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Sample records for albufera valencia spain

  1. Oxygen uptake by excised gills of Procambarus clarkii (Girard) from Albufera Lake of Valencia, Spain, under heavy metal treatments

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Mayans, J.; Torreblanca, A.; Del Ramo, J.; Nunez, A.

    1986-06-01

    The American red crayfish Procambarus clarkii, originally from Louisiana (USA) was introduced in Spain in the 70's in the Guadalquivir River swamps. It appeared first randomly and in a more regular basis afterwards since 1978 in the Albufera Lake south of Valencia and in the surrounding rice fields. Albufera lake and surrounding rice fields waters are being subject since the last three decades to very heavy load of sewage, toxic industrial residues including heavy metals and pesticides from the many urban and industrial settlements in the zone. In the present study, the authors have investigated the effect that heavy metals (Chromium, Cadmium and Mercury) have on the oxygen uptake by excised bills of Procambarus clarkii (Girard) coming from the Albufera Lake (Valencia).

  2. Integrated satellite data fusion and mining for monitoring lake water quality status of the Albufera de Valencia in Spain.

    PubMed

    Doña, Carolina; Chang, Ni-Bin; Caselles, Vicente; Sánchez, Juan M; Camacho, Antonio; Delegido, Jesús; Vannah, Benjamin W

    2015-03-15

    Lake eutrophication is a critical issue in the interplay of water supply, environmental management, and ecosystem conservation. Integrated sensing, monitoring, and modeling for a holistic lake water quality assessment with respect to multiple constituents is in acute need. The aim of this paper is to develop an integrated algorithm for data fusion and mining of satellite remote sensing images to generate daily estimates of some water quality parameters of interest, such as chlorophyll a concentrations and water transparency, to be applied for the assessment of the hypertrophic Albufera de Valencia. The Albufera de Valencia is the largest freshwater lake in Spain, which can often present values of chlorophyll a concentration over 200 mg m(-3) and values of transparency (Secchi Disk, SD) as low as 20 cm. Remote sensing data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhance Thematic Mapper (ETM+) images were fused to carry out an integrative near-real time water quality assessment on a daily basis. Landsat images are useful to study the spatial variability of the water quality parameters, due to its spatial resolution of 30 m, in comparison to the low spatial resolution (250/500 m) of MODIS. While Landsat offers a high spatial resolution, the low temporal resolution of 16 days is a significant drawback to achieve a near real-time monitoring system. This gap may be bridged by using MODIS images that have a high temporal resolution of 1 day, in spite of its low spatial resolution. Synthetic Landsat images were fused for dates with no Landsat overpass over the study area. Finally, with a suite of ground truth data, a few genetic programming (GP) models were derived to estimate the water quality using the fused surface reflectance data as inputs. The GP model for chlorophyll a estimation yielded a R(2) of 0.94, with a Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 8 mg m(-3), and the GP model for water transparency estimation using

  3. Water quality in coastal wetlands: illicit drugs in surface waters of L'Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez-Roig, P.; Blasco, C.; Andreu, V.; Pascual, J. A.; Rubio, J. L.; Picó, Y.

    2010-05-01

    A wide range of emerging pollutants have been identified in environment: antibiotics, hormones, personal care products, etc. But quite recently a new class of ecological threat has been reported: the presence in waters of abuse drugs coming from human consumption [1,2]. Treatment of wastewaters may remove a portion of these compounds, but sometimes, these treatments are insufficient or nonexistent, residues can reach into the aquatic environment. ĹAlbufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain) is a marsh area of a great interest because it is the habitat of a large quantity of unique species of flora and fauna, and a zone of refuge, feeding and breeding for a large number of migratory birds. However, this area is threatened by urban, industrial and agricultural pressures. The aim of this work has been to develop a fast and sensitive multi-residue analytical method for to establish the occurrence and distribution of commonly consumed illicit drugs in surface waters of ĹAlbufera lake. A representative set of abuse drugs with different mode of action was chosen for this purpose, including: amphetaminics, opiates, cocainics and cannabinoids (THC and nor-9-carboxy-THC). In April 2008 and October 2008 a total of 16 samples of water were collected, corresponding to different sampling points previously designed, and covering the most important channels that flow in to the lake. Samples of 250 mL of water were concentrated by Solid Phase Extraction through an Oasis HLB cartridge and extracted subsequently with methanol as solvent. Quantification was carried out by LC-MS/MS with an ESI interface. Performance characteristics of the PLE-SPE followed by LC-MS/MS were established by validation procedure. Selectivity, linearity, precision, recoveries and limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were studied. Our search shows that current sewage treatment systems do not completely remove illicit drug residues from urban wastewater. Benzoylecgonine, the main metabolite from

  4. Estimation of water quality parameters applying satellite data fusion and mining techniques in the lake Albufera de Valencia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doña, Carolina; Chang, Ni-Bin; Vannah, Benjamin W.; Sánchez, Juan Manuel; Delegido, Jesús; Camacho, Antonio; Caselles, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Linked to the enforcement of the European Water Framework Directive (2000) (WFD), which establishes that all countries of the European Union have to avoid deterioration, improve and retrieve the status of the water bodies, and maintain their good ecological status, several remote sensing studies have been carried out to monitor and understand the water quality variables trend. Lake Albufera de Valencia (Spain) is a hypereutrophic system that can present chrorophyll a concentrations over 200 mg·m-3 and transparency (Secchi disk) values below 20 cm, needing to retrieve and improve its water quality. The principal aim of our work was to develop algorithms to estimate water quality parameters such as chlorophyll a concentration and water transparency, which are informative of the eutrophication and ecological status, using remote sensing data. Remote sensing data from Terra/MODIS, Landsat 5-TM and Landsat 7-ETM+ images were used to carry out this study. Landsat images are useful to analyze the spatial variability of the water quality variables, as well as to monitor small to medium size water bodies due to its 30-m spatial resolution. But, the poor temporal resolution of Landsat, with a 16-day revisit time, is an issue. In this work we tried to solve this data gap by applying fusion techniques between Landsat and MODIS images. Although the lower spatial resolution of MODIS is 250/500-m, one image per day is available. Thus, synthetic Landsat images were created using data fusion for no data acquisition dates. Good correlation values were obtained when comparing original and synthetic Landsat images. Genetic programming was used to develop models for predicting water quality. Using the reflectance bands of the synthetic Landsat images as inputs to the model, values of R2 = 0.94 and RMSE = 8 mg·m-3 were obtained when comparing modeled and observed values of chlorophyll a, and values of R2= 0.91 and RMSE = 4 cm for the transparency (Secchi disk). Finally, concentration

  5. Detection of Anthropogenic pressures on western Mediterranean irrigation systems (La Albufera de Valencia agriculture system, eastern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Andreu, V.; Picó, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Irrigation systems are considered as one of the major landscapes features in western Mediterranean environments. Both socio-economic and cultural elements are interrelated in their development and preservation. Generally, due to their location in flat lands and close to major urban-industrial zones, irrigation lands are suffering of intense pressures that can alter their agricultural values, environmental quality and, consequently, the sustainability of the systems. To understand the nature of anthropogenic pressures on large Mediterranean water agricultural systems a methodology based on environmental forensics criteria has been developed and applied to La Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Eastern Spain), a protected area where traditional irrigation systems exists since Muslim times (from 8th to 15th centuries). The study analysed impacts on water and soils, for the first case the fate of emerging contaminants of urban origin (pharmaceuticals and illegal drugs) are analysed. Impact on soils is analysed using the dynamics urban expansion and the loss and fragmentation of soils. The study focused is organised around two major procedures: (1) analysis of 16 water samples to identify the presence of 14 illicit drugs and 17 pharmaceutical compounds by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry techniques; (2) spatial analysis with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) integrating different sources and data formats such as water analysis, social, location of sewage water treatment plan and the synchronic comparison of two soil sealing layers -for the years 1991 and 2010. Results show that there is a clear trend in the introduction of pharmaceutical in the irrigation water through previous use of urban consumption and, in many cases, for receiving the effluents of wastewaters treatment plants. Impacts on soils are also important incidence in the fragmentation and disappearance of agricultural land due to soil sealing, even within the protected area of the Natural Park

  6. Mid term monitoring of heavy metals content in soils of Mediterranean coastal wetlands. La Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia

    2014-05-01

    Coastal wetlands, in general, and Mediterranean ones, in particular, suffer from differente anthropogenic pressures that may affect their intrinsic environmental and ecological functions. Most, if not all, Mediterranean wetlands are not natural spaces were preservation of habitat and wildlife is the only management policy achieved, bur rather their terriroty is a combination of land units with different activities and influences, such as farming, environmental protection and connectivities with urban and industrial areas. Therefore, the need of periodical monitoring is required whenever pressures and environmental health of wetlands is assessed, particularly of those processes that affect the interconnection of environmental compartiments involving water, soils and biota. In agro-ecological protected wetlands soils play and important role because they are potential sources of pollutants due to farming practices. In this case, presence of heavy metals in soils is and indicator of both environmental health and anthtopogenic direct (farming activities) and indirect (neighbour urban areas) pressures. In this work a mid term (17 year) monitoring of seven heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in soils of coastal Mediterranean wetlands (La Albufera Natural Park, Spain) are analyzed. Two monitoring campaings were achieved in 1991 and 2008. In both cases the same 20 points were visited which were distributed in the natural park according two four different sectors of potential anthropogenic pressure and land use. At each point two soil samples were collected at differente depths (0 to 20 cm and 20 to 40 cm). The selected metals were analyzed to determine its total and extractable fractions by treatment with EDTA. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, using graphite furnace when necessary, was used for the determination of metals. In general, there is a reduction of metal contents in the study area in both dates. The trend of metals according to average concentration (mg

  7. A model for describing the eutrophication in a heavily regulated coastal lagoon. Application to the Albufera of Valencia (Spain).

    PubMed

    del Barrio Fernández, Pilar; Gómez, Andrés García; Alba, Javier García; Díaz, César Álvarez; Revilla Cortezón, José Antonio

    2012-12-15

    A simplified two-dimensional eutrophication model was developed to simulate temporal and spatial variations of chlorophyll-a in heavily regulated coastal lagoons. This model considers the hydrodynamics of the whole study area, the regulated connexion of the lagoon with the sea, the variability of the input and output nutrient loads, the flux from the sediments to the water column, the phytoplankton growth and mortality kinetics, and the zooplankton grazing. The model was calibrated and validated by applying it to the Albufera of Valencia, a hypertrophic system whose connection to the sea is strongly regulated by a system of sluice-gates. The calibration and validation results presented a significant agreement between the model and the data obtained in several surveys. The accuracy was evaluated using a quantitative analysis, in which the average uncertainty of the model prediction was less than 6%. The results confirmed an expected phytoplankton bloom in April and October, achieving mean maximum values around 250 μg l(-1) of chlorophyll-a. A mass balance revealed that the eutrophication process is magnified by the input loads of nutrients, mainly from the sediments, as well as by the limited connection of the lagoon with the sea. This study has shown that the developed model is an efficient tool to manage the eutrophication problem in heavily regulated coastal lagoons.

  8. Analyzing anthropogenic pressures in soils of agro-ecological protected coastal wetlands in L'Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno, Eugenia; Picó, Yolanda

    2013-04-01

    Coastal wetlands, despite the importance of their environmental and ecological functions, are areas that suffer of great pressures. Most of them are produced by the rapid development of the surrounding artificial landscapes. Socio-economic factors such as population growth and urban-industrial surfaces expansion introduce pressures on the nearby environment affecting the quality of natural and agricultural landscapes. The present research analyses interconnections among landscapes (urban, agricultural and natural) under the hypothesis that urban-artificial impacts could be detected on soils of an agro-ecological protected area, L'Albufera de Valencia, Natural Park, located in the vicinity or the urban area of the City of Valencia, Spain. It has been developed based on Environmental Forensics criteria witch attend two types of anthropogenic pressures: (1) direct, due to artificialization of soil covers that produce anthropogenic soil sealing, and (2) indirect, which are related to water flows coming from urban populations throw artificial water networks (sewage and irrigation systems) and that ultimately will be identified by the presence of o emerging-pharmaceuticals contaminants in soils of the protected area. For the first case, soil sealing a methodology based on temporal comparison of two digital layers for the years 1991 and 2011 applying Geographical Information Systems and Landscapes Metrics were undertaken. To determine presence of emerging contaminants 15 soil samples within the Natural Park were analyzed applying liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of 17 pharmaceutical compounds. Results show that both processes are present in the Natural Park with a clear geographical pattern. Either soil sealing or detection of pharmaceuticals are more intensive in the northern part of the study area. This is related to population density (detection of pharmaceuticals) and land cover conversion from agricultural and natural surfaces to

  9. Discrimination of Different Water Layers with TerraSAR X Images in "La Albufera de Valencia"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García Fernández, M. A.; Miguelsanz Muñoz, P.

    2009-04-01

    To analyze the capabilities of TerraSAR X Strip Map images in order to discriminate different water layers in the "Parque de la Albufera de Valencia", Spain, a test project was carried out. This place is a rice crop area under European and National Agro environmental regulation which obliges to preserve the habitat and to keep the rice plots flooded out of crop season, from October to January

  10. Mid-term variation of vertical distribution of acid volatile sulphide and simultaneously extracted metals in sediment cores from Lake Albufera (Valencia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Hernández-Crespo, Carmen; Martín, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Lake Albufera is one of the most eutrophic bodies of water in Spain due to point and diffuse pollution over past decades, and its sediments are likely to be anoxic because of high organic matter flux. Hence, sulphides can play an important role in limiting the mobility of heavy metals. This study aimed to study the vertical variation of acid volatile sulphide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metals (SEM) in sediment cores collected from Lake Albufera; other sediment characteristics, such as organic matter, biochemical oxygen, demand or total metals, were also studied. Three sites were selected, and four sampling campaigns were performed to study spatial and temporal variation as well as to obtain information regarding historical variation in the composition of sediments. AVS and SEM were analysed by the purge-and-trap method. The vertical distribution of AVS and SEM varied depending on the sampling site-concentrations of AVS and SEM were higher at sites close to mouths of inflowing channels. A decreasing trend of AVS has been found at these sites over time: In the two first samplings, AVS increased with depth reaching maximum concentrations of 40 and 21 μmol g(-1), but from then on AVS were lower and decreased with depth. SEM decreased with depth from 3 μmol g(-1) in surface layers to approximately 1 μmol g(-1) at deeper segments at these sites. However, the central site was more uniform with respect to depth as well as with time; it presented lower values of SEM and AVS (mean 0.9 and 2.0 μmol g(-1) respectively), and the maximum value of AVS (7 μmol g(-1)) was found at the top layer (0-3 cm). According to the (SEM-AVS)/fOC approach, every site, and throughout the cores, can be classified as containing nontoxic metals because the values were <130 μmol g(-1).

  11. Use of quality indicators for long-term evaluation of heavy metals content in soils of an agro-ecological protected wetland: L'Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Valencia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Palop, Carla

    2015-04-01

    Due to the social, economical and environmental importance of agro-ecological wetlands, strategies for periodical evaluation of their environmental quality should be developed, particularly in those areas were a mixture of land uses are supporting the survival of wildlife and migrant species as is the case of most Mediterranean coastal wetlands. The aim of this work is to develop a strategy for a long-term assessment of the environmental quality of soils in a rice-wetland: L'Albufera Natural Park, Spain, in the surroundings of the metropolitan area of Valencia. The area was officially declared as Natural Park in 1986, integrating both the traditional irrigation system and the ecological importance derived from being a Mediterranean Wetland that is now transformed to a large extent in a rice-wetland allowing the presence of a large variety of migrant spices. The methodology consisted in the monitoring of 20 sites distributed in 5 sectors in and around the natural park of potentially contrasting anthropogenic pressure and land use. Soil samples collection were instrumented in two campaigns. The first one was in 1989 (three years after the official declaration as Natural Park of the wetland), and the second 19 years later in 2008. Seven heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed to determine its total and extractable fractions by treatment with EDTA. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, using graphite furnace when necessary, was used for the determination of metals. To evaluate the quality of soils at each sampling date four indicators were obtained, namely, Contamination Factor (CF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Results obtained with quality indicators were further compared to obtain temporal and spatial trends using Geographical Information systems procedures. In general, there is a reduction of metal contents in the study area in both dates. The trend of metals according to average

  12. An environmental forensic procedure to analyse anthropogenic pressures of urban origin on surface water of protected coastal agro-environmental wetlands (L'Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Spain).

    PubMed

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2013-12-15

    Detection and spatial distribution of 14 drugs of abuse and 17 pharmaceuticals in surface waters was investigated to determine transport hydrological connectivity between urban, agriculture and natural environments. Solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was applied to all samples. To determine spatial incidence of contaminants, analytical results of target compounds were georeferenced and integrated into a geographical information systems structure together with layers of municipal population, location of sewage water treatment plants and irrigation channels and sectors. The methodology was applied to L'Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Spain). A total of 9 drugs of abuse were detected at 16 points (76% of the sample sites). Cocaine and its metabolite, benzoylecgonine, were the most detected substances, being found in 12 and 16 samples, respectively. Maximum concentrations were found in benzoylecgonine (78.71 ng/L) and codeine (51.60 ng/L). Thirteen pharmaceuticals were found at 16 points. The most detected compounds were carbamazepine (15 samples) and ibuprofen (11 samples). Maximum concentrations were detected in acetaminophen (17,699.4 ng/L), ibuprofen (3913.7 ng/L) and codeine (434.0 ng/L). Spatial distribution of pharmaceuticals showed a clear relationship between irrigation areas, high population densities municipalities (above 1000 h/km(2)) and sewage water treatment plants.

  13. Helminth associations in white-toothed shrews Crocidura russula (Insectivora: Soricidae) from the Albufera Natural Park, Spain.

    PubMed

    Portolés, Enrique; Granel, Pedro; Esteban, J Guillermo; Cabaret, Jacques

    2004-06-01

    The helminths of 218 white-toothed shrews from 29 sites in 2 biotopes in the Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain) were examined from July 1990 to August 1991. An association analysis of helminths occurring at a prevalence of more than 4% was carried out for 4 species of cestodes located in the intestine (Hymenolepis pistillum, H. scalaris, H. tiara, and Pseudhymenolepis redonica) and 3 species of nematodes (Pseudophysaloptera sp. located in the stomach, Stammerinema rhopocephala larvae in the intestine and abdominal cavity, and Porrocaecum sp. in the thoracic and abdominal cavities). Bivariate (species pairs) versus multivariate analyses (associations within the entire set of species) were performed of presence-absence and of quantitative records (influence of intensity on associations). The associations were evaluated with respect to the sex and age of the host and to the sampling date and sites. The host and environment played a limited role, and the major determinant of species assemblage was phylogenetic. Positive associations were found among both the cestodes and the nematodes, whereas negative associations were found between cestodes and nematodes. The type of life cycle was probably the second greatest determinant of species associations. Nematodes using shrews as a paratenic host or as their definitive host were both positively associated.

  14. Quality of death certificates in Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Benavides, F G; Bolumar, F; Peris, R

    1989-01-01

    Certificates of 1,454 deaths occurring over 11 months were retrieved from the Civil Register in Valencia, Spain. Relevant medical information was systematically gathered from hospital records, questionnaires, and Coroner reports. We compared the underlying cause of death (UCD) from the original death certificate, and a reference cause of death (RCD) determined by a panel of experts based on all available information. Overall, 80.2 percent of the certificates were concordant for disease category, but there was a great disparity among some specific disease categories. PMID:2782500

  15. Spatial an temporal analysis of chloride concentrations in underground water in the coastal wetland of l'Albufera, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puhakka, Evelina; Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente

    2010-05-01

    Mediterranean coastal wetlands are of great interest for their richness in biodiversity. They are also fragile systems because they are exposed to various human pressures, such as farming systems and urban sprawl. Most Mediterranean coastal wetlands have a transient underground inter phase of continental and marine water. In many cases, the variations of the rain regime towards an increasing dryness and the overexploitation of aquiphers in these zones could favour the marine water intrusion, being a source of continental water salinisation and loss of its quality. This process can directly affect the ecosystems and produce loss of biodiversity. Thus, studies to assess the dynamics in time and space of the possible marine intrusion are necessary to evaluate coastal environment health and quality. The study has been applied to L'Albufera Natural Park, the largest Coastal Wetland in eastern Spain. Due to its importance, it has been included in the list of Wetlands of the RAMSAR Convention. In the area there is a complex relationship between the intrinsic natural importance (endemicity and biodiversity) and the human activities (traditional agriculture and hinterland industrial and settlement development). The methodological approach is based in the analysis of chloride concentrations time series of thirteen sample water points distributed in and around the boundaries of the Natural Park. All time series, between 1982 and 2008, have been analysed to establish trends both in time and space. Results show that in samples close to the see (between 1500 and 2000 metres) chloride concentrations are not too high, with values between 37 mg/l and 213 mg/l. Nonetheless, the shorter is the distance to the see the higher are the chloride levels, with values between 58 mg/l and 1131 mg/l. For longer distances, more than 2000 from the coast line, values are quite similar in most sample points, from 52 mg/l to 691 mg/l. Among all the thirteen time series analysed trends are detected

  16. Intussusception following rotavirus vaccination in the Valencia Region, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Vilar, Silvia; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Gil-Prieto, Ruth; Romio, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown high intussusception rates in Spain. We performed a hospital-based retrospective observational study of the intussusception risk following rotavirus vaccinations among infants in Valencia, a region of Spain with an annual birth cohort of approximately 48,000 children, during 2007–2011, using a self-controlled case series design. We performed medical record review of all cases using Brighton Collaboration´s case definition and assessed the positive predictive value (PPV) of the intussusception diagnosis code. Among 151 hospitalized cases discharged as intussusception, we confirmed 136 as Brighton Collaboration's Levels 1 or 2, resulting in a PPV of 93% (95% CI: 87%–96%). Three confirmed cases occurred within days 1–7 following the first rotavirus vaccination. The incidence rate ratio was 9.0 (95% CI: 0.9–86.5) (crude) and 4.7 (95% CI:0.3–74.1)(age adjusted). In this first study in Europe, the intussusception risk point estimate was comparable to other studies, although results were not statistically significant, maybe due to limited power. The high PPV found will facilitate implementation of a larger study without requiring medical record review. Our finding of very few vaccinated cases despite a thorough 5-year investigation in a country that, according to previous studies, may have a large background rate of intussusception is reassuring and should contribute to deliberations about the need to include rotavirus vaccines in the official Spanish calendars. PMID:26083707

  17. Optimizing strategies for meningococcal C disease vaccination in Valencia (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Meningococcal C (MenC) conjugate vaccines have controlled invasive diseases associated with this serogroup in countries where they are included in National Immunization Programs and also in an extensive catch-up program involving subjects up to 20 years of age. Catch-up was important, not only because it prevented disease in adolescents and young adults at risk, but also because it decreased transmission of the bacteria, since it was in this age group where the organism was circulating. Our objective is to develop a new vaccination schedule to achieve maximum seroprotection in these groups. Methods A recent study has provided detailed age-structured information on the seroprotection levels against MenC in Valencia (Spain), where vaccination is routinely scheduled at 2 months and 6 months, with a booster dose at 18 months of age. A complementary catch-up campaign was also carried out in n for children from 12 months to 19 years of age. Statistical analyses of these data have provided an accurate picture on the evolution of seroprotection in the last few years. Results An agent-based model has been developed to study the future evolution of the seroprotection histogram. We have shown that the optimum strategy for achieving high protection levels in all infants, toddlers and adolescents is a change to a 2 months, 12 months and 12 years of age vaccination pattern. If the new schedule were implemented in January 2014, high-risk subjects between 15-19 years of age would have very low seroprotection for the next 6 years, thereby threatening the program. Conclusions High protection levels and a low incidence of meningococcal C disease can be achieved in the future by means of a cost-free change in vaccination program. However, we recommend a new catch-up program simultaneous to the change in regular vaccination program. PMID:24886054

  18. Improving irrigation management in L'Horta Nord (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Seva, Nuria; San Bautista, Alberto; López-Galarza, Salvador; Maroto, Jose Vicente; Pascual, Bernardo

    2014-05-01

    L'Horta Nord is an important irrigation district in Valencia (Spain), especially for vegetable crops. The traditional cropping pattern in the region consists of a rotation of chufa with crops such as potato, onion, lettuce, escarole and red cabbage, being all these crops furrow irrigated. Currently, the quality of the water used is acceptable, water is not expensive and there are no limitations on supply. Consequently, growers are not aware of the volumes of water used, application efficiencies, nor water productivity for any of the crops cited. The European Framework Directive 2000/60, based on the precautionary principle, considers preventive action for measures to be taken; moreover, drought periods are becoming more frequent and extended, and water is being diverted to other uses. Thus, water use is an issue to improve. In this sense, the current situation of the irrigation in the area is analysed using chufa (Cyperus esculentus L. var. sativus Boeck.) as representative of the crops, since most of the crops in the area have shallow root systems, as chufa, which are irrigated in similar patterns. In order to analyse the irrigation performance of the traditional chufa crop as well as to achieve more sustainable results, different studies have been carried out, during the last decade. Efforts have been directed to increase water productivity, increasing yield and minimising the volumes of water applied. Different planting configurations and different irrigation thresholds, not only in furrow irrigation but also in drip irrigation, are examples of how the irrigation performance could be improved. Herein is presented a two-year study, comparing, in both furrow and drip irrigation, two irrigation schedules based on the volumetric soil water content, which was continuously monitored using capacitance sensors. Yield was significantly affected by the growing season, the irrigation system and by the irrigation schedule, and by the second order interactions of the

  19. Travel and Tourism Students' Needs in Valencia (Spain): Meeting their Professional Requirements in the ESP Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Laborda, Jesus

    2003-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to describe the basic findings obtained as a result of the implementation of two projects of Computer and Information Technologies held in Valencia (Spain) between 2002 and 2003 with 92 second year university students enrolled in English as a foreign language to find out their ICT and foreign language needs both…

  20. Fog collection in the western Mediterranean basin (Valencia region, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrela, María J.; Valiente, José A.; Corell, David; Millán, Millán M.

    2008-03-01

    Four different mountainous locations were selected in the Valencia region, East coast of the Iberian Peninsula, for fog water collection studies. Data for 2004 were obtained by means of an instrument ensemble consisting essentially of a passive cylindrical fog water collector, a raingauge, a wind direction and velocity sensor and a temperature and humidity probe. An approximate data reduction technique was also found for this specific ensemble to eliminate the simultaneous rain water component from the fog water measurements. Main results indicate that fog water collection holds significant potential in this region, and especially for southern locations. Annual rates of fog water yield can be as high as 7.0 l/m 2/day in the southern locations, in contrast to 2.0 l/m 2/day collected at one site in a northern location. The highest summer fog water yield was 4.6 l/m 2/day, a relatively large value. Except for the summer period, fog episodes delivering sizeable water volumes are inherently coupled to rainfall. Hourly frequencies of fog collection were also examined to show a distinct daily cycle in summer, denoting orographic fog formation during this period. Lastly, winds were analysed to resolve the most suitable directions for fog collector alignment.

  1. Space-time airborne disease mapping applied to detect specific behaviour of varicella in Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Iftimi, Adina; Montes, Francisco; Santiyán, Ana Míguez; Martínez-Ruiz, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Airborne diseases are one of humanity's most feared sicknesses and have regularly caused concern among specialists. Varicella is an airborne disease which usually affects children before the age of 10. Because of its nature, varicella gives rise to interesting spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal patterns. This paper studies spatio-temporal exploratory analysis tools to detect specific behaviour of varicella in the city of Valencia, Spain, from 2008 to 2013. These methods have shown a significant association between the spatial and the temporal component, confirmed by the space-time models applied to the data. High relative risk of varicella is observed in economically disadvantaged regions, areas less involved in vaccination programmes.

  2. Toothpicking and periodontal disease in a Neanderthal specimen from Cova Foradà site (Valencia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Lozano, Marina; Subirà, Maria Eulàlia; Aparicio, José; Lorenzo, Carlos; Gómez-Merino, Gala

    2013-01-01

    We present a Neanderthal maxilla (CF-1) from Cova Foradà site (Oliva, Valencia, Spain) with periodontal disease and evidence of attempts to alleviate pain with the use of a toothpick. Two interproximal grooves have been found on the distal surfaces of the upper left Pm(3) and M(1) of CF-1 maxilla. The location, morphology and size of the grooves coincide with other interproximal grooves found on the teeth of other fossil specimens. Heavy dental wear and periodontal disease would have caused the Cova Foradà Neanderthal specimen pain and discomfort, which the individual attempted to mitigate using some kind of dental probe.

  3. Aetiology of community acquired pneumonia in Valencia, Spain: a multicentre prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Blanquer, J; Blanquer, R; Borrás, R; Nauffal, D; Morales, P; Menéndez, R; Subías, I; Herrero, L; Redón, J; Pascual, J

    1991-01-01

    A year long multicentre prospective study was carried out in the Valencia region of Spain, to determine the cause of community acquired pneumonia. The study was based on 510 of 833 patients with pneumonia. Of these, 462 were admitted to hospital, where 31 patients died. A cause was established in only 281 cases--208 of bacterial, 60 of viral, and 13 of mixed infection. The most common microorganisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae (14.5%), Legionella sp (14%), Influenza virus (8%), and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (4%). There was a higher incidence of Legionella sp than in other studies. PMID:1908605

  4. Toothpicking and Periodontal Disease in a Neanderthal Specimen from Cova Foradà Site (Valencia, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Marina; Subirà, Maria Eulàlia; Aparicio, José; Lorenzo, Carlos; Gómez-Merino, Gala

    2013-01-01

    We present a Neanderthal maxilla (CF-1) from Cova Foradà site (Oliva, Valencia, Spain) with periodontal disease and evidence of attempts to alleviate pain with the use of a toothpick. Two interproximal grooves have been found on the distal surfaces of the upper left Pm3 and M1 of CF-1 maxilla. The location, morphology and size of the grooves coincide with other interproximal grooves found on the teeth of other fossil specimens. Heavy dental wear and periodontal disease would have caused the Cova Foradà Neanderthal specimen pain and discomfort, which the individual attempted to mitigate using some kind of dental probe. PMID:24146934

  5. Risk assessment and monitoring programme of nitrates through vegetables in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Quijano, Leyre; Yusà, Vicent; Font, Guillermina; McAllister, Claudia; Torres, Concepción; Pardo, Olga

    2017-02-01

    This study was carried out to determine current levels of nitrate in vegetables marketed in the Region of Valencia (Spain) and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. A total of 533 samples of seven vegetable species were studied. Nitrate levels were derived from the Valencia Region monitoring programme carried out from 2009 to 2013 and food consumption levels were taken from the first Valencia Food Consumption Survey, conducted in 2010. The exposure was estimated using a probabilistic approach and two scenarios were assumed for left-censored data: the lower-bound scenario, in which unquantified results (below the limit of quantification) were set to zero and the upper-bound scenario, in which unquantified results were set to the limit of quantification value. The exposure of the Valencia consumers to nitrate through the consumption of vegetable products appears to be relatively low. In the adult population (16-95 years) the P99.9 was 3.13 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) and 3.15 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) in the lower bound and upper bound scenario, respectively. On the other hand, for young people (6-15 years) the P99.9 of the exposure was 4.20 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) and 4.40 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) in the lower bound and upper bound scenario, respectively. The risk characterisation indicates that, under the upper bound scenario, 0.79% of adults and 1.39% of young people can exceed the Acceptable Daily Intake of nitrate. This percentage could join the vegetable extreme consumers (such as vegetarians) of vegetables. Overall, the estimated exposures to nitrate from vegetables are unlikely to result in appreciable health risks.

  6. Perception and consumption of alcohol among the immigrant population from Latin America in Valencia region (Spain).

    PubMed

    Tortajada, Silvia; Llorens, Noelia; Castellano, Miguel; Alvarez, F Javier; Aleixandre-Benavent, Rafael; Valderrama-Zurián, Juan Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examines patterns of alcohol consumption among the Hispanic immigrant population in Valencia (Spain), and also whether the length of immigrants' residence in our country and perceived degree of discrimination have any influence on such patterns. A total of 610 Spanish-speaking immigrants (314 women, 296 men) over 15 years of age, from six Hispano-American countries were interviewed in 2006; 76.8% had consumed alcohol in the previous 12 months; 37.6% drink more alcohol in Spain than in their country of origin. This study shows the need to develop specific programs for the immigrant population, with special consideration for the young, males, and smokers. The study's limitations are noted.

  7. Flash floods in Mediterranean ephemeral streams in Valencia Region (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarasa-Belmonte, Ana M.

    2016-10-01

    Ephemeral streams are typical Mediterranean fluvial systems with high risk of flash flooding, and few data are available about these systems in most locales. However, the SAIH network (Automatic Hydrological Information Systems) of the Jucar River Water Authority has been providing detailed information about ephemeral streams in Spain every 5 min since 1988. Using these data, we evaluated the processes of rainfall-runoff conversion and flood generation in five Mediterranean ephemeral streams ranging in size from 25 to 450 km2. To provide a general framework for hydrological analysis, the study included 142 flash flood events registered between 1989 and 2007. A more detailed analysis was conducted for the Carraixet Basin under the dry antecedent moisture condition (AMC I) to evaluate the influence of rainfall on the basin's response. A simple index called Momentum of Maximum Intensity (MMI) was developed to describe the influence of rainfall intensity on hydrograph. Correlations between the main indicators of precipitation and flow also were assessed. Results showed that flash floods were generally generated by average accumulated rainfall of around 100 mm at high intensities that could exceed 300 mm/h. Initial abstractions and average water losses during the rainfall-runoff conversion processes were very important (runoff coefficients of 6% and runoff thresholds of 62 mm). No correlation was found between initial abstractions (Ia) calculated from the basin characteristics and runoff thresholds (P0) empirically obtained, which create some doubts about the validity of Ia method for predicting floods in ephemeral streams. Accumulated rainfall was very important for flood volume, peak flow and water balance indicators, whereas intensity indicators were more related to the response times of the basins. Rainfall intensity variables influenced lag time. Accumulated rainfall, in combination with high reduced mean intensity and low persistence, were a good predictor for

  8. Identification of a large, fast-expanding HIV-1 subtype B transmission cluster among MSM in Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Patiño-Galindo, Juan Ángel; Torres-Puente, Manoli; Bracho, María Alma; Alastrué, Ignacio; Juan, Amparo; Navarro, David; Galindo, María José; Gimeno, Concepción; Ortega, Enrique; González-Candelas, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    We describe and characterize an exceptionally large HIV-1 subtype B transmission cluster occurring in the Comunidad Valenciana (CV, Spain). A total of 1806 HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase (PR/RT) sequences from different patients were obtained in the CV between 2004 and 2014. After subtyping and generating a phylogenetic tree with additional HIV-1 subtype B sequences, a very large transmission cluster which included almost exclusively sequences from the CV was detected (n = 143 patients). This cluster was then validated and characterized with further maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian coalescent reconstructions. With these analyses, the CV cluster was delimited to 113 patients, predominately men who have sex with men (MSM). Although it was significantly located in the city of Valencia (n = 105), phylogenetic analyses suggested this cluster derives from a larger HIV lineage affecting other Spanish localities (n = 194). Coalescent analyses estimated its expansion in Valencia to have started between 1998 and 2004. From 2004 to 2009, members of this cluster represented only 1.46% of the HIV-1 subtype B samples studied in Valencia (n = 5/143), whereas from 2010 onwards its prevalence raised to 12.64% (n = 100/791). In conclusion, we have detected a very large transmission cluster in the CV where it has experienced a very fast growth in the recent years in the city of Valencia, thus contributing significantly to the HIV epidemic in this locality. Its transmission efficiency evidences shortcomings in HIV control measures in Spain and particularly in Valencia.

  9. Health effects of the 2012 Valencia (Spain) wildfires on children in a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Vicedo-Cabrera, Ana M; Esplugues, Ana; Iñíguez, Carmen; Estarlich, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran

    2016-06-01

    In July 2012, two simultaneous wildfires burnt a big area in Valencia (Spain), where a birth cohort study (INMA) is being developed. The heavy smoke covered the whole INMA study area for several days. We aimed at evaluating the 2012 Valencia wildfire effects on the health of children enrolled in the INMA-Valencia cohort. Two weeks after the extinction of the wildfires, a phone survey was conducted and finally 460 individuals were enrolled. We considered a wildfire period (12-day interval when they were active) and a control period (12-day interval just before wildfires). Parents were asked about respiratory symptoms experienced during both periods, and during wildfires only about the preventive measures adopted and the perception of exposure, along with individual data collected through the different follow-up surveys of the cohort. Conditional logistic regression models were applied, and we included interaction terms for asthma/rhinitis and level of perception of exposure; 82.4 % perceived smoke smell outdoors, 40 % indoors and more than 90 % of the families observed the presence of ash. An adjusted odds ratio of 3.11 [95 % confidence interval 1.62-5.97] for itchy/watery eyes and 3.02 [1.41-6.44] for sore throat was obtained. Significant interaction terms for rhinitis and asthma in itchy/watery eyes and sneezing, and only asthma for sore throat were obtained. Exposure to wildfire smoke was associated with increased respiratory symptoms in this child population, particularly affecting susceptible individuals with asthma or rhinitis.

  10. Impact of nitrates in drinking water on cancer mortality in Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, M M; Llopis-Gonzalez, A; Tejerizo-Perez, M L

    1995-02-01

    The concentrations of nitrates in public drinking water in the Mediterranean coastal province of Valencia are not only the highest in Spain but also in the whole of Europe. Intensive agricultural practices involve a traditional and growing use of nitrogen fertilizers. This and the terrain--poorly consolidated and porous in areas--favors the accumulation of nitrates in underground aquifers, thereby perhaps accounting for this contamination. The possible conversion of nitrates to nitrites under certain conditions of gastric achlorhydria, followed by their transformation to nitrosamines--substances known to be carcinogenic in experimental models--has led to a number of epidemiological studies of the possible relationship between high nitrate levels in public drinking water and mortality due to different cancers. The aim of the present study was to analyze the relationship between different levels of exposure to nitrates in the drinking water of the 258 municipalities in the province of Valencia and mortality due to cancer of the stomach, bladder, prostate and colon in this population. The cancer mortality rate was found to rise with increasing exposure to nitrates in the case of gastric cancer in both sexes, and in prostate cancer. These same results were obtained on calculating relative risk for the different age groups associated with the consumption of drinking water containing different levels of nitrates.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Air pollution and emergency hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Valencia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, F; Tenias, J; Perez-Hoyos, S

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—To estimate the short-term association between air pollution levels and emergency hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases in Valencia, within 1994-1996 period.
DESIGN—Daily levels of air pollution and emergency admissions for cardiovascular diseases were related to using an ecological time series design. The number of admissions was obtained from the hospital records database. Selected groups of causes were all cardiovascular diseases, heart admissions, and admissions for cerebrovascular diseases. The number of admissions for digestive diseases was used as control. Pollutants were black smoke, sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3). Magnitude of association was estimated by Poisson autoregresive regression. Estimations were calculated according the hottest (May to October) and the coldest (November to April) periods.
SETTING—City of Valencia, Spain, about 750 000 inhabitants.
PARTICIPANTS—People being admitted to the two major hospitals in the city, with a catchment area of nearly 400 000 inhabitants.
MAIN RESULTS—For the whole period, a significant association for SO2-24 h was found so a rise in its levels of 10 µg/m3 was associated with an increment of 3% (95%CI 0.4 to 5.7%) in the expected number of cardiovascular admissions. A significant association for black smoke, SO2-24 h, SO2-1 h, and CO-1 h was found in the hottest semester. All these associations were verified with a lag of two days. The estimates of the associations for particles, SO2, and CO were affected by the inclusion of the other pollutants in their models. NO2 was independently associated with cerebrovascular admissions. There were no significant associations between air pollution and admissions for digestive diseases.
CONCLUSIONS—Current levels of air pollution and emergency cardiovascular admissions are significantly related in Valencia.


Keywords: air pollution; cardiovascular disease

  12. Air pollution and mortality in Valencia, Spain: a study using the APHEA methodology.

    PubMed Central

    Ballester, F; Corella, D; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Hervás, A

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the short term relationship between daily air pollution indicators (black smoke and sulphur dioxide (SO2)) and mortality in Valencia. DESIGN: This was an ecological study using time series data with application of Poisson regression. Daily variations in four selected outcome variables (total mortality, mortality in those over 70 years of age, and cardiovascular and respiratory mortality) were considered in relation to daily variations in air pollution levels for the period 1991-93. SETTING: The city of Valencia, Spain. MAIN RESULTS: The mean daily mortality was 17.5, and the average daily levels of air pollutants from the three monitoring stations included in the study were, 67.7 micrograms/m3 for black smoke, and 39.9 micrograms/ m3 for SO2. A significant positive association between black smoke and three of the four outcomes in the study was found. The estimated relative risk (RR) of dying corresponding to a 10 micrograms/m3 increase in mean daily black smoke over the whole period was 1.009 (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.003, 1.015). For mortality in the group aged more than 70 years and for cardiovascular mortality, the RRs were 1.008 (95% CI: 1.001, 1.016) and 1.012 (95% CI: 1.003, 1.022) respectively. The association with SO2 was less clear: it was only evident during the warm season. The estimated RRs in this case were 1.007 (95% CI: 0.999, 1.015) for total mortality, 1.009 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.21) for total mortality in those older than 70, and 1.012 (95% CI: 0.995, 1.026) for cardiovascular deaths. No significant association was found between mortality from respiratory diseases and either of the two pollutants. CONCLUSIONS: A positive relationship between air pollution and mortality was found in the short term, as has been shown in an important number of studies carried out elsewhere. Although the current levels of particulate air pollution in Valencia are not very high, they could have an effect on the number of premature

  13. Identification of a large, fast-expanding HIV-1 subtype B transmission cluster among MSM in Valencia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Patiño-Galindo, Juan Ángel; Torres-Puente, Manoli; Bracho, María Alma; Alastrué, Ignacio; Juan, Amparo; Navarro, David; Galindo, María José; Gimeno, Concepción; Ortega, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    We describe and characterize an exceptionally large HIV-1 subtype B transmission cluster occurring in the Comunidad Valenciana (CV, Spain). A total of 1806 HIV-1 protease-reverse transcriptase (PR/RT) sequences from different patients were obtained in the CV between 2004 and 2014. After subtyping and generating a phylogenetic tree with additional HIV-1 subtype B sequences, a very large transmission cluster which included almost exclusively sequences from the CV was detected (n = 143 patients). This cluster was then validated and characterized with further maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analyses and Bayesian coalescent reconstructions. With these analyses, the CV cluster was delimited to 113 patients, predominately men who have sex with men (MSM). Although it was significantly located in the city of Valencia (n = 105), phylogenetic analyses suggested this cluster derives from a larger HIV lineage affecting other Spanish localities (n = 194). Coalescent analyses estimated its expansion in Valencia to have started between 1998 and 2004. From 2004 to 2009, members of this cluster represented only 1.46% of the HIV-1 subtype B samples studied in Valencia (n = 5/143), whereas from 2010 onwards its prevalence raised to 12.64% (n = 100/791). In conclusion, we have detected a very large transmission cluster in the CV where it has experienced a very fast growth in the recent years in the city of Valencia, thus contributing significantly to the HIV epidemic in this locality. Its transmission efficiency evidences shortcomings in HIV control measures in Spain and particularly in Valencia. PMID:28152089

  14. Ratio of UV to global broad band irradiation in Valencia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Lozano, J. A.; Tena, F.; Utrillas, M. P.

    1999-06-01

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of 6 years of measurements of UV and broad band irradiation values in Valencia, Spain. Hourly and daily integrated UV irradiance, ITUV, measured by a TUVR Eppley radiometer, and global irradiance IT from a Kipp-Zonen CM-11 pyranometer, were highly correlated, with ITUV/IT percentages varying from 2.9% to 3.5% for hourly values and from 2.9% to 3.4% for daily values. If a general linear relation ITUV=mIT is considered, the correlation coefficient r is always greater than 0.96 for hourly values and 0.91 for daily values. However, the relation between ITUV/IT and the clearness index kT is poorly correlated, although improved results, with less dependence on a specific location, can be observed using the kTUV and kT clearness indices. For a general linear relation, kTUV=mkT, the correlation coefficient r is always greater than 0.89 for hourly values and 0.86 for daily values.

  15. Solar UV exposure of children in a summer school in Valencia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano, María-Antonia; Cañada, Javier; Moreno, Juan Carlos

    2012-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) exposure is the major environmental factor involved in the development of skin cancers and occurs mainly during outdoor activities. During summer schools, children receive regular and significant solar ultraviolet erythemal radiation (UVER) while practising outdoor activities. Personal dosimeters (VioSpor) were attached to the shoulders of schoolchildren and used to quantify their exposure to UVER. The study took place in Valencia, Spain, during July 2008, with three age groups (7-8, 9-10 and 11-12 years old) and involved about 15 schoolchildren. The median (25, 75 percentiles) twice-daily UV exposure values for all groups was 5.49 (3.59, 8.00) standard erythemal doses (SEDs), where 1 SED is defined as effective 100 Jm-2 when weighted with the CIE erythemal response function. Exposure ratio (ER) is defined as the ratio between the personal dose on a selected body site and the corresponding ambient dose received on a horizontal plane during the same exposure period. The median (25, 75 percentiles) ER value for all groups in the study was 5.9% (4.1, 8.7).

  16. LC-MS characterization of contemporary pesticides in PM10 of Valencia Region, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coscollà, Clara; Hart, Elizabeth; Pastor, Agustín; Yusà, Vicent

    2013-10-01

    Pesticides in the inhalable fraction of particulate matter (PM10) should be well tracked in order to contribute information to future exposure assessment in individuals of the general public. A total of 40 current-used pesticides and metabolites were searched for in ambient air samples collected from January through December 2010. The samples were taken from one remote, one urban and three rural sites in Valencia Region (Spain) and analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem (LC-MS/MS). In the PM10 fraction 17 pesticides and metabolites were detected overall, two of them currently banned (carbofuran and omethoate, although the latter is a metabolite of the permitted pesticide dimethoate). The detected pesticides appeared at frequencies ranging from 1 to 75%, with omethoate, terbuthylazine and its metabolites, and carbendazim presenting the highest frequencies. The concentrations detected ranged from few pg m-3 to thousands of pg m-3, with omethoate having the highest average concentration (141.15 pg m-3) in the 5 sites overall. Each station showed its own specific pesticide profile, which is linked to the different types of crops around each site. In the rural stations pesticide levels were greater in spring and early summer, which correlates with their application in agricultural practices. These findings suggest that more efforts are required to implement an extensive air monitoring network in Europe for pesticide control and to develop regulations or recommendations regarding safer pesticide levels in ambient air.

  17. A Bayesian SIRS model for the analysis of respiratory syncytial virus in the region of Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Corberán-Vallet, Ana; Santonja, Francisco J

    2014-09-01

    We present a Bayesian stochastic susceptible-infected-recovered-susceptible (SIRS) model in discrete time to understand respiratory syncytial virus dynamics in the region of Valencia, Spain. A SIRS model based on ordinary differential equations has also been proposed to describe RSV dynamics in the region of Valencia. However, this continuous-time deterministic model is not suitable when the initial number of infected individuals is small. Stochastic epidemic models based on a probability of disease transmission provide a more natural description of the spread of infectious diseases. In addition, by allowing the transmission rate to vary stochastically over time, the proposed model provides an improved description of RSV dynamics. The Bayesian analysis of the model allows us to calculate both the posterior distribution of the model parameters and the posterior predictive distribution, which facilitates the computation of point forecasts and prediction intervals for future observations.

  18. Caries prevalence in children from Valencia (Spain) using ICDAS II criteria, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Boronat-Ferrer, Teresa; Montiel-Company, José M.; Iranzo-Cortés, José E.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the oral health status of the child population and its evolution over the 2004-2010 period. Study Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study of the entire schoolchild population of the Valencia region of Spain was conducted using cluster sampling. Seventy schools were selected. The sample size was 1373 pupils, aged 6, 12 and 15 years. The children were examined in November and December 2010, at their schools, by 6 examiners calibrated in the ICDAS II method. The descriptive statistics, comparison of means and comparison of proportions (p<0.05) were recorded. Results: The caries prevalence (ICDAS 4-6>0) was 30% in primary dentition at 6 years and 37.7% and 43.6% in permanent dentition at 12 and 15 years respectively. At 6, 12 and 15 years, the df.t/DMF. TICDASII 4-6 scores were 0.98, 0.83 and 1.08, the df.s/DMF.SICDASII 4-6 scores were 1.43, 1.27 and 1.64 and the care index results were 14.3%, 59% and 71.3% respectively. Conclusions: Both the caries indices (df.t at 6 years and DMF.T at 12 and 15) and caries prevalence have improved, as the values obtained were lower than in 2004. Using the comparison at 95% CI, between both years, the improvement was only noticeable in the 15 year-old group. The care index continued to be low at 6 years of age but higher values than in 2004 were found at 12 and 15 years. Social class continued to influence the child caries indicators. Key words:Caries prevalence, schoolchildren, ICDAS II, cross-sectional survey. PMID:25350591

  19. GC-MS characterization of contemporary pesticides in PM10 of Valencia Region, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Elizabeth; Coscollà, Clara; Pastor, Agustín; Yusà, Vicent

    2012-12-01

    Better knowledge of the occurrence of pesticides in the inhalable fraction of particulate matter (PM10) could be very useful for future exposure assessment in individuals of the general public. The present work studies the spatial and temporal distribution of the occurrence of currently used pesticides (CUPs) in PM10. Ambient air samples were collected from January through December 2010 at one remote, one urban and three rural sites in Valencia Region (Spain) and analyzed for 42 CUPs using a gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem (GC-MS/MS) approach. Overall, 24 pesticides were detected in the PM10 fraction, four of them currently banned pesticides. Among those detected, concentrations of two particle-bound pesticides (permethrin and pyrimethanil) were, to our knowledge, reported for the first time in air in the literature. The detected pesticides appeared at frequencies ranging from <1 to 47%, with chlorpyrifos, bifenthrin and diazinon presenting the highest frequencies. The concentrations detected ranged from a few to several hundred pg m-3, with ethoprophos showing the highest average concentration (149.2 pg m-3). Each station shows its own specific pesticide profile, which is linked to the different types of crops around each site. Seasonal patterns were observed in the rural stations of Alzira and Sant Jordi, correlating pesticide detection with their application in agricultural practices, mostly in spring and early summer. These findings suggest that more efforts are required to implement an extensive air monitoring network in Europe for pesticide control and to develop regulations or recommendations regarding pesticide levels in ambient air.

  20. New early instrumental series since the beginning of the 19th century in eastern Iberia (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Barriendos, Mariano; Guinaldo, Elena; Lopez-Bustins, Joan A.

    2010-05-01

    Early instrumental series are the main source for climate information in the 18th and the first part of the 19th century, which is when systematic meteorological observations started in most national meteorological services. The first continuous series in Spain starts in 1780 in Barcelona due to meteorological observations made by the medical doctor Francisco Salvá Campillo. Moreover, only two other series have been recovered at the present in Spain: Madrid and Cádiz/San Fernando. Until present, in Spain the major part of the meteorological observations detected in early instrumental periods were made by medical doctors, who started to pay attention to the environmental factors influencing population health under the Hippocrates oath, although also there are military institutions and academic university staff (e.g. physicists, mathematicians, etc.). Due to the high spatial and temporal climate variability in the Iberian Peninsula, it is important to recover and digitize more climatic series, and this is one of the main goals of the Salvá-Sinobas project (http://salva-sinobas.uvigo.es/) funded by the Spanish Ministry of Environment, and Rural and Marine Affairs for the 2009-2011 period. The first new series with systematic observations was detected in the city of Valencia, in the eastern façade of the Iberian Peninsula. The meteorological observations were daily published in the newspapers Diario de Valencia (1804-1834) and Diario Mercantil de Valencia (1837-1863) until official meteorological observations started in 1858 at the University of Valencia. Each day 3-daily observations (morning, midday, afternoon) were published with five climatic variables: temperature, air pressure, humidity, wind direction and the sky state. Only during the 1804-1808 period daily rainfall data is available. We checked the observer comments published in the newspapers to obtain metadata about the instruments and meteorological station information. Unfortunately, temperature data

  1. Occurrence of emerging contaminants in agricultural soils, sewage sludge and waters in Valencia (E Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boluda, Rafael; Marimon, Lupe; Atzeni, Stefania; Mormeneo, Salvador; Iranzo, María; Zueco, Jesús; Gamón, Miguel; Sancenón, José; Romera, David; Gil, Carlos; Amparo Soriano, Maria; Granell, Clara; Roca, Núria; Bech, Jaume

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, studies into the presence and distribution of emerging contaminants (ECs), like pharmaceutical products, some pesticides and mycotoxins in the natural environment, are receiving considerable attention. Thus, the presence of these compounds in waters, soils and wastes in different locations including agricultural systems has been stressed; very few studies into this matter are available in Spain. The main source of ECs in the environment is wastewater spillage from wastewater treatment plants (WTP), where these compounds arrive from the sewer system network. The objective of this study was to determine the levels of 35 ECs constituted by nine pharmaceutical products, 23 fungicides and three mycotoxins in soils, sewages sludge and waters adjacent to WTP from an agriculture area of Valencia (E Spain) influenced by intense urban and industrial activity. Seven samples from sludge, 13 soil samples and eight samples of waters from the area of influence of WTP were collected. The ECs extraction were performed using 5 g of fresh sample and a mixture of acetonitrile with 1% formic acid and water at the 3:1 ratio by shaking for 45 min and then centrifuging at 4,000 rpm for 5 min. The extract was filtered and determination was done by HPLC system connected to a 3200-Qtrap de triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with an electrospray ion source. The results showed that soil-ECs concentrations were 10 times lower that in sewage sludge. The smaller number of detections and detected compounds should also be stressed. As in previous cases, fungicides azole (tebuconazole and tricyclazole), along with boscalid, were the most detected compounds with concentrations of between 100 and 400 µg kg-1 dw. In second place, propiconazole and azoxystrobin stood out, followed by carbendazim, dimetomorph, pyraclostrobin and propamocarb. The following drugs and mycotoxins were detected to have a higher to lower concentration (1-40 µg kg-1): telmisartan, irbesartan, venlafaxine

  2. Lagged effects of the Mistral wind on heavy precipitation through ocean-atmosphere coupling in the region of Valencia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthou, Ségolène; Mailler, Sylvain; Drobinski, Philippe; Arsouze, Thomas; Bastin, Sophie; Béranger, Karine; Lebeaupin Brossier, Cindy

    2016-05-01

    The region of Valencia in Spain has historically been affected by heavy precipitation events (HPEs). These HPEs are known to be modulated by the sea surface temperature (SST) of the Balearic Sea. Using an atmosphere-ocean regional climate model, we show that more than 70 % of the HPEs in the region of Valencia present a SST cooling larger than the monthly trend in the Northwestern Mediterranean before the HPEs. This is linked to the breaking of a Rossby wave preceding the HPEs: a ridge-trough pattern at mid-levels centered over western France associated with a low-level depression in the Gulf of Genoa precedes the generation of a cut-off low over southern Spain with a surface depression over the Alboran Sea in the lee of the Atlas. This latter situation is favourable to the advection of warm and moist air towards the Mediterranean Spanish coast, possibly leading to HPEs. The depression in the Gulf of Genoa generates intense northerly (Mistral) to northwesterly (Tramontane/Cierzo) winds. In most cases, these intense winds trigger entrainment at the bottom of the oceanic mixed layer which is a mechanism explaining part of the SST cooling in most cases. Our study suggests that the SST cooling due to this strong wind regime then persists until the HPEs and reduces the precipitation intensity.

  3. Fog water collection under sea breeze conditions in the Western Mediterranean basin (Valencia region, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, C.; Corell, D.; Estrela, M. J.; Valiente, J. A.

    2010-07-01

    Orographic fog occurrences associated with sea breezes determine water collection potential over the mountain ranges near the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Previous works have confirmed that the effect of sea breezes on cloud genera is to increase the frequency of low (Stratus) and convective (Cumulus) clouds. The primary impact of sea breeze flows corresponds to low stratiform clouds (Stratus, St, and Stratocumulus, Sc) formed in the convective internal boundary layer due to the inflow of moist sea air at lower levels. The formation of Sc clouds is caused by the rising and cooling of turbulent moist sea air over the highest slopes of the mountains at the end of the day. In the most Sc formation, we also observed dense fog banks of Stratus nebulosus (St neb) and dew during the early next morning, covering the inland topographical depressions. The aim of this study is to statistically analyze the impact of sea breezes on fog water collection in the convective internal boundary layer. The study area is located in the eastern of the Iberian Peninsula (Valencia region, Spain) and the survey corresponds to a 7-yr study period (2003-2009). This research is based upon a small network of eight passive fog water collectors distributed over 6 coastal- and 2 inland-mountain areas. A cylindrical fog water instrument (i.e. omnidirectional collection efficiency) based on the ASRC (Atmospheric Science Research Centre, State University of New York) string collector is used to sample fog water volumes on a daily basis. These stations also sampled temperature, humidity, wind speed and direction and precipitation measurements. The current study used these meteorological measurements to apply an automated and manual selection methodologies for identifying past sea breeze episodes. The dataset created by means of these selection techniques allows for the study of fog water volumes associated with sea breeze situations. A detailed statistical characterization of the

  4. Study and Evaluation of the Alcublas (Valencia, Spain) forest fire of Summer 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora Sanchez, Francisco; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    This work studies and quantifies the forest fire that took place in the province of Valencia, Spain, that particularly affected the municipality of Alcublas. This fire was one of the most intense and catastrophic fires that extended over the Valencian Community. Besides quantifying the area affected by the fire according to a severity index, the analysis was carried out from different viewpoints, namely land use, municipal, and cadastral. The data used were, on the one hand, two images from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) satellite, respectively before and after the fire. On the other hand, we also used CORINE Land Cover 2006 Land Use data, a digital terrain model (DTM), the cadastre or land registration from Alcublas and the Spanish topographic map at scale 1:25000 (MTN25). The method used consisted of different steps: atmospheric correction of the images with the dark-object subtraction technique, topographic correction of the images with a 5 m resolution DTM and the Minnaert method, and the elimination of the Landsat 7 Scan Line Corrector (SLC-off) effect by using the Delaunay triangulation method. Once the images were corrected, we computed the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) to highlight and characterise the areas that were burnt by means of a standard severity index. The estimation of the affected area was done through the difference of the images respectively before and after the fire that was also trimmed off to actually obtain the affected area. Once the forest fire was classified, the total affected area was estimated for each severity index and overlaid the Spanish topographic map (1:25000) thus being able to calculate the affected area for each municipality, land use and cadastrial property. The total burnt area was 19910 ha, the most affected municipality -in extension- was Andilla with 4966 ha. But the most significant one was precisely Alcublas with 60,64% of its area burnt. The area burnt for each land use was also estimated according to

  5. Seasonal changes of the infiltration rates in urban parks of Valencia City, Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia; Burguet, María; Pereira, Paulo; Esteban Lucas-Borja, Manuel; Martinez-Murillo, Juan F.

    2016-04-01

    cover and the infiltration, with high infiltration rates with the grass covers. This is due to the higher infiltration rates of the soils with roots and due to the impact of plant stems on the runoff generation (Wang et al., 2015; Zhao et al., 2015). The importance of the vegetation on the soil infiltration capacity in the gardens of Valencia is a key factor to reduce the runoff sediment concentration such as was found at different scales (Keesstra et al., 2007; Nanko et al., 2015; Pereira et al, 2015; Prosdocimi et al., 2016) Acknowledgements The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603498 (RECARE project). References Cerdà, A. 1996. Seasonal variability of infiltration rates under contrasting slope conditions in southeast Spain. Geoderma, 69 (3-4), 217-232. Cerdà, A. 1997. Seasonal changes of the infiltration rates in a mediterranean scrubland on limestone. Journal of Hydrology, 198 (1-4), 209-225. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-1694(96)03295-7 Cerdà, A. 1998. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland, Hydrological Processes, 12 (7), 1031-1042. Cerdà, A. 1999. Seasonal and spatial variations in infiltration rates in badland surfaces under Mediterranean climatic conditions. Water Resources Research, 35 (1), 319-328. DOI: 10.1029/98WR01659 Cerdà, A. 2001.Effects of rock fragment cover on soil infiltration, interrill runoff and erosion. European Journal of Soil Science, 52 (1), 59-68. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2389.2001.00354.x Cerdà, A., Bodì, M.B. 2009. Infiltration process in the badlands of the East in the Iberian Peninsula. Progress and challenges. Cuadernos de Investigación Geográfica, 35 (1), 7-42. Keesstra, S.D. 2007. Impact of natural reforestation on floodplain sedimentation in the Dragonja basin, SW Slovenia. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 32(1): 49-65. DOI: 10.1002/esp.1360 Nanko, K., Giambelluca, T

  6. The Experience at the University of Puerto Rico with ``The Sky in Your Hands'' and ``The Tactile Moon Project'' from the Astronomical Observatory University of Valencia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villamizar, G. M. I.; Pantoja, C. A.; Lebrón Santos, M. E.; Ortiz-Gil, A.

    2013-04-01

    This poster describes the collaboration that was originated from the activities of the “International Year of Astronomy 2009” (IYA2009). Beyond 2009 we have continued the collaboration with the outreach specialists from Spain. Two projects have followed, the first was the presentation of the Planetarium Show “The Sky in Your Hands” at the University of Puerto Rico, Río Piedras Campus during 2012. The second project is our participation in the design and development of the 3D Tactile Moon Project for the Blind from the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Valencia, Spain.

  7. Increase in the exposition to floods in the Alicante coast (Valencia region, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olcina, J.; Rico, A. M.; Hernandez, M.; Martínez, E.

    2009-09-01

    During the last two decades, Flood episodes along the Alicante coastline have caused important material losses and general disruptions of everyday life in the municipalities affected. We can speak of an increase in the vulnerability to floods chiefly as a result of an increase in exposition. In turn this increase is fundamentally linked to the nature of the recent urbanization process in this area and the corresponding occupation of flood prone land. The province of Alicante occupies one of the first positions in Europe regarding flood risk (ESPON 2006). Even counting with legislation that regulates land uses, processes leading to the occupation of flood risk areas have proven very difficult to manage. In this sense, the Valencia region has enacted legislation such as the Land Use Planning Law of 1989, the Law on Urban Growth Regulations of 1994, and the Planning Regulations of 1998. All these legal pieces attempted to prohibit development in flood prone land declaring this land as "non.urban". New laws such as the Law on Land Use Planning and Landscape protection of 2004, the Law on New Urban Land (2004), and the Decree on Landscape (2006) also consider the need to include the flood hazard in planning activities. Furthermore in 1997, the so-called "Cartography of the flood hazard at the regional level" was elaborated. This mapping exercise was the base for the "Territorial Plan for the Reduction of Flood Risks (PATRICOVA) approved in 2003 and currently the main planning tool for flood management in Valencia. On the other hand, the European Directive 60/2007 pointed towards the need to take into consideration the social perception of Flood risks in order to develop integrated actions of risk management. Accordingly we have undertaken 285 interviews in the coastal communities of Alicante, Calpe and Campello (95 interviews each). We have chosen these municipalities for two reasons: first their significance in population and economic activity terms, and second, their

  8. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6-9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-12-18

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6-9 years) in 2013-2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson's chi-square and Student's t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies.

  9. Multivariate thermo-hygrometric characterisation of the archaeological site of Plaza de l'Almoina (Valencia, Spain) for preventive conservation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Navajas, Angel; Merello, Paloma; Beltrán, Pedro; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan

    2013-07-29

    Preventive conservation requires monitoring and control of the parameters involved in the deterioration process, mainly temperature and relative humidity. It is important to characterise an archaeological site prior to carrying out comparative studies in the future for preventive conservation, either by regular studies to verify whether the conditions are constant, or occasional ones when the boundary conditions are altered. There are numerous covered archaeological sites, but few preventive conservation works that give special attention to the type of cover installed. In particular, there is no background of microclimatic studies in sites that are in the ground and, as in the Plaza de l'Almoina (Valencia, Spain), are buried and partially covered by a transparent roof. A large effect of the transparent cover was found by the sensors located below this area, with substantial increases in temperature and a decrease in the relative humidity during the day. Surrounding zones also have values above the recommended temperature values. On the other hand, the influence of a buried water drainage line near the site is notable, causing an increase in relative humidity levels in the surrounding areas. Multivariate statistical analyses enabled us to characterise the microclimate of the archaeological site, allowing future testing to determine whether the conservation conditions have been altered.

  10. The effectiveness of health systems in influencing avoidable mortality: a study in Valencia, Spain, 1975-90.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, X; Bayo, A; Alfonso, J L; Cortina, P; Corella, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To measure variations in the Holland and Charlton classifications of avoidable death causes and to estimate the effect of the Spanish national health system on avoidable mortality. DESIGN: Mortality in the Valencian Community was assessed between 1975 and 1990. The classifications of Holland and Charlton, used to assess avoidable causes of death, were compared. Holland's classification was then used to divide avoidable mortality into two groups--medical care indicators (MCI), which show the effectiveness of health care, and national health policy indicators (NHPI), which show the status of primary prevention. Comparisons were made with rates, group rates, and population rates. Trends and indices were also studied. SETTING: Valencia, Spain, 1975-90. RESULTS: During the study period, avoidable morality (only assessed by MCI) fell 63%, whereas the remainder of the mortality (non-MCI causes, that is all the non-avoidable causes together with the NHPI group) fell by 17%. If it is assumed that the mortality due to non-MCI causes indicates the overall effect of the environmental, social, nutritional, and genetic influences, then the difference between this and the MCI group would take us nearer the actual effect of the intervention of the health system. CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that in this community, the health system has been responsible for approximately 47% of the total reduction in mortality from avoidable causes in the period studied. PMID:8935465

  11. Anthropometric Status and Nutritional Intake in Children (6–9 Years) in Valencia (Spain): The ANIVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Rubio-López, Nuria; Ruso, Candelaria; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustín; Ruiz-Rojo, Elías; Redondo, Maximino; Pico, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to assess nutritional intake and anthropometric statuses in schoolchildren to subsequently determine nutritional adequacy with Spanish Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs). The ANIVA study, a descriptive cross-sectional study, was conducted in 710 schoolchildren (6–9 years) in 2013–2014 in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured using 3-day food records, completed by parents. Anthropometric measures (weight and height) were measured according to international standards, and BMI-for-age was calculated and converted into z-scores by WHO-Anthro for age and sex. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using DRI based on estimated average requirement (EAR) or adequate intake (AI). Pearson’s chi-square and Student’s t-test were employed. Of our study group (47.61% boys, 52.39% girls), 53.1% were normoweight and the weight of 46.9% was inadequate; of these, 38.6% had excess body weight (19.6% overweight and 19.0% obesity). We found intakes were lower for biotin, fiber, fluoride, vitamin D (p < 0.016), zinc, iodine, vitamin E, folic acid, calcium and iron (p < 0.017), and higher for lipids, proteins and cholesterol. Our results identify better nutritional adequacy to Spanish recommendations in overweight children. Our findings suggest that nutritional intervention and educational strategies are needed to promote healthy eating in these children and nutritional adequacies. PMID:26694443

  12. Multivariate Thermo-Hygrometric Characterisation of the Archaeological Site of Plaza de l’Almoina (Valencia, Spain) for Preventive Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Navajas, Ángel; Merello, Paloma; Beltrán, Pedro; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Preventive conservation requires monitoring and control of the parameters involved in the deterioration process, mainly temperature and relative humidity. It is important to characterise an archaeological site prior to carrying out comparative studies in the future for preventive conservation, either by regular studies to verify whether the conditions are constant, or occasional ones when the boundary conditions are altered. There are numerous covered archaeological sites, but few preventive conservation works that give special attention to the type of cover installed. In particular, there is no background of microclimatic studies in sites that are in the ground and, as in the Plaza de l’Almoina (Valencia, Spain), are buried and partially covered by a transparent roof. A large effect of the transparent cover was found by the sensors located below this area, with substantial increases in temperature and a decrease in the relative humidity during the day. Surrounding zones also have values above the recommended temperature values. On the other hand, the influence of a buried water drainage line near the site is notable, causing an increase in relative humidity levels in the surrounding areas. Multivariate statistical analyses enabled us to characterise the microclimate of the archaeological site, allowing future testing to determine whether the conservation conditions have been altered. PMID:23899937

  13. Improving the location of induced earthquakes associated with an underground gas storage in the Gulf of Valencia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaite, Beatriz; Ugalde, Arantza; Villaseñor, Antonio; Blanch, Estefania

    2016-05-01

    On September 2013, increased seismic activity was recorded near the CASTOR offshore underground gas storage (UGS), in the Gulf of Valencia (Spain). According to the reports by the Spanish Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN), more than 550 events occurred during two months, the strongest having a magnitude of Mw = 4.2 which took place two weeks after the gas injection stopped. The low magnitude of the events (with only 17 earthquakes having mbLg greater than 3), the lack of nearby stations, and the inhomogeneous station distribution made the location problem a great challenge. Here we present improved locations for a subset of 161 well recorded events from the earthquake sequence using a probabilistic nonlinear earthquake location method. A new 3-D shear-wave velocity model is also estimated in this work from surface-wave ambient noise tomography. To further improve the locations, waveform cross-correlations are computed at each station for every event pair and new locations are obtained from an inverted set of adjusted travel time picks. The resulting hypocentral solutions show a tighter clustering with respect to the initial locations and they are distributed in a NW-SE direction. Most of the earthquakes are located near the injection well at depths of about 6 km. Our results indicate that the observed seismicity is closely associated with the injection activities at the CASTOR underground gas storage and may have resulted from the reactivation of pre-existing unmapped faults, located a few kilometers below the reservoir.

  14. Comparison of nutritional status between children with autism spectrum disorder and typically developing children in the Mediterranean Region (Valencia, Spain).

    PubMed

    Marí-Bauset, Salvador; Llopis-González, Agustín; Zazpe, Itziar; Marí-Sanchis, Amelia; Morales Suárez-Varela, Maria

    2017-04-01

    This case-control study investigated nutrient intake, healthy eating index with 10 items on foods and nutrients, on 3-day food diaries and anthropometric measurements in 105 children with autism spectrum disorder and 495 typically developing children (6-9 years) in Valencia (Spain). Children with autism spectrum disorder were at a higher risk for underweight, eating more legumes, vegetables, fiber, and some micronutrients (traditional Mediterranean diet) but fewer dairy and cereal products, and less iodine, sodium, and calcium than their typically developing peers. Differences existed in total energy intake but healthy eating index and food variety score differences were not significant. Autism spectrum disorder group failed to meet dietary recommendations for thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin C, or calcium. Risk of inadequate intake of fiber, vitamin E, and sodium was lower in children with autism spectrum disorder than typically developing children. Results suggest that (1) risk of inadequate intake of some micronutrients in children with autism spectrum disorder and (2) cultural patterns and environment may influence food intake and anthropometric characteristics in autism spectrum disorder. Primary care should include anthropometric and nutritional surveillance in this population to identify intervention on a case-by-case basis. Future research should explore dietary patterns and anthropometric characteristics in different autism spectrum disorder populations in other countries, enhancing our understanding of the disorder's impact.

  15. Pathology of morbillivirus infection in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from Valencia and Murcia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Duignan, P J; Geraci, J R; Raga, J A; Calzada, N

    1992-07-01

    During the summer and fall of 1990 hundreds of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) died in the Spanish Mediterranean as a result of morbillivirus infection. A pathological investigation was carried out on dolphins from Valencia and Murcia which were among the first to die in the epizootic. The dolphins were in poor body condition and pneumonia was the main necropsy finding. Microscopic lung lesions characterized by necrosis of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium and infiltration of alveoli with macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils and multinucleated syncytia were seen in most dolphins. Cytoplasmic and nuclear eosinophilic viral inclusions were present in bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium and in syncytia. Focal granulomatous inflammation associated with nematodes was also present. Brain lesions included diffuse degeneration and necrosis of neurons, microgliosis, perivascular cuffing, formation of syncytia and focal demyelination. Cytoplasmic and nuclear eosinophilic inclusions were present in neurons and glial cells. There was severe lymphoid necrosis and depletion of spleen and lymph nodes and syncytia also occurred in lymph nodes. Biliary and transitional epithelium contained nuclear and cytoplasmic eosinophilic inclusions. Immunoperoxidase staining using monoclonal antibodies to phocine distemper virus confirmed the presence of morbillivirus antigens in lung and brain. The distribution and severity of lesions in striped dolphins are similar to those of distemper in seals, harbor porpoises and terrestrial mammals. The formation of syncytia in the lung and brain may be a useful pathological indicator of morbillivirus infection and may be used in the investigation of pinniped and cetacean strandings in North America.

  16. Enterobacter and Klebsiella species isolated from fresh vegetables marketed in Valencia (Spain) and their clinically relevant resistances to chemotherapeutic agents.

    PubMed

    Falomir, María Pilar; Rico, Hortensia; Gozalbo, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Occurrence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic or commensal enterobacteria in marketed agricultural foodstuffs may contribute to their incorporation into the food chain and constitutes an additional food safety concern. In this work, we have determined the clinically relevant resistances to 11 common chemotherapeutic agents in Enterobacter and Klebsiella isolates from fresh vegetables from various sources (supermarkets and greengrocers' shops in Valencia, Spain). A total of 96 isolates were obtained from 160 vegetables analyzed (50% positive samples): 68 Enterobacter isolates (59 E. cloacae, two E. aerogenes, two E. cancerogenus, one E. gergoviae, and four E. sakazakii, currently Cronobacter spp.), and 28 Klebsiella isolates (19 K. oxytoca and 9 K. pneumoniae). Only seven isolates were susceptible to all agents tested, and no resistances to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol were detected. Most isolates were resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (74 [58 Enterobacter and 16 Klebsiella]) or to ampicillin (80 [55/25]). Other resistances were less frequent: nitrofurantoin (13 isolates [12/1]), tetracycline (6 [5/1]), co-trimoxazole (3 [3/0]), cefotaxime (1 [1/0]), and streptomycin (2 [1/1]). Multiresistant isolates to two (56 [41/15]), three (10 E. cloacae isolates), four (one E. cloacae and one K. pneumoniae isolate), and five (two E. cloacae isolates) chemotherapeutic agents were also detected. The presence of potential pathogens points to marketed fresh produce, which often is eaten raw, as a risk factor for consumer health. In addition, these results support the usefulness of these bacterial species as indicators of the spreading of antibiotic resistances into the environment, particularly in the food chain, and suggest their role as carriers of resistance determinants from farms to consumers, which may constitute an additional "silent" food safety concern. Therefore, there is a need to improve the hygienic quality of marketed fresh

  17. [An epidemiological analysis of the trends in laryngeal cancer mortality and morbidity in Spain and the Commune of Valencia (1977-1985)].

    PubMed

    Morales Suárez-Varela, M M; Llopis González, A; Moreno Guillén, E; Megía Sanz, M J

    1992-01-01

    An epidemiological study is made of the evolution of cancer of the larynx in the Valencia Community (Spain) in comparison with the nationwide situation, during the period 1977-1985. Both morbidity and mortality are evaluated based on the data published by the National Institute of Statistics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística INE). Indirect data standardization was decided on, given the lack of information by age groups. The results reveal an increase in the incidence during the study period in all provinces--both morbidity and mortality standing out in the province of Castellón; in Alicante the figures were lower in comparison with the national values.

  18. Fine-scale estimations of bioclimatic change in the Valencia region, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miró, Juan Javier; Estrela, María José; Caselles, Vicente; Olcina-Cantos, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in statistical downscaling have allowed the reconstruction of temperatures for the complete 1948-2011 period in a spatial resolution of 90 m and without gaps for the Valencian Community (Spain) and bordering areas. It presently enables analyses in this region, which allows the determination of recent temperature changes at subregional and local scales. The present work focuses on obtaining the thermicity index according to Rivas-Martínez, a well-known indicator of different thermotypes associated with bioclimatic horizons. The change in this index, which has happened in the region between 1948 and 2011, was calculated by generating fine-scale maps of the potential extension of different thermotypes. The results show a greater regression for the thermotypes in a finicolous position, e.g. Orotemperate, Supratemperate and Supramediterranean horizons, which herein indicate greater potential vulnerability in climate change. In the absence of, and given the need for, such fine-scale information, this work should be useful for specialized researchers to spatially limit the potentially most vulnerable biotopes to climate change.

  19. Social factors associated with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure during pregnancy: the INMA-Valencia project in Spain.

    PubMed

    Llop, Sabrina; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Iñiguez, Carmen; Ramón, Rosa; Gonzalez, Ma Carmen; Murcia, Mario; Esplugues, Ana; Rebagliato, Marisa

    2011-03-01

    Numerous studies have focused on the effects of exposure to air pollution on health; however, certain subsets of the population tend to be more exposed to such pollutants depending on their social or demographic characteristics. In addition, exposure to toxicants during pregnancy may play a deleterious role in fetal development as fetuses are especially vulnerable to external insults. The present study was carried out within the framework of the INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente or Childhood and the Environment) multicenter cohort study with the objective of identifying the social, demographic, and life-style factors associated with nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) exposure in the subjects in the cohort. The study comprised 785 pregnant women who formed part of the INMA cohort in Valencia, Spain. Outdoor levels of NO(2) were measured at 93 sampling sites spread over the study area during four different sampling periods lasting 7 days each. Multiple regression models were used for mapping outdoor NO(2) throughout the area. Individual exposure was assigned as: 1) the estimated outdoor NO(2) levels at home, and 2) the average of estimated outdoor NO(2) levels at home and work, weighted according to the time spent in each environment. The subjects' socio-demographic and life-style information was obtained through a questionnaire. In the multiple linear analyses, the outdoor NO(2) levels assigned to each home were taken to be the dependent variable. Other variables included in the model were: age, country of origin, smoking during pregnancy, parity, season of the year, and social class. These same variables remained in the model when the dependent variable was changed to the NO(2) levels adjusted for the subjects' time-activity patterns. We found that younger women, those coming from Latin American countries, and those belonging to the lower social strata were exposed to higher NO(2) levels, both as measured outside their homes as well as when time-activity patterns were taken

  20. Water use and water use efficiency after thinning in Aleppo pine plantation in Southwest of Valencia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Tarcísio José Gualberto; Damaso Del Campo, Antonio; Gonzáles-Sanchís, María

    2014-05-01

    Mediterranean forests need a proactive adaptive silviculture in the face of global change, being their water-use (WU) and water use efficiency (WUE) the key factors to forest managers. Thinning, as a silvicultural practice, has the potential to alter the water potential gradients that exist between soil and canopy. As a result, a change in the amount of water used by trees is produced. The aim of this study is to analyse the effects of the adaptive silviculture on the water-use and water-use efficiency. To that end, both WU and WUE, are measured in an Aleppo pine plantation, where different thinning intensities were applied. The experimental set-up consisted of four plots, three of them corresponding to thinning treatments in 2008 at different intensities High, Middle and Low plus an unthinned plot - control. Additionally, a plot next to the treatment, thinned with High intensity in 1998 was sampled to assess the longer-term effects of thinning. The plots are located at Southwest of Valencia-Spain. WU was measured in four trees per plot on the period April 2009 to May 2011 using HRM sapflow-sensors. WUE was described following the Carbon stable isotope theory by a dendrochronological approach. A stable isotope analysis was performed in the same trees used to measure sapflow. The analysed rings were those correspondent to the 3 previous years to the thinning, and the following after the treatment. The results from this study indicate that stand WU is significantly different (p<0.05) in each tested treatment, being higher in control plot, followed by Low, Medium and Heavy treatments. However, considering only the tree, the average WU was higher in the Heavy treatment. No significantly differences were found between low and control trees. The dendrochronological analyses showed a general variability in ring width during the initial growth (first 15 years). In the following years, the ring widths were very small, probably conditioned by climate conditions. However

  1. Application of a GIS-AF/RF model to assess the risk of herbicide leaching in a citrus-growing area of the Valencia Community, Spain.

    PubMed

    de Paz, José M; Rubio, José L

    2006-12-01

    We integrated an index-based attenuation factor/retardation factor (AF/RF) model into a GIS to evaluate the risk of leaching of the most frequently applied herbicides (glyphosate, diuron, diquat, bromacil, simazine, linuron, terbuthylazine, and terbumeton) used in citrus orchards of the Valencia Community, Spain. The GIS-model system was applied to a region of 33,800 ha located near Valencia City. The soil and climate data required by the model were stored in an Arc/Info GIS in which the model algorithms were integrated using the AML programming language. A graphical user interface was developed to facilitate the use of the GIS-model system. The resulting simulation maps indicate that terbumeton, bromacil, and simazine herbicides have the highest risk of leaching because of their high mobility and low K(oc) (32-158 mg l(-1)). The remaining herbicides are strongly adsorbed by clay particles and organic matter, thus minimising the risk of leaching through the soil profile and into groundwater. The obtained ranking of the leaching potential of analysed herbicides is as follows, from highest to lowest risk: terbumeton>bromacil>simazine>terbuthylazine>diuron>linuron>glyphosate>diquat.

  2. Probabilistic risk assessment of the exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers via fish and seafood consumption in the Region of Valencia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Pardo, Olga; Beser, Maria Isabel; Yusà, Vicent

    2014-06-01

    The study was carried out to estimate the dietary intake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in the Region of Valencia (Spain) in order to evaluate the resultant risk. The PBDE levels in fish and seafood (a total of 206 samples) were determined. Dietary intake was estimated using results of PBDE analyses in fish and seafood marketed in the Region of Valencia over the period 2007-2012 and data of the first Valencian Food Consumption Survey, conducted in 2010. Two scenarios were assumed for left-censored results: the lower-bound (LB) scenario, in which unquantified results (below the limit of quantification (LOQ)) were set to zero and the upper-bound (UB) scenario, in which unquantified results were set to the LOQ and two approaches (deterministic and probabilistic) were compared. The mean PBDE concentration in fish and seafood from Valencian markets was between 0.97 and 3.87 ngg(-1) w.w. and was similar to that reported recently by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Among the analysed congeners, BDE-47 showed the highest levels and salmon, mackerel and swordfish were the most contaminated species. The average estimated daily intake of the sum of PBDEs (upper bound scenario; probabilistic approach) for adults and children were 0.137 ngkg(-1) body weight (b.w.) day and 0.180 ngkgb.w.(-1)d(-1), respectively. In relation to risk analysis, calculated margins of exposure (MOEs) for the BDE-47, -99 and -153 congeners for children and do not indicate a health concern with respect to current dietary exposure in the Valencian Region and only 0.05% of the adult population and a 0.1% of children could be in risk derived by BDE-99 intake through fish.

  3. Development and validation of a population-based prediction scale for osteoporotic fracture in the region of Valencia, Spain: the ESOSVAL-R study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Today, while there are effective drugs that reduce the risk of osteoporotic fracture, yet there are no broadly accepted criteria that can be used to estimate risks and decide who should receive treatment. One of the actual priorities of clinical research is to develop a set of simple and readily-available clinical data that can be used in routine clinical practice to identify patients at high risk of bone fracture, and to establish thresholds for therapeutic interventions. Such a tool would have high impact on healthcare policies. The main objective of the ESOSVAL-R is to develop a risk prediction scale of osteoporotic fracture in adult population using data from the Region of Valencia, Spain. Methods/Design Study design: An observational, longitudinal, prospective cohort study, undertaken in the Region of Valencia, with an initial follow-up period of five years; Subjects: 14,500 men and women over the age of 50, residing in the Region and receiving healthcare from centers where the ABUCASIS electronic clinical records system is implanted; Sources of data: The ABUCASIS electronic clinical record system, complemented with hospital morbidity registers, hospital Accidents & Emergency records and the Regional Ministry of Health's mortality register; Measurement of results: Incident osteoporotic fracture (in the hip and/or major osteoporotic fracture) during the study's follow-up period. Independent variables include clinical data and complementary examinations; Analysis: 1) Descriptive analysis of the cohorts' baseline data; 2) Upon completion of the follow-up period, analysis of the strength of association between the risk factors and the incidence of osteoporotic fracture using Cox's proportional hazards model; 3) Development and validation of a model to predict risk of osteoporotic fracture; the validated model will serve to develop a simplified scale that can be used during routine clinical visits. Discussion The ESOSVAL-R study will establish a

  4. Evolution in the Management of Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Autonomous Community of Valencia (Spain): Ten Years of the Primvac Registry (1995-2004)

    PubMed Central

    Cabadés, Adolfo; Valencia, José; Rueda, Joaquín; Echánove, Ildefonso; Sanjuán, Rafael; Cebrián, Javier; González-Hernández, Enrique; Cardona, Juan; Colomina, Francisco; Francés, Mercedes; Ortolá, Victoria; Sogorb, Francisco

    2010-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Several registries of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have been carried out in Spain, but few remain active. This work analyses the evolution of the characteristics and control of patients with AMI during the first 10 years of the PRIMVAC registry, initiated in 1995. Methods: The demographical and clinical characteristics, therapeutic-diagnostic procedures and pharmacological treatment of patients admitted with AMI between January 1995 and December 2004, were analysed in 17 coronary centres in the Autonomous Community of Valencia (South eastern Spain). Results: The mean age of the 19,719 patients recruited was of 65. The percentage of women, hypertension, hypercholestrolemia and diabetes increased during registry period. The median time of symptoms onset-hospital arrival was 151 minutes, without a decrease over the time, and the delay of thrombolysis fell from 200 to 154 minutes (p<0.01). Percentage of thrombolytic treatment oscillated between 39% and 48%. The mortality in the coronary units decreased (14.1% vs. 8.9%; p<0.001). The number of coronary angiography and percutaneous revascularisation performed increased up to 61% and 32%, respectively, of patients included. On discharge, the use of beta-blockers (29.3% vs. 66.7%), angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (41.7% vs. 57.9%) and statins (29.3% vs. 71%) went up. Conclusions: Overall mortality in the coronary unit decreased, without any variation in the incidence of serious complications. Time to thrombolysis was reduced over the time, with no significant increment in its use. The performance of coronary angiography and percutaneous revascularisation increased, with a low use of primary angioplasty. The use of beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and statins increased at discharge. PMID:23675181

  5. Adherence to and appropriateness of anti-osteoporotic treatments in patients aged 50 and over in the Valencia Region (Spain). The ESOSVAL-AD Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background A study to evaluate the adherence to and appropriateness of anti-osteoporotic treatments in a cohort of men and women aged 50 and over participating in the ESOSVAL-R study. Methods/Design Design: An observational, longitudinal, prospective cohort study; Study subjects: Men and women aged 50 and over living in the Valencia Region (Spain) who initiated treatment between June 15, 2009, and June 15, 2011, in primary healthcare centers with electronic medical records; Data sources: The main data source will be electronic medical records. Measurement of results: Degree of compliance with and persistence of anti-osteoporotic treatments, and the proportion of patients with appropriate anti-osteoporotic treatment in accordance with the most relevant and high impact recommendations with clearly defined treatment algorithms in Spain (the Spanish National Health System guide (2010), the General Practitioners' Society (2007) and the General Directorate for Pharmacy and Medical Products of Madrid (2007)), and with the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF, 2010), and the International Osteoporosis Foundation guidelines (IOF, 2008); Analysis: 1.) Descriptive analysis of patients undergoing treatment and the treatments prescribed; 2.) Descriptive analysis of compliance with and persistence of anti-osteoporotic treatments; 3.) Analysis of factors associated with compliance with and persistence of treatments by Cox proportional hazard regression models, 4.) Descriptive analysis of appropriateness of treatment; 5.) Analysis of factors associated with the appropriateness of treatment by multilevel models (4 levels: patient, doctor, Basic Healthcare Zone/Primary Healthcare Center, and Health Area variables). Discussion ESOSVAL-AD will provide information regarding adherence to osteoporosis treatments and the factors associated with a higher or lower adherence (including the appropriateness of the treatment) in the Spanish context. A better understanding of this

  6. The opinions of injecting drug user (IDUs) HIV patients and health professionals on access to antiretroviral treatment and health services in Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Garcia de la Hera, Manuela; Davo, Maria Carmen; Ballester-Añón, Rosa; Vioque, Jesus

    2011-09-01

    The benefits of HIV treatment (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy [HAART]) have been less apparent in injecting drug users (IDUs), most probably as a result of poor adherence to treatment. We explored factors related to HIV treatment adherence as reported by 23 IDU-HIV patients and nine health professionals from healthcare services in Alicante and Valencia, Spain. We carried out a qualitative study based on personal interviews. Health professionals reported the lack of coordination among hospital services and difficulties in accessibility to nonspecialized services for IDU-HIV patients as relevant factors for treatment adherence. Their perception of a patient's likelihood of treatment adherence was also considered to influence the decision to prescribe HAART. A better treatment adherence was reported by those IDU-HIV patients with a good doctor-patient relationship and by women with family responsibilities. Patients considered the side effects of HIV treatment, the lack of social support, and the active use of recreational drugs as relevant factors to explain incompliance. Interventions and training of health providers should be aimed at the reduction of barriers in patient-provider communication and the overcoming of stereotypes, thus avoiding discriminatory attitudes in treatment in this vulnerable population.

  7. Monitoring programme on nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain: levels and estimated daily intake.

    PubMed

    Pardo-Marín, O; Yusà-Pelechà, V; Villalba-Martín, P; Perez-Dasí, J A

    2010-04-01

    This study was carried out to determine the current levels of nitrates in vegetables and vegetable-based baby foods (a total of 1150 samples) marketed in the Region of Valencia, Spain, over the period 2000-2008, and to estimate the toxicological risk associated with their intake. Average (median) levels of nitrate in lettuce, iceberg-type lettuce and spinach (1156, 798 and 1410 mg kg(-1) w/w, respectively) were lower than the maximum limits established by European Union legislation. Thirteen fresh spinach samples exceeded the regulatory limits. Median nitrate values in other vegetables for which a maximum limit has not been fixed by the European Commission were 196, 203, 1597, 96, 4474 and 2572 mg kg(-1) w/w (for potato, carrot, chard, artichoke, rucola and lamb's lettuce, respectively). The estimated nitrate daily intakes through vegetables consumption for adult, extreme consumers and children were found to be about 29%, 79.8% and 15.1%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake (3.7 mg kg(-1)). The levels (median = 60.4 mg kg(-1) w/w) found in vegetable-based baby foods were, in all cases, lower the maximum level proposed by European Union legislation. The estimated nitrate daily intake through baby foods for infants between 0-1 and 1-2 years of age were 13% and 18%, respectively, of the acceptable daily intake.

  8. Estimation of alcohol consumption during "Fallas" festivity in the wastewater of Valencia city (Spain) using ethyl sulfate as a biomarker.

    PubMed

    Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Escrivá, Úrsula; Andreu, Vicente; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-01-15

    Alcohol consumption has been increasing in the last years and it has become a sociological problem due its derived health and safety problems. Ethyl sulfate is a secondary metabolite of the alcohol degradation that is excreted through the urine (0.010-0.016%) after alcohol ingestion and it is quite stable in water. In this study, a new methodology to determine ethyl sulfate by ion-pair liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. Different ion-pairs and additives were tested directly in the sample extracts or in the mobile phase. The best ion-pair was set up adding 0.5M of tributylamine and 0.1% of formic acid to the sample. The limit of quantification was 0.3 μg L(-1) and the intra-day and inter-day precision of the method were ≤ 2.8 and ≤ 3.0%, respectively. Good linearity (r(2)<0.999) and low matrix effect (<30% corrected by using internal isotopically labelled internal standard) were achieved. The sampling campaign was from 4th to 20th March of 2014 covering the festivity of Fallas (15th to 19th March). Ethyl sulfate was determined in all influents of the 3 wastewater treatment plants (Pinedo I, Pinedo II and Quart-Benàger) belonging to Valencia and surrounding area. Ethyl sulfate concentrations ranged from 1.46 to 19.85 μg L(-1) and alcohol consumption ranged from 1.07 to 56.11 mL day(-1) inhab(-1), being the highest value of alcohol consumption determined during Fallas. This study presents a reliable and alternative method to traditional ones to determine alcohol consumption by population that provides real-time information of alcohol consumption.

  9. Assessment of body composition, through anthropometric and non-anthropometric methods, of university students from valencia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Olearo, Beatrice; Soriano Del Castillo, Jose Miguel; Boselli, Pietro Marco; Micó Pascual, Lydia

    2014-10-01

    Introducción y objetivo: La valoración del estado antropométrico y nutricional de la población universitaria es importante para detectar grupos de riesgo y realizar recomendaciones nutricionales. El objetivo fue analizar la composición corporal y el porcentaje de grasa en un grupo de estudiantes universitarios y evaluar su metabolismo basal para ver si había una correlación con la composición corporal. El estudio se llevó a cabo a través de diferentes métodos, para determinar si los resultados obtenidos son comparables. Sujetos y método: La muestra fueron 16 alumnos (4 hombres y 12 mujeres) de la Universidad de Valencia, 20- 33 años de edad. A todos se hizo el estudio de la composición corporal y a 6 de ellos se hizo también un estudio metabólico. Resultados: Se encontró que el 75% de los sujetos estudiados tienen un peso normal, el 12,5% tienen bajo peso y 12,5% tiene sobrepeso. El porcentaje de sujetos con grasa corporal superior a los valores normales son: 68,75% según BFMNU, el 25% a través del método ISAK y 7,69% según BIA. Conclusiones: Nuestro estudio mostró que los datos obtenidos a través de los diferentes métodos no son directamente comparables, ya que se basan en diferentes principios y supuestos. También se ha observado la importancia de considerar no sólo la masa grasa, si no toda la composición corporal para tener una visión completa del sujeto. Además, se ha podido notar que la calorimetría indirecta y las ecuaciones de predicción del metabolismo basal no son capaces de estimarlo correctamente. En cambio el método BFMNU es el que da más información y permite investigar a fondo el metabolismo.

  10. Preliminary results in larger benthic foraminifera assemblage in a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate platform from the Upper Cretaceous of the External Prebetic Domain (Valencia province, SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles-Salcedo, Raquel; Vicedo, Vicent

    2016-04-01

    In the External Prebetic Domain (Betic Mountain Range, Valencia province, SE Spain) it is difficult to find good outcrops to study larger benthic foraminifera (LBF), particularly in the Upper Cretaceous deposits, because of three main reasons. During the Upper Cretaceous, the complex paleogeography in the northern Prebetic Domain developed a complex system of shallow-water platforms. This is directly linked to the complexity in the distribution of the facies observed nowadays, which may change drastically in lateral, closely related outcrops having a special negative impact in the lateral extension of stratigraphical levels containing LBF. The second reason is the nature of the shallow water environments in which the larger foraminifera lived. The local continental influence derived in the establishment of very complex mixed platforms. Thus, there is not a complete register through carbonate rocks, but an alternation of microconglomerates, sandstones, calcarenites and carbonates that can be observed in the stratigraphic series of the Upper Cretaceous. This affects negatively in observing changes in the evolutionary trends of taxa. The third reason difficulting the study of LBF in northern localities of the Prebetic Domain is diagenetic. Dolomitization affects a huge part of the Mesozoic rocks deleting all fossil microfauna in the affected rocks. Such three reasons are behind the difficulty in developing correlations and having a comprehensive understanding of the biostratigraphy and phylogeny of the taxa involved. However, after several field trips developed in the northern Prebetic area, an excellent reference section for the study of the LBF in the Prebetic Domain has been identified in the surroundings of the Pinet village (Valencia province). Here, a relatively continuous section with scarce dolomitization and good conditions of accessibility exists. The larger foraminifera assemblages appering in the Pinet section will be compared with other paleobiogeographic

  11. Oral health and quality of life in the municipal senior citizen´s social clubs for people over 65 of Valencia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Haya-Fernández, María-Celia; Sanz-García, María-Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Background The world population is aging considerably. The state of elderly´s dentition is poor. Many authors agree that the oral health status influence the elderly´s quality of life.The objective of our study was to analyze the relation between the oral health status and the general health status through the quality of life of elderly people aged 65 years or more in Valencia, Spain. Material and Methods A cross-sectional oral health survey and an oral examination have been designed to study an elderly population. Subjects: 202 adults (103 men and 99 women). Age: 65 years of age and over. Setting: Randomly selected senior citizen´s social clubs. The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) has been used to obtain the oral health survey. Moreover, the EuroQol-5d and a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) have been the tools to obtain the general health status. Finally, sociodemographic and oral health questions have been needed. Results Descriptive and inferential results have been done and the main results are the following, the mean additive score of the OHIP-14 was 8.88, the mean value of the EuroQol-5d was 0.58 and of the VAS, 72.90. The OHIP-14 was consistently and significantly correlated with the index EuroQol-5d and with variables such as number of teeth, missing teeth, DMFT, dental status (being or not edentulous) and occupation. The EuroQol-5d was related to dental habits, sex, income, systemic pathologies and filled teeth. Conclusions The oral health has a high impact on quality of life. The oral health and the general health are closely related. The oral hygiene and getting toothless influence negatively on the quality of life of elderly people. Key words:Elderly, geriatric dentistry, oral health, oral hygiene, quality of life. PMID:27694787

  12. Minimising street work disruption by mapping cavities derived from 3D GPR-data: a new sewerage project in Torrente (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valls, Ana; Garcia, Francisco; Ramirez, Manuel; Benlloch, Javier

    2015-04-01

    Ground penetrating radar is usually employed for non-destructive detection of cavities in karst areas and road maintenance. This paper describes the inspection for cavity detection in a street located in Torrente (Valencia, Spain) where a new sewerage project was planned. Torrente population growth (more than 80,000 inhabitants last year) has caused urban development southwards from its downtown. According to municipality geologic configuration, new urbanized areas are located in mountains composed of limestone with presence of karst systems. During excavation work for a sewerage system installation, a 4 x 2 x 1.5 m shallow cave was found in one planned street. For this reason, digging activities were stopped and a GPR survey was carried out on the street. A 1x1 m grid was collected using a GSSI SIR-3000 equipment. A 400 MHz frequency antenna was used for reaching 2.5 m approx. depth, attending the characteristics of the discovered cave and the excavation project depth. GPR records were calibrated in situ, thanks to the unearthed cavity. The 3D GPR-data interpretation mapped several caves only on one side of the street. The detected cavities coincided with the sewerage system layout. These underground spaces were isolated from each other, as small individual karst caves. The outcomes of this study allowed the modification of the sewerage project. Therefore, the sewerage system layout was moved to the other side of the street where no cavities were detected with the GPR survey. GPR is proved to be an efficient tool to be taken into consideration by civil engineers and architects for designing new infrastructures (e.g. sewerage systems) in urban planning areas. We conclude GPR helps minimising cost, time and inconveniences to neighbourhood during excavation works, especially in cities.

  13. Teaching Physical Geography to students older than 55. The GEOGRANS Project within the NAUGRAN program at the University of Valencia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; Civera, C.

    2012-04-01

    It is well known that the life expectancy is growing all over the world. This is a clear trend in the Western societies where after two generations there is a large group of inhabitants that have a new life after retirement. The universities must understand that this new group of citizens need services that will allow them to know better the society. This is why the University of Valencia developed in the end of the 90's a program to teach to students older than 55. The program that allows to those students to attend lectures at the University is call NAUGRAN. This is a program for more than one thousand students that cover the needs of a group that is having more and more population over the age of 55, and with a life expectancy that surpass the 81 years in Spain. Teaching History, Arts, Sciences or Literature can be easily due for those 55-old students. However, teaching geosciences is being very difficult, as the students must visit the field and the laboratory. Within the GEOGRANS project, and during the last six years, Physical Geography was taught to students older than 55 in independent lecture rooms and field and laboratory classes. The main strategy was to show them the concepts and the ideas of the Physical Geography in the field. The excursions allow to shown the main features of the landscape (rivers, mountains, rocks…) and the impacts of the humankind on the changes of the nature to the students. The program is now 6 years old and it is being very successful with more than 200 hundreds participants and with excursion every two weeks. This paper will show the importance of teaching to students that arrive to the university after retirement.

  14. Occurrence and environmental implications of the presence of drugs of abuse in wastewater treatment plants of Valencia (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picó, Yolanda; Andres-Costa, M. Jesus; Andreu, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Drugs of abuse are continuously discharged into wastewaters due to human excretion as parent compounds and/or secondary metabolites after consumption or accidental disposal into the toilets. (Boles and Wells,2010). Incomplete removal of these compounds during wastewater treatment results in their release to the environment. Pollution by illicit drug residues at very low concentrations is generalized in populated areas, with potential risks for human health and the environment. The impact of treated wastewater effluent on the quality of receiving waters can be evaluated performing an investigated performing an ecotoxicological risk assessment calculating the risk quotient (RQ) of the drugs of abuse level observed. In addition, back-calculation from the concentration of illicit drug in the influents of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) provides an important tool for estimating its local consumption (Daughton 2001). Sampling campaigns were in three years, 2011 (March 9th to 15th), 2012 (April 17th to May 1st) and 2013 (March 6th to 12th) in influents and effluents from 3 Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTPs), Pinedo I, Pinedo II and Quart-Benàger, that treats most of the wastewater of Valencia City and its surrounding towns. Cocaine (COC), amphetamine (AMP), methamphetamine (MAMP), ecstasy (MDMA) and ketamine (KET), Benzoylecgonine (BE), 6-acethylmorphine (6-MAM), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) were analyzed using mass spectrometry techniques such as liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS/MS) Illicit drugs were extracted using solid phase extraction (SPE) and determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in positive ionization with an electrospray ionization source (ESI). The determination of drugs of abuse in the influent of the selected WWTP shows that all compounds were detected in 100% of influents from Pinedo I, Pinedo II and Quart-Benàger in samples analyzed during three years

  15. GPR technique as a tool for decision-making regarding timber beam inner reinforcement: The Lonja de la Seda de Valencia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, Francisco; Ramirez, Manuel; Benlloch, Javier; Valls, Ana

    2015-04-01

    This paper describes the decision-making process for the timber beam inner reinforcement of the building The Lonja de la Seda de Valencia (15th c.), Spain. This research was based on the study of 13 timber beams for their diagnosis and the characterization before decision-making in structural reinforcement. For this purpose, we integrated the results of analysis of historical documentation, in situ visual inspection and ground penetrating radar (GPR). The rehabilitation project considered the substitution of the upper-storey floor (The Consulate of the Sea Hall) for another one that complied with the original. This room was closed due to the instability of the timber beams. For the flooring renovation it was necessary to increase the rigidity of the timber floor framing. Preliminary conclusions, which derived from the historical documentation and in situ visual inspection of the timber coffered ceiling were: (a) timber beams supported inside masonry walls could suffer moisture and xylophage attacks, (b) timber beams were significantly damaged (splits, ring shakes, failure of beam section that reduced its bearing capacity), (c) substantial timber beam warping. So the main objectives of this GPR study were: to detect splits, to identify failure of section due to biological attacks, to pinpoint epoxy resin reconstructions and to assess the severity of the damages observed on surface. A GPR survey was carried out in timber coffered-ceiling beams of The Consulate of the Sea Hall. Radar measurements were carried out using a SIR-10H system (GSSI) and a 1.6 GHz ground coupled antenna, due to the timber beam dimensions (0.45 x 0.45 x 8.75 m. A total of 37 longitudinal profiles were collected in the centre of all the beam accessible sides. After radragram processing steps, a number of anomalies were detected in the records, which were analysed. The outcomes derived from this GPR study were taken into account when it came to make decisions in the final restoration project of

  16. New Wisdom to Defy an Old Enemy: Summary from a scientific symposium at the 4th Influenza Vaccines for the World (IVW) 2012 Congress, 11 October, Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Poland, Gregory A; Fleming, Douglas M; Treanor, John J; Maraskovsky, Eugene; Luke, Thomas C; Ball, Emma M A; Poland, Caroline M

    2013-04-17

    Both seasonal and pandemic influenza cause considerable morbidity and mortality globally. In addition, the ongoing threat of new, unpredictable influenza pandemics from emerging variant strains cannot be underestimated. Recently bioCSL (previously known as CSL Biotherapies) sponsored a symposium 'New Wisdom to Defy an Old Enemy' at the 4th Influenza Vaccines for the World Congress in Valencia, Spain. This symposium brought together a renowned faculty of experts to discuss lessons from past experience, novel influenza vaccine developments, and new methods to increase vaccine acceptance and coverage. Specific topics reviewed and discussed included new vaccine development efforts focused on improving efficacy via alternative administration routes, dose modifications, improved adjuvants, and the use of master donor viruses. Improved safety was also discussed, particularly the new finding of an excess of febrile reactions isolated to children who received the 2010 Southern Hemisphere (SH) trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). Significant work has been done to both identify the cause and minimize the risk of febrile reactions in children. Other novel prophylactic and therapeutic advances were discussed including immunotherapy. Standard IVIg and hIVIg have been used in ferret studies and human case reports with promising results. New adjuvants, such as ISCOMATRIX™ adjuvant, were noted to provide single-dose, prolonged protection with seasonal vaccine after lethal H5N1 virus challenge in a ferret model of human influenza disease. The data suggest that adjuvanted seasonal influenza vaccines may provide broader protection than unadjuvanted vaccines. The use of an antigen-formulated vaccine to induce broad protection between pandemics that could bridge the gap between pandemic declaration and the production of a homologous vaccine was also discussed. Finally, despite the availability of effective vaccines, most current efforts to increase influenza vaccine coverage

  17. Environmental availability, behavioural diversity and diet: a zooarchaeological approach from the TD10-1 sublevel of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain) and Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco, Ruth; Rosell, Jordi; Fernández Peris, Josep; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald

    2013-06-01

    The suggestion that the Neanderthal linage hominids had predominantly rich diet in meat derived from large game is progressing towards views which propose a higher nutritional diversity, at least in some regions. These postulates situate hominids as the knower of their natural surroundings and make them capable of selecting within the range of resources available in their landscapes. Using a zooarchaeological approach, the taxonomical representation in an anthropogenic site could indicate both the environment diversity that human groups can exploit and the decisions that they make when selecting prey. The Optimal Foraging theory is a basic decision model that is ideally applied within a larger framework of constraining conditions such as differential prey distributions, food-consumer imbalances and/or competition, among others. Nevertheless, if this theory is applied to human behaviour, uncontrolled variables could exist and substantially alter some predictions. These variables may not always be related to the need to optimise the resources; additionally, they can respond to the questions related to nutritional ecology, cultural standards or social relationships conditioned by ecological or technological factors. Environmental and socio-cultural aspects invite us to reflect on the characteristics that delimit the pre-Upper Palaeolithic diet and its correct assessment in relation to the availability of prey in the environment and the human behavioural parameters. In this study, we present data from several levels of Bolomor Cave (Valencia, Spain, MIS 9-5e) and a sample from the TD10-1 sublevel of Gran Dolina (Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain, MIS 9). Both sites have been interpreted as habitat places and allow us to infer the high plasticity of human groups with respect to methods and techniques of acquisition and use of a diverse spectrum of prey. Environmental availability, duration and type of settlement seem to significantly influence the taxonomical

  18. The incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tuberculosis (TB) in the Hospital "La Fe" of Valencia, Spain (1985-1989).

    PubMed

    Morales, M M; Llopis, A; Ballester, M L; Sanjuan, L

    1993-05-01

    We studied the incidence of TB and TB-AIDS in the area served by "La Fe" hospital in Valencia. We also studied the different evolution of the incidence of TB and TB-AIDS during the 1985-1989 period. We noticed the progressive increase of the incidence of TB in AIDS patients, while the incidence of TB without AIDS remained the same.

  19. Risk factors associated with NSAID-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding resulting in hospital admissions: A cross-sectional, retrospective, case series analysis in valencia, spain

    PubMed Central

    Marco, José Luis; Amariles, Pedro; Boscá, Beatriz; Castelló, Ana

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background NSAIDs are a significant cause of drug-related hospital admissions and deaths. The therapeutic effects of NSAIDs have been associated with the risk for developing adverse events, mainly in the gastrointestinal tract. Objectives The focus of this study was to identify the most common risk factors associated with NSAID-induced upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) resulting in hospital admissions. A secondary end point was the relationship between use of gastroprotective treatment and relevant risk factors to NSAID-induced UGIB in the selected population. Methods This study was a cross-sectional, retrospective, case-series analysis of NSAID-induced UGIB resulting in hospital admission to the Requena General Hospital, Valencia, Spain, occurring from 1997 to 2005. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes were used to identify UGIB admissions associated with NSAIDs. To estimate the probability of association between UGIB and the use of NSAIDs, the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability was used. Patients were categorized as high-risk to develop UGIB if they met ≥1 of the following risk criteria (relevant risk factors): aged ≥65 years (age risk factor); peptic ulcer disease or NSAID gastropathy occurring in the year before their hospital admission (history risk factor); and concomitant use of other NSAIDs, systemic corticoids, oral anticoagulants, or platelet aggregation inhibitors (concomitant medication risk factor). Patients were categorized as candidates to use gastroprotections if they met ≥1 of the relevant risk factors. Patients were categorized as users of gastroprotective treatment if they used proton pump inhibitors, histamine H2-receptor antagonists, or misoprostol at hospital admission. Results This study comprised 209 cases of NSAID-induced UGIB (129 men, 80 women: mean [SD] age, 71.5 [13.8] years; 128 [61.2%] receiving acetyl salicylic acid [ASA], with 72 [34.4%] receiving low

  20. Adherence to oral anticoagulants in patients with atrial fibrillation—a population-based retrospective cohort study linking health information systems in the Valencia region, Spain: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Sanfélix-Gimeno, G; Rodríguez-Bernal, C L; Hurtado, I; Baixáuli-Pérez, C; Librero, J; Peiró, S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Adherence to oral anticoagulation (OAC) treatment, vitamin K antagonists or new oral anticoagulants, is an essential element for effectiveness. Information on adherence to OAC in atrial fibrillation (AF) and the impact of adherence on clinical outcomes using real-world data barely exists. We aim to describe the patterns of adherence to OAC over time in patients with AF, estimate the associated factors and their impact on clinical events, and assess the same issues with conventional measures of primary and secondary adherence—proportion of days covered (PDC) and persistence—in routine clinical practice. Methods and analysis This is a population-based retrospective cohort study including all patients with AF treated with OAC from 2010 to date in Valencia, Spain; data will be obtained from diverse electronic records of the Valencia Health Agency. Primary outcome measure: adherence trajectories. Secondary outcomes: (1) primary non-adherence; (2) secondary adherence: (a) PDC, (b) persistence. Clinical outcomes: hospitalisation for haemorrhagic or thromboembolic events and death during follow-up. Analysis: (1) description of baseline characteristics, adherence patterns (trajectory models or latent class growth analysis models) and conventional adherence measures; (2) logistic or Cox multivariate regression models, to assess the associations between adherence measures and the covariates, and logistic multinomial regression models, to identify characteristics associated with each trajectory; (3) Cox proportional hazard models, to assess the relationship between adherence and clinical outcomes, with propensity score adjustment applied to further control for potential confounders; (4) to estimate the importance of different healthcare levels in the variations of adherence, logistic or Cox multilevel regression models. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the corresponding Clinical Research Ethics Committee. We plan to disseminate the

  1. Long-term monitoring of fresco paintings in the cathedral of Valencia (Spain) through humidity and temperature sensors in various locations for preventive conservation.

    PubMed

    Zarzo, Manuel; Fernández-Navajas, Angel; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan

    2011-01-01

    We describe the performance of a microclimate monitoring system that was implemented for the preventive conservation of the Renaissance frescoes in the apse vault of the Cathedral of Valencia, that were restored in 2006. This system comprises 29 relative humidity (RH) and temperature sensors: 10 of them inserted into the plaster layer supporting the fresco paintings, 10 sensors in the walls close to the frescoes and nine sensors measuring the indoor microclimate at different points of the vault. Principal component analysis was applied to RH data recorded in 2007. The analysis was repeated with data collected in 2008 and 2010. The resulting loading plots revealed that the similarities and dissimilarities among sensors were approximately maintained along the three years. A physical interpretation was provided for the first and second principal components. Interestingly, sensors recording the highest RH values correspond to zones where humidity problems are causing formation of efflorescence. Recorded data of RH and temperature are discussed according to Italian Standard UNI 10829 (1999).

  2. Long-Term Monitoring of Fresco Paintings in the Cathedral of Valencia (Spain) Through Humidity and Temperature Sensors in Various Locations for Preventive Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Zarzo, Manuel; Fernández-Navajas, Angel; García-Diego, Fernando-Juan

    2011-01-01

    We describe the performance of a microclimate monitoring system that was implemented for the preventive conservation of the Renaissance frescoes in the apse vault of the Cathedral of Valencia, that were restored in 2006. This system comprises 29 relative humidity (RH) and temperature sensors: 10 of them inserted into the plaster layer supporting the fresco paintings, 10 sensors in the walls close to the frescoes and nine sensors measuring the indoor microclimate at different points of the vault. Principal component analysis was applied to RH data recorded in 2007. The analysis was repeated with data collected in 2008 and 2010. The resulting loading plots revealed that the similarities and dissimilarities among sensors were approximately maintained along the three years. A physical interpretation was provided for the first and second principal components. Interestingly, sensors recording the highest RH values correspond to zones where humidity problems are causing formation of efflorescence. Recorded data of RH and temperature are discussed according to Italian Standard UNI 10829 (1999). PMID:22164100

  3. Diet, society, and economy in late medieval Spain: stable isotope evidence from Muslims and Christians from Gandía, Valencia.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Michelle M; Gerrard, Christopher M; Gutiérrez, Alejandra; Millard, Andrew R

    2015-02-01

    This article investigates the diets of neighboring Christians and Muslims in late medieval Spain (here 13th-16th centuries) through the analysis of the stable isotopes of carbon (δ(13) C) and nitrogen (δ(15) N) in adult human and animal bone collagen. Twenty-four Christians and 20 Muslims are sampled from two adjacent and contemporaneous settlements in the township of Gandía on the Mediterranean coast, together with the remains of 24 animals. Statistical differences in both δ(13) C and δ(15) N reveal that the diets of the two faith communities differed, despite living side-by-side. These differences may relate to inequalities in their access to foodstuffs, particularly to C3 /C4 grain and/or possibly terrestrial meat sources, though cultural preferences are also highlighted. Isotopic values for animals were also found to vary widely, both between and within species, and this provides a window into the local livestock economy.

  4. Spain.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  5. Diet, Society, and Economy in Late Medieval Spain: Stable Isotope Evidence From Muslims and Christians From Gandía, Valencia

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Michelle M; Gerrard, Christopher M; Gutiérrez, Alejandra; Millard, Andrew R

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates the diets of neighboring Christians and Muslims in late medieval Spain (here 13th–16th centuries) through the analysis of the stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) in adult human and animal bone collagen. Twenty-four Christians and 20 Muslims are sampled from two adjacent and contemporaneous settlements in the township of Gandía on the Mediterranean coast, together with the remains of 24 animals. Statistical differences in both δ13C and δ15N reveal that the diets of the two faith communities differed, despite living side-by-side. These differences may relate to inequalities in their access to foodstuffs, particularly to C3/C4 grain and/or possibly terrestrial meat sources, though cultural preferences are also highlighted. Isotopic values for animals were also found to vary widely, both between and within species, and this provides a window into the local livestock economy. Am J Phys Anthropol 156:263–273, 2015. © 2014 The Authors. American Journal of physical Anthropology published by Wiley Periodicals,Inc. PMID:25351146

  6. Identity as the Primary Determinant of Language Choice in Valencia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer, Raquel Casesnoves; Sankoff, David

    2003-01-01

    Examines the determinants of language choice using sociodemographic, behavioral, and ideological data on a sample of 180 high school students in the city of Valencia, Spain and the neighboring town of Xativa. Evaluates the relative importance of sociodemographic and ideological factors on the choice of Valencian or Castilian in several contexts…

  7. Relict sand waves in the continental shelf of the Gulf of Valencia (Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarracín, Silvia; Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Montoya-Montes, Isabel; Fontán-Bouzas, Ángela; Somoza, Luis; Amos, Carl L.; Salgado, Jorge Rey

    2014-10-01

    The presence of fossil or relict bedforms is common in the Quaternary fill of modern continental shelf due to sea level oscillations, tectonic subsidence and migration of associated sedimentary facies. The continental margin of the Gulf of Valencia has been strongly influenced by glacio-eustasy and neotectonics. High-resolution multibeam bathymetry data, seismic reflection profiles and box core samples were collected across the continental shelf of the Gulf of Valencia during the DERIVA cruises carried out in 2010 and 2011. The integrated analysis of this data set and high-resolution mapping of the relict bedforms on the Valencian continental shelf, ranging between 50 and 90 m allowed the study of previously identified system of sand waves located in front of the present-day Albufera de Valencia lagoon. The system is composed of 27 ridges with a NNE-SSW orientation, i.e. oblique to the present shoreline, in which the lateral horns point backwards. These sand waves can reach 10 m in height and 3 km in length resulting in a maximum slope of 6°. According to seismic stratigraphic and relative sea level curve reconstructions, these sand waves were formed during the Younger Dryas (~ 12-10 ky BP). Consequently, they have been classified as Holocene sand waves associated with coastal sedimentary evolution.

  8. First results of the spatial and temporal variation of the night sky brightness in the surroundings of Valencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, E.; Morales Rubio, A.; Zamorano, J.; Sánchez de Miguel, A.

    2017-03-01

    In recent years a study of the quality of the night sky in the surroundings of the metropolitan area of Valencia has been done. To achieve this, we used a Sky Quality Meter (SQM-LE) together with a GPS in order to cover a large number of routes from very bright locations near the city of Valencia to very dark areas located more than 100 kilometres away. The objectives of the study were to determine the variation of light pollution with respect to the distance to Valencia, locate areas with a high quality night sky in order to claim for their protection and verify the contribution of smaller towns in the brightness of the sky. Since light pollution also affects biodiversity, we have especially studied its influence on the night sky close to natural parks. Night routes have been done in the interior and vicinity of the Parc de la Calderona, the Albufera and especially the Parc del T ´uria. Our study concludes that these parks are completely degraded and need an urgent protection plan against light pollution. Finally, we present the first results of our fixed detectors SQM-LU scattered throughout the Valencian territory.

  9. [R-ALERGO. Allergy-healthy routes in Valencia].

    PubMed

    Temes Cordovez, Rafael R; Moya Fuero, Alfonso; Martí Garrido, Jaume; Perales Chordá, Carolina; Díaz Palacios, Miguel; Hernández Fernández de Rojas, Dolores

    2016-01-01

    R-ALERGO is a project developed by researchers from the Universitat Politècnica de València and the Hospital Universitario La Fe (Valencia, Spain). The main objective of the project is to create a mobile application identifying, within the city of Valencia, the most favorable routes for allergic individuals. The application is developed using nine environmental variables with a potential effect on the development of clinical manifestations in allergic individuals. The application combines the use of spatial analysis based on network technology and implemented with a geographic information system software. The first 01 version is under evaluation for a Healthy app hallmark. The next step in this project is to design a clinical validation process to test its usefulness in allergic individuals.

  10. Seismic evidence for the preservation of several stacked Pleistocene coastal barrier/lagoon systems on the Gulf of Valencia continental shelf (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarracín, Silvia; Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Barranco, Andrés; Sánchez García, María José; Fontán Bouzas, Ángela; Rey Salgado, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The focus of this study is the analysis of coastal sand barriers and associated coastal lagoons on the inner continental shelf of the Gulf of Valencia (western Mediterranean), based on two W-E seismic profiles recorded seaward of the Albufera de Valencia coastal lagoon. Seismic facies identified include a number of coastal sand barriers with landward lagoons draped by contemporary continental shelf deposits. The barrier systems have been grouped into two sedimentary systems tracts, the older one corresponding to a prograding/aggrading highstand systems tract involving at least four paleo-coastal sand barrier/lagoon systems, followed landward by a transgressive systems tract comprising three such systems. All the systems have been allocated a Tyrrhenian age, the formation of individual barrier systems having been associated with successive sea-level stillstands, and their present-day position being explained by the very high regional subsidence rate. In summary, this study demonstrates that the Quaternary stratigraphic record of the Gulf of Valencia inner continental shelf is composed of littoral sand facies, in particular coastal sand barrier and lagoon deposits. These findings are in agreement with corresponding observations on other continental shelves of the western Mediterranean, showing that the formation of coastal sand barriers was a characteristic feature of this region during the Quaternary.

  11. Valencia gorge: possible Messinian refill channel for the western Mediterranean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, M.E.; Gardner, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    A deeply incised gorge is buried nearly 800 m beneath the floor of the Valencia Trough in the western Mediterranean Sea. The gorge is steeply cut more than 200 m into Messinian evaporite deposits and has been mapped for more than 40 km. Published and unpublished seismic profiles show the total length to be nearly 300 km. It may have been connected near Valencia with the Betic Strait, the portal in southern Spain proposed to link the Atlantic and the western Mediterranean. -from Authors

  12. Comparison of carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression between Valencia and Rohde Red Valencia sweet oranges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carotenoid accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression levels during fruit maturation were compared between ordinary Valencia (VAL) and its more deeply colored mutant Rohde Red Valencia orange (RRV). The two cultivars exhibited different carotenoid profiles and regulatory mechanisms in flavedo and...

  13. Optimizing Valencia Planting Patterns and Population Densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most Valencia peanuts are grown in single rows on 36 to 40 inch beds. Because of their bunch-type and erect growth habit, Valencia peanuts do not spread over the whole bed and have the opportunity to benefit from multiple row planting design. This study was conducted near Clovis, NM to ...

  14. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part I: maximum temperatures in summer.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of summer maximum temperatures is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, summer maximum daily temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent heat-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict heat-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that high temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily maximum temperatures during summer over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the summer forecast period of 1 June - 30 September, 2007. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated maximum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme heat episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia, Spain).

  15. Operational forecasting of daily temperatures in the Valencia Region. Part II: minimum temperatures in winter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, I.; Estrela, M.

    2009-09-01

    Extreme temperature events have a great impact on human society. Knowledge of minimum temperatures during winter is very useful for both the general public and organisations whose workers have to operate in the open, e.g. railways, roadways, tourism, etc. Moreover, winter minimum temperatures are considered a parameter of interest and concern since persistent cold-waves can affect areas as diverse as public health, energy consumption, etc. Thus, an accurate forecasting of these temperatures could help to predict cold-wave conditions and permit the implementation of strategies aimed at minimizing the negative effects that low temperatures have on human health. The aim of this work is to evaluate the skill of the RAMS model in determining daily minimum temperatures during winter over the Valencia Region. For this, we have used the real-time configuration of this model currently running at the CEAM Foundation. To carry out the model verification process, we have analysed not only the global behaviour of the model for the whole Valencia Region, but also its behaviour for the individual stations distributed within this area. The study has been performed for the winter forecast period from 1 December 2007 - 31 March 2008. The results obtained are encouraging and indicate a good agreement between the observed and simulated minimum temperatures. Moreover, the model captures quite well the temperatures in the extreme cold episodes. Acknowledgement. This work was supported by "GRACCIE" (CSD2007-00067, Programa Consolider-Ingenio 2010), by the Spanish Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, contract number CGL2005-03386/CLI, and by the Regional Government of Valencia Conselleria de Sanitat, contract "Simulación de las olas de calor e invasiones de frío y su regionalización en la Comunidad Valenciana" ("Heat wave and cold invasion simulation and their regionalization at Valencia Region"). The CEAM Foundation is supported by the Generalitat Valenciana and BANCAIXA (Valencia

  16. Lemon juice as a solvent for heroin in Spain.

    PubMed

    Page, J B; Fraile, J S

    1999-06-01

    Preliminary observations and responses to interviews in Valencia, Spain reveal that injecting drug users (IDUs) dissolve heroin before injection with two or three drops of lemon juice. Solution in lemon juice makes heating of heroin in water unnecessary. This pattern apparently developed spontaneously in Spain, but is almost unknown elsewhere in the world. Its implications for IDUs' health remain speculative, but use of lemon juice to dissolve heroin for injection deserves further scientific study.

  17. Soil erosion after forest fires in the Valencia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob; Cerdà, Artemi

    2014-05-01

    31, 219-236. Boix-Fayos, C., Martínez-Mena, M., Calvo-Cases, A., Castillo, V.M., Albadalejo, J. 2005. Concise review of interrill erosion studies in SE Spain (Alicante and Murcia): erosion rates and progress of knowledge from the 1980s. Land Degradation and Developement 16, 517-528. Calvo-Cases, A., Boix-Fayós, C., Imeson, A.C. 2003. Runoff generation, sediment movement and soil water behaviour on calcareous (limestone) slopes of some Mediterranean environments in southeast Spain. Geomorphology 50, 269-291. Campo, J., Andreu, V., Gimeno-García, E., González-Pelayo, O., Rubio, J.L. 2008. Aggregation of under canopy and bare soils in a Mediterranean environment affected by different fire intensities. Catena 74 (3), 212-218. Campo, J., Andreu, V., Gimeno-García, E., González, O., Rubio, J.L. 2006. Occurrence of soil erosion after repeated experimental fires in a Mediterranean environment. Geomorphology 82, 376-387. Cerdà A. 2001. Erosión hídrica del suelo en el territorio Valenciano. El estado de la cuestión a través de la revisión bibliográfica. Geoforma Ediciones: Logronho. A. 2001. Cerdá, A, Mataix-Solera, J. 2009. Incendios forestales en España. Ecosistemas terrestres y suelos. En: Cerdá y Mataix-Solera (Eds.), Efectos de los incendios forestales sobre los suelos en España. Universidad de Valencia, 2009. Cerdà, A. 1998a. Postfire dynamics of erosional processes under mediterranean climatic conditions. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, 42 (3) 373-398. Cerdà, A. 1998b. Changes in overland flow and infiltration after a rangeland fire in a Mediterranean scrubland. Hydrological Processes, 12, 1031-1042. Cerdà, A., Doerr, S.H. 2008. The effect of ash and needle cover on surface runoff and erosion in the immediate post-fire period. Catena, 74 , 256- 263. doi:10.1016/S0341-8162(02)00027-9 Cerdà, A., Imeson, A.C., Calvo, A. 1995. Fire and aspect induced differences on the erodibility and hydrology of soils at La Costera, Valencia, Southeast Spain. Catena

  18. Synergistic Use of SMOS Measurements with SMAP Derived and In-situ Data over Valencia Anchor Station by Using Downscaling Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari Amoli, Abdolreza; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Mahmoudi, Ali; Mahmoodi, Ali

    2016-07-01

    Synergistic Use of SMOS Measurements with SMAP Derived and In-situ Data over the Valencia Anchor Station by Using a Downscaling Technique Ansari Amoli, A.(1),Mahmoodi, A.(2) and Lopez-Baeza, E.(3) (1) Department of Earth Physics and Thermodynamics, University of Valencia, Spain (2) Centre d'Etudes Spatiales de la BIOsphère (CESBIO), France (3) Department of Earth Physics and Thermodynamics, University of Valencia, Spain Soil moisture products from active sensors are not operationally available. Passive remote sensors return more accurate estimates, but their resolution is much coarser. One solution to overcome this problem is the synergy between radar and radiometric data by using disaggregation (downscaling) techniques. Few studies have been conducted to merge high resolution radar and coarse resolution radiometer measurements in order to obtain an intermediate resolution product. In this paper we present an algorithm using combined available SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) radar and SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) radiometer measurements to estimate surface soil moisture over the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS), Valencia, Spain. The goal is to combine the respective attributes of the radar and radiometer observations to estimate soil moisture at a resolution of 3 km. The algorithm disaggregates the coarse resolution SMOS (15 km) radiometer brightness temperature product based on the spatial variation of the high resolution SMAP (3 km) radar backscatter. The disaggregation of the radiometer brightness temperature uses the radar backscatter spatial patterns within the radiometer footprint that are inferred from the radar measurements. For this reason the radar measurements within the radiometer footprint are scaled by parameters that are derived from the temporal fluctuations in the radar and radiometer measurements.

  19. International Workshop on Membrane Biotechnology and Membrane Biomaterials (4th) Held in La Manga, Murcia, Spain on 29 May-2 June 1991.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-02

    HERNANDEZ-BORRELL, Jordi; Unidad de Fisicoquimica , Departamento de Farmacia, Universidad de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain KEOUGH, Kevin M. W.; Dept...Avda. Blasco Ibafiez 13, i 46010 VALENCIA, Spain LLOVET LOMBARTE, M. Isabel; Depto. Farmacia. Unidad de Fisicoquimica , Facultad de Farmacia, Avda

  20. Assessing genetic diversity in Valencia peanut germplasm using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Valencia peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata) are well known for their in-shell market value. Assessment of genetic diversity of the available Valencia germplasm is key to the success of developing improved cultivars with desirable agronomic and quality traits. In the pres...

  1. Valencia Peanut Response to Single, Twin and Diamond Planting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, most Valencia peanuts are grown in single rows on 36 to 40 inch beds. Because of their bunch-type and erect growth habit, Valencia peanuts do not spread over the whole bed and have the opportunity to benefit from multiple row planting arrangements. This study was conducted near Clovis, ...

  2. Columbus's Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Jose Manuel Nieto

    1991-01-01

    Describes fifteenth-century Spain's tendencies that proved central to the Columbian enterprise: experience as a conquering and colonizing kingdom, interest in Atlantic expansion, and missionary inclination. Argues that Columbus's arrival in Spain came at the perfect time in Spanish history. Stresses Spain's long history of religious war, conquest,…

  3. Identification of large masses of citrus fruit and rice fields in eastern Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desagredo, F. L.; Salinas, F. G.

    1973-01-01

    ERTS-1 imagery has been successfully used for the identification of large areas of citrus groves and rice fields in the Valencia region of Eastern Spain. Results are encouraging and will facilitate the elaboration of a land use map with a fair degree of definition once methods prove to be fully operational.

  4. Multilocus genotyping of Giardia duodenalis in lambs from Spain reveals a high hetrogeneity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal specimens from 120 lambs in Valencia (Spain) were analyzed for Giardia duodenalis by IFA and nested-PCR using the beta giardin, glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), triose phosphate isomerase (tpi) and small subunit ribosomal RNA (ssurRNA) genes. The highest prevalence was obtained using the ssurRN...

  5. [Epidemiological study of the clinical forms of tuberculosis at the La Fe Children's Hospital of Valencia (1986-1989)].

    PubMed

    Morales, M M; Llopis, A; Sanz, S A; Asensi, F

    1991-10-01

    We analyze, in a retrospective review, the clinical presentation of tuberculosis among 226 pediatric patients admitted to the Hospital Infantil La Fe of Valencia (Spain) during the years 1986-1989. We observed the persistence of severe forms of tuberculosis, such as miliary tuberculosis and tuberculous meningitis. Also, cases of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis seldom encountered nowadays like bone and joint, intestinal and lymph node infection were recorded. In view of the current status of pediatric tuberculosis, new recommendations should be developed, because this infection could potentially be eradicated if adequate treatment and prophylactic guidelines are followed.

  6. [Ancient urology in the Kingdom of Valencia. Height and declivity].

    PubMed

    López Alcina, E; Pérez Albacete, M; Canovas Ivorra, J A

    2007-03-01

    During the second half of the XVIth century the interest of the clinicians moves towards the venereal ailments and the urethral carnosities (narrowness) to the detriment of the litiasic processes. They are of special relevancy for us, in the period summit of the medical sciences in Valencian lands, Miguel Juan Pascual who in his work "Morborum internorum" (1555) there synthesizes everything known on the syphilis in this epoch, its origin, diagnosis and treatment, Juan Calvo considered one of the best surgeons of the XVIth century and Miguel de Leriza author of the "Tractatus of the way of treating the carnosities and corns of the route of the urine". The baroque was an epoch of general crisis in Spain and in the ancient Kingdom of Valencia, specially clear in fields as the anatomy and the surgery. The serious decadence that suffered during these years the scientific Valencian production turns out to be evident. Not even an alone anatomical text was published in the first half of the XVIIth century, whereas in the surgical area the "Summary of everything about the theoretical and practice of Surgery", of Alonso Romano can be considered deigns of mention. The illustration brought new reformists airs and around the flourishing scientific academies, there congregated the most select of the Valencian intellectuality. Andres Piquer Arrufat is considered to be the maximum figure of the Valencian medicine of this period. Not even after the war of independence and the reign of Fernando VII who died in 1833 when there sit down the bases of the modern urology and the consolidation as speciality at the end of the XIXth. The Valencian principal figures of this period are Miguel Más y Soler, Alejandro Settler and especially Rafael Mollá y Rodrigo.

  7. [Allergenic pollens in Spain].

    PubMed

    Subiza Garrido-Lestache, J

    2004-01-01

    Allergenic pollens that cause rhinoconjuctivitis and/or asthma are those from trees or plants that pollinate through the air (anemophilic pollination) and not through insects (entomophilic pollination). Although pollen grains would seem to be too large to easily reach the intrapulmonary airways, the relationship between pollen counts and the presence of asthmatic symptoms is only too evident. This is probably because the allergens inducing seasonal asthma are not only found within pollen grains but also outside the grains in particles of less than 10 mm that are freely found in the atmosphere. The most important pollens producing pollinosis in Spain are those from cypress trees from January-March, birch trees in April (macizo galaico), Platanus hispanica (March-April), grasses and olive trees from April-June, Parietaria from April-July and Chenopodium and/or Salsola from July-September. By geographical areas, the main cause of pollinosis are grasses in the center and north of the peninsula, olive trees in the south (Jaén, Sevilla, Granada, Córdoba) and Parietaria in the Mediterranean coast (Barcelona, Murcia, Valencia).

  8. Light pollution in Valencia: public awareness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, E.; Morales-Rubio, A.

    2015-05-01

    Light pollution is caused by the direct and indirect light emission into the atmosphere from artificial night sources. The most decisive effect is the increasing of the luminance of the sky preventing stargazing. The fundamental actor for solving the problem is public awareness. Therefore, in accordance with authorities of the Valencian natural parks, municipalities and high schools, we have held a series of explanatory talks to the general public on the problem of light pollution, not only about the loss of the night and its impact on Astronomy, but also about the waste of energy and its impact on nocturnal wildlife and human health. Furthermore, in order to emphasize the need to preserve dark skies, popular astronomical observations have been also performed. An informative brochure on the problem of light pollution, with real cases involving natural parks, Valencia and its metropolitan area, has been published.

  9. Soil moisture estimates from the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign in Valencia using EMIRAD airborne measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh Contell, K.; López-Baeza, E.; Antolín, C.; Millán, C.; Cano, A.; Wigneron, J. P.; Balling, J.; Schmidl, S. S.; Skou, N.; Kerr, Y. H.; Richaume, P.; Juglea, S.; Delwart, S.; Bouzinac, C.; Wursteisen, P.

    2009-04-01

    The European Space Agency conducted a series of flights in 2008 over the main SMOS Validation sites in Europe, amongst them at the Valencia site. The scope of these campaigns was to help in the preparation of operational soil moisture outputs to be generated by the validation teams during the SMOS commissioning phase and beyond. For that purpose, several activities were scheduled at the Valencia site as part of the SMOS Validation Rehearsal campaign. These included: i) Airborne measurements at L-band to improve the parameterisation of the microwave model L-MEB (L-band Microwave Emssion model of the Biosphere) in the area, in order to improve the match between measured brightness temperatures by SMOS, and simulations using ground-truth soil moisture. ii) Intensive soil moisture sampling in a 10 km x 10 km area to support both current studies on soil moisture spatialisation based on SVAT modelling, and the definition of homogeneous land units for the future characterisation of soil moisture at the scale of a SMOS pixel (~ 50 km). The Valencia Site is located in SE Spain, about 80 km inland to the west of Valencia. Within the Valencia validation site, an area of 10 km x 10 km was selected for the experiment. The land use in this area is dominated by vineyards and bare soil (>70%), and orchards (~18 %). Flights over this area were conducted on four different days between April 22nd and May 2nd 2008. During that period, soil moisture near the surface (0-6 cm) slowly decreased with the last rainfall having occurred on April 20. Radiometric measurements were acquired by EMIRAD (L-band, 1.4 GHz) onboard the Skyvan aircraft. The flight plan, repeated across the four days, included 4 parallel lines crossing the 10 km x 10 km area at ~2300 m above the ground level. One diagonal flight was also performed at ~900 m above the ground level on each day. EMIRAD measured the L-band radiation emitted by the surface using two horns, one close to nadir, and the other one at 43 deg

  10. Screening of perfluorinated compounds in water, sediment and biota of the Llobregat River basin (NE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campo, Julian; Perez, Francisca; Pico, Yolanda; Farre, Marinella; Barcelo, Damia; Andreu, Vicente

    2014-05-01

    compounds, 13 were identified in water samples (PFBA, PFDA, PFHpA, PFHxA, PFHxDA, PFNA, PFOA, PFPeA, PFTrDA, PFUdA, L-PFBS, L-PFHxS and L-PFOS), and their concentrations ranged between 0. 1 ng L-1 (PFNA) and 2709 ng L-1 (L-PFOS). Similarly, PFBA, PFDA, PFDoA, PFHpA, PFNA, PFOA, PFPeA, PFTrDA, PFUdA, L-PFBS, L-PFHxS, L-PFOS and PFOSA were identified in sediments samples, with concentrations ranging from 0.147 ng g-1 dw (L-PFOS) to 13 ng g-1 dw (PFBA). In biota similar PFC were detected, with values between 0.03 and 1738.06 ng g-1. According to this study, PFCs were detected in different compartments of the ecosystem where they are bio-accumulating and, potentially, would produce adverse effects on humans. Acknowledgements This work has been supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through the projects Consolider-Ingenio 2010 CSD2009-00065 and CGL2011-29703-C02-02. We also thank the persons of IDAEA for taking the samples. References Llorca, M., Farre, M., Pico, Y., Muller, J., Knepper, T. P., Barcelo, D., 2012. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in waters from Germany and Spain. Sci. Total Environ. 431, 139-150. Llorca, M., Pérez, F., Farre, M., Agramunt, S., Kogevinas, M., Barceló, D., 2012. Analysis of perfluoroalkyl substances in cord blood by turbulent flow chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. Sci. Total Environ. 433, 151-160. Pico, Y., Blasco, C., Farre, M., Barcelo, D., 2012. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in water and sediment of L'Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain). Environ.Sci.Pollut.Res. 19, 946-957. Sundstrom, M., Ehresman, D. J., Bignert, A., Butenhoff, J. L., Olsen, G. W., Chang, S. C., Bergman, A., 2011. A temporal trend study (1972-2008) of perfluorooctanesulfonate, perfluorohexanesulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate in pooled human milk samples from Stockholm, Sweden. Environ. Inter. 37, 178-183.

  11. Valencia College, No. 1 Nationwide: It's All about "Student Experience"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adam, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    Twelve years ago, Sanford Shugart took the helm at Valencia College. This school of 70,000-plus students in Orlando, FL, seemed like any other community college, but Shugart's reason for being there, and the change this college was about to undergo, was anything but ordinary. Before his arrival, the school had begun a process called Campus…

  12. The Black Advisory Committee of Valencia Community College. Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia Community Coll., Orlando, FL.

    Information and guidelines are presented in this report on the Black Advisory Committee (BAC) at Valencia Community College, which was created to monitor and assess the progress made by the college in increasing the enrollment and meeting the needs of black students. The preface outlines the history of the BAC's creation, the needs that the…

  13. [Single or double dose of vaccine needed for the eradication of measles in Spain?].

    PubMed

    Vitoria Miñana, I; Morales Suárez-Varela, M; Cotanda Gutiérrez, P; Asensi Botet, F

    1993-02-01

    A descriptive and retrospective epidemiological study of measles vaccinations was realized. This study involved 112 children hospitalized in Valencia (Spain) for measles during the period from January 1983 to December 1988. We compared children that had received vaccination and those children that had not. Statistically significant differences were observed in regards to the age of the child (p < 0.025) and the year in which the cases were diagnosed (p < 0.05). The evolution of measles in Spain and in the United States shows the need for revaccinations, as well as the need to augment the coverage of vaccinations in order to eradicate this disease.

  14. The rainfall regime and its uncertainty in Valencia and Larnaca

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiser, H.; Kutiel, H.

    2007-08-01

    The Most Expected Rainfall Regime - MERR in a certain region is composed of various parameters regarding the annual rainfall regime in that region. The present study examines several parameters of the MERR, such as: the rainfall TOTAL, the Date of Accumulated Percentage-DAP, the Rainy Season Length-RSL, the Number of Rain-Spells-NRS, the Rain-Spell Yield-RSY, the ratio between Average and Median rainfall-AMED, the relationship between accumulated precipitation and the number of rain-spells and the Dry-Spell Distribution-DSD. Two stations at the two sides of the Mediterranean basin, Valencia and Larnaca, have been used to illustrate the distribution of the above parameters across the Mediterranean. The main conclusion of the study is that the rainfall regime at Larnaca is less uncertain as compared with the regime in Valencia. This is probably due to the fact that rainfalls are completely absent during the summer in Larnaca, which better suits the definition of a Mediterranean climate than that of Valencia.

  15. Late quaternary environmental history of lake valencia, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Bradbury, J P; Leyden, B; Salgado-Labouriau, M; Lewis, W M; Schubert, C; Binford, M W; Frey, D G; Whitehead, D R; Weibezahn, F H

    1981-12-18

    Chemical, paleontological, and mineralogical analyses of a 7.5-meter core from the middle of Lake Valencia, Venezuela, have provided information on the paleoclimatic history of this low-elevation, low-latitude site for the last 13,000 years. The data show that dry climates existed in this region from 13,000 years before present (B.P.) until about 10,000 years B.P. The Lake Valencia Basin was occupied by intermittent saline marshes at that time. About 10,000 years B.P., a permanent lake of fluctuating salinity formed and arboreal plant communities replaced the earlier dominant xeric herbaceous vegetation and marsh plants. By 8500 years B.P., Lake Valencia reached moderate to low salinities and discharged water; the modern vegetation became established at that time. After 8500 years B.P., the lake twice ceased discharging as a result of reduced watershed moisture. The second of these drying episodes is still in progress and has been aggravated by human activities in the watershed.

  16. Late quaternary environmental history of Lake Valencia, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Platt, Bradbury J.; Leyden, B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M.; Lewis, W.M.; Schubert, C.; Binford, M.W.; Frey, D.G.; Whitehead, D.R.; Weibezahn, F.H.

    1981-01-01

    Chemical, paleontological, and mineralogical analyses of a 7.5-meter core from the middle of Lake Valencia, Venezuela, have provided information on the paleoclimatic history of this low-elevation, low-latitude site for the last 13,000 years. The data show that dry climates existed in this region from 13,000 years before present (B.P.) until about 10,000 years B.P. The Lake Valencia Basin was occupied by intermittent saline marshes at that time. About 10,000 years B.P., a permanent lake of fluctuating salinity formed and arboreal plant communities replaced the earlier dominant xeric herbaceous vegetation and marsh plants. By 8500 years B.P., Lake Valencia reached moderate to low salinities and discharged water; the modern vegetation became established at that time. After 8500 years B.P., the lake twice ceased discharging as a result of reduced watershed moisture. The second of these drying episodes is still in progress and has been aggravated by human activities in the watershed. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  17. Genomic fingerprinting of penicillinase-producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Valencia, Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Dasi, M A; Nogueira, J M; Camarena, J J; Gil, C; García-Verdú, R; Barberá, J L; Barberá, J

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare the value of different markers and their combinations with the restriction enzyme technique in the differentiations of penicillinase-producing N. gonorrhoeae (PPNG) strains. MATERIALS AND METHODS--17 PPNG strains isolated from symptomatic, untreated male patients with urethritis were characterised by antibiotic sensitivity testing, auxotyping, serotyping, plasmid profile, and restriction endonuclease fingerprinting (Hind III digestion). Cluster analysis with the method of unweighted pair-group average (UPGMA) linkage was used to calculate similarity or dissimilarity for PPNG strains. MAIN RESULTS--Either auxotyping or plasmid profile alone differentiated three groups of PPNG strains, whereas the combination auxotyping/serotyping identified 10. Although the combination auxotyping/serotyping/plasmid profile and the restriction enzyme technique showed a similar discrimination ability (differentiation of 11 PPNG strains), genomic fingerprinting gave highly specific restriction patterns on individual gonococcal isolates. CONCLUSIONS--The combination of different markers gave more epidemiological information than the use of only one. The sequence of discriminating ability for PPNG strains was: auxotyping/serotyping less than auxotyping/serotyping/plasmid profile less than restriction patterns of genomic DNA. Images PMID:1607193

  18. Characteristics of rice straw and sewage sludge as composting materials in Valencia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Iranzo, Maria; Cañizares, Jose V; Roca-Perez, Luis; Sainz-Pardo, Isabel; Mormeneo, Salvador; Boluda, Rafael

    2004-10-01

    This work supports the idea that composting can be useful for minimizing the rice straw and sewage sludge environmental impact. Several physical, chemical and microbiological properties of these raw materials were analyzed. The characteristics of the rice straw were complementary to those of the sewage sludge for the application of composting. The C/N ratios suitable for a rapid increased in microbial activity were the lowest (17-24). A temperature of 62 degrees C during 48 h removed pathogenic microorganisms from rice straw and sewage sludge mixture. The results obtained in the present work suggested that these materials could be use in the composting process.

  19. Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Isaac Aznar Observatory Aras De Los Olmos, Valencia, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macias, Amadeo Aznar

    2015-01-01

    The Isaac Aznar Observatory conducts astrometric and photometric studies of asteroids. This paper contains the photometric results of four asteroids obtained from 2014 April to August. These asteroids were selected from the Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link (CALL) web site: 1088 Mitaka, 2956 Yeomans, 3894 Williamcooke, and (4555) 1974QL.

  20. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  1. Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

  2. L-MEB Model Calibration Over the Valencia Anchor Station Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2009-04-01

    In the framework of ESA's SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Mission, several studies are being carried out over different types of land surfaces to study their microwave L-band emission (1.4 GHz). These studies are being integrated in the SMOS emission model (L-MEB, L-band Microwave Emission of the Biosphere, Wigneron et al. 2007), which is the core of the SMOS algorithm for the retrieval of land surface parameters from SMOS data. To contribute to Cal/Val activities at the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) area (Caudete de las Fuentes, Valencia, Spain), one of the primary validation areas for SMOS land data and products (ESA SMOS Cal/Val AO, Project ID 3252, Lopez-Baeza et al., 2005), a number of experiments have been carried out to study the vegetation influence over the L-band emission proceeding from the soil surface. In the VAS area, a reduced number of homogeneous units have been defined according to the type and use of the soil, mainly, shrubs, vineyards, orchards (almond-and olive-trees) and Mediterranean pine forests. In order to implement the SMOS algorithm over this reference area, it is necessary to characterize and calibrate the L-MEB model for the different cover types. This work is significantly contributing to the definition of the VAS site as a validation area for SMOS land products of the size of a SMOS pixel (SMOS reference pixel). Shrubs and vineyards are the two most significant vegetation types which cover a large percentage of the area and for which very little information at L-band is available in the literature. These two types of vegetation covers have been studied in two separate dedicated experiments under the common name of MELBEX (Mediterranean Ecosystem L-Band characterisation EXperiment). The first one (MELBEX-I) took place over a shrub area characterised by a significant proportion of bare soil with superficial stones. The second one (MELBEX-II) was carried out from March to December 2007 over a large vineyard area. During the time

  3. Molecular characterization and assessment of genetic diversity in valencia mini core using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Valencia peanuts known for their premium taste are mainly grown in eastern New Mexico and west Texas of the US. A well characterized and structured germplasm is a prerequisite for any crop improvement program. Recently a Valencia core was developed from the USDA collection using 26 morphological ...

  4. Comparison of Single Row, Twin Row, and Diamond Planting Patterns in Valencia Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most Valencia peanuts are grown in single rows on 36 to 40 inch beds. Because of their bunch-type and erect growth habit, Valencia peanuts do not spread over the whole bed and have the opportunity to benefit from multiple row planting arrangements. This study was conducted at locations near Portal...

  5. Determination of mercury by cold-vapor technique in several tissues of treated American red crayfish (Procambarus clarkii)

    SciTech Connect

    Del Ramo, J.; Pastor, A.; Diaz-Mayans, J.; Medina, J.; Torreblanca, A.

    1988-01-01

    Adult intermolt specimens of American red crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) collected from Lake Albufera (Valencia, Spain), were exposed to mercury during 96 h. The Hg-concentrations used were 50, 100, and 250 ..mu..g Hg/l as Cl/sub 2/Hg. The content of mercury in muscle, midgut gland, antennal glands and gills was investigated. Determinations of mercury were made by cold-vapor technique and AAS. The mercury levels in all examined tissues increased significantly with increasing Hg-concentration in the water.

  6. Use of Physio-Hydrological Units for SMOS Validation at the Valencia Anchor Station Study Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán-Scheiding, C.; Antolín, C.; Marco, J.; Soriano, M. P.; Torre, E.; Requena, F.; Carbó, E.; Cano, A.; Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2009-04-01

    The SMOS space mission will soil moisture over the continents and ocean surface salinity with the sufficient resolution to be used in global climate change studies. With the aim of validating SMOS land data and products at the Valencia Anchor Station site (VAS) in a Mediterranean Ecosystem area of Spain, we have designed a sample methodology using a subdivision of the landscape in environmental units related to the spatial variability of soil moisture (Millán-Scheiding, 2006; Lopez-Baeza, et al. 2008). These physio-hydrological units are heterogeneously structured entities which present a certain degree of internal uniformity of hydrological parameters. The units are delimited by integrating areas with the same physio-morphology, soil type, vegetation, geology and topography (Flugel, et al 2003; Millán-Scheiding et al, 2007). Each of these units presented over the same pedological characteristics, vegetation cover, and landscape position should have a certain degree of internal uniformity in its hydrological parameters and therefore similar soil moisture (SM). The main assumption for each unit is that the dynamical variation of the hydrological parameters within one unit should be minimum compared to the dynamics of another unit. This methodology will hopefully provide an effective sampling design consisting of a reduced number of measuring points, sparsely distributed over the area, or alternatively, using SM validation networks where each sampling point is located where it is representative of the mean soil moisture of a complete unit area. The Experimental Plan for the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the VAS area of April-May 2008 used this environmental subdivision in the selection and sampling of over 21.000 soil moisture points in a control area of 10 x 10 km2. The ground measurements were carried out during 4 nights corresponding to a drying out period of the soil. The sampling consisted of 700 plots with 4 volumetric SM cylinders and 7 Delta-T Theta

  7. Smos Land Product Validation Activities at the Valencia Anchor Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    ABSTRACT Soil moisture is a key parameter controlling the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere. In spite of being important for weather and climate modeling, this parameter is not well observed at a global scale. The SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Mission was designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) to measure soil moisture over continental surfaces as well as surface salinity over the oceans. Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products, namely soil moisture content and vegetation water content. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA has defined and designed a SMOS V alidation Rehearsal C ampaign P lan which purpose is to repeat the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim is to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations, and to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real C ommissioning P hase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 has been chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. The ground soil moisture stations will also be used

  8. Numerical solution for weight reduction model due to health campaigns in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Maha A.; Noor, Noor Fadiya Mohd; Siri, Zailan; Ibrahim, Adriana Irawati Nur

    2015-10-01

    Transition model between three subpopulations based on Body Mass Index of Valencia community in Spain is considered. No changes in population nutritional habits and public health strategies on weight reduction until 2030 are assumed. The system of ordinary differential equations is solved using Runge-Kutta method of higher order. The numerical results obtained are compared with the predicted values of subpopulation proportion based on statistical estimation in 2013, 2015 and 2030. Relative approximate error is calculated. The consistency of the Runge-Kutta method in solving the model is discussed.

  9. How to set challenging goals and conduct fair evaluation in regional public health systems. Insights from Valencia and Tuscany Regions.

    PubMed

    Vainieri, Milena; Vola, Federico; Gomez Soriano, Gregorio; Nuti, Sabina

    2016-11-01

    The definition of "the right targets" and the way the evaluation of results is performed affect the willingness to commit to new challenges, which is a factor that influences the relationship between goal setting and performance results. Indeed, some authors claim that the choice of an inappropriate goal-setting procedure is a major cause of failure of management control systems. Goal setting theorists found that assigning a specific and challenging goal leads to higher performance than (a) an easy goal, (b) a general goal or (c) no goal setting. Despite this evidence, yet, few proposals concern the definition of what is "challenging". This paper focuses on two issues: (a) what is to be considered a challenging goal and (b) what is a "fair evaluation" in the health care sector. This work suggests that benchmarking is a valid support to solve the previous dilemmas. Relying on two Regional European advanced experiences - Valencia in Spain and Tuscany in Italy -, this paper aims to provide conceptual methods that can help managers define challenging goals and conduct fair evaluation about their achievement. Although these Regions adopted different governance models, both of them applied very similar techniques, which seem to be associated to an improvement of their performance and a reduction of unwarranted variation.

  10. Evolution of NO2 levels in Spain from 1996 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Cuevas, Carlos A.; Notario, Alberto; Adame, José Antonio; Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2014-01-01

    We report on the evolution of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) over Spain, focusing on the densely populated cities of Barcelona, Bilbao, Madrid, Sevilla and Valencia, during 17 years, from 1996 to 2012. This data series combines observations from in-situ air quality monitoring networks and the satellite-based instruments GOME and SCIAMACHY. The results in these five cities show a smooth decrease in the NO2 concentrations of ~2% per year in the period 1996–2008, due to the implementation of emissions control environmental legislation, and a more abrupt descend of ~7% per year from 2008 to 2012 as a consequence of the economic recession. In the whole Spanish territory the NO2 levels have decreased by ~22% from 1996 to 2012. Statistical analysis of several economic indicators is used to investigate the different factors driving the NO2 concentration trends over Spain during the last two decades. PMID:25074028

  11. Plant Developmental Biology in Spain: from the origins to our days and prospects for the future.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, José-Pío

    2009-01-01

    The origins of modern Plant Developmental Biology in Spain can be traced back to a handful of scientists settled in Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia and Sevilla, who devoted themselves to plant biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics, and also to Drosophila developmental biology, which influenced, often unintentionally, the pioneers of this field. To reach the present day situation, the experience acquired in centres abroad has also been important, especially in plant research institutes in the USA, Germany (Max-Planck Institute für Züchtungsforschung) and United Kingdom (John Innes Centre). The contributions of Spanish scientists to the advancement of Plant Developmental Biology appears to be imbalanced towards reproductive biology, although relevant publications have also been reported on embryogenesis and seed development, shoot branching, tuberization, vascular morphogenesis, leaf development, regulation of development by light, signal transduction and hormone action and the connection between growth and development. Plant Developmental Biology in Spain is going through a flourishing time, with its future being highly dependent on i) appropriate funding conditions to its young scientists, ii) the opening of new areas of research, iii) the incorporation of technological breakthroughs into laboratories and iv) the carrying out of cooperative research by means of networking. Currently, besides many Departments of the Spanish universities, several centres in which competitive research in plant Developmental Biology can be accomplished, exist: the CNB and CBGP in Madrid, the LGMV CSIC-IRTA in Barcelona, the IBMCP CSIC-UPV, in Valencia and the IBVF CSIC-USE in Sevilla. Let's go for more!

  12. Cadmium-binding proteins in midgut gland of freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii

    SciTech Connect

    Del Ramo, J.; Pastor, A.; Torreblanca, A.; Medina, J.; Diza-Mayans, J.

    1989-02-01

    Metallothioneins, metal binding proteins, were originally isolated and characterized by Margoshes and Vallee. These proteins have a high affinity for various heavy metals, particularly cadmium and mercury and have extensively been studied in mammals. Metal binding proteins have been observed in a variety of marine invertebrates; however, there is very little information available on metal binding proteins in freshwater invertebrates, and particularly in freshwater crustaceans. Cadmium is an ubiquitous non essential element which possesses high toxicity to aquatic organisms. Cadmium binding proteins observed in invertebrates have similar characteristics to mammalian metallothioneins. In 1978, the American red crayfish appeared in Albufera Lake and the surrounding rice fields (Valencia, Spain). Albufera Lake and the surrounding rice fields waters are subjected to very heavy loads of sewage and toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals) from the many urban and wastewaters in this area. In previous reports the authors studied the toxicity and accumulation of cadmium on Procambarus clarkii of Albufera Lake. This crayfish shows a high resistance to cadmium and a great accumulation rate of this metal in several tissues, including midgut gland. Since Procambarus clarkii shows a high resistance to cadmium, the presence of cadmium binding proteins (Cd-BP) in midgut gland of these crayfish would be expected. This report describes results on the characterization of Cd-BPs obtained from cadmium exposed crayfish Procambarus clarkii, demonstrating their presence in this freshwater crayfish.

  13. Cadmium accumulation in the crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz-Mayans, J.; Hernandez, F.; Medina, J.; Del Ramo, J.; Torreblanca, A.

    1986-11-01

    Lake Albufera and the surrounding rice-field waters are being subject to very heavy loads of sewage and toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals and pesticides) from the many urban and wastewaters in this area. The American red crayfish Procambarus clarkii is native to the Louisiana marshes (USA). In 1978, the crayfish appeared in Lake Albufera near Valencia (Spain), and presently, without adequate sanitary controls, the crayfish is being fished commercially for human consumption. In view of this interest, it is important to have accurate information on concentrations of cadmium in natural waters and cadmium levels of tissues of freshwaters animals used as human food, as well as the accumulation rates of this metal in this animal. In the present study, the authors investigated the accumulation of cadmium in several tissues of the red crayfish, P clarkii (Girard) from Lake Albufera following cadmium exposure. Determinations of cadmium were made by flameless atomic absorption spectroscopy and the standard additions method. Digestion of samples was made by wet ashing in open flasks with concentrated HNO/sub 3/ at 80-90/sup 0/C.

  14. [Epidemiological and virological studies into the poliomyelitis in Valencia (1959-1969)].

    PubMed

    Báguena Cervellera, María José

    2009-01-01

    Studies into the polio virus began in Valencia in 1959 with the work undertaken by the microbiologist Vicente Sanchis-Bayarri Vaillant. After his education at the Rochester University and at the Pasteur Institute, Sanchis-Bayarri Vaillant established a laboratory of cell cultures at the Faculty of Medicine in Valencia, where he developed a new diagnostic technique for the poliomyelitis virus. In addition, epidemiological studies were carried out both prior to and post the 1963 vaccination campaign, which proved that Sabin's oral vaccine was both effective and safe for use.

  15. YIELD AND GRADE OF VALENCIA PEANUT IN SINGLE ROW, TWIN ROW, AND DIAMOND PLANTING PATTERNS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted at Wayne Baker’s farm South of Clovis in 2006 to compare single row, twin row, and diamond planting patterns in Valencia peanut on 36 inch beds. The twin row and diamond pattern treatments were planted with an experimental planter developed at the USDA-ARS National Peanut Rese...

  16. : Light Interception in Single Row, Twin Row, and Diamond Planting Patterns of Valencia Peanut

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A field study was conducted on a growers farm South of Clovis, NM in 2006 to compare light interception and radiation use efficiency in single row, twin row, and diamond planted Valencia peanuts with line quantum sensors (Apogee instruments, Logan) installed across the crop row. Data were recorded ...

  17. Growth and yield of valencia, spanish, virginia and runner market type peanuts in various row spacings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Currently, the majority of peanuts grown in New Mexico and West Texas are planted in single rows on beds 36 to 40 inches apart. In 2006-2008, several field studies were conducted with Valencia peanuts comparing single row, twin row, and diamond planting patterns in various populations. The basic c...

  18. Mesozoic evolution of the Valencia trough: Implications for the understanding of the Western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etheve, Nathalie; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Mohn, Geoffroy; Roca, Eduard; Gorini, Christian; Blanpied, Christian

    2014-05-01

    The Western Mediterranean records a multi-stage tectonic evolution characterized by a complex succession of rifting to compressive episodes during the Cenozoic. The Valencia through was formed in this geodynamic framework and is classically interpreted as an aborted Tertiary rift related to back-arc extension. Notably, the Tertiary rifting is superimposed to the Jurassic opening of the Tethys basin, the early Cretaceous opening of the Bay of Biscay-Pyrenees basins and the late Cretaceous-early Tertiary inversion of these basins (e.g. Iberian range, Catalan Coastal range). Since the last twenty years, many studies contributed to the understanding of the Tertiary history of this area, whereas the pre-Tertiary evolution of the Valencia trough remains poorly investigated. Therefore, we initiated a research project in the Valencia trough benefiting from the acquisition of high quality seismic surveys allowing a better imaging of the Mesozoic sequences. This PhD project aims to understand the mechanisms and the role of structural inheritance that controlled the evolution of the Valencia trough and its impact on the sedimentary infilling since the Mesozoic. The relation between the sedimentary infilling, subsidence and crustal thinning mechanisms during the Cenozoic are investigated aiming to unravel critical information on rifting processes. This study will be based on correlations between onshore and offshore observations. Structural and stratigraphic evolution will be defined on land and compared with seismic sections and well data at sea. Eventually, these data will enable us to propose coherent land-sea interpretations of the area, providing a better understanding of the tectono-stratigraphic context. Our poster show preliminary results obtained from fieldwork on the western margin of the Valencia trough coupled with seismic interpretations. Eventually, results of this study may lead to better constrain the kinematic reconstruction of the western Mediterranean

  19. Discrimination, work and health in immigrant populations in Spain.

    PubMed

    Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés; Gil-González, Diana; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Porthé, Victoria; Paramio-Pérez, Gema; García, Ana M; Garí, Aitana

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important social phenomena in the global context is the flow of immigration from developing countries, motivated by economic and employment related issues. Discrimination can be approached as a health risk factor within the immigrant population's working environment, especially for those immigrants at greater risk from social exclusion and marginalisation. The aim of this study is to research perceptions of discrimination and the specific relationship between discrimination in the workplace and health among Spain's immigrant population. A qualitative study was performed by means of 84 interviews and 12 focus groups held with immigrant workers in five cities in Spain receiving a large influx of immigrants (Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia, Alicante and Huelva), covering representative immigrant communities in Spain (Romanians, Moroccans, Ecuadorians, Colombians and Sub-Saharan Africans). Discourse narrative content analysis was performed using pre-established categories and gradually incorporating other emerging categories from the immigrant interviewees themselves. The participants reported instances of discrimination in their community and working life, characterised by experiences of racism, mistreatment and precarious working conditions in comparison to the Spanish-born population. They also talked about limitations in terms of accessible occupations (mainly construction, the hotel and restaurant trade, domestic service and agriculture), and described major difficulties accessing other types of work (for example public administration). They also identified political and legal structural barriers related with social institutions. Experiences of discrimination can affect their mental health and are decisive factors regarding access to healthcare services. Our results suggest the need to adopt integration policies in both the countries of origin and the host country, to acknowledge labour and social rights, and to conduct further research into individual

  20. Primary medical care in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, J T

    1990-01-01

    The extremely complex and rapidly but unevenly developing system of primary care in Spain is described. The health centre movement in Spain merits close attention, and could be a useful model for our own service. PMID:2117951

  1. European Seminar: "New Training Models and Strategies for SMEs in Europe" (Valencia, Spain, October 4-5, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girones, Salvador Gil, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    A seminar disseminated and discussed the findings of a study carried out on the problems of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in accessing training and the support strategies applied in the 12 member states of European Community. Input was solicited from experts regarding the priorities of 11 strategies. Organizers used this information to…

  2. The emergence of mesolithic cemeteries in SW Europe: insights from the El Collado (Oliva, Valencia, Spain) radiocarbon record.

    PubMed

    Gibaja, Juan F; Subirà, M Eulàlia; Terradas, Xavier; Santos, F Javier; Agulló, Lidia; Gómez-Martínez, Isabel; Allièse, Florence; Fernández-López de Pablo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Located on the Iberian Mediterranean coast, El Collado is an open-air site where a rescue excavation was conducted over two seasons in 1987 and 1988. The archaeological work excavated a surface area of 143 m2 where 14 burials were discovered, providing skeletal remains from 15 individuals. We have obtained AMS dates for 10 of the 15 individuals by means of the direct dating of human bones. The ranges of the probability distribution of the calibrated dates suggest that the cemetery was used during a long period of time (781-1020 years at a probability of 95.4%). The new dates consequently set back the chrono-cultural attribution of the cemetery from the initial proposal of Late Mesolithic to an older date in the Early Mesolithic. Therefore, El Collado becomes the oldest known cemetery in the Iberian Peninsula, earlier than the numerous Mesolithic funerary contexts documented on the Atlantic façade such as the Portuguese shell-middens in the Muge and Sado Estuaries or the funerary sites on the northern Iberian coast.

  3. The Emergence of Mesolithic Cemeteries in SW Europe: Insights from the El Collado (Oliva, Valencia, Spain) Radiocarbon Record

    PubMed Central

    Gibaja, Juan F.; Subirà, M. Eulàlia; Terradas, Xavier; Santos, F. Javier; Agulló, Lidia; Gómez-Martínez, Isabel; Allièse, Florence; Fernández-López de Pablo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Located on the Iberian Mediterranean coast, El Collado is an open-air site where a rescue excavation was conducted over two seasons in 1987 and 1988. The archaeological work excavated a surface area of 143m2 where 14 burials were discovered, providing skeletal remains from 15 individuals. We have obtained AMS dates for 10 of the 15 individuals by means of the direct dating of human bones. The ranges of the probability distribution of the calibrated dates suggest that the cemetery was used during a long period of time (781–1020 years at a probability of 95.4%). The new dates consequently set back the chrono-cultural attribution of the cemetery from the initial proposal of Late Mesolithic to an older date in the Early Mesolithic. Therefore, El Collado becomes the oldest known cemetery in the Iberian Peninsula, earlier than the numerous Mesolithic funerary contexts documented on the Atlantic façade such as the Portuguese shell-middens in the Muge and Sado Estuaries or the funerary sites on the northern Iberian coast. PMID:25629403

  4. [An experience of collaboration between primary health care and mental health care in La Ribera Department of Health (Valencia, Spain)].

    PubMed

    Morera-Llorca, Miquel; Romeu-Climent, José Enrique; Lera-Calatayud, Guillem; Folch-Marín, Blanca; Palop-Larrea, Vicente; Vidal-Rubio, Sonia

    2014-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of mental health problems among patients attending primary care, diagnosis and treatment of these disorders remain inadequate. Sound training of primary care physicians in how to manage mental health problems is needed to reduce the health, economic and social impact associated with these disorders. Among other elements, there is a need for cooperation between primary care physicians and mental health services. Distinct models are available for such collaboration. In 2006, our health department started a collaboration between these two levels of heath care, using a liaison model. Delays until the first specialist visit were reduced and satisfaction among health professionals increased, although these results should be interpreted with caution. Evidence has recently accumulated on the usefulness of the collaborative model, but evaluation of this model and extrapolation of its results are complex. We intend to evaluate our model more thoroughly, similar to other projects in our environment.

  5. Spain to Join ESO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-02-01

    Today, during a ceremony in Madrid, an agreement was signed by the Spanish Minister of Education and Science, Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo, and the ESO Director General, Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, affirming their commitment to securing Spanish membership of ESO. ESO PR Photo 05a/06 ESO PR Photo 05a/06 Signature Event in Madrid Following approval by the Spanish Council of Ministers and the ratification by the Spanish Parliament of the ESO Convention and the associated protocols, Spain intends to become ESO's 12th member state on 1 July 2006. "Since long Spain was aware that entering ESO was a logical decision and it was even necessary for a country like Spain because Spain is ranked 8th in astrophysical research", said Mrs. María Jesús San Segundo. "The large scientific installations are not only necessary for research in different fields but are also partners and customers for hi-tech companies, helping to increase the funding of R&D." "Spanish Astronomy has made tremendous strides forward and we are delighted to welcome Spain as a new member of ESO. We very much look forward to working together with our excellent Spanish colleagues," said Dr. Cesarsky. "For ESO, the Spanish accession means that we can draw on the scientific and technological competences, some of them unique in Europe, that have been developed in Spain and, of course, for Europe the Spanish membership of ESO is an important milestone in the construction of the European Research Area." ESO PR Photo 05b/06 ESO PR Photo 05b/06 Signature Event in Madrid Indeed, Spain is an important member of the European astronomical community and has developed impressively over the last three decades, reaching maturity with major contributions in virtually all subjects of astronomy. In addition, Spain hosts, operates or owns a number of competitive facilities dedicated to foster astronomical research, among which the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos at La Palma, certainly the premier optical

  6. Career Development in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talavera, Elvira Repetto; Moreno, Luisa Rodriguez; Romeo, Javier; Malik, Beatriz

    In Spain, the term "career development" refers to vocational or career guidance services. The 1983 Law on University Reform conferred on universities the freedom of teaching, endowing them with legal status and administrative powers. Thus, there are no regulations regarding guidance at this educational level. Guidance departments in…

  7. [Foreign immigration in Spain].

    PubMed

    Serra Yoldi, I

    1997-01-01

    This article, translated from the original Spanish, analyzes recent trends in immigration to Spain. Information is provided on annual totals of immigrants and emigrants, 1976-1991; resident foreigners by nationality, 1990-1994; resident foreigners by province and continent of origin, 1991; occupations of immigrants, 1990-1991; migrant characteristics; attitudes toward immigration; and assimilation of immigrants.

  8. Vocational Training in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genovard, Candido; And Others

    Vocational training in Spain suffers from a fundamental initial disadvantage, namely the subsidiary position that it occupies in the general structure of the country's educational system. The situation has been aggravated by the sector's relative neglect by the government, which has been forced to concentrate its efforts on secondary and…

  9. Test Reviewing in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muniz, Jose; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose R.; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela; Pena-Suarez, Elsa

    2012-01-01

    The proper use of psychological tests requires that the measurement instruments have adequate psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity, and that the professionals who use the instruments have the necessary expertise. In this article, we present the first review of tests published in Spain, carried out with an assessment model…

  10. [Fertility decline in Spain].

    PubMed

    Arango, J

    1987-01-01

    The historical processes of secular fertility decline in Spain and Portugal are not well understood. Very few microdemographic studies of small geographic regions or particular social strata have been done. A contribution by David Reher to the First Spanish-Portuguese-Italian Historical Demography Conference on the fertility decline in the interior province of Cuenca, Spain, uses the own-children method to analyze changes in marital fertility in the 19th and 20th centuries. Reher discovered a slight fertility decline of perhaps 15% which occurred between the end of the 18th century and 1860-75. The fertility decline did not resume until after the Spanish Civil War, and then it was a very gradual and continuous process. When instead of the total female population, women aged 35-39 were studied, unequivocal signs of fertility control appeared. Conscious fertility control thus appears to have begun among older women limiting rather than spacing births. Reher's analysis by social groups demonstrates that fertility declined first and more rapidly in the nonagricultural and urban populations and among the higher income groups. The fertility decline in Cuenca was certainly not identical to that in most of Spain, but may have been fairly typical of a large part of the interior. Another contribution to the Historical Demography Conference, by Anna Cabre and Isabel Pujadas, analyzes fertility trends and cyclical fluctuations in 20th century Cataluna, arguing that they must be placed in historical perspective if recent changes are to be understood and plausible projections made. Their work demonstrates the value of selecting a relatively homogeneous geographic unit for analysis. The contribution of Margarita Delgado to the conference analyzed interregional fertility differences in contemporary Spain. The high legitimate fertility of the south of Spain is accentuated by high nuptiality rates. In central Spain, the combination of high legitimate fertility rates and low

  11. Calibration and Validation of SMOS Data at the Valencia Anchor Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwank, Mike

    2010-05-01

    L-band (1 - 2 GHz) microwave radiometry is a remote sensing technique to monitor soil moisture, which is being deployed in the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). Performing ground-based radiometer campaigns before launch, during the commissioning phase and during the operative SMOS mission was and is important for the validation of the satellite data and for the further improvement of the radiative transfer models used in the soil-moisture retrieval algorithms. One of the selected validation sites is the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) which is located about 80 km west of the city of Valencia on the Utiel-Requena Plateau. This region is a reasonable homogeneous area of about 50 x 50 km2, mainly featuring vineyards (75%) and other Mediterranean ecosystem species (shrubs, olive and almond trees and pine forests). The topography is generally plain (slope angle

  12. Morphology and downslope sediment displacement in a deep-sea valley, the Valencia Valley (Northwestern Mediterranean)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, S.; Alonso, B.; Kastens, K.A.; Maldonado, A.; Malinverno, A.; Nelson, C.H.; Palanques, A.; Ryan, William B. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Valencia Valley is a Quaternary, 200 km long deep-sea valley in the Valencia Trough, Western Mediterranean Sea. A swathmapping survey approximately mid-way along the valley length, where the floor has an average gradient of 1:250 (0.2??), shows valley walls that rise 200 to 350 m above the valley floor, with slopes of 2 to 18??. Sediment forming the walls is undergoing retrogressive, upslope-directed slumping with increasing bedding disruption along steeper walls. The valley exhibits a winding course with steep outer and gentler inner walls around bends, and bedforms on the valley floor. Lateral migration around bends is less than 5 km and the valley is deeply entrenched into Quaternary-bedded sediments. ?? 1985 Springer-Verlag New York Inc.

  13. Leaf photosynthetic and water-relations responses for 'Valencia' orange trees exposed to oxidant air pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Olszyk, D.M.; Takemoto, B.K.; Poe, M.

    1991-01-01

    Leaf responses were measured to test a hypothesis that reduced photosynthetic capacity and/or altered water relations were associated with reductions in yield for 'Valencia' orange trees (Citrus sinensis (L.), Osbeck) exposed to ambient oxidant air pollution. Exposures were continuous for 4 years to three levels of oxidants (in charcoal-filtered, half-filtered, and non-filtered air). Oxidants had no effect on net leaf photosynthetic rates or on photosynthetic pigment concentrations. A single set of measurements indicated that oxidants increased leaf starch concentrations (24%) prior to flowering, suggesting a change in photosynthate allocation. Leaves exposed to oxidants had small, but consistent, changes in water relations over the summer growing season, compared to trees growing in filtered air. Other changes included decreased stomatal conductance (12%) and transpiration (9%) rates, and increased water pressure potentials (5%). While all responses were subtle, their cumulative impact over 4 years indicated that 'Valencia' orange trees were subject to increased ambient oxidant stress.

  14. Ceres Scales Ground Validation Campaigns for Gerb. Assessment of the Valencia Anchor Station Capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, E.; Velázquez Blázquez, A.; Alonso, S.; Dewitte, S.; Diaz-Pabon, C.; Domenech Garcia, C.; Harries, J.E.; Jorge, J.; Labajo, A.; Pineda, N.; Pino, D.; Rius, A.; Russell, J.E.; Smith, G.L.; Szewczyk, Z.P.; Tarruella, R.; Torrobella, J.

    2006-08-01

    The Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) was set up by the University of Valencia at the natural region of Utiel- Requena Plateau in 2001. The plateau is a large and reasonably homogeneous area suitable for validation of low spatial resolution satellite data and products such as GERB's. In the framework of the EUMETSAT/ESA MSG-RAO Project no. 138 GIST Proposal for Calibration/Validation of SEVIRI and GERB, and of the Spanish Research Programme on Space Project SCALES (SEVIRI & GERB Cal/Val Area for Large- scale Field ExperimentS), three GERB ground validation campaigns have so far been carried out at the VAS under different land surface conditions. CERES instruments onboard NASA EOS Aqua and Terra satellites, operating in PAPS (Programmable Azimuth Plane Scanning) mode, have generously provided additional SW and LW radiance measurements to support validation efforts. These have shown to be most valuable as intermediate validation step between ground measurements and the large GERB pixel size.

  15. Seroprevalence and risk factors associated with Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pigs from Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Bocanegra, Ignacio; Simon-Grifé, Meritxell; Dubey, Jitender P; Casal, Jordi; Martín, Gerard E; Cabezón, Oscar; Perea, Anselmo; Almería, Sonia

    2010-09-01

    Serum samples from 2970 (1400 sows, 1570 fattening) pigs, from 100 farms in the 10 main swine production regions in Spain were tested for antibodies against T. gondii by the modified agglutination test (MAT). Antibodies to T. gondii (MAT 1:25 or higher) were detected in 492 pigs (16.6%, 9.7% in fattening pigs and 24.2% in sows). The herd prevalence was 85.0% (95% CI: 78-92) and within-farm prevalence ranged from 2.9% to 92.8% (median=17.6%). Statistically significant differences were observed among sampling regions with seroprevalence significantly higher in pigs from Valencia Community (27.3%), Extremadura (23.3%) and Catalonia (21.2%). A generalized estimating equations model indicated that the risk factors associated with T. gondii seroprevalence were: age, sows compared to fattening pigs (OR=2.9; 95% CI=1.83-4.53), lack of rodent control (OR=1.9; 95% CI=1.04-3.60) and presence of cats (OR=1.6; 95% CI=1.12-2.34). The seroprevalence observed in the present study indicates a widespread, although variable, exposure to T. gondii among domestic pigs in Spain, which might have important implications for public health. Management measures including control of rodents and cats on the farms could help to reduce the observed prevalence levels in Spain.

  16. [Hydatid disease in the Department of Health #2 of the Valencian Community (Spain)].

    PubMed

    Moreno, J; Téllez, C J; Pardo, F J

    2009-06-01

    Hydatidosis is one of the most important zoonotic parasitic diseases of Mediterranean and South American countries where they constitute a significant health problem. Its diagnosis is realized essentially by image techniques and its treatment continues being eminently surgical. During the period 2000-2005, we reviewed clinical records of diagnosed and treated cases of hydatidosis carried out at the Department of Health 2 of the Valencia Community, Spain. Thirty three cases were evaluated of which we describe demographic, radiological, clinical, analytic, therapeutical and evolutionary data. We discuss the peculiarities found in them: thirty two cases were of hepatic location, essentially right, 48.5% unique cysts, five casual finding, 88.87% were diagnosed by ultrasonographic technique and in 2/3 of the cases the serology was positive. In addition, 52.17% of the twenty three cases treated surgically cured without recurrence and a 15.15% recurred without subsequent healing. Studies will require long-term monitoring of patients evolution.

  17. Beginnings of Olive Cultivation in Eastern Spain in Relation to Holocene Bioclimatic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terral, Jean-Frederic; Arnold-Simard, Genevieve

    1996-09-01

    Morphometric analyses show quantitative differences in anatomical characters of wood and charcoal between wild and cultivated olive. Samples from modern olive wood in eastern Spain (Levante) provide five distinctive anatomical criteria: growth width ring, vessel surface, number of vessels per group, vessel density, and vulnerability ratio. Multivariate analysis shows that growth ring width and number of vessels per group are both significant criteria for discriminating between wild and cultivated olive. Moreover, bioclimatic environments of wild olive (thermomediterranean and mesomediterranean stages) are distinguished by vessel density. Ancient olive charcoal from archaeological sites at Valencia and Alicante implies increasing aridification from the Cardial Neolithic to the Roman Period. This pattern may reflect the onset of a Mediterranean climate and human deforestation. Charcoal from cultivated specimens of early Neolithic age shows that the olive tree is the earliest cultivated temperate fruit.

  18. Occupational cancer in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    González, C A; Agudo, A

    1999-01-01

    The knowledge of specific problems of occupational cancer in Spain is scarce. The environment of the workplace has improved over the last few years after a long period distinguished by bad working conditions, incomplete legislation, and insufficient safety measures and control. It has been estimated that 3,083,479 workers (25.4% of employees) were exposed to carcinogens. The most common occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were solar radiation, environmental tobacco smoke, silica, and wood dust. The highest number of employees were exposed to silica crystalline (404,729), diesel engine exhaust (274,321), rubber products (99,804), benzene (89,932), ethylene dibromide (81,336), agents used in furniture and cabinet making (72,068), and formaldehyde (71,189). The percentage of total cancer deaths attributed to occupational exposure was 4% (6% in men, 0.9% in women). Compared with other European countries, the incidence of lung cancer and leukemia in Spain are one of the lowest, but it is rapidly increasing. The incidence of urinary bladder and larynx cancer, on the contrary, are one of the highest. Few studies on occupational cancer have been conducted in Spain. The main problems are the availability of death certificates and the quality of the information on occupation in mortality of statistics. It is necessary to improve methods of assessment of exposures using expert hygienists and biologic markers of exposure and diseases. Reduction of cancer by limiting or avoiding exposure to known occupational carcinogens is still necessary. PMID:10350510

  19. The Role of Anchor Stations in the Validation of Earth Observation Satellite Data and Products. The Valencia and the Alacant Anchor Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Geraldo Ferreira, A.; Saleh-Contell, Kauzar

    . Measurements are made of meteorological and hydrological background data, and of quantities not readily assessed at operational stations. Anchor Stations also offer infrastructure to undertake validation experi-ments. These are more detailed measurements over shorter intensive observation periods. The Valencia Anchor Station is showing its capabilities and conditions as a reference validation site in the framework of low spatial resolution remote sensing missions such as CERES, GERB and SMOS. The Alacant Anchor Station is a reference site in studies on the interactions between desertification and climate. This paper presents the activities so far carried out at both Anchor Stations, the precise and detailed ground and aircraft experiments carefully designed to develop a specific methodology to validate low spatial resolution satellite data and products, and the knowledge exchange currently being exercised between the University of Valencia, Spain, and FUNCEME, Brazil, in common objectives of mutual interest.

  20. The beginnings of dermatopathology and dermatologic microbiology in Spain.

    PubMed

    del Río, E

    2014-03-01

    Crisóstomo Martínez from Valencia was a pioneering microscopist in 17th-century Europe. The first microscopic representations of skin in Spain appeared in an 18th-century work by Martín Martínez. Microbiology and histopathology progressed considerably in the late 19th century thanks to anatomists like Maestre de San Juan and surgeons like Federico Rubio Galí. The first Spanish pathologist to specialize in dermatology was Antonio Mendoza, a colleague of José Eugenio de Olavide at the Hospital San Juan de Dios in Madrid. Claudio Sala and Juan de Azúa also made significant contributions, including the description of pseudoepithelioma. Several disciples of Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Jorge FranciscoTello, such as Lorenzo Ruiz de Arcaute and Guillermo de la Rosa King, consolidated the dermatology laboratory, but the Civil War sent many into exile or deprived them of their professional status. Juan Rubió in Barcelona and Julio Rodríguez Puchol in Madrid were the immediate predecessors of today's dermatopathologists.

  1. [Malaria in Spain: entomological aspects and future outlook].

    PubMed

    Bueno Marí, Rubén; Jiménez Peydró, Ricardo

    2008-01-01

    Malaria was officially eradicated in Spain in 1964. However, at the present time, hundreds of imported cases are registered in our country each year. In this context, the study of the vector is seen to be highly significant in order to infer possible transmission scenarios, whether of a sporadic or a regular nature. Although the socio-economic level of the country does not appear to foreshadow the possible re-emergence of the disease in the short and medium term, the presence of well-established populations of anophelini and plasmodium gametocytes circulating in a certain percentage of the human population does appear to warrant the continuation of the current status of epidemiological surveillance. Moreover, the globalisation of markets and the emerging process of climate change could enable the colonisation of our territory by part of the Anopheles species that transmit human plasmodiosis in tropical and subtropical regions. In order to obtain a more thorough knowledge of the range of fauna, spatial distribution and bioecology of the anopheline Culicoides, a number of intensive larval samplings were taken in the Community of Valencia, a region with sufficient surface water heterogeneity and historical data of malaria prevalence to substantiate the decision to choose it for this study. Five species of the Anopheles genus, with varying degrees of impact in the dissemination of the disease, were identified.

  2. Fragile Sites of 'Valencia' Sweet Orange (Citrus sinensis) Chromosomes Are Related with Active 45s rDNA.

    PubMed

    Lan, Hong; Chen, Chun-Li; Miao, Yin; Yu, Chang-Xiu; Guo, Wen-Wu; Xu, Qiang; Deng, Xiu-Xin

    2016-01-01

    Citrus sinensis chromosomes present a morphological differentiation of bands after staining by the fluorochromes CMA and DAPI, but there is still little information on its chromosomal characteristics. In this study, the chromosomes in 'Valencia' C. sinensis were analyzed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using telomere DNA and the 45S rDNA gene as probes combining CMA/DAPI staining, which showed that there were two fragile sites in sweet orange chromosomes co-localizing at distended 45S rDNA regions, one proximally locating on B-type chromosome and the other subterminally locating on D-type chromosome. While the chromosomal CMA banding and 45S rDNA FISH mapping in the doubled haploid line of 'Valencia' C. sinensis indicated six 45S rDNA regions, four were identified as fragile sites as doubled comparing its parental line, which confirmed the cytological heterozygosity and chromosomal heteromorphisms in sweet orange. Furthermore, Ag-NOR identified two distended 45S rDNA regions to be active nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) in diploid 'Valencia' C. sinensis. The occurrence of quadrivalent in meiosis of pollen mother cells (PMCs) in 'Valencia' sweet orange further confirmed it was a chromosomal reciprocal translocation line. We speculated this chromosome translocation was probably related to fragile sites. Our data provide insights into the chromosomal characteristics of the fragile sites in 'Valencia' sweet orange and are expected to facilitate the further investigation of the possible functions of fragile sites.

  3. [Suicide in Spain today].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Spain presents one of the lowest suicide rates (8.7 per 100,000) but, as well as Ireland, it has also experienced one of the highest rate increases both within Europe and within the world. In our country, it can be observed an increase in the suicide rates from 1975 to 1994, being this increase greater in men than in women. It can also be noted that there was a stabilisation in the following years. Social factors, specially those which have to deal with gender roles and changes in these roles, are the most common explanations. Another possible explanation for the observed increase in mortality due to suicide among young men could be the AIDS epidemic and intravenous drug addiction, that was observed in Spain during the eighties and nineties. Furthermore, we are witnessing an epidemic related to violence against children and women. Literature strongly suggests that child abuse (psychological and sexual) is associated with increased suicide risk in adolescent or adult life. Women experience violence from their intimate partners and have a greater risk of suffering from chronic pain, diverse somatisations, greater substance use like drugs and alcohol, depression and suicide attempt. The association between work precariousness and suicide seems to be due to economic and social and family support factors, which can lead to greater vulnerability to mental health problems. These factors are of great relevance, since Spain presents one of the highest unemployment and temporary employment rates in the European Union. It seems reasonable that, due to the individualism that characterises the contemporary society, its demands and the new role of women in the work market that cause, among others, a greater difficulty in combining work and family life, are factors that could explain the lack of decrease in suicide rates.

  4. [Resident foreigners in Spain].

    PubMed

    Solana, A M; Pascual De Sans, A

    1994-01-01

    The authors review trends in the size of the resident foreign population in Spain over time since the 1940s. A continuing growth over time, with temporal fluctuations, is noted, with a rapid rise in immigration in the 1980s, leading to new legislation designed to control immigration in 1985-1986 and 1991. The authors note that Europeans, particularly from countries of the European Union, make up a large percentage of the foreign population, but that the number of immigrants from developing countries has increased significantly in the last 10 years.

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  6. A GIS-Based Model for the analysis of an urban flash flood and its hydro-geomorphic response. The Valencia event of 1957

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portugués-Mollá, I.; Bonache-Felici, X.; Mateu-Bellés, J. F.; Marco-Segura, J. B.

    2016-10-01

    Flash floods are recurrent events around the Mediterranean region. Extreme episodes activate hydro-geomorphic high-intensity processes with low frequency. In urban environments, the complexity becomes higher due to the existence of very quick-response runoff. However, immediate recovery works remove the urban marks. After a short time both the significance and magnitude of the hydro-geomorphic event become completely unrecognizable. Nevertheless, these episodes generate extensive documentation which is testimony of the processes in almost real time. It is necessary to exploit this source typology in order to draw flood sketches when events far in time may lack a sufficiently rich database. This is particularly the case for the Valencia flash flood (October 1957), located in the lower Turia River basin (Eastern Spain). It left numerous pieces of hydro-geomorphic evidence, but its tracks were covered a short while after the flood. In any case, it remains part of a non-systematic legacy that has not yet been exploited, consisting of immediate aerial and oblique high resolution photography, pictures at street level, water marks and administrative records. Paradoxically, despite being considered a milestone in metropolitan territorial planning (the river was definitely diverted), an accurate reconstruction of the hydraulic behaviour was required from an integrated point of view. To this aim, the development of a GIS-Based Model enabled the utilisation of the above-mentioned materials. This non-conventional information was treated jointly from a new perspective. It provided database support through a vast amount of organised, structured and georeferenced information about the 1957 event. In a second stage, the GBM made it possible to characterise the Turia urban reach and interpret both the hydro-geomorphic (trenches along barrier beaches, erosion, deposition, etc.) and hydraulic (urban streams along the streets, flow directions, flood extent, levees breaks, overflows

  7. Atmospheric contamination in the city of Valencia: Relation to noise and climate

    SciTech Connect

    Morales Suarez-Varela, M.M.; Escriva-Peyro, C.; Orden-Gil, A.L.; Manes-Vinuesa, J.; Font, G.; Llopis-Gonzalez, A. )

    1990-07-01

    A qualitative and quantitative study is made of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen oxide, and sulfur dioxide in the atmosphere of the city of Valencia for the period 1988-1989; an analysis is made of their concentrations during the year in terms of season and noise levels. Eleven sampling points in the city were used to determine PAH composition by reverse-phase, high-resolution liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection, employing an acetonitrile-water gradient; nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide were determined by the Valencia city government. Environmental noise levels were determined using a BK 2221 integrated precision sonometer, and temperature values were obtained from the city Meteorological Institute. Daily PAH values varied between 0.1769 and 2.0916 micrograms/m3, whereas the figures for nitrogen oxide were between 91.5 and 100.67 micrograms/m3 during 1982-1989 (only one value, 58.01 micrograms/m3, is available for 1988-1989, corresponding to the Mercadona sampling point), and between 17.33 and 129.36 micrograms/m3 for sulfur dioxide for a total of 9 sampling points; the highest concentrations were recorded in the winter and spring months, the association between PAH and temperature being statistically significant (p less than or equal to .05). The relation to noise was also significant (p less than or equal to .005), Fluoranthene was the predominant PAH in all samples analyzed.

  8. Commissioning and quality assurance procedures for the HDR Valencia skin applicators

    PubMed Central

    Granero, Domingo; Candela-Juan, Cristian; Ballester, Facundo; Ouhib, Zoubir; Vijande, Javier; Richart, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The Valencia applicators (Nucletron, an Elekta company, Elekta AB, Stockholm, Sweden) are cup-shaped tungsten applicators with a flattening filter used to collimate the radiation produced by a high-dose-rate (HDR) 192Ir source, and provide a homogeneous absorbed dose at a given depth. This beam quality provides a good option for the treatment of skin lesions at shallow depth (3-4 mm). The user must perform commissioning and periodic testing of these applicators to guarantee the proper and safe delivery of the intended absorbed dose, as recommended in the standards in radiation oncology. In this study, based on AAPM and GEC-ESTRO guidelines for brachytherapy units and our experience, a set of tests for the commissioning and periodic testing of the Valencia applicators is proposed. These include general considerations, verification of the manufacturer documentation and physical integrity, evaluation of the source-to-indexer distance and reproducibility, setting the library plan in the treatment planning system, evaluation of flatness and symmetry, absolute output and percentage depth dose verification, independent calculation of the treatment time, and visual inspection of the applicator before each treatment. For each test, the proposed methodology, equipment, frequency, expected results, and tolerance levels (when applicable) are provided. PMID:27895687

  9. Soil moisture under contrasted atmospheric conditions in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, César; Cerdà, Artemi; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture plays a key role on the recently abandoned agriculture land where determine the recovery and the erosion rates (Cerdà, 1995), on the soil water repellency degree (Bodí et al., 2011) and on the hydrological cycle (Cerdà, 1999), the plant development (García Fayos et al., 2000) and the seasonality of the geomorphological processes (Cerdà, 2002). Moreover, Soil moisture is a key factor on the semiarid land (Ziadat and Taimeh, 2013), on the productivity of the land (Qadir et al., 2013) and soils treated with amendments (Johnston et al., 2013) and on soil reclamation on drained saline-sodic soils (Ghafoor et al., 2012). In previous study (Azorin-Molina et al., 2013) we investigated the intraannual evolution of soil moisture in soils under different land managements in the Valencia region, Eastern Spain, and concluded that soil moisture recharges are much controlled by few heavy precipitation events; 23 recharge episodes during 2012. Most of the soil moisture recharge events occurred during the autumn season under Back-Door cold front situations. Additionally, sea breeze front episodes brought isolated precipitation and moisture to mountainous areas within summer (Azorin-Molina et al., 2009). We also evidenced that the intraanual evolution of soil moisture changes are positively and significatively correlated (at p<0.01) with the amount of measured precipitation. In this study we analyze the role of other crucial atmospheric parameters (i.e., temperature, relative humidity, global solar radiation, and wind speed and wind direction) in the intraanual evolution of soil moisture; focussing our analyses on the soil moisture discharge episodes. Here we present 1-year of soil moisture measurements at two experimental sites in the Valencia region, one representing rainfed orchard typical from the Mediterranean mountains (El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera), and a second site corresponding to an irrigated orange crop (Alcoleja). Key Words: Soil Moisture Discharges

  10. Field performance of Valencia trees on US-942 and US-812 rootstocks in trials challenged by HLB

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presentation will include a summary of background and field performance for the two USDA rootstocks, US-942 and US-812, with special focus on performance of trees with Valencia scion and when infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Field performance will be compared and contrasted with ...

  11. In Vogue: How Valencia Community College Used a High-Fashion Marketing Campaign to Sharpen Its Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campagnuolo, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Not unlike many community colleges across the country, Valencia Community College, located in Orlando, Florida, has been working to better connect with its constituents. In an era in which the Internet is opening new lines of communication between schools and prospective students, more community colleges are tapping into the opportunities inherent…

  12. Performance of 'Valencia' Orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck) on 17 rootstocks in a trial severely affected by huanglongbing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Valencia orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) was grown on 17 rootstocks through seven years of age and the first four harvest seasons in a central Florida field trial severely affected by huanglongbing (HLB) disease. All trees in the trial had huanglongbing symptoms and were shown by Polymerase chain...

  13. Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Groundwater in Three Regions of the Valencian Community (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Llopis-González, Agustín; Sánchez, Adriana L.; Requena, Pedro Martí; Suárez-Varela, María Morales

    2014-01-01

    Urban groundwater development was traditionally constrained by concerns about its quality. This study was conducted in the regions of La Ribera Alta and Ribera Baja and La Plana de Requena-Utiel of the Valencian Community (Valencia, Spain) where population density, demand for drinking water and agricultural activities are high. Groundwater bodies (GWBs) are regarded as management areas within each territory, and were used to establish protection policies. This study analyzed eleven GWBs. We used two databases with microbiological measurements from 154 wells over a 7-year period (2004–2011), risk factors and groundwater information. Wells were grouped according to frequency of microbiological contamination using E. coli measurements, category <1, or wells with low-frequency microbiological contamination and high-frequency wells or category 1–100, according to World Health Organization (WHO) quality criteria of drinking water. Of all wells, 18.12% showed high-frequency microbiological contamination with a majority distribution in the Ribera Alta region (26.98%, p < 0.001). No significant differences were found between the two risk categories for flow, static level, well depth and distance from population centres. This paper reveals that the vulnerability classes established by the Geological and Mining Institute of Spain (IGME) do not match the microbiological results, and that only eight wells with high-frequency contamination coincide with the high vulnerability areas. PMID:24859678

  14. SU-F-BRA-07: Dosimetric Verification of the Valencia Skin Applicator Using Gafchromic EBT3 Film

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, A; Lamberto, M; Chen, H; Sarkar, A; Mourtada, F

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The Valencia applicators have recently been introduced for HDR treatment of small and shallow superficial skin lesions (< 20 mm diameter and 3-mm depth). Per AAPM TG 56, any HDR applicator internal dimensions must be verified prior to clinical use. However radiographic and tomographic imaging to validate the Valencia applicators is impractical due to the Tungsten alloy housing and flattening filter. In this study, we propose to use EBT3 film to indirectly confirm the physical integrity of the Valencia applicators. Methods: Treatment plans were created using the Oncentra MasterPlan TPS v4.5 for the H2 (20-mm dia.) and H3 (30-mm dia.) Valencia Applicators. A virtual CT phantom (2-mm slice thickness) was created with one source position in water. The published effective depth method was used for each applicator to delivery 500 cGy to a 3-mm depth using the TG-43 formalism. Film measurements (n=3) at 3-mm depth and vertical plane in solid water were performed for each applicator to verify the prescribed dose calculated by the TPS. Percent depth dose curves and off-axis profiles (phantom surface and 3-mm depth) were measured and compared to published data. Films were analyzed using an in-house written program and RIT113 v6 software. Film calibration was performed per TG-55 protocol using the Ir-192 source with NIST-traceable calibration. Results: The prescription absolute dose difference was 1% for the Valencia H2 applicator and 4% for the Valencia H3 applicator. The measured percent depth dose curves and off-axis dose profiles measured for the H2 and H2 Valencia applicators are in excellent agreement with the Granero et al. Monte Carlo results{sup 1}. Conclusion: Gafchromic EBT3 film can be used to indirectly verify the internal components of special HDR skin applicators constructed from high Z materials.{sup 1}Granero et al. “Design and evaluation of a HDR skin applicator with flattening filter”, Med. Phys. 35(2), 495–503, 2008.

  15. Permanents Stations for Calibration/Validation of Thermal Sensors over Spain: Ready for the Advent of Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobrino, J. A.; Skokovic, D.; Jimenez-Munoz, J. C.; Soria, G.; Julien, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The Global Change Unit (GCU) at the University of Valencia has been involved in several calibration/validation (cal/val) activities carried out in dedicated field campaigns organized by ESA and other organisms. However, permanent stations are required in order to ensure a long-term and continuous calibration of on-orbit sensors. In the framework of the CEOS-Spain project, the GCU has managed the setting-up and launch of experimental sites in Spain for the calibration of thermal infrared sensors and the validation of Land Surface Temperature (LST) products derived from those data. Currently, three sites have been identified and equipped: the agricultural area of Barrax (39.05N, 2.1W), the marshland area in the National Park of Doñana (36.99N, 6.44W), and the semi-arid area of the National Park of Cabo de Gata (36.83N, 2.25W). The activities of the CEOS-Spain project also included the implementation of an operational processing chain in order to provide in near-real time different remote sensing products, including LST. This work presents the performance of the permanent stations installed over the different test areas, as well as the cal/val results obtained for a number of Earth Observation sensors: SEVIRI, MODIS and Landsat series. We also show the results obtained in the validation of LST products derived from AATSR, with discussion on the implications for the forthcoming Sentinel-3/SLSTR.

  16. Bradyrhizobium-Lupinus mariae-josephae: a unique symbiosis endemic of a basic soil in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durán, D.; Sánchez-Cañizares, C.; Navarro, A.; Rey, L.; Imperial, J.; Ruiz-Argüeso, T.

    2012-04-01

    Lupinus mariae-josephae is an intriguing lupine species recently discovered in the Mediterranean region and constitutes an endemism of a small area of Eastern Spain (Valencia province; Pascual, 2004; Mahé et al. 2011). It opens new perspectives for ecological and agronomic interests, as it represents the sole lupine species that preferentially grows in basic soils, while almost all other lupine species occur in acid to neutral soils. The L. mariae-josephae symbionts isolated from soils of calcareous areas of Valencia are extremely slow-growing bacteria belonging to the Bradyrhrizobium genus and showing symbiotic specificity that prevents nodulation of other Lupinus spp. such as L. angustifolius or L. luteus typically thriving in acid soils (Sanchez-Cañizares et al, 2011). Their phylogenetic analysis based on housekeeping and symbiotic genes showed that L. mariae-josephae symbionts belong to an evolutionary lineage that also includes endosymbiotic bacteria from Retama spp. of Northern Algeria basic soils (Boulila et al. 2009). Conversely, this new lineage is phylogenetically distinct from that of endosymbiotic bacteria from other Lupinus spp. native of the Iberian Peninsula, which were nested mainly within B. canariense and B. japonicum lineages. A genomic diversity study of the indigenous bradyrhizobia population of the calcareous areas in Valencia, based on fingerprint and phylogenetic analysis, showed the existence of a large diversity of genotypes, some of which are related to bacteria from the Retama spp. symbiosis in Algeria. This singular genomic divergence of L. mariae-josephae symbiotic bacteria in such a small geographical area fosters attractive studies on the origin, ecology and evolution of both partners of the symbiosis. Furthermore, it is expected that ongoing seed inoculation experiments with selected strains will allow us to extend the extant distribution spots of L. mariae-josephae plants in Valencia area, and also to determine whether the

  17. Qualitative comparison of soil erosion, runoff and infiltration coefficients using small portable rainfall simulators in Germany, Spain and France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo Comino, Jesús; Iserloh, Thomas; Morvan, Xavier; Malam Issa, Oumarou; Naisse, Christophe; Keesstra, Saskia; Cerdà, Artemi; Prosdocimi, Massimo; Arnáez, José; Lasanta, Teodoro; Concepción Ramos, María; José Marqués, María; Ruiz Colmenero, Marta; Bienes, Ramón; Damián Ruiz Sinoga, José; Seeger, Manuel; Ries, Johannes B.

    2016-04-01

    Small portable rainfall simulators are considered as a useful tool to analyze soil erosion processes in cultivated lands. European research groups of Spain (Valencia, Málaga, Lleida, Madrid and La Rioja), France (Reims) or Germany (Trier) have used different rainfall simulators (varying in drop size distribution and fall velocities, kinetic energy, plot forms and sizes, and field of application)to study soil loss, surface flow, runoff and infiltration coefficients in different experimental plots (Valencia, Montes de Málaga, Penedès, Campo Real and La Rioja in Spain, Champagne in France and Mosel-Ruwer valley in Germany). The measurements and experiments developed by these research teams give an overview of the variety in the methodologies with rainfall simulations in studying the problem of soil erosion and describing the erosion features in different climatic environments, management practices and soil types. The aim of this study is: i) to investigate where, how and why researchers from different wine-growing regions applied rainfall simulations with successful results as a tool to measure soil erosion processes; ii) to make a qualitative comparison about the general soil erosion processes in European terroirs; iii) to demonstrate the importance of the development a standard method for soil erosion processes in vineyards, using rainfall simulators; iv) and to analyze the key factors that should be taken into account to carry out rainfall simulations. The rainfall simulations in all cases allowed knowing the infiltration capacity and the susceptibility of the soil to be detached and to generate sediment loads to runoff. Despite using small plots, the experiments were useful to analyze the influence of soil cover to reduce soil erosion and to make comparison between different locations or the influence of different soil characteristics.

  18. Effects of cadmium on the biochemical composition of the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard, 1852)

    SciTech Connect

    Torreblanca, A.; Del Ramo, J.; Diaz-Mayans, J. )

    1991-12-01

    Lake Albufera of Valencia (Spain) and the surrounding rice field waters are subjected to very heavy loads of sewage and toxic residues. Among these residues include heavy metals which have been deposited from the many urban and waste waters in this area. The American red crayfish, Procambarus clarkii from Albufera Lake has high resistance to heavy metals. The authors have also found that P. clarkii shows a high capacity for cadmium accumulation in experimental conditions and natural conditions since crayfish collected in this area contained considerable amounts of cadmium in several tissues even after 15 days of depuration in clean water. Since the physiological changes that take place when organisms are exposed to sublethal levels of stress could include rate of feeding as well as respiration and excretion, the net result could be a change in energy available for growth and reproduction. In this work, the authors have studied the biochemical energy composition of hepatopancreas, muscle and gills of P. clarkii after short term sublethal exposure to cadmium.

  19. Determination of lead in treated crayfish Procambarus clarkii: accumulation in different tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, A.; Medina, J.; Del Ramo, J.; Torreblanca, A.; Diaz-Mayans, J.; Hernandez, F.

    1988-09-01

    The continual loading of trace metals into our environment represents a water pollution problem due to their toxic effects on aquatic biota. In addition, metal ions can be incorporated into food chains and concentrated by aquatic organisms to a level that affects their physiological state. There are several investigations on the toxic effects and bioaccumulation of lead in fishes, molluscs, and crustaceans. Lake Albufera (Valencia, Spain) and the surrounding rice-field waters are subjected to large loads of sewage and toxic industrial residues (including heavy metals) from many urban wastewaters in the area. In 1978, the American red crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Girard) appeared in Lake Albufera. The crayfish have reached a high density producing ecological and agricultural economic problems in rice crops. The crayfish is being fished commercially for human consumption without adequate protection to human health. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the accumulation of lead in tissues of the crayfish P. clarkii following short term lead exposure at several sublethal concentrations. The gills, midgut glands, antennal glands and muscle were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

  20. Estimating population size in wastewater-based epidemiology. Valencia metropolitan area as a case study.

    PubMed

    Rico, María; Andrés-Costa, María Jesús; Picó, Yolanda

    2017-02-05

    Wastewater can provide a wealth of epidemiologic data on common drugs consumed and on health and nutritional problems based on the biomarkers excreted into community sewage systems. One of the biggest uncertainties of these studies is the estimation of the number of inhabitants served by the treatment plants. Twelve human urine biomarkers -5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), acesulfame, atenolol, caffeine, carbamazepine, codeine, cotinine, creatinine, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), naproxen, salicylic acid (SA) and hydroxycotinine (OHCOT)- were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to estimate population size. The results reveal that populations calculated from cotinine, 5-HIAA and caffeine are commonly in agreement with those calculated by the hydrochemical parameters. Creatinine is too unstable to be applicable. HCTZ, naproxen, codeine, OHCOT and carbamazepine, under or overestimate the population compared to the hydrochemical population estimates but showed constant results through the weekdays. The consumption of cannabis, cocaine, heroin and bufotenine in Valencia was estimated for a week using different population calculations.

  1. Light pollution in the surroundings of Valencia. Anthropic and natural factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, E.; Morales Rubio, A.; Giner-Montañez, M.; Segura, R.; Bonet, C.; Ruíz, I.

    2015-05-01

    Although the conservation of a dark sky at first only concerned astronomers, biologists and conservationists soon realized the effects exerted by light pollution on nocturnal wildlife. This degradation increases with cloud coverage, so, as some recent studies have highlighted, it is also necessary to evaluate the influence of clouds on increasing the brightness of the night sky. Furthermore, the effect of the lunar cycle on flora and nocturnal animals may be affected due to excessive lighting. The variation of the luminance of the sky has been measured at different locations of the city of Valencia and its surroundings, especially in the Turia Natural Park, where we have studied these influences. Moreover we have also evaluated how the Fallas festival lighting is affecting the increase of light pollution.

  2. The 21 and 27 fluorspar mines, Zuni Mountains, Valencia County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goddard, E.N.

    1945-01-01

    The 21 and 27 mines, near the southeastern end of the Zuni Mountains and about 14 miles southwest of Grants, Valencia County, N. Mex., are in one of the most productive fluorspar areas in the West. They were named after sections 21 and 27, respectively, of T. 9 N., R. 11 W., in which they are located. The veins were discovered in December 1940 by James Mallery, and since then the two mines have produced about 120,000 tons of crude ore. Each mine has a shaft of about 300 feet deep and several thousands of feet of workings. Both mines are operated by the Zuni Milling Co., and the ore is treated in a flotation mill at Los Lunas, N. Mex.

  3. Experimental stations as a tool to teach soil science at the University of Valencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi

    2010-05-01

    This paper shows the strategies used at the University of Valencia (Department of Geography. Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group) to teach soil science at the Geography and Enviromental Science Degrees. The use of the Montesa and El Teularet research stations contribute with a better knowledge on soil science for the students as they can see the measurements carried out in the field. Students visit the stations and contribute to measurements and sampling every season. The use of meteorological stations, erosion plots, soil moisture and soil temperatures probes, and sampling give the students the chances to understand the theoretical approach they use to have. This presentation will show how the students evolve, and how their knowledge in soil science is improved.

  4. A strategy to teach Earth Science to Erasmus students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerda, A.; Bodí, M. B.

    2009-04-01

    The Universitat de Valencia is the second most popular university in Europe for the Erasmus exchange program in Europe. Close to 2000 Erasmus students attend yearly the lectures in Valencia University. Most of them arrive to Valencia -also to Granada, Barcelona and Salamanca- because the cultural attractive. Valencia moreover offers a warm and dry climate, which make the University of Valencia very popular for the Erasmus students. In 2003 a survey developed by the International Exchange Coordinator of the Geography Degree shown that 33 % of the student choose the Valencia University because the night-life, 22 % because the climate, 23 % because the suggestion of a friend (mainly due to the climate and night-life) and only 22 % because of the academic background of the university. Another survey at the end of the 2003-2004 year shown that 84 % of the Erasmus student did not know that Valencia had a lagoon (called l'Albufera) nearby, and that 23 % of the students ignored that the main park of the city was developed on the river bed, after the artificial change of the mouth of the river to a southern position due to the flood of 1957. The Erasmus students new almost nothing about the landscape of the surroundings and the city of Valencia. A strategy was developed since 2003 by the International Exchange Coordinator of the Geography Degree to show to the students coming from the Erasmus project the landscape of the Valencia Country by means of field visits to the key locations in two days. One day is devoted to the coastal land where lagoons, river mouths and population concentration are the main topics. The second day a trekking on the mountains located at the Sierra de Enguera give an idea to the students of the Desertification processes after the land abandonment during the 50 and 60's. The students attending the lectures and the two days excursion (280 in 2008) found this excursion as a key point in their adaptation to the new university as they know how is the

  5. Overuse and Underuse of Antiosteoporotic Treatments According to Highly Influential Osteoporosis Guidelines: A Population-Based Cross-Sectional Study in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Sanfélix-Gimeno, Gabriel; Hurtado, Isabel; Sanfélix-Genovés, José; Baixauli-Pérez, Cristóbal; Rodríguez-Bernal, Clara L.; Peiró, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate prescribing of antiosteoporotic medications has been observed; however, the joint study of both overuse and underuse has barely been attempted. Spain, with its high utilization rates, constitutes a good example to assess differences in over and under use according to diverse highly-influential osteoporosis guidelines (HIOG) worldwide. We used data of a population-based cross-sectional study including 824 post-menopausal women ≥50 years old living in the city of Valencia, Spain and aimed to estimate the percentage of women eligible for treatment, and the proportion of overuse and underuse of antiosteoporotic treatment according to HIOG. The prevalence of antiosteoporotic treatment in postmenopausal women ≥ 50 in Valencia was 20.9% (95%CI:17.6–24.4). The type of antiosteoporotic drugs prescribed varied greatly depending on the medical specialty responsible of the initial prescription. When applying the HIOG, the percentage of women 50 and over who should be treated varied from less than 9% to over 44%. In real terms, from the approximately eight million women of 50 years old and over in Spain, the number eligible for treatment would range from 0.7 to 3.8 million, depending on the guideline used. A huge proportion of inappropriate treatments was found when applying these guidelines to the Spanish population, combining a high overuse (42–78% depending on the guideline used) and underuse (7–41%). In conclusion, we found that the pharmacological management of osteoporosis in women of 50 and over in this population combines an important overuse and, to a lesser extent, underuse, although the level of inappropriateness varied strikingly depending on the CPG used. It seems urgent to reduce treatment overuse without neglecting underuse, as is urgent an attempt to reach wider agreement worldwide regarding osteoporosis management, in order to facilitate appropriate treatment and development of policies to reduce effectively treatment inappropriateness

  6. [Nuclear medicine in Spain: high technology 2013].

    PubMed

    Soriano Castrejón, A M; Prats Rivera, E; Alonso Farto, J C; Vallejo Casas, J A; Rodriguez Gasen, A; Setoain Perego, J; Arbizu Lostao, J

    2014-01-01

    This article details the high technology equipment in Spain obtained through a survey sent to the three main provider companies of equipment installed in Spain. The geographical distribution of high technology by Autonomous Communities and its antiquity have been analyzed.

  7. Profiling of bioactive compounds in cultivars of Runner and Valencia peanut market-types using liquid chromatography/APCI mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chukwumah, Yvonne; Walker, Lloyd; Vogler, Bernhard; Verghese, Martha

    2012-05-01

    Peanuts are classified into four market-types (Runners, Spanish, Virginia and Valencia). Studies on their phytochemical composition have focused mainly on market-types other than Valencia. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the phytochemical composition of cultivars of Valencia and Runner market-types. Extracts of 25 peanut cultivars of Runner and Valencia market-types were analysed using HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. Results showed major differences in UV profile of the market-types. A major peak with m/z 317 identified as isorhamnetin was present only in Valencia cultivars while its glycoside (isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside) having m/z 625 was identified in both market-types. Genistein, daidzein, rutin, quercetin and trans-resveratrol were also identified and quantified. Genistein and daidzein concentrations (0.03mg/100g) were similar in both market-types. trans-Resveratrol and rutin were significantly (p<0.05) higher in Runner cultivars while quercetin was 10-fold higher (0.60±0.04mg/100g) in Valencia cultivars making them a better source of this phytochemical.

  8. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    PubMed

    2011-03-01

    the future of intensive care medicine in Spain and in Europe, recommendations are made towards specialization in intensive care medicine incorporating in the training program those competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that should be present an intensivist in Europe and that are extensively fulfilled by the current Spanish training program. The trajectory followed by intensive care medicine in Europe and recently in China, shows the increasing need of intensive care and the progressive recognition of the specialty in economically growing countries, and emphasizes the need of homogenization in the training of future specialists in intensive care medicine globally.

  9. [Valencia's cultural and scientific universe in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and the contextulization of Arnaldo de Vilanova's work].

    PubMed

    Alfonso-Goldfarb, A M; Perassollo, M A

    The present article focuses attention on the singularity of Arnau de Vilanova's medical though in comparison with that predominating among his thirteenth-century contemporaries on the European continent. Moreover, it propounds that such peculiarities were a result of Arabic influences upon this Christian thinker during his youth, in his native city of Valencia, and which continued to prevail even after his studies at the Montpellier School of Medicine. That is why the study first draws a sketch of Valencia's cultural and scientific universe, and then goes on to analyze well-known aspects of Arnau de Vilanova's medical ideas, where the enduring preponderance of the Valencian environment is evident, even in his later years.

  10. In Spain, Inbreeding Threatens Academe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocca, Francis X.

    2007-01-01

    With 25 years of teaching experience at Spain's top-ranked veterinary school, 58 articles in prestigious international journals, and numerous patents to her name, Victoria Lopez Rodas would be a strong candidate for any academic job in her field. So when she took a national qualifying examination for a full professorship in animal science last…

  11. English Language Teaching Profile: Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English Language and Literature Div.

    The role of English in Spain is discussed, with attention directed to (1) English within the educational system, (2) inspection of teachers and teaching methods, (3) commercial English, (4) adult education, (5) radio and television instruction in English, (6) English teachers, (7) English outside the educational system, and (8) British and…

  12. Constraints on temporal velocity variations associated with an underground gas storage in the Gulf of Valencia using earthquake and seismic ambient noise data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugalde, Arantza; Gaite, Beatriz; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    During September 2013, the injection of the base gas in a depleted oil reservoir used as an underground natural gas storage (CASTOR) caused a sudden seismic activity increase in the eastern coast of Spain. As a result, a compact cluster of more than 550 earthquakes with magnitudes mbLg > 0.7 were located in the shallow offshore area of the Gulf of Valencia during two months. The strongest event, having a magnitude of Mw=4.2, was followed by two Mw=4.1 events the day after and took place once the gas injection activities had finished. Using the seismic data recorded by permanent stations at more than 25 km from the injection well, we applied coda wave interferometry to monitor changes in seismic velocity structure between similar earthquakes. Then we solved for a continuous function of velocity changes with time by combining observations from all the closely located earthquake sources. The rate of repeating events allowed measurements of relative velocity variations for about 30 days on a daily scale. To extend the analysis in time, we also processed the continuous data using the autocorrelation of band-pass filtered ambient seismic noise. A 10-day average was required to achieve a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio in the 0.2-0.5 Hz and 0.5-1 Hz frequency bands. We quantified the time lags between two traces in the frequency and time domains by means of the Moving Window Cross Spectral Analysis and a Dynamic Time Warping technique, respectively. Injection of fluids in geologic formations causes variations in seismic velocities associated to changes in fluid saturation, increase in pore pressure or opening or enlargement of cracks due to the injection process. Time delays associated with stress changes caused by moderate to large earthquakes have also been established. In this work, we found no velocity changes during the gas injection period nor on the occasion of the Mw 4.2 earthquake. The sensitivity of the method is dependent on the seismic network geometry and

  13. Production, soil erosion and economic failure in new citrus plantations in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez Morera, Antonio; Carles membrado, Joan; Cerdà, Artemi; Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix

    2013-04-01

    Eastern Spain has been worldwide well known by the high quality citrus production (Piqueras, 2012). During the last century, the export of València's oranges contributed to a high income in Spain albeit during the last decade the revenues for the small farmers were short (Bono, 2010). The orange agricultural specialization in València begun at the end of the eighteenth century in the town of Carcaixent, close to the Xúquer river, where the first commercial orange groves were planted. This was due to the climatic conditions (no frosts) and the traditional flood irrigation systems. The orange trade was not important until the second half of the nineteenth century, due to a combination of factors: i) the increasing demand of oranges from the United Kingdom, first, and then from Germany, France and other north-european industrialized countries; ii) the highly productive capacity of the Valencian soil thanks to its mild weather and irrigated fields; iii) the open mindedness of Valencian farmers towards innovation; and, iv) the developemnt of a railways network which made it possible to bring the oranges into the shipment ports (Bono, 2010; Piqueras, 2012). The Valencian orange trade knew its peak during the period 1925-1930 but later it experienced an economic crisis because of wars (both in Spain and Europe) and did not recover until the 1960's (Piqueras, 1999; Bono, 2010). After Spain's EEC (European Economic Community) membership (1986) and the creation of EU (1993) Valencian citrus sector grew: new orange groves were planted, new commercial varieties (especially mandarins) were promoted, and exports increased. Nevertheless, nowadays Valencian orange sector suffers from a structural problem: the small farm size and the lack of a good commercial network of distribution. But in spite of the current crisis, the orange groves' impact on landscape is still huge in Valencia, since it creates a thick forest of orange trees stretching not only the floodplains but also

  14. [Food consumption patterns of children 4 to 14 years old in Valencia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    del Real, Sara Irene; Fajardo, Zuleida; Solano, Liseti; Concepción Páez, María; Sánchez, Armando

    2005-09-01

    Results from a nutritional assessment are presented to establish the usual food consumption pattern of 438 children between 4-14 years of age, from a low income urban community in Valencia, Venezuela. Food intake data were collected through multiple 24 hours recalls and converted to individual food item weight in grams. Amounts of energy, macronutrients, iron, calcium, vitamin A, and vitamin C were estimated to compare them to national references. The food pattern was established according to intake frequency per food item and per food groups. Arepa was the most commonly consumed food item, and a main source of kilocalories, protein, carbohydrates, iron, and vitamin A. Unlike coffee, fruits were not among the most commonly consumed foods. Black beans were the main source of protein. Cookies and sodas were among the major sources of energy. Energy and nutrient intake were adequate, except for calcium (67% in preschoolers y 43% in school-aged children). Preschoolers' diet showed a better adequacy for all nutrients (p < 0.005), except for iron which was significantly higher in school-aged children. Since children below 15 years old are still forming food behaviors and habits, they are an ideal group to develop nutritional education strategies to modify harmful patterns such as high intake of sodas, and low intakes of calcium rich foods.

  15. Commercial Origanum compactum Benth. and Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume essential oils against natural mycoflora in Valencia rice.

    PubMed

    Santamarina, M Pilar; Roselló, Josefa; Sempere, Francisca; Giménez, Silvia; Blázquez, M Amparo

    2015-01-01

    Chemical composition of commercial Origanum compactum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oils and the antifungal activity against pathogenic fungi isolated from Mediterranean rice grains have been investigated. Sixty-one compounds accounting for more than 99.5% of the total essential oil were identified by using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Carvacrol (43.26%), thymol (21.64%) and their biogenetic precursors p-cymene (13.95%) and γ-terpinene (11.28%) were the main compounds in oregano essential oil, while the phenylpropanoids, eugenol (62.75%), eugenol acetate (16.36%) and (E)-cinnamyl acetate (6.65%) were found in cinnamon essential oil. Both essential oils at 300 μg/mL showed antifungal activity against all tested strains. O. compactum essential oil showed the best antifungal activity towards Fusarium species and Bipolaris oryzae with a total inhibition of the mycelial growth. In inoculated rice grains at lower doses (100 and 200 μg/mL) significantly reduced the fungal infection, so O. compactum essential oil could be used as ecofriendly preservative for field and stored Valencia rice.

  16. Proteomic and metabolomic profiling of Valencia orange fruit after natural frost exposure.

    PubMed

    Perotti, Valeria E; Moreno, Alejandra S; Trípodi, Karina E J; Meier, Guillermo; Bello, Fernando; Cocco, Mariángeles; Vázquez, Daniel; Anderson, Catalina; Podestá, Florencio E

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of orange fruit (Citrus sinensis var. Valencia Late) to freezing stress in planta, both immediately after the natural event and after a week, in order to understand the biochemical and molecular basis of the changes that later derive in internal and external damage symptoms. Using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis to analyze exposed and non-exposed fruit, 27 differential protein spots were detected in juice sacs and flavedo, among all comparisons made. Also, primary and secondary metabolites relative contents were analyzed in both tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Proteins and compounds involved in regulatory functions, iron metabolism, oxidative damage and carbohydrate metabolism were the most affected. Interestingly, three glycolytic enzymes were induced by cold, and there was an increase in fermentation products (volatiles); all of that suggests that more energy generation might be required from glycolysis to counter the cold stress. Moreover, a notable increase in sugar levels was observed after frost, but it was not at the expense of organic acids utilization. Consequently, these results suggest a probable redistribution of photoassimilates in the frost-exposed plants, tending to restore the homeostasis altered by that severe type of stress. Isosinensetin was the most cold-sensitive secondary metabolite because it could not be detected at all after the frost, constituting a possible tool to early diagnose freezing damage.

  17. Proteomic analysis of somatic embryogenesis in Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Pan, Zhiyong; Guan, Rui; Zhu, Shiping; Deng, Xiuxin

    2009-02-01

    Two dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was employed to study the somatic embryogenesis (SE) in Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck). Twenty-four differentially expressed proteins were identified at five time points of citrus SE (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks after embryo initiation) covering globular, heart/torpedo and cotyledon-shaped embryo stages. The general expression patterns for these proteins were consistent with those appeared at 4 weeks of citrus SE. The most striking feature of our study was that five proteins were predicted to be involved in glutathione (GSH) metabolism and anti-oxidative stress, and they exhibited different expression patterns during SE. Based on that oxidative stress has been validated to enhance SE, the preferential representation for anti-oxidative proteins suggests that they could have a developmental role in citrus SE. Some proteins involved in cell division, photosynthesis and detoxification were also identified, and their possible roles in citrus SE were discussed.

  18. Characterization of three terpenoid glycosyltransferase genes in 'Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck).

    PubMed

    Fan, Jing; Chen, Chunxian; Yu, Qibin; Li, Zheng-Guo; Gmitter, Frederick G

    2010-10-01

    Three putative terpenoid UDP-glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes, designated CsUGT1, CsUGT2, and CsUGT3, were isolated and characterized in 'Valencia' sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck). CsUGT1 consisted of 1493 nucleotides with an open reading frame encoding 492 amino acids, CsUGT2 consisted of 1727 nucleotides encoding 504 amino acids, and CsUGT3 consisted of 1705 nucleotides encoding 468 amino acids. CsUGT3 had a 145 bp intron at 730-874, whereas CsUGT1 and CsUGT2 had none. The three deduced glycosyltransferase proteins had a highly conserved plant secondary product glycosyltransferase motif in the C terminus. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CsUGT1 and CsUGT3 were classified into group L of glycosyltransferase family 1, and CsUGT2 was classified into group D. Through Southern blotting analysis, CsUGT1 was found to have two copies in the sweet orange genome, whereas CsUGT2 and CsUGT3 had at least seven and nine copies, respectively. CsUGT1, CsUGT2, and CsUGT3 were constitutively expressed in leaf, flower, and fruit tissues. The results facilitate further investigation of the function of terpenoid glycosyltransferases in citrus and the biosynthesis of terpenoid glycosides in vitro.

  19. Nephrology from the middle ages to humanism: the Italian influence in Spain (12th-16th centuries).

    PubMed

    Palmero, J R

    1994-01-01

    The influence of medieval Italian medicine first reached Catalonia via Montpellier. Physicians from Salerno are known to have worked in Aragon, and many Italian medical and surgical texts circulated in Catalonia. By the end of the 15th century it was Valencia that maintained close ties with Italy, and in the 1st third of the 16th century, at the height of Renaissance humanism, the Castilian universities became the greatest Spanish patrons of medicine. Post-Vesalian anatomists were active and many Castilian doctors were educated in Italy. In both medieval and Renaissance Spain the most commonly described renal pathology was lithiasis. The works of Joanes Jacobi (14th century) and Julian Guttierez (15th century) are outstanding, and foreshadow the monograph on lithiasis by Sanchez de Oropesa (16th century) and the work of Francisco Diaz, probably the greatest Spanish contributor to modern nephrology. He devoted 3 books of his collected professional experience to lithiasis, renal ulcers and sores, kidney inflammation and other processes including haematuria. His view of renal anatomy was totally modern, and he strongly advocated autopsy as a means of determining the cause of death. This underlines the new anatomopathological approach to investigation that was adopted in Renaissance Spain.

  20. Environmental engineering education in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Roda, I; Castells, F; Flotats, X; Lema, J; Tejero, I

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing demand for engineers and technologists who show multidisciplinary expertise to deal with environmental issues. As a result of this demand, most countries are adapting their old university programs on environmental engineering education. In Spain an official environmental engineering degree does not yet exist, but the Council of Universities is working to present a proposal, based on Bologna agreement concepts. The paper summarizes not only the future perspectives of environmental engineering education in Spain, but also the evolution of the approach during the last decades, which includes the role of the private initiative, the environmental sciences degree, and the intensification in different traditional engineering degrees. Finally, the paper briefly details and compares the syllabus developed in the only four Spanish universities where environmental engineering is offered as a non-official post-graduate course lasting two years.

  1. [Foreigners in Spain in 1991].

    PubMed

    Lora-tamayo D'ocon, G

    1996-01-01

    An analysis of the characteristics of the foreign population living in Spain in 1991 is presented using data from two sources, the 1991 census and the system for regularization of the status of foreign workers, which was brought up to date the same year. The characteristics analyzed include country of origin, current province of residence, and occupation. The differences between the data obtained from the two sources are discussed. (ANNOTATION)

  2. Soil and hydrology sciences need laboratory and field experiments in the classroom. An example from the SEDER (Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group) from the University of Valencia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; González Pelayo, Óscar; García Orenes, Fuensanta; Jordán, Antonio; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Úbeda, Xavier

    2015-04-01

    The use of experimental stations and long-term measurements in the field and in the laboratory contributed to large datasets and key information to understand the soil system and the hydrological cycle (Neal et al., 2011; García Orenes et al., 2012; López-Garrido et al., 2012; Kröpf et al., 2013; Nadal-Romero, 2013; Taguas et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). However, teaching in high schools and colleagues require simple experiments to help the students to understand the soil and water resources and management. We show here the experiments and measurements we conduct within the teaching program of the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group at the University of Valencia to help the students in the understanding of the soil and hydrologic processes. The expereriments and measurements developed are the following: (i) Water Drop Penetration Time (WDPT) to determine the soil water repellency; (ii) Leaves water retention capacity measured in the field; (iii) soil infiltration capacity measured with simple ring infiltrometers; (iv) measurement of the soil bulk density; and (v) measurement of the soil water content. Those experiments and measurements are applied to agriculture, rangeland and fire affected soils. Acknowledgements To the "Ministerio de Economía and Competitividad" of Spanish Government for finance the POSTFIRE project (CGL2013- 47862-C2-1-R). The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7-ENV-2013- supported this research. References García-Orenes, F., Roldán, A., Mataix-Solera, J., Cerdà, A., Campoy, M., Arcenegui, V., Caravaca, F. 2012 Soil structural stability and erosion rates influenced by agricultural management practices in a semi-arid Mediterranean agro-ecosystem. Soil Use and Management 28(4): 571-579. DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-2743.2012.00451.x Kröpfl, A. I., Cecchi, G. A., Villasuso, N. M., Distel, R. A. 2013. Degradation and recovery processes

  3. Footprints of middle ages kingdoms are still visible in the contemporary surname structure of Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Roberto; Manni, Franz; Blanco-Villegas, María José

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether the present-day geographical variability of Spanish surnames mirrors historical phenomena occurred at the times of their introduction (13th-16th century), and to infer the possible effect of foreign immigration (about 11% of present-day) on the observed patterns of diversity, we have analyzed the frequency distribution of 33,753 unique surnames (tokens) occurring 51,419,788 times, according to the list of Spanish residents of the year 2008. Isonymy measures and surname distances have been computed for, and between, the 47 mainland Spanish provinces and compared to a numerical classification of corresponding language varieties spoken in Spain. The comparison of the two bootstrap consensus trees, representing surname and linguistic variability, suggests a similar picture; major clusters are located in the east (Aragón, Cataluña, Valencia), and in the north of the country (Asturias, Galicia, León). Remaining regions appear to be considerably homogeneous. We interpret this pattern as the long-lasting effect of the surname and linguistic normalization actively led by the Christian kingdoms of the north (Reigns of Castilla y León and Aragón) during and after the southwards reconquest (Reconquista) of the territories ruled by the Arabs from the 8th century to the late 15th century, that is when surnames became transmitted in a fixed way and when Castilian linguistic varieties became increasingly prestigious and spread out. The geography of contemporary surname and linguistic variability in Spain corresponds to the political geography at the end of the Middle-Ages. The synchronicity between surname adoption and the political and cultural effects of the Reconquista have permanently forged a Spanish identity that subsequent migrations, internal or external, did not deface.

  4. Footprints of Middle Ages Kingdoms Are Still Visible in the Contemporary Surname Structure of Spain

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Díaz, Roberto; Manni, Franz; Blanco-Villegas, María José

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether the present-day geographical variability of Spanish surnames mirrors historical phenomena occurred at the times of their introduction (13th-16th century), and to infer the possible effect of foreign immigration (about 11% of present-day) on the observed patterns of diversity, we have analyzed the frequency distribution of 33,753 unique surnames (tokens) occurring 51,419,788 times, according to the list of Spanish residents of the year 2008. Isonymy measures and surname distances have been computed for, and between, the 47 mainland Spanish provinces and compared to a numerical classification of corresponding language varieties spoken in Spain. The comparison of the two bootstrap consensus trees, representing surname and linguistic variability, suggests a similar picture; major clusters are located in the east (Aragón, Cataluña, Valencia), and in the north of the country (Asturias, Galicia, León). Remaining regions appear to be considerably homogeneous. We interpret this pattern as the long-lasting effect of the surname and linguistic normalization actively led by the Christian kingdoms of the north (Reigns of Castilla y León and Aragón) during and after the southwards reconquest (Reconquista) of the territories ruled by the Arabs from the 8th century to the late 15th century, that is when surnames became transmitted in a fixed way and when Castilian linguistic varieties became increasingly prestigious and spread out. The geography of contemporary surname and linguistic variability in Spain corresponds to the political geography at the end of the Middle-Ages. The synchronicity between surname adoption and the political and cultural effects of the Reconquista have permanently forged a Spanish identity that subsequent migrations, internal or external, did not deface. PMID:25849152

  5. Epidemiology and cost of herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia among patients treated in primary care centres in the valencian community of Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Data on the epidemiology and costs related to herpes zoster (HZ) and postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) in Spain are scarce; therefore, studies are needed to evaluate the epidemiological and economic impact of HZ and its most common complication, PHN. The present study aimed to estimate the clinical and economic burden of HZ and PHN in Valencia (Spain). Methods We prospectively analyzed the burden of HZ and PHN and their attributable costs in patients from 25 general practices in the Autonomous Community of Valencia serving 36,030 persons aged > 14 years. All patients with a clinical diagnosis of HZ who attended these centers between December 1st 2006 and November 30th 2007 were asked to participate. Patients included were followed for 1 year. Results Of the 130 cases of HZ followed up, continued pain was experienced by 47.6% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 35.6-56.7%) at 1 month after rash onset, by 14.5% (95% CI = 7.8-1.2%) at 3 months, by 9.0% (95% CI = 3.7-14.3%) at 6 months, and by 5.9% (95% CI = 1.5-10.3%) at 12 months. The percentage of patients with PHN increased with age, from 21.4% (95% CI = 8.3-40) in patients < 50 years to 59.2% (95% CI = 44.4-74) in patients ≥ 70 years. The estimated total cost for the 130 HZ cases during the follow-up period was €49,160 ($67,349). Mean cost per patient was €378 (range 53-2,830) ($517, range 73-3,877). Conclusions This study shows that PHN is a relatively common complication of HZ and that both conditions combined give rise to a significant clinical and economic burden for patients and providers. PMID:22044665

  6. Oral health in a group of patients with Rett syndrome in the regions of Valencia and Murcia (Spain): A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Fuertes-González, María C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Rett syndrome (RS) is a rare disease with oral manifestations that have not been described in detail or in a standardized manner in the literature. The present study describes the oral health of the population with RS in two Spanish regions, following the protocol of the World Health Organization for conducting common oral health surveys. Study Design: A prospective, observational case-control study was carried out, involving a group of patients with RS (n1=41) and a mean age of 13.37±3.19 years, and an age- and gender-matched control group without RS (n0=82). The data referred to oral health and habits were recorded by means of a questionnaire and oral examination was used to document caries indicators (prevalence of caries, df(t), df(s), DMF(T), DMF(S) and indices referred to dental loss, morbidity, restoration), the Community Periodontal Index (CPI), and the most characteristic oral manifestations. Results: The most frequent oral habit in the patients with RS was diurnal bruxism, followed by stereotyped tongue movements and oral breathing. The caries scores were lower in the RS population than in the control group, but patients with RS showed greater periodontal alterations and a greater prevalence of drooling, dental wear, high-arched palate and anterior open bite. Conclusions: The population with RS exhibits characteristic and early oral habits and alterations, and periodontal problems that are more notorious than caries disease, so that our efforts should focus on the diagnosis and early correction of the parafunctional habits, promoting restorative treatment, and providing instructions on correct oral hygiene. Key words:Rett syndrome, oral habits, bruxism, caries. PMID:25350594

  7. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME 20) (20th, Valencia, Spain, July 8-12, 1996). Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig, Luis, Ed.; Gutierrez, Angel, Ed.

    The first volume of this proceedings contains three plenary addresses: (1) "Visualization in 3-dimensional geometry: In search of a framework" (A. Gutierrez); (2) "The ongoing value of proof" (G. Hanna); and (3) "Modern times: The symbolic surfaces of language, mathematics and art" (D. Pimm). Plenary panels include: (1) "Contribution to the panel…

  8. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME 20) (20th, Valencia, Spain, July 8-12, 1996). Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig, Luis, Ed.; Gutierrez, Angel, Ed.

    The second volume of this proceedings contains full research articles. Papers include: (1) "Lave and Wenger's social practice theory and teaching and learning school mathematics" (J. Adler); (2) "Being a researcher and being a teacher" (J. Ainley); (3) "Procedural and conceptual aspects of standard algorithms in calculus" (M.B. Ali and D. Tall);…

  9. Radiographic technical quality of root canal treatment performed ex vivo by dental students at Valencia University Medical and Dental School, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Faus-Matoses, Vicente; Alegre-Domingo, Teresa; Faus-Llácer, Vicente J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate radiographically the quality of root canal fillings and compare manual and rotary preparation performed on extracted teeth by undergraduate dental students. Study Design: A total of 561 premolars and molars extracted teeth were prepared using nickel-titanium rotary files or manual instrumentation and filled with gutta-percha using a cold lateral condensation technique, by 4th grade undergraduate students. Periapical radiographs were used to assess the technical quality of the root canal filling, evaluating three variables: length, density and taper. These data were recorded, scored and used to study the “technical success rate” and the “overall score”. The length of each root canal filling was classified as acceptable, short and overfilled, based on their relationship with the radiographic apex. Density and taper of filling were evaluated based on the presence of voids and the uniform tapering of the filling, respectively. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate the quality of root canal treatment, considering p < 0.05 as a statistical significant level. Results: The percentage of technical success was 44% and the overall score was 7.8 out of 10. Technical success and overall score were greater with rotary instruments (52% against 28% with a manual one, p < 0.001; 8.3 against 6.7 respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusions: It appears that inexperienced operators perform better root canal treatment (RCT) with the use of rotary instrumentation. Key words:Dental education, endodontics, rotary instrumentation, radiographs, root canal treatment, undergraduate students. PMID:24121911

  10. Relative efficiency of three representative matorral species in reducing water erosion at the microscale in a semi-arid climate (Valencia, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochet, E.; Rubio, J. L.; Poesen, J.

    1998-06-01

    In the Mediterranean region, where rainfall is scarce but often of high intensity, the matorral vegetation cover provides essential protection to the soil against the erosivity of rainfall and reduces considerably the water erosion rate. Three representative species of the Mediterranean matorral displaying different morphologies ( Rosmarinus officinalis, L., Stipa tenacissima, L., Anthyllis cytisoides, L.) were selected for study at the microscale (plant scale) for their relative efficiency in reducing water erosion on slopes. The mechanical protection of the soil against raindrop detachment, and the improvement of the soil properties by the biological influence of an isolated plant, were compared for the three species. The quantification of interrill erosion and splash erosion rates under natural rainfall conditions was obtained using erosion microplots of individual plants, and splash cups placed at different distances from the plant axis, respectively. Soil samples were also taken in the microenvironment of the plants in order to evaluate possible differential influences of the three species on soil properties relevant to water erosion. The results show that the three selected species reduced runoff and soil loss in different ways. The `screen effect' arising from the very dense canopy of Stipa tussocks, represents an effective way to counteract rainfall erosivity and reducing splash erosion. However, in the case of Rosmarinus, in addition to the mechanical protection offered by its canopy and litter covers, the latter (which lies permanently at the soil surface under the plant canopy) improves moreover the topsoil structure because of the important incorporation of organic matter below the canopy cover. The role of litter cover in controlling erosion seems therefore to be predominant under Rosmarinus. As for Anthyllis, these deciduous shrubs provide little physical protection against the energetic impact of rain at the soil surface as compared to a bare surface. Nevertheless, the three plant species have a positive influence on their microenvironment, through the improvement of soil properties under their canopy. Thus, in open matorral (patchy vegetation), fertile soil islands developed below the plant canopy. These differ considerably from the bare soil inter-plant areas that give rise to higher soil loss rates.

  11. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME 20) (20th, Valencia, Spain, July 8-12, 1996). Addenda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig, Luis, Ed.; Gutierrez, Angel, Ed.

    This booklet is an addendum to the conference proceedings of the 20th annual meeting of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME 20). It contains three reactions to the research forum: (1) "Mathematizing: The 'Real' Need for Representational Fluency" (R. Lesh); (2) "Mathematics Teacher Development: An Alternative…

  12. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME 20) (20th, Valencia, Spain, July 8-12, 1996). Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig, Luis, Ed.; Gutierrez, Angel, Ed.

    The third volume of this proceedings contains full research articles. Papers include: (1) "A longitudinal study of children's fraction representations and problem-solving behavior" (G.A. Goldin and C.B. Passantino); (2) "Psychology students' conceptions of a statistics course" (S. Gordon, J. Nicholas, and K. Crawford); (3) "Choosing a visual…

  13. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME 20) (20th, Valencia, Spain, July 8-12, 1996). Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig, Luis, Ed.; Gutierrez, Angel, Ed.

    The fourth volume of this proceedings contains full research articles. Papers include: (1) "Conceptual and procedural approaches to problem-solving" (Y. Mohammad-Yusof and D. Tall); (2)"Teaching differential equations to chemistry and biology students: An overview on methodology of qualitative research. A case study" (M. Moreno and C. Azcarate);…

  14. Education in the Spain of Autonomous Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jose Luis Garcia

    1983-01-01

    Describes change in education in Spain since the break with socialism in terms of new structural bases, democratic center's decentralization policy, and socialist government's educational program. (AH)

  15. Genotyping of human rotaviruses circulating among children with diarrhea in Valencia, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Vizzi, Esmeralda; Piñeros, Oscar; González, Germán Gabriel; Zambrano, José L; Ludert, Juan E; Liprandi, Ferdinando

    2011-12-01

    Rotavirus infection is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis during childhood worldwide, especially in developing countries. Two rotavirus vaccines are available for childhood immunization programs. Evaluation of the vaccine performance will benefit from knowledge of the epidemiological features of rotavirus infection in regional settings. Limited information on the molecular characteristics of the rotavirus types circulating in Venezuela is available. Eighty seven (89.7%) of the 97 ELISA rotavirus positive stool samples collected from children with diarrhea aged <5 years during 2003 in Valencia (Carabobo State), were G-, P- and NSP4-genotyped by RT-PCR and/or automated sequencing. Four common combinations, G3P[8]/NSP4-E1, G2P[4]/NSP4-E2, G9P[8]/NSP4-E1, and G1P[8]/NSP4-E1 were responsible for 50.6%, 35.6%, 5.7%, and 1.1%, respectively of cases of rotavirus diarrhea, most of them (66%) in children ≤12 months. One uncommon G8P[14]/NSP4-E2 strain was also detected. Temporal fluctuation of genotype distribution occurred, but no differences by age, diarrhea severity score, sex, treatment type or patient medical attention were observed, except for the G3P[8]/NSP4-E1, associated with a more severe dehydration than any other type (P < 0.01). The results confirm the broad diversity among rotavirus strains circulating in Venezuela prior to vaccine implementation, showing the predominance of G3, significant proportion of G2 and moderate circulation of G9 strains. Epidemiological surveillance is needed to detect the emergence of new genotypes that could escape protection induced by vaccination.

  16. Molecular epidemiology of enteric viruses in children with sporadic gastroenteritis in Valencia, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    González, Germán G; Liprandi, Ferdinando; Ludert, Juan E

    2011-11-01

    The epidemiology and clinical symptoms in infants and young children with acute sporadic viral gastroenteritis due to viral etiologies other than rotaviruses have not been studied thoroughly in developing countries. Fecal specimens from 480 children <5 years of age who were admitted to a large children's hospital in the city of Valencia, Venezuela, with acute diarrhea during January to December 2003 were collected and screened by ELISA and RT-PCR for rotavirus, adenovirus, norovirus, sapovirus, and astrovirus. Viral isolates were partially characterized by phylogenetic analysis. Norovirus viral load was determined by qRT-PCR. Viruses were identified in 205 (43%) of the 480 stool samples collected. Rotavirus was the virus detected most frequently (21%), followed by norovirus (13%), adenovirus (5%), sapovirus (3%), and astrovirus (2%). Viral infection rates were highest in the 6- to 11-month-old group (49%) and lowest in children >24 months old. Norovirus GII was more prevalent (90%) than GI (10%). Enteric adenovirus (serotypes 40/41) was present in 43% of the adenovirus-positive samples. Rotavirus infection caused more severe clinical symptoms than the other viruses detected, with more vomiting (84%) and dehydration (11%) that led to hospital admission of 20% of the children with acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus and norovirus showed marked and opposite seasonal patterns. No association was observed between disease severity and viral load in children infected with norovirus. These results not only confirm the impact of rotavirus infection in Venezuela but also indicate that other enteric viruses, especially noroviruses, contribute significantly to sporadic acute gastroenteritis and to the burden of disease.

  17. New methodology for describing the equilibrium beach profile applied to the Valencia's beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragonés, L.; Serra, J. C.; Villacampa, Y.; Saval, J. M.; Tinoco, H.

    2016-04-01

    Mathematical models used for the understanding of coastal seabed morphology play a key role in beach nourishment projects. These projects have become the fundamental strategy for coastal maintenance during the last few years. Accordingly, the accuracy of these models is vital to optimize the costs of coastal regeneration projects. Planning of such interventions requires methodologies that do not generate uncertainties in their interpretation. A study and comparison of mathematical simulation models of the coastline is carried out in this paper, as well as elements that are part of the model that are a source of uncertainty. The equilibrium profile (EP) and the offshore limit corresponding to the depth of closure (DoC) have been analyzed taking into account different timescale ranges. The results have thus been compared using data sets from three different periods which are identified as present, past and future. Accuracy in data collection for the beach profiles and the definition of the median grain size calculation using collected samples are the two main factors that have been taken into account in this paper. These data can generate high uncertainties and can produce a lack of accuracy in nourishment projects. Together they can generate excessive costs due to possible excess or shortage of sand used for the nourishment. The main goal of this paper is the development of a new methodology to increase the accuracy of the existing equilibrium beach profile models, providing an improvement to the inputs used in such models and in the fitting of the formulae used to obtain seabed shape. This new methodology has been applied and tested on Valencia's beaches.

  18. [Nutritional status in preschoolers attending a public day-care center in Valencia, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Real, Sara Irene del; Jaeger, Armando Sánchez; Barón, María Adela; Díaz, Nayka; Solano, Liseti; Velásquez, Emma; López, Jesús

    2007-09-01

    With the purpose of evaluating nutritional status in a group of preschoolers attending a public day care center in Valencia, Venezuela (2002), a research was made for social stratus, anthropometric variables; weight, height and arm circumference, hemoglobin, seric retinol, presence of parasitosis and food consumption, as well as the mother's educational level. The program SPSS 11.0 and the t Student, ANOVA Post Hoc from Bonferroni and Fisher (p < 0.05) were used. A predominance of the female sex was presented (52%). According to the social stratus, 23.3% was located in the middleclass, and 76.8% on some level of poverty. 60% of the middleclass mothers had finished their high school education, while only 9.8% of the mothers in poverty had reached that level. According to the Z values (H/A, W/H and AC/H), high percentages under -1.00 were observed (27.3%, 25.6% and 24.5%, respectively). The W/H and AC/H of children of mothers studying in a university presented discrepancies when compared with children of mothers with a primary educational level. A 25.9% of anemia was presented, and there were differences between anemic and non-anemic groups for H/A and AC/H. Protozoaries were observed in 61.0%, helmintos in 16.9% and both in 22.1%. There was a 2.6 times higher risk of presenting nutritional deficiency for AC/H in the group found with parasites. An adequate consumption of energy and iron was found, with an excessive consumption of proteins and vitamin A. It is concluded that there exists a nutritional risk evaluated through hematologic parameters, the presence of parasitosis and social stratus.

  19. Host status of grapefruit and Valencia oranges for Anastrepha serpentina and Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Mangan, Robert L; Thomas, Donald B; Moreno, Aleena M Tarshis

    2011-04-01

    Anastrepha serpentina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) is sporadically captured in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Although its preferred hosts are in the Sapotaceae family, several varieties of Citrus, including grapefruit and oranges are listed as alternate hosts. Although Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew), is known to be a major pest of Citrus, doubt exists as to the status of Citrus as a breeding host for A. serpentina. To evaluate the host status of commercial Citrus for A. serpentina we compared oviposition and development with that of A. ludens under laboratory conditions with 'Rio Red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi MacFayden) and 'Valencia' oranges [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] in different stages of maturity. Both fly species oviposited in early season fruit in which the eggs and larvae died in the fruit albedo. Survival of either species to the adult stage occurred in later season grapefruit. In oranges, no A. serpentina larvae survived compared with 150 A. ludens surviving to adults. Survival on both Citrus species was much lower for A. serpentina, only approximately 5% of eggs eclosed into larvae in grapefruit compared with approximatley 50% for A. ludens. In oranges approximately 16% of A. serpentina eggs eclosed compared with approximately 76% for A. ludens. In grapefruit, only one fourth as many A. serpentina larvae survived to the adult stage compared with A. ludens. Additional experiments were performed in a greenhouse on small, caged trees of la coma (Sideroxylon celastrinum H.B.K.), a Texas species of Sapotaceae. The A. serpentina females readily oviposited into these berries and normal adults emerged. The present low incidence of the adults, coupled with the high mortality during development of the larvae, suggests that Texas citrus is unlikely to support a breeding population of A. serpentina.

  20. Citrus orchards management and soil water repellency in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, A.; González Peñaloza, F. A.; Jordán, A.; Zavala, L. M.

    2012-04-01

    Water repellent soils are found around the world, although originally was found on fire affected soil (DeBano, 1981). However, for decades, water repellency was found to be a rare soil property. One of the pioneer research that shown that water repellency was a common soil property is the Wander (1949) publication in Science. Wander researched the water repellency on citrus groves, and since then, no information is available about the water repellency on citrus plantations. The Mediterranean soils are prone to water repellency due to the summer dry conditions (Cerdà and Doerr, 2007). And Land Use and Land Management are key factors (Harper et al., 2000; Urbanek et al., 2007) to understand the water repellency behaviour of agriculture soils. Valencia region (Eastern Spain) is the largest exporter in the world and citrus plantations located in the alluvial plains and fluvial terraces are moving to alluvial fans and slopes where the surface wash is very active (Cerdà et al., 2009). This research aims to show the water repellency on citrus orchards located on the sloping terrain (< 15 % angle slope). Measurement were conducted in four experimental plots located in the Canyoles River watershed to assess the soil water repellency in citrus orchards under different managements: annual addition of plant residues and manure with no tilling and no fertilizer (MNT), annual addition of plant residues with no tillage (NT), application of conventional herbicides and no tilling (HNT) and conventional tillage in June (CT). The period for each type of management ranged from 2 and 27 (MNT), 1 and 25 (NT), 2 and 27 (HNT) and 3 and 29 years (CT). At each plot, a ten points were selected every 10 cm along inter-rows and water drop penetration time test (WDTP; DeBano, 1981) was performed. The results show that the MNT treatment induced slight water repellency in citrus-cropped soils compared to other treatments. Small but significant soil water repellency was observed under NT and HNT

  1. Teaching for democracy in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares, Isabel Cárdenas; Sanchez, Concepción Martin

    1995-05-01

    As part of the process of re-establishing democracy, Spain is reforming its educational system to promote democratic values. This article describes an experiment in education for democracy that was carried out among 86 pupils, between 12 and 14 years old, in the Spanish region of Murcia. A teaching programme was developed, in which students were encouraged to study how power is exercised in the home, the school, the community, the nation and the world. Results have been generally positive in arousing pupils' interest in democracy and helping them to understand democratic processes.

  2. [Marseille fever imported from Spain].

    PubMed

    Freibergerová, Michaela; Parízková, Radana; Husa, Petr; Burget, Ivo; Chalupa, Pavel

    2004-08-01

    The authors are presenting a case of young female with Marseille fever contracted in Spain. The clinical manifestation of the illness was characterized by fevers, exanthema, headache and a typical skin rash ("the black spot") and prompted the authors to strongly consider the diagnosis of Marseille fever and to initiate appropriate antibiotic therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed later by serology. The article introduces new taxonomy of Rickettsial species and presents an overview and epidemiological aspects of specific diseases caused by them. The clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatment of Marseille fever are discussed in greater detail.

  3. Digital Economy and Management in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Aguila, Ana R.; Padilla, Antonio; Serarols, Christian; Veciana, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the digital economy and its impact on the firm. Highlights include subsectors of the digital economy, including infrastructure; analysis of the digital economy in Spain; analysis of the ICT (information and communication technology) sector in Spain; and electronic commerce through the Internet. (LRW)

  4. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  5. The Politics of Language: Spain's Minority Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mar-Molinero, Clare

    1994-01-01

    This paper examines the linguistic and legal framework in Spain and its attempts to define nationhood and a collective identity that encompasses its three major linguistic minority groups. The four major language groups of Spain are discussed with regard to official language policy and legislation. Article 3 of the 1978 Spanish constitution was…

  6. The Tous Dam Disaster of 1982: Risk communication and the origins of integrated flood risk management in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra-Llobet, A.; Tàbara, J.; Sauri, D.

    2012-12-01

    The failure of Tous dam on the Júcar River near Valencia in 1982 was one of the most important socio-natural disasters in 20th century Spain. The death toll of 25 would have been much greater had not a local dam manager anticipated the failure and alerted mayors of a failure, before it actually occurred. The Tous Dam failure occurred a week before the first democratic elections in Spain after the Franco dictatorship, it received extensive coverage in the media. As a result, this disaster triggered a paradigm change in the way disaster risks were perceived and managed at multiple levels of government in Spain. Many factors, often of a qualitative and organisational nature, affect (vertical and horizontal) communication in disaster risk reduction learning and planning at the community level. Through interviews with key actors and stakeholders, content analysis of scientific literature, review of historical and media accounts, and analysis of legislation and regulation, we documented changes that resulted from the Tous Dam failure: (1) A process of institutional development, which led to the growth, and increase in complexity of the organisations involved both in vertical and horizontal communication of disaster risk reduction. (2) Actions taken and experiences gained in dealing with disaster risk reduction in the Tous area were used as a benchmark to develop new strategies, as well as new mechanisms for communication and planning in other territories and other risk domains in Spain.We identify three main stages from 1980s to present in the evolution of disaster risk reduction planning in the area, which show a progressive shift towards a more integrated and preventative approach: (1) After the collapse of the Tous Dam, disaster risk reduction strategies in Spain focused on improving preparedness in order to reduce short-term risks. (2) Disaster management in the 1990s was strongly influenced by international initiatives (e.g. the UN International Decade for Natural

  7. Strengthening the Role of Part-Time Faculty in Community Colleges. Example Job Description for Part-Time Faculty: Valencia College--Job Description and Essential Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2013

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to support college conversations regarding strengthening the role of part-time faculty, this brief document presents the job description for a Valencia College part-time/adjunct professor (revised as of July 19, 2013). The description includes essential functions, qualifications, and knowledge, skills, and abilities. This is followed…

  8. Inspiring students in International Land and Water Management: a field course in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keesstra, S. D.

    2012-04-01

    Even though students work more and more in an individual and virtual environment where they sometimes can do courses on physical processes in earth science from behind their computer screen at home, field courses are a component of curricula that cannot be replaced. Field courses, it being excursions or fieldwork courses, are of vital importance to bring the real world to life in the heads of the students. The GIS map needs to become a real world; a discharge measurement needs have tried to push you over in the river. At Wageningen University, the 1st year MSc students of the curriculum International Land and Water Management have a special kind of field course to conclude their course work year (the second year is largely allocated for internship and thesis work). During a four week intensive course the students get to choose a mini-thesis with a group of 4 to 5 students. The topics of the cases differ from year to year and are chosen on the basis of interest of the lecturers and/or interest of contacts we have in the fieldwork area in the Valencia region in Spain. In the first week of the course, when we are still in Wageningen, the student write a proposal for the work they intend to do. Some experts are flown in from Spain, and literature is searched for. A lot of literature gathered in previous years is available in an interactive GIS database, where the students can also look into research of student groups of earlier years. In cooperation with the supervisor the proposal is made into a feasible workload for the remaining 3 weeks of the course. In the second week the students are introduced to the larger area during several excursions and to their specific research area and finalize their proposal in the first days in Spain and start the data collection and data analysis period. In the third week they finish the data collection and write their report. The reports are reviewed by the supervisors and finalized with using the feedback given by the supervisors

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only... subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the Alicante or Almeria Province of Spain in...

  10. Clinical biochemistry education in Spain.

    PubMed

    Queraltó, J M

    1994-12-31

    Clinical biochemistry in Spain was first established in 1978 as an independent specialty. It is one of several clinical laboratory sciences specialties, together with haematology, microbiology, immunology and general laboratory (Clinical analysis, análisis clinicos). Graduates in Medicine, Pharmacy, Chemistry and Biological Sciences can enter post-graduate training in Clinical Chemistry after a nation-wide examination. Training in an accredited Clinical Chemistry department is 4 years. A national committee for medical and pharmacist specialties advises the government on the number of trainees, program and educational units accreditation criteria. Technical staff includes nurses and specifically trained technologists. Accreditation of laboratories is developed at different regional levels. The Spanish Society for Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SECQ), the national representative in the IFCC, has 1600 members, currently publishes a scientific journal (Química Clinica) and a newsletter. It organizes a continuous education program, a quality control program and an annual Congress.

  11. Estimating the economic consequences of an increased medication adherence due to a potential improvement in the inhaler technique with Spiromax® compared with Turbuhaler® in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Darbà, Josep; Ramírez, Gabriela; García-Rivero, Juan L; Mayoralas, Sagrario; Pascual, José Francisco; Vargas, Diego; Bijedic, Adi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of the introduction of DuoResp® Spiromax®, budesonide/formoterol fixed-dose combination (FDC), focusing on an increase in medication adherence due to an enhancement of the inhalation technique for the treatment of COPD patients in Spain and 5 regions including Andalusia, Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid, and Valencia. Methods A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the time period of 2015–2018. This study aimed at evaluating the budget impact associated with the introduction of DuoResp Spiromax in comparison with Symbicort® Turbuhaler® and Rilast® Turbuhaler. National and regional data on COPD prevalence were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resource utilization were obtained by clinical consultation. Resource included primary care visits, specialist visits, hospitalization, and emergency room visits as well as the length of hospital stay. Based on both pharmacological and health care resource costs, overall annual treatment cost per patient was estimated in EUR 2015. Results It was calculated that 130,777 adults were treated with budesonide/formoterol FDC delivered by a dry powder inhaler, Turbuhaler, in Spain in 2015. However, the target population decreases over the next 4 years. This pattern was observed in 4 regions, but for Andalusia, the treated population increased slightly. The overall budget savings in Spain with the market share of DuoResp Spiromax were estimated to be €6.01 million for the time period of 2015–2018. Region-specific data resulted in savings of €902,133 in Andalusia, €740,520 in Catalonia, €464,281 in Galicia, €748,996 in Madrid, and €495,812 in Valencia for the time period of 2015–2018. Conclusion The introduction of budesonide/formoterol FDC delivered by Spiromax for COPD treatment is likely to contribute in a reduction of health care costs for Spain and in 5 Spanish regions. This model forecasts that Spain and these 5

  12. The New Science Policy in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Julio R.

    1987-01-01

    Spain has begun a serious effort to increase its scientific and technological research efforts and to develop a large body of qualified researchers to participate in areas of science important to the European Economic Community. (MSE)

  13. Recent migrations from Morocco to Spain.

    PubMed

    Bodega, I; Cebrian, J A; Franchini, T; Lora-tamayo, G; Martin-lou, A

    1995-01-01

    "This study addressed the problem of the Moroccan immigration into Spain within the context of South-North movements, focusing on analyzing provisional data from the last immigrant regularization in the country completed during the end months of 1991."

  14. Morphobathymetric analysis of the large fine-grained sediment waves over the Gulf of Valencia continental slope (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribó, Marta; Puig, Pere; Muñoz, Araceli; Lo Iacono, Claudio; Masqué, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Acosta, Juan; Guillén, Jorge; Gómez Ballesteros, María

    2016-01-01

    Detailed analysis of recently acquired swath bathymetry, together with high-resolution seismic profiles and bottom sediment samples, revealed the presence of large-scale fine-grained sediment waves over the Gulf of Valencia continental slope. As many other deep-water sediment waves, these features were previously attributed to gravitational slope failure, related to creep-like deformation, and are here reinterpreted as sediment wave fields extending from 250 m depth to the continental rise, at 850 m depth. Geometric parameters were computed from the high-resolution multibeam dataset. Sediment wave lengths range between 500 and 1000 m, and maximum wave heights of up to 50 m are found on the upper slope, decreasing downslope to minimum values of 2 m high. Sediment waves on the lower part of the slope are quasi-stationary vertically accreting, whereas they show an upslope migrating pattern from the mid-slope to the upper part of the continental slope. High-resolution seismic profiles show continuous internal reflectors, with sediment waves merging down-section and sediment wave packages decreasing in thickness downslope. These sediment packages are thicker on the crest of each individual sediment wave and thinner on the downslope flank. 210Pb analyses conducted on sediment cores collected over the sediment wave fields also indicate slightly higher sediment accumulation rates on the wave crests. Sediment wave formation processes have been inferred from contemporary hydrodynamic observations, which reveal the presence of near-inertial internal waves interacting with the Gulf of Valencia continental slope. Internal wave activity is suggested to be the preferential mechanism for the transport and deposition of sediment, and the maintenance of the observed sediment wave fields.

  15. Towards a methodology for the validation of low spatial resolution remote sensing data and products. The Valencia Anchor Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, E.; Velazquez, A.; Scales Project Team

    The SCALES (SEVIRI {& GERB Cal/Val Area for Large-scale field ExperimentS}) Project has specifically been defined to assist in the validation of new radiation budget and cloud products provided by the GERB (Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget) instrument on board the first European METEOSAT Second Generation geostationary satellite (MSG-1). The special character of remote sensing measurements to correspond to area integrated values, obliges independent in situ measurements to be representative of zones of a minimum number of pixels of the sensor under consideration. The large GERB pixel size (around 50 x 50 km2) and its high frequency sampling (every 15 min) makes it necessary to develop a new specific validation methodology to carry out independent measurements over large extended areas. Basically, the methodology proposed here leans on the use of a robust reference meteorological station (Valencia Anchor Station) set up on a reasonably homogeneous area, around which 3D high resolution meteorological fields are obtained from the MM5 Meteorological Model, and mobile stations and transect measurements help to account for non-homogeneities. During the GERB Commissioning Period, and in the framework of the GIST (GERB International Science Team), two field campaigns have so far been carried out where CERES instruments onboard Terra and Aqua NASA satellites provided additional radiance measurements specifically obtained in the PAPS mode (Programmable Azimuth Plane Scanning) over the Valencia Anchor Station to support validation efforts. Besides, continuous ground sun photometer and GPS precipitable water content measurements were also obtained, as well as radiosounding ascents, exactly launched at the station site and at CERES overpassing times. The large data set gathered so far, together with other higher resolution data available from instruments such as LANDSAT, MODIS and SEVIRI, provide a wealth of conditions under which the methodology may be progressively

  16. Mobile Phones for Spain's University Entrance Examination Language Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    García Laborda, Jesús; Magal Royo, Teresa; Litzler, Mary Frances; Giménez López, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Few tests were delivered using mobile phones a few years ago, but the flexibility and capability of these devices make them valuable tools even for high stakes testing. This paper addresses research done through the PAULEX (2007-2010) and OPENPAU (2012-2014) research projects at the Universidad Politécnica de Valencia and Universidad de Alcalá…

  17. Introducing Development Education in Technical Universities: Successful Experiences in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boni, A.; Perez-Foguet, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents and analyses the main characteristics of successful experiences of Development Education (DE) introduced in two major Spanish Technical Universities (Technical University of Catalonia, TUC, and Technical University of Valencia, TUV) during the nineties and the beginning of the twenty-first century. In this paper, after a brief…

  18. [The internationalization of scientific production in the fields of radiology and neuroimaging in Spain (1996-2003)].

    PubMed

    Bordons, M; Morillo, F; Fernández, M T; Gómez, I

    2006-01-01

    The situation of Research in radiology in Spain is analysed by examining the number of publications by Spanish authors in main stream international journals. The scientific production of Spanish researchers in journals included in the Science Citation Index (SCI) under the headings "Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, and Medical Imaging" and "Neuroimaging" during the years 1996-2003. During this period the scientific production in these fields comprised 1,562 documents (3.5% of the total production for Spanish clinical medicine); scientific production in these fields increased by 40% in this period in comparison to 24% for all clinical medicine. The bulk of the production was concentrated in the autonomous communities of Catalonia (35%), Madrid (28%), and Valencia (10%). The autonomous communities of Navarra and Cantabria had a high relative production after the results were adjusted for population. The healthcare sector is the most active, with the Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, the Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, and the Hospital Vall d'Hebron being outstanding in that they not only lead the country in the number of publications but also publish more in journals with high impact factors. Among centers other than hospitals, the Center for Research in Energy, the Environment, and Technologies (CIEMAT) and the Medical School of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid are the most important. A high degree of collaboration is evident: 68% of the documents were produced by more than one institution, foreign centers were involved in 20%, and the documents were signed by an average of six authors. Conclusions. In summary, the data show that Spanish radiological research is becomin increasingly international, although this process is still in the initial stage, with the percentage of documents published in the most prestigious journals for this specialty being lower than in other disciplines. The relative activity and production of Spain is slightly below the average of the

  19. Doctorate nursing degree in Spain

    PubMed Central

    López-Montesinos, Mª José; Maciá-Soler, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Analytical and descriptive study of the process of change being experienced in the Spanish university system over the last decade (2005-2014). OBJECTIVE: To describe the structural changes occurring in Nursing Education in Spain, reaching access to doctoral studies from the European Convergence Process and the subsequent legislative development. METHODOLOGY: Bibliographical review of royal decrees and reference literature on the subject of study and descriptive analysis of the situation. RESULTS: Carries various changes suffered in the curricula of nursing education in the last decade, the legislation of the European Higher Education sets the guidelines for current studies of Masters and Doctorates. CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of the Master and Doctorate stages after a basic degree, which is now possible with the new legislation. A formal beginning made of scientific nursing in order to generate their own lines of research led by Doctors of nursing who can integrate in research groups under the same condition as other researcher, yet now, from the nursing discipline itself. PMID:26312628

  20. Economic wealth and soil erosion in new Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain or how to explain the Land Degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giménez-Morera, Antonio; Cerdà, Artemio; Pereira, Pauloq

    2014-05-01

    We use to accept the idea that the best oranges are coming from Valecia Region in Eastern Spain. Although the oranges are originally from Eastern Asia, Valencia is having a mild climate in winter, with a low recurrency of frost and is strategically located close to the largest market of citrus: Western Europe. This resulted in a continuous growth of production and trade of citrus, and contributed to make the Valencia Region the largest World exporter (Bono, 2010). This economical success reached the highest point after the EU and Spain agreement in 1986. This expansion of citrus plantations were done on steep slopes allowed by the drip irrigation systems that does not need leveling the land as it was done by new farmers with large properties. The traditional farming of oranges was done in small properties, flood irrigation and leveled land. Those changes are triggering intense soil erosion rates such were shown by previous researchers in Valencia (Cerdà et al., 2009). This impact is also shown in other regions with a similar citrus production evolution, and China is a clear example (Wang et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2012). Land This research evaluate the relations between the investment (economic wealth) of the owners of citrus plantations and the soil erosion rates on their orchards. The economic wealth of the onwers was measured on the size of their properties and after an interview. The soil erosion rates were measured by means of rainfall simulation experiments in each farm by means of thunderstorms of 10 years return period (55 mm h-1). The results show that the soil losses in the new plantations are extremely high (> 10 Mg ha-1 y-1), and that we can show three types of orchards: < 0.99 ha; 1-10 ha and > 10.1. The soil erosion rates where positively related to the size of the farms. The higher erosion rates are shown also by the scientific literature review. Chemically treated plantations (Cerdà, 2002) show high erosion rates due to the road construction too

  1. Aeromonas hydrophila subsp. dhakensis Isolated from Feces, Water and Fish in Mediterranean Spain

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Consuelo; Alcaide, Elena; Blasco, María Dolores

    2012-01-01

    Eight Aeromonas hydrophila-like arabinose-negative isolates from diverse sources (i.e., river freshwater, cooling-system water pond, diseased wild European eels, and human stools) sampled in Valencia (Spain) during 2004–2005, were characterized by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and extensive biochemical testing along with reference strains of most Aeromonas species. These isolates and all reference strains of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis and A. aquariorum showed a 16S rRNA sequence similarity of 99.8–100%, and they all shared an identical phenotype. This matched exactly with that of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis since all strains displayed positive responses to the Voges-Prokauer test and to the use of dl-lactate. This is the first report of A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis recovered from environmental samples, and further, from its original isolation in India during 1993–1994. This was accurately identified and segregated from other clinical aeromonads (A. hydrophila subsp. hydrophila, A. caviae, A. veronii biovars veronii and sobria, A. trota, A. schubertii and A. jandaei) by using biochemical key tests. The API 20 E profile for all strains included in A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis was 7047125. The prevalence of this species in Spanish sources was higher for water (9.4%) than for feces (6%) or eels (1.3%). Isolates recovered as pure cultures from diseased eels were moderately virulent (LD50 of 3.3×106 CFU fish−1) to challenged eels in experimental trials. They were all resistant to ticarcillin, amoxicillin-clavuranic acid, cefoxitin, and imipenem, regardless of its source. Our data point to A. hydrophila subsp. dhakensis as an emerging pathogen for humans and fish in temperate countries. PMID:22472298

  2. Biomonitoring exposure assessment to contemporary pesticides in a school children population of Spain.

    PubMed

    Roca, Marta; Miralles-Marco, Ana; Ferré, Joan; Pérez, Rosa; Yusà, Vicent

    2014-05-01

    The exposure to pesticides amongst school-aged children (6-11 years old) was assessed in this study. One hundred twenty-five volunteer children were selected from two public schools located in an agricultural and in an urban area of Valencia Region, Spain. Twenty pesticide metabolites were analyzed in children's urine as biomarkers of exposure to organophosphate (OP) insecticides, synthetic pyrethroid insecticides, and herbicides. These data were combined with a survey to evaluate the main predictors of pesticide exposure in the children's population. A total of 15 metabolites were present in the urine samples with detection frequencies (DF) ranging from 5% to 86%. The most frequently detected metabolites with DF>53%, were 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy, metabolite of chlorpyrifos), diethyl phosphate (DEP, generic metabolite of OP insecticides), 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMPY, metabolite of diazinon) and para-nitrophenol (PNP, metabolite of parathion and methyl parathion). The calculated geometric means ranged from 0.47 to 3.36 µg/g creatinine, with TCPy and IMPY showing the higher mean concentrations. Statistical significant differences were found between exposure subgroups (Mann-Whitney test, p<0.05) for TCPy, DEP, and IMPY. Children living in the agricultural area had significantly higher concentrations of DEP than those living in the urban area. In contrast, children aged 6-8 years from the urban area, showed statistically higher IMPY levels than those from agricultural area. Higher levels of TCPy were also found in children with high consumption of vegetables and higher levels of DEP in children whose parents did not have university degree studies. The multivariable regression analysis showed that age, vegetable consumption, and residential use of pesticides were predictors of exposure for TCPy, and IMPY; whereas location and vegetable consumption were factors associated with DEP concentrations. Creatinine concentrations were the most

  3. The effect of perceived discrimination on the health of immigrant workers in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Discrimination is an important determinant of health inequalities, and immigrants may be more vulnerable to certain types of discrimination than the native-born. This study analyses the relationship between immigrants' perceived discrimination and various self-reported health indicators. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted (2008) amongst a non-random sample of 2434 immigrants from Ecuador, Morocco, Romania and Colombia in four Spanish cities: Barcelona, Huelva, Madrid and Valencia. A factorial analysis of variables revealed three dimensions of perceived discrimination (due to immigrant status, due to physical appearance, and workplace-related). The association of these dimensions with self-rated health, mental health (GHQ-12), change in self-rated health between origin and host country, and other self-reported health outcomes was analysed. Logistic regression was used adjusting for potential confounders (aOR-95%CI). Subjects with worsening self-reported health status potentially attributable to perceived discrimination was estimated (population attributable proportion, PAP %). Results 73.3% of men and 69.3% of women immigrants reported discrimination due to immigrant status. Moroccans showed the highest prevalence of perceived discrimination. Immigrants reporting discrimination were at significantly higher risk of reporting health problems than those not reporting discrimination. Workplace-related discrimination was associated with poor mental health (aOR 2.97 95%CI 2.45-3.60), and the worsening of self-rated health (aOR 2.20 95%CI 1.73- 2.80). 40% (95% CI 24-53) PAP of those reporting worse self-rated health could be attributable to discrimination due to immigrant status. Conclusions Discrimination may constitute a risk factor for health in immigrant workers in Spain and could explain some health inequalities among immigrant populations in Spanish society. PMID:21849020

  4. Bicycling to university: evaluation of a bicycle-sharing program in Spain.

    PubMed

    Molina-García, Javier; Castillo, Isabel; Queralt, Ana; Sallis, James F

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the change in behavioral stages (e.g. contemplation, action and maintenance) of cycling to university before and after the implementation of a new public bicycle share program (PBSP) and promotion of its use. The study also determined the change in the prevalence, correlates of PBSP use and potential role in the promotion of healthy weight. An 8-month follow-up cross-sectional study (September 2010-April 2011) was carried out among undergraduate students during the first season of implementation of the PBSP in Valencia, Spain. The sample was 173 students (68.2% female) with a mean age of 21.3 years (SD 3.06) who attended a PBSP promotional session. The data were collected by questionnaire. Results indicated a significant increase of 14.6% in the action/maintenance stage of change and showed that 19% of the participants were PBSP users 8 months later. The behavioral stage did not change when students always had access to car/motorbike, lived further than 5 km from the university and had no bicycle stations within 250 m from home. Those most likely to start using PBSP were students who were in the contemplation stage, perceived fewer environmental and safety barriers to active commuting and had one or more stations within 250 m of home. PBSP users expended ∼257 metabolic equivalent·minutes/week bicycling to university, and there was a small reduction in BMI. Findings suggest that PBSPs can be considered as useful promoters of cycling behavior and may contribute to weight control in university students.

  5. Ethnobotanic importance of plants used in pigeon-breeding in Eastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance that birds of the Columbidae family have had throughout history is visible on the Mediterranean coast. Pigeon fancying is the art of breeding and training carrier pigeons and currently, several breeds exist. The sport of racing pigeons consists in covering a distance at maximum possible speed. However, pigeon breeding has another modality called “sport pigeon”, where several males follow a female. This study focusses on ethnobotanical knowledge of native and exotic plant species that are used for diet, breeding, stimulation, healing illnesses and staining the plumage of pigeons bred in captivity. Methods Using semi-structured interviews, we gathered information about the different plant species traditionally used for pigeon-breeding in the region of Valencia. Background material on remedies for bird illnesses was gathered from folk botanical references, local books and journals.The plant species were collected in the study area, then identified in the laboratory using dichotomous keys and vouchered in the ABH (Herbarium of Alicante University). We used Excel ® 2003 to perform a simple statistical analysis of the data collected. Results We collected 56 species of plants (and one variety) that included 29 botanical families. The total number of species was made up of 35 cultivated and 21 wild plants. The most common were Gramineae (14 species), Leguminosae (6 species), and Compositae (4 species). Conclusions Pigeon breeding is an immensely popular activity in Eastern Spain, and ethnobiological knowledge about breeding pigeons and caring for them is considerable. The names and traditional uses of plants depend on their geographical location, vernacular names serve as an intangible heritage. Feeding, environmental features, and genetic makeup of individuals are relevant aspects in the maintenance of avian health. PMID:23688245

  6. Factors influencing Agrobacterium-mediated embryogenic callus transformation of Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) containing the pTA29-barnase gene.

    PubMed

    Li, D D; Shi, W; Deng, X X

    2003-12-01

    Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) calluses were used as explants to develop a new transformation system for citrus mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Factors affecting Agrobacterium-mediated transformation efficiency included mode of pre-cultivation, temperature of cocultivation and presence of acetosyringone (AS). The highest transformation efficiency was obtained with a 4-day pre-cultivation period in liquid medium. Transformation efficiency was higher when cocultivation was performed for 3 days at 19 degrees C than at 23 or 28 degrees C. Almost no resistant callus was obtained if the cocultivation medium lacked AS. The transformation procedure yielded transgenic Valencia plants containing the pTA29-barnase gene, as verified by PCR amplification and confirmed by Southern blotting. Because male sterility is a common factor leading to seedlessness in citrus cultivars with parthenocarpic characteristics, production of seedless citrus genotypes by Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation is a promising alternative to conventional breeding methods.

  7. Soil organic matter on citrus plantation in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Pereira, Paulo; Novara, Agata; Prosdocimi, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Citrus plantations in Eastern Spain are the main crop and Valencia region is the largest world exporter. The traditional plantation are located on flood irrigated areas and the new plantation are located on slopes were drip irrigation is the source of the wetting. It has been demonstrate that the citrus plantations contribute to high erosion rates on slopes (Cerdà et al., 2009b) as it is usual on agriculture land (Cerdà et al., 2009a), but when organic farming is present the soil erosion is much lower (Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2008; Cerdà et al., 2009; Cerdà and Jurgensen, 2011). This is a worldwide phenomenon (Wu et al., 2007; Wu et al., 2011; Xu et al., 2010; Xu et al., 2012a; Xu et al., 2012b), which are a key factor of the high erosion rates in rural areas (García Orenes et al., 2009: García Orenes et al., 20010; García Orenes et al., 2012; Haregewyn et al., 2013; Zhao et al., 2013). The key factor of the contrasted response of soils to the rain in citrus is the organic matter cover. This is why the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Team developed a survey to determine the soil erosion rates on citrus orchards under different managements. A hundred of samples were collected in a citrus plantation on slope under conventional management (Chemical management), one on organic farming, one on traditional flood irrigated organic farming and one on traditional chemical flooding farm. The organic farming soils were treated with 10000 Kg ha-1 of manure yearly. The results show that the mean soil organic matter content was 1.24 %, 3.54%, 5,43% and 2.1% respectively, which show a clear impact of organic farming in the recovery of the soil organic matter. meanwhile the on the slopes and the flood-irrigated soils are Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and PREVENTING AND REMEDIATING DEGRADATION OF SOILS IN EUROPE THROUGH LAND CARE (RECARE)FP7- ENV-2013- supported this research. References Cerdà, A., Flanagan, D.C., le Bissonnais

  8. Uses of plasma in Spain.

    PubMed

    Algora, M; Barbolla, L

    2007-12-01

    In Spain, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) currently recovered either by whole blood centrifugation or by apheresis is mainly considered as a source of plasma derivates rather than a product to be transfused. Upon this consideration, the amount of plasma transfused in the last two decades has remained stable, while the production of FFP has grown steadily during all these years. Thus, much more plasma has been derived to industry for manufacturing. Although, since 1993 a consensus conference established the clinical situation where plasma has demonstrated its efficacy, the true situation is that many indications seem not to be supported on a scientific evidence basis. Only a few studies have been performed in the last years to assess the appropriateness of these indications. We present the initial result of an ongoing survey addressed by the Madrid Blood Transfusion Centre. Based on the criteria of total amount of RBC transfused per year, large hospitals (more than 10,000 units of RBC) transfused an average of 23.87% of FFP, while medium hospitals (5000-10,000 units of RBC) used 19.5% and small ones (less than 5000) about 12.5%. It is important to point out that inside each group there were some important differences in ratio values for similar hospitals. This could indicate that much more is necessary to cope with indications. Although national figures of uses of FFP, whether in ratio or absolute terms, show a moderate consumption in comparison with published figures of other European countries, there can be no doubt that plasma overuses still seem to be present.

  9. Mathematics education and learning disabilities in Spain.

    PubMed

    Casas, Ana Miranda; Castellar, Rosa García

    2004-01-01

    In the first part of this article, we describe the basic objectives of the math curriculum in Spain as well as the basic contents, teacher resources, and obstacles perceived in mathematics instruction. Second, we briefly describe the concept of learning disabilities (LD) as they are currently defined in Spain. As stated in the recent educational reform, a student with LD is any student with special educational needs. The emphasis is placed on the educational resources that these students need in order to achieve the curricular objectives that correspond to their age group or grade. Third, we comment specifically on the educational services model and the evaluation and instructional procedures for students with math learning disabilities. Finally, we describe some lines of research that have appeared in the last few years in Spain that have led to the development of new evaluation and intervention procedures for students with LD in computation and problem solving.

  10. [Incidence study of listeriosis in Spain].

    PubMed

    Valero, Fernando Parrilla; Rafart, Josep Vaqué

    2014-01-01

    We performed a descriptive retrospective study of cases of listeriosis occurring in Spain from 2001 to 2007 to determine the burden and trend of this disease in our setting. Several sources of information were used. Epidemiological information was collected from 1.242 cases of listeriosis, representing a mean incidence rate of 0,56 cases per 100.000 inhabitants per year, which was extrapolated as an overall estimate for Spain. The annual incidence showed a statistically significant increasing trend (p <0,001) over the study period. This figure was higher than that reported in Spain (0,16) by the Microbiological Information System, which is voluntary, showing that underreporting exists. The inclusion of listeriosis in the Mandatory Notification System would allow determination of the distribution and characteristics of this infection in humans, as well as promotion of effective prevention and control.

  11. The costs of schizophrenia in Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; López-Bastida, Julio; Osuna-Guerrero, Rubén; Montejo-González, Angel Luis; Duque-González, Beatriz

    2006-09-01

    This study estimated the economic impact of schizophrenia-related direct costs (medical and nonmedical costs) in Spain. Direct medical costs (hospitalizations, outpatient consultations, drug costs) and direct nonmedical costs (costs of informal care) were estimated based on prevalence costs for 2002. The total costs of schizophrenia were estimated at euro 1,970.8 million; direct medical costs accounted for 53% and informal care costs 47%. Despite having implemented a conservative approach, the health care costs associated with schizophrenia account for 2.7% of total public health care expenditure in Spain. The sum of medical and nonmedical costs give us a better definition of the magnitude of the problem in Spain as well as contributing to helping make the debate on this issue more transparent.

  12. Validation of SURFEX Simulated Soil Moisture over the Valencia Anchor Station using SMOS products and in situ measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll, M. Amparo; Khodayar, Samiro; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    2014-05-01

    Soil moisture is an important variable in agriculture, hydrology, meteorology and related disciplines. Despite its importance, it is complicated to obtain an appropriate representation of this variable, mainly because of its high temporal and spatial variability. SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer) models can be used to simulate the temporal behaviour and spatial distribution of soil moisture in a given area. In this work, we use the SURFEX (Surface Externalisée) model developed at the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM) at Météo-France (http://www.cnrm.meteo.fr/surfex/) to simulate soil moisture at the Valencia Anchor Station. SURFEX integrates the ISBA (Interaction Sol-Biosphère-Atmosphère; surfaces with vegetation) module to describe the land surfaces (http://www.cnrm.meteo.fr/isbadoc/model.html) and we introduced the ECOCLIMAP for the description of land covers. The Valencia Anchor Station was chosen as a validation site for the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) mission and as one of the hydrometeorological sites for the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) programme. This site represents a reasonably homogeneous and mostly flat area of about 50x50 km2. The main cover type is vineyards (65%), followed by fruit trees, shrubs, and pine forests, and a few number of small industrial and urban areas. Except for the vineyard growing season, the area remains mostly under bare soil conditions. In spite of its relatively flat topography, the small altitude variations of the region clearly influence climate. This oscillates between semiarid and dry-sub-humid. Annual mean temperatures are between 12 ºC and 14.5 ºC, and annual precipitation is about 400-450 mm. The duration of frost free periods is from May to November, with maximum precipitation in spring and autumn. The first part of this investigation consists in simulating soil moisture fields to be compared with level-2 and level-3 soil moisture maps generated

  13. Leaving home in Spain: a regional analysis.

    PubMed

    Holdsworth, C

    1998-12-01

    "This paper compares regional patterns of leaving home in Spain during the 1970s and 1980s based on analysis of the 1991 Spanish Sociodemographic Survey. The purpose of this analysis is to demonstrate that while nationally Spain is representative of a southern European pattern of leaving home, (i.e. relatively late and closely associated with partnership formation), there is considerable regional variation in timing, incidence and initial destinations on leaving home. These differences are explored using hazard rates of leaving home by destination and birth cohort for 11 Spanish regions."

  14. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor represents that...

  15. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  16. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-64 - Avocados from continental Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Avocados from continental Spain. 319.56-64 Section 319... Avocados from continental Spain. Fresh avocados (Persea americana P. Mill.) may be imported into the United... accordance with § 319.56-6. (2) The avocados must be grown at places of production in continental Spain...

  18. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(1), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (MAR 2012) (a) As the Contractor represented in its...

  19. 75 FR 51113 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade... chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling... from China and Spain would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within...

  20. 75 FR 61772 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain; Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain; Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty orders on chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain would be likely to lead to... antidumping duty order on chlorinated isocyanurates from Spain would not be likely to lead to continuation...

  1. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes by exposure to a combination of nisin and cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia oil.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Erin M; Milillo, Sara R; Johnson, Michael G; Ricke, Steven C

    2011-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen and its control in foods is a significant challenge. This study evaluated the effectiveness of nisin and cold-pressed terpeneless Valencia oil (CPTVO) on limiting L. monocytogenes growth. Disk diffusion assays were performed to determine the effects of CPTVO and nisin individually and in combination. Together, these antimicrobials produced a zone of inhibition that was significantly larger (P < 0.05) than zones correlating to CPTVO or nisin individually. Furthermore, L. monocytogenesΔsigB had an increased sensitivity to the combination treatment. Growth experiments performed in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth revealed the effects of nisin and CPTVO, individually and in combination on L. monocytogenes growth rate. When L. monocytogenes was grown in BHI containing 0.025% CPTVO and 26 IU/mL nisin, no growth inhibition was observed relative to the control. However, exposure to CPTVO at 0 h followed by the introduction of nisin at 15 h resulted in a statistically significant (P < 0.05) reduction in growth. This approach to inhibiting L. monocytogenes has potential as an all-natural, generally-recognized-as-safe multiple hurdle intervention that may be applicable for ready-to-eat products in which L. monocytogenes is likely to cause foodborne illness.

  2. The sugar industry, political authorities, and scientific institutions in the regulation of saccharin: Valencia (1888-1939).

    PubMed

    Guillem-Llobat, Ximo

    2011-07-01

    In the late-nineteenth century food production and trade were greatly transformed. Changes in the food chain gave rise to new problems connected with food safety and food quality, which caused new controls to be introduced throughout Europe. In this paper I will contribute to ongoing debates by focusing on the regulation of saccharin in an agrarian city in the south of Europe, Valencia. The laboratory-made sweetener was introduced into the food market at the turn of the century, becoming highly controversial shortly afterwards. Several local groups of players got involved in this dispute. The sugar industry was not only an important stakeholder in the passing of some specific laws that were to constrain the use of saccharin, but also the main driver of regulation, primarily in periods when saccharin could become a serious competitor and reduce the sector's profit. Furthermore, the combined work of the sugar industry and the municipal laboratories was essential for the implementation of regulations. It was in such municipal laboratories that scientists played a main role in regulation. My paper will address the commercial disputes linked to the use of saccharin and the limited role of science and scientists in its control.

  3. Action pattern of Valencia orange PME de-esterification of high methoxyl pectin and characterization of modified pectins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yookyung; Teng, Quincy; Wicker, Louise

    2005-12-12

    Valencia pectinmethylesterase (PME) fractions, B-PME, containing 36 and 13 kDa protein bands and U-PME, containing a 36 and 27 kDa protein bands, were used to de-esterify original pectin (O-Pec) from 73% degree of esterification (%DE) to 63% (B-Pec) and 61% DE (U-Pec), respectively. Most O-Pec eluted from ion exchange chromatography at low salt concentration and a smaller component eluted at higher ionic strength. B-Pec and U-Pec eluted as one broad peak at higher ionic strength. PME modification did not change molecular weight: O-pectin (134,000 g/mol), U-Pec (133,850 g/mol), and B-Pec (132,250 g/mol). The NMR signal of GG and GGG increased after modification, whereas the signal of EE and EEE decreased. The negative zeta-potential increased with pH for all pectins. U-PME and B-PME created differently modified pectins that vary in degree and length of multiple attacks and fraction of the pectin population that was modified.

  4. 78 FR 64937 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for New Active Ingredients

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ....), Avda, Paret del Patriarca 11-B, Ap. 30, 46113 Moncada (Valencia) Spain. Active ingredient: Bacillus.... 30, 46113 Moncada (Valencia) Spain. Active ingredient: Bacillus subtilis strain IAB/BS03....

  5. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, David D

    2008-09-01

    Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction. Accordingly, today the festival tends to polarize the sexes as well as the generations. Also, many children are frightened by the gigantic mock-up with its snapping teeth and foul breath, and many of them burst into tears at the roaring of the demons. But despite these negatives--or perhaps because of them--the Tarasca breaks down boundaries between things normally kept separate in the mind: humor and terror, man and beast, order and disorder, old and young, life and death, and so on. In so collapsing opposites, the Tarasca causes people to pause and to think about and question everyday reality in the non-Carnival universe. All these observations of course support the structural arguments of our four theorists above and in particular seem to corroborate Bloch's concept (1992) of the regenerative power of "rebounding violence." However, there are three specific features here that need psychological amplification beyond simply confirming the work of previous theorists. We must first note that like most grotesque fantasies, the Hacinas monster combines disparate organic "realities" into a bizarre and monstrous image that by its very oddness and the resulting "cognitive mismatch" captures people's attention and sparks the imagination, especially that of

  6. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  7. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Recent reforms affecting every aspect of Spain's educational system are reviewed in this report. The first part presents the observations of three educators from other European countries ("The Examiners' Report"). Part 2 is a "Record of the Review Meeting" held in Paris in December of 1985 10 months after the examiners' visit…

  8. Foundations of Laic Moral Education in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soria, Juan Manuel Fernandez

    2008-01-01

    This article studies the foundations of laic moral education in Spain. Some aspects of laic moral education can also be found in other nations, including the emergence of the laic man or the need for an educating State; other aspects of laic moral education, however, are peculiar to the Spanish case, such as the influence of Krausoinstitutionism…

  9. Spain: Restructuring, Reform and Research Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Julio

    1984-01-01

    Scientific and technological research in Spain has been hindered more by lack of organization than by lack of funds. The 1983 Universty Reform Act to restructure the curriculum and improve research quality represents a major step in bringing Spanish research up to the levels of other modern university systems and to promote economic development.…

  10. Melioidosis in Traveler from Africa to Spain

    PubMed Central

    Quereda, Carmen; Gil, Horacio; Anda, Pedro; Núñez-Murga, María; Cantón, Rafael; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    The worldwide epidemiology of melioidosis is changing. We describe a case of acute melioidosis in Spain in a patient who had traveled to Africa. A novel sequence type of Burkholderia pseudomallei was identified in this patient. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of melioidosis in travelers returning from melioidosis-nonendemic regions. PMID:24047798

  11. Educational Reform and Renewal in Contemporary Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickman, William W.

    This study is one of a series of Office of Education publications on educational developments in other countries. It describes and analyzes in social, economic, and historical context the educational changes mandated in Spain by the Education Reform Law of 1970, one of contemporary Europe's most far-reaching plans for educational reform and…

  12. The 1918 "Spanish flu" in Spain.

    PubMed

    Trilla, Antoni; Trilla, Guillem; Daer, Carolyn

    2008-09-01

    The 1918-1919 influenza pandemic was the most devastating epidemic in modern history. Here, we review epidemiological and historical data about the 1918-1919 influenza epidemic in Spain. On 22 May 1918, the epidemic was a headline in Madrid's ABC newspaper. The infectious disease most likely reached Spain from France, perhaps as the result of the heavy railroad traffic of Spanish and Portuguese migrant workers to and from France. The total numbers of persons who died of influenza in Spain were officially estimated to be 147,114 in 1918, 21,235 in 1919, and 17,825 in 1920. However, it is likely that >260,000 Spaniards died of influenza; 75% of these persons died during the second period of the epidemic, and 45% died during October 1918 alone. The Spanish population growth index was negative for 1918 (net loss, 83,121 persons). Although a great deal of evidence indicates that the 1918 A(H1N1) influenza virus unlikely originated in and spread from Spain, the 1918-1919 influenza pandemic will always be known as the Spanish flu.

  13. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties.

  14. Spain's Linguistic Normalization Laws: The Catalan Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Earl L.

    1996-01-01

    The 1983 Catalonian Linguistic Normalization Law made Spanish and Catalan co-official languages in that region. The law's constitutionality was challenged and after more than a decade of litigation was upheld by Spain's Supreme Court, producing a polemic in Catalonia and, tangentially, an impact in the Basque region and Galicia. (21 references)…

  15. Presence of emerging contaminants in Natural Wetlands: L

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roig, P. V.; Blasco, C.; Andreu, V.; Pascual, J. A.; Rubio, J. L.; Picó, Y.

    2009-04-01

    A wide range of pharmaceutical compounds have been identified in the environment, and their presence is a topic of growing concern for human and ecological health. The antibiotics group are relevant in the formation of antibiotic resistances in pathogenic bacteria. Other pharmaceuticals, such as analgesics and lipid regulators, are consumed in large quantities and have been frequently found in high concentrations in several environmental compartments. ĹAlbufera Lake (Valencia, Spain) is a marsh area of a great interest because it is the habitat of a large quantity of unique species of flora and fauna, and a zone of refuge, feeding and breeding for a large number of migratory birds, because of that, was included in the RAMSAR network. However, this area is threatened by the tourist industry; urban, industrial, and agricultural pressures; and the disappearance of its marshes by transformation to rice or orchard fields. The aim of this work was to establish the occurrence and distribution of pharmaceuticals in water, as indicative of human sewage pouring into the lake. A representative set of pharmaceuticals of different therapeutic classes was chosen for this purpose, including: analgesics, antibiotics, anti-inflammatories, β-blockers, anticonvulsants, antidepressants and lipid regulators. In April 2008 and October 2008 a total of 65 samples of water were collected, corresponding to different sampling points previously designed, and covering the most important channels that flow in to the lake. Water samples were concentrated by Solid Phase Extraction through an Oasis HLB cartridge, and subsequently eluted with methanol. Quantification was carried out by LC-MS/MS with an ESI interface. Separation was made with a Sunfire 3.5 C18 (Waters®) analytical column. When possible, two transitions were selected to obtain unambiguous confirmation. Acetaminophen (paracetamol) and carbamazepine were the pharmaceuticals that more frequently appeared in water samples, being the

  16. Sickness presenteeism in Spanish-born and immigrant workers in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that immigrant workers face relatively worse working and employment conditions, as well as lower rates of sickness absence than native-born workers. This study aims to assess rates of sickness presenteeism in a sample of Spanish-born and foreign-born workers according to different characteristics. Methods A cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst a convenience sample of workers (Spanish-born and foreign-born), living in four Spanish cities: Barcelona, Huelva, Madrid and Valencia (2008-2009). Sickness presenteeism information was collected through two items in the questionnaire ("Have you had health problems in the last year?" and "Have you ever had to miss work for any health problem?") and was defined as worker who had a health problem (answered yes, first item) and had not missed work (answered no, second item). For the analysis, the sample of 2,059 workers (1,617 foreign-born) who answered yes to health problems was included. After descriptives, logistic regressions were used to establish the association between origin country and sickness presenteeism (adjusted odds ratios aOR; 95% confidence interval 95%CI). Analyses were stratified per time spent in Spain among foreign-born workers. Results All of the results refer to the comparison between foreign-born and Spanish-born workers as a whole, and in some categories relating to personal and occupational conditions. Foreign-born workers were more likely to report sickness presenteeism compared with their Spanish-born counterparts, especially those living in Spain for under 2 years [Prevalence: 42% in Spanish-born and 56.3% in Foreign-born; aOR 1.77 95%CI 1.24-2.53]. In case of foreign-born workers (with time in Spain < 2 years), men [aOR 2.31 95%CI 1.40-3.80], those with university studies [aOR 3.01 95%CI 1.04-8.69], temporary contracts [aOR 2.26 95%CI 1.29-3.98] and salaries between 751-1,200€ per month [aOR 1.74 95% CI 1.04-2.92] were more likely to report sickness

  17. Subsidence history, crustal structure, and thermal evolution of the Valencia Trough: A young extensional basin in the western Mediterranean

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, A.B. ); Torne, M. Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Barcelona )

    1992-12-10

    The Valencia Trough is an extensional basin that began rifting during the late Oligocene-early Miocene, yet it is located within a region of compression between the European and African plates. Seismic reflection, seismic refraction, well, gravity, and geoid data have been used to determine the relative importance of extensional and compressional processes in controlling the structure and evolution of the trough. Although the trough appears symmetric on bathymetric maps, seismic and gravity and geoid data indicate a fundamental asymmetry in its deep crustal and upper mantle structure. Two dimensional flexural backstripping techniques have been used to estimate the total amount of crustal stretching along a transect of the trough between the Catalan Coastal Ranges and Mallorca. There is good agreement between the predicted depth to the Moho based on a stretching model and the seismically constrained depth beneath the Catalan margin, but poor agreement beneath Mallorca. The seismic Moho beneath Mallorca can be explained by a model in which the crust was modified by the flexural effects of thrust/fold loading. Geoid data suggest that the differences in the crustal structure between the two margins extend into the upper mantle. The Catalan margin is characterized by a thermal and mechanical boundary, which markes the transition between cold, unstretched lithosphere and hot, thin lithosphere, while Mallorca is located above a broad region of lithospheric thinning. The subsidence history and amount of crustal thinning in the Catalan margin resemble that of typical Atlantic-type nonvolcanic margin. However, a narrow transition zone (< 60 km), the lack of any evidence for a conjugate margin, and the absence of oceanic crust suggest fundamental diffeences in the way that extensional processes may occur in convergent plate settings.

  18. Modification of carotenoid levels by abscission agents and expression of carotenoid biosynthetic genes in 'valencia' sweet orange.

    PubMed

    Alferez, Fernando; Pozo, Luis V; Rouseff, Russell R; Burns, Jacqueline K

    2013-03-27

    The effect of 5-chloro-3-methyl-4-nitro-1H-pyrazole (CMNP) and ethephon on peel color, flavedo carotenoid gene expression, and carotenoid accumulation was investigated in mature 'Valencia' orange ( Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) fruit flavedo at three maturation stages. Abscission agent application altered peel color. CMNP was more effective than ethephon in promoting green-to-red (a) and blue-to-yellow (b) color at the middle and late maturation stages and total carotenoid changes at all maturation stages. Altered flow of carotenoid precursors during maturation due to abscission agents was suggested by changes in phytoene desaturase (Pds) and ζ-carotene desaturase (Zds) gene expression. However, each abscission agent affected downstream expression differentially. Ethephon application increased β-carotene hydroxilase (β-Chx) transcript accumulation 12-fold as maturation advanced from the early to middle and late stages. CMNP markedly increased β- and ε-lycopene cyclase (Lcy) transcript accumulation 45- and 15-fold, respectively, at midmaturation. Patterns of carotenoid accumulation in flavedo were supported in part by gene expression changes. CMNP caused greater accumulation of total flavedo carotenoids at all maturation stages when compared with ethephon or controls. In general, CMNP treatment increased total red carotenoids more than ethephon or the control but decreased total yellow carotenoids at each maturation stage. In control fruit flavedo, total red carotenoids increased and yellow carotenoids decreased as maturation progressed. Trends in total red carotenoids during maturation were consistent with measured a values. Changes in carotenoid accumulation and expression patterns in flavedo suggest that regulation of carotenoid accumulation is under transcriptional, translational, and post-translational control.

  19. Nonhost status of Citrus sinensis cultivar valencia and C. paradisi cultivar ruby red to Mexican Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Aluja, Martín; Pérez-Staples, Diana; Macías-Ordóñez, Rogelio; Piñero, Jaime; McPheron, Bruce; Hernández-Ortiz, Vicente

    2003-12-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) is recognized as a pest of citrus, apples, and blackberries in South America. In Mexico, it is mainly found in fruit of the family Myrtaceae and has never been reported infesting citrus. Here, we sought to determine whether females stemming from Mexican A. fraterculus populations (collected in the state of Veracruz) would lay eggs in 'Valencia' oranges and 'Ruby Red' grapefruit and, if so, whether larvae would hatch and develop. We worked under laboratory and seminatural conditions (i.e., gravid females released in fruit-bearing, bagged branches in a commercial citrus grove) and used Anastrepha ludens (Loew), a notorious pest of citrus, as a control species. Under laboratory conditions, A. ludens readily accepted both oranges and grapefruit as oviposition substrates, but A. fraterculus rarely oviposited in these fruit (but did so in guavas, a preferred host) and no larvae ever developed. Eggs were deposited in the toxic flavedo (A. fraterculus) and nontoxic albedo (A. ludens) regions. Field studies revealed that, as was the case in the laboratory, A. fraterculus rarely oviposited into oranges or grapefruit and that, when such was the case, either no larvae developed (oranges) or of the few (13) that developed and pupated (grapefruit), only two adults emerged that survived 1 and 3 d, respectively (5-17% of the time necessary to reach sexual maturity). In sharp contrast, grapefruit exposed to A. ludens yielded up to 937 pupae and adults survived for >6 mo. Therefore, the inability of Mexican A. fraterculus to successfully develop in citrus renders the status of Mexican A. fraterculus as a pest of citrus in Mexico as unsubstantiated.

  20. [Intake of trans fats; situation in Spain].

    PubMed

    Riobó, Pilar; Breton, Irene

    2014-04-01

    Current nutritional recommendations include decreasing the intake of trans fatty acids (TFA), since there exists sufficient scientific evidence of its influence to cardiovascular disease. During the last decades, in many European countries the TFA intake has considerably decreased through the established legislation and changes in the technological processes developed by the food industry. In Spain, just 2.1 g/day, a 0.7% of the daily energy intake comes from TFA, a lower value than the recommended maximum (<1%), according to data from TRANSFAIR study. The TFA content of processed products such as margarines, factory-baked goods and etc, has declined over recent years and is less than 1% in more than 90% of all these products in Spain. However, it is necessary to develop and implement regulations, governing the TFA content in the products sold in our country, in which there should be the requirement to include this information in the label too.

  1. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    PubMed

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area.

  2. [Foreign immigration in Spain (1985-1994)].

    PubMed

    Gozalvez Perez, V

    1996-01-01

    "During the decade 1985-94, Spain [has had]...some growing and unexpected flows of foreign immigrations. The tradition of emigration of Spanish people, some grave difficulties of [the] employment market in the country, irregular entrance of workers from developing countries, the fear of a very rapid growth of these immigrants, the instability and marginality of their work, and the agreement of Spain in the European Union have led the government to develop an active migratory policy, first against the illegal flows and, more recently, in direction of the integration of immigrants in Spanish society.... The article analyzes main features from some different groups of foreign workers, and in particular Africans: spatial repartition, demographic profile, migratory strategies and trajectories, uneasy insertion in the national employment market, and draws lastly the main features of the Spanish migratory policy." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  3. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  4. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    PubMed

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship.

  5. Memorandum on ground-water investigation of four proposed stock wells in Puertocito Area, Socorro County and Canoncito Area, Bernalillo and Valencia Counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repenning, C.A.; Galloway, S.E.

    1952-01-01

    At the request of the Navajo Service, Office ot Indian Affairs, a groundwater iinvestigation of four proposed stock wells in the Puertocito Area, Socorro county and the Canoncito Area., Bernalillo and Valencia counties,New Mexico, was made in November, 1951 (see fig. 1). Although these areas are not on the Navajo Indian Reservation, they were included in the program of study of ground-water resources or the Navajo and Hopi Indian Reservations now being conducted by the Ground Water Branch of the United States Geological Survey. The work was financed by and was in cooperation with the Navajo Service, Office of Indian Affairs.

  6. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    PubMed

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  7. Area Handbook Series: Spain: A Country Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    approach to the country’s economic ills. Renovative structural policies-such as the closing of large, unprof- itable state enterprises-helped to...maintain employment. Of particular note in INI’s renovation was its partial privatiza- tion. In the mid-1980s, INI sold a 51 percent interest in SEAT to...13,000 kilometers, half of which were electrified. A major thirteen-year renovation program was announced in 1986. Spain made little use of inland

  8. Sociological Profile of Astronomers in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias de Ussel, Julio; Trinidad, Antonio; Ruiz, Diego; Battaner, Eduardo; Delgado, Antonio J.; Rodriguez-Espinosa, José M.; Salvador-Solé, Eduard; Torrelles, José M.

    In this paper the main findings are presented of a recent study made by a team of sociologists from the University of Granada on the professional astronomers currently working in Spain. Despite the peculiarities of this group - its youth, twentyfold increase in size over the last 20 years, and extremely high rate of specialization abroad - in comparison with other Spanish professionals, this is the first time that the sociological characteristics of the group have been studied discretely. The most significant results of the study are presented in the following sections. Section 1 gives a brief historical background of the development of Astronomy in Spain. Section 2 analyzes the socio-demographic profile of Spanish Astronomy professionals (sex, age, marital status, etc.). Sections 3-5 are devoted to the college education and study programs followed by Spanish astronomers, focusing on the features and evaluations of the training received, and pre- and postdoctoral study trips made to research centers abroad. The results for the latter clearly show the importance that Spanish astronomers place on having experience abroad. Special attention is paid to scientific papers published as a result of joint research projects carried out with colleagues from centers abroad as a result of these study trips. Section 6 describes the situation of Astronomy professionals within the Spanish job market, the different positions available and the time taken to find a job after graduation. Section 7 examines Astronomy as a discipline in Spain, including the astronomers' own opinions of the social status of the discipline within Spanish society. Particular attention is paid to how Spanish astronomers view the status of Astronomy in Spain in comparison with that of other European countries.

  9. Sociological profile of astronomers in Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ussel, J. I.; Trinidad, A.; Ruíz, D.; Battaner, E.; Delgado, A. J.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Salvador-Solé, E.; Torrelles, J. M.

    In this paper the main findings are presented of a recent study made by a team of sociologists from the University of Granada on the professional astronomers currently working in Spain. Despite the peculiarities of this group - its youth, twentyfold increase in size over the last 20 years, and extremely high rate of specialization abroad - in comparison with other Spanish professionals, this is the first time that the sociological characteristics of the group have been studied discretely. The most significant results of the study are presented in the following sections. Section 1 gives a brief historical background of the development of astronomy in Spain. Section 2 analyzes the socio-demographic profile of Spanish astronomy professionals (sex, age, marital status, etc.). Sections 3-5 are devoted to the college education and study programs followed by Spanish astronomers, focusing on the features and evaluations of the training received, and pre- and postdoctoral study trips made to research centers abroad. The results for the latter clearly show the importance that Spanish astronomers place on having experience abroad. Special attention is paid to scientific papers published as a result of joint research projects carried out with colleagues from centers abroad as a result of these study trips. Section 6 describes the situation of astronomy professionals within the Spanish job market, the different positions available and the time taken to find a job after graduation. Section 7 examines astronomy as a discipline in Spain, including the astronomers' own opinions of the social status of the discipline within Spanish society. Particular attention is paid to how Spanish astronomers view the status of astronomy in Spain in comparison with that of other European countries.

  10. Twenty-three novel BRCA1 and BRCA2 sequence alterations in breast and/or ovarian cancer families of Eastern Spain.

    PubMed

    Esteban Cardeñosa, Eva; Bolufer Gilabert, Pascual; Palanca Suela, Sarai; Oltra Soler, Silvestre; Barragán González, Eva; Velasco Sampedro, Eladio; Chirivella González, Isabel; Segura Huerta, Angel; Guillén Ponce, Carmen; Martínez de Dueñas, Eduardo

    2008-11-01

    It is well established that mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes significantly increase the risk of breast and ovarian cancer. We here report 23 novel genetic variants of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes found in 349 cancer-prone unrelated families from Eastern Spain detected during the first 2 years of performance of the Program of Genetic Counseling of Valencia Community. Mutational screening was performed by pre-screening the heteroduplex formed in the PCR products obtained amplifying BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes by conformation sensitive electrophoresis. We detected 10 deletereous mutations, four in BRCA1 (three frame-shift (FS) and one nonsense mutation (NS)) and six in BRCA2 (four FS and one NS mutation). Moreover, we detected 13 unclassified variants, four in BRCA1 (one missense (MS), two synonymous (SYN) and one intronic (I) variant) and nine in BRCA2 (six MS, one SYN and two I). The relevance of the novel mutations is discussed. Our contribution broadens the BRCA1/2 world mutational spectra.

  11. Geo-environmental model for the prediction of potential transmission risk of Dirofilaria in an area with dry climate and extensive irrigated crops. The case of Spain.

    PubMed

    Simón, Luis; Afonin, Alexandr; López-Díez, Lucía Isabel; González-Miguel, Javier; Morchón, Rodrigo; Carretón, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto; Kartashev, Vladimir; Simón, Fernando

    2014-03-01

    Zoonotic filarioses caused by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are transmitted by culicid mosquitoes. Therefore Dirofilaria transmission depends on climatic factors like temperature and humidity. In spite of the dry climate of most of the Spanish territory, there are extensive irrigated crops areas providing moist habitats favourable for mosquito breeding. A GIS model to predict the risk of Dirofilaria transmission in Spain, based on temperatures and rainfall data as well as in the distribution of irrigated crops areas, is constructed. The model predicts that potential risk of Dirofilaria transmission exists in all the Spanish territory. Highest transmission risk exists in several areas of Andalucía, Extremadura, Castilla-La Mancha, Murcia, Valencia, Aragón and Cataluña, where moderate/high temperatures coincide with extensive irrigated crops. High risk in Balearic Islands and in some points of Canary Islands, is also predicted. The lowest risk is predicted in Northern cold and scarcely or non-irrigated dry Southeastern areas. The existence of irrigations locally increases transmission risk in low rainfall areas of the Spanish territory. The model can contribute to implement rational preventive therapy guidelines in accordance with the transmission characteristics of each local area. Moreover, the use of humidity-related factors could be of interest in future predictions to be performed in countries with similar environmental characteristics.

  12. [Moroccan migration to Spain. Data, opinions, and predictions].

    PubMed

    Cazorla, J

    1995-01-01

    "In this article, the author analyzes the migration flows between Spain and [Morocco] within the most general context of relations between European Union (EU) and the Maghrebian countries. Since the beginning of the eighties the migration flows toward and from Spain changed [dramatically], so... Spanish society has shifted toward an inmigration country. [The author analyzes] where such inmigrants come from and their motivations to choose Spain [as a] destination. The results of a survey financed partly by the EU...[for] institutions related directly with the migration problem from [Morocco] to Spain are the base of the information included in this article." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  13. Epidemiology of Herpes Zoster Infection among Patients Treated in Primary Care Centres in the Valencian Community (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is little available data regarding the epidemiology of herpes zoster (HZ) in Spain. This study's main goal was to estimate the annual incidence of HZ in the Autonomous Community of Valencia. Methods From December 1st 2006 to December 1st 2007, a prospective study was carried out in 24 primary health care centres that together provide care for a population of 36,030 persons aged >14 years. We included all adult patients with a clinical diagnosis of HZ who were seen at these centres during the one-year study period. Demographic (i.e., age, gender, and area of residence) and clinical data were also collected from these patients. Results A total of 146 cases of HZ were identified during the study period. The annual incidence of HZ was 4.1/1,000 individuals >14 years of age (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.4-4.7). Cases of HZ were predominantly unilateral and most commonly affected women and people living in rural areas. The most frequently reported symptoms were pain, dysesthesia and itching. A total of 46% of patients also had underlying illnesses (e.g., chronic diseases and/or malignancy) and 24% of patients experienced complications, which were mostly ocular in nature. A total of 91% of patients were treated with antiviral drugs. The median time from symptoms onset to diagnosis was 6.3 days (range: 2.0-8.3). Conclusions HZ is a common illness in our region (especially in the older population) that causes a significant clinical burden on primary care providers. PMID:20459608

  14. Exposure to Trihalomethanes through Different Water Uses and Birth Weight, Small for Gestational Age, and Preterm Delivery in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gracia-Lavedán, Esther; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa Marina, Loreto; Ballester, Ferran; Llop, Sabrina; Tardón, Adonina; Fernández, Mariana F.; Freire, Carmen; Goñi, Fernando; Basagaña, Xavier; Kogevinas, Manolis; Grimalt, Joan O.; Sunyer, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Background: Evidence associating exposure to water disinfection by-products with reduced birth weight and altered duration of gestation remains inconclusive. Objective: We assessed exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) during pregnancy through different water uses and evaluated the association with birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), low birth weight (LBW), and preterm delivery. Methods: Mother–child cohorts set up in five Spanish areas during the years 2000–2008 contributed data on water ingestion, showering, bathing, and swimming in pools. We ascertained residential THM levels during pregnancy periods through ad hoc sampling campaigns (828 measurements) and regulatory data (264 measurements), which were modeled and combined with personal water use and uptake factors to estimate personal uptake. We defined outcomes following standard definitions and included 2,158 newborns in the analysis. Results: Median residential THM ranged from 5.9 μg/L (Valencia) to 114.7 μg/L (Sabadell), and speciation differed across areas. We estimated that 89% of residential chloroform and 96% of brominated THM uptakes were from showering/bathing. The estimated change of birth weight for a 10% increase in residential uptake was –0.45 g (95% confidence interval: –1.36, 0.45 g) for chloroform and 0.16 g (–1.38, 1.70 g) for brominated THMs. Overall, THMs were not associated with SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery. Conclusions: Despite the high THM levels in some areas and the extensive exposure assessment, results suggest that residential THM exposure during pregnancy driven by inhalation and dermal contact routes is not associated with birth weight, SGA, LBW, or preterm delivery in Spain. PMID:21810554

  15. 78 FR 72633 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From Spain: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... International Trade Administration Chlorinated Isocyanurates From Spain: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... chlorinated isocyanurates (chlorinated isos) from Spain.\\1\\ The period of review (``POR'') is June 1, 2011... notice. \\1\\ See Chlorinated Isocyanurates from Spain: Preliminary Results of the Antidumping...

  16. Social Inclusion and Multicultural Perspectives in Spain: Three Case Studies in Northern Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zufiaurre, Benjamin

    2006-01-01

    Immigration is the challenge that faces European countries in the immediate future. Spain, a former exporter of migrants, has recently become a host country, which must be taken into account if we wish to promote a multicultural, integrative school system. The aim in this article is to reach some conclusions about the integration of immigrants,…

  17. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  18. A personal view of nutrition in Spain.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Salvador

    2014-04-01

    This paper stems from the special lecture given by the author at 20th International Congress of Nutrition, held from 16 to 20 September 2013 in Granada (Spain), following for his appointment as "Living Legend" of the International Union of nutritional sciences (IUNS), in recognition of his outstanding contribution to research and development in nutritional science. The development of nutrition in Spain from the 1960s to the present, which the author had the opportunity to experience first hand, is described. The contribution covers an extensive period in the history of this science, and highlights the advances made in our knowledge of nutrition and several of the misunderstandings that existed and still exist in this science: 1) The Anglo-Saxon dietary pattern and the high incidence of death from myocardial infarction, and the subsequent recognition of the Mediterranean diet as a model of a varied and balanced and healthy eating. 2) The relationship between cardiovascular disease and the consumption of oily fish. Since the discovery of the syn - thesis of prostaglandins makes it clear that fish fat is heart-healthy. 3) The epidemic of prosperity, overweight and obesity and the appearance of miracle diets. However, there are not miracles, the only solution being a healthy lifestyle and a balanced hypocaloric diet. 4) In the field of nutrition, diet and health, the harmful effect of: "In my opinion", a single allusion that undermines all science. The author also acknowledges all the researchers whose efforts, tenacity and enthusiasm have contributed to the advances made in nutrition science in Spain.

  19. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter.

  20. Evaporation and reference evapotranspiration trends in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez-Lorenzo, Arturo; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Wild, Martin; Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Calbó, Josep; Revuelto, Jesús; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Moran-Tejeda, Enrique; Martín-Hernández, Natalia; Peñuelas, Josep

    2015-04-01

    Interest is growing in the trends of atmospheric evaporation demand, increasing the need for long-term time series. In this study, we first describe the development of a dataset on evaporation in Spain based on long-term series of Piché and pan measurement records. Piché measurements have been reported for >50 stations since the 1960s. Measurements of pan evaporation, which is a much more widely studied variable in the literature, are also available, but only since 1984 for 21 stations. Particular emphasis was placed on the homogenization of this dataset (for more details, we refer to Sanchez-Lorenzo et al., 2014, Clim Res, 61: 269-280). Both the mean annual Piché and pan series over Spain showed evaporative increases during the common study period (1985-2011). Furthermore, using the annual Piché records since the 1960s, an evaporation decline was detected from the 1960s to the mid-1980s, which resulted in a non-significant trend over the entire 1961-2011 period. Our results indicate agreement between the decadal variability of reference evapotranspiration (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2014, Glob Planet Chang, 121: 26-40) and surface solar radiation (Sanchez-Lorenzo et al., 2013, Glob Planet Chang, 100: 343-352) and the evaporation from Piché and pan measurements since the mid-1980s, especially during summer. Nevertheless, this agreement needs attention, as Piché evaporimeters are inside meteorological screens and not directly exposed to radiation. Thus, as Piché readings are mainly affected by the aerodynamic term in Penman's evaporation equation and pan records are affected by both the heat balance and aerodynamic terms, the results suggest that both terms must be highly and positively correlated in Spain. In order to check this hypothesis, the radiative and aerodynamic components were estimated using the Penman's equation. The results show that the relationship with the radiative components is weaker than that with the aerodynamic component for both pan and

  1. [Imported dengue: an emerging arbovirosis in Spain].

    PubMed

    Ramos Geldres, T T; García López-Hortelano, M; Baquero-Artigao, F; Montero Vega, D; López Quintana, B; Mellado Peña, M J

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is caused by one of 4 serotypes of dengue virus. Only imported cases have been reported in Spain. The main clinical findings are fever and exanthema, although there may be severe forms, particularly in secondary infections. Five children with a primary, non severe dengue infection are presented. The diagnosis was based on clinical suspicion and epidemiological history, and confirmed by immunochromatography and ELISA tests. The outcome was favourable in all cases. It is important to consider this diagnosis in international travellers that present with fever within the 14 days of returning from an endemic area, in order to get an early diagnosis, adequate treatment and a good prognosis.

  2. Major tanker spill off Spain under control

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-14

    This paper reports that a 23 sq mile oil slick along Spain's northwest coast, spreading form the wreckage of the Greek oil tanker Aegean Sea, was for the most part under control as of Dec. 10, Spanish authorities reported. Various press reports put the total spill volume at 490,000 bbl, about double that leaked by the Exxon Valdez supertanker off Alaska in 1989. If initial reports of the spill volume are borne out, the Aegean Sea spill would rank at least as one of the 10 biggest tanker spills.

  3. Oestrid myiasis in European mouflon from Spain.

    PubMed

    Moreno, V; Pérez, J M; Moreno, P A; Granados, J E; Ruiz-Martinez, I; Soriguer, R C; de Simon, M A

    1999-01-01

    From February 1992 to March 1997, 245 European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) from Sierras de Cazorla, Segura y Las Villas Natural Park (southern Spain) were surveyed for oestrid larvae in order to estimate prevalence and mean intensity of parasitism by Oestrus ovis. Over 46 percent of the animals surveyed were infected, with a mean intensity of 9.6 larvae/host parasitized. No significant differences in prevalence rates between host sexes were observed, but older mouflons were infected with more larvae than younger ones.

  4. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  5. Espana: Building Bridges of Understanding with the People of Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This booklet was designed to facilitate interactions and communication with the people of Spain by providing information about their customs, attitudes and other cultural characteristics which influence their actions and values. A brief description of Spain is given, which covers the following: geography, weather, history, ethnic roots, regional…

  6. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots... allow the importation into the United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will... of fresh apricots from continental Spain into the United States subject to a systems approach...

  7. Educational Conditions in Spain. Bulletin, 1919, No. 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Walter A.

    1919-01-01

    Though Spain maintained her neutrality throughout the World War, her educational, economic, and political conditions--in all countries inextricably bound up with each other--were affected nearly as much as those of the nations participating in it. The educational conditions of Spain are discussed in this bulletin. The following contents are…

  8. Intergenerational Educational and Occupational Mobility in Spain: Does Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Pablos Escobar, Laura; Gil Izquierdo, María

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the changes in intergenerational mobility seen in Spain during the last century. It examines educational and occupational mobility, paying particular attention to the existence of a differentiated gender effect. The magnitude of the historical changes that have taken place in Spain during the twentieth century and the scarcity…

  9. The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, George Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

  10. The History of the Democratic Adult Education Movement in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…

  11. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 319 RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From... allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary... vegetables regulations to allow the importation of avocados from continental Spain (excluding the...

  12. Early School-Leaving in Spain: Evolution, Intensity and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Macias, Enrique; Anton, Jose-Ignacio; Brana, Francisco-Javier; De Bustillo, Rafael Munoz

    2013-01-01

    Spain has one of the highest levels of early school leaving and educational failure of the European Union. The purpose of this paper is to analyse the anatomy of early school leaving in Spain and its characteristics. In order to do so, in the first part we discuss the measurement problems related with this concept and the evolution of drop-out…

  13. Why Did the United States Fight Spain in 1898?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Offner, John

    1998-01-01

    Maintains that the United States fought the Spanish-American War because of longstanding foreign affairs interests as well as immediate domestic political events. Considers such contributing factors as the Cuban War of Independence from Spain, United States property claims against Spain, and the extensive and biased coverage in the press. (MJP)

  14. Teaching Digital Libraries in Spain: Context and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Marco, Francisco-Javier

    2009-01-01

    The situation of digital libraries teaching and learning in Spain up to 2008 is examined. A detailed analysis of the different curricula and subjects is provided both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Digital libraries have been mostly a postgraduate topic in Spain, but they should become mainstream, with special subjects devoted to them,…

  15. Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…

  16. Soil moisture changes in two experimental sites in Eastern Spain. Irrigation versus rainfed orchards under organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorin-Molina, Cesar; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2013-04-01

    Within the Soil Erosion and Degradation Research Group Experimental Stations, soil moisture is being researched as a key factor of the soil hydrology and soil erosion (Cerdà, 1995; Cerda, 1997; Cerdà 1998). This because under semiarid conditions soil moisture content plays a crucial role for agriculture, forest, groundwater recharge and soil chemistry and scientific improvement is of great interest in agriculture, hydrology and soil sciences. Soil moisture has been seeing as the key factor for plant photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration in orchards (Schneider and Childers, 1941) and plant growth (Veihmeyer and Hendrickson, 1950). Moreover, soil moisture determine the root growth and distribution (Levin et al., 1979) and the soil respiration ( Velerie and Orchard, 1983). Water content is expressed as a ratio, ranging from 0 (dry) to the value of soil porosity at saturation (wet). In this study we present 1-year of soil moisture measurements at two experimental sites in the Valencia region, Eastern Spain: one representing rainfed orchard typical from the Mediterranean mountains (El Teularet-Sierra de Enguera), and a second site corresponding to an irrigated orange crop (Alcoleja). The EC-5 soil moisture smart sensor S-SMC-M005 integrated with the field-proven ECH2O™ Sensor and a 12-bit A/D has been choosen for measuring soil water content providing ±3% accuracy in typical soil conditions. Soil moisture measurements were carried out at 5-minute intervals from January till December 2012. In addition, soil moisture was measured at two depths in each landscape: 2 and 20 cm depth - in order to retrieve a representative vertical cross-section of soil moisture. Readings are provided directly from 0 (dry) to 0.450 m3/m3 (wet) volumetric water content. The soil moisture smart sensor is conected to a HOBO U30 Station - GSM-TCP which also stored 5-minute temperature, relative humidity, dew point, global solar radiation, precipitation, wind speed and wind direction

  17. [Present status of psychosurgery in Spain].

    PubMed

    Barcia, J A; Bertolín-Guillén, J M; Barcia-González, J; Campos, J; Hernández, M E

    2007-08-01

    In order to know the present activity of psychosurgery in Spain, and the opinion of neurosurgeons relative to it, a survey was designed and applied to all active neurosurgeons in our country. We obtained data from at least one neurosurgeon from the 74 neurosurgical centers in Spain (response rate= 100%). Only 6 neurosurgeons performed psychosurgical interventions. In total, 121 psychosurgeries were performed between 1999 and 2003, 75.7% of them in private centers. The most frequent indication is obsessive-compulsive disorder and the most frequent technique is anterior capsulotomy, although techniques and indications differ among the practising neurosurgeons. Those not performing them cite lack of patient referral (54.4%) or unexperience (36.8%) as the causes. A suspected lack of efficacy or the possible adverse effects are seldom expressed. The possibility of using deep brain stimulation for psychiatric indications, as well as the experience of some neurosurgeons and the favorable opinion of the rest, might increase the number of operations in our country.

  18. Biology curriculum in twentieth-century Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barberá, Óscar; Zanón, Beatriz; Pérez-Pl, José Francisco

    1999-01-01

    One hundred years of history of Spanish biology curricula are reviewed in this article. The aim of this analysis is focused on the relationship between socially controversial biological issues and the decisionmaking procedures in the construction of the national curricula published under the different regimes that have governed Spain over the last 100 years. The study covers the secondary level of schooling (age 10 up to university), and is based mainly on the data afforded by the official publications of the nine national curricula in twentieth-century Spain, and some of the main textbooks used for this schooling level. Special attention is given to the teaching of evolution, the most sensitive issue in biology education, and some parallelisms are traced and compared with similar phenomena occurring in other countries. The new trends in biology education from the last reform of the Spanish education system are briefly discussed. This study provides a perspective of the pressures affecting socially controversial issues included in education. These pressures have been identified mainly as political, social, and religious beliefs held by powerful and influential social groups, the same kinds of forces that have existed in other countries worldwide. Studies such as this one, about the real forces that have shaped curriculum development in the past, are vital for understanding the present circumstances in biology education and, therefore, unavoidable in order to enhance future standards in biology education.

  19. [An analysis of the mortality from extrapulmonary tuberculosis in the catchment areas of the community of Valencia (1976-1980)].

    PubMed

    Morales Suarez-Varela, M M; Llopís González, A; Sancho Izquierdo, E; Sanz Aliaga, S A

    1990-08-01

    Tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Koch's bacillus, which mainly affects the airways and, less frequently, other organs in the body. Tuberculosis is still a health and social problem in Spain. The data of this study were obtained from "Monografías Sanitarias", "Análisis de Mortalidad", published by "Generalitat Valenciana", the standard mortality rate was calculated by direct methods. Mortality is not the best sanitary parameter to study the real situation of this disease, because the present methods of treatment are effective and death caused by tuberculosis is very rare. Despite the aforementioned fact, when comparing the mortality data of different health areas during a period between 1976 and 1980, we confirm that this disease persists as a cause of death in our community.

  20. [Books published in Spain on smoking].

    PubMed

    Guardiola, E; Sánchez-Carbonell, J

    1996-12-01

    Tobacco dependence, considered for a long time as a habit and, more recently, as an addiction, has many bad effects in health. The objective of this study was to analyse books published in this field in Spain. Books indexed in the ISBN Spanish database in CD-ROM (updated to 1993) dealing with addiction to tobacco, that included one of the following words: tabac*, tabak*, tabaq*, fuma*, fumad*, nicotine*, alquitran*, antitabac*, antitabaq*, cigarro*, cigarri*, exfumad*, pipa*, puro*, picadura* or filtro, were included in the study. Authors, ISBN classification, year of publication, language (of publication and original) and publishers were descriptively analysed. One hundred and four books were analysed. The highest number was published during the period 1990-1993 (42%); being 1993 (n = 15) and 1991 (n = 14) the most productive years. A big increase was observed from 1985. A great number (76% of books, n = 79) was written by personal authors and the 14% (n = 14) by public organizations. Most of the books (n = 88; 85%); were published in Spanish, followed by Catalan (n = 13; 13%); 21 books (20%) were translations: most of them from English (n = 12; 60%) or from French (n = 3; 14%). Forty six per cent of books was published by trade publishers and 31% by public organizations. According to the ISBN classification, these books were grouped in 20 different topics; but, most of them (70%) were included in three of these topics: hygiene (n = 42, 40%), pharmacology-toxicology-drugs (n = 18, 17%) and pathology-diseases and medical/therapeutical clinical practice (n = 14; 13%). The number of books published in Spain dealing with tobacco dependence has increased very much from 1985; it suggests that interest in this area in SPain has also increased. Most of the books are published in Spanish, and the most frequently translated language is English. These books are basically published by trade publishers and public organizations. These results have to be considered taking into

  1. State of emergency medicine in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Spain has universal public health care coverage. Emergency care provisions are offered to patients in different modalities and levels according to the characteristics of the medical complaint: at primary care centers (PCC), in an extrahospital setting by emergency medical services (EMS) and at hospital emergency departments (ED). We have more than 3,000 PCCs, which are run by family doctors (general practitioners) and pediatricians. On average, there is 1 PCC for every 15,000 to 20,000 inhabitants, and every family doctor is in charge of 1,500 to 2,000 citizens, although less populated zones tend to have lower ratios. Doctors spend part of their duty time in providing emergency care to their own patients. While not fully devoted to emergency medicine (EM) practice, they do manage minor emergencies. However, Spanish EMSs contribute hugely to guarantee population coverage in all situations. These EMS are run by EM technicians (EMT), nurses and doctors, who usually work exclusively in the emergency arena. EDs dealt with more than 25 million consultations in 2008, which implies, on average, that one out of two Spaniards visited an ED during this time. They are usually equipped with a wide range of diagnostic tools, most including ultrasonography and computerized tomography scans. The academic and training background of doctors working in the ED varies: nearly half lack any structured specialty residence training, but many have done specific master or postgraduate studies within the EM field. The demand for emergency care has grown at an annual rate of over 4% during the last decade. This percentage, which was greater than the 2% population increase during the same period, has outpaced the growth in ED capacity. Therefore, Spanish EDs become overcrowded when the system exerts minimal stress. Despite the high EM caseload and the potential severity of the conditions, training in EM is still unregulated in Spain. However, in April 2009 the Spanish Minister of Health

  2. The ESA SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign at the Valencia Anchor Station Area in the Framework of the SMOS Cal/Val AO Project no. 3252

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, E.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2001, the Valencia Anchor Station is currently being prepared for the validation of SMOS land products. The site has recently been selected by the Mission as a core validation site, mainly due to the reasonable homogeneous characteristics of the area which make it appropriate to undertake the validation of SMOS Level 2 land products during the Mission Commissioning Phase, before attempting more complex areas. Close to SMOS launch, ESA defined and designed the SMOS Validation Rehearsal Campaign Plan with the purpose of repeating the Commissioning Phase execution with all centers, all tools, all participants, all structures, all data available, assuming that all tools and structures are ready and trying to produce as close as possible the post-launch conditions. The aim was to test the readiness, the ensemble coordination and the speed of operations to be able to avoid as far as possible any unexpected deficiencies of the plan and procedure during the real Commissioning Phase campaigns. For the rehearsal activity which successfully took place in April 2008, a control area of 10 x 10 km2 was chosen at the Valencia Anchor Station study area where a network of ground soil moisture measuring stations is being set up based on the definition of homogeneous physio-hydrological units, attending to climatic, soil type, lithology, geology, elevation, slope and vegetation cover conditions. These stations are linked via a wireless communication system to a master post accessible via internet. Complementary to the ground measurements, flight operations were performed over the control area using the Helsinki University of Technology TKK Short Skyvan research aircraft. The payload for the campaign consisted of the following instruments: (i) L-band radiometer EMIRAD (Technical University of Denmark, TUD), (ii) HUT-2D L-band imaging interferometric radiometer (TKK), (iii) PARIS GPS reflectrometry system (Institute for Space Studies of Catalonia, IEEC), (iv) IR sensor (Finnish

  3. Monitoring Ground Deformation Using Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PSI) and Small Baselines (SBAS) Techniques Integrated in the ESA RSS Service: The Case Study of Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Manuel J.; Cuccu, Roberto; Rivolta, Giancarlo

    2015-05-01

    This work is focused on the infrastructure monitoring of areas which had experienced significant urbanization and therefore, also an increase of the exploitation of natural resources. Persistent Scatters Interferometry (PS-InSAR) and Small Baselines (SBAS) approaches are applied to three study areas for which large datasets of SAR images are available in ascending and descending modes to finally deploy deformation maps of different buildings and infrastructures. Valencia, Rome and South Sardinia areas have been selected for this study, having experienced an increase of the exploitation of natural resources in parallel with their urban expansion. Moreover, Rome is a very special case, where Cultural Heritage permeating the city and its surroundings would suggest the necessity of a tool for monitoring the stability of the different sites. This work wants to analyse the potential deformation that had occurred in these areas during the period 1992 to 2010, by applying Persistent Scatters Interferometry to ESA ERS SAR and Envisat ASAR data.

  4. SURFEX modeling of soil moisture fields over the Valencia Anchor Station and their comparison to different SMOS products and in situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coll Pajaron, M. Amparo; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Fernandez-Moran, Roberto; Samiro Khodayar-Pardo, D.

    2016-07-01

    Soil moisture is a difficult variable to obtain proper representation because of its high temporal and spatial variability. It is a significant parameter in agriculture, hydrology, meteorology and related disciplines. {it SVAT (Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere-Transfer)} models can be used to simulate the temporal behaviour and spatial distribution of soil moisture in a given area. In this work, we use the {bf SURFEX (Surface Externalisée)} model developed at the {it Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM)} at Météo-France (http://www.cnrm.meteo.fr/surfex/) to simulate soil moisture at the {bf Valencia Anchor Station}. SURFEX integrates the {bf ISBA (Interaction Sol-Biosphère-Atmosphère}; surfaces with vegetation) module to describe the land surfaces (http://www.cnrm.meteo.fr/isbadoc/model.html) that have been adapted to describe the land covers of our study area. The Valencia Anchor Station was chosen as a core validation site for the {it SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity)} mission and as one of the hydrometeorological sites for the {it HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment)} programme. This site represents a reasonably homogeneous and mostly flat area of about 50x50 km2. The main cover type is vineyards (65%), followed by fruit trees, shrubs, and pine forests, and a few small scattered industrial and urban areas. Except for the vineyard growing season, the area remains mostly under bare soil conditions. In spite of its relatively flat topography, the small altitude variations of the region clearly influence climate. This oscillates between semiarid and dry sub-humid. Annual mean temperatures are between 12 ºC and 14.5 ºC, and annual precipitation is about 400-450 mm. The duration of frost free periods is from May to November, with maximum precipitation in spring and autumn. The first part of this investigation consists in simulating soil moisture fields over the Valencia Anchor Station to be compared with SMOS level-2

  5. Current anthropogenic pressures on agro-ecological protected coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan; Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia; Picó, Yolanda

    2015-01-15

    Coastal wetlands are areas that suffer from great pressure. Much of it is due to the rapid development of the surrounding artificial landscapes, where socio-economic factors lead to alterations in the nearby environment, affecting the quality of natural and agricultural systems. This work analyses interconnections among landscapes under the hypothesis that urban-artificial impacts could be detected on soils and waters of an agro-ecological protected area, L'Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, located in the vicinity of the City of Valencia, Spain. The methodological framework developed addresses two types of anthropogenic pressure: (1) direct, due to artificialisation of soil covers that cause soil sealing, and (2) indirect, which are related to water flows coming from urban populations through sewage and irrigation systems and which, ultimately, will be identified by the presence of emerging pharmaceutical contaminants in waters of the protected area. For soil sealing, a methodology based on temporal comparison of two digital layers for the years 1991 and 2011, applying Geographical Information Systems and landscapes metrics, was applied. To determine presence of emerging contaminants, 21 water samples within the Natural Park were analysed applying liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the detection of 17 pharmaceutical compounds. Results showed that both processes are present in the Natural Park, with a clear geographical pattern. Soil sealing and presence of pharmaceuticals are more intensive in the northern part of the study area. This is related to population density (detection of pharmaceuticals) and land cover conversion from agricultural and natural surfaces to artificial ones (soil sealing).

  6. [Epidemiology of eating behavior disorders in Spain].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Lazaro, P M

    2003-01-01

    Considerable advances have been made in research of epidemiology of eating behavior disorders in Spain. This report summarizes recent studies. This review suggests that the prevalence of abnormal eating attitudes and behaviors in Spanish clinical and non-clinical populations is not markedly different from that already reported for other developed countries. The wide range of variation in published prevalence rates for eating disorders in adults and adolescents can be understood in the face of the many methodological problems inherent to this type of research. Anorexia nervosa and related eating disorders are most commonly investigated in adolescent girls and young women and a number of researchers have investigated prevalence rates in this group. No good epidemiological research has been carried out with child populations and male populations.

  7. The problems of asbestosis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Segarra, F

    1979-04-01

    About 50 cases of asbestosis have been descirbed in Spain from 1948 through 1974. Since 1975 the Instituto Territorial de Barcelona, Servicio Social de Higiene y Seguridad del Trabajo, has initiated a survey of all the industries with an asbestosis risk in the Barcelona area. Nearly 300 cases of asbestosis have been detected to date. Given the poor hygienic conditions of most of the industries, with an asbestosis risk, and the considerably large number of exposed people, it can easily be predicted that a rapid increase of the incidence of the disease in the years to come will occur. Most of the observed cases in Barcelona were from two fibrocement industries. Of a total of 1003 workers examined, 247 (about 25%) had asbestosis.

  8. Municipal pleural cancer mortality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Abente, G; Hernandez-Barrera, V; Pollan, M; Aragones, N; Perez-Gomez, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: Pleural cancer is a recognised indicator of exposure to asbestos and mesothelioma mortality. Aims: To investigate the distribution of municipal mortality due to this tumour, using the autoregressive spatial model proposed by Besag, York, and Molliè. Methods: It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the distribution of the posterior probability that RR >1. Results: There was a higher risk of death due to pleural cancer in well defined towns and areas, many of which correspond to municipalities where asbestos using industries once existed for many years, the prime example being the municipal pattern registered for Barcelona Province. The quality of mortality data, the suitability of the model used, and the usefulness of municipal atlases for environmental surveillance are discussed. PMID:15723885

  9. Legionnaires’ Disease Outbreak in Murcia, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Carmen; Fenoll, Daniel; García, José; González-Diego, Paulino; Jiménez-Buñuales, Teresa; Rodriguez, Miguel; Lopez, Rosa; Pacheco, Francisco; Ruiz, Joaquín; Segovia, Manuel; Baladrón, Beatriz; Pelaz, Carmen

    2003-01-01

    An explosive outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease occurred in Murcia, Spain, in July 2001. More than 800 suspected cases were reported; 449 of these cases were confirmed, which made this the world’s largest outbreak of the disease reported to date. Dates of onset for confirmed cases ranged from June 26 to July 19 , with a case-fatality rate of 1%. The epidemic curve and geographic pattern from the 600 completed epidemiologic questionnaires indicated an outdoor point-source exposure in the northern part of the city. A case-control study matching 85 patients living outside the city of Murcia with two controls each was undertaken to identify the outbreak source; the epidemiologic investigation implicated the cooling towers at a city hospital. An environmental isolate from these towers with an identical molecular pattern as the clinical isolates was subsequently identified and supported that epidemiologic conclusion. PMID:12967487

  10. Phenolic profile of Asturian (Spain) natural cider.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Madrera, Roberto; Picinelli Lobo, Anna; Suárez Valles, Belén

    2006-01-11

    The polyphenolic composition of natural ciders from the Asturian community (Spain), during 2 consecutive years, was analyzed by RP-HPLC and the photodiode-array detection system, without previous extraction (direct injection). A total of 16 phenolic compounds (catechol, tyrosol, protocatechuic acid, hydrocaffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, hydrocoumaric acid, ferulic acid, (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidins B2 and B5, phloretin-2'-xyloglucoside, phloridzin, hyperin, avicularin, and quercitrin) were identified and quantified. A fourth quercetin derivative, one dihydrochalcone-related compound, two unknown procyanidins, three hydroxycinnamic derivatives, and two unknown compounds were also found. Among the low-molecular-mass polyphenols analyzed, hydrocaffeic acid was the most abundant compound, representing more than 80% of the total polyphenolic acids. Procyanidins were the most important family among the flavonoid compounds. Discriminant analysis was allowed to correctly classify more than 93% of the ciders, according to the harvest year; the most discriminant variables were an unknown procyanidin and quercitrin.

  11. [Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease in Spain].

    PubMed

    Brea, Angel; Laclaustra, Martín; Martorell, Esperanza; Pedragosa, Angels

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is a very common cause of morbidity and hospitalization. They are the second leading cause of mortality in the general population, and the first in women. They also constitute a very high social spending, which is estimated to increase in coming years, due to the aging of our population. Data from the Hospital Morbidity Survey of the National Statistics Institute recorded, in 2011, 116,017 strokes and 14,933 transient ischemic attacks, corresponding, respectively, to an incidence of 252 and 32 events per 100,000 people. In 2002, the cost of hospitalization for each stroke was estimated at €3,047. The amount of total cost health care throughout the life of a stroke patient is calculated at €43,129. Internationally, the direct costs of stroke constitute 3% of national health spending, this being similar amount in different countries around us. Hypertension was the cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) more prevalent in both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, followed by dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Peripheral arterial disease and hypertension were more frequently associated with atherothrombotic events, atrial fibrillation with cardioembolic strokes, and obesity and high blood pressure to lacunar infarcts. In Spain, as showing several studies, we are far from optimal control of CVRF, especially in secondary prevention of stroke. According to the ICTUSCARE study, achieving recommended values was 17.6% in the case of hypertension, 29.8% in LDL-cholesterol, 74.9% of smoking, and 50.2% in diabetes mellitus. In this review, we analyze in detail the epidemiology, prevention and costs originated by CVD.

  12. Raptor ecotoxicology in Spain: a review on persistent environmental contaminants.

    PubMed

    García-Fernández, Antonio J; Calvo, José F; Martínez-López, Emma; María-Mojica, Pedro; Martínez, José E

    2008-09-01

    Initial studies on the pressure from environmental contaminants on raptor populations in Spain date back to the 1980s, and they have been carried out from a range of viewpoints using a range of sentinel raptor species. However, there is no national monitoring scheme, and therefore the research carried out has been sporadic both spatially and temporally. The exposure to metals has not varied over time, except in the case of lead, whose concentration in eggs and tissues has diminished. In general, the concentrations of metals detected in raptor samples from Spain are generally low and not sufficient to produce toxic effects. Excepting DDT and DDE, most organochlorine-based pesticides in raptors from Spain have diminished over the last 2 decades. The concentrations of DDE found in the eggs of various species could in part explain problems in the reproductive success of raptors in Spain.

  13. Outbound Near-Earth Asteroid, as Seen from Spain

    NASA Video Gallery

    This set of images from the La Sagra Sky Survey, operated by theAstronomical Observatory of Mallorca in Spain, shows the passage ofasteroid 2012 DA14 shortly after its closest – and safe -- app...

  14. [Beginnings of bariatric and metabolic surgery in Spain].

    PubMed

    Baltasar, Aniceto; Domínguez-Adame, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    When bariatric and metabolic surgery initially began in Spain, it was a subject of debate, due to not knowing exactly who were the first surgeons to perform it. A study has revealed the authors of the first interventions.

  15. The Other Women: Students of Literature in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puigvert, Lidia

    2000-01-01

    Provides an account of engaging women in Spain who come from uneducated backgrounds in literacy circles through which Freirean radicalization approaches are being effectively pursued. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse for ESL Literacy Education) (Author/VWL)

  16. Light pollution in Valencian Natural Parks: where light not only annoys astronomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marco, E.; Morales Rubio, A.; Bullón, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    Street lighting of the city of Valencia produces a yellowish halo that prevents astronomical observation. Moreover, within the metropolitan area, there are three natural parks: the Parc Natural de l'Albufera, the Parc Natural del Túria and the Parc Natural de la Calderona. The light pollution affects the nighttime wildlife parks. Therefore, since 2010, a campaign is being carried out in order to collect data but also to raise awareness and reporting of the harmful effects of excessive and incorrect installation of existing luminaires. Since 2012 this study has been extended to other Valencian natural parks far from Valencia. Their sky darkness is a value to preserve.

  17. [Italy and Spain in the face of immigration].

    PubMed

    Alotta, S

    1997-01-01

    "Spain and Italy share a common heritage as far as emigration is concerned. Their country men went abroad looking for jobs for a long period of their history. At present this is the fate of the extra community immigrants. Scholars maintain that Spain and Italy face this new situation with a fear greater than necessary. An attempt is made to explain immigration in a more rational way. At the same time...the debate about racism and antiracism [is examined]." (EXCERPT)

  18. The regulation of biobanks in Spain.

    PubMed

    Nys, Herman; Fobelets, Geraldine

    2008-01-01

    On 3 July 2007 the Spanish parliament approved the Biomedical Research Act. This article discusses the provisions of the Biomedical Research Act that are directly relevant for the regulatory framework of biobanks in Spain. This means that we are not only interested in the procedural and administrative dispositions governing biobanks. Our main preoccupation relates to the substantial provisions governing the collection, the research use and the conservation of biological samples. Our contribution starts in the second part with a brief description of the definition of "biobank" in the Spanish Act. Subsequently, in the third part, we deal extensively with the legal conditions for the collection, use and conservation of biological samples and accompanying data for biomedical research purposes. In the fourth part we examine the specific legal framework of research biobanks in Spain, with a special focus on the source's right to know or not to know, his right to privacy and his right to non-discrimination. A discussion of the main characteristics of the Act and some conclusions finalise this article. In stead of summarising these conclusions in our own words, we prefer to cite the legislator who stated in the preamble to the Act the following: "The regulation on the obtaining, conservation, use and assignment of biological samples is likewise object of a detailed regulation. As is logical, the legal framework turns once again on the consent of the source of the samples and on the previous information that must be provided to this respect. In so far as the disjunctive on the possibility to grant a completely generic or a specific consent on the use or latter uses of the sample, the Law has chosen an intermediate and flexible regulation, in that the initial consent may provide coverage, if in the information previously provided to the subject source there has been a provision about later researches related with the initial, including the researches that may be undertaken

  19. [Criminologic problems of political change in Spain].

    PubMed

    Gómez, A S

    1981-01-01

    In this article the Author considers the modern-day and historical situation as regards the administration of justice in Spain, pausing to make a particularly careful analysis of those crimes whose rate of increase, over the past few years, has been the greatest. He runs back over the various stages of Spain's recent history: from the period preceding Franco's regime, during which a multiplicity of criminological theories were developed by Spanish authors, leading to the creation of a school of jurisprudence, in which theory and practice tended toward seeking a balance between freedom and security; through the period of the dictatorship, in which there was a tightening-up of the preceding trend, with a definite predisposition towards security, whether within the State or external to it (to be noted--the Author observes--is that this security in reality is not a guarantee of the lives and liberties of the citizens, but rather only a safeguarding of the State from attacks on its supremacy and power); to the successive period of the democracy, which came about without cruel and revolutionary upsets, but nonetheless has felt for many years the effects of the preceding political climate; criminality is increasing considerably, but the administration of justice is not able to soundly and accurately evaluate it, it having functioned at only 45% efficiency--or so says the Author--up until 1978: the imbalances in the society that can be seen in its passage through the various political regimes are, therefore, present too in the field of criminality; this, in fact, is apparently decreasing (since crimes against the external and internal security of the State are decreasing, as the number of convictions are decreasing); but in reality this criminality is undergoing a strong evolutionary movement, due more than anything else to the fact that the tendency is to give priority to liberty, and no longer to security, as is true in fact of every democratic regime. Even in 1978, when

  20. The Teaching of the Mathematical Disciplines in Sixteenth-Century Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro-Brotons, Victor

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines some aspects of the teaching of mathematics and its applications in three of the principal sixteenth century Spanish universities (Salamanca, Valencia and Alcala) and in other institutions sponsored by the monarchy, such as the "Casa de la Contratacion" (House of Trade) of Seville and the so-called Academy of…

  1. Metabolomic comparative analysis of the phloem sap of curry leaf tree (Bergera koenegii), orange jasmine (Murraya paniculata), and Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) supports their differential responses to Huanglongbing.

    PubMed

    Killiny, Nabil

    2016-11-01

    Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata and curry leaf tree, Bergera koenegii are alternative hosts for Diaphorina citri, the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen of huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. D. citri feeds on the phloem sap where CLas grows. It has been shown that orange jasmine was a better host than curry leaf tree to D. citri. In addition, CLas can infect orange jasmine but not curry leaf tree. Here, we compared the phloem sap composition of these 2 plants to the main host, Valencia sweet orange, Citrus sinensis. Phloem sap was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after trimethylsilyl derivatization. Orange jasmine was the highest in proteinogenic, non-proteinogenic amino acids, organic acids, as well as total metabolites. Valencia was the highest in mono- and disaccharides, and sugar alcohols. Curry leaf tree was the lowest in most of the metabolites as well as total metabolites. Interestingly, malic acid was high in Valencia and orange jasmine but was not detected in the curry leaf. On the other hand, tartaric acid which can prevent the formation of malic acid in Krebs cycle was high in curry leaf. The nutrient inadequacy of the phloem sap in curry leaf tree, especially the amino acids could be the reason behind the longer life cycle and the low survival of D. citri and the limitation of CLas growth on this host. Information obtained from this study may help in cultivation of CLas and development of artificial diet for rearing of D. citri.

  2. Dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene in Catalonia, Spain.

    PubMed

    Falcó, G; Bocio, A; Llobet, J M; Domingo, J L; Casas, C; Teixidó, A

    2004-04-25

    To assess the dietary intake of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) by the population of Catalonia, Spain, a total-diet study was carried out. Concentrations of HCB were determined in food samples randomly acquired in seven cities of Catalonia between June and August 2000. A total of 11 food groups were included in the study. HCB levels were determined by HRGC/HRMS. Estimates of average daily food consumption were obtained from recent studies. HCB intake was estimated for five population groups: children (aged 4 to 9 years), adolescents (aged 10 to 19 years), male and female adults (aged 20 to 65 years), and seniors (aged >65 years). In general, HCB residues in foods were rather low excepting dairy products with a mean concentration of 0.869 ng/g wet weight. Total dietary intakes of HCB (microgram per kilogram body weight/day) were the following: children (0.0064), adolescents (0.0031), female adults (0.0025), male adults (0.0024) and seniors (0.0019). All these values are considerably lower than the WHO tolerable daily intake (TDI), which is 0.17 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for non-cancer effects and 0.16 microg kg(-1) day(-1) for neoplastic effects in humans.

  3. Fish viral infections in northwest of Spain.

    PubMed

    Ledo, A; Lupiani, B; Dopazo, C P; Toranzo, A E; Barja, J L

    1990-06-01

    During a three years survey, a total of 149 samples from 20 farms of rainbow trout, salmon and turbot were examined for the presence of virus with the purpose to study the viral infections affecting cultured fish and their incidence in the fishfarms of Northwestern Spain. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was the only viral agent isolated from salmonid fish. Fry and fingerlings of trout showed the highest infection rate (24%). This virus was not detected in broodstock or embryonated eggs, although it was isolated from ovaric and seminal fluids and from juvenile carriers. From 24 samples of salmon analyzed, IPNV was only detected in one sample of juveniles. Examination of turbot led the isolation of a new virus belonging to the reoviridae family, which affected to the ongrowing population. All of the IPNV tested belonged to serotype Sp regardless of the origin of the trout stocks. During the monitorization of imported embryonated eggs, no virus was detected from any of the samples. However, in some case, IPNV was isolated when testing the fry obtained in our laboratory from those samples of imported eggs. Our findings indicate that: i) the analysis of fingerlings increase the probability to detect viral infections allowing us an optimal control of importations, and ii) most of the viral infections of fish take place in the own fish farms. The detection of mixed viral and bacterial infections emphasize the importance of carrying out an integral microbiological analysis to determine the causal agent(s) of fish mortalities.

  4. [Charles II of Spain, the bewitched].

    PubMed

    Cerda L, Jaime

    2008-02-01

    The death of King Charles II, the Bewitched, ended two centuries of sovereignity of the Habsburg dynasty in Spain. Since his birth in 1661, he presented a peculiar set of physical, psychiatric and behavioral signs, such as respiratory and diarrheal diseases, recurrent seizures and deep developmental delay. It was not until his adulthood when his infertility became evident, being incapable of conceiving a heir, even though he married twice. Such a constellation of ominous signs motivated a curious investigation, which concluded that the king was hexed at the age of 14 years in order to take away his throne, his health and his capacity to procreate. Based on contemporary medical knowledge, it is possible that Charles IIhad a rare autosomal recessive inherited genopathy asa consequence of the frequent inbreeding among his ancestors. On the other hand, its is also possible that Charles II presented Klinefelter Syndrome, the most frequent sex chromosome disorder in humans and the most common cause of hypogonadism and infertility in males. The hypothesis that Charles II was bewitched reflects a deep belief in supernatural phenomena among the Castilian society at the beginning of the 18th century, an idea transmitted across generations, currently present in many societies worldwide.

  5. [Health and the media in Spain].

    PubMed

    Revuelta, Gemma

    2006-03-01

    The so-called media agenda has a great influence on the issues considered to be important by society. In this article, based on the Informe Quiral (Quiral Survey), the author analyses the coverage of health issues in Spanish press. In Spain, media concentration causes a clear tendency to information homogeneity and thus, health issues are rarely dealt with in an independent way or in its own specific space or by specialized professionals. The main chronic issues the Spanish press has followed during the years included in the survey have been: cancer, sexuality and reproduction, aids, drugs (including tobacco), mental disorders and nutrition-related issues. Politicians or individuals with political and technical posts are the sources which carry the burden of informing about health issues (49%). On the other hand, the more specialized sector is the source of information in only 26% of the cases. In order to improve health information, the author suggests establishing communication platforms and closer collaboration between the specialized sector and the media, fostering mutual knowledge of all professional groups taking part in the process and ridding health information of all political influences.

  6. [Ageing: research in Spain and Europe].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Vicente; Rodríguez Mañas, Leocadio; Sancho Castiello, Mayte; Díaz Martín, Rosa

    2012-01-01

    Researchers, stakeholders and policy makers agree about the importance of the population ageing in modern societies, so a broad analysis of current research strategies is in progress, such as FUTURAGE, a network for drawing a map for future research on ageing. This document presents the Spanish contribution to this map following FUTURAGE guidelines, drawn from the debates held in the 'Ageing. Research in Spain and Europe' Workshop. The first part consists of general ideas seeking to define future challenges on research using a multidisciplinary approach, in which the theoretical and methodological debate, the comparative and multilevel perspective, the transfer of knowledge and involvement of the older people would be essential to consider. Some of the main issues according to FUTURAGE structure are, the bio-gerontology of ageing, healthy and active ageing, and the socioeconomic and environmental resources of ageing. The interaction between these contents is pivotal to understand the research on ageing. Finally, the document provides some methodological and instrumental ideas to reinforce the need for cross-sectional research initiatives, integrating different data and combining methods in order to develop assessment and intervention strategies. Other aspects look into the mechanisms to coordinate research within a European context. The map on ageing research has been published after the consultation process in Europe (http://futurage.group.shef.ac.uk/road-map.html) and is now ready to be considered for integration into future European and Spanish research programs.

  7. Integration in Spain: national and regional perspectives.

    PubMed

    Alberte Castiñeiras, J R

    1999-03-01

    At the present moment Spanish psychopedagogical researchers are evaluating the effectiveness and consequences of integration on both a national and a regional level. As a result of two important pieces of legislation, physically and mentally handicapped people are gradually becoming more integrated in education, social life, and the work place. Consequently, both ordinary pupils and those with permanent or temporary special education needs can achieve the same objectives within the same system. Individual strategies are designed to cope with each pupil's specific needs, and each case is followed closely by a multidisciplinary team. The basic concept behind integration in Spain is a global relationship with the educational environment, which includes school, home, vocational training and ultimately work. It is not so much a case of identifying what a pupil is, but rather deciding what education can do for that particular pupil. There are, however, certain difficulties which require adaptation of the curriculum: access to educational opportunities and experiences may be affected by deficient visual, auditory or motor skills; there may be an absence of specific learning skills in certain areas of the curriculum; pupils with serious mental handicaps may lack basic cognitive skills. Spanish educational reform considers the classroom teacher as the central axis in the quality of education. For this reason, new programmes and diplomas in infant and primary teacher education include training for adaptation and integration.

  8. Epidemiology of osteoporotic hip fractures in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Martínez, Angel Antonio; Ferrandez, Luis; Gil, Enrique; Moreno, Alonso

    2005-01-01

    We conducted a multicentre study, divided into a retrospective and a prospective portion. The retrospective study evaluated osteoporotic hip fractures that occurred during 2002. The prospective study evaluated osteoporotic hip fractures that occurred during May 2003. The study was conducted in 77 hospitals in Spain and comprised patients 60 years of age and over. In the retrospective study we registered 13,195 hip fractures. Of the patients, 74% were women and 26% were men. The mean age was 80.7±8.4 years. The average incidence was 6.94±0.44 hip fractures per 1,000 inhabitants/year (95% CI, 6.07–7.82). In the prospective study, we registered 1,399 hip fractures. This represents a monthly incidence of 0.60±0.04 hip fractures per 1,000 inhabitants/year (95% CI, 0.51–0.69). Of the subjects, 74% were women and 26% were men. The mean age was 81.4±8.1 years. Using these data, we calculated the average annual prevalence in 2003 to be 7.20 fractures per 1,000 inhabitants. Thirty-three percent had previously suffered a hip fracture. Prior to the fracture, only 18% had received medical treatment for osteoporosis. After discharge from the hospital, only 26% were receiving pharmacological treatment for osteoporosis. PMID:16328387

  9. Long-term ELBARA-II Assistance to SMOS Land Product and Algorithm Validation at the Valencia Anchor Station (MELBEX Experiment 2010-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Schwank, Mike; Miernecki, Maciej; Kerr, Yann; Casal, Tania; Delwart, Steven; Fernandez-Moran, Roberto; Mecklenburg, Susanne; Coll Pajaron, M. Amparo; Salgado Hernanz, Paula

    The main activity of the Valencia Anchor Station (VAS) is currently now to support the validation of SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) Level 2 and 3 land products (soil moisture, SM, and vegetation optical depth, TAU). With this aim, the European Space Agency (ESA) has provided the Climatology from Satellites Group of the University of Valencia with an ELBARA-II microwave radiometer under a loan agreement since September 2009. During this time, brightness temperatures (TB) have continuously been acquired, except during normal maintenance or minor repair interruptions. ELBARA-II is an L-band dual-polarization radiometer with two channels (1400-1418 MHz, 1409-1427 MHz). It is continuously measuring over a vineyard field (El Renegado, Caudete de las Fuentes, Valencia) from a 15 m platform with a constant protocol for calibration and angular scanning measurements with the aim to assisting the validation of SMOS land products and the calibration of the L-MEB (L-Band Emission of the Biosphere) -basis for the SMOS Level 2 Land Processor- over the VAS validation site. One of the advantages of using the VAS site is the possibility of studying two different environmental conditions along the year. While the vine cycle extends mainly between April and October, during the rest of the year the area remains under bare soil conditions, adequate for the calibration of the soil model. The measurement protocol currently running has shown to be robust during the whole operation time and will be extended in time as much as possible to continue providing a long-term data set of ELBARA-II TB measurements and retrieved SM and TAU. This data set is also showing to be useful in support of SMOS scientific activities: the VAS area and, specifically the ELBARA-II site, offer good conditions to control the long-term evolution of SMOS Level 2 and Level 3 land products and interpret eventual anomalies that may obscure sensor hidden biases. In addition, SM and TAU that are currently

  10. Mediterranean diet adherence during pregnancy and risk of wheeze and eczema in the first year of life: INMA (Spain) and RHEA (Greece) mother-child cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Chatzi, Leda; Garcia, Raquel; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Basterrechea, Mikel; Begiristain, Haizea; Iñiguez, Carmen; Vioque, Jesus; Kogevinas, Manolis; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-12-14

    Maternal diet during pregnancy might influence the development of childhood allergic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean diet (MD) adherence during pregnancy on wheeze and eczema in the first year of life in two population-based mother-child cohorts in Spain and Greece. We studied 1771 mother-newborn pairs from the Spanish multi-centre 'INMA' (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) study (Gipuzkoa, Sabadell and Valencia) and 745 pairs from the 'RHEA' study in Crete, Greece. The symptoms of wheeze and eczema were based on the criteria of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Maternal diet during pregnancy was assessed by FFQ and MD adherence was evaluated through an a priori score. Multivariate log-binomial regression models were used to adjust for several confounders in each cohort and summary estimates were obtained by a meta-analysis. MD adherence was not associated with the risk of wheeze and eczema in any cohort, and similar results were identified in the meta-analysis approach. High meat intake (relative risk (RR) 1·22, 95 % CI 1·00, 1·49) and 'processed' meat intake (RR 1·18, 95 % CI 1·02, 1·37) during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products was significantly associated with a decreased risk of infantile wheeze (RR 0·83, 95 % CI 0·72, 0·96). The results of the present study show that high meat intake during pregnancy may increase the risk of wheeze in the first year of life, while a high intake of dairy products may decrease it.

  11. Spain: A Study of the Educational System of Spain and Guide to the Academic Placement of Students from Spain in Educational Institutions of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toven, J. Richard

    The educational system of Spain is described, and guidelines concerning students who wish to study in U.S. institutions are provided. After describing primary and secondary education, attention is directed to vocational education, industrial or technical secondary schools, professional trade schools, university education, military education, and…

  12. Comparison and validation of gridded precipitation datasets for Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quintana-Seguí, Pere; Turco, Marco; Míguez-Macho, Gonzalo

    2016-04-01

    In this study, two gridded precipitation datasets are compared and validated in Spain: the recently developed SAFRAN dataset and the Spain02 dataset. These are validated using rain gauges and they are also compared to the low resolution ERA-Interim reanalysis. The SAFRAN precipitation dataset has been recently produced, using the SAFRAN meteorological analysis, which is extensively used in France (Durand et al. 1993, 1999; Quintana-Seguí et al. 2008; Vidal et al., 2010) and which has recently been applied to Spain (Quintana-Seguí et al., 2015). SAFRAN uses an optimal interpolation (OI) algorithm and uses all available rain gauges from the Spanish State Meteorological Agency (Agencia Estatal de Meteorología, AEMET). The product has a spatial resolution of 5 km and it spans from September 1979 to August 2014. This dataset has been produced mainly to be used in large scale hydrological applications. Spain02 (Herrera et al. 2012, 2015) is another high quality precipitation dataset for Spain based on a dense network of quality-controlled stations and it has different versions at different resolutions. In this study we used the version with a resolution of 0.11°. The product spans from 1971 to 2010. Spain02 is well tested and widely used, mainly, but not exclusively, for RCM model validation and statistical downscliang. ERA-Interim is a well known global reanalysis with a spatial resolution of ˜79 km. It has been included in the comparison because it is a widely used product for continental and global scale studies and also in smaller scale studies in data poor countries. Thus, its comparison with higher resolution products of a data rich country, such as Spain, allows us to quantify the errors made when using such datasets for national scale studies, in line with some of the objectives of the EU-FP7 eartH2Observe project. The comparison shows that SAFRAN and Spain02 perform similarly, even though their underlying principles are different. Both products are largely

  13. [Gender, paid work, domestic chores and health in Spain].

    PubMed

    Artazcoz, Lucía; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Cortès, Imma

    2004-01-01

    The present study reviews gender-related differences and inequalities in paid work and domestic chores in Spain. The impact of both types of work on health are analyzed and the main policies of the European Union (EU) and Spain to achieve gender equality at work are described. In Spain, fewer women are in paid work than in other EU countries. The labor market displays horizontal segregation (men and women work in different sectors), as well as vertical segregation (men hold more senior positions), leading to gender-related differences in employment conditions and exposure to occupational hazards. The precariousness of work is significantly higher in women (19% unemployment in women versus 9% in men) and women are more likely than men to have temporary contracts. Men are more frequently exposed to physical risks and suffer a greater number of occupational accidents; women, especially manual workers, are more frequently exposed to psychosocial risks. Most domestic chores continue to be performed by women, even by working women, which negatively affects their health. The EU has made an increase in female employment a priority, which means that from 2000-2010 Spain should create 3 million jobs for women and implement work/family policies. Achieving gender equality at work requires employment policies that would guarantee equal opportunities for both sexes, as well as shared responsibility for domestic chores between men and women. In Spain, moreover, there is an urgent need to significantly increase public childcare facilities and resources for the care of other dependent individuals.

  14. The State of the Art of Group Psychotherapy in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Taboada, Cristina; Amutio, Alberto; Elgorriaga, Edurne; Arnoso, Ainara

    2015-10-01

    (1) What is the history and the theoretical orientation of group therapy in Spain? (2) How is training organized? (3) What role does group psychotherapy play in the health system in Spain? (4) What is the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice in Spain? (5) What topics can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Spain? (6) How are group-related issues important within the social background of Spain? and (7) What does group work hold for the future? Although not even a century has passed since the birth of this discipline, there have already been many events associated with the management of power and knowledge, the development of a sense of community, and the evolution of the political and social life of our country. Group therapy training is still evolving and is properly supported and accredited by prestigious institutions. In the 2013 Symposium of the Spanish Society of Group Psychotherapy and Group Techniques (SEPTG), the need for joint group theories and techniques within the profession's activities was clearly highlighted. Further, the enthusiasm of group psychotherapists to open themselves to specific social perspectives (health, education, community prevention, organizations) is a way of encouraging society to untangle conscious and unconscious knots that are created in social interaction.

  15. The impact of agriculture management on soil quality in citrus orchards in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hondebrink, Merel; Cerdà, Artemi; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the agricultural management of citrus orchard in the Valencia region in E Spain, is changing from traditionally irrigated and managed orchards to drip irrigated organic managed orchards. It is not known what is the effect of such changes on soil quality and hope to shed some light with this study on this transition. It is known that the drip-irrigated orchards built in sloping terrain increase soil erosion (Cerdà et al., 2009; Li et al., 2014) and that agricultural management such as catch crops and mulches reduce sediment yield and surface runoff (Xu et al., 2012; ), as in other orchards around the world (Wang et al., 2010; Wanshnong et al., 2013; Li et al., 2014; Hazarika et al., 2014): We hypothesize that these changes have an important impact on the soil chemical and physical properties. Therefor we studied the soil quality of 12 citrus orchards, which had different land and irrigation management techniques. We compared organic (OR) and conventional (CO) land management with either drip irrigation (DRP) or flood irrigation (FLD). Soil samples at two depths, 0-1 cm and 5-10 cm, were taken for studying soil quality parameters under the different treatments. These parameters included soil chemical parameters, bulk density, texture, soil surface shear strength and soil aggregation. Half of the studied orchards were organically managed and the other 6 were conventionally managed, and for each of these 6 study sites three fields were flood irrigated plots (FLD) and the other three drip irrigated systems (DRP) In total 108 soil samples were taken as well additional irrigation water samples. We will present the results of this study with regard to the impact of the studied irrigation systems and land management systems with regard to soil quality. This knowledge might help in improving citrus orchard management with respect to maintaining or improving soil quality to ensure sustainable agricultural practices. References Cerdà, A., Giménez-Morera, A. and

  16. A participatory assessment of post-fire management alternatives in eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llovet, Joan

    2015-04-01

    Transformational socio-economic changes during the last decades of the 20th century led to the abandonment of mountainous areas in western Mediterranean countries (Puigdefábregas and Mendizábal, 1998). This process was accelerated in the Ayora Valley (inland Valencia province, E Spain) by a major forest fire in 1979. Restoration and management actions were implemented through the 1990's to promote the recovery of the area affected by this fire. In 2010 these past actions were assessed using an integrated and participatory evaluation protocol (IAPro). The selected actions were shrubland regenerated after the fire (no-action); pine plantation over the shrubland; pine forest regenerated after the fire (no-action); and thinning of densely regenerated pines. The assessment involved the identification and engagement of a comprehensive and representative set of local and regional stakeholders who provided a baseline assessment, identified and prioritized essential indicators, considered data collected against those indicators, and participated in re-assessment of actions after an outranking multi-criteria decision aiding integration (MCDA) conducted by the expert team (Roy and Bertier, 1973). This process facilitated a collaborative integration of biophysical indicators (i.e. carbon sequestration, water and soil conservation, soil quality, biodiversity, fire risk and forest health) and socio-economic indicators (i.e. productive, recreational and touristic, aesthetic, and cultural values, cost of the actions, and impact on family finances). It was completed with activities for exchanging experiences and sharing knowledge with the platform of stakeholders. Stakeholder platform suggested that fire risk was the most important indicator, followed by water conservation and soil conservation. Least important indicators were cost of actions, aesthetic value, and recreational and touristic value. Data collected on each action showed the thinned pine forest action with the lowest

  17. Protective factors in patients aged over 65 with stroke treated by physiotherapy, showing cognitive impairment, in the Valencia Community. Protection Study in Older People (EPACV)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Family function may have an influence on the mental health deterioration of the caregivers of dependent family members and it could have a varying importance on the care of dependents. Little attention has been paid to the preparation of minor stroke survivors for the recovery trajectory or the spouse for the caregiving role. Therefore, this study protocol intends to analyze the influence of family function on the protection of patients with stroke sequels needing physiotherapy in the family environment. Methods/Design This is an analytical observational design, prospective cohort study and using a qualitative methodology by means of data collected in the “interviews of life”. The study will be carried out by the Rehabilitation Service at Hospital of Elda in the Valencia Community. All patients that have been diagnosed with stroke and need physiotherapy treatment, having a dependency grade assigned and consent to participate in the study, will undergo a monitoring of one year in order to assess the predictive factors depending on the dependence of the people affected. Discussion Our research aims to analyze the perception of caregivers, their difficulties to work, and the influence of family function. Moreover, it aims to register the perception of the patients with stroke sequel over the care received and whether they feel protected in their family environment. PMID:23039063

  18. An indurated Pleistocene coastal barrier on the inner shelf of the Gulf of Valencia (western Mediterranean): evidence for a prolonged relative sea-level stillstand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Albarracín, Silvia; Montoya Montes, Isabel; Flor-Blanco, Germán; Fontán Bouzas, Ángela; Rey Salgado, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to document and interpret a recently discovered carbonate-cemented coastal barrier on the inner shelf of the Gulf of Valencia (western Mediterranean Sea). The coastal barrier was identified in a high-resolution digital bathymetric model based on a cartographic survey of the study area using a multibeam echosounder. Moreover, radiocarbon dating and petrographic analyses were performed on a rock sample recovered from the seabed. The data reveal the submerged coastal barrier to be approx. 1.7 km wide and 70 km long, and incised by channels of various dimensions. Aligned more or less parallel to the modern coastline, it is interpreted as corresponding to the shoreline of a former sea-level stillstand. The barrier and lagoon system became stranded above sea level in the course of a subsequent forced regression, which also caused the incision of the river courses. Age dating of the cemented rock suggests that the fossil coastal barrier most probably formed during the prolonged Tyrrhenian (Eemian) sea-level highstand, induration taking place by carbonate cementation at the contact between freshwater and seawater (beach-rock formation). The fact that the fossil barrier is today submerged below modern sea level is explained by the sustained subsidence affecting the region.

  19. The effects of the financial crisis and austerity measures on the Spanish health care system: a qualitative analysis of health professionals' perceptions in the region of Valencia.

    PubMed

    Cervero-Liceras, Francisco; McKee, Martin; Legido-Quigley, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The recent financial crisis has seen severe austerity measures imposed on the Spanish health care system. However, the impacts are not yet well documented. We describe the findings from a qualitative study that explored health care professionals' perception of the effects of austerity measures in the Spanish Autonomous Community of Valencia. A total of 21 semi-structured interviews were conducted with health professionals, recorded and fully transcribed. We coded all interviews using an inductive approach, drawing on techniques used in the constant comparative method. Health professionals reported increases in mental health conditions and malnutrition linked to a loss of income from employment and cuts to social support services. Health care professionals perceived that the quality of health care had become worse and health outcomes had deteriorated as a result of austerity measures. Interviewees also suggested that increased copayments meant that a growing number of patients could not afford necessary medication. While a few supported reforms and policies, such as the increase in copayments for pharmaceuticals, most opposed the privatization of health care facilities, and the newly introduced Royal Decree-law 16/2012, particularly the exclusion of non-residents from the health care system. The prevailing perception is that austerity measures are having negative effects on the quality of the health care system and population health. In light of this evidence there is an urgent need to evaluate the austerity measures recently introduced and to consider alternatives such as the derogation of the Royal Decree-law 16/2012.

  20. The white book of radiation oncology in Spain.

    PubMed

    Herruzo, Ismael; Romero, Jesús; Palacios, Amalia; Mañas, Ana; Samper, Pilar; Bayo, Eloísa; Guedea, Ferran

    2011-06-01

    The White Book of Radiation Oncology provides a comprehensive overview of the current state of the speciality of radiation oncology in Spain and is intended to be used as a reference for physicians, health care administrators and hospital managers. The present paper summarises the most relevant aspects of the book's 13 chapters in order to bring the message to a wider audience. Among the topics discussed are the epidemiology of cancer in Spain, the role of the radiation oncologist in cancer care, human and material resource needs, new technologies, training of specialists, clinical and cost management, clinical practice, quality control, radiological protection, ethics, relevant legislation, research & development, the history of radiation oncology in Spain and the origins of the Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR).

  1. [Plan for the Elimination of Measles and Rubella in Spain].

    PubMed

    Limia Sánchez, Aurora

    2015-01-01

    The current Plan for the elimination of measles and rubella is made of the Plan for the elimination of measles in Spain, set up in 2001, and the Surveillance protocol of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome in the phase of elimination, established in 2007. The monitoring of the elimination of both diseases conducted from the European Region of World Health Organization (WHO) has been reinforced since 2010. An annual report with information on the situation of measles and rubella in The Member Estates is being requested since 2013. The Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality nominated a National Committee for Verification of Measles and Rubella Elimination in 2013, for the review and delivery of the requested information. The strategies and activities currently recommended from the WHO European Region, the verification process in Spain, and the steps to follow for the updating of the Plan for the elimination of measles and rubella in Spain are mentioned in this article.

  2. The socioeconomic costs of mental illness in Spain.

    PubMed

    Oliva-Moreno, Juan; López-Bastida, Julio; Montejo-González, Angel Luis; Osuna-Guerrero, Rubén; Duque-González, Beatriz

    2009-10-01

    Mental illness affects a large number of people in the world, seriously impairing their quality of life and resulting in high socioeconomic costs for health care systems and society. Our aim is to estimate the socioeconomic impact of mental illness in Spain for the year 2002, including health care resources, informal care and loss of labour productivity. A prevalence-based approach was used to estimate direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and loss of labour productivity. The total costs of mental illness have been estimated at 7,019 million euros. Direct medical costs represented 39.6% of the total costs and 7.3% of total public healthcare expenditure in Spain. Informal care costs represented 17.7% of the total costs. Loss of labour productivity accounted for 42.7% of total costs. In conclusion, the costs of mental illness in Spain make a considerable economic impact from a societal perspective.

  3. Multiple sclerosis in Gijon health district, Asturias, northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Uria, D F; Abad, P; Calatayud, M T; Virgala, P; Diaz, A; Chamizo, C; Dean, G

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain the prevalence and incidence of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) in a population of 33,775 in two primary health care centres in the sanitary district of Gijon, Asturias, northern Spain. Many information sources were used but the unique advantage of Gijon was that the city has a centralized computerized register of all diagnoses made for all consultations in the clinics and hospitals in the area. The HLA distribution in the population was already known and the Poser classification of MS was used. The crude MS prevalence was 65/100,000, a similar prevalence to that found in southern and eastern Spain, Sicily and Greek-speaking Cyprus. The mean incidence was 3.7/100,000 per year. The study demonstrated the advantage of a centralized and computerized medical recording system and demonstrates that northern Spain is a moderately high or medium MS risk zone.

  4. Regulation and the circulation of knowledge: penicillin patents in Spain.

    PubMed

    Romero de Pablos, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This paper tells the early history of penicillin patenting in Spain. Patents turn out to be useful instruments for analysing the management of knowledge and its circulation in different professional and geographical domains. They protected knowledge while contributing to standardisation. Patents also ensured quality and guaranteed reliability in manufacturing, delivering and prescribing new drugs. They gained special prominence by allowing the creation of a network in which political, economic and business, industrial power, public health and international cooperation fields came together. The main source of information used for this purpose has been the earliest patent applications for penicillin in Spain between 1948 and 1950, which are kept in the Historical Archives of the Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas. The study of these patents for penicillin shows their role as agents in introducing this drug in Spain.

  5. Bluetongue in Spain: from the first outbreak to 2012.

    PubMed

    de Diego, A C Pérez; Sánchez-Cordón, P J; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2014-12-01

    Outbreaks of bluetongue disease have occurred in Spain six times and have been caused by the following serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV), in chronological order: BTV10, BTV2, BTV4, BTV1 and BTV8. Serotypes BTV1, BTV2 and BTV4 may have entered the country in Culicoides transported by wind; BTV8 via infected animal movements; and BTV10 across the Portuguese border. The evolution of each serotype has been different: BTV1, BTV4 and BTV10 spread throughout mainland Spain; BTV2 did not spread from the Balearic Islands to the Iberian Peninsula; and BTV8 has proven very poor at spreading throughout mainland Spain. The significant economic impact of the disease has led authorities to adopt control and eradication measures, which have evolved as new diagnostic tools and vaccines have become available. This review describes BTV infection in Spain, and it focuses on the clinical disease produced by each serotype, the Culicoides species which were present at what time, the origin of the virus and the control measures adopted. In the field, it has proven necessary to vaccinate livestock against each new BTV serotype as it arrived. Therefore, future eradication strategies should focus on developing polyvalent vaccines and vaccines that allow the differentiation of infected and vaccinated animals. As of 1 January 2013, the Iberian Peninsula is considered a restricted area for BTV1, and a small zone in southern Spain is a restricted area for BTV4, which includes the little BTV8 restricted area. Serotypes BTV1 and BTV4 were detected in sentinel animals in January and November and in March 2012, respectively. The last BTV8 positive animal was detected in November 2010, which implies that in the coming months, Spain may be declared free of BTV8.

  6. [Latin Americans in Spain (1981-1994). Estimation of a recent migratory phenomenon].

    PubMed

    Palazon Ferrando, S

    1996-04-01

    The author analyzes characteristics of Latin American migration to Spain during the period 1981-1994. Aspects considered include causes of the increase of Latin American migration to Spain; policies limiting migration to Spain; spatial distribution and sex of immigrants; labor force activity; and country of origin.

  7. [An economic interpretation of some contemporary migrations. The case of Spain].

    PubMed

    Bodega Fernandez, M I; Cebrian De Miguel, J A

    1995-01-01

    Current international migration flows affecting Spain are analyzed from an economic perspective. The main economic causes of international migration in general are first outlined. Trends in Spain over the past 20 years are then analyzed, with particular reference to the problems of regularizing immigrant laborers. The extent of remittances from Spain to Morocco is assessed. The study concludes by summarizing Spanish immigration policies. (ANNOTATION)

  8. 48 CFR 252.229-7013 - Tax exemptions (Spain)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7013 Tax exemptions (Spain)—representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(2), use the following provision: Tax Exemptions (Spain)—Representation (APR 2012)...

  9. 48 CFR 252.229-7013 - Tax exemptions (Spain)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7013 Tax exemptions (Spain)—representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(2), use the following provision: Tax Exemptions (Spain)—Representation (APR 2012)...

  10. What's Going On? An Overview of Adult Education Policies in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucio-Villegas, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I attempt to present the state of adult education in Spain. Adult education in Spain is not unlike that of other countries in Europe in that it focuses on the policies and practices of lifelong learning rather than on the perspectives of people and communities. However, Spain has two specific characteristics that are distinctive…

  11. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an...

  12. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an...

  13. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an...

  14. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an...

  15. 48 CFR 252.229-7013 - Tax exemptions (Spain)-representation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7013 Tax exemptions (Spain)—representation. As prescribed in 229.402-70(e)(2), use the following provision: Tax Exemptions (Spain)—Representation (APR 2012)...

  16. Natural history of Sanfilippo syndrome in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mucopolysaccharidosis type III (MPS III), or Sanfilippo syndrome, is caused by a deficiency in one of the four enzymes involved in the lysosomal degradation of heparan sulphate. Four MPS III types have been recognized, characterized by a large phenotypic heterogeneity. This is the first Spanish study describing the natural history of Sanfilippo patients (MPSIIIA, MPSIIIB and MPSIIIC), representing an essential step for understanding patient prognosis and for the establishment and application of future therapies. Methods This retrospective study aimed to establish the natural history of MPS III in Spain based on an extensive chronological data survey involving physicians and parents of 55 Spanish MPSIII patients. In addition to clinical description we report biochemical and molecular analysis already performed in the majority of cases. Results The most frequent subtype was MPS IIIA (62%). Symptoms before diagnosis were speech delay in 85%, followed by coarse facial features in 78%, and hyperactivity in 65% of cases at a mean age of 3 years old. The median age at clinical and biochemical diagnosis for each MPS III subtype were as follows: IIIA 4.4 years (1.2 – 16 years), IIIB 3.1 years (1–29 years), and IIIC 6.3 years (3.4-22 years). 45% of patients developed epilepsy at a median age of 8.7 (2.5 – 37) years old. Age of death for MPS IIIA patients was 15 years (11.5 – 26 years). Molecular analysis of our cohort reveals, as alluded to above, a great allelic heterogeneity in the three subtypes without clear genotype-phenotype correlations in most cases. Conclusion MPS IIIA is the most frequent subtype in Spanish Sanfilippo patients. Diagnosing physicians should consider Sanfilippo syndrome in children with non-specific speech delay, behavioural abnormalities, and/or mild dysmorphic features. We stress the importance of establishing early diagnosis procedures as soon as possible so as to be able to determine future short-term enzymatic or gene

  17. Studies of pasture production in Extremadura (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murillo Vilanova, M.; González López, F.; Paredes Galán, J.; Prieto Macías, P. M.; Blanco, V. Maya

    2009-04-01

    The region of Extremadura covers more than four million hectares in the South West of Spain, with dehesas occupying almost 1.5 million hectares of its surface. This agro-silvo-pastoral land use system constitutes the most recommendable model for extensive exploitation in Mediterranean areas in which the semiarid climate and the poor, shallow soils are constraints on any other type of agricultural use. It is characterized by a grassland with a disperse cover of oak trees and shrubs, where the main production is extensive livestock combined with agriculture and forestry. The pastures are the basis for animal breeding in the dehesas being these ecosystems of great economic, social as well as environmental value in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula. These facts justify the investigation on pasture improvement and the study on spatial and temporal variations of pasture production in the whole region. Pasture production is quite variable, highly determined by soil and climate conditions. Rainfall variability produces large seasonal and annual variations, with the highest production in spring, low production in autumn and very scarce in winter. During summer, while pastures are wilting, hard seeds stay latent in the soil and gradually germinate in consecutive months. But variability of pasture production in such a heterogeneous ecosystem does not only depend on edaphic and climate conditions, but also on other factors, such as grazing management, improvement measures, fertilization, exploitation infrastructures, stocking rates, etc. The present study, carried out in the framework of the "Montado/Dehesa" INTERREG project, aimed to sample pasture production in Extremadura, in order to provide a large amount of real data for determining the influence of the different factors involved, which will constitute the basis for the developement of a production model. The latter will be integrated into a tool helping to decide on the best practice of dehesa management. Pastures were

  18. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  19. Acculturation Stress and Bullying among Immigrant Youths in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messinger, Adam M.; Nieri, Tanya A.; Villar, Paula; Luengo, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Few bullying studies focus on immigrant youths or acculturation stress as a risk factor for bullying and being bullied. Employing a sample of 1,157 foreign-born secondary students in Spain, we found that acculturation stress was widely experienced, although the average level of stress was moderate. Five percent of the sample reported being…

  20. Deaths from pesticide poisoning in Spain from 1991 to 1996.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Repetto, R; Soria, M L; Gimenez, M P; Menendez, M; Repetto, M

    1998-06-01

    Data on 184 deaths from pesticide poisonings that occurred in Spain from 1991 to 1996 have been collated via a survey from the National Institute of Toxicology, Sevilla. Organophosphates and carbamates accounted for the majority of the cases. Other substances involved were organochlorines such as endosulfan and the herbicide paraquat.

  1. Great Writers of Spain I (Nineteenth Century): 7506.26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The main goal of this course of study is for the student to understand, recognize, and interpret the many changes which occurred in the poetry and prose of Spain at the advent of Romanticism. The student also studies the movements that followed Romanticism: Realism, Regionalism, and Naturalism. Performance objectives, suggested materials, learning…

  2. The social crisis of the Eurozone: the case of Spain.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the consequences of the austerity policies promoted by the European Central Bank, the European Commission, and the International Monetary Fund and applied to the peripheral countries of the Eurozone, including Spain. In addition to deteriorating the economic conditions of these countries, these policies are hurting the social well-being of their populations.

  3. Education and Social Change in Spain: From Crisis to Opportunity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortés-González, Pablo; Rivas-Flores, J.Ignacio; Leite-Méndez, Analía E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses a particular socio-educational experience in a marginalised neighbourhood in Malaga, Spain. This initiative came about as an institutional proposal to combat neoliberal austerity policies and is known as the "Casa de la Buena Vida". It aims to generate new educational practices based on solidarity, dignity and…

  4. Inclusive Education in Spain: Promoting Advocacy by Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Luis, Edurne Chocarro

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the journey of special education in Spain by considering the legal frameworks. It examines the extent to which legislation has tapped into the feelings of society in general towards people with disabilities who wish to secure inclusion in both education and society. It tracks the evolution of legislation, originally based on a…

  5. Vocational Education and Training in Spain. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hidalgo, Carlos Otero; Machado, Andres Munoz; Sanchez, Aitor Marcos

    This monograph on the vocational education and training (VET) system in Spain is one of a series on VET systems in the European Union Member States. Chapter 1 provides this background information: political and administrative structures, population, Spanish economy, and employment. Chapter 2 describes the current education system. Chapter 3 covers…

  6. The Evolution of the University Teaching Staff in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villanueva, Julio R.

    1985-01-01

    The history of university faculty in Spain and the changes brought about by the University Reform Act of 1983 are discussed, including the faculty status as civil servants, faculty hiring, provisions for research opportunities, age distribution, women faculty, and faculty development opportunities. (MSE)

  7. A survey of Rocketry and astronautics in Spain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maluquer, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The entire field of rocketry and astronautics in Spain was studied. Congreve war rockets in military actions were emphasized in the African war, the Cuban campaign and the Spanish Civil War. Rockets in space travel were also summarized along with space science fiction.

  8. Integrating Art Education Models: Contemporary Controversies in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belver, Manuel; Ulln, Ana; Acaso, Mara

    2005-01-01

    In this article, a basic controversy for art education in Spain is analysed, and its antecedents in thought and social and artistic practices are reviewed. The controversy refers to the question whether school art education should be oriented towards the fine arts or towards the manual arts. Consequently, which should be the cultural model of…

  9. First Report of Babesia microti-Caused Babesiosis in Spain.

    PubMed

    Arsuaga, Marta; Gonzalez, Luis M; Lobo, Cheryl A; de la Calle, Fernando; Bautista, Jose M; Azcárate, Isabel G; Puente, Sabino; Montero, Estrella

    2016-10-01

    Babesiosis is an emerging zoonosis now found in several areas of the world. Using PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay, we have diagnosed the first case of human babesiosis caused by Babesia microti in Spain. Diagnosis was delayed because of the nonspecific clinical symptoms that occurred in an immunocompetent patient.

  10. Municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lope, Virginia; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Vidal, Enrique; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Ramis, Rebeca; García-Pérez, Javier; Cabanes, Anna; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Background Spain was the country that registered the greatest increases in ovarian cancer mortality in Europe. This study describes the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality in Spain using spatial models for small-area analysis. Methods Smoothed relative risks of ovarian cancer mortality were obtained, using the Besag, York and Molliè autoregressive spatial model. Standardised mortality ratios, smoothed relative risks, and distribution of the posterior probability of relative risks being greater than 1 were depicted on municipal maps. Results During the study period (1989–1998), 13,869 ovarian cancer deaths were registered in 2,718 Spanish towns, accounting for 4% of all cancer-related deaths among women. The highest relative risks were mainly concentrated in three areas, i.e., the interior of Barcelona and Gerona (north-east Spain), the north of Lugo and Asturias (north-west Spain) and along the Seville-Huelva boundary (in the south-west). Eivissa (Balearic Islands) and El Hierro (Canary Islands) also registered increased risks. Conclusion Well established ovarian cancer risk factors might not contribute significantly to the municipal distribution of ovarian cancer mortality. Environmental and occupational exposures possibly linked to this pattern and prevalent in specific regions, are discussed in this paper. Small-area geographical studies are effective instruments for detecting risk areas that may otherwise remain concealed on a more reduced scale. PMID:18789142

  11. Spain: government orders distribution of clean needles in prisons.

    PubMed

    2002-03-01

    In a previous issue of the Review we published an article about the positive results of the evaluation of the first needle exchange programs in Spanish prisons. Recently it was reported that Spain's Ministry of the Interior has ordered that sterile needles be distributed in prisons.

  12. The Development of Learning to Learn in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Amparo; Martin, Elena

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we describe how the concept of "learning to learn" has developed in Spain, and give you an overview of relevant Spanish projects. First, we sketch out how this approach has developed in Spanish educational laws. We then give examples of research projects, assessment instruments and instructional programmes pertinent to…

  13. Potentially Zoonotic Bartonella in Bats from France and Spain

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Matthew J.; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Cliquet, Florence; Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Servat, Alexandre; Aréchiga-Ceballos, Nidia; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2017-01-01

    We detected Bartonella in 11 of 109 insectivorous bats from France and 1 of 26 bats from Spain. These genetic variants are closely related to bat-associated Bartonella described in Finland and the United Kingdom and to B. mayotimonensis, the agent of a human endocarditis case in the United States. PMID:28221109

  14. NEOSPORA CANINUM ANTIBODIES IN WILD CARNIVORES FROM SPAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 251 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Neospora caninum by the commercial competitive screening enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA) and confirmed by Neospora agglutination test (NAT) and/or by indirect fluorescent antibody test (I...

  15. From Dictatorship to Democracy: History of Education in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viñao, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In a book published in 1995 providing an overview on the state of the art in European educational historiography in Europe, Marie-Madeleine Compère referring to post-Franco Spain, emphasised the "dynamism" and "the capacity to mobilise" that had arisen among Spanish researchers by "any collective initiative." Moving…

  16. Wage Gaps Between the Public and Private Sectors in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lassibille, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Estimates separate earnings equations by employment sector and gender in Spain and identifies returns to human capital, based on 1990-91 household survey data. Public wages are higher, and civil servants more highly educated. However, the public sector pays lower returns to education and experience. Earnings advantage is largest for least skilled…

  17. Presence of Bartonella Species in Wild Carnivores of Northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Gerrikagoitia, Xeider; Gil, Horacio; García-Esteban, Coral; Anda, Pedro; Juste, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Bartonella was detected by PCR in 5.7% (12/212) of wild carnivores from Northern Spain. Based on hybridization and sequence analyses, Bartonella henselae was identified in a wildcat (Felis silvestris), Bartonella rochalimae in a red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and in a wolf (Canis lupus), and Bartonella sp. in badgers (Meles meles). PMID:22138983

  18. Mycobacterium caprae Infection in Livestock and Wildlife, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Sabrina; Bezos, Javier; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Álvarez, Julio; Castellanos, Elena; Moya, Nuria; Lozano, Francisco; Javed, M. Tariq; Sáez-Llorente, José L.; Liébana, Ernesto; Mateos, Ana; Domínguez, Lucas; Tuberculosis, Monitoring of Animal

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium caprae is a pathogen that can infect animals and humans. To better understand the epidemiology of M. caprae, we spoligotyped 791 animal isolates. Results suggest infection is widespread in Spain, affecting 6 domestic and wild animal species. The epidemiology is driven by infections in caprids, although the organism has emerged in cattle. PMID:21392452

  19. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), three of six European wildc...

  20. Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus–associated Meningitis, Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Navarro-Marí, José-María; Sánchez-Seco, María-Paz; Gegúndez, María-Isabel; Palacios, Gustavo; Savji, Nazir; Lipkin, W. Ian; Fedele, Giovanni; de Ory-Manchón, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) was detected in 2 patients with acute meningitis in southern Spain within a 3-year period. Although the prevalence of LCMV infection was low (2 [1.3%] of 159 meningitis patients), it represents 2.9% of all pathogens detected. LCMV is a noteworthy agent of neurologic illness in immunocompetent persons. PMID:22515986

  1. International Briefing 34: Training and Development in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigby, Mike; Ponce Sanz, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    This article locates training and development in Spain within the country's socio-economic context. It maps the major changes which have been introduced into the training and development system since the briefing by Escardíbul and Llinas-Audet published in this journal in 2010. It relates those changes to the ongoing economic crisis which began in…

  2. The Creative Class and the Creative Economy in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Báez, Juan Miguel; Bergua, José Angel; Pac, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an application in Spain of Florida's model (2002/2010, 2005) about creativity, economy and growth. Creativity is an indicator that measures and combines technology, talent, and tolerance. Each of these is composed of three subindices. The most important conclusion from the data reported here is that creativity in particular,…

  3. Family Risk Factors for Adolescent Drug Misuse in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Secades-Villa, Roberto; Fernandez-Hermida, Jose Ramon; Vallejo-Seco, Guillermo

    2005-01-01

    The main objective of this research was to analyze the influence and the differential weight of certain family factors in Spanish adolescent substance abuse. A representative sample of 1,680 students of both sexes from all over Spain took part in the study. The results show that the variables associated with drug consumption are: male,…

  4. Faith in School: Immigrant Families' Attitudes towards Education in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terren, Eduardo; Carrasco, Concha

    2007-01-01

    This paper is based on a preliminary exploration of the in-depth interviews and focus groups that are part of a more extensive research project on the education of children of immigrants in Spain. In the process of migration, families undergo profound transformations that are often complicated by extended periods of separation--not only from…

  5. University Reform in Spain: New Structures for Autonomy and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, James B.

    1985-01-01

    In 1983, Spain's Socialist government enacted the Law for University Reform (LRU), which decentralized university administration and strengthened institutional autonomy as a means of encouraging reform and greater accountability to social needs. Discusses the legacy of the Franco regime, LRU provisions for university organization and governance,…

  6. Evaluation of Hybrid and Distance Education Learning Environments in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Walker, Scott L.; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Fernandez-Pascual, Maria Dolores; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation and validation of the "Distance Education Learning Environments Survey" (DELES) for use in investigating the qualities found in distance and hybrid education psycho-social learning environments in Spain. As Europe moves toward post-secondary student mobility, equanimity in access to higher education,…

  7. The Culture of Discourse on Educational Reform in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teasley, Cathryn

    2004-01-01

    Where the education of subaltern multicultural student collectives is concerned, the case of contemporary developments in the discourse of reform in Spain is particularly poignant. A critical engagement with that discourse and its greater sociocultural context reveals some of the subtle ways in which cultural alterity comes to be represented. And…

  8. Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-31...

  12. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space. PMID:22294904

  13. Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Clones, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre, Luz; Ardanuy, Carmen; Fenoll, Asunción; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Liñares, Josefina

    2004-01-01

    Among 2,882 Streptococcus pneumoniae sent to the Spanish Reference Laboratory during 2002, 75 (2.6%) were ciprofloxacin-resistant. Resistance was associated with older patients (3.9% in adults and 7.2% in patients >65 years of age), with isolation from noninvasive sites (4.3% vs. 1.0%), and with penicillin and macrolide resistance. Among 14 low-level resistant (MIC 4–8 µg/mL) strains, 1 had a fluoroquinolone efflux phenotype, and 13 showed single ParC changes. The 61 high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant (MIC >16 µg/mL) strains showed either two or three changes at ParC, ParE, and GyrA. Resistance was acquired either by point mutation (70 strains) or by recombination with viridans streptococci (4 strains) at the topoisomerase II genes. Although 36 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were observed, 5 international multiresistant clones (Spain23F-1, Spain6B-2, Spain9V-3, Spain14-5 and Sweden15A-25) accounted for 35 (46.7%) of the ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. Continuous surveillance is needed to prevent the dissemination of these clones. PMID:15504260

  14. Small fluxgate magnetometers: development and future trends in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  15. First Report of Babesia microti-Caused Babesiosis in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Arsuaga, Marta; Gonzalez, Luis M.; Lobo, Cheryl A.; de la Calle, Fernando; Bautista, Jose M.; Azcárate, Isabel G.; Puente, Sabino

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Babesiosis is an emerging zoonosis now found in several areas of the world. Using PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assay, we have diagnosed the first case of human babesiosis caused by Babesia microti in Spain. Diagnosis was delayed because of the nonspecific clinical symptoms that occurred in an immunocompetent patient. PMID:27560451

  16. Bagaza Virus in Partridges and Pheasants, Spain, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Agüero, Montserrat; Fernández-Pinero, Jovita; Buitrago, Dolores; Sánchez, Azucena; Elizalde, Maia; San Miguel, Elena; Villalba, Ruben; Llorente, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    In September 2010, an unusually high number of wild birds (partridges and pheasants) died in Cádiz in southwestern Spain. Reverse transcription PCR and virus isolation detected flavivirus infections. Complete nucleotide sequence analysis identified Bagaza virus, a flavivirus with a known distribution that includes sub-Saharan Africa and India, as the causative agent. PMID:21801633

  17. Universal Developmental Screening: Preliminary Studies in Galicia, Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarmiento Campos, Jose A.; Squires, Jane; Ponte, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    "A_Tempo" is a research project that is currently under development in Galicia, an autonomous community of Spain. Its main aim is to propose an effective universal screening procedure for early identification of developmental disorders in children from zero to three years of age who attend Galician pre-primary schools.…

  18. Complementary Pu Resuspension Study at Palomares, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J

    2002-10-01

    Soil in an area near Palomares, Spain, was contaminated with plutonium as a result of a mid-air collision of U.S. military aircraft in January 1966. The assessment for potential inhalation dose can be found in Iranzo et al., (1987). Long-term monitoring has been used to evaluate remedial actions (Iranzo et al., 1988) and there are many supporting studies of the Pu contamination at Palomares that have been carried out by the Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT) in Madrid. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the resuspension of Pu from the soil in terms of Pu-concentrations in air and resuspension rates in a complementary investigation to those of CIEMAT but in an intensive short-term field effort. This study complements the resuspension studies of CIEMAT at Palomares with additional information, and with confirmation of their previous studies. Observed mass loadings (M) were an average of 70 mg/m{sup 3} with peaks in the daytime of 130 mg/m{sup 3} and low values at night below 30 {micro}g/m{sup 3}. The Pu-activity of aerosols (A) downwind of plot 2-1 was 0.12 Bq/g and the enhancement factor (E{sub f}) had a value of 0.3, which is low but similar to a typical value of 0.7 for other undisturbed sites. This E{sub f} value may increase further away from ground zero. The particle size distribution of the Pu in air measured by cascade impactors was approximately lognormal with a median aerodynamic diameter of 3.7 {micro}m and a geometric standard deviation of 3.5 in the respirable range. This peak midway between 1 ? m and 10 {micro}m in the respirable range is commonly observed. Daily fluctuations in the Pu concentration in air (C) detected by the UHV were lognormally distributed with a geometric standard deviation of 4.9 indicating that the 98th percentile would be 24 times as high as the median. Downwind of plot 2-1 the mean Pu concentration in air, C, was 8.5 {micro}Bq/m{sup 3}. The resuspension factor (Sf) was 2.4 x 10

  19. Salinity trends in the Ebro River (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, M.° Angeles; Isidoro, Daniel; Quilez, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    In the Ebro River Basin (Spain), the increase in water diversion for irrigation (following the increase in irrigated area) and the recovery of natural vegetation in the upper reaches, along with climate change have induced changes in the river flow and its associated salt loads. This study was supported by the Ebro River Basin Administration (CHE) and aimed to establish the trends in the salt concentrations and loads of the Ebro River at Tortosa (no 027, the extreme downstream gauging station). The CHE databases from 1972-73 to 2011-12, including mean monthly flows (Q) and concentration readings (electrical conductivity converted to total dissolved solids -TDS- by regression) from monthly grab samples, have been used. The trends were established by (i) harmonic regression analysis; (ii) linear regression by month; and (iii) the non-parametric Mann-Kendall method. Additionally, (iv) the regressions of TDS on Q in the current and previous months were established, allowing for analyzing separately the trends in TDS linked to- (TDSq) and independent of- (TDSaj) the observed changes in flow. In all cases, the trends were analyzed for different periods within the full span 1973-2012 (1973 to 2012, 1981 to 2012, 1990-2012 and 2001-2012), trying to account for periods with sensibly similar patterns of land use change. An increase in TDS was found for all the periods analyzed that was lower as shorter periods were used, suggesting that lower salinity changes might be taking place in the last years, possibly due to the reduction in the rate of irrigation development and to the on-going irrigation modernization process. The higher seasonal TDS increases were found in autumn and winter months and the increase in TDS was linked both to intrinsic changes in salinity (TDSaj) and to the observed decrease in flow (TDSq). On the other hand, the salt loads decreased, especially in autumn, as a result of the observed flow decrease. These results are based on the observed evolution of

  20. Nephrology around Europe: organization models and management strategies: Spain.

    PubMed

    de Francisco, Angel L M; Piñera, Celestino

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this report is to present a picture of the current organization of nephrology in Spain. The Spanish health system offers almost universal coverage, a wide variety of services and a high-quality network of hospitals and primary care centers. Spain has a specialized health care training system that is highly developed, highly regulated, with the capacity to provide high-quality training in 54 different specialties. Nephrology is basically a hospital-based specialty. There are no private dialysis patients in Spain. Hemodialysis centers are 40% public, 15% private and 45% run by companies. The National Health System covers 95% of the population, and there is no cost to patients for treatment of renal disease (dialysis and transplant). We observed a clear decrease of nephrology in residents' election rankings, with position 29 out of 47 specialties in 2007. Some of the reasons for this are the complexity of the subject, no clear information at the university, reduction of professional posts and a very good public service with minimal private practice. In Spain, a model of organization for transplantation was adopted based on a decentralized transplant coordinating network. For cadaveric donors, it compares favorably with rates in other Western countries. Living donor transplantation is very low in Spain--just 10% of total renal transplantation activity. New programs due to financial constraints need to include reduced dialysis costs, greater cost-effectiveness of prescriptions, better handling of ethical issues related to the need for using a clinical score of chronic kidney disease patients to make decisions about conservative or renal replacement therapy and an action plan for improvement of organ donation and transplantation. Recovery of skills (acute kidney injury, biopsies, vascular access, etc.), research and advances in autonomous activities (imaging, surgical and medical vascular training, etc.) are some of the future educational paths needed in

  1. Alternation of secondary metabolites and quality attributes in Valencia Orange fruit ( Citrus sinensis ) as influenced by storage period and edible covers.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, M M; Sharifani, M; Daraei Garmakhany, A; Seifi, E

    2015-04-01

    Flavonoids (FGs) are a large group of polyphenolic compounds with low molecular weight, found in free and glycozidic forms in plants. Citrus fruits can be used as a food supplement containing hesperidin and flavonoids to prevent infections and boost the immune system in human body. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of clove oil and storage period on the amount of hesperidin and naringin component in orange peel (cv. Valencia). Four treatments including clove oil (1 %), wax, mixture of wax-clove oil, control and storage period were applied. Treated fruits were stored at 7 °C and 85 % relative humidity for 3 months and naringin, hesperidin, antioxidant activity, total pheenolic compounds, TSS, Vitamin C, fruits weight loss, pH, acidity and carbohydrates content were measured every 3 weeks. The amount of hesperidin and naringin was determined using high performance liquid chromatography at the detection wavelength of 285 nm. Antioxidant activity was measured using the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Total phenolic compounds were measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu micro method. Results showed that naringin and hesperidin were decreased during storage. Different treatment only had significant effect on the amount of hesperidin while storage period affected both of narigin and hesperidin. Results of correlation study, indicated strong relation between antioxidant activity and amount of naringin and hesperidin during storage time. However, at the end of storage period, the amount of hesperidin and naringin were diminished independent of different covers. Probably anaerobic condition caused such reduction. Results showed that the amount of TSS, fruit hardness, weight loss, total sugar and fructose content were increased during storage period while total acidity, pH and glucose content showed descending trend during storage periods. In conclusion, hesperidin and naringin of peels can be used as

  2. Transcriptional profiling of genes involved in embryogenic, non-embryogenic calluses and somatic embryogenesis of Valencia sweet orange by SSH-based microarray.

    PubMed

    Ge, Xiao-Xia; Chai, Li-Jun; Liu, Zheng; Wu, Xiao-Meng; Deng, Xiu-Xin; Guo, Wen-Wu

    2012-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a most promising technology that is used for in vitro germplasm conservation and genetic improvement via biotechnological approaches in citrus. Herein, three suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed using calluses of Citrus sinensis cv. 'Valencia' to explore the molecular mechanisms that underlie the SE in citrus. A total of 880 unisequences were identified by microarray screening based on these three SSH libraries. Gene ontology analysis of the differentially expressed genes indicated that nucleolus associated regulation and biogenesis processes, hormone signal transduction, and stress factors might be involved in SE. Transcription factors might also play an important role. LEC1/B3 domain regulatory network genes (LEC1, L1L, FUS3, ABI3, and ABI5) were isolated in citrus SE. Some new transcription factors associated with citrus SE, like a B3 domain containing gene and HB4, were identified. To understand the influence of these isolated genes on SE competence, their expression profiles were compared among callus lines of seven citrus cultivars with different SE competence. The expression dynamics suggested that these genes could be necessary for the SE initiation and might play a role in embryogenic competence maintenance in different cultivars. On the basis of gene expression profiles, an overview of major physiological and biosynthesis processes at different developmental stages during citrus SE is presented. For the first time, these data provide a global resource for transcriptional events important for SE in citrus, and the specific genes offer new information for further investigation on citrus SE maintenance and development.

  3. Influence of post-harvest application rates of cyprodinil, treatment time and temperature on residue levels and efficacy in controlling green mould on 'Valencia' oranges.

    PubMed

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Cabras, Paolo; Angioni, Alberto

    2009-07-01

    The effectiveness of heat treatments with water and cyprodinil in controlling post-harvest green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum was investigated on artificially inoculated 'Valencia' oranges. Residue levels of cyprodinil were determined in the oranges as a function of active ingredient concentration, temperature and treatment time. Cyprodinil residues were significantly dependent on treatment time when applied at 600 mg l(-1) and 20 degrees C, but not when fruit were treated at 150-300 mg l(-1). The application of cyprodinil at 50 or 100 mg l(-1) at 55 degrees C for 30 s produced similar residue levels, while residues increased when the application rate was 150 mg l(-1). Cyprodinil at 100 mg l(-1) and 60 degrees C produced a significant increase in residues compared to treatment at 50 mg l(-1); no significant increase in residues was found when the application rate was raised from 100 to 150 mg l(-1). In comparison to treatments performed at 20 degrees C, the application of a heated cyprodinil mixture resulted in significantly higher residues in fruit. All treatments with cyprodinil at 20 degrees C similarly reduced green mould after 7 days of storage at 20 degrees C. After 18 days, treatment with cyprodinil at 600 mg l(-1) for 30 s was more effective than at 150-300 mg l(-1). When dip time was extended to 90 or 180 s, treatment efficacy was positively related to fungicide concentration. Treatments with water at 55 degrees C for 30 s were as effective as cyprodinil at 50-100 mg l(-1), but less effective than cyprodinil at 150 mg l(-1). After 7 days, treatment with water or cyprodinil at 50-150 mg l(-1) and 60 degrees C were equally effective in controlling green mould; while, after 18 days, treatment with cyprodinil at 150 mg l(-1) was consistently more effective than at 50-100 mg l(-1) or hot water alone.

  4. Preventable avoidable mortality: evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in urban areas in Spain, 1996-2003.

    PubMed

    Nolasco, Andreu; Melchor, Inmaculada; Pina, José A; Pereyra-Zamora, Pamela; Moncho, Joaquin; Tamayo, Nayara; García-Senchermes, Carmen; Zurriaga, Oscar; Martínez-Beneito, Miguel A

    2009-09-01

    This study describes the inequalities in preventable avoidable mortality in relation to socioeconomic levels and analyses their evolution during the period 1996-2003 in the cities of Alicante, Castellon and Valencia. Four causes of preventable avoidable mortality were analysed according to sex: malignant tumour of the trachea, bronchus and lung, cirrhosis and other chronic diseases of the liver, motor vehicle accidents and AIDS, which had caused the death of non-institutionalised residents in the three cities during the period 1996-2003. The different census tracts were grouped into three socioeconomic levels. In general, socioeconomic inequalities in preventable avoidable mortality remain constant in time, except the ones caused by AIDS in Valencia, where they increase for men. Some census tracts in the three cities where the study was carried out were found to have significantly higher preventable mortality rates, and therefore require intervention.

  5. On a Lecture Trip to Spain: The Scientific Relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919-1926)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presas i Puig, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919-1926) and the German academic policy that fostered it. The study of the international relations of German science during the 1920s has been carried out using as a basis the archives of scientific institutions. Personal…

  6. Re-emergence of leishmaniasis in Spain: community outbreak in Madrid, Spain, 2009 to 2012.

    PubMed

    Arce, A; Estirado, A; Ordobas, M; Sevilla, S; García, N; Moratilla, L; de la Fuente, S; Martínez, A M; Pérez, A M; Aránguez, E; Iriso, A; Sevillano, O; Bernal, J; Vilas, F

    2013-07-25

    Since July 2009, there has been a community outbreak of leishmaniasis in the south-west area of the Madrid autonomous community, Spain, affecting residents from four towns that are geographically close together and share extensive park areas. As of December 2012, 446 cases were reported (6 in 2009, 97 in 2010, 196 in 2011 and 147 in 2012), a mean incidence rate of 22.2 per 100,000 inhabitants during July 2009 and December 2012. The mean age was 44 years (range: 2 months to 95 years); 61.0% were male. A total of 68 (15.2%) had immunosuppressive conditions; 160 (35.9%) had visceral leishmaniasis and 286 (64.1%) cutaneous. A total of 421 (94.4%) cases were confirmed. Leishmania infantum was identified as the agent. Monitoring revealed high densities of the vector Phlebotomus perniciosus. The surveillance system for canine leishmaniasis did not detect any increase in prevalence during the period. Environmental control measures have been taken, such as improvements in sanitation and disinsection in the risk areas and control of the overpopulation of Leporidae, as xenodiagnosis studies have shown that hares play a role as active reservoirs. This is the largest reported community outbreak of leishmaniasis in Europe. The discovery of the new reservoir stands out in the multifactorial aetiology of the outbreak. Epidemiological research and environmental intervention measures are continuing.

  7. [The university in the development of thoracic surgery in Spain].

    PubMed

    París, Francisco; Balibrea, José Luis

    2005-11-01

    The present article analyzes the figures of the university professors who, from 1911, formed part of one of the basic pillars in the development of "Spanish Thoracic Surgery". At that time, there was a certain amount of infighting between general and specialized surgery, which was resolved by allowing specialization after a period of training in general surgery. Universities should not be denied the great merit of having produced well-trained surgeons with a broad general foundation who would later choose a specialty. The figures of Ricardo Lozano Monzón, Francisco Martín Lagos, José Gascó, Benjamín Narbona, Carlos Carbonell Antolí, Rafael Vara López, Alfonso de la Fuente Chaos and José M. Beltrán de Heredia with their previous training, corresponding precursors and respective schools are described. Their teaching, surgical practice, and scientific activity are also described. A future article based on the contribution of Valencia to the specialty of general thoracic surgery is also outlined.

  8. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST). Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4), 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20) and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21) were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM) samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several European countries, but

  9. Validation of the geographic position of EPER-Spain industries

    PubMed Central

    García-Pérez, Javier; Boldo, Elena; Ramis, Rebeca; Vidal, Enrique; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Pollán, Marina; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2008-01-01

    Background The European Pollutant Emission Register in Spain (EPER-Spain) is a public inventory of pollutant industries created by decision of the European Union. The location of these industries is geocoded and the first published data correspond to 2001. Publication of these data will allow for quantification of the effect of proximity to one or more such plant on cancer and all-cause mortality observed in nearby towns. However, as errors have been detected in the geocoding of many of the pollutant foci shown in the EPER, it was decided that a validation study should be conducted into the accuracy of these co-ordinates. EPER-Spain geographic co-ordinates were drawn from the European Environment Agency (EEA) server and the Spanish Ministry of the Environment (MOE). The Farm Plot Geographic Information System (Sistema de Información Geográfica de Parcelas Agrícolas) (SIGPAC) enables orthophotos (digitalized aerial images) of any territorial point across Spain to be obtained. Through a search of co-ordinates in the SIGPAC, all the industrial foci (except farms) were located. The quality criteria used to ascertain possible errors in industrial location were high, medium and low quality, where industries were situated at a distance of less than 500 metres, more than 500 metres but less than 1 kilometre, and more than 1 kilometre from their real locations, respectively. Results Insofar as initial registry quality was concerned, 84% of industrial complexes were inaccurately positioned (low quality) according to EEA data versus 60% for Spanish MOE data. The distribution of the distances between the original and corrected co-ordinates for each of the industries on the registry revealed that the median error was 2.55 kilometres for Spain overall (according to EEA data). The Autonomous Regions that displayed most errors in industrial geocoding were Murcia, Canary Islands, Andalusia and Madrid. Correct co-ordinates were successfully allocated to 100% of EPER-Spain

  10. Precipitation concentration changes in Spain 1946-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Luis, M.; González-Hidalgo, J. C.; Brunetti, M.; Longares, L. A.

    2011-05-01

    An analysis was made of the Precipitation Concentration Index using the new MOPREDAS database of monthly precipitation in Spain (Monthly Precipitation Data base of Spain). The database was compiled after exhaustive quality control of the complete digitalized Spanish Meterological Agency (AEMet) archives and contains a total set of 2670 complete and homogeneous monthly precipitation series from 1946 to 2005. Thus, MOPREDAS currently holds the densest information available for the 1946-2005 period for Spain and ensures a high resolution of results. The Precipitation Concentration Index (PCI) is a powerful indicator of the temporal distribution of precipitation, traditionally applied at annual scales; as the value increases, the more concentrated the precipitation. Furthermore PCI is a part of the well-known Fournier index, with a long tradition on natural system analyses, as for example soil erosion. In this paper, the mean values of annual, seasonal and wet and dry periods of PCI in the conterminous Spain and for two normal periods (1946-1975 and 1976-2005) were studied. Precipitation in Spain follows a general NW-SE spatial pattern during the wet (months) period due to the Atlantic storm track, while during the dry (months) period, it follows a predominantly N-S spatial pattern. As a result, the annual values of PCI combine the two patterns and show a SW-NE PCI gradient. The analyses of the two sub-periods show significant changes in the precipitation occurred in conterminous Spain from 1946 to 2005, and precipitation concentration increased across most of the IP. At an annual scale, PCI increases mostly due to an increase in precipitation concentration during the wet season. At a seasonal scale significant changes were detected between 1945-1975 and 1976-2005, particularly in autumn (increase of PCI values), while changes in winter, spring and summer were mostly localized and not generalized (both increase and decrease). Changes in PCI seem to be complex and

  11. Soil management, fertilization and plant nutrition in organic systems in Spain: A review of the research in last 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalvez, Victor; Raigon Jiménez, M.° Dolores

    2016-04-01

    The Spanish Society for Agroecology/Organic Farming (SEAE) is a private charity association, founded in 1992, with the purpose to support organic farming practitioners. The principal aim is to join the efforts farmers, technicians and scientifics and others organizations and persons, related to develop sustainable agriculture systems, based on ecological and socioeconomic principles promoted by the international organic farming movement, with the purpose to obtain foods and first resources with high quality, considering the vulnerability of the environment and preserving the soil fertility, with the optimal and adequate use of the local resources, taking in account the rural culture and the ethical value of the social development and the life quality. One of the most relevant and know activity of SEAE is the celebration of one (scientific) Congress every two years. This is the most important event on this issue in Spain. In the last 20 year, eleven events of this kind have been organised in 11 different places (Toledo, Pamplona, Valencia, Córdoba, Gijón-Asturias, Almeria, Zaragoza, Bullas-Murcia, Lleida, Albacete, Vitoria-Gasteiz). The average participation in the Congress was growing up from 100 to 350 persons), from all over Spain. During this events, researchers, advisors, trainers, politicians and operators (farmers, processors, certifiers, marketers, consumers, etc.) shared and update the scientific results, projects in force, political measures, statistics and proposals to develop the organic farming sector Research in organic farming is still low in Spain and the majority of the results in this matter are being presented as papers in this Congresses. Over 1500 papers from over 100 spanish research groups giving information about the research results have been presented in this events, One of the most relevant topic of this research is done on soil conservation, soil fertility and organic crop fertilization and organic matter management in the soil, after

  12. [Controversies surrounding pain and inhalation anesthesia in nineteenth century Spain].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Torres, B; Márquez-Espinós, C; de Las Mulas-Béjar, M

    2001-05-01

    The introduction of inhaled anesthetics to Spain in 1847 brought appearances by enthusiastic promotors, prudent and reserved admirers and stubborn adversaries - sparking controversy over the use of the new gases. In some cases debate involved the discussion of various concepts of pain, as is shown by heated exchanges among Eusebio Castelo Serra, Manuel Santos Guerra and Zacarías Benito González in the pages of the journal Boletín de Medicina, Cirugía y Farmacia, in three articles appearing between 1850 and 1851 on the concept of pain: Sobre el dolor de las enfermedades y principalmente en las operaciones quirúrgicas, Modificación de dos instrumentos and Estudios sobre el dolor. Investigation into the authors' biographies and an analysis of the content of the articles has permitted us to reconstruct some aspects of the concept of pain in Spain in the middle of the nineteenth century.

  13. Explaining social discrimination: racism in Brazil and xenophobia in Spain.

    PubMed

    Camino, Leoncio; Álvaro, José Luis; Torres, Ana Raquel R; Garrido, Alicia; Morais, Thiago; Barbosa, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigates the arguments used by university students in order to explain social differences between social minorities and majorities. In Brazil, the issues investigated refer to White and Black people. In Spain, the reference is to native Spaniards and Moroccan immigrants. The participants were 144 Brazilians and 93 Spaniards, who answered a questionnaire composed of socio-demographic variables and one open question about the causes of social inequalities between Black and White people in Brazil and between autochthonous Spaniards and Moroccan Immigrants. A model is proposed to integrate the four discursive classes found using ALCESTE software. In Brazil, the strongest argument is based on the historical roots of the exploitation of Black people. In Spain, cultural differences are the main explanation for social inequalities.

  14. Nuclear fission technology in Spain: History and social concerns.

    PubMed

    Aliende Urtasun, Ana; Luquin, Asunción; Garrido, Julián J

    2017-04-01

    This research examines the evolution of nuclear technology in Spain from the early years of the Franco dictatorship to the global financial crisis and technology's influence on Spanish culture. To this end, we take a sociological perspective, with science culture and social perceptions of risk in knowledge societies serving as the two elements of focus in this work. In this sense, this article analyses the transformation of social relationships in light of technological changes. We propose technology as a strategic place to observe the institutional and organisational dynamics of technologic-scientific risks, the expert role and Spain's science culture. In addition, more specifically, within the language of co-production, we 'follow the actor' and favour new forms of citizen participation that promote ethics to discuss technological issues.

  15. An empirical approach to estimate soil erosion risk in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martín-Fernández, Luis; Martínez-Núñez, Margarita

    2011-08-01

    Soil erosion is one of the most important factors in land degradation and influences desertification worldwide. In 2001, the Spanish Ministry of the Environment launched the 'National Inventory of Soil Erosion (INES) 2002-2012' to study the process of soil erosion in Spain. The aim of the current article is to assess the usefulness of this National Inventory as an instrument of control, measurement and monitoring of soil erosion in Spain. The methodology and main features of this National Inventory are described in detail. The results achieved as of the end of May 2010 are presented, together with an explanation of the utility of the Inventory as a tool for planning forest hydrologic restoration, soil protection, erosion control, and protection against desertification. Finally, the authors make a comparative analysis of similar initiatives for assessing soil erosion in other countries at the national and European levels.

  16. Bacteremia by Streptobacillus moniliformis: first case described in Spain.

    PubMed

    Torres, L; López, A I; Escobar, S; Marne, C; Marco, M L; Pérez, M; Verhaegen, J

    2003-04-01

    Described here is the case of an 87-year-old man who developed fever, chills and discomfort caused by Streptobacillus moniliformis. This pathogen is one of the causes of rat-bite fever, an uncommon bacterial illness transmitted through a bite or scratch from a rodent or the ingestion of food or water contaminated with rat faeces. Cases of rat-bite fever are rarely reported in Spain. The patient reported no history of rat bite or rodent contact, and the only known risk factor was contact with a dog and a cat that were kept as pets. Streptobacillus moniliformis was isolated in two sets of blood cultures. This case represents what is believed to be the first report of bacteremia due to Streptobacillus moniliformis in Spain.

  17. [Why are pediatric empyemas on the increase in Spain?].

    PubMed

    Martinón-Torres, F; Bernaola Iturbe, E; Giménez Sánchez, F; Baca Cots, M; de Juan Martín, F; Díez Domingo, J; Garcés Sánchez, M; Gómez Campderá, J A; Picazo, J J; Pineda Solas, V

    2008-02-01

    There is a widespread perception among Spanish pediatricians that the incidence of empyema has significantly increased in the last few years, even though the objective information available is limited, and there is no specific active epidemiological surveillance system for this condition. In the present article, we review the situation of empyema in Spain, and discuss the main hypotheses put forward in the international literature to explain this increase, as well as the limitations of the sources available. Despite the scarcity of information, we draw the following conclusions: 1) the incidence of pediatric empyema is increasing in Spain, both generally and when caused by pneumococcus in particular; 2) the reason for this increase remains unknown, and to date no firm link has been established between this phenomenon and the heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine; and 3) this situation justifies the establishment of prospective systems for the surveillance and control of empyema and, once again, highlights the importance of developing active surveillance systems for pneumococcal disease.

  18. Molecular Investigation of Tularemia Outbreaks, Spain, 1997–2008

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Miguel, Jaime; Johansson, Anders; Fernández-Natal, María Isabel; Martínez-Nistal, Carmen; Orduña, Antonio; Rodríguez-Ferri, Elías F.; Hernández, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Tularemia outbreaks occurred in northwestern Spain in 1997–1998 and 2007–2008 and affected >1,000 persons. We assessed isolates involved in these outbreaks by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis with 2 restriction enzymes and multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis of 16 genomic loci of Francisella tularensis, the cause of this disease. Isolates were divided into 3 pulsotypes by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and 8 allelic profiles by multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis. Isolates obtained from the second tularemia outbreak had the same genotypes as isolates obtained from the first outbreak. Both outbreaks were caused by genotypes of genetic subclade B.Br:FTNF002–00, which is widely distributed in countries in central and western Europe. Thus, reemergence of tularemia in Spain was not caused by the reintroduction of exotic strains, but probably by persistence of local reservoirs of infection. PMID:24750848

  19. Sources of information on food consumption in Spain and Europe.

    PubMed

    del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Ruiz Moreno, Emma; Valero Gaspar, Teresa; Rodríguez Alonso, Paula; Ávila Torres, José Manuel

    2015-02-26

    Estimation of food consumption and nutrient intake is a topic of growing interest. Currently, both in Europe and in Spain, there are numerous sources of information on food consumption, that we provide information on different levels: national, household and individual, all of them are useful, but including some limitations, mainly arising from the lack of accurate data on food purchased but not consumed. The data obtained allow, among other things, meet dietary habits, explore the food quality, study the energy and nutrient intake and / or assessing exposure to food risks. Among the existing sources in Spain can highlight two surveys especially useful: the Household Budget Survey of the National Statistics Institute (INE) and Food Consumption Panel Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (MAGRAMA). Both provide for many years food consumption but, lately, only in households. Both European and Spanish would be necessary to improve the usefulness of the data, standardize the type of survey used and could be comparable between them.

  20. [Current epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of endemic mycoses in Spain].

    PubMed

    Buitrago, María J; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis are emerging infections in Spain associated with immigration and travelling. In last three decades a total of 128 cases of histoplasmosis have been reported in Spain, 59 in travellers, 63 in immigrants, three associated to drug abuse, two in laboratory workers, and one in a solid organ transplant receptor. In 1969 the first Spanish case of paracoccidioidomycosis was published and a total of 21 cases have been reported so far. Those patients suffered from the chronic form of the disease with period of latency as long as 50 years. Other endemic mycoses such as blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, lobomycosis, pythiosis and sporotrichosis have not increased in frequency. Microbiological cultures of endemic fungi must be handled in facilities which comply with international biosafety regulations and must also be taken into account for cultures from patients with suspected endemic mycosis.

  1. [Scientific training and professional practice in Vicente Cervantes Mendo's Spain.].

    PubMed

    Villegas, José Pastor

    2010-01-01

    Vicente Cervantes Mendo (Ledrada, Salamanca, 1758 - México, 1829) was a famous Spanish Mexican scientists; he is today heritage of Spain and Mexico. As a continuation of two recent articles on his life at Spain, the present study deals with his scientific formation at madrid, as pharmacist and as botanist, as well as on his professional activity. Two documents of Casimiro Gómez Ortega, principal professor of the Real Jardín Botánico de Madrid, dated in 1786 and related with the "Real Expedición Botánica a Nueva España (1787-1803)," have served to establish conclusions which clarify the subjects studied and correct mistakes.

  2. HTLV infection in HCV-antibody positive patients in Spain.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Ana; Aguilera, Antonio; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel A; Hernandez, Araceli; Benito, Rafael; Roc, Lourdes; Ramos, José Manuel; Ortíz de Lejarazu, Raúl; Poveda, Eva; Rodríguez, Carmen; Del Romero, Jorge; Calderon, Enrique; García, Juan; Requena, Silvia; Soriano, Vincent; de Mendoza, Carmen

    2017-03-07

    Since hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) share transmission routes, dual infection could be frequent. In Spain, HTLV underdiagnosis is highlighted by the high proportion of patients presenting either with tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) or adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) at first diagnosis. We examined whether the renewed efforts for expanding HCV testing may provide a sentinel population that might selectively be targeted to unveil asymptomatic HTLV carriers. The presence of anti-HTLV antibodies was examined in 3,838 consecutive individuals with reactive HCV serology attended during the last three years at 13 hospitals distributed across the Spanish geography. Overall 71% were male and the median age was 41-years old. Foreigners represented 9% of the study population. A total of 50 individuals (1.3%) were seroreactive for HTLV, being 30 confirmed as HTLV-2 and two as HTLV-1 (0.12%). The remaining 18 had indeterminate Western blot patterns. Most individuals with HTLV-2 and HTLV indeterminate serology were HIV-positive, former injection drug users and native Spaniards. In contrast, the two HTLV-1 infections were found in men coming from Brazil and the Dominican Republic, respectively. In summary, the overall prevalence of HTLV infection in individuals living in Spain seropositive for HCV is 1.3%, more than 10-fold greater than in general outclinics in Spain. However, immigrants from HTLV-1 endemic regions and former injection drug users with HTLV-2 infection are by far the major contributory groups in HCV patients. Therefore, testing for HTLV in newly diagnosed HCV individuals would not contribute much to improve late HTLV diagnosis in Spain.

  3. Confirmed case of Zika virus congenital infection, Spain, March 2016.

    PubMed

    Perez, Sonia; Tato, Ruben; Cabrera, Jorge Julio; Lopez, Alberto; Robles, Olga; Paz, Eugenio; Coira, Amparo; Sanchez-Seco, Maria Paz; Vazquez, Ana; Carballo, Raquel; Quintas, Carlos; Pousa, Anxela

    2016-06-16

    We describe Zika virus (ZIKV) vertical transmission in an imported case in Spain, in a 17-week pregnant woman. ZIKV IgG, IgM and RNA were detected in serum in week 17. At 19 weeks, ultrasound scan revealed fetal malformations and ZIKV was detected in the amniotic fluid. Pregnancy was terminated at week 21; autopsy of the fetus revealed bilateral hydrocephalus, brain microcalcifications and arthrogryposis multiplex congenita. ZIKV was detected in the umbilical cord and brain tissue.

  4. [The journal of A.V. Humboldt in Spain].

    PubMed

    Leitner, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish diary can surprisingly not be found in his bounded diaries from his American travels, but in a separate folder of his legacy in Berlin, where Humboldt collected material which he wanted to use for his publication about Spain. So it remained undiscovered until recently. Humboldt's notes contain geognostic descriptions as well as his observations about climate, vegetation, electricity of the atmosphere, etc. The comparison with Humboldt's publication of 1825 facilitates to gain insight into his scientific methods.

  5. Penzigomyces catalonicus, a new species of hyphomycetes from Spain.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Sierra, Angel; Gené, Josepa; Calduch, Misericordia; Guarro, Josep

    2004-01-01

    Penzigomyces catalonicus sp. nov., collected on dead branches of an unknown tree species in Spain, is described and illustrated. This fungus is characterized by short, dark brown, percurrent conidiophores, usually doliiform conidiogenous cells and ellipsoidal or slightly obclavate, (2-)3-4(-6) euseptate, thin-walled conidia. The new taxon is compared with species from other morphologically similar genera, and a key to the known species of Penzigomyces is provided.

  6. Transferrin gene frequencies in Cádiz (southern Spain).

    PubMed

    Gamero, J J; Romero, J L; Vizcaya, M A; Arufe, I

    1990-12-01

    The genetic polymorphism of transferrin (Tf) was studied in a sample of 385 healthy unrelated subjects of both sexes resident in the province of Cádiz (southern Spain). Isoelectric focusing was carried out in polyacrylamide gels, followed by staining with Coomassie Blue R250. The gene frequencies obtained were as follows: Tf C1, 0.7922; Tf C2, 0.1883; Tf C3, 0.0195.

  7. Ecological compensation and Environmental Impact Assessment in Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Villarroya, Ana; Puig, Jordi

    2010-11-15

    To achieve meaningful sustainable development, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) should avoid the net losses in the environment resource base. But EIA practice does not always avoid the losses caused by the implementation of the projects under EIA regulation. Some environmental impacts are, simply, admitted, even without enforcing any form of compensation. When applied, compensation is sometimes just a monetary payment to offset the environmental loss. This paper looks for evidence on the role that compensation is given at present in EIA practice in Spain, and for some of its conceptual and regulatory roots. Specifically, it explores how compensation is addressed in 1302 records of decision (RODs) on those projects subject to the Spanish EIA regulation published during the years 2006 and 2007, to know how far Spain is from preserving the environmental resource base managed through this particular aspect of EIA practice. As a result, it is concluded that the practice of ecological compensation in EIA in Spain is much lower than it could be expected in a theoretical sustainability context committed to avoid net losses in the environment resource base, mainly due to an EIA practice focused on on-site mitigation that allows these net losses.

  8. Municipal mortality due to thyroid cancer in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lope, Virginia; Pollán, Marina; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Aragonés, Nuria; Ramis, Rebeca; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01

    Background Thyroid cancer is a tumor with a low but growing incidence in Spain. This study sought to depict its spatial municipal mortality pattern, using the classic model proposed by Besag, York and Mollié. Methods It was possible to compile and ascertain the posterior distribution of relative risk on the basis of a single Bayesian spatial model covering all of Spain's 8077 municipal areas. Maps were plotted depicting standardized mortality ratios, smoothed relative risk (RR) estimates, and the posterior probability that RR > 1. Results From 1989 to 1998 a total of 2,538 thyroid cancer deaths were registered in 1,041 municipalities. The highest relative risks were mostly situated in the Canary Islands, the province of Lugo, the east of La Coruña (Corunna) and western areas of Asturias and Orense. Conclusion The observed mortality pattern coincides with areas in Spain where goiter has been declared endemic. The higher frequency in these same areas of undifferentiated, more aggressive carcinomas could be reflected in the mortality figures. Other unknown genetic or environmental factors could also play a role in the etiology of this tumor. PMID:17173668

  9. Anophelism in a Former Malaria Area of Northeastern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Bueno-Marí, Rubén; Jiménez-Peydró, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Background: A field study on diversity and distribution of anophelines currently present in a past endemic malaria area of Spain was carried out in order to identify possible risk areas of local disease transmission. Methods: Multiple larval sites were sampled from June to October of 2011 in the Region of Somontano de Barbastro (Northeastern Spain). The sampling effort was fixed at 10 minutes which included the active search for larvae in each biotope visited. Results: A total of 237 larval specimens belonging to four Anopheles species (Anopheles atroparvus, An. claviger, An. maculipennis and An. petragnani) were collected and identified. Conclusions: Malaria receptivity in the study area is high, especially in the area of Cinca river valley, due to the abundance of breeding sites of An. atroparvus very close to human settlements. Although current socio-economic conditions in Spain reduce possibilities of re-emergence of malaria transmission, it is evident that certain entomological and epidemiological vigilance must be maintained and even increased in the context of current processes of climate change and globalization. PMID:24409440

  10. Psychological adaptation of Moroccan and Ecuadorean immigrant adolescents in Spain.

    PubMed

    Briones, Elena; Verkuyten, Maykel; Cosano, Juan; Tabernero, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    In adapting to the host society, immigrant adolescents may have problems negotiating the challenges of acculturation. The factors that promote and those that hamper psychological adaptation may not play the same role in all ethnic groups. Our study focuses on psychological adaptation of two main immigrant groups in Spain that differ in cultural distance to the host society and level of societal acceptance: adolescents of Moroccan and Ecuadorean origin. Our findings show, first, that mainstream cultural orientation is positively related to psychological adaptation, whereas perceived ethnic discrimination is negatively associated with adaptation. Second, the relationship between ethnic cultural orientation and psychological adaptation and between length of residence in Spain and adaptation is stronger for the Moroccan youth than for their Ecuadorean peers. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed. This manuscript was prepared and written while the first author was affiliated to the University of Cordoba in Spain and financially supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation within the framework of a National Program of Human Recourses' Mobility (I+D+I 2008-2011). Data collection was financially supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Technology (I+D BSO2003-09222).

  11. Charging systems and PAYT experiences for waste management in Spain.

    PubMed

    Puig-Ventosa, I

    2008-12-01

    Municipal waste charges in Spain are very widespread, although their application varies significantly among different municipalities. Most commonly, waste charges are implemented as a flat rate, but some of them depend on indicators such as household water consumption, the land area of the property or the value of the real estate. Only one residential pay-as-you-throw scheme has been applied so far. It was a pay-per-bag scheme implemented in Torrelles de Llobregat, Barcelona. A number of other systems focussing only on commercial waste have been implemented in Spain. Several factors suggest that new pay-as-you-throw schemes will be adopted in the near future. In 2000 no municipalities had door-to-door collection schemes; since then over 70 municipalities have implemented them. In addition to this, some regions encourage the separate collection of commercial waste, by means of doorstep schemes. In all of these areas, variable charging systems could be easily adopted. Additionally, regarding waste charges, the National Waste Plan (2000-2006) advocated for the implementation of "pilot experiences for the quantitative application of the polluter-pays-principle". The tendency towards these variable charging systems in Europe will also favour their introduction in Spain.

  12. Origin of intraformational folds in the Jurassic Todilto Limestone, Ambrosia Lake uranium mining district, McKinley and Valencia counties, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Todilto Limestone of Middle Jurassic age in the Ambrosia Lake uranium mining district of McKinley and Valencia Counties, New Mexico, is the host formation for numerous small- to medium-sized uranium deposits in joints, shear zones, and fractures within small- to large-scale intraformational folds. The folds probably were formed as a result of differential sediment loading when eolian sand dunes of the overlying Summerville Formation of Middle Jurassic age migrated over soft, chemically precipitated, lime muds of the Todilto shortly after their deposition in a regressive, mixed fresh and saline lacustrine or marine environment of deposition. Encroachment of Summerville eolian dunes over soft Todilto lime muds was apparently a local phenomenon and was restricted to postulated beltlike zones which trended radially across the Todilto coastline toward the receding body of water. Intraformational folding is believed to be confined to the pathways of individual eolian dunes or clusters of dunes within the dune belts. During the process of sediment loading by migrating sand dunes, layers of Todilto lime mud were differentially compacted, contorted, and dewatered, producing both small- and large-scale plastic deformation structures, including convolute laminations, mounds, rolls, folds, and small anticlines and synclines. With continued compaction and dewatering, the mud, in localized areas, reached a point of desaturation at which sediment plasticity was lost. Prolonged loading by overlying dune sands thus caused faulting, shearing, fracturing, and jointing of contorted limestone beds. These areas or zones of deformation within the limestone became the preferred sites of epigenetic uranium mineralization because of the induced transmissivity created by sediment rupture. Along most of the prograding Todilto coastline, adjacent to the eolian dune belts, both interdune and coastal sabkha environments dominated during Todilto-Summerville time. Sediments in coastal areas

  13. Novel and recurrent BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations in early onset and familial breast and ovarian cancer detected in the Program of Genetic Counseling in Cancer of Valencian Community (eastern Spain). Relationship of family phenotypes with mutation prevalence.

    PubMed

    de Juan Jiménez, Inmaculada; García Casado, Zaida; Palanca Suela, Sarai; Esteban Cardeñosa, Eva; López Guerrero, José Antonio; Segura Huerta, Ángel; Chirivella González, Isabel; Sánchez Heras, Ana Beatriz; Juan Fita, Ma José; Tena García, Isabel; Guillen Ponce, Carmen; Martínez de Dueñas, Eduardo; Romero Noguera, Ignacio; Salas Trejo, Dolores; Goicoechea Sáez, Mercedes; Bolufer Gilabert, Pascual

    2013-12-01

    During the first 6 years of the Program of Genetic Counselling in Cancer of Valencia (eastern Spain), 310 mutations (155 in BRCA1 and 155 in BRCA2) in 1,763 hereditary breast (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC) families were identified. Of the mutations found 105 were distinct (53 in BRCA1 and 52 in BRCA2), eight new and 37 recurrent. Two of the novel mutations were frame-shift placed in exons 2 and 11 of BRCA1 and the remaining six were placed in BRCA2; four frame-shift (three in exon 11 and one in exon 23), one deletion of the entire exon 19 and one in the intervening sequence of exon 22. The BRCA1 mutations with higher recurrence were c.66_68delAG, c.5123C > A, c.1961delA, c.3770_3771delAG and c.5152+5G > A that covered 45.2% of mutations of this gene. The age of onset of BCs of c.68_69delAG mutation carriers occurs later than for the other recurrent mutations of this gene (45 vs. 37 years; p = 0.008). The BRCA2 mutations with higher recurrence were c.9026_9030delATCAT, c.3264insT and c.8978_8991del14 which represented 43.2% of all mutations in this gene, being the most recurrent mutation by far c.9026_9030delATCAT that represents 21.3% of BRCA2 mutations and 10.6% of all mutations. Probands with family histories of BC and OC, or OC and/or BC in at least two first degree relatives, were the more likely to have BRCA1/BRCA2 mutations (35.2% of the total mutations). And that most BRCA1mutations (73.19% mutations) occurred in probands with early-onset BC or with family history of OC.

  14. Molecular analysis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Rickettsia in Hyalomma marginatum ticks removed from patients (Spain) and birds (Spain and Morocco), 2009-2015.

    PubMed

    Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Mazuelas, David; Roncero, Lidia; Arizaga, Juan; Crespo, Ariñe; Gutiérrez, Óscar; Márquez, Francisco J; Cuadrado, Juan F; Eiros, José M; Oteo, José A

    2016-07-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected in Spain in 2010. The presence of CCHFV in Hyalomma marginatum ticks from migratory birds passing through Morocco during the spring migration strengthened the hypothesis of the arrival of infected ticks transported by birds to the Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, Hyalomma species are vectors of bacterial infections such as spotted fever rickettsioses. CCHFV and Rickettsia were screened in Hyalomma ticks from Spain attached to patients (n=12) and birds (n=149). In addition, Rickettsia was investigated in 52 Hyalomma ticks from Morocco (previously reported as CCHFV-infected). No sample collected in Spain showed an infection with CCHFV. Two ticks removed from patients (16.7%), as well as 47 (31.5%) and 4 (7.7%) from birds, collected in Spain and Morocco respectively, were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii. Rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae was also found in 2 ticks from birds collected in Spain (1.3%). The risk of CCHFV-infected ticks attached to migratory birds to reach the North of Spain is low. This study corroborates the presence of R. aeschlimannii in Spain and Morocco, and supports that H. marginatum can be a potential vector of R. sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae in the Iberian Peninsula.

  15. Economic evaluation of Chagas disease screening in Spain.

    PubMed

    Imaz-Iglesia, Iñaki; Miguel, Lucía García-San; Ayala-Morillas, L Eduardo; García-Pérez, Lidia; González-Enríquez, Jesús; Blasco-Hernández, Teresa; Martín-Águeda, María Belén; Sarría-Santamera, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Although Spain is the European country with the highest Chagas disease burden, the country does not have a national control program of the disease. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of several strategies for Chagas disease screening among Latin American residents living in Spain. The following screening strategies were evaluated: (1) non-screening; (2) screening of the Latin American pregnant women and their newborns; (3) screening also the relatives of the positive pregnant women; (4) screening also the relatives of the negative pregnant women. A cost-utility analysis was carried out to compare the four strategies from two perspectives, the societal and the Spanish National Health System (SNHS). A decision tree representing the clinical evolution of Chagas disease throughout patient's life was built. The strategies were compared through the incremental cost-utility ratio, using euros as cost measurement and quality-adjusted life years as utility measurement. A sensitivity analysis was performed to test the model parameters and their influence on the results. We found the "Non-screening" as the most expensive and less effective of the evaluated strategies, from both the societal and the SNHS perspectives. Among the screening evaluated strategies the most efficient was, from both perspectives, to extent the antenatal screening of the Latin American pregnant women and their newborns up to the relatives of the positive women. Several parameters influenced significantly on the sensitivity analyses, particularly the chronic treatment efficacy or the prevalence of Chagas disease. In conclusion, for the general Latin American immigrants living in Spain the most efficient would be to screen the Latin American mothers, their newborns and the close relatives of the mothers with a positive serology. However for higher prevalence immigrant population the most efficient intervention would be to extend the program to the close relatives of the negative

  16. Phthalate occurrence in rivers and tap water from central Spain.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Morueco, N; González-Alonso, S; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence and concentrations of the main phthalates in water from the Jarama and Manzanares rivers in the region of Madrid (RM, Central Spain), the most densely populated region of Spain, and to determine the possible oestrogenic activity based on found phthalate concentration. The presence of phthalates in major supply drinking water areas of the RM was also analysed, thus allowing a preliminary assessment of the health risks resulting from the concentrations obtained. The results of this study show the presence of the three (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)) of five phthalates studied (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)). The DBP was found in both river and tap water samplers, whereas DMP and DEP were found in only drinking water samples. The DBP was found to make the highest average contribution to pollution in both river and tap water. The DEHP was not found in both the river and tap water because it is one of the most regulated phthalates. The highest phthalate contamination was found in the Manzanares river and in those areas that receive treated water from the Tagus river. The phthalates found in river and tap water in the RM do not represent a potential oestrogenic risk for the aquatic environment or humans. A preliminary risk assessment suggested that the risk of exposure to phthalates from tap water in this study is acceptable, although continuous monitoring of the presence of these substances in both drinking and river water should be undertaken to detect possible increases in their concentrations. This is the first study to analyse the presence of phthalates in both rivers and drinking water of the centre of Spain.

  17. Costs, outcomes and challenges for diabetes care in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes is becoming of increasing concern in Spain due to rising incidence and prevalence, although little information is known with regards to costs and outcomes. The information on cost of diabetes in Spain is fragmented and outdated. Our objective is to update diabetes costs, and to identify outcomes and quality of care of diabetes in Spain. Methods We performed systematic searches from secondary sources, including scientific literature and government data and reports. Results Diabetes Type II prevalence is estimated at 7.8%, and an additional 6% of the population is estimated to be undiagnosed. Four Spanish diabetes cost studies were analyzed to create a projection of direct costs in the NHS and productivity losses, estimating €5.1 billion for direct costs along with €1.5 billion for diabetes-related complications (2009) and labour productivity losses represented €2.8 billion. Glycemic control (glycolysated hemoglobin) is considered acceptable in 59% of adult Type II cases, in addition to 85% with HDL cholesterol ≥40mg/dl and 65% with blood pressure <140/90 mmHg, pointing to good intermediate outcomes. However, annual figures indicate that over half of the Type II diabetics are obese (BMI >30), 15% have diabetic retinopathy, 16% with microalbuminuria, and 15% with cardiovascular disease. Conclusions The direct health care costs (8% of the total National Health System expenditure) and the loss of labour productivity are high. The importance of a multi-sectoral approach in prevention and improvements in management of diabetes are discussed, along with policy considerations to help modify the disease course. PMID:23635075

  18. Burden of disease due to cancer in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Álvarez-Martín, Elena; Morant-Ginestar, Consuelo; Gènova-Maleras, Ricard; Gil, Ángel; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    Background Burden of disease is a joint measure of mortality and morbidity which makes it easier to compare health problems in which these two components enjoy different degrees of relative importance. The objective of this study is ascertaining the burden of disease due to cancer in Spain via the calculation of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Methods DALYs are the sum of years of life lost due to premature mortality and years lost due to disability. World Health Organization methodology and the following sources of data were used: the Mortality Register and Princeton Model Life Table for Years of life lost due to premature mortality and population, incidence estimates (Spanish tumour registries and fitting of generalized linear mixed models), duration (from data of survival in Spain from the EUROCARE-3 study and fitting of Weibull distribution function) and disability (weights published in the literature) for Years lost due to disability. Results There were 828,997 DALYs due to cancer (20.5 DALYs/1,000 population), 61% in men. Of the total, 51% corresponded to lung, colorectal, breast, stomach and prostate cancers. Mortality (84% of DALYs) predominated over disability. Subjects aged under 20 years accounted for 1.6% and those aged over 70 years accounted for 30.1% of DALYs. Conclusion Lung, colorectal and breast cancers are responsible for the highest number of DALYs in Spain. Even if the burden of disease due to cancer is predominantly caused by mortality, some cancers have a significant weight of disability. Information on 2000 burden of disease due to cancer can be useful to assess how it has evolved over time and the impact of medical advances on it in terms of mortality and disability. PMID:19183440

  19. Cost of Disorders of the Brain in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Parés-Badell, Oleguer; Barbaglia, Gabriela; Jerinic, Petra; Gustavsson, Anders; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Alonso, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background Brain disorders represent a high burden in Europe and worldwide. The objective of this study was to provide specific estimates of the economic costs of brain disorders in Spain, based on published epidemiological and economic evidence. Methods A cost-of-illness study with a societal perspective of 19 brain disorders was carried out. Cost data published between 2004 and 2012 was obtained from a systematic literature review. Direct healthcare, direct non-medical and indirect costs were considered, prioritizing bottom-up information. All costs were converted to Euro and to year 2010. The missing values were imputed with European estimates. Sensitivity analyses based on qualitative assessment of the literature and on a Monte Carlo simulation were performed. Results The review identified 33 articles with information on costs for 11 disorders (8 neurological, 3 mental). The average per–patient cost ranged from 36,946 € for multiple sclerosis to 402 € for headache. The societal cost of the 19 brain disorders in Spain in 2010 was estimated in 84 € billion. Societal costs ranged from 15 € billion for dementia to 65 € million for eating disorders. Mental disorders societal cost were 46 € billions (55% of the total), while neurological disorder added up to 38 € billion. Healthcare costs represented 37% of the societal costs of brain disorders, whereas direct non-medical constituted 29% and indirect costs 33%. Conclusion Brain disorders have a substantial economic impact in Spain (equivalent to almost 8% of the country's GDP). Economic data on several important brain disorders, specially mental disorders, is still sparse. PMID:25133395

  20. The population genetics of maize dwarf mosaic virus in Spain.

    PubMed

    Achon, M A; Larrañaga, A; Alonso-Dueñas, N

    2012-12-01

    The population genetics of maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) in Spain was assessed by analysis of the P1-HC region. Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 363 isolates revealed that the MDMV population consisted of 69 haplotypes. Sequence analysis of 112 isolates confirmed a high degree of nucleotide sequence diversity (0.143), which was higher for P1 than for the HC. Twelve sequences showed a single different recombination event. Selection pressure analysis revealed that the P1-HC region was under strong negative selection. The MDMV population was spatially structured but not structured temporally or by host. Phylogenetic analysis split the sequences into five major groups.

  1. South-North migration. The case of Spain.

    PubMed

    Bodega Fernandez, I; Cebrian De Miguel, J A; Franchini Alonso, T; Lora-tamayo D'ocon, G; Martin Lou, A

    1995-01-01

    "International migrations caused by socio-economic and demographic reasons, especially from underdeveloped countries to the rich and prosperous areas of the globe are discussed with the focus on Western Europe and particularly on Maghrebi immigration to Spain. Emigration of the people from a backward region even increases the deterioration of [the] local economy, provoking stagnation and inflation. Therefore emigration only can not be seen as an economic take-off for sustained economic development over the frontier areas between developed and depressed territories. Related social questions as well as economic, religious and political may add factors affecting the structural balance of the societies concerned."

  2. [Toward healthy offspring: early prenatal testing in Spain].

    PubMed

    Santesmases, María Jesús

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with prenatal diagnosis practices in Spain. For pursuing this aim it reviews both literature on the origins of these practices in foreign countries as well as some of the early publications by Spanish practitioners. Those publications appeared to be connected to previous genetic testing in children such as the case of Down syndrome. Socio-political norms and values of Franco's regime together with clinicians' interests on introducing new testing techniques resulted in the stabilization of these practices associated to a reconceptualisation of pregnancy. Although prenatal diagnosis techniques made the body of pregnant women invisible, women's bodies remained at the core of the technicalisation of contemporary reproductive options.

  3. Pulmonary vascular lesions in the toxic oil syndrome in Spain.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Segoviano, P; Esteban, A; Martínez-Cabruja, R

    1983-01-01

    A histological study was made of pulmonary arteries at the necropsies of nine patients who died after the ingestion of denatured rapeseed oil during the epidemic which occurred in Spain in May 1981. Lesions found in the elastic pulmonary arteries were characterised by pronounced intimal proliferation of an oedematous nature, accumulation of large vacuolated cells within the media, and loss of vascular smooth muscle. In muscular pulmonary arteries there was pronounced medial hypertrophy and intimal proliferation, which was so severe in one case that it completely occluded the arterial lumen. Foamy cells were found in the intima. Muscularisation was seen in the walls of pulmonary arterioles. Images PMID:6648850

  4. Ideal men: masculinity and decline in seventeenth-century Spain.

    PubMed

    Lehfeldt, Elizabeth A

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how the experience and critique of their country's decline led Spaniards to craft a distinct discourse of masculinity in the seventeenth century. As they self-consciously examined Spain's crisis and offered political and economic solutions, these same writers also offered a scathing critique of standards of masculinity. Using the figure of the ideal nobleman as a case study, the article examines how moralists, arbitristas, and hagiographers constructed a dynamic code of manhood linked to questions of productivity, male chastity, and military performance. Further, it argues that this discourse was ultimately nostalgic and failed to adapt itself to the circumstances of the seventeenth century.

  5. Orally ingestion of krokodil in Spain: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Baquero Escribano, Abel; Beltrán Negre, María Teresa; Calvo Orenga, Gema; Carratalá Monfort, Sonia; Arnau Peiró, Francisco; Meca Zapatero, Sara; Haro Cortés, Gonzalo

    2016-06-14

    The krokodil use disorder is an addictive pathology with quite severe organic effects, especially at the skin level, that causes severe and degenerative necrosis of blood and muscle tissue. Though this disorder has a low prevalence in Spain, compared to the large number of consumers in other countries such as Ukraine or Russia, its consumption is slowly but gradually expanding in countries of the European Union and America. The simplicity of the process of obtaining the substance from desomorphine, together with its high availability and low cost, contribute toward consumers' self-sufficiency. This article presents the case of a user of krokodil and reviews the clinical symptoms of oral ingestion.

  6. [The beginnings of public health studies in Renaissance Spain].

    PubMed

    López Piñero, José María

    2006-01-01

    A very brief synthesis is provided of the findings of the historical research the author first began more than forty years ago as to the initial beginnings of the studies on public health in Renaissance Spain. The role played by royal power from the standpoint of the beginnings of the modern State, the influence of Hippocratic environmentalism, keeping up cleanliness-related privileges at the personal level, the first beginnings of hygiene on a widespread basis in related to the plague epidemics and the contributions to medical care conditioned by the change in poverty-related values are discussed in turn.

  7. [Toward a New Immunization Schedule in Spain, 2016 (Part 2)].

    PubMed

    Navarro-Alonso, José Antonio; Taboada-Rodríguez, José Antonio; Limia-Sánchez, Aurora

    2016-03-08

    Immunization schedules are intrinsically dynamic in order to embed the immunologic and epidemiologic changes in any specific geographic Region. According to this, the current study addresses a proposal to modify the Childhood Immunization Schedule in Spain. In order to move from a three plus one schema to a two plus one, we undertake a review of the available literature to explore the immunological and clinical rationale behind this change, including an overview of the potential impact on this schedule of premature infants. Additionally, some recommendations are made regarding those Spanish regions which start hepatitis B vaccination at the newborn period.

  8. [Shigella sonnei outbreak in a school in Northern Spain].

    PubMed

    Artieda, Juncal; Manterola, Jose Maria; Tolosa, Elena; Moreno, Belen; Alustiza, Jesus; Astigarraga, Uxue; Botello, Rene; Arostegui, Nerea; Basterrechea, Mikel

    2015-03-01

    In October 2012, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis caused by Shigella sonnei was detected in a nursery and primary school in the north of Spain affecting 112 people: 63.7% were pupils and teachers and 35.7% their co-habitants. The source was a sick child who had travelled to an endemic country, and the key trigger factor was inadequate hygiene in one of the toilets of the school. The enforcement of strict hygiene measures was essential for controlling the outbreak.

  9. [Aging at home with telecare in Spain. A dicourse analysis].

    PubMed

    Aceros, Juan C; Cavalcante, Maria Tereza Leal; Domènech, Miquel

    2016-08-01

    Caring for the elderly is turning to forms of community care and home care. Telecare is one of those emergent modalities of caring. This article will explore the meanings that older people give to the experience of staying at home in later life by using telecare. Discourse analysis is used to examine a set of focus groups and interviews with telecare users from different cities of Catalonia (Spain). The outcomes include three interpretative repertoires that we called: "Aging at home", "normal aging" and "unsafe aging". For each repertoire we examine how the permanence of older people in their homes is accounted, and which role telecare plays in such experience.

  10. [Multi-resistant strains of Salmonella typhi in Spain].

    PubMed

    Usera, M A; Aladueña, A; Jaime, M L; Raya, C; Fuster, C; Planes, A; Bartolomé, R M

    1992-11-01

    Most Salmonella typhi isolated in Spain are susceptible to antibiotics commonly used in its treatment as chloramphenicol, ampicillin and cotrimoxazole. Three multiresistant strains have been isolated from different patients the last two years. Two phage type M1, biotype xylose tetrationate + strains were isolated from blood of two patients in Bembibre (León). One phage type E1a biotype xylose + tetrationate reductase + strain was isolated from blood and faeces of one patient in Barcelona. All strains harboured a 79 Mdal plasmid responsible for multiresistance, chloramphenicol acetyl transferase production and conjugative.

  11. A GIS-based model for the hydrological and hydraulic reconstruction of historical flash-floods in urban areas. The case of the river Turia in Valencia (1957)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portugués Mollá, Iván; Felici, Xavier Bonache i.; Mateu Bellés, Joan F.; Segura, Juan B. Marco

    2015-04-01

    Flash-floods are recurrent events in the Mediterranean arch, mostly derived from cold air pool phenomena triggering hydro-geomorphic high-intensity processes, combining high discharge and low frequency. In urban environments the complexity of the processes become higher due to the existence of very fast-response basins and quick-response runoff. However, immediate activities of cleaning up and restoration delete the urban marks. After a short time both significance and dimension of the hydro-geomorphic event become completely unrecognizable. Nevertheless, these episodes generate extensive administrative documentation which is testimony of the processes in almost real time. Exploiting this source typology in order to reconstruct events far in time within urban areas, which may lack database sufficiently rich, is necessary to understand the hydrological and hydraulic derived processes. This is particularly the case of the Valencia flash-flood (1957), located in the lower Turia River basin (6.400 km2). Within a short interval (15 hours) there were registered two flood peaks (estimated at that time at 2.500 and 3.700 m3/s). The double overflowing inundated a large proportion of the urban area. The flash-flood activated fast processes with high energy that left numerous hydro-geomorphic marks. Although those tracks were deleted in a short while after the flood, it remains a legacy that had not yet been exploited, consisting of immediate aerial and oblique high resolution photography, pictures at street level, water level record and administrative records, such as claim files for compensation. Paradoxically, despite the event is considered as a milestone on metropolitan territorial planning and it was decided to divert the river Turia definitely through a major project (12 km of channeling, known as South Solution), being the scenario notably altered, the analysis of the hydrological and hydraulic process has never been reviewed. Undoubtedly, a modern study would ensure

  12. Validation of an Instructional Observation Instrument for Teaching English as a Foreign Language in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Garcia, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The design and validation of a classroom observation instrument to provide formative feedback for teachers of EFL in Spain is the overarching purpose of this study. This study proposes that a valid and reliable classroom observation instrument, based on effective practice in teaching EFL, can be developed and used in Spain to enable teachers to…

  13. Global Citizenship and National (Re)formations: Analysis of Citizenship Education Reform in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, many European education systems have embarked on a process of education policy and curriculum reform related to citizenship education. This article explores citizenship education reform in the context of Spain. It considers how and to what extent Spain's 2006 citizenship education addressed issues of national and global…

  14. Moroccan Immigrant Children in a Time of Surveillance: Navigating Sameness and Difference in Contemporary Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia Sanchez, Inmaculada Maria

    2009-01-01

    Moroccan Immigrant Children in a Time of Surveillance: Navigating Sameness and Rooted in twenty months of ethnographic fieldwork in Southwestern Spain, this dissertation analyzes the socio-cultural and linguistic lifeworlds of 8-11 year-old Moroccan immigrant children as they navigate family, school institutions, and peer groups in Spain. To…

  15. School Choice in Spain and the United States: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umpstead, Regina; Jankens, Benjamin; Ortega Gil, Pablo; Weiss, Linda; Umpstead, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    This article explores issues of school choice in Spain and the United States by examining the roles and functions of "centros concertados," publicly funded private schools in Spain, and public charter schools in the United States, to provide key insights into the similarities and differences between them. After making a national…

  16. Pedagogical Innovation and Music Education in Spain: Introducing the Dalcroze Method in Catalonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comas Rubí, Francesca; Motilla-Salas, Xavier; Sureda-Garcia, Bernat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse how the Dalcroze method was introduced to Spain and became known there, more specifically in the Catalonia of the "Noucentisme" movement, and why it made the greatest impact and was more widely disseminated in this particular region of Spain. Following a summary of Dalcroze's contributions to music…

  17. An Induction Programme for Bologna First-Year Bachelor's Degree Students in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del-Arco Bravo, Isabel; Camats, Ramon; Flores, Oscar; Alaminos, Francisco; Blazquez, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The current study describes the planning process and aims of the university reforms in Spain and suggests an innovative proposal, namely the design and evaluation of a week-long induction programme for first-year bachelor's degree students at the University of Lleida (Spain), organised within the European higher education framework.…

  18. 77 FR 45653 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... (Third Review)] Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain; Determination Determination On... U.S.C. 1675(c)), that revocation of the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel bar from Brazil... (July 2012), entitled Stainless Steel Bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain: Investigation Nos....

  19. Prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii in roe deer from Spain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is an important game animal in Spain. Sera from 278 roe deer sera from eight areas in mainland Spain were assayed for antibodies to T. gondii by modified agglutination test (MAT). Titers of 1:25 or higher were found in 109 (39.2%) of 278 deer. No significant difference...

  20. The Situation of Open Access Institutional Repositories in Spain: 2009 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melero, Remedios; Abadal, Ernest; Abad, Francisca; Rodriguez-Gairin, Josep Manel

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The DRIVER I project drew up a detailed report of European repositories based on data gathered in a survey in which Spain's participation was very low. This created a highly distorted image of the implementation of repositories in Spain. This study aims to analyse the current state of Spanish open-access institutional repositories…

  1. A Comparative Study of Breakfast Habits of Romanian and Spanish Adolescents Enrolled in Southern Spain Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soriano-Ayala, Encarnación; Cala, Verónica C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Globalization has favored intra-European Commission (EC) and extra-EC migration to Spain. One of the most numerous cultural groups that have settled in the southern Spain is from Romania. Coexistence, especially in schools, has made us become interested in knowing the eating habits at breakfast of Romanian and Spanish populations.…

  2. The EFQM Self-Assessment Processes in HEIs in Spain and in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tari, Juan Jose; Madeleine, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the European Foundation for Quality Management (EFQM) self-assessment model in higher education institutions (HEIs) in Spain and in Jordan. Case study methodology on eight services provided by a public university in Spain and seven services provided by one public university and one private university in…

  3. The Use (and Misuse) of PISA in Guiding Policy Reform: The Case of Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Álvaro; Jerrim, John

    2016-01-01

    In 2013 Spain introduced a series of educational reforms explicitly inspired by the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2012 results. These reforms were mainly implemented in secondary education--based upon the assumption that this is where Spain's educational problems lie. This paper questions this assumption by attempting to…

  4. From Student Associations to CEUNE: The Development of Student Representation in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parejo, José Luis; Lorente, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The forms of students' political participation in the administration of higher education in Spain have evolved throughout history. Spain has developed from a period characterised by the corporatist model of Sindicato Espanõl Universitario--as a single syndicate of students controlled by the Franco Regime--towards the emergence of a student…

  5. School Development and Professional Development in the New Educational Reform in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estebaranz, Araceli; Mingorance, Pilar

    Components of the sociocultural, professional, and institutional contexts of teacher professional development in Spain are explored. Teacher training changes in Spain arise from the sociocultural context, with the increasing democratization of the nation since the 1980s, the recognition that areas and elements of society have been underserved, the…

  6. Review of Doctoral Research on Second Language Teaching and Learning in Spain (2008-2010)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Raquel; Miralpeix, Imma

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews a selection of doctoral theses on language learning and teaching completed in Spain between 2008 and 2010. A total of 16 theses have been identified as representative--in terms of the topics under investigation and the methodology employed--of the doctoral research undertaken in Spain. Current topics include the development of…

  7. Education of Deaf Students in Spain: Legal and Educational Politics Developments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Viader, Maria del Pilar; Fuentes, Mariana

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the legal instruments and educational politics affecting deaf persons' educational rights in Spain. We present a historical view of deaf education in Spain before and after the Congress of Milan (1880) and then introduce educational legislation and practices in recent decades. At present, Spanish legislation is moving toward…

  8. 75 FR 34424 - Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Wire Rod from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and... orders on stainless steel wire rod (SSWR) from Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea (Korea), Spain, and... Steel Wire Rod From Italy, Japan, the Republic of Korea, Spain, and Taiwan: Final Results of...

  9. Community and the Myth of the Ideal School: Circulation and Appropriation of the Hamburg Gemeinschaftsschulen in Spain (1922-1933)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Pozo Andrés, María del Mar

    2014-01-01

    The progressive education movement was known in Spain from its very inception, and in fact many of its pedagogical theories and practices reached Spain before reaching other European countries. Yet traditional historiography has always maintained that Spain was never integrated in the progressive education movement, a misconception that helps…

  10. 77 FR 16207 - Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain: Final Results of the Expedited Third...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Bar From Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain: Final Results of... steel bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff Act of 1930 (the... the antidumping duty orders on stainless steel bar from Brazil, India, Japan, and Spain\\1\\ pursuant...

  11. 76 FR 40366 - Formations of, Acquisitions by, and Mergers of Bank Holding Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... Peachtree Street, NE., Atlanta, Georgia 30309: 1. Bankia, S.A., Valencia, Spain; to become a bank holding company by acquiring 100 percent of the voting shares of Caja Madrid Cibeles, S.A., Madrid, Spain,...

  12. Use of Seasonal Forecasts for Dams Management in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voces, Jose; Sanchez, Eroteida; Navascues, Beatriz; Rodriguez-Camino, Ernesto

    2016-04-01

    This presentation describes the potential use of seasonal climate predictions for water management in Spain. Given the low skill provided by seasonal forecasting systems based on the current operational models, and after analyzing the response to the climate drivers at different time scales for selected river basins in Spain, a two steps empirical forecasting technique has been developed and tested as a pilot study in the framework of the Euporias project. In the first step the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index is forecasted from the observed Eurasian Snow Advance Index in October taking advantage of the high correlation between them. Then, a synthetic probability distribution function is generated to sample the NAO index in order to assess the forecasting uncertainty. In the second step, a KNN algorithm is used to retrieve a set of reservoir inflows associated with each of the NAO index samples. The final result is an ensemble of possible scenarios (reservoir inflows) which are used as input for the water allocation decision support models.

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild carnivores from Spain.

    PubMed

    Sobrino, R; Cabezón, O; Millán, J; Pabón, M; Arnal, M C; Luco, D F; Gortázar, C; Dubey, J P; Almeria, S

    2007-09-30

    Serum samples from 282 wild carnivores from different regions of Spain were tested for antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii by the modified agglutination test using a cut-off value of 1:25. Antibodies to T. gondii were found in 22 of 27 (81.5%) of Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus), 3 of 6 European wildcats (Felis silvestris), 66 of 102 (64.7%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 15 of 32 (46.9%) wolves (Canis lupus), 26 of 37 (70.3%) Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 17 of 20 (85.0%) stone martens (Martes foina), 4 of 4 pine martens (Martes martes), 6 of 6 Eurasian otters (Lutra lutra), 4 of 4 polecats (Mustela putorius), 1 of 1 ferret (Mustela putorius furo), 13 of 21 (61.9%) European genets (Genetta genetta), and 13 of 22 (59.1%) Egyptian mongooses (Herpestes ichneumon). Serological results indicated a widespread exposure to T. gondii among wild carnivores in Spain. The high T. gondii seroprevalence in Iberian lynx and the European wildcat reported here may be of epidemiologic significance because seropositive cats might have shed oocysts.

  14. [Epidemiology of hepatitis E virus infection in Spain].

    PubMed

    Echevarría, José Manuel; Fogeda, Marta; Avellón, Ana

    2015-04-01

    The general features of the epidemiology and ecology of hepatitis E virus in Spain are already known after 20 years of investigations. Genotype 3 strains, mainly from sub-genotype 3f, circulated among swine livestock and certain wild mammals, and would be sporadically transmitted to humans through direct contact with the reservoirs or by consumption of foods derived from them. Bivalve shellfish contaminated by hepatitis E virus from sewage could also play a role in transmission. Although the interpretation of results from seroprevalence studies in low endemic settings is still controversial, antibody to hepatitis E virus displays an overall prevalence less than 10% among the population of Spain, increasing significantly with age. From the, approximately, 150 cases of acute hepatitis E recorded in the international literature, males older than 40 years, suffering a mild, locally acquired disease predominate. In addition, hepatitis E might be more frequent in the North of the country than in other regions. Although the disease does not usually have a great clinical relevance, the occasional finding of cases of fulminant hepatitis, and of ribavirin-resistant, chronic hepatitis E virus infections among the immunocompromised would recommend the surveillance of the infection by the public health authority and a better implementation of specific diagnostic procedures in clinical laboratories.

  15. [Physicians and medicine in 16th century New Spain].

    PubMed

    de Micheli-Serra, A

    2001-01-01

    The more prominent physicians and surgeons, European, native and creole, who practiced their art in New Spain during the XVI century, are remembered. There were improvised surgeons among the Spanish soldiers, who faced the American natives in the name of universal empire and church. There were also native physicians, organized around an important cultural center: the Franciscan college of Holy Cross in Tlatelolco. They perpetuated the ancestral medical traditions. In the dawning of New Spain, arrived here some physicians and surgeons prepared in important medical centers, such Sevilla, Salamanca, and Alcalá de Henares. Soon after a noteworthy exchange of medicinal plants and, generally, of therapeutic products between the old and new world took place. Likewise arrived here medical books printed in Europe and, in the second half of such century, appeared Newspanish medical books. When the first chair of medicine was established in the Royal University of México (1578), the number of medical publications increased until, in 1598, appeared the first medical thesis printed in America.

  16. Lay theory of healing in northwestern New Spain.

    PubMed

    Kay, M

    1987-01-01

    Northwestern New Spain experienced not only a territorial and a spiritual conquest, but a medical conquest. This medical conquest came from a tradition, established after the conquest of central New Spain, that had fused classical medicine of the Old World with medicine of indigenous groups, in the writings of European doctors and scientists as well as graduates of Mexican colleges. The medical conquest of Sonora was accomplished by laymen, explorers and missionaries who carried the theory of healing resulting from these syncretic processes into the northern lands, adding new materials that they learned from indigenous peoples there. When the Indians were ill with epidemic disease or injuries, they were cared for by missionaries brought up on European domestic medicine. The theory of illness and its cure held by the lay healers became predominantly that of the conquest culture. The conquerers', missionaries' and colonists' interpretations of native plant, animal and mineral remedies that they learned from northwestern native medicine were colored by their own concepts of disease and healing, resulting in an epistemology which continues to guide lay or domestic medicine not only in Sonora but also in the rest of the American Mexican west today.

  17. Agriculture and climate change: Potential for mitigation in Spain.

    PubMed

    Albiac, Jose; Kahil, Taher; Notivol, Eduardo; Calvo, Elena

    2017-03-18

    Agriculture and forestry activities are one of the many sources of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but they are also sources of low-cost opportunities to mitigate these emissions compared to other economic sectors. This paper provides a first estimate of the potential for mitigation in the whole Spanish agriculture. A set of mitigation measures are selected for their cost-effectiveness and abatement potential and an efficient mix of these measures is identified with reference to a social cost of carbon of 40 €/tCO2e. This mix of measures includes adjusting crop fertilization and managing forests for carbon sequestration. Results indicate that by using the efficient mix of mitigation measures the annual abatement potential could reach 10 million tCO2e, which represents 28% of current agricultural emissions in Spain. This potential could further increase if the social cost of carbon rises covering the costs of applying manure to crops. Results indicate also that economic instruments such as input and emission taxes could be only ancillary measures to address mitigation in agriculture. These findings can be used to support the mitigation efforts in Spain and guide policymakers in the design of country-level mitigation strategies.

  18. Mortality in Spain during the heat waves of summer 2003.

    PubMed

    Simón, F; Lopez-Abente, G; Ballester, E; Martínez, F

    2005-07-01

    The effect of the elevated temperatures on mortality experienced in Europe during the summer of 2003 was observed in several countries. This study, carried out in Spain, describes mortality between 1 June and 31 August and evaluates the effect of the heat wave on mortality. Observed deaths were obtained from official death registers from 50 provincial capitals. Observed deaths were compared with the expected number, estimated by applying a Poisson regression model to historical mortality series and adjusting for the upward trend and seasonality observed. Meteorological information was provided by the Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (National Institute of Meteorology). Spain experienced three heat waves in 2003. The total associated excess deaths were 8% (43 212 observed deaths compared with 40 046 expected deaths). Excess deaths were only observed in those aged 75 years and over (15% more deaths than expected for the age group 75 to 84 and 29% for those aged 85 or over). This phenomenon (heat-associated excess mortality) is an emerging public health problem because of its increasing attributable risk, the aging of the Spanish population and its forecasted increasing frequency due to global warming. The implementation of alert and response systems based on monitoring of climate-related risks, emergency room activity and mortality, and strengthening the response capacity of the social and health services should be considered.

  19. Shared decision making in Spain: current state and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Perestelo-Perez, Lilisbeth; Rivero-Santana, Amado; Perez-Ramos, Jeanette; Gonzalez-Lorenzo, Marien; Roman, Javier Gracia-San; Serrano-Aguilar, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    In the last two decades there has been a growing recognition in the Spanish National Health System (NHS) of the importance of considering patients' values and preferences in clinical decisions. Patient participation in shared decision making (SDM) is gaining importance as a suitable approach to patient-health professional communication and decision making in Spain. In addition, the NHS is funding the development of patients' decision aids (PtDAs) for shared decision making (SDM) by Health Technology Assessment Agencies. However, the NHS has still not incorporated reforms in law that includes SDM and PtDAs as a key component of health care services and professional curricula, nor is there a standardised implementation of interventions to support decisions in routine care. Most patients are not very familiar with their rights to be kept informed and participate in their own health care decisions. Most professionals are not familiar with or educated about patients' rights to be kept informed and participate in health care decisions either. The future of SDM in Spain is promising. The next course of action should be to maintain the production and adaptation of high-quality PtDAs while at the same time reinforcing effective dissemination strategies among patients and training programmes for professionals focused on SDM.

  20. Incidence of ovine abortion by Coxiella burnetii in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Oporto, B; Barandika, J F; Hurtado, A; Aduriz, G; Moreno, B; Garcia-Perez, A L

    2006-10-01

    The infectious causes of ovine abortion occurring in 148 farms in northern Spain between 1999 and 2003 were investigated. Laboratory analysis included microbiological, serological, pathological and molecular techniques. Border disease was diagnosed in 16% of the flocks, toxoplasmosis in 15%, chlamydiosis in 12%, salmonellosis in 10%, Q fever in 3%, miscellaneous infections in 7% (Yersinia spp., Listeria spp., Brucella spp.), and inflammatory lesions compatible with an infectious cause were seen in 7% of the flock. In an additional 1% of the flocks non-infectious causes were identified, and a diagnosis was not reached in 38% of the flocks. When a PCR retrospective study was carried out to investigate the possible implication of Coxiella burnetii in the cases without diagnosis, including those with inflammatory lesions, the prevalence of this pathogen increased from 3% up to 9% of the flocks, revealing the importance of this zoonotic pathogen as a small-ruminant abortifacient agent. Placenta was the most commonly positive sample, but other fetal tissues were also of value for C. burnetii DNA detection. The present results update information about the situation of abortion in sheep farms in northern Spain, and highlight the relevance of molecular diagnostic tools in routine laboratory analysis of abortions by C. burnetii.