are in the range of acid to intermediate volcanic rocks. Also magmatic affinity is calc-alkaline and geological setting of the area belongs to volcanic arc granitoid. Petrographic data has shown that various shape and size of shard glass are the main component of tuffs. Based on the field studies, detail microscopy, XRD and electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), the following main minerals are determined: Clinoptilolite+montmorillonite+crystobalite. Clinoptilolite and smectite are predominant minerals in all altered samples. Concerning the Si/Al ratio of 40 point analyses of glass shards the Alborz tuff has clinoptilolite composition. Otherwise the chemical composition of altered shard glass

  12. Variation of coda wave attenuation in the Alborz region and central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, H.; Motaghi, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Hamzehloo, H.

    2010-06-01

    More than 340 earthquakes recorded by the Institute of Geophysics, University of Tehran (IGUT) short period stations from 1996 to 2004 were analysed to estimate the S-coda attenuation in the Alborz region, the northern part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogen in western Asia, and in central Iran, which is the foreland of this orogen. The coda quality factor, Qc, was estimated using the single backscattering model in frequency bands of 1-25 Hz. In this research, lateral and depth variation of Qc in the Alborz region and central Iran are studied. It is observed that in the Alborz region there is absence of significant lateral variation in Qc. The average frequency relation for this region is Qc = 79 +/- 2f1.07+/-0.08. Two anomalous high-attenuation areas in central Iran are recognized around the stations LAS and RAZ. The average frequency relation for central Iran excluding the values of these two stations is Qc = 94 +/- 2f0.97+/-0.12. To investigate the attenuation variation with depth, Qc value was calculated for 14 lapse times (25, 30, 35,... 90s) for two data sets having epicentral distance range R < 100 km (data set 1) and 100 < R < 200 km (data set 2) in each area. It is observed that Qc increases with depth. However, the rate of increase of Qc with depth is not uniform in our study area. Beneath central Iran the rate of increase of Qc is greater at depths less than 100 km compared to that at larger depths indicating the existence of a high attenuation anomalous structure under the lithosphere of central Iran. In addition, below ~180 km, the Qc value does not vary much with depth under both study areas, indicating the presence of a transparent mantle under them.

  13. Visceral Leishmaniasis in Rural Areas of Alborz Province of Iran and Implication to Health Policy

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Aliehsan; Mohebali, Mehdi; Kabir, Kourosh; Barati, Hojatallah; Soultani, Yousef; Keshavarz, Hossein; Akhoundi, Behnaz; Hajjaran, Homa; Reisi, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) or kala-azar mainly affects children in endemic areas. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of VL using direct agglutination test (DAT) in children living in rural districts of Alborz Province located 30 km from Tehran capital city of Iran. Multi-stage cluster random sampling was applied. Blood samples were randomly collected from 1,007 children under 10 years of age in the clusters. A total of 37 (3.7%) of the studied population showed anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies with titers of ≥1:800. There was a significant association between positive sera and various parts of the rural areas of Alborz Province (P<0.002). Two children with anti-Leishmania infantum antibodies titers of ≥1:3,200 indicated kala-azar clinical features and treated with anti-leishmaniasis drugs in pediatric hospital. The findings of this study indicated that Leishmania infection is prevalent in rural areas of Alborz Province. Therefore, it is necessary to increase the awareness and alertness among physicians and public health managers, particularly in high-risk rural areas of the province in Iran. PMID:26323835

  14. The Rudbār Mw 7.3 earthquake of 1990 June 20; seismotectonics, coseismic and geomorphic displacements, and historic earthquakes of the western `High-Alborz', Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berberian, Manuel; Walker, Richard

    2010-09-01

    The Rudbār earthquake of 1990 June 20, the first large-magnitude earthquake with 80 km left-lateral strike-slip motion in the western `High-Alborz' fold-thrust mountain belt, was one of the largest, and most destructive, earthquakes to have occurred in Iran during the instrumental period. We bring together new and existing data on macroseismic effects, the rupture characteristics of the mainshock, field data, and the distribution of aftershocks, to provide a better description of the earthquake source, its surface ruptures, and active tectonic characteristics of the western `High-Alborz'. The Rudbār earthquake is one of three large magnitude events to have occurred in this part of the Alborz during recorded history. The damage distribution of the 1485 August 15 Upper Polrud earthquake suggests the east-west Kelishom left-lateral fault, which is situated east of the Rudbār earthquake fault, as a possible source. The 1608 April 20 Alamutrud earthquake may have occurred on the Alamutrud fault farther east. Analysis of satellite imagery suggests that total left-lateral displacements on the Rudbār fault are a maximum of ~1 km. Apparent left-lateral river displacements of ~200 m on the Kashachāl fault and up to ~1.5 km of the Kelishom fault, which are situated at the eastern end of the Rudbār earthquake fault, also appear to indicate rather small cumulative displacements. Given the relatively small displacements, the presently active left-lateral strike-slip faults of the western High-Alborz fold-thrust belt, may be younger than onset of deformation within the Alborz Mountains as a whole.

  15. A cholera outbreak in Alborz Province, Iran: a matched case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: A total of 229 confirmed cholera cases were reported in Alborz Province during an outbreak that lasted from June 2011 to August 2011. This study aimed to identify potential sources of transmission in order to determine suitable interventions in similar outbreaks. In other words, the lessons learned from this retrospective study can be utilized to manage future similar outbreaks. METHODS: An age-matched and sex-matched case-control study was conducted during the outbreak. For each case, two control subjects were selected from the neighborhood. A case of cholera was defined as a bacteriologically confirmed case with signs and symptoms of cholera. This study was conducted from June 14, 2011 through August 23, 2011. The data were analyzed by calculating odds ratios (ORs) using the logistic regression method. RESULTS: In this outbreak, 229 confirmed cholera cases were diagnosed. The following risk factors were found to be associated with cholera: consumption of unrefrigerated leftover food (OR, 3.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.72 to 5.41), consumption of vegetables and fruits in the previous three days (OR, 2.75; 95% CI, 1.95 to 3.89), and a history of traveling in the previous five days (OR, 5.31; 95% CI, 2.21 to 9.72). CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of vegetables and fruits has remained an unresolved risk factor in cholera outbreaks in Iran in recent years. In order to reduce the risk of cholera, sanitary standards for fruits and vegetables should be observed at all points from production to consumption, the population should be educated regarding hygienic food storage during outbreaks, and sanitary standards should be maintained when traveling during cholera outbreaks. PMID:27188308

  16. Paleoenvironment of the Permian rocks: a comparison between central and eastern Alborz, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lankarani, M.; Amini, A.; Mosadegh, H.

    2009-04-01

    The succession of Permian rocks in Alborz region is composed of siliciclastic and carbonate facies. All of the sediments were deposited in the Paleotethyan passive continental margin but they show different facies architecture and paleoenvironmental condition in various parts of the region. This study, as part of a wider project, has investigated sedimentary facies and paleoenvironment of the Permian rocks in central and eastern Alborz. The Permian rocks in central Alborz are dominated by siliciclastic facies (Doroud Formation) in the lower, and carbonate facies (Ruteh Formation) in the upper half. Field studies and laboratory measurements resulted in recognition of 4 terrigenous and 13 carbonate facies in the succession. A siliciclastic shallow marine system was determined as depositional environment of the terrigenous facies. A homoclinal carbonate ramp, with scattered patch reefs, was determined as depositional environment of the carbonate facies. Dasycladacean green algae, ancestral red algae, hermatypic corals and bryozoans were the major bioconstructors of the ramp. The abundance of skeletal shoals respect to ooidal shoals in the ramp margin was high. The Permian rocks in eastern Alborz are dominated by mixed siliciclastic-carbonate facies (Ruteh Formation) in the lower, and siliciclastic facies (Nesen Formation) in the upper half. The studies resulted in recognition of 5 terrigenous and 6 carbonate facies in the succession. A mixed siliciclastic-carbonate shelf with high sediment influx was determined as depositional environment of the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate facies. Occurrence of the small patch reefs with high coral diversity in this mixed shelf indicates normal marine (hyposaline) condition. Upper terrigenous facies were deposited in fluvial-flood plain system. Difference in paleoclimate and tectonic activity of two sub-basins seems to be the major cause of the differences between the Permian facies in central and eastern Alborz.

  17. Experiments with clustering of catchments in PCA-reduced space and regionalization of a hydrological model (Central Alborz region, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Mohammad; Solomatine, Dimitri; Salajegheh, Ali; Mohseni Saravi, Mohsen; Malekian, Arash; Corzo, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    This study tested the possibility of simulating time series of daily streamflows in ungauged catchments based on climatic and physiographic similarity. The study area is located in central Alborz region in Iran. Fourteen (14) proper catchments, with the area ranged between 16 to 827Km2, in this region selected for testing. After applying Principal Component Analysis for selecting the most important parameters among the different climatic and physiographic parameters, five components which could explain more than 90% of variances of the data were selected and according to the values of the coefficients in selected PCA components, five parameters including: Area, Annual Rainfall, Annual temperature, gravelius compactness coefficient and mean elevation, were selected as the measures for clustering. Then mentioned parameters entered in K-means clustering analysis method to classify the catchments. Finally the catchments divided in three different clusters. Using the well known HBV model, we built a model for the closest catchment to the center of each cluster. Then, the thirteen (13) HBV model parameters were calibrated using Genetic Algorithm. We assumed that the remained catchments in each cluster are ungauged, and using the calibrated model, the daily time series of streamflows simulated in the remained catchments in the considered cluster (as the receiver catchments). Nash Sutcliffe and RMSE indices used to comparing the simulated and recorded data. The experiments with the considered case study confirmed that the model regionalization based on the physiographic and climatic characteristics could be a useful instrument in hydrological studies. Key words: Regionalization, HBV, PCA, Cluster, Catchment, central Alborz region

  18. Integrative geomorphological mapping approach for reconstructing meso-scale alluvial fan palaeoenvironments at Alborz southern foothill, Damghan basin, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büdel, Christian; Majid Padashi, Seyed; Baumhauer, Roland

    2013-04-01

    Alluvial fans and aprons are common depositional features in general Iranian geomorphology. The countries major cities as well as settlements and surrounding area have often been developed and been built up on this Quaternary sediment covers. Hence they periodically face the effects of varying fluvial and slope-fluvial activity occurring as part of this geosystem. The Geological Survey of Iran therefore supports considerable efforts in Quaternary studies yielding to a selection of detailed mapped Quaternary landscapes. The studied geomorphologic structures which are settled up around an endorheic basin in Semnan Province represent a typical type of landform configuration in the area. A 12-km-transect was laid across this basin and range formation. It is oriented in north-south direction from the southern saltpan, called "Kavir-e-Haj Aligholi"/"Chah-e-Jam" ("Damghan Kavir"), across a vast sandy braided river plain, which is entering from the north east direction of the city of Shahroud. At its northern rim it covers alluvial sediment bodies, which are mainly constituted by broad alluvial aprons, fed by watersheds in Alborz Mountains and having their genetic origins in Mio-/Pliocene times. During this study a fully analytical mapping system was used for developing a geodatabase capable of integrating geomorphological analyses. Therefore the system must provide proper differentiation of form, material and process elements as well as geometric separation. Hence the German GMK25 system was set up and slightly modified to fit to the specific project demands. Due to its structure it offers most sophisticated standards and scale independent hierarchies, which fit very well to the software-determinated possibilities of advanced geodatabase applications. One of the main aspects of mapping Quaternary sediments and structures is to acquire a proper description and systematic correlation and categorization of the belonging mapping-objects. Therefore the team from GSI and

  19. Separation of intrinsic and scattering attenuation in the crust of central and eastern Alborz region, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhi, M.; Hamzehloo, H.; Rahimi, H.; Allameh Zadeh, M.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, more than 380 local earthquakes (2 < ML < 4.5) have been used to estimate the direct-shear waves (Qd), coda (Qc), intrinsic (Qi) and scattering quality factor (QSc) in the crust of central and eastern Alborz region. The events were recorded by one temporary and two permanent networks. The quality factors of shear and coda waves have been individually estimated at different frequency bands by using coda normalization (CNM) method and single backscattering (SBS) method, respectively. Average frequency-dependent relationships have been estimated for Qd and Qc as 111 ± 4f0.85±0.04 and 112 ± 8f1.02±0.06, respectively. The intrinsic quality factor, Qi, has been separated from the scattering quality factor QSc by using individually estimated Qc and Qd values. The average frequency-dependent relationships of Qi and QSc have been calculated in the form of 108f1.00 and 784f0.56, respectively. The results of this study suggest that S-wave's attenuation (Qd-1) is dominated by the intrinsic attenuation. The attenuation of coda waves has been observed similar to the intrinsic attenuation, which indicates, the coda decay is mostly caused by the intrinsic attenuation. It has been observed that the scattering mean free path is frequency independent at frequencies greater than 6 Hz. The results of this study are similar to the tectonically active regions.

  20. Fault kinematics and active tectonics at the southeastern boundary of the eastern Alborz (Abr and Khij fault zones): Geodynamic implications for NNE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidfakhr, Bita; Bellier, Olivier; Shabanian, Esmaeil; Siame, Lionel; Léanni, Laëtitia; Bourlès, Didier; Ahmadian, Seiran

    2011-10-01

    The Alborz is a region of active deformation within the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. The Abr and the Khij Faults are two NE-trending left-lateral strike-slip faults in the eastern Alborz that correspond to the Shahrud fault system extended through an area of about 95 km × 55 km. Tectonic landforms typically associated with active strike-slip faults, such as deflected stream channels, offset ridges and fault scarps are documented along the mentioned faults. Detailed analyses of satellite images and digital topographic data accompanied by field surveys allowed us to measure horizontal offsets of about 420 ± 50 m and 400 ± 50 m for the Abr and Khij Faults, respectively. A total of 8 quartz-rich samples were sampled and dated from two different fan surfaces using in situ-produced 10Be cosmogenic dating method. Minimum exposure ages for the abandonment of the alluvial fan surfaces of 115 ± 14 kyr along the Abr Fault and of 230 ± 16 kyr along the Khij Fault imply that both faults are active with slip rates of about 3-4 mm yr -1 and 1-3 mm yr -1, respectively. The results of our study provide the first direct quantitative geological estimates of slip rate along these two active faults and place a new constraint on slip distribution between the faults in the eastern Alborz. Fault kinematic studies (from fault slip data) indicate a N35°E-trending maximum stress axis comprising a dominant strike-slip regime in agreement with the geomorphological analyses. The left-lateral strike-slip faulting along the Abr and Khij Faults and their associated fault zones in the eastern Alborz can be due to the westward component of motion of the South Caspian Basin with respect to Eurasia and Central Iran.

  1. Updated Long Term Fault Slip Rates and Seismic Hazard in the Central Alborz, Iran: New Constraints From InSAR and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, J. M.; Shirzaei, M.

    2015-12-01

    The Alborz mountain range, located south of the Caspian Sea, accommodates 30% of the 25 mm/yr convergence between Arabia and Eurasia. The resulting shortening and left lateral motion is distributed over several active fault zones within the Central Alborz. Despite earlier efforts using only GPS data, little is known about the long term rate of vertical deformation and aseismic slip. Several historical earthquakes have affected this region, some of the largest of these events occurred on the Mosha fault which is close to the capital city, Tehran, which has a population of over eight million. Thus, constraining the interseismic slip rates in this region is particularly important. In this study we complement existing horizontal velocities from a regional GPS network, with line of sight velocities from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), to provide additional constraints on the vertical deformation and enhance the spatial coverage. Assuming a seismogenic depth of 30 km, based on microseismicity data, we solve for the geometry and long term slip rates on four major fault strands in this region. We obtain a long term slip rate of ~ 3 mm/yr for the Mosha and North Alborz faults, and ~ 10 mm/yr for the Khazar fault and Parchin faults. These rates and fault geometries are in agreement with earlier works, and fit the GPS data well. However, close to the fault traces there are large residuals in the InSAR data, suggesting that there is shallow creep (< 30 km). Therefore, we carry out a subsequent inversion using only the residual InSAR displacements to solve for the distribution of creep within the seismogenic zones on these faults. We find that the Mosha and North Alborz faults remain locked between 0 - 30 km depth, whilst the Parchin and Khazar faults are creeping. This new observation of fault creep has direct implications for the seismic hazard in the region. On the Mosha fault we estimate a slip deficit equivalent to a Mw 7.0 event. The combination of In

  2. Post-collisional transition from an extensional volcano-sedimentary basin to a continental arc in the Alborz Ranges, N-Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asiabanha, Abbas; Foden, John

    2012-09-01

    The Alborz Magmatic Assemblage (AMA) is an Eocene volcanic complex in northern Iran, and is situated at the site of the closure of the Tethyan basin. The magmatic rocks of the Alborz assemblage exhibit a distinct progression in style, from shallow submarine explosive eruptions to more effusive sub-aerial eruptions. Their chemical compositions indicate that they belong to the high-K calc-alkaline (shoshonitic) suite, and are related to either a subduction regime or continental collision. This conclusion is verified by major and trace element abundances, such as enrichments in Light Rare Earth Elements (LREEs) and Large Ion Lithophile Elements (LILEs) (e.g., K, U, and Sr) and depletion in High Field Strength Elements (HFSEs) (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, and Zr). However, HFSE plots suggest that the source region of the AMA magmas was affected by multiple processes, including deeply subducted lithosphere and the partial melts of extensional lithosphere in a back-arc environment. The isotopic composition of this suite and their trace element ratios suggest that the primary magmas were derived from a depleted mantle source and were subsequently affected by both fractional crystallization (ol + cpx in basic magmas and plg + bio ± hbl in intermediate magmas) and assimilation during magmatic evolution. Assimilation and fractional crystallization modeling, based on isotopic and trace element ratios, indicates that the ascending magmas were contaminated by approximately 40% continental crust. The petrography and geochemical composition of the Eocene Alborz magmatic assemblage indicate that it developed in a back-arc basin, in which explosive eruptions produced various pyroclastic and epiclastic deposits. A subsequent stage of volcanism then produced more effusive sub-aerial eruptions, as well as sporadic explosions that generated ignimbritic sheets.

  3. Strong Genetic Differentiation of Submerged Plant Populations across Mountain Ranges: Evidence from Potamogeton pectinatus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Shabnam; Afsharzadeh, Saeed; Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Biogeographic barriers for freshwater biota can be effective at various spatial scales. At the largest spatial scale, freshwater organisms can become genetically isolated by their high mountain ranges, vast deserts, and inability to cross oceans. Isolation by distance of aquatic plants is expected to be stronger across than alongside mountain ridges whereas the heterogeneity of habitats among populations and temporary droughts may influence connectivity and hamper dispersal. Suitable aquatic plant habitats became reduced, even for the widespread submerged Potamogeton pectinatus L. (also named Stuckenia pectinata) giving structure to various aquatic habitats. We compared the level of genetic diversity in a heterogeneous series of aquatic habitats across Iran and tested their differentiation over distances and across mountain ranges (Alborz and Zagros) and desert zones (Kavir), with values obtained from temperate region populations. The diversity of aquatic ecosystems across and along large geographic barriers provided a unique ecological situation within Iran. P. pectinatus were considered from thirty-six sites across Iran at direct flight distances ranging from 20 to 1,200 km. Nine microsatellite loci revealed a very high number of alleles over all sites. A PCoA, NJT clustering and STRUCTURE analysis revealed a separate grouping of individuals of southeastern Iranian sites and was confirmed by their different nuclear ITS and cpDNA haplotypes thereby indicating an evolutionary significant unit (ESU). At the level of populations, a positive correlation between allelic differentiation Dest with geographic distance was found. Individual-based STRUCTURE analysis over 36 sites showed 7 genetic clusters. FST and RST values for ten populations reached 0.343 and 0.521, respectively thereby indicating that allele length differences are more important and contain evolutionary information. Overall, higher levels of diversity and a stronger differentiation was revealed among

  4. Strong Genetic Differentiation of Submerged Plant Populations across Mountain Ranges: Evidence from Potamogeton pectinatus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Shabnam; Afsharzadeh, Saeed; Saeidi, Hojjatollah; Triest, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Biogeographic barriers for freshwater biota can be effective at various spatial scales. At the largest spatial scale, freshwater organisms can become genetically isolated by their high mountain ranges, vast deserts, and inability to cross oceans. Isolation by distance of aquatic plants is expected to be stronger across than alongside mountain ridges whereas the heterogeneity of habitats among populations and temporary droughts may influence connectivity and hamper dispersal. Suitable aquatic plant habitats became reduced, even for the widespread submerged Potamogeton pectinatus L. (also named Stuckenia pectinata) giving structure to various aquatic habitats. We compared the level of genetic diversity in a heterogeneous series of aquatic habitats across Iran and tested their differentiation over distances and across mountain ranges (Alborz and Zagros) and desert zones (Kavir), with values obtained from temperate region populations. The diversity of aquatic ecosystems across and along large geographic barriers provided a unique ecological situation within Iran. P. pectinatus were considered from thirty-six sites across Iran at direct flight distances ranging from 20 to 1,200 km. Nine microsatellite loci revealed a very high number of alleles over all sites. A PCoA, NJT clustering and STRUCTURE analysis revealed a separate grouping of individuals of southeastern Iranian sites and was confirmed by their different nuclear ITS and cpDNA haplotypes thereby indicating an evolutionary significant unit (ESU). At the level of populations, a positive correlation between allelic differentiation Dest with geographic distance was found. Individual-based STRUCTURE analysis over 36 sites showed 7 genetic clusters. FST and RST values for ten populations reached 0.343 and 0.521, respectively thereby indicating that allele length differences are more important and contain evolutionary information. Overall, higher levels of diversity and a stronger differentiation was revealed among

  5. Makran Mountain Range, Iran and Pakistan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The long folded mountain ridges and valleys of the coastal Makran Ranges of Iran and Pakistan (26.0N, 63.0E) illustrate the classical Trellis type of drainage pattern, common in this region. The Dasht River and its tributaries is the principal drainage network for this area. To the left, the continental drift of the northward bound Indian sub-continent has caused the east/west parallel ranges to bend in a great northward arc.

  6. Zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic constraints on petrogenesis of the Tarom-Olya pluton, Alborz magmatic belt, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabatian, Ghasem; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Honarmand, Maryam; Neubauer, Franz

    2016-02-01

    A petrological, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic study was carried out on the Tarom-Olya pluton, Iran, in the central part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. The pluton is composed of diorite, monzonite, quartz-monzonite and monzogranite, which form part of the Western Alborz magmatic belt. LA-ICP-MS analyses of zircons yield ages from 35.7 ± 0.8 Ma to 37.7 ± 0.5 Ma, interpreted as the ages of crystallization of magmas. Rocks from the pluton have SiO2 contents ranging from 57.0 to 69.9 wt.%, high K2O + Na2O (5.5 to 10.3 wt.%) and K2O/Na2O ratio of 0.9 to 2.0. Geochemical discrimination criteria show I-type and shoshonitic features for the studied rocks. All investigated rocks are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs), large ion lithophile elements (LILEs), depleted in high-field strength elements (HFSEs), and show weak or insignificant Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.57-1.02) in chondrite-normalized trace element patterns. The Tarom-Olya pluton samples also show depletions in Nb, Ta and Ti typical of subduction-related arc magmatic signatures. The samples have relatively low ISr (0.7047-0.7051) and positive εNd(36 Ma) (+ 0.39 to + 2.10) values. The Pb isotopic ratios show a (206Pb/204Pb)i ratio of 18.49-18.67, (207Pb/204Pb)i ratio of 15.58-15.61 and (208Pb/204Pb)i ratio of 38.33-38.77. The εHf(t) values of the Tarom-Olya pluton zircons vary from - 5.9 to + 8.4, with a peak at + 2 to + 4. The depleted mantle Hf model ages for the Tarom-Olya samples are close to 600 Ma. These isotope evidences indicate contribution of juvenile sources in petrogenesis of the Tarom-Olya pluton. Geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the parental magma of the Tarom-Olya pluton was mainly derived from a sub-continental lithospheric mantle source, which was metasomatized by fluids and melts from the subducted Neotethyan slab with a minor crustal contribution. Subsequent hot asthenospheric upwelling and lithospheric extension caused decompression melting in the final stage of

  7. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief Anaglyph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1,200 meters (about 4,000 feet).

    Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

    This anaglyph was created by deriving a shaded relief image from the SRTM data, draping it back over the SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye

  8. Zagros Mountains, Iran, SRTM Shaded Relief

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The Zagros Mountains in Iran offer a visually stunning topographic display of geologic structure in layered sedimentary rocks. This scene is nearly 100 kilometers (62 miles) wide but is only a small part of similar terrain that covers much of southern Iran. This area is actively undergoing crustal shortening, as global tectonics moves Arabia toward Asia. Consequently, layers of sedimentary rock are folding much like a carpet will fold if pushed. The convex upward folds create structures called anticlines, which are prominently seen here. The convex downward folds (between the anticlines) create structures called synclines, which are mostly buried and hidden by sediments eroding off the anticlines. Layers having differing erosional resistance create distinctive patterns, often sawtooth triangular facets, that encircle the anticlines. Local relief between the higher mountain ridges and their intervening valleys is about 1200 meters (about 4000 feet).

    Salt extrusions and salt 'glaciers' are another set of geologic features readily evident in the topography. Salt deposits, likely created by the evaporation of an ancient inland sea, were buried by the sediments that now make up the layers of the anticlines and synclines. But salt is less dense than most other rocks, so it tends to migrate upward through Earth's crust in vertical columns called 'diapirs'. The compressive folding process has probably facilitated the formation of these diapirs, and the diapirs, in turn, are probably enhancing some anticlines by 'inflating' them with salt. Where the diapirs reach the surface, the salt extrudes, much like lava from a volcano, and the salt flows. Two prominent salt flows are evident in the same valley, leaking from neighboring anticlines, just north of the scene center.

    This shaded relief image was created directly from an SRTM elevation model by computing topographic slope in the north-south direction. Northern slopes appear bright and southern slopes appear

  9. Preliminary results of chronostratigraphic field work, OSL-dating and morphogenetic reconstruction of an alluvial apron at Alborz southern foothill, Damghan basin, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büdel, Christian; Fuchs, Markus; Majid Padashi, Seyed; Baumhauer, Roland

    2014-05-01

    Here we present preliminary results of a chronostratigraphic study of an alluvial fan in the Damghan Basin, northern Iran. The basin sediments date back to the Mio- and Pliocene and therefore represent the starting point of alluvial fan aggradation. Today, the still active alluvial fans prograde from the Albors Mountain ranges and sit on the older sediment bodies. In this study, our focus is on the late Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial fan sedimentation history. The upper stratigraphy of the alluvial fans and intercalated lake deposits is characterized by six individual layers of gravels and fines, representing six different stratigraphic units. These units are described and classified by detailed geomorphological and stratigraphic mapping. To establish an alluvial fan chronology, six profiles were sampled for OSL dating. As expected, due to the high-energy transport system of alluvial fan aggradation in semi-desert environments, OSL dating of these sediments is challenging due to the problem of insufficient bleaching. Consequently, most of the samples are interpreted as maximum ages. However, the measurements show a consistent internal age structure and the overall OSL-based chronology is in agreement with the age model derived from our geomorphological analysis. As a first interpretation, based on surveyed geomorphological features and chronological analysis, we could identify seven morphodynamic phases, leading to a genetic model of alluvial fan aggradation. The oldest Pleistocene age estimate is derived from a former lake terrace. The following ages represent ongoing lake sediment deposition and the development of a proximal and mid-fan gravel cover. After the youngest lake deposits were accumulated within the Holocene, the lake starts to retreat and small alluvial fans are filling up the former lake bottom. This last sedimentation phase can be divided in at least two sub-phases, probably coupled to a lateral shifting of the active depositional lobe and to the

  10. Petrogenesis of Tarom high-potassic granitoids in the Alborz-Azarbaijan belt, Iran: Geochemical, U-Pb zircon and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabatian, Ghasem; Ghaderi, Majid; Neubauer, Franz; Honarmand, Maryam; Liu, Xiaoming; Dong, Yunpeng; Jiang, Shao-Yong; von Quadt, Albrecht; Bernroider, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale Upper Eocene plutons in the Western Alborz-Azarbaijan orogenic belt mostly show calc-alkaline and I-type geochemical features contrasted by the Tarom complex with its high-potassic to shoshonitic affinity. The pluton was emplaced in the Tarom subzone of the orogenic belt and its laser ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of 41 Ma is interpreted as the age of magma crystallization. The Tarom complex is composed of quartz monzodiorite, quartz-monzonite and monzogranite, the SiO2 contents range from 57 to 70 wt.%, the K2O + Na2O content is high (5.0-8.9 wt.%) and K2O/Na2O ratio ranges from 0.4 to 1.9. All the investigated rocks are enriched in light rare earth elements (LREEs), large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs), and bear a weak Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.46 to 1.38) in chondrite-normalized trace element patterns. The samples display some variety in initial Sr and Nd isotopic compositions, marked with low ISr = 0.704-0.705 and ɛNd (40 Ma) = - 4.2 to + 3.4 (- 5.7 for an enclave) values. The Pb isotopic ratios are (206Pb/204Pb) = 18.52-18.86, (207Pb/204Pb) = 15.57-15.72 and (208Pb/204Pb) = 38.47-39.08. Comparison with experimental studies, together with mantle-like isotopic ratios and comparisons of REE patterns, points to an origin of chemically enriched lithospheric mantle source for the Tarom plutonic complex. Partial melting process involving different partial melting degrees affecting heterogeneously metasomatized mantle is a process that seems likely to have occurred in the studied complex as the major differentiation process. The Tarom monzonitic plutons are considered to be post-orogenic intrusions that were emplaced in an environment of lithospheric extension, causing asthenospheric upwelling. Asthenospheric upwelling induced a thermal anomaly which caused partial melting of metasomatized subcontinental lithospheric mantle in the Tarom area.

  11. Crustal Thickness of Iran Inferred from Converted Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghizadeh-Farahmand, Fataneh; Afsari, Narges; Sodoudi, Forough

    2015-02-01

    The Iranian plate is part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt, which has been formed by the continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. The present-day Iranian plate is characterized by diverse tectonic domains including mountain belts (e.g. Zagros and Alborz, Kopeh-Dagh) and oceanic plate subduction (e.g. Makran). Here we present the lateral variations of the Moho discontinuity beneath Iran using a detailed P receiver function study. Our results allow for more precise estimations of the crustal thickness and enable us to provide a detailed Moho depth map for all of Iran for the first time. We used the teleseismic events recorded from 1995 to 2011 at 77 national permanent stations (24 broadband and 53 short period stations). Our results show significant variations in the crustal thickness, which are related to the different geological features within Iran. In general, the average crustal thickness beneath Iran is about 40-45 km. A relatively thick crust of about 54 ± 2 km due to the shortening is observed beneath the Alborz mountain ranges. The crust beneath the Alborz zone shows a thickness changing from 47 ± 2 to 45 ± 2 km from west to east and reaches a thickness of about 50 ± 2 km beneath the Kopeh-Dagh mountain range. We find the thinnest crust of about 33 ± 2 km beneath the Makran subduction zone in southeast Iran showing a normal continental crust, which has not been influenced by collisional processes. The thickest crust (~66 ± 2 km) is locally observed beneath the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, which is considered the suture zone of the collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates.

  12. Oroclinal bending, distributed deformation, and Arabia-Eurasia convergence in NE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mac Niocaill, C.; Alimohammadian, H.; Walker, R. T.; Hollingsworth, J.

    2013-05-01

    The collision of Arabia with Eurasia has produced significant region shortening across wide areas of Iran. These plates converge in a N-S direction at about 25mm/yr, and virtually the entire active collision zone is contained with the geographical and political boundaries of the country. Many features of continental tectonics are well preserved within the region, such as the partitioning of oblique motions onto parallel strike-slip and thrust faults, the concentration of deformation around the boundaries of rigid blocks, and the rotations of tectonic blocks around vertical axes. The collision zone terminates abruptly in the NE of the country, with active deformation trending N-S along the border with Afghanistan, and this is converted into shortening in the Kopeh Dagh and Alborz mountains. There mountain ranges changing from a NW-SE trend along the border with Turkmenistan to an E-W trend in Northern Iran. In the eastern Alborz mountains, the overall pattern of N-S shortening is accommodated on major thrust systems bounding the eastern branch of the Alborz (east of 57°E), Sabzevar, andKuh-e-Sorkh mountain ranges, which lie south of the Kopeh Dagh mountains. This shortening has resulted in significant crustal thickening, forming peaks up to 3000m high. To the west of 57°E much of the convergence seems to be accommodated on large left-lateral strike-slip faults. Active shortening dies out eastward into Afghanistan, which is thought to belong to stable Eurasia. This change in deformation style has given rise to a significant curvature of the eastern Alborz, and a major issue of contention is whether this curvature reflects a component of oroclinal bending of an originally linear mountain belt that has been rotated to its present configuration of whether the motion is purely translational. We present new palaeomagnetic data from Neogene sediments, distributed across NE Iran that provide new constraints on the deformation of the region. A complex pattern of both

  13. A preliminary study on the distribution patterns of endemic species of Fulgoromorpha (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Iran is known as the most complex and varied country in southwest Asia, in terms of geography, vegetation, climate and consequently biological diversity. The rather high number of recorded endemic species of Fulgoromorpha in Iran indicates a high potential for speciation in some areas. In this study, in order to identify the endemic zones for Fulgoromorpha of Iran, three main biogeographic regions of the country were divided into 13 primary zones, mainly according to the distribution of published and unpublished locality records of endemic species. Using Venn diagrams and cluster analyses on the primary zones, 6 final endemic zones were recognized: Caspian zone, southern slopes of Alborz, Zagros Mountains, Kerman Mountains, Khorasan Mountains, and Baluchestan and Persian Gulf coasts. Then a similarity map was produced for endemic zones using a Multidimensional analysis (Alscal) and the differences between the positions of the same zones in the similarity and geographic maps were discussed. PMID:24039521

  14. A preliminary study on the distribution patterns of endemic species of Fulgoromorpha (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Iran is known as the most complex and varied country in southwest Asia, in terms of geography, vegetation, climate and consequently biological diversity. The rather high number of recorded endemic species of Fulgoromorpha in Iran indicates a high potential for speciation in some areas. In this study, in order to identify the endemic zones for Fulgoromorpha of Iran, three main biogeographic regions of the country were divided into 13 primary zones, mainly according to the distribution of published and unpublished locality records of endemic species. Using Venn diagrams and cluster analyses on the primary zones, 6 final endemic zones were recognized: Caspian zone, southern slopes of Alborz, Zagros Mountains, Kerman Mountains, Khorasan Mountains, and Baluchestan and Persian Gulf coasts. Then a similarity map was produced for endemic zones using a Multidimensional analysis (Alscal) and the differences between the positions of the same zones in the similarity and geographic maps were discussed. PMID:24039521

  15. Earthshots: Satellite images of environmental change – Elburz Mountains, Iran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2013-01-01

    The Elburz Mountains run parallel to the southern coast of the Caspian Sea, and these mountains act as a barrier to rain clouds moving southward; as the clouds rise in altitude to cross the mountains they drop their moisture. This abundant rainfall supports a heavy rainforest (the bright red area) on the northern slopes. The valley to the south receives little precipitation because of this rain-shadow effect of the mountains.

  16. Present-day deformation in NE Iran and the South Caspian constraint by Global Positioning System measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Z.; Walpersdorf, A.; Walker, R. T.; Tavakoli, F.; Pathier, E.; Nankali, H.; Nilfouroushan, F.; Aghamohammadi, A.; Djamour, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The continental collision between Arabia, the Eurasia and distribution of earthquake epicenters show that most of the deformation is accommodated within the political borders of Iran. In recent years, constraints from GPS, seismology and geological estimates of fault slip-rate have allowed considerable advances in understanding the rates and kinematics of faulting across many parts of Iran. However, until now, only little is known on the present-day distribution of strain across the eastern and northeastern parts of the country, such that it has been difficult to assess the rates of faulting, the related earthquake hazard, and the relationship between the active faults and the overall tectonic motions. This area is one of the most densely populated regions of Iran with almost 6.5 million habitants and a significant number of historical earthquakes like the Qumis 856 A.D earthquake with 200.000 victims. But while eastern Alborz and Kopeh Dagh are clearly regions of active faulting, a lack of instrumental earthquakes is presently observed, making this area particularly interesting for hazard assessment studies. The sparse GPS measurements in NE Iran provide only limited constraints on the applicability of different kinematic scenarios that have been proposed to explain the role of the observed faults. Here, we present a velocity field, composed from 47 GPS stations (20 campaign and 27 permanent), recording over up to 11 years, and covering the entire NE of Iran. This new GPS velocity field helps to investigate how northward directed Arabia-Eurasia shortening is accommodated at the northern boundary of the deforming zone. A regional deformation field for NE Iran has been estimated from the GPS measurements. It shows how the incoming ~7 mm/yr of NS shortening between Central Iran and Eurasia is accommodated in Alborz, Binalud and Kopeh Dagh. The shortening rate decreases toward the east and dies out at the Afghanistan border. The deformation pattern is contrasted along

  17. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants of Hezar Mountain Allocated in South East of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rajaei, Peyman; Mohamadi, Neda

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript is the result of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacology survey on the Hezar Mountain in SE of Iran. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this region. The plants were collected in and around Hezar mountain from 2008-2010. The authors have conducted an interview of total 75 informants; The traditional uses of 92 species belonging to 35 vascular plant families and 78 genera have been recorded. The largest number of medicinal species came from Lamiaceae (15.2%). The most common preparations were decoction and infusion. These species are utilized to treat several ailments which the most common of them are digestive disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, (25.4%), renal and genital disorders (13%), respiratory tract system disorders (11.8%), and heart-blood circulatory system disorders (10.2%) respectively. PMID:24250549

  18. Tectonics versus eustatic control on supersequences of the Zagros Mountains of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, Ezat

    2008-04-01

    At least 12 km of strata ranging in age from the latest Precambrian to the Recent are exposed in the Zagros Mountains of Iran. This sedimentary cover is characterized by distinct stratal packages separated by major unconformities forming twelve supersequences. They are informally named as: (1) Late Precambrian - Cambrian Hakhamanesh Supersequence, (2) Ordovician Kourosh Supersequence, (3) Silurian Camboojiyeh Supersequence, (4) Devonian Darioush Supersequence, (5) Mississippian - Pennsylvanian Khashayar Supersequence, (6) Permian - Triassic Ashk Supersequence, (7) Jurassic Farhad Supersequence, (8) Early Cretaceous Mehrdad Supersequence, (9) Late Cretaceous Ardavan Supersequence, (10) Paleocene - Oligocene Sassan Supersequence, (11) Oligocene - Miocene Ardeshir Supersequence, and (12) Miocene - Pleistocene Shapour Supersequence. These supersequences and their correlatives in neighboring areas have been used to infer tectonic events. The dominant interpretation has been that local or regional epeirogenic movements were responsible for the formation of these supersequences. Unconformities are considered as indications that epeirogenic movements associated with tectonic events affected the area. The present investigation provides an alternative to the established view of the Phanerozoic supersequences of the Zagros Mountains. A good correlation exists between the lithofacies of supersequences in the Zagros Mountains and the second-order eustatic sea-level changes. Deposition of deep-water, marine shales occurred during periods of eustatic sea-level rise. Platform-wide unconformities coincided with eustatic sea-level lows. In fact, supersequences of the Zagros Mountains are nearly identical to those described from the North American Craton and the Russian Platform suggesting that these stratal packages are global. These observations suggest that supersequences of the Zagros Mountains formed by second order eustatic sea-level changes and not by local or regional

  19. Oroclinal bending, distributed thrust and strike-slip faulting, and the accommodation of Arabia-Eurasia convergence in NE Iran since the Oligocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, James; Fattahi, Morteza; Walker, Richard; Talebian, Morteza; Bahroudi, Abbas; Bolourchi, Mohammad Javad; Jackson, James; Copley, Alex

    2010-06-01

    Regional shortening is accommodated across NE Iran in response to the collision of Arabia with Eurasia. We examine how N-S shortening is achieved on major thrust systems bounding the eastern branch of the Alborz (east of 57°E), Sabzevar and Kuh-e-Sorkh mountain ranges, which lie south of the Kopeh Dagh mountains in NE Iran. Although these ranges have experienced relatively few large earthquakes over the last 50 yr, they have been subject to a number of devastating historical events at Neyshabur, Esfarayen and Sabzevar. A significant change in the tectonics of the eastern Alborz occurs directly south of the Central Kopeh Dagh, near 57°E. To the east, shortening occurs on major thrust faults which bound the southern margin of the range, resulting in significant crustal thickening, and forming peaks up to 3000 m high. Active shortening dies out eastward into Afghanistan, which is thought to belong to stable Eurasia. The rate of shortening across thrust faults bounding the south side of the eastern Alborz north of Neyshabur is determined using optically stimulated luminescence dating of displaced river deposits, and is likely to be 0.4-1.7 mm yr-1. Shortening across the Sabzevar range 150 km west of Neyshabur has previously been determined at 0.4-0.6 mm yr-1, although reassessment of the rate here suggests it may be as high as 1 mm yr-1. Migration of thrust faulting into foreland basins is common across NE Iran, especially in the Esfarayen region near 57°E, where the northward deflection of the East Alborz range reaches a maximum of 200 +/- 20 km (from its presumed linear E-W strike at the beginning of the Oligocene). West of 57°E, the tectonics of the Alborz are affected by the westward motion of the South Caspian region, which results in the partitioning of shortening onto separate thrust and left-lateral strike-slip faults north and south of the range. At the longitude of 59°E, published GPS velocities indicate that 50 per cent of the overall shortening across

  20. Provenance of Neoproterozoic sedimentary basement of northern Iran, Kahar Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemad-Saeed, Najmeh; Hosseini-Barzi, Mahboubeh; Adabi, Mohammad Hossein; Sadeghi, Abbas; Houshmandzadeh, Abdolrahim

    2015-11-01

    This article presents new data to understand the nature of the hidden crystalline basement of northern Iran and the tectonic setting of Iran during late Neoproterozoic time. The siliciclastic-dominated Kahar Formation represents the oldest known exposures of northern Iran and comprises late Ediacaran (ca. 560-550 Ma) compositionally immature sediments including mudrocks, sandstones, and conglomerates. This work focuses on provenance of three well preserved outcrops of this formation in Alborz Mountains: Kahar Mountain, Sarbandan, and Chalus Road, through petrographic and geochemical methods. Mineralogical Index of Alteration (MIA) and Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA-after correction for K-metasomatism) values combined with A-CN-K relations suggest moderate weathering in the source areas. The polymictic nature of Kahar conglomerates indicates a mixed provenance for them. However, modal analysis of Kahar sandstones (volcanic to plagioclase-rich lithic arkose) and whole rock geochemistry of mudrocks suggest that they are largely first-cycle sediments and that their sources were remarkably late Ediacaran, intermediate-felsic igneous rocks from proximal arc settings. Tectonic setting discrimination diagrams also indicate a convergent plate margin and continental arc related basin for Kahar sediments. This interpretation is supported by the phyllo-tectic to tectic composition and geochemistry of mudrocks. These results reveal the presence of a felsic/intermediate subduction-related basement (∼600-550 Ma) in this region, which provides new constraints on subduction scenario during this time interval in Iran, as a part of the Peri-Gondwanan terranes.

  1. A new crustal Moho depth model for Iran based on the seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beheshti, Sayyed Amir Hossein; Kiamehr, Ramin

    2010-05-01

    The Alborz and Zagrous Mountains build the northern and western part of the Iran and belongs to Alpine-Himalayan orogen in western Asia. These regions are the most active tectonic areas in the world as it undergoes extensive crustal deformation and shortening. Recently, the new gravimetric Moho depth model for Iran determined by Kiamehr and Gomez by using the inversion of the Bougure anomaly based on Parker-Oldenburg approach. In this research, we used data from 55 stations of the Iranian Telemetry Seismic Network to estimate the Moho depth thickness by P and S receiver function methods. The main idea of research is evaluation of the gravimetric Moho model based on the independent and precise seismic approach. The minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation of difference between the seismic and gravimetric models estimated about -8.2, 4.3, -0.8 and 1.2 km, respectively.

  2. The world mountain Damavand: documentation and monitoring of human activities using remote sensing data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostka, Robert

    The use of different remote sensing data is demonstrated by example of the world mountain, Mt. Damavand (5671 m) in the Alborz Mountains, Iran. Several types of satellite data were required to master the complex task of preparing a monograph of this mountain: SSEOP images of NASA, Russian KFA-1000 pictures, CORONA panoramic images of NASA and Russian KVR-1000 orthoimages. Examples of climatic studies, transportation routes, water resources, conservation areas and relicts of human land-use are presented in order to show the potential of remote sensing data. The right choice of image data is a top priority in applied remote sensing in order to obtain significant results in the documentation and monitoring of human activities.

  3. Distribution of ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants in mountainous areas of Golestan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sarani, Moslem; Telmadarraiy, Zakkyeh; Moghaddam, Abdolreza Salahi; Azam, Kamal; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of ticks on cattle in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. Methods In total, 498 animals from 25 herds were selected to search for ticks in 2009-2010. Tick collection was carried out during four seasons, twice per season over a period of 12 month from March 2009 through February 2010 in two districts, Azadshahr and Ramian. Meteorological data were obtained from Iran Meteorological Organization. The geographical points recorded using a Garmin eTrex®H GPS. Results A total of 255 ticks were collected from a total of 219 ruminants including 44 sheep, 63 goats, 99 cows and 13 camels in two districts of the mountainous area of Golestan province, including Azadshahr and Ramian. Five species of ixodid ticks were identified: Rhipicephalus sanguineus (66.5%), Rhipicephalus bursa (4.6%), Hyalomma marginatum (19.9%), Hyalomma anatolicum (6%) and Hyalomma asiaticum (4%). The densities of infestations were calculated for sheep, goats, cows and camels 0.9, 0.79, 0.16 and 0.43 respectively. Seasonal activity of each ixodid tick infesting domestic ruminants was determined. The distribution maps showed ixodid ticks on domestic ruminants, and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were dominant species in the area. Conclusions Such research provides necessary information for human and animal health service mangers to have a better understanding of prevention and control of vector borne diseases especially during the outbreaks. PMID:25183090

  4. Morphotectonic analysis of the Kaftar lake basin in the High Zagros Mountain Belt, (Fars province, Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farhoudi, Gh.; Samiee Ardabili, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Kaftar lake basin is located in the High Zagros Mountain Belt in the southwest of Namdan plain in the northern part of Fars province (Iran). The studied area surrounded by Gandboi ridge with E-W trend in the north and NW-SE trended Bareaftab anticline in the south. The main faults in the studied area are Moosakhani and Korchool (Kaftar) thrust faults, which are recorded in the Iran aeromagnetic map with T-12 and T-46, respectively. These faults are on the south eastern edge of the Zagros thrust system. With this study, in which we have used automatic lineament extraction algorithm from multi sources, high resolution morphometric data, analysis of morphotectonic elements based on high spatial resolution satellite imagery and digital elevation model, and field study. We have tried to detect the tectonic activities and understand the origin and evolution of the Kaftar lake basin. Based on analysis of existing data and results of this study, Gandboi ridge is a syncline with complex topography uplifted and rotated by Korchool fault. Bareaftab anticline, which is located in the hanging wall of Moosakhani fault, is a fault propagation fold and has also been formed by this fault. Based on the bed rock map of Namdan plain,The Kaftar lake has been produced in a depression within folds caused by Korchool fault. The high tectonic and karstic activities as well as the fact that the lake is not salty, indicatig a drain of the lake, proved that the Kaftar lake is a part of a polje of the karst system of Namdan plain.

  5. Iran.

    PubMed

    1987-05-01

    Iran's population stood at 49.8 million in 1986, 1 1/2-2 million of which were Afghan refugees. The annual population growth rate was 4%. The infant mortality rate was 10/1000 and life expectancy was 54 years. 40% of the labor force is engaged in agriculture, 33% are employed in industry and commerce, and 27% work in services. Iran is an Islamic republic dominated by the Islamic Republican Party. By the 1970s, Iran has achieved significant industrialization and economic modernization. However, economic activity was disrupted by the 1979 revolution and more recently by the war with Iraq and the sharp decline in oil prices. All major business and industrial growth indicators are significantly below prerevolutionary levels and unemployment is over 30%. Political infighting has hampered the formulation of coherent economic policies, and purges in the civil service in the postrevolutionary phase eliminated many qualified personnel. The petroleum, mining, utilities, and transportation sectors have been nationalized, but there is dissension within the Khomeni's regime as to how to proceed with land reform. Iran's gross national product was US$75 billion in 1986, with a per capita income of $1667. Inflation is about 25-40%. PMID:12177957

  6. Petrology and Geochemistry of the Eocene Volcanic Rocks in the Kahrizak Mountains, Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdani, S.; Castillo, P.; Tutti, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Eocene volcanic rocks in the Kahrizak (KH) Mountains in the northern part of Central Iran were mainly formed by magmatism that accompanied block-faulting tectonism in the region. In the KH area, the volcanic rocks are nonconformably overlain by Oligocene-Pliocene sedimentary deposits, suggesting that the Eocene magmatic activity in the region was followed by a sequence of uplift and shallow marine regression. The volcanic rocks consist of pyroclastics (tuff and ignimbrites) and lava flows (basalt, basaltic trachyandesite, trachyandesite, and rhyolite); superposition indicates an earlier explosive volcanic phase that caused the widespread distribution of rhyolitic ignimbrites and tuffs, and this was followed by a quieter phase of lava eruptions. Petrographic evidence such as mineral zoning, sieve texture and rounded crystals of plagioclase and pyroxene phenocrysts indicate non-equilibrium conditions between melt and crystals during magma cooling. These textures suggest magma mixing, although these may also be due to rapid decompression, where heat loss is minor relative to the ascent rate. The geochemistry of KH samples indicates their subalkaline to alkaline affinity. In terms of trace element contents, most samples exhibit the distinct geochemical trait of arc volcanism, i.e., Nb and Ta depletions relative to LILE (e.g., Ba, Rb) enrichment and positive Sr anomaly; however, Zr and Ti depletions are not prominent. The samples have a light-REE enriched but flat heavy-REE pattern and negative Eu anomaly in the rhyolites and trachyandesites. They have a ~narrow to ~moderate range of Pb isotopic ratios (206Pb/204Pb ~18.6-18.9, 207Pb/204Pb ~15.5-15.6, and 208Pb/204Pb ~38.5-38.8), with basaltic rocks somewhat higher than rhyolitic rocks. Available geochemical and isotopic data suggest a complex origin and evolution of the KH magmas. The magmas originated from an intrinsically ~heterogeneous source and, in addition to fractional crystallization, some of the

  7. Disasters and risk reduction in groundwater: Zagros Mountain, Southwest Iran using geoinformatics techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayazi, M. Hasan Ayazi; Pirasteh, Saied; Pili, A. K. Arvin; Biswajeet, Prathan; Nikouravan, Bijan; Mansor, Shattri

    2010-01-01

    For more effective use of ground fresh water resources, a remote sensing and GIS has been using in many places in last decades. The Pabdeh anticline belongs to the Zagros Mountains in the southwest Iran. This area is exposed in the karst region of Iran.The digital topographic maps in scale 1:25000 within GIS environment have been studied to observe the risk reduction and changing of the water resources because of the tectonic activities which is a crucial to generate a groundwater disaster in the study area. The area has been visually and digitally interpreted to delineate DEM, drainage network, drainage basin, karst landforms, lineaments and lithology for ground water reduction and possible new locations to explore and reduce the risk reduction and disasters. Image elements are used during visual and digital interpretation. Extensive field works have been attempted using global positioning system (GPS) to collect water samples and to emphasis image interpretation. The study shows that the groundwater is controlled by geomorphology, landslides, lineament analysis, lithology and topography in the study area. The research shows that tectonics generate lineaments and landslides in the study area which play a major role for reduction in water level in places and further disasters for the environment and the life of the people living in villages. It is because changing in direction of the drainages and also dolines bring a big issue to think for a better management in the future life. This study shows the advantages of remote sensing and GIS techniques for Karst and water resources stud! y. Use of GIS technologies makes it possible to construct 3D models of river basins and adjust theoretical reserves of the deposits. The study indicates that to reduce the risk and avoid from future groundwater disaster, need to explore and detect new potential ground water locations. The system has been developed from 1:50,000 scale digital maps (which represent of Pabdeh Anticline and

  8. Study of the extensive air shower mass sensitive parameters in prototype of ALBORZ array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rastegarzadeh, G.; Nemati, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this work we have used muon production depth distribution as well as the lateral distribution of the secondary particles of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) as two main parameters to infer the mass composition of primary cosmic rays. In order to achieve a realistic estimate of the mass composition, a sample of showers initiated by proton and iron particles as primaries have been simulated by CORSIKA code with zenith angle between 0° and 18° and discrete energies in a range between 1014 and 1016 eV for ALBORZ (1200 m a.s.l, Tehran, Iran) and KASKADE (110 m a.s.l, Karlsruhe, Germany) observation levels. Moreover lateral density distribution functions of energy for charged particles of air showers have been proposed for both proton and Iron primaries. We have indicated that among these two EAS parameters, lateral distribution of secondary particles provides better mass discrimination.

  9. A Paleogene extensional arc flare-up in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdel, Charles; Wernicke, Brian P.; Hassanzadeh, Jamshid; Guest, Bernard

    2011-06-01

    Arc volcanism across Iran is dominated by a Paleogene pulse, despite protracted and presumably continuous subduction along the northern margin of the Neotethyan ocean for most of Mesozoic and Cenozoic time. New U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar data from volcanic arcs in central and northern Iran constrain the duration of the pulse to ˜17 Myr, roughly 10% of the total duration of arc magmatism. Late Paleocene-Eocene volcanic rocks erupted during this flare-up have major and trace element characteristics that are typical of continental arc magmatism, whereas the chemical composition of limited Oligocene basalts in the Urumieh-Dokhtar belt and the Alborz Mountains which were erupted after the flare-up ended are more consistent with derivation from the asthenosphere. Together with the recent recognition of Eocene metamorphic core complexes in central and east central Iran, stratigraphic evidence of Eocene subsidence, and descriptions of Paleogene normal faulting, these geochemical and geochronological data suggest that the late Paleocene-Eocene magmatic flare-up was extension related. We propose a tectonic model that attributes the flare-up to decompression melting of lithospheric mantle hydrated by slab-derived fluids, followed by Oligocene upwelling and melting of enriched mantle that was less extensively modified by hydrous fluids. We suggest that Paleogene magmatism and extension was driven by an episode of slab retreat or slab rollback following a Cretaceous period of flat slab subduction, analogous to the Laramide and post-Laramide evolution of the western United States.

  10. Influence of southern oscillation on autumn rainfall in Iran (1951-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roghani, Rabbaneh; Soltani, Saeid; Bashari, Hossein

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationships between southern oscillation and autumn (October-December) rainfall in Iran. It also sought to identify the possible physical mechanisms involved in the mentioned relationships by analyzing observational atmospheric data. Analyses were based on monthly rainfall data from 50 synoptic stations with at least 35 years of records up to the end of 2011. Autumn rainfall time series were grouped by the average Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and SOI phase methods. Significant differences between rainfall groups in each method were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kolmogorov-Smirnov non-parametric tests. Their relationships were also validated using the linear error in probability space (LEPS) test. The results showed that average SOI and SOI phases during July-September were related with autumn rainfall in some regions located in the west and northwest of Iran, west coasts of the Caspian Sea and southern Alborz Mountains. The El Niño (negative) and La Niña (positive) phases were associated with increased and decreased autumn rainfall, respectively. Our findings also demonstrated the persistence of Southern Pacific Ocean's pressure signals on autumn rainfall in Iran. Geopotential height patterns were totally different in the selected El Niño and La Niña years over Iran. During the El Niño years, a cyclone was formed over the north of Iran and an anticyclone existed over the Mediterranean Sea. During La Niña years, the cyclone shifted towards the Mediterranean Sea and an anticyclone developed over Iran. While these El Niño conditions increased autumn rainfall in Iran, the opposite conditions during the La Niña phase decreased rainfall in the country. In conclusion, development of rainfall prediction models based on the SOI can facilitate agricultural and water resources management in Iran.

  11. Cenozoic intracontinental deformation of the Kopeh Dagh Belt, Northeastern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yang; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza

    2016-04-01

    Compressional intracontinental orogens represent large tectonic zones far from plate boundaries. Since intracontinental mountain belts cannot be framed in the conventional plate tectonics theory, several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the formations of these mountain belts. The far-field effect of collision/subduction at plate margins is now well accepted for the origin and evolution of the intracontinental crust thickening, as exemplified by the Miocene tectonics of central Asia. In northern Iran, the Binalud-Alborz mountain belt witnessed the Triassic tectonothermal events (Cimmerian orogeny), which are interpreted as the result of the Paleotethys Ocean closure between the Eurasia and Central Iran blocks. The Kopeh Dagh Belt, located to the north of the Binalud-Alborz Belt, has experienced two significant tectonic phases: (1) Jurassic to Eocene rifting with more than 7 km of sediments; and (2) Late Eocene-Early Oligocene to Quaternary continuous compression. Due to the high seismicity, deformation associated with earthquakes has received more and more attention; however, the deformation pattern and architecture of this range remain poorly understood. Detailed field observations on the Cenozoic deformation indicate that the Kopeh Dagh Belt can be divided into a western zone and an eastern zone, separated by a series of dextral strike-slip faults, i.e. the Bakharden-Quchan Fault System. The eastern zone characterized by km-scale box-fold structures, associated with southwest-dipping reverse faults and top-to-the NE kinematics. In contrast, the western zone shows top-to-the SW kinematics, and the deformation intensifies from NE to SW. In the northern part of this zone, large-scale asymmetrical anticlines exhibit SW-directed vergence with subordinate thrusts and folds, whereas symmetrical anticlines are observed in the southern part. In regard to its tectonic feature, the Kopeh Dagh Belt is a typical Cenozoic intracontinental belt without ophiolites or

  12. Emergence of agriculture in the foothills of the Zagros Mountains of Iran.

    PubMed

    Riehl, Simone; Zeidi, Mohsen; Conard, Nicholas J

    2013-07-01

    The role of Iran as a center of origin for domesticated cereals has long been debated. High stratigraphic resolution and rich archaeological remains at the aceramic Neolithic site of Chogha Golan (Ilam Province, present-day Iran) reveal a sequence ranging over 2200 years of cultivation of wild plants and the first appearance of domesticated-type species. The botanical record from Chogha Golan documents how the inhabitants of the site cultivated wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) and other wild progenitor species of modern crops, such as wild lentil and pea. Wild wheat species (Triticum spp.) are initially present at less than 10% of total plant species but increase to more than 20% during the last 300 years of the sequence. Around 9800 calendar years before the present, domesticated-type emmer appears. The archaeobotanical remains from Chogha Golan represent the earliest record of long-term plant management in Iran. PMID:23828939

  13. Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Above the forest: the alpine tundra; Solar energy, water, wind and soil in mountains; Mountain weather; Mountain building and plate tectonics; Mountain walls: forming, changing, and disappearing; Living high: mountain ecosystems; Distribution of mountain plants and animals; On foot in the mountains: how to hike and backpack; Ranges and peaks of the world. Map and guidebook sources, natural history and mountain adventure trips, mountain environmental education centers and programs, and sources of information on trails for the handicapped are included.

  14. Galevarz landslide geotechnical studies in Rudbar Freeway, North of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, Manouchehr; Jahanbakhsh, Romina; Pirouz, Mortaza; Haghnazar, Shahrouz

    2010-05-01

    The study area is located in the north of Iran and it is a part of new freeway between capital city and southern part of Caspian Sea. Freeway cross the Alborz mountain belt and it can be operating new landslides and rock falls along the Freeway. Some of the landslides are old and reactive and rest is new. Along the Freeway, between Rudbar to Rostamabad, 13 landslides were happened that 6 of them are reactive. Our study focused on a new landslide that was happened in Galevarz village. This landslide has 180 meters length by 170 meters width and 15 meters average depth. Galevarz landslide occurred in White river alluvial sediments. Slope of old rocks below the alluvial sediments and weak contact, irrigation of olive gardens above it and rain water channels in alluvium can be important parameters to happen this landslide. We drilled two boreholes in Galevarz area to find mechanical characteristics, internal friction resistance and cohesion coefficient. We got different internal friction resistance, and cohesion coefficient values from top to bottom. We used these data to find slope stability and to design fender wall in some places. Also, 8 meters vertical walls by 1 meter horizontal flats can be controlled Galevarz landslide and some drainage system is made above landslide to control it.

  15. Section of Permian deposits and fusulinids in the Halvan Mountains, Yazd province, Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leven, E. Ya.; Gorgij, M. N.

    2009-04-01

    The Permian section situated northwest of Tabas in the Halvan Mountains is studied and fusulinids occurring in the section are described. The Chili, Sartakht, and Hermez formations distinguished in the section are separated by horizons of bauxitic laterite and belong to the Khan Group formerly ranked as a synonymous formation. Fusulinids occur at two levels in the section. The lower one confined to the Chili Formation yields the so-called Kalaktash fusulinid assemblage of the late Sakmarian age. The second late Asselian assemblage has been discovered in pebbles from conglomerate-breccia in the basal laterite of the Sartakht Formation. A brief characterization of fusulinids is presented and three new species are described. The new Benshiella genus is discriminated from the Rugosofusulinidae family. As Skinner and Wilde (1965, 1966) changed the original diagnosis of the Pseudofusulina genus, we suggest, regarding all species, which have been attributed to this genus but do not satisfy the new diagnosis, as representing the new Nonpseudofusulina genus.

  16. Lateral and depth variations of coda Q in the Zagros region of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irandoust, Mohsen Ahmadzadeh; Sobouti, Farhad; Rahimi, Habib

    2016-01-01

    We have analyzed more than 2800 local earthquakes recorded by the Iranian National Seismic Network (INSN) and the Iranian Seismological Center (IRSC) to estimate coda wave quality factor, Q c , in the Zagros fold and thrust belt and the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone in Iran. We used the single backscattering model to investigate lateral and depth variations of Q c in the study region. In the interior of Zagros, no strong lateral variation in attenuation parameters is observed. In SE Zagros (the Bandar-Abbas region) where transition to the Makran subduction setting begins, the medium shows lower attenuation. The average frequency relations for the SSZ, the Bandar-Abbas region, and the Zagros are Q c = (124 ± 11) f 0.82 ± 0.04, Q c = (109 ± 2) f 0.99 ± 0.01, and Q c = (85 ± 5) f 1.06 ± 0.03, respectively. To investigate the depth variation of Q c , 18 time windows between 5 and 90 s and at two epicentral distance ranges of R < 100 km and 100 < R < 200 km were considered. It was observed that with increasing coda lapse time, Q 0 ( Q c at 1 Hz) and n (frequency dependence factor) show increasing and decreasing trends, respectively. Beneath the SSZ and at depths of about 50 to 80 km, there is a correlation between the reported low velocity medium and the observed sharp change in the trend of Q 0 and n curves. In comparison with results obtained in other regions of the Iranian plateau, the Zagros along with the Alborz Mountains in the north show highest attenuation of coda wave and strongest frequency dependence, an observation that reflects the intense seismicity and active faulting in these mountain ranges. We also observe a stronger depth dependence of attenuation in the Zagros and SSZ compared to central Iran, indicating a thicker lithosphere in the Zagros region than in central Iran.

  17. Paleolithic hominin remains from Eshkaft-e Gavi (southern Zagros Mountains, Iran): description, affinities, and evidence for butchery.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeremiah E; Marean, Curtis W

    2009-09-01

    Eshkaft-e Gavi is a cave located in the southern Zagros Mountains of Iran and is one of the few archaeological sites in the region to preserve both Middle Paleolithic and Upper Paleolithic occupations. Excavation of the site in the 1970s yielded an assemblage of lithic and faunal remains, including ten hominin specimens: a mandibular molar, four cranial fragments, a clavicular diaphysis, the proximal half of a metacarpal, a fragment of os coxa, the proximal diaphysis of a juvenile femur, and a patella. The bones derive from a minimum of four individuals, including two juveniles. Although many of these remains could be Epi-Paleolithic in age, one of the juvenile specimens-the mandibular molar-occurs at the base of the cave's Upper Paleolithic sequence. The remains are very fragmentary, but those that preserve diagnostic morphology indicate that they represent modern humans. The molar is taxonomically diagnostic, thus confirming the association of the Aurignacian-like Baradostian Industry with modern humans. Four of the specimens-a piece of frontal bone, the clavicle, the juvenile femur, and the patella-display clear evidence for intentional butchery in the form of stone-tool cutmarks. These cutmarked specimens, along with a fragment of parietal bone, are also burned. Although this evidence is consistent with cannibalism, the small sample makes it difficult to say whether or not the individuals represented by the hominin remains were butchered and cooked for consumption. Nevertheless, the cutmarked Eshkaft-e Gavi specimens add to a growing sample of hominin remains extending back into the Plio-Pleistocene that display evidence of intentional defleshing. PMID:19660782

  18. Two new mountainous species of Lactuca (Cichorieae, Asteraceae) from Iran, one presenting a new, possibly myrmecochorous achene variant.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Norbert; Djavadi, Seyyedeh Bahereh; Eskandari, Majid

    2012-01-01

    It is shown that the concept of the Iranian endemic Lactuca polyclada in the sense of both its original author Boissier and its current use actually admixes two entirely different species, as was first noted by Beauverd a hundred years ago but has been neglected by later workers. One is a putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, the other was recognised by Beauverd as a member of the genus Cicerbita. The name Lactuca polyclada Boiss. is lectotypified here, maintaining its use as established by Beauverd for the Cicerbita species. Both species are morphologically delimited and mature achenes of Cicerbita polyclada are illustrated for the first time. The putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, a rare local endemic of the summit area of Kuh e-Dena, which has remained without a valid name by now, is described as a new species, Lactuca denaensis N. Kilian & Djavadi, and illustrated. A third member of the Lactuca rosularis group, Lactuca hazaranensis Djavadi & N. Kilian, discovered among a recent collection and apparently being a rare chasmophyte of the Hazaran mountain massif in the province of Kerman, Iran, is described as a species new to science, illustrated and delimited from the other two species. This new species has peculiar achenes representing a hitherto unknown variant: the body of the beaked achenes is divided into two segments by a transversal constriction in the distal third. The proximal segment contains the embryo, the distal segment is solid with a lipid-containing yellow tissue. The easily detachable pappus and the equally easily detachable beak potentially obstruct dispersal by wind. Since detachment of the beak also exposes the lipid-containing tissue of the distal segment, its potential as an elaiosome and myrmecochory as a possible mode of dispersal are discussed. PMID:22577334

  19. Two new mountainous species of Lactuca (Cichorieae, Asteraceae) from Iran, one presenting a new, possibly myrmecochorous achene variant

    PubMed Central

    Kilian, Norbert; Djavadi, Seyyedeh Bahereh; Eskandari, Majid

    2012-01-01

    Abstract It is shown that the concept of the Iranian endemic Lactuca polyclada in the sense of both its original author Boissier and its current use actually admixes two entirely different species, as was first noted by Beauverd a hundred years ago but has been neglected by later workers. One is a putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, the other was recognised by Beauverd as a member of the genus Cicerbita. The name Lactuca polyclada Boiss. is lectotypified here, maintaining its use as established by Beauverd for the Cicerbita species. Both species are morphologically delimited and mature achenes of Cicerbita polyclada are illustrated for the first time. The putative relative of Lactuca rosularis, a rare local endemic of the summit area of Kuh e-Dena, which has remained without a valid name by now, is described as a new species, Lactuca denaensis N. Kilian & Djavadi, and illustrated. A third member of the Lactuca rosularis group, Lactuca hazaranensis Djavadi & N. Kilian, discovered among a recent collection and apparently being a rare chasmophyte of the Hazaran mountain massif in the province of Kerman, Iran, is described as a species new to science, illustrated and delimited from the other two species. This new species has peculiar achenes representing a hitherto unknown variant: the body of the beaked achenes is divided into two segments by a transversal constriction in the distal third. The proximal segment contains the embryo, the distal segment is solid with a lipid-containing yellow tissue. The easily detachable pappus and the equally easily detachable beak potentially obstruct dispersal by wind. Since detachment of the beak also exposes the lipid-containing tissue of the distal segment, its potential as an elaiosome and myrmecochory as a possible mode of dispersal are discussed. PMID:22577334

  20. The Lower Triassic Sorkh Shale Formation of the Tabas Block, east central Iran: Succesion of a failed-rift basin at the Paleotethys margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasemi, Y.; Ghomashi, M.; Amin-Rasouli, H.; Kheradmand, A.

    2008-01-01

    The Lower Triassic Sorkh Shale Formation is a dominantly red colored marginal marine succession deposited in the north-south trending Tabas Basin of east central Iran. It is correlated with the unconformity-bounded lower limestone member of the Elika Formation of the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. The Sorkh Shale is bounded by the pre-Triassic and post-Lower Triassic interregional unconformities and consists mainly of carbonates, sandstones, and evaporites with shale being a minor constituent. Detailed facies analysis of the Sorkh Shale Formation resulted in recognition of several genetically linked peritidal facies that are grouped into restricted subtidal, carbonate tidal flat, siliciclastic tidal flat, coastal plain and continental evaporite facies associations. These were deposited in a low energy, storm-dominated inner-ramp setting with a very gentle slope that fringed the Tabas Block of east central Iran and passed northward (present-day coordinates) into deeper water facies of the Paleotethys passive margin of northern Cimmerian Continent. Numerous carbonate storm beds containing well-rounded intraclasts, ooids and bioclasts of mixed fauna are present in the Sorkh Shale Formation of the northern Tabas Basin. The constituents of the storm beds are absent in the fair weather peritidal facies of the Sorkh Shale Formation, but are present throughout the lower limestone member of the Elika Formation. The Tabas Block, a part of the Cimmerian continent in east central Iran, is a rift basin that developed during Early Ordovician-Silurian Paleotethys rifting. Facies and sequence stratigraphic analyses of the Sorkh Shale Formation has revealed additional evidence supporting the Tabas Block as a failed rift basin related to the Paleotethys passive margin. Absence of constituents of the storm beds in the fair weather peritidal facies of the Sorkh Shale Formation, presence of the constituents of the storm beds in the fair weather facies of the Elika Formation (the

  1. Study of Upper Miocene Oysters(Plecypoda) From the Mishan Formation in south west of Firuzabad, Fars, Iran(Zagros mountain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehbozorgi, Mehdi; Sabouhi, Mostafa; Nabavi, Hamid

    2010-05-01

    The out crapes of Mishan Formation located in Aghar area(Firuzabad city) south west of Fars and 70km south west of Firuzabad. this Formation mostly consist of limestone, marly limestone and marlstone with 800m thickness. 6key beds distinctive from limestone beds are recognized in this area. this key beds are useful for local and regional correlation in Zagros mountains. the key beds from base to top are: Red algae, Bryozoa, Gastropoda and Plecypoda, Crabs and Oysters. Mishan Formation in this area is between Gachsaran F.M(Under Formation), Conformable and Aghajari F.M(Upper Formation), Conformable. With due attention to rang and distribution of the Macrofossils, 5 local assmblage biozone were recognized, that is confirming time limit from Early- Upper Miocene. this research cheked and controled a biostrom Plecypoda(Oysters) level by thickness 3- 4m. this biostrom located around 550m the base of section. Ofcurse more of this Plecypoda be assinged to order pterriodia and Genus Oyster. Along with Oysters, Pecten and Venus can be see. This biostrom made up a bioclastic shoal shallow deep in the margin of sea Miocene. This Oysters report from Mishan Formation of Firuzabad, Fars, Zagros, Iran: Ostrea virleti var. crassicostat, Ostrea virleti Desh var. persica, Ostrea digitatai Echiwald var. rohlfsi, Ostrea lamellose. Ostrea cf. biowwondeli. Master of science in Geology (Paleontology), University of Isfahan, Iran.

  2. Looking at the roots of the highest mountains: the lithospheric structure of the Himalaya-Tibet and the Zagros orogens. Results from a geophysical-petrological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunini, L.; Jimenez-Munt, I.; Fernandez, M.; Villasenor, A.; Afonso, J. C.; Verges, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Himalaya-Tibet and Zagros orogens are the two most prominent mountain belts built by continental collision. They are part of a huge belt of Cenozoic age which runs from the Pyrenees to Burma. In its central sector, the collision with the southern margin of the Eurasian plate has resulted not only in the building of mountain ranges over the north-eastern edges of the Arabian and Indian plates but also in widespread deformation 1000-3000 km from the suture zones. Zagros and Himalaya-Tibet orogens share many geodynamic processes but at different rates, amount of convergence and stage of development. The study of their present-day structures provides new insights into their quasi coeval collisional event pointing out differences and similarities in the mountain building processes. We present 2D crust and upper mantle cross-sections down to 400 km depth, along four SW-NE trending profiles. Two profiles cross the Zagros Mountains, running from the Mesopotamian Foreland Basin up to the Alborz and Central Iran. Two other profiles run through the Himalaya-Tibetan orogen: the western transect crosses the western Himalaya, Tarim Basin, Tian Shan Mountains and Junggar Basin; the eastern transect runs from the Indian shield to the Beishan Basin, crossing the eastern Himalaya, Tibetan Plateau, Qaidam Basin and Qilian Mountains. We apply the LitMod-2D code which integrates potential fields (gravity and geoid), isostasy (elevation) and thermal (heat flow and temperature distribution) equations, and mantle petrology. The resulting crust and upper mantle structure is constrained by available data on elevation, Bouguer anomaly, geoid height, surface heat flow and seismic data including P- and S-wave tomography models. Our results show distinct deformation patterns between the crust and the lithospheric mantle beneath the Zagros and Himalaya-Tibetan orogens, indicating a strong strain partitioning in both areas. At crustal level, we found a thickening beneath the Zagros and the

  3. Quantitative textural investigation of trachyandesites of Damavand volcano (N Iran): Insights into the magmatic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadsaleh, Mohsen; Pourkhorsandi, Hamed

    2016-08-01

    Damavand volcano is a dormant stratovolcano in northern Iran in the middle of the Alborz Mountains. Investigation of the magmatic processes responsible for the eruption of the volcano and the conditions of the magma chamber is important in order to understand the volcanism of this system. Owing to their higher abundance and younger age, trachyandesitic rocks are the main components of this volcano. To get insights into the crystallization of these rocks, we carried out a quantitative and qualitative petrographic study of three main volcanic units erupted between 63 and 66.5 years ago. Crystal Size Distribution (CSD) studies can reveal details about magmatic processes. Measuring 4732 individual plagioclase crystals and conducting a CSD study, revealed a non-straight and concave-up CSD curve for nearly all of the studied volcanic units which suggests the occurrence of similar physico-chemical processes responsible for their magmatism. Plagioclase crystals occur as microlites and phenocrysts; the phenocrysts show either oscillatory zoning or sieve textures. Each segment of the CSD curves are consistent with a particular plagioclase texture in all the studied volcanic units. The presence of different plagioclase textures and the concave-up shape of the CSD curves suggests the variation of the physico-chemical conditions of the magma chamber during the magmatism of the Damavand in this time period. Mixing of magmas with different crystal populations can be an alternative for this phenomena.

  4. Seismogenic faulting of the sedimentary sequence and laterally variable material properties in the Zagros Mountains (Iran) revealed by the August 2014 Murmuri (E. Dehloran) earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copley, Alex; Karasozen, Ezgi; Oveisi, Behnam; Elliott, John R.; Samsonov, Sergey; Nissen, Edwin

    2015-11-01

    We present source models for the August 2014 Murmuri (Dehloran) earthquake sequence in the Zagros Mountains of Iran. An Mw6.2 mainshock was followed by an aftershock sequence containing five events of Mw ≥ 5.4. Models of P and SH waveforms show that all events had dominantly thrust-faulting mechanisms, and had centroid depths that place them within the thick sedimentary sequence, above the crystalline basement. The combination of our estimated focal mechanisms, relative relocations of the event hypocentres and the surface displacement patterns observed using InSAR imply that the mainshock and largest aftershock ruptured different fault planes and both contributed to the surface deformation. The fault planes both slipped in horizontally elongated patches, possibly due to rheological layering limiting the updip and downdip extent of rupture. The slip vector of the Murmuri mainshock implies that the decollement beneath the Lorestan Arc is weaker than any such feature beneath the Dezful Embayment, providing an explanation for the plan-view sinuosity of the range-front of the Zagros Mountains.

  5. A gravity model of the deep structure of South Caspian Basin along submeridional profile Alborz-Absheron Sill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadirov, F. A.; Gadirov, A. H.

    2014-03-01

    The South-Caspian Basin (SCB) underlies the southern part of the Caspian Sea, between the ranges of the eastern Greater Caucasus, Talysh, Alborz, and Kopet Dagh. A 2-D regional gravity model along a profile from the Alborz Mountains to the Absheron Ridge has been constructed, constrained by deep (20 s TWT) seismic reflection data. The deep structure model has been evaluated in terms of earthquake focal mechanisms and GPS velocity data to elucidate active tectonic processes and the geodynamic evolution of the SCB. We believe that the rapid increase in the thickness of Mesozoic sediments along the profile from ~ 8 km in the middle part of the profile up to ~ 15 km in the area of the Absheron-Ridge can be explained by inherent basin geometry created by thermal subsidence followed by sediment loading as well as additional effect of tectonic related shortening of sedimentary succession. Near the boundary of oceanic and continental crust in the northern SCB, flexure of oceanic crust is inferred from the observed seismic data and gravity modeling, most probably connected to ongoing subduction of lithosphere of the South Caspian underneath the Scythian Plate of the Mid-Caspian. Subduction beneath the Absheron Ridge is accompanied by the delamination of sediments from the oceanic crust (“basaltic” layer) and creation of accretionary wedge in the overlaying sedimentary succession. The focal mechanisms of the larger earthquakes (M > 6) occurring along the northern boundary of the SCB show steep normal-type faulting above the bend of the downgoing slab while, along the southern boundary, thrust faults are inferred. Some thrust-type earthquakes near the northern boundary occur in the lower crust or uppermost mantle and may be associated with compression in the lower part of the brittle lithosphere due to plate flexure. Displacements measured along the coastline of the Caspian Sea by GPS are consistent with the direction of potential oblique subduction of oceanic crust of

  6. Timing of atmospheric precipitation in the Zagros Mountains inferred from a multi-proxy record from Lake Mirabad, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Lora R.; Ito, Emi; Schwalb, Antje; Wright, Herbert E.

    2006-11-01

    A sediment core 7.2 m long from Lake Mirabad, Iran, was examined for loss-on-ignition, mineralogy, oxygen-isotopic composition of authigenic calcite, and trace-element composition of ostracodes to complement earlier pollen and ostracode-assemblage studies. Pollen, ostracode-inferred lake level, and high Sr/Ca ratios indicate that the early Holocene (10000 to 6500 cal yr BP) was drier than the late Holocene. Low δ18O values during this interval are interpreted as resulting from winter-dominated precipitation, characteristic of a Mediterranean climate. Increasing δ18O values after 6500 cal yr BP signal a gradual increase in spring rains, which are present today. A severe 600-yr drought occurred at ca. 5500 cal yr BP, shortly after the transition from pistachio-almond to oak forest. During the late Holocene, two milder droughts occurred at about 1500 and 500 cal yr BP. Within the resolution of the record, no drought is evident during the collapse of the Akkadian empire (4200-3900 cal yr BP). Rather, a decrease in δ18O values to early-Holocene levels may indicate the return to a Mediterranean precipitation regime.

  7. Comparison of Solar Analyst and r.sun Models to Estimate the Spatially Distributed Solar Radiation in a Mountainous Region in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norouzi, H.; Didari, S.; Zand-Parsa, S.

    2015-12-01

    Solar radiation plays a major role in the energy exchange process between the atmosphere and earth's surface. The spatial and temporal heterogeneity of incoming solar energy determines the dynamics of some landscape processes such as agricultural, hydrological, ecological and biological processes. Consequently, in order to understand these processes, knowledge of the spatial variability of solar radiation is crucial. At regional scales, particularly in complex topography, terrain is the major factor modifying the distribution of irradiation. Variability in elevation, surface inclination (slope) and orientation (aspect) and shadows cast by topographic features create strong local gradients of insolation which affects micro environmental factor. To account for spatio-temporal variations of solar radiation, spatially distributed DEM-based solar radiation models can be helpful. In this study, estimated daily solar radiation using Solar Analyst and r.sun solar radiation models were evaluated and compared in a mountainous region in south of Iran. The models were evaluated for different sky conditions ranged from completely overcast to clear sky conditions. The sensitivity of the models to the input, based on station data was also analyzed. Additionally, the role of the spatial resolution of the DEM has been evaluated through the use of three different resolutions: 30, 90 and 1000m. The results showed that, under clear-sky conditions, the models can estimate solar radiation favorably, but their accuracy was reduced in cloudy and party cloudy atmospheric conditions. However, the accuracy of r.sun model due to raster format of inputs was better than Solar Analyst model in presence of cloud in the sky. Regarding the role of the DEM spatial resolution, results showed that for complex topography areas, the accuracy of the estimates improves using a higher spatial resolution.

  8. Investigating the role of source mechanism, surface topography, and attenuation on the observed PGA pattern in May 28, 2004, Mw 6.2 Baladeh earthquake (Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karkooti, Ehsan; Shomali, Zaher Hossein; Pakzad, Mehrdad

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we use seismic waveform simulation to investigate the influence of source mechanism complexity, surface topography, and quality factor on the observed peak ground motions in May 28, 2004, moment magnitude (Mw) 6.2 Baladeh earthquake. The observed peak ground acceleration (PGA) pattern in this event, which is the biggest earthquake to hit the Central Alborz Mountains of Iran in modern instrumental era, is irregular in some respects. First, the observed PGA contours are elongated toward north-west and, second, the maximum observed PGA value of 1049 cm/s2 on the horizontal component of Hasan Keyf station 50 km away from the epicenter is quite high and irregular for an earthquake of this magnitude, at such long distance. In this study, we employ the spectral element method, implemented in SPECFEM3D software package to simulate the 3D wave propagation from several source models in the area. Our results suggest directivity effect is the main cause of the anomalous observations in this earthquake and could account for the elongation of PGA contours and also the anomalous maximum PGA value observed at Hasan Keyf strong motion station. We show that the surface topography has minor effect on the observed peak ground acceleration and the resulting PGA maps. Also by finding the bounds of seismic quality factor effect on the peak ground acceleration values, we show that this factor could not account for the elongation of iso-acceleration contours in the north-west direction.

  9. Reservoir Characterization and Tectonic Settings of Ahwaz Sandstone Member of the Asmari Formation in the Zagros Mountain, SW of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adabi, M. H.; Sadeghi, A. D.; Hosseini, M.; Moalemi, A.; Lotfpour, A.; Khatibi Mehr, M.; Salehi, M.; Zohdi, A.; Jafarzadeh, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Ahwaz Sandstone Member of the Asmari Formation, the major oil reservoir in Zagros mountain, have been studied to understand the distribution, provenance, tectonic setting and reservoir characteristic of Ahwaz Sandstone intervals as an exploration target. This study was based on petrographic and geochemical analysis of 16 core samples from 13 oilfields in the Dezful Embayment zone, and 2 surface sections (Katula and Khami) in Izeh zone. Petrographic studies of 400 thin sections and geochemical analysis indicated that sandstones consist of quartzarenite (Khami surface section), sublitharenite ( Katula surface section) and subarkose (subsurface sections). The modal analysis of medium size and well sorted samples show a recycled orogen (Katula outcrop) and craton (Khami and subsurface sections) tectonic setting. The parent rocks for Ahwaz Sandstone, based on petrographic point counting suggest a low to medium grade metamorphic and plutonic source. Petrographic and grain size analysis indicate a shallow shoreline to barrier bar environments. Heavy minerals in sandstones have mostly plutonic source and abundance of stable heavy mineral, along with well rounded and high sphericity, support stable cratonic source for subsurface sections and Khami surface section. However, in Katula section, heavy minerals have metamorphic source. Facies map illustrated that siliciclastic sediments in Asmari Formation during Rupelian time comes from south-west and north west of the study area. During Chattian, sand distribution reaches to the maximum level and sediments arrived from south-west, north-west and also north-east of the study area. In Aquitanian, sandstones sourced from two areas of south-west and north-west. In Burdigalian stage, sandstone sourced only from south and south-west. These sandstones have limited distributions. Tectonic settings based on geochemical analysis, plotted on discrimination diagrams, suggest that passive continental margin. These sandstones were

  10. Right-lateral shear across Iran and kinematic change in the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Mark B.; Kheirkhah, Monireh; Emami, Mohammad H.; Jones, Stuart J.

    2011-02-01

    be accommodated in new ways and new areas, leading to the present pattern of faulting from eastern Iran to western Turkey, and involving the westward transport (`escape') of Anatolia and the concentration of thrusting in the Zagros and Alborz mountains.

  11. Three-dimensional P-wave velocity structure of Damavand Volcano, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafanejad, A.; Shomali, H.

    2009-04-01

    Damavand volcano is the highest peak in the Middle East ( 5670 m ). It is a large intraplate composite cone representing an accumulation of more than 400 km3 of trachyandesite lavas and pyroclastic material overlying the active fold and-thrust belt of the Alborz Mountains,the range that fringes the southern Caspian Sea. It shows fumarolic activity near the summit but no evidence of eruption in the past 1000 yr. The target region, Damavand volcano, is a Quaternary age volcano laying about 65 km northeast of Tehran metropolitan, Iran. A data set of over 1200 earthquakes recorded on a local 19 station short-period network between 1996 and 2006 provided by the Iranian Seismological Centre (ISC) is used for inversion in a well constrained and worldwide adopted code (SIMULPS). A 3-D velocity model beneath Damavand volcano has been obtained through inversion of P-wave arrivals of local earthquakes. About 1200 seismic events distributed around this volcano from surface up to a depth of about 30 km have been used to infer the P-wave velocity structure. The seismic arrival times were directly inverted using a 1D velocity model optimally representing the background structure. We used different grid spacing that provided detailed images of the volcano in order to investigate whether or not the anomalies are resolved by the data or are artifacts of the inversion. The resolution analysis carefully performed on the model parameters allowed the determination of a more reliable final model that represented the best results for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. The final model revealed an anomalous structure with a high velocity anomaly located beneath the volcano and a low velocity anomaly dominated the shallower depths. The spatial pattern of 3D velocity anomalies resolved in the region appears to be correlated at surface with the distribution of seismicity and major tectonic units and faults.

  12. The role of block rotations and oroclinal bending in Iran during the Cenozoic Arabia-Eurasia shortening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, F.; Mattei, M.; Alimohammadian, H.; Sabouri, J.; Rashid, H.; Ghassemi, M.

    2012-04-01

    Shortening related to the Arabia-Eurasia convergence in the Cenozoic has been - and is at present being - taken up mainly by displacements in the Zagros, Alborz, and Kopeh Dag thrust-and-fold belts of Iran, whereas the intervening, fault-bounded crustal blocks of Central Iran (Yazd, Tabas and Lut blocks) show little internal deformation. Central Iran is separated from the Alborz belt by NE-SW left-lateral strike-slip and thrust faults (e.g., the Great Kavir fault), whereas N-S right-lateral strike-slip faults define the boundary between the Tabas and Lut blocks within Central Iran (e.g., the Neyband fault). Based on structural and seismological data, it has been proposed that NE-SW left-lateral and N-S right-lateral faults can accommodate the NNE-SSW Arabia-Eurasia convergence if they are allowed to rotate clockwise (CW) and counterclockwise (CCW), respectively. A rotating-fault deformation model predicts that the intervening fault-bounded rigid blocks should rotate accordingly. To test this hypothesis, paleomagnetic sampling was carried out on Oligocene-Miocene sediments from different areas of Central Iran (Torud, Jandaq, Anarak, Tabas, Yazd, Bafq, Ferdows), dominated by right-lateral and left-lateral strike slip faults activity, and along the southeastern margin of the Alborz Mts. (Bastam, Tall, Gardaneye-Ahovan, Momenabad Abdolabad), where left lateral and thrust faults prevail. Large counterclockwise (CCW) rotations (20°-35°) have been measured in the Tabas and Yazd blocks, characterized by the presence of N-S to NNW-SSE trending, right-lateral strike-slip faults. This structural domain is bounded to the north by the ENE-WSW oriented Great Kavir-Doruneh left-lateral strike-slip fault system. North of this fault paleomagnetic data show a different behaviour, with no or small CW rotation about vertical axis during the late Tertiary. In particular a small amount of CW rotation has been measured in the Jandaq and Torud area, to the north of the Great Kavir fault

  13. The Middle Jurassic basinal deposits of the Surmeh Formation in the Central Zagros Mountains, southwest Iran: Facies, sequence stratigraphy, and controls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lasemi, Y.; Jalilian, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    The lower part of the Lower to Upper Jurassic Surmeh Formation consists of a succession of shallow marine carbonates (Toarcian-Aalenian) overlain by a deep marine basinal succession (Aalenian-Bajocian) that grades upward to Middle to Upper Jurassic platform carbonates. The termination of shallow marine carbonate deposition of the lower part of the Surmeh Formation and the establishment of deep marine sedimentation indicate a change in the style of sedimentation in the Neotethys passive margin of southwest Iran during the Middle Jurassic. To evaluate the reasons for this change and to assess the basin configuration during the Middle Jurassic, this study focuses on facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the basinal deposits (pelagic and calciturbidite facies) of the Surmeh Formation, referred here as 'lower shaley unit' in the Central Zagros region. The upper Aalenian-Bajocian 'lower shaley unit' overlies, with an abrupt contact, the Toarcian-lower Aalenian platform carbonates. It consists of pelagic (calcareous shale and limestone) and calciturbidite facies grading to upper Bajocian-Bathonian platform carbonates. Calciturbidite deposits in the 'lower shaley unit' consist of various graded grainstone to lime mudstone facies containing mixed deep marine fauna and platform-derived material. These facies include quartz-bearing lithoclast/intraclast grainstone to lime mudstone, bioclast/ooid/peloid intraclast grainstone, ooid grainstone to packstone, and lime wackestone to mudstone. The calciturbidite layers are erosive-based and commonly exhibit graded bedding, incomplete Bouma turbidite sequence, flute casts, and load casts. They consist chiefly of platform-derived materials including ooids, intraclasts/lithoclasts, peloids, echinoderms, brachiopods, bivalves, and open-ocean biota, such as planktonic bivalves, crinoids, coccoliths, foraminifers, and sponge spicules. The 'lower shaley unit' constitutes the late transgressive and the main part of the highstand

  14. Description of new endemic species of the genus Niphargus Schiödte, 1849 (Amphipoda: Niphargidae) from a karst spring in Zagros Mountains in Iran.

    PubMed

    Esmaeili-Rineh, Somayeh; Heidari, Firoozeh; Fišer, Cene; Akmali, Vahid

    2016-01-01

    New species of the genus Niphargus is described and named as N. kermanshahi sp. nov. from a karst spring in west of Iran. This species is identified based on the analysis of morphological characters and 28S ribosomal DNA sequences. Taxonomic status and phylogenetic position of this species is discussed in comparison to other Iranian species of Niphargus genus. PMID:27395592

  15. Structural and geomorphic fault segmentations of the Doruneh Fault System, central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farbod, Yassaman; Bellier, Olivier; Shabanian, Esmaeil; Abbassi, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-01

    The active tectonics of Iran results from the northward Arabia-Eurasia convergence at a rate of ~22±2 mm/yr at the longitude of Bahrain (e.g., Sella et al., 2002). At the southwestern and southern boundaries of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone, the convergence is taken up by the continental collision in the Zagros Mountains, and the active subduction of Makran, respectively. Further north, the northward motion not absorbed by the Makran subduction is expressed as the N-trending right lateral shear between central Iran and Eurasia at a rate of ~16 mm/yr (e.g., Regard et al., 2005; Vernant et al, 2004). This shear involves N-trending right-lateral fault systems, which are extended at both sides of the Lut block up to the latitude of 34°N. North of this latitude, about 35°N, the left-lateral Doruneh Fault separates the N-trending right-lateral fault systems from the northern deformation domains (i.e., the Alborz, Kopeh Dagh and Binalud mountain ranges). At the Iranian tectonic scale, the Doruneh Fault represents a curved-shape, 600-km-long structure through central Iran, which runs westward from the Iran-Afghanistan boundary (i.e., the eastern boundary of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone) to the Great Kavir desert. Nevertheless, east of the longitude of 56°45'E, the fault is expressed as an E-trending ~360-km-long fault (hereinafter the Doruneh Fault System - DFS) having a geological evolution history different from the western part (the Great Kavir Fault System). In this study, we look for characterizing geomorphic and structural features of active faulting on the DFS. Detailed structural and geomorphic mapping based on satellite Imageries (SPOT5 and Landsat ETM+) and SRTM digital topographic data, complemented with field surveys allowed us to establish structural and geomorphic segmentations along the DFS. According to our observations, the DFS is comprised of three distinct fault zones: (1) The 100-km-long, N75°E-trending western fault zone, which is

  16. Re-examination of the spatial distribution of landslides triggered by the Manjil-Iran 1990 earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, A. M.; Wasowski, J.; Capolongo, D.; Del Gaudio, V.; Mahdavifar, M. R.; Khamehchiyan, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Iranian Plateau, one of the most seismically active regions of the world, has a long history of catastrophic earthquakes. One of the recent destructive events that affected good part of Iran, was the large magnitude (MS =7.7, MW=7.3, Mb =6.4) Manjil earthquake of June 20, 1990, 21:00:10.9 UT. It completely destroyed 700 villages in the Sefidrud river valley and also the cities of Rudbar, Manjil and Loshan, killing more than 40,000 people, injuring 60,000 and rendering 500,000 homeless. Many landslides were triggered by the earthquake and some of them were catastrophic causing numerous fatalities and damage to infrastructure. In this paper the spatial distribution of 51 major landslides triggered by the Manjil earthquake is examined to assess the susceptibility to seismically induced landsliding of an area located in the middle of Alborz mountain range in the northern part of Iran. The study area, which covers 310 km2 is characterized by high relief (including elevations ranging between 1960 and 160 meters a.s.l.) and generaly steep slopes. From the lithological point of view, the study area contains Eocene age volcanic tuffs and andesites, Alborz magmatic assemblage (Karaj Formation, Eocene) consisting of porphyritic and nonporphyritic, andesitic and andesite-basaltic compositions, rhyodacites, calcareous and non-calcareous pyroclastics such as tuffs and agglomerates, limestone, shale and sandstone (Shamshak Formation), unconsolidated, poorly sorted Quaternary deposits. In this study, topographic data with a 30 m resolution and a digital representation of, geology, relevant geotechnical parameters and seismic shaking (Arias intensity) were ingested into a GIS. Then, using regional attenuation relations, Newmark's permanent-deformation (sliding-block) analysis was applied to estimate coseismic landslide displacements and to predict spatial probability of slope-failures. The modelled displacements were compared with the inventory of landslides triggered by the

  17. Simulation and design of pre-ionization systems for Alborz tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahshenas, Shiva; Amrollahi, Reza

    2015-04-01

    Alborz tokamak is an educational system for studying plasma phenomena in many physics and engineering experiments. A hot filament and a reverse discharge loop are used in the tokamak as the pre-ionization system. The hot cathode prepares a local initial electron density, then the reverse discharge loop trigger the ionization avalanche by means of inducing a toroidal electric field. The parameters of the hot filament are determined in order to produce the desired electron source. Filament temperature is simulated by using three-dimensional finite element method. The average values of filament temperature and electron density at the plasma core (at the end of pre-ionization process) were calculated and are about 2750 K and 1019 m-3, respectively. The resultant electron density and equivalent plasma resistivity due to reverse discharge loop are also calculated. In this paper, the simulation results, optimum structural style, the obtained parameters, the temperature of different parts of the filament and produced electron density are presented and discussed.

  18. Sinkholes, collapse structures and large landslides in an active salt dome submerged by a reservoir: The unique case of the Ambal ridge in the Karun River, Zagros Mountains, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Lizaga, Iván

    2016-02-01

    Ambal ridge, covering 4 km2, is a salt pillow of Gachsaran Formation with significant salt exposures in direct contact with the Karun River, Zagros Mountains. The highly cavernous salt dome is currently being flooded by the Gotvand Reservoir, second largest in Iran. Geomorphic evidence, including the sharp deflection of the Karun River and defeated streams indicate that Ambal is an active halokinetic structure, probably driven by erosional unloading. Around 30% of the salt dome is affected by large landslides up to ca. 50 × 106 m3 in volume. Slope oversteepening related to fluvial erosion and halokinetic rise seems to be the main controlling factor. A total of 693 sinkholes have been inventoried (170 sinkholes/km2), for which a scaling relationship has been produced. The depressions occur preferentially along a belt with a high degree of clustering. This spatial distribution is controlled by the proximity to the river, slope gradient and halite content in the bedrock. A large compound depression whose bottom lies below the normal maximum level of the reservoir will likely be flooded by water table rise forming a lake. The impoundment of the reservoir has induced peculiar collapse structures 220-280 m across, expressed by systems of arcuate fissures and scarps. Rapid subsurface salt dissolution is expected to generate and reactivate a large number of sinkholes and may reactivate landslides with a significant vertical component due to lack of basal support.

  19. Diagenetic and thermal history of the Jurassic-Tertiary succession of the Zagros Mountains in the Dezful Embayment (SW Iran): constraints from fluid inclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceriani, A.; Calabrò, R.; di Giulio, A.; Buonaguro, R.

    2010-03-01

    To constraint the diagenetic and thermal history in the Mesozoic-Tertiary succession of the Zagros Fold-Belt, a study was performed on fluid inclusions trapped in intergranular, vug, and fracture-filling cements in Jurassic to Miocene outcrop samples collected along the Anneh and Fahliyan Valleys of Khuzestan Province, southwest Iran. Petrographic observations showed at least two systems of fractures that postdate intergranular cementation. Two different types of oil-filled fluid inclusions occur in the intergranular cements and in the first fracture network, but they are absent in the second fracture network. Microthermometry of fluid inclusions was used to determine the temperature and salinity of fluids responsible for mineral precipitation. Within intergranular cements and calcite fillings the oldest fractures, precipitation occurred from high saline fluids in a temperature range of 60-120°C, depending on the stratigraphic depth. The strong correlation between fluid inclusions temperature and stratigraphic depth suggests that the intergranular cementation and the first fracture-filling event occurred prior to structural deformation. Furthermore, this correlation indicates a relatively constant paleogeothermal gradient at the time of cement precipitation of about 28°C/Km. On the contrary, fluid inclusions trapped in cements within the second fracture network lack oil and contain freshwater trapped at low temperatures that do not correlate to the stratigraphic position. This suggests second fracturing event occurred after oil migration and during or after deformation of the Zagros Fold-Belt, when the samples were in a near-surface position.

  20. The Characteristic and Classification of Thermal Spring in Ramsar area, North of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abedsoltan, Farnaz; Ansari, Mohammad Reza; Gafari, Mohammad Reza

    2010-05-01

    Ramsar area is located across and between Alborze Mountain and Caspine Sea in North of Iran. About 30 spas are located south of the Ramsar and Sadatshar town. They are almost in between 20 to 70 m elevation. Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks and alluvial deposit are exposed around the Ramsar area. In tertiary, acidic Plutonism was active and intrusion into the Paleozoic and Mesozoic formations. Quaternary and Alluvium deposits are exposed and extending on the Jurassic formations in Ramsar plain and have thickness lower than 10 m in show springs. The annual precipitation in the Ramsar region is 976 mm. There has not any proper Thermal spring management in Ramsar area yet. This could post some serious problem on improper management of Thermal spring sites, where its environment has been put into jeopardy. This study aims to provide a way to classify the Thermal springs in Ramsar area. The result of this study help in the classification of Thermal spring sites for official planning improvement of administration and sustainable development of natural resources of the area. The study makes use of the Department Applied Geosciences in Islamic Azad University and GIS data of a total of 9 Thermal springs in the attempt to set up a classification system of Thermal springs in Ramsar area. These data include surface temperature, conductivity, alkalinity, acidity, TDS, pH values, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, SiO2, SO4 contents, their locations, usages and other relevant information. The surface temperature of Thermal springs are between 19oC - 65oC and SiO2 geothermometer shows estimated reservoir temperature range from 86 o C - 96 o C. Most of the water from these Thermal springs is relatively turbidness and their composition is sodium choloride. The Thermal springs in this area generally exhibit high SiO2 and Na content; strong smell of sulfur. In addition, there are 30 Thermal springs located in Ramsar area and that show high concentration of Cl, Ca, Na, K and Mg. There

  1. Measuring and modelling precipitation components in an Oriental beech stand of the Hyrcanian region, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmani, Ramin; Sadoddin, Amir; Ghorbani, Somayeh

    2011-07-01

    SummaryInterception loss from the canopy is a major pathway for the loss of water from forest ecosystems. This study was conducted in an Oriental beech stand, neighboring Gorgan, representing typical forest characteristics of the Hyrcanian region. The Hyrcanian region is situated to the south of the Caspian Sea and covers approximately 1.8 million ha of the northern foothills of the Alborz Mountains in northern Iran. This region is characterised by temperate deciduous forests with Oriental beech stands, formed mainly of Fagus orientalis. Because these beech stands occupy 80% of the Hyrcanian region, rainfall interception via the tree canopy is an important pathway for water loss in this region. The main objectives of this study were to determine and model the precipitation components including stemflow, throughfall, net precipitation, and interception loss using gross precipitation and to understand how the diameter classes influence precipitation partitioning by comparing precipitation components across the tree diameter classes. A total of 31 beech trees with the following classes of diameter were randomly chosen: 11 trees of 30-60 cm (young), 10 trees of 60-100 cm (middle-aged), and 10 trees of 100-130 cm (old) of Diameter at Breast Height (DBH). Field measurements of gross precipitation, stemflow, and throughfall were made for 33 rainfall events over a period of 12 months from November 2005. Then, based on these measurements, net precipitation and interception loss were calculated. The value of gross precipitation was approximately 827 mm. Interception loss estimated to be about 53%, 57%, and 60% of gross precipitation corresponding to the tree diameter classes of 30-60, 60-100, and 100-130 cm, respectively. ANOVA results show that the values of the mean of precipitation components were significantly different across the diameter classes. There was an indirect relationship between tree diameter and the volumes of stemflow, throughfall, and net precipitation

  2. Iran: spotlight.

    PubMed

    Roudi, N

    1987-09-01

    Given its location between Asia and Asia Minor, Iran has been a country of strategic political importance throughout history. More than 98% of Iran's population is Moslem. During the early 20th century, as Iran gradually gained independence from the USSR and Turkey, a modernization process was begun. However, this modernization process was forced to yield to Islamic traditionalism after the 1979 Islamic Revolution. Women have been most affected by this change. The implementation of Islamic traditions has meant low job opportunity or motivation for continuing education among women. Although fertility remains high, the present government is satisfied with the current rate of population growth. Family planning is allowed if implemented within the framework of Islamic law, but abortion is illegal. Mortality fell substantially after World War II, but has not continued to decline. At present, both males and females have the same life expectancy at birth. Iran's population is growing at a rate of 4%/year, and can be expected to double in another 21 years. It has been projected that Iran, currently the 21st largest country in the world with a population of 50 million, will become the 15th largest with a population of 97 million by the year 2025. Tehran, the 20th largest city in 1985, is projected to be the 9th largest by the year 2000, with a population of 13.6 million. PMID:12268893

  3. Zircon geochronology and geochemistry of Dorud-Azna basement and gabbroic rocks, NW Iran: evidence of Panafrican basement and oceanic units in the Zagros orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakerardakani, Farzaneh; Neubauer, Franz; Masoudi, Fariborz; Mehrabi, Behzad; Liu, Xiaomong; Dong, Yunpeng; Mohajjel, Mohammad; Monfaredi, Behzad; Friedl, Gertrude

    2014-05-01

    The Dorud-Azna basement, exposed in the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic zone (SSMZ) in western Iran, is composed of both continental (granitic Galeh-Doz orthogneiss) and oceanic units (various amphibolites and metagabbros) that experienced a complex history of deformation and polyphase greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metamorphism. These units are intruded by the Darijune gabbro. The Sanandaj-Sirjan zone is part of Zagros orogenic belt. The SSMZ formed during continental collision between the African-Arabian continent and the Iranian microcontinent. A combined study of laser-ablation ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages from granitic orthogneiss and gabbroic rocks and their geochemical characteristics as well as the geochemistry of various amphibolites and metagabbros of the Dorud-Azna basement provides new constraints on the crustal evolution of this part of SSMZ. The U-Pb zircon ages of 608±18 Ma and 588±41 Ma of the granitic Galeh-Doz orthogneiss indicate the presence of a Panafrican basement with Gondwanan affiliation in the central part of the SSMZ close to the Main Zagros thrust, which is similar to Central Iran and the Alborz Mountains. We conclude that this Panafrican basement in the Zagros belt is part of Iranian microcontinent, which was subducted and subsequently exhumed following subduction of the Paleotethys Ocean. Geochemically, undated amphibolites and metagabbros show sub-alkaline to alkaline basaltic compositions of tholeiitic affinity. These metamorphic rocks originated from a MORB mantle source and their age must be older than a first stage of metamorphism in the SSMZ at around 180 Ma. Therefore, these undated amphibolites and metagabbros are interpreted as the oceanic basement and to have its origin likely in an Upper Paleozoic to Mesozoic N-MORB ophiolite. Finally, in the eastern part of the Dorud-Azna region, the post-metamorphic Darijune gabbro emplaced within the metamorphic complex testified by a U-Pb zircon mean age of 170.2 ± 3.1 Ma. The

  4. The rupture process of the Manjil, Iran earthquake of 20 june 1990 and implications for intraplate strike-slip earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Zednik, J.

    1997-01-01

    In terms of seismically radiated energy or moment release, the earthquake of 20 January 1990 in the Manjil Basin-Alborz Mountain region of Iran is the second largest strike-slip earthquake to have occurred in an intracontinental setting in the past decade. It caused enormous loss of life and the virtual destruction of several cities. Despite a very large meizoseismal area, the identification of the causative faults has been hampered by the lack of reliable earthquake locations and conflicting field reports of surface displacement. Using broadband data from global networks of digitally recording seismographs, we analyse broadband seismic waveforms to derive characteristics of the rupture process. Complexities in waveforms generated by the earthquake indicate that the main shock consisted of a tiny precursory subevent followed in the next 20 seconds by a series of four major subevents with depths ranging from 10 to 15 km. The focal mechanisms of the major subevents, which are predominantly strike-slip, have a common nodal plane striking about 285??-295??. Based on the coincidence of this strike with the dominant tectonic fabric of the region we presume that the EW striking planes are the fault planes. The first major subevent nucleated slightly south of the initial precursor. The second subevent occurred northwest of the initial precursor. The last two subevents moved progressively southeastward of the first subevent in a direction collinear with the predominant strike of the fault planes. The offsets in the relative locations and the temporal delays of the rupture subevents indicate heterogeneous distribution of fracture strength and the involvement of multiple faults. The spatial distribution of teleseismic aftershocks, which at first appears uncorrelated with meizoseismal contours, can be decomposed into stages. The initial activity, being within and on the periphery of the rupture zone, correlates in shape and length with meizoseismal lines. In the second stage

  5. Interseismic deformation of the Shahroud fault system (NE Iran) from space-borne radar interferometry measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Z.; Pathier, E.; Walker, R. T.; Walpersdorf, A.; Tavakoli, F.; Nankali, H.; Sedighi, M.; Doin, M.-P.

    2015-07-01

    The Shahroud fault system is a major active structure in the Alborz range of NE Iran whose slip rate is not well constrained despite its potential high seismic hazard. In order to constrain the slip rate of the eastern Shahroud fault zone, we use space-borne synthetic aperture radar interferometry with both ascending and descending Envisat data to determine the rate of interseismic strain accumulation across the system. We invert the slip rate from surface velocity measurements using a half-space elastic dislocation model. The modeling results are consistent with a left-lateral slip rate of 4.75 ± 0.8 mm/yr on the Abr and Jajarm, strands of the Shahroud fault, with a 10 ± 4 km locking depth. This is in good agreement with the 4-6 mm/yr of left-lateral displacement rate accumulated across the total Shahroud fault system obtained from GPS measurements.

  6. Alborz-I array: A simulation on performance and properties of the array around the knee of the cosmic ray spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, Soheila; Bahmanabadi, Mahmud; Pezeshkian, Yousef; Mortazavi Moghaddam, Saba

    2016-03-01

    The first phase of the Alborz Observatory Array (Alborz-I) consists of 20 plastic scintillation detectors each one with surface area of 0.25 m2spread over an area of 40 × 40 m2 realized to the study of Extensive Air Showers around the knee at the Sharif University of Technology campus. The first stage of the project including construction and operation of a prototype system has now been completed and the electronics that will be used in the array instrument has been tested under field conditions. In order to achieve a realistic estimate of the array performance, a large number of simulated CORSIKA showers have been used. In the present work, theoretical results obtained in the study of different array layouts and trigger conditions are described. Using Monte Carlo simulations of showers the rate of detected events per day and the trigger probability functions, i.e., the probability for an extensive air shower to trigger a ground based array as a function of the shower core distance to the center of array are presented for energies above 1 TeV and zenith angles up to 60°. Moreover, the angular resolution of the Alborz-I array is obtained.

  7. Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gyulai, Peter; Rabieh, Mohammad Mahdi; Seraj, Ali Asghar; Ronkay, Laslo; Esfandiari, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new Anagnorisma species, Anagnorisma chamrani sp. n., is described from Binaloud Mountains of Khorasan-e-Razavi province in north-eastern Iran, and compared with its sister species, Anagnorisma eucratides (Boursin, 1960). The adults, and male and female genitalia of both species are illustrated in 11 figures. The genus Anagnorisma is recorded for the first time for the fauna of Iran. PMID:23950668

  8. Soil erosion in Iran: Issues and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidreza Sadeghi, Seyed; Cerdà, Artemi

    2015-04-01

    Iran currently faces many soil erosion-related problems (see citations below). These issues are resulted from some inherent characteristic and anthropogenic triggering forces. Nowadays, the latter plays more important rule to accelerate the erosion with further emphasis on soil erosion-prone arid and semi arid regions of the country. This contribution attempts to identify and describe the existing main reasons behind accelerated soil erosion in Iran. Appropriate solutions viz. structural and non-structural approaches will be then advised to combat or minimise the problems. Iran can be used as a pilot research site to understand the soil erosion processes in semiarid, arid and mountainous terrain and our research will review the scientific literature and will give an insight of the soil erosion rates in the main factors of the soil erosion in Iran. Key words: Anthropogenic Erosion, Land Degradation; Sediment Management; Sediment Problems Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References Aghili Nategh, N., Hemmat, A., & Sadeghi, M. (2014). Assessing confined and semi-confined compression curves of highly calcareous remolded soil amended with farmyard manure. Journal of Terramechanics, 53, 75-82. Arekhi, S., Bolourani, A. D., Shabani, A., Fathizad, H., Ahamdy-Asbchin, S. 2012. Mapping Soil Erosion and Sediment Yield Susceptibility using RUSLE, Remote Sensing and GIS (Case study: Cham Gardalan Watershed, Iran). Advances in Environmental Biology, 6(1), 109-124. Arekhi, S., Shabani, A., Rostamizad, G. 2012. Application of the modified universal soil loss equation (MUSLE) in prediction of sediment yield (Case study: Kengir Watershed, Iran). Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 5(6), 1259-1267.Sadeghi, S. H., Moosavi, V., Karami, A., Behnia, N. 2012. Soil erosion assessment and prioritization of affecting factors at plot

  9. Large Earthquakes in Low-Strain Regions of Central Asia, Mongolia, and Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, A.

    2014-12-01

    Although often characterized by an apparent low level of seismicity, areas of low-strain accumulation are subjected to considerable seismic and associated natural hazards. However, we are often unaware of these hazards, because in contrast to active plate boundaries, recurrence intervals of ground-rupturing earthquakes are typically on the order of thousands of years. Geodetic or seismicity records may thus not yet reflect full seismic cycles. Low-strain regions may occur in stable continental interiors or tectonically active intracontinental mountain belts, which often comprise areas of spatially disparate reverse and strike-slip faulting, up to thousands of kilometers away from plate boundaries. These regions may be shortened at rates on the order of centimeters per year, with no clear spatiotemporal pattern of seismicity, and single fault-slip rates may attain less than one to a few millimeters per year. The Kyrgyz and Kazakh Tien Shan, the Mongolian Hangay or the Iranian Alborz mountains are prime examples that share these characteristics. These regions are located along the northern rim of the ongoing Indian-Eurasian or Arabian-Eurasian collision, but are hundreds of kilometers away from the corresponding plate boundaries. Historical earthquakes M > 7 are known from the Alborz mountains and several events with M > 8 are known from the northern Tien Shan and Mongolia - all with poorly constrained recurrence rates. We review our ongoing tectonic studies of these areas, which differ in faulting mechanisms, the preservation potential of primary and secondary rupture evidence, and the level of population density and value concentrations. We use paleoseismic trenching, geomorphic and terrestrial LiDAR data analysis, and geochronology to gain insights into the complex deformation processes that govern these areas to better understand how present-day deformation is accommodated in areally extensive deformation zones in continental interiors.

  10. Cumulative right-lateral fault slip rate across the Zagros-Makran transfer zone: role of the Minab-Zendan fault system in accommodating Arabia-Eurasia convergence in southeast Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regard, V.; Bellier, O.; Thomas, J.-C.; Bourlès, D.; Bonnet, S.; Abbassi, M. R.; Braucher, R.; Mercier, J.; Shabanian, E.; Soleymani, Sh.; Feghhi, Kh.

    2005-07-01

    The Zendan-Minab zone is the transition zone between the Zagros collision to the west and Makran subduction to the east. It is also linked to the north with the Nayband-Gowk fault system that bounds the Lut Block to the east. The total convergence rate between Arabia and Eurasia is estimated to range between 23 and 35 mm yr-1 in a NNE-trending direction. The deformation through the Minab-Zendan system is accommodated within two fault systems, the western N160°E-trending Minab-Zendan fault system and the eastern north-south Sabzevaran-Jiroft fault system. The study area is characterized by a well-defined succession of Quaternary deposit levels. The age of these deposits was estimated by archaeological data, regional palaeoclimate correlations and constrained by additional in situ10Be dating in another paper in this study. These deposits exhibit offsets, both lateral and vertical, that are evaluated by satellite image analysis and GPS profiles. Thanks to offsets and ages the strike-slip rates associated with the Minab-Zendan and the Sabzevaran-Jiroft fault systems are calculated to be 5.1 +/- 1.3 or 6.6 +/- 1.5, and 6.2 +/- 0.7 mm yr-1, respectively. These results allow an evaluation of the velocity vector of the Musandam Peninsula (Oman) with respect to the Lut Block of 11.4 +/- 2.0 or 12.9 +/- 2.2 mm yr-1 in a N10 +/- 15°E direction, close to the GPS estimates. This study also constrains the in-plane slip rates for each fault. Previous works indicate that the Zagros accommodates only 10 mm yr-1 of shortening, while 10 mm yr-1 should be accommodated by the Alborz mountains in northern Iran. This last 10 mm yr-1 may be accommodated through the Nayband-Gowk system and the East Iranian ranges, implying that the two fault systems constituting the Zagros-Makran transfer zone have different geodynamic roles. The western Minab-Zendan fault system links the Makran and Zagros deforming zones, whereas the northwestern Jiroft-Sabzevaran fault system is transmitting the

  11. Christmas Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Christmas Mountains     View Larger Image ... New Brunswick. Located above image center are the Christmas Mountains, a region of old-growth forest nestled in a remote wilderness. Within ...

  12. Appalachian Mountains

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Appalachian Mountains     View Larger Image Multi-angle views of the Appalachian Mountains, March 6, 2000 . The true-color image at left is a ... from Lake Ontario to northern Georgia, and spanning the Appalachian Mountains. The three images to the right are also in true-color, ...

  13. Occurrence and molecular characterization of free-living amoeba species (Acanthamoeba, Hartmannella, and Saccamoeba limax) in various surface water resources of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Rahmati, Behnaz; Seyedpour, Seyed Hosssen; Karanis, Panagiotis

    2015-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the presence and molecular identity of Acanthamoeba species in the surface water resources of four provinces in Iran, namely Guilan, Mazandaran (North of Iran), Alborz, and Tehran (capital city), using culture- and molecular-based methods. During March to November 2014, 49 surface water samples were collected from environmental water sources-the distinct surface waters of Guilan, Mazandaran, Alborz, and Tehran provinces, in Iran. For the isolation of Acanthamoeba species, approximately 500 ml of the water samples were filtered through a cellulose nitrate membrane with a pore size of 0.45 μ. The filter was transferred onto non-nutrient agar plates seeded with Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) as a food source. The presence of Acanthamoeba was confirmed by the genus-specific primer pair JDP1 and 2, and/or NA primers were used to identify Acanthamoeba and certain other free-living amoebae. In total, 38 out of 49 samples were positive by culture and/or PCR for Acanthamoeba and other free-living amoebae from all three provinces. By sequencing the positive isolates, the strains were shown to belong to Acanthamoeba (16 isolates belonged to T4 and 2 isolates belonged to T5), Hartmannella vermiformis (3/24), and Saccamoeba limax (2/24). The T4 and T5 genotypes were detected in Guilan and Mazandaran provinces. Two isolates from Guilan and Tehran provinces belonged to S. limax, and H. vermiformis was detected in Guilan province. The results of this study highlight the need to pay more attention to free-living amoebae, as human activity was observed in all of the localities from which these samples were taken. These surface waters can be potential sources for the distribution and transmission of pathogenic Acanthamoeba in the study areas, and free-living amoebas (FLA) (particularly the Acanthamoeba species) can serve as hosts for and vehicles of various microorganisms. PMID:26346454

  14. Application of large benthic foraminifera as a tool for interpretation of paleoclimate and water depth, in the Ziyarat Formation, Alborz, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatibi Mehr, M.; Adabi, M. H.

    2009-04-01

    The Ziyarat Formation, with a total thickness of 213 m, is a shallow warm water limestone, overlies the Fajan conglomerate and is overlain by tufaceous siltstone of the Karj Formation. The age of late Paleocene- Middle Eocene was considered for the Ziyarat Formation at the type section. From late Paleocene towards Middle Eocene, temperature has increased (Scheibner et al., 2005). This rising temperature has intensified and giving way to an unprecedented expansion of Large Benthic Foraminifera (LBF) dominating Tethyan platform during Middle Eocene (Scheibner et al., 2005). δ18O paleotemperature calculation based on heaviest oxygen isotope value of micrite and δ18Ow of Eocene seawater of 0.85 SMOW shows that temperature was around 39˚C in the study area. In response to continued global warming during Paleocene-Eocene Termal Maximum (PETM), some organisms (such as corals) has been declined, while at the same time, L.B.F. were increasingly favored as dominant carbonate producing organisms in oligotrophic environment (Scheibner et al., 2008). For the even warmer period of PTEM a transient rise in sea-surface temperature of 4-5˚C in low latitudes and 8 to 10˚ C in high latitudes has been proposed based on Mg/Ca ratios of planktic foraminifera (Zachos et al., 2003; Tripati and Elderfield, 2004). Thus, L.B.F was able to exploit their niche as evidenced by their increase in size, species diversity and their overwhelming abundance. In the Ziyarat Formation, 11 microfacies were recognized from the shallower to deeper part of the platform. The lack of evidence of resedimentation, e.g. turbidite, related to steep slop, and absence of reefal facies and widespread tidal flat deposits indicate that the Ziyarat Formation was deposited in a homocline carbonate ramp environment. The evaporite facies, dolomicrite, intraclast ooid packstone to grainstone, Miliolid wackestone, and Alveolina nummulite packstone belong to inner ramp sub-environment; middle ramp microfacies composed of Nummulite packstone, red algae nummulite packstone, Discocyclina nummulite wackestone, and Nummulite discocyclina wackestone to packstone; and outer ramp microfacies consist of benthic foraminifera packstone and radiolar sponge spicule wackestone. The ramp model proposed here for the Ziyarat Formation represent an example of a foraminifera dominated ramp system. The Paleogene was a time of particular abundance and radiation of miliolid and larger hyaline foraminifera and, especially during the Eocene they occurred in rock-forming quantities. Among L.B.F typical of Early Cenozoic carbonate platforms, Nummulites occupied a broad range of open marine environments on both ramps and shelves, and was generally absent from more restricted waters. Assilina and discocyclina in relatively deep water environments, while smaller lenticular Nummulites occur in shallower, inner ramp/shelf settings, often co-existing with Alveolina. Nummulites in the Ziyarat Formation showing variation in test shape, along the paleoenvironmental gradient. Nummulites from inner ramp have robust ovate shape with thick walls, while by increasing water depth, lower temperature, decreasing light levels and water energy, the test shape becomes flatter and elongate.

  15. Genetic Characterization of Echinococcus granulosus from a Large Number of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Tissue Samples of Human Isolates in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Sima; Torbaghan, Shams Shariat; Dabiri, Shahriar; Babaei, Zahra; Mohammadi, Mohammad Ali; Sharbatkhori, Mitra; Harandi, Majid Fasihi

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus, presents an important medical and veterinary problem globally, including that in Iran. Different genotypes of E. granulosus have been reported from human isolates worldwide. This study identifies the genotype of the parasite responsible for human hydatidosis in three provinces of Iran using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. In this study, 200 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from human CE cases were collected from Alborz, Tehran, and Kerman provinces. Polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing of the partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene were performed for genetic characterization of the samples. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates from this study and reference sequences of different genotypes was done using a maximum likelihood method. In total, 54.4%, 0.8%, 1%, and 40.8% of the samples were identified as the G1, G2, G3, and G6 genotypes, respectively. The findings of the current study confirm the G1 genotype (sheep strain) to be the most prevalent genotype involved in human CE cases in Iran and indicates the high prevalence of the G6 genotype with a high infectivity for humans. Furthermore, this study illustrates the first documented human CE case in Iran infected with the G2 genotype. PMID:25535316

  16. Desert and desertification in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, M.

    2009-04-01

    One of the greatest environmental concerns in Iran as in other arid and semiarid countries is the transformation of once productive, or marginally productive, land to deteriorated land and soil unable to support plants and animals. Because the land becomes barren and dry, the process is described as desertification, which occurs as a sequence of events. The area of deserts in Iran is about 340,000 Km2 (less than one fifth of its total area), of which 100,000 Km2 is being used for some cultivation, 120,000 Km2 is subjected to moving sands about 40 % of which is active sand dunes. Most of features and processes usual in world famous deserts are also observed in Iran: low precipitation, high evaporation, poor or lack of vegetation, saline and alkaline soils, low population and small and sparse oases. The deserts of Iran are generally classified in the subtropical, warm, arid and semiarid group, but the effect and presence of some geographical and geoclimatical factors such as height, vicinity to Indian Ocean and so on do some changes in climatic conditions and geographical features causing some local and regional differences in them. Geographically, two groups of deserts have been known in Iran: (1) Coastal deserts which, like a ribbon with variable width, stretch from extreme southeast to extreme southwest, at the north parts of Oman Sea and Persian Gulf. One important feature of these deserts is relatively high humidity which differentiates them from other deserts. This causes an increase in vegetation coverage and hence a decrease in eolian erosion and also a dominance of chemical weathering to that of physical. (2) internal deserts, which rest in central, eastern and southeastern plateau of the country and in independent and semi dependent depressions. This situation, which is due to the surrounding high mountains, blocks humidity entry and causes the aridity of these deserts. Wind as a dominant process in the area causes deflated features such as Reg (desert

  17. Factors affecting Iran`s future. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sinai, J.

    1993-05-28

    This study examines the factors affecting Iran`s future by focusing on the demographic, economic, and military trends in Iran and their impact on the country`s national security objectives in the next decade. The paper also assesses the implications of an economic embargo on Iran and potential Iranian threats to regional and United States national interests.

  18. Structural control on epithermal mineralization in the Troud-Chah Shirin belt using point pattern and Fry analyses, north of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabi, B.; Ghasemi, S. M.; Tale, F. E.

    2015-07-01

    The Troud-Chah Shirin belt, located in the Alborz magmatic belt, is one of several mineralized belt in Iran. Ore mineralization in this belt is controlled by faults and fractures. The spatial distribution of mineralization is the foremost concern in regional exploration and it could be considered as a very important tool in the investigation of mineral deposits. In this study, we use point pattern and Fry analyses to known occurrences and distribution of epithermal mineral deposits, and results show that structural controls play the major role in distribution of these ore deposits. A mechanism of structural controls on epithermal mineralization, which is involves a more-or-less regular T fractures of extension faults/fractures at and/or around intersections of F1 and F2 trending strike-slip faults/fractures. Spatial data and structural controls can apply for future exploration, for possibly undiscovered occurrences of epithermal ore deposits.

  19. A new genus and species of gekkonid lizard (Squamata: Gekkota: Gekkonidae) from Hormozgan Province with a revised key to gekkonid genera of Iran.

    PubMed

    Safaei-Mahroo, Barbod; Ghaffari, Hanyeh; Anderson, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    We describe a new genus and species of gekkonid from two gravid specimens which were found within Koh-e Homag Protected Area, Hormozgan Province, southern Iran. The genus Parsigecko gen. nov. can be distinguished from other genera of Middle East Gekkonidae by a combination of the following characteristics: digits not dilated, dorsal tail covered with small scales without any tubercles or keels, having two strong keeled and pointed scales on each side of each annulus. Parsigecko ziaiei sp. nov. is a ground-dwelling lizard. The new species was found in the Zagros Mountain forest steppe patch with scattered wild pistachio trees and mountain almond shrubs surrounded by South Iran Nubo-Sindian desert and semi-desert habitat in the south of Iran. The genus is the 13th gekkonid genus known from Iran, and the only gekkonid genus endemic to the Zagros Mountains. A key to the genera of the Gekkonidae in Iran is provided. PMID:27394876

  20. Stone Mountain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This color image taken by the panoramic camera onboard the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the part of the rock outcrop dubbed Stone Mountain at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Scientists are examining Stone Mountain with the instruments on the rover's instrument deployment device, or 'arm,' in search of clues about the composition of the rock outcrop. [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A Patch of Stone (Figure credit: NASA/JPL/Cornell/USGS)

    The colorless square in this color image of the martian rock formation called Stone Mountain is one portion of the rock being analyzed with tools on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's instrument deployment device, or 'arm.' The square area is approximately 3 centimeters (1.2 inches) across. Stone Mountain is located within the rock outcrop on Meridiani Planum, Mars. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  1. Mountain research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The newly incorporated International Mountain Society (IMS) will in May begin publication of an interdisciplinary scientific journal, Mountain Research and Development. The quarterly will be copublished with the United National University; additional support will come from UNESCO.A primary objective of IMS is to ‘help solve mountain land-use problems by developing a foundation of scientific and technical knowledge on which to base management decisions,’ according to Jack D. Ives, president of the Boulder-based organization. ‘The Society is strongly committed to the belief that a rational worldwide approach to mountain problems must involve a wide range of disciplines in the natural and human sciences, medicine, architecture, engineering, and technology.’

  2. Environmental Impacts Of Zirab Coal Washing Plant, Mazandaran, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, F.; Esmaeili, A.

    2009-04-01

    Extraction and beneficiation operations associated with coal mining increase the rate of chemical reaction of waste material to air and water media. Zirab coal washing plant is located on the bank of the Cherat stream in Mazandaran province, Iran. coal Mined from central Alborz coalfield mines is not suitable for use in Iranian Steel Corporation. Hence, coal ash content is reduced by physical and chemical processes in this plant. These processes leave a large quantity of liquid and solid wastes that accumulate in waste dump and tailing dam. sediment and water samples taken from Sheshrudbar and Cherat streams and also from Talar river show high concentration of Cd, Mo and As in water samples of coal washing plant and the associated drainage. Eh-pH diagrams revealed the chemical species of elements in water. The enrichment factor and geoaccumulation index show that Cd, Hg, Mo and V are enriched in bottom sediments of the coal washing plant and decrease with increasing distance from the plant. Sequential extraction analysis Results of three sediment samples of Cherat stream show that silicate bound is the major phase in samples taken before and after the plant, but adjacent to the plant, organic bound is dominant. The high concentration of Cd and Mo in the water soluble phase, is noticeable and may result in high mobility and bioavailability of these elements. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon tests on six samples, before and after the coal washing plant support the obtained results. Keywords: Zirab; coal washing plant; Sequential extraction analysis; Mann-whitney; Wilcoxon; Enrichment factor; Geoaccumulation index.

  3. 31 CFR 561.329 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iran. 561.329 Section 561.329 Money... Iran. The term Iran means the Government of Iran and the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of...

  4. 31 CFR 561.329 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran. 561.329 Section 561.329 Money... Iran. The term Iran means the Government of Iran and the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of...

  5. Petroleum industry in Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Farideh, A.

    1981-01-01

    This study examines the oil industry in Iran from the early discovery of oil nearly two hundred years ago in Mazandaran (north part) to the development of a giant modern industry in the twentieth century. Chapter I presents a brief historical setting to introduce the reader to the importance of oil in Iran. It focuses on the economic implications of the early oil concessions in the period 1901 to 1951. Chapter II discusses the nationalization of the Iranian oil industry and creation of NIOC in 1951 and the international political and economic implication of these activities. Chapter III explains the activities of NIOC in Iran. Exploration and drilling, production, exports, refineries, natural gas, petrochemicals and internal distributions are studied. Chapter IV discusses the role of the development planning of Iran. A brief presentation of the First Development Plan through the Fifth Development Plan is given. Sources and uses of funds by plan organization during these Five Plans is studied. The Iran and Iraq War is also studied briefly, but the uncertainty of its resolution prevents any close analysis of its impact on the Iranian oil industry. One conclusion, however, is certain; oil has been a vital resource in Iran's past and it will remain the lifetime of its economic development in the future.

  6. Study and comparison of the maximum stress directions and main fault orientations in some active zones in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forouhid, Khatereh; Faraji, Atefeh; Ghorashi, Manouchehr

    2010-05-01

    Study and comparison of the maximum stress directions and main fault orientations in some active zones in Iran Khatereh Forouhid, Manouchehr Ghorashi, Atefeh Faraji Institute of Geophysics, Tehran University, Tehran, Iran kforouhid@yahoo.com Farajiatefeh@yahoo.com The Iranian plateau is the widest active zone in Alpine-Himalayan collision system that is located between two stable platforms, the Arabia in southwest and Eurasia in northeast. The convergence of these two platforms towards each other is the main reason for seismicity and different styles of deformation observed in Iran. In this study, the Iranian plateau is divided into 7 regions based on their seismotectonic characteristics. These regions are; Zagros, Makran, East Iran, Alborz, Kopeh Dagh, Central Iran and Azarbayejan (northwest of Iran). In each region, focal mechanism solutions of early and modern instrumental earthquakes (the only source of information suitable to use for stress distribution study in Iran) with magnitudes more than 5.0 and their relations to active faults are considered. By studying each maximum stress direction based on a group of earthquake focal mechanisms and considering main fault orientations, each region is studied individually. According to these data, some of these regions are divided into smaller parts. These sub-divided parts have some characters that make them different from their neighbors in the same region. In this regard, Zagros is studied in detail based on seismotectonic characteristics and divided into three parts, with N-S maximum stress direction (compressional) in one part and two different kind of NE-SW direction in two other. We use this information to investigate the style and distribution of active faulting in the Zagros and the relationships of this activity with shortening of the Arabia-Eurasia collision. It is worth to mention that as the fault slip will almost occur in the direction of maximum resolved shear stress on the fault plane, probably strain

  7. Caucasus Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Often regarded as the southeastern border of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains can be seen here stretching from the Black Sea (left) to the Caspian Sea (right). The mountain range spans 700 miles (1125 km), crossing the countries of Russian Federation, Georgia, and Azerbaijan from left to right respectively. With a snowline of approximately 11,000 feet and peaks such as Mt. Elbrus, that reach 15,000 feet, much of the snow visible in this image is present year round. Also visible in this image are apparent phytoplankton blooms in the Caspian Sea, marked by blue-green swirls.

  8. Review of the Ordovician stratigraphy and fauna of the Anarak Region in Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Leonid E.; Hairapetian, Vachik; Evans, David H.; Pour, Mansoureh Ghobadi; Holmer, Lars E.; Baars, Christian

    2015-12-01

    The Ordovician sedimentary succession of the Pol-e Khavand area, situated on the northern margin of the Yazd block, has important differences from those in other parts of Central Iran. It has been established that the presumably terminal Cambrian to Lower Ordovician volcano-sedimentary Polekhavand Formation, exposed in the Pol-e Khavand area, has non-conformable contact with greenschists of the Doshakh Metamorphic Complex. The succeeding, mainly siliciclastic Chahgonbad Formation contains low to moderately diverse faunal assemblages, including brachiopods, cephalopods, trilobites and tentaculitids. The Darriwilian age of the lower part of the formation is well established by the co-occurrence of brachiopod genera Camerella, Phragmorthis, Tritoechia and Yangtzeella. The associated rich cephalopod fauna is different from the Darriwilian cephalopod associations of the Alborz terrane and may show some affinity with warm water faunas of North China and South Korea. It is likely that the Mid Ordovician fauna recovered from the lower part of the Chahgonbad Formation settled in the area sometime during a warming episode in the late Darriwilian. By contrast the low diversity mid Katian brachiopod association includes only three taxa, which occur together with the trilobite Vietnamia cf. teichmulleri and abundant, but poorly preserved tentaculitids questionably assigned to the genus Costatulites. This faunal association bears clear signatures linking it to the contemporaneous cold water faunas of the Arabian, Mediterranean and North African segments of Gondwana. Four brachiopod species recovered from the Chahgonbad Formation, including Hibernodonta lakhensis, Hindella prima, Lomatorthis? multilamellosa and Yangtzeella chupananica are new to science.

  9. Magnificent Mountains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Heather

    2004-01-01

    One way to increase awareness of endangered national heritage is to teach youth the importance of the land through the study of selected works of art. This article describes a lesson, in which students will study the work of Thomas Moran and create a mountain range collage. A short biography of Thomas Moran is included.

  10. [History of acupuncture in Iran].

    PubMed

    Bai, Xinghua

    2015-10-01

    Iran is the neighbor of western China, and is a key transport junction on ancient Silk Road. The medical communication between China and Iran dates back to the 10th century, however, according to current evidences, it is indicated that acupuncture has not been introduced to Iran until the early 1970s. Unfortunately over the last 40 years, the acupuncture in Iran has not presented great development. The history of acupuncture development in Iran implies that geographical advantage and personnel exchanges are not essential to the international exchange of acupuncture, while language and cultural background may hinder the spread of acupuncture in foreign countries. PMID:26790220

  11. Global Positioning System constraints on the active tectonics of NE Iran and the South Caspian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Z.; Walpersdorf, A.; Walker, R. T.; Tavakoli, F.; Pathier, E.; Nankali, H.; Nilfouroushan, F.; Djamour, Y.

    2013-09-01

    We present a velocity field compiled from a network of 27 permanent and 20 campaign GPS stations across NE Iran. This new GPS velocity field helps to investigate how Arabia-Eurasia collision deformation is accommodated at the northern boundary of the deforming zone. The present-day northward motion decreases eastward from 11 mm/yr at Tehran (˜52°E) to 1.5 mm/yr at Mashhad (˜60°E). N-S shortening across the Kopeh Dagh, Binalud and Koh-e-Sorkh ranges sums to 4.5±0.5 mm/yr at longitude 59°E. The available GPS velocities allow us to describe the rigid-body rotation of the South Caspian about an Euler pole that is located further away than previously thought. We suggest that two new stations (MAVT and MAR2), which are sited far from the block boundaries, are most likely to indicate the full motion of the South Caspian basin. These stations suggest that NW motion is accommodated by right-lateral slip on the Ashkabad fault (at a rate of up to 7 mm/yr) and by up to 4-6 mm/yr of summed left-lateral slip across the Shahroud left-lateral strike-slip system. Our new GPS results are important for assessing seismic hazard in NE Iran, which contains numerous large population centers and possesses an abundant historical earthquake record. Our results suggest that the fault zones along the eastern Alborz and western Kopeh Dagh may accommodate slip at much faster rates than previously thought. Fully assessing the role of these faults, and the hazard that they represent, requires independent verification of their slip-rates through additional GPS measurements and geological fieldwork.

  12. Prevalence and Morphological Characterization of Cheilospirura hamulosa, Diesing, 1861 (Nematoda: Acuarioidea), from Partridges in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Maryam; Rouhani, Soheila; Mobedi, Iraj; Rostami, Ali; Khazan, Hoshang; Ahoo, Mohammad Bagher

    2015-01-01

    This study reports data on the prevalence, morphology, and morphometry of the nematode Cheilospirura hamulosa on the basis of light and stereoscopic microscopy and also camera lucida. Specimens were recovered after necropsies of 100 partridges (Alectoris chukar) from Taleqan County in Alborz Province, Iran. The prevalence of C. hamulosa in partridges was of 30% with a mean intensity of 3.9 and range of infection of 1–12. The mean length and width of females were 17.5 ± 2.14 and 0.39 ± 0.04 mm, while those of males were 12.2 ± 0.67 and 0.3 ± 0.06 mm, respectively. The characteristic digitiform tail was observed in females, and the unequal spicules, caudal alae, and ten pairs of caudal papillae were seen in males. The taxonomic characteristic longitudinal cordons and muscular and glandular oesophagus were observed in both sexes. Ratio between cordons and body length in males and females was 1 : 1.33 and 1 : 1.68, respectively. Ratio between long and short spicules in males was 1 : 2.3. The average size of embryonated eggs was 51.25 × 29.5 μm. In the present study, C. hamulosa (Nematoda: Acuarioidea) is recorded for the first time from partridges in Iran. Therefore, the morphological characters described in this study will be useful in the future diagnostic and taxonomic studies of Acuarioidea family. PMID:26693346

  13. [Mountain sickness].

    PubMed

    Bultas, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Mountaineering brings many health risks, one of which is mountain sickness. Its mildest form - acute mountain sickness - is mainly characterized by subjective symptoms (headache, loss of appetite, insomnia, weakness, nausea and rarely also vomiting). Advanced and life-threatening forms are characterized by tissue edema - cerebral or pulmonary high altitude edema. The common denominator of these acute forms is the low oxygen tension leading to hypoxemia and tissue ischemia. Sum of maladaptive or adaptive processes can modify the clinical picture. Underlying mechanisms of the chronic forms of pulmonary disease are the adaptation processes - pulmonary hypertension and polycythemia leading to heart failure.The only causal therapeutic intervention is to restore adequate oxygen tension, descend to lower altitudes or oxygen therapy. Pharmacotherapy has only a supportive effect. The prophylaxis includes stimulation of the respiratory center by carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (acetazolamide) antiedematous treatment with glucocorticoids (dexamethasone), increase lymphatic drainage of the lungs and brain by β2-agonists (salmeterol) or mitigation of pulmonary hypertension by calcium channel blockers or phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (sildenafil or tadalafil). PMID:26750624

  14. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran, and any other territory or marine area, including the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, over which the Government of Iran...

  15. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Definitions § 560.303 Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of...

  16. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran, and any other territory or marine area, including the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, over which the Government of Iran...

  17. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560.303... Definitions § 560.303 Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran and any other territory or... Iran claims sovereignty, sovereign rights, or jurisdiction, provided that the Government of...

  18. Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed. Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico. Information Sources: Beauchamp, W., Barazangi, M., Demnati, A., and El Alji, M., 1996, Intracontinental rifting and inversion: Missour Basin and Atlas Mountains, Morocco: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 80, No. 9, p. 1459-1482. Burkhard, Martin, 2001, Tectonics of the Anti-Atlas of Morocco -- Thin-skin/thick-skin relationships in an atypical foreland fold belt. University of Neuchatel, Switzerland: http://www-geol.unine.ch/Structural/Antiatlas.html (accessed 1/29/02). STS108-711-25 was taken in December, 2001 by the crew of Space Shuttle mission 108 using a Hasselblad camera with 250-mm lens. The image is provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography

  19. Iran: Country Status Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerren, Margaret

    A survey of the status of language usage in Iran begins with an overview of the usage pattern of Persian, the official language spoken by just over half the population, and the competing languages of six ethnic and linguistic minorities: Azerbaijani, Kurdish, Arabic, Gilaki, Luri-Bakhtiari, and Mazandarani. The development of language policy…

  20. Roundness of heavy minerals (zircon and apatite) as a provenance tool for unraveling recycling: A case study from the Sefidrud and Sarbaz rivers in N and SE Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoleikhaei, Yousef; Frei, Dirk; Morton, Andrew; Zamanzadeh, S. Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    In order to improve techniques for provenance studies, and especially to address the question of sediment recycling, morphological changes of two minerals with contrasting durability (zircon and apatite) were tracked during both fluvial transport and littoral reworking. The Sefidrud river system in northern Iran, which drains the Alborz volcano-sedimentary range into the Caspian Sea, and the Sarbaz river system in southeastern Iran, which drains the Makran Accretionary Prism into the Oman Sea, were chosen for this study. To determine source rocks of the grains, and thus their nature in terms of sedimentary cycles, zircon geochronology was conducted on both rivers. The zircon data indicate that most of the Sefidrud sediments are first cycle, derived from crystalline rocks, and the Sarbaz sediments are generally recycled from older wedges of the Makran. Results from SEM analysis show significant differences between the roundness of associated zircon and apatite grains. Zircon grains remain unrounded through several cycles, while apatite grains show abrasion from the early stages of their first cycle.

  1. 2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. EAGLE MOUNTAIN SWITCHYARD. EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP PLANT CAN BE SEEN THROUGH SWITCHYARD IN BACKGROUND. 165MM LENS. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  2. Application of a time probabilistic approach to seismic landslide hazard estimates in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, A. M.; Del Gaudio, V.; Capolongo, D.; Khamehchiyan, M.; Mahdavifar, M. R.

    2009-04-01

    Iran is a country located in a tectonic active belt and is prone to earthquake and related phenomena. In the recent years, several earthquakes caused many fatalities and damages to facilities, e.g. the Manjil (1990), Avaj (2002), Bam (2003) and Firuzabad-e-Kojur (2004) earthquakes. These earthquakes generated many landslides. For instance, catastrophic landslides triggered by the Manjil Earthquake (Ms = 7.7) in 1990 buried the village of Fatalak, killed more than 130 peoples and cut many important road and other lifelines, resulting in major economic disruption. In general, earthquakes in Iran have been concentrated in two major zones with different seismicity characteristics: one is the region of Alborz and Central Iran and the other is the Zagros Orogenic Belt. Understanding where seismically induced landslides are most likely to occur is crucial in reducing property damage and loss of life in future earthquakes. For this purpose a time probabilistic approach for earthquake-induced landslide hazard at regional scale, proposed by Del Gaudio et al. (2003), has been applied to the whole Iranian territory to provide the basis of hazard estimates. This method consists in evaluating the recurrence of seismically induced slope failure conditions inferred from the Newmark's model. First, by adopting Arias Intensity to quantify seismic shaking and using different Arias attenuation relations for Alborz - Central Iran and Zagros regions, well-established methods of seismic hazard assessment, based on the Cornell (1968) method, were employed to obtain the occurrence probabilities for different levels of seismic shaking in a time interval of interest (50 year). Then, following Jibson (1998), empirical formulae specifically developed for Alborz - Central Iran and Zagros, were used to represent, according to the Newmark's model, the relation linking Newmark's displacement Dn to Arias intensity Ia and to slope critical acceleration ac. These formulae were employed to evaluate

  3. Transplantation activities in Iran.

    PubMed

    Broumand, Behrooz

    2005-06-01

    Iran is a tropical country with a land area of 1,648,000 square kilometers and a population of 68,100,000. Iran has a recorded history that dates back 2553 years. Its earliest medical school was Pasargad. Jondi Chapour University was founded 1753 years ago during the Sassanid dynasty as a center for higher education in medicine, philosophy, and pharmacology. Indeed, the idea of xenotransplantation dates back to days of Achaemenidae (Achaemenian dynasty), as evidenced by engravings of many mythologic chimeras still present in Persepolis. Avicenna (980-1037 AD), the great Iranian physician, performed the first nerve repair. Transplantation progress in Iran follows roughly the same pattern as that of the rest of the world, with some 10-20 years' delay. Modern organ transplantation dates back to 1935, when the first cornea transplant was performed at Farabi Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The first living-related kidney transplantation performed at Shiraz University Hospital dates back to 1968. The first bone marrow transplant was performed at Dr. Shariaati's Hospital in Tehran. The first heart transplant was performed 1993 in Tabriz, Iran. The first liver transplant was performed in 1993 in Shiraz. The first lung transplant was performed in 2001, and the first heart and lung transplants were performed in 2002, both at Tehran. In late 1985, the renal transplantation program was officially started in a major university hospital in Tehran and was poised to carry out 2 to 4 transplantations each week. Soon, another large center initiated a similar program. Both of these centers accepted surgical, medical, and nursing teams from other academic medical centers for training in kidney transplantation. Since 2002, Iran has grown to include 23 active renal, 68 cornea, 2 liver, 4 heart, 2 lung, and 2 bone marrow transplantation centers in different cities. In June 2000, the Organ Transplantation Brain Death Act was approved by the Parliament, followed by the establishment of the

  4. Popularising astronomy in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tafreshi, Babak A.

    2011-06-01

    The interest to astronomy has incredibly risen in the younger generation of Iranians during the last two decades. By the end of the devastating war with Iraq, science popularisation activities started again in Iran and with only a handful of astronomers and few dozens of serious amateur astronomers in the whole country in late 1980s now there are thousands of amateur astronomers (60% female on average) and over 100 professional astronomers propelling the fun and science of astronomy in the society.

  5. Using luminescence dating of coarse matrix material to estimate the slip rate of the Astaneh fault, Iran

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rizza, M.; Mahan, S.; Ritz, J.-F.; Nazari, H.; Hollingsworth, J.; Salamati, R.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present optically and infrared stimulated luminescence (OSL and IRSL) ages for four samples from alluvial fan surfaces in the Astaneh Valley. This valley is located in the north-east part of the Alborz range in Iran. Our morphologic interpretations recognize at least three generations of fans in the study area, all of which have been displaced along the left-lateral strike-slip Astaneh fault. Because of the dry, loose, and sometimes complex juxtaposition of the target sediments, we collected the samples in total darkness beneath dark plastic layers placed atop the pit openings. Luminescence ages of the fans are ???55 ka, ???32 ka and ???16 ka. These ages are concurrent with periods of loess deposition and wet climatic conditions previously recorded in the Arabia-Iranian region. They allow estimation of a horizontal slip rate of ???2 mm/yr along the Astaneh fault, which is consistent with additional slip rates determined for the Holocene period along faults further west of the Astaneh fault. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Astronomy in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobouti, Y.

    2006-08-01

    Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan, Iran In spite of her renowned pivotal role in the advancement of astronomy on the world scale during 9th to 15th centuries, Iran's rekindled interest in modern astronomy is a recent happening. Serious attempts to introduce astronomy into university curricula and to develop it into a respectable and worthwhile field of research began in the mid 60's. The pioneer was Shiraz University. It should be credited for the first few dozens of astronomy- and astrophysics- related research papers in international journals, for training the first half a dozen of professional astronomers and for creating the Biruni Observatory. Here, I take this opportunity to acknowledge the valuable advice of Bob Koch and Ed Guinan, then of the University of Pennsylvania, in the course of the establishment of this observatory. At present the astronomical community of Iran consists of about 65 professionals, half university faculty members and half MS and PhD students. The yearly scientific contribution of its members has, in the past three years, averaged to about 15 papers in reputable international journals, and presently has a healthy growth rate. Among the existing observational facilities, Biruni Observatory with its 51 cm Cassegrain, CCD cameras, photometers and other smaller educational telescopes, is by far the most active place. Tusi Observatory of Tabriz University has 60 and 40 cm Cassegrains, and a small solar telescope. A number of smaller observing facilities exist in Meshed, Zanjan, Tehran, Babol and other places. The Astronomical Society of Iran (ASI), though some 30 years old, has expanded and institutionalized its activities since early 1990's. ASI sets up seasonal schools for novices, organizes annual colloquia and seminars for professionals and supports a huge body of amateur astronomers from among high school and university students. Over twenty of ASI members are also members of IAU and take active part in its

  7. A new species and new records of the genus Hypogastrura Bourlet, 1839 (Collembola, Hypogastruridae) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Kahrarian, Morteza; Vafaei-Shoushtar, Reza; Skarżyński, Dariusz; Konikiewicz, Marta; Soleymannezhadyan, Ebrahim; Mehr, Masoumeh Shayan; Shams, Bahman

    2013-01-01

    Hypogastrura persica sp. nov. is described from the Zagros Mountains (Kermanshah Province, Iran). The new species can be distinguished from two nearest congeners, namely H. exigua Gisin, 1958 (Alps) and H. magistri Babenko, 1994 (Siberia), by the body size, the number of sensilla on antennal segment IV, the number of setae on dens and ventral tube as well as chaetotaxy of abdominal terga IV and V. Three species of the genus, viz. H. martiani Skarżyński & Kaprus', 2009, H. purpurescens (Lubbock, 1867) and H. socialis (Uzel, 1891), have been recorded from Iran for the first time. PMID:26240898

  8. Iran's Million-Student Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labi, Aisha

    2008-01-01

    The Islamic Azad University was founded by Hashemi Rafsanjani, a cleric who was in the past the first speaker of the Majlis, or Parliament, of Iran's postrevolutionary government. He served as president of Iran from 1989 to 1997 and ran for re-election in 2005, when he was defeated by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad. In the two decades after Azad was founded,…

  9. Zircon Hf isotopic constraints on the magmatic evolution in Iran: Implications of the Phanerozoic continental growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, H.; Chung, S.; Zarrinkoub, M. H.; Lee, H.; Pang, K.; Mohammadi, S. S.; Khatib, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    Combined LA-ICPMS analyses of zircon U-Pb and Hf isotope compositions for magmatic rocks from major domains of Iran allow us to better understand the magmatic evolution regarding the development of the Tethys oceans in the regions. In addition to 79 igneous rocks from Iran, 12 others were also collected from Armenia for isotopic studies. Two major episodes of magmatism were identified in the late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian and the Late Triassic. While the former represents the depleted mantle-derived magma and has associated with the magmatic events that produced the peri-Gondwanan terranes and the Arabian-Nubian Shield, the latter shows the continental crust-type zircon Hf isotopic characteristic and is attributed to the subduction and closing of the Paleotethys ocean. The Neotethyan subduction-related magmatism started from the Jurassic period as granitoids that now exposed along the Sanandaj-Sirjan structural zone (SSZ) and in the central part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA), and exhibit heterogeneous isotopic affinities of variable zircon ɛHf(T) values between +12 and -5. The igneous activities migrated inland in the southeastern segment of the UDMA from which the Late Cretaceous granitoids occurred in the Jiroft and Bazman areas with zircon ɛHf(T) values from +15 to +11 and from +5 to -9, respectively, implying the remarkable involvement of crustal material in the Bazman magma. Then, the most widespread magmatic activities which took place during the Eocene to Miocene in the UDMA, Armenia, the SSZ and the Alborz yielded mainly positive zircon ɛHf(T) values from +17 to -1. However, the Eocene intrusive rocks from the Central Iran, in the Saghand area have less radiogenic zircon Hf isotopes of ɛHf(T) values between +6 and -7. Magmatic zircons with juvenile signatures, ɛHf(T) values from +17 to 0, were also found during the Oligocene to Quaternary in the southern Sistan suture zone and the Makran region. Significantly, the positive ɛHf(T) values

  10. Preliminary Pollen Studies at Lake Zeribar, Zagros Mountains, Southwestern Iran.

    PubMed

    van Zeist, W; Wright, H E

    1963-04-01

    A late Pleistocene Artemisia steppe, implying a cool, dry climate, changed about 13,000 years ago to an oak-pistachio savanna, as the climate became warmer. About 5500 years ago the savanna thickened to an oak forest, presumably reflecting an increase in precipitation or decrease in temperature to modern levels. PMID:17746007

  11. 31 CFR 560.303 - Iran; Iranian.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian. 560.303 Section 560... § 560.303 Iran; Iranian. The term Iran means the territory of Iran, and any other territory or marine area, including the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf, over which the Government of...

  12. Natural Gas Exports from Iran

    EIA Publications

    2012-01-01

    This assessment of the natural gas sector in Iran, with a focus on Iran’s natural gas exports, was prepared pursuant to section 505 (a) of the Iran Threat Reduction and Syria Human Rights Act of 2012 (Public Law No: 112-158). As requested, it includes: (1) an assessment of exports of natural gas from Iran; (2) an identification of the countries that purchase the most natural gas from Iran; (3) an assessment of alternative supplies of natural gas available to those countries; (4) an assessment of the impact a reduction in exports of natural gas from Iran would have on global natural gas supplies and the price of natural gas, especially in countries identified under number (2); and (5) such other information as the Administrator considers appropriate.

  13. Tertiary stress field evolution in Sistan (Eastern Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Jentzer; Marc, Fournier; Philippe, Agard; Jafar, Omrani

    2016-04-01

    The Sistan orogenic belt in eastern Iran, near the boundary with Afghanistan, results from the closure of a branch of the Neo-Thethys: the Sistan Ocean. It was divided by Tirrul et al. (1983) in five main units: the Lut (1) and Afghan (2) continental blocks where basement is exposed; the Neh (3) and Ratuk (4) complexes which display ophiolitic rocks weakly and highly (HP-BT) metamorphosed, respectively, and the Sefidabeh basin lying over these complexes and interpreted as a fore-arc basin. Sistan is bordered by the Makran and Zagros (formed by the closure of the Neo-Tethys) to the south and by the Kopet Dagh (formed by the closure of Paleo-Tethys) to the North. The aim of this study is to fill the gap between preliminary studies about the overall structure of the Sistan Suture Zone and recent investigations of active tectonics in the region (e.g., Walker et al., 2004 and 2006 a and b). Questions herein addressed are: (1) how are stresses transfered throughout Iran from the Zagros to the Sistan belts? (2) Did the Zagros, Makran and Sistan belts evolve independently through time, or were they mechanically coupled? In order to answer these questions, we have determined paleostress evolution in the Sistan, using a direct inversion method for 42 microtectonic sites in almost all lithologies of the Neh complex and the Sefidabeh basin. We find three successive directions of compression: (1) 87°N for the oldest deformation stage dated of the Late Miocene, (2) 59°N for the intermediate stage probably dated of the Early Pliocene, and (3) 26°N for the youngest stage dated of the Plio-Quaternary. A counterclockwise rotation of about 60° of the main stress (σ1) in less than 10 Ma is therefore documented in Sistan. These same three stages of deformation were also documented by several microtectonic studies in Iran, especially in Makran and Zagros. The direction of the youngest compression is very homogeneous indicating that the mountain belts and continental blocks of Iran

  14. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed Soheil; Modirsaneii, Mehrdad; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi. Materials and Methods: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e. Tehran, Alborz and Qom in Iran from October 2014 to January 2015. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA) and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and incubated at 28 °C for 7–10 days. Purified fungal colonies were identified by a combination of macro- and microscopic morphological criteria. For determining the rate of fungal contamination, samples were cultured on SDA and colony forming units (CFUs) were calculated. Results: A total of 384 fungal isolates belonging to 7 genera of filamentous fungi and yeasts were obtained from corn (124 isolates), soybean meal (92 isolates), and feed before (72 isolates), and after pelleting (96 isolates). The most prominent fungal isolate in corn, soybean meal and feed before pelleting (feed as mash form) was Fusarium but in feed after pelleting was Aspergillus. Among 5 Aspergillus species isolated, potentially aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates was predominant in corn (46.6%), soybean meal (72.7%) and poultry finished feed (75%). CFUs results indicated that 9/22 corn samples (40.9%), none of 22 soybean meal samples, 19/41 finished feed (46.3%) were contaminated higher than the standard limit. Conclusions: Our results indicated that corn, soybean meal and finished feed of poultry feed mill are contaminated with various fungal genera by different levels sometimes higher that the standard limits. Contamination with potentially mycotoxigenic fungi especially Aspergillus

  15. Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sharafi, Seyedeh Maryam; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Moazeni, Mohammad; Yousefi, Morteza; Saneie, Behnam; Hosseini-Safa, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    Hydatidosis, caused by Echinococcus granulosus is one of the most important zoonotic diseases, throughout most parts of the world. Hydatidosis is endemic in Iran and responsible for approximately 1% of admission to surgical wards. There are extensive genetic variations within E. granulosus and 10 different genotypes (G1–G10) within this parasite have been reported. Identification of strains is important for improvement of control and prevention of the disease. No new review article presented the situation of Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran in the recent years; therefore in this paper we reviewed the different studies regarding Echinococcus granulosus genotypes in Iran. PMID:24834298

  16. Modeling differentiation of Karaj Dam basement igneous rocks (northern Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeily, D.; M-Mashhour, R.

    2009-04-01

    The Karaj Dam basement igneous body (KDB) is located in the north of city of Karaj, 30 km from city of Tehran, which lies between 35° 50' N to 36° 05' N and between 50° 50' E to 51° 15' E. It is one of the several plutonic bodies within the E-W trending Alborz zone in northern Iran. Following the late Cretaceous orogenic movements, vast volumes of dacite, andesites and basaltic lavas with tuffaceous and other clastic sediments were deposited during Eocene time, forming Karaj Formation in central Iran and Albourz. The KDB is penetrated thorough middle and upper tuff units from Karaj Formation which is underlain by late Jurassic depositions (Shemshak Formation) and overlain by the Neogene red Conglomerates in regard to stratographic consideration. It is mainly composed of a layered series dominated by gabbro, diorite and monzonite, which is a rock sequence formed upward from the lower to upper chilled margins, respectively. The chilled margins, which have gabbroic in composition, show porphyritic texture with euhedral to subhedral plagioclase (andesine & labradorite) and pyroxene (augite) megacrysts up to 5 mm long. These rocks become coarse-grained inward and transform to equigranular texture gradually.In addition, a small fine-grained doleritic stock as well as some doleritic dykes is intrusive into the pyroclastic volcanic rocks of Karaj Formation. It is possible to observe doleritic enclaves included in the KDB, indicating that the KDB are slightly younger than the dolerites. Whole rock geochemistry and mineral chemistry of the plagioclase and pyroxene in various rock samples, suggest differentiation processes. The Mg# of the pyroxene and An% of plagioclase of the contact chilled samples can be used as an indication of the original magma and plotted between the gabbro and monzonitic samples. In addition, increasing of the Mg# within the whole rock samples from the upper of contact chilled, in comparison to the lower one, demonstrates elemental differentiation

  17. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a type of bacteria carried by ticks. ... Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by the bacteria Rickettsia rickettsii (R. Rickettsii) , which is carried by ticks. The ...

  18. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  19. Rocky Mountain spotted fever

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000654.htm Rocky Mountain spotted fever To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is a disease caused by a ...

  20. Microfacies and depositional environment of the Paleocene-Eocene Jahrum Formation (SW Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noormohammadi, Zohreh; Vazirimoghadam, Hossein

    2010-05-01

    The Jahrum Formation a thick carbonate succession of the Paleocene-Eocene in Zagros Mountains (south west Iran), has been studied to determine its microfacies and paleoenvironments. Detailed petrograhic analysis of the deposits led to the recognition, four major depositional environments were identified in the Jahrum Formation. These include tidal flat, lagoon, barrier and open marine environmental setting and are interpreted as a carbonate platform developed in a homoclinal ramp situation.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal stratification in Iran: relationship between Iran and the Arabian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Terreros, Maria C; Rowold, Diane J; Mirabal, Sheyla; Herrera, Rene J

    2011-03-01

    Modern day Iran is strategically located in the tri-continental corridor uniting Africa, Europe and Asia. Several ethnic groups belonging to distinct religions, speaking different languages and claiming divergent ancestries inhabit the region, generating a potentially diverse genetic reservoir. In addition, past pre-historical and historical events such as the out-of-Africa migrations, the Neolithic expansion from the Fertile Crescent, the Indo-Aryan treks from the Central Asian steppes, the westward Mongol expansions and the Muslim invasions may have chiseled their genetic fingerprints within the genealogical substrata of the Persians. On the other hand, the Iranian perimeter is bounded by the Zagros and Albrez mountain ranges, and the Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut deserts, which may have restricted gene flow from neighboring regions. By utilizing high-resolution mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers and reanalyzing our previously published Y-chromosomal data, we have found a previously unexplored, genetic connection between Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Furthermore, the regional distribution of mtDNA haplogroups J, I, U2 and U7 also provides evidence of barriers to gene flow posed by the two major Iranian deserts and the Zagros mountain range. PMID:21326310

  2. Managing Proliferation Issues with Iran

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, C. Richard; Saltiel, David H.

    2002-02-15

    Any government in Tehran will be inclined to seek weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and missile delivery options given the realities of its strategic environment. These weapons might help Iran to deter potential external threats, to achieve equality with other major regional powers armed with WMD, and to attain self-reliance in national security, given the isolating experience of arms embargoes. A more pluralist leadership in the future, however, may examine broader choices and trade-offs, and perhaps be less likely to cross key thresholds in WMD acquisition. In any event, Iran's WMD behavior is likely to be determined by both external factors, mainly the availability of crucial components, and internal factors, including calculations of costs, risks, and benefits. Among the benefits, psychological factors, such as prestige, will play an important role. Other important factors that might well shape Iran's WMD behavior include developments in Iraq, relations with the United States and other Gulf states, Israeli-Palestinian relations and the future price of oil. This paper offers recommendations on how the United States can best hope to influence Iranian decisions regarding the acquisition of WMD and missile delivery systems if the United States decides to pursue more direct engagement with Tehran. An engagement-nonproliferation strategy should involve at least three types of parallel efforts: public, private and indirect. Public efforts should seek to create a more positive, less-threatening image of the United States among opinion leaders in Iran. Private efforts should seek to determine the purposes, nature and extent of Iran's efforts to develop WMD and missiles and to suggest better alternatives for Iran's security and prestige needs. Indirect efforts should involve key third countries and organizations in an attempt both to address Iran's security concerns and to deny Iran access to critical WMD and missile technology and components. Russian policy, in

  3. Geochemical characterisation of pyrite oxidation and environmental problems related to release and transport of metals from a coal washing low-grade waste dump, Shahrood, northeast Iran.

    PubMed

    Doulati Ardejani, Faramarz; Jodieri Shokri, Behshad; Moradzadeh, Ali; Shafaei, Seyed Ziadin; Kakaei, Reza

    2011-12-01

    Pyrite oxidation and release of the oxidation products from a low-grade coal waste dump to stream, groundwater and soil was investigated by geochemical and hydrogeochemical techniques at Alborz Sharghi coal washing plant, Shahrood, northeast Iran. Hydrogeochemical analysis of water samples indicates that the metal concentrations in the stream waters were low. Moreover, the pH of the water showed no considerable change. The analysis of the stream water samples shows that except the physical changes, pyrite oxidation process within the coal washing waste dump has not affected the quality of the stream water. Water type was determined to be calcium sulphate. The results of the analysis of groundwater samples indicate that the pH varies from 7.41 to 7.51. The concentrations of the toxic metals were low. The concentration of SO4 is slightly above than its standard concentration in potable water. It seems that the groundwater less affected by the coal washing operation in the study area. Geochemical analysis of the sediment samples shows that Fe concentration decreases gradually downstream the waste dump with pH rising. SO(4) decreases rapidly downstream direction. Copper, Zn and Co concentrations decrease with distance from the waste dump due to a dilution effect by the mixing of uncontaminated sediments. These elements, in particular, Zn are considerably elevated in sediment sample collected at the nearest distance to the waste dump. There is no doubt that such investigations can help to develop an appropriate water remediation plan. PMID:21350923

  4. Iran: World Oil Report 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-08-01

    This paper reports that at the end of its war with Iraq, Iran embarked on an urgent program to restore its productive capacity. This effort has been hindered by lack of hard currency and, hence, technology, parts, equipment, etc. Iran has been trying to improve relations with the U.S, over the past two years. Recently, the embargo on importing Iranian crude into the U.S. was lifted. Over the past year and a half, Iran accumulated enough money to resume imports of U.S. and other foreign drilling equipment. However, drilling has remained at a low level. Also, efforts to boost output have been slowed by war damage both on and offshore---particularly the latter---and serious BHP declines in major onshore fields that can only be corrected by ultra- high cost gas injection projects. Currently, large injection projects are only operating in three major fields: Gachsaran, Ahwaz and Marun.

  5. Education and fertility in Iran.

    PubMed

    Darabi, K F

    1976-01-01

    Studies providing evidence concerning literacy's relationship to fertility in Iran are reviewed. Reliable demographic data are unavailable for Iran before the 1st census in 1956. The 1966 census revealed a reversal of the normally expected larger female population, with a sex ratio of 107 men for every 100 women. The female population in Iran is accorded low status; only 29.6% of the population over the age of 10 was literate according to the 1966 census. A negative relationship between literacy or levels of education and fertility seems to have become a basic tenet of demographic theory. The hypothesis that as a woman's education increases she has fewer children has been confirmed in numerous studies, and, in response to this information, the Iranian government has sponsored several projects which incorporate family planning education into literacy projects. In view of the associations noted in other studies of the relationship between education and fertility, it seems wise to examine the effects of education on fertility in Iran. None of the studies reviewed give conclusive evidence that literacy is unrelated to fertility in Iran. Several of the studies reveal built-in biases: the husbands in Siassi's study were all military personnel; Gulick interviewed women who were already attending family planning clinics; Edlefsen and Liberman made some highly abstract and speculative predictions, and Lieberman et al. were basically measuring incomes instead of education. All of the studies do, however, give some indication of an irregular effect of education on fertility in Iran and swggest the need for further study of this variable. PMID:12334804

  6. Commentary: Childbirth Education in Iran

    PubMed Central

    TorkZahrani, Shahnaz

    2008-01-01

    With regard to childbirth, the role of every health-care system is to improve maternity care as well as the birth experience of women and their family members. Despite many efforts to improve maternity care in the Islamic Republic of Iran, the nation's childbirth care still faces a tremendous amount of unnecessary intervention and, consequently, a high rate of cesarean births. This article describes the strengths and weaknesses of Iran's maternity-care system and childbirth education in light of evidence-based practice. PMID:19436412

  7. 31 CFR 560.516 - Transfers of funds involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transfers of funds involving Iran. 560... involving Iran. (a) United States depository institutions are authorized to process transfers of funds to or from Iran, or for the direct or indirect benefit of persons in Iran or the Government of Iran, if...

  8. 31 CFR 560.516 - Transfers of funds involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transfers of funds involving Iran. 560... involving Iran. (a) United States depository institutions are authorized to process transfers of funds to or from Iran, or for the direct or indirect benefit of persons in Iran or the Government of Iran, if...

  9. MARBLE MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Donato, Mary M.; Hale, William N.

    1984-01-01

    The Marble Mountain Wilderness is located in the north-central Klamath Mountains of northern California. Geologic, geochemical, geophysical, and mineral investigations indicate that the wilderness has areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for placer gold, for chromite, and for marble. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuel resources.

  10. Iran's strategic intentions and capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Clawson, P.

    1994-04-01

    Iran appears to be pursuing an assertive foreign policy that confronts the United States on a variety of points: the Middle East Peace Process, the stability of moderate Muslim states, terrorism (such as the death threat to Rushdie), security in the Persian Gulf, and nuclear proliferation.

  11. English Language Instruction in Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, Jeris E.

    1971-01-01

    This article discusses English-language programs in Iran and their shortcomings. Teachers are inadequately prepared, classrooms are overcrowded, materials are not properly used, and basic writing skills have not been taught. To overcome these problems, the language skills of the teachers must be developed and teachers must be acquainted with…

  12. Late Pleistocene human remains from Wezmeh Cave, western Iran.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Biglari, Fereidoun; Mashkour, Marjan; Monchot, Hervé; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Rougier, Hélène; Heydari, Saman; Abdi, Kamyar

    2008-04-01

    Paleontological analysis of remains from Wezmeh Cave in western Iran have yielded a Holocene Chalcolithic archeological assemblage, a rich Late Pleistocene carnivore faunal assemblage, and an isolated unerupted human maxillary premolar (P(3) or possibly P(4)). Species representation and U-series dating of faunal teeth place the carnivore assemblage during oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 3 and 2, and noninvasive gamma spectrometry dating of the human premolar places it at least as old as early OIS 2. The human premolar crown morphology is not diagnostic of late archaic versus early modern human affinities, but its buccolingual diameter places it at the upper limits of Late Pleistocene human P(3) and P(4) dimensions and separate from a terminal Pleistocene regional sample. Wezmeh Cave therefore provides additional Paleolithic human remains from the Zagros Mountains and further documents Late Pleistocene human association with otherwise carnivore-dominated cave assemblages. PMID:18000894

  13. Small-Scale Convection Raising East Anatolia and Northern Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gogus, O.; Pysklywec, R. N.; Sengul Uluocak, E.

    2014-12-01

    The East Anatolia and Iranian plateaus (originally referred as a Turkish-Iranian plateau) are characterized by 1.5-2 km average elevation and have been deformed through Alpine-Himalayan continental collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. Recent seismological and geological studies suggest that the lithospheric structure between these two plateaus differs significantly since the Zagros fold-thrust belt in western Iran is associated with a thick lithospheric root (up to 225 km) whereas the East Anatolia seems to be lacking its mantle lithosphere. In this work, we use 2-D numerical experiments to test the applicability of small-scale convection model to account for the anomalous topography and uplift across the Turkish-Iranian plateau. Our models are designed to track the evolution of the surface topography as a response to a mantle flow activity in the step like morphology of the lithospheric base as wells as the temperature field. We test the role of several rheological parameters (e.g., viscosity) and variation in the lithospheric thickness in a series of experiments. Modeling results are tested against various observables for eastern Anatolia and Iran such as surface topography, crustal thickness, and surface strain rate. Our results provide new insight in the geodynamic evolution of Alpine type orogenic systems and suggest alternative mechanism to lithospheric delamination and/or slab break-off for the uplift of mountain belts.

  14. Mountaineering fatalities on Denali.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott E; Campbell, Aaron D; Dow, Jennifer; Grissom, Colin K

    2008-01-01

    Mount McKinley, or Denali, is the tallest mountain in North America and attracts over 1,000 climbers annually from around the world. Since Denali is located within a national park, the National Park Service (NPS) manages mountaineering activities and attempts to maintain a balance of an adventurous experience while promoting safety. We retrospectively reviewed the fatalities on Denali from 1903 to 2006 to assist the NPS, medical personnel, and mountaineers improve safety and reduce fatalities on the mountain. Historical records and the NPS climber database were reviewed. Demographics, mechanisms, and circumstances surrounding each fatality were examined. Fatality rates and odds ratios for country of origin were calculated. From 1903 through the end of the 2006 climbing season, 96 individuals died on Denali. The fatality rate is declining and is 3.08/1,000 summit attempts. Of the 96 deaths, 92% were male, 51% occurred on the West Buttress route, and 45% were due to injuries sustained from falls. Sixty-one percent occurred on the descent and the largest number of deaths in 1 year occurred in 1992. Climbers from Asia had the highest odds of dying on the mountain. Fatalities were decreased by 53% after a NPS registration system was established in 1995. Although mountaineering remains a high-risk activity, safety on Denali is improving. Certain groups have a significantly higher chance of dying. Registration systems and screening methods provide ways to target at-risk groups and improve safety on high altitude mountains such as Denali. PMID:18331224

  15. Analyzing the Temporal and Spatial Variation of Fog Days in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, Mohammad

    2012-05-01

    In order to study the temporal and spatial variation of fog days in Iran, the data of 115 synoptic meteorological stations have been analyzed for years 1960-2005. The results revealed that different types of fogs form all over the country, apart from central areas of Iran that are located in the big dessert of Iran. Advection fogs are common in the south coast (Persian Gulf) and north coastal (Caspian Sea) regions. Upslope fogs form in the mountainous areas of the northwest and north parts of Iran. This study shows no height dependence relationship on fog days for all types of fogs in overall. The trend analysis of fog days during the last 20 years shows some significant negative and positive trends. The frequency of advection fogs shows positive trends and most upslope fogs show negative trends. The results show that there are suitable places for fog collection projects in the north and south coastal regions during the year, especially in cold months.

  16. Status of Iran's nuclear program and negotiations

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, David

    2014-05-09

    Iran's nuclear program poses immense challenges to international security. Its gas centrifuge program has grown dramatically in the last several years, bringing Iran close to a point where it could produce highly enriched uranium in secret or declared gas centrifuge plants before its breakout would be discovered and stopped. To reduce the risk posed by Iran's nuclear program, the P5+1 have negotiated with Iran short term limits on the most dangerous aspects of its nuclear programs and is negotiating long-term arrangements that can provide assurance that Iran will not build nuclear weapons. These long-term arrangements need to include a far more limited and transparent Iranian nuclear program. In advance of arriving at a long-term arrangement, the IAEA will need to resolve its concerns about the alleged past and possibly on-going military dimensions of Iran's nuclear program.

  17. Status of Iran's nuclear program and negotiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albright, David

    2014-05-01

    Iran's nuclear program poses immense challenges to international security. Its gas centrifuge program has grown dramatically in the last several years, bringing Iran close to a point where it could produce highly enriched uranium in secret or declared gas centrifuge plants before its breakout would be discovered and stopped. To reduce the risk posed by Iran's nuclear program, the P5+1 have negotiated with Iran short term limits on the most dangerous aspects of its nuclear programs and is negotiating long-term arrangements that can provide assurance that Iran will not build nuclear weapons. These long-term arrangements need to include a far more limited and transparent Iranian nuclear program. In advance of arriving at a long-term arrangement, the IAEA will need to resolve its concerns about the alleged past and possibly on-going military dimensions of Iran's nuclear program.

  18. Mountain-Top Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cussen, John P.

    1976-01-01

    Described is the Talcott Mountain Science Center for Student Involvement, Inc., near Hartford, Connecticut, and the programs in natural science offered at the facility and by center personnel in local schools. (SL)

  19. Acute mountain sickness

    MedlinePlus

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... If you have fluid in your lungs (pulmonary edema), treatment may include: Oxygen A high blood pressure ...

  20. A new flea from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Darvishi, Mohammad Mehdi; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Changizi, Emad; Lima, Rasoul Rostami; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2014-01-01

    Fleas are obligatory ectoparsites of humans and animals. These tiny insects are hematophagous and they can transmit a wide varity of disease agents to humans and domesticated animals. Indeed, this pest causes a considerable economic damages and health dangers particularly in tropical and subtropical. During an investigation on ectoparasites of five Mus muscuuls in Semnan province, Iran, 15 fleas (8 males and 7 females) were collected. The extracted fleas mounted using clearing, dehydrating, mounting process and preserved with Canada balsam. After precise study, all of examined specimens were recognized as Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus using available systematic keys. This is the first report of this genus and species in Iran. And this country is new locality for Leptopsylla aethiopicus aethiopicus.

  1. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    SciTech Connect

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  2. Iran rebuilds family planning services.

    PubMed

    Butta, P

    1993-07-01

    After the revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran instituted pronatalist policies which included lowering the minimum marriage age for girls to 9 years, abolishing some laws securing women's rights, and limiting availability of family planning (FP) services. By 1983, Iran's population growth rate was 3.9% which was among the highest worldwide. Before the revolution, Iran had 37 million people. About 2 million more people were added each year, resulting in a population size of 60 million by 1992. By the mid-1980s, economic development stood idle, there were not enough houses, children attended schools on 3 shifts, and malnutrition was spreading. In 1989, the government formed a population council and reestablished FP services. It also increased the minimum age of marriage for girls to 13 years, slightly improved women status, and eliminated fertility incentives for couples with at least 4 children. It also significantly increased funding for FP (from 560 million to 13 billion rials between 1990 and 1992). Government spending for FP will likely increase 2% annually until 2011. The government initiated a promotion of FP mass media campaign, emphasizing a 2-child family. Some posters showed a family with 2 girls. The mass media campaign promoted specific contraceptive methods (even tubal occlusion and vasectomy), a practice other Middle Eastern countries not do. 80% of sterilization acceptors claimed to learn about sterilization from the radio or newspapers. The Ministry of Health has invited the Association for Voluntary Surgical Contraception (AVSC) to help with its campaign to update sterilization techniques, including the non scalpel vasectomy technique. AVSC hopes to become even more involved in helping Iran update its national FP program. PMID:12318289

  3. Iran eases limits on sterilization.

    PubMed

    Roudi, N

    1991-03-01

    The government of Iran announced in November 1990, in an abrupt reversal of previous policies, the legislation of sterilization and its provision free-of-charge upon request, as well as the distribution of other contraceptive gratis. At the time of the Islamic Revolution in 1979 the government adopted a pronatalist policy, family planning programs were interrupted, legal ages of marriage were lowered, and barriers against polygamy were loosened. Iran had a 3.5% growth rate in 1990 and a total fertility rate of 6.3 lifetime births/woman. After the end of the war between Iran and Iraq in 1988, the population explosion became an obstacle to reconstruction. In 1950, the population numbered 14.2 million; by 1970 it had doubled to 28.4 million. In 1990, the country had 54.6 million people. According to a 1990 UN assessment the population will soar to 100 million by 2020. Over 8 million live in Tehran where overcrowding, traffic congestion, air pollution, and high living costs are the norm. the 1989 National Birth Control Policy Summary adopted targets to reduce the average number of lifetime births per woman to 4 children and natural growth rate to 2.3% by 2011, and to provide family planning to 24% of reproductive-age women whereby 1 million conceptions would be prevented. Indirect measures to curb fertility include raising literacy promoting the education of girls, improving the status and health conditions of women, and reducing maternal and child mortality. A media campaign has started to encourage a small family model. The low legal, social, educational, and employment status of women poses obstacles to this plan, however, the revision of laws that conflict with these goals has been urged. In other Islamic countries such as Turkey, Tunisia, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, female sterilization is legal. Abortion in Iran remains banned except for saving the life of the mother. PMID:12343087

  4. Study of pyroclastic lithofacies and related eruption type in the Aran area (central Iran zone)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Movahedian, Amir Reza; Kheirkhah, Monireh; Emami, M. H.

    2010-05-01

    The study area is located in 40 Km west of Kashan and belongs to Orumieh - Dokhtar volcanic belt that is a part of Central Iran tectonic zone. The Eocene volcanism in Aran area is related to middle alpine orogenic event. Eocene rock units consist mainly of lavas and a variation of tuffs & tuffites & other volcaniclastic rocks (equivalent to Karaj Fm. in Central Alborz). Tuffs have a dominant importance in this area. Field and microscopy petrography shows that tuffs are acid - median and in some parts of area graded to basic in Composition. In a SW - NE trend, the basin has been changed from shallow marine to terrestrial environment. Vertical changes in lithofacies are a reaction of different conditions in paleogeography which can be a proof for volcanic uplift. Also, in these environments, changes in pyroclastic facies which related to type of eruption (submarine and subaerial) reflected in flow, fallout and surge eruptional mechanisms. Some of main volcanic and especially pyroclastic lithofacies evidences of the subaqueous eruption in this area are: locally horizon of andesitic pillow lava, fluidal shape andesitic-basaltic lavas in lower horizons lava breccia layer, several layers of andesitic-basaltic hyaloclastic tuff & lapilli-tuff breccia, rhyolitic-dacitic subaqueous dense pyroclastic flows, different sizes of accretionary lapilli, vesiculated tuff & tuff layers with cross st. due to surge mechanism. With respect to these pyroclastic facies plus notable and thick mass flow layers, also slumping and current soft sediment deformation st. in upper parts of shallow water sequences may be related to subaqueous to subaerial eruption in a hydroclastic volcano structure. The evidences for subaerial (terrestrial) volcanism in continental parts are including: cross lamination in pyroclastic surge tuffs in base of a ignimbrite sequence, welding of pumice shards with fiamme st. and spherical (snow flake) texture from devitrification of fluidal vitric shards in ground

  5. Diversity of beet curly top Iran virus isolated from different hosts in Iran.

    PubMed

    Gharouni Kardani, Sara; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Zakiaghl, Mohammad; Mehrvar, Mohsen; Kraberger, Simona; Varsani, Arvind

    2013-06-01

    Beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) is a major pathogen of sugar beet in Iran. In order to study diversity of BCTIV, we sampled 68 plants in Iran during the summer of 2010 with curly top disease symptoms on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.), sea beets (Beta vulgaris subsp. maritima), and sugar beets (Beta vulgaris). Plant samples showing leaf curling, yellowing, and/or swelling of veins on the lower leaf surfaces were collected from various fields in Khorasan Razavi, Northern Khorasan (north-eastern Iran), East Azarbayejan, West Azarbayejan (north-western Iran), and Fars (southern Iran) provinces. Using rolling circle amplification coupled with restriction digests, cloning, and Sanger sequencing, we determined the genomes of nine new BCTIV isolates from bean, cowpea, tomato, sea beet, and sugar beet in Iran. Our analysis reveals ~11 % diversity amongst BCTIV isolates and we detect evidence of recombination within these genomes. PMID:23329008

  6. Reflections on Foreign Language Education in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farhady, Hossein; Hezaveh, Fattaneh Sajadi; Hedayati, Hora

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects upon foreign-language education in Iran. Contrary to its political and historical reputation in the world, Iran has not been well presented regarding its educational system in general and its foreign-language education in particular. Of course, a critical assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of the Iranian education…

  7. 31 CFR 560.304 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Government of Iran. 560.304 Section... § 560.304 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iran, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof; (b) Any entity owned...

  8. 31 CFR 560.304 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government of Iran. 560.304 Section... § 560.304 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iran, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof; (b) Any entity owned...

  9. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  10. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  11. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  12. 31 CFR 560.304 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Government of Iran. 560.304 Section... § 560.304 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and the Government of Iran, as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof; (b) Any entity owned...

  13. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  14. 31 CFR 535.301 - Iran; Iranian Entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Iran; Iranian Entity. 535.301 Section... § 535.301 Iran; Iranian Entity. (a) The term Iran and Iranian Entity includes: (1) The state and the Government of Iran as well as any political subdivision, agency, or instrumentality thereof or any...

  15. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  16. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  17. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  18. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  19. 31 CFR 535.433 - Central Bank of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Central Bank of Iran. 535.433 Section 535.433 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF... § 535.433 Central Bank of Iran. The Central Bank of Iran (Bank Markazi Iran) is an...

  20. Prevalence of ixodid ticks on cattle and sheep northeast of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mehdi Aghamohammad; Raoofi, Afshin; Hosseini, Arman; Mehrara, Mohammad Reza; Amininajafi, Fatemeh

    2016-09-01

    A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of hard tick species (Acari: Ixodidae) on cattle and sheep north of Iran. The aim of study was to determine the prevalence of hard ticks on cattle and sheep in the mountainous areas of Golestan province and their geographical distribution. A total of 26 ticks were collected from 22 infested cattle and 26 ticks were collected from 12 infested sheep during activating seasons of ticks in 2013-2014. The species collected from cattle and sheep were Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma anatolicum, Hyalomma asiaticum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The results show that these are dominant tick species in the surveyed area. PMID:27605782

  1. STRAWBERRY MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, OREGON.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thayer, T.P.; Stotelmeyer, Ronald B.

    1984-01-01

    The Strawberry Mountain Wilderness extends 18 mi along the crest of the Strawberry Range and comprises about 53 sq mi in the Malheur National Forest, Grant County, Oregon. Systematic geologic mapping, geochemical sampling and detailed sampling of prospect workings was done. A demonstrated copper resource in small quartz veins averaging at most 0. 33 percent copper with traces of silver occurs in shear zones in gabbro. Two small areas with substantiated potential for chrome occur near the northern edge of the wilderness. There is little promise for the occurrence of additional mineral or energy resources in the Strawberry Mountain Wilderness.

  2. Mountain Home Well - Photos

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shervais, John

    2012-01-11

    The Snake River Plain (SRP), Idaho, hosts potential geothermal resources due to elevated groundwater temperatures associated with the thermal anomaly Yellowstone-Snake River hotspot. Project HOTSPOT has coordinated international institutions and organizations to understand subsurface stratigraphy and assess geothermal potential. Over 5.9km of core were drilled from three boreholes within the SRP in an attempt to acquire continuous core documenting the volcanic and sedimentary record of the hotspot: (1) Kimama, (2) Kimberly, and (3) Mountain Home. The Mountain Home drill hole is located along the western plain and documents older basalts overlain by sediment. Data submitted by project collaborator Doug Schmitt, University of Alberta

  3. Archaeocyathan buildups within an entirely siliciclastic succession: New discovery in the Toyonian Lalun Formation of northern Iran, the Proto-Paleotethys passive margin of northern Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasemi, Yaghoob; Amin-Rasouli, Hadi

    2007-10-01

    Meter-scale buildups constructed exclusively by archaeocyaths have been recognized within the uppermost Lower Cambrian siliciclastic succession of Eastern Alborz in northern Iran. They are the only known Toyonian reefs in Iran and adjacent countries and occur in the lower part of the Shale unit of the Lalun Formation. The reefs are of limited lateral extent, reach a maximum thickness of 2.5 m and consist of several reef complexes containing cabbage- or sack-shaped buildups surrounded by well-bedded, colored shale. Each reef complex in the main reef zone consists of meter-scale individual and kalyptrate (compound) buildups that are overgrown by laminated stromatolite. The individual buildups are 12 to 75 cm thick and 5 to 50 cm in diameter, but the compound buildups are up to 2 m thick and their diameter ranges from 75 to 120 cm. In contrast to most Lower Cambrian reefs, these compound buildups demonstrate a complete ecological succession including pioneer and climax phases. Archaeocyaths in the buildups are solitary and colonial types showing great diversity of growth forms, with vase-, bowl- and cup-shaped and cylindrical forms present. The cups range from less than 1 mm to 1.5 cm in diameter and are up to 4 cm tall in the majority of the skeletons, but they may reach up to 4 cm in diameter in the massive colonial forms or in the branching forms of the upper outer part of the compound bioherms. The limited lateral extent of the reef horizons, and lateral facies changes in the colored shale toward various reefs supports deposition in drowned tidal channels in an estuarine depositional environment. A change of the individual bioherms to larger compound buildups suggests lateral depth variation of the tidal channels. Partial infilling of the primary inter-biohermal cavities by large reef clasts and cross-laminated siltstone to very fine sandstone suggests occasional disturbances by storms and periodic influx of coarse siliciclastics. In striking contrast to other

  4. Community genetic services in iran.

    PubMed

    Atri Barzanjeh, Shirin; Behshid, Mozhgan; Hosseini, Mohammad Bagher; Ezari, Maryam; Taghizadeh, Mahdieh; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to report a description of the primary, secondary, and tertiary level services available for genetic disorders in Iran. For the purpose of this study, essential data were collected from every facility providing community genetic services in Tabriz city of Iran using a prestructured checklist. Technical information was filled in the predesigned forms using diagnostic records of each client/patient. Information was also gathered from community genetic services clients through a face-to-face interview at these facilities to assess the quality of services provided. Primary prevention measures were available in 80 percent of centres in the study population. Diagnostic techniques were fully available in the study area both in public and private sectors. Screening of congenital hypothyroidism and thalassemia has been successfully performed across the country by the Ministry of Health. Other screening programs have also been initiated by the country health authorities for neural tube defects, Down syndrome, and phenylketonuria. The high cost of genetic services at secondary and tertiary levels does not allow many people to get access to these services despite their needs. Governments will therefore need to allocate necessary resources to make the essential genetic services available for everyone needing these in the community. PMID:23304526

  5. Coding and traceability in Iran.

    PubMed

    Aghayan, Hamid Reza; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra; Goodarzi, Parisa; Arjmand, Babak; Emami-Razavi, Seyed Hassan

    2010-11-01

    Transplantation has a long history in Iran. Cornea was the first tissue transplantation in 1935. The Central Eye Bank of Iran was established in 1991 and the Iranian Tissue Bank (ITB) in 1994. Now, there are also some private cell and tissue banks in the country, that produce different tissue grafts such as homograft heart valves, musculoskeletal tissues, soft tissues, cartilages, pericardium, amniotic membrane and some cell based products. There is not a separate legislation for tissue transplantation but the legal framework for tissue donation is based on the "Deceased or Brain dead patient organ transplantation" act (passed on April 6, 2000). For tissue banking there is no regulatory oversight by the national health authority. To increase the level of safety and considering the importance of effective traceability, each tissue bank has its own policy and terminology for coding and documentation without any correlation to others. In some cases tissue banks have implemented ISO based standards (i.e., ISO 9001) as a basic quality management system. PMID:20953716

  6. Yucca Mountain tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    This is a compilation of petrographic slides detailing the microstructure and petrographic character of the tuff deposits associated with the Yucca Mountain radioactive waste repository. It describes crystal structures, clay alterations, and mineral associations. The paper contains a description of the petrographic thin-sections but contains no narrative or conclusions of what the slides suggest with regards to the facility.

  7. DOE's Yucca Mountain Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC.

    This booklet is about the disposal of high-level nuclear waste in the United States with a particular focus on Yucca Mountain, Nevada as a repository site. Intended for readers who do not have a technical background, the booklet discusses why scientists and engineers think high-level nuclear waste may be disposed of safely underground. An…

  8. The Strongest Mountain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnes, Colleen

    2004-01-01

    The article describes an activity for the author's fifth-grade students called "build the strongest mountain." To them, it was not a lesson--it was a challenge. To the author, it was an activity that turned a run-of-the-mill Earth science unit into a terrific opportunity for students to demonstrate their knowledge of erosion and develop…

  9. Mountain-Plains Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document lists the Mountain-Plains curriculum by job title (where applicable), including support courses. The curriculum areas covered are mathematics skills, communication skills, office education, lodging services, food services, marketing and distribution, welding support, automotive, small engines, career guidance, World of Work, health…

  10. Collision and mountain building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, V. G.

    2016-01-01

    The spatial, chronological, and genetic relationships of recent (Late Alpine) collisions to mountain building are considered at three levels of scale: (i) in separate zones of the Arabian-Caucasus segment of the Alpine-Himalayan Orogenic Belt, (ii) throughout the central segment of this belt from the Alps to the Himalalayas, and (iii) in Central Asia and other mountain belts of continents. Three stages of mountain building are distinguished at all three levels. The first stage starts with widespread collision and similar plate interactions from the end of the Eocene to the middle Miocene and is expressed in the formation of uplifts, commonly no higher than the moderately elevated level in regions that concentrate deformations of transverse shortening induced by compression. The second short stage, which embraces the Pliocene-Quaternary and occasionally the end of the Miocene, differs in general, though differentiated in the value and intensification of vertical movements, when the height of mountains increases by 2-3 times. Elevations are spread over certain platform territories and even frameworks of rift zones. This is related not so much to the intensity of compression and shortening as to the compositional transformation of the upper mantle and the lower crust, leading to their decompaction. Comparison with the Hercynian and Caledonian orogenic stages shows that the second phase, predetermined by widespread collision, reflects a more important geodynamic event expressed in a change of the global plate interaction system and its deep-seated sources.

  11. Rocky Mountain Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutkiewicz, Jody Steiner, Ed.

    This publication features articles detailing the state of educational programs in the Rocky Mountain area. The articles address: 1) the impact of physical geography on culture, education, and lifestyle; 2) the education of migrant and/or agricultural workers and their children; 3) educational needs of children in rural areas; 4) outdoor education;…

  12. The Mountaineer Minority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egerton, John; Gaillard, Frye

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the new Appalachian movement, based on the assumption that mountain people are a distinct and maligned cultural minority; the people of Appalachia, white, black and red, have begun to strike back against the dam-builders, strip-miners, and others they say are gouging out the region's mineral resources by the cheapest means possible no…

  13. Seroprevalence of West Nile virus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Chinikar, Sadegh; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Moradi, Maryam; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Jalali, Tahmineh; Goya, Mohammad Mehdi; Shirzadi, Mohammad Reza; Zainali, Mohammad; Fooks, Anthony R

    2013-08-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of West Nile virus (WNV) in human and equine sera in Iran. Blood samples were tested from 300 human samples and 315 equine samples in five geographic zones of north and central parts of Iran between 2010 and 2012. All samples were tested for the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to WNV by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of all samples, 4 (1.3%) human and 9 (2.8%) equines were considered to be seropositive for WNV. These results suggest circulation and exposure of the human and equine populations to WNV in Iran. PMID:23697768

  14. [Mountaineering and altitude sickness].

    PubMed

    Maggiorini, M

    2001-06-01

    Almost every second trekker or climber develops two to three symptoms of the high altitude illness after a rapid ascent (> 300 m/day) to an altitude above 4000 m. We distinguish two forms of high altitude illness, a cerebral form called acute mountain sickness and a pulmonary form called high altitude pulmonary edema. Essentially, acute mountain sickness is self-limiting and benign. Its symptoms are mild to moderate headache, loss of appetite, nausea, dizziness and insomnia. Nausea rarely progresses to vomiting, but if it does, this may anticipate a progression of the disease into the severe form of acute mountain sickness, called high altitude cerebral edema. Symptoms and signs of high altitude cerebral edema are severe headache, which is not relieved by acetaminophen, loss of movement coordination, ataxia and mental deterioration ending in coma. The mechanisms leading to acute mountain sickness are not very well understood; the loss of cerebral autoregulation and a vasogenic type of cerebral edema are being discussed. High altitude pulmonary edema presents in roughly twenty percent of the cases with mild symptoms of acute mountain sickness or even without any symptoms at all. Symptoms associated with high altitude pulmonary edema are incapacitating fatigue, chest tightness, dyspnoe at the minimal effort that advances to dyspnoe at rest and orthopnoe, and a dry non-productive cough that progresses to cough with pink frothy sputum due to hemoptysis. The hallmark of high altitude pulmonary edema is an exaggerated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Successful prophylaxis and treatment of high altitude pulmonary edema using nifedipine, a pulmonary vasodilator, indicates that pulmonary hypertension is crucial for the development of high altitude pulmonary edema. The primary treatment of high altitude illness consists in improving hypoxemia and acclimatization. For prophylaxis a slow ascent at a rate of 300 m/day is recommended, if symptoms persist, acetazolamide at a

  15. Digital mountains: toward development and environment protection in mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiaobo

    2007-06-01

    Former studies on mountain system are focused on the department or subject characters, i.e. different department and branches of learning carry out researches only for their individual purposes and with individual characters of the subject of interests. As a whole, their investigation is lacking of comprehensive study in combination with global environment. Ecological environment in mountain regions is vulnerable to the disturbance of human activities. Therefore, it is a key issue to coordinate economic development and environment protection in mountain regions. On the other hand, a lot of work is ongoing on mountain sciences, especially depending on the application of RS and GIS. Moreover, the development of the Digital Earth (DE) provides a clue to re-understand mountains. These are the background of the emergence of the Digital Mountains (DM). One of the purposes of the DM is integrating spatial related data and information about mountains. Moreover, the DM is a viewpoint and methodology of understanding and quantifying mountains holistically. The concept of the DM is that, the spatial and temporal data related to mountain regions are stored and managed in computers; moreover, manipulating, analyzing, modeling, simulating and sharing of the mountain information are implemented by utilizing technologies of RS, GIS, GPS, Geo-informatic Tupu, computer, virtual reality (VR), 3D simulation, massive storage, mutual operation and network communication. The DM aims at advancing mountain sciences and sustainable mountain development. The DM is used to providing information and method for coordinating the mountain regions development and environment protection. The fundamental work of the DM is the design of the scientific architecture. Furthermore, construct and develop massive databases of mountains are the important steps these days.

  16. The genetics of an early Neolithic pastoralist from the Zagros, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Gallego-Llorente, M.; Connell, S.; Jones, E. R.; Merrett, D. C.; Jeon, Y.; Eriksson, A.; Siska, V.; Gamba, C.; Meiklejohn, C.; Beyer, R.; Jeon, S.; Cho, Y. S.; Hofreiter, M.; Bhak, J.; Manica, A.; Pinhasi, R.

    2016-01-01

    The agricultural transition profoundly changed human societies. We sequenced and analysed the first genome (1.39x) of an early Neolithic woman from Ganj Dareh, in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, a site with early evidence for an economy based on goat herding, ca. 10,000 BP. We show that Western Iran was inhabited by a population genetically most similar to hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus, but distinct from the Neolithic Anatolian people who later brought food production into Europe. The inhabitants of Ganj Dareh made little direct genetic contribution to modern European populations, suggesting those of the Central Zagros were somewhat isolated from other populations of the Fertile Crescent. Runs of homozygosity are of a similar length to those from Neolithic farmers, and shorter than those of Caucasus and Western Hunter-Gatherers, suggesting that the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh did not undergo the large population bottleneck suffered by their northern neighbours. While some degree of cultural diffusion between Anatolia, Western Iran and other neighbouring regions is possible, the genetic dissimilarity between early Anatolian farmers and the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh supports a model in which Neolithic societies in these areas were distinct. PMID:27502179

  17. The genetics of an early Neolithic pastoralist from the Zagros, Iran.

    PubMed

    Gallego-Llorente, M; Connell, S; Jones, E R; Merrett, D C; Jeon, Y; Eriksson, A; Siska, V; Gamba, C; Meiklejohn, C; Beyer, R; Jeon, S; Cho, Y S; Hofreiter, M; Bhak, J; Manica, A; Pinhasi, R

    2016-01-01

    The agricultural transition profoundly changed human societies. We sequenced and analysed the first genome (1.39x) of an early Neolithic woman from Ganj Dareh, in the Zagros Mountains of Iran, a site with early evidence for an economy based on goat herding, ca. 10,000 BP. We show that Western Iran was inhabited by a population genetically most similar to hunter-gatherers from the Caucasus, but distinct from the Neolithic Anatolian people who later brought food production into Europe. The inhabitants of Ganj Dareh made little direct genetic contribution to modern European populations, suggesting those of the Central Zagros were somewhat isolated from other populations of the Fertile Crescent. Runs of homozygosity are of a similar length to those from Neolithic farmers, and shorter than those of Caucasus and Western Hunter-Gatherers, suggesting that the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh did not undergo the large population bottleneck suffered by their northern neighbours. While some degree of cultural diffusion between Anatolia, Western Iran and other neighbouring regions is possible, the genetic dissimilarity between early Anatolian farmers and the inhabitants of Ganj Dareh supports a model in which Neolithic societies in these areas were distinct. PMID:27502179

  18. Hydrogeochemistry and Geothermometry of Ramsar Thermal and Mineral springs, North of Iran.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, Mohammad Reza; Abedsotan, Farnaz; Vosoghi Abedini, Mansour; Khosro Thehrani, Khosro

    2010-05-01

    The Ramsar thermal springs are situated in northen mountainous of Alborze structural zone, this area have NW-SE trend and created by density of folding and faulting systems. The climate in this area is wet and hot in summer, and cold in winter. The annual precipitations are more than 976mm, mainly of precipitation in winter are snowy and cause established natural and permanent glacial at highlands. Several thermal and mineral springs are situated in the south and southeastern flank, Electrical Conductivity and PH of these springs range from 1050 to 21600 and from more than 5.5 to 6, respectively. The temperature of these springs has range from about 20 to 650c. Most of the thermal springs are of sodium -chloride type (piper diagram), Besides, they are mature and full equilibrium according to Gigeenbach triangular diagram (Na/1000-K/100-√Mg), The only exception is sample H5 (Safaroud spa) that is close to immaturity field, maturity of thermal springs water and low pressure of Co2 supported deep circulation for these water and because of long contact time equilibrium between crustal rocks and thermal waters. Positive correlation between Cl and Mg shows that mixing of surface water in the thermal system is insignificant. The So4-Cl-HCo3 triangular diagram confirms mature and deep origin. Thermal water of Ramsar in study area is supersaturated in respect to Quartz, Clay minerals, Barite, Alunite and Aragonite and under saturated in respect to chalcedony, carbonate, SiO2 (a) and gypsum phase. Saturation index is calculated using PHEERQCI software. XRD analyses reveal the Montmorilonite, illite, Alunite and quartz in Ramsar Spring sinters. The geothermometric studies results are reliable because some of the water samples are mature water and depended full equilibrium water- rock interaction zone. The reservoir temperatures of Ramsar Springs evaluated with equal Na-K and Na-K-Ca geothrmometer and have range between 90 to 280°c, and comparison with argillic alteration

  19. The first southwest Asian record of the subfamily Microdontinae, and the description of a new species of Metadon Reemer from Iran (Diptera: Syrphidae).

    PubMed

    Gilasian, Ebrahim; Reemer, Menno; Parchami-Araghi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Metadon persicus Gilasian & Reemer sp. nov. is described, based on a single female specimen from the Zagros mountains in Iran. Morphological variation among the members of the genus Metadon Reemer and their distribution in the world are discussed. Photographs of the new species are provided. The subfamily Microdontinae represents a new taxon for southwestern Asia and the genus Metadon is reported from the western Palaearctic region for the first time. PMID:26701510

  20. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Sajadi, Mohammad M.; Ansari, Hossein; Mardani, Masoud; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Iran was first identified in studies of livestock sera and ticks in the 1970s, but the first human infection was not diagnosed until 1999. Since that time, the number of cases of CCHF in Iran has markedly increased. Through January 2012, articles in the published literature have reported a total of 870 confirmed cases, with 126 deaths, for a case fatality rate (CFR) of 17.6%. The disease has been seen in 26 of the country’s 31 provinces, with the greatest number of cases in Sistan and Baluchestan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan provinces. The increase in CCHF in Iran has paralleled that in neighboring Turkey, though the number of cases in Turkey has been much larger, with an overall CFR of around 5%. In this article, we review the features of CCHF in Iran, including its history, epidemiology, animal and tick reservoirs, current surveillance and control programs, diagnostic methods, clinical features and experience with ribavirin therapy, and consider possible explanations for the difference in the CFR of CCHF between Iran and Turkey. The emergence of CCHF in Iran calls for countermeasures at many levels to protect the population, but also provides opportunities for studying the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:23872313

  1. Yucca Mountain Milestone

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, Rod

    1997-06-09

    The Department of Energy project to determine if the Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is suitable for geologic disposal of high-level nuclear waste reached a major milestone in late April when a 25-foot-diameter tunnel boring machine ``holed through'' completing a five-mile-long, horseshoe-shaped excavation through the mountain. When the cutting-head of the giant machine broke through to daylight at the tunnel's south portal, it ended a 2 1/2-year excavation through the mountain that was completed ahead of schedule and with an outstanding safety record. Video of the event was transmitted live by satellite to Washington, DC, where it was watched by Secretary of Energy Frederico Pena and other high-level DOE officials, signifying the importance of the project's mission to find a repository for high-level nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel produced by nuclear power plants. This critical undertaking is being performed by DOE's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The tunnel is the major feature of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), which serves as an underground laboratory for engineers and scientists to help determine if Yucca Mountain is suitable to serve as a repository for the safe disposal of high-level nuclear waste. Morrison Knudsen's Environmental/Government Group is providing design and construction-management services on the project. The MK team is performing final design for the ESF and viability assessment design for the underground waste repository that will be built only if the site is found suitable for such a mission. In fact, if at anytime during the ESF phase, the site is found unsuitable, the studies will be stopped and the site restored to its natural state.

  2. Patient-centred mountain medicine.

    PubMed

    Szawarski, Piotr; Hillebrandt, David

    2016-08-01

    Venturing into the mountains, doctors have accompanied expeditions to provide routine care to the teams, undertake research and occasionally take on a rescue role. The role of doctors practicing mountain medicine is evolving. Public health issues involving concepts of health and safety have become necessary with the coming of commercial and youth expeditions. Increasingly individuals with a disability or a medical diagnosis choose to ascend to high altitudes. Doctors become involved in assessment of risk and providing advice for such individuals. The field of mountain medicine is perhaps unique in that acceptance of risk is part of the ethos of climbing and adventure. The pursuit of mountaineering goals may represent the ultimate conquest of a disability. Knowledge of mountain environment is essential in facilitating mountain ascents for those who choose to undertake them, in spite of a disability or medical condition. PMID:27234206

  3. Surprising decline in Iran's growth rates.

    PubMed

    Roudi, F

    1997-11-01

    According to Iran's 1996 census, the country's population was 60 million, about 6-7 million people fewer than estimates used by the UN and other international organizations. These findings surprised Iranian demographers and have been examined with skepticism outside of the country. However, if Iran's 1986 and 1996 censuses are comparable and children were not undercounted, these results indicate a remarkable decline in fertility. The proportion of Iran's population under age 5 years fell from 18% in 1986 to 10% in 1996. An Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques, Paris, study published in 1996 estimated that Iran's total fertility rate (TFR) fell from an average of 6.2 children/woman in 1986 to 3.5 in 1993. However, based upon analyses of sample surveys, the Iranian government's health ministry reported that the TFR dropped from 5.0 in 1991 to 3.3 in 1995. Irrespective of questions over the magnitude of Iran's fertility decline, it is clear that the Iranian government is committed to limiting population growth. The UN Population Fund considers Iran's family planning program to be one of the world's best-functioning, with the Ministry of Health Care and Medical Education providing free contraceptives. A bill was passed in 1993 which penalizes couples who have more than 3 children and posters around the country encourage the one- or two-child family. Iran's family planning program is integrated into the national primary health care system and provides a broad range of reproductive health services to women. The program is also the only one in the region which promotes both male and female sterilization. PMID:12321257

  4. 31 CFR 560.403 - Transshipment through Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Transshipment through Iran. 560.403... Interpretations § 560.403 Transshipment through Iran. The prohibitions in §§ 560.204, 560.206 and 560.208 apply to... through Iran to third countries....

  5. 31 CFR 560.403 - Transshipment or transit through Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transshipment or transit through Iran... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.403 Transshipment or transit through Iran. The prohibitions in §§ 560.204... transit of goods or technology through Iran to third countries....

  6. 31 CFR 561.321 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... under 31 CFR part 560. ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Government of Iran. 561.321 Section... Definitions § 561.321 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and...

  7. 31 CFR 560.403 - Transshipment through Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transshipment through Iran. 560.403... Interpretations § 560.403 Transshipment through Iran. The prohibitions in §§ 560.204, 560.206 and 560.208 apply to... through Iran to third countries....

  8. 31 CFR 561.321 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... under 31 CFR part 560. ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Government of Iran. 561.321 Section... Definitions § 561.321 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and...

  9. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Iran Sanctions Act. 25.703... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Prohibited Sources 25.703-2 Iran Sanctions Act. (a) Certification—(1) Certification relating to activities described in section 5 of the Iran Sanctions Act. As required by section...

  10. 31 CFR 560.403 - Transshipment or transit through Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Transshipment or transit through Iran... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.403 Transshipment or transit through Iran. The prohibitions in §§ 560.204... transit of goods or technology through Iran to third countries....

  11. 31 CFR 560.403 - Transshipment through Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Transshipment through Iran. 560.403... Interpretations § 560.403 Transshipment through Iran. The prohibitions in §§ 560.204, 560.206 and 560.208 apply to... through Iran to third countries....

  12. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Iran Sanctions Act. 25.703... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Prohibited Sources 25.703-2 Iran Sanctions Act. (a) Certification—(1) Certification relating to activities described in section 5 of the Iran Sanctions Act. As required by section...

  13. 31 CFR 561.321 - Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... under 31 CFR part 560. ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Government of Iran. 561.321 Section... Definitions § 561.321 Government of Iran. The term Government of Iran includes: (a) The state and...

  14. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Iran Sanctions Act. 25.703... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Prohibited Sources 25.703-2 Iran Sanctions Act. (a) Certification. (1) As required by the Iran Sanctions Act, unless an exception applies or a waiver is granted...

  15. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Iran Sanctions Act. 25.703... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Prohibited Sources 25.703-2 Iran Sanctions Act. (a) Certification. (1) As required by the Iran Sanctions Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 note), unless an exception applies...

  16. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  17. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  18. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  19. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  20. 15 CFR 742.8 - Anti-terrorism: Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anti-terrorism: Iran. 742.8 Section... BASED CONTROLS § 742.8 Anti-terrorism: Iran. (a) License Requirements. (1) A license is required for anti-terrorism purposes to export or reexport to Iran any item for which AT column 1 or AT column 2...

  1. Epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    In Iran, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is relatively low according to the population-based epidemiological studies. However, the epidemiology of HCV is changing and the rate of HCV infection is increasing due to the growth in the number of injecting drug users in the society. In addition, a shift has occurred in the distribution pattern of HCV genotypes among HCV-infected patients in Iran. Genotype 1a is the most prevalent genotype in Iran, but in recent years, an increase in the frequency of 3a and a decrease in 1a and 1b have been reported. These variations in the epidemiology of HCV reflect differences in the routes of transmission, status of public health, lifestyles, and risk factors in different groups and geographic regions of Iran. Health policy makers should consider these differences to establish better strategies for control and prevention of HCV infection. Therefore, this review was conducted to present a clear view regarding the current epidemiology of HCV infection in Iran. PMID:26478671

  2. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness and Headache

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mountain Sickness, and Headache Print Email Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness, and Headache ACHE Newsletter Sign up for ... entering your e-mail address below. Altitude, Acute Mountain Sickness, and Headache David W. Dodick, MD, FAHS, ...

  3. Human impacts to mountain streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2006-09-01

    Mountain streams are here defined as channel networks within mountainous regions of the world. This definition encompasses tremendous diversity of physical and biological conditions, as well as history of land use. Human effects on mountain streams may result from activities undertaken within the stream channel that directly alter channel geometry, the dynamics of water and sediment movement, contaminants in the stream, or aquatic and riparian communities. Examples include channelization, construction of grade-control structures or check dams, removal of beavers, and placer mining. Human effects can also result from activities within the watershed that indirectly affect streams by altering the movement of water, sediment, and contaminants into the channel. Deforestation, cropping, grazing, land drainage, and urbanization are among the land uses that indirectly alter stream processes. An overview of the relative intensity of human impacts to mountain streams is provided by a table summarizing human effects on each of the major mountainous regions with respect to five categories: flow regulation, biotic integrity, water pollution, channel alteration, and land use. This table indicates that very few mountains have streams not at least moderately affected by land use. The least affected mountainous regions are those at very high or very low latitudes, although our scientific ignorance of conditions in low-latitude mountains in particular means that streams in these mountains might be more altered than is widely recognized. Four case studies from northern Sweden (arctic region), Colorado Front Range (semiarid temperate region), Swiss Alps (humid temperate region), and Papua New Guinea (humid tropics) are also used to explore in detail the history and effects on rivers of human activities in mountainous regions. The overview and case studies indicate that mountain streams must be managed with particular attention to upstream/downstream connections, hillslope

  4. Domestic Abuse in Behshahr, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahmatian, Ali Akbar; Hosseini, Seyyed Ali Asghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: The United Nations in a resolution defined abuse as any violent act that is primarily or exclusively committed against females and results in physical, sexual and psychological harm. Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the contributing factors of husband’s violence against females residing in the city of Behshahr, Iran. Materials and Methods: We distributed a specifically designed questionnaire among 380 married females aged between 15 and 65 years. According to the Morgan table, the subjects were randomly selected from a list of 301000 females. Demographic data and data on spouse abuse were then analyzed using the SPSS software, Spearman and Pearson correlation coefficients. According to Cronbach’s alpha, the reliability of the questionnaire was 0.96. Results: All of the females reported at least one form of violence within the past year, with R square 0.20, indicating that the independent variable can explain 20% of the violence against females. years of marriage, female’s education, male’s addiction and the number of children each had their share in the explanation of violence against females. Conclusions: This study revealed a high prevalence of domestic violence in the sample population. Violence existed among all ages, social categories and male occupational groups, and also involved both employed and unemployed females. The situation regarding domestic abuse is similar worldwide. PMID:26834799

  5. SP mountain data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rawson, R. F.; Hamilton, R. E.; Liskow, C. L.; Dias, A. R.; Jackson, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    An analysis of synthetic aperture radar data of SP Mountain was undertaken to demonstrate the use of digital image processing techniques to aid in geologic interpretation of SAR data. These data were collected with the ERIM X- and L-band airborne SAR using like- and cross-polarizations. The resulting signal films were used to produce computer compatible tapes, from which four-channel imagery was generated. Slant range-to-ground range and range-azimuth-scale corrections were made in order to facilitate image registration; intensity corrections were also made. Manual interpretation of the imagery showed that L-band represented the geology of the area better than X-band. Several differences between the various images were also noted. Further digital analysis of the corrected data was done for enhancement purposes. This analysis included application of an MSS differencing routine and development of a routine for removal of relief displacement. It was found that accurate registration of the SAR channels is critical to the effectiveness of the differencing routine. Use of the relief displacement algorithm on the SP Mountain data demonstrated the feasibility of the technique.

  6. Iran plans huge private sector MTBE plant

    SciTech Connect

    Alperowicz, N.

    1992-01-15

    An export-oriented 1-million m.t./year methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) plant is planned as one of Iran`s private sector investment projects. State-owned National Petrochemical Co (NPC; Tehran) and the Dubai-based Iranian businessman Abdul Wahab Galadari have signed a letter of intent allowing Galadari to develop the venture. Colt Engineering (Calgary, AL) is assisting Galadari with costs, planning and technology selection for the estimated $300-million plus venture. An important meeting with NPC is scheduled end of this month, says Galadari, and a financial package should be put together by end of March or April. The facility will most likely be wholly-owned by the Galadari family, roughly 50% by members resident in Iran and the remainder by the Dubai-based concern A.W. Galadari Sons. NPC says it may take a token shareholding in the venture.

  7. Health Promoting Hospitals Model in Iran

    PubMed Central

    YAGHOUBI, Maryam; JAVADI, Marzieh; BAHADORI, Mohammadkarim; RAVANGARD, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hospitals are the central entity of each health care system and Health Promoting Hospitals (HPH) was launched by WHO in 1988. However, there has not been any accurate and detailed model for establishing a HPH in Iran up to now. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors affecting the establishment of a health promoting hospital in Iran using factor analysis method. Methods: This applied, cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study was conducted in Iran in four steps. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) was used for determining factors affecting the establishment of a HPH. Results: Society (0.97) and Policy (0.74) had the highest regression weights (effects) and management had the lowest one. Conclusion: Community assessment was the most important dimension of proposed conceptual model for establishing a HPH. PMID:27141499

  8. YUCCA MOUNTAIN PROJECT - A BRIEFING --

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2003-08-05

    This report has the following articles: Nuclear waste--a long-term national problem; Spent nuclear fuel; High-level radioactive waste; Radioactivity and the environment; Current storage methods; Disposal options; U.S. policy on nuclear waste; The focus on Yucca Mountain; The purpose and scope of the Yucca Mountain Project; The approach for permanently disposing of waste; The scientific studies at Yucca Mountain; The proposed design for a repository at Yucca Mountain; Natural and engineered barriers would work together to isolate waste; Meticulous science and technology to protect people and the environment; Licensing a repository; Transporting waste to a permanent repository; The Environmental Impact Statement for a repository; Current status of the Yucca Mountain Project; and Further information available on the Internet.

  9. Economics of Gypsum Production in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esmaeili, Abdoulkarim

    The purpose of this research is to analyze the economics of gypsum production in Iran. The trend in production cost, selling price and profit are used to investigate economics of gypsum production. In addition, the multivariate time series method is used to determine factors affecting gypsum price in domestic market. The results indicated that due to increase in production and inflation, profitability of gypsum production has decreased during recent years. It is concluded that tariff and non-tariff barriers on mines machinery are among reasons for increasing production cost in Iranian gypsum mines. Decreasing such barriers could increase profitability of gypsum production in Iran.

  10. Iran's nuclear-power program revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Mossavar-Rahmani, B.

    1980-09-01

    Iran's new government has not yet decided the fate of the country's once-ambitious nuclear power program. If the program is kept alive, it will be limited to the completion of at most one or two of the reactors that were already well underway then the revolution broke out. The author traces the origins and growth of the Iranian nuclear-power program between 1974 and 1978, summarizes the principal economic, infrasturctural, and political criticisms of the program as originally planned, discusses the potential for greater use of natural gas as an alternative and, finally, recommends a long, detailed reassessment of Iran's energy options. 13 references, 3 tables.

  11. Cenozoic kinematic evolution of southwestern Central Iran: Strain partitioning and accommodation of Arabia-Eurasia convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargaranbafghi, Fariba; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann

    2011-04-01

    The Yazd block of southwestern Central Iran is located in the back of the Zagros fold-thrust belt and monitors accommodation of Cenozoic shortening within the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone. The Saghand area within the Yazd block exposes a basin-and-range type morphology, which results from NE respectively E-W direction of shortening and a major tectonic change in structural trends within the southwestern Central Iranian block. The NNE-structural trend of various lithotectonic units including the Eocene Chapedony metamorphic core complex in the north is parallel to prominent Cenozoic NNE-trending Chapedony and Posht-e-Badam strike-slip faults. In the south the NNW-trending Anar, Kharanagh-Zarrin, Behabad and Kuhbanan faults are parallel to the Zagros fold-thrust belt and represent dextral strike-slip respectively NE-directed thrust faults, the thrust component representing a back-thrust component to the Zagros fold-thrust belt. Results of interpretation of satellite images, and structural and geomorphic field observations show a distributed deformation pattern covering a wide domain within southwestern Central Iran. Morphotectonic features like linear mountain ranges and intervening basins (kavirs) are interpreted to result from Neogene to Recent crustal-scale folding with uplifting mountain ranges and subsiding basins. Active thrust faults and evidence for block tilting are common on the eastern side of mountain blocks. Five distinct regional deformation phases respectively paleostress tensor groups have been recognized in the Central Iran from the major structures and through using paleostress inversion techniques for fault slip data. The first phase occurred in the Late Paleocene to Oligocene and is characterized by a subvertical σ1 and ca. N-S oriented σ3, which indicate N-S extension associated with late stages of normal faulting possibly due to post-orogenic collapse during exhumation of the Chapedony metamorphic complex. The second phase occurred from Late

  12. Geology at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    Both advocates and critics disagree on the significance and interpretation of critical geological features which bear on the safety and suitability of Yucca Mountain as a site for the construction of a high-level radioactive waste repository. Critics believe that there is sufficient geological evidence to rule the site unsuitable for further investigation. Some advocates claim that there is insufficient data and that investigations are incomplete, while others claim that the site is free of major obstacles. We have expanded our efforts to include both the critical evaluations of existing geological and geochemical data and the collection of field data and samples for the purpose of preparing scientific papers for submittal to journals. Summaries of the critical reviews are presented in this paper.

  13. Iron Mountain Electromagnetic Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gail Heath

    2012-07-01

    Iron Mountain Mine is located seventeen miles northwest of Redding, CA. After the completion of mining in early 1960s, the mine workings have been exposed to environmental elements which have resulted in degradation in water quality in the surrounding water sheds. In 1985, the EPA plugged ore stoops in many of the accessible mine drifts in an attempt to restrict water flow through the mine workings. During this process little data was gathered on the orientation of the stoops and construction of the plugs. During the last 25 years, plugs have begun to deteriorate and allow acidic waters from the upper workings to flow out of the mine. A team from Idaho National Laboratory (INL) performed geophysical surveys on a single mine drift and 3 concrete plugs. The project goal was to evaluate several geophysical methods to determine competence of the concrete plugs and orientation of the stopes.

  14. ESTIMATES OF CLOUD WATER DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN DEPOSITION AT MOUNTAIN ACID DEPOSITION PROGRAM SITES IN THE APPALACHIAN MOUNTAINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cloud water deposition was estimated at three high elevation sites in the Appalachian Mountains of the eastern United States (Whiteface Mountain, NY, Whitetop Mountain, VA, and Clingrnan's Dome, TN) from 1994 through 1999 as part of the Mountain Acid Deposition Program (MADPro). ...

  15. A Review of Myiasis in Iran and a New Nosocomial Case from Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Mahbobeh; Mowlavi, Gholamreza; Kargar, Faranak; Nateghpour, Mehdi; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Hajenorouzali-Tehrani, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    Background: Due to various climatic conditions in different parts of Iran, presenting of various kinds of human myiasis is expected. Despite of a few case series, most papers related to myiasis are case reports originated from various parts of Iran. This study discusses on different clinical features of myiasis in Iran and description of one case from Tehran as a representative to nosocomial infection in Iran. Methods: The information needed for this descriptive study was derived mainly from the digital library of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The larvae have been identified with observing on posterior spiracles, spines of their body and anal tubercles. Results: Total number of reported myiasis cases from Iran is 77 which can be categorized clinically as furuncular, wound, ophthalmic, auricular, nasopharyngeal, oral, intestinal and genitourinary. Based on parasitological features, all myiasis agents in Iran are belonging to Calliphoridae, Sarcophagidae, Oestridae and Syrphidae flies. The case which is reporting in this paper can be mentioned as representative of nosocomial myiasis which it seems to be underreported because of some medicolegal reasons. Conclusion: Low number of investigations on various aspects of human myiasis, as well as incuriosity to report of the cases in disease reporting system of health minister, made the myiasis as a neglected disease. PMID:26114125

  16. Design issues concerning Iran`s Bushehr nuclear power plant VVER-1000 conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, C.F.

    1996-12-31

    On January 8, 1995, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) signed a contract for $800 million with the Russian Federation Ministry for Atomic Energy (Minatom) to complete Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) unit 1. The agreement called for a Russian VVER-1000/320 pressurized water reactor (PWR) to be successfully installed into the existing German-built BNPP facilities in 5 yr. System design differences, bomb damage, and environmental exposure are key issues with which Minatom must contend in order to fulfill the contract. The AEOI under the Shah of Iran envisioned Bushehr as the first of many nuclear power plants, with Iran achieving 24 GW(electric) by 1993 and 34 GW(electric) by 2000. Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) began construction of the two-unit plant near the Persian Gulf town of Halileh in 1975. Unit 1 was {approx}80% complete and unit 2 was {approx}50% complete when construction was interrupted by the 1979 Iranian Islamic revolution. Despite repeated AEOI attempts to lure KWU and other companies back to Iran to complete the plant, Western concerns about nuclear proliferation in Iran and repeated bombings of the plant during the 1980-1988 Iran-Iraq war dissuaded Germany from resuming construction.

  17. Seasonal Pattern in Suicide in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Moqaddasi Amiri, Mohammad; Ahmadi Livani, Abdolkarim; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Mirzajani, Mohammadreza; Dehghan, Azizallah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Various studies have shown a seasonal pattern in suicide in the developed societies; however, this pattern is not taken into consideration in most countries including Iran. Objectives: The current paper studied the seasonal pattern of committing suicide in Northern Iran. Materials and Methods: The present study was a longitudinal study with time series features. Subject included suicide attempts recorded by emergency wards of all hospitals in Mazandaran province, Iran. The variable time, in this study, was defined as each month of study years (2005 - 2011), which included 84 monthly time points. To analyze data, the Student’s independent t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test were used. Results: Of the 14,437 suicide attempts reported during the seven-year period, 5359 (37.1%) were related to males. Suicide attempts reached a peak in June (1418 cases) and November (1352 cases), but were at their lowest level in March (991 cases) (P = 0.877). Conclusions: The suicide seasonality range is broad in this part of Iran. Moreover, there were two noticeable suicide peaks in June and November. PMID:26576177

  18. Teaching the Iran-Contra Affair.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masker, John Scott

    1996-01-01

    Describes a six-week study unit that requires students to examine specific aspects of the Iran-Contra affair in light of models such as presidential leadership style. The combination of a case study, student-centered cooperative learning, and writing across the curriculum proved popular with both the students and teacher. (MJP)

  19. Future Perspectives for Hand Transplant in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fatemi, M. J.; Masoumi, M.; Esfandiari, E.

    2011-01-01

    Hand transplant program is a communion of physicians and researchers during the current decade. 72 hands and digits were transplanted in 53 patients over the past 13 years. Unlike a solid organ transplant, hand transplantation involves various tissues, so it is called “composite tissue allotransplantation.” This article discusses the plans for performing the first hand transplant in Iran. PMID:25013615

  20. Khatami, Political Reform and Education in Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehran, Golnar

    2003-01-01

    Elected president of Iran in 1997, Khatami promised to bring about political reform, freedom, and religious democracy. He charged schools with creating moral, politicized, and empowered individuals with a strong Iranian-Islamic identity, but capable of relating to the West. While reflecting some of Khatami's goals and values, schools continue to…

  1. Teaching Iran-Contra: Further Reflections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcote, Ronald H.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a political science class that focused on the interconnections between the Iran-Contra political scandal and United States Latin American policies. The class considered relevant aspects of that foreign policy as well as presidential leadership styles, congressional inquiries, bureaucratic politics, and public opinion. Briefly reviews the…

  2. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... These prohibitions are set forth in OFAC's Iranian Transactions Regulations (31 CFR part 560). In... prohibited by the Iranian Transactions Regulations (31 CFR part 560) and not authorized by OFAC. The... or reexport to Iran any item on the CCL containing a CB Column 1, CB Column 2, CB Column 3, NP...

  3. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    .... These prohibitions are set forth in OFAC's Iranian Transactions Regulations (31 CFR part 560). In... prohibited by the Iranian Transactions Regulations (31 CFR part 560) and not authorized by OFAC. The... or reexport to Iran any item on the CCL containing a CB Column 1, CB Column 2, CB Column 3, NP...

  4. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... These prohibitions are set forth in OFAC's Iranian Transactions Regulations (31 CFR part 560). In... prohibited by the Iranian Transactions Regulations (31 CFR part 560) and not authorized by OFAC. The... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Iran. 746.7 Section 746.7 Commerce...

  5. 15 CFR 746.7 - Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... These prohibitions are set forth in OFAC's Iranian Transactions Regulations (31 CFR part 560). In... transaction is prohibited by the Iranian Transactions Regulations (31 CFR part 560) and not authorized by OFAC... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Iran. 746.7 Section 746.7 Commerce...

  6. Students from the Arab World and Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Althen, Gary L., Ed.

    Information on the background and viewpoints of Middle Eastern students who are studying in the United States is presented in revised papers from a 1978 seminar, "The Middle East: The Arab World and Iran." In the first section of the report, "General Background," James Cowan reviews social and cultural factors, as well as questions of philosophy…

  7. National Strategies of Ophthalmic Education in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Entezari, A; Javadi, MA; Einollahi, B

    2012-01-01

    Background: Academic medicine is in a state of dramatic transformation. For this reason strategic thinking is the most essential part of educational planning. The main purpose of the present study was developing the strategic educational planning of Ophthalmology in Iran from 2007 to 2010 Methods: A qualitative investigation using focus group discussion has been implemented successfully for developing educational planning. Six to twelve representatives of key stakeholders in the ophthalmic education of Iran participated to this study. Results: Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of ophthalmology education in Iran were analyzed. Strategic goals in education, research, and health service providing domains were being developed. Educational goals were defined as training of human resources in accordance with the community needs at the level of general practitioner, specialist, and fellowships in ophthalmology. Research goals of the program were defined as scientific inter-departmental and international communications, in order to promote the level of education, research, and treatment in the country. Also, in the field of health services according to the community needs, providing services by the means of advanced and cost effective methods were defined as strategic objectives. Conclusion: Based on this strategic plan in the last three years ophthalmic education in Iran shall be many changes in educational, research and health care provision for social accountability. PMID:23113125

  8. Medical Biotechnology Trends and Achievements in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mahboudi, Fereidoun; Hamedifar, Haleh; Aghajani, Hamideh

    2012-01-01

    A healthcare system has been the most important priority for all governments worldwide. Biotechnology products have affected the promotion of health care over the last thirty years. During the last several decades, Iran has achieved significant success in extending healthcare to the rural areas and in reducing the rates of infant mortality and increasing population growth. Biomedical technology as a converging technology is considered a helpful tool to fulfill the Iranian healthcare missions. The number of biotechnology products has reached 148 in 2012. The total sales have increased to 98 billion USD without considering vaccines and plasma derived proteins in 2012. Iran is one of the leading countries in the Middle East and North Africa in the area of Medical biotechnology. The number of biotechnology medicines launched in Iran is 13 products until 2012. More than 15 products are in pipelines now. Manufacturers are expecting to receive the market release for more than 8 products by the end of 2012. Considering this information, Iran will lead the biotechnology products especially in area of biosimilars in Asia after India in next three years. The present review will discuss leading policy, decision makers’ role, human resource developing system and industry development in medical biotechnology. PMID:23407888

  9. Selection of College Freshmen in Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazargan, Abbas

    Measurement procedures used in Iran for the selection of college students are described. The pre-university system of education has no mission other than college preparation. In 1972-73 the higher education system was comprised of 158 institutions: eight universities, 54 "B.A. granting" colleges, and 96 junior colleges. In 1972-73, 13 institutions…

  10. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  11. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  12. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  13. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  14. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  15. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  16. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  17. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  18. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  19. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  20. 27 CFR 9.55 - Bell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bell Mountain. 9.55... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Bell Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Bell Mountain viticultural area...

  1. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  2. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  3. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  4. 27 CFR 9.80 - York Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false York Mountain. 9.80... Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “York Mountain.” (b) Approved map. The approved map for the York Mountain viticultural area is the U.S.G.S. map entitled...

  5. Nutrition policy process challenges in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Goshtaei, Massomeh; Ravaghi, Hamid; Sari, Ali Akbari; Abdollahi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Nutrition transition is occurring rapidly in the world, especially in developing countries. The nutrition transition occurred in Iran very fast due to urbanization and changes in the lifestyle of people, leading to overweight and obesity. However, nutritional deficiencies are still detected due to economic factors and low nutritional knowledge. Nutrition policies do not adequately respond to the nutrition challenges in Iran. This study was conducted to evaluate and analyze the nutrition policy process challenges in Iran. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with 59 policy makers and nutrition experts of medical universities across Iran. Interviews were continued until data saturation was achieved. Data were supplemented with surveys and documentary analysis. Thematic analysis was guided by the propositions of the stages heuristic framework. Results The results were categorized into four main themes and eight sub-themes. The main themes were 1) nutrition problem definition, 2) policy formulation, 3) implementation of the policies, and 4) evaluation of the policies. However, the multi-faceted nature of the nutritional problem makes it difficult to deal with, so a multi-sectoral approach is needed. Conclusion Nutrition policies have been implemented in Iran with varying degrees of success and with different levels of cross-sectoral collaboration. The nutrition policies sometimes have not been able to respond to the nutritional problems. One of the important reasons is that nutrition is not a priority for policy makers. Many policies suffer from a lack of adequate and appropriate resource allocation. Cooperation mechanisms to resolve nutritional problems are sometimes ineffective and inefficient. PMID:27053992

  6. 78 FR 15798 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Iran Democracy Program Grants Vetting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Iran Democracy Program Grants Vetting ACTION: Notice of...DL@state.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title of Information Collection: Iran Program Grants. OMB.... Respondents: Potential grantees and participants for Iran programs. Estimated Number of Respondents:...

  7. 78 FR 55134 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Iran Modern”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Iran Modern'' ACTION: Notice..., number 153) of determinations made by the Department of State pertaining to the exhibit ``Iran Modern... in the exhibition ``Iran Modern,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the...

  8. 78 FR 31999 - 30-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Iran Democracy Program Grants Vetting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Iran Democracy Program Grants Vetting ACTION: Notice of...: Iran Program Grants Vetting. OMB Control Number: 1405-0176. Type of Request: Extension. ] Originating.... Respondents: Potential grantees and participants for Iran programs. Estimated Number of Respondents:...

  9. Extinction of Harrington's Mountain Goat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Jim I.; Martin, Paul S.; Euler, Robert C.; Long, Austin; Jull, A. J. T.; Toolin, Laurence J.; Donahue, Douglas J.; Linick, T. W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 ± 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  10. Extinction of Harrington's mountain goat

    SciTech Connect

    Mead, J.I.; Martin, P.S.; Euler, R.C.; Long, A.; Jull, A.J.T.; Toolin, L.J.; Donahue, D.J.; Linick, T.W.

    1986-02-01

    Keratinous horn sheaths of the extinct Harrington's mountain goat, Oreamnos harringtoni, were recovered at or near the surface of dry caves of the Grand Canyon, Arizona. Twenty-three separate specimens from two caves were dated nondestructively by the tandem accelerator mass spectrometer (TAMS). Both the TAMS and the conventional dates indicate that Harrington's mountain goat occupied the Grand Canyon for at least 19,000 years prior to becoming extinct by 11,160 +/- 125 radiocarbon years before present. The youngest average radiocarbon dates on Shasta ground sloths, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from the region are not significantly younger than those on extinct mountain goats. Rather than sequential extinction with Harrington's mountain goat disappearing from the Grand Canyon before the ground sloths, as one might predict in view of evidence of climatic warming at the time, the losses were concurrent. Both extinctions coincide with the regional arrival of Clovis hunters.

  11. Mid-pacific mountains revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroenke, Loren W.; Kellogg, James N.; Nemoto, Kenji

    1985-06-01

    The Mid-Pacific Mountains are guyots whose volcanic pedestals have been constructed on a broad basement plateau, the flanks of which are downfaulted. Edifice construction may have been controlled by an orthogonal system of intersecting faults trending roughly ENE and NNW. Low amplitude gravity anomalies observed over the Mid-Pacific Mountains indicate complete Airy-Heiskanen isostatic compensation, crustal thickening, and eruption on thin elastic lithosphere. Tholeiites of the Mid-Pacific Mountains resemble lavas of Iceland and the Galapagos Islands. The orthogonal fault system, low gravity anomalies, and lava chemistry of the Mid-Pacific Mountains can be explained by eruption on or near a great ENE-trending rift system.

  12. The Dilemma of Mountain Roads

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mountain roads and trails are proliferating throughout developing Southeast Asia with severe but largely unrecognized long-term consequences related to effects of landslides and surface erosion on communities and downstream resources.

  13. Geography and Weather: Mountain Meterology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogil, H. Michael; Collins, H. Thomas

    1990-01-01

    Provided are 26 ideas to help children explore the effects of mountains on the weather. Weather conditions in Nepal and Colorado are considered separately. Nine additional sources of information are listed. (CW)

  14. Atlas Mountain Range, Mali, Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    ATLAS pallets are backdropped against the Atlas Mountains (31.0N, 1.0W). ATLAS is an acronym for ATmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science. Taken from a point over Mali, in the western Sahara, the northwest looking view shows dunes in the Iguidi dune sea and colors characteristic of the Saharan side of the Atlas Mountains. The edge of a large sandstorm, that transported sand and dust to Yugoslavia and beyond, can also be seen.

  15. Assessment of mesoscale convective systems using IR brightness temperature in the southwest of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafati, Somayeh; Karimi, Mostafa

    2016-04-01

    In this research, the spatial and temporal distribution of Mesoscale Convective Systems was assessed in the southwest of Iran using Global merged satellite IR brightness temperature (acquired from Meteosat, GOES, and GMS geostationary satellites) and synoptic station data. Event days were selected using a set of storm reports and precipitation criteria. The following criteria are used to determine the days with occurrence of convective systems: (1) at least one station reported 6-h precipitation exceeding 10 mm and (2) at least three stations reported phenomena related to convection (thunderstorm, lightning, and shower). MCSs were detected based on brightness temperature, maximum areal extent, and duration thresholds (228 K, 10,000 km2, and 3 h, respectively). An MCS occurrence classification system is developed based on mean sea level, 850 and 500 hPa pressure patterns. The results indicated that the highest frequency of MCSs occurred in December and April. Assessment of MCSs spatial frequency showed that MCS occurrence is strongly correlated with topography in April and May unlike the cold months. In other words, the role of Zagros Mountains in developing MCSs varies based on the season so that its impact increases with enhancement of mean monthly temperature. In addition, the occurrence of MCSs depends closely on the configuration of the Sudan Low in the southwest of Iran.

  16. Io: Mountains and crustal extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heath, M. J.

    1985-01-01

    It is argued that there is good reason to conclude that mountains on Io, like those on Earth, are subject to growth and decay. The decay of mountains will be assisted by the ability of SO sub 2 to rot silicate rock and by explosive escape of sub-surface SO sub 2 from aquifers (Haemus Mons is seen to be covered by bright material, presumably fallout from a SO sub 2 rich plume which had been active on the mountain flanks). On the west side of the massif at 10 degrees S, 270 degrees W a rugged surface consists of long ridges running perpendicular to the downslope direction, suggesting tectonic denudation with crustal blocks sliding down the mountain flank. Tectonic denudation may be assisted, as in the case of the Bearpaw Mountains, Montana by overloading mountain flanks with volcanic products. The surfaces of some massifs exhibit a well developed, enigmatic corrugated terrain, consisting of complex ridge systems. Ridges may bifurcate, anastomose to form closed depressions and form concentric loops. Taken together, observations of morphology, heat flux, surface deposits and styles of volcanism may point to the existence of lithosphere domains with distinct compositions and tectonic regimes.

  17. Uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Stump, E.

    1987-09-01

    The Transantarctic Mountains, a major continental range, extend approximately 3,000 kilometers, vary from less than 50 to more than 400 kilometers wide, and have elevations of up to 4,500 meters. Earth scientists have generally defined the stratigraphy of the range and recognize that uplift of the region occurred after the Jurassic period but still know very little about the processes that effected uplift. Unlike other major mountain chains, the Transantarctic Mountains show no evidence of thrusting, folding, regional metamorphism, and andesitic volcanism associated with their uplift. The objectives during austral summer 1987-1988 are to map the uplift geometry of the Transantarctic Mountains using erosion surfaces (pre-Devonian Kukir peneplain) and widespread terrace levels as datum planes and to determine the uplift rates for the mountain range using fission-track dating of apatites. Presently, fission-track dating provides only quantitative data on the initiation time, amount, and rate of uplift. Through research, the authors hopes to extend data from Victoria Land through 1,600 kilometers of the Transantarctic Mountains. This study also has implications for the glacial history of Antarctica, because the uplift occurred during the inception, growth, and subsequent fluctuations of the east and west antarctic ice sheets. It will also add to our understanding of the nature of the East-West Antarctic boundary and to the knowledge of the sedimentation history in the Ross embayment and the basins beneath polar plateau.

  18. Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Comer, K M

    1991-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever is an endemic tickborne disease found throughout the United States and other regions of the world. Exposure may result in a spectrum of disease from subclinical infection to severe or fatal multiorgan collapse. The disease is maintained in nature in Ixodid tick vectors and their hosts. The most important ticks in the United States are Dermacentor variabilis and Dermacentor andersoni. Small mammals are the natural reservoirs in the wild. Dogs become infected when a tick harboring Rickettsia rickettsii feeds on the dog. Dogs do not develop sufficient rickettsemia to act as a reservoir in the transmission of Rickettsia rickettsii. Thus, although dogs act as sentinels to the presence of the disease, they cannot directly transmit infection. Signs in early stages of disease often are nonspecific. The most characteristic laboratory abnormality is thrombocytopenia, but serologic testing is necessary for confirmation of infection. Tetracycline and chloramphenicol are effective antibiotics to treat infection. Treatment should continue for 14 to 21 days to allow host immune defenses to develop and eradicate the organism. Prevention requires avoidance of tick-infested areas and rapid removal of ticks should exposure occur. PMID:2014623

  19. Radiative Forcing of Dust in Mountain Snow from MODIS surface reflectance data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, T. H.

    2009-05-01

    Here I present an algorithm that retrieves the radiative forcing by desert dust in mountain snow cover from surface reflectance data from NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Dust emitted from natural and disturbed lands frequently deposits to mountain snow cover through dry and wet deposition, particularly in spring when synoptic scale storms entrain material from recently dried surfaces. Dust decreases snow spectral albedo, primarily in the visible wavelengths where the imaginary parts of the complex refractive indices of dust and ice have the greatest contrast. This surface radiative forcing accelerates melt and contributes to the snow-albedo feedback. In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, this has been shown to shorten the duration of snow cover by approximately a month. The algorithm presented here, MODIS Dust Radiative Forcing in Snow (MOD-DRFS), determines the per pixel radiative forcing by dust in snow from a coupled radiative transfer model that infers the reflectance difference between clean snow spectra and dust- laden snow spectra according to a grain size matching in the near infrared and shortwave infrared wavelengths that are not affected by dust absorption. The spectral residuals are splined to a high spectral resolution and convolved with the at surface spectral irradiance modulated by local topography, and subsequently integrated to the instantaneous surface radiative forcing. I demonstrate the model with retrievals in the Zagros Mountains, Iran and the San Juan Mountains, Colorado, USA. Preliminary validation of the model with in situ detailed pyranometer measurements in the San Juan Mountains indicates that the model has uncertainties of < 7 W/m2.

  20. Municipal solid waste management in Kurdistan Province, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abduli, Mohammad Ali; Nasrabadi, Touraj

    2007-03-01

    Kurdistan Province, with an area of 28,203 square kilometers, is located in a mountainous area in the western part of Iran. From 1967 to 1997, the urban population in the major eight cities of the Kurdistan Province-namely, Baneh, Bijar, Divan Darreh, Saghez, Sanandaj, Ghorveh, Kamyaran, and Marivan-increased from 102,250 to 705,715. The proportion of the population residing in urban areas increased 90 percent during this period. In most of the cities, solid waste handling remains primitive, and well-organized procedures for it have not been established. Traditional methods of disposal, with marginal inclusion of modern conveniences, appear to be the common practice. In general, the shortcomings of the prevailing practices can be summarized as follows: The municipal solid waste management systems (MSWMSs) in this province include unsegregated collection and open dumping of municipal solid wastes. Separation of municipal solid waste in this province is in the hands of scavengers. The MSWMSs in this province lack essential infrastructure. Thus, design and implementation of modern MSWMSs in this province are essential. Principal criteria for and methods of implementing these systems are as follows: (1) rationally evaluating all functional elements so that they operate in a steady-state or equilibrium manner; (2) creating all support elements for the MSWMS in each city; (3) introducing gradual privatization of MSWMS activities; (4) creating guidelines, regulations, and instructions for all elements of MSWMSs; and (5) giving priorities to source separation and recycling programs. This paper reviews the present status of MSWMSs in eight major cities of Kurdistan Province and outlines the principle guidelines and alternatives for MSWMSs. PMID:17390903

  1. An annotated catalogue of the Buprestidae of Iran (Coleoptera: Buprestoidea).

    PubMed

    Ghahari, Hassan; Volkovitsh, Mark G; Bellamy, Charles L

    2015-01-01

    An annotated taxonomic catalogue of the jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) of Iran is given. Original descriptions and recent revisionary or catalogue data are included along with the distribution, both within and outside of Iran, ecological data and host plant associations, junior synonyms, and comments. A complete bibliography completes the catalogue. In total 428 species and 52 subspecies of jewel beetles belonging to 6 subfamilies (Julodinae, Polycestinae, Galbellinae, Chrysochroinae, Buprestinae, and Agrilinae), 20 tribes, and 38 genera are known from Iran including doubtful records and 4 nomina nuda. It is likely that the number of jewel beetle species from Iran will be between 460-480 and possibly even more species. PMID:26250020

  2. Upper Miocene Echinoderms and Crabs OF Mishan Formation in Firuzabad Fars, Iran (Zagros Mountain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehbozorgi Dehbozorgi, Mehdi; Sabouhi Sabouhi, Mostafa; Nabavi Nabavi, Hamid

    2010-05-01

    The out crapes of Mishan Formation located in Aghar area(Firuzabad city) south west of Fars and 70km south west of Firuzabad. this Formation mostly consist of limestone, marly limestone and marlstone with 800m thickness. 6key beds distinctive from limestone beds are recognized in this area. In order to paleontological studies Mishan formation Middle- Upper Miocene beds in south west Firuzabad city investigated. Upper and lower boundaries of Mishan formation are conformable with Razak and Aghajari formations. In addition, assemblage of Gastropods, Bivalves, calcareous alga, bentic foraminifera, beryozoa were obtained that showing shallow sedimentation environment and open marine platform. Echinoderms are assigned to order Clypeasteroida and genus Scutella faujast, Schizaster sp, Oligopygus wetherbyi, Periarchus lyelli. Crabs be assigned to subphylum Crustacea and order Decapods: Portunus cf. gibbesii(1859). With due attention to rang and distribution of the Macrofossils, 5 local assmblage biozone were recognized, that is confirming time limit from Early- Upper Miocene.

  3. Numerical modeling of long term strength in the Zagros Mountains of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nankali, H. R.; Vosooghi, B.

    2009-04-01

    A three-dimensional lithosphere model with horizontal dimensions of 1500 km x 600 km and a depth extent of 70 km for the Zagros is constructed from available geophysical data to find out strength of the outermost layers in this area. The structural boundaries of the model are based on the results from the deep seismic sounding profiles. First the finite element model for the temperature is solved in order to obtain initial temperature and the geotherm, after that structural viscoelastic problem is solved using the same mesh as in the thermal initial condition. Preliminary results for wet and dry rheology indicate that the depth of the BDT is about 8 km and 11 km for hot geotherm and 10.5 km to 14 km for cold geotherm. The results are in good agreement with focal depth in the Zagros that most earthquakes occur in 8 to 15 km depth (Tatar et al., 2004) and Jackson et al., 2008, that the long-term strength of the continental lithosphere resided only in its upper part, which was contained wholly within the crust.

  4. Medical tourism in Iran: Issues and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Jabbari, Alireza; Delgoshaei, Bahram; Mardani, Raja; Tabibi, Seid Jamaledin

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Medical tourism is rapidly becoming a worldwide, multibillion-dollar industry. Iran has a high potential for this industry. The purpose of this study was to examine the medical tourism cluster, using Diamond Analysis tool. Materials and Methods: This study is a descriptive, analytical and qualitative one. Thirty professionals and researchers in this field were interviewed and official documents belonging to the Health ministry as well as tourism organization and finally related literature were examined. The data was analyzed using content analysis method. Results: Positive and negative parts of the medical tourism industry of Iran were determined according to diamond of advantage. Conclusion: The strategic issues were identified and a number of possible solutions for addressing them were recommended. More and effective public-private participations, aggressive marketing, improving infrastructures, and international accreditation of health care facilities and human resources development could improve medical tourism industry in the country. PMID:23555142

  5. Investigation of Valiantzas' evapotranspiration equation in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valipour, Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Several methods are available to estimate the reference evapotranspiration including mass transfer-based, radiation-based, temperature-based, and pan evaporation-based methods. The most important weather parameters are solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed for evapotranspiration models. This study aims to compare five forms of Valiantzas' evapotranspiration methods (one of the newest models) as well as Priestley-Taylor and Turc models to detect the best one under different weather conditions. For this purpose, weather data were gathered from 181 synoptic stations in 31 provinces of Iran. The reference evapotranspiration was compared with the FAO Penman-Monteith method. The results show that they are suitable for provinces of Iran (coefficient of determination ( R 2) was more than 0.9900). The Valiantzas 1 ( T, R s, RH, u) is more suitable for centre and south of Iran (9 provinces), and the Valiantzas 2 ( T, R s, RH, u) is suitable for west, east, and north of Iran (22 provinces). The most precise method was the Valiantzas 1 ( T, R s, RH, u) for ES. In addition, among limited data methods, the Valiantzas 2 ( T, R s, RH) is the best method (18 provinces). Finally, a list of the best performances of each method was presented to use other regions according to values of temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed. The best weather conditions for use in Valiantzas' methods are >24.2 MJ m-2 day-1, 16-18 °C, 40-50 %, and 1.50-2.50 m s-1 for solar radiation, temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed, respectively. Results are also useful for selecting the best model when researchers must apply these models on the basis of the available data.

  6. Spatial Analysis of Colorectal Cancer in Iran.

    PubMed

    Pakzad, Reza; Moudi, Asieh; Pournamdar, Zahra; Pakzad, Iraj; Mohammadian-Hashejani, Abdollah; Momenimovahed, Zohre; Salehiniya, Hamid; Towhidi, Farhad; Makhsosi, Behnam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers. Due to demographic changes, it is predicted that the incidence of this cancer will increase. Variations of its incidence rate among geographical areas are due to various contributing factors. Since there have been a lack of studies on this topic in our country, the present assessment of spatial patterns of colorectal cancer incidence in Iran was performed. In this ecological study, the new cases of colon cancer were extracted from Cancer Registry Center report of the Health Deputy of Iran in 2009. The reported incidences of the disease were standardized on the basis of the World Health Organization population and the direct method. Then the data were inserted into the GIS software, and finally, using the analysis of hot spots (Getis-Ord Gi) high-risk areas were drawn. Provinces that are higher or lower than the national average (1.9 SD) were considered hot spots or cold spots, significant at the level of 0.05. A total of 6,210 cases of colorectal cancer were registered in Iran in 2009, of which 3,727 were in men and 2,783 in women (age-standardized rates of 11.3 and 10.9 per 100,000 population, respectively). The results showed that in central and northern Iran including Isfahan, Qom, Tehran, Qazvin and Mazandaran significant hot spots in men were present (p <0.05). In women also we have high incidence in northern and central states: Mazandaran province (p<0.01) and the province of Tehran (p<0.05) had higher incidences than the national average and were apparent as significant hot spots. Analysis of the spatial distribution of colorectal cancer showed significant differences between different areas pointing to the necessity for further epidemiological studies into the etiology and early detection. PMID:27165208

  7. Ochratoxin A in several grains in Iran.

    PubMed

    Beheshti, Hamed Reza; Asadi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Ochratoxin A content in 100 grain and derived products were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with immunoaffinity column clean-up and fluorometric detection. Ochratoxin A was detected in 32% of green gram, 13.3% of chickpea, 10% of lentil and 17.5% of wheat flour. Ochratoxin contamination was below the regulatory limits of the European Union and of Iran. Recovery was 97% and the limit of detection was 0.12 ng g⁻¹. PMID:24779905

  8. Suicidal Attempt and Psychiatric Disorders in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Rahgozart, Mehdi; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Malekafzali, Hossein; Davidian, Haratoun; Naghavi, Hamidreza; Soori, Hamid; Yazdi, Seyed Abbas Bagheri

    2005-01-01

    This study is part of broader research aimed to determine the lifetime prevalence and pattern of comorbidity on self-reported suicidal attempts in the general population of Iran. Overall, 25,180 subjects were interviewed, face-to-face, at home; the lifetime prevalence was 1.4% (0.9% males and 2% females). The majority of attempters were 26-55…

  9. Sheath rot of rice in Iran.

    PubMed

    Naeimi, S; Okhovvat, S M; Hedjaroude, G A; Khosravi, V

    2003-01-01

    Sheath rot of rice occurs in most rice-growing regions of the world. It usually causes yield losses from 20 to 85%. Sheath rot was reported from Iran in 1993. Year after year, the number of diseased plants increased in the Northern Iran. In summer of 2001, these symptoms were observed in most fields: lesions occur on the upper leaf sheaths, especially the flag leaf sheath. As the disease progresses, lesions enlarge and coalesce and may cover most of the leaf sheath. Panicle may fail to completely or at all. Brown or partially brown not filled or partially filled grain is also associated with infection of the panicle. A whitish powdery growth may be found inside affected sheaths. Infected plants were collected and trasferred to laboratory. Small pieces of diseased tissues were washed under tap water for one hour. Then tissues were placed on WA and incubated at 25 degrees C. These isolates were purified and identified as: Sarocladium oryzae, Fusarium udum, F. semitectum, F. avenaceum, F. flocciferum, F. graminearum, Bipolaris oryzae, Alternaria padwickii, Rhizoctonia solani, Paecilomyces sp., Nigrospora sp. and Trichoderma sp. This is the first report of F. udum in Iran. Also this is the first report that rice is the host for F. semitectum, F. avenaceum and F. flocciferum in Iran. Pathogenicity tests were conducted in glass house. Following species were found to be associated with sheath rot of rice: S. oryzae, F. graminearum, F. udum, F. avenaceum, B. oryzae, A. padwickii. This is the first report in the world that F. udum and A. padwickii are the causal agents of the sheath rot on rice plants. PMID:15151303

  10. Hydrometeorology of Rocky Mountain floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarrett, Robert D.

    Climatology and flood hydrology of the Rocky Mountains were the topics of a workshop held in Lakewood, Colo., October 4-5, 1990. Ninety-one people participated in the workshop, which was organized by Robert Jarrett, U.S. Geological Survey, Denver; John Liou, Federal Emergency Management Agency, Denver; and Doug Laiho, Delta Environmental Consultants, Boulder, representing the American Society of Civil Engineers.The workshop was held to address some of the recognized complexities in the hydrometeorology of floods in the Rocky Mountains. The complexities are caused by the effects of rough mountain terrain on meteorology, snowmelt and rainfall flooding, and limited rainfall and streamflow data. The current theories and methods used to estimate flood flows in the Rocky Mountains, particularly estimation of the probable maximum precipitation (PMP) and the probable maximum flood (PMF), have been questioned by hydrologists and engineers for some time. Purposes of the workshop were to review the current understanding and ongoing research of floods—both frequent and extreme, including the PMF, in the Rocky Mountains; to bring together scientists, engineers, and flood-plain managers in government, industry, consulting firms, and universities; and to provide a mechanism for the exchange of ideas and technology between climatologists, meteorologists, hydrologists, engineers, and managers.

  11. Mountain biking injuries: an update.

    PubMed

    Kronisch, Robert L; Pfeiffer, Ronald P

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews the available literature regarding injuries in off-road bicyclists. Recent progress in injury research has allowed the description of several patterns of injury in this sport. Mountain biking remains popular, particularly among young males, although sales and participation figures have decreased in the last several years. Competition in downhill racing has increased, while cross-country racing has decreased somewhat in popularity. Recreational riders comprise the largest segment of participants, but little is known about the demographics and injury epidemiology of noncompetitive mountain cyclists. Most mountain bikers participating in surveys reported a history of previous injuries, but prospective studies conducted at mountain bike races have found injury rates of <1%. The most common mechanism of injury involves a forward fall over the handlebars, usually while riding downhill, which can result in direct trauma to the head, torso and upper extremities. A variety of factors can be associated with this type of fall, including trail surface irregularities, mechanical failures and loss of control. In mountain bike racing the risk of injury may be higher for women than men. Minor injuries such as abrasions and contusions occur frequently, but are usually of little consequence. Fractures usually involve the torso or upper extremities, and shoulder injuries are common. Head and face injuries are not always prevented by current helmet designs. Fatal injuries are rare but have been reported. Improvements in safety equipment, rider training and racecourse design are suggested injury prevention measures. The authors encourage continued research in this sport. PMID:12076178

  12. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in Iran.

    PubMed

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh

    2016-06-14

    Iran is known as an endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, while there are variations in the epidemiology of HEV infection throughout the country. The available epidemiological studies in different regions of Iran show HEV seroprevalence of 1.1%-14.2% among general population, 4.5% -14.3% among blood donors, 6.1%-22.8% among injecting drug users, 6.3%-28.3% among hemodialysis patients, 1.6%-11.3% among patients infected with other hepatitis viruses, 27.5% among patients with chronic liver disease, 30.8% among kidney transplant recipient patients, and 10%-16.4% among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. These variations reflect differences in the status of public health and hygiene, risk factors, and routes of transmission in different regions and groups. Therefore, it is necessary to review the epidemiology of HEV infection to determine the most prevalent risk factors and routes of transmission, and to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive strategies employed in the public health services of the country. Moreover, the other epidemiological aspects of HEV, including the genotypic pattern, extra hepatic manifestations, and incidence of chronic infection need to be investigated among Iranian population to expand the current knowledge on the epidemiology of HEV and to clarify the real burden of HEV infection. Therefore, this review was performed to provide a general overview regarding the epidemiology of HEV in Iran. PMID:27298557

  13. Gender and spatial population mobility in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hemmasi, M

    1994-01-01

    1976-1986 data from the National Census of Population and Housing were analyzed to examine the spatial patterns of internal migration of women and men in Iran within its Islamic patriarchal cultural system. The researcher also organized 1986 data into two interprovincial migration matrixes for men and women. Women were spatially as mobile as men (urban, 16.7% for men and 17% for women; rural, 8.4% and 8.9%, respectively). Gender spatial mobility patterns during the 10 years included: migration streams from nine provinces consistently led to Tehran province, most migration flows to Tehran and most other provinces originated from Khuzistan, East Azerbaijan province still continued to lose population (about 500,000), and out-flows generally originated from the provinces affected by the Iran-Iraq war and went to the central and eastern provinces. The strongest determinants of women's migration was men's migration ratio and the road distance between the origin and destination. Reasons for these strong associations were few employed women ( 10%), strong family ties, and traditional cultural values (e.g., women tend not to travel alone). So their migration patterns tended to be associational rather than autonomous. Despite the fact that internal migration patterns of men and women were the same, the causes, processes, and consequences of migration were still very gender-specific in Iran. There are no signs of change in the near future. PMID:12289843

  14. Prevalence of obesity among schoolchildren in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ayatollahi, S M T; Mostajabi, F

    2007-07-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity among schoolchildren aged 6.5-11.5 years in Shiraz (southern Iran) are presented in this paper. The body mass index (BMI) percentiles of these children are compared with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reference data and with the Iranian standard. The data are based on a random multistage sample survey of 2397 healthy school attenders (1268 boys, 1129 girls) living in Shiraz, whose heights and weights were measured in the 2002-2003 academic year. Joint height and weight measurements were obtained for 2195 schoolchildren (91.6%), consisting of 1138 boys (89.7%) and 1057 girls (93.6%). A total of 77 boys (6.8%) and 40 girls (3.8%) were overweight, and the difference between them was significant (P = 0.001). However, obesity was significantly less prevalent in boys (3.3%) than in girls (6.1%) (P = 0.001). Our children's median BMI lie almost on the 38th centile of the CDC reference data, whereas that of their counterparts born more than 10 years ago lay on the 20th centile of their American counterparts, showing the development of children's obesity in a period of less than 15 years in Iran. A positive secular trend in BMI has been seen during the past decade in Iran, suggesting policymakers and health professionals should pay special attention to children's health. PMID:17578379

  15. Occurrence of viruses infecting pea in Iran.

    PubMed

    Esfandiari, N; Kohi-Habibi, M; Mosahebi, Gh

    2006-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the incidence of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Broad bean wilt virus-1 (BBWV), Pea leafroll virus (PLRV), Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), Pea seed borne mosaic virus (PSbMV), Potato virus x(PVX), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) on pea (Pisum sativum) in Iran. A Total of 1276 random and 684 symptomatic pea samples were collected during the spring and summer of 2002-2004 in Tehran province of Iran, where pea is grown, and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using specific polyclonal antibodies. Serological diagnoses were confirmed by electron microscopy and host range studies. Incidence of viruses in decreasing order was PVX (69%), ToMV (59%), PSbMV (36.6%), BBWV-1 (26.1%), BYMV (20.3%), AMV (17.77%), TSWV (12.6%), PEMV (10.9%), PLRV (6.78%). In this survey, natural occurrence of AMV, BBWV-1, PSbMV, TSWV, PVX and ToMV was reported for the first time on the pea in Iran. PMID:17390891

  16. Aflatoxins in iran: nature, hazards and carcinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Khoshpey, B; Farhud, Dd; Zaini, F

    2011-12-01

    Many studies have shown that mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products is a challenge for individual's health especially in developing countries. Improper production and storage of foods, prepare conditions for aflatoxin production in crops, especially rice, wheat, pistachio, walnut, almond, etc which are the main sources of foods for people. Feeding livestock by contaminated bread is another way of human exposure to mycotoxins, especially aflatoxin and because of expensive methods for detecting and analyzing aflatoxin in laboratory; it is not measured in foods. This manuscript is a review of some Iranian and nonIranian reports about aflatoxin, its exposure ways, its adverse effect on human health and nutrition, as well as methods for reducing its exposure. Based on studies on foods, aflatoxin exposure is high in Iran. Since livestock feeding by contaminated bread is one of the potential ways for milk contamination, we should control and reduce aflatoxin contamination by improving production process, storage condition and livestock feeding as soon as possible. Pistachio is one of the most important exporting products of Iran and to maintain Iran's position in exporting of this product, specific regulations on lowering its contamination with aflatoxin should be considered seriously. Finally, effective controlling of all food and feedstuffs which are vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination is necessary to prevent its effects. PMID:23113099

  17. Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Taherkhani, Reza; Farshadpour, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Iran is known as an endemic country for hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection, while there are variations in the epidemiology of HEV infection throughout the country. The available epidemiological studies in different regions of Iran show HEV seroprevalence of 1.1%-14.2% among general population, 4.5% -14.3% among blood donors, 6.1%-22.8% among injecting drug users, 6.3%-28.3% among hemodialysis patients, 1.6%-11.3% among patients infected with other hepatitis viruses, 27.5% among patients with chronic liver disease, 30.8% among kidney transplant recipient patients, and 10%-16.4% among human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. These variations reflect differences in the status of public health and hygiene, risk factors, and routes of transmission in different regions and groups. Therefore, it is necessary to review the epidemiology of HEV infection to determine the most prevalent risk factors and routes of transmission, and to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive strategies employed in the public health services of the country. Moreover, the other epidemiological aspects of HEV, including the genotypic pattern, extra hepatic manifestations, and incidence of chronic infection need to be investigated among Iranian population to expand the current knowledge on the epidemiology of HEV and to clarify the real burden of HEV infection. Therefore, this review was performed to provide a general overview regarding the epidemiology of HEV in Iran. PMID:27298557

  18. The cost of hemodialysis in Iran.

    PubMed

    Arefzadeh, Alireza; Lessanpezeshki, Mahboub; Seifi, Sepideh

    2009-03-01

    The use of dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains one of the most resource-intensive and hence, expensive therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the cost of hemodialysis (HD) in Iran. This study was conducted in the Department of Nephrology at the Imam Khomeini Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran, between April 2006 and June 2007. Patients with ESRD on chronic HD were involved in the study. Relevant data were collected using interview and questionnaire. Analyzed costs included: transportation plus absence from work, treatment instruments, drugs and other medical procedures, diet, staff salary, equipment and building support services, non-medical supplies, depreciation of installations and equipments, depreciation of reverse osmosis (RO) and building rent. Sixty-three patients of whom 47.7% were males and 52.3% were females, with mean age of 47 +/- 12 years were studied. The estimated cost of each HD session was about 74 US dollars by which an annual cost of $11549 could be estimated for each patient. Transportation and work leaves (28.9%), staff costs and salaries (21.5%), and treatment instruments (21.1%) were among the greatest expenses. We conclude that the annual cost of dialysis in Iran is similar to other developing countries, but significantly less than the cost in developed countries. PMID:19237828

  19. Mountaineer`s gas facilities decision support system

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Mountaineer Gas Co. of Charleston, W.Va., is justifiably proud of its capacity to combine electronic maps with a full database of information about its facilities and customers, and use that mix to make the decisions required in operating a gas company with better information and more quickly. Determining when a pipeline needs replacement or repair used to take several days at Mountaineer. With the new system in place, the decision can be made in a matter of minutes. The paper describes the system and its development, then discusses adding customer information as the next step.

  20. Factors Associated With Suicidal Attempts in Iran: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hakim Shooshtari, Mitra; Malakouti, Seyyed Kazem; Panaghi, Leili; Mohseni, Shohreh; Mansouri, Naghmeh; Rahimi Movaghar, Afarin

    2016-01-01

    Context: Suicide prevention is a health service priority. Some surveys have assessed suicidal behaviors and potential risk factors. Objectives: The current paper aimed to gather information about etiology of suicide attempts in Iran. Data Sources: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched. Study Selection: By electronic and gray literature search, 128 articles were enrolled in this paper. Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc were searched for electronic search. After reading the abstracts, 84 studies were excluded and full texts of 44 articles were reviewed critically. Data Extraction: Pubmed, ISI web of science, PsychInfo, IranPsych, IranMedex, IranDoc as well as gray literature were searched to find any study about etiologic factors of suicide attempt in Iran. Results: Depressive disorder was the most common diagnosis in suicide attempters that is 45% of the evaluated cases had depression. One study that had used Minnesota multiphasic personality inventory (MMPI) found that Histrionics in females and Schizophrenia and Paranoia in males were significantly influential. Family conflicts with 50.7% and conflict with parents with 44% were two effective psychosocial factors in suicidal attempts. In around one fourth (28.7%) of the cases, conflict with spouse was the main etiologic factor. Conclusions: According to the methodological limitations, outcomes should be generalized cautiously. Further studies will help to plan preventive strategies for suicidal attempts; therefore, continued researches should be conducted to fill the data gaps. PMID:27284284

  1. Case Study: Iran, Islam, the NPT, and the Bomb

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, E .

    2011-04-01

    The goals of this case study are: (1) To examine the correlation between Iran's nuclear program and clerical statements; (2) To evaluate the importance of these statements; (3) To understand the relationship between policy and fatwas (Islamic decrees); (4) To address the issue of a 'nuclear fatwa'; and (5) To examine how, if at all, Sharia (Islamic law) has influenced Iran's actions or inactions with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Iran's adherence to its IAEA Safeguards Agreements and the Additional Protocol. The Islamic Republic of Iran (hereinafter Iran) is one of two theocracies in the world, the second being Vatican City. Iran's government derives its constitutional, moral, and political legitimacy from Islam. As a result of this theocratic culture, rules are set and interpreted with a much different calibrator than that of the Western world. Islam affects all aspects of Iranian life. This is further complicated by the fact that Islam is not a nationalistic faith, in that many people all over the world believe in and adhere to Islamic principles. As a result, a political system that derives much of its fervor from being nationalistic is caught between two worlds, one within the land boundaries of Iran and the other within a faith that transcends boundaries. Thus, any understanding of Islamic law must first be understood within this delicate balance of nationalism and transcendence. Iran has found itself on the international stage concerning its nuclear program. Because Iran is a theocratic state, it is imperative to examine its political moves, speeches, rights, and obligations through the lens of Islam. This study will examine how Islam plays a role in Iran's dealing with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its understanding of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), including parties obligations under Safeguards Agreements and the Additional Protocol, and also provide a

  2. Sero-survey of Avian Influenza in backyard poultry and wild bird species in Iran-2014.

    PubMed

    Fallah Mehrabadi, M H; Bahonar, A R; Vasfi Marandi, M; Sadrzadeh, A; Tehrani, F; Salman, M D

    2016-06-01

    In almost all villages in Iran backyard birds, especially chickens, are kept for egg and meat production. AI H9N2 subtype is endemic in Iran. Therefore, estimation of AI prevalence among these birds is important to determine the risk of transmission of infection to commercial farms. The aim of this study was to estimate subclinical infections or previous exposure to H5, H7, and H9 subtypes and to identify potentially important determinants of prevalence of this infectious at premises level in backyard poultry, bird gardens, zoos, and wild bird markets in Iran. A survey was conducted using a cross-sectional design throughout the entire country. A total of 329 villages, seven bird gardens, three zoos and five wild bird markets were included. In each village four families that kept birds were included in the collection of biological samples and background information. The Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used as the screening test and all ELISA-positive samples were examined with the HI test to differentiate H5, H7, and H9. Among the bird gardens, eight of 15 premises (53.3%) were positive in both the ELISA test and HI for H9N2. Testing of samples collected in the villages revealed that 296 out of 329 villages (90%) had positive ELISA tests and also HI tests for H9. The HI-H9 mean titers in positive units were significantly higher than negative units (P<.001). This study revealed no significant statistical differences between risk variables in seropositive and seronegative bird gardens in the case of H9 (P>.05). The results of this study showed that among the risk variables, mountainous area was a protective factor and lack of hygienic disposal of dead birds was a risk factor for AI; this was also observed in rural poultry. The high sero-prevalence of influenza H9N2 in rural domestic poultry indicates that the disease is endemic. It is necessary to include backyard poultry in any surveillance system and control strategy due to the existence of AIV in

  3. 10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. SLIGHTLY OBLIQUE VIEW OF EAGLE MOUNTAIN PUMP COMPLEX. NOTE AUXILIARY STRUCTURES. - Eagle Mountain Pump Plant, Ten miles north of Route 10, southeast of Eagle Mountain, Eagle Mountain, Riverside County, CA

  4. Algal Biozonation of Fahliyan Formation (Neocomian) in the Zagros Basin, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosadegh, H.; Parvaneh Nejad Shirazi, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Faliyan Formation (Neocomian) of the Zagros Mountains consists of shale and limestone, deposited on a gentle deep carbonate ramp. The Faliyan Formation expands over a vast area in Fars and Northeast of Khuzestan provinces. The Formation, in this regions, conformably overlain by Gadvan Formation and underlain by the Hith and Surmeh formations in the subsurface and outcrop sections, respectively. Towards to Southest of Khuzestan, this carbonate dominated formation changes to shaly Garu Formation. Calcareous algae are frequent and variety in shallow marine limestone of Cretaceous strata in Zagros Mountain in South-West of Iran. Based on thin sections and well cuttings of Faliyan Formation, 8 genera of green algae and 4 genera of red algae have determined. Following abundant taxa are described in this paper: Salpnigoporella dinarica, Salpingoporella anullata, Permocalculus innopinatus, Lithocodium aggregatum (Syn. Bacilina irregularis), Actinoporella podolica, Coptocampylodon fontis ,Acicularia sp. Based on these calcareous algae 2 biozones are recognized, that in ascending order are: 1) Salpingoporella spp. ass.zone containing Salpingoporella annulata, S. steinhauseri, Clypeina cf. marteli, Boueina sp., Actinoporella podolica and Coptocampylodon fontis. 2) Salpingoporella muehbergi ass. zone including Salpingoporella dinrica, Lithocodium aggregatum, Permocalculus ampulacea, P. innopinatus.

  5. Timber Mountain Precipitation Monitoring Station

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, Brad; McCurdy, Greg; Chapman, Jenny; Miller, Julianne

    2012-01-01

    A precipitation monitoring station was placed on the west flank of Timber Mountain during the year 2010. It is located in an isolated highland area near the western border of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), south of Pahute Mesa. The cost of the equipment, permitting, and installation was provided by the Environmental Monitoring Systems Initiative (EMSI) project. Data collection, analysis, and maintenance of the station during fiscal year 2011 was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office Environmental Restoration, Soils Activity. The station is located near the western headwaters of Forty Mile Wash on the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Overland flows from precipitation events that occur in the Timber Mountain high elevation area cross several of the contaminated Soils project CAU (Corrective Action Unit) sites located in the Forty Mile Wash watershed. Rain-on-snow events in the early winter and spring around Timber Mountain have contributed to several significant flow events in Forty Mile Wash. The data from the new precipitation gauge at Timber Mountain will provide important information for determining runoff response to precipitation events in this area of the NNSS. Timber Mountain is also a groundwater recharge area, and estimation of recharge from precipitation was important for the EMSI project in determining groundwater flowpaths and designing effective groundwater monitoring for Yucca Mountain. Recharge estimation additionally provides benefit to the Underground Test Area Sub-project analysis of groundwater flow direction and velocity from nuclear test areas on Pahute Mesa. Additionally, this site provides data that has been used during wild fire events and provided a singular monitoring location of the extreme precipitation events during December 2010 (see data section for more details). This letter report provides a summary of the site location, equipment, and data collected in

  6. White Mountain Wilderness, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Segerstrom, K.; Stotelmeyer, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of a mineral survey made during 1971-1973, the White Mountain Wilderness, which constitutes much of the western and northern White Mountains, New Mexico, is appraised to have six areas of probable mineral potential for base and precious metals. In mineral deposits exist in the wilderness, the potential is for small deposits of base and precious metals in veins and breccia pipes or, more significantly, the possibility for large low-grade disseminated porphyry-type molybdenum deposits. There is little promise for the occurrence of geothermal energy resources in the area.

  7. BLOOD MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREA, GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koeppen, Robert P.; Armstrong, Michelle K.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey of the Blood Mountain Roadless Area, Georgia, indicates that there is little promise for the occurrence of mineral and energy resources. Natural gas may be present at great depth, perhaps 5 mi down and below the overthrust sheets of the Blue Ridge Mountains, but presently available information is not adequate to evaluate the resource potential of this commodity. Further seismic studies and exploratory drilling are needed to evaluate the gas potential of this part of the Eastern Overthrust Belt.

  8. Yearly report, Yucca Mountain project

    SciTech Connect

    Brune, J.N.

    1992-09-30

    We proposed to (1) Develop our data logging and analysis equipment and techniques for analyzing seismic data from the Southern Great Basin Seismic Network (SGBSN), (2) Investigate the SGBSN data for evidence of seismicity patterns, depth distribution patterns, and correlations with geologic features (3) Repair and maintain our three broad band downhole digital seismograph stations at Nelson, nevada, Troy Canyon, Nevada, and Deep Springs, California (4) Install, operate, and log data from a super sensitive microearthquake array at Yucca Mountain (5) Analyze data from micro-earthquakes relative to seismic hazard at Yucca Mountain.

  9. Meeting the Cultural Challenges of Instructional Technology in Iran.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johari, Abbas

    2002-01-01

    Discusses instructional technology in Iran. Highlights include a historical background of Iran; Islamic faith and technology; technology without western culture and influence; access to mass communication; telecommunications conferences; Internet access, usage, and connectivity; social issues; media in schools; Internet inequalities; and…

  10. 78 FR 43278 - Publication of Iran General License D

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... reexportation to persons in Iran of certain services, software, and hardware incident to the exchange of..., wherever located, to persons in Iran of certain software and hardware that are subject to the EAR and..., software, or hardware specified in paragraph (a) of this general license with knowledge or reason to...

  11. The Idea of English in Iran: An Example from Urmia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadeghi, Karim; Richards, Jack C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the place of English in Iran. To do this, we look at the social presence of English in Urmia (the capital of West Azerbaijan province, Iran). The paper draws on instances of the use of English in different contexts in Urmia, including its use in academia, business, state and private education, media, and people's ordinary…

  12. Iran's Denial of Education to Baha'is

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2009-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the background of the persecution of the Baha'is in Iran, especially the denial of education, and explores what could be done to alleviate this injustice, including enlisting the support of nations, organizations, media and people around the world. Baha'is are the largest religious minority in Iran and have been…

  13. Organizational Commitment among High School Teachers of India and Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joolideh, Faranak; Yeshodhara, K.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to investigate the organizational commitment of teachers in India and Iran. It is an attempt to understand how these perceptions vary by demographic variables such as age and subject taught by teachers. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected from 721 high school teachers in Bangalore (India) and Sanandaj (Iran).…

  14. An annotated checklist of Malachiidae (Coleoptera: Cleroidea) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirutenko, Vladyslav; Ghahari, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    A checklist of Iranian Malachiidae (Coleoptera) is given in this paper. Eighty two species from 22 genera (subfamily Malachiinae) are listed in the fauna of Iran. Of these species, 31 are endemic to Iran, and one Anthocomus pupillatus Abeille de Perrin, 1890 is a new record for this country. PMID:27615977

  15. [On the fauna of blackflies (Diptera: Simuliidae) of Iran].

    PubMed

    Iankovskiĭ, A V

    2010-01-01

    Collections of blacfklies from Iran have been examined; four species were recorded. Three new species are described--Tetisimulium iranicum sp. n., Wilhelmia lurestanica sp. n., and Crosskeyellum zagros sp. n. Presence of Tetisimulium coarctatum (Rubzov, 1940) in Iran is confirmed. PMID:20536011

  16. 48 CFR 25.703-2 - Iran Sanctions Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... (ii) Knowingly selling, leasing or providing to Iran goods, services, technology, information, or support with a fair market value of $1,000,000 or more, or during a 12-month period with an aggregate fair...) Knowingly selling, leasing, or providing to Iran goods, services, technology, information, or support with...

  17. Fault Slip Rate of the Kazerun Fault System (KFS), Iran, Investigated Using Finite Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoorcheh, Bijan; Motagh, Mahdi; Baes, Marzieh; Bahroudi, Abbas

    2015-10-01

    A 3D non-homogenous finite element model (FEM) is developed to investigate the spatial variations of interseismic deformation for the Kazerun Fault System (KFS) in the Zagros Mountains of Iran. The model includes 19 fault segments that were extracted from geological maps and previous studies, and the average slips in the dip and strike directions on these segments were computed. The contemporary surface deformation is simulated using a free horizontal detachment surface. The dip angles of the faults in the model are varied at 90°, 70°, 50° and 30° to simulate different 3D representations of the fault systems. Tectonic loading at the boundaries of the region is applied using predicted GPS velocity vectors to the north (southern part of the Central Iran Block) and south (southern region of the Zagros mountain belt), which were obtained by solving inverse and forward problems. Where possible, the fault slip rates that are obtained using our non-homogeneous finite element model are validated using the long-term geologic and instantaneous GPS slip rates. The model is then used to estimate the dip- and strike-slip rates of the fault segments of the KFS for which no a priori information was available. We derive an upper bound of 1 mm/year for the average dip-slip rate in the region, which is consistent with estimates from geomorphologic observations. The modeling results show that in addition to the 4 main faults (Dena, Kazerun, Kareh Bas and Main Recent), other faults, such as the Zagros Front, Main Front, High Zagros and Mishan faults, accommodate up to 2.5 mm/year of the differential movement between the North and Central Zagros. We also investigated the contrast in rigidity between the southern and northern areas of the Zagros mountain belt and found that a rigidity contrast of 2 best explains the GPS data of contemporary surface deformation. Neglecting to account for the rigidity contrast in the model can lead to biased estimates of the fault slip rate of up to

  18. 31 CFR 560.551 - Student loan payments from persons in Iran authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Iran authorized. 560.551 Section 560.551 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... payments from persons in Iran authorized. United States depository institutions and private loan companies... payments from persons in Iran or ordinarily resident in Iran....

  19. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to...

  20. 31 CFR 560.551 - Student loan payments from persons in Iran authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Iran authorized. 560.551 Section 560.551 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... payments from persons in Iran authorized. United States depository institutions and private loan companies... payments from persons in Iran or ordinarily resident in Iran....

  1. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to...

  2. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to...

  3. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to...

  4. 28 CFR 601.1 - Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Iran/Contra. 601.1 Section 601.1 Judicial Administration OFFICES OF INDEPENDENT COUNSEL, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE JURISDICTION OF THE INDEPENDENT COUNSEL: IRAN/CONTRA § 601.1 Jurisdiction of the Independent Counsel: Iran/Contra. (a) The Independent Counsel. Iran/Contra has jurisdiction to investigate to...

  5. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  6. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  7. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  8. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  9. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  10. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  11. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  12. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  13. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  14. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  15. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  16. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  17. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  18. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  19. 27 CFR 9.112 - Arkansas Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arkansas Mountain. 9.112... Arkansas Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Arkansas Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundary of the Arkansas...

  20. 27 CFR 9.94 - Howell Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Howell Mountain. 9.94... Howell Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Howell Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Howell...

  1. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  2. 27 CFR 9.102 - Sonoma Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sonoma Mountain. 9.102... Sonoma Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Sonoma Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The approved maps for determining the boundary of the Sonoma...

  3. 49 CFR 71.8 - Mountain zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mountain zone. 71.8 Section 71.8 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation STANDARD TIME ZONE BOUNDARIES § 71.8 Mountain zone. The fourth zone, the mountain standard time zone, includes that part of the United States that is west of...

  4. Iran`s petroleum policy: Current trends and the future outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Pezeshki, S.; Fesharaki, F.

    1994-12-01

    The Iranian economy and political situation have undergone radical changes since the 1979 Islamic revolution. The excesses of the early years of the revolution have gradually given way to moderation and a more pragmatic economic policy--based on the principles of the free market. The petroleum policy, as a subset of the economic policies, has been somewhat affected by the political and economic developments in Iran. The petroleum policy has changed from a position of no foreign participation to a position that includes a desire for foreign participation, the text of a model contract, and an attempt to introduce new technologies in the upstream sector. This report provides an overview of the key issues facing the Iranian oil industry and the economic context in which the oil industry is operating in Iran. It describes the evolution of policies meant to move the oil industry toward the free market; it discusses Iran`s oil trading partners, the outlook for refining and project investments, and current and likely future developments in the natural gas and petrochemical sectors. In short, the report provides an up-to-date assessment of the Iranian petroleum sector and its likely evolution in the future.

  5. 31 CFR 560.205 - Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CFR parts 740-774) or by the U.S. State Department under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (22 CFR 123.9). ..., technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States...

  6. 31 CFR 560.205 - Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR parts 740-774) or by the U.S. State Department under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (22 CFR 123.9). ..., technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States...

  7. 31 CFR 560.205 - Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR parts 740-774) or by the U.S. State Department under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (22 CFR 123.9). ..., technology or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States...

  8. 31 CFR 560.205 - Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Commerce under the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR parts 730-774) or by the U.S. State Department under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (22 CFR 123.9). (c) Reexportation by United States..., technology, or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States...

  9. 31 CFR 560.205 - Prohibited reexportation of goods, technology, or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Commerce under the Export Administration Regulations (15 CFR parts 730-774) or by the U.S. State Department under the International Traffic in Arms Regulations (22 CFR 123.9). (c) Reexportation by United States..., technology, or services to Iran or the Government of Iran by persons other than United States...

  10. 31 CFR 560.427 - Exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of financial services to Iran or the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of financial services to Iran or the Government of Iran. 560.427 Section 560.427 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL,...

  11. 31 CFR 560.427 - Exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of financial services to Iran or the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of financial services to Iran or the Government of Iran. 560.427 Section 560.427 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL,...

  12. Sensitivity analysis of monthly reference crop evapotranspiration trends in Iran: a qualitative approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosaedi, Abolfazl; Ghabaei Sough, Mohammad; Sadeghi, Sayed-Hossein; Mooshakhian, Yousof; Bannayan, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze the sensitivity of the monthly reference crop evapotranspiration (ETo) trends to key climatic factors (minimum and maximum air temperature (T max and T min), relative humidity (RH), sunshine hours (t sun), and wind speed (U 2)) in Iran by applying a qualitative detrended method, rather than the historical mathematical approach. Meteorological data for the period of 1963-2007 from five synoptic stations with different climatic characteristics, including Mashhad (mountains), Tabriz (mountains), Tehran (semi-desert), Anzali (coastal wet), and Shiraz (semi-mountains) were used to address this objective. The Mann-Kendall test was employed to assess the trends of ETo and the climatic variables. The results indicated a significant increasing trend of the monthly ETo for Mashhad and Tabriz for most part of the year while the opposite conclusion was drawn for Tehran, Anzali, and Shiraz. Based on the detrended method, RH and U 2 were the two main variables enhancing the negative ETo trends in Tehran and Anzali stations whereas U 2 and temperature were responsible for this observation in Shiraz. On the other hand, the main meteorological variables affecting the significant positive trend of ETo were RH and t sun in Tabriz and T min, RH, and U 2 in Mashhad. Although a relative agreement was observed in terms of identifying one of the first two key climatic variables affecting the ETo trend, the qualitative and the quantitative sensitivity analysis solutions did never coincide. Further research is needed to evaluate this interesting finding for other geographic locations, and also to search for the major causes of this discrepancy.

  13. Research in the prehistory of central Western iran.

    PubMed

    Young, T C; Smith, P E

    1966-07-22

    The archeological sequence in the Bisitun and Kangovar valleys promises to fill a number of gaps in the prehistory of this part of southwestern Asia. Ghar-i Khar should yield data concerning the degree of cultural continuity or discontinuity in the Upper Pleistocene and early Holocene ranges of prehistory. This cave site should also be helpful in gaining further insight into the climatic conditions during these times, and in particular on the prevalent fauna and flor (and the human use of them) at the close of the Pleistocene, when some groups may already have been leading ways of life foreshadowing the Neolithic. Ganj-i Dareh offers the opportunity of examining in detail what seems to be an early farming community at or very near the beginning of an important shift in methods of subsistence. The geographical position of this latter site may also be of unusual significance in studying the spread of the Neolithic; located as it is near the traditional route across the Zagros Mountains into Iraq, this site, as well as others in the region, may have played an important role in the diffusion of the new elements and methods to other parts of the mountainous zone. That is, within the broad "natural habitat zone" it may be useful to distinguish optimum areas of development and diffusion during the early phases of the Neolithic. Comparison with small sites like Tepe Asiab in the Kermanshah Valley (considered to have been a temporary encampment of clam collectors) (7) may place such sites in their proper perspective as seasonally occupied satellites of more permanent villages such as Ganj-i Dareh; the same possibility is open for the later ceramic Neolithic phase now that the oldest level of Godin Tepe shows a community to which nearby sites on this time horizon can probably be related. However, it will require an intimate study of the two valleys as microenvironments, and comparison of them with each other and with the Kermanshah and Hulailan valleys, in order to reach a

  14. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  15. Lone Mountain processing boosts recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgarth, T.; Bethell, P.; Gupta, B.K.

    2005-08-01

    A new deslime column flotation circuit installed at Arch Coal's Lone Mountain preparation plant in St. Charles, Va., USA recovers an additional 20 tph. The article describes how this column technology was selected. It explains the circuit design, start-up and post upgrade distant testing. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Artifical Mountains: A Synthetic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipiera, Paul P.; Aumann, John A.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a secondary science unit which uses an urban environment to develop a comparison between naturally formed mountains and man-constructed skyscrapers. The unit is one in a series of fifty laboratory activities designed to stimulate students of earth science by interrelating scientific principles and procedures to a familiar environment.…

  17. Gearing Up for Mountain Biking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahnke, Thomas; Hamson, Mike

    1999-01-01

    Examines the gear system of a mountain bike to discover any redundancy in the many gear settings available to the cyclist. Suggests a best strategy for changing up through the gears on a typical 21-gear system and an adjustment to the available gears that would result in a smoother change. (Author/ASK)

  18. The Mountaineer-Malaysia Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeff

    1997-01-01

    A 26-day summer field course of West Virginia University's (WVU) Recreation and Parks Department took students to Malaysia's mountains and rainforests to observe how Malaysians are managing national parks, problem elephants, and population pressures on parks. The adventure provided powerful learning experiences. Further exchanges between WVU and…

  19. Characteristics of Headache at Altitude among Trekkers; A comparison between Acute Mountain Sickness and Non-Acute Mountain Sickness Headache

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh, Reza; Ziaee, Vahid; Aghsaeifard, Ziba; Mehrabi, Farzad; Ahmadinejad, Taha

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Headache at altitudes has had an incidence of 25-62% through many related studies. Many reasons are identified concerning headache at altitudes such as acute mountain sickness (AMS), sinus headache, migraine, tension type headache, and frontal tension headache. This study tried to compare different types of headache among trekkers on Mount Damavand, a 5671m mountain, Iran, to find their incidence and related symptoms and signs. Methods Through a cross-sectional study, we evaluated headache incidence and its correlation to AMS among people who climbed Mount Damavand. Lake Louise Score, a self-report questionnaire, was applied to make AMS diagnosis through three separate stages of trekking programs. Chi-square test was employed as the main mean of analysis. Results Totally, 459 between 13-71 year olds participated in the study among which females were 148 (32.1%) and males 311 (67.8%). Headache was found in 398 (86.7%) among whom 279 (70%) were proved as AMS. Investigating the types of headache in the cases of AMS showed 64.5% to be of steady, 31% throbbing and 4.5% stabbing characters which had significant differences with a P value = 0.003. The majority of headaches were stated as frontal (38.9%) and the least prevalence belonged to the parietal area (4.4%), while global headache was reported in 27%. Conclusions This study specifies the exact location of headaches at altitude in cases of AMS and non-AMS headaches. Many cases of high altitude non-AMS headache are resulted by tension and light reflection at altitude. PMID:22942999

  20. Profiteering on the Iran-Iraq war

    SciTech Connect

    Brzoska, M.

    1987-06-01

    The military gear delivered from the US in the Iran-contra affair represents only a minor portion of arms sales to the combatants in the Iraq-Iran war. That war has now lasted more than six years and has deeply influenced the international arms market. Occurring during a period when other demand for arms has been relatively low, the war has nourished new suppliers and has revived both the legal and illegal private arms market. The erratic behavior of the USSR and the US, until recently by far the most important arms suppliers to the Third World, has pushed Iran and Iraq toward more commercially oriented sources, including many in the Third World. Both countries have had ample supplies of weapons during the war, and these weapons have served their purpose. Mainly because of its duration, the war already ranks third among post-World War II wars - after the Vietnam war and the Biafra war - in battlefield victims, with 300,000-500,000 casualties. The economic cost has risen to nearly $500 billion in weapons, destruction, and lost income. While it is hard to see anything but losers on the battlefield, the arms traffickers are profiting. Total Iranian arms imports since August 1980 have been higher than $10 billion, while Iraq has imported more than $30 billion worth. It is difficult to know whether making arms more difficult to obtain would have stopped the war, but judging from other recent wars, such as those between India and Pakistan, between Uganda and Tanzania, and in the Middle East, it seems likely that hostilities could have been stopped long ago. 12 references.

  1. Telemedicine in Iran: Chances and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Hajialiasghari, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Technology is likely to transform the way care is delivered at home and in the community. Telemedicine, the child of IT and Medicine sciences is the use of telecommunication equipment and information technology to provide clinical care to individuals at distant sites and the transmission of medical and surgical information and images needed to provide that care. Undoubtedly, the advantages outweight its disadvantages, but just like any other innovations, it has some drawbacks. The present study outlines telemedicine strong and weak points. In this regard a survey has been done in Tehran University of Medical Sciences in Iran. METHODS Between 14th May and 14th August 2012, 90 medical specialist men and 42 women from different hospitals of Tehran Medical Sciences University, Iran were enrolled by a simple ran- dom sampling method. They all completed a questionnaire to consider what are telemedicine chances and challenges. RESULTS Making use of telemedicine was a profitable alternative in remote, rural/urban places especially in new project of “family physician” presented by Iran Ministry of Health. The results also highlighted that security considerations was an inevitable challenge of telemedicine, while shorter hospital stays and reduced warm ischemic time, and reduced morbidity and mortality rates were telemedicine merits. Despite most previous studies results, telemedicine has been recognised as a cost-effective alternative. Cultural, language distinctions as well as the level of literacy were barriers on deploying tele- medicine. There was no strong evidence showing that using telemedicine caused a decrease in tactile feedback. CONCLUSION We need to fully understand and consider various outcomes and challenges of telemedicine before applying it. PMID:25489500

  2. The spider family Filistatidae (Araneae) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Marusik, Yuri M.; Zamani, Alireza

    2015-01-01

    Abstract All species of Filistatidae occurring in Iran are surveyed. Zaitunia akhanii sp. n. is described on the basis of female specimens collected in Tehran province, and the previously unknown male of Sahastata sinuspersica Marusik, Zamani & Mirshamsi, 2014 is described for the first time. Also, the endogynes of the holotypes of Zaitunia alexandri Brignoli, 1982, Zaitunia medica Brignoli, 1982 and Zaitunia persica Brignoli, 1982 are illustrated. Including these results, the number of Iranian species of Filistatidae is increased to seven, which indicates the highest species-richness of this family in the Western Palaearctic. PMID:26312024

  3. A Survey of the Agrotis of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Feizpoor, Sh.; Shirvani, A.; Rashki, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present study reviews the genus Agrotis Ochsenheimer, 1816 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Noctuinae) in Iran from a taxonomic and faunistic point of view. An identification key of external features is presented for 16 Iranian species and subspecies. A description of each taxon is presented based on external male and female genital characteristics. Diagnostic features and comparisons with the closest relatives are given for each species. Original combination and citation with the synonymy of each species or subspecies are expounded as well as their distribution and bionomy. Adult moths and male genitalia are illustrated. PMID:25368051

  4. Lead poisoning in the world and Iran.

    PubMed

    Azizi, M H; Azizi, F

    2010-04-01

    Lead is a relatively ubiquitous heavy metal with particular features such as resistance to corrosion, high malleability and wide variety of industrial applications. In medicine, however, it is considered as a slow-acting toxic substance affecting multiple body systems, specifically functioning as a potent neurotoxin in the central nervous system. Lead poisoning may be acute or chronic and can be due to occupational or environmental exposures. The history of lead poisoning dates back to ancient times. The present paper briefly describes the worldwide historical accounts of lead poisoning with a special focus on Iran. PMID:23022790

  5. Best Practices Case Study: Pine Mountain Builders - Pine Mountain, GA

    SciTech Connect

    2011-09-01

    Case study of Pine Mountain Builders who worked with DOE’s IBACOS team to achieve HERS scores of 59 on 140 homes built around a wetlands in Georgia. The team used taped rigid foam exterior sheathing and spray foam insulation in the walls and on the underside of the attic for a very tight 1.0 to 1.8 ACH 50 building shell.

  6. Energy portfolio of Iran: A case study of solar desalination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besharati, Adib

    Energy plays a very important role in the economic development of a country such as Iran where industrial progress and higher living standards increase demand for energy. Iran is one of the countries in the world that simultaneously produces and consumes large amounts of energy. Because of its geographic latitude and weather conditions, Iran has the potential to develop and use of both fossil and renewable energy sources. In South Iran, there are huge oil and gas resources, and at the same time high potential of solar radiation. However, at the present large-scale utilization, solar energy is prohibitively expensive for Iran. Therefore, this study investigates an economical way to utilize solar energy in a meaningful way for Iran. One of the possible uses of solar energy that is both economical and technically feasible is desalination of water using solar energy. People in South Iran live in different areas with relatively low population density. One of the critical problems in those areas is a lack of clean drinking water. As a result, there is an urgent need to investigate ways to produce clean water from the saltwater. Therefore, the present study conducts a case study of solar desalination in south Iran using solar. Different desalination methods, such as humidification dehumidification by using a solar collector, and reverse osmosis, are discussed. In the case study, a prototype desalination plant was considered and both technical and economic aspects of the plant were investigated in details. The results showed higher productivity of drinking water in reverse osmosis method for south Iran.

  7. Mucormycosis in Iran: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Vaezi, Afsane; Moazeni, Maryam; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi; de Hoog, Sybren; Badali, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    Fungi in the order Mucorales cause acute, invasive and frequently fatal infections in susceptible patients. This study aimed to perform a systematic review of all reported mucormycosis cases during the last 25 years in Iran. After a comprehensive literature search, we identified 98 cases in Iran from 1990-2015. The mean patient age was 39.8 ± 19.2 years. Diabetes was the most common underlying condition (47.9%), and 22.4% of the patients underwent solid organ or bone marrow transplantation. The most common clinical forms of mucormycosis were rhinocerebral (48.9%), pulmonary (9.2%) and cutaneous (9.2%). Eight cases of disseminated disease were identified. Overall mortality in the identified cases was 40.8%, with the highest mortality rate in patients diagnosed with disseminated infection (75%). The mortality rate in rhinocerebral infection patients was significantly lower (45.8%). Rhinocerebral infection was the most common clinical manifestation in diabetes patients (72.9%). Patients were diagnosed using various methods including histopathology (85.7%), microscopy (12.3%) and culture (2.0%). Rhizopus species were the most prevalent (51.7%), followed by Mucor species (17.2%). Sixty-nine patients were treated with a combination of surgery and antifungal therapy (resulting survival rate, 66.7%). Owing to the high mortality rate of advanced mucormycosis, early diagnosis and treatment may significantly improve survival rates. Therefore, increased monitoring and awareness of this life-threatening disease is critical. PMID:26906121

  8. Contemporary medical ethics: an overview from Iran.

    PubMed

    Larijani, Bagher; Zahedi, Farzaneh

    2008-12-01

    The growing potential of biomedical technologies has increasingly been associated with discussions surrounding the ethical aspects of the new technologies in different societies. Advances in genetics, stem cell research and organ transplantation are some of the medical issues that have raised important ethical and social issues. Special attention has been paid towards moral ethics in Islam and medical and religious professions in Iran have voiced the requirement for an emphasis on ethics. In the last decade, great strides have been made in biomedical ethics, especially in the field of education, research and legislation. In this article, contemporary medical ethics in Iran, and the related moral philosophy, have been reviewed in brief and we have discussed some of the activities in the field of medical ethics that have been carried out in our country within recent years. These activities have included the establishment of the National and Regional Committees for Medical Research Ethics and the production of national codes of ethics in biomedical research in the 1990 s and the introduction of a comprehensive strategic plan for medical ethics at the national level in 2002. This paper will discuss these issues, along with the production, in 2005, of the Specific National Ethical Guidelines for Biomedical Research. PMID:19046256

  9. Aflatoxins in Iran: Nature, Hazards and Carcinogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Khoshpey, B; Farhud, DD; Zaini, F

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have shown that mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products is a challenge for individual’s health especially in developing countries. Improper production and storage of foods, prepare conditions for aflatoxin production in crops, especially rice, wheat, pistachio, walnut, almond, etc which are the main sources of foods for people. Feeding livestock by contaminated bread is another way of human exposure to mycotoxins, especially aflatoxin and because of expensive methods for detecting and analyzing aflatoxin in laboratory; it is not measured in foods. This manuscript is a review of some Iranian and nonIranian reports about aflatoxin, its exposure ways, its adverse effect on human health and nutrition, as well as methods for reducing its exposure. Based on studies on foods, aflatoxin exposure is high in Iran. Since livestock feeding by contaminated bread is one of the potential ways for milk contamination, we should control and reduce aflatoxin contamination by improving production process, storage condition and livestock feeding as soon as possible. Pistachio is one of the most important exporting products of Iran and to maintain Iran’s position in exporting of this product, specific regulations on lowering its contamination with aflatoxin should be considered seriously. Finally, effective controlling of all food and feedstuffs which are vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination is necessary to prevent its effects. PMID:23113099

  10. Pharmaceutical laws and regulations in Iran: An overview.

    PubMed

    Zaboli, Pardis; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Gholami, Hadi; Vazirian, Iman; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat; Eslamitabar, Shahriar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The pharmaceutical legal framework is a very important infrastructure in achieving predefined goals in pharmaceutical sector: Accessibility, quality, and rational use of medicine. This study aims to review the current pharmaceutical sector-related legal provisions in Iran where the Food and Drug Organization (FDO) is in charge of regulating all issues related to the pharmaceutical sector. The main laws and regulations enacted by parliament and cabinet and even internal regulations enacted by the Ministry of Health or Iran FDO are reviewed. Different laws and regulations are categorized according to the main goals of Iran national drug policy. PMID:27512704

  11. Pharmaceutical laws and regulations in Iran: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Zaboli, Pardis; Hashemi-Meshkini, Amir; Varmaghani, Mehdi; Gholami, Hadi; Vazirian, Iman; Zekri, Hedieh-Sadat; Eslamitabar, Shahriar; Kebriaeezadeh, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The pharmaceutical legal framework is a very important infrastructure in achieving predefined goals in pharmaceutical sector: Accessibility, quality, and rational use of medicine. This study aims to review the current pharmaceutical sector-related legal provisions in Iran where the Food and Drug Organization (FDO) is in charge of regulating all issues related to the pharmaceutical sector. The main laws and regulations enacted by parliament and cabinet and even internal regulations enacted by the Ministry of Health or Iran FDO are reviewed. Different laws and regulations are categorized according to the main goals of Iran national drug policy. PMID:27512704

  12. Trichinella Infection in Wildlife of Northeast of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Borji, H; Sadeghi, H; Razmi, GhR; Pozio, E; La Rosa, G

    2012-01-01

    Background The objective of this investigation was to detect the presence of Trichinella in some carnivores of Mashhad in northeast of Iran and to identify Trichinella species circulating in this area. Methods The present study was carried out using muscle tissue collected from 120 stray dogs, 26 wild boars, 25 rodents, two foxes and two hyenas captured in Mashhad City, province of Khorasan Razavi, Iran. Results Trichinella larvae were detected in three stray dogs by artificial digestion and compression. All larvae were identified as T. britovi using multiplex PCR. Conclusion This is the first report of identification of T. britovi in stray dog in Iran. PMID:23323092

  13. Synoptic analysis of frost days in Zanjan Province of Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alijani, B.; Tagiloo, M.

    2010-09-01

    As a general rule it is accepted that every change in the environment is controlled by the changes in the pressure patterns or varying synoptic systems. We are witnessing intensive floods, damaging cold waves, or highly polluted air every year, all of which are related to some extent to the pressure patterns such as intensive cyclones or subsiding anticyclones. The frost days are one of these environmental conditions that are caused by these pressure patterns especially in the case of synoptic frosts. The Zanjan province of Iran with mountainous nature and higher elevations is one of the frost prone regions in the country. Most of the years this region suffers from intensive and damaging frosts such as the one occurred in December 2006 and January 2007. In order to advise planners and users, and lower the damages of such frosts, this study tried to analyze the synoptic origin of the December 2006 frost. To achieve the objective of the study the frost days of the province during months December 2006 and January 2007 were selected. During these months all of the four stations of the Province ( Zanjan, Khorramdarreh, Khodabandeh, and Mahneshan) had experienced sub-zero temperatures. The daily zero GMT surface and 500 hPa. maps of the region were extracted from the National Center of Environmental Protection (NCEP) site for the selected days. The pressure patterns of both levels were analyzed and assigned into different groups. The results showed that the main synoptic patterns responsible for the frosts of the region are the Caspian trough, Siberian high pressure, moving western anticyclones, upper level blockings, and cut off lows. When the Caspian Sea trough deepens it brings the westerly anticyclones to the area. Under its eastward displacement, the Siberian High develops and sends its ridges towards the study region. Some times the upper level blocking of the Siberian area brings the cold air masses to the study region. In general, the development and displacement

  14. Microbial activity at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, J.M.; Meike, A.

    1995-09-25

    The U.S. Department of Energy is engaged in a suitability study for a potential geological repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for the containment and storage of commercially generated spent fuel and defense high-level nuclear waste. There is growing recognition of the role that biotic factors could play in this repository, either directly through microbially induced corrosion (MIC), or indirectly by altering the chemical environment or contributing to the transport of radionuclides. As a first step toward describing and predicting these processes, a workshop was held on April 10-12, 1995, in Lafayette, California. The immediate aims of the workshop were: (1) To identify microbially related processes relevant to the design of a radioactive waste repository under conditions similar to those at Yucca Mountain. (2) To determine parameters that are critical to the evaluation of a disturbed subterranean environment. (3) To define the most effective means of investigating the factors thus identified.

  15. Recompression therapy of mountain sickness.

    PubMed

    Marković, Dubravko; Kovacević, Hasan

    2002-03-01

    This paper describes the treatment of a severe case of acute mountain sickness with a portable hyperbaric chamber. A 37-year old climber was treated for acute high altitude pulmonary oedema, which developed on the North Col of Mount Everest, at an altitude of 7,060 m. The treatment in the portable Gamow bag hyperbaric chamber lasted two hours, with a bag pressure of 103 mm Hg (0.136 kg/cm2 or 2 psig) using ambient air, without the addition of oxygen. With this pressure increase, the hyperbaric chamber lowered the patient's effective ambient altitude from 6,050 to 4,400 m. The treatment was successful and the pulmonary oedema disappeared. Outside the hyperbaric chamber, the patient recovered fully when he reached the altitude of 2,000 m. Portable hyperbaric chamber is recommended for the treatment of severe cases of acute mountain sickness, as well as for risky descent to lower altitudes. PMID:12150075

  16. Micrometeorites from the Transantarctic Mountains

    PubMed Central

    Rochette, P.; Folco, L.; Suavet, C.; van Ginneken, M.; Gattacceca, J.; Perchiazzi, N.; Braucher, R.; Harvey, R. P.

    2008-01-01

    We report the discovery of large accumulations of micrometeorites on the Myr-old, glacially eroded granitic summits of several isolated nunataks in the Victoria Land Transantarctic Mountains. The number (>3,500) of large (>400 μm and up to 2 mm in size) melted and unmelted particles is orders of magnitudes greater than other Antarctic collections. Flux estimates, bedrock exposure ages and the presence of ≈0.8-Myr-old microtektites suggest that extraterrestrial dust collection occurred over the last 1 Myr, taking up to 500 kyr to accumulate based on 2 investigated find sites. The size distribution and frequency by type of cosmic spherules in the >200-μm size fraction collected at Frontier Mountain (investigated in detail in this report) are similar to those of the most representative known micrometeorite populations (e.g., South Pole Water Well). This and the identification of unusual types in terms of composition (i.e., chondritic micrometeorites and spherulitic aggregates similar to the ≈480-kyr-old ones recently found in Antarctic ice cores) and size suggest that the Transantarctic Mountain micrometeorites constitute a unique and essentially unbiased collection that greatly extends the micrometeorite inventory and provides material for studies on micrometeorite fluxes over the recent (≈1 Myr) geological past. PMID:19011091

  17. The hydrology of Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, A.L.; Flint, L.E.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Kwicklis, E.M.; Fabryka-Martin, J.M.

    2000-12-04

    Yucca Mountain, located in southern Nevada in the Mojave Desert, is being considered as a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste. Although the site is arid, previous studies indicate net infiltration rates of 5-10 mm yr(-1) under current climate conditions. Unsaturated flow of water through the mountain generally is vertical and rapid through the fractures of the welded tuffs and slow through the matrix of the nonwelded tuffs. The vitric-zeolitic boundary of the nonwelded tuffs below the potential repository, where it exists, causes perching and substantial lateral flow that eventually flows through faults near the eastern edge of the potential repository and recharges the underlying groundwater system. Fast pathways are located where water flows relatively quickly through the unsaturated zone to the water table. For the bulk of the water a large part of the travel time from land surface to the potential repository horizon (similar to 300 m below land surface) is through the interlayered, low fracture density, nonwelded tuff where flow is predominantly through the matrix. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being modeled using a three-dimensional, dual-continuum numerical model to predict the results of measurements and observations in new boreholes and excavations. The interaction between experimentalists and modelers is providing confidence in the conceptual model and the numerical model and is providing researchers with the ability to plan further testing and to evaluate the usefulness or necessity of further data collection.

  18. A re-assessment of focal depth distributions in southern Iran, the Tien Shan and northern India: do earthquakes really occur in the continental mantle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, A.; Jackson, J. A.; Priestley, K.; Baker, C.

    2000-12-01

    We investigate the depth distribution of earthquakes within the continental lithosphere of southern Iran, the Tien Shan and northern India by using synthetic seismograms to analyse P and SH body waveforms. In the Zagros mountains of southern Iran, earthquakes are apparently restricted to the upper crust (depths of <20km), whereas in the Tien Shan and northern India they occur throughout the thickness of the continental crust, to depths of ~40-45km. We find no convincing evidence for earthquakes in the continental mantle of these regions, in spite of previous suggestions to the contrary, and question whether seismicity in the continental mantle is important in any part of the world. In some regions, such as Iran, the Aegean, Tibet and California, seismicity is virtually restricted to the upper continental crust, whereas in others, including parts of East Africa, the Tien Shan and northern India, the lower crust is also seismically active, although usually less so than the upper crust. Such variations cannot reliably be demonstrated from published catalogue or bulletin locations, even from ones in which depth resolution is generally improved. In contrast to the oceanic mantle lithosphere, in which earthquakes certainly occur, the continental mantle lithosphere is, we suggest, virtually aseismic and may not be significantly stronger than the lower continental crust. These variations in continental seismogenic thickness are broadly correlated with variations in effective elastic thickness, suggesting that the strength of the continental lithosphere resides in the crust, and require some modification to prevalent views of lithosphere rheology.

  19. Massanutten Mountain, Virginia, USA (Anaglyph)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Massanutten Mountain lies in the Shenandoah Valley of northern Virginia. Rock layers in the mountain are folded downward in an overall 'U' shape (called a syncline) which accounts for its peculiar double ridge shape with a highly elongated valley between. The ridges have formed because they are capped with a sandstone layer which is resistant to weathering and erosion. Limestones and shales are less resistant and form the lowlands and valleys. The north and south forks of the Shenandoah River flank Massanutten Mountain and display unusually pronounced meander patterns. Other layered sedimentary rocks form other ridgeline patterns in the Allegheny Mountains, to the upper left. But the igneous and metamorphic (crystalline) rocks of the Blue Ridge Mountains erode into a very different topographic pattern to the southeast. This small area provides an excellent example rock type, geologic structure, and fluvial (stream) processes all influencing landform development.

    This anaglyph was produced by first shading a preliminary elevation model from data acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission. The stereoscopic effect was then created by generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C

  20. 77 FR 45897 - Authorizing Additional Sanctions With Respect to Iran

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... July 31, 2012. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, July 30, 2012. [FR Doc. 2012-19055... Government of Iran occurring after the conclusion of the 1981 Algiers Accords, and are intended solely as...

  1. Social and psychological consequences of abortion in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini-Chavoshi, Meimanat; Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Glazebrook, Diana; McDonald, Peter

    2012-09-01

    Iran has had replacement fertility since 2000. Upholding a small family size has led some couples to terminate unwanted pregnancies. Abortion is, however, permitted only on medical grounds in Iran. Using data from the Iran Low Fertility Survey, this study assessed sociodemographic correlates of abortion among a random sample of 5526 ever-married women aged 15-54 years, and used in-depth interviews to explore reasons for and psychological consequences of abortion among 40 women who had experienced an unintended pregnancy. Although social and economic concerns were the main reasons cited for seeking abortion, women experienced anxiety and depression when seeking pregnancy termination and thereafter. Social stigmatization arose from a belief that abortion is sinful and that misfortune experienced thereafter is punishment. Inadequate knowledge and misunderstanding of relevant Sharia laws discouraged women from seeking care when they experienced complications. Iran's reproductive health policies should be revised to integrate pre- and postabortion counseling. PMID:22920623

  2. Fine Crustal Structure in the Northwestern Iranian Plateau Revealed by Ambient Noise Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Mingming; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza; Ghods, Abdolreza; Ai, Yinshuang; Sobouti, Farhad; He, Yumei; Motaghi, Khalil; Chen, Qi-Fu; Lyv, Yan; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2016-04-01

    Detailed information about the crustal and lithospheric structures is crucial for understanding the geodynamics processes of continental collision and subsequent mountain building. Being at the initial stage of continental collision, the Iranian Plateau has not been well studied due to the lack of high-resolution, robust images of the crustal and lithospheric structures. Along the Zagros Orogen in the NW part of the Iranian Plateau the Arabian Plate has collided with the Eurasian Plate since about 30 Ma ago, whereas in the Makran region to the southeast oceanic subduction underneath the Eurasian Plate is still an ongoing process. For better understanding the geodynamic processes from subduction to collision, we planned to deploy multiple dense seismic arrays sampling regions at different tectonic stages in the Iranian Plateau. Up to now, we have finished the first seismic array observation in NW Iran. Based on the high quality data recorded, we conduct ambient noise tomography to investigate the fine crustal structure of the area from the south of the Zagros to the coast of the Southern Caspian Sea. Our results revel a salient decoupling between the upper crust and lower crust in the Zagros. The upper crust is slow, likely due to the effects of thick sediments, and displays a consistent anisotropy pattern with a NW-SE fast shear-wave direction, which is proximately parallel to the strike of the Zagros Orogen. The middle to lower crust, on the other hand, shows low-to-high velocity variations with depth and anisotropic fabrics trending to NE-SW, which is perpendicular to the strike of the orogen. Combined with the imaging results from receiver functions, we suggest that the collision between the Arabian and Eurasian Plates has caused strong crustal deformation and localized thickening of the lower crust beneath the Zagros. We also find a high velocity anomaly in the lower crust beneath the Alborz Mountain, isolated from the low velocities beneath the central Iran

  3. Genetic structure of Leptopilina boulardi populations from different climatic zones of Iran

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genetic structure of populations can be influenced by geographic isolation (including physical distance) and ecology. We examined these effects in Leptopilina boulardi, a parasitoid of Drosophila of African origin and widely distributed over temperate and (sub) tropical climates. Results We sampled 11 populations of L. boulardi from five climatic zones in Iran and measured genetic differentiation at nuclear (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism; AFLP) and mitochondrial (Cytochrome Oxidase I; COI) loci. An Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) for the AFLP data revealed that 67.45% of variation resided between populations. No significant variation was observed between climatic zones. However, a significant difference was detected between populations from the central (dry) regions and those from the wetter north, which are separated by desert. A similarly clear cut genetic differentiation between populations from the central part of Iran and those from the north was observed by UPGMA cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCO). Both UPGMA and PCO further separated two populations from the very humid western Caspian Sea coast (zone 3) from other northern populations from the temperate Caspian Sea coastal plain (zone 2), which are connected by forest. One population (Nour) was genetically intermediate between these two zones, indicating some gene flow between these two groups of populations. In all analyses a mountain population, Sorkhabad was found to be genetically identical to those from the nearby coastal plain (zone 2), which indicates high gene flow between these populations over a short geographical distance. One population from the Caspian coast (Astaneh) was genetically highly diverged from all other populations. A partial Mantel test showed a highly significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distances, as well as separation by the deserts of central Iran. The COI sequences were highly conserved among all

  4. Mountain Weather and Climate, Third Edition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastenrath, Stefan

    2009-05-01

    For colleagues with diverse interests in the atmosphere, glaciers, radiation, landforms, water resources, vegetation, human implications, and more, Mountain Weather and Climate can be a valuable source of guidance and literature references. The book is organized into seven chapters: 1, Mountains and their climatological study; 2,Geographical controls of mountain meteorological elements; 3, Circulation systems related to orography; 4, Climatic characteristics of mountains; 5, Regional case studies; 6, Mountain bioclimatology; and 7, Changes in mountain climates. These chapters are supported by l78 diagrams and photographs, 47 tables, and some 2000 literature references. The volume has an appendix of units and energy conversion factors and a subject index, but it lacks an author index.

  5. SANTA LUCIA WILDERNESS, AND GARCIA MOUNTAIN, BLACK MOUNTAIN, LA PANZA, MACHESNA MOUNTAIN, LOS MACHOS HILLS, BIG ROCKS, AND STANLEY MOUNTAIN ROADLESS AREAS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frizzell, Virgil A., Jr.; Kuizon, Lucia

    1984-01-01

    The Santa Lucia Wilderness Area and Garcia Mountain, Black Mountain, La Panza, Machesna Mountain, Los Machos Hills, Big Rocks, and Stanley Mountain Roadless Areas together occupy an area of about 218 sq mi in the Los Padres National Forest, California. On the basis of a mineral-resource evaluation a small area in the Black Mountain Roadless Area has a probable mineral-resource potential for uranium, and a small area in the Stanley Mountain Roadless Area has probable potential for low-grade mercury resources. Although petroleum resources occur in rocks similar to those found in the study area, no potential for petroleum resources was identified in the wilderness or any of the roadless areas. No resource potential for other mineral resources was identified in any of the areas. Detailed geologic mapping and geochemical sampling probably would increase knowledge about distribution and modes of occurrence of uranium and cinnabar in those areas, respectively.

  6. The Vendian-Cambrian δ 13C record, North Iran: evidence for overturning of the ocean before the Cambrian Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Hiroto; Matsumoto, Ryo; Kakuwa, Yoshitaka; Hamdi, Bahaeddin; Zibaseresht, Hamid

    Continuous fossilliferous successions across the Precambrian/Cambrian (PC/C) boundary in the Elburz Mountains of Northern Iran show a remarkable negative δ 13C excursion just below the PC/C boundary. High concentrations of manganese, phosphorus, barium, and high abundances of fossil phytoplankton, and black shale coincide with the excursion. Worldwide stratigraphic correlation shows that the isotopic anomaly is a global event. The initial Metazoan diversification, coupled with 13C enrichment, occurs stratigraphically just above the excursion. We propose the following scenario for oceanic environmental changes before the Cambrian Faunal Explosion based on new data from Iran: A global warm climate following the last Precambrian glaciation resulted in a generally stagnant oceanic condition, so that surface water was oxic; deep water was dysoxic, depleted in 13C, and enriched in nutrients. Massive upwelling of deep water (vertical advection of nutrients and 13C-depleted CO 2) caused enhanced phytoplankton productivity and a sharp drop in δ 13C in shallow water carbonate and organic carbon. We conclude that latest Cryptozoic overturning of ocean stratification preceded the Cambrian Explosion.

  7. Imported lymphatic filariasis in an Indian immigrant to iran.

    PubMed

    Kia, Eshrat Beigom; Sharifdini, Meysam; Hajjaran, Homa; Shahbazi, Ali Ehsan; Sayyad Talaie, Zahra

    2014-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), a nematode disease transmitted by arthropod vectors, is repeatedly reported in immigrant population. This disease is not endemic in Iran; however, different species of mosquitoes, capable of transmission of parasite microfilaria, are distributed in the country. Hereby, incidental detection of an imported case of LF due to Wuchereria bancrofti in an Indian worker in Iran is reported. Identification of the case was performed based on morphological and morphometrical characteristics of microfilaria and PCR sequencing. PMID:25642273

  8. Annotated checklist of Dryopidae and Heteroceridae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea) of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mascagni, Alessandro; Jäch, Manfred A; Ostovan, Hadi; Ghahari, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The distribution of Dryopidae and Heteroceridae (Coleoptera: Byrrhoidea) of Iran is summarized. A total of ten species of Dryopidae in three genera (Dryops Olivier, Parahelichus Löbl & Smetana, and Praehelichus Löbl & Smetana), and 18 species of Heteroceridae in two genera (Augyles Schiödte and Heterocerus Fabricius) are listed. Augyles hispidulus (Kiesenwetter, 1843) (Heteroceridae) is recorded from Iran for the first time. PMID:27470861

  9. Geographic Information Science and Mountain Geomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scuderi, Louis A.

    Mountain areas are among the most threatened environments worldwide.These sensitive systems suffer from human encroachment, resource extraction, and subsequent environmental degradation. Mountain ecosystems are also extremely sensitive to climate variability with impacts on snow and ice cover, hydrologic response, and sediment yield. From this perspective, mountain environments can be viewed as one of the “canaries in the coal mine” for the entire global environmental system.

  10. Precipitation Across India's Ghats Mountains (IMERG)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of precipitation rates across India and surrounding countries. Notice the heavy rains throughout the Ghats Mountain range which resulted in devastating landslides along India's west coast...

  11. Landscape, Mountain Worship and Astronomy in Socaire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moyano, Ricardo

    The spatiotemporal analysis of mountain worship in the indigenous community of Socaire, Atacama, northern Chile, relates to cultural, geographical, climatic, psychological, and astronomical information gathered from ethno archaeological studies. We identify a system of offerings to the mountains that incorporates concepts such as ceque (straight line), mayllku (mountain lord or ancestor), and pacha (space and time). Here, the mountains on the visible horizon (Tumisa, Lausa, Chiliques, Ipira, and Miñiques) feature as the fingers on the left hand (PAH Triad). This structure regulates annual activities and rituals and sets the basis for the Socaireños' worldview raised on a humanized landscape.

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Human Intestinal Amoebas in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hooshyar, H; Rostamkhani, P; Rezaian, M

    2012-01-01

    Many microscopic-based epidemiological surveys on the prevalence of human intestinal pathogenic and non-pathogenic protozoa including intestinal amoeba performed in Iran show a high prevalence of human intestinal amoeba in different parts of Iran. Such epidemiological studies on amoebiasis are confusing, mainly due to recently appreciated distinction between the Entamoeba histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii. Differential diagnosis can be done by some methods such as PCR-based methods, monoclonal antibodies and the analysis of isoenzyme typing, however the molecular study of these protozoa in Iran is low. Based on molecular studies, it seems that E. dispar is predominant species especially in the central and northern areas of Iran and amoebiasis due to E. histolytica is a rare infection in the country. It is suggested that infection with E. moshkovskii may be common among Iranians. Considering the importance of molecular epidemiology of amoeba in Iran and also the current data, the present study reviews the data currently available on the molecular distribution of intestinal human amoeba in Iran. PMID:23193500

  13. The history of organ donation and transplantation in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ghods, Ahad J

    2014-03-01

    The first kidney transplant in Iran was performed in 1967, and this was the first organ transplant in countries that are current members of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation. In 1988, in response to the long waiting list at the Iranian Ministry of Health for kidney transplant, a state-regulated living-unrelated donor kidney transplant program was adopted. By 1999, the kidney transplant waiting list in Iran was eliminated. In 1989, a fatwa (religious approval) from the Supreme Religious Leader was obtained that recognized brain death and allowed deceased-donor organ transplant. Subsequently, transplant centers began performing deceased-donor kidney, liver, and heart transplants. In 2000, the Brain Death and Organ Transplantation Act was passed by the Iranian parliament, legalizing deceased-donor organ transplant. The transplant team at Shiraz began performing more deceased-donor kidney and liver transplants and became a successful deceased-donor organ transplant model in the country. By the end of 2012, there were 34166 kidney (including 4436 deceased-donor) and 2021 liver (including 1788 deceased-donor), 482 heart, 147 pancreas, 63 lung, and several intestine and multiorgan transplants performed in Iran. In 2011, there were 2771 solid-organ transplants performed in Iran (37 transplants per million population), and Iran ranked as number 33 among the 50 most active countries worldwide. In 2011 and 2012, Iran was ahead of all country members of the Middle East Society for Organ Transplantation in performing deceased-donor kidney and liver transplants. PMID:24635790

  14. Favism, with special reference to Iran*

    PubMed Central

    Donoso, G.; Hedayat, H.; Khayatian, H.

    1969-01-01

    Fava beans (Vicia fava) are cultivated rather widely in most countries of the Eastern Mediterranean area and provide a cheap but protein-rich food that can be eaten alone, in various culinary preparations, including bread, or as a dietary supplement. However, the ingestion of fava beans may induce a haemolytic disease—favism—in some susceptible individuals and this might appear to limit the use of this pulse crop in those regions where favism occurs frequently. The uses of fava beans in Iran, the characteristics of favism and the present state of knowledge of the pathology of the disease are reviewed in this paper. Although some progress has been made in identifying the toxic substances and in explaining their mode of action, our understanding of favism is still limited. It appears that the disease is seen particularly in young children and is associated with a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in the blood. PMID:5306718

  15. The first hand transplantation in iran.

    PubMed

    Kalantar-Hormozi, A; Firoozi, F; Yavari, M; Arasteh, E; Najafizadeh, K; Rashid-Farokhi, F

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, hand transplantation is a very challenging procedure for surgeons and researchers worldwide. Despite many problems that may occur after this surgery, some centers continue to practice this highly sophisticated procedure. Herein, we report on a 38-year-old man who received hand transplant from a 24-year-old brain-dead man. This patient had lost his right hand from the lower one-third of forearm six years before after a trauma from a mincing machine. Team members organized pre-operative research, cadaver dissection, legal consultation, religious permission and discussion to patient. This procedure was done by 15 Khordad Plastic Surgery Transplant team on February 27, 2013 for the first time in Iran. PMID:25013665

  16. Yucca Mountain and The Environment

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2005-04-12

    The Yucca Mountain Project places a high priority on protecting the environment. To ensure compliance with all state and federal environmental laws and regulations, the Project established an Environmental Management System. Important elements of the Environmental Management System include the following: (1) monitoring air, water, and other natural resources; (2) protecting plant and animal species by minimizing land disturbance; (3) restoring vegetation and wildlife habitat in disturbed areas; (4) protecting cultural resources; (5) minimizing waste, preventing pollution, and promoting environmental awareness; and (6) managing of hazardous and non-hazardous waste. Reducing the impacts of Project activities on the environment will continue for the duration of the Project.

  17. Getting Beyond Yucca Mountain - 12305

    SciTech Connect

    Halstead, Robert J.; Williams, James M.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has terminated the Yucca Mountain repository project. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has indefinitely suspended the Yucca Mountain licensing proceeding. The presidentially-appointed Blue Ribbon Commission (BRC) on America's Nuclear Future is preparing a report, due in January 2012, to the Secretary of Energy on recommendations for a new national nuclear waste management and disposal program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). However, the BRC Draft Report fails to provide detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. The comments submitted to the BRC by the State of Nevada Agency for Nuclear Projects provide useful details on how the US national nuclear waste program can get beyond the failed Yucca Mountain repository project. A detailed siting process, consisting of legislative elements, procedural elements, and 'rules' for volunteer sites, could meet the objectives of the BRC and the Western Governors Association (WGA), while promoting and protecting the interests of potential host states. The recent termination of the proposed Yucca Mountain repository provides both an opportunity and a need to re-examine the United States' nuclear waste management program. The BRC Draft Report published in July 2011 provides a compelling critique of the past three decades failed efforts in the United States to site storage and disposal facilities for SNF and HLW. It is anticipated that the BRC Final report in January 2012 will recommend a new general course of action, but there will likely continue to be a need for detailed guidance on how to implement an alternative, successful approach to facility site selection. Getting the nation's nuclear waste program back on track

  18. SANDIA MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS, NEW MEXICO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedlund, D.C.; Kness, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations in the Sandia Mountains in New Mexico indicate that a small part of the area has a probable mineral-resource potential. Most of the mineral occurrences are small barite-fluorite veins that occur along faults on the eastern slope of the range. The barite veins in the Landsend area and in the Tunnel Spring area are classed as having a probable mineral-resource potential. Fluorite veins which occur at the La Luz mine contain silver-bearing galeana and the area near this mine is regarded as having a probable resource potential for silver. No energy resources were identified in this study.

  19. Doctor on a mountaineering expedition.

    PubMed Central

    A'Court, C. H.; Stables, R. H.; Travis, S.

    1995-01-01

    Doctors are welcome members on mountaineering expeditions to remote areas, but practical advice on how to prepare and what kit to take can be difficult to find. This article is a ragbag of useful advice on diverse topics. It explains the necessary preparation, provides tips for a healthy expedition, and summarises the common disorders encountered at high altitude. The comprehensive drug and equipment lists and first aid kit for climbers were used for the 1992 Everest in winter expedition. They are there to be sacrificed to personal preference and the experience and size of individual expeditions. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:7767198

  20. DRAGOON MOUNTAINS ROADLESS AREA, ARIZONA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Drewes, Harald; Kreidler, T.J.

    1984-01-01

    The mineral and hydrocarbon resource potential of the Dragoon Mountains Roadless Area was assessed and six areas of probable mineral-resource potential were identified. The area may contain metamorphic skarn-type mineralization of copper, lead, molybdenum, and zinc, and some of these may contain silver and gold. More remotely, the area could also contain stockwork molybdenum mineralization and replacement or vein-type mineralization of beryllium, fluorite, thorium, tin, and tungsten. Rock products exist within the area and are discussed due to the proximity of a railroad, but similar materials occur outside the area. There is little promise for the occurrence of energy resources.

  1. Protection of the Mountain Ridgelines Utilizing GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, M.

    2013-12-01

    Korean peninsula is characterized by numerous hills and mountains. The longest mountain ridgeline starting from Mt. Baekdusan to Mt. Jirisan is called Baekdudaegan which is similar to the continental divide or topographical watershed. In this study, GIS data, such as remotesensing images, national digital map, and watershed map, are used to analyze Korean mountain ridgelines structure and one Baekdudaegan data and nine Ridgelines are extracted. When extracted Baekdudaegan and other Ridgelines are overlaid on geologic maps, granite and gneiss are main components on the mountain ridgelines. The main mountain ridgelines are considered as the spiritual heritage overlapped in the land in Korea. As the environmental state is relatively better than those of other region in Korea, so many mountain ridgelines are legally protected by national legislation. The mountain ridgelines has hierarchical system; Baekdudaegan, Jeongmaek, Gimaek and Jimaek etc. according to their scale and total lengths of ridgelines. As only part of mountain ridgelines are currently protected by law or managed in environmental impact assessment (EIA) procedure, we think that most part of them should be under protection. Considering the environmental state of the ridgelines, we think that some protective measures should be set up nearby 1 km on both sides of them. If there goes a development plan or project near the main mountain ridgelines, topographical change index (TCI) and topographical scale index (TSI) etc. are to be applied in EIA. This study intends: firstly, to analyze the topological characteristics of the Korean mountain ridgelines using GIS, secondly, to analyze the geological characteristics of nearby mountain ridgelines, and lastly, to find a way to utilize the results on EIA.

  2. The Study of Impacts of Water Transferring From Wet Regions To Dry Regions In Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motiee-Homayoun, Dr.; Ghomashchi, Dr.

    available. In this situation, water transformation from wet areas (with good water resources) to dried and desert regions of the country has been identified as a necessary and reasonable policy to tacklewater shortage. Mediterain climate and mountains in north, west and southwest regions of Iran grant a benefit of high level rate of rainfall, several deep and long rivers, and large capacity of groundwater resources in these areas. Existence of such rivers and water resources, especially a big river of Karoon in southwest, strengthens the goal of constructing hydraulic structures in order to transfer water fro m wet areas to central and eastern areas of the country. This goal has led to planning and implementing of several large and high cost projects. Experts of water affairs, believe that although drinking water supply is one of the most crucial missions of the government, it should also be noted that transformation huge amount of water from an area to another area, with a very long distant, undoubtedly, will cause significant environmental impacts in future. Therefore, decision making and implementing such strategic projects needs a very precise consideration and accurate cost-benefit analyzes. On the one hand, through a socio- economic approach, implementation of such big projects for water transferring requires a great amount of investment and a long period to complete, and benefit peoples. So in many cases multi-purpose and multi- dimensional projects should be considered carefully. On the other hand, water supply for some provinces is vital. In most identified areas, water scarcity is the main cause of urban decline, economic problems and finally loosing population because of emigration. Thus, fresh water should be supplied for these provinces at the earliest possible. This paper is an attempt to identify, define and explain the characteristics and specification of all projects for transferring in different parts of Iran. Generally, advantages and disadvantages of

  3. Species diversity of sand flies and ecological niche model of Phlebotomus papatasi in central Iran.

    PubMed

    Abedi-Astaneh, Fatemeh; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Shirzadi, Mohammd Reza; Rassi, Yavar; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, Mohammad Reza; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Nafar-Shalamzari, Reza; Parsi, Sohbat; Abbasi, Ali; Raufi, Hedayatollah

    2015-09-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is the most important vector-borne disease in Iran. Qom Province is a very important area in the case of CL transmission, because of high traffic population from other parts of the country, or even other countries, as well as existence of confirmed foci of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the ecology of sand flies in two different climates of this province and model the distribution of the main vector. Sand flies were collected monthly during April 2013-April 2014, at 22 urban/rural collection sites. Site selection was constrained by the geographical distribution of CL cases in recent years. Shannon-Weiner and Evenness indices were used to compare diversity in two studied climates. ArcGIS and MaxEnt were used to map and predict the appropriate ecological niches for sand flies. Totally, 5389 sand flies were collected and 12 species were identified. The most abundant species were Sergentomyia sintoni, P. papatasi, P. sergenti s.l. and Phlebotomus alexandri. Two peaks of activity were found in May and August in lowlands; while in mountainous areas they were observed in June and September. Species diversity in mountainous areas was found to be higher than in lowlands. The environmental variable with the highest gain in MaxEnt model was the monthly mean of (max temp-min temp). A big part of the lowland areas provides good ecological niches for P. papatasi and therefore higher transmission potential. These findings can be used in stratification of potential for CL transmission in Qom province. PMID:26071647

  4. 78 FR 48539 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Iran Modern”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Iran Modern'' SUMMARY: Notice is... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Iran Modern,'' imported from abroad for temporary...

  5. Smoke in the Bitterroot Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    By late August 2000, severe forest fires had been burning in Montana and Idaho for more than a month. As of Aug. 29, a total of 57 fires were burning in both states. The smoke from these fires is considered a health risk, especially for the very young and very old, and health advisory has been issued for those with respiratory problems who live in the area. This image from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows smoke in the Bitterroot Mountains on the morning of August 21, 2000. Even though forest fires normally taper off overnight, these blazes are burning so fiercely that opaque pillars of smoke are rising into the morning air. More smoke fills the low-lying valleys, with the mountains rising out of the smoke into clear air. In the full size image, note the irrigated fields and ancient basalt lava flows that line the Snake River Plain to the south of the fires. Image by Reto Stockli and the MODIS science team

  6. Mountain Glaciers and Ice Caps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ananichheva, Maria; Arendt, Anthony; Hagen, Jon-Ove; Hock, Regine; Josberger, Edward G.; Moore, R. Dan; Pfeffer, William Tad; Wolken, Gabriel J.

    2011-01-01

    Projections of future rates of mass loss from mountain glaciers and ice caps in the Arctic focus primarily on projections of changes in the surface mass balance. Current models are not yet capable of making realistic forecasts of changes in losses by calving. Surface mass balance models are forced with downscaled output from climate models driven by forcing scenarios that make assumptions about the future rate of growth of atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Thus, mass loss projections vary considerably, depending on the forcing scenario used and the climate model from which climate projections are derived. A new study in which a surface mass balance model is driven by output from ten general circulation models (GCMs) forced by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) A1B emissions scenario yields estimates of total mass loss of between 51 and 136 mm sea-level equivalent (SLE) (or 13% to 36% of current glacier volume) by 2100. This implies that there will still be substantial glacier mass in the Arctic in 2100 and that Arctic mountain glaciers and ice caps will continue to influence global sea-level change well into the 22nd century.

  7. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  8. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  9. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  10. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit...

  11. Summiteers--Moving Mountains with Bereaved Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renner, Hans-Georg

    2011-01-01

    Summiteers are people who rush to the top. There is a mountain summit and a metaphorical summit inside us which we can climb. In the area of mountain summits, Reinhold Messner is surely the best known and most successful summiteer. He climbed, among other things, the highest peak on earth without supplemental oxygen. In the language of the country…

  12. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit...

  13. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit...

  14. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit...

  15. 36 CFR 13.910 - Mountain climbing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mountain climbing. 13.910 Section 13.910 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Provisions § 13.910 Mountain climbing. (a) Climbing Mount McKinley or Mount Foraker without a permit...

  16. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  17. 27 CFR 9.213 - Snipes Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Snipes Mountain. 9.213... Snipes Mountain. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Snipes Mountain”. For purposes of part 4 of this chapter, “Snipes Mountain” is a term of viticultural...

  18. A Mountain Cultural Curriculum: Telling Our Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Christine Ballengee

    1997-01-01

    Studies the development and implementation of a six-week curriculum to expose denigrating Appalachian Mountain stereotypes and supplant them with images that children create after investigating their West Virginia mountain cultural history of oppression and rebellion. Bases the development of the curriculum on multiple conceptions of multicultural…

  19. 27 CFR 9.108 - Ozark Mountain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ozark Mountain. 9.108 Section 9.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.108 Ozark Mountain. (a) Name. The name of...

  20. 78 FR 29366 - Green Mountain Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Green Mountain Power Corporation Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 2, 2013, Green Mountain Power Corporation filed additional information in support of its request...

  1. Determining Learning Styles of the Professional Mountaineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bektas, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to explore learning styles of the professional mountaineers. The research was carried out according to the survey model. The research group composed of 61 professional mountaineers (n[subscript (men)] = 45, n[subscript (women)] = 16) who attended Advanced Snow Ice Education Camp in Rize on September 1-7, 2012, the last camp of…

  2. OBLIQUE VIEW, REAR ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST Mountain Home Air ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OBLIQUE VIEW, REAR ELEVATION, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Mountain Home Air Force Base 1958 Senior Officers' Housing, General's Residence, Rabeni Street (originally Ivy Street), Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  3. VIEW, FRONT ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTHSOUTHEAST Mountain Home Air Force ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW, FRONT ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH-SOUTHEAST - Mountain Home Air Force Base 1958 Senior Officers' Housing, Colonel's Residence, Tuck Street (originally Locust Street), Mountain Home, Elmore County, ID

  4. Knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ghanei, Mostafa; Ahmady, Khodabakhsh; Babaei, Mansour; Tavana, Ali Mehrabi; Bahadori, Mohammadkarim; Ebadi, Abbas; Poursaid, Syed Masood

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lifestyle is a set of goals, plans, values, attitudes, behaviors, and beliefs manifested in the personal and family life of the individual and in her or his social interactions. It is an interdisciplinary concept that involves a health-oriented view of the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual domains of life. Despite their great importance, there is not much knowledge in Iran about healthy lifestyles. The present study is an attempt to address the knowledge of healthy lifestyle in Iran through a review of the literature on the subject. Methods The present systematic review searched Elsevier, SID, Pub Med, Magiran, IranMedex, and Google Scholar databases for relevant articles published between 2000 and 2014. We used various keywords for the searches, including knowledge, lifestyle, health, and Iran. As a result, 62 articles were included in the study. Results There has been a dramatic increase in the publication of articles on lifestyle in Iran over the past 10 years. The results obtained showed that 64% of the articles addressed physical health, 14% addressed psychological health, 10% addressed social health, and 12% addressed spiritual health. Most lifestyle studies conducted in Iran have focused on physical health, and a few have examined the psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of lifestyle. None of the studies has examined the knowledge map of healthy lifestyles in Iran. Conclusion Given the changes in the causes of mortality from infectious and chronic diseases that impose greater medication and treatment costs on the society, and since diseases caused by unhealthy lifestyles have become the leading cause of death, it is essential for health researchers to focus on the root cause of these diseases, i.e., lifestyle and human behaviors. PMID:27123231

  5. Mountaineering fatalities on Aconcagua: 2001-2012.

    PubMed

    Westensee, Jeffrey; Rogé, Ignacio; Van Roo, Jon D; Pesce, Carlos; Batzli, Sam; Courtney, D Mark; Lazio, Matthew P

    2013-09-01

    High altitude mountaineering is a dangerous endeavor due to the hypoxic hypobaric environment, extreme weather, and technical skills required. One of the seven summits, Aconcagua (6962 m) is the highest mountain outside of Asia. Its most popular route is nontechnical, attracting >3000 mountaineers annually. Utilizing data from the Servicio Médico Aconcagua (park medical service), we performed a retrospective descriptive analysis with the primary objective of deriving a fatality rate on Aconcagua from 2001 to 2012. The fatality rate on Aconcagua was then compared to other popular mountains. For climbers who died, we report all available demographic data, mechanisms of death, and circumstances surrounding the death. Between 2001 and 2012, 42,731 mountaineers attempted to summit Aconcagua. There were 33 fatalities. The fatality rate was 0.77 per 1000, or 0.077%. The fatality rate on Aconcagua is lower than that on Everest or Denali but higher than that on Rainier. PMID:24028641

  6. Influence of mountains on Arctic tropospheric ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabrook, Jeffrey; Whiteway, James

    2016-02-01

    Tropospheric ozone was measured above Ellesmere Island in the Canadian Arctic during spring of 2008 using a differential absorption lidar. The observations were carried out at Eureka Weather Station, which is located between various mountain ranges. Analysis of the observations revealed that mountains had a significant effect on the vertical distribution of ozone. Ozone depletion events were observed when air that had spent significant time near to the frozen surface of the Arctic Ocean reached Eureka. This air arrived at Eureka by flowing over the surrounding mountains. Surface level ozone depletions were not observed during periods when mountains blocked the flow of air from over the sea ice. In the case of blocking there was an enhancement in the amount of ozone near the surface as air from the midtroposphere descended in the lee of the mountains. Three case studies from spring of 2008 are described.

  7. A sightability model for mountain goats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rice, C.G.; Jenkins, K.J.; Chang, W.-Y.

    2009-01-01

    Unbiased estimates of mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus) populations are key to meeting diverse harvest management and conservation objectives. We developed logistic regression models of factors influencing sightability of mountain goat groups during helicopter surveys throughout the Cascades and Olympic Ranges in western Washington during summers, 20042007. We conducted 205 trials of the ability of aerial survey crews to detect groups of mountain goats whose presence was known based on simultaneous direct observation from the ground (n 84), Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry (n 115), or both (n 6). Aerial survey crews detected 77 and 79 of all groups known to be present based on ground observers and GPS collars, respectively. The best models indicated that sightability of mountain goat groups was a function of the number of mountain goats in a group, presence of terrain obstruction, and extent of overstory vegetation. Aerial counts of mountain goats within groups did not differ greatly from known group sizes, indicating that under-counting bias within detected groups of mountain goats was small. We applied HorvitzThompson-like sightability adjustments to 1,139 groups of mountain goats observed in the Cascade and Olympic ranges, Washington, USA, from 2004 to 2007. Estimated mean sightability of individual animals was 85 but ranged 0.750.91 in areas with low and high sightability, respectively. Simulations of mountain goat surveys indicated that precision of population estimates adjusted for sightability biases increased with population size and number of replicate surveys, providing general guidance for the design of future surveys. Because survey conditions, group sizes, and habitat occupied by goats vary among surveys, we recommend using sightability correction methods to decrease bias in population estimates from aerial surveys of mountain goats.

  8. 31 CFR 560.206 - Prohibited trade-related transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... with Iran; goods, technology, or services. 560.206 Section 560.206 Money and Finance: Treasury... Iran; goods, technology, or services. (a) Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran; or (2) Goods, technology,...

  9. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 12, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the International...

  10. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including...

  11. 31 CFR 535.334 - Act of the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Act of the Government of Iran. 535.334... Definitions § 535.334 Act of the Government of Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, an act of the Government of Iran, includes any acts ordered, authorized, allowed, approved, or ratified by the Government of...

  12. 31 CFR 560.313 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 560.313 Section 560.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.313 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The term entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran includes any corporation, partnership,...

  13. 31 CFR 560.552 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... residing in Iran. 560.552 Section 560.552 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... related to U.S. citizens residing in Iran. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Iran ordinarily incident to the routine and...

  14. 31 CFR 535.334 - Act of the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Act of the Government of Iran. 535.334... Definitions § 535.334 Act of the Government of Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, an act of the Government of Iran, includes any acts ordered, authorized, allowed, approved, or ratified by the Government of...

  15. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any...

  16. 31 CFR 560.206 - Prohibited trade-related transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... with Iran; goods, technology, or services. 560.206 Section 560.206 Money and Finance: Treasury... transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services. (a) Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this... to: (1) Goods or services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran; or...

  17. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 10, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic...

  18. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 12, 2013 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, the President issued Executive Order 12957, which declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the...

  19. 3 CFR - Delegation of Certain Functions and Authorities Under the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Under the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation Act of 2012 Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of June 3, 2013 Delegation of Certain Functions and Authorities Under the Iran Freedom... President by the Iran Freedom and Counter-Proliferation Act of 2012 (subtitle D of title XII of Public...

  20. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 7, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran, pursuant to the International...

  1. 31 CFR 560.201 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... services from Iran. 560.201 Section 560.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.201 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran. Except... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, other than information...

  2. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 10, 2010 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran, pursuant to the International...

  3. 31 CFR 535.334 - Act of the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Act of the Government of Iran. 535.334... Definitions § 535.334 Act of the Government of Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, an act of the Government of Iran, includes any acts ordered, authorized, allowed, approved, or ratified by the Government of...

  4. 31 CFR 560.313 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 560.313 Section 560.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.313 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The term entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran includes any corporation, partnership,...

  5. 31 CFR 560.419 - U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... located in Iran. 560.419 Section 560.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.419 U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran. The prohibitions in § 560.201 make it unlawful to hire an Iranian national normally located in Iran to come to the...

  6. 31 CFR 560.516 - Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... clearing transactions involving Iran. 560.516 Section 560.516 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran. (a) United States depository institutions are authorized to process transfers of funds to or from Iran, or for the direct or...

  7. 31 CFR 560.201 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... services from Iran. 560.201 Section 560.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.201 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran. Except as otherwise... origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, other than information and...

  8. 31 CFR 560.313 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 560.313 Section 560.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.313 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The term entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran includes any corporation,...

  9. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any...

  10. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any...

  11. 31 CFR 535.334 - Act of the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Act of the Government of Iran. 535.334... Definitions § 535.334 Act of the Government of Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, an act of the Government of Iran, includes any acts ordered, authorized, allowed, approved, or ratified by the Government of...

  12. 31 CFR 560.516 - Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... clearing transactions involving Iran. 560.516 Section 560.516 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran. (a) United States depository institutions are authorized to process transfers of funds to or from Iran, or for the direct or...

  13. 31 CFR 560.206 - Prohibited trade-related transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... with Iran; goods, technology, or services. 560.206 Section 560.206 Money and Finance: Treasury... Iran; goods, technology, or services. (a) Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran; or (2) Goods, technology,...

  14. 31 CFR 560.313 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 560.313 Section 560.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.313 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The term entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran includes any corporation,...

  15. 31 CFR 560.419 - U.S. employment of persons ordinarily resident in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... resident in Iran. 560.419 Section 560.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.419 U.S. employment of persons ordinarily resident in Iran. The prohibitions in § 560.201 make it unlawful to hire an Iranian national ordinarily resident in Iran to come...

  16. 31 CFR 560.201 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... services from Iran. 560.201 Section 560.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.201 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran. Except as otherwise... origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, other than information and...

  17. 31 CFR 560.419 - U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... located in Iran. 560.419 Section 560.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.419 U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran. The prohibitions in § 560.201 make it unlawful to hire an Iranian national normally located in Iran to come to the...

  18. 31 CFR 560.419 - U.S. employment of persons ordinarily resident in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... resident in Iran. 560.419 Section 560.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.419 U.S. employment of persons ordinarily resident in Iran. The prohibitions in § 560.201 make it unlawful to hire an Iranian national ordinarily resident in Iran to come...

  19. 31 CFR 560.313 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 560.313 Section 560.313 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS General Definitions § 560.313 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The term entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran includes any corporation, partnership,...

  20. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of March 8, 2011 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On March 15, 1995, by Executive Order 12957, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran pursuant to the International Emergency Economic...

  1. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including...

  2. 31 CFR 560.552 - Transactions related to U.S. citizens residing in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... residing in Iran. 560.552 Section 560.552 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... related to U.S. citizens residing in Iran. (a) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, U.S. persons are authorized to engage in transactions in Iran ordinarily incident to the routine and...

  3. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any...

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Iran Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 9, 2012 Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Iran On November 14, 1979, by Executive Order 12170, the President declared a national emergency with respect to Iran and, pursuant to the International...

  5. 31 CFR 535.334 - Act of the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act of the Government of Iran. 535... Definitions § 535.334 Act of the Government of Iran. For purposes of § 535.216, an act of the Government of Iran, includes any acts ordered, authorized, allowed, approved, or ratified by the Government of...

  6. 31 CFR 560.206 - Prohibited trade-related transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... with Iran; goods, technology, or services. 560.206 Section 560.206 Money and Finance: Treasury... transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services. (a) Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this... to: (1) Goods or services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran; or...

  7. 31 CFR 560.201 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... services from Iran. 560.201 Section 560.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.201 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran. Except as otherwise... origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, other than information and...

  8. 31 CFR 560.201 - Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... services from Iran. 560.201 Section 560.201 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS Prohibitions § 560.201 Prohibited importation of goods or services from Iran. Except... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran, other than information...

  9. 31 CFR 560.419 - U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... located in Iran. 560.419 Section 560.419 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... REGULATIONS Interpretations § 560.419 U.S. employment of persons normally located in Iran. The prohibitions in § 560.201 make it unlawful to hire an Iranian national normally located in Iran to come to the...

  10. 31 CFR 561.322 - Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Government of Iran. 561.322 Section 561.322 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 561.322 Entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran. The phrase entity owned or controlled by the Government of Iran means any entity, including...

  11. 31 CFR 560.516 - Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... clearing transactions involving Iran. 560.516 Section 560.516 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations... Payment and United States dollar clearing transactions involving Iran. (a) United States depository institutions are authorized to process transfers of funds to or from Iran, or for the direct or...

  12. 31 CFR 535.576 - Payment of non-dollar letters of credit to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... credit to Iran. 535.576 Section 535.576 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... letters of credit to Iran. Notwithstanding the prohibitions of §§ 535.201 and 535.206(a)(4), payment of existing non-dollar letters of credit in favor of Iranian entities or any person in Iran by any...

  13. 31 CFR 560.206 - Prohibited trade-related transactions with Iran; goods, technology, or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... with Iran; goods, technology, or services. 560.206 Section 560.206 Money and Finance: Treasury... Iran; goods, technology, or services. (a) Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and... services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by the Government of Iran; or (2) Goods, technology,...

  14. Life tables for sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae) in northern Iran.

    PubMed

    Iranipour, S; Pakdel, A Kharrazi; Radjabi, G; Michaud, J P

    2011-02-01

    Life table studies of sunn pest were carried out in Varamin, Iran, from 1998-2001 in order to determine stage-specific mortalities and the impact of specific natural enemies on population dynamics. Populations were sampled 2-3 times weekly in agricultural fields during the growing season and monthly during the period of dormancy at resting sites in nearby mountains some 30 km away from cereal fields. Adults spend a period of 9-10 months in diapause and suffered overcompensatory, density-dependent mortality during this period. Variation in adult overwintering survival was inferred to be largely a function of the physiological condition of bugs that is reduced in a density-dependent manner by intraspecific competition for food among newly molted adults prior to migration to resting sites. Adult mortality emerged as the primary factor in key factor analysis, contributing 73% of the total variance in mortality. Other important factors were egg parasitism by Trissolcus vassilievi Mayr and adult parasitism by several species of Tachinidae. Although T. vassilievi made only a minor contribution to overall variance in total mortality, it had a significant effect on the number of newly molted adults, the life stage that is most damaging to cereal crops. The equilibrium level of the pest population in wheat fields was inferred to be ca. 72.6 adults m(-2), a number that substantially exceeds the economic threshold that ranges from 3-5 adults m(-2). PMID:20569519

  15. Quartz c-axis evidence for deformation characteristics in the Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic belt, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samani, Babak

    2013-05-01

    Quartz c-axis fabric, finite strain, and kinematic vorticity analyses were carried out in well-exposed quartz mylonites to investigate the heterogeneous nature of ductile deformation within the Eghlid deformed area in the High Pressure-Low Temperature (HP-LT) Sanandaj-Sirjan metamorphic belt (Zagros Mountains, Iran). This belt belongs to a sequence of tectonometamorphic complexes with low- to high-grade metamorphic rocks affected by a polyphase deformation history. Asymmetric quartz c-axis fabrics (type I) confirm a localized top-to-the-southeast sense of shear. Quantitative finite strain analysis in the XZ, XY and YZ principal planes of the finite strain ellipsoid demonstrate that the strain ratio increases towards the thrust planes of the Zagros Thrust System. Kinematic vorticity analysis of deformed quartz grains showed sequential variation in the kinematic vorticity number from ˜0.5 to ˜0.8 between the thrust sheets. Such vorticity numbers show that both simple and pure shear components contribute to the deformation. Our results show that simple shear dominated deformation near the thrust faults, and pure shear dominated deformation far from them. Quartz c-axis opening angles suggest deformation temperatures range between 450° ± 50 °C and 600° ± 50 °C, which yield greenschist to amphibolite facies conditions during ductile deformation.

  16. Assessing Pb,Zn,Cd contamination in stream sediments of south east Tehran (Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahdadi, S.; Fayazi, F.; Yaghoobpour, A.; Rahmani, F.; Moslempour, M.

    2009-04-01

    Assessing Pb,Zn,Cd contamination in stream sediments of south east Tehran (Iran) 31 sediment samples collected from south east of Tehran around cement plant (Bibi shahrbanoo mountain) were analyzed by ICP for Pb, Zn, Cd. The samples were also investigated for mineralogy using X-ray analysis.The clay mineral assemblage encountered in the analyzed samples is composed of vermiculite, dickite, montmorillonite and kaolinite.The non-clay minerals of the mud-sized fraction are composed mainly of quartz and calcite and dolomite as major minerals with albite, hematite, muscovite as minor minerals. The measured metals correlated positively with the determined physiochemical factors such as pH, clay content, organic matter content, and carbonate content. According to the index of geoaccumulation, the sediments of the study area are considered to be strongly to very strongly polluted with respect to Pb, strongly polluted with respect to Zn, and moderatly to strongly polluted with recpect to Cd.The calculation of enrichment factors shows that the source of Pb and Zn is from antropogenic activites such as cement plant and vehicle exhausts and Cd from natural source.

  17. natural background radiation dosimetry in the highest altitude region of Iran.

    PubMed

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Daryoush

    2003-09-01

    The natural background radiation has been measured in one of the highest altitude regions (Zagros Mountains), Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari province, in the south west of Iran. The outdoors-environmental monitoring exposure rate of radiation was measured in 200 randomly chosen regions using portable Geiger-Muller and scintillation detectors. Eight measurements were made in each region and an average value was used to calculate the exposure rate from natural background radiation. The average exposure rate was found to be 0.246 microGy/h and the annual average effective dose equivalent was found to be 0.49 mSv. An overall population-weighted mean outdoor dose rate was calculated to be 49 nGy/h, which is higher than the world-wide mean value of 44 nGy/h, as reported by UNSCEAR in 1998, and is comparable to the annual effective dose equivalent of 0.38 mSv. A good correlation between the altitude and the exposure rate was observed, as the higher altitude regions have higher natural background radiation levels. PMID:14646234

  18. Dioctophyma renale (Goeze, 1782) Infection in a Domestic Dog from Hamedan, Western Iran

    PubMed Central

    ZOLHAVARIEH, Seyed Masoud; NORIAN, Alireza; YAVARI, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Dioctophyma renale infection is found in a wide range of mammalian species, typically in temperate areas of the world. Here, we report for the first time, the parasitism of a domestic dog by D. renale in Hamedan, Iran, a mountainous cold region, lacking significant amounts of rainfall, high humidity and temperature. A 2.5 yr old male mixed breed dog was presented with a two months history of progressive hematuria and muscle weakness. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed with results indicating impaired renal function. Urinalysis, showed hematuria as well as parasitic eggs, suggestive of D. renale infection. Urinary system ultrasonography revealed a hypoecogenic tubular structure in the right kidney. The animal was treated with fenbendazole (45 mg/kg, PO, QD - five days) and ivermectin (0.02 mg/kg, SC, single dose). One week later, repeated laboratory examination confirmed presence of at least one alive worm in the affected kidney. A unilateral nephrectomy was performed; one female (60 × 5 cm) and one male (30 × 3.8 cm) live worm were taken out of the extremely thin walled right kidney. One month later, due to failure of the remained kidney and poor condition, the patient deceased. We conclude that dioctophymosis can be found in cold and or relatively dry area. Moreover, the results showed that the worm was not affected with common anthelmintic drugs. PMID:27095981

  19. Experimental modeling of role of gravity and lateral shortening in Zagros mountain belt

    SciTech Connect

    Koyi, H.

    1988-11-01

    Dynamically scaled analogs of the geologic structures of the Zagros mountain belt are used to argue that different parts of the Zagros Mountains of Iran record different combinations of the effects of a gravity-driven overturn and a southwest-northeast lateral shortening superimposed on the Zagros overturn. Partially scaled material models have been used to simulate the Zagros geodynamics, which involve layer-parallel compression of a 6 to 7 km-thick Phanerozoic carbonate cover containing a pattern of preshortening diapirs. The folds in the Zagros form rapidly (1.5 mm/yr in a 20 to 30 km-wide zone), reactivate some of the preshortening diapirs, and generate new synshortening listric diapirs. A third set of postshortening diapirs rises from the Hormuz decollement behind the fold-thrust front. Model buckle folds superimposed on diapirs or pillows tend to avoid and curve around preshortening diapirs, which flatten in the synclines. Model profiles show that lateral shortening induces residual salt at depth to flow toward and rise through the anticlinal cores as synshortening or postshortening diapirs. The author suggests that any salt pillows in currently diapir-free zones of the Zagros fold-thrust belt may surface as diapirs through the anticlines in the future. 13 figures, 4 tables.

  20. Current Status of Acanthamoeba in Iran: A Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    NIYYATI, Maryam; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regarding both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in environmental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acanthamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic keratitis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sight-threatening amoebae is of utmost importance. Methods: We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples. Results: According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 genotype is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in several regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acanthamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country. Conclusion: Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years. PMID:26246812

  1. Family Life and Developmental Idealism in Yazd, Iran.

    PubMed

    Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Askari-Nodoushan, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This paper is motivated by the theory that developmental idealism has been disseminated globally and has become an international force for family and demographic change. Developmental idealism is a set of cultural beliefs and values about development and how development relates to family and demographic behavior. It holds that modern societies are causal forces producing modern families, that modern families help to produce modern societies, and that modern family change is to be expected. OBJECTIVE: We examine the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Iran. We also investigate predictors of the dissemination of developmental idealism. METHODS: We use survey data collected in 2007 from a sample of women in Yazd, a city in Iran. We examine the distribution of developmental idealism in the sample and the multivariate predictors of developmental idealism. RESULTS: We find considerable support for the expectation that many elements of developmental idealism have been widely disseminated. Statistically significant majorities associate development with particular family attributes, believe that development causes change in families, believe that fertility reductions and age-at-marriage increases help foster development, and perceive family trends in Iran headed toward modernity. As predicted, parental education, respondent education, and income affect adherence to developmental idealism. CONCLUSIONS: Developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Yazd, Iran and is related to social and demographic factors in predicted ways. COMMENTS: Although our data come from only one city, we expect that developmental idealism has been widely distributed in Iran, with important implications for family and demographic behavior. PMID:22942772

  2. Family Life and Developmental Idealism in Yazd, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi-Shavazi, Mohammad Jalal; Askari-Nodoushan, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND This paper is motivated by the theory that developmental idealism has been disseminated globally and has become an international force for family and demographic change. Developmental idealism is a set of cultural beliefs and values about development and how development relates to family and demographic behavior. It holds that modern societies are causal forces producing modern families, that modern families help to produce modern societies, and that modern family change is to be expected. OBJECTIVE We examine the extent to which developmental idealism has been disseminated in Iran. We also investigate predictors of the dissemination of developmental idealism. METHODS We use survey data collected in 2007 from a sample of women in Yazd, a city in Iran. We examine the distribution of developmental idealism in the sample and the multivariate predictors of developmental idealism. RESULTS We find considerable support for the expectation that many elements of developmental idealism have been widely disseminated. Statistically significant majorities associate development with particular family attributes, believe that development causes change in families, believe that fertility reductions and age-at-marriage increases help foster development, and perceive family trends in Iran headed toward modernity. As predicted, parental education, respondent education, and income affect adherence to developmental idealism. CONCLUSIONS Developmental idealism has been widely disseminated in Yazd, Iran and is related to social and demographic factors in predicted ways. COMMENTS Although our data come from only one city, we expect that developmental idealism has been widely distributed in Iran, with important implications for family and demographic behavior. PMID:22942772

  3. Investigation of cytotoxic activity in four stachys species from iran.

    PubMed

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Manayi, Azadeh; Lotfi, Mahnaz; Abbasi, Rofeyde; Majdzadeh, Maryam; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2012-01-01

    The aerial parts of Stachys laxa Boiss. and Buhse. from Siah-bishe in Mazandaran province, Stachys trinervis Aitch. and Hemsl. from Karaj in Alborz province, Stachys subaphylla Rech. F. and Stachys turcomanica Trautv. from Golestan province have been collected in May 2008. Total extracts were obtained through MeOH/H2O (80/20) and then partitioned between CHCl3, EtOAc and MeOH. These fractions and total extracts have been investigated for in-vitro cytotoxic activity against the colon carcinoma (HT-29), colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), breast ductal carcinoma (T47D) and Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines using MTT assay (3-(4,5-di methyl thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-di phenyltetrazolium bromide). At each cell line, doses of 3.125, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 100, 200, 400 and 800 µg/mL in 1% (v/v) DMSO of all samples were tested. Ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of Stachys laxa against proliferation of T47D and HT-29 cell lines and chloroform fraction of Stachys subaphylla and Stachys subaphylla ethyl acetate fraction toward T47D cell line exhibited highest cytotoxic activity (IC50 < 50 µg/mL). Ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions of Stachys turcomanica against HT-29 cell line, except methanol fraction of Stachys subaphylla, the other extrcts on T47D cell line, represented moderate cytotoxic activity (IC50 < 70 µg/mL). All fractions of S. trinervis demonstrated no effective cytotoxic activity. IC50 values confirmed that the growth and proliferation of HT-29 and T47D cells were most affected by chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions of Stachys laxa and Stachys turcomanica due to their nonpolar compounds. PMID:24250483

  4. Active tectonics of the Binalud Mountains, a key puzzle segment to describe Quaternary deformations at the northeastern boundary of the Arabia-Eurasia collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shabanian, Esmaeil; Bellier, Olivier; Siame, Lionel L.; Abbassi, Mohammad R.; Leanni, Laetitia; Braucher, Régis; Farbod, Yassaman; Bourlès, Didier L.

    2010-05-01

    In northeast Iran, the Binalud Mountains accommodate part of active convergence between the Arabian and Eurasian plates. This fault-bounded mountain range has been considered a key region to describe Quaternary deformations at the northeastern boundary of the Arabia-Eurasia collision. But, the lack of knowledge on active faulting hampered evaluating the geological reliability of tectonic models describing the kinematics of deformation in northeast Iran. Morphotectonic investigations along both sides of the Binalud Mountains allowed us to characterize the structural and active faulting patterns along the Neyshabur and Mashhad fault systems on the southwest and northeast sides of the mountain range, respectively. We applied combined approaches of morphotectonic analyses based on satellite imageries (SPOT5 and Landsat ETM+), STRM and site-scale digital topographic data, and field surveys complemented with in situ-produced 10Be exposure dating to determine the kinematics and rate of active faulting. Three regional episodes of alluvial surface abandonments were dated at 5.3±1.1 kyr (Q1), 94±5 kyr (Q3), and 200±14 kyr (S3). The geomorphic reconstruction of both vertical and right-lateral fault offsets postdating these surface abandonment episodes yielded Quaternary fault slip rates on both sides of the Binalud Mountains. On the Neyshabur Fault System, thanks to geomorphic reconstructions of cumulative offsets recorded by Q3 fan surfaces, slip rates of 2.7±0.8 mm/yr and 2.4±0.2 mm/yr are estimated for right-lateral and reverse components of active faulting, respectively. Those indicate a total slip rate of 3.6±1.2 mm/yr for the late Quaternary deformation on the southwest flank of the Binalud Mountains. Reconstructing the cumulative right-lateral offset recorded by S3 surfaces, a middle-late Quaternary slip rate of 1.6±0.1 mm/yr is determined for the Mashhad Fault System. Altogether, our geomorphic observations reveal that, on both sides of the Binalud Mountains

  5. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance... exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise... services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation, reexportation,...

  6. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant..., or services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation,...

  7. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant..., or services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation,...

  8. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance... exportation, reexportation, sale, or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise... services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation, reexportation,...

  9. 31 CFR 560.204 - Prohibited exportation, reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. 560.204 Section 560.204 Money and Finance..., reexportation, sale or supply of goods, technology, or services to Iran. Except as otherwise authorized pursuant..., or services to Iran or the Government of Iran is prohibited, including the exportation,...

  10. 75 FR 68017 - Designation of Jundallah, Also Known as People's Resistance Movement of Iran (PMRI), Also Known...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Designation of Jundallah, Also Known as People's Resistance Movement of Iran (PMRI), Also Known as Jonbesh-i Moqavemat-i-Mardom-i Iran, Also Known as The Popular Resistance Movement of Iran, Also Known as Soldiers of God, Also Known as Fedayeen-e-Islam, Also Known as Former Jundallah of Iran, Also Known as...

  11. 75 FR 68017 - Designation of Jundallah, Also Known as People's Resistance Movement of Iran (PMRI), Also Known...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Designation of Jundallah, Also Known as People's Resistance Movement of Iran (PMRI), Also Known as Jonbesh-i Moqavemat-i-Mardom-i Iran, Also Known as Popular Resistance Movement of Iran, Also Known As Soldiers of God, Also Known as Fedayeen-e-Islam, Also Known as Former Jundallah of Iran, Also Known as Jundullah,...

  12. Actinomycosis in Iran: Short Narrative Review Article.

    PubMed

    Khodavaisy, Sadegh; Zibafar, Ensieh; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Narenji, Hanar; Daie Ghazvini, Roshanak

    2014-05-01

    Actinomycosis is an indolent, slowly progressive infection caused by anaerobic or microaerophilic bacteria, primarily of genus Actinomyces, which colonize the mouth, colon and vagina. Mucosal disruption may lead to infection virtually at any sites in the body. The aim of this study was to underline different features of actinomycosis and to represent total data about etiologic agents, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches these infections. From a total of 38 case reports or series, ninety one cases were obtained by using of relevant articles reported as recorded cases in Iran (1972 to 2012). Analyzed data represented 21 cases of oral-servicofacial (23.1%), 7 cases of thoracic (7.7%), 17 cases of abdominal (18.7%), 21 cases of disseminated forms (23.1%) and 25 cases of others (27.5%). Findings indicated more common of these infections in men (61.5%). Actinomyces naeslundii (21 cases) was found as the most common causative agents in comparison with A. Israeli (15 cases), A. viscosus (3 cases) and A. bovis (1 case). The most patients had been successfully treated with penicillin although some cases needed surgery along with antibiotic therapy. Since some clinical features of actinomycosis are similar to malignancies, so the differential diagnosis of invasive forms must be considered. This report emphasizes on the importance of differential diagnosis of actinomycosis from similar diseases by clinicians. PMID:26060757

  13. Profiling of Ecstasy Tablets Seized in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khajeamiri, Ali Reza; Kobarfard, Farzad; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Mostashari, Gelareh

    2011-01-01

    In this study 50 samples of ecstasy tablets seized in Iran during the period of 2007 through 2008 were examined and their physical characteristics (appearance, marking, scored/not scored, color, weight, diameter, thickness) were determined. In order to determine the chemical characteristics of these tablets, color tests (Marquis test, Simon’s test, Chen’s test and Gallic acid test), Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC), anion test, residual solvents, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) were carried out on the tablets. The range of tablets weight was 96–308 mg and the range of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) hydrochloride content in these tablets was 60–180 mg. No good correlation was found between the tablets weight and their MDMA contents. All of the tablets containing MDMA had this compound in hydrochloride form. Ketamine, phenmetrazine and ephedrine (or pseudoephedrine) were found in some of the tablets along with MDMA. No MDMA was found in 20% of the tablets. Some of these tablets contained compounds such as caffeine or tramadol as their active ingredient. PMID:24250345

  14. Ocular toxoplasmosis in Iran: 40 cases analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Seidali; Soleimani, Mohammad; Foroutan, Alireza; Ahmadabadi, Mehdinili; Zarei, Reza; Piri, Nilofar; Gordiz, Arzhang

    2011-01-01

    AIM To report ocular symptoms, funduscopic findings and demographic distribution of ocular toxoplasmosis in Iran METHODS In this cross-sectional study, a total of 40 patients with ocular toxoplasmosis (24 female, 16 male) were enrolled. The distribution of symptoms and funduscopic findings were studied. RESULTS The patients' age was in the range of 13-52 with the most common age of 19 years old. Twenty-four patients were female (60.0%). The most common presenting sign was visual loss. There was anterior chamber (AC) inflammation in 23 patients (57.5%). Vitritis was presented in 36 patients (90.0%). In 35 patients (87.5%), the retinal lesion was central. In patients with peripheral lesion, 3 patients (60.0%) had flashing vs 12.5% chance of flashing in all patients. Older patients had larger lesion (P=0.04). CONCLUSION Ocular toxoplasmosis substantially varies among patients with different age, gender, status of immunity, site of lesion and other undetermined factors. One of ocular symptoms, flashing, may necessitate a more precise peripheral fundus examination. PMID:22553642

  15. Molecular diversity of turncurtoviruses in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Mehdi; Heydarnejad, Jahangir; Massumi, Hossain; Kvarnheden, Anders; Kraberger, Simona; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-03-01

    Turnip curly top virus (TCTV) is the only member of the newly established genus Turncurtovirus (family Geminiviridae). As part of an ongoing study to identify additional plant hosts and the diversity of turncurtoviruses, between 2012 and 2014, we sampled symptomatic turnip plants and other crops in the provinces Fars and Khorasan Razavi (southern and northeastern Iran, respectively). Infection by turncurtoviruses was tested by PCR and/or rolling-circle amplification (RCA) coupled with restriction enzyme digests. Turncurtoviruses were identified in turnip as well as seven other field crops, including eggplant, basil, radish, lettuce, sugar beet, red beet and spinach. Full turncurtovirus genomes were recovered from 25 of these samples, leading to the identification of TCTV and a new putative turncurtovirus, turnip leaf roll virus (TLRV; 13 isolates), which shares <80% genome-wide pairwise identity with TCTV. Agroinoculation of plants with an infectious clone of TLRV demonstrated that this virus could infect several plant hosts under greenhouse conditions and could be transmitted by the leafhopper Circulifer haematoceps (Mulsant and Rey, 1855) from agroinoculated to healthy plants. PMID:26611911

  16. Asthma in Rhinosinusitis: A Survey from Iran

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshaee, Mehdi; Majidi, Mohamad-Reza; Gharavi, Vahideh; Alavizadeh, Fatemeh-Sadat; Movahed, Rahman; Asnaashari, Parasto; Asnaashari, Amir-Mohammad-Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The coexistence of asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is more common than expected given their individual prevalence in the general population and may affect patient’s quality of life. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of asthma in chronic rhinosinusitis in Mashhad, Northeast Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was performed in two university hospital from November 2012 for 12 months. In total, 153 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis were enrolled and referred to a particular pulmonologist for asthma evaluation. Results: The mean age of participants was 40.54±13.11 years, and 41.8% were male. In total, 63.4% of patients had the polypoid form of CRS. The proportion of patients in this study with asthma was 41.8%, compared with a general asthma prevalence in this region of 13.5%. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of asthma among patients with CRS, but it often remains undiagnosed. Asthma in CRS patients should be diagnosed and treated in order to improve patient’s quality of life. We recommend an evaluation of the lower airways in all of these patients as well as further studies in this field. PMID:27602339

  17. Haematophagus Mites in Poultry Farms of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rahbari, S; Nabian, S; Ronaghi, H

    2009-01-01

    Background: Blood sucking mites are important avian ectoparasites which being found on bird species worldwide. Their presence are problematic for the producers either through potential direct effects on weight gain, egg production, sperm production in roosters or as nuisance pests on worker handle hens and eggs. The aim of this study was pointing out of the status of haematophagus mites. Methods: Eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were visited, monitoring for the presence of chicken mites performed by removing and examining debris from poultry house, infested nesting material collected into zip lock plastic bags and at least 20 birds were also randomly selected to examine the presence of chicken mites. Mites obtained from each population were mounted in Hoyer’s medium on microscope slides and identified. All eight caged layer and four breeder flocks were inspected, which were infested with chicken blood feeding mites. Results: Massive infestations of Dermanyssus gallinae were common with huge numbers of parasites on birds, cages and the conveyor belts for egg. Only one farm from Mazandaran Province was infested to Ornithonyssus bursa. Conclusion: Dermanyssus gallinae was the most prevalent blood feeder mite in the breeder and caged layer flocks in Iran, while O. bursa was reported as a first record, which found only in a breeder flock in Mazanderan Province. It seems that its presence is limited into the area which affected by both warm and humid environmental conditions. PMID:22808378

  18. An ethnobotanical survey on hormozgan province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Omid; Soltanipoor, Mohammad Amin; Rastegar, Soheil; Kazemi, Mahnaz; Nourbakhsh Dehkordi, Khadijeh; Ghannadi, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study is based on an ethnobotanical research project conducted in Hormozgan province that is located in south of Iran, bordering waters of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea. This survey was carried out in order to recover the ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal knowledge of the residents of this province. They are using medicinal and functional plants for treating or preventing several diseases. Materials and Methods: Ethnobotanical data sheets were run with the native inhabitants and people of the province by arranging frequent field trips to different parts of the province and direct interviews with them especially those who were more familiar with the plants and their usage. Results: A total of 150 plant species belonging to 53 families were recorded for their ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses among the people of province. The records were developed by scientific names, family names, local names, medicinal parts used, different ways of their application, and traditional uses of the plants. There was high compliance in the use of plants in painful disorders, gastrointestinal, and dermatological diseases. Conclusion: This study revealed that the people of Hormozgan province have a rich knowledge of natural resources. The use and consumption of medicinal plants are still important parts of their life. Rational use of native medicinal plants may benefit and improve their living standards and quality of life. The results of this study can be used as a basis for selecting herbs for further pharmacological, phytochemical, and pharmacognostical studies. PMID:25050260

  19. Urmia Lake (Northwest Iran): a brief review

    PubMed Central

    Eimanifar, Amin; Mohebbi, Feridon

    2007-01-01

    Lake Urmia (or Ormiyeh) is one of the largest hypersaline lakes in the world and the habitat of a unique bisexual Artemia species (A. urmiana). Despite this, and several other values of the lake, little literature on it has been published. The present paper is an attempt to provide a brief review on various aspects of the lake. Urmia Lake, located in northwestern Iran, is an oligotrophic lake of thalassohaline origin with a total surface area between 4750 and 6100 km2 and a maximum depth of 16 m at an altitude of 1250 m. The lake is divided into north and south parts separated by a causeway in which a 1500-m gap provides little exchange of water between the two parts. Due to drought and increased demands for agricultural water in the lake's basin, the salinity of the lake has risen to more than 300 g/L during recent years, and large areas of the lake bed have been desiccated. Therefore, management and conservation of this incomparable ecosystem should be considered to improve the current condition by fisheries research institutes. PMID:17506897

  20. Regression Models For Saffron Yields in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    S. H, Sanaeinejad; S. N, Hosseini

    Saffron is an important crop in social and economical aspects in Khorassan Province (Northeast of Iran). In this research wetried to evaluate trends of saffron yield in recent years and to study the relationship between saffron yield and the climate change. A regression analysis was used to predict saffron yield based on 20 years of yield data in Birjand, Ghaen and Ferdows cities.Climatologically data for the same periods was provided by database of Khorassan Climatology Center. Climatologically data includedtemperature, rainfall, relative humidity and sunshine hours for ModelI, and temperature and rainfall for Model II. The results showed the coefficients of determination for Birjand, Ferdows and Ghaen for Model I were 0.69, 0.50 and 0.81 respectively. Also coefficients of determination for the same cities for model II were 0.53, 0.50 and 0.72 respectively. Multiple regression analysisindicated that among weather variables, temperature was the key parameter for variation ofsaffron yield. It was concluded that increasing temperature at spring was the main cause of declined saffron yield during recent years across the province. Finally, yield trend was predicted for the last 5 years using time series analysis.