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Sample records for albumen

  1. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process drying operations. (a) The fermentation, drying, and curing rooms shall be kept in a dust-free clean condition and...

  2. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process drying operations. (a) The fermentation, drying, and curing rooms shall be kept in a dust-free clean condition and...

  3. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process drying operations. (a) The fermentation, drying, and curing rooms shall be kept in a dust-free clean condition and...

  4. 9 CFR 590.546 - Albumen flake process drying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.546 Albumen flake process drying... intake. (d) Fermentation tanks, drying pans, trays or belts, scrapers, curing racks, and equipment used...

  5. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process drying operations. (a) The fermentation, drying, and curing rooms shall be kept in a dust-free clean condition and...

  6. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying operations. 590.547 Section 590.547 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.547 Albumen flake process drying...

  7. Nonvolatile Bio-Memristor Fabricated with Egg Albumen Film

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chih; Yu, Hsin-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Chung, Wen-Lin; Wu, San-Lein; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of chicken egg albumen-based bio-memristors. By introducing egg albumen as an insulator to fabricate memristor devices comprising a metal/insulator/metal sandwich structure, significant bipolar resistive switching behavior can be observed. The 1/f noise characteristics of the albumen devices were measured, and results suggested that their memory behavior results from the formation and rupture of conductive filaments. Oxygen diffusion and electrochemical redox reaction of metal ions under a sufficiently large electric field are the principal physical mechanisms of the formation and rupture of conductive filaments; these mechanisms were observed by analysis of the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and resistance–temperature (R–T) measurement results. The switching property of the devices remarkably improved by heat-denaturation of proteins; reliable switching endurance of over 500 cycles accompanied by an on/off current ratio (Ion/off) of higher than 103 were also observed. Both resistance states could be maintained for a suitably long time (>104 s). Taking the results together, the present study reveals for the first time that chicken egg albumen is a promising material for nonvolatile memory applications. PMID:25950812

  8. Nonvolatile Bio-Memristor Fabricated with Egg Albumen Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ying-Chih; Yu, Hsin-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Chung, Wen-Lin; Wu, San-Lein; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2015-05-01

    This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of chicken egg albumen-based bio-memristors. By introducing egg albumen as an insulator to fabricate memristor devices comprising a metal/insulator/metal sandwich structure, significant bipolar resistive switching behavior can be observed. The 1/f noise characteristics of the albumen devices were measured, and results suggested that their memory behavior results from the formation and rupture of conductive filaments. Oxygen diffusion and electrochemical redox reaction of metal ions under a sufficiently large electric field are the principal physical mechanisms of the formation and rupture of conductive filaments; these mechanisms were observed by analysis of the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and resistance-temperature (R-T) measurement results. The switching property of the devices remarkably improved by heat-denaturation of proteins; reliable switching endurance of over 500 cycles accompanied by an on/off current ratio (Ion/off) of higher than 103 were also observed. Both resistance states could be maintained for a suitably long time (>104 s). Taking the results together, the present study reveals for the first time that chicken egg albumen is a promising material for nonvolatile memory applications.

  9. 9 CFR 590.546 - Albumen flake process drying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying facilities. 590.546 Section 590.546 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG...

  10. 9 CFR 590.546 - Albumen flake process drying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying facilities. 590.546 Section 590.546 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG...

  11. 9 CFR 590.546 - Albumen flake process drying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying facilities. 590.546 Section 590.546 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION INSPECTION OF EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS (EGG...

  12. Nonvolatile bio-memristor fabricated with egg albumen film.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chih; Yu, Hsin-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Chung, Wen-Lin; Wu, San-Lein; Su, Yan-Kuin

    2015-05-07

    This study demonstrates the fabrication and characterization of chicken egg albumen-based bio-memristors. By introducing egg albumen as an insulator to fabricate memristor devices comprising a metal/insulator/metal sandwich structure, significant bipolar resistive switching behavior can be observed. The 1/f noise characteristics of the albumen devices were measured, and results suggested that their memory behavior results from the formation and rupture of conductive filaments. Oxygen diffusion and electrochemical redox reaction of metal ions under a sufficiently large electric field are the principal physical mechanisms of the formation and rupture of conductive filaments; these mechanisms were observed by analysis of the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and resistance-temperature (R-T) measurement results. The switching property of the devices remarkably improved by heat-denaturation of proteins; reliable switching endurance of over 500 cycles accompanied by an on/off current ratio (Ion/off) of higher than 10(3) were also observed. Both resistance states could be maintained for a suitably long time (>10(4) s). Taking the results together, the present study reveals for the first time that chicken egg albumen is a promising material for nonvolatile memory applications.

  13. Acid glycosidases from hen oviduct and egg albumen.

    PubMed

    Droba, M; Droba, B; Błedniak, D

    2005-12-01

    Activities of seven acid glycosidases: beta-N-acetylhexosaminidase (beta-HEX), alpha- and beta-galactosidase (alpha- and beta-GAL), alpha- and beta-mannosidase (alpha- and beta-MAN), alpha-glucosidase and alpha-fucosidase in magnum region of hen (Gallus gallus domesticus) oviduct, and four acid glycosidases: beta-HEX, beta-GAL, alpha- and beta-MAN in egg albumen, were investigated. beta-HEX from magnum and egg albumen hydrolysed 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-N-acetylhexosamine-6-sulphate (4-MeUmbGlcNAc-6-SO(4)) like mammalian beta-HEX form A. Multiple forms of magnum and egg albumen beta-HEX, beta-GAL, alpha- and beta-MAN were separated by strong anion exchange chromatography and chromatofocusing method. Chromatofocusing of the magnum resulted in the appearance of multiple forms for beta-HEX with pI of 6.18, 5.43, 5.55, 5.34, 5.27 and 5.16, for beta-GAL with pI of 4.98, 4.84, 4.77, 4.64 and 4.68-4.63, for alpha-MAN with pI of >or=7.4, 6.75, 6.62 and 6.26, and for beta-MAN two forms with pI of 6.37 and 5.77. Chromatofocusing of egg albumen yields multiple forms for beta-HEX with pI of 6.24, 6.08, 5.55 and 5.35, for beta-GAL two forms with pI of 5.10 and 4.86-4.80 for alpha-MAN multiple forms with pI of >or=7.4, 6.80, 6.60 and 6.30, and for beta-MAN forms with pI of 6.30 and 5.77. In conclusion, this study was the first to show beta-HEX activity against 4-MeUmbGlcNAc-6-SO(4) in the magnum and albumen of bird eggs, corresponding to beta-HEX A activity in mammals. Main multiple forms of beta-HEX, beta-GAL, alpha- and beta-MAN occurring in the magnum were revealed in the egg albumen. Comparison with a cock of the same breed showed that hen egg magnum and albumen has the same multiple forms of the enzymes that are found in the epididymides and seminal plasma of the cock.

  14. The relationships among measures of egg albumen height, pH, and whipping volume.

    PubMed

    Silversides, F G; Budgell, K

    2004-10-01

    A total of 2123 eggs obtained from Brown Leghorn hens (unselected since 1965, ISA Brown, commercial brown egg layer) and Babcock hens (commercial white egg layer) at 32, 50, and 68 wk of age were used to investigate relationships among measures of albumen quality and a functional property of albumen. The eggs were sampled fresh and after storage for 5 and 10 d. At sampling, eggs were weighed and broken, and albumen height, pH, and volume after whipping for 80 s were measured. Also, yolks were weighed, dried shells were weighed, and albumen weight was determined by difference. Egg weight and the weights of the 3 principal components of the egg all increased with increasing age of the hen, with yolk weights increasing proportionately more. With storage, egg and albumen weights decreased, whereas yolk weight increased. Eggs from Brown Leghorn hens were smallest but had proportionately the largest yolks. Albumen height decreased with time in storage, and albumen pH and whipping volume increased. Differences between lines suggested that selection has changed the proportion of the yolk, albumen, and shell and has increased albumen height. Albumen height and whipping volume were negatively correlated, and differences between lines suggest that selection could have decreased the foaming ability of albumen, a principal reason for including eggs in many processed food products.

  15. Effect of egg turning and fertility upon the sodium concentration of albumen of the Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Latter, G V; Baggott, G K

    1996-05-01

    1. The effects of egg turning and fertility upon sodium concentration of albumen of the Japanese quail is described for up to 72 h incubation. 2. For incubated eggs the sodium concentration of albumen adjacent to the yolk sac was lower than that from albumen next to the shell. Static incubation increased the magnitude of this difference, such that albumen adjacent to the yolk sac was substantially depleted of sodium. This was found at the yolk equator and the yolk vegetal pole of both fertilised and unfertilised eggs. 3. Unincubated eggs also had a lower sodium concentration of albumen adjacent to the yolk sac compared with albumen next to the shell. 4. After 48 h of incubation yolk sodium concentration was substantially lower than albumen sodium concentration in both fertilised and unfertilised eggs, whether eggs were turned or not. 5. It is concluded than in unturned eggs the depletion of sodium from albumen adjacent to the vitelline membrane is not produced by ion transport processes but results from a passive movement of sodium into the yolk. Egg turning reduces the magnitude of the depletion of sodium from the albumen adjacent to the yolk sac by stirring the albumen, so permitting the full expression of ion and water transport across the blastoderm into the yolk sac.

  16. Differential effects of egg albumen content on barn swallow nestlings in relation to hatch order.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, R P; Martinelli, R; Saino, N

    2006-05-01

    In diverse animal taxa, egg mass variation mediates maternal effects with long-term consequences for offspring ontogeny and fitness. Patterns of egg mass variation with laying order differ considerably among birds, but no study has experimentally investigated the function of variation in albumen or yolk egg content in the wild. In barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), absolute and relative albumen mass increased with egg laying order. Experimental albumen removal delayed hatching, had larger negative effects on growth of late-hatched nestlings, and reduced nestling survival. Laying order positively predicted hatch order. Because nestling competitive ability depends on size, and albumen egg content influences hatchling size, present results suggest that by increasing albumen content of late eggs mothers reduce hatching asynchrony and enhance growth particularly of late-hatched nestlings. Thus, variation in albumen mass with laying order may function to mitigate the negative phenotypic consequences of hatching late in species that adopt a 'brood-survival' strategy.

  17. Dynamics of pulsed holmium:YAG laser photocoagulation of albumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfefer, T. Joshua; Foong Chan, Kin; Hammer, Daniel X.; Welch, A. J.

    2000-05-01

    The pulsed holmium:YAG laser (λ = 2.12 µm, τp = 250 µs) has been investigated as a method for inducing localized coagulation for medical procedures, yet the dynamics of this process are not well understood. In this study, photocoagulation of albumen (egg white) was analysed experimentally and results compared with optical-thermal simulations to investigate a rate process approach to thermal damage and the role of heat conduction and dynamic changes in absorption. The coagulation threshold was determined using probit analysis, and coagulum dynamics were documented with fast flash photography. The nonlinear computational model, which included a Beer's law optical component, a finite difference heat transfer component and an Arrhenius equation-based damage calculation, was verified against data from the literature. Moderate discrepancies between simulation results and our experimental data probably resulted from the use of a laser beam with an irregular spatial profile. This profile produced a lower than expected coagulation threshold and an irregular damage distribution within a millisecond after laser onset. After 1 ms, heat conduction led to smoothing of the coagulum. Simulations indicated that dynamic changes in absorption led to a reduction in surface temperatures. The Arrhenius equation was shown to be effective for simulating transient albumen coagulation during pulsed holmium:YAG laser irradiation. Greater understanding of pulsed laser-tissue interactions may lead to improved treatment outcome and optimization of laser parameters for a variety of medical procedures.

  18. Microbial communities affecting albumen photography heritage: a methodological survey.

    PubMed

    Puškárová, Andrea; Bučková, Mária; Habalová, Božena; Kraková, Lucia; Maková, Alena; Pangallo, Domenico

    2016-02-11

    This study is one of the few investigations which analyze albumen prints, perhaps the most important photographic heritage of the late 19(th) and early 20(th) centuries. The chemical composition of photographic samples was assessed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence. These two non-invasive techniques revealed the complex nature of albumen prints, which are composed of a mixture of proteins, cellulose and salts. Microbial sampling was performed using cellulose nitrate membranes which also permitted the trapped microflora to be observed with a scanning electron microscope. Microbial analysis was performed using the combination of culture-dependent (cultivation in different media, including one 3% NaCl) and culture-independent (bacterial and fungal cloning and sequencing) approaches. The isolated microorganisms were screened for their lipolytic, proteolytic, cellulolytic, catalase and peroxidase activities. The combination of the culture-dependent and -independent techniques together with enzymatic assays revealed a substantial microbial diversity with several deteriogen microorganisms from the genera Bacillus, Kocuria, Streptomyces and Geobacillus and the fungal strains Acrostalagmus luteoalbus, Bjerkandera adusta, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Trichothecium roseum.

  19. Dynamics of pulsed holmium:YAG laser photocoagulation of albumen.

    PubMed

    Pfefer, T J; Chan, K F; Hammer, D X; Welch, A J

    2000-05-01

    The pulsed holmium:YAG laser (lambda = 2.12 microm, tau(p) = 250 micros) has been investigated as a method for inducing localized coagulation for medical procedures, yet the dynamics of this process are not well understood. In this study, photocoagulation of albumen (egg white) was analysed experimentally and results compared with optical-thermal simulations to investigate a rate process approach to thermal damage and the role of heat conduction and dynamic changes in absorption. The coagulation threshold was determined using probit analysis, and coagulum dynamics were documented with fast flash photography. The nonlinear computational model, which included a Beer's law optical component, a finite difference heat transfer component and an Arrhenius equation-based damage calculation, was verified against data from the literature. Moderate discrepancies between simulation results and our experimental data probably resulted from the use of a laser beam with an irregular spatial profile. This profile produced a lower than expected coagulation threshold and an irregular damage distribution within a millisecond after laser onset. After 1 ms, heat conduction led to smoothing of the coagulum. Simulations indicated that dynamic changes in absorption led to a reduction in surface temperatures. The Arrhenius equation was shown to be effective for simulating transient albumen coagulation during pulsed holmium:YAG laser irradiation. Greater understanding of pulsed laser-tissue interactions may lead to improved treatment outcome and optimization of laser parameters for a variety of medical procedures.

  20. Microbial communities affecting albumen photography heritage: a methodological survey

    PubMed Central

    Puškárová, Andrea; Bučková, Mária; Habalová, Božena; Kraková, Lucia; Maková, Alena; Pangallo, Domenico

    2016-01-01

    This study is one of the few investigations which analyze albumen prints, perhaps the most important photographic heritage of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The chemical composition of photographic samples was assessed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence. These two non-invasive techniques revealed the complex nature of albumen prints, which are composed of a mixture of proteins, cellulose and salts. Microbial sampling was performed using cellulose nitrate membranes which also permitted the trapped microflora to be observed with a scanning electron microscope. Microbial analysis was performed using the combination of culture-dependent (cultivation in different media, including one 3% NaCl) and culture-independent (bacterial and fungal cloning and sequencing) approaches. The isolated microorganisms were screened for their lipolytic, proteolytic, cellulolytic, catalase and peroxidase activities. The combination of the culture-dependent and -independent techniques together with enzymatic assays revealed a substantial microbial diversity with several deteriogen microorganisms from the genera Bacillus, Kocuria, Streptomyces and Geobacillus and the fungal strains Acrostalagmus luteoalbus, Bjerkandera adusta, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Trichothecium roseum. PMID:26864429

  1. Microbial communities affecting albumen photography heritage: a methodological survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puškárová, Andrea; Bučková, Mária; Habalová, Božena; Kraková, Lucia; Maková, Alena; Pangallo, Domenico

    2016-02-01

    This study is one of the few investigations which analyze albumen prints, perhaps the most important photographic heritage of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The chemical composition of photographic samples was assessed using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescence. These two non-invasive techniques revealed the complex nature of albumen prints, which are composed of a mixture of proteins, cellulose and salts. Microbial sampling was performed using cellulose nitrate membranes which also permitted the trapped microflora to be observed with a scanning electron microscope. Microbial analysis was performed using the combination of culture-dependent (cultivation in different media, including one 3% NaCl) and culture-independent (bacterial and fungal cloning and sequencing) approaches. The isolated microorganisms were screened for their lipolytic, proteolytic, cellulolytic, catalase and peroxidase activities. The combination of the culture-dependent and -independent techniques together with enzymatic assays revealed a substantial microbial diversity with several deteriogen microorganisms from the genera Bacillus, Kocuria, Streptomyces and Geobacillus and the fungal strains Acrostalagmus luteoalbus, Bjerkandera adusta, Pleurotus pulmonarius and Trichothecium roseum.

  2. Albumen Glue, New Material for Conjunctival Graft Surgery, an Animal Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartiwa, A.; Miraprahesti, R.; Sovani, I.; Enus, S.; Boediono, A.

    2017-02-01

    Attach conjunctival graft commonly used are suture technique and fibrin glue. This study was to investigate albumen glue as an alternative to suture technique in attaching conjunctival graft in rabbits. Aim of this study was to compare the conjunctival wound healing between albumen glue and suture technique in rabbit eye as a model. There was an experimental animal study included 32 eyes (16 rabbits) in PT. Bio Farma (Persero) and Histology Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Padjadjaran University from March 2014 to July 2104. The study consisted of albumen glue group and suture technique group. The examination included the comparison of conjunctival graft attachment and histologic examination by microscopically was done to obtain the wound gap, then analyze by Mann-Whitney test. The results indicated that the graft attachment was significantly better-using albumen glue (grade 4) compared to suture (grade 2-3) on day-1 after surgery (p=0,000). The wound gap was smaller using albumen glue (0-0,33 μm versus 5,33-14 μm ; p=0,0005) on 10 minutes after surgery and 0 μm versus 0,33-4 μm ; p=0,0005 on day-7 after surgery. In conclusion, the graft attachment using albumen glue was better and the wound gap was smaller using albumen glue than suture technique.

  3. Effects of nutritional programing on growth and metabolism caused by albumen removal in an avian model.

    PubMed

    Willems, Els; Koppenol, Astrid; De Ketelaere, Bart; Wang, Yufeng; Franssens, Lies; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy; Everaert, Nadia

    2015-05-01

    In mammalian models of prenatal undernutrition the maternal diet is manipulated, exerting both nutritional and hormonal effects on the offspring. In contrast, in the chicken, strictly nutritional effects can be applied. Prenatal protein undernutrition in chickens was induced by partial replacement of albumen with saline during early embryonic development (albumen-deprived group) and results were compared with a sham-manipulated and a non-manipulated group. Body weight of the albumen-deprived hens was reduced throughout the entire experimental period (0-55 weeks). The reproductive capacity was diminished in the albumen-deprived hens as reflected in the reduced number of eggs and lower egg weight. The plasma triiodothyronine levels were increased in the albumen-deprived group compared with the non-manipulated hens, but not the sham-manipulated hens. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at 10 weeks of age revealed a decreased glucose tolerance in the albumen-deprived hens. During adulthood, an age-related loss of glucose tolerance was observed in the hens, leading to disappearance of treatment differences in the OGTT. The offspring of the albumen-deprived hens (PA chicks) had reduced body weight until at least 3 weeks of age. In addition, the PA chicks had a decreased relative residual yolk weight at hatching. An insulin tolerance test revealed increased sensitivity to insulin for the PA chicks compared with the offspring of the non-manipulated (PN) and sham-manipulated hens (PS). In conclusion, prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal caused long-term effects on body weight, reproductive performance, and physiology. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  4. Effect of blood spots in table egg albumen on Salmonella growth.

    PubMed

    Smith, D P; Musgrove, M T

    2008-08-01

    Presence of blood spots in eggs has been correlated with a greater rate of Salmonella Enteritidis contamination. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine whether Salmonella inoculated into egg albumen with naturally occurring blood spots would survive or grow. In each of 3 trials, white shell table eggs with blood spots were collected from a commercial egg-processing plant after candling. In each trial, eggs were broken out, and approximately 4 mL of clear albumen (CLEAR) and 4 mL of bloody albumen (BLOOD) from each of 10 eggs were placed in sterile test tubes and inoculated with a nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium. For inoculation, 0.1 mL of the Salmonella Typhimurium suspension (containing 7.1, 7.7, or 7.0 log cfu/mL in trials 1 to 3, respectively) was added to each tube. Tube contents were mixed and incubated at 25 degrees C for 24 h. Immediately after inoculation (0 h) and again after 24 h, 0.1 mL from each tube was plated onto Brilliant Green-Sulfa agar with 200 ppm nalidixic acid and incubated at 37 degrees C for 24 h. Results are reported as log colony-forming units per milliliter of albumen. No significant differences (P < 0.05) in mean Salmonella Typhimurium counts were found between CLEAR or BLOOD samples at 0 h (5.6 vs. 5.8, respectively), indicating that initial inoculation levels were consistent between treatments. After 24 h, CLEAR samples were slightly but significantly lower than BLOOD samples for Salmonella Typhimurium (6.5 vs. 6.8, respectively). Salmonella Typhimurium numbers increase somewhat in albumen with or without blood, but slightly greater numbers are produced in albumen with blood spots. In this experiment, blood in the albumen of table eggs contributed to the survival and growth of Salmonella Typhimurium inoculated into egg albumen.

  5. Association of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis YafD with Resistance to Chicken Egg Albumen

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Sangwei; Killoran, Patrick B.; Riley, Lee W.

    2003-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major cause of food-borne diseases in industrialized countries. The incidence of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis infections has increased substantially in recent decades, and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis is now one of the leading serovars of Salmonella in the United States. A unique epidemiological characteristic of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis is its association with chicken shell eggs, since approximately 80% of all human gastrointestinal diseases can be traced to contaminated egg products. Eggs are contaminated when bacteria from reproductive tissues of infected hens are packaged into the eggs and persist inside the hostile egg albumen environment. Therefore, resistance to egg albumen is an important aspect in the transmission of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. We identified a gene, yafD from S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, whose overexpression conferred upon S. enterica serovar Typhimurium enhanced resistance to egg albumen, while disruption of this gene in S. enterica serovar Enteritidis rendered the organism more susceptible to egg albumen. YafD is homologous to members of an exonuclease-endonuclease-phosphatase family, including some enzymes involved in DNA repair. Furthermore, we discovered that egg albumen has nuclease activities and uses both circular and linear DNA as substrates. We propose that YafD provides a survival advantage to S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs by repairing DNA damage caused by egg albumen and that it may be one of the biologic determinants that contribute to the epidemiological association of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis with egg products. PMID:14638758

  6. Association of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis yafD with resistance to chicken egg albumen.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sangwei; Killoran, Patrick B; Riley, Lee W

    2003-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is a major cause of food-borne diseases in industrialized countries. The incidence of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis infections has increased substantially in recent decades, and S. enterica serovar Enteritidis is now one of the leading serovars of Salmonella in the United States. A unique epidemiological characteristic of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis is its association with chicken shell eggs, since approximately 80% of all human gastrointestinal diseases can be traced to contaminated egg products. Eggs are contaminated when bacteria from reproductive tissues of infected hens are packaged into the eggs and persist inside the hostile egg albumen environment. Therefore, resistance to egg albumen is an important aspect in the transmission of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis. We identified a gene, yafD from S. enterica serovar Enteritidis, whose overexpression conferred upon S. enterica serovar Typhimurium enhanced resistance to egg albumen, while disruption of this gene in S. enterica serovar Enteritidis rendered the organism more susceptible to egg albumen. YafD is homologous to members of an exonuclease-endonuclease-phosphatase family, including some enzymes involved in DNA repair. Furthermore, we discovered that egg albumen has nuclease activities and uses both circular and linear DNA as substrates. We propose that YafD provides a survival advantage to S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in eggs by repairing DNA damage caused by egg albumen and that it may be one of the biologic determinants that contribute to the epidemiological association of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis with egg products.

  7. Dopaminergic neurons in the brain and dopaminergic innervation of the albumen gland in mated and virgin helisoma duryi (mollusca: pulmonata)

    PubMed Central

    Kiehn, Lana; Saleuddin, Saber; Lange, Angela

    2001-01-01

    Background Dopamine was shown to stimulate the perivitelline fluid secretion by the albumen gland. Even though the albumen gland has been shown to contain catecholaminergic fibers and its innervation has been studied, the type of catecholamines, distribution of fibers and the precise source of this neural innervation has not yet been deduced. This study was designed to address these issues and examine the correlation between dopamine concentration and the sexual status of snails. Results Dopaminergic neurons were found in all ganglia except the pleural and right parietal, and their axons in all ganglia and major nerves of the brain. In the albumen gland dopaminergic axons formed a nerve tract in the central region, and a uniform net in other areas. Neuronal cell bodies were present in the vicinity of the axons. Dopamine was a major catecholamine in the brain and the albumen gland. No significant difference in dopamine quantity was found when the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails were compared. Conclusions Our results represent the first detailed studies regarding the catecholamine innervation and quantitation of neurotransmitters in the albumen gland. In this study we localized catecholaminergic neurons and axons in the albumen gland and the brain, identified these neurons and axons as dopaminergic, reported monoamines present in the albumen gland and the brain, and compared the dopamine content in the brain and the albumen gland of randomly mating, virgin and first time mated snails. PMID:11513757

  8. Albumen Transport to Bruch's Membrane and RPE by Choriocapillaris Caveolae

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Masataka; Grebe, Rhonda; Bhutto, Imran A.; Edwards, Malia; McLeod, D. Scott; Lutty, Gerard A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The choriocapillaris (CC), the capillary network of the choroid, is positioned adjacent to Bruch's membrane (BM) and the RPE. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism(s) for transport of serum albumen from CC lumen to RPE. Methods Alexa647 conjugated to BSA (BSA-A647) or PBS was administrated via the femoral vein to young and aged wild-type (WT; C57BL/6J) mice and Caveolin-1 knockout mice (Cav1−/−). Mice were perfused with PBS and killed at 30 minutes, 1 hour, and 4 hours after injection. Eyecups were cryopreserved, and cryosections were analyzed on a Zeiss 710 confocal microscope. Bovine serum albumin conjugated to gold nanoparticles (BSA-GNP) was administrated through the left common carotid artery. Mice were perfused with PBS and killed at 30 minutes after injection. Eyecups were embedded after fixation, and 70-nm-thick sections were analyzed on a Hitachi H7600 transmission electron microscope. Results In eyes of WT young mice, BSA-A647 was transported to the RPE at 30 minutes and diffused to the photoreceptor layer by 1 hour. In contrast, most BSA-A647 was found in the CC in Cav1−/− eyes. The majority of BSA-GNP found in the CC of young WT mice was on the luminal side in caveolae at 30 minutes after injection. In aged WT mice, BSA-GNPs were found in defective tight junctions between endothelial cells and appeared trapped at the diaphragm of fenestrations. Conclusions Normally, CC carefully regulates transport system of BSA from lumen to BM by caveolae-mediated transcytosis; however, endothelium cells of aged control WT mice have leaky tight junctions and lacked regulated BSA transport. PMID:27116549

  9. Hydrogen-peroxide-modified egg albumen for transparent and flexible resistive switching memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guangdong; Yao, Yanqing; Lu, Zhisong; Yang, Xiude; Han, Juanjuan; Wang, Gang; Rao, Xi; Li, Ping; Liu, Qian; Song, Qunliang

    2017-10-01

    Egg albumen is modified by hydrogen peroxide with concentrations of 5%, 10%, 15% and 30% at room temperature. Compared with devices without modification, a memory cell of Ag/10% H2O2-egg albumen/indium tin oxide exhibits obviously enhanced resistive switching memory behavior with a resistance ratio of 104, self-healing switching endurance for 900 cycles and a prolonged retention time for a 104 s @ 200 mV reading voltage after being bent 103 times. The breakage of massive protein chains occurs followed by the recombination of new protein chain networks due to the oxidation of amidogen and the synthesis of disulfide during the hydrogen peroxide modifying egg albumen. Ions such as Fe3+, Na+, K+, which are surrounded by protein chains, are exposed to the outside of protein chains to generate a series of traps during the egg albumen degeneration process. According to the fitting results of the double logarithm I–V curves and the current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM) images of the ON and OFF states, the charge transfer from one trap center to its neighboring trap center is responsible for the resistive switching memory phenomena. The results of our work indicate that hydrogen- peroxide-modified egg albumen could open up a new avenue of biomaterial application in nanoelectronic systems.

  10. Multiresidue determination of veterinary medicines in lyophilized egg albumen with subsequent consumer exposure evaluation.

    PubMed

    Piątkowska, Marta; Gbylik-Sikorska, Małgorzata; Gajda, Anna; Jedziniak, Piotr; Błądek, Tomasz; Żmudzki, Jan; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2017-08-15

    The process of lyophilization causes that the veterinary drugs residues present in egg albumen do not decompose, as it takes place during the process of high-temperature drying. Thus, lyophilized albumen may be a potential source of their residues for consumers. As a consequence, reliable methods for the determination of veterinary medicinal products from egg albumen are needed. The method for the determination of 85 analytes in lyophilized egg albumen was developed and successfully validated. The recoveries were between 84 and 110%, within laboratory repeatability and reproducibility - in the range of 3.29-16.8% and -5.93 to 19.3%. The presence of enrofloxacin and doxycycline was confirmed in real egg albumen samples. The concentrations ranged from 5.65-596µg/kg for doxycycline to 0.89-134µg/kg for enrofloxacin. Nevertheless, the evaluated daily intake and % of the ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) received by the consumers' were at a toxicologically accepted level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrogen peroxide modified egg albumen for transparent and flexible resistive switching memory.

    PubMed

    Song, Qunliang; Zhou, Guang-Dong; Yao, Yanqing; Lu, Zhisong; Yang, Xiude; Han, Juanjuan; Wang, Gang; Rao, Xi; Li, Ping; Liu, Qian

    2017-08-02

    Egg albumen is modified by hydrogen peroxide with the concentration of 5%, 10%, 15% and 30% at room temperature. Compared with the devices without modification, a memory cell of Ag/10% H2O2-Egg Albumen/Indium tin oxide exhibits an obviously enhanced resistive switching memory behavior with resistance ratio of 104, self-healing switching endurance for 900 cycles and prolong retention time for 104 seconds @ 200 mV reading voltage after bending 103 times. The breakage of massive protein chains occur followed by recombination of a new protein chain networks due to the oxidation of amidogen and synthesis of disulfide during hydrogen peroxide modifying egg albumen. The ions such as Fe3+, Na+, K+, which are surrounded by the protein chains, are exposed to the outside of protein chains to generate a series of traps during the egg albumen degeneration process. According to the fitting results of double logarithm I-V curves and the current-sensing atomic force microscopy (CS-AFM) images of ON and OFF states, charges transfer from one trap center to its neighboring trap center is responsible for the resistive switching memory phenomena. The results in our work indicate the hydrogen peroxide modified egg albumen is possibly opening an avenue of biomaterial application in nanoelectronic systems. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  12. Determination of corticosterone concentrations in egg albumen: a non-invasive indicator of stress in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Downing, J A; Bryden, W L

    2008-10-20

    Measurement of plasma corticosterone is difficult because the handling associated with blood sampling from birds is stressful. The use of non-invasive means of measuring stress could help to alleviate this problem. It was considered that the accumulation of plasma corticosterone into the egg albumen could provide a non-invasive indicator of stress in laying hens. The present study examined the relationship between plasma and egg albumen corticosterone concentrations and then determined what affect exposing hens to known stressors had on egg albumen corticosterone concentrations. Laying hens were given subcutaneous injections of either 0, 5, or 10 mg of corticosterone suspended in peanut oil and then the concentrations of corticosterone in the plasma and egg albumen determined. Also, groups of hens were handled, exposed to high ambient temperature and moved to new cages, all events known to be stress provoking, and then the concentrations of corticosterone in albumen determined. The injections increased plasma corticosterone concentrations substantially and these were directly related to the concentrations measured in the egg albumen. When hens were exposed to the various stressors, the level of corticosterone in the egg albumen increased. The corticosterone concentrations found in the egg albumen can provide a convenient non-invasive means of measuring stress in laying hens and other birds.

  13. Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated Using Biodegradable Gate Dielectric Layer of Chicken Albumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Da-Bin; Bak, Jun-Yong; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2013-12-01

    An oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) using chicken albumen as gate dielectric on paper substrate was demonstrated. Chicken albumen, which was directly extracted from chicken egg white, was deposited as gate dielectric layer. An In-Ga-Zn-O was chosen as an active channel. The TFT feasibilities were successfully confirmed, in which channel mobility and subthreshold slope of the TFT were 6.48 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 1.28 V/s, respectively. This is the first report on the device configuration combining the biodegradable gate insulator and oxide semiconducting channel.

  14. Yolk and albumen corticosterone concentrations in eggs laid by white versus brown caged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Navara, K J; Pinson, S E

    2010-07-01

    Maternal stress in birds can have permanent transgenerational effects through the transmission of stress hormones to offspring via the egg yolk. Previous studies have shown that White Leghorn hens show a heightened response to stress compared with Hy-Line Brown hens, producing significantly more corticosterone and displaying longer bouts of tonic immobility after handling, whereas baseline levels of corticosterone are similar between the strains. We tested the hypothesis that higher stress responsiveness would correspond to chronic accumulation and thus higher concentrations of corticosterone in egg yolks after exposure to stressors associated with routine maintenance. Eggs were collected from white and brown hens that were undisturbed except for daily feeding and routine egg collections. Corticosterone was quantified in plasma, egg yolks, and albumen and compared between strains. We predicted that corticosterone concentrations in yolk would be higher in eggs from white versus brown hens but that albumen corticosterone would not differ between strains due to the short term of albumen deposition. As predicted, yolk corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher in eggs produced by white hens, approximately twice those found in eggs laid by brown hens. Plasma and albumen concentrations of corticosterone were similar between groups. These results suggest that offspring hatching from eggs laid by White Leghorn hens are exposed to significantly more corticosterone through concentration in the egg yolk, which could permanently imprint offspring physiology and behavior.

  15. Reduced protein availability by albumen removal during chicken embryogenesis decreases body weight and induces hormonal changes.

    PubMed

    Willems, Els; Wang, Yufeng; Koppenol, Astrid; Lesuisse, Jens; Franssens, Lies; Decuypere, Eddy; Buyse, Johan; Everaert, Nadia

    2015-11-01

    What is the central question of this study? Prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal in an avian model of fetal programming leads to long-term programming effects, but when do these effects first appear and are these programming effects regulated by the same candidate genes as in mammals? What is the main finding and its importance? The present results indicate that prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal induces phenotypical and hormonal changes in the early posthatch period, when the mismatch between the prenatal and postnatal environment first arises, but these changes are not accompanied by an altered gene expression of the selected candidate genes. Studies of the chicken offer a unique model for investigation of the direct effects of reduced prenatal protein availability by the partial replacement of albumen with saline in eggs at embryonic day 1 (albumen-deprived group). The results were compared with mock-treated sham chicks and non-treated control chicks. Although no differences in hatch weight were found, body weight and growth were reduced in the albumen-deprived chicks until 3 weeks of age. The feed intake of the albumen-deprived chicks, however, was increased compared with the control (day 13-21) and the sham chicks (day 16-18). In the albumen-deprived chicks, the ratio of thyroxine to 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in the plasma was increased compared with the control chicks, whereas the plasma corticosterone level was increased only at day 7 compared with both other groups. The plasma glucose concentration and glucose tolerance were not affected by treatment. Several candidate genes previously associated with effects of prenatal protein deprivation in mammals were examined in the liver of newly hatched chicks. Gene expression of glycogen synthase 2, glycogen phosphorylase 1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α and γ and glucocorticoid receptor was not affected by the treatment. In conclusion, reduction of prenatal

  16. Estimations of repeatability and heritability of egg albumen antimicrobial activity and of lysozyme and ovotransferrin concentrations.

    PubMed

    Sellier, N; Vidal, M L; Baron, F; Michel, J; Gautron, J; Protais, M; Beaumont, C; Gautier, M; Nys, Y

    2007-10-01

    1. The repeatability and heritability of growth inhibition by egg albumen of two major pathogenic bacteria, a Gram-negative (Salmonella Enteritidis) and a Gram-positive (Staphyloccocus aureus) and of two antimicrobial albumen proteins, lysozyme and ovotransferrin, were estimated in commercial pedigree hens. 2. Repeatability was evaluated in 100 egg-type hens at the beginning, middle and end of the laying cycle on eggs collected for 3 weeks. Heritabilities were estimated at 36 to 40 weeks of age on 400 pedigree hens (2 eggs/hen), which were the offspring of 25 sires each mated with 4 dams. Ovotransferrin and lysozyme were quantified by ELISA. Salmonella Enteritidis (S.E.) and Staphyloccocus aureus (S.A.) were inoculated into a sample of sterilised albumen and enumerated after incubation. 3. Total protein content in albumen decreased with age of laying hens, whereas there were increases in lysozyme or ovotransferrin concentrations and in the bacteriostatic effect of albumen. 4. Repeatability for bacterial growth in albumen ranged from 0.29 to 0.39 for the number of S.E. (log cfu/ml) one day post inoculation (p.i.) but was lower and more variable at 5 d p.i. or for S.A. number. It ranged from 0.27 to 0.38 for S.E. and S.A. number at the mid period of the laying cycle. Repeatabilities were low and variable for total egg albumen protein or lysozyme and ovotranferrin concentrations (0 to 0.22). 5. Negative phenotypic correlations were observed between lysozyme concentrations and S.E. number but that between lysozyme and S.A. number was not significant. 6. Heritabilities were low (0.01 to 0.09) for protein traits. They were 0.11 for S.A. number and 0.16 for S.E. number one day p.i. 7. It appears to be more efficient to select on global bacterial growth than on specific antimicrobial proteins. The most promising trait is the number of S.E. one day p.i.

  17. Modified atmosphere packaging of hen table eggs: effects on functional properties of albumen.

    PubMed

    Rocculi, P; Cocci, E; Sirri, F; Cevoli, C; Romani, S; Rosa, M Dalla

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare technological properties (gel hardness, foam drainage, and meringue crispness) of albumen of nonpacked table eggs (control) with those of eggs packed in high-barrier plastic pouches with 3 modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) conditions (air, 100% N(2), and 100% CO(2)) during 28 d of storage at 25°C. The values of gel hardness for the control sample showed an increasing trend, demonstrating the highest values throughout the experiment duration compared with the other samples. This behavior was probably attributable to the pH increase detected only for this sample during storage (from 8.82 ± 0.06 for fresh egg to 9.96 ± 0.06 at the end of the experiment). Air and N(2) samples showed constant and similar hardness values during storage. The hardness of coagulated albumen showed a strict correlation with raw albumen pH (r(2) = 0.929; P < 0.001). Other than reducing albumen pH during storage, MAP with CO(2) caused the formation of a soft and puffy coagulum with very low hardness, reaching the lowest value of 1.26 ± 0.38 N after 4 d of storage, that slowly increased to 2.11 ± 0.49 N at the end of the experiment. Foam stability decreased during storage for all samples, but CO(2) eggs showed a significantly (P < 0.05) higher foam stability than fresh eggs until 15 d, reaching values similar to those of the other samples only at the end of the storage time. Packing eggs in CO(2) promoted an improvement of meringue crispness. The application of this atmosphere could ameliorate the quality characteristics of albumen-based food products. Commercially, CO(2) MAP could provide an albumen-based ingredient tailored to maximize the characteristics needed in the final product (e.g., fresh shell eggs special for meringue preparation) that could give an added value to the product.

  18. EXPERIMENTS ON THE EFFECTS OF INJECTION OF EGG-ALBUMEN AND SOME OTHER PROTEIDS

    PubMed Central

    Sollmann, Torald; Brown, E. D.

    1902-01-01

    The conclusions which we derive from our observations are as follows: 1. The excretion of injected, egg-albumen as such is in no case complete. The quantity retained varies from 23 to 100%. 2. The amount retained varies: a) directly with the slowness of absorption. This is determined by the manner of administration. b) directly with the time during which the proteid remains in the body; and therefore inversely to the rapidity of excretion. c) inversely to the quantity injected; this has however much less effect than (a) or (b). d) with individual peculiarities; but these are not very conspicuous. 3. The excreted proteid coagulates at the same temperatures as the injected albumen. 4. Injection of egg-albumen does not cause the appearance of globulins in the urine. 5. The proportion of proteid coagulating at lower temperatures is less in the urine than in the injected solution. When a solution has been heated to 73° before injection, the urine also does not coagulate below this temperature. 6. Egg-albumen injected into the hen is excreted as with mammals. 7. The albuminuria lasts in typical cases from 1½ to 3 days, according to the manner of administration. The excretion begins very shortly (7 minutes) after injection. 37 per cent of the total proteid injected may be excreted in an hour. About three-fourths of the total excretion takes place within the first 17 hours; the excretion is almost completed in the next 15 hours, only traces being excreted thereafter. With hypodermic injection the amount is more nearly equal on 2 or 3 successive days, since the absorption may extend over 2 days. 8. Alkali-albumin, as well as muscle-proteids (from foreign species) are completely retained. An unconverted mixture of egg-albumen and sodium carbonate behaves like egg-albumen. 9. A small amount of proteid (less than 5%) is excreted unchanged by the faeces. 10. A variable proportion is excreted as non-coagulable proteid. The quantity of this is proportional to that of the

  19. Energetic Effects of Pre-hatch Albumen Removal on Embryonic Development and Early Ontogeny in Gallus gallus.

    PubMed

    Peña-Villalobos, Isaac; Piriz, Gabriela; Palma, Verónica; Sabat, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the yolk and albumen content in bird eggs, and the effects of variations in their relative loads in the phenotype of the birds, have revealed multiple consequences at different levels of biological organization, from biochemical traits to behavior. However, little is known about the effect of albumen variation on energetics performance during development and early ontogeny, despite the fact that variation in energy expenditure may have consequences in terms of fitness for both feral and domestic species. In this work, we evaluated experimentally whether variations in the content of albumen of Gallus gallus eggs could generate differences in metabolic rates during embryonic development. Additionally, we assessed changes in the activity of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase) in skeletal muscles and liver. Finally, we evaluated the success of hatching of these embryos and their metabolic rates (MR) post-hatching. The results revealed a significant reduction in MR in the last fifth of embryonic life, and reduced catabolic activities in the skeletal muscle of chicks hatched from albumen-removed eggs. However, the same group demonstrated an increase in catabolic activity in the liver, suggesting the existence of changes in energy allocation between tissues. Besides, we found a decrease in hatching success in the albumen-removed group, suggesting a negative effect of the lower albumen content on eggs, possibly due to lower catabolic activities in skeletal muscle. We also found a compensatory phenomenon in the first week after hatching, i.e., birds from albumen-removed eggs did not show a decrease in MR either at thermoneutral temperatures or at 10°C, compared to the control group. Collectively, our data suggest that a reduction in albumen may generate a trade-off between tissue metabolic activities, and may explain the differences in metabolic rates and hatching success, supporting the immediate adaptive response (IAR) hypothesis.

  20. Energetic Effects of Pre-hatch Albumen Removal on Embryonic Development and Early Ontogeny in Gallus gallus

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Villalobos, Isaac; Piriz, Gabriela; Palma, Verónica; Sabat, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    Studies on the yolk and albumen content in bird eggs, and the effects of variations in their relative loads in the phenotype of the birds, have revealed multiple consequences at different levels of biological organization, from biochemical traits to behavior. However, little is known about the effect of albumen variation on energetics performance during development and early ontogeny, despite the fact that variation in energy expenditure may have consequences in terms of fitness for both feral and domestic species. In this work, we evaluated experimentally whether variations in the content of albumen of Gallus gallus eggs could generate differences in metabolic rates during embryonic development. Additionally, we assessed changes in the activity of mitochondrial enzymes (cytochrome c oxidase and citrate synthase) in skeletal muscles and liver. Finally, we evaluated the success of hatching of these embryos and their metabolic rates (MR) post-hatching. The results revealed a significant reduction in MR in the last fifth of embryonic life, and reduced catabolic activities in the skeletal muscle of chicks hatched from albumen-removed eggs. However, the same group demonstrated an increase in catabolic activity in the liver, suggesting the existence of changes in energy allocation between tissues. Besides, we found a decrease in hatching success in the albumen-removed group, suggesting a negative effect of the lower albumen content on eggs, possibly due to lower catabolic activities in skeletal muscle. We also found a compensatory phenomenon in the first week after hatching, i.e., birds from albumen-removed eggs did not show a decrease in MR either at thermoneutral temperatures or at 10°C, compared to the control group. Collectively, our data suggest that a reduction in albumen may generate a trade-off between tissue metabolic activities, and may explain the differences in metabolic rates and hatching success, supporting the immediate adaptive response (IAR) hypothesis

  1. Transparent and flexible write-once-read-many (WORM) memory device based on egg albumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Bo; Lin, Qianru; Wan, Tao; Du, Haiwei; Chen, Nan; Lin, Xi; Chu, Dewei

    2017-08-01

    Egg albumen, as an important protein resource in nature, is an interesting dielectric material exhibiting many fascinating properties for the development of environmentally friendly electronic devices. Taking advantage of their extraordinary transparency and flexibility, this paper presents an innovative preparation approach for albumen thin film based write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices in a simple, cost-effective manner. The fabricated device shows superior data retention properties including non-volatile character (over 105 s) and promising great read durability (106 times). Furthermore, our results suggested that the electric-field-induced trap-controlled space charge limited current (SCLC) conduction is responsible for the observed resistance switching effect. The present study may likely reveal another pathway towards complete see-through electrical devices.

  2. Yolk-albumen testosterone in a lizard with temperature-dependent sex determination: relation with development.

    PubMed

    Huang, Victoria; Bowden, Rachel M; Crews, David

    2013-06-01

    The leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius) exhibits temperature-dependent sex determination as well as temperature-influenced polymorphisms. Research suggests that in oviparous reptiles with temperature-dependent sex determination, steroid hormones in the yolk might influence sex determination and sexual differentiation. From captive leopard geckos that were all from the same incubation temperature regime, we gathered freshly laid eggs, incubated them at one of two female-biased incubation temperatures (26 or 34°C), and measured testosterone content in the yolk-albumen at early or late development. No differences in the concentration of testosterone were detected in eggs from different incubation temperatures. We report testosterone concentrations in the yolk-albumen were higher in eggs of late development than early development at 26°C incubation temperatures, a finding opposite that reported in other TSD reptiles studied to date. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Synthesis of uniform TiO2 nanoparticles with egg albumen proteins as novel biotemplate.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingjing; Wu, Guangjun; Li, Landong; Yu, Aimin; Sun, Xiaohong; Guan, Naijia

    2010-09-01

    A novel bio-templated route was reported for the fabrication of uniform and well dispersed TiO, nanoparticles using denatured egg albumen (EA) proteins network as template. Anatase TiO2 nanoparticles of ca. 9 nm with narrow size distribution were obtained under employed reaction conditions, as proved by the XRD and TEM results. The as-prepared TiO2 nanoparticles were further characterized by means of XPS, FTIR, TG-DTA and UV-Vis. Based on the characterization results, a possible process of heat-induced denatured protein network as template matrix to fabricate TiO2 nanoparticles was carefully proposed. The method with egg albumen as bio-template provides us a cheap, green and repeatable route for the fabrication of nanoparticles under mild conditions.

  4. Persistence of contamination of hens' egg albumen in vitro with Salmonella serotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Lock, J. L.; Board, R. G.

    1992-01-01

    A study was made of the persistence of different Salmonella serotypes in hens' egg albumin in vitro at 4, 20 and 30 degrees C. The majority of serotypes remained viable but did not increase in numbers at 20 and 30 degrees C for 42 days. At 4 degrees C many of the serotypes died out. The addition of ferric ammonium citrate on the 42nd day of incubation induced multiplication of organisms incubated at 20 and 30 degrees C, but not at 4 degrees C. The pH and glucose concentration of the albumen diminished only when heavy growth occurred. Salmonella enteritidis remained viable on the air cell membrane in vitro for 17 days at 4, 20 and 30 degrees C. Thirty percent of the organisms also remained motile in albumen for 42 days at 25 degrees C and up to 5% of the cells remained motile for up to 20 days at 4 degrees C. PMID:1601073

  5. Effects of turning duration during incubation on embryo growth, utilization of albumen, and stress regulation.

    PubMed

    Tona, K; Onagbesan, O; Bruggeman, V; Mertens, K; Decuypere, E

    2005-02-01

    Eggs from Cobb broiler breeders were incubated for 18 d. Eggs were not turned (T0) or were turned until 9 (T9), 12 (T12), 15 (T15), or 18 (T18) d. First, the effects of turning on embryo and albumen weights were studied. Samples of eggs were opened at d 9, 12, 15, and 18 for embryo and albumen weighing. The results show that embryos from unturned eggs had lower weights and higher remaining albumen weights than those from turned eggs. At d 18, albumen utilization was completed in the T12, T15, and T18 groups only. Also, further turning until d 15 and 18 increased embryo weights. The responsiveness of the embryo after adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection was studied to test stress control in embryos. Blood samples were collected from embryos at 60 and 150 min after injection at d 12, 15, and 18 and were analyzed for corticosterone concentrations. The results showed that basal corticosterone levels increased with embryo age. At 60 min after ACTH injection, corticosterone levels were lower at d 12 than at d 15 and 18. At 150 min after ACTH injection, corticosterone levels followed different trends according to incubation stage and turning duration. The highest basal corticosterone levels were obtained with the T15 group at d 15 and 18. Also at d 18, corticosterone levels in the T15 group were the highest at 150 min after ACTH injection. We concluded that egg turning was required during incubation until d 12, at least, and should not be stopped until after d 15.

  6. Lighting Up Ultraviolet Fluorescence From Chicken Albumen Through Plasmon Resonance Energy Transfer of Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    -Tsung Chen, I.; Chang, Po-Hsiang; Chang, Yun-Chorng; Guo, Tzung-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), which easily aggregate in organic thin film, are observed to well-disperse in chicken albumen thin films. The incorporated AuNPs is distributed uniformly inside the thin film and is as dense as 650 (particles/μm3). In addition, enhanced ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence centered at 350 nm is observed from the AuNPs-containing chicken albumen thin film. The enhancement is proposed to be originated from the plasmon resonance energy transfer (PRET) from the d-band absorption of AuNPs to the chicken albumen protein. The enhanced fluorescence is further verified by the shorter fluorescence lifetime from the time-resolved fluorescence spectra. These results indicate that d-band transition of AuNPs can be used to interface with other UV-emitting biomolecules. Results in this study demonstrate that AuNPs exhibit future potentials in applications for both the organic thin-film technology and nano-biotechnology. PMID:23514900

  7. Double-yolked pheasant eggs provide an insight into the control of albumen secretion in bird eggs.

    PubMed

    Deeming, D C

    2011-02-01

    1. The possible role of the presence of the yolk in stimulating secretion of albumen was investigated. 2. Double-yolked and single-yolked pheasant (Phasianus colchinus) eggs were opened to determine the masses of the shell, albumen and yolk(s). 3. In double-yolked eggs, the two yolk masses were not significantly different. Albumen mass was increased above that expected from an egg with a single-yolk of comparable size but below that expected from an egg having a mass of the combined yolks. The mass of shell per unit area reflected the mass of the initial mass of the egg irrespective of the number of yolks. 4. The additional mass of albumen is unrelated to yolk or initial egg mass. It is postulated that in double-yolked eggs the oviduct is mechanically stimulated by the presence of both yolks, which empties the stores of water-soluble albumen proteins in the magnum wall. Such stores are insufficient to provide the same amount of protein for the two yolks.

  8. Differential Expression of Genes and DNA Methylation associated with Prenatal Protein Undernutrition by Albumen Removal in an avian model

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Els; Guerrero-Bosagna, Carlos; Decuypere, Eddy; Janssens, Steven; Buyse, Johan; Buys, Nadine; Jensen, Per; Everaert, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Previously, long-term effects on body weight and reproductive performance have been demonstrated in the chicken model of prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal. Introduction of such persistent alterations in phenotype suggests stable changes in gene expression. Therefore, a genome-wide screening of the hepatic transcriptome by RNA-Seq was performed in adult hens. The albumen-deprived hens were created by partial removal of the albumen from eggs and replacement with saline early during embryonic development. Results were compared to sham-manipulated hens and non-manipulated hens. Grouping of the differentially expressed (DE) genes according to biological functions revealed the involvement of processes such as ‘embryonic and organismal development’ and ‘reproductive system development and function’. Molecular pathways that were altered were ‘amino acid metabolism’, ‘carbohydrate metabolism’ and ‘protein synthesis’. Three key central genes interacting with many DE genes were identified: UBC, NR3C1, and ELAVL1. The DNA methylation of 9 DE genes and 3 key central genes was examined by MeDIP-qPCR. The DNA methylation of a fragment (UBC_3) of the UBC gene was increased in the albumen-deprived hens compared to the non-manipulated hens. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that prenatal protein undernutrition by albumen removal leads to long-term alterations of the hepatic transcriptome in the chicken. PMID:26861190

  9. Importance of sub-embryonic fluid and albumen in the embryo's response to turning of the egg during incubation.

    PubMed

    Deeming, D C

    1989-09-01

    1. The effects of removal of sub-embryonic fluid and albumen on the development of the fowl embryo were investigated. 2. A deficiency of sub-embryonic fluid on day 7 of incubation resulted in a reduction in the volume of the yolk sac and of allantoic fluid, and a reduction in the mass of the embryo later in incubation. 3. A deficiency of albumen on day 3 of incubation led to a reduction in allantoic fluid and embryo mass after day 12 incubation. 4. The results suggest that the physiology of embryos in unturned eggs is better modelled by eggs deprived of albumen than by eggs deprived of sub-embryonic fluid.

  10. Failure to turn eggs during incubation: effects on embryo weight, development of the chorioallantois and absorption of albumen.

    PubMed

    Tullett, S G; Deeming, D C

    1987-06-01

    Turning eggs during incubation is essential for good hatchability. In the present paper additional effects on the development of the chorioallantois, absorption of albumen and growth of the embryo are recorded. The ability of an unturned egg to hatch was not affected by egg weight, egg shell porosity or water loss during incubation. The ability of the chorioallantois to spread around the inner surface of the inner shell membrane and the degree of absorption of the residual albumen affected the growth of the embryo and its ability to hatch. Unturned eggs hatched later than eggs which were turned throughout incubation.

  11. Parthenogenesis in mated Chinese Painted quail (Coturnix chinensis) hens decreases sperm-egg penetration and alters albumen characteristics.

    PubMed

    Santa Rosa, P; Parker, H M; Kiess, A S; McDaniel, C D

    2016-10-15

    Parthenogenesis, embryonic development without fertilization, resembles very early embryonic mortality in fertilized eggs. Also, parthenogenesis alters egg albumen characteristics in virgin Chinese Painted quail hens genetically selected for parthenogenesis (PV). When these PV hens are mated (PM), hatchability is reduced versus control mated (CM) hens that were not genetically selected for parthenogenesis. However, it is unclear if parthenogenesis, which occurs in PM hens, reduces hatchability due to infertility and altered albumen characteristics. Sperm-egg penetration (SEP) holes are indicative of true fertilization and may be useful in identifying if eggs from PM hens exhibit a decrease in fertility versus CM hens. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine if parthenogenesis in PM hens (1) decreases SEP, (2) alters albumen characteristics similar to parthenogenesis in eggs from PV hens, and (3) yields albumen characteristics similar to fertilized eggs containing early mortality. Daily, PV and PM eggs were collected, labeled, and incubated for 10 days, then broken out to determine the incidence of parthenogenesis and albumen characteristics. Also daily, fresh PM and CM quail eggs were macroscopically examined to determine if an egg was infertile with no embryonic development, parthenogenetic, or fertile. Each of these eggs was then microscopically examined for SEP. For both PV and PM incubated eggs, parthenogenesis decreased albumen pH, O2, and protein concentrations yet increased Ca(2+) and CO2 concentrations versus eggs with no development. For incubated PM eggs, albumen pH and O2 were lower, yet CO2 was higher for eggs containing parthenogens or early dead embryos versus infertile eggs. For SEP, fresh eggs classified as infertile or parthenogenetic from PM and CM hens had similar SEP holes but only one sixth as many SEP holes as eggs classified as fertilized. Eggs from CM hens had 3.5 times as many SEP holes as PM eggs. In conclusion

  12. Propyl Paraben Sensitizes Heat-Resistant Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienburg to Thermal Pasteurization in Liquid Egg Albumen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: The USDA, Food Safety and Inspection Service requires that liquid egg albumen (or egg white, LEW) undergo pasteurization at 56.7 C for 3.5 min prior to distribution. This process is known change the physical properties of LEW. The use of antimicrobials to sensitize salmonellae to pa...

  13. Differences in the stable isotope signatures of seabird egg membrane and albumen--implications for non-invasive studies.

    PubMed

    Quillfeldt, Petra; McGill, Rona A R; Masello, Juan F; Poisbleau, Maud; van Noordwijk, Hendrika; Demongin, Laurent; Furness, Robert W

    2009-12-01

    In many bird species, egg membranes can be obtained non-invasively after the chicks have hatched, and stable isotope analysis of egg membranes can be used to study the diet and foraging distribution of these birds during egg formation. It has been suggested that the enrichment factors of albumen and egg membranes differ for 13C, but are similar for 15N. In this study, we compared carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of the membranes and albumen of individual eggs of three wild seabird species, the Southern Rockhopper penguin Eudyptes chrysocome, the Imperial shag Phalacrocorax atriceps albiventer, and the Thin-billed prion Pachyptila belcheri. We also included chicken eggs for comparison. Egg membranes were generally enriched in 13C, compared with albumen. The difference varied between species, with 2.1 per thousand in Rockhopper penguins, 1.6 per thousand in Imperial shags, but only 0.5 per thousand in Thin-billed prions and 0.4 per thousand in chicken eggs. Egg membranes were slightly enriched in 15N in Imperial shags (0.9 per thousand) and chickens (0.5 per thousand), compared with albumen, while there was no difference for Thin-billed prions and Rockhopper penguins. The isotopic values of carbon and nitrogen were correlated between albumen and egg membranes of individual eggs, suggesting that egg membranes can be used reliably to investigate trophic differences between individuals, seasons or colonies. Species-specific mathematical corrections could be used to compare results across studies that use different egg components. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Artificial Synaptic Devices Based on Natural Chicken Albumen Coupled Electric-Double-Layer Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guodong; Feng, Ping; Wan, Xiang; Zhu, Liqiang; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-03-01

    Recent progress in using biomaterials to fabricate functional electronics has got growing attention for the new generation of environmentally friendly and biocompatible electronic devices. As a kind of biological material with rich source, proteins are essential natural component of all organisms. At the same time, artificial synaptic devices are of great significance for neuromorphic systems because they can emulate the signal process and memory behaviors of biological synapses. In this report, natural chicken albumen with high proton conductivity was used as the coupling electrolyte film for organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic devices fabrication. Some important synaptic functions including paired-pulse facilitation, dynamic filtering, short-term to long-term memory transition and spatial summation and shunting inhibition were successfully mimicked. Our results are very interesting for biological friendly artificial neuron networks and neuromorphic systems.

  15. The Salmonella Enteritidis lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis gene rfbH is required for survival in egg albumen.

    PubMed

    Gantois, I; Ducatelle, R; Pasmans, F; Haesebrouck, F; Van Immerseel, F

    2009-04-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is still a major cause of human food borne infections and can be associated with the consumption of meat and chicken eggs. It is the world's most common cause of salmonellosis in part because it has the ability to colonize the oviduct and contaminate eggs. It was shown that when stored at room temperature, S. Enteritidis bacteria can multiply extensively in contaminated eggs. Using the in vivo expression technology, it was shown that the rfbH gene, involved in lipopolysaccharide O-antigen synthesis, is transcriptionally induced during growth in whole eggs at room temperature. A S. Enteritidis DeltarfbH strain was unable to multiply in eggs at room temperature and did not survive in egg white at 42 degrees C. The attenuation was most likely caused by an increased susceptibility of the DeltarfbH mutant to yet undefined antibacterial components of the egg albumen.

  16. Artificial Synaptic Devices Based on Natural Chicken Albumen Coupled Electric-Double-Layer Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guodong; Feng, Ping; Wan, Xiang; Zhu, Liqiang; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in using biomaterials to fabricate functional electronics has got growing attention for the new generation of environmentally friendly and biocompatible electronic devices. As a kind of biological material with rich source, proteins are essential natural component of all organisms. At the same time, artificial synaptic devices are of great significance for neuromorphic systems because they can emulate the signal process and memory behaviors of biological synapses. In this report, natural chicken albumen with high proton conductivity was used as the coupling electrolyte film for organic/inorganic hybrid synaptic devices fabrication. Some important synaptic functions including paired-pulse facilitation, dynamic filtering, short-term to long-term memory transition and spatial summation and shunting inhibition were successfully mimicked. Our results are very interesting for biological friendly artificial neuron networks and neuromorphic systems. PMID:27008981

  17. Effects of microviscosity, dry electron scavenging, and protein mobility on the radiolysis of albumen hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Krise, Keith M; Milosavljevic, Bratoljub H

    2011-10-20

    Nanosecond pulse radiolysis experiments performed on the oxygen and nitrogen saturated thick fraction of egg white (which has an immeasurably high macroviscosity) produced a rate constant for hydrated electron reaction with oxygen equal to 1.7 × 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) at 18 °C, indicating that, due to the very low microviscosity, hydrated electrons are as mobile and reactive in the albumen hydrogel as in neat water. Also, the radiolytic yield for the hydrated electron (G-value) in the thick fraction of egg white (measured at the end of a 14 ns electron pulse) was found to be 86% of that determined in neat water, which can be attributed to the reaction of dry electrons with the protein constituents. Steady-state γ radiolysis studies on air-saturated thick and thin fraction (true solution) revealed that the immobility of egg white proteins disfavors reactions that result in molecular mass change.

  18. Identification of genes associated with survival of salmonellaenterica serovar enteridis in chicken egg albumen

    SciTech Connect

    Clavijo, Raul I.; Loui, Cindy; Andersen, Gary L.; Riley, Lee W.; Lu, Sangwei

    2005-07-13

    Salmonella enterica consists of over 2,000 serovars that aremajor causes of morbidity and mortality associated with contaminatedfood. Despite similarities among serovars of Salmonella enterica, manydemonstrate unique host specificities, epidemiological characteristics,and clinical manifestations. One of the unique epidemiologicalcharacteristics of the serovar Enteritidis is that it is the onlybacterium routinely transmitted to humans through intact chicken eggs.Therefore, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis must be able topersist inside chicken eggs to be transmitted to humans, and its survivalin egg is important for its transmission to the human population. Theability of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis to survive in andtransmit through eggs may have contributed to its drastically increasedprevalence in the 1980s and 1990s. In the present study, usingtransposon-mediated mutagenesis, we have identified genes important forthe association of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis with chickeneggs. Our results indicate that genes involved in cell wall structuraland functional integrity, and nucleic acid and amino acid metabolism areimportant for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis to persist in eggalbumen. Two regions unique toSalmonella enterica serovar Enteritidiswere also identified, one of which enhanced the survival of a Salmonellaenterica serovar Typhimurium isolate in egg albumen. The implication ofour results to the serovar specificity of Salmonella enterica is alsoexplored in the present study.

  19. [sRNA (sraB) regulate the resistant ability of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis to egg albumen].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huiyuan; Cao, Minhui; Cao, Xuesong; Gu, Hongwei; Zeng, Ke

    2010-11-01

    Salmonella species are important food-borne pathogens of human and animal. S. enterica serovar Enteritidis is the only serovar that routinely causes human infection through intact egg, the molecular basis of its ability to survive in egg is poorly understood. The importance of post-transcriptional regulation by small non-coding RNAs (sRNA) has recently been recognized. The sRNAs play diverse physiological roles in stress responses, regulation of metabolism, control of bacterial envelope composition and bacterial virulence. In this study, we studied regulatory function of salmonella sRNA sraB associated with survival ability of S. enterica serovar Enteritidis in egg albumen. To study the contribution of sraB to the survival ability of S. Enteritidis in egg albumen, we constructed sraB deletion strain (SE2472 delta sraB) with wild type S. Enteritidis SE2472, using red recombination system. For complementation of sraB, complete fragment sraB was amplified from SE2472 and inserted into plasmid pHDB3 to overexpress sraB. We carried out the egg albumen bactericidal experiment with strains of SE2472, SE2472 delta sraB (sraB deletion), SE2472 delta sraB-comp (sraB complement) and control. To explore the regulatory role of sraB, we assayed the bactericidal activity of the two important antimicrobial components of egg albumen: lysozyme and transferrin. In the egg albumen bactericidal experiment, the survival rate of SE2472 delta sraB was only about 61%-70% of that of SE2472; while SE2472 delta sraB-comp improve the survival rate of SE2472 delta sraB by 10%-33% . In the transferrin bactericidal experiment, the survival rate of SE2472 delta sraB was 38% of that of SE2472 at 8 h incubation, and 23% at 24 h incubation. SE2472 delta sraB-comp played an important role in improving the survival rate rescued the defect by 14% than SE2472 delta sraB at 8 h of incubation, but failed to rescue the defect at 24 h incubation. In the Lysozyme experiment, the survival rate of SE2472 delta

  20. The Planorbid Snail Biomphalaria glabrata Expresses a Hemocyanin-Like Sequence in the Albumen Gland

    PubMed Central

    Peña, Janeth J.; Adema, Coen M.

    2016-01-01

    The parasitic flatworm Schistosoma mansoni, causative agent of human intestinal schistosomiasis in South America, relies importantly on the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata as intermediate host to achieve development of cercariae that infect humans. The recommendation from the World Health Organization (WHO) to integrate snail control in efforts to counter schistosomiasis transmission provides impetus for in depth study of B. glabrata biology. Our analysis indicates that two distinct hemocyanin-like genes (hcl-1 and hcl-2) are present in B. glabrata, a snail that uses hemoglobin for oxygen transport. Characterization of BAC clones yielded the full length hcl-1 gene, which is comprised of three functional unit (FU) domains at the amino acid level. Database searches and in silico analyses identified the second hcl gene (hcl-2), composed of six FU domains. Both genes are unusual for lacking canonical residues and having fewer FU domains than typical molluscan hemocyanins that contain 7–8 FUs. Reverse transcription PCR demonstrated that Hcl-1 is expressed in a manner that correlates with reproductive maturity in the albumen gland (AG), an immune- and reproduction-relevant organ. Immune cross-reactivity with anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (α-KLH) antiserum and tandem-mass spectrometry validated the presence of Hcl-1 protein in the AG and egg mass fluid (EMF). The evolutionary conservation of hemocyanin-like sequences in B. glabrata in the presence of the oxygen carrier hemoglobin, combined with our results, suggest that the Hcl-1protein has a functional role in general and/or reproductive biology. Further investigations are needed to explore Hcl-1 as a potential target for snail control. PMID:28036345

  1. Embryonic Protein Undernutrition by Albumen Removal Programs the Hepatic Amino Acid and Glucose Metabolism during the Perinatal Period in an Avian Model

    PubMed Central

    Willems, Els; Hu, Tjing-Tjing; Soler Vasco, Laura; Buyse, Johan; Decuypere, Eddy; Arckens, Lutgarde; Everaert, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Different animal models have been used to study the effects of prenatal protein undernutrition and the mechanisms by which these occur. In mammals, the maternal diet is manipulated, exerting both direct nutritional and indirect hormonal effects. Chicken embryos develop independent from the hen in the egg. Therefore, in the chicken, the direct effects of protein deficiency by albumen removal early during incubation can be examined. Prenatal protein undernutrition was established in layer-type eggs by the partial replacement of albumen by saline at embryonic day 1 (albumen-deprived group), compared to a mock-treated sham and a non-treated control group. At hatch, survival of the albumen-deprived group was lower compared to the control and sham group due to increased early mortality by the manipulation. No treatment differences in yolk-free body weight or yolk weight could be detected. The water content of the yolk was reduced, whereas the water content of the carcass was increased in the albumen-deprived group, compared to the control group, indicating less uptake of nutrients from the yolk. At embryonic day 16, 20 and at hatch, plasma triiodothyronine (T3), corticosterone, lactate or glucose concentrations and hepatic glycogen content were not affected by treatment. At embryonic day 20, the plasma thyroxine (T4) concentrations of the albumen-deprived embryos was reduced compared to the control group, indicating a decreased metabolic rate. Screening for differential protein expression in the liver at hatch using two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis revealed not only changed abundance of proteins important for amino acid metabolism, but also of enzymes related to energy and glucose metabolism. Interestingly, GLUT1, a glucose transporter, and PCK2 and FBP1, two out of three regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenesis were dysregulated. No parallel differences in gene expressions causing the differences in protein abundance could be detected pointing to post

  2. The effects of starvation and refeeding on egg laying and the synthetic activity of the albumen gland in Bulinus truncatus, a snail vector of urinary schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Bayomy, M F; van Elk, R; Joosse, J

    1987-01-01

    1. The effects of starvation (for 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days, respectively) and refeeding (12 days starvation and 1, 2 and 3 days refeeding, respectively) on egg laying and albumen gland activity in the freshwater snail, Bulinus truncatus were studied. 2. The egg laying of starving snails rapidly decreased and ceased by day 6 of starvation. Egg laying was restored 24 hr after refeeding. The recorded decrease in albumen gland wet weight was proportional to the starvation periods. The DNA contents of the glands of the different experimental groups was not statistically different from the controls. 3. Albumen gland synthetic activity expressed as 14C-glucose incorporation into galactogen/microgram DNA and 3H-amino acids into total protein was determined. The glands showed an abrupt decrease in synthetic activity after 1 day of starvation and gradually decreased further until days 9-12. The decrease in activity of the glands was more rapid than that of egg laying. Upon refeeding, the activity of the glands recovered rapidly, simultaneous with the increase in wet weight and egg laying. 4. In conclusion, there is a correlation between egg laying and the in vitro activity of albumen glands. The results show a short-term effect of starvation on the fecundity of the snails. Such studies could be useful in field studies as well as snail control by applying molluscicides under optimal conditions.

  3. UPTAKE OF RADIOLABELED 3,3',4,4'-TETRACHLOROBIPHENYL INTO JAPANESE QUAIL EGG COMPARTMENTS AND EMBRYO FOLLOWING AIR CELL AND ALBUMEN INJECTION.

    PubMed

    Dean, Karen M; Baltos, Leah D; Marcell, Allegra M; Bohannon, Meredith E B; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Ann Ottinger, Mary

    2017-09-02

    The avian embryo is an excellent model for testing adverse developmental effects of environmental chemicals, and uptake and movement of xenobiotics within the egg compartments. (14) C 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl ((14) C PCB 77) was injected into Japanese quail eggs prior to incubation at embryonic day 0 (ED0) either onto the air cell or into the albumen. All egg components were collected on ED1, 5 or 10 and concentrations of (14) C PCB 77 were measured in various egg components (shell, membrane, yolk, albumen and embryo). Results showed measurable (14) C PCB 77 in all egg components, with changing concentrations in each egg component over the course of embryonic development. Specifically, concentrations in the shell content decreased between ED1-ED10, increased in albumen from ED1 to ED5 and then decreased at ED10, and increased in both yolk and embryo increased from ED1 to ED10. Vehicle and injection site both influenced (14) C PCB 77 allantoic fluid concentrations, with little effect on other egg components except for the inner shell membrane. The fatty acid vehicle injected into the albumen yielded the highest (14) C PCB 77 recovery. These findings demonstrate dynamic movement of toxicants throughout the egg components during avian embryonic development and a steady increase of relatively low levels of (14) C PCB 77 in the embryo compared to yolk, albumen and shell, suggesting that embryonic uptake (i.e., exposure) mirrors utilization of egg components for nutrition and growth during development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro study of Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium definitive type 104: survival in egg albumen and penetration through the vitelline membrane.

    PubMed

    Guan, J; Grenier, C; Brooks, B W

    2006-09-01

    Salmonella enteritidis and Salmonella typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT104) have been detected in the chicken oviduct, and their survival in egg albumen at the chicken body temperature of 42 degrees C may be important in oviductal and transovarian contamination of intact shell eggs. Eight S. enteritidis and 24 S. typhimurium DT104 strains were tested for their in vitro survival in egg albumen. The concentration of the organisms declined more rapidly when incubated at 42 degrees C than at 37 degrees C and dropped to nondetectable levels within 96 h at the higher, but not at the lower, temperature. In another experiment, 3 S. enteritidis and 3 S. typhimurium DT104 strains were randomly selected, and dosages of 20 and 200 cells of each strain were inoculated onto the vitelline membranes of egg yolks, which were then submerged in the original albumen and incubated for 24 h at 42 degrees C. Under these conditions, the organisms survived in albumen but did not penetrate the vitelline membrane. However, in a similar experiment, penetration did occur when the specimens were incubated at 30 degrees C for 72 h. The results suggest that low numbers of S. enteritidis and S. typhimurium DT104 can be expected to survive in egg albumen during the 24-h period of egg formation in the oviduct but would be unlikely to invade the yolk.before oviposition. However, depending on storage conditions following oviposition, S. enteritidis, as well as S. typhimurium DT104, could survive longer and may eventually invade the egg yolks.

  5. Salmonella Enteritidis strains from poultry exhibit differential responses to acid stress, oxidative stress, and survival in the egg albumen.

    PubMed

    Shah, Devendra H; Casavant, Carol; Hawley, Quincy; Addwebi, Tarek; Call, Douglas R; Guard, Jean

    2012-03-01

    Salmonella Enteritidis is the major foodborne pathogen that is primarily transmitted by contaminated chicken meat and eggs. We recently demonstrated that Salmonella Enteritidis strains from poultry differ in their ability to invade human intestinal cells and cause disease in orally challenged mice. Here we hypothesized that the differential virulence of Salmonella Enteritidis strains is due to the differential fitness in the adverse environments that may be encountered during infection in the host. The responses of a panel of six Salmonella Enteritidis strains to acid stress, oxidative stress, survival in egg albumen, and the ability to cause infection in chickens were analyzed. This analysis allowed classification of strains into two categories, stress-sensitive and stress-resistant, with the former showing significantly (p<0.05) reduced survival in acidic (gastric phase of infection) and oxidative (intestinal and systemic phase of infection) stress. Stress-sensitive strains also showed impaired intestinal colonization and systemic dissemination in orally inoculated chickens and failed to survive/grow in egg albumen. Comparative genomic hybridization microarray analysis revealed no differences at the discriminatory level of the whole gene content between stress-sensitive and stress-resistant strains. However, sequencing of rpoS, a stress-regulatory gene, revealed that one of the three stress-sensitive strains carried an insertion mutation in the rpoS resulting in truncation of σ(S). Finding that one of the stress-sensitive strains carried an easily identifiable small polymorphism within a stress-response gene suggests that the other strains may also have small polymorphisms elsewhere in the genome, which likely impact regulation of stress or virulence associated genes in some manner.

  6. Investigation of novel superparamagnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4@albumen nanoparticles for controlled delivery of anticancer drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasim, Mohd; Asghar, Khushnuma; Dharmapuri, Gangappa; Das, D.

    2017-09-01

    In the present work, multifunctional Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4@albumen (NZF@Alb) and doxorubicin-loaded Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4@albumen (NZF@Alb-Dox) core-shell nanoparticles have been prepared by a green and simple method using inexpensive chicken egg albumen and have been characterized for different physiochemical properties. The structural, morphological, thermal, and magnetic properties of the prepared nanoparticles have been investigated by an x-ray diffractometer, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared, thermogravimetric analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques. Superparamagnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles (NZF NPs) with the mean size ˜20 nm were coated with albumen matrix by an ultrasonication process. Inverse fast Fourier transform-assisted HRTEM micrographs and FTIR analysis revealed the coating of amorphous albumen on crystalline NZF NPs. NZF@Alb and NZF@Alb-Dox NPs have the mean size (D50) of ˜100 nm, good stability, and magnetic controllability. Magnetic measurements (field (H)-dependent magnetization (M)) show all samples to be super-paramagnetic in nature. Biocompatibilities of the NZF and NZF@Alb NPs were confirmed by in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against RAW 264.7 cells. NZF@Alb NPs have been found to be more biocompatible than bare NZF. In Vitro Dox release behavior from NZF@Alb-Dox NPs has been studied at pH 7.4 and 5, and a sustained and pH-dependent drug release profile were observed. In vitro cytotoxicity or anticancer activity of the blank NZF@Alb NPs, free Dox, and NZF@Alb-Dox NPs against HeLa cells (cancer cell line) were also examined by MTT assay. The obtained results suggest that this scalable egg-albumen-based magnetic nanoformulation is suitable for targeted drug delivery applications. Thus, the present study could be extremely useful for the advancement of albumin-based nanocarrier design and

  7. Investigation of novel superparamagnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4@albumen nanoparticles for controlled delivery of anticancer drug.

    PubMed

    Qasim, Mohd; Asghar, Khushnuma; Dharmapuri, Gangappa; Das, D

    2017-09-08

    In the present work, multifunctional Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4@albumen (NZF@Alb) and doxorubicin-loaded Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4@albumen (NZF@Alb-Dox) core-shell nanoparticles have been prepared by a green and simple method using inexpensive chicken egg albumen and have been characterized for different physiochemical properties. The structural, morphological, thermal, and magnetic properties of the prepared nanoparticles have been investigated by an x-ray diffractometer, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transformed infrared, thermogravimetric analysis, and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques. Superparamagnetic Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 nanoparticles (NZF NPs) with the mean size ∼20 nm were coated with albumen matrix by an ultrasonication process. Inverse fast Fourier transform-assisted HRTEM micrographs and FTIR analysis revealed the coating of amorphous albumen on crystalline NZF NPs. NZF@Alb and NZF@Alb-Dox NPs have the mean size (D50) of ∼100 nm, good stability, and magnetic controllability. Magnetic measurements (field (H)-dependent magnetization (M)) show all samples to be super-paramagnetic in nature. Biocompatibilities of the NZF and NZF@Alb NPs were confirmed by in vitro 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay against RAW 264.7 cells. NZF@Alb NPs have been found to be more biocompatible than bare NZF. In Vitro Dox release behavior from NZF@Alb-Dox NPs has been studied at pH 7.4 and 5, and a sustained and pH-dependent drug release profile were observed. In vitro cytotoxicity or anticancer activity of the blank NZF@Alb NPs, free Dox, and NZF@Alb-Dox NPs against HeLa cells (cancer cell line) were also examined by MTT assay. The obtained results suggest that this scalable egg-albumen-based magnetic nanoformulation is suitable for targeted drug delivery applications. Thus, the present study could be extremely useful for the advancement of albumin-based nanocarrier design

  8. Propylparaben sensitizes heat-resistant Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Oranienburg to thermal inactivation in liquid egg albumen.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Jin, Tony Z

    2012-03-01

    Propyl p-hydroxybenzoic acid (propylparaben [PRPA]) is a phenolic antioxidant, known to occur in nature and used as a microbiostat in foods, feeds, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and medications. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) requires that liquid egg white (LEW) be pasteurized at 56.7°C for 3.5 min. This study evaluated the effects of PRPA on the pasteurization sensitivity of Salmonella in LEW. When LEW (pH 7.8) was pasteurized under FSIS conditions, salmonellae declined by 0.5, 4.6, 4.5, > 7.0, and > 7.0 log CFU/ml, with 0, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 ppm of PRPA, respectively, and D(56.7°C)-values were 2.99, 1.05, 0.68, 0.26 and ≤0.16 min. Albumen (pH 8.9) pasteurized under FSIS standards incurred salmonellae reductions of 3.3, 2.8, 5.2, > 7.0, and > 7.0 log CFU/ml, with 0, 125, 250, 500, or 1,000 ppm of PRPA, respectively, while D(56.7°C)-values were 0.87, 0.99, 0.66, 0.22, and 0.09 min. Adding 500 ppm of PRPA to albumen (pH 7.8) reduced D(56.7°C)-values more than 11-fold, and reduced the time to achieve a 5-log reduction from 15.0 to only 1.3 min. A 7-log reduction in plain LEW (pH 7.8) at 56.7°C required 20.9 min, versus only 1.8 and 1.1 min with 500 and 1,000 ppm of PRPA, respectively. Furthermore, a 7-log reduction in plain LEW (pH 8.9) required 6.1 min, versus only 1.5 and 0.6 min with 500 and 1,000 ppm of PRPA, respectively. This study is the first to report the efficacy of PRPA (pK(a) = 8.4) in sensitizing Salmonella in LEW to thermal pasteurization, while documenting that PRPA retains its antibacterial efficacy at pH levels as high as 8.9.

  9. Schistosomin: a pronase-sensitive agent in the hemolymph of Trichobilharzia ocellata-infected Lymnaea stagnalis inhibits the activity of albumen glands in vitro.

    PubMed

    Joosse, J; van Elk, R; Mosselman, S; Wortelboer, H; van Diepen, J C

    1988-01-01

    The schistosome parasite, Trichobilharzia ocellata, nearly completely inhibits the reproductive activity of its intermediate host, Lymnaea stagnalis. The synthetic activity of albumen glands of infected snails at day 35 postinfection (p.i.) is only 1% of the control value. The parasite acts by humoral means. We tested the hypothesis that (a) specific humoral agent(s) is (are) involved and refer to this (these) agent(s) as schistosomin. The presence of schistosomin in the hemolymph of infected snails was investigated by using galactogen synthesis in albumen glands as an in vitro bioassay. The synthetic activity of albumen glands of noninfected snails decreased by about 50% during a 1-h incubation in the hemolymph of infected snails. This inhibition is attributed to schistosomin. Based on these results, with the present bioassay schistosomin appears in the hemolymph between days 28-36 p.i. onwards. Schistosomin is heat-stable (100 degrees C) and pronase-sensitive, and therefore it might have a peptide nature. Schistosomin suppresses the stimulating action of the female, gonadotrophic dorsal body hormone at relatively low doses, which suggests that it may compete with this hormone for the same receptors. The development of two other bioassays for schistosomin in our laboratory is discussed.

  10. Nonvolatile memory thin-film transistors using biodegradable chicken albumen gate insulator and oxide semiconductor channel on eco-friendly paper substrate.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Jung; Jeon, Da-Bin; Park, Jung-Ho; Ryu, Min-Ki; Yang, Jong-Heon; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Kim, Gi-Heon; Yoon, Sung-Min

    2015-03-04

    Nonvolatile memory thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated on paper substrates were proposed as one of the eco-friendly electronic devices. The gate stack was composed of chicken albumen gate insulator and In-Ga-Zn-O semiconducting channel layers. All the fabrication processes were performed below 120 °C. To improve the process compatibility of the synthethic paper substrate, an Al2O3 thin film was introduced as adhesion and barrier layers by atomic layer deposition. The dielectric properties of biomaterial albumen gate insulator were also enhanced by the preparation of Al2O3 capping layer. The nonvolatile bistabilities were realized by the switching phenomena of residual polarization within the albumen thin film. The fabricated device exhibited a counterclockwise hysteresis with a memory window of 11.8 V, high on/off ratio of approximately 1.1 × 10(6), and high saturation mobility (μsat) of 11.5 cm(2)/(V s). Furthermore, these device characteristics were not markedly degraded even after the delamination and under the bending situration. When the curvature radius was set as 5.3 cm, the ION/IOFF ratio and μsat were obtained to be 5.9 × 10(6) and 7.9 cm(2)/(V s), respectively.

  11. Inactivation of Salmonella in liquid egg albumen by antimicrobial bottle coatings infused with allyl isothiocyanate, nisin and zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jin, T; Gurtler, J B

    2011-03-01

    To develop an antimicrobial bottle coating effective at inhibiting the growth of Salmonella in liquid egg albumen (egg white) and reduce the risk of human Salmonellosis. Four-ounce glass jars were coated with a mixture of polylactic acid (PLA) polymer and antimicrobial compounds containing 100-500 μl allyl isothiocyanate (AIT), 250 mg nisin, 250 mg zinc oxide nanoparticles per jar or their combinations. The coated jars contained 100 ml of liquid egg white (LEW) inoculated with a three-strain Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica cocktail at populations of 10(3) or 10(7) CFU ml(-1) and stored at 10°C for 28 days. The PLA coating with 500 μl AIT completely inactivated 3 and 7 log CFU ml(-1) of Salmonella after 7 and 21 days of storage, respectively. The PLA coating with 200 μl AIT in combination with 250 mg nisin reduced Salmonella populations to an undetectable level (<10 CFU ml(-1) ) after 21 days of storage. PLA coatings containing AIT alone or in combination with nisin effectively inactivated salmonellae in LEW. This study demonstrated the commercial potential of applying the antimicrobial bottle coating method to liquid eggs and possibly other fluid food products. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology. No claim to US Government works.

  12. Moisture-Absorption and Water Dynamics in the Powder of Egg Albumen Peptide, Met-Pro-Asp-Ala-His-Leu.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shuailing; Liu, Xuye; Zhang, Mingdi; Lin, Songyi; Chen, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Moisture absorbed into the powder of Met-Pro-Asp-Ala-His-Leu (MPDAHL)-a novel egg albumen antioxidant peptide-profoundly affects its properties. In this study, we elucidated water dynamics in MPDAHL using DVS, DSC, and low-field (1) H NMR. Based on the DVS data, we found that MPDAHL sorption kinetics obey a parallel exponential model. DSC results indicated that both water and heating could change the microstructure of MPDAHL. The T2 parameters of NMR reflected the different phases of moisture absorption revealed that there were 4 categories of water with different states or mobility in the MPDAHL during the moisture absorption process. The fastest fraction T2b mainly dominated the hygroscopicity of MPDAHL and the absorbed water significantly changed the proton distribution and structure of MPDAHL. Thus, this study shows that DVS, DSC, and low-field (1) H NMR are effective methods for monitoring water mobility and distribution in synthetic peptides. It can be used to improve the quality assurance of functional peptides. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Flexible bio-memristive devices based on chicken egg albumen:Au@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticle nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Bok, Chang Han; Woo, Sung Jun; Wu, Chaoxing; Park, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Tae Whan

    2017-09-20

    Flexible bio-memristive (FBM) devices utilizing chicken egg albumen (CEA):Au@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticle nanocomposites were fabricated on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrates. Current-voltage (I-V) curves for the Al/CEA:Au@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticle/ITO/PEN devices showed clockwise current hysteresis behaviors due to the existence of the CEA:Au@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticle nanocomposites. The endurance number of the ON/OFF switching for the FBM devices was above 10(2) cycles. An ON/OFF current ratio of 1 × 10(5) was maintained for retention times longer than 1 × 10(4) s. The memory characteristics of the FBM devices after bending were similar to those before bending. The memory margin and the stability of FBM devices were enhanced due to the embedded Au@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticles. The switching mechanisms occurring in the Al/CEA:Au@SiO2 core-shell nanoparticle/ITO-coated PEN devices are described on the basis of the I-V results and the filament mechanisms.

  14. Facile synthesis of Fe3O4 and multifunctional Fe3O4@Albumen nanoparticles for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasim, Mohd; Asghar, Khushnuma; Das, Dibakar

    2017-05-01

    In this work two different sizes of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) have successfully been synthesized by changing reaction parameter. Prepared Fe3O4 NPs have been characterized for its structural, morphological, and magnetic properties by using XRD, FESEM, TEM, SAED and VSM techniques. XRD and SAED patterns confirmed the formation of cubic phase Fe3O4 NPs. Crystallite sizes estimated using the Debye-Scherrer equation of both prepared Fe3O4 NPs using less (S1) and more (S2) NaBH4 were found to be 9 and 18 nm respectively. Both TEM and FESEM results suggested nearly spherical and random morphology of both S1 and S2 prepared Fe3O4 NPs with average particles sizes of 22 and 27 nm respectively. VSM result revealed superparamagnetic nature of the prepared Fe3O4 NPs. In the last section of this work, prepared Fe3O4 NPs have successfully been coated with albumen to form biocompatible multifunctional Fe3O4@Alb nanoparticle. These Fe3O4@Alb NPs may find potential applications in targeted drug delivery due to its magnetic tunability, biocompatibility and inexpensiveness.

  15. Monoamines in the albumen gland, plasma, and central nervous system of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata during egg-laying.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Jon P; Yoshino, Timothy P

    2002-06-01

    The potential role of selected biogenic monoamines and related compounds in the reproductive physiology of the freshwater snail Biomphalaria glabrata was investigated. Extracts of the albumen gland (AG), plasma, and central nervous system (CNS) were subjected to high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection (HPLC-ED), and under the extraction and separation conditions employed the following amines were detected: tyrosine, dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), dopamine, and tryptophan in the AG; DOPA, tyrosine, and tryptophan in the plasma; DOPA, tyrosine, dopamine and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the CNS. These compounds were then quantified in individual samples taken from snails known to be in a particular stage of the egg-laying process. AG dopamine levels were highest in snails in the first stage of the reproductive process, when the AG is secreting perivitelline fluid around each fertilized ovum. Significant decreases in AG protein content during the later stages of the egg-laying process were also evident. Plasma tyrosine and DOPA levels were lowest in snails that contained a fully packaged egg mass, while no changes in monoamine content were observed in the CNS. These data provide insights into the role(s) that monoamines, especially catecholamine-related compounds, may play in B. glabrata reproductive physiology.

  16. Comparison of spray-dried egg and albumen powder with conventional animal protein sources as feed ingredients in diets fed to weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sai; Piao, Xiangshu; Ma, Xiaokang; Xu, Xiao; Zeng, Zhikai; Tian, Qiyu; Li, Yao

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the apparent (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) in spray-dried egg (SPE) and albumen powder (AP) compared with spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP), dried porcine solubles (DPS) and fish meal (FM). Additionally, the effects of these egg byproducts as a replacement for conventional animal proteins on the performance and nutrient digestibility of piglets were studied. In Exp. 1, six barrows fitted with ileal T-cannulas were allotted to a 6 × 6 Latin Square design and fed six diets. The AID and SID of AA were generally higher in AP and FM (P < 0.01) than in the other protein sources. In Exp. 2, 150 piglets weaned at 21 days, were fed diets containing the five protein sources for 3 weeks. Weight gain of piglets fed SDPP was the highest among the treatments. Dry matter and protein digestibility for pigs offered SDPP were higher (P < 0.01) than those offered FM and DPS. AP decreased (P < 0.05) Escherichia coli counts in the cecum. DPS decreased (P < 0.05) serum diamine oxidase compared with SPE. In conclusion, AP and SPE are competitive with traditional animal protein sources and can be successfully fed to piglets without compromising performance. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Transposon mutagenesis of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis identifies genes that contribute to invasiveness in human and chicken cells and survival in egg albumen.

    PubMed

    Shah, Devendra H; Zhou, Xiaohui; Kim, Hye-Young; Call, Douglas R; Guard, Jean

    2012-12-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is an important food-borne pathogen, and chickens are a primary reservoir of human infection. While most knowledge about Salmonella pathogenesis is based on research conducted on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis is known to have pathobiology specific to chickens that impacts epidemiology in humans. Therefore, more information is needed about S. Enteritidis pathobiology in comparison to that of S. Typhimurium. We used transposon mutagenesis to identify S. Enteritidis virulence genes by assay of invasiveness in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells and chicken liver (LMH) cells and survival within chicken (HD-11) macrophages as a surrogate marker for virulence. A total of 4,330 transposon insertion mutants of an invasive G1 Nal(r) strain were screened using Caco-2 cells. This led to the identification of attenuating mutations in a total of 33 different loci, many of which include genes previously known to contribute to enteric infection (e.g., Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 [SPI-1], SPI-4, SPI-5, CS54, fliH, fljB, csgB, spvR, and rfbMN) in S. Enteritidis and other Salmonella serovars. Several genes or genomic islands that have not been reported previously (e.g., SPI-14, ksgA, SEN0034, SEN2278, and SEN3503) or that are absent in S. Typhimurium or in most other Salmonella serovars (e.g., pegD, SEN1152, SEN1393, and SEN1966) were also identified. Most mutants with reduced Caco-2 cell invasiveness also showed significantly reduced invasiveness in chicken liver cells and impaired survival in chicken macrophages and in egg albumen. Consequently, these genes may play an important role during infection of the chicken host and also contribute to successful egg contamination by S. Enteritidis.

  18. Transposon Mutagenesis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis Identifies Genes That Contribute to Invasiveness in Human and Chicken Cells and Survival in Egg Albumen

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiaohui; Kim, Hye-Young; Call, Douglas R.; Guard, Jean

    2012-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is an important food-borne pathogen, and chickens are a primary reservoir of human infection. While most knowledge about Salmonella pathogenesis is based on research conducted on Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis is known to have pathobiology specific to chickens that impacts epidemiology in humans. Therefore, more information is needed about S. Enteritidis pathobiology in comparison to that of S. Typhimurium. We used transposon mutagenesis to identify S. Enteritidis virulence genes by assay of invasiveness in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells and chicken liver (LMH) cells and survival within chicken (HD-11) macrophages as a surrogate marker for virulence. A total of 4,330 transposon insertion mutants of an invasive G1 Nalr strain were screened using Caco-2 cells. This led to the identification of attenuating mutations in a total of 33 different loci, many of which include genes previously known to contribute to enteric infection (e.g., Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 [SPI-1], SPI-4, SPI-5, CS54, fliH, fljB, csgB, spvR, and rfbMN) in S. Enteritidis and other Salmonella serovars. Several genes or genomic islands that have not been reported previously (e.g., SPI-14, ksgA, SEN0034, SEN2278, and SEN3503) or that are absent in S. Typhimurium or in most other Salmonella serovars (e.g., pegD, SEN1152, SEN1393, and SEN1966) were also identified. Most mutants with reduced Caco-2 cell invasiveness also showed significantly reduced invasiveness in chicken liver cells and impaired survival in chicken macrophages and in egg albumen. Consequently, these genes may play an important role during infection of the chicken host and also contribute to successful egg contamination by S. Enteritidis. PMID:22988017

  19. Effect of dry- versus wet-autoclaving of spray-dried egg albumen compared with casein as protein sources on apparent nitrogen and energy balance, plasma urea nitrogen and glucose concentrations, and growth performance of neonatal swine.

    PubMed

    Watkins, K L; Veum, T L

    2010-08-01

    Forty crossbred neonatal pigs with an average initial age of 4 d and BW of 2.16 kg were used in a 28-d experiment to evaluate the nutritional effects of autoclaving a commercial sugar-free, spray-dried egg albumen (EA) compared with casein. Basal diet protein sources were lactic acid casein and EA. Two more dietary treatments were made by replacing the EA with dry-autoclaved EA (DAEA) or wet-autoclaved EA (WAEA, EA and water mixed in a 1.0:1.2 ratio before autoclaving). The DAEA and WAEA were autoclaved at 121 degrees C and 1.75 kg/cm(2) pressure for 30 min, and WAEA was oven-dried after autoclaving. Analyzed trypsin inhibitor units/mg of EA, DAEA, and WAEA were 535.0, 9.0, and 6.5, respectively. Pigs were fed the diets in gruel form to appetite in individual metabolism cages every 2 h during the experiment. Blood samples were taken on d 7, 14, and 21, and total urine and fecal grab-samples were collected from d 14 to 21 of the experiment. Response criteria were N and energy balance, plasma urea N (PUN) and glucose concentrations, and growth performance. The WAEA was a higher quality protein source for neonatal pigs than DAEA. Pigs fed the diet containing WAEA absorbed and retained more (P < 0.05) grams of N/d, had higher (P < 0.05) percentages of N and energy that were absorbed and retained/intake, had lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of PUN overall, and had higher (P < 0.05) ADG and G:F than pigs fed the diet containing DAEA. Most response criteria of pigs fed the diets containing DAEA or EA were not different, although pigs fed the diet containing DAEA had lower (P < 0.05) overall PUN concentrations, and pigs fed the diet containing EA had higher (P < 0.05) percentages of energy absorbed and retained/intake, and higher ADG and G:F than pigs fed the diet containing DAEA. Growth performance was not different for pigs fed the diets containing WAEA or casein. However, pigs fed the diet containing casein excreted less (P < 0.05) fecal N, retained more (P < 0/05) grams

  20. 9 CFR 590.546 - Albumen flake process drying facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... be equipped with approved intake filters. (b) The intake air source shall be free from foul odors, dust, and dirt. (c) Premix-type burners, if used, shall be equipped with approved air filters at blower...

  1. Mimicking cataract-induced visual dysfunction by means of protein denaturation in egg albumen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandracchia, B.; Finizio, A.; Ferraro, P.

    2016-03-01

    As the world's population ages, cataract-induced visual dysfunction and blindness is on the increase. This is a significant global problem. The most common symptoms of cataracts are glared and blurred vision. Usually, people with cataract have trouble seeing and reading at distance or in low light and also their color perception is altered. Furthermore, cataract is a sneaky disease as it is usually a very slow but progressive process, which creates adaptation so that patients find it difficult to recognize. All this can be very difficult to explain, so we built and tested an optical device to help doctors giving comprehensive answers to the patients' symptoms. This device allows visualizing how cataract impairs vision mimicking the optical degradation of the crystalline related cataracts. This can be a valuable optical tool for medical education as well as to provide a method to illustrate the patients how cataract progression process will affect their vision.

  2. Comparison of supplements to enhance recovery of heat-injured Salmonella from egg albumen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The recovery of Salmonella from liquid egg white (LEW) is complicated by thermal and innate LEW antimicrobial-induced injury. Numerous supplements have been reported to promote the recovery of injured bacteria. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of twelve media supplements to af...

  3. Novel Biomimatic Synthesis of ZnO Nanorods Using Egg White (Albumen) and Their Antibacterial Studies.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Faheem; Arshi, Nishat; Jeong, Yeong Seung; Anwar, M S; Dwivedi, Saurabh; Alsharaeh, Edreese; Koo, B H

    2016-06-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) is well-recognized as a biocompatible multifunctional material with outstanding properties as well as low toxicity and biodegradability. In this work, a simple and versatile technique was developed to prepare highly crystalline ZnO nanorods by introducing egg white to a bio-inspired approach. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern results indicated that the ZnO nanorods have single phase nature with the wurtzite structure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed the nanometer dimension of the nanorods. Raman, FTIR, and TGA/DTA analyses revealed the formation of wurtzite ZnO. The antibacterial properties of ZnO nanorods were investigated using both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms. These studies demonstrate that ZnO nanorods have a wide range of antibacterial activities toward various microorganisms that are commonly found in environmental settings. Survival ratio of bacteria decreased with increasing powder concentration, i.e., increase in antibacterial activity. The antibacterial activity of the ZnO nanorods toward Pseudomonas aeruginosa was stronger than that of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Surprisingly, the antibacterial activity did not require specific UV activation using artificial lamps, rather activation was achieved under ambient lighting conditions. Overall, the experimental results suggest that ZnO nanorods could be developed as antibacterial agents against a wide range of microorganisms to control and prevent the spreading and persistence of bacterial infections. This research introduces a new concept to synthesize ZnO nanorods by using egg white as a biological template for various applications including food science, animal science, biochemistry, microbiology and medicine.

  4. Characteristics of unturned eggs: critical period, retarded embryonic growth and poor albumen utilisation.

    PubMed

    Deeming, D C

    1989-06-01

    1. The physiological effects of egg turning during incubation are described. 2. There was a critical period for turning, from days 3 to 7 of incubation, which affected hatchability, embryo growth and utilisation of extra-embryonic fluids. 3. Failure to turn eggs retarded formation of allantoic and amniotic fluids, restricted alumen uptake and retarded growth of the embryo, but only after day 12 of incubation.

  5. Salmonella Enteritidis strains from poultry show differential responses to acid stress, oxidative stress and survival in the egg albumen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella Enteritidis is the major food-borne pathogen primarily causing human infection through contaminated chicken meat and eggs. We recently demonstrated that S. Enteritidis strains from poultry differ in their ability to invade human intestinal cells and cause disease in orally challenged mice...

  6. ROS-dependent anticandidal activity of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized by using egg albumen as a biotemplate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoeb, M.; Singh, Braj R.; Khan, Javed A.; Khan, Wasi; Singh, Brahma N.; Singh, Harikesh B.; Naqvi, Alim H.

    2013-09-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have attracted great attention because of their superior optical properties and wide application in biomedical science. However, little is known about the anticandidal activity of ZnO NPs against Candida albicans (C. albicans). This study was designed to develop the green approach to synthesize ZnO NPs using egg white (denoted as EtZnO NPs) and investigated its possible mechanism of antimicrobial activity against C. albicans 077. It was also notable that anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs is correlated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in a dose dependent manner. Protection of histidine against ROS clearly suggests the implication of ROS in anticandidal activity of EtZnO NPs. This green approach based on egg white-mediated synthesis of ZnO NPs paves the way for developing cost effective, eco-friendly and promising antimicrobial nanomaterial for applications in medicine.

  7. Influence of a rare sugar, d-Psicose, on the physicochemical and functional properties of an aerated food system containing egg albumen.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuanxia; Hayakawa, Shigeru; Ogawa, Masahiro; Fukada, Kazuhiro; Izumori, Ken

    2008-06-25

    d-Psicose (Psi) might be an ideal sucrose (Suc) substitute for food products due to its sweet taste, easy processing, and functional properties (noncaloric and low glycemic response). In the present study, the effects of Psi on foaming properties of egg white (EW) protein and the quality of butter cookies were analyzed to find a better use of Psi in aerated food systems. The results showed that Psi could improve the foaming properties of EW protein with increasing whipping time in comparison to Suc and d-fructose (Fru). The addition of Psi to butter cookies, as partial replacement of Suc, had no influence on the cook loss while significantly contributing to a color change of the cookie crust through a nonenzymatic browning reaction. Furthermore, Psi-containing cookies possessed the highest antioxidant capacity in all tested cookies using two assays of radical scavenging activity and ferric reducing power. It was found that there was a close correlation between the crust color and the antioxidant activity of the cookie. The results suggest that the addition of Psi enhanced the browning reaction during cookie processing and, consequently, produced a strong antioxidant activity.

  8. Transposon mutagenesis of Salmonella Enteritidis identifies genes that contribute to invasiveness in human and chicken cells and survival in egg albumen.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Salmonella Enteritidis is the world’s leading cause of food borne salmonellosis and illness in people is linked strongly to its contamination of eggs produced by otherwise healthy appearing hens. Salmonella Enteritidis is noted for generating exceptional strain heterogeneity despite having a clonal ...

  9. Comparisons of egg quality traits, egg weight loss and hatchability between striped and normal duck eggs.

    PubMed

    Yuan, J; Wang, B; Huang, Z; Fan, Y; Huang, C; Hou, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. The egg quality of striped and normal duck eggs was compared to determine why striped eggs show decreased hatchability. A total of 430 eggs, obtained from a Pekin duck breeder flock aged 50-65 wks, were used in three experiments. The eggs were weighed and assigned randomly to measure egg quality traits, egg weight (EW) loss and hatchability during incubation. 2. There were no significant differences between egg types in terms of egg shape index, eggshell strength and thickness, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk colour, weight of the eggshell with or without membranes, calcium, phosphorus, copper and manganese contents in the eggshell (with the inner and outer membranes or without the inner membrane), albumen weight, dry matter of albumen, crude protein (CP) of thick albumen and pH of the thick albumen. 3. The weight of eggshells with membranes, weight of thick albumen and CP of thin albumen in striped eggs were lower than those in normal eggs. 4. The thin albumen in striped eggs was heavier than that in normal eggs. The pH of the thin albumin in striped egg was significantly higher than that in normal eggs. 5. There were no significant differences in EW loss during incubation or duckling weight between striped and normal eggs. However, the hatchability of striped eggs was lower. 6. The lower weight of the eggshell inner membrane and thick albumen, lower CP content and higher pH in the thin albumen of striped eggs might contribute to lower hatchability.

  10. Storage effects on dielectric properties of eggs from 10 to 1800 MHz.

    PubMed

    Guo, W; Trabelsi, S; Nelson, S O; Jones, D R

    2007-06-01

    The dielectric constant and loss factor of egg albumen and egg yolk over the frequency range from 10 to 1800 MHz were measured at 24 degrees C at weekly intervals during 5-wk storage at 15 degrees C. Moisture and ash contents of albumen and yolk, as well as Haugh unit and yolk index, were also measured. The dielectric constant and loss factor of albumen were higher than those of yolk. Linear relationships were evident between the log of frequency, below about 1000 MHz, and the log of loss factor of albumen as well as that of yolk. The dielectric constants of albumen and yolk at 10 MHz were lower than those of fresh albumen and yolk when eggs were stored at 15 degrees C for 1 wk. However, after 2 wk in storage these dielectric constants rose and remained at higher levels for the rest of the 5-wk period. At frequencies of 100 MHz and higher, the dielectric constant was essentially constant during the entire storage period. Storage had much less influence on the loss factor of either albumen or yolk. In general, the moisture content and ash content of albumen and yolk decreased slightly as eggs aged. The moisture content of yolk increased somewhat with storage, and there was a corresponding decrease in albumen moisture content. The freshness qualities, Haugh unit and yolk index, also decreased as eggs aged. No obvious correlation between dielectric properties and moisture content, ash content, Haugh unit, or yolk index was observed.

  11. Maternal investment and nutrient use affect phenotype of American alligator and domestic chicken hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Thomas C; Groth, Kevin D; Sotherland, Paul R

    2010-09-01

    Maternal investment by oviparous amniotes, in the form of yolk and albumen, and the mechanisms by which embryos use available energy and nutrients have a profound effect on embryo and, consequently, hatchling phenotype. Nutrient provisioning and uptake vary within and among oviparous taxa, avian and non-avian reptiles, due to differences and similarities in environment, behavior, and phylogeny. Eggs of crocodilians, the closest extant relatives to modern birds, are ideal models for examining modes of embryonic development, especially with regard to nutrient uptake, in non-avian reptiles and comparing them with those of birds. In this study, we investigated egg composition, embryo growth, and nutrient use in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) and American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). We explored egg composition by separating and weighing components of fresh eggs. We measured embryo growth and nutrient usage by dissecting embryos and by obtaining samples of liquid from the amnion, digestive tract, and yolk sac throughout the last half of incubation. Variation in albumen mass contributed most to egg mass variation in chicken eggs, whereas alligator eggs were composed almost equally of yolk and albumen, although larger eggs contained proportionally more albumen and less yolk than smaller eggs. Both chicken and alligator albumen were mostly water (87% and 96%, respectively) although chicken albumen contained over three times more solid mass per gram than alligator albumen. In both species, yolk contained a high proportion of solids. Larger eggs produced larger hatchlings in both chickens and alligators, but albumen solids contributed to embryo mass only in chicken embryos. However, intact albumen proteins appeared in the stomach in embryos of both species. While the final disposition of albumen in alligators is unclear, variation in maternal investment of yolk at oviposition was responsible for nearly all of the variation in alligator hatchling phenotype

  12. Effects of egg size on Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) egg composition and hatchling phenotype.

    PubMed

    Dzialowski, Edward M; Reed, Wendy L; Sotherland, Paul R

    2009-02-01

    Maternal investment of yolk and albumen in avian eggs varies with egg mass and contributes to variation in hatchling mass. Here we use the natural variation in mass and composition of Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs to examine consequences of variation in yolk and albumen mass on hatchling phenotype. The Double-crested Cormorant, a large bird with altricial young, lays eggs ranging in mass from 40 to 60 g and containing an average of 82% albumen and 18% yolk. Variation in Cormorant egg mass arises primarily from variation in the amount of albumen and water in the eggs; yolk mass remains relatively constant, contributing only 10% to egg mass variation. Likewise, variation in hatchling mass correlates positively with albumen mass and albumen solids contribute to hatchling dry mass. Thus, variation in Cormorant egg mass is primarily the result of variation in the amount of egg albumen, which contributes most to variation in hatchling mass. Similarities in egg composition of altricial birds, along with data presented here, suggest that variation in hatchling mass of all altricial birds may depend most on the amount of egg albumen, unlike species with precocial young that hatch from eggs with substantially more yolk.

  13. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Dried egg whites. 160.145 Section 160.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... egg whites. (a) The food dried egg whites, egg white solids, dried egg albumen, egg albumen solids is...

  14. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Dried egg whites. 160.145 Section 160.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... egg whites. (a) The food dried egg whites, egg white solids, dried egg albumen, egg albumen solids is...

  15. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg whites. 160.145 Section 160.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... egg whites. (a) The food dried egg whites, egg white solids, dried egg albumen, egg albumen solids is...

  16. 21 CFR 160.145 - Dried egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Dried egg whites. 160.145 Section 160.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... egg whites. (a) The food dried egg whites, egg white solids, dried egg albumen, egg albumen solids is...

  17. Holograms with egg albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Salinas, P.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Olivares-Perez, A.; Grande-Grande, A.; Páez-Trujillo, G.; Hernández-Garay, M. P.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2008-02-01

    Two components of the egg as the albumen and their proteins are used for holographic recorded applying lithography technique. This matrix was composed by albumen-glucose and by protein-glucose. The results obtained for the parameter diffraction efficiency with our matrix albumen-glucose was it from 44.1% and for the matrix protein-glucose were two maximums of diffraction efficiency, reached about the mixture ovoalbumin-glucose (6.2*10 -1%) and avidin-glucose (4.7*10 -1%).

  18. Development of highly-transparent protein/starch-based bioplastics.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Gutierrez, J; Partal, P; Garcia-Morales, M; Gallegos, C

    2010-03-01

    Striving to achieve cost-competitive biomass-derived materials for the plastics industry, the incorporation of starch (corn and potato) to a base formulation of albumen and glycerol was considered. To study the effects of formulation and processing, albumen/starch-based bioplastics containing 0-30 wt.% starch were prepared by thermo-plastic and thermo-mechanical processing. Transmittance measurements, DSC, DMTA and tensile tests were performed on the resulting bioplastics. Optical and tensile properties were strongly affected by starch concentration. However, DMTA at low deformation proved to be insensitive to starch addition. Thermo-mechanical processing led to transparent albumen/starch materials with values of strength at low deformation comparable to commodity plastics. Consequently, albumen biopolymers may become a biodegradable alternative to oil-derived plastics for manufacturing transparent packaging and other plastic stuffs. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Egg components, egg size, and hatchling size in leatherback turtles.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Bryan P; Sotherland, Paul R; Tomillo, Pilar Santidrian; Bouchard, Sarah S; Reina, Richard D; Spotila, James R; Paladino, Frank V

    2006-12-01

    Relationships between egg size, egg components, and neonate size have been investigated across a wide range of oviparous taxa. Differences in egg traits among taxa reflect not only phylogenetic differences, but also interactions between biotic (i.e., maternal resource allocation) and abiotic (i.e. nest environment conditions) factors. We examined relationships between egg mass, egg composition, and hatchling size in leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) because of the unique egg and reproductive characteristics of this species and of sea turtles in general. Albumen comprised 63.0%+/-2.8% (mean+/-S.D.) of egg mass and explained most of the variation in egg mass, whereas yolk comprised only 33.0%+/-2.7%. Additionally, leatherback albumen dry mass was approximately 16% of albumen wet mass. Whereas hatchling mass increased significantly with egg mass (n = 218 clutches), hatchling mass increased by only approximately 2 g for each 10 g increase in egg mass and was approximately 10-20 g greater than yolk mass. Taken together, our results indicate that albumen might play a particularly significant role in leatherback embryonic development, and that leatherback eggs are both capable of water uptake from the nest substrate and also possess a large reservoir of water in the albumen. Relationships between egg mass and egg components, such as variation in egg mass being largely explained by variation in albumen mass and egg mass containing a relatively high proportion of albumen solids, are more similar to bird eggs than to eggs of other non-avian reptiles. However, hatchling mass correlates more with yolk mass than with albumen mass, unlike patterns observed in bird eggs of similar composition.

  20. Effects of housing system (outdoor vs cages) and age of laying hens on egg characteristics.

    PubMed

    Van Den Brand, H; Parmentier, H K; Kemp, B

    2004-12-01

    1. Effects of two housing systems (cages vs outdoor) on external and internal egg characteristics were investigated. 2. In total 785 eggs from three different lines in cages and 268 eggs from outdoor-housed layers were examined for egg weight, albumen, yolk and shell content, albumen height and pH, and albumen and yolk dry matter content. 3. Interactions between layer age and housing systems were found for egg weight, eggshell content, albumen height, albumen pH, and dry matter content of the albumen and yolk. This was mainly due to the greater variation with age in the outdoor layers, compared to the caged layers. 4. Irrespective of age eggs from outdoor layers were relatively broader than eggs from the caged layers. Yolk colour was considerably darker in the outdoor group (11.0 vs 9.3). 5. We concluded that it is more difficult to maintain constant external and internal egg quality in an outdoor housing system than in a battery cage system. Factors that determine the greater fluctuations in internal egg quality need to be investigated.

  1. Effects of hen production cycle and egg weight on egg quality and composition, hatchability, duckling quality, and first-week body weight in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Onbasilar, E E; Erdem, E; Poyraz, O; Yalçin, S

    2011-11-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of hen production cycle (HPC) and the effect of egg weight (EW) at the same egg production level on egg quality, egg composition, hatchability, duckling quality, and first-week BW in Pekin ducks. For HPC, hatching eggs were obtained from different Pekin-duck breeder flocks, aged 31 wk for the first production cycle (HPC1) and 78 wk for the second production cycle (HPC2). For EW, there were 3 categories: heavy (H), medium (M), and light (L). Ten eggs from each HPC and EW group were analyzed for the determination of egg quality, and albumen and yolk compositions. Ninety eggs from each HPC and EW group were incubated for the determination of hatchability, and duckling weight and quality. After quality scoring, 20 ducklings (10 male and 10 female) from each group were weighed, and reared to 1 wk of age in a brooder machine to determine relative growth (RG). The results showed that the albumen index; Haugh unit; shell percentage; yolk moisture, ash, protein, lipids, and triglycerides; albumen moisture, ash, and protein; yolk fatty acid contents; hatching weight; duckling weights at 1 wk of age; and RG were significantly affected by HPC. Egg weight affected shell thickness, yolk and albumen indices, Haugh unit, yolk and albumen percentages, yolk to albumen ratio, shell percentage, yolk fatty acid content, hatching weight, duckling weight at 1 wk of age, and RG.

  2. Characterization of Aplysia Alb-1, a candidate water-borne protein pheromone released during egg laying.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Scott F; Degnan, Bernard M; Nagle, Gregg T

    2008-02-01

    Pheromones are known to be important to the innate behavior of marine animals. Attraction in Aplysia involves the long-distance water-borne protein pheromones attractin, enticin, temptin and seductin, which are released from the albumen gland during egg laying. Other pheromones are predicted to act in concert with these pheromones, but their identities are unknown. To identify additional pheromone candidates, we employed differential library screening of an albumen gland cDNA library, RT-PCR, recombinant protein expression, rhinophore contraction bioassays and immunocytochemistry. Alb-1 is expressed in the Aplysia californica albumen gland and encodes a novel protein that does not share significant sequence identity with any proteins in the database. RT-PCR analysis detected Alb-1 transcripts in the albumen gland, exocrine atrial gland and ovotestis. The Alb-1 precursor has a signal peptide sequence followed by a predicted 101-residue protein sequence containing eight cysteine residues. Recombinant protein expression, RP-HPLC, microsequence analysis and MALDI mass spectrometry analyses demonstrated that mature recombinant Alb-1 was processed at a paired basic residue site to generate an N-terminal and C-terminal protein fragment; this was consistent with immunoblot observations on purified albumen gland extracts. In rhinophore contraction (twitch) bioassays, the recombinant N-terminal protein induced rhinophore contractions whereas the C-terminal protein did not. An antibody generated to the N-terminal protein was used for immunocytochemical and immunoblot analyses and demonstrated that this protein is present in albumen gland secretory cells, egg cordons and egg eluates. Overall, the data suggest that Alb-1 may be processed in the albumen gland and that the Alb-1 1-56 protein released during egg laying may serve a pheromonal function in concert with attractin, enticin, temptin and seductin.

  3. Multiplication and motility of Salmonella enterica serovars enteritidis, infantis, and montevideo in in vitro contamination models of eggs.

    PubMed

    Murase, Toshiyuki; Fujimoto, Kazuhiko; Nakayama, Rui; Otsuki, Koichi

    2006-05-01

    The invasive ability of Salmonella enterica serovars Enteritidis, Infantis, and Montevideo in eggs was examined. Strains of these serovars originating from egg contents, laying chicken houses, and human patients were experimentally inoculated (0.1-ml dose containing 78 to 178 cells) onto the vitelline membrane of eggs collected from specific-pathogen-free chickens and incubated at 25 degrees C. The test strains were detected in 25 of 138 yolk contents by day 6, indicating the penetration of Salmonella organisms through the vitelline membrane. There were no significant differences in overall rates of penetration between serovars. The organisms were also detected in the albumen from 125 of 138 eggs tested by day 6. Growth to more than 10(6) CFU/ml was observed in 48 of the 125 albumen samples. An inoculum of 1000 Salmonella cells was added to 15 ml of albumen at the edge of a petri plate. A 10-mm-diameter cylindrical well, the bottom of which was sealed with a polycarbonate membrane with 3.0-microm pores, was filled with egg yolk and placed into the albumen at the center of the dish, which was maintained at 25 degrees C. Experiments were performed in triplicate with each strain. Salmonella organisms in all the albumen samples were detected by day 11. However, motility of the organisms toward the yolk was observed in only two dishes inoculated with the Salmonella Enteritidis strain from a human patient and in one dish inoculated with the Salmonella Infantis strain from liquid egg. The albumen samples obtained from the dishes inoculated with the Salmonella Enteritidis strain had high numbers of bacteria (>10(8) CFU/ml). The present study suggests that Salmonella organisms in egg albumen are unlikely to actively move toward the yolk, although depositionon or near the vitelline membrane can be advantageous for proliferation.

  4. Differences in internal egg quality characteristics between white and brown shell eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Dogan

    2017-04-01

    This study was conducted to reveal the differences among the internal quality characteristics of brown and white shell table eggs and to examine the relationship between quality characteristics. A total of 235 eggs from brown and white laying hens (Nick-chick; 95 wk of age) were used in this study. Internal egg quality characteristics including egg weight, albumen height, Haugh Unit, yolk height, yolk index, albumen pH, yolk pH, yolk color were determined. The Haugh unit (P<0.001), Albumen height (P<0.001), yolk L* (P<0.001) and yolk b* (P<0.05) values of white shell eggs were higher than that of brown shell eggs. On the contrary, the yolk a*(P<0.01), yolk height (P<0.01) and yolk index (P<0.01) values of white shell eggs were lower than that of brown shell eggs. There were no significant differences were found between white and brown shell eggs for egg weight, albumen and yolk pH values. Significant (P<0.001) positive correlations were found between albumen height and Haugh unit (r= 0.97), yolk height and yolk index (r=0.91), albumen pH and yolk pH (r=0.95) in internal egg quality of white shell eggs. Similarly, there were significant (P<0.001) positive correlations between albumen height and Haugh unit (r= 0.97), yolk height and yolk index (r=0.88), egg weight and albumen height (r=0.39), albumen height and yolk height (r=0.35), Haugh unit and yolk index (r=0.36) in internal egg quality of brown shell eggs. Significant (P<0.001) negative correlation were found between yolk L* and yolk a* (r=-0.41) in white shell eggs, and yolk L* and yolk a* (r=-0.56) in brown shell eggs. No significant relationships were observed among others internal egg quality criteria.

  5. Effects of vacuum packing on eggshell microbial activity and egg quality in table eggs under different storage temperatures.

    PubMed

    Aygun, Ali; Sert, Durmus

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of vacuum packing on eggshell microbial activity and egg quality traits in table eggs during 42 days of storage at 5 and 22 °C. Treatments were no vacuum packing (control) and vacuum packing (VP). Egg quality traits measured included egg weight loss, specific gravity, shell strength, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, yolk pH, albumen colour and yolk colour. VP eggs maintained higher specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit and yolk index and lower egg weight loss, albumen pH and yolk pH compared with control eggs after 42 days at 22 °C. VP eggs had lower levels of total aerobic mesophilic bacteria, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus spp. and moulds/yeasts than control eggs over the storage period at both 5 and 22 °C. However, VP eggs had a higher level of coliforms than control eggs after 42 days at 5 °C. The results indicated that vacuum packing extended the egg shelf life to at least 42 days compared with control eggs at 5 and 22 °C. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Antimicrobial lysozyme-chitosan coatings affect functional properties and shelf life of chicken eggs during storage.

    PubMed

    Yuceer, Muhammed; Caner, Cengiz

    2014-01-15

    The interior quality, shell impact strength and functional characteristics of eggs coated with chitosan and lysozyme-chitosan combinations were evaluated for enhancing egg freshness during storage. A 10% (w/w) lysozyme solution was incorporated into 1% (w/w) chitosan film-forming solution at ratios of 0, 10, 20 and 60% (w/w). Storage time and coating had significant effects on Haugh unit, yolk index, weight loss, albumen pH, dry matter, relative whipping capacity (RWC) and albumen viscosity. Uncoated eggs had higher albumen pH and weight loss and lower albumen viscosity. All coated eggshells showed greater puncture strength than uncoated eggshells, resulting in extended shelf life. The 20 and 60% lysozyme-chitosan coatings were more effective in maintaining the internal quality of eggs (e.g. pH, dry matter and RWC). Attributes such as pH, dry matter and RWC were better after the 20% lysozyme-chitosan treatment than after the other treatments. The 10, 20 and 60% lysozyme-chitosan coatings, considered active packaging, showed promising attributes. They could be a viable alternative to existing techniques for maintaining the internal quality of fresh eggs during long-term storage. Chitosan coatings also improved shell strength. This study also confirms that measurements of albumen quality (pH, dry matter, viscosity and RWC) are excellent indicators of egg freshness. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Effects of ultrasonic treatment and storage temperature on egg quality.

    PubMed

    Sert, D; Aygun, A; Demir, M K

    2011-04-01

    In this study, the effects of ultrasonic treatment and storage temperature on egg weight, specific gravity, shell strength, albumen height, Haugh unit, color, pH, water activity, total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, mineral content, and sensory properties were investigated. Ultrasonic treatment was used to improve egg properties. The lowest weight loss values were obtained with eggs treated with 15 min of ultrasonic treatment and stored at 5°C for 10 d. The higher specific gravity, shell strength, albumen height, and Haugh unit were observed in ultrasonic-treated eggs. The egg quality was significantly improved with ultrasonic treatment (P < 0.01). The total mesophilic aerobic bacteria values of yolk and albumen decreased with increase in ultrasonic treatment time from 5 to 30 min. Ultrasonic treatment improved the sensory properties of egg shells.

  8. Quality of shell eggs pasteurized with heat or heat-ozone combination during extended storage.

    PubMed

    Perry, J J; Rodriguez-Saona, L E; Yousef, A E

    2011-09-01

    The physical quality and functionality of shell eggs, pasteurized with heat or a combination of heat and ozone, were assessed during eight weeks of storage at 4 or 25 °C. Shell eggs were treated as follows: (1) immersion heating that mimics commercial pasteurization processes (egg internal temperature of 56 ± 0.1 °C for 32 min), or (2) a newly developed combination process comprised of heating (56 ± 0.1 °C, internal, for 10 min) followed by gaseous ozone treatment. Eggs were tested for yolk index, Haugh units, albumen pH, albumen turbidity, and percent overrun. Additionally, albumen samples were assayed for lysozyme activity and free sulfhydryl group content, and were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Both processed and unprocessed eggs maintained superior quality when stored at 4 °C, as opposed to 25 °C. Pasteurization, regardless of method, led to superior maintenance of Haugh units during storage but also increased albumen opacity and decreased albumen overrun. Detrimental effects on quality markers were more severe in heat-pasteurized eggs than those treated with the ozone-based process. Pasteurization of shell eggs by either process did not affect lysozyme activity or sulfhydryl group content. Changes in protein secondary structure, as indicated by FTIR analysis, suggest that the ozone-based process is less damaging to albumen proteins than is the heat-alone process. In conclusion, heat-ozone pasteurization, by virtue of its less severe heat treatment, yields a safe final product that more closely resembles untreated shell eggs. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Salmonella enteritidis deposition in eggs after experimental infection of laying hens with different oral doses.

    PubMed

    Gast, Richard K; Guraya, Rupa; Guard, Jean

    2013-01-01

    The continuing attribution of human Salmonella Enteritidis infections to internally contaminated eggs has necessitated the commitment of substantial public and private resources to Salmonella Enteritidis testing and control programs in commercial laying flocks. Cost-effective risk-reduction requires a detailed and comprehensive understanding of how Salmonella Enteritidis infections in hens result in deposition of the pathogen inside eggs. The present study sought to resolve some incompletely defined aspects of the relationship between Salmonella Enteritidis oral-exposure dose levels in experimentally infected laying hens and the frequency and location of subsequent egg contamination. In two trials, groups of specific-pathogen-free hens were experimentally inoculated with oral doses of 10(4), 10(6), or 10(8) CFU of a phage type 4 Salmonella Enteritidis strain. Eggs were collected 5 to 23 days postinoculation, and the yolk and albumen of each egg were cultured separately to detect Salmonella Enteritidis contamination. Larger oral doses of Salmonella Enteritidis administered to hens were associated with significant increases in the frequencies of both yolk and albumen contamination. Moreover, Salmonella Enteritidis was found in the albumen of a far-higher proportion of contaminated eggs from hens given the largest dose than from the other two groups. Salmonella Enteritidis contamination was detected in 0.7% of yolk and 0.2% of albumen samples after inoculation of hens with 10(4) CFU, 4.0% of yolk and 1.7% of albumen samples after inoculation with 10(6) CFU, and 6.5% of yolk and 10.8% of albumen samples after inoculation with 10(8) CFU. These results demonstrate that oral-exposure doses of Salmonella Enteritidis for laying hens can significantly affect both the frequency and location of deposition of this pathogen inside eggs.

  10. [Effects of different chicken breeding on microbiological characteristics of fresh eggs].

    PubMed

    Guida, M; Inglese, M; Pivonello, C; Marino, G; Melluso, G

    2009-01-01

    The influence of three different systems of chicken breeding (battery, outdoor and free-range type) on contamination of the shell, yolk and albumen on category A eggs was evaluated. The eggs collected from free-range type did not resulted in conforming according to Italian legislation (5%) that foresees total absence of Salmonella spp. both on shells that yolk and albumen. Moreover the handled eggs can transmit microorganisms present on the shell because non-hygienic operator's hands favour horizontal bacterial transmission. In conclusion, this survey revealed that the breeding type as well as storing time and handling quality influence the product quality.

  11. Genetic parameters of egg quality traits in long-term pedigree recorded Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    Sari, M; Tilki, M; Saatci, M

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the genetic parameters of internal and external quality traits of Japanese quail eggs. Two statistical models were used in the calculation of genetic parameters and variance components. While 286 eggs were used based on model 1, 1,524 eggs were used based on model 2. Genetic parameters of the first eggs were calculated with direct genetic effect included in the analysis as random factors by using model 1. Model 2 was used for all eggs (5 to 6 eggs from each hen for six rearing groups). As different from model 1, their permanent environmental effects were also included in the model 2. Heritability of egg weight, egg length, egg width, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness, and shell ratio among the external quality traits of the eggs was respectively found to be 0.44, 0.53, 0.51, 0.70, 0.19, 0.16, and 0.05, respectively, according to model 1. These values were found to be 0.46, 0.40, 0.74, 0.48, 0.60, 0.28, and 0.21, respectively, according to model 2. Yolk weight, yolk diameter, yolk height, yolk index, yolk ratio, albumen weight, albumen height, albumen ratio, and Haugh unit values among the internal quality traits of the egg were found to be 0.22, 0.32, 0.02, 0.16, 0.19, 0.34, 0.19, 0.17, and 0.17, respectively, according to model 1. These internal quality traits were found to be 0.27, 0.18, 0.38, 0.06, 0.20, 0.41, 0.15, 0.15, and 0.12, respectively, according to model 2. Consequently, in this study, strong genetic correlations were detected between albumen height and Haugh unit, and also between albumen height and albumen weight. Additionally, a high and positive correlation was observed between some yolk traits (yolk weight and diameter) and albumen traits (weight and height). All these genetic correlations can be used to improve egg quality with a selection according to albumen weight.

  12. Sensing Egg Quality During Storage by Radiofrequency Complex Permittivity Measurement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dielectric properties of albumen and yolk of eggs were measured at 24 oC over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1800 MHz to monitor quality changes during a 5-week storage period at 15 oC. Quality factors such as Haugh unit, yolk index, moisture content and egg weight were also measured during the...

  13. Determining Qualtiy Factors of Eggs from Microwave Permittivity Measurements

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dielectric properties of albumen and yolk of eggs were measured at 24 oC over the frequency range from 10 MHz to 1800 MHz to monitor quality changes during a 5-week storage period at 15 oC. Quality factors such as Haugh unit, yolk index, moisture content and egg weight were also measured during the...

  14. 9 CFR 590.542 - Spray process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Drying units, conveyors, sifters, and packaging systems shall be cleaned whenever wet powder is..., including sifters, conveyors, and powder coolers shall be either wet washed or dry cleaned. A combination of... of the drying unit. (1) Sifters and conveyors used for other than dried albumen shall be cleared of...

  15. 9 CFR 590.542 - Spray process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) Drying units, conveyors, sifters, and packaging systems shall be cleaned whenever wet powder is..., including sifters, conveyors, and powder coolers shall be either wet washed or dry cleaned. A combination of... of the drying unit. (1) Sifters and conveyors used for other than dried albumen shall be cleared of...

  16. Inactivation of Salmonellae in liquid egg white by antimicrobial bottle coating with allvl isothiocyanate, nisin and ZnO nanoparticles

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to develop an antimicrobial bottle coating effective at inhibiting the growth of Salmonella in liquid egg albumen (egg white) and reduce the risk of human Salmonellosis. Four-ounce glass jars were coated with a mixture of polylactic acid (PLA) polymer and antimicrobial ...

  17. Kinetics of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 growth and inactivation in pasteurised liquid egg products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The potential impact of intentional post-pasteurisation contamination of liquid egg products with the multi-antibiotic resistant pathogen Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT104) was assessed by determining the viability of this bacterium in whole egg, albumen and 10% sug...

  18. 9 CFR 590.575 - Heat treatment of dried whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and at such temperatures as will result in salmonella negative product. (a) The product to be heat... less than 7 days and until it is salmonella negative. (2) Pan dried albumen shall be heated throughout... days and until it is salmonella negative. (3) Methods of heat treatment of spray dried or pan dried...

  19. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  20. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  1. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  2. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  3. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  4. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  5. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  6. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  7. 21 CFR 160.140 - Egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Egg whites. 160.140 Section 160.140 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.140 Egg whites. (a) Egg whites, liquid egg whites, liquid egg albumen is the food obtained from eggs of...

  8. 21 CFR 160.150 - Frozen egg whites.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen egg whites. 160.150 Section 160.150 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.150 Frozen egg whites. (a) Frozen egg whites, frozen egg albumen is the food prepared by...

  9. Conservation of Photographic Print Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Alice

    1981-01-01

    Provides specific information on varying photographic materials and processes to aid archivists and curators in preserving photograph collections. Preservation problems related to major types of silver prints on paper (salt, albumen, collodion, gelatin) and to the silver image (oxidation, silver sulfide) are covered. Twenty references are cited.…

  10. Conservation of Photographic Print Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Alice

    1981-01-01

    Provides specific information on varying photographic materials and processes to aid archivists and curators in preserving photograph collections. Preservation problems related to major types of silver prints on paper (salt, albumen, collodion, gelatin) and to the silver image (oxidation, silver sulfide) are covered. Twenty references are cited.…

  11. Shelf life study of egg albumin in pasteurized and non-pasteurized eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A twelve week shelf life study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. The goal of the study was to correlate the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior eg...

  12. Modelling changes in the components of eggs from broiler breeders over time.

    PubMed

    Nonis, M K; Gous, R M

    2013-01-01

    1. Because the components of the egg differ in nutrient content, and the proportions of these components change over time, the daily intake of nutrients required to produce an egg will also change with time. Information on these relationships is essential when attempting to determine the nutrient requirements of a broiler breeder hen at different stages of lay, and in predicting performance when the hen is supplied with a given amount of food with a given nutrient composition. 2. Yolk weight is related to hen age and may be predicted using a linear-by-linear function, the coefficients of which are the same for Cobb and Ross breeders. Allometric functions may be used to predict albumen weight from yolk weight, and shell weight from the weight of the egg contents. Egg weight is given by the sum of the three components. 3. The proportion of yolk increased with advancing age whilst the proportions of albumen and shell decreased. However, at a given age, larger eggs contain proportionally more albumen. Eggs from Cobb hens had proportionately more albumen than Ross eggs towards the end of lay. 4. A stochastic population model verified that these functions accurately reflect the proportional changes in the egg components with advancing hen age and at a given age, over a range of egg weights.

  13. Characterization and determination of piperine and piperine isomers in eggs.

    PubMed

    Ternes, Waldemar; Krause, Edburga L

    2002-09-01

    A new analytical method for the determination of piperine and its isomers in egg yolk and albumen is described here. All four isomers were separated by HPLC and detected using UV, DAD and electrochemical detection. The absolute detection limit (UV detection, S/ N=3) of a standard solution of piperine was 370 pg piperine. The correlation coefficients for the linear calibration graphs (concentration range: c=100 ng-10 micro g piperine isomer/mL) are generally better than 0.996. The piperine isomers were characterized and identified by spectroscopy (MS, (1)H-NMR, FT-IR). The method was successfully applied to the determination of piperine deposits in eggs (egg yolk and albumen) after feeding hens with piperine-spiked feed. The detection limit for piperine (24.8(+/-0.2) ng/g egg yolk and 37.9(+/-4.9) ng/g albumen) and the recoveries (70.3(+/-7.7)% (egg yolk) and 75.7(+/-1.9)% (albumen)) of piperine were determined.

  14. Effect of pasteurization of shell egg on its quality characteristics under ambient storage.

    PubMed

    Shenga, E; Singh, R P; Yadav, A S

    2010-08-01

    Three thermal processes viz. dry (55°C, 2 h), moist (57°C, 5 min) and microwave (power 9, 20 sec) were studied to determine their efficacy for the pasteurization of intact chicken eggs based on the extent of inactivation of artificially inoculated Salmonella typhimurium (ST) in the yolk of shell eggs and alteration in albumen protein solubility (APS). Moist heat treatment was superior to others as it brought about 2 log cfu/ml reduction of inoculated ST in much less time than dry heating but changes in APS were not significant. Subsequent quality evaluation of normal (uninoculated) eggs subjected to moist heat pasteurization during 15 days of ambient (35°C, 36% RH) (35 ± 0.5°C, 36 ± 2% RH)storage revealed no significant effect on percent loss in egg weight, albumen pH, viscosity of albumen and yolk and thiobarbituric acid values between pasteurized and unpasteurized eggs. Pasteurization had no adverse effect on foam volume and foam stability of albumen during storage in comparison to those of raw eggs. Naturally occurring aerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliforms, staphylococci, yeast and moulds on the egg shell surface and in egg contents got markedly reduced by pasteurization of shell eggs and their multiplication also retarded during storage. Both pasteurized and raw eggs remained fairly acceptable sensorily up to 10 days of storage at ambient conditions.

  15. Segregation in desiccated sessile drops of biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Tarasevich, Yu Yu; Pravoslavnova, D M

    2007-04-01

    It is shown here that concurrence between advection and diffusion in a drying sessile drop of a biological fluid can produce spatial redistribution of albumen and salt. The result gives an explanation for the patterns observed in the dried drops of the biological fluids.

  16. [Estimation of the students nutritional status in Surgut Pedagogical University].

    PubMed

    Sorokun, I V; Korchina, T Ia

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of the students nutritional status in Surgut State Pedagogical University with the help of the special program "ASPON--nutrition", showed that most of the student' population consumes insufficient quantity of albumens, carbohydrates and vitamins A, E, C and calories. Recommendations for correction of macro- and micronutrients status for the students of the North higher educational institution were developed.

  17. HPLC-UV method validation for the identification and quantification of bioactive amines in commercial eggs.

    PubMed

    de Figueiredo, Tadeu Chaves; de Assis, Débora Cristina Sampaio; Menezes, Liliane Denize Miranda; da Silva, Guilherme Resende; Lanza, Isabela Pereira; Heneine, Luiz Guilherme Dias; Cançado, Silvana de Vasconcelos

    2015-09-01

    A quantitative and confirmatory high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) method for the determination of bioactive amines in the albumen and yolk of commercial eggs was developed, optimized and validated by analyte extraction with trichloroacetic acid and pre-column derivatization with dansyl chloride. Phenylethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, spermidine and spermine standards were used to evaluate the following performance parameters: limit of detection (LoD), limit of quantification (LoQ), selectivity, linearity, precision, recovery and ruggedness. The LoD of the method was defined from 0.2 to 0.3 mg kg(-1) for the yolk matrix and from 0.2 to 0.4 mg kg(-1) for the albumen matrix; the LoQ was from 0.7 to 1.0 mg kg(-1) for the yolk matrix and from 0.7 to 1.1 mg kg(-1) for the albumen matrix. The validated method exhibited excellent selectivity and separation of all amines with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99. The obtained recovery values were from 90.5% to 108.3%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was lower than 10% under repeatability conditions for the studied analytes. The performance parameters show the validated method to be adequate for the determination of bioactive amines in egg albumen and yolk.

  18. Variation in trace element contents among chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and pigeon eggs analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    PubMed

    Nisianakis, P; Giannenas, I; Gavriil, A; Kontopidis, G; Kyriazakis, I

    2009-04-01

    Despite substantial interest in the trace element content of eggs by poultry breeders, nutritionists, and environmental scientists, available data about trace elements levels in eggs are scarce. Trace element contents in yolk and albumen of chicken, turkey, duck, goose, and pigeon eggs were analyzed to establish a baseline dataset and assess differences among trace element content in avian species. We measured the selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), vanadium (V), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), and thallium (Tl) contents in both yolk and albumen by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. One hundred twenty eggs deriving from 24 birds of each species, reared in the same poultry farm in northern Greece, were used; bird feed was common and based on cereals and legumes and contained no added vitamins or microminerals. Trace element contents in yolks were far higher than those in albumen, except for V and Ni. In yolks, the highest content for Se, Mo, and Tl were in pigeon eggs, for Zn, Mn, Cu, and Cr in turkey eggs, and for Co and Ni in goose eggs. In albumen, Se was highest in duck eggs, while Zn, Mn, and Co in pigeon ones. It is concluded that there is a substantial, up to threefold, variation for trace element contents in eggs among different domestic avian species offered the same feed.

  19. 9 CFR 590.542 - Spray process drying operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Drying units, conveyors, sifters, and packaging systems shall be cleaned whenever wet powder is..., including sifters, conveyors, and powder coolers shall be either wet washed or dry cleaned. A combination of... of the drying unit. (1) Sifters and conveyors used for other than dried albumen shall be cleared...

  20. Biologically inspired band-edge laser action from semiconductor with dipole-forbidden band-gap transition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cih-Su; Liau, Chi-Shung; Sun, Tzu-Ming; Chen, Yu-Chia; Lin, Tai-Yuan; Chen, Yang-Fang

    2015-03-11

    A new approach is proposed to light up band-edge stimulated emission arising from a semiconductor with dipole-forbidden band-gap transition. To illustrate our working principle, here we demonstrate the feasibility on the composite of SnO2 nanowires (NWs) and chicken albumen. SnO2 NWs, which merely emit visible defect emission, are observed to generate a strong ultraviolet fluorescence centered at 387 nm assisted by chicken albumen at room temperature. In addition, a stunning laser action is further discovered in the albumen/SnO2 NWs composite system. The underlying mechanism is interpreted in terms of the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) from the chicken albumen protein to SnO2 NWs. More importantly, the giant oscillator strength of shallow defect states, which is served orders of magnitude larger than that of the free exciton, plays a decisive role. Our approach therefore shows that bio-materials exhibit a great potential in applications for novel light emitters, which may open up a new avenue for the development of bio-inspired optoelectronic devices.

  1. Correlation of quality measurements to visible-near infrared spectra of pasteurized egg

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A twelve week study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. Correlation of the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior egg quality) was carried out using ch...

  2. Chemometric correlation of shelf life, quality measurements, and visible-near infrared spectra of pasteurized eggs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A twelve week study was conducted on the egg albumen from both pasteurized and non-pasteurized shell eggs using visible-near infrared spectroscopy. Correlation of the chemical changes detected in the spectra to the measurement of Haugh units (measure of interior egg quality) was carried out using pr...

  3. Efficacy of various protein-based coating on enhancing the shelf life of fresh eggs during storage.

    PubMed

    Caner, Cengiz; Yüceer, Muhammed

    2015-07-01

    The effectiveness of various coatings (whey protein isolate [WPI], whey protein concentrate [WPC], zein, and shellac) on functional properties, interior quality, and eggshell breaking strength of fresh eggs were evaluated during storage at 24 °: C for 6 weeks. Coatings and storage time had significant effects on Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, dry matter (DMA), relative whipping capacity (RWC), and albumen viscosity. Uncoated eggs had higher albumen pH (9.56) and weight loss, and lower albumen viscosity (5.73), Haugh unit (HU), and yolk index (YI) during storage. Among the coated eggs, the shellac and zein coated eggs had the highest value of albumen viscosity (27.26 to 26.90), HU (74.10 to 73.61), and YI (44.84 to 44.63) after storage. Shellac (1.44%) was more effective in preventing weight loss than WPC (4.59%), WPI (4.60%), and zein (2.13%) coatings. Uncoated eggs had the higest value (6.71%) of weight lost. All coatings increased shell strength (5.18 to 5.73 for top and 3.58 to 4.71 for bottom) significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the uncoated eggs (4.70 for top and 3.15 for bottom). The functional properties such as albumen DMA (14.50 to 16.66 and 18.97 for uncoated) and albumen RWC (841 to 891 and 475 for uncoated) of fresh eggs can be preserved during storage when they are coated. The shellac and zein coatings were more effective for maintaining the internal quality of fresh eggs during storage. Fourier transform near infrared (FT-NIR) in the 800 to 2500 nm reflection spectra were used to quantify the contents of the fresh eggs at the end of storage. Eggs coated with shellac or zein displayed a higher absorbance at 970 and 1,197 nm respectively (OH vibration of water) compared with those coated with WPI or WPC and the uncoated group at the end of storage. The coatings improved functional properties and also shell strength and could be a viable alternative technology for maintaining the internal quality of eggs during long-term storage. This study

  4. Thermal death time measurement using thin flexible sleeves: a new experimental approach for determining microbial destruction kinetics in fluids of arbitrary viscosity.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, Gregory J; Badvela, Mani K; Rehkopf, Andre; Stewart, Cynthia M

    2010-12-01

    The thermal death time kinetics of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) was measured in buffer, egg yolk, and albumen using thin layer plastic sleeves. The sleeves allowed for the loading and sampling of liquids of high or unusual viscosity, as in the case of yolk and albumen, and accepted relatively large volumes (2 to 3 ml) of fluid. The sleeves maintained the volume of the fluid in a thin layer and could be easily handled for heat exposure. The thin layer maintained one-dimensional heat transfer and minimized temperature gradients, thus preventing parts of the fluid from experiencing different heating rates. A representative strain of SE associated with an egg-based salmonellosis outbreak was used in this study. The D- and z-values of the chosen strain, H7037, were measured in buffer, yolk, and albumen. In buffer, SE had the following mean (±standard deviation) D-values: D(55°C) = 3.51 ± 0.30 min, D(57°C) = 1.75 ± 0.13 min, and D(60°C) = 0.25 ± 0.06 min. In yolk, D(58°C) = 0.90 ± 0.05, D(60°C) = 0.26 ± 0.03, and D(62°C) = 0.20 ± 0.02. In albumen, D(55°C) = 1.26 ± 0.31, D(56°C) = 0.68 ± 0.10, and D(57°C) = 0.44 ± 0.04. The z-values for SE calculated from these D-values were 4.29 ± 0.39°C in buffer, 6.12 ± 0.26°C in yolk, and 4.63 ± 1.14°C in albumen. The sleeves allowed one consistent approach to determining thermal death time kinetics regardless of viscosity.

  5. Invasive and noninvasive measurement of stress in laying hens kept in conventional cages and in floor pens.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Cook, N; Cheng, K M; Silversides, F G

    2009-07-01

    Measurements of the heterophil:lymphocyte (H/L) ratio (invasive technique) and corticosterone in yolk and albumen (noninvasive techniques) were used to measure stress in 3 commercial laying strains, Lohmann White (LW), H&N White (HN), Lohmann Brown (LB), and a noncommercial cross (CR) between Rhode Island Red (male) and Barred Plymouth Rock (female), kept in conventional cages or floor pens. All chicks were reared in their respective environments, and 450 and 432 pullets were placed at 18 and 7 wk of age in cages and floor pens, respectively. Blood from 12 hens per strain was taken at 19, 35, and 45 wk of age in each housing system. A total of 100 heterophils and lymphocytes were counted and their ratio (H/L ratio) was calculated. Corticosterone was measured in yolk and albumen from 12 hens per strain in each housing system at 22 and 45 wk of age. The H/L ratio was within the normal range. The interaction between environment and strain for the H/L ratio showed that in both environments, LB and CR hens had a higher H/L ratio than LW and HN layers. In cages, there were significant differences in H/L ratios between LW and HN hens that were likely due to genetic differences. The LW hens had significantly lower corticosterone concentrations in yolk than LB hens. In cages but not floor pens, yolk corticosterone concentrations at wk 22 were significantly higher than at wk 45. In floor pens but not cages, albumen corticosterone at wk 22 was higher than at wk 45. The H/L ratios suggest that none of the hens were unduly stressed, and corticosterone levels in yolk and albumen support the suggestion that hens adapted to their environments with age. Although measurement of yolk corticosterone and the H/L ratio may be comparable, the measurement of corticosterone level in the albumen may differ because it is secreted over a short time.

  6. A study on the interaction of xylanase and phytase enzymes in wheat-based diets fed to commercial white and brown egg laying hens.

    PubMed

    Silversides, F G; Scott, T A; Korver, D R; Afsharmanesh, M; Hruby, M

    2006-02-01

    A trial was conducted to investigate potential interactions between phytase and xylanase enzymes in wheat-based laying diets. Hens (480 ISA-White and 480 ISA-Brown) were distributed into 160 experimental units and fed one of 10 diets containing 75 to 77% wheat from 33 to 64 wk of age with a diet change at 49 wk. Two diets were adequate in P content (0.3 and 0.25% available P in the 2 phases) with or without xylanase (0 or 2,000 U/kg; Avizyme 2300, Danisco Animal Nutrition, Marlborough, Wiltshire, United Kingdom), and 8 diets had reduced P (0.2 and 0.15% available P) with or without xylanase and phytase (0, 300, 500, and 700 ppu/kg; Phyzyme 5000G, Danisco Animal Nutrition). Egg production was higher for ISA-Brown than for ISA-White hens, and ISA-Brown hens were larger. Eggs from ISA-Brown hens had lower albumen height; higher egg, shell, and albumen weights; and lower yolk weight than those from ISA-White hens. Egg production was not affected by the diet. In P-reduced diets without xylanase, phytase significantly increased BW gain in the first period with no change in feed intake or feed efficiency. In P-adequate diets, xylanase increased egg and albumen weight and albumen height. In P-reduced diets with xylanase, increasing levels of phytase increased egg and albumen weight. This trial demonstrated no negative interactions between these enzymes for production traits and no interactions between the diet and strain of hen. These data suggest that poultry producers can use these enzymes individually or together in feed for the Brown and White egg layers used in this study without concern for the strain of hen.

  7. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in coastal climatic condition of Odisha.

    PubMed

    Bagh, Jessy; Panigrahi, B; Panda, N; Pradhan, C R; Mallik, B K; Majhi, B; Rout, S S

    2016-08-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age). The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6(th) to 20(th) week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05) among the varieties. However, from 1(st) to 6(th) week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD) production or hen-housed egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white and gray in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha.

  8. Survival and growth of Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid egg products varying by temperature, product composition, and carbon dioxide concentration.

    PubMed

    Gurtler, Joshua B; Conner, Donald E

    2009-06-01

    Cryogenic cooling of shell eggs with carbon dioxide (CO(2)) is known to improve egg content quality through rapid cooling as well as by increasing internal CO(2) levels. A study was undertaken to determine the effects of variations in atmospheric CO(2) concentrations (aerobically stored, flushed with CO(2) and sealed, or bubbled with CO(2)) on the survival and growth of Salmonella Enteritidis in liquid egg products including whole egg, albumen, yolk, and albumen + 1% yolk. Egg products were inoculated with a three-strain composite of Salmonella Enteritidis at ca. 4 log colony-forming units (CFU)/mL and stored at 7 degrees C or 10 degrees C for 8 or 4 days, respectively, or at ca. 2 log CFU/mL and stored at 23 degrees C and 37 degrees C for 48 or 24 hours, respectively. Salmonella populations differed based on variations in liquid egg composition (p < 0.05). Manipulating the atmospheric concentrations of CO(2) in which liquid egg products were stored did not significantly inhibit the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis (p > 0.05) in yolk-containing egg products or affect the inhibitory activity of albumen-containing products. Populations of Salmonella were static at 7 degrees C over the entire storage period and significant growth occurred in whole egg and yolk stored at 10 degrees C. Populations in egg stored at 23 degrees C and 37 degrees C were greater in yolk than in whole egg, although whole egg had populations greater than in albumen or albumen +1% yolk (p < 0.05). Results of this investigation suggest that increasing atmospheric CO(2) to enhance egg quality should not promote the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis in eggs.

  9. Ozone treatment of shell eggs to preserve functional quality and enhance shelf life during storage.

    PubMed

    Yüceer, Muhammed; Aday, Mehmet Seçkin; Caner, Cengiz

    2016-06-01

    Eggs have long been recognised as a source of high-quality proteins. Many methods exist to extend shelf life of food and one of them is ozone treatment, which is an emerging technology for disinfecting surfaces in the food industry. This study aimed to extend the shelf life of fresh eggs using gaseous ozone treatments at concentrations of 2, 4 and 6 ppm with exposure times of 2 and 5 min during storage for 6 weeks at 24 °C. The effect of the treatments on interior quality and functional properties of eggs is also reported. Ozone concentration and exposure time significantly affected the Haugh unit (HU), yolk index, albumen pH, relative whipping capacity (RWC), and albumen viscosity of eggs during the storage. Control eggs had the highest albumen pH and lowest albumen viscosity. Attributes such as albumen pH and RWC of eggs exposed to ozone treatments were better than the control samples. The measurement results showed that ozone concentration at 6 ppm and exposure time of 5 min can be applied to fresh eggs and extend shelf life up to 6 weeks at 24 °C storage period. Ozone treatments helped to maintain egg quality for a longer time. Ozone concentrations at 2 and 4 ppm showed promising results in maintaining internal quality and functional properties of fresh eggs during storage. Ozone at high concentration (6 ppm) caused a detrimental effect on eggshell quality. As a result, this study demonstrated that ozone treatments of 2, and especially 4 and 6 ppm concentration maintained eggshell quality during the storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) in coastal climatic condition of Odisha

    PubMed Central

    Bagh, Jessy; Panigrahi, B.; Panda, N.; Pradhan, C. R.; Mallik, B. K.; Majhi, B.; Rout, S. S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the performance of gray, brown, and white varieties of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with respect to body weight, egg production, and egg quality traits in the coastal climatic condition of Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 500-day-old straight run Japanese quail chicks of three varieties, viz., gray, brown, and white were randomly selected and reared in deep litter system at Central Poultry Development Organization, Eastern Region, Bhubaneswar. The weekly body weight of the birds was recorded till their egg production stage (up to 6 weeks of age). The average egg production was recorded every biweekly from 6th to 20th week. Exterior and interior quality of eggs from each variety was determined at 6 weeks of age. Results: The initial average weekly body weight of three varieties did not differ (p>0.05) among the varieties. However, from 1st to 6th week significantly higher body weight was observed in gray than white and brown. Brown varieties had reached 50% egg production 1 week earlier than gray and white. Brown had higher peak hen day (HD) production or hen-housed egg production followed by white and gray. External quality such as: Egg weight, egg length, egg width, volume, shape index, shell weight, shell thickness depicted no significant difference among the varieties except circumference length and circumference width, which were significantly higher (p≤0.05) in gray varieties than brown varieties. Internal egg characteristics such as: Albumen length, albumen width, albumen height, albumen index, yolk length, yolk width, yolk height, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, Haugh unit revealed no significance difference among the varieties. Conclusion: It may be summarized from the findings that gray excelled in body weight followed by white and brown. Egg production potential in terms of hen house egg production or HD egg production was higher for brown followed by white and gray in the

  11. Effect of Feeding and Withdrawal of Vanadium and Vitamin C on Egg Quality and Vanadium Residual Over Time in Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, J P; He, K R; Ding, X M; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Zhang, K Y

    2017-06-01

    This experiment examined the egg quality of hens fed vanadium (V) and vitamin C (VC) during storage, as well as the V and VC withdrawal on egg quality and V residual in egg. A total of 360 laying hens (31 weeks old) were randomly allotted into a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement treatments (6 replicates and 10 chicks per replicate) with three levels of dietary V (0, 5, and 10 mg/kg) and two levels of VC (0 and 100 mg/kg) for 19 weeks (feeding V and VC 12 weeks, recovery 7 weeks). The V residual in eggs at 4, 8, and 12th weeks were increased (linear effect, P ≤ 0.01) as V levels increased and was not detected in albumen at 7th week after V withdrawal. Followed by 12-week feeding period, albumen height and Haugh unit of eggs during 2-week storage were decreased (linear and quadratic effect, P < 0.01) by dietary V supplementation. Lightness value was increased (linear effect, P < 0.01), whereas redness and yellowness value of the eggshell were lowered (linear effect, P < 0.01) in V-containing diet. During 7-week withdrawal period, eggs from groups pre-feeding 5 and 10 mg/kg V had lower (linear effect, P < 0.01) overall albumen height and Haugh unit. The reducing effect on albumen height and HU continued to be observed until the seventh week, whereas the bleaching effect on eggshell color disappeared after 1-week withdrawal. The results indicated that feeding 5 or 10 mg/kg V increases egg V residual and reduces egg albumen quality and bleached the shell color, and the impaired albumen quality induced by 10 mg/kg of V lasted at least 6 weeks after changing to no V supplementation diet. The addition of VC did not show to affect egg quality during storage or recovery phase.

  12. Effect of different protein ingredients on performance, egg quality, organ health, and jejunum morphology of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, X C; Zhang, H J; Wang, H; Yue, H Y; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different protein ingredients on performance, egg quality, organ health, and jejunum morphology of laying hens. A total of 216 32-wk-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens with similar egg production was randomly divided into 3 treatment groups with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The experimental diets were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 2 655 kcal/kg) and isonitrogenous (crude protein, 16.5%). The control group was fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet (SBM), and the other 2 experimental diets consisted of a basal diet with 195.0 g/kg low-gossypol cottonseed meal (LCSM) or 292.0 g/kg double-zero rapeseed meal (DRM). The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. The egg production, daily feed intake, egg weight, and feed conversion ratio were not affected (P > 0.05) by diets used. The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM group in wk 7 to 12 (P < 0.05). Albumen height, Haugh unit, albumen weight, albumen proportion, and oviduct index were reduced in the 195.0 g/kg LCSM at wk 12 (P < 0.05), while yolk color was increased (P < 0.05). A lower yolk weight, yolk proportion, abdominal fat, dry matter of the liver, and fat content of the liver were observed in the DRM group at wk 12 (P < 0.05). Using LCSM or DRM as a sole protein ingredient in the diet reduced the ovomucin content of albumen when stored 28 d at 4°C. The villous height of the jejunum in the LCSM group was the lowest among treatments (P < 0.05). The mucosal columnar epithelial cell layer of the magnum in the LCSM group was incomplete, and there was a little albumen secretions in the lumen of the magnum. Together, our results suggest that the 195.0 g/kg LCSM diet may produce an adverse effect on daily egg mass and albumen quality. The adverse effect might be associated with the reduction of absorption ability in the jejunum and secretion capacity in the magnum. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. The role of gravity in chick embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suda, T; Abe, E; Shinki, T; Katagiri, T; Yamaguchi, A; Yokose, S; Yoshiki, S; Horikawa, H; Cohen, G W; Yasugi, S

    1994-02-28

    Thirty fertilized chick eggs preincubated for 0, 7 and 10 days on earth (10 eggs each) were flown in the space shuttle 'Endeavour' and further incubated for 7 days under microgravity. Twenty out of thirty eggs (9/10 ten-day-old; 10/10 seven-day-old; 1/10 zero-day-old) were recovered alive after landing. The only living embryo of the zero-day-old group died 24 days after launch, and was comparable to a 16-day-old embryo. The high mortality of the 0-day-old eggs appeared to be related to the specific inner structure of the egg. Simulation experiments performed on earth indicated that when yolk stayed in the albumen for more than 2 days, most of the embryos died. The subtle difference in specific gravity between the yolk (1.029) and albumen (1.040) plays a critical role in early chick embryogenesis.

  14. Effect of Environmental Exposure of Arsenic on Cattle and Poultry in Nadia District, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Bakul Kumar; Bhar, Moloy Kumar; Patra, Pabitra Hriday; Majumdar, Debasish; Dey, Radha Raman; Sarkar, Samar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate an alternative source of arsenicosis in human food chain through livestock. Thirty milch cattle and 20 poultry birds along with their eggs were selected randomly from two endemic villages of Nadia district and one nonendemic villages of Hooghly district in West Bengal, India. Milk, feces, urine, and hair samples of cattle and feed materials, such as water and straw, were collected to analyze arsenic status. Arsenic concentration in egg yolk and albumen from poultry eggs and different poultry organs after culling was estimated. Distribution of arsenic in animal body indicates that major portion of arsenic was eliminated through feces, urine, and milk. Poultry egg yolk, albumen, and poultry products retain arsenic in all organs. Cows and poultry birds reared in endemic zone retain significantly higher concentration of arsenic. Consumption of egg, agricultural produces grown in contaminated soil, and milk might have produced arsenicosis and may be considered as alternative source of arsenic contamination. PMID:22736905

  15. Long-term 2007-2013 monitoring of reproductive disturbance in the dun sentinel Assiminea grayana with regard to polymeric materials pollution at the coast of Lower Saxony, North Sea, Germany.

    PubMed

    Watermann, B T; Löder, M; Herlyn, M; Daehne, B; Thomsen, A; Gall, K

    2017-02-01

    During biological effect monitoring studies of endocrine active compounds with the snail Assiminea grayana in 2007-2013, reproductive disorders including atresia, transformation of capsule/albumen glands into prostates in females and ovotestis, transformation of prostates to capsule/albumen glands, disruption of spermatogenesis, and calcification of tubules in males, were encountered in several years. The search of sources of endocrine active substances was first directed to antifouling biocides from paint particles and extended to leaching compounds from polymeric materials. In contrast to the reference sites, most of the observed disorders occurred at a station near harbors and dockyards polluted with residues from antifouling paints and polymeric materials. Beside of investigations about the potential ingestion of polymer particles by the snails, further investigations of compounds of polymeric materials with endocrine potential should follow.

  16. Effect of environmental exposure of arsenic on cattle and poultry in nadia district, west bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Datta, Bakul Kumar; Bhar, Moloy Kumar; Patra, Pabitra Hriday; Majumdar, Debasish; Dey, Radha Raman; Sarkar, Samar; Mandal, Tapan Kumar; Chakraborty, Animesh Kumar

    2012-01-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate an alternative source of arsenicosis in human food chain through livestock. Thirty milch cattle and 20 poultry birds along with their eggs were selected randomly from two endemic villages of Nadia district and one nonendemic villages of Hooghly district in West Bengal, India. Milk, feces, urine, and hair samples of cattle and feed materials, such as water and straw, were collected to analyze arsenic status. Arsenic concentration in egg yolk and albumen from poultry eggs and different poultry organs after culling was estimated. Distribution of arsenic in animal body indicates that major portion of arsenic was eliminated through feces, urine, and milk. Poultry egg yolk, albumen, and poultry products retain arsenic in all organs. Cows and poultry birds reared in endemic zone retain significantly higher concentration of arsenic. Consumption of egg, agricultural produces grown in contaminated soil, and milk might have produced arsenicosis and may be considered as alternative source of arsenic contamination.

  17. Two eggs, two different constraints: a potential explanation for the puzzling intraclutch egg size dimorphism in Eudyptes penguins

    PubMed Central

    Poisbleau, Maud; Dehnhard, Nina; Demongin, Laurent; Quillfeldt, Petra; Eens, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and phenotypic stability are major components of the adaptive evolution of organisms to environmental variation. The invariant two-egg clutch size of Eudyptes penguins has recently been proposed to be a unique example of a maladaptive phenotypic stability, while their egg mass is a plastic trait. We tested whether this phenotypic plasticity during reproduction might result from constraints imposed by migration (migratory carry-over effect) and breeding (due to the depletion of female body reserves). For the first time, we examined whether these constraints differ between eggs within clutches and between egg components (yolk and albumen). The interval between colony return and clutch initiation positively influenced the yolk mass, the albumen mass, and the subsequent total egg mass of first-laid eggs. This time interval had only a slight negative influence on the yolk mass of second-laid eggs and no influence on their albumen and subsequent total masses. For both eggs, female body mass at laying positively influenced albumen and total egg masses. Female investment into the entire clutch was not related to the time in the colony before laying but increased with female body mass. These novel results suggest that the unique intraclutch egg size dimorphism exhibited in Eudyptes penguins, with first-laid eggs being consistently smaller than second-laid eggs, might be due to a combination of constraints: a migratory carry-over effect on the first-laid egg and a body reserve depletion effect on the second-laid egg. Both these constraints might explain why the timing of reproduction, especially egg formation, is narrow in migratory capital breeders. PMID:26306169

  18. Radiocesium patterns in wood duck eggs and nesting females in a contaminated reservoir

    SciTech Connect

    Colwell, S.V.; Kennamer, R.A.; Brisbin, I.L. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Radionuclide releases from nuclear industry are an important ecological issue, particularly because these contaminants may directly affect animals and may be transferred to the hunting public through consumption. During 1991-92, we collected 13 clutches of wood duck eggs from nest boxes established in an abandoned reactor cooling reservoir. We examined whole-egg radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) levels and apportionment within egg components (albumen, yolk, and shell). Whole-egg concentrations averaged 0.113 Becquerel (Bq)/g wet mass (SE=0.01, n = 137) over 2 years. Albumen had the highest concentration of {sup 137}Cs (x = 1.096 Bq/g dry mass), followed by shell (x = 0.132 Bq/g dry mass) and yolk (x = 0.098 Bq/g dry mass). Levels of potassium (K), a chemical analog of Cs, suggested that contamination levels in yolk were disproportionally lower than those in albumen. Levels of {sup 137}Cs that appeared in these components may reflect temporal differences in the sythesis of yolk and albumen. Laying order did not relate to whole-egg {sup 137}Cs concentrations within clutches, but {sup 137}Cs concentrations in post-laying females were positively related to mean egg {sup 137}Cs levels in their respective clutches (r{sup 2} = 0.97). While female ducks and their eggs examined in this study would not have posed a health hazard to persons consuming them as food, we suggested that {sup 137}Cs levels in breeding female wood ducks and their clutches may be indicators of foraging habitat selection (both contaminated and uncontaminated) during the laying cycle. 23 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Effect of storage duration on the rheological properties of goose liquid egg products and eggshell membranes.

    PubMed

    Kumbar, V; Nedomova, S; Trnka, J; Buchar, J; Pytel, R

    2016-07-01

    In practice, goose eggs are increasingly used and, therefore, the rheological properties have to be known for processing. The eggs of geese (Landes Goose, Anser anser f. domestica) were stored for one, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 wk at a constant temperature 4°C. First of all, the egg quality parameters were described in terms of egg weight, egg weight loss, egg shape index, yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh units. In the next step the rheological behavior of liquid egg products (egg yolk, albumen, and whole liquid egg) was studied using a concentric cylinder viscometer. Flow curves of all liquid egg products exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behavior. This behavior can be described using the Herschel-Bulkley model and for technical application using the Ostwald-de Waele model. The effect of the storage duration on the rheological behavior is different for the different liquid egg products. With the exception of very low shear rates, the viscosity of the egg yolk as well as of the whole liquid egg decreases with storage time. At lower shear rates there is a tendency toward increased albumen viscosity with storage duration. The storage duration also affects the mechanical properties of the eggshell membrane. This effect has been evaluated in terms of the ultimate tensile strength, fracture strain, and fracture toughness. All these parameters increased with the loading rate, but decreased during the egg storage. These mechanical phenomena should be respected, namely in the design of the egg model for the numerical simulation of the egg behavior under different kinds of the mechanical loading. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Comparison of quality attributes of shell eggs subjected to directional microwave technology.

    PubMed

    Lakins, D G; Alvarado, C Z; Luna, A M; O'Keefe, S F; Boyce, J B; Thompson, L D; Brashears, M T; Brooks, J C; Brashears, M M

    2009-06-01

    Microwaves have been shown to cause thermal as well as nonthermal destruction of pathogens such as Salmonella, which can be found in shell eggs. The objective of this study was to determine if using microwave technology would cause detrimental quality effects in shell eggs. Treatments included control (no treatment) and microwave-treated (20 s) shell eggs. There were no differences in mineral content, fatty acid profile, Haugh units, broken-out score, yolk index, emulsion stability, pH of whole egg, and foaming capacity between 2 treatments (P >or= 0.05). At 0 and 30 d, there were no noticeable differences in H(2)O activity between 2 treatments. The foaming stability and albumen thermocoagulation of microwave-treated eggs were significantly higher than control eggs (P albumen color, and there are no noticeable differences at 0, 15, or 30 d. At 0 d, the color of control albumen was more yellow than the microwave-treated albumen, and the chalazae of the microwave-treated eggs was more attached than the control eggs (P or= 0.05). Therefore, microwave technology can be applied to shell eggs without causing detrimental effects to quality.

  1. New validated multiresidue analysis of six 4-hydroxy-coumarin anticoagulant rodenticides in hen eggs.

    PubMed

    Shimshoni, Jakob Avi; Soback, Stefan; Cuneah, Olga; Shlosberg, Alan; Britzi, Malka

    2013-11-01

    Anticoagulant rodenticides are frequently a cause of poisoning of domestic animals, wildlife, and human beings. A toxicosis in 6,000 laying hens caused by the malicious addition of unknown amounts of coumatetralyl bait as well as the insecticides aldicarb, methomyl, and imidacloprid in the drinking water, was investigated in the current study. In order to determine a possible carryover of coumatetralyl into eggs, a rapid and reliable analytical method was developed and fully validated for the simultaneous detection of 6 anticoagulant rodenticides (warfarin, coumatetralyl, coumachlor, bromadiolone, difenacoum, and brodifacoum) in yolk and albumen using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The method developed was reproducible, sensitive, accurate, and linear within the range of 0.01-1 mg/kg, which is the concentration range of bromadiolone and warfarin found in yolk in previously reported studies. The coefficient of variations of within and between days was 1.0-8.5% for yolk and 0.6-3.8% for albumen, while recoveries from spiked albumen and yolk samples were all in the range of 79-99% and 51-95%, respectively. Limits of detection in yolk were 0.01 mg/kg for warfarin and 0.003 mg/kg for the remaining compounds; in albumen, the limit of detection was 0.003 mg/kg for warfarin, coumatetralyl, and coumachlor, and 0.0015 mg/kg for difenacoum and brodifacoum. The application of the validated method revealed the presence of coumatetralyl in the yolk only at levels of 0.0057 mg/kg and 0.0052 mg/kg on the second and fourth day of the poisoning. In conclusion, the HPLC method demonstrated suitability for application in official analysis of anticoagulants in hen eggs.

  2. Effect of storage temperature on egg quality traits in table eggs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of storage temperature on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days. A total of 100 fresh eggs were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (5 °C and 22 °C; 10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 5 and 22 °C. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in eggs stored at 5 °C significantly (P<0.01) lower than the eggs stored at 22 °C group for the entire storage period. The eggs stored at 5 °C showed higher levels of specific gravity than eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage (P<0.01; P<0.05). The albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk index of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during the storage periods. The albumen pH of eggs stored at 5 °C was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of eggs stored at 22 °C during storage period. The results indicated that the eggs stored at 5 °C are better off in terms of protecting quality compared to the eggs stored at 22 °C throughout 28 days of storage.

  3. Coupling non invasive and fast sampling of proteins from work of art surfaces to surface plasmon resonance biosensing: Differential and simultaneous detection of egg components for cultural heritage diagnosis and conservation.

    PubMed

    Scarano, S; Carretti, E; Dei, L; Baglioni, P; Minunni, M

    2016-11-15

    Despite the wide application of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to a broad area of interests, from environment to food analysis, from drug discovery to diagnostics, its exploitation in cultural heritage conservation is still unexplored. Water-based highly viscous polymeric dispersions (HVPD) composed by partially hydrolyzed polyvinyl acetate (PVA), borax, and water, were recently developed and successfully applied for the selective removal of surface degradation patinas (i.e. protein materials, natural resins etc.) from paintings of historical and artistic interest. This approach is here coupled for the first time to a SPR biosensor to simultaneously recognize albumen, yolk, or their mixtures in HVPD extracts. Ovalbumin and immunoglobulin Y are selected as analytes for egg white and yolk recognition, respectively. The biosensor was first characterized on standard analytes within the range 0-400mgL(-1) and then on fresh and dried egg albumen and yolk down to 2·10(^4) and 1·10(^5) dilution factors, respectively. Once optimized, the biosensor was combined to the HVPD application on simulated and real art samples for the evaluation of hen egg presence in the extract, i.e. albumen, yolk, or their co-presence in the matrix. For a contemporary 'sacred icon', realized by the traditional egg tempera procedure described by Cennino Cennini, the biosensor successfully distinguished different uses of egg components for the realization of painted and gilded areas, i.e. yolk and albumen, respectively. Finally, a XVIII century italian painting whose the realization technique is unknown, was tested confirming its egg tempera-based realization technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mother–egg stable isotope conversions and effects of lipid extraction and ethanol preservation on loggerhead eggs

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Temma J.; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A.; Bolten, Alan B.; Pfaller, Joseph B.; Williams, Kristina L.; Vander Zanden, Hannah B.

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope (δ13C and δ15N) analysis has been used to elucidate foraging and migration behaviours of endangered sea turtle populations. Isotopic analysis of tissue samples from nesting females can provide information about their foraging locations before reproduction. To determine whether loggerhead (Caretta caretta) eggs provide a good proxy for maternal isotope values, we addressed the following three objectives: (i) we evaluated isotopic effects of ethanol preservation and lipid extraction on yolk; (ii) we examined the isotopic offset between maternal epidermis and corresponding egg yolk and albumen tissue δ13C and δ15N values; and (iii) we assessed the accuracy of foraging ground assignment using egg yolk and albumen stable isotope values as a proxy for maternal epidermis. Epidermis (n = 61), albumen (n = 61) and yolk samples (n = 24) were collected in 2011 from nesting females at Wassaw Island, GA, USA. Subsamples from frozen and ethanol-preserved yolk samples were lipid extracted. Both lipid extraction and ethanol preservation significantly affected yolk δ13C, while δ15N values were not altered at a biologically relevant level. The mathematical corrections provided here allow for normalization of yolk δ13C values with these treatments. Significant tissue conversion equations were found between δ13C and δ15N values of maternal epidermis and corresponding yolk and albumen. Finally, the consistency in assignment to a foraging area was high (up to 84%), indicating that these conversion equations can be used in future studies where stable isotopes are measured to determine female foraging behaviour and trophic relationships by assessing egg components. Loggerhead eggs can thus provide reliable isotopic information when samples from nesting females cannot be obtained. PMID:27293670

  5. Mercury patterns in wood duck eggs from a contaminated reservoir in South Carolina, USA.

    PubMed

    Kennamer, Robert A; Stout, Jason R; Jackson, Brian P; Colwell, Sheila V; Brisbin, I Lehr; Burger, Joanna

    2005-07-01

    Mercury contamination of wildlife populations has been documented widely in recent years as biomonitoring has become an important tool for assessing environmental contamination. Avian eggs provide an ideal assay material for Hg biomonitoring, particularly when the collection of eggs is simplified by using cavity-nesting species that nest in easily monitored nest boxes. However, studies are needed that address the dynamics of how Hg is distributed within eggs, and how Hg is deposited naturally within clutches laid by a single female and among clutches laid by different females occupying the same contaminated environment. We collected 138 eggs from 13 complete clutches of box-nesting wood ducks (Aix sponsa) during 1991 and 1992 at a contaminated reservoir of the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in South Carolina, USA. Total Hg residues in egg components and clutches were determined, partitioning of Hg among egg components was examined, and effects of egg-laying sequence on egg component Hg levels were determined. Mean albumen Hg was 0.22 ppm wet mass, mean yolk Hg was 0.04 ppm, and mean shell Hg was 0.03 ppm. On average, 86.1% of total egg Hg was concentrated in the albumen, 11.2% in the yolk, and 2.7% in the shell. Mercury concentrations in all egg components varied significantly among clutches and between successive clutches laid by the same female in the same year. Laying sequence significantly affected Hg concentrations in the albumen and shell, but not in the yolk. Declines of albumen Hg due to laying sequence were more pronounced for clutches that contained higher average Hg levels. Our results suggest that collection of first-laid eggs may be preferable for assessing maximal Hg exposure to developing embryos, and that monitoring Hg levels through the use of empty eggshells following brood departure from nests may be valid only if the laying sequence is known.

  6. Effects of dietary selenium source, storage time, and temperature on the quality of quail eggs.

    PubMed

    Baylan, Mikail; Canogullari, Sibel; Ayasan, Tugay; Copur, Gulsen

    2011-11-01

    We report the effects of time of storage, temperature, and supplementation with sodium selenite- and selenium-enriched yeast on the quality of quail eggs. For this study, 90 10-week-old female Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) with similar body size were caged individually and randomly divided into five groups of 18 quails each. One group was fed a normal diet and served as control. A second group was supplemented with 0.2 mg/kg sodium selenite (In-Se) and three groups supplemented with 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg/kg of a commercially available selenium-enriched yeast (O-Se1, O-Se2, and O-Se3, respectively). The eggs were collected at third and fourth weeks of the experiment and were stored at 4°C and 20°C for 0, 15, 30, and 45 days. Extension of the storage time to 45 days at 20°C resulted in significant deterioration of egg quality. The albumen Haugh unit (HU), pH, albumen index, yolk index, and egg weight loss were the most important parameters influenced by the nature of the selenium sources, storage time, and temperature. Storage time and temperature were also significant for egg weight loss, HU, and albumen and yolk indexes. The results show that supplementation with selenium yeast significantly affected shell weight, shell thickness, HU, albumen index, yolk index, and pH. The HU decreased with increased storage time and temperature. Higher levels of Se-yeast administration resulted in greater HU compared to the selenite and control groups.

  7. The effects of kale (Brassica oleracea ssp. acephala), basil (Ocimum basilicum) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as forage material in organic egg production on egg quality.

    PubMed

    Hammershøj, M; Steenfeldt, S

    2012-01-01

    1. In organic egg production, forage material as part of the diet for laying hens is mandatory. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of feeding with forage materials including maize silage, herbs or kale on egg production and various egg quality parameters of the shell, yolk colour, egg albumen, sensory properties, fatty acid and carotenoid composition of the egg yolk. 2. A total of 5 dietary treatments were tested for 5 weeks, consisting of a basal organic feed plus 120 g/hen.d of the following forage materials: 1) maize silage (control), 2) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg basil, 3) maize silage incl. 30 g/kg basil, 4) maize silage incl. 15 g/kg thyme, or 5) fresh kale leaves. Each was supplied to three replicates of 20 hens. A total of 300 hens was used. 3. Feed intake, forage intake and laying rate did not differ with treatment, but egg weight and egg mass produced increased significantly with the kale treatment. 4. The egg shell strength tended to be higher with the kale treatment, and egg yolk colour was significantly more red with the kale treatment and more yellow with basil and kale treatments. The albumen DM content and albumen gel strength were lowest with the thyme treatment. By sensory evaluation, the kale treatment resulted in eggs with less sulphur aroma, higher yolk colour score, and more sweet and less watery albumen taste. Furthermore, the eggs of the kale treatment had significantly higher lutein and β-carotene content. Also, violaxanthin, an orange xanthophyll, tended to be higher in kale and eggs from hens receiving kale. 5. In conclusion, forage material, especially basil and kale, resulted in increased egg production and eggs of high and differentiable quality.

  8. Mother-egg stable isotope conversions and effects of lipid extraction and ethanol preservation on loggerhead eggs.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Temma J; Pajuelo, Mariela; Bjorndal, Karen A; Bolten, Alan B; Pfaller, Joseph B; Williams, Kristina L; Vander Zanden, Hannah B

    2014-01-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) analysis has been used to elucidate foraging and migration behaviours of endangered sea turtle populations. Isotopic analysis of tissue samples from nesting females can provide information about their foraging locations before reproduction. To determine whether loggerhead (Caretta caretta) eggs provide a good proxy for maternal isotope values, we addressed the following three objectives: (i) we evaluated isotopic effects of ethanol preservation and lipid extraction on yolk; (ii) we examined the isotopic offset between maternal epidermis and corresponding egg yolk and albumen tissue δ(13)C and δ(15)N values; and (iii) we assessed the accuracy of foraging ground assignment using egg yolk and albumen stable isotope values as a proxy for maternal epidermis. Epidermis (n = 61), albumen (n = 61) and yolk samples (n = 24) were collected in 2011 from nesting females at Wassaw Island, GA, USA. Subsamples from frozen and ethanol-preserved yolk samples were lipid extracted. Both lipid extraction and ethanol preservation significantly affected yolk δ(13)C, while δ(15)N values were not altered at a biologically relevant level. The mathematical corrections provided here allow for normalization of yolk δ(13)C values with these treatments. Significant tissue conversion equations were found between δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of maternal epidermis and corresponding yolk and albumen. Finally, the consistency in assignment to a foraging area was high (up to 84%), indicating that these conversion equations can be used in future studies where stable isotopes are measured to determine female foraging behaviour and trophic relationships by assessing egg components. Loggerhead eggs can thus provide reliable isotopic information when samples from nesting females cannot be obtained.

  9. The efficacy of vitamin E (DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate) supplementation in hen diets to alleviate egg quality deterioration associated with high temperature exposure.

    PubMed

    Kirunda, D F; Scheideler, S E; McKee, S R

    2001-09-01

    Supplementation of hen diets with vitamin E was investigated as a means to alleviate egg quality deterioration associated with high temperature exposure. One hundred eighty layers (60 birds/diet) were randomly placed on diets supplemented with vitamin E at 20, 60, and 120 IU/kg feed. After 2 wk on feed, one-half of the birds were maintained at environmental temperatures of 21 C, whereas the other half were acclimated over 3 d to increasing environmental temperatures reaching 34 C. Birds were exposed to 21 or 34 C for 2 wk (five hens per cage x six replications). Egg production, feed intake, and egg weights were determined daily. Twenty eggs were collected from each treatment group and analyzed for vitamin E content in yolk, percentage egg solids, yolk color, yolk pH, albumen pH, foaming ability of albumen proteins, emulsification capacity of yolk, yolk viscosity, yolk color, and vitelline membrane strength (VMS). Results suggested that high temperature exposure (HTE) caused a reduction in feed intake, egg production, Haugh units, egg weights, VMS, yolk and albumen solids, foam stability, angel cake volume, yolk color, and emulsification capacity. Supplementation of HTE hen diets with 60 IU vitamin E/kg feed improved feed intake, egg production, VMS, yolk and albumen solids, foam stability, and angel cake volume. However, egg weight, emulsification capacity, yolk color, yolk index, and yolk viscosity were not improved by vitamin E supplementation of HTE hens. Vitamin E levels in the yolk were lower from HTE hens compared with controls at all levels of vitamin E supplementation.

  10. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Asparagus africanus root extract.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Hs; Ahmadu, A A; Hassan, A S

    2007-10-27

    The methanolic extract of the roots of Asparagus africanus Lam (Liliaceae) which contains mainly saponins and carbohydrate showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities (P<0.05) in the tail-flick/hot-plate test and egg albumen-induced rat paw oedema tests that were comparable to the test drugs (morphine 20 mg/kg and indomethacin 50 mg/kg respectively). These results indicate that the extract possesses analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties.

  11. Proteomic comparison by iTRAQ combined with mass spectrometry of egg white proteins in laying hens (Gallus gallus) fed with soybean meal and cottonseed meal.

    PubMed

    He, Tao; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Jing; Wu, Shugeng; Yue, Hongyuan; Qi, Guanghai

    2017-01-01

    Cottonseed meal (CSM) is commonly used in hens' diets to replace soybean meal (SBM). However, the molecular consequences of this substitution remains unclear. To investigate the impact of this substitution at the molecular level, iTRAQ combined with biochemical analysis was performed in Hy-Line W-36 hens supplemented with a mixed diet of CSM and SBM. Egg weight, albumen height, and Haugh unit were significantly reduced in the CSM100 group (100% crude protein of SBM replaced by CSM) compared with the SBM group (P<0.05). A total of 15 proteins, accounting for 75% of egg white proteins with various biological functions of egg whites, were found to be reduced. This finding may relate to the decrease of albumen quality in the CSM100 group. Oviduct magnum morphology and hormone analysis indicated that a reduced level of plasma progesterone caused reduced growth of the tubular gland and epithelial cells in the magnum, further decreasing egg white protein synthesis in the magnum. These findings help demonstrate the molecular mechanisms of a CSM diet that cause adverse effects on albumen quality, while also showing that SBM should not be totally replaced with CSM in a hen diet.

  12. Role of porosity and pore architecture in the in vivo bone regeneration capacity of biodegradable glass scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Sanzana, Edgardo S; Navarro, Melba; Ginebra, Maria-Pau; Planell, Josep A; Ojeda, Alvaro C; Montecinos, Hernan A

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this work is to shed light on the role of porosity and pore architecture in the in vivo bone regeneration capacity of biodegradable glass scaffolds. A calcium phosphate glass in the system P2O5-CaO-Na2O-TiO2 was foamed using two different porogens, namely albumen and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2); the resulting three-dimensional porous structures were characterized and implanted in New Zealand rabbits to study their in vivo behavior. Scaffolds foamed with albumen displayed a monomodal pore size distribution centered around 150 μm and a porosity of 82%, whereas scaffolds foamed with H2O2 showed lower porosity (37%), with larger elongated pores, and multimodal size distribution. After 12 weeks of implantation, histology results revealed a good osteointegration for both types of scaffolds. The quantitative morphometric analysis showed the substitution of the biomaterial by new bone in the case of glasses foamed with albumen. In contrast, bone neoformation and material resorption were significantly lower in the defects filled with the scaffolds foamed with H2O2. The results obtained in this study showed that both calcium phosphate glass scaffolds were osteoconductive, biocompatible, and biodegradable materials. However, differences in porosity, pore architecture, and microstructure led to substantially different in vivo response.

  13. Avidin traps biotin diffusing out of chicken egg yolk.

    PubMed

    Bush, L; White, H B

    1989-01-01

    1. The unequal distribution of biotin and biotin-binding proteins between the yolk and albumen of freshly laid chicken eggs provides the potential for time-dependent redistribution of biotin that could affect egg quality, biotin availability, and hatchability. 2. Avidin-bound biotin was measured in albumen next to the shell and next to the yolk in eggs stored up to 23 days. 3. Biotin bound to biotin-binding proteins (BBP-I and BBP-II) was measured at the center and periphery of yolk from the same eggs. 4. After 11 days of storage, significant amounts of biotin from the yolk began to accumulate in the albumen adjacent to the yolk. 5. This transfer is attributed to a change in the vitelline membrane that permits diffusion of biotin, not BBP-I or BBP-II, out of the yolk. 6. The dynamics of this phenomenon suggest that in addition to its antimicrobial role, avidin may be involved in the utilization of biotin by the chick embryo.

  14. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health. PMID:24948916

  15. Effect of different sources and levels of zinc on egg quality and laying hen performance.

    PubMed

    Tabatabaie, M M; Aliarabi, H; Saki, A A; Ahmadi, A; Siyar, S A Hosseini

    2007-10-01

    Eighty layer hens were assigned in a completely randomized design to four dietary treatments containing zinc sulphate or organic zinc as Albino-Zn in two levels of 25 or 50 ppm. Feed intake was expressed on a per hen basis. Daily egg collection was expressed on a hen-day basis. Eggs were weighed to calculate egg mass. Feed conversion ratio was calculated as feed consumed per egg mass. Also all eggs produced on days 14, 28 and 42 were collected and used for egg quality parameters. Albumen height was measured and HU was calculated. The yolk and dried shell were weighed then albumen weight was calculated. There was no effect of zinc source or zinc level on egg production, egg weight or feed conversion ratio. However, feed intake was lower in the group receiving 50 mg kg(-1) organic zinc. There were no significant treatment differences for weight of egg components or shell thickness, but albumen height and HU were higher in the second fortnight for the groups receiving organic zinc at 25 or 50 mg kg(-1) than in the un-supplemented group.

  16. Effect of expanded cottonseed meal on laying performance, egg quality, concentrations of free gossypol in tissue, serum and egg of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chao; Song, Hua-Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Yun; Jiang, Yuan-Jing; Zhang, Ai-Ting; Azzam, Mahmoud Mostafa; Zou, Xiao-Ting

    2014-05-01

    Three hundred and sixty Hy-Line Brown hens, 40 week of age, were allocated to five treatments, each of which included four replicates of 18 hens. After an expanded process of cottonseed meal (CSM), free gossypol content in CSM was decreased from 1.24 to 0.40 g/kg. The dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal based diets including 6% CSM and 6%, 8% and 10% expanded cottonseed meal (ECSM). Hens fed 8% ECSM had higher (P<0.05) laying rate and average egg weight than those fed 6% CSM. The albumen height and Haugh unit in the control group, 6% and 8% ECSM groups were superior (P<0.05) to other treatments. Hens fed 6% CSM resulted in severe (P<0.05) egg yolk discoloration. Free gossypol (FG) concentrations in yolk and albumen and tissues of the 6% CSM group were greater (P<0.05) than those in any ECSM treatments. Hens fed 6% CSM and 10% ECSM had the highest (P<0.05) FG concentrations in the liver compared with those in the kidney and muscle, and higher (P<0.05) FG residues in yolk than those in albumen. In conclusion, FG in CSM can be reduced by 68% through an expanded process and ECSM can be available in laying hens at up to 10% of the total diet and an appropriate replacement of soybean meal with ECSM may improve performance in laying hens. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  17. Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations of egg quality traits in brown-egg dwarf layers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L C; Ning, Z H; Xu, G Y; Hou, Z C; Yang, N

    2005-08-01

    Albumen height, albumen weight (AW), eggshell color (ESC), eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, eggshell weight (ESW), egg weight (EW), Haugh units, and yolk weight (YW) were measured in 2,272 eggs collected 3 d sequentially from 920 brown-egg dwarf layers caged individually. The restricted maximum likelihood procedure was applied to estimate heritabilities and genotypic and phenotypic correlations for these egg quality traits. Heritabilities of albumen height, AW, ESC, eggshell index, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, ESW, EW, Haugh units, and YW were 0.51, 0.59, 0.46, 0.40, 0.24, 0.34, 0.64, 0.63, 0.41, and 0.45, respectively. The genetic correlations between EW and AW, YW, and ESW were high ranging from 0.67 to 0.97, whereas those for ESC with external and internal egg quality traits were low ranging from -0.23 to 0.13. Thus although heritabilities for these traits were moderate to high, genetic correlations with ESC were low, suggesting a minor relationship between shell color and physical attributes of the shell as well as internal egg quality in brown-egg dwarf layers.

  18. Composition and energy density of eggs from two species of freshwater turtle with twofold ranges in egg size.

    PubMed

    Booth, David T

    2003-01-01

    Lipid, protein, ash, carbohydrate and water content and energy density of eggs were measured from different clutches over a range of egg size in two species of freshwater turtle. Dry egg contents consisted of protein (54-60%), lipid (25-31%) and ash (5-6%) while carbohydrate was found to be negligible (<1%). Albumen consisted principally of water ( approximately 98%), and the dry component was composed of protein (47-51%), ash (19-26%) and lipid (18-21%), but contributed only a small amount ( approximately 2%) to overall dry egg contents. Energy density of dry albumen (15-17 kJ/g) was significantly lower than for dry yolk (26-27 kJ/g). Yolk consisted of 62-70% water, and the dry component was composed of protein (54-61%), lipid (25-31%) and ash (5-6%). Fractional concentrations of water, lipid, protein and ash and energy density remained constant over the range of egg size in Emydura signata eggs. In contrast, an increase in the yolk to albumen ratio and a decrease in water content of yolk as egg size increased caused the composition and energy density of Chelodina expansa eggs to vary systematically with egg size.

  19. Campylobacter jejuni in commercial eggs.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Belchiolina Beatriz; Beletti, Marcelo Emílio; de Melo, Roberta Torres; Mendonça, Eliane Pereira; Coelho, Letícia Ríspoli; Nalevaiko, Priscila Christen; Rossi, Daise Aparecida

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of Campylobacter jejuni to penetrate through the pores of the shells of commercial eggs and colonize the interior of these eggs, which may become a risk factor for human infection. Furthermore, this study assessed the survival and viability of the bacteria in commercial eggs. The eggs were placed in contact with wood shavings infected with C. jejuni to check the passage of the bacteria. In parallel, the bacteria were inoculated directly into the air chamber to assess the viability in the egg yolk. To determine whether the albumen and egg fertility interferes with the entry and survival of bacteria, we used varying concentrations of albumen and SPF and commercial eggs. C. jejuni was recovered in SPF eggs (fertile) after three hours in contact with contaminated wood shavings but not in infertile commercial eggs. The colonies isolated in the SPF eggs were identified by multiplex PCR and the similarity between strains verified by RAPD-PCR. The bacteria grew in different concentrations of albumen in commercial and SPF eggs. We did not find C. jejuni in commercial eggs inoculated directly into the air chamber, but the bacteria were viable during all periods tested in the wood shavings. This study shows that consumption of commercial eggs infected with C. jejuni does not represent a potential risk to human health.

  20. Vaccination of chickens decreased Newcastle disease virus contamination in eggs.

    PubMed

    Sá E Silva, Mariana; Susta, Leonardo; Moresco, Kira; Swayne, David E

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease is an important health issue of poultry causing major economic losses and inhibits trade worldwide. Vaccination is used as a control measure, but it is unknown whether vaccination will prevent virus contamination of eggs. In this study, hens were sham-vaccinated or received one or two doses of inactivated LaSota vaccine, followed three weeks later by virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) challenge. Eggs were collected daily and shell, albumen and yolk were subjected to virus isolation, as were oral and cloacal swabs at 2 and 4 days post-challenge (dpc). A second experiment evaluated the distribution of the virus in the reproductive tract of non-vaccinates. All vaccinated chickens survived challenge, and the levels of virus shed from cloacal swabs were decreased significantly when compared to shams. In non-vaccinated hens, virus was detected in the ovary and all segments of the oviduct. Yolk, albumen and eggshell surface from eggs laid at day 4 and 5 post-infection by sham-vaccinated hens were positive for NDV, but eggs from LaSota vaccinated hens lacked virus in internal egg components (i.e. yolk and albumen) and had reduction in the number of positive eggshell surfaces. These results indicate virulent NDV can replicate in the reproductive tract of hens and contaminate internal components of eggs and eggshell surface, but vaccination was able to prevent internal egg contamination, reducing eggshell surface contamination, and reducing shedding from digestive and respiratory tracts in virulent NDV challenged hens.

  1. Bioactive amines and internal quality of commercial eggs.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, T C; Viegas, R P; Lara, L J C; Baião, N C; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

    2013-05-01

    The physicochemical and microbiological qualities of commercial eggs produced by layer hens of different ages (approximately 30 and 60 wk old) were submitted to storage under room temperature or refrigeration for 28 d. A total of 600 eggs were subjected to microbiological analyses of their inner contents and another 600 to a determination of Haugh units (HU) and bioactive amine content. A decrease in the quality of the inner contents of the eggs was observed during the experiment, mainly in the eggs from the 60-wk-old layers, which presented the worst HU values when stored at room temperature (P < 0.05). Microbiological analyses showed an absence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and coliforms, either total or thermal-tolerant; however, low counts of other Staphylococcus species, Enterobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp., mesophilic aerobic bacteria, and fungi were also recorded. The chromatographic analysis of bioactive amines detected the presence of phenylethylamine in all albumens (38.0 mg/kg) and spermidine in the yolks (1.02 mg/kg). It was concluded that the age of the hens and the time and temperature of storage influenced the quality parameters of the eggs (P < 0.05). Furthermore, despite the low levels of microbial contamination found, phenylethylamine was detected in the albumen. It was not possible to establish index of quality of eggs using bioactive amines present in the yolk and albumen of eggs.

  2. Prestorage in ovo injection of biological buffers: an approach to improve hatchability in long-term stored eggs.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, A; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Hashemi, S R; Navidshad, B; Ansari Pirsaraei, Z; Deldar, H; Ebrahimi, M R; Dadpasand, M; Atashi, H; Liang, J B

    2013-04-01

    A hypothesis was tested that the in ovo injection of biological buffers may reinforce the buffering capacity of albumen, thereby withstanding the increase in albumen pH during storage and improving hatchability and chick quality in long-term stored eggs. Hatching eggs (n = 2,420) were randomly assigned to 11 treatment groups (4 replicates of 55 eggs each) and injected (d 1) with distilled water, 25 or 50 mM HEPES (H25 and H50), Bicine (B25 and B50), Tris (T25 and T50), and Bis-Tris-propane (BTP25 and BTP50) solutions or were not injected (intact: control; or pricked with a needle: N). The eggs were then stored for 14 d during which the egg internal characteristics were evaluated at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, and 13 d of storage (n = 924 in total) and the remaining eggs (n = 1,496) were incubated. A decrease in albumen pH was found for H25, H50, B50, and BTP25 groups from 2 through 5 d postinjection. Eggs receiving H25, H50, and B50 recorded a higher albumen index (at 13 d of storage) and Haugh unit (between 8 and 13 d of storage) compared with the control. Interestingly, the hatchability of fertile eggs was influenced by the treatment effect (P = 0.0001) where the eggs receiving H25 (88.3%), H50 (88.9%), B50 (88.4%), and BTP25 (87.6%) recorded higher values than that of control (82.1%), associated with a decreased early embryonic mortality rate (P < 0.0001). In ovo injection of Tris buffer, however, profoundly decreased the hatchability (47.2 and 29.0% for T25 and T50, respectively) and percentage of first-grade chicks (67.5 and 63.6% for T25 and T50, respectively) compared with the control (90.1%). In conclusion, prestorage in ovo injection of H25, H50, B50, and BTP25 improved hatchability in long-term stored eggs in which a decreased albumen pH during the d 2 through 5 of storage period might be involved.

  3. Effect of feed grinding methods with and without expansion on prececal and total tract mineral digestibility as well as on interior and exterior egg quality in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, A; Mader, A; Ruhnke, I; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2016-01-01

    The grinding of cereals by various milling methods as well as thermal treatment of feed may influence mineral digestibility and egg quality. The present study investigated the effect of feed produced by disc mill (D) and wedge-shaped disc mill (WSD), as mash (M) or expandate (E) on apparent ileal absorption (AIA) and apparent total digestibility (ATD) of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron, as well as on egg quality in laying hens. A total of 192 hens (Lohmann Brown) aged 19 wk, were assigned using a randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Four experimental diets were offered ad libitum. Eggs were analyzed for weight, shape index, area, shell weight per unit surface area, yolk color, air cell, blood spot, Haugh unit, albumen and yolk measures (index, weight, height, width and length), shell measures (surface area, stability, density, thickness and membrane weight), as well as percent contents of albumen, yolk, shell, and shell membrane. The ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper was higher in WSD compared with D treatment (P = 0.028, P = 0.028 and P = 0.016, respectively). The interaction between milling methods and thermal treatment influenced ATD of copper (P = 0.033), which was higher in WSD+M group (41.0 ± 20.2) compared with D+E group (-3.21 ± 25.1), whereas no differences were observed for D+M (1.90 ± 37.8) and WSD+E (8.02 ± 36.2) groups. Egg stability tended to be higher in E compared with M treatment (P = 0.055). Albumen weight, percentage albumen weight, and albumen: yolk were higher and percentage yolk weight was lower in D compared with WSD treatment (P = 0.043, P = 0.027, P = 0.024, and P = 0.041, respectively). Number of blood spots was higher in E than M treatment (P = 0.053). In conclusion, use of a wedge-shaped disc mill resulted in higher ATD for phosphorus, manganese, and copper than use of a disc mill; however, digestibility for majority of minerals as well as egg quality parameters was

  4. Heat shock protein expression in relation to reproductive cycle in land snails: Implications for survival.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Tal; Heller, Joseph; Goldenberg, Shoshana; Arad, Zeev

    2011-10-01

    Land snails are subject to daily and seasonal variations in temperature and in water availability and use heat shock proteins (HSPs) as part of their survival strategy. We tested whether the reproductive cycle of land snails affects the endogenous levels of HSPs, and their involvement in the reproductive process. We examined HSP levels in the foot tissue of two Sphincterochila species, S. cariosa and S. zonata, before and after laying eggs, and analyzed the albumen gland (reproductive organ) of both species and eggs of S. cariosa for the presence and quantity of various HSPs. Our study shows reduction in the expression level of Hsp70 isoforms and Hsp90 in S. zonata foot and of Hsp74 in S. cariosa foot during the period preceding egg laying compared to the post-reproductive stage. Hsp70 isoforms and Hsp25 were highly expressed in both large albumen glands and in freshly laid eggs of S. cariosa, whereas large albumen glands of S. zonata expressed mainly Hsp70 isoforms. We conclude that a trade-off between survival and fertility is responsible for the expression level of HSPs in the foot tissue of Sphincterochila snails. Our study shows that HSPs are involved in the reproductive process. We propose that parental provision of HSPs may be part of a "be prepared" strategy of Sphincterochila snails, and that HSPs may play important roles in the survival strategy of land snails during the early life stages. Our observations also highlight the importance of the reproductive status in study of whole organisms, especially when assessing the HSP response to stress.

  5. Effects of sulfhydryl compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids, and sodium sulfite on the formation of lysinoalanine in preserved egg.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Tu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    To identify inhibitors for lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg, sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione, L-cysteine), carbohydrates (sucrose, D-glucose, maltose), organic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, DL-malic acid, lactic acid), and sodium sulfite were individually added at different concentrations to a pickling solution to prepare preserved eggs. Lysinoalanine formation as an index of these 10 substances was determined. Results indicate that glutathione, D-glucose, maltose, L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium sulfite all effectively diminished lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg albumen and yolk. When 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, citric acid, L-ascorbic acid, and D-glucose were individually added into the pickling solution, the inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the produced preserved egg albumen and yolk were higher. However, the attempt of minimizing lysinoalanine formation was combined with the premise of ensuring preserved eggs quality. Moreover, the addition of 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, 40 and 80 mmol/L of D-glucose, 40 mmol/L of citric acid, and 40 mmol/L of L-ascorbic acid was optimal to produce preserved eggs. The corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the albumen were approximately 76.3% to 76.5%, 67.6% to 67.8%, 74.6%, and 74.6%, and the corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the yolk were about 68.7% to 69.7%, 50.6% to 51.8%, 70.4%, and 57.8%. It was concluded that sodium sulfite, D-glucose, L-ascorbic, and citric acid at suitable concentrations can be used to control the formation of lysinoalanine during preserved egg processing.

  6. Calibrating compound-specific stable nitrogen isotope analysis in avian eggs as bioarchives for paleoreconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preciado, C., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Compound-specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) has become a powerful tool for reconstructing consumer-resource relationships in modern and ancient systems. Stable nitrogen isotope analysis (δ15N) of "trophic" and "source" amino acids provides independent proxies of trophic position and the δ15N value at the base of the food web, respectively. When applied to avian egg tissues (e.g., shell protein, membrane), which can be preserved in the archaeological record, this approach can be used to address complex questions in food web architecture and biogeochemical cycling. In this study, we examined how sample-processing protocols affected the chromatography and reliability of δ15N values of individual amino acids in avian (chicken and penguin) egg components (shell protein, membrane, yolk, and albumen) via gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry. "Unprocessed" egg tissues underwent standard acid hydrolysis protocols prior to derivatization, and resulted in poor chromatography with highly variable δ15N values across replicates. "Processed" samples were eluted through cation exchange columns (Dowex 50WX*400) prior to derivatization, followed by a P-buffer (KH2PO4 + Na2HPO4)-chloroform centrifugation extraction to remove confounding peaks and matrix impurities. These additional procedures greatly improved the chromatography of the "processed" samples, revealing better peak separation and baseline integration as well as lower δ15N variability. Additionally, a standard lipid extraction was necessary for yolk but not membrane, albumen, and shell. While the additional procedures applied to the "columned" samples did result in a significant reduction in sample yield ( 20%), it was non-fractionating and thus only affected the total sample sizes necessary for δ15N CSIA (shell protein 50mg and membrane, yolk, and albumen 0.5mg). The protocols developed here will streamline CSIA of egg tissues for future work in avian ecology.

  7. Genetic variation for egg production, egg quality and bone strength in selected and traditional breeds of laying fowl.

    PubMed

    Hocking, P M; Bain, M; Channing, C E; Fleming, R; Wilson, S

    2003-07-01

    1. A multi-breed experiment was conducted with 25 commercial and traditional lines of laying fowl to determine the extent of between-breed genetic variation for adult body weight, sexual maturity, rate of lay, egg weight and egg composition to 55 weeks of age. The genetic variability for bone strength and eggshell strength was determined at 55 weeks of age and a comparison of commercially selected and traditional breeds was performed. 2. The proportion of the total variation that was associated with breed or line of origin was high (> 0.8) for body weight, sexual maturity and shell colour; moderately high (0.4 to 0.7) for rate of lay, early and late egg weight, weights of egg yolk, albumen and shell at 55 weeks; and low (< 0.4) for egg weight at 42 to 45 weeks, albumen quality and the number of egg inclusions. 3. There were no detectable differences between breed within category (traditional and commercial lines) for rate of lay, and estimates of breed variation for egg weight and egg components were substantially decreased within category compared with the overall analysis. 4. Commercial lines displayed earlier sexual maturity, greater rates and persistency of lay, and higher egg weights at earlier (32 to 35 weeks) and later (52 to 55 weeks) ages. At 55 weeks, the larger eggs from commercial birds contained more albumen of higher quality and paler yolks of similar weight to those from traditional breeds. The relative weight of the eggshell was similar in both categories. 5. There was considerable genetic variation between commercial lines for bone density and a moderate proportion of genetic variability for bone strength. Commercial lines had very weak bones compared with traditional lines but there was relatively little genetic variation for eggshell strength. The results suggest that eggshell quality is maintained in genetically selected lines at the expense of bone strength and bone radiographic density.

  8. Effect of a commercial housing system on egg quality during extended storage.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Karcher, D M; Abdo, Z

    2014-05-01

    Egg producers in the United States are utilizing a variety of commercial egg production systems to provide consumer choice and meet legislative requirements. Consumer egg grades in the United States were developed for conventional cage production, and it is unclear what effect alternative production systems might have on egg quality during retail and consumer home storage. The current study was undertaken to determine what changes in egg quality characteristics occur during extended cold storage for commercially produced conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary eggs. During 12 wk of cold storage, egg weight, albumen height, Haugh unit, static compression shell strength, vitelline membrane strength and deformation, yolk index, shell dynamic stiffness, and whole egg total solids were monitored. Overall, aviary and enriched eggs were significantly (P < 0.05) heavier than conventional cage. Albumen height and Haugh unit (P < 0.05) were significantly greater for conventional cage than enriched eggs. Static compression shell strength was greatest (P < 0.05) for enriched eggs compared with aviary. No overall housing system effects for yolk measurements, shell dynamic stiffness, or whole egg total solids were observed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk quality measurements were all greatest at 0 and lowest at 12 wk of storage (P < 0.05). The rate of quality change among the housing systems for each measured attribute at 4, 6, and 12 wk was determined. Other than differences in the change of egg weight at 4 wk, no significant differences in the rate of quality decline were found among the housing systems. The results of the current study indicate that current US egg quality standards should effectively define quality for commercially produced conventional cage, enriched colony cage, and cage-free aviary eggs.

  9. The effects of edible coatings on chicken egg quality under refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Biladeau, A M; Keener, K M

    2009-06-01

    Seventy-three billion chicken eggs are produced annually in the United States. However, less than 0.1% of these eggs are exported. Increasing the shelf-life of eggs may increase export sales. The goal of this research was to determine whether food-grade coatings on eggs may extend shelf-life under refrigerated storage. Four food-grade coatings were selected: paraffin wax, mineral oil, soy protein isolate, and whey protein isolate (WPI). These coatings were applied to fresh chicken eggs. The eggs were stored for 12 wk in refrigerated storage at 7 degrees C. Two replicates of the 12-wk study were conducted. Egg properties measured included Haugh units, albumen pH, yolk pH, albumen CO(2) content, vitelline membrane strength, water loss, shell strength, and shell color. Egg functionality measurements included foam volume, angel food cake volume, and emulsion stability. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS PROC GLIMMIX method (P < 0.05). Results found that coated eggs maintained higher Haugh units beyond 6 wk compared with the uncoated eggs. Also, coated eggs maintained a higher CO(2) content and lower albumen pH than the uncoated eggs over the storage period. Vitelline membrane strength slightly decreased over time in uncoated eggs, but did not change in coated eggs. Overall, oil-, wax-, and WPI-coated eggs maintained higher vitelline membrane strength (14%) than the uncoated eggs. Coating of chicken eggs with a food-grade film (oil, wax, WPI) will extend shelf-life beyond 6 wk.

  10. Kinetics of growth and inactivation of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 in pasteurised liquid egg products.

    PubMed

    McQuestin, Olivia J; Musgrove, Michael T; Tamplin, Mark L

    2010-05-01

    The potential impact of post-pasteurisation contamination of liquid egg products with the multi-antibiotic resistant pathogen Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT104) was assessed by determining the viability of this bacterium in whole egg, albumen and 10% w/w sugared and salted yolk incubated at 4-42 degrees C. Results indicated that populations of S. Typhimurium DT104 were slowly inactivated in all four products when stored at 4 degrees C. However, based on the typical shelf-lives of cold-stored liquid egg, less than 0.6 log-kill would be achieved in those products prior to their use. Incubation at temperatures pertaining to abuse situations (10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C) revealed an increasing potential for growth of S. Typhimurium DT104 in whole egg, albumen and sugared yolk, as indicated by trends in growth rate, lag duration and maximum population density. At even higher temperatures (30, 37 and 42 degrees C), growth rates of S. Typhimurium DT104 in whole egg and sugared yolk continued to increase. The same was true for S. Typhimurium DT104 in albumen except that growth was not observed at 42 degrees C and instead populations were inactivated within 30 h. At no temperature tested was S. Typhimurium DT104 able to grow in salted yolk. The influence of these growth and inactivation patterns on the risk of salmonellosis in relation to product type and storage temperature is discussed. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of different storage time on hatching results and some egg quality characteristics of rock partridge (A. graeca) (management and production).

    PubMed

    Günhan, S; Kirikçi, K

    2017-06-01

    In this research, partridge eggs were stored during zero to 7, 8 to 14, 15 to 21, 22 to 28, 29 to 35 and 36 to 42 d, respectively. The effect of different egg storage periods on egg protein and moisture rates, mineral contents, and some egg quality and hatching characteristics were investigated. The extension of egg storage times didn't affect the external quality features like shell weight, shell thickness, and albumen rate, but it affected the yolk weight, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh unit (P < 0.05). Yolk weight was increased and yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh unit values were decreased with the extension of storage time. Different storage times of partridge eggs did not have important effects on the protein rates. Protein and humidity rate of the eggs were 14.21 and 67.64%, respectively. There were some elements such as S, P, Na, K, and Ca, but Al, Cd, Co, Mo, and Pb could not be found in the partridge eggs. There is no effect of the storage time on the mineral content of the egg. Storage time had negative effect on fertility and hatchability after 21 d of storage d, but no effect on hatchability of fertile eggs. As this study showed, partridge eggs are resistant to long storage times, as partridge egg proteins can resist degradation in the optimum storage times. To determine egg degradation, the study should be focused on partridge eggshell features, which are responsible for degradation. As a result of this research, partridge eggs can be stored for 21 d under optimum storage conditions without any negative hatchability results. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  12. Does preincubational in ovo injection of buffers or antioxidants improve the quality and hatchability in long-term stored eggs?

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, M R; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Zamiri, M J; Akhlaghi, A; Atashi, H

    2012-11-01

    A hypothesis was tested that providing buffer solutions or antioxidants during egg storage may help embryos in combating the harmful effect of longer holding periods. Hatching eggs were obtained from a breeder flock (35 wk) and stored for 13 d before setting. In experiment 1, the eggs were injected (d 4) with bicarbonate buffer solution (BBS) or PBS. For experiment 2, l-carnitine (LC), vitamin E (VE), and vitamin C (VC) were injected (d 7) at 3 different doses. The egg internal quality characteristics were evaluated at 2-d intervals after injection and the remaining eggs were incubated for 21 d under standard conditions. At 21 d, hatchability was recorded and unhatched eggs were broken open to assess the fertility and stage of embryonic mortality. No differences were noted in albumen pH due to using buffer solutions or antioxidants except for a decreased pH at 2 d postinjection of the high dose of VC (75 mg). In ovo injection of BBS increased the albumen index and Haugh unit at d 6 postinjection; however, the response to PBS was not different from that in the control group. In ovo injection of antioxidants did not influence the albumen index, Haugh unit, and yolk index; however, the yolk percentage was partly affected. Irrespective of the dosage, hatchability was greatly decreased following in ovo injection of buffers or antioxidants (as low as 4.3 vs. 87.5% in control), with the highest mortality percentage recorded at early embryonic stages (d 0 to 6). Data suggested that, despite improvement in certain egg internal qualities, preincubational in ovo injection of BBS, PBS, LC, VE, or VC was associated with a profoundly decreased hatchability for which the underlying mechanism(s) remain(s) to be clarified.

  13. Residue depletion of ampicillin in eggs.

    PubMed

    Zhao, M; Xie, K-Z; Guo, H-S; Li, A-H; Xie, X; Zhang, G-X; Dai, G-J; Wang, J-Y

    2015-10-01

    A residue depletion study of ampicillin (AMP) was performed after oral dosing (60.0 mg/kg and 120.0 mg/kg body weight once a day for 5 days) to laying hens, through the use of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (RP-HPLC-FLD) to achieve detection of ampicillin residue in eggs. Limit of detection was 0.5 ng/g, and limit of quantitation was 1.2 ng/g for ampicillin. Extraction recoveries of ampicillin from samples fortified at 5.0-125.0 ng/g levels ranged from 77.5% to 84.6% in albumen, 77.9% to 87.5% in yolk, and 77.9% to 88.6% in whole egg, with coefficients of variation ≤ 9.3%. The maximum concentrations of ampicillin in albumen, yolk, and whole egg were detected at 1, 2, and 1 day after the last administration of ampicillin, respectively. Ampicillin was not detectable in albumen at day 9 of withdrawal time, at day 10 and 11 in yolk, and day 9 and 11 in whole egg at each of those 2 dose levels. The theoretical withdrawal time of AMP in whole egg was 6.730 and 7.296 days for 60 and 120 mg/kg oral dosage, respectively. This method also proved to be suitable as a rapid and reliable method for the determination of ampicillin in other poultry eggs. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Enhanced high intensity focused ultrasound heat deposition for more efficient hemostasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labuda, Cecille Pemberton

    High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is currently being developed for hemorrhage control since it provides rapid energy deposition in the form of heat in the HIFU focal region. When the HIFU focus is targeted on soft tissue wounds, the resulting elevation of tissue temperature cauterizes the tissues thus stopping the bleeding. If HIFU is targeted near blood vessels with millimeter-range diameter, the rate of heat deposition is limited by loss of heat to the blood flow. Maximizing the local heat deposition is important for the achievement of HIFU-induced hemorrhage control, or "hemostasis", near large vessels. In this study, the effect of a fiber device on the heat deposition in the HIFU focal region is investigated in tissue-mimicking flow phantoms with liquid albumen as the heat-sensitive denaturing flow fluid. The effect of the embedded fiber on albumen coagulation in the flow phantom is compared to the degree and rate of albumen coagulation when no fiber is present. The effect of the fiber device on the size of lesions formed in a heat-sensitive tissue-mimicking phantom is also investigated. Finally, finite difference time domain simulations are performed to determine the heat deposition in a tissue-mimicking phantom with a nylon disc embedded and a phantom with the nylon disc removed. The results of this study are quite promising for the possibility of increased efficacy of hemostasis for such a device in concert with HIFU in vessel-containing tissue volumes where HIFU alone is not completely effective.

  15. Fluid dynamics of vitrectomy probes.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Tommaso; Querzoli, Giorgio; Angelini, Giampiero; Malvasi, Carlo; Iossa, Mario; Placentino, Luca; Ripandelli, Guido

    2014-03-01

    To characterize the fluidics of vitreous cutter port in response to aspiration and blade motion using particle image velocimetry techniques. Diverse surgical scenarios and fluid characteristics were replicated. The 23-gauge vitreous cutters were immersed in seeded Balanced Salt Solution (BSS) (Alcon, Forth Worth, TX) or egg albumen, and high-speed video was recorded. Fluid velocity, kinetic energy (KE), and acceleration generated by Venturi and peristaltic pumps were measured in aspiration only (200 and 300 mmHg), low-speed vitrectomy (1,600 cuts per minute; 200 mmHg vacuum), and high-speed vitrectomy (3,000 cuts per minute; 300 mmHg vacuum) modes. The Venturi pump generated significantly higher KE than peristaltic pump in BSS (P < 0.0001 for each pair), and aspiration only yielded significantly higher KE. Cutting activation generated significant acceleration (P < 0.001), and the peristaltic pump produced higher positive and negative acceleration peaks (P < 0.001) than the Venturi pump. In egg albumen, the peristaltic pump generated significantly more KE than the Venturi pump (P < 0.001) and perturbed a much wider area. Acceleration was higher for the peristaltic pump in low-speed mode (P < 0.001), whereas in high-speed modality, the Venturi pump produced the highest acceleration peaks (P < 0.001). Pump type and blade motion largely influence velocity, KE, and acceleration. In BSS, the Venturi pump induces higher KE and acceleration, although perturbing fluid less diffusely. In egg albumen, the peristaltic pump perturbed a much wider area and induced a higher KE and acceleration than the Venturi pump, even more so at lower cut rates. As a conclusion, particle image velocimetry allowed precise characterization of fluid velocity in response to cutter activation, suggesting a pragmatic approach to surgical scenarios.

  16. Friction and wear of hydroxyapatite reinforced high density polyethylene against the stainless steel counterface.

    PubMed

    Wang, M; Chandrasekaran, M; Bonfield, W

    2002-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) reinforced high density polyethylene (HDPE) was invented as a biomaterial for skeletal applications. In this investigation, tribological properties (e.g. wear rate and coefficient of friction) of unfilled HDPE and HA/HDPE composites were evaluated against the duplex stainless steel in dry and lubricated conditions, with distilled water or aqueous solutions of proteins (egg albumen or glucose) being lubricants. Wear tests were conducted in a custom-built test rig for HDPE and HA/HDPE containing up to 40 vol % of HA. It was found that HA/HDPE composites had lower coefficients of friction than unfilled HDPE under certain conditions. HA/HDPE also exhibited less severe fatigue failure marks than HDPE. The degradation and fatigue failure of HDPE due to the presence of proteins were severe for low speed wear testing (100 rpm) as compared to high speed wear testing (200 rpm). This was due possibly to the high shear rate at the contact which could remove any degraded film instantaneously at high sliding speed, while with a low sliding speed the build-up of a degraded layer of protein could occur. The degraded protein layer would stay at the contact for a longer time and mechanical activation would induce adverse reactions, weakening the surface layer of HDPE. Both egg albumen and glucose were found to be corrosive to steel and adversely reactive for HDPE and HA/HDPE composites. The wear modes observed were similar to that of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene. Specimens tested with egg albumen also displayed higher wear rates, which was again attributed to corrosion accelerated wear.

  17. Using a novel micro-sampling technique to monitor the effects of methylmercury on the eggs of wild birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Heinz, G.H.

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury is the predominant chemical form of mercury reported in the eggs of wild birds. The embryo is the life stage at which birds are most sensitive to methylmercury. Protective guidelines have been based largely on captive-breeding studies done with chickens (Gallus domesticus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Typically these studies are cost and time prohibitive. In the past, researchers have used either egg injections or the ?sample egg? technique to determine contaminant effects on bird eggs. Both techniques have their limitations. As an alternative to the above methods and because most of the methylmercury is found in the albumen we have developed a novel, less invasive technique, to micro-sample the albumen of eggs in the field. An albumen sample would be analyzed and then compared to the hatching success of that egg. Using the micro-sampling procedure, the egg is oriented with the blunt end up and the pointed end down. A vent hole is drilled at the top to relieve pressure. Approximately one third up from the bottom, a withdrawal site is drilled just until the inner shell membrane is exposed. A syringe with a 21 or 18 gauge needle is gently inserted just into the egg and approximately 200?300?l of albumen is removed. Almost concurrently this site and then the vent are sealed. Thus far we have experimented with both chicken and mallard eggs in the laboratory. We sampled chicken eggs at days 0 and 3 of incubation with a hatching success of 76% and 70%, respectively. Neither group was significantly different from control eggs (P=0.52, 0.54). Field studies are in progress using this technique in which birds are allowed to incubate their own eggs. We envision micro-sampling to be a tool that researchers and managers could use in the field to determine the effects of mercury or other contaminants in bird populations. Micro-sampling would reduce the impact on the sampled population and could be used to monitor

  18. Effect of egg shell color on some egg quality in table eggs during storage at refrigerator temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygün, Ali; Narinç, Doǧan

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the effects of white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs on some egg quality in table eggs during 28 days of storage at 5 °C. A total of 100 fresh eggs (60-65 g) were obtained from laying hens (Nick chick) that were raised on a local commercial farm. All eggs were collected over a 24 h period. A total of 100 eggs randomly divided into 2 treatments (10 replicates each) with 50 eggs examined in each. Ten eggs from each group were analyzed for eggs weight loss, specific gravity, albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and albumen pH after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage. All eggs were individually marked and weighed at the beginning of the experiment to calculate egg weight loss. The egg weight loss in brown shell color eggs significantly (P<0.01) higher than white shell color eggs at 21 days of storage, but no significant differences were observed among groups other storage periods. The brown shell color eggs showed lower levels of specific gravity than white shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21, but there were no significant differences between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs at day 28. The albumen height and Haugh unit of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) higher than that of white shell color eggs during the storage periods. There were no significant differences in yolk index and albumen pH between white shell color eggs and brown shell color eggs during the storage periods. The yolk pH of white shell color eggs was significantly (P<0.01) lower than that of brown shell color eggs at day 7, 14, and 21 of storage period. The results indicated that the white shell color eggs showed better quality than brown shell color eggs at 5 °C for the entire storage period.

  19. Influence of air composition during egg storage on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Reijrink, I A M; van Duijvendijk, L A G; Meijerhof, R; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2010-09-01

    Egg storage beyond 7 d is associated with an increase in incubation duration and a decrease in hatchability and chick quality. Negative effects of prolonged egg storage may be caused by changes in the embryo, by changes in egg characteristics, or by both. An adjustment in storage air composition may reduce negative effects of prolonged egg storage because it may prevent changes in the embryo and in egg characteristics. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of high CO(2) concentrations or a low O(2) concentration in the storage air on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality. Eggs were stored for 14 d in 4 different storage air compositions: normal air (control; 20.9% O(2), 0.05% CO(2), 78.1% N(2)), 0.74% CO(2) treatment (20.8% O(2), 0.74% CO(2), 77.5% N(2)), 1.5% CO(2) treatment (20.6% O(2), 1.5% CO(2), 77.0% N(2))(,) or 3.0% O(2) treatment (3.0% O(2), 0.04% CO(2), 96.0% N(2)). The storage temperature was 16 degrees C and the RH was 75%. Results showed that the change in albumen pH and albumen height between oviposition and the end of storage was less in the 0.74 and 1.5% CO(2) treatments than in the control and 3.0% O(2) treatments (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). None of the treatments affected the stage of embryonic development on d 4 of incubation, hatchability, or chick quality on the day of hatch in terms of BW, chick length, and yolk-free body mass. Although high CO(2) concentrations in the storage air had a positive effect on albumen height and albumen pH, it is concluded that the storage air compositions, studied in the current study, do not affect embryonic development, hatchability, or chick quality when eggs are stored for 14 d at a storage temperature of 16 degrees C.

  20. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on the productivity of laying hens and egg quality during refrigerated storage.

    PubMed

    Shang, X G; Wang, F L; Li, D F; Yin, J D; Li, J Y

    2004-10-01

    Five hundred and four 40-wk-old Brown Dwarf hens (1.51 +/- 0.08 kg BW) were fed corn-soybean meal diets containing 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 56 d to measure the effects of dietary CLA on laying hen productivity and egg quality during refrigerated storage. Four hens were placed in 1 cage, and 3 cages were grouped as 1 replicate resulting in 6 replicates per treatment. After feeding the experimental diets for 11 d, eggs were collected to determine the fatty acid composition of egg yolks. From d 12 to 18, eggs from hens fed diets containing 0, 2, 4, and 6% CLA diets were stored at 4 degrees C for up to 28 d. At designated times (1, 14, or 28 d), eggs were taken, broken, and shelled to evaluate water content, pH, and ion concentration. Firmness of hard-cooked egg yolk was also determined. With increased dietary CLA, feed intake, BW gain, rate of egg production, egg weight, and feed efficiency all decreased linearly (P < 0.01). The weight of the yolk, albumen, and shell decreased linearly (P < 0.01) with increasing dietary CLA. Concentration of CLA in the yolk lipids increased quadratically (P < 0.01), with increasing dietary CLA. Concurrent increases (P < 0.01) in the concentration of myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids and decreases (P < 0.01) in oleic, linoleic, linolenic, and archidonic acids in egg yolk lipids were observed. Days of storage and CLA (P < 0.01) increased yolk firmness. Egg yolk water content and pH increased with storage and CLA content (P < 0.01). Corresponding decreases were observed in albumen pH. Regardless of dietary treatment, the concentrations of Na, K, and Mg in egg yolks increased with longer storage time. At 28 d of storage, there was a linear (P < 0.01) increase in Na, K, and Mg content in egg yolks as dietary CLA increased. In contrast to the egg yolk, the concentrations of Na, K, and Mg in egg albumen decreased with storage time. On d 28, there was a linear decrease (P < 0.01) in the Na content of

  1. A mechanistic, stochastic, population model of egg production.

    PubMed

    Johnston, S A; Gous, R M

    2007-04-01

    1. A mechanistic, stochastic egg production model is presented. Mean age at first egg may be predicted from the lighting programme applied during rearing, using the Bristol-Reading model (Lewis et al., 2002). 2. Rate of ovulation is determined by an amended version of the mathematical model of the ovulatory cycle, originally proposed by Etches and Schoch (1984). 3. Oviposition times are estimated from ovulation times. 4. Yolk, albumen and shell weights are calculated using allometric functions. 5. The model predicts egg production of a theoretical flock of laying hens for a full laying year, including random occurrences of double-yolked and soft-shelled eggs and internal ovulations.

  2. LIPOIDS AS INHIBITORS OF ANAPHYLACTIC SHOCK

    PubMed Central

    Jobling, James W.; Petersen, William

    1914-01-01

    1. The antitryptic titer of the serum can be increased by subcutaneous injections of serum lipoids (antitrypsin) and of the lipoids from egg yolk. 2. Animals so injected show a relative immunity to acute anaphylactic shock (two minimum lethal doses). 3. Extraction of lipoids contained in antigens increases the toxicity of the antigen when injected into a sensitized animal. 4. Sublethal doses of soap solutions injected simultaneously with the antigen (purified horse serum albumen) prevent anaphylactic shock. 5. The refractory state following anaphylactic shock is related in part to an increase in the antitryptic titer of the serum. PMID:19867835

  3. Transfer of thiocyanate into chicken eggs

    SciTech Connect

    Carew, S.N.; Davis, R.H.; Sykes, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Laying hens were fed thiocyanate (SCN) as a solution of potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) in their drinking water to determine whether dietary SCN was transferred into eggs. The thiocyanate content of their eggs was measured before and during thiocyanate administration. Egg thiocyanate content increased from 6 ..mu..g SCN/g albumen to 31 ..mu..g SCN/g (a 400% increase) in the period immediately following thiocyanate administration and then fell progressively, seeming to stabilize much closer to but still well above control levels.

  4. Development and nutrient metabolism of embryos from two modern broiler strains.

    PubMed

    Nangsuay, A; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2015-10-01

    A progressive selection for broiler live and processing performance traits has changed broiler growth patterns during the post hatch period. However, limited information is available to understand whether changes have also occurred during the embryonic stages. This study aims to examine influences of broiler strain on nutrient availability, embryonic development, and nutrient metabolism during incubation. Hatching eggs of Ross 308 and Cobb 500 fast feathering were selected from breeder flocks aged 43 to 46 weeks at an egg weight range of 60 to 63 g. Eggs were obtained in 2 batches, 120 eggs per strain per batch. For each batch, 20 eggs per strain were used to determine egg composition and nutrient availability. The remaining eggs were incubated separately in one of 2 climate respiration chambers at an eggshell temperature of 37.8°C. The results showed that Ross 308 eggs had a higher yolk:albumen ratio with 0.9 g more yolk and 0.7 g less albumen than Cobb 500. Albumen + yolk of Ross 308 eggs had a higher dry matter (Δ = 0.24 g) and crude fat (Δ = 0.23 g) than that of Cobb 500 eggs, but a similar amount of crude protein. Albumen and yolk of Ross 308 eggs had a higher energy content (Δ = 8.9 kJ) compared to Cobb 500 eggs. At 3 h after hatch, Ross 308 chicks were 0.2 cm longer and had a 0.6 g heavier yolk free body mass (YFBM) than Cobb 500 chicks. During incubation, Ross 308 embryos used 13.9 kJ more energy than Cobb 500, and the efficiency of converting energy used to YFBM (EYFB) was approximately 7.6% lower compared to Cobb 500. Ross 308 chicks hatched approximately 4 h later and had less hepatic glycogen (Δ = 5 mg) than Cobb 500 chicks. It can be concluded that, Cobb 500 and Ross 308 differ in egg nutrient availability and have different trajectories for embryonic development and nutrient metabolism during incubation. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  5. Parental sex effect of parthenogenesis on hatchability and sperm-egg penetration in mated Chinese Painted quail (Coturnix chinensis).

    PubMed

    Parker, H M; Ramachandran, R; Nascimento Dos Santos, M; Kawaoku, A J; Wade, C R; Lott, K D; McDaniel, C D

    2017-04-01

    Selecting quail for an increased incidence of parthenogenesis also impacts egg weight and albumen pH as well as reduces hatchability and fertility due to decreased sperm-egg penetration (SEP). However, it is unknown which parental sex is responsible for these changes in quail selected for parthenogenesis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine which sex influences egg weight, albumen pH, hatchability, and SEP in birds selected for parthenogenesis. In this study, 2 lines of birds were used: 1 line that was selected for parthenogenesis and 1 line not selected for parthenogenesis (control). Treatments were as follows: control females w/control males, control females w/parthenogenetic line males, parthenogenetic line females w/control males, and parthenogenetic line females w/parthenogenetic line males. Fresh eggs were collected daily, labeled and analyzed for albumen pH and SEP or incubated at 37.5 °C for 20 d of incubation. Eggs were candled at 10 days of incubation (DOI) and eggs exhibiting little or no embryonic development were removed and broken open to determine hatching failure. This was repeated at 20 DOI for eggs that did not hatch. A dam main effect for egg set weight existed with parthenogenetic line dams exhibiting heavier eggs than control dams. The parthenogenetic line dams and sires exhibited lower albumen pH and hatch but a higher incidence of parthenogenesis than control line dams or sires. However, only a sire main effect existed for fertility and SEP. Sires from the parthenogenetic line yielded the highest infertility due to lower SEP. In conclusion, both the parthenogenetic line dams and sires contribute to reduced reproductive performance. However, it appears that the sire from the parthenogenetic line is responsible for lower fertility due to a reduction in SEP. Because the sire has a negative impact on overall fertility, it is possible that males selected for parthenogenesis have poorer semen quality resulting in fewer sperm

  6. Vitamin E and selenium in broiler breeder diets: Effect on live performance, hatching process, and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Urso, U R A; Dahlke, F; Maiorka, A; Bueno, I J M; Schneider, A F; Surek, D; Rocha, C

    2015-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different dietary vitamin E levels and different selenium sources on the productive and reproductive performance of broiler breeders. In total 640 females and 64 males between 22 and 52 weeks old were studied. A completely randomized experimental design in factorial arrangement, with 4 treatments of 8 replicates with 20 females and 2 males each, was applied. Treatments consisted of 2 vitamin E levels (30 and 120 mg/kg) and two selenium sources (sodium selenite and zinc-L-selenomethionine). Egg production (rate of lay and eggs per breeder), egg characteristics (egg, yolk, eggshell, and albumen weights), fertility, incubation responses (egg weight loss during incubation, hatchability, and hatching window), and hatchling characteristics (weight and yield) were evaluated. There was no influence of dietary vitamin E levels or selenium sources on egg production (P > 0.05). Mature breeders (47 weeks old) fed zinc-L-selenomethionine and 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed produced heavier eggs and albumen. Hatchability of the eggs of breeders fed 120 mg vitamin E/kg feed was higher than breeders fed 30 mg vitamin at 29 wks. The dietary inclusion of organic selenium also promoted heavier hatchling weight until egg production peak (33 wk), but did not influence hatchling quality or hatching window. It was concluded that the dietary supplementation of zinc-L-selenomethione and vitamin E (120 mg/kg feed) could be used to improve egg characteristics and incubation response.

  7. High levels of perfluoroalkyl acids in eggs and embryo livers of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo sinensis) and herring gull (Larus argentatus) from Lake Vänern, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Nordén, Marcus; Berger, Urs; Engwall, Magnus

    2013-11-01

    In the eggs and developing chick livers in the two wild bird species, great cormorant and herring gull, the concentrations of a range of 15 perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) were determined. Eggs of the two species were collected from Lake Vänern, Sweden, and analysed either as undeveloped egg (whole egg or separated into yolk and albumen) or incubated until start of the hatching process when the chick liver was removed and analysed. High levels of PFAAs were found in all matrixes except albumen. The predominant PFAA was perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), which was found in the μg/g wet weight (ww) range in some samples of cormorant whole egg, yolk and liver and herring gull egg yolk and liver. The average concentration in yolk was 1,506 ng/g ww in cormorant and 589 ng/g ww in herring gull. The average liver concentrations of PFOS were 583 ng/g ww in cormorant and 508 ng/g ww in herring gull. At these concentrations, biochemical effects in the developing embryo or effects on embryo survival cannot be ruled out. For perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs), the liver/egg and liver/yolk concentration ratios increased with PFCA chain length in cormorant but not in herring gull, indicating that chain length could possibly affect egg-to-liver transfer of PFCAs and that species differences may exist.

  8. Estimated crop loss due to coconut mite and financial analysis of controlling the pest using the acaricide abamectin.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Daniela; Melo, José W S; Oliveira, José E M; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2016-07-01

    Reducing the losses caused by Aceria guerreronis Keifer has been an arduous task for farmers. However, there are no detailed studies on losses that simultaneously analyse correlated parameters, and very few studies that address the economic viability of chemical control, the main strategy for managing this pest. In this study the objectives were (1) to estimate the crop loss due to coconut mite and (2) to perform a financial analysis of acaricide application to control the pest. For this, the following parameters were evaluated: number and weight of fruits, liquid albumen volume, and market destination of plants with and without monthly abamectin spraying (three harvests). The costs involved in the chemical control of A. guerreronis were also quantified. Higher A. guerreronis incidence on plants resulted in a 60 % decrease in the mean number of fruits harvested per bunch and a 28 % decrease in liquid albumen volume. Mean fruit weight remained unaffected. The market destination of the harvested fruit was also affected by higher A. guerreronis incidence. Untreated plants, with higher A. guerreronis infestation intensity, produced a lower proportion of fruit intended for fresh market and higher proportions of non-marketable fruit and fruit intended for industrial processing. Despite the costs involved in controlling A. guerreronis, the difference between the profit from the treated site and the untreated site was 18,123.50 Brazilian Real; this value represents 69.1 % higher profit at the treated site.

  9. Molluscicidal and schistosomicidal activities of a steroidal saponin containing fraction from Dracaena fragrans (L.).

    PubMed

    Tadros, M M; Ghaly, N S; Moharib, M N

    2008-08-01

    The steroidal saponin-containing fraction from methanolic extract of Dracaena fragrans (Family: Agavaceae) was tested for molluscicidal and ovicidal activities against Biomphalaria alexandrina and Bulinus truncatus, the snail vectors of Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium in Egypt, respectively. It was also tested for schistosemicidal activity in vitro on adult S. mansoni and against the free-living miracidia and cercariae of the parasite. The homogenated soft body of B. alexandrina was used to determine the effect of the saponin fraction on total protein, albumen, aminotransferase enzymes and acetylcholin esterase. The results showed that the saponin fraction had considerable molluscicidal activity; LC50 & LC90 were 2.7 ppm & 3.7 ppm for B. alexandrina and 2 ppm & 2.5 ppm for B. truncatus, respectively. Snail eggs did not hatch in concentration as low as half molluscicidal LC50 (1.35 ppm). The LC50 killed all miracidia and cercariae in 30 seconds and after 22 & 40 minutes at a very low concentration (0.165 ppm) respectively, and had in vitro lethal effect on adults with LC50 18.4 microg/ml 4 days post-exposure. The snail tissue homogenate showed significant increase in total protein content & albumen, in aminotransferases and acetylcholinesterase activities.

  10. Soybean meal enriched with microelements by biosorption--a new biological feed supplement for laying hens. Part I. Performance and egg traits.

    PubMed

    Witkowska, Z; Chojnacka, K; Korczyński, M; Świniarska, M; Saeid, A; Opaliński, S; Dobrzański, Z

    2014-05-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of soybean meal enriched with Cu(II), Zn(II), Fe(II) and Cr(III) by biosorption on egg traits (egg weight, eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, yolk colour, albumen height) and performance of laying hens. Also, the effect of increased microelement doses in biological form on egg quality parameters and hens performance was investigated. A consumer questionnaire was undertaken to evaluate the organoleptic parameters of the eggs. Generally, our study showed that in the groups fed with the new biological supplement, egg quality parameters improved, including eggshell strength, eggshell thickness, albumen height and yolk colour. The biological form of microelements also improved the feed conversion rate, especially in the group fed with a biological form of Cr(III). Moreover, the new supplement improved organoleptic parameters of the eggs, in comparison to the inorganic form of microelements as well as to chelate. Enriched soybean meal could constitute an alternative for currently used feed additives with microelements. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of replacing soya bean oil with glycerol in diets on performance, egg quality and egg fatty acid composition in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Cufadar, Y; Göçmen, R; Kanbur, G

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to replace soya bean oil with glycerol in laying hen diets and assess the change's effect on performance, parameters of egg quality and the egg fatty acid profile. A total of 60 44-week-old Hy-Line W36 laying hens were distributed according to a completely randomised experimental design into four treatments consisting of glycerol substitutions for soya bean oil dietary at varying inclusion levels (0%, 25%, 50% and 75%), with five replicates of three birds each. Dietary treatments had no significant effect on BW change, egg production, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight and egg mass of laying hens. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on egg specific gravity, eggshell breaking strength, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, egg shape index, albumen index, yolk index, haugh unit, albumen pH, yolk pH and egg yolk colour values. The inclusion of glycerol in the diet of laying hens had no significant effect on palmitic, palmitoleic, stearic, oleic and linolenic acid contents of the egg yolk. The linoleic acid and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents of the egg yolk significantly decreased with the higher levels of dietary glycerol supplementation (P<0.05). The results of this study show that it is possible to replace 75% of soya bean oil (4.5% in diet) with glycerol.

  12. Effect of UV irradiation, sample thickness and storage temperature on storability, bacterial activity and functional properties of liquid egg.

    PubMed

    Abdanan Mehdizadeh, S; Minaei, S; Karimi Torshizi, M A; Mohajerani, E

    2015-07-01

    Effect of sample thickness, ultraviolet irradiation and storage temperature on bacterial activity, storability and functional properties (foamability and stability) of liquid egg were investigated. Eggs were contaminated with prepared Salmonella suspension 108/mL. Separated albumen and yolk samples were poured in three thicknesses (1, 2 and 3 mm) and irradiated at 3, 5 10, 15 min with ultraviolet radiation and were stored at 5, 15, 25, 37 °C for up to 8 days. Observations indicated that all ultraviolet irradiation times, reduced the total count of Salmonella bacteria in egg samples. Although, functional properties were improved, protein oxidation in both albumen and yolk increased. After the first 2 days of storage, total counts of Salmonella and protein oxidation of eggs decreased solely in the 5 °C treatment. It is concluded that irradiation treatment can be used to decrease bacterial contamination of liquid egg albeit not below the safe level for raw consumption. Furthermore, the best irradiation times to improve foam ability and stability were 10 and 5 min, respectively.

  13. Nickel induced alteration of hen body weight, egg production and egg quality after an experimental peroral administration.

    PubMed

    Arpasova, Henrieta; Capcarova, Marcela; Kalafova, Anna; Lukac, Norbert; Kovacik, Jaroslav; Formicki, Grzegorz; Massanyi, Peter

    2007-11-01

    In this study the effects of nickel (NiCl2) administered in drinking water (0.02; 0.2 and 2.0 mg NiCl2/L for 28 days) on laying hen body weight, egg production and egg quality is reported. Growth parameters during the experiment were significantly decreased mainly in the group with the highest nickel concentration. In total egg production dose-dependent decrease in all experimental groups was found. Egg weight was mainly affected in the group with the highest nickel concentration. Specific egg weight was not altered. Albumen weight and albumen content was significantly decreased in groups with the highest nickel concentration in comparison with the control group. Egg yolk analysis detected significantly decreased yolk weight in the group with the highest nickel experimental level. In yolk color a significant difference was detected between the group receiving 0.02 and 0.2 mg NiCl2/mL. Eggshell compactness was increased in all experimental groups what could be induced by altered mineralization of eggshell. Results of this study clearly report a negative effect of nickel as an environmental pollutant on laying hen body weight, egg production as well as egg quality.

  14. Identification of quantitative trait loci associated with egg quality, egg production, and body weight in an F2 resource population of chickens.

    PubMed

    Schreiweis, M A; Hester, P Y; Settar, P; Moody, D E

    2006-04-01

    Egg production and egg quality are complex sex-limited traits that may benefit from the implementation of marker-assisted selection. The primary objective of the current study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with egg traits, egg production, and body weight in a chicken resource population. Layer (White Leghorn hens) and broiler (Cobb-Cobb roosters) lines were crossed to generate an F2 population of 508 hens over seven hatches. Phenotypes for 29 traits (weekly body weight from hatch to 6 weeks, egg traits including egg, albumen, yolk, and shell weight, shell thickness, shell puncture score, percentage of shell, and egg shell colour at 35 and 55 weeks of age, as well as egg production between 16 and 55 weeks of age) were measured in hens of the resource population. Genotypes of 120 microsatellite markers on 28 autosomal groups were determined, and interval mapping was conducted to identify putative QTL. Eleven QTL tests representing two regions on chromosomes 2 and 4 surpassed the 5% genome-wise significance threshold. These QTL influenced egg colour, egg and albumen weight, percent shell, body weight, and egg production. The chromosome 4 QTL region is consistent with multiple QTL studies that define chromosome 4 as a critical region significantly associated with a variety of traits across multiple resource populations. An additional 64 QTL tests surpassed the 5% chromosome-wise significance threshold.

  15. Influence of particle size and calcium source on production performance, egg quality, and bone parameters in laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Wang, S; Chen, W; Zhang, H X; Ruan, D; Lin, Y C

    2014-10-01

    The influence of calcium source (limestone and oyster shell) and particle size (<0.1 mm; 0.85 to 2 mm) on laying performance, egg quality, and bone properties were examined in laying ducks by a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Longyan females (288) with similar BW at 24 wk of age were randomly allotted into 4 treatments, each with 6 replicates of 12 individually caged birds and studied over the following 12 wk. Particle size affected egg weight and feed conversion (P < 0.05). Large particle size increased shell breaking strength, albumen height, Haugh unit, and shell content of phosphorus and magnesium (P < 0.05), but had no effect on egg shape, yolk color, shell thickness, or the weight proportion of shell. There were no effects of particle size on tibial properties: dry defatted weight, calcium content, or breaking strength. Limestone increased albumen height, shell content of calcium and phosphorus, and the breaking strength of tibia (P < 0.05). It is concluded that limestone with a large particle size provided for superior productive performance, egg quality, and bone characteristics and is more suitable than oyster shell for practical applications.

  16. Effects of dietary methionine on performance, egg quality and glutathione redox system in egg-laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Fouad, A M; Ruan, D; Lin, Y C; Zheng, C T; Zhang, H X; Chen, W; Wang, S; Xia, W G; Li, Y

    2016-12-01

    In this study, 6 dietary DL-methionine (Met) levels (2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, 4.5 and 5.0 g/kg) were tested to estimate the dietary Met requirements of Longyan ducks from 19 to 46 weeks of age, and to investigate its effect on the glutathione redox system. In total, 1080 Longyan ducks aged 19 weeks were allocated randomly to the 6 dietary treatments, where each treatment comprised 6 replicate pens with 30 ducks per pen. Met had no effects on egg production, yolk weight, yolk colour or the glutathione redox system, but the egg weight, egg mass and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were improved significantly by dietary Met supplementation. As the dietary Met concentration increased, the eggshell thickness and breaking strength decreased significantly, whereas the albumen weight increased significantly. According to broken-line regression analysis, the optimum Met requirements for egg weight, egg mass, FCR and albumen weight are 686, 661, 658 and 731 mg/bird/d, respectively, with a dietary crude protein level of 170 g/kg.

  17. Bacterial flora and antibiotic resistance from eggs of green turtles Chelonia mydas: an indication of polluted effluents.

    PubMed

    Al-Bahry, Saif; Mahmoud, Ibrahim; Elshafie, Abdulkader; Al-Harthy, Asila; Al-Ghafri, Sabha; Al-Amri, Issa; Alkindi, Abdulaziz

    2009-05-01

    Sea turtles migrate to various habitats where they can be exposed to different pollutants. Bacteria were collected from turtle eggs and their resistance to antibiotics was used as pollutant bio-indicators of contaminated effluents. Eggs were collected randomly from turtles when they were laying their eggs. A total of 90 eggs were collected and placed into sterile plastic bags (3 eggs/turtle) during June-December of 2003. The bacteria located in the eggshell, albumen and yolk were examined, and 42% of the eggs were contaminated with 10 genera of bacteria. Pseudomonas spp. were the most frequent isolates. The albumen was found to be the part of the egg to be the least contaminated by bacterial infection. Bacterial isolates tested with 14 antibiotics showed variations in resistance. Resistance to ampicillin was the highest. The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in eggs indicates that the green turtle populations were subjected to polluted effluents during some of their migratory routes and feeding habitats. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that Salmonella typhimurium penetrated all eggshell layers.

  18. Efficacy of antimicrobial pullulan-based coating to improve internal quality and shelf-life of chicken eggs during storage.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Mohamed K; Sharoba, Ashraf M; Khalaf, Hassan H; El-Tanahy, Hassan H; Cutter, Catherine N

    2015-05-01

    There has been a growing interest in the use of natural materials as a delivery mechanism for antimicrobials and coatings in foods. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of pullulan coatings to improve internal quality and shelf-life of fresh eggs during 10 wk of storage at 25 and 4 °C. Three treatments of eggs were evaluated as follows; non-coated (control; C), coated with pullulan (P), and coated with pullulan containing nisin (N). The effects of the pullulan coatings on microbiological qualities, physical properties, and freshness parameters were investigated and compared with non-coated eggs. For non-coated eggs, as storage time increased, yolk index, albumen index, and Haugh unit value decreased and weight loss increased. However, pullulan coatings (P or N) minimized weight loss (<1.5%) and preserved the albumen and yolk quality of eggs (with a final B grade) 3 wk longer than non-coated eggs at 25 °C. At 4 °C, both P- and N-coated eggs went from AA to A grade after 9 wk and maintained the grade for 10 wk (4 wk longer than that of non-coated eggs). This study is the first to demonstrate that pullulan coatings can preserve the internal quality, prolong the shelf-life, and minimize weight loss of fresh eggs.

  19. The effect of maternal state on the steroid and macronutrient content of lesser black-backed gull eggs.

    PubMed

    Verboven, Nanette; Monaghan, Pat; Nager, Ruedi G; Evans, Neil P

    2010-01-01

    It has been proposed that female birds can influence the phenotype of their offspring by provisioning eggs with variable amounts of nutrients and maternal hormones. Egg quality is strongly influenced by maternal body reserves and the amount of food available at the time of egg formation. This study investigated the effects of maternal state and food availability on the capacity of female lesser black-backed gulls Larus fuscus to provision their eggs with macronutrients and steroid hormones. Maternal state was reduced by increasing egg-production effort, whereas extra food was provided to reverse this effect. Compared with eggs of first clutches, eggs of experimentally induced replacement clutches exhibited a lower yolk/albumen ratio and contained more yolk testosterone. During one of the three years in which the study was performed, replacement eggs also contained more 17β-estradiol. Food provisioning during the relaying interval did not affect changes in yolk/albumen ratio or steroid concentrations, but fed females produced bigger eggs in their replacement clutch. This study demonstrates significant within-female consistency in egg size, macronutrient content, and yolk steroid concentration, and it shows that these egg characteristics are influenced by maternal state, food availability, and the timing of breeding.

  20. Enhanced C-type lysozyme content of wood duck (Aix sponsa) egg white: an adaptation to cavity nesting?

    PubMed

    Wellman-Labadie, Olivier; Picman, Jaroslav; Hincke, Maxwell T

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Wild waterfowl species often nest in conditions where high humidity and microbial contamination may influence egg survival and quality. Albumen is traditionally regarded as the major impediment to microbial contamination of eggs, and its composition and activity may be selected by environmental pressures. Egg white protein from the eggs of wood duck (Aix sponsa), hooded merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus), Canada goose (Branta canadensis), and mute swan (Cygnus olor) was evaluated in order to compare the antimicrobial defenses of these species. Ovotransferrin and ovalbumin were identified in all species, but c-type lysozyme was present only in wood duck and hooded merganser egg white samples. Wood duck egg white showed the greatest bacterial activity as well as the highest lysozyme content. Egg white from wood duck and hooded merganser possessed greater lysozyme activity under acidic conditions, suggesting a c-type lysozyme with a pH optimum lower than that of Gallus gallus c-type lysozyme or the presence of g-type lysozyme. Ovotransferrin bacteriostatic activity appeared to be similar across the species investigated. The results suggest that lysozyme and ovotransferrin play a role in the antimicrobial defense of the avian egg. High levels of the broad-acting c-type lysozyme appear to have evolved in the albumen of the wood duck in order to ensure proper development of the embryo in the humid conditions of the cavity nest.

  1. Adverse effect of failure to turn the avian egg on the embryo oxygen exchange.

    PubMed

    Tazawa, H

    1980-08-01

    Fertile chicken eggs belonging to the same flock of hens were divided into two groups and incubated for 16 days. During incubation, group 1 eggs were turned twice a day and group 2 eggs were left unturned. Blood sampled from the allantoic vein or artery was analyzed for gas tensions (PO2 and PCO2), pH and Hct. These values were compared by unmpaired t-test for significance differences between the two groups. While the differences of PCO2 and pH were found insignificant, failure to turn the eggs caused a pronounced fall in the arterialized PO2 which was accompanied with an increase in Hct. In addition, the embryo weight was reduced in unturned eggs. Lack of turning retarded the absorption of albumen. The unabsorbed albumen interposed between the chorioallantoic membrane and inner shell membrane, impeding the blood oxygenation through the chorioallantois. Little change in PCO2 might be attributed to a large diffusive conductance of the chorioallantois for CO2. The present results suggest that the eggs must be turned periodically during incubation to prevent the distortion of normal oxygen exchange especially for the study of egg respiration.

  2. Association of polymorphism in the prolactin promoter and egg quality traits in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, T K; Chatterjee, R N; Sharma, R P; Rajkumar, U; Niranjan, M; Reddy, B L N

    2011-10-01

    Single strand conformation polymorphism analysis and DNA sequencing was performed in White Leghorn hens to explore the polymorphisms present in the promoter of the prolactin gene. The effects of different genotypes on egg production and quality traits were determined, and expression of the prolactin gene in different genotypes was quantified by real time-PCR. Five genotypes and four alleles at each of two Fragments of the promoter were found, of which the FG genotype in Fragment 1 and the PQ genotype in Fragment 2 were the most predominant genotypes. The genotypes of Fragment 1 had significant effects (P < 0·05) on Haugh unit, albumen weight, albumen percentage and shell percentage at 40 weeks of age; egg weight and yolk index at 52 weeks of age; and egg weight at 64 weeks of age. Prolactin expression in the genotypes of Fragment 1 differed significantly and GH genotyped birds had the highest level of expression. The genotypes of Fragment 2 did not show any significant differences of expression. It was concluded that the prolactin gene promoter was highly polymorphic, and had significant effects on egg quality traits in White Leghorn hens.

  3. Effects of housing system and age of laying hens on egg performance in fresh pasta production: pasta cooking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Alamprese, Cristina; Casiraghi, Ernestina; Rossi, Margherita

    2011-03-30

    Very few studies concern the effects of layer housing systems and age on egg technological properties. Thus the aim of this work was to study the influence of these two factors on egg performance in fresh pasta production, focusing on pasta cooking behaviour. Samples of pasta subjected to analysis were prepared with eggs laid by Hy-Line Brown hens (from 27 to 68 weeks old) housed in cage, barn and organic systems. Higher average values of weight increase and matter loss during pasta cooking were observed for samples prepared with eggs laid by older hens. Such cooking behaviour indicated the development of a weaker pasta protein network, resulting from a decrease in the quantity of albumen protein and an increase in fat content, which is due to the reduction in albumen/yolk ratio during hen aging. The housing system had a significant effect only on matter loss in cooking water, but differences between samples were so small as to be unlikely perceived by consumers. Both hen age and housing system significantly affected pasta cooking behaviour, but the greatest effect was exerted by the hen age. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Egg production and quality under three housing systems in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Varguez-Montero, Grissly; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Segura-Correa, Jose

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate egg production and quality of Rhode Island Red (RIR) laying hens in an outdoor system in the subhumid tropic. Eighty RIR laying hens were measured in two periods and housed randomly under three treatments: outdoor (O), indoor (I) and in conventional cages (C). Egg weight (55.88, 53.76 and 57.16 g, for O, I and C, respectively), food intake/hen/day (138.94, 129.74 and 162.90 g, for O, I and C, respectively) and food efficiency (3.13, 3.22 and 3.96 for O, I and C, respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by housing system; however, both egg production and final body weight were not different (P > 0.05). Yolk colour (10.76, 9.94 and 10.08 colour scale, for O, I and C, respectively), albumen weight (92.63, 92.28 and 90.08 g, for O, I and C, respectively) and yolk weight (15.19, 14.61, 15.48 g for O, I and C, respectively) were significantly (P < 0.05) influenced by housing system, but albumen height, Haugh units and egg shell weight remained similar (P > 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, outdoor egg production seems to be a sustainable system comparable to the commercial type based on wired cages.

  5. Cadmium teratogenesis in the chick: period of vulnerability using the early chick culture method, and prevention by divalent cations.

    PubMed

    Cullinane, Jennifer; Bannigan, John; Thompson, Jennifer

    2009-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is teratogenic in chick embryos following treatment in ovo or in shell-less culture. We investigated the ability of other divalent cations (Mn, Ni, Se, Mg and Ca) to influence the effects of Cd. As the proposed mechanism of protection of these ions is prevention of Cd influx by blocking or competing for Ca channels, we also assessed verapamil, a Ca-channel blocker. We used a new, completely ex ovo method, explanting the embryos onto an agar-albumen substrate (0.6% agar diluted 1:1 with thin albumen) to which test substances were added. Following 48-96 h incubation, chicks were explanted onto medium containing 7.5 microM Cd acetate or equimolar sodium acetate. Morphology and somite numbers were assessed at explantation, and again following 24h incubation on the culture media. In addition, 60-h embryos were explanted onto media containing various concentrations of the aforementioned agents, alone or in combination with 7.5 microM Cd. Chicks were vulnerable to Cd teratogenesis between Hamburger-Hamilton stages 13 and 18. Co-treatment with Se, Mn and Ni prevented malformation at 2x, 50 x and 100 x the molar dose of Cd, respectively. Ca, Mg and verapamil failed to protect. These results indicate that some, but not all, divalent cations protect against Cd malformation, but the mechanism of rescue remains unresolved.

  6. Effect of light-emitting diode (LED) vs. fluorescent (FL) lighting on laying hens in aviary hen houses: Part 2 - Egg quality, shelf-life and lipid composition.

    PubMed

    Long, H; Zhao, Y; Xin, H; Hansen, H; Ning, Z; Wang, T

    2016-01-01

    In this 60-wk study, egg quality, egg shelf-life, egg cholesterol content, total yolk lipids, and yolk fatty acid composition of eggs produced by Dekalb white laying hens in commercial aviary houses with either light-emitting diode (LED) or fluorescent (FL) lighting were compared. All parameters were measured at 27, 40, and 60 wk of age, except for egg shelf-life, which was compared at 50 wk of age. The results showed that, compared to the FL regimen, the LED regimen resulted in higher egg weight, albumen height, and albumen weight at 27 wk of age, thicker shells at 40 wk of age, but lower egg weight at 60 wk of age. Egg quality change was similar between the lighting regimens during the 62-d egg storage study, indicating that LED lighting did not influence egg shelf-life. Eggs from both lighting regimens had similar cholesterol content. However, cholesterol concentration of the yolk (15.9 to 21.0 mg cholesterol/g wet weight yolk) observed in this study was higher than that of United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) database (10.85 mg/g). No significant differences in total lipids or fatty acid composition of the yolks were detected between the two lighting regimens. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Exterior and interior physical quality of egg of laying hens fed diets containing different dietary purslane levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartikasari, L. R.; Hertanto, B. S.; Pranoto, D.; Salim, W. N.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.

    2017-04-01

    Purslane is considered a rich vegetable source of alpha-linolenic acid, beta-carotene and various antioxidants. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of different dietary levels of purslane meal (Portulaca oleracea) in the diets of laying hens on physical quality of eggs. A total of 125 Hy-Line Brown hens (54 weeks old) were placed at individual cages and assigned to five dietary treatments. The diets were supplemented with 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% purslane meal. Laying hens were fed for 5 weeks after a typical period of adaptation (7 days). Water and feed were provided ad libitum. A total of 25 egg samples of day 28 and day 35 (n = 5 egg yolks for each treatment) were collected to analyse exterior and interior physical quality of eggs. The data were analysed using ANOVA. Differences between treatment means were further analysed using Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test. Results showed that feeding different purslane meal levels in the diets improved egg weight, yolk weight, albumen weight and yolk colour. The highest intensity of yolk colour was obtained with the diet containing 8% purslane meal. However, dietary treatments did not affect egg index, albumen index, yolk index, shell weight, shell thickness and Haugh Unit. It is concluded that including purslane meal to laying hen diets increases the physical qualities of the eggs.

  8. Endogenous contributions to egg protein formation in lesser scaup Aythya affinis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cutting, Kyle A.; Hobson, Keith A.; Rotella, Jay J.; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Wainwright-de la Cruz, Susan E.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2011-01-01

    Lesser scaup Aythya affinis populations have declined throughout the North American continent for the last three decades. It has been hypothesized that the loss and degradation of staging habitats has resulted in reduced female body condition on the breeding grounds and a concomitant decline in productivity. We explored the importance of body (endogenous) reserves obtained prior to arrival on the breeding ground in egg protein formation in southwestern Montana during 2006–2008 using stable-carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) isotope analyses of scaup egg components, female tissue, and local prey items. From arrival on the breeding grounds through the egg-laying period, δ15N values of scaup red blood cells decreased while δ13C values became less variable; a pattern consistent with endogenous tissues equilibrating with local (freshwater) dietary sources. In 2006 and 2008, isotopic values for egg albumen and yolk protein indicated that most (>90%) protein used to produce these components was obtained on the breeding grounds. However, in 2007, a year with an exceptionally warm and dry spring, endogenous reserves contributed on average 41% of yolk and 29% of albumen. Results from this study suggest that female scaup can meet the protein needs of egg production largely from local dietary food sources. This highlights the importance of providing high-quality breeding habitats for scaup. Whether this pattern holds in areas with similar breeding season lengths but longer migration routes, such as those found in the western boreal forest, should be investigated.

  9. Assessment of thermal coagulation in ex-vivo tissues using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Matthew; Weersink, Robert A; Whelan, William M

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is used to study the effects of heating on specific molecular bonds present in albumen-based coagulation phantoms and ex-vivo tissues. Thermal coagulation is induced by submerging albumen-based phantoms in a 75°C water bath to achieve target temperatures of 45, 55, 65, and 75°C. Laser photocoagulation is performed on ex-vivo bovine muscle samples, yielding induced temperatures between 46 and 90°C, as reported by implanted microthermocouples. All phantoms and tissue samples are cooled to room temperature, and Raman spectra are acquired at the microthermocouple locations. Shifts in major Raman bands are observed with laser heating in bovine muscle, specifically from the amide-1 α-helix group (∼1655 cm(-1)), the CH(2)/CH(3) group (∼1446 cm(-1)), the Cα-H stretch group (∼1312 cm(-1)), and the CN stretch group (∼1121cm(-1)). Raman bands at 1334 cm(-1) (tryptophan), 1317 cm(-1) [ν(Cα-H)], and 1655 cm(-1) (amide-1 α-helix) also show a decrease in intensity following heating. The results suggest that Raman band locations and relative intensities are affected by thermal denaturation of proteins, and hence, may be a useful tool for monitoring the onset and progression of coagulation during thermal therapies.

  10. Assessment of thermal coagulation in ex-vivo tissues using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Matthew; Weersink, Robert A.; Whelan, William M.

    2010-11-01

    Raman spectroscopy is used to study the effects of heating on specific molecular bonds present in albumen-based coagulation phantoms and ex-vivo tissues. Thermal coagulation is induced by submerging albumen-based phantoms in a 75°C water bath to achieve target temperatures of 45, 55, 65, and 75°C. Laser photocoagulation is performed on ex-vivo bovine muscle samples, yielding induced temperatures between 46 and 90°C, as reported by implanted microthermocouples. All phantoms and tissue samples are cooled to room temperature, and Raman spectra are acquired at the microthermocouple locations. Shifts in major Raman bands are observed with laser heating in bovine muscle, specifically from the amide-1 α-helix group (~1655 cm-1), the CH2/CH3 group (~1446 cm-1), the Cα-H stretch group (~1312 cm-1), and the CN stretch group (~1121cm-1). Raman bands at 1334 cm-1 (tryptophan), 1317 cm-1 [ν(Cα-H)], and 1655 cm-1 (amide-1 α-helix) also show a decrease in intensity following heating. The results suggest that Raman band locations and relative intensities are affected by thermal denaturation of proteins, and hence, may be a useful tool for monitoring the onset and progression of coagulation during thermal therapies.

  11. An improved technique for the 2H/1H analysis of urines from diabetic volunteers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Harper, I.T.

    1994-01-01

    The H2-H2O ambient-temperature equilibration technique for the determination of 2H/1H ratios in urinary waters from diabetic subjects provides improved accuracy over the conventional Zn reduction technique. The standard deviation, ~ 1-2???, is at least a factor of three better than that of the Zn reduction technique on urinary waters from diabetic volunteers. Experiments with pure water and solutions containing glucose, urea and albumen indicate that there is no measurable bias in the hydrogen equilibration technique.The H2-H2O ambient-temperature equilibration technique for the determination of 2H/1H ratios in urinary waters from diabetic subjects provides improved accuracy over the conventional Zn reduction technique. The standard deviation, approximately 1-2%, is at least a factor of three better than that of the Zn reduction technique on urinary waters from diabetic volunteers. Experiments with pure water and solutions containing glucose, urea and albumen indicate that there is no measurable bias in the hydrogen equilibration technique.

  12. Structure and Function of the Reproductive System of Aplysia kurodai

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chi-Hoon; Kaang, Bong-Kiun; Lee, Young-Don

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated structure and function of the reproductive system in Aplysia kurodai by means of anatomical, histological, and histochemical observation. Reproductive system of this species is consisted of ovotestis, small hermaphroditic duct, ampulla, accessory genital mass and large hermaphroditic duct. The ovotestis is composed of a large number of follicles, and both oocytes and spermatocytes matured in the same follicle. The small hermaphroditic duct is a single tube and contains a swelling, the ampulla, which functions as a storage organ for endogenous sperm and an oviduct. The accessory genital mass is connected to both the small and large hermaphroditic duct, and consisted of three glands: albumen, membrane (winding) and mucus gland. The albumen gland is consisted of granular cells producing basophilic and neutral mucopolysaccharides. The membrane and mucus gland are consisted of granular cells producing acidophilc and sulfated mucopolysaccharides. The large hermaphroditic duct is a single tubular gonoduct linking the accessory genital mass to the common genital aperture but is consisted of two parallel compartments. Internally, these two compartments are incompletely divided by internal septum or fold, which are called as the red hemiduct and white hemiduct, respectively. The red hemiduct functions as an oviduct and the white hemiduct functions as a copulatory duct. The reproductive system of A. kurodai is externally comprised a single tube, i.e., monaulic type. However, internal structure of duct is incompletely divided into oviduct and copulatory duct, i.e., the oodiaulic type. PMID:26973971

  13. Estimation of L-threonine requirements for Longyan laying ducks.

    PubMed

    Fouad, A M; Zhang, H X; Chen, W; Xia, W G; Ruan, D; Wang, S; Zheng, C T

    2017-02-01

    A study was conducted to test six threonine (Thr) levels (0.39%, 0.44%, 0.49%, 0.54%, 0.59%, and 0.64%) to estimate the optimal dietary Thr requirements for Longyan laying ducks from 17 to 45 wk of age. Nine hundred Longyan ducks aged 17 wk were assigned randomly to the six dietary treatments, where each treatment comprised six replicate pens with 25 ducks per pen. Increasing the Thr level enhanced egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (linearly or quadratically; p<0.05). The Haugh unit score, yolk color, albumen height, and the weight, percentage, thickness, and breaking strength of the eggshell did not response to increases in the Thr levels, but the albumen weight and its proportion increased significantly (p<0.05), whereas the yolk weight and its proportion decreased significantly as the Thr levels increased. According to a regression model, the optimal Thr requirement for egg production, egg mass, and FCR in Longyan ducks is 0.57%, while 0.58% is the optimal level for egg weight from 17 to 45 wk of age.

  14. Estimation of L-threonine requirements for Longyan laying ducks

    PubMed Central

    Fouad, A. M.; Zhang, H. X.; Chen, W.; Xia, W. G.; Ruan, D.; Wang, S.; Zheng, C. T.

    2017-01-01

    Objective A study was conducted to test six threonine (Thr) levels (0.39%, 0.44%, 0.49%, 0.54%, 0.59%, and 0.64%) to estimate the optimal dietary Thr requirements for Longyan laying ducks from 17 to 45 wk of age. Methods Nine hundred Longyan ducks aged 17 wk were assigned randomly to the six dietary treatments, where each treatment comprised six replicate pens with 25 ducks per pen. Results Increasing the Thr level enhanced egg production, egg weight, egg mass, and the feed conversion ratio (FCR) (linearly or quadratically; p<0.05). The Haugh unit score, yolk color, albumen height, and the weight, percentage, thickness, and breaking strength of the eggshell did not response to increases in the Thr levels, but the albumen weight and its proportion increased significantly (p<0.05), whereas the yolk weight and its proportion decreased significantly as the Thr levels increased. Conclusion According to a regression model, the optimal Thr requirement for egg production, egg mass, and FCR in Longyan ducks is 0.57%, while 0.58% is the optimal level for egg weight from 17 to 45 wk of age. PMID:27282968

  15. Maintaining functional properties of shell eggs by ultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Caner, Cengiz; Yuceer, Muhammed

    2015-11-01

    Ultrasonic treatment is an emerging technique that could be an alternative to existing thermal processing techniques in foods. Ultrasonic treatments may also be used to extend the shelf life of egg during storage period in ambient temperature. The effectiveness of ultrasound treatment with different power levels (200 W, 300 W, 450 W) and treatment times (2 min and 5 min) was evaluated for enhancing the functional properties of eggs during storage at 24 ° C for 6 weeks. Ultrasound treatment power and treatment time had significant effects on Haugh unit, yolk index, albumen pH, dry matter, relative whipping capacity, and albumen viscosity resulting in extended shelf life. Attributes such as yolk index, Haugh unit, pH, whipping capacity, dry matter for 300 W and 450 W treatments were better than control and 200 W treatments. Longer treatment time and power showed a significant influence on functional properties. Power levels of 300 W and 450 W of ultrasound treatments had improved internal quality of fresh eggs during storage, but negative effect on shell strength. The study showed that ultrasound treatment could be an alternative and effective technique for maintaining the internal qualities of fresh eggs during long-term storage while Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy could be used as a new tool for the assessment of freshness. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances in entire clutches of Audouin's gulls from the Ebro Delta.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Joana; Sanpera, Carola; García-Tarrasón, Manuel; Pérez, Alba; Lacorte, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in three-egg clutches of Audouin's gull (Larus audouinii) breeding in Ebro Delta's colony according to the laying order (a, b and c eggs). Five PFASs were analyzed in 30 eggs (yolk and albumen separately), corresponding to 10 three-egg clutches. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were measured as dietary tracers. PFASs were not detected in albumen. In egg yolks, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was the main compound detected followed by perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFBS) was not detected. Mean ΣPFASs for a-eggs was of 236±57 ng g(-1) yolk wet weight (ww), for b-eggs was of 140±56 ng g(-1) yolk ww and for c-eggs, 133±54 ng g(-1) yolk ww. PFOS concentration decreased according to the laying order of the eggs, showing significant differences between consecutive eggs. In addition, significant correlation (rs2=0.7-0.9) was observed for PFOS concentration within the eggs from the same clutch. No relationship was found between PFOS levels and stable isotopes signatures. Capsule: In Audouin gull's eggs, PFOS was the main PFASs detected and its concentration decreased according to the laying sequence.

  17. Visualization of anisotropic pulsations in extraembryonic compartments of incubated quail eggs by NMR microimaging.

    PubMed

    Görke, U; Kimmich, R; Weis, J

    1996-01-01

    Multi-plane tagging time-of-flight and bipolar gradient phase-encoding and amplitude-weighting NMR microimaging techniques have been employed to study transport in extraembryonic compartments of fertilized quail eggs during the first seven days of incubation. After the fourth day coherent and incoherent motions became visible in certain regions, in particular in the upper part of the albumen. Coherent motions as visualized by deformations of multiplane tagging grids were specified by local velocities less than 1 mm/s at most. On the other hand, incoherent motions led to much more pronounced phenomena. The multiplane tagging grid completely faded in a region comprising the upper third of the albumen after 4.5 incubation days. Images weighted by signal attenuation owing to incoherent displacements indicate motions in the same region. The fact that a reproducible localization of the motions is only possible when signals from different transients are averaged indicates that the incoherence at least partly is temporal in nature. The signal intensity of a volume selected in the incoherent-motion region consequently fluctuates with time. The Fourier analysis of these fluctuations revealed a distinct pulsation with a frequency of 0.4 Hz.

  18. Diet supplementation with a specific melon concentrate improves oviduct antioxidant defenses and egg characteristics in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Carillon, J; Barbé, F; Barial, S; Saby, M; Sacy, A; Rouanet, J-M

    2016-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of a specific melon concentrate on oviduct antioxidant defenses and egg characteristics of laying hens.Lohmann Brown hens were assigned to 2 treatment groups (n = 16 in each). One group was supplemented with the melon concentrate (26 mg/kg of feed) during 6 wk. The other group was composed of untreated hens, which served as control. Eggs were collected, weighed (yolk, albumen, shell), and analyzed (Haugh unit and albumen pH relevant for egg freshness) at the end of the supplementation period. Antioxidant status was evaluated in the oviduct measuring antioxidant enzymes by western blotting.This study demonstrated that the melon concentrate could ameliorate egg weight, and particularly yolk contribution to egg weight and egg shell weight. An increase in endogenous antioxidant defenses in the oviduct after this melon concentrate supplementation could explain the better egg characteristics. The improvement of egg quality, due to melon concentrate, may have important economic implications for future breeding programs, particularly if these effects generalize from hens to other poultry species, or even other livestock animal species. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Physical-mechanical modifications of eggs for food-processing during storage.

    PubMed

    Berardinelli, A; Ragni, L; Giunchi, A; Gradari, P; Guarnieri, A

    2008-10-01

    Physical-mechanical properties of egg constituents and their modifications during storage and poststorage greatly influence the efficiency of food processing, such as the separation of white and yolk by mechanical shelling. Thick albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index and vitelline membrane-yolk system strength of eggs from Hy-Line White and Lohmann Brown hens were analyzed during 7 mo of storage at 0 degrees C performing 3 poststorage treatments: i) immediately after refrigeration, T1; ii) after a further 6 h at 18 degrees C after refrigeration, T2; and iii) after a week at 18 degrees C after refrigeration, T3. For all qualitative parameters considered, this last poststorage treatment appeared to be the factor that produced the highest decrements; with respect to the first poststorage treatment, a further week at 18 degrees C after refrigeration can involve mean decreases of about 19, 14, 14, and 16% in thick albumen height, Haugh unit, yolk index, and vitelline membrane-yolk system strength (in terms of maximum force), respectively. During about 7 mo of storage at 0 degrees C, the latter parameter decreases, on average, by 10%. Increasing the storage time, physical-mechanical behavior was sometimes divergent from the observed trends.

  20. Esterase isozymes of the hen's oviduct.

    PubMed

    Grunder, A A; Holland, K G

    1977-11-01

    Esterase isozymes of magnum, isthmus and uterus of three strains of Single Comb White Leghorn hens were examined by zone electrophoresis on starch gels. Although three regions (I, II and III) of esterase activity were observed, the electrophoretic system was optimized to characterize the pattern of up to five zones of esterase activity that were identified in Region I. These esterases were classified as aliesterases based on reactions in the presence of various substrates and inhibitors. No genetic polymorphisms were observed for these isozymes. However, two of these isozymes were perceived to have an electrophoretic mobility slightly faster in patterns of the magnum of layers than in the isthmus, uterus, and magnum of non-layers. It was shown that egg albumen was present in relatively high quantities in the magnum of layers and that egg albumen, when added to supernatant preparations of isthmus, uterus and magnum of non-layers, caused the faster electrophoretic mobility of these two esterase isozymes. No relation between specific gravity of eggs laid by hens and presence of various Region I esterase isozymes could be detected.

  1. Effect of tea polyphenols on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z H; Zhang, K Y; Ding, X M; Luo, Y H; Bai, S P; Zeng, Q F; Wang, J P

    2016-07-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of tea polyphenols (TP) on production performance, egg quality, and hepatic-antioxidant status of laying hens in vanadium-containing diets. A total of 300 Lohman laying hens (67 wk old) were used in a 1 plus 3 × 3 experiment design in which hens were given either a diet without vanadium and TP supplementation (control) or diets supplemented with 5, 10, or 15 mg V/kg and TP (0, 600, 1,000 mg/kg) diets for 8 wk, which included 2 phases: a 5-wk accumulation phase and a 3-wk depletion phase. During the accumulation phase, dietary vanadium addition decreased (linear, P < 0.01) albumen height and Haugh unit (HU), and TP supplementation mitigated (linear effect, P < 0.01) this reduction effect induced by vanadium. Eggshell thickness (linear, P < 0.01), redness (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05), and yellowness (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) were decreased by vanadium and increased by the effect of TP when a vanadium-containing diet was fed. In the depletion phase, the bleaching effect on eggshells induced by vanadium disappeared one wk after vanadium withdrawal. Eggshell thickness, eggshell strength, albumen height, and HU were lower (P < 0.05) in the 15 mg/kg vanadium group compared with the control diet until 2 wk post vanadium challenge, but hens fed 15 mg/kg vanadium and 600 mg/kg TP showed no difference from the control diet only after 1 wk withdrawal. In the liver, the activity of glutathione S-transferases and glutathione peroxidase was increased (linear, P < 0.01) with the TP addition at 5 wk in the accumulation phase in the vanadium-containing diet; the malondialdehyde content increased (linear effect, P = 0.02) with the addition of vanadium. The results indicate that supplementation of 10 and 15 mg/kg vanadium resulted in reduced albumen quality, bleaching effect on eggshell color, and antioxidant stress in the liver. The effect of TP addition can prevent laying hens from the adverse effect of vanadium on egg

  2. Verification of Egg Farming Systems from The Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Karyne M; van Ruth, Saskia; Alewijn, Martin; Philips, Andy; Rogers, Pam

    2015-09-30

    Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine the isotopic variability of organic and conventional feeds and to assess trophic effects of these corresponding feeds and barn, free range, and organic farming regimens on corresponding egg albumen. A further 52 brands of New Zealand eggs were sampled from supermarket shelves in 2008 (18), 2010 (30), and 2014 (4) to characterize and monitor changes in caged, barn, free range, and organic egg farming regimens. Stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes of 49 commercial poultry feeds and their corresponding egg albumens reveals that Dutch poultry are fed exclusively on a plant-based feed and that it is possible to discriminate between conventional and organic egg farming regimens in The Netherlands. Similarly, it is possible to discriminate between New Zealand organic and conventional egg farming regimens, although in the initial screening in 2008, results showed that some organic eggs had isotope values similar to those of conventional eggs, suggesting hens were not exclusively receiving an organic diet. Dutch and New Zealand egg regimens were shown to have a low isotopic correlation between both countries, because of different poultry feed compositions. In New Zealand, both conventional and organic egg whites have higher δ(15)N values than corresponding Dutch egg whites, due to the use of fishmeal or meat and bone meal (MBM), which is banned in European countries. This study suggests that stable isotopes (specifically nitrogen) show particular promise as a screening and authentication tool for organically farmed eggs. Criteria to assess truthfulness in labeling of organic eggs were developed, and we propose that Dutch organic egg whites should have a minimum

  3. Implication of milling methods, thermal treatment, and particle size of feed in layers on mineral digestibility and retention of minerals in egg contents.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, A; Mader, A; Ruhnke, I; Röhe, I; Boroojeni, F Goodarzi; Yousaf, M S; Männer, K; Zentek, J

    2015-02-01

    Feed production with different milling methods, thermal treatment, and particle size may influence mineral digestibility and retention in eggs. The present study investigated the impact of roller (R) and hammer (H) mills, mash (M) and expandate (E) with fine (F) and coarse (C) particle sizes, on apparent ileal absorption (AIA) and apparent total digestibility (ATD) and retention of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc, manganese, copper and iron in yolk, albumen, and shell. A total of 384 hens (Lohmann Brown), 19 weeks old, were assigned using a randomized design with a 2×2×2 factorial arrangement. Eight experimental diets were offered ad libitum during the whole experimental period and one week before for diet adaption. The AIA of magnesium, zinc, copper, and iron was higher in treatment R in comparison with treatment H (P<0.01, P≤0.03, P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively). The AIA of magnesium was higher in treatment M than treatment E (P<0.01). The AIA of magnesium was higher in treatment C in comparison with treatment F (P≤0.05) due to particle size. The ATD of copper and iron was higher in treatment R than treatment H (P<0.01 and P≤0.03, respectively). The ATD was higher for phosphorus and lower for iron in treatment F than treatment C (P≤0.05 and P≤0.02. respectively). The copper concentration in yolk and albumen was higher in treatment C than treatment F (P<0.01 and P≤0.03, respectively). Besides a few overall interactions, the AIA and ATD of copper and manganese were lower in H+M group than R+M group (P≤0.05). The ATD of iron was higher in the M+C group compared to the M+F group (P<0.01), whereas the albumen zinc concentration was higher in the E+C group than E+F group (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the feed produced by hammer mill had negative effects on AIA and ATD for trace elements in particular, but mineral concentrations in egg contents were mostly comparable for all treatments. Therefore, milling methods, thermal treatment, and particle sizes

  4. Quality of organic eggs of hybrid and Italian breed hens.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, C; Marangon, A

    2012-09-01

    The quality of eggs laid by 2 hybrid and 2 Italian dual-purpose genotypes of hens reared under organic farming system was studied. Hens belonging to Hy-Line Brown (brown eggshell, HLB), Hy-Line White (white eggshell, HLW), Ermellinata di Rovigo (brown eggshell, E), and Robusta maculata (brown eggshell, R) genotypes were reared from 24 to 43 wk of age. The trial was carried out from July to December, with environmental temperature ranging from 25°C (±5°C, summer) to 13°C (±7°C, autumn). The HLB eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) than HLW (62.9 vs. 60.4 g), and R eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) than E (56.5 vs. 54.4 g). The albumen weight differed (P < 0.01) among HLB, HLW, R, and E (40.7, 38.3, 32.7, 34.1 g, respectively). The E and R yolk weights were similar (16.2 g) and higher (P < 0.01) than hybrids; HLW yolk was higher (P < 0.05) than HLB (15.8 vs. 15.5 g). The HLB showed the highest (P < 0.01, 6.74 g) shell weight and E had the lowest (P < 0.01; 5.43 g). The yolk cholesterol content was higher (P < 0.01) in the Italian eggs than in the hybrids (258 vs. 219 mg/yolk). The HLB yolk had the lowest (P < 0.01) saturated fatty acids (33.8 vs. 34.9%), and R yolks showed the lowest (P < 0.01) monounsaturated fatty acids (36.3 vs. 38.0%) and the highest (P < 0.01) polyunsaturated fatty acids (28.7 vs. 27.4%) than the other groups. The HLW yolk showed the highest (P < 0.01) n-6/n-3 ratio (13.7) in comparison to the other 3 groups (12.8). During 21 d of storage (at 21°C and 62% RH), the E eggs showed the lowest (P < 0.01) quality (albumen height, 4.93 vs. 5.56 mm; Haugh units, 71 vs. 74). A sensory profile of boiled eggs showed differences (P < 0.05) in odor and flavor sensations and in certain yolk and albumen texture properties according to genotype. The quality of organic eggs from different genotypes differs in relation to the strain but also the interaction with the environmental conditions has to be considered.

  5. Comparison of three lines of broiler breeders differing in ascites susceptibility or growth rate. 1. Relationship between acoustic resonance data and embryonic or hatching parameters.

    PubMed

    Tona, K; Kemps, B; Bruggeman, V; Bamelis, F; De Smit, L; Onagbesan, O; De Baerdemaeker, J; Decuypere, E

    2005-09-01

    Ascites is a prevalent cardiovascular disease among modern broilers with negative impacts on production and animal welfare. The peak of mortality due to ascites occurs at the end of the growing period, but the etiology of this problem may start during embryonic development. A few recent reports have demonstrated that the signs of ascites susceptibility are manifested during the late stages of incubation. In the current study, we used a nondestructive method based on egg acoustic resonance parameters [resonant frequency (RF) and damping] to establish a relationship between embryo physiological events during early development in broiler eggs and susceptibility to ascites. The hatching eggs of 3 broiler lines differing in ascites susceptibility were used for this study: ascites-resistant dam line (DAR), ascites-sensitive dam line (DAS), and ascites-sensitive sire line (SASL). These lines were selected on the basis of fast growth, high breast meat yield, and ascites induction at low temperatures such that the order of ascites susceptibility in terms of mortality was SASL > DAS > DAR. Eggs were incubated under standard conditions in forced-draft incubators. We measured egg weights at setting, albumen pH, Haugh units (HU) at setting, and embryo weights at d 11 and 18, at internal pipping (IP), and at hatch. The durations of IP, external pipping (EP), and hatching were also determined. At 2 hourly periods during incubation, egg RF and damping were also measured. There were differences in egg weights between DAR and SASL vs. DAS, but albumen HU, albumen pH, and the ratio of yolk weight to egg weight were similar. There were differences in RF, damping, embryonic growth rates, and hatching events. Changes in resonant frequency and damping, which certainly suggest eggshell differences among lines, were not totally related to variations in physiological events during early and late embryonic development. A comparison between DAR and DAS, between DAS and SASL, or DAR and SASL

  6. Use of sodium dodecyl sulfate pretreatment and 2-stage curing for improved quality of salted duck eggs.

    PubMed

    Lian, Zixuan; Qiao, Longshan; Zhu, Guanghong; Deng, Yun; Qian, Bingjun; Yue, Jin; Zhao, Yanyun

    2014-03-01

    The effects of use of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) pretreatment and 2-stage curing on the microbial, physicochemical, and microstructural qualities of salted duck eggs were studied. After pretreatment in 0.5% (w/v) SDS solution at room conditions for 15 min, no discolorations were observed and no microorganisms were detected on the egg shells. In the 2-stage curing process, 25% (w/v) and 30% (w/v) saline solutions were evaluated in the 1st step (Stage I, approximately 18 d), whereas 4% (w/v) saline solution was applied in the 2nd step (Stage II, approximately 15 d). Along with increased curing time, water content decreased and NaCl content increased in the egg yolks from approximately 0.40% to 0.86%, whereas the water content of egg albumen remained at approximately 85% during the 2-stage curing. More importantly, the NaCl content of albumen maintained at approximately 4.0% at Stage II curing. Yolk index as a sign of maturity for salted duck eggs reached 1 at the end of Stage I (18 d) and retained the same value during Stage II curing regardless of the NaCl concentration in the Stage I saline solution. Oil exudation in egg yolks increased as the time of curing increased. As seen from scanning electron microscopy, oil was released from yolk granules. This study indicated that SDS pretreatment is effective to reduce microbial load on the shells of fresh duck eggs and the 2-stage curing can improve physicochemical qualities of the salted duck eggs and shortened curing time to about 7 to 17 d as compared to the traditional 1-step curing method. Spoiled saline solution and uneven distribution of salt are the 2 major problems in producing salted duck eggs. Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) pretreatment and 2-stage curing process have shown effective to solve these problems, respectively. The SDS pretreatment was able to remove microorganisms and soil from the surface of fresh egg shells, thus preventing the spoilage of the saline solution. The 2-stage curing process

  7. Effects of dietary form of selenium on its distribution in eggs.

    PubMed

    Čobanová, Klaudia; Petrovič, Vladimír; Mellen, Martin; Arpášova, Henrieta; Grešáková, L'ubomíra; Faix, Štefan

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the selenium distribution in eggs from hens fed diets supplemented with Se from sodium selenite (SS) or selenium-enriched yeast (SY). One-day-old female chickens of Hy-Line Brown breed were randomly divided into four groups according to dietary treatments and, for the subsequent 9 months, were fed diets which differed only in the form or amount of Se supplemented. During the whole experiment, group 1 (control) was fed basal diet (BD) with only background Se level of 0.13 mg/kg dry matter (DM). Diets for groups 2 and 3 consisted of BD supplemented with an Se dose of 0.4 mg/kg DM either in the form of SS or SY, respectively. Group 4 was fed BD supplemented with 0.9 mg Se/kg DM from SY. After 9 months of dietary treatments, the Se levels in egg yolk and albumen from hens fed unsupplemented diet were almost identical whereas eggs from hens given diet supplemented with SS showed significantly higher Se deposition in yolk than in albumen (P < 0.01). On the other hand, the feed supplementation with Se doses 0.4 or 0.9 mg/kg DM from SY resulted in significantly higher Se concentration in albumen than in yolk (both P < 0.001). The total Se amounts in whole eggs from hens in groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were 5.1, 14.4, 22.7 and 31.6 μg Se/egg thus demonstrating the significantly higher (P < 0.001) selenium deposition in eggs from hens given feed enriched with SY than from birds fed diet with equivalent SS dose. Regardless of dose and source, the selenium supplementation to feeds for groups 2, 3 and 4 resulted in significantly increased α-tocopherol concentration in egg yolk compared to control group 1 (P < 0.001). The presented results demonstrate the different pattern of Se distribution in egg mass when laying hens are fed diets supplemented with inorganic or organic selenium sources.

  8. Chronic acceleration and egg production in domestic fowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.; Besch, E. L.; Burton, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    A study of the influence of chronic acceleration on egg production of commercially raised hens placed on a large animal centrifuge at 90 days of age, was performed. S8 generation hens were stepped up from 1.25 G to 2 G, which was maintained for 30 days. Fifty percent ceased to be in the laying condition at 1.5 G, and 10.8 percent suffered oviduct prolapse above 1.8 G. S21 generation hens had no incidents of oviduct prolapse despite 170-day retention at 2 G, and, assuming a 30 percent population not in the laying condition, approximated the commercial production rate. Chronic acceleration did not appear to affect the relative sizes of albumen or yolk, but it did appear to reduce the relative shell size, consistent with a decrease in plasma calcium. Dry matter content was not affected.

  9. The occurrence and production of avidin: a new conception of the high-affinity biotin-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Elo, H A; Korpela, J

    1984-01-01

    The production of avidin, a high-affinity biotin-binding egg-white protein, is not restricted to the avian, amphibian and reptilian oviducts. In the acute phase of inflammation, avidin is synthesized and secreted by various injured tissues in the domestic fowl, both male and female. Also in other avian species and a lizard, injured tissues produce an avidin-like biotin-binding factor. The non-oviductal production of avidin in domestic fowl has a great variety of inducers, for example acute inflammation caused by mechanical or thermal tissue injury, septic bacterial infection and (toxic) drugs, and even retrovirus-induced cell transformation. In culture, chicken embryo fibroblasts and yolk sac macrophages synthesize and secrete avidin. Besides the albumen, avidin may act as an antibacterial protein also in the tissues.

  10. Genotype X environment interaction in two breeds of chickens kept under two management systems in Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Bekele, Fassill; Gjøen, Hans Magnus; Kathle, Jessica; Adnøy, Tormod; Abebe, Girma

    2009-10-01

    Rhode Island Red (RIR) and Fayoumi chickens were evaluated on-station in a college farm and on-farm in village farms, whereas local chickens were only tested under on-farm condition. Traits recorded are egg production and egg quality, body weight and feed efficiency at 4, 8 and 12 months of age. Significant age effect was found for most traits except for shell thickness, albumen height and egg length. Also, significant breed by management system interactions were found for all traits measured in both systems. Fayoumi chickens were higher in egg production in both management systems. Moreover, they were higher than RIR in feed efficiency. RIR were higher in most egg quality traits and had higher weight gain. Local chickens performed below the two exotic breeds in most of the traits, but had higher weight gain than Fayoumi. Chickens kept on-farm had poorer performance than those kept on-station in all traits except for yolk colour.

  11. Research note: utilizing hazelnut kernel oil meal in layer diets.

    PubMed

    Ozen, N; Erener, G

    1992-03-01

    The present study was conducted in order to investigate the possibility of utilizing hazelnut kernel oil meal (HKOM) in layer diets as a replacement for soybean oil meal (SBM). Two hundred and sixteen brown egg layers raised in contiguous wire cages were used. The duration of the experiment was 24 wk consisting of six periods of 4 wk. In the trial, six diets containing different levels of HKOM replacing 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100% of SBM protein, respectively, were utilized as the treatments. Differences among the diets in terms of egg yield, feed consumption, feed efficiency ratio, egg weight, egg yolk and albumen ratios, shell thickness, shell weight, and Roche color values of the yolk were not statistically significant (P greater than .01). Results indicated that SBM could be replaced totally by HKOM in layer diets. However, replacement of more than 40% of SBM with HKOM is not recommended.

  12. Formation and changes of the subembryonic liquid from turned, unturned, and cultured Japanese quail eggs.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, J; Kaltner, H

    1988-08-01

    Japanese quail eggs belonging to the same flock of hens were incubated under different conditions: group 1 eggs were turned 3 times a day, group 2 eggs were left unturned, and group 3 eggs were cultured and left unturned. The results indicate that failure to turn eggs results in a delayed efflux of liquid and glucose from albumen and from the subembryonic liquid. Furthermore, the major difference between unturned and cultured eggs was that in the first group the glucose levels and in the second group the lactate levels of the subembryonic liquid were increased. It is suggested that reduced glucose supply may be involved in the disturbance of development of unturned and cultured eggs.

  13. The Incredible, Embryological Egg: Calcium and Strontium Isotopes Recapitulate Ontogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, G. W.; Skulan, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Embryological development reflects evolutionary history. Understanding the processes of fetal growth is important for curing human birth defects and predicting damage to ecosystems from environmental insults. Tracing enzymatic and hormonal gradients during development, and correlating them to genetic cues dominate modern embryology. Previous work done tracing the mass transfer of elements has generally been limited to isotope spikes in vitro. Natural mass-dependent Ca and Sr isotopic ratios and radiogenic Sr isotopes have the potential to reveal both source and biochemical mechanism information about processes in vivo, but have not previously been extensively explored. The process when a hen lays a fertilized egg that becomes a chick includes formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate (bone) and calcium carbonate (shell). Skulan and DePaolo (1999) showed that chickens have 2% δ44/42Ca between a hen's bones and an egg white; this span represents more than 80% of the entire range of natural Ca isotope variation and illustrates there is significant variation to investigate. A striking feature of archosaurian development that also occurs in many mammals, including humans, is mass transfer of calcium from mother to embryo. The yolk of the domestic hen matures over 7-9 days, but the albumen, shell membranes and shell form in less than 20 hours. Domestic laying hens are at the physiological limit of egg production and selective breeding is no longer an effective method of increasing egg production. 60-75% of the shell's ~1.5 g of calcium comes from dietary sources, while 25-40% comes from the hen's medullary bone. Medullary bone is spicules formed in the marrow of long bones, and is a store of dietary calcium rapidly available for eggshell secretion. During in ovo development, the embryo's skeleton is formed from calcium in the yolk and by bulk dissolution of the eggshell's inner aspect via carbonic anhydrase in a process that has an effect on bone density similar to

  14. Parvovirus particles and movement in the cellular cytoplasm and effects of the cytoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Lyi, Sangbom Michael; Tan, Min Jie Alvin; Parrish, Colin R

    2014-05-01

    Cell infection by parvoviruses requires that capsids be delivered from outside the cell to the cytoplasm, followed by genome trafficking to the nucleus. Here we microinject capsids into cells that lack receptors and followed their movements within the cell over time. In general the capsids remained close to the positions where they were injected, and most particles did not move to the vicinity of or enter the nucleus. When 70 kDa-dextran was injected along with the capsids that did not enter the nucleus in significant amounts. Capsids conjugated to peptides containing the SV40 large T-antigen nuclear localization signal remained in the cytoplasm, although bovine serum albumen conjugated to the same peptide entered the nucleus rapidly. No effects of disruption of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, or microtubules on the distribution of the capsids were observed. These results suggest that movement of intact capsids within cells is primarily associated with passive processes.

  15. Influence of tragacanth gum in egg white based bioplastics: Thermomechanical and water uptake properties.

    PubMed

    López-Castejón, María Luisa; Bengoechea, Carlos; García-Morales, Moisés; Martínez, Inmaculada

    2016-11-05

    This study aims to extend the range of applications of tragacanth gum by studying its incorporation into bioplastics formulation, exploring the influence that different gum contents (0-20wt.%) exert over the thermomechanical and water uptake properties of bioplastics based on egg white albumen protein (EW). The effect of plasticizer nature was also evaluated through the modification of the water/glycerol ratio within the plasticizer fraction (fixed at 40wt.%). The addition of tragacanth gum generally yielded an enhancement of the water uptake capacity, being doubled at the highest content. Conversely, presence of tragacanth gum resulted in a considerable decrease in the bioplastic mechanical properties: both tensile strength and maximum elongation were reduced up to 75% approximately when compared to the gum-free system. Ageing of selected samples was also studied, revealing an important effect of storage time when tragacanth gum is present, possibly due to its hydrophilic character. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) and the preparation of a milk substitute].

    PubMed

    Chitarra, M I; Campos, M A

    1975-01-01

    Coconut (Cocos nucifera, L.) is an abundant product in Brazil. The authors studied the use of the protein fraction to prepare "milk-substitute" beverages. The analyses were made on albumen, copra and cake. Protein coconut extraction was tried with water; NaCl solutions in different concentrations; HCl and NaOH solutions in different concentrations; HCl and NaOH solutions at different pH values. The extracted proteins were analysed for aminoacid composition and chemical score. The best results of protein extraction were obtained with NaCl 1 M solution using the ratio 100:75 (coconut:solution). The extracted proteins were coagulated with trichloroacetic acid and separated with water and analysed for aminoacid composition and solubility.

  17. Study of enrofloxacin depletion in the eggs of laying hens using diphasic dialysis extraction/purification and determinative HPLC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Lolo, M; Pedreira, S; Fente, C; Vázquez, B I; Franco, C M; Cepeda, A

    2005-04-20

    A study of the depletion of enrofloxacin residues in eggs was carried out using a diphasic dialysis procedure for the extraction of fluoroquinolone residues from the matrix. Enrofloxacin was administered to laying hens through the intramuscular route (15 mg/day) and orally (12 mg/day). After daily collection, the egg albumen and the egg yolk were separated, and the residue levels were determined using an HPLC-MS (API-ESI) method. The enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin peaks gradually increased until the fifth day, because the drug was employed for 5 days. However, differences were observed in the depletion curves of enrofloxacin and its metabolite when both parts of the egg and the mode of administration were considered.

  18. Mercury in blood and eggs of the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea from a nesting colony in Oaxaca, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Páez-Osuna, F; Calderón-Campuzano, M F; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Ruelas-Inzunza, J

    2011-06-01

    Mercury concentrations were assessed in the sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea from a nesting colony of Oaxaca, Mexico; 25 female turtles were sampled, a total of 250 eggs were collected during the season 2005-2006. Higher concentrations were found in yolk fraction, while in blood and albumen mean levels were below of 0.0010μg g(-1) dry wt. On the basis of one nesting season, the maternal transfer of Hg via eggs-laying was estimated in 2.0±1.1%. According to international norms, the health of this population and its habitats is acceptable for Hg and corresponds to baseline levels of a nearly pristine environment.

  19. Biosynthesis of galactogen: purification of a 1. -->. 6 D-galactosyltransferase from Helix pomatia

    SciTech Connect

    Goudsmit, E.M.

    1986-05-01

    A (1 ..-->.. 6) D-galactosyltransferase from a pellet fraction (8000xg) of Helix pomatia albumen gland has been purified over 2000-fold by affinity chromatography on UDP-p-amino-phenyl-Sepharose. The enzyme catalyzes transfer of D-galactose from UDP-galactose to a 1 ..-->.. 6 linkage on acceptor H. pomatia galactogen. Three other polymers served as acceptors; beef lung galactan, Lymnaea stagnalis galactogen and arabinogalactan from larch wood. To determine the linkage of added galactose termini, acceptor galactogen of H. pomatia that had been tritiated by treatment with galactose oxidase and (/sup 3/H)KBH/sub 4/ was incubated with UDP-D-galactose and purified enzyme extract. /sup 3/H-galactogen reaction product was recovered, methylated, hydrolyzed and acetylated; tritiated derivatives were identified by collection of effluent fractions from gas chromatography.

  20. Isolation of Salmonellae from Foods Samples

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Welton I.; Silliker, John H.

    1961-01-01

    A comparison of various methods of enhancing frequency of Salmonella isolations revealed that inoculation of a second enrichment broth, with culture from the first, was no improvement over the single direct enrichment method. It was inferior to centrifugation. Selenite was observed to produce more positive isolations at 48 hr than at 24. No change occurred in tetrathionate. Reconstitution of dried albumen with water produced a significant increase in isolations over direct inoculation of enrichment broth in the case of tetrathionate but not selenite broth. Pre-enrichment in lactose broth before inoculation of enrichment media was vastly superior to reconstitution in water for both enrichment broths. A comparison of results obtained using dulcitol, mannitol, lactose and carbohydrate-free purple broths in pre-enrichment indicated that the carbohydrate added was immaterial. PMID:13920002

  1. Parvovirus particles and movement in the cellular cytoplasm and effects of the cytoskeleton

    SciTech Connect

    Lyi, Sangbom Michael; Tan, Min Jie Alvin Parrish, Colin R.

    2014-05-15

    Cell infection by parvoviruses requires that capsids be delivered from outside the cell to the cytoplasm, followed by genome trafficking to the nucleus. Here we microinject capsids into cells that lack receptors and followed their movements within the cell over time. In general the capsids remained close to the positions where they were injected, and most particles did not move to the vicinity of or enter the nucleus. When 70 kDa-dextran was injected along with the capsids that did not enter the nucleus in significant amounts. Capsids conjugated to peptides containing the SV40 large T-antigen nuclear localization signal remained in the cytoplasm, although bovine serum albumen conjugated to the same peptide entered the nucleus rapidly. No effects of disruption of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, or microtubules on the distribution of the capsids were observed. These results suggest that movement of intact capsids within cells is primarily associated with passive processes.

  2. Parvovirus particles and movement in the cellular cytoplasm and effects of the cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Lyi, Sangbom Michael; Tan, Min Jie Alvin; Parrish, Colin R.

    2014-01-01

    Cell infection by parvoviruses requires that capsids be delivered from outside the cell to the cytoplasm, followed by genome trafficking to the nucleus. Here we microinject capsids into cells that lack receptors and followed their movements within the cell over time. In general the capsids remained close to the positions where they were injected, and most particles did not move to the vicinity of or enter the nucleus. When 70 kDa-dextran was injected along with the capsids that did not enter the nucleus in significant amounts. Capsids conjugated to peptides containing the SV40 large T antigen nuclear localization signal remained in the cytoplasm, although bovine serum albumen conjugated to the same peptide entered the nucleus rapidly. No effects of disruption of microfilaments, intermediate filaments, or microtubules on the distribution of the capsids were observed. These results suggest that movement of intact capsids within cells is primarily associated with passive processes. PMID:24889253

  3. Myrtoessa hyas, a new valvatiform genus and a new species of the Hydrobiidae (Caenogastropoda, Truncatelloidea) from Greece

    PubMed Central

    Radea, Canella; Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Giokas, Sinos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new to science valvatiform hydrobiid, Myrtoessa hyas Radea, gen. n. & sp. n., from southern Greece, is described and illustrated. The new genus is a tiny gastropod thriving in a stream and is differentiated from the other known European and circum-Mediterranean valvatiform hydrobiid genera by a unique combination of the male and female genitalia features i.e. penis long, flat, blunt, with wide wrinkled proximal part and narrow distal part with a sub-terminal eversible papilla on its left side, bursa copulatrix well-developed, pyriform, fully protruding from the posterior end of the albumen gland and two seminal receptacles respectively. The new monotypic and locally endemic genus is narrowly distributed and its single known population nearby a coastal bustling village is vulnerable to anthropogenic stressors. PMID:28138282

  4. Effects of Nitrogen Supplements on Degradation of Aspen Wood Lignin and Carbohydrate Components by Phanerochaete chrysosporium†

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Ian D.

    1983-01-01

    A supplement of KH2PO4, MgSO4, CaCl2, trace elements, and thiamine accelerated the initial rate of aspen wood decay by Phanerochaete chrysosporium but did not increase the extent of lignin degradation. Asparagine, casein hydrolysate, and urea supplements (1% added N) strongly inhibited lignin degradation and weight loss. The complex nitrogen sources peptone and yeast extract stimulated lignin degradation and weight loss. Albumen and NH4Cl had intermediate effects. Conversion of [14C]lignin to 14CO2 and water-soluble materials underestimated lignin degradation in the presence of the complex N sources. The highest ratio of lignin degradation to total weight loss and the largest increase in cellulase digestibility occurred during the decay of unsupplemented wood. Rotting of aspen wood by P. chrysosporium gives smaller digestibility increases than have been found with some other white-rot fungi. PMID:16346246

  5. Antimicrobial activity of lipophilic avian eggshell surface extracts.

    PubMed

    Wellman-Labadie, Olivier; Lemaire, Simon; Mann, Karlheinz; Picman, Jaroslav; Hincke, Maxwell T

    2010-09-22

    The avian eggshell cuticle is the waxy outermost layer of the mineralized eggshell in direct contact with the environment. In this study, lipophilic eggshell surface extracts from three domestic species were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity. Chicken and goose extracts demonstrated potent bactericidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, while activity could not be detected for duck eggshell surface extracts. Using the chicken as a model species, evaluation of albumen, fecal material, and uropygial gland extracts eliminated these as a potential source of the observed activity. Results suggest that lipophilic components are incorporated into the egg during its formation and play a role in antimicrobial defense. This study represents the first successful extraction and evaluation of lipophilic antimicrobial components from the avian egg.

  6. [The analysis of tincture for improvement of blood circulation].

    PubMed

    Bernatoniene, Rūta; Bernatoniene, Jurga; Ramanauskiene, Kristina

    2004-01-01

    The article describes qualitative and quantitative analysis of tincture for improvement of blood circulation. Flavonoids have been qualitatively determined by methods of thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography and color reaction with magnesium powder and concentrated hydrochloric acid. Ferments were identified with ferric ammonium sulphate solution; glycosides--with dimethylaminobenzaldehyde solution in sulphur acid; saponin--with lead subacetate solution; reductive materials - with silver nitrate ammoniacal solution; albumen--with ninhydrin solution; and caffeic acid--by method of thin-layer chromatography. An optimal spectrophotometrical method for determining the quantity of quercetin was applied. The refractive index, relative density, loss of drying and ethanol concentration were determined according to European Pharmacopoeia Requirements.

  7. Distribution of toxigenic Fusarium spp. and mycotoxin production in milling fractions of durum wheat.

    PubMed

    Pinson-Gadais, Laetitia; Barreau, Christian; Chaurand, Marc; Gregoire, Stephanie; Monmarson, Magalie; Richard-Forget, Florence

    2007-01-01

    A reliable and sensitive PCR assay to specifically detect trichothecene-producing Fusarium spp. in milling fractions and kernel tissue of naturally infected durum wheat is reported. Assays were based on a combination of primers derived from the trichodiene synthase and the beta-tubulin genes. The occurrence of toxigenic Fusarium spp. in semolina and wheat tissue (grain ends, crease, pericarp, aleurone layer, germ and albumen) was detected, even for a weakly contaminated wheat sample. Penetration of toxigenic Fusarium spp. into the interior of durum wheat kernel was demonstrated for the Nefer variety, indicating that none of the tissue structures within the wheat kernel acted as an effective barrier to fungal invasion. Moreover, after inoculation by toxigenic Fusarium strains, semolina was shown to allow high yields of trichothecenes, while bran was demonstrated to contain biochemical inhibitors able to significantly reduce trichothecene production. These results will be useful in improving breeding strategies to control trichothecene contamination of durum wheat kernels.

  8. Chronic acceleration and egg production in domestic fowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, A. H.; Besch, E. L.; Burton, R. R.

    1985-01-01

    A study of the influence of chronic acceleration on egg production of commercially raised hens placed on a large animal centrifuge at 90 days of age, was performed. S8 generation hens were stepped up from 1.25 G to 2 G, which was maintained for 30 days. Fifty percent ceased to be in the laying condition at 1.5 G, and 10.8 percent suffered oviduct prolapse above 1.8 G. S21 generation hens had no incidents of oviduct prolapse despite 170-day retention at 2 G, and, assuming a 30 percent population not in the laying condition, approximated the commercial production rate. Chronic acceleration did not appear to affect the relative sizes of albumen or yolk, but it did appear to reduce the relative shell size, consistent with a decrease in plasma calcium. Dry matter content was not affected.

  9. Physical characteristics and chemical composition of Lesser Rhea (Pterocnemia pennata) eggs from farmed populations.

    PubMed

    Navarro, J L; Barri, F R; Maestri, D M; Labuckas, D O; Martella, M B

    2003-09-01

    1. Eggs from 4 farmed populations of Lesser Rhea (Pterocnemia pennata) were studied to determine their physical and chemical characteristics. 2. None of the physical variables (weight of whole egg, yolk, albumen and shell; proportion of yolk based on egg content; proportion of shell based on entire egg weight; volume; density) showed significant differences between populations. 3. Among chemical variables, moisture, both saturated fatty acids (palmitic 16:0 and stearic 18:0), one monounsaturated fatty acid (palmitoleic 16:1), and one polyunsaturated fatty acid (arachidonic 20:4), did not differ between populations, whereas other variables (protein, lipid and ash contents; fatty acids: oleic 18:1, linoleic 18:2, linolenic 18:3; PUFA; PUFA/SFA; cholesterol) differed significantly.

  10. Mercury accumulation and loss in mallard eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were fed diets containing 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury as methylmercury chloride. One egg was collected from each bird before the start of the mercury diets and 15 eggs were collected from each bird while it was being fed mercury. The mercury diets were then replaced by uncontaminated diets, and each female was allowed to lay 29 more eggs. Mercury levels in eggs rose to about 7,18, and 35 ppm wet-weight in females fed 5,10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Mercury levels fell to about 0.16,0.80, and 1.7 ppm in the last egg laid by birds that had earlier been fed 5, 10, or 20 ppm mercury, respectively. Higher concentrations of mercury were found in egg albumen than in yolk, and between 95 and 100% of the mercury in the eggs was in the form of methylmercury.

  11. Isolation and detection of microRNA from the egg of chickens.

    PubMed

    Wade, Ben; Cummins, Michelle; Keyburn, Anthony; Crowley, Tamsyn M

    2016-05-23

    The egg is a vital part of the chicken developmental process and an important protein source for humans. Despite the chicken egg being a subject of intense research little attention has been given to the role of microRNAs within the egg. We report a method for the reproducible and reliable isolation of miRNA from the albumen and yolk of chicken eggs. We also report the detection via real-time PCR of a number of miRNAs from both of these biological fluids. These findings provide an interesting look into the chicken egg and raise questions as to the role that miRNAs maybe playing in the chicken egg. This method of detecting miRNAs in chicken eggs will allow researchers to investigate the presence of an additional level of epigenetic programming in chick development previously unknown and also how this impacts the nutritional value of eggs for human consumption.

  12. The impact of different housing systems on egg safety and quality.

    PubMed

    Holt, P S; Davies, R H; Dewulf, J; Gast, R K; Huwe, J K; Jones, D R; Waltman, D; Willian, K R

    2011-01-01

    A move from conventional cages to either an enriched cage or a noncage system may affect the safety or quality, or both, of the eggs laid by hens raised in this new environment. The safety of the eggs may be altered either microbiologically through contamination of internal contents with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis) or other pathogens, or both, or chemically due to contamination of internal contents with dioxins, pesticides, or heavy metals. Quality may be affected through changes in the integrity of the shell, yolk, or albumen along with changes in function, composition, or nutrition. Season, hen breed, flock age, and flock disease-vaccination status also interact to affect egg safety and quality and must be taken into account. An understanding of these different effects is prudent before any large-scale move to an alternative housing system is undertaken.

  13. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 :l/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose?response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this orientation

  14. Factors affecting the toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Kondrad, S.L.; Erwin, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a standardized protocol for comparing the sensitivities of the embryos of different bird species to methylmercury when methylmercury was injected into their eggs. During the course of developing this protocol, we investigated the effects of various factors on the toxicity of the injected methylmercury. Most of our experiments were done with chicken (Gallus domesticus), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) eggs, all of which were purchased in large numbers from game farms. A smaller amount of work was done with double-crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) eggs collected from the wild. Several solvents were tested, and corn oil at a rate of 1 ??l/g egg contents was selected for the final standardized protocol because it had minimal toxicity to embryos and because methylmercury dissolved in corn oil yielded a dose-response curve in a range of egg concentrations that was similar to the range that causes reproductive impairment when the mother deposits methylmercury into her own eggs. The embryonic stage at which eggs were injected with corn oil altered mercury toxicity; at early stages, the corn oil itself was toxic. Therefore, in the final protocol we standardized the time of injection to occur when each species reached the morphologic equivalent of a 3-day-old chicken embryo. Although solvents can be injected directly into the albumen of an egg, high embryo mortality can occur in the solvent controls because of the formation of air bubbles in the albumen. Our final protocol used corn oil injections into the air cell, which are easier and safer than albumen injections. Most of the methylmercury, when dissolved in corn oil, injected into the air cell passes through the inner shell membrane and into the egg albumen. Most commercial incubators incubate eggs in trays with the air cell end of the egg pointing upward, but we discovered that mercury-induced mortality was too great when eggs were held in this

  15. Mercury residues in pintails breeding in North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krapu, G.L.; Swanson, G.A.; Nelson, H.K.

    1973-01-01

    Livers of 42 pintail hens (Anas acuta) breeding in eastern North Dakota during the spring and early summer of 1969 and 1970 were analyzed for total mercury by the neutron activation technique. Mercury content on a wet weight basis ranged from 0.055 ppm to 9.512 ppm and averaged 0.888 i?? 1.796 ppm (SD). Liver mercury levels of hens collected in early spring (prior to planting of crops) were significantly lower than those of hens taken late in the nesting season (P 0.05). Albumen mercury residue was correlated with liver mercury content (r = 0.756, P < 0.05). Mercury content in livers of five wild juveniles averaged 0.123 i?? 0.074 ppm.

  16. In vitro penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis through yolk membranes of eggs from 6 genetically distinct commercial lines of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gast, R K; Jones, D R; Anderson, K E; Guraya, R; Guard, J; Holt, P S

    2010-08-01

    Although deposition of Salmonella Enteritidis inside yolks is less common than deposition in albumen or on the vitelline (yolk) membrane in naturally contaminated eggs laid by infected hens, bacterial migration into the yolk to reach its nutrient-rich contents could lead to extensive multiplication. The present study used an in vitro egg contamination model to assess the ability of small initial numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis to penetrate the vitelline membrane and multiply inside yolks of eggs laid by 6 genetically distinct commercial lines of hens during 24 h of storage at 30 degrees C. Eggs from each line were tested at 4 different hen ages by inoculation of approximately 100 cfu of Salmonella Enteritidis onto the outside of the vitelline membranes of intact yolks in plastic centrifuge tubes and then adding back the albumen into each tube before incubation. Overall, the frequency of penetration of Salmonella Enteritidis into the yolk contents of eggs from individual lines of hens ranged from 30 to 58% and the mean concentration of Salmonella Enteritidis in yolk contents after incubation ranged from 0.8 to 2.0 log(10) cfu/mL. For both of these parameters, values for one hen line were significantly higher than for 2 other lines, but no other differences were observed. Hen age did not have a significant effect on egg yolk penetration by Salmonella Enteritidis. These results indicate that opportunities for the migration and growth of small initial numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis to attain more dangerous levels inside contaminated eggs during storage at warm temperatures can sometimes vary between different lines of laying hens.

  17. Growth and survival of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104 in liquid egg products.

    PubMed

    Musgrove, Michael T; Mcquestin, Olivia J; Tamplin, Mark; Kelley, Lynda C

    2009-09-01

    Since 11 September 2001, quality and food safety are no longer the concerns of only consumers, industry, regulatory agencies, or other government officials. Liquid foods that are prepared or stored in bulk, including liquid egg products, are considered to be at potential risk for sabotage. Because of their versatility, low price, and functional properties, many of these products are being marketed. Four of the most common products of this type are whole egg, egg albumen, 10% sugared yolk, and 10% salted yolk. Although all of the serotypes of Salmonella enterica may cause illness, multidrug-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 has become widespread and can cause severe illness that is difficult to treat. Studies were conducted to determine growth patterns of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in four commercial liquid egg products held at 4, 10, 20, 30, 37, and 42 degrees C for 0 to 384 h. All experiments were performed in duplicate and repeated twice. Standard methods were used to estimate cell numbers, and log CFU per gram of egg product was plotted against time. The number of cells of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 increased to 8 to 9 log CFU/g in whole egg and 10% sugared yolk, increased by 1 log CFU/g in liquid albumen, but decreased by 3 log CFU/g in 10% salted yolk. Data from this study have been archived in the ComBase database to further assist policy makers or other scientists interested in Salmonella growth characteristics in liquid eggs. However, based on data generated in this study, Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 probably does not constitute a food threat agent in liquid eggs.

  18. Regulation of egg quality and lipids metabolism by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong; Li, Lan; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Liu, Xin-Qi; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Ding, Zhao-Peng; Wang, Shi-Wen; Shen, Wei; Min, Ling-Jiang; Hao, Zhi-Hui

    2016-04-01

    This investigation was designed to explore the effects of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles (ZnO NP) on egg quality and the mechanism of decreasing of yolk lipids. Different concentration of ZnO NP and ZnSO4 were used to treat hens for 24 weeks. The body weight and egg laying frequency were recorded and analyzed. Albumen height, Haugh unit, and yolk color score were analyzed by an Egg Multi Tester. Breaking strength was determined by an Egg Force Reader. Egg shell thickness was measured using an Egg Shell Thickness Gouge. Shell color was detected by a spectrophotometer. Egg shape index was measured by Egg Form Coefficient Measuring Instrument. Albumen and yolk protein was determined by the Kjeldahl method. Amino acids were determined by an amino acids analyzer. Trace elements Zn, Fe, Cu, and P (mg/kg wet mass) were determined in digested solutions using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry. TC and TG were measured using commercial analytical kits. Yolk triglyceride, total cholesterol, pancreatic lipase, and phospholipids were determined by appropriate kits. β-carotene was determined by spectrophotometry. Lipid metabolism was also investigated with liver, plasma, and ovary samples. ZnO NP did not change the body weight of hens during the treatment period. ZnO NP slowed down egg laying frequency at the beginning of egg laying period but not at later time. ZnO NP did not affect egg protein or water contents, slightly decreased egg physical parameters (12 to 30%) and trace elements (20 to 35%) after 24 weeks treatment. However, yolk lipids content were significantly decreased by ZnO NP (20 to 35%). The mechanism of Zinc oxide nanoparticles decreasing yolk lipids was that they decreased the synthesis of lipids and increased lipid digestion. These data suggested ZnO NP affected egg quality and specifically regulated lipids metabolism in hens through altering the function of hen's ovary and liver. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Transfer of maternal immunoglobulins and antibodies to Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae to the allantoic and amniotic fluid of chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Bencina, Dusan; Narat, Mojca; Bidovec, Andrej; Zorman-Rojs, Olga

    2005-12-01

    Maternal antibodies can protect avian embryos against vertically transmitted pathogens during embryogenesis and also young birds after hatching. In contrast to the well-known transfer of maternal immunoglobulin (Ig) G (also termed IgY) from the yolk to embryonic blood, information about the transfer of IgA, IgG and IgM from the egg albumen to the extra-embryonic fluids is very limited. In our study, IgA, IgG and IgM to Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Mycoplasma synoviae were detected in oviduct washings of naturally infected hens and in the corresponding egg albumen samples. In their progeny embryos, IgA, IgG and IgM antibodies to these Mycoplasma species were detected in the allantoic fluid (ALF) and amniotic fluid (AMF) on day 14 of embryonic development (ED). Examination of embryos from chickens immunized with antigens of M. synoviae revealed that the appearance of IgA and IgG and of antibodies to M. synoviae in ALF could vary even among embryos of the same dam. However, IgA, IgG and IgM were detected as early as day 7 of ED in ALF and AMF in certain embryos from hens infected with M. synoviae. In five groups of embryos examined on day 7, IgG to M.synoviae was found in 51% of ALF and 33% of AMF samples. M. synoviae was isolated from 2.3% of ALF samples. IgA to M. synoviae appeared in ALF and AMF on day 12 of ED, and could be found in the majority of AMF samples examined from day 14 onwards. IgM to M. synoviae appeared in AMF on day 13 and in ALF on day 14, but was detected in those fluids less frequently than IgA or IgG.

  20. Evaluation of Muscodor cinnamomi as an egg biofumigant for the reduction of microorganisms on eggshell surfaces and its effect on egg quality.

    PubMed

    Suwannarach, Nakarin; Kaewyana, Chariya; Yodmeeklin, Arpaporn; Kumla, Jaturong; Matsui, Kenji; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2017-03-06

    The presence of microorganisms on the eggshell surface is a factor of consideration in determining egg quality. These microorganisms can contribute to egg spoilage and can infect the egg. In this study, 18 morphotypes of microorganisms were isolated from eggshells. Morphological, biochemical, physiological and molecular analyses were used to identify these morphotypes into 7 species; Bacillus drentensis, Staphylococcus arlettae, Stap. cohnii, Stap. kloosii, Stap. saprophyticus, Stap. sciuri and Stap. xylosus. The potential of Muscodor cinnamomi to reduce the presence of microorganisms on eggshells by biological fumigation was investigated. The result showed that 16 strains of the tested microorganisms were inactivated after the exposure of the fungal volatile organic compounds. The most abundant compound was 2-methylpropanoic acid, followed by 3-methylbutan-1-ol. Our results indicated that a 24-h period of fumigation of 100g rye grain culture of M. cinnamomi was the minimum dose that could significantly reduce the number of microorganisms on the eggshell surface. Fumigated eggs from both box and cabinet fumigation trials showed significantly lower microbial numbers on the eggshell than non-fumigated eggs during the storage period of 14days. It was found that the values of the yolk index, albumen index and the Haugh unit of the eggs decreased during this storage time. However, those values of the fumigated eggs from both fumigation trials were found to be significantly higher than the non-fumigated eggs after the 24-h fumigation period and following storage for 5, 7 and 14days. However, the values of the albumen index were not found to have significantly increased over 5days of the box trial. This study is the first to report on mycofumigation activity for the purposes of reducing the presence of microorganisms on the surface of eggshells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance, egg quality, and immune response of laying hens fed diets supplemented with mannan-oligosaccharide or an essential oil mixture under moderate and hot environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, M; Küçükyilmaz, K; Catli, A U; Cinar, M; Bintas, E; Cöven, F

    2012-06-01

    In total, 432 thirty-six-week-old laying hens were fed a basal diet supplemented with mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) or an essential oil mixture (EOM) from 36 to 51 wk of age. Hens were divided into 3 equal groups replicated 6 times with 24 hens per replicate. No significant difference was observed among the dietary treatments in terms of performance indices. Different from the dietary manipulation, high environmental temperatures negatively influenced all of the laying performance traits except the feed conversion ratio in association with the diminished feed consumption. The MOS, and particularly the EOM, tended to alleviate the deleterious effect of heat stress on BW gain. Mortality was higher in MOS-fed hens than with other treatments. A supplementation diet with MOS or EOM provided increments in eggshell weight (P < 0.01). Relative albumen weight was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in response to EOM or MOS supplementation; however, this was not the case in the yolk weight rate. The MOS decreased albumen height and Haugh unit (P < 0.05). High environmental temperatures hampered entire egg quality characteristics except for the eggshell breaking strength and egg yolk weight. These results indicated that heat stress adversely affected both productive performance and egg quality. As for the results of this study, neither MOS nor EOM was efficacious in improving efficiency of egg production and stimulating humoral immune response in laying hens reared under moderate and hot climatic conditions. However, the ameliorative effect exerted by MOS and EOM on eggshell characteristics is conclusive.

  2. Lysine partitioning in broiler breeders is not affected by energy or protein intake when fed at current industry levels.

    PubMed

    Ekmay, R D; Salas, C; England, J; Cerrate, S; Coon, C N

    2014-07-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary energy and protein intake on the partitioning of lysine in broiler breeder hens. One hundred twenty-six broiler breeders were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 (390, 450 kcal/d) × 3 (22, 24, 26 g of CP/d) fashion. Thirty-six hens were administered a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (15)N-Lys for a period of 2 wk or until first egg. After the 2-wk enrichment period, no isotopes were given for 2 d. After 2 d, a daily oral dose of 15 mg of (2)D4-Lys was administered until the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th egg (saved) after the initial (2)D4-Lys was given, at which point pectoralis muscle was sampled. Weeks 25, 29, and 45 were assessed. Isotopic enrichment of pectoralis muscle, egg yolk, and albumen was determined via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The (15)N-Lys was intended to represent endogenous lysine, whereas the (2)D4-Lys was intended to represent dietary lysine. Greater than 78% of all labeled lysine ((15)N and (2)D4-Lys) was found in breast muscle. Endogenous muscle was the main source of lysine for yolk formation at wk 25 and 45. Diet was the main source of lysine for albumen formation at wk 25 and 29. A consistent decrease in the (15)N-Lys in breast muscle from the 2nd to the 3rd egg was observed, while also seeing an increase in the (15)N-Lys in the egg from the 3rd to the 4th egg. No difference in the partitioning of lysine was determined by energy or protein intake at levels typical for the current poultry industry. Rather, age, and possibly rate of production, appear to be the main drivers of lysine partitioning in the broiler breeder hen.

  3. Effects of Chinese herbal mixture on performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; He, W L; Wang, Z B; Xu, T S

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of Chinese herbal mixture (CHM) in laying hen diets on performance, egg quality and egg nutrition components, as well as selected blood biochemical parameters. A total of 270 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 24 week of age, were randomly distributed into three dietary treatments and fed for 6 week. The CHM was used at the levels of 0%, 0.5% and 1.0% in the diets of the control and two treatment groups respectively. Each dietary treatment was divided into five replicates, comprising of 18 hens each. Hens were housed in a 3-tier battery system. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Blood samples and eggs were collected at the end of the experiment. The results showed that dietary treatments did not affect egg weight, mortality, eggshell thickness, albumen height, Haugh units, eggshell-breaking strength and egg-shape index. Dietary supplementation of CHM significantly improved (p < 0.05) laying rate and the lowest feed conversion ratio were observed with 1.0% CHM supplementation diets. CHM supplementation decreased (p < 0.05) cracked-egg rate, egg yolk cholesterol, blood serum levels of cholesterol, triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and increased blood serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). No differences in serum total protein, serum albumen, serum glucose and aspartate amino transferase (AST) were observed in hens fed CHM. In conclusion, dietary supplementation with CHM improved egg production and egg quality and reduced serum cholesterol concentrations in laying hens. Dietary supplementation of 1.0% CHM in layer diets may be a feasible means of producing eggs with lower cholesterol and higher egg yolk phospholipid contents for health conscious consumers.

  4. Egg characteristics and hatch performance of Athens Canadian Random Bred 1955 meat-type chickens and 2013 Cobb 500 broilers.

    PubMed

    Collins, K E; McLendon, B L; Wilson, J L

    2014-09-01

    Athens Canadian Random Bred (ACRB) chickens, a 1955 meat-type control strain, were incubated with the 2013 Cobb 500 broiler to determine differences in egg composition, conductance values, incubation duration, hatch performance, and yolk utilization. Unincubated ACRB eggs had greater percentage solids than Cobb 500 eggs. The ACRB eggs had a greater solid portion as yolk, whereas the Cobb 500 devoted more solid percentage to albumen. Percentage shell was not different between the strains, but ACRB eggs had 2.7% greater percentage moisture loss after 18 d of incubation than Cobb 500 eggs. Conductance, conductance constant, and conductance standardized to a 100 g egg weight basis were all higher for ACRB eggs than Cobb 500 eggs at 12 and 18 d of incubation. The Cobb 500 chicks hatched 6 h earlier than ACRB chicks. The Cobb 500 incubation duration was 498 h, and the ACRB incubation duration was 504 h. There was no difference between the strains for percentage infertile eggs, embryonic mortality, hatchability, or salable chicks. The ACRB chicks hatched with a smaller dried residual yolk sac as a percentage of chick weight compared with the Cobb 500. Both strains had an average relative yolk-free chick weight of 61% of average initial egg weight. Thus the Cobb 500 eggs had decreased gas exchange across the eggshell, which may have contributed to the earlier hatch and decreased yolk utilization. Modern Cobb 500 broiler embryonic metabolism appears to have either become more dependent on albumen rather than yolk or has become more efficient with yolk reserves during development. Broiler hatch performance does not appear to have changed over the past 58 yr.

  5. Effects of the usage of dried brewing yeast in the diets on the performance, egg traits and blood parameters in quails.

    PubMed

    Yalçın, S; Erol, H; Ozsoy, B; Onbaşılar, I; Yalçın, S

    2008-12-01

    This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of the usage of dried brewing yeast in quail diets on laying performance, egg traits and blood parameters. A total of 240 Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) aged 10 weeks were randomly allocated into one control group and three treatment groups. Each group was divided into five replicates as subgroups, comprising 12 quails each. Dried brewing yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) was used at the levels of 1.5%, 3.0% and 4.5% in the diets of the first, second and third treatment groups, respectively. Soyabean meal was replaced with dried brewing yeast. The diets were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous. The experimental period lasted 18 weeks. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect body weight, daily feed intake, daily protein intake, egg production, egg weight, feed efficiency, mortality, egg shell thickness, egg albumen index, egg yolk index, egg Haugh unit, the percentages of egg shell, albumen and yolk, excreta moisture and small intestinal pH. Inclusion of 3% and 4.5% dried brewing yeast in diets reduced egg yolk cholesterol concentration as mg per yolk and mg per g yolk (P < 0.01). Blood serum cholesterol of groups fed diets with dried brewing yeast was significantly lower (P < 0.01) than that of the control group. Feeding diets containing 3.0% and 4.5% dried brewing yeast resulted in significant increases (P < 0.01) in blood serum levels of total protein, alanine aminotransferase at the end of the experiment. Blood serum levels of uric acid, triglyceride, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase were not affected by dietary dried brewing yeast. It is concluded that dried brewing yeast can be used up to 4.5% in the diets of laying quails without adverse effects on the measured parameters.

  6. Effects of experimental Angiostrongylus cantonensis infection on the reproductive biology of Biomphalaria straminea and Biomphalaria tenagophila.

    PubMed

    Lima, Mariana G; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius M; Bonfim, Tatiane Cristina S; Gaudêncio, Fabrício N; Garcia, Juberlan S; Maldonado, Arnaldo; Pinheiro, Jairo; Thiengo, Silvana C

    2017-10-01

    Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is an endemic zoonosis in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Islands, but in recent years, new cases have been reported in various countries outside these regions, including Brazil, where it is considered an emerging disease. In this study, the effect of infection by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, one of the main etiologic agent of this disease, on the reproductive biology of the planorbid snails Biomphalaria straminea and B. tenagophila was investigated during the pre-patent period. Alterations in the reproductive biology of B. straminea and B. tenagophila were analyzed in laboratory-reared specimens infected by A. cantonensis during 21days; the number of eggs, number of egg masses, number of eggs/mass, number of eggs/snail, viable eggs/snail, survival and galactogen content in the albumen gland were measured. The results indicated the occurrence of initial compensation in reproductive effort in both snail species, but at different moments in the pre-patent period. More specifically, a reduction of 46.53% in the eggs/egg mass ratio in infected B. straminea was observed, a reflection of a 50% decline in the concentration of galactogen contained in the albumen gland. Changes in this parameter were also noted in B. tenagophila, but only at the end of the study period, with a reduction of 15.49%. Histological analyses indicate that changes observed can be explained by the tissue damages caused by the migration and development of the larvae. These results shed more light on the host-parasite relationship and indicate the importance of studying reproductive aspects for efforts to control infected snails. Considering that terrestrial snails can also transmit eosinophilic meningitis (in addition to aquatic mollusks), the data obtained expand knowledge of this host-parasite relationship and provide support for programs to control this zoonosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [A comparison on radiochemical behavior and biological property of antisense oligonucleotide labeled with technetium-99m by two methods: NHS-MAG3 versus SHNHP].

    PubMed

    Li, Yunchun; Tan, Tianzhi; Zheng, Jianguo; Zhang, Chun

    2008-08-01

    This study was undertaken to explore and compare the radiochemical behavior and biological property of antisense oligonucleotide (ASON) labeled with Technetium-99m using two methods: N-hydroxysuccinimidyl S-acetylmercaptoacetyltriglycline (NHS-MAG3) versus hydrazino nicotinamide derivative (SHNH). After SHNH and NHS-MAG3 were synthesized, ASON was labeled with Technetium-99m using SHNH and NHS-MAG3 as a bifunctional chelator, separately. The stability in vivo and in vitro, the combination with plasma albumen of rabbit, the biodistribution in BALB/ C mice and the HT29 cellular uptake were compared between labeled compound 99mTc-SHNH-ASON, using SHNH as a bifunctional complex reagent, and 99mTc-MAG3-ASON, using NHS-MAG3 as a bifunctional chelator. The results revealed that the labeling rate and the stability of 99mTc-MAG3-ASON were evidently higher than that of 99mTc-SHNH-ASON (P < 0.05), the combination rate of 99mTc-MAG3-ASON with plasma albumen was markedly lower than that of 99mTc-SHNH-ASON (P < 0.05); the biodistribution of 99mTc-MAG3-ASON was markedly lower than that of 99mTc-SHNH-ASON in blood, heart, stomach and intestines (P < 0.05), slightly lower than that of 99mTc-SHNH-ASON in liver and spleen (P > 0.05), and markedly higher than that of 99mTc-SHNH-ASON in kidney (P < 0.05); the HT29 cellular uptake rates of 99mTc-MAG3-ASON was markedly higher than that of 99mTc-SHNH-ASON (P < 0.05). Therefore, the radiochemical behavior and biological property of 99mTc-MAG3-ASON labeled using NHS-MAG3 is better than that of 99mTc-SHNH-ASON labeled using SHNH.

  8. Effect of nutrient density on performance, egg components, egg solids, egg quality, and profits in eight commercial leghorn strains during phase one.

    PubMed

    Wu, G; Bryant, M M; Gunawardana, P; Roland, D A

    2007-04-01

    This study was a 3 x 8 factorial arrangement of 3 nutrient densities (low, medium, and high) and 8 commercial Leghorn strains. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of increasing both dietary energy and other nutrients (amino acids, Ca, and available P) on performance, egg composition, egg solids, egg quality, and profits in 8 commercial Leghorn strains during phase 1 (from 21 to 36 wk of age). This experiment lasted 16 wk. Eight strains of hens (n = 270 of each strain) at 21 wk of age were randomly divided into 24 treatments (6 replicates of 15 birds/treatment). There were no interactions between strain and diet except for BW. Strain had a significant effect on all measured parameters except mortality, whole egg solids, and yolk color. As nutrient density increased, hens linearly adjusted feed intake to achieve similar energy intakes so that the similar quantities of dietary energy (5.8 to 5.9 kcal) were used to produce 1 g of egg. As nutrient density increased, egg mass linearly increased, and feed conversion linearly improved. Egg-specific gravity and Haugh unit linearly decreased with increasing nutrient density. There was a quadratic response of the percentage of albumen solids to the increased nutrient density. Increasing both dietary energy and other nutrient (amino acids, Ca, and available P) contents significantly increased yolk and albumen weight at the same time, resulting in a significant increase of egg weight during early egg production. Egg weight may be maximized to genetic potential by increasing both dietary energy and other nutrient (amino acids, Ca, and available P) contents during early egg production. Because egg prices and ingredient prices often change, there can be no fixed optimal nutrient density for optimal profits.

  9. Effect of Restricted Preen-Gland Access on Maternal Self Maintenance and Reproductive Investment in Mallards

    PubMed Central

    Giraudeau, Mathieu; Czirják, Gábor Á.; Duval, Camille; Bretagnolle, Vincent; Eraud, Cyril; McGraw, Kevin J.; Heeb, Philipp

    2010-01-01

    Background As egg production and offspring care are costly, females should invest resources adaptively into their eggs to optimize current offspring quality and their own lifetime reproductive success. Parasite infections can influence maternal investment decisions due to their multiple negative physiological effects. The act of preening – applying oils with anti-microbial properties to feathers – is thought to be a means by which birds combat pathogens and parasites, but little is known of how preening during the reproductive period (and its expected disease-protecting effects) influences maternal investment decisions at the level of the egg. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we experimentally prevented female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from accessing their preen gland during breeding and monitored female immunoresponsiveness (e.g., plasma lysozyme concentration) as well as some egg traits linked to offspring quality (e.g., egg mass, yolk carotenoid content, and albumen lysozyme levels). Females with no access to their preen gland showed an increase in plasma lysozyme level compared to control, normally preening females. In addition, preen-gland-restricted females laid significantly lighter eggs and deposited higher carotenoid concentrations in the yolk compared to control females. Albumen lysozyme activity did not differ significantly between eggs laid by females with or without preen gland access. Conclusion/Significance Our results establish a new link between an important avian self-maintenance behaviour and aspects of maternal health and reproduction. We suggest that higher yolk carotenoid levels in eggs laid by preen-gland-restricted females may serve to boost health of offspring that would hatch in a comparatively microbe-rich environment. PMID:21048952

  10. Factors affecting thermal resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis ODA 99-30581-13 in shell egg contents and use of heat-ozone combinations for egg pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer J; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2013-02-01

    Infection of laying hens with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis leads to deposition of the pathogen into the albumen or yolk of forming eggs. Heat treatment can inactivate internalized Salmonella Enteritidis in shell eggs, but factors such as the nature and location of contamination may influence the efficacy of thermal treatments. In the current research, natural contamination was mimicked by introducing small inocula of Salmonella Enteritidis into different locations of shell eggs and incubating inoculated eggs. These pathogen-containing eggs were heated at 57°C for 40 min, and temperature within eggs was monitored at the locations of inocula. Comparison of inactivation at equivalent internal temperatures revealed similar levels of lethality regardless of inoculum location. Refrigeration between incubation and heat treatment did not increase thermal resistance of cells in albumen but decreased cell inactivation in yolk. Sequential application of heat and gaseous ozone allows for the development of a process capable of decontaminating shell eggs with minimal thermal treatment and impact on egg quality. Inoculated eggs were subjected to (i) an immersion heating process similar to that used in commercial pasteurization or (ii) immersion heating, at reduced duration, followed by vacuum (50.8 kPa) and treatment with ozone gas (maximum 160 g/m(3)) under pressure (∼187.5 kPa). All treatments tested produced greater than 5-log inactivation, which is required for "pasteurization" processes. Differences were observed in the visual quality of eggs depending on treatment parameters. Application of ozone subsequent to heating allows for a significant reduction in heating time without decreasing process lethality.

  11. Identification of haplotypes in promoter of prolactin gene and their effect on egg production and quality traits in layer chicken.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, T K; Chatterjee, R N; Sharma, R P; Niranjan, M; Rajkumar, U; Reddy, B L N

    2011-04-01

    Expression of prolactin hormone is a crucial event in regulating egg production in chickens for which promoter plays the vital role in expressing the prolactin gene. The objective of the present study was to identify haplotypes in the prolactin promoter and their effects on egg production and egg quality traits in White Leghorn chicken. Single stranded conformation polymorphism followed by sequencing was conducted to explore polymorphism at 561 bp promoter of prolactin gene. The effect of haplotype combinations on egg production and quality traits were estimated following general linear model technique. The expression of prolactin by different haplogroups was quantified by qPCR. Total 28 haplotypes were found in White Leghorn chicken of which h1 haplotype possessed the highest frequency of 0.46 and h8, h14, h16, h25, h26, and h28 haplotypes had the lowest frequency (0.1%). The egg production up to 52 and 64 weeks of age were found to be significantly (p < 0.05) associated with haplotype combinations where the highest 52-w (52 weeks) egg production was found in animals with h1/h22 combination and the lowest production was observed in the birds with h1/h2 haplogroup. The haplotype combinations had the significant effect (p < 0.05) on Haugh Unit, yolk index and albumen weight at 40 weeks of age; Haugh Unit and albumen weight at 52 weeks of age and Haugh unit, yolk weight and yolk percentage at 64 weeks of age. The prolactin expression in h1/h22 birds was found to be the lowest and in h1/h5 birds to be the highest. The prolactin expression showed significant effect on 52-w egg production and albumin weight at 52 weeks age. In conclusion, it may be stated that the prolactin promoter was highly polymorphic and had the significant association with egg production and quality traits in White Leghorn chicken.

  12. Oxidative stability and sensory and functional properties of eggs from laying hens fed supranutritional doses of vitamins E and C.

    PubMed

    Franchini, A; Sirri, F; Tallarico, N; Minelli, G; Iaffaldano, N; Meluzzi, A

    2002-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of two dietary doses of vitamins E and C supplemented separately and together, on the content of vitamin E in the yolk, on the lipid stability of fresh and stored eggs, and on their sensory and functional properties. Hy-Line Brown hens (n = 216) received a basal diet for 8 wk supplemented with 100 or 200 mg DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (E100 or E200, respectively)/kg, 500 or 1,000 mg ascorbic acid (C500 and C1000, respectively)/kg, or 100 mg DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate plus 500 mg ascorbic acid (E100+C500)/kg, whereas the control group received no supplementation. Fresh eggs and eggs stored 30,60, and 90 d at 4 C or stored 28 d at room temperature were analyzed for vitamin E content and TBA-reactive substances (TBARS). We also evaluated functional properties of fresh and cooked eggs and sensory properties of boiled and scrambled eggs. The yolk content of vitamin E depended on the level of dietary addition and decreased after 90 d of storage at 4 C or after 28 d at 25 C. Vitamin supplementation had no effect on fresh or refrigerated eggs, whereas 4 wk of storage at room temperature increased TBARS in the control and the group supplemented with the highest doses of vitamins. Ascorbic acid improved Haugh units and elasticity of albumen gels, whereas cohesiveness and hardness of yolk, albumen and whole-egg gels were not affected by dietary treatment. Panelists were not able to distinguish treated eggs from control eggs.

  13. Physical and chemical quality of ostrich eggs during the laying season.

    PubMed

    Di Meo, C; Stanco, G; Cutrignelli, M I; Castaldo, S; Nizza, A

    2003-07-01

    1. Fifteen ostrich females were monitored for a full breeding season. At 30, 70, 110, 150 and 210 d from the beginning of laying, one egg per female was taken to the laboratory to assess its physical and nutritive characteristics. 2. The average length was 15.4 cm, while the width was 12.9 cm. Average shell thickness ranged from 2.20 mm at the equator to 2.24 mm at the small pole. The three principal components of the egg (albumen, yolk and shell) amounted to 57.1, 23.3 and 19.6%, respectively. None of the above variables, despite showing some significant differences between sampling periods, showed a clear trend linked to the laying season. 3. In contrast, the dry matter of the albumen showed a correlation with the sampling period, increasing from 11-1% in the first period to 12.0% in the last. The crude protein content ranged from 47.7 to 48.2%, the fat from 43.8 to 44.2% and the ash between 5.2 and 5.5% of dry matter. 4. The fatty acid composition of the yolk showed the presence of C18:1 (from 122.0 to 136.4 mg/g), followed by C16:0 (from 40.8 to 46.0 mg/g), C18:0 (from 19.2 to 21.2 mg/g) and C18:2 (from 17.1 to 19.6 mg/g). The content of cholesterol/g of yolk was between 10.6 and 10.9 mg. 5. In conclusion, compared with the hen's egg, the ostrich egg has similar chemical and nutritive characteristics, but a higher unsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio and lower cholesterol content.

  14. Effects of supplementary iodine on the performance and egg traits of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, S; Kahraman, Z; Yalçin, S; Yalçin, S S; Dedeoğlu, H E

    2004-08-01

    1. This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of dietary iodine supplementation on the performance and egg traits of laying hens. A total of 600 SHSY type brown layers aged 21 weeks of age were chosen at random from a large flock. They were randomly distributed into 30 pens at 20 hens per pen. Each treatment comprised 6 replicates of 20 layers in groups of 5 birds. The diets were supplemented with 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 mg/kg iodine as calcium iodate. The experimental period lasted 30 weeks. 2. There were no significant differences among the groups in body weight, food consumption, egg production, food consumption per kg eggs, eggshell index, eggshell breaking strength, shell thickness or egg yolk index. 3. Supplementation of the diet with 12 mg/kg iodine increased food consumption per dozen eggs compared to the groups fed on diets supplemented with 0 and 6 mg/kg iodine. 4. Egg weight was less in groups fed on diets supplemented with 12 and 24 mg/kg iodine than in the group receiving no iodine supplementation. 5. Iodine supplementation to provide 12 and 24 mg/kg reduced egg albumen index and egg Haugh units. 6. There were no significant differences among the groups in egg cholesterol and egg yolk cholesterol contents. 7. The iodine concentrations in egg yolk, egg albumen and whole egg increased with increased iodine supplementation. 8. As a result, the 3 and 6 mg/kg iodine supplementation of diet could be used to enrich the eggs with iodine without any adverse effect on performance and egg traits.

  15. Effects of interaction of incubator CO2 levels and mixing hatching eggs of different embryo growth trajectory on embryo physiological and hatching parameters.

    PubMed

    Tona, K; Everaert, N; Willemsen, H; Gbeassor, M; Decuypere, E; Buyse, J

    2013-01-01

    1. Two experiments were designed to investigate the effects of mixing eggs of different genotype and incubating with different CO2 concentrations on embryonic parameters. Half of the eggs were incubated in a CO2 controlled incubator (VCO2) during the first 10 d of incubation and the other half was incubated at standard incubation ventilation rate (SV). 2. From 10 to 18 d of incubation, thick albumen and embryos were weighed. Blood samples were collected at d 18 of incubation, at internal pipping and at hatch for determination of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and corticosterone concentration. During the last 2 d of incubation, hatching events of individual eggs were monitored every 2 h. 3. From 4 to 5 d of incubation in the SV group of Experiment 1, pH values of Ross strain chickens were lower than those of Isa Brown. From d 12 of incubation onwards, Ross embryos grew faster than those of Isa Brown. At 14 and 16 d of incubation, Ross eggs in the CO2 controlled incubator had lower albumen weights compared to all other treatments. 4. T3 concentrations in Ross embryos were higher than those of Isa Brown embryos. Chicken weight at hatch was in the following order: Isa Brown SV < Isa Brown VCO2 = Ross SV < Ross VCO2. 5. In Experiment 2, incubation time of VCO2 eggs until internal pipping, external pipping and hatch was significantly shorter than that of SV eggs. 6. It was concluded that mixing of hatching eggs of differential embryo developmental trajectory affects their hatching process.

  16. The effects of boron supplementation of layer diets varying in calcium and phosphorus concentrations on performance, egg quality, bone strength and mineral constituents of serum, bone and faeces.

    PubMed

    Küçükyilmaz, K; Erkek, R; Bozkurt, M

    2014-01-01

    1. A 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to investigate the effects of dietary calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and supplemental boron (B) (0, 75, and 150 mg/kg) on the performance, egg quality, bone strength, and mineral constituents in bone, serum and faeces. 2. A reduction by 18% in the dietary Ca-P concentration from the recommended levels for the hen strain reduced (P < 0.01) faecal excretion of ash, Ca and P concentrations, and shear force with stress of the tibia in association with decreased feed intake, whereas improved albumen height and Haugh unit values in the egg. 3. Supplemental B significantly decreased the feed consumption, egg weight and final body weight in hens, as well as the albumen height, but had no effect on either the biomechanical characteristics of bones or the mineral profile of the bones and serum. However, there was a significant increase in the egg production rate and a reduction in the damaged and shell-less egg ratio, and in the feed conversion rate in hens fed adequate Ca-P with 150 mg/kg B compared to those of the unsupplemented controls. 4. The amount of B that accumulated in the bones and serum was correlated with the amount of B consumed. B increased the faecal excretion of ash, Ca and B. In general, dietary variables had no effect on mineral composition of serum and tibia. 5. The magnitude of the response to dietary B was much more pronounced in hens fed a diet deficient in Ca-P with 75 mg/kg B; these hens exhibited a production performance and an egg quality comparable to those given adequate Ca-P with no added B. 6. The data presented in this study describing the measured bone properties did not corroborate the hypothesis that B is a trace element playing an important role in mineral metabolism and bone strength through an interaction with Ca, P and Mg.

  17. Effect of dietary energy on performance and egg composition of Bovans White and Dekalb White hens during phase I.

    PubMed

    Wu, G; Bryant, M M; Voitle, R A; Roland, D A

    2005-10-01

    A 4 x 2 factorial experiment with 4 dietary energy levels (2,719, 2,798, 2,877, and 2,959 kcal of ME/ kg) and 2 strains (Bovans White and Dekalb White) was conducted to determine the effect of dietary energy on reproductive performance, egg composition, and profits of 2 strains of commercial Leghorns. This experiment lasted 16 wk. Bovans White hens (n = 768) and Dekalb White hens (n = 768) in phase I (21 wk of age) were randomly assigned into 8 treatments (16 replicates of 12 birds/treatment). Bovans White had significantly higher feed intake, egg production, egg mass, body weight, percentage egg yolk, and yolk/albumen ratio than Dekalb White. Bovans White had significantly lower feed conversion, egg weight, egg specific gravity, percentage of albumen weight, percentage of shell weight, and Haugh unit than Dekalb White. When dietary energy increased from 2,719 to 2,956 kcal of ME/kg, hens adjusted feed intake from 107.6 to 101.1 g/hen per day to achieve a constant energy intake so that the same amount of dietary energy (5.8 kcal) was used to produce 1 g of egg. Increasing dietary energy by the addition of poultry oil increased early egg weight, which was mostly due to increased yolk weight. Increasing dietary energy by addition of poultry oil significantly decreased feed conversion and egg specific gravity but had no effect on egg production, egg mass, body weight, or mortality. Increasing dietary energy by addition of poultry oil to a ratio of 282 kcal of ME/g lysine maximized egg weight during phase I. The energy per lysine ratio required for optimal profits varied with egg price and feed ingredient prices, which were variable.

  18. Effects of breeder age on mineral contents and weight of yolk sac, embryo development, and hatchability in Pekin ducks.

    PubMed

    Onbasilar, E E; Erdem, E; Hacan, O; Yalçin, S

    2014-02-01

    The current study was carried out to investigate the effects of breeder age on egg composition, changes of embryo, yolk sac, and yolk minerals during incubation and hatchability in Pekin ducks. A total of 495 freshly laid eggs were obtained from the same flock of Pekin ducks, aged 28, 34, and 40 wk, and were reared in accordance with the management guide of the duck breeders (Star 53-Grimaud Freres). At each breeder age, egg measurements were made on a random subsample of unincubated eggs. Embryo and yolk sac measurements were made on embryonic day (E) 12, E16, E20, and E25. On d 28 of incubation, the healthy ducklings were removed and sex of chicks was determined. All chicks were weighed and hatching results were determined. Egg weight and yolk percentages increased; however, albumen percentages, shell thickness, and yolk index decreased as the flock aged. Shell percentages, shell breaking strength, albumen index, and haugh units were not affected by breeder age. Also, breeder age affected the Mg, P, K, Ca, Cu, and Zn levels in the yolk, except for Na level on day of setting, and breeder age affected the mineral consumed by embryo during incubation. However, on E25, the levels of examined minerals, except for P level in the yolk sac, were not statistically different in duck breeder age groups. Relative yolk sac and embryo weights of eggs obtained from different breeder ages varied from E16 to E25; however, embryo length was different in breeder age groups from E12 to E20. Hatching weight was affected by breeder age and sex. Hatching results were not different among breeder age groups. This study indicates that breeder age is important for some egg characteristics, relative yolk sac weight, some contents of minerals in the yolk, embryonic growth during incubation, and duckling weight.

  19. STUDIES IN ULTRAFILTRATION

    PubMed Central

    Zinsser, Hans; Tang, Fei-Fang

    1927-01-01

    We are submitting this series of experiments as observed facts, realizing that there are so many uncertainties in this form of indirect observation that great caution must be exercised in drawing conclusions of any kind. The most serious of the possible errors involved is that the active substances which we have studied, the enzyme—the bacteriophage—and the several varieties of virus, may not be free in our suspensions, but are adsorbed to larger particles. The peculiar difficulties encountered in filtering herpes virus particularly suggest a source of error of this kind, and if we are right in assuming the intracellular position of this virus in the nervous tissue, it is more than likely that most of the virus obtained in suspension may be closely associated with protein particles derived from the cells. Keeping all this in mind, we may, nevertheless, derive a certain amount of information from our experiments as follows: 1. The order of magnitudes of the pure proteins with which we have worked,—namely, crystallized egg albumen, crystallized serum albumen and purified casein,—follows the order of molecular weights of these substances as determined by Cohn. As far as casein is concerned, the size indicated by filtration in comparison with collargol is far greater than it should be by calculations which take a molecular weight of 192,000 as the point of departure. While one cannot be sure of the reason for this, there are many possible explanations such as considerable swelling of the casein partides, aggregation of molecules and the fact that casein is not at its isoelectric point under the conditions of filtration and surely present as a salt. 2. Trypsin, even in the certainly very impure condition in which we employed it, is but very slightly larger than serum albumen and distinctly smaller than casein. In its pure form it may well be much smaller even than our filtrations indicate, but certainly not larger. This relatively small size of trypsin may have

  20. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaocui; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jing; Wu, Shugeng; Qi, Guanghai

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP) (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50). The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%), had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p<0.05) in weeks 41 to 44. The LCSM50 group did not affect egg production compared to the SBM group in weeks 41 to 44 (p>0.05) and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p<0.05). Compared to the SBM group, the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups showed decreased albumen weight (p<0.05), CP weight in the albumen (p<0.05) and CP weight in the whole egg (p<0.05) at 44 weeks. Plasma total protein (TP) levels were lower in the LCSM100 group than in the SBM group at 44 weeks (p<0.05); however, TP, albumin, and globulin levels were not significantly different between the LCSM50 group and the SBM group or between the DRM50 group and the SBM group (p>0.05). Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality. PMID:27608634

  1. Comparative study of the effects of organic selenium on hen performance and productivity of broiler breeders.

    PubMed

    Rajashree, K; Muthukumar, T; Karthikeyan, N

    2014-01-01

    1. A 10-week experiment was conducted with Ross 308 broiler breeder chickens in cages to evaluate the influence of organic and inorganic sources of selenium (Se) supplementation. A total of 600 birds at 29 weeks of age were divided at random into 4 groups and fed on a maize-soya basal diet supplemented with different forms of Se. 2. The first (control) group was given the basal diet without Se supplementation, whereas the second, third and fourth groups were given, respectively, the basal diet with 0.3 mg/kg of inorganic Se in the form of sodium selenite or 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg of organic Se in the form of Se enriched yeast (Se-yeast). 3. The experiment was carried out for 10 weeks to compare and evaluate the influence of Se supplementation on breeder performance, egg production, hatchability and the quality of eggs. Samples were collected for analysis at weeks 0, 5 and 10 of the experimental period. 4. At the end of the experiment (39 weeks), there was a reduction in mortality in breeders given diets supplemented with 0.5 mg/kg of Se-yeast. Supplementation of feed with 0.5 mg/kg organic Se increased egg production, percentage of settable eggs and hatchability. 5. Selenium supplementation increased egg weight and specific gravity compared to the control diet. However, no significant variation was found in albumen or yolk protein content at the end of week 10. 6. Selenium accumulation and glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity were lower in the egg albumen and yolk of control compared with Se-supplemented treatments. Se accumulation and GSHPx activity were higher in the group given 0.3 mg/kg organic compared to 0.3 mg/kg of inorganic Se. 7. The results favour the use of Se-yeast at the dose of 0.5 mg/kg in broiler breeder diets for better productivity of eggs, settable eggs, hatchability and higher Se accumulation and antioxidant status in eggs.

  2. Effects of selenium sources and levels on reproductive performance and selenium retention in broiler breeder, egg, developing embryo, and 1-day-old chick.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dong; Zhan, XiuAn; Wang, YongXia

    2011-12-01

    An 8-week experiment was conducted using 540 48-week-old Lingnan Yellow broiler breeders to evaluate the effect of the sources and levels of selenium (Se) on reproduction and Se retention. After receiving basal diet for 8 weeks, breeders were randomly assigned to six dietary treatments and fed corn-soy-based diets supplemented with 0.15 or 0.30 mg/kg of Se from sodium selenite (SS) or from Se-enriched yeast (SY) or from selenomethionine (SM). The Se concentration of basal diet was 0.04 mg/kg of Se. With the increase of dietary Se level, hatchability decreased (P < 0.05), but the Se concentrations were elevated in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle of breeders, yolk and albumen, liver and breast muscle of developing embryos, and tissues (liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle) of 1-day-old chicks (P < 0.01). Irrespective of the Se level, the Se concentrations in liver, kidney, pancreas, and breast muscle were greater (P < 0.01) in breeders fed SY or SM compared with breeders fed SS, and kidney from breeders fed SM had greater Se concentration than that from breeders fed SY (P < 0.01). Yolk and albumen from SM treatments also had the greatest Se concentrations (P < 0.01). The embryonic liver and breast muscle from SM treatments had higher (P < 0.01) Se concentrations than those of SS treatments. The Se concentrations in liver, kidney, and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks were greater (P < 0.01) in SY or SM treatments compared with SS treatments, and there was a more significant increase in Se concentrations in kidney and breast muscle of 1-day-old chicks from SM treatments than those from SY treatments (P < 0.01). The results suggest that the Se retention efficiency of SM is higher than that of SY, which, in turn, is higher than that of SS for broiler breeders and their offspring.

  3. Egg quality, fatty acid composition and immunoglobulin Y content in eggs from laying hens fed full fat camelina or flax seed.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Gita; Quezada, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate egg quality and egg yolk fatty acids and immunoglobulin (IgY) content from laying hens fed full fat camelina or flax seed. A total of 75, 48-week-old Lohman brown hens were randomly allocated to 3 treatments, with 5 replicates containing 5 laying hens each replicate. The hens were fed corn-soybean basal diet (Control), or Control diet with 10 % of full fat camelina (Camelina) or flax seed (Flax) for a period of 16 wk. Hen production performance egg quality, egg yolk lipids, fatty acids and IgY were determined every 28 d during the experimental period. Egg production was higher in hens fed Camelina and Flax than in Control hens (P < 0.05). Egg weight and albumen weight was lowest in eggs from hens fed Camelina (P < 0.05). Shell weight relative to egg weight (shell weight %), and shell thickness was lowest in eggs from hens fed Flax (P < 0.05). No difference was noted in Haugh unit, yolk:albumen ratio, and yolk weight. Significant increase in α-linolenic (18:3 n-3), docosapentaenoic (22:5 n-3) and docoshexaenoic (22:6 n-3) acids were observed in egg yolk from hens fed Camelina and Flax. Total n-3 fatty acids constituted 1.19 % in Control eggs compared to 3.12 and 3.09 % in Camelina and Flax eggs, respectively (P < 0.05). Eggs from hens fed Camelina and Flax had the higher IgY concentration than those hens fed Control diet when expressed on a mg/g of yolk basis (P < 0.05). Although the egg weight was significantly lower in Camelina-fed hens, the total egg content of IgY was highest in eggs from hens fed Camelina (P < 0.05). The egg n-3 fatty acid and IgY enhancing effect of dietary camelina seed warrants further attention into the potential of using camelina as a functional feed ingredient in poultry feeding.

  4. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaocui; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jing; Wu, Shugeng; Qi, Guanghai

    2017-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP) (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50). The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%), had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p<0.05) in weeks 41 to 44. The LCSM50 group did not affect egg production compared to the SBM group in weeks 41 to 44 (p>0.05) and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p<0.05). Compared to the SBM group, the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups showed decreased albumen weight (p<0.05), CP weight in the albumen (p<0.05) and CP weight in the whole egg (p<0.05) at 44 weeks. Plasma total protein (TP) levels were lower in the LCSM100 group than in the SBM group at 44 weeks (p<0.05); however, TP, albumin, and globulin levels were not significantly different between the LCSM50 group and the SBM group or between the DRM50 group and the SBM group (p>0.05). Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality.

  5. Optimizing irradiation treatment of shell eggs using simulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongsoon; Moreira, Rosana G; Castell-Perez, Elena

    2011-01-01

    Accurate dose calculation is needed to ensure proper irradiation process control to maintain the freshness of the product. Our objective was to establish the best irradiation treatment for shell eggs taking into account their different components (shell, albumen, yolk). Computer tomography (CT) data were used to generate a 3-D geometry to simulate dose distributions within 1 egg using a radiation transport code (MCNP5). Radiation energies used for simulation were 10 MeV (high-energy) and 1.35 MeV (low-energy) for electron beam, 5 MeV for X-rays, and 1.25 MeV for a gamma-rays source such as Co-60. Low-energy (surface) e-beam simulation indicated that electrons only penetrate up to the thin albumen (0.6 cm). Because of their irregular shape, shell eggs should be irradiated from the side (rather than from top or bottom) for better dose distribution. For high-energy e-beam simulation, the entire egg was irradiated and the best results were obtained when the egg was irradiated from both sides, showing a dose uniformity ratio (D(max)/D(min)) of 1.42. X- or gamma-ray source simulation from one side only, the dose uniformity ratio was 3.38 and 3.12, respectively. For surface-only irradiation, a low-energy e-beam provides a uniform dose distribution. To irradiate the entire egg, 2-sided high-energy e-beam sources are required for an efficient treatment. Unless the product rotates in front of the source, the dose uniformity ratio for X-ray or gamma ray is not adequate for shell egg treatment for pathogen decontamination purposes. Practical Application: Proper control of irradiation treatment of foods such as shell eggs is critical to ensure pathogen inactivation while maintaining product freshness. Simulation allows for accurate calculation of dose distribution within the egg to further establish the best irradiation scheme.

  6. Application of low-gossypol cottonseed meal in laying hens' diet.

    PubMed

    He, T; Zhang, H J; Wang, J; Wu, S G; Yue, H Y; Qi, G H

    2015-10-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the application of dietary low-gossypol cottonseed meal (LCSM) in layers' diets. A total of 432 40-week-old Hy-line W36 laying hens were allocated to one of the six dietary treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The control group was fed a corn-soybean meal basal diet, and the 4 experimental diets consisted of a basal diet with 50, 98.3, 144.2, or 189 g/kg LCSM, respectively (correspondingly 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% dietary protein provided by soybean meal were replaced by LCSM). The sixth group was fed a basal diet supplemented with free gossypol (FG group). The feeding trial lasted for 12 weeks. The results showed that no significant difference was observed on egg production or feed conversion ratio (FCR, feed/egg, g/g) among all groups, but feed intake and egg weight were significantly decreased in the 189 g/kg LCSM group in weeks 46 to 51 (P < 0.05). A significant decrease was not observed in shell strength, shell thickness, and yolk color in all periods, but Haugh unit, albumen height, and egg white protein content were reduced in 189 g/kg LCSM group in weeks 46 to 51 (P < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the control and FG group. There was no obvious difference on plasma levels of total protein, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, and activities of albumen, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and the histopathology of liver, kidney, and oviduct in all groups. In conclusion, decreasing feed intake, egg weight, and egg quality were observed in the 189 g/kg LCSM group. However, the adverse effect was not relevant to the presence of FG in LCSM. Dietary LCSM supplementation of 98.3 g/kg was recommended with optimum FCR and without adverse effect on egg production, quality, and health of layers. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  7. Maximizing carbon dioxide content of shell eggs by rapid cooling treatment and its effect on shell egg quality.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, P; Keener, K M

    2012-06-01

    Rapid cooling of shell eggs using liquid CO₂ has been shown to cool eggs to 7°C within minutes, as opposed to days required by traditional cooling treatments. This quick-cooling technique is component in the maintenance of egg quality and extended shelf life beyond the current 30- to 45-d period. The hypothesis for the current study was that maximizing CO₂ content of the eggs during cooling may increase Haugh units and thus extend shelf life (physical quality factors). The objective of this study was to maximize CO₂ content of shell eggs during rapid cooling with liquid CO₂ and determine its effect on egg quality during 12 wk of refrigerated storage. Three cooling conditions selected for the study were -45°C for 18 min (treatment A), -60°C for 15 min (treatment B), and -75°C for 12 min (treatment C). After rapid-cooling treatment, it took approximately 25 min for the internal temperature of eggs to equilibrate to 7°C. The Haugh units of the rapidly cooled eggs were significantly higher than the traditionally cooled (control) eggs. After 12 wk of refrigerated (5-7°C) storage, control eggs were only 37% AA-grade, 57% A-grade, and 6% B-grade. In comparison, all the rapidly cooled eggs averaged to 80% AA-grade and 20% A-grade. After 6 wk, the average quality of control eggs reduced to grade A, whereas rapid cooling treatment was able to maintain AA quality up to 12 wk. The CO₂ content of the rapidly cooled eggs (1.8 mg of CO₂/g of albumen) showed no difference between treatments A, B, and C, but it was significantly higher than the control (1.3 mg of CO₂/g of albumen). In addition, the vitelline membrane strength of the control decreased 65% during storage and was between 30 and 50% of the vitelline membrane strength of CO₂-cooled eggs at 12 wk. Rapid cooling with liquid CO₂ extends shelf life of shell eggs.

  8. Genome-wide association study for egg production and quality in layer chickens.

    PubMed

    Wolc, A; Arango, J; Jankowski, T; Dunn, I; Settar, P; Fulton, J E; O'Sullivan, N P; Preisinger, R; Fernando, R L; Garrick, D J; Dekkers, J C M

    2014-06-01

    Discovery of genes with large effects on economically important traits has for many years been of interest to breeders. The development of SNP panels which cover the whole genome with high density and, more importantly, that can be genotyped on large numbers of individuals at relatively low cost, has opened new opportunities for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). The objective of this study was to find genomic regions associated with egg production and quality traits in layers using analysis methods developed for the purpose of whole genome prediction. Genotypes on over 4500 birds and phenotypes on over 13,000 hens from eight generations of a brown egg layer line were used. Birds were genotyped with a custom 42K Illumina SNP chip. Recorded traits included two egg production and 11 egg quality traits (puncture score, albumen height, yolk weight and shell colour) at early and late stages of production, as well as body weight and age at first egg. Egg weight was previously analysed by Wolc et al. (2012). The Bayesian whole genome prediction model--BayesB (Meuwissen et al. 2001) was used to locate 1 Mb regions that were most strongly associated with each trait. The posterior probability of a 1 Mb window contributing to genetic variation was used as the criterion for suggesting the presence of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) in that window. Depending upon the trait, from 1 to 7 significant (posterior probability >0.9) 1 Mb regions were found. The largest QTL, a region explaining 32% of genetic variance, was found on chr4 at 78 Mb for body weight but had pleiotropic effects on other traits. For the other traits, the largest effects were much smaller, explaining <7% of genetic variance, with regions on chromosomes 2, 12 and 17 explaining above 5% of genetic variance for albumen height, shell colour and egg production, respectively. In total, 45 of 1043 1 Mb windows were estimated to have a non-zero effect with posterior probability > 0.9 for one or more traits.

  9. Effect of supplementation of lysine producing microbes vis-a-vis source and level of dietary protein on performance and egg quality characteristics of post-peak layers.

    PubMed

    Manju, G U; Reddy, B S V; Gloridoss, Gideon; Prabhu, T M; Giridhar, K S; Suma, N

    2015-04-01

    The aim was to study the effect of supplementation of lysine producing microbes (LPM) as an in vivo source of lysine on performance and egg quality characters of post-peak layers. BIS (1992) specified diets (except crude protein [CP] and lysine) were prepared using either soybean meal (SBM) or groundnut extractions (GNE) or sunflower extractions (SFE) with 16 and 15% CP resulting in six control diets. Further, each control diet was fortified with either synthetic lysine or LPM to meet BIS (1992) specified lysine requirement resulting in the set of 12 test diets. Each of the eighteen diets was offered to quadruplets groups of 4 post-peak (52 weeks) commercial laying hens in each. The trial lasted for 119 days. The results revealed that the feed consumption and body weight changes and Roche yolk color and yolk index were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different among different treatments. However, egg production, feed efficiency, egg weight, egg shape index, Haugh unit score, albumen index and shell thickness, and net returns remained non-significant (p ≤ 0.05) among different treatments. Among main factors, protein level (16% and 15% CP) made a significant (p ≤ 0.05) difference in egg production (79.6 and 75.1%) and feed efficiency (2.64 and 2.81 kg feed/kg egg mass, respectively). Among protein source GNE- and SFE-based diet fed groups showed significantly (p < 0.0%) higher feed consumption and body weight gain than SBM based diets fed birds. Yolk color (7.0, 7.3 and 7.3, respectively) and yolk index (0.40, 0.38 and 0.43, respectively) were significantly (p ≤ 0.05) different from the protein sources. CP level and Protein source interaction effects showed significant differences in albumen index and Haugh unit score. Optimum level of protein (16% CP) and GNE as a source of protein tended to be superior in increasing the performance and egg characteristics of post-peak layers and supplementation of lysine in either synthetic or LPM form found to be beneficial in

  10. Effects of energy concentration of the diet on productive performance and egg quality of brown egg-laying hens differing in initial body weight.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bonilla, A; Novoa, S; García, J; Mohiti-Asli, M; Frikha, M; Mateos, G G

    2012-12-01

    The influence of AME(n) concentration of the diet on productive performance and egg quality traits was studied in Hy-Line brown egg-laying hens differing in initial BW from 24 to 59 wk of age. Eight treatments were arranged factorially with 4 diets varying in energy content (2,650, 2,750, 2,850, and 2,950 kcal of AME(n)/kg) and 2 initial BW of the hens (1,733 vs. 1,606 g). Each treatment was replicated 5 times (13 hens per replicate), and all diets had similar nutrient content per unit of energy. No interactions between energy content of the diet and initial BW of the hens were detected for any trait. An increase in energy concentration of the diet increased (linear, P < 0.05; quadratic P < 0.05) egg production, egg mass, energy efficiency (kcal of AME(n)/g of egg), and BW gain (P < 0.05) but decreased ADFI (linear, P < 0.001) and feed conversion ratio per kilogram of eggs (linear, P < 0.01; quadratic P < 0.01). An increase in energy content of the diet reduced Haugh units and the proportion of shell in the egg (P < 0.01). Feed intake (114.6 vs. 111.1 g/hen per day), AME(n) intake (321 vs. 311 kcal/hen per day), egg weight (64.2 vs. 63.0 g), and egg mass (58.5 vs. 57.0 g) were higher for the heavier than for the lighter hens (P < 0.01), but feed conversion ratio per kilogram of eggs and energy efficiency were not affected. Eggs from the heavier hens had a higher proportion of yolk and lower proportion of albumen (P < 0.01) and shell (P < 0.05) than eggs from the lighter hens. Consequently, the yolk-to-albumen ratio was higher (P < 0.001) for the heavier hens. It is concluded that brown egg-laying hens respond with increases in egg production and egg mass to increases in AME(n) concentration of the diet up to 2,850 kcal/kg. Heavy hens had higher feed intake and produced heavier eggs and more egg mass than light hens. However, feed and energy efficiency were better for the lighter hens.

  11. Relationships among egg characteristics, chick measurements, and early growth traits in ten broiler breeder strains.

    PubMed

    Wolanski, N J; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E; Carney, V L; Fancher, B I

    2007-08-01

    This study evaluated egg traits, yolk utilization, chick conformation, and early growth rate in 10 broiler breeder strains. The strains included pure-, specialized- and commercial-line products. The 210 eggs/strain were weighed and randomly designated to 1 of 3 experimental determinations: 8 eggs for measurement of eggshell conductance, 52 eggs for determination of egg characteristics, and 150 eggs for incubation and chick traits. Egg characteristics included egg weight, specific gravity, yolk weight, albumen weight, albumen height, eggshell weight, and eggshell thickness. Chick traits included navel condition, hock color, chick length, shank length, and abdomen score by manual palpation. At hatch, half the birds per strain were dissected to assess the weight of the yolk sac, heart, liver, and breast muscle. The remaining chicks were randomly distributed into 4 rearing pens for a 14-d assessment of growth rate. There was a 3-g range in egg weight among the strains. Eggs from a pure line had the greatest amount of yolk (22.6 g), with yolk weight ranging to a low of 20.9 g in 2 other strains. The male line strain and 2 female line strains had the highest hatching weights (46.3, 46.5, and 45.4 g, respectively), whereas a commercial strain had the lowest hatching weight (43.1 g). Egg size affected chick weight more than did yolk size. The residual yolk mass at hatch ranged from 5.50 g (in the male line) to 3.70 g in the commercial strains. Residual yolk mass accounted for approximately 10 to 14% of chick BW at hatch. The abdominal palpation score correlated with actual hatch residual yolk weight (r = 0.50; P < 0.0001). At hatch, differences in breast muscle and internal organ weight were present. Shank length at hatch correlated more strongly with 14-d BW (r = 0.39; P < 0.0001) than did hatch weight and 14-d BW (r = 0.35; P < 0.0001). The results of this trial demonstrated significant strain variation in internal organ weight, residual yolk sac mass, and chick carcass

  12. Effects of electrical field on hatchability performance of eggs from a layer-type breeder.

    PubMed

    Shafey, T M; Al-Batshan, H A; Ghannam, M M

    2007-04-01

    1. Eggs from a layer-type breeder flock (Baladi, King Saud University) between 50 and 63 weeks of age were used in three trials to study the effects of electrical field (EF) during incubation on albumen and yolk heights, incubation temperature, egg weight loss and hatchability traits. The effects of egg size and eggshell characteristics on hatchability traits of eggs incubated under EF were investigated. 2. Eggs were weighed and graded into three weight classes (small, medium, and large). The physical dimensions, eggshell characteristics, and conductance of eggs were examined. The incubator was divided into two compartments for the control and EF treatments. Two aluminium plates were fitted on the inside walls of the EF compartment, face to face, and connected to a step up electric transformer. Eggs were exposed constantly to the EF during the first 18 d of incubation at the level of 30 kV/m, 60 Hz. 3. Egg size influenced the physical dimensions and eggshell characteristics of eggs. Large eggs had higher egg weight, egg surface area, egg volume, eggshell conductance, and eggshell weight and lower yolk weight percentage than medium or small size eggs. Small eggs had lower egg length and higher egg density than large or medium size eggs. Large eggs had higher eggshell thickness than small size eggs. 4. EF incubation of eggs raised incubation temperature by 0.06 degrees C, and increased the percentage of egg weight loss, hatchability, and weight of hatching chicks and reduced the early embryo deaths, and length of incubation by approximately 9.8, 19.6, 1.7, 62.1 and 2.1%, respectively. 5. There was no significant difference between the two incubation treatments in the heights of albumen and yolk of incubated eggs, percentages of late embryo deaths, and pips with live and dead embryos. Hatchability traits were not significantly influenced by egg size. 6. It was concluded that EF incubation of eggs increased hatchability, chick-hatching weight, and reduced the length of

  13. Effect of broiler breeders fed with corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin supplementation on production and reproductive performance.

    PubMed

    Bonilla, C E V; Rosa, A P; Londero, A; Giacomini, C B S; Orso, C; Fernandes, M O; Paixão, S J; Bonamigo, D V

    2017-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the effect of corn or sorghum diet and canthaxanthin (CX) supplementation on performance in broiler breeders. A total of 440 females with similar body weight (BW) (3.71 ± 0.14 kg) and 60 roosters were placed in an open-sided house with 20 pens, randomly distributed in a factorial arrangement (2 × 2). There were 4 diets of 2 ingredients; corn (CO) or sorghum (SO) and 2 levels of CX; 6 mg/kg (CX) and 0 mg/kg (NCX) totaling 5 replicate pens of 22 females and 3 males each, from 42 to 65 wk, divided in 2 periods (from wk 42 to 53 and wk 54 to 65). Birds' BW was measured every 28 d and mortality rate was calculated at the end of trial. Egg production (%), egg specific gravity (g/cm3), egg weight (g), yolk weight (%), albumen weight (%), eggshell weight (%) and yolk colorimetric score were measured weekly. Incubation parameters were recorded in 12 incubations to evaluate hatching eggs, hatching (%), hatchability (%), fertility (%), weight of the chicks born and their quality. The BW, mortality, percentage of yolk and albumen weight, fertility and some incubation parameters were not affected (P > 0.05) by diets used. An increase in the egg production, hatching eggs, chicks born and first quality chick by hen at the second period were observed in CX breeder's diets (P = 0.0066; P = 0.0060; P = 0.0368; P = 0.0326). Egg specific gravity and eggshell weight were improved at the first period by SO+CX diet (P = 0.0138; P = 0.0209) and the same effect to egg weight, but at the second period (P = 0.0251). The CX was well absorbed from the diet and effectively transferred to the egg yolk, thereby increasing egg yolk pigmentation in the both periods (P < 0.0001). The CX supplementation in broiler breeder diets improved the productive and reproductive performance (laying% and hatchable eggs) at the second period, also to the both periods improved the egg yolk pigmentation. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  14. Outdoor stocking density in free-range laying hens: effects on behaviour and welfare.

    PubMed

    Campbell, D L M; Hinch, G N; Downing, J A; Lee, C

    2017-06-01

    Free-range laying hen systems are increasing within Australia and research is needed to determine optimal outdoor stocking densities. Six small (n=150 hens) experimental flocks of ISA Brown laying hens were housed with access to ranges simulating one of three outdoor stocking densities with two pen replicates per density: 2000 hens/ha, 10 000 hens/ha or 20 000 hens/ha. Birds were provided daily range access from 21 to 36 weeks of age and the range usage of 50% of hens was tracked using radio-frequency identification technology. Throughout the study, basic external health assessments following a modified version of the Welfare Quality® protocol showed most birds were in visibly good condition (although keel damage was increasingly present with age) with few differences between stocking densities. Toenail length at 36 weeks of age was negatively correlated with hours spent ranging for all pens of birds (all r⩾-0.23, P⩽0.04). At 23 weeks of age, there were no differences between outdoor stocking densities in albumen corticosterone concentrations (P=0.44). At 35 weeks of age, density effects were significant (P<0.001) where the eggs from hens in the highest outdoor stocking density showed the highest albumen corticosterone concentrations, although eggs from hens in the 10 000 hens/ha density showed the lowest concentrations (P<0.017). Behavioural observations of hens both on the range and indoors showed more dust bathing and foraging (scratching followed by ground-pecking) was performed outdoors, but more resting indoors (all P<0.001). Hens from the 2000 hens/ha densities showed the least foraging on the range but the most resting outdoors, with hens from the 20 000 hens/ha densities showing the least amount of resting outdoors (all P<0.017). Proportions of dust bathing outdoors tended to differ between the stocking densities (P=0.08). For each of the health and behavioural measures there were differences between pen replicates within stocking densities. These

  15. Investigating proteins and proteases composing amniotic and allantoic fluids during chicken embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, M; Labas, V; Nys, Y; Réhault-Godbert, S

    2017-03-31

    In amniotes, the amniotic fluid is a significant contributor to fetal development and health. While numerous studies have been conducted in mammalian amniotic fluid, the composition of amniotic and other extraembryonic fluids in avian egg along with their physiological functions remain largely unexplored. In such a context, our objective was to characterize the chicken amniotic fluid (AmF) and allantoic fluid (AlF) properties, protein composition, and some associated functions from day 8 to day 16 of incubation. SDS-PAGE combined to mass spectrometry analysis revealed common and specific proteins to each fluid, suggesting distinct properties and functions. Indeed, major AlF proteins are mostly "egg yolk" proteins involved in lipid, vitamin metabolisms, and metal ion transport, while major AmF proteins resemble those of albumen. Drastic changes in the AmF protein profiles were observed during incubation, when the albumen transfers from day 12 onwards, while few changes were detected for the AlF protein profile. The decreases in osmolality (from 231 to 183 mOsm/kg) and pH (from 8.26 to 7.26) observed in the AlF during incubation are associated with water and electrolytes reallocation for the embryo needs. In contrast, AmF pH value remained stable (≈7.5). Active proteolytic enzymes have been identified in the 2 fluids using gelatin zymography, followed by mass spectrometry analysis for protease identification. A total of 12 proteases was detected in the AlF, compared to 5 in the AmF. We have shown that AlF concentrates proteolytic enzymes assumed to participate in digestive processes: aminopeptidase N, dipeptidyl peptidase-4, meprin A, and 72 kDa type IV collagenase preproprotein. The other proteases identified in both fluids also could have a role in morphogenesis (hepatocyte growth factor activator, suppressor of tumorigenicity 14, astacin-like metalloendopeptidase) and hemostasis (prothrombin and coagulation factor X). Altogether, these data suggest that the

  16. Comparison of fatty acid, cholesterol, vitamin A and E composition, and trans fats in eggs from brown and white egg strains that were molted or nonmolted.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kenneth E

    2013-12-01

    The impact of egg color, hen strain, and molting on the nutritional composition of eggs is limited. Therefore, this study compared nutritional composition and component percentages of cage-produced shell eggs with respect to egg color, hen strain, and molt. Four strains were selected from the North Carolina Layer Performance and Management Test: Hy-Line Brown (HB) and Bovans Brown (BB), and Hy-Line W-36 (HW) and Bovans White (BovW) were selected. Two groups from each strain were selected and 2 groups of molted HW and BovW were selected and compared with their nonmolted counterparts to examine the molt's impact. Two sets of eggs from each replicate were collected simultaneously at 101 wk of age. One sample of eggs was broken into a 12-egg pool stomached for 3 min (n = 12 samples), then divided into six 50-mL tubes, sealed, and frozen to be sent for cholesterol, n-3 fatty acids, saturated fat, monounsaturated fats, polyunsaturated fats, β-carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E analyses. The other set of 12 eggs was then assessed for component percentages. The HW eggs had a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of yolk than the BovW eggs of 28.12 versus 27.00%, respectively; however, the BovW eggs had 1.0% more albumen. The HB and BB egg components were not different. Brown eggs were heavier (P < 0.01) than white eggs. White eggs had greater (P < 0.0001) percent yolk and the brown eggs had greater (P < 0.0001) percent albumen. The eggs from molted hens had a greater (P < 0.001) percent shell. Total fat content in the samples was (P < 0.05) higher in white eggs by 0.70% than brown eggs due to increased saturated and polyunsaturated fats. The molting of hens reduced (P < 0.01) saturated fats by 0.21% in the egg. Vitamin A levels were higher (P < 0.0001) in white eggs, and vitamin E was higher (P < 0.0001) in brown eggs. Strain and molt appear to influence nutrient composition and component percentages in eggs produced from laying hens.

  17. Early feeding affects resistance against cold exposure in young broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    van den Brand, H; Molenaar, R; van der Star, I; Meijerhof, R

    2010-04-01

    In field conditions, a fasting period of 24 to 72 h after hatch is common, which is associated with delayed gastrointestinal development and yolk utilization and retarded subsequent performance. Hardly any information is available about the influence of diet composition in the first days on later life and additionally, effects of early feeding on thermoregulatory development are also not known. The aim of this study was to investigate effects of diet composition in early fed broiler chickens on their (thermoregulatory) development. Shortly after hatch, 200 Hybro chickens (initial BW of 43.6 g) were assigned to 1 of 5 feed treatments: control, dextrose, albumen, prestarter, or prestarter plus fat. Water was available ad libitum. Measurements were done in 10 replicates of 4 chickens per treatment. At d 2 or 3, half of the chickens were exposed to 20 degrees C for 30 min to determine resistance against cold exposure and rectal temperature was determined just before, immediately after, and 30 min after the end of this cold exposure. Thereafter, all chickens were killed to investigate body development. Chickens in both prestarter groups developed faster than in the other 3 groups, expressed by a higher BW, yolk-free body mass, heart and liver weight, and higher chick and intestine length. Between d 2 and 3, differences in these variables among chickens from both prestarter groups and other groups increased. Rectal temperature before cold exposure was higher in chickens from both prestarter groups (40.6 and 40.7 degrees C, respectively) and decreased less (0.6 and 0.7 degrees C, respectively) during cold exposure than in chickens from the control (39.5 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively) and albumen group (39.8 and 2.1 degrees C, respectively), whereas chickens from the dextrose group were in between (40.4 and 1.2 degrees C, respectively). We conclude that early fed diet composition in broiler chickens is (besides general development) important for development of both body

  18. Influence of temperature and humidity manipulation on chicken embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Noiva, Rute M; Menezes, António C; Peleteiro, Maria C

    2014-10-01

    Temperature and relative humidity (RH) are very important factors affecting embryo development, hatchability, and posthatch performance. This study aimed at characterizing embryonic metabolic and behavioural response to a harsh incubation environment generated by manipulations (elevations and drops) in these two key factors. This study was aimed at establishing patterns of metabolic and behavioural response, as well as mortality and the development of malformations, all of which can potentially be used in monitoring incubating operations and diagnosing problems with faulty equipment. Of all the parameters monitored throughout embryonic development the ones shown to be most affected were: albumen-weight to egg-weight ratio (AR); yolk-weight to egg-weight ratio (YR); embryo-weight to egg-weight ratio (ER); heart rate (HR); voluntary movements per minute (VMM); mortality rates; malformation prevalence and type. The most significant changes in the evolution of AR and YR throughout incubation involved delay and reduction in the amplitude of the expected drop in albumen and yolk levels, reflecting lower nutrient consumption by the embryo. ER tended to grow more slowly and remain lower than the established normal, especially in embryos challenged with temperature treatments. HR and VMM were considered to be strong indicators of embryonic stress, as all treatments applied resulted in elevated heart rate and decreased embryo movement. Mortality rates for both temperature-related treatments were higher during the first four days of incubation. Changes in relative humidity have produced less radical effects on mortality. Malformation rates were higher for embryos subjected to high incubation temperatures and were most prominently related to the abdominal wall, head, skull and limbs. Overall, manipulations in environmental (incubator) temperature during incubation produced more drastic changes in embryo development than humidity-related manipulations, especially where

  19. Influence of egg warming during storage and hypercapnic incubation on egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality.

    PubMed

    Reijrink, I A M; Meijerhof, R; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2010-11-01

    Negative effects of prolonged egg storage on hatchability and chick quality may be caused by changes in the embryo or in the egg characteristics, or by both. The aim of this experiment was to investigate whether prestorage incubation (PSI), frequent warming during storage (FW), or hypercapnic incubation (HI) during the first 5 d of incubation affect egg characteristics, embryonic development, hatchability, and chick quality. The experiment had a 2 × 2 × 2 randomized design: PSI (yes-no), FW (yes-no), and HI (yes-no). All eggs were stored for 15 d at 16°C and 75% RH. On the second day after oviposition, half of the eggs were incubated for 7 h (PSI). During storage, half of the eggs were warmed 6 times for 30 min in water at 37.8°C (FW). During the first 5 d of incubation, the CO(2) concentration in the incubator was maintained between 0.70 and 0.80% (HI) or increased from 0.05 to 0.20% (control). Prestorage incubation and FW increased the stage of embryonic development and the number of viable embryonic cells, but these treatments did not have a pronounced effect on egg characteristics, hatchability, or chick quality. Hypercapnic incubation decreased total albumen pH, which was measured at 18, 42, 66, and 90 h of incubation, and the percentage of eggs classified as infertile (Δ = 1.2%). In contrast, HI retarded embryonic development, decreased hatchability of fertile eggs by 1.3%, but did not affect chick quality. We conclude that both PSI and FW did not improve hatchability and chick quality, although the stage of embryonic development and the number of viable embryonic cells increased due to the treatments. Hypercapnic incubation decreased total albumen pH, which may be related to the increased number of embryos that continued their development at the onset of incubation. Because HI retarded further embryonic development and decreased hatchability, long-term stored embryos were probably sensitive to the CO(2) concentration of 0.70 to 0.80% between 48 and 72 h

  20. Differences in egg nutrient availability, development, and nutrient metabolism of broiler and layer embryos.

    PubMed

    Nangsuay, A; Molenaar, R; Meijerhof, R; van den Anker, I; Heetkamp, M J W; Kemp, B; van den Brand, H

    2015-03-01

    Selection for production traits of broilers and layers leads to physiological differences, which may already be present during incubation. This study aimed to investigate the influence of strain (broiler vs layer) on egg nutrient availability, embryonic development and nutrient metabolism. A total of 480 eggs with an egg weight range of 62.0 to 64.0 g from Lohmann Brown Lite and Ross 308 breeder flocks of 41 or 42 weeks of age were selected in two batches of 120 eggs per batch per strain. For each batch, 30 eggs per strain were used to determine egg composition, including nutrient and energy content, and 90 eggs per strain were separately incubated in one of two climate respiration chambers at an eggshell temperature of 37.8°C. The results showed that broiler eggs had a higher ratio of yolk: albumen with 2.41 g more yolk and 1.48 g less albumen than layers. The yolk energy content of broiler eggs was 46.32 kJ higher than that of layer eggs, whereas total energy content of broiler eggs was 47.85 kJ higher compared to layer eggs. Yolk-free body mass at incubation day 16 and chick weight and length at hatch were higher in broilers compared to layers. Respiration quotient of broiler embryos was higher than layer embryos during incubation day 8 to incubation day 10. A 0.24 g lower residual yolk at the hatch of broiler embryos than for the layer embryos indicated that broiler embryos used more yolk and had a higher energy utilization and energy deposition in yolk-free body mass. Heat production of broiler embryos was higher than that of layer embryos from incubation day 12 to incubation day 18, but efficiency of converting egg energy used by embryos to form yolk-free body mass was similar. In conclusion, broiler and layer embryos have different embryonic development patterns, which affect energy utilization and embryonic heat production. However, the embryos are equal in efficiency of converting the energy used to yolk-free body mass. © 2015 Poultry Science

  1. Changes in egg composition of American kestrels exposed to dietary polychlorinated biphenyls.

    PubMed

    Fernie, K J; Bortolotti, G R; Smits, J E; Wilson, J; Drouillard, K G; Bird, D M

    2000-06-01

    Changes in the quality of eggs of birds exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been described, but have never been directly attributed to PCBs. Polychlorinated biphenyl residues in eggs have been associated with reduced reproductive success and embryonic deformities in wild birds. Egg size and composition, specifically the amount of albumen, yolk, and water in an egg, also influence the growth and viability of embryos and hatchlings, and consequently the reproductive success of birds. To deter mine whether PCB exposure of adult birds affected the size and composition of their eggs, 25 pairs of captive American kestrels (Falco sparverius) were fed a mixture of PCB-spiked (1248:1254:1260) food to give an approximate exposure of 7 mg/kg body weight/d, beginning 1 mo prior to pairing, and continuing throughout the courtship, egg-laying, and incubation periods. This dietary level in the adult female kestrels resulted in mean total PCB residues in the eggs of 34.1 microg/g wet weight (geometric mean), which is environmentally relevant. PCB residues in eggs increased with the time of female exposure to the contaminated diet and laying date. Variation in egg size within PCB clutches was significantly greater than within control clutches, although absolute egg mass and volume did not differ markedly by treatment. Only infertile eggs and only one egg per clutch were used for egg composition analysis. Yolks in the PCB-contaminated eggs were heavier, with less wet and dry albumen relative to control eggs. Water content and eggshell thickness were not significantly affected by PCB exposure. These results suggest that eggs from the PCB treatment have relatively more lipid and less protein available for embryonic development. Changes in egg composition were not associated with egg size, lay date, ambient temperature, humidity, or precipitation, which are factors known to affect these variables in bird eggs. The PCB-induced changes in egg composition described here

  2. Differences in egg nutrient availability and embryo development in white layer breeder genotypes.

    PubMed

    Onbasilar, E E; Kahraman, M; Ahlat, O; Güngör, Ö F; Çalik, A; Taban, S; Yalçin, S

    2017-10-01

    Because of consumers' preferences and also due to changes in production systems, the importance of pure breeds has increased again. There are a lot of differences among breeds which have been studied extensively, however, the differences during the incubation period are not yet fully known. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the composition of the egg parts, absorption of nutrients, and development of embryos from different genotypes. A total of 354 fresh hatching eggs were obtained from one hybrid (Lohman White, LW) and two pure breeds (Denizli and Gerze). Hatching eggs from each genotype were examined on the day of setting for egg analysis and then at the beginning of the embryonic d 19 (E19) and embryonic d 21 (E21) for egg, embryo, jejunum, and tibia analysis. On d 21 of incubation, the healthy chicks were removed and weighed. Egg weight, shell thickness, percentages of albumen, and some parameters of albumen composition (dry matter, water, ash, protein, energy, Na, Ca, K, and Mg) were higher in fresh eggs obtained from LW hens. Furthermore, the relative yolk sac and embryo weight, some yolk parameters (dry matter, water, protein, fat, and energy) and some shell parameters (dry matter, ash, Na, Ca, and K) were also higher in eggs obtained from LW hens during incubation. However, tibia deformation and villus width were lower in LW embryos than the other genotypes. Relative chick weights were 68.9, 72.0, and 68.0% in LW, Denizli, and Gerze genotypes, respectively. During incubation, differences in all examined parameters were significant except thickness and weight of shell, tibia deformation, and crypt depth. Yolk sac weight, some yolk composition parameters, K level in the shell, Cu level in the tibia, and villus height were also affected by genotype and period interaction. Based on these results, LW was found advantageous in terms of egg composition, however, regarding villus development and tibia deformation in embryos during incubation

  3. Effects of packaging, mineral oil coating, and storage time on biogenic amine levels and internal quality of eggs.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, T C; Assis, D C S; Menezes, L D M; Oliveira, D D; Lima, A L; Souza, M R; Heneine, L G D; Cançado, S V

    2014-12-01

    This study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the effects of mineral oil application on eggshells and the use of plastic packages with lids on the physical-chemical and microbiological quality and biogenic amine contents of eggs stored under refrigeration for up to 125 d. A total of 1,920 eggs from 46-wk-old Hyline W36 laying hens were randomly distributed into 4 groups soon after classification: (i) 480 eggs were stored in pulp carton tray packages; (ii) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids; (iii) 480 eggs were stored in carton packages after the application of mineral oil; and (iv) 480 eggs were stored in plastic packages with lids after the application of mineral oil. The internal quality was measured by Haugh units, by the counts of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms, by the most probable number of total and thermal-tolerant coliforms, by the counts of molds and yeasts, by the analysis of Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus spp., and by the levels of biogenic amines in the egg yolk and albumen. The application of mineral oil to the eggshell resulted in higher Haugh unit values throughout storage, and the use of plastic packages altered the internal quality. The application of mineral oil and the use of packaging had no effects on the microbiological and biogenic amine results. Microbiological analyses showed the absence of Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, thermal-tolerant coliforms, and fungi. However, the highest counts of mesophilic (1.1 × 10(7) cfu/g) and psychrotrophic (6.7 × 10(7) cfu/g) microorganisms were recorded. The highest values of biogenic amines detected and quantified were putrescine (2.38 mg/kg) and cadaverine (7.27 mg/kg) in the egg yolk and putrescine (1.95 mg/kg), cadaverine (2.83 mg/kg), and phenylethylamine (2.57 mg/kg) in the albumen. Despite these results, the biogenic amine levels recorded were considered low and would not be harmful to consumer health.

  4. [Food value of spiruline algae for the laying hen].

    PubMed

    Blum, J C; Guillaumin, S; Calet, C

    1975-01-01

    The three diets (composition in table I) were isonitrogenous (16,4 p. 100 crude protein), similar in their content of lysine and sulfur amino acids, but with different levels of spiruline algae : 0 (control); 7.5 or 15 p. 100. Each diet was used for the feeding of 48 hybrid pullets of medium size during a 24-week test period (32 to 56 weeks). Egg production (table II) was slightly better (47.1 g/hen/day) with 7.5 p. 100 of spirulines, compared to the control (45.3 g/hen/day), the difference being significant (P less than 0.01). With 15 p. 100 of spirulines egg production was similar to that observed in the control, but the average egg weight was reduced (58.5 vs 60.5 g) as a result of a lower albumen content. The colour of the egg yolk (table IV) was very light in the controls, but was a deep orange (above the maximum in the Roch scale) with 7.5 or 15 p. 100 of spirulines in the laying hen diet. The diet consumption, feed conversion and live weight variations (table III) show that the energy level is no higher in laying hens (about 2 500 kcal M.E./kg spirulines) than in the broiler.

  5. Shell-Less Chick Embryo Culture as an Alternative in vitro Model to Investigate Glucose-Induced Malformations in Mammalian Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Datar, Savita; Bhonde, Ramesh R.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a simple shell-less chick embryo culture system to study glucose-induced malformations. This system involves the culturing of chick embryos from the second day to the fifth day of incubation, with associated yolk and thick and thin albumen outside the egg shell. The system allows the observation of embryonic development of chicks in a glass bowl. Developing embryos at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h incubation, corresponding to the Hamberger Hamilton (HH) stages from 7 to 21, were treated with two concentrations of glucose (50 mM and 100 mM) for 24 h. Glucose treatment resulted in a mortality rate of over 70% in younger embryos. Furthermore, a variety of malformations such as retarded growth, abnormal heart development, macrosomia, exencephaly, etc. were observed in older embryos, which were similar to those reported in mammalian embryos as a consequence of diabetic pregnancy. The glucose-induced malformations were found to be concentration- and stage-dependent, thus emphasizing the roles of the degree of hyperglycemia and the stage of embryonic development in diabetic growth anomalies. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the present system can be used (i) for experiments at early stages of chick embryo development and (ii) for assessing the effects of acute glucose toxicity similar to those reported for mammalian embryos in a hyperglycemic environment. PMID:17491698

  6. Integrating toxicity risk in bird eggs and chicks: Using chick down feathers to estimate mercury concentrations in eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of mercury (Hg) in eggs that causes reduced hatching success is regarded as a critical end point for Hg toxicity in birds. However, incorporating effects of in ovo mercury exposure on chick health and survival could improve risk assessment. We developed equations to predict Hg in eggs using Hg in chick down feathers, and vice versa, by assessing the relationship between Hg in feathers (0.5−32.4 μg g−1 fw) and eggs (0.04−2.79 μg g−1 fww) for three waterbird species in San Francisco Bay, CA. Feather Hg sampled from embryos of pipping eggs was highly correlated with fresh whole-egg Hg (n = 94, r2 = 0.96). Additionally, using an egg microsampling technique, albumen Hg was correlated with feather Hg sampled from chicks in the same nest (n = 28, r2 = 0.79). Down feather Hg in recaptured chicks (≤10 days old) was correlated with down feather Hg at hatching (≤3 days old; n = 88, r2 = 0.74). Our results demonstrate the utility of using down feathers of chicks ≤10 days of age to nonlethally predict Hg in eggs and thus provide the ability to develop exposure thresholds for eggs that incorporate in ovo Hg’s effects on both egg hatchability and subsequent chick mortality.

  7. Micro-magnetic resonance imaging study of live quail embryos during embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Duce, Suzanne; Morrison, Fiona; Welten, Monique; Baggott, Glenn; Tickle, Cheryll

    2011-01-01

    Eggs containing live Japanese quail embryos were imaged using micro-magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI) at 24-h intervals from Day 0 to 8, the period during which the main body axis is being laid down and organogenesis is taking place. Considerable detail of non-embryonic structures such as the latebra was revealed at early stages but the embryo could only be visualized around Day 3. Three-dimensional (3D) changes in embryo length and volume were quantified and also changes in volume in the extra- and non-embryonic components. The embryo increased in length by 43% and nearly trebled in volume between Day 4 and Day 5. Although the amount of yolk remained fairly constant over the first 5 days, the amount of albumen decreases significantly and was replaced by extra-embryonic fluid (EEF). ¹H longitudinal (T₁) and transverse (T₂) relaxation times of different regions within the eggs were determined over the first 6 days of development. The T₂ measurements mirrored the changes in image intensity observed, which can be related to the aqueous protein concentrations. In addition, a comparison of the development of Day 0 to 3 quail embryos exposed to radiofrequency (rf) pulses, 7 T static magnetic fields and magnetic field gradients for an average of 7 h with the development of control embryos did not reveal any gross changes, thus confirming that μMRI is a suitable tool for following the development of live avian embryos over time from the earliest stages.

  8. Influence of Zeolite on fatty acid composition and egg quality in Tunisian Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The health benefits of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are generally recognized. Unfortunately, in most Mediterranean countries, the recommended daily intake of these compounds is rarely met. Therefore, enrichment of commonly occurring foods can boost intake of these fatty acids. In this regard, eggs are an interesting target, as they form an integral part of the diet. Result Zeolite (Clinoptilolites) was added to Laying Hens feed at concentrations 1% or 2% and was evaluated for its effects on performance of the production and on egg quality. The Laying Hens were given access to 110 g of feed mixtures daily that was either a basal diet or a ‘zeolite diet’ (the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 1% or 2%). It was found that zeolite treatment had a positive and significatif (p < 0.05) effect on some parameters that were measured like egg height and eggshell strength. While dietary zeolite supplementation tended to/or has no significant effects on total egg, eggshell, yolk and albumen weights. It was found also that zeolite mainly increases level of polyunsaturated fatty acids in egg. Conclusion This study showed the significance of using zeolite, as a feed additive for Laying Hens, as part of a comprehensive program to control egg quality and to increase level of polyunsaturated fatty acids on egg. PMID:22676421

  9. Differences between fertilized and unfertilized chicken egg white proteins revealed by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ning; Liu, Wen; Ma, Meihu; Zhao, Lei; Li, Yuqi

    2013-03-01

    The egg white protein alterations during the early phase of chicken embryonic development were recently reported by our laboratory. Nevertheless, the original albumen differences between fresh unfertilized and fertilized chicken eggs have not been investigated. By using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS/MS) method, 1 ovalbumin protein spot as well as 6 ovalbumin-related protein Y spots were identified showing more than 10-fold differences (P < 0.01) in abundance between fresh unfertilized and fertilized chicken egg whites. Six of these protein spots represented higher intensity in fertilized eggs through 2-DE analysis. It was thus concluded that ovalbumin protein family, especially ovalbumin-related protein Y, may play an important role in embryonic development, which still needs to be validated. This finding will provide insight into embryogenesis to improve our understanding of the functions of ovalbumin family proteins in regulating or supporting embryonic development.

  10. Geographical variation in egg mass and egg content in a passerine bird.

    PubMed

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Siitari, Heli; Eeva, Tapio; Belskii, Eugen; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Krams, Indrikis; Moreno, Juan; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Möstl, Erich; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Slater, Fred; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Laaksonen, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated.

  11. Effectiveness of Phytogenic Feed Additive as Alternative to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate on Hematological Parameters, Intestinal Histomorphology and Microbial Population and Production Performance of Japanese Quails.

    PubMed

    Manafi, M; Hedayati, M; Khalaji, S

    2016-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additive and antibiotic growth promoter in laying Japanese quails. One hundred and sixty five quails were divided into three groups of 5 replicates and 11 quails (8 females and 3 males) in each replicate. Treatment 1 was fed control diet, treatment 2 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.05% bacitracin methylene disalicylate as antibiotic growth promoter and treatment 3 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.1% phytogenic feed additive (PFA) for two periods of 3 weeks each from 37 to 42 weeks of age. Results showed that egg production, eggshell strength, eggshell weight, villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were significantly (p≤0.05) increased and feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, albumen, Haugh unit, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, number of goblet cell, crypt depth and intestinal bacterial population of Coliforms, Salmonella and E. coli were significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in PFA fed group. It is concluded that addition of PFA containing phytomolecules and organic acids as main ingredients could significantly improve the production parameters and the general health of laying quails as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters.

  12. Biochemical and structural analysis of Helix pomatia agglutinin. A hexameric lectin with a novel fold.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Jean-Frederic; Lescar, Julien; Chazalet, Valérie; Audfray, Aymeric; Gagnon, Jean; Alvarez, Richard; Breton, Christelle; Imberty, Anne; Mitchell, Edward P

    2006-07-21

    Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) is a N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) binding lectin found in the albumen gland of the roman snail. As a constituent of perivitelline fluid, HPA protects fertilized eggs from bacteria and is part of the innate immunity system of the snail. The peptide sequence deduced from gene cloning demonstrates that HPA belongs to a family of carbohydrate-binding proteins recently identified in several invertebrates. This domain is also present in discoidin from the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. Investigation of the lectin specificity was performed with the use of glycan arrays, demonstrating that several GalNAc-containing oligosaccharides are bound and rationalizing the use of this lectin as a cancer marker. Titration microcalorimetry performed on the interaction between HPA and GalNAc indicates an affinity in the 10(-4) M range with an enthalpy-driven binding mechanism. The crystal structure of HPA demonstrates the occurrence of a new beta-sandwich lectin fold. The hexameric quaternary state was never observed previously for a lectin. The high resolution structure complex of HPA with GalNAc characterizes a new carbohydrate binding site and rationalizes the observed preference for alphaGalNAc-containing oligosaccharides.

  13. Maternal investment of female mallards is influenced by male carotenoid-based coloration

    PubMed Central

    Giraudeau, M.; Duval, C.; Czirják, G. Á.; Bretagnolle, V.; Eraud, C.; McGraw, K. J.; Heeb, P.

    2011-01-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis predicts that females modify their investment in a breeding attempt according to its reproductive value. One prediction of this hypothesis is that females will increase reproductive investment when mated to high-quality males. In birds, it was shown that females can modulate pre-hatch reproductive investment by manipulating egg and clutch sizes and/or the concentrations of egg internal compounds according to paternal attractiveness. However, the differential allocation of immune factors has seldom been considered, particularly with an experimental approach. The carotenoid-based ornaments can function as reliable signals of quality, indicating better immunity or ability to resist parasites. Thus, numerous studies show that females use the expression of carotenoid-based colour when choosing mates; but the influence of this paternal coloration on maternal investment decisions has seldom been considered and has only been experimentally studied with artificial manipulation of male coloration. Here, we used dietary carotenoid provisioning to manipulate male mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) bill coloration, a sexually selected trait, and followed female investment. We show that an increase of male bill coloration positively influenced egg mass and albumen lysozyme concentration. By contrast, yolk carotenoid concentration was not affected by paternal ornamentation. Maternal decisions highlighted in this study may influence chick survival and compel males to maintain carotenoid-based coloration from the mate-choice period until egg-laying has been finished. PMID:20843851

  14. Reduced productivity among confined laying hens infested by Allopsoroptoides galli (Mironov, 2013).

    PubMed

    Soares, N M; Tucci, E C; Freitas, E R; Fernandes, D P B

    2016-04-01

    The mite Allopsoroptoides galli has recently been identified parasitizing commercial chickens, São Paulo State/Brasil, causing severe dermatitis on all parts of the animal's body and a significant decline in productivity, particularly in egg production. The aim of the present study in A. galli infestation was to investigate the impact on laying hens' performance and egg quality. A total of 100 56-week-old Hy-line white laying hens were used. The birds were divided into 2 groups, with 10 replicates of 5 birds in each group. The experimental groups consisted of a non-infested group (hens free of theA. galli) and an infested group (hens presenting A. galli). The infestation with A. galli did not significantly influence feed intake but caused a significant reduction in the body weight of the hens and caused a decrease in egg production, therefore promoting worse feed conversion. The egg weight was reduced; however, the infestation did not significantly affect the internal quality of the eggs, which was measured according to the yolk color, albumen height, and Haugh units, or the quality of the shell, based on its percentage, thickness, and strength. It can be concluded that anA. galli infestation promotes a reduction in body weight, egg production, and egg weight in laying hens, therefore worsening feed conversion. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Effect of dietary karaya saponin on serum and egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Afrose, S; Hossain, M S; Tsujii, H

    2010-12-01

    1. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of dietary karaya saponin on cholesterol deposition in laying hens. 2. A total of 40 Boris Brown hens were randomly assigned at 20 weeks of age to 4 treatment groups and fed on diets supplemented with 0 (control), 25, 50 or 75 mg/kg karaya saponin for an 8-week experimental period. 3. After 8 weeks of dietary supplementation, karaya-saponin-treated groups had significantly lower serum cholesterol (23·0%) and triglycerides but increased high density lipoproteins cholesterol concentration than controls, irrespective of karaya saponin content in the diet. Egg yolk cholesterol and triglycerides were also significantly reduced by dietary karaya saponin. Hepatic cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly reduced by karaya saponin but bile acids concentration in the faeces and liver were significantly increased by karaya saponin. The concentrations of oleic, linoleic and linolenic acids in the yolk were greater in hens receiving karaya saponin than in controls. Karaya saponin significantly increased egg production, feed efficiency and yolk colour compared with controls. Karaya saponin tended to increase egg weight, feed consumption, Haugh units, albumen weight and yolk index. 4. In conclusion, karaya saponin is a potential agent for reducing yolk cholesterol concentration together with an overall increase of production performance and improvement in egg quality.

  16. Hematology, Parasitology, and Serology of Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Debra, Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H., Scott; Karl V. Miller, Karl, V.; Baldwin, Charles, A.

    2009-07-01

    ABSTRACT: Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy’s Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P,0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P,0.05). Twentyone adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

  17. Antimicrobial edible films and coatings for fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables: a review.

    PubMed

    Valencia-Chamorro, Silvia A; Palou, Lluís; Del Río, Miguel A; Pérez-Gago, María B

    2011-01-01

    The use of edible films and coatings is an environmentally friendly technology that offers substantial advantages for shelf-life increase of many food products including fruits and vegetables. The development of new natural edible films and coatings with the addition of antimicrobial compounds to preserve fresh and minimally processed fruits and vegetables is a technological challenge for the industry and a very active research field worldwide. Antimicrobial agents have been successfully added to edible composite films and coatings based on polysaccharides or proteins such as starch, cellulose derivatives, chitosan, alginate, fruit puree, whey protein isolated, soy protein, egg albumen, wheat gluten, or sodium caseinate. This paper reviews the development of edible films and coatings with antimicrobial activity, typically through the incorporation of antimicrobial food additives as ingredients, the effect of these edible films on the control of target microorganisms, the influence of antimicrobial agents on mechanical and barrier properties of stand-alone edible films, and the effect of the application of antimicrobial edible coatings on the quality of fresh and fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.

  18. Effects of dietary zinc supplementation on hen performance, ammonia volatilization, and nitrogen retention in manure.

    PubMed

    Kim, W K; Patterson, P H

    2005-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the effects of dietary ZnSO4 supplementation on ammonia volatilization and nitrogen retention in hen manure. One hundred twenty, 45-wk-old commercial Leghorn laying hens were sequentially fed diets with 1000, 2000, and 3000 ppm Zn as ZnSO4 (Zn-1000, Zn-2000, and Zn-3000), then followed by two control dietary periods with 114 ppm Zn (Control-1 and Control-2) for a total of five consecutive eight-day experiment periods, respectively. When hens were fed the 1000 and 2000 ppm Zn treatment diets, room ammonia levels were significantly reduced compared to the control diets. Dietary Zn treatments reduced the decomposition of uric acid, resulting in an increase in manure total-N retention compared to the control fed birds. The 1000 ppm Zn supplement had no adverse effects on hen body weight, feed consumption, egg production, egg weight, albumen height, or shell thickness. However, hens fed the diet containing 3000 ppm Zn had significantly depressed body weight, feed consumption, egg production, egg weight, and shell thickness. Zinc levels of egg contents increased linearly as dietary Zn levels increased. These levels in eggs would not be a problem for human consumption because these are much less than the daily Zn recommended dietary allowance. Although land application of such manure will not cause environmental problems or crop toxicity, proper monitoring of soil and crop Zn levels and effective nutrient management planning would be well advised.

  19. Molluscicidal potential of Heterorhabditis baujardi (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae), strain LPP7, on Lymnaea columella (Gastropoda: Pulmonata): An alternative for biological control of fasciolosis.

    PubMed

    Tunholi, Victor Menezes; Lorenzoni, P O; da Silva, Ygor Henrique; Tunholi-Alves, Vinícius Menezes; Boeloni, Jankerle Neves; da Silva, Maria Aparecida; Monteiro, Caio Oliveira; Prata, M C A; Pinheiro, J; Martins, Isabella Vilhena Freire

    2017-09-01

    This study elucidated for the first time, under laboratory conditions, the susceptibility of Lymnaea columella to infective juveniles of Heterorhabditis baujardi LPP7. Exposure to the nematodes induced an average mortality rate of 66.66% in the population of L. columella, with the highest values attained from the second week after exposure onward. In addition, all the reproductive parameters analyzed (total number of eggs, number of egg masses, number of eggs laid/snail, embryo hatching rate and content of galactogen stored in the albumen gland) changed as a result of the infection. The results indicate the occurrence of the phenomenon of parasitic castration in L. columella infected by H. baujardi LPP7, probably through depletion of energy reserves such as galactogen, necessary to meet the intense metabolic demands of the nematode's larval stages. Finally, histopathological analysis demonstrated an intense process of cell disorganization, characterized by the occurrence of granulomatous inflammatory reactions in tissues of exposed snails, induced by the spoliative action of the bacteria/nematode. The results suggest the use of H. baujardi LPP7 as an alternative for biological control of the population of this intermediate host, and thus of the diseases in whose epidemiological chain it participates, especially fasciolosis, in line with the recommendations of the World Health Organization (WHO). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. [Mycoplasma synoviae-associated egg-pole shell defects in laying hens].

    PubMed

    Ranck, Martin Frederick; Schmidt, Volker; Philipp, Hans-Christian; Voss, Matthias; Kacza, Johannes; Richter, Andreas; Fehlhaber, Karsten; Krautwald-Junghanns, Maria-Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    Hens laying eggs with egg-pole shell defects (EPS) were examined in a clinical prospective study. 86 hens with EPS and 72 hens without EPS from three flocks were selected for this study. It could be proven serologically that hens with EPS had significant (p < 0.05) higher titers against Mycoplasma (M.) synoviae then hens without EPS. PCR tested cloacal swabs for M. synoviae were more frequently positive from hens with EPS (87%; n=72) then from hens without EPS (18%; n=13). Furthermore, M. synoviae could be cultivated from the oviduct of five hens with EPS. Additionally, M. synoviae-DNA was detectable in the albumen of nearly all eggs with EPS (n=48; 98%), contrary to the eggs without EPS (n=11; 26%). Ultrastructural investigation revealed that eggs with EPS showed considerable differences of the egg shell structure as well as the cross section dimension according to eggs without EPS. Due to the significantly more frequent detection of M. synoviae-DNA from the cloaca of chickens with EPS, is an involvement of M. synoviae in laying of EPS in the surveyed herds likely. Further infection experiments with the isolated M. synoviae were not perfomed, therefore about the causal pathogenic role of M. synoviae in the development of eggs with EPS in the surveyed herds can only be speculated.

  1. Effects of commercial enzyme preparations on egg and eggshell quality in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Roberts, J R; Choct, M

    2006-08-01

    1. Four different commercial enzyme products were added to standard commercial layer diets, based on barley, wheat or triticale. 2. Diets were fed to 4 different strains of commercial laying hen: ISA Brown, Hy-Line CB, Tegel SB2 and Tegel HiSex. 3. Diets were given for 5 weeks prior to measurements of egg and eggshell quality. 4. The inclusion of commercial enzyme products in the diets had no effect on egg weight. 5. Positive effects of the enzymes were: improved eggshell breaking strength, shell weight, percentage shell and shell thickness for the barley-based diet and increased eggshell breaking strength for two of the enzymes with the wheat-based diets. 6. Negative effects of the enzyme products were slightly lighter coloured eggshells and reduced albumen quality for the barley-based diet and for two enzymes with the wheat-based diet. 7. The addition of commercial enzyme preparations had no main effect on egg and eggshell quality for the triticale-based diet, except for effects on yolk colour. 8. Yolk colour was lower than control for enzyme 3 in all diets and for enzyme 4 with the barley- and wheat-based diets. 9. Further investigation is required to elucidate the specific enzyme components that influence egg quality.

  2. Effects of chromium propionate on egg production, egg quality, plasma biochemical parameters, and egg chromium deposition in late-phase laying hens.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenqiang; Gu, Ying; Lu, Jingyu; Yuan, Lvfeng; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chromium propionate on egg production, egg quality, plasma biochemical parameters and egg chromium deposition in late-phase laying hens. Four hundred thirty-two 60-weeks old laying hens were divided into four groups of 108 birds per group according to egg production. The dietary treatments consisted of the basal diet adding with 0, 200, 400, and 600 μg/kg chromium as chromium propionate. All laying hens were given feed and water ad libitum for 8 weeks. The addition of 400 μg/kg Cr as chromium propionate increased egg production (P < 0.01) during the later 4 weeks, but decreased albumen height, yolk color score, and Haugh unit of eggs. Six hundred micrograms per kilogram Cr as chromium propionate supplementation improved shell thickness (P < 0.05). 200 μg/kg Cr as chromium propionate supplementation decreased the uric acid concentration by 31 % (P < 0.05). However, supplemental Cr did not affect the egg chromium deposition of hens (P > 0.05). These data indicated that feeding of late-phase laying hens with chromium propionate could improve egg production, increase eggshell thickness, but do not result in abnormal levels of chromium deposition in eggs.

  3. Establishing an appropriate period of acclimatization following transportation of laboratory animals.

    PubMed

    Obernier, Jennifer A; Baldwin, Ransom L

    2006-01-01

    Stress associated with transportation has widespread effects on physiological systems in laboratory animals, including changes in the cardiovascular, endocrine, immune, central nervous, and reproductive systems. Although short-lived, these changes can confound research if animals are utilized before homeostasis is restored and physiological measures return to normal. Therefore, some period of acclimatization following transportation is generally suggested to restore homeostasis. The following two questions should be considered to establish an adequate period for acclimatization: (1) Will anticipated physiological changes confound the research to be conducted? (2) What is the length of time necessary for confounding physiological changes to normalize? Finding answers to those questions in the literature can be a challenge. Most literature on the physiological impact of transportation involves agricultural animals, although the limited literature in common laboratory animal species generally parallels changes documented in agricultural animals. The literature documents elevated heart rate and weight loss, as well as elevated concentrations of adrenaline, noradrenaline, glucose, cortisol, free fatty acids, and beta-hydroxybutyrate. Carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism (both lipolysis and lipogenesis) are altered, and plasma osmolality, albumen, protein, and pack-cell volume increase. Neutrophilia and lymphopenia are also evident. These measures generally return to baseline within 1 to 7 days of transportation, although animals that are young, severely stressed, and have stress-sensitive genotypes may show altered physiological measures for several weeks. Other measures such as circadian rhythm and reproductive performance may take several weeks to months to normalize.

  4. Comparison of the effects of dietary supplementation of flavonoids on laying hen performance, egg quality and egg nutrient profile.

    PubMed

    Iskender, H; Yenice, G; Dokumacioglu, E; Kaynar, O; Hayirli, A; Kaya, A

    2017-10-01

    1. The aim of this experiment was to compare the effects of dietary supplementation of hesperidin, naringin and quercetin on laying hen performance, egg quality and egg yolk lipid and protein profiles. 2. A total of 96 Lohmann White laying hens weighing an average of 1500 g at 28 weeks of age were randomly assigned to a basal diet and the basal diet supplemented (0.5 g/kg) with either hesperidin, naringin or quercetin. Each treatment was replicated in 6 cages in an 8-week experimental period. Data were analysed using one-way analysis of variance. 3. None of the dietary flavonoids affected laying performance and eggshell quality. Hesperidin and quercetin supplementations decreased albumen and yolk indexes. 4. As compared to the control group, egg yolk cholesterol content decreased and egg yolk protein content increased in response to dietary hesperidin and quercetin supplementation. The mean egg yolk cholesterol (mg/g) and protein (g/100 g) contents were 10.08/14.28, 16.12/14.08, 14.75/15.04 and 15.15/14.85 for the control group and groups supplemented with naringin, hesperidin and quercetin, respectively. 5. Egg yolk lipid and protein profiles were variable. 6. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of hesperidin or quercetin could be used in the diets during the early laying period to reduce egg yolk cholesterol and increase egg yolk protein, which may be attractive to consumers.

  5. Flame retardants at the top of a simulated baltic marine food web--a case study concerning African penguins from the Gdansk Zoo.

    PubMed

    Reindl, Andrzej R; Falkowska, Lucyna

    2015-02-01

    The present study estimated hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) as a sum of three main isomers (α, β, and γ) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) from Gdansk Zoo and in their sole food, Baltic herring (Clupea harengus), from Gdansk Bay. The average concentration of HBCD in whole herring was 22.0 ± 9.9 ng/g lw, whereas TBBPA was approximately 10-fold lower (2.3 ± 1.3 ng/g lw). Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) were also found in muscle and liver of herring. The estimated daily dietary exposure of the penguins to HBCD was 252.9 ± 113.7 ng, whereas for TBBPA it was 26.3 ± 14.9 ng. The ability of BFRs to accumulate in the liver, muscles, fatty tissue, and brain of penguin was confirmed. The highest concentrations of HBCD (326.9 ng·g(-1) lw) and TBBPA (14.8 ng·g(-1) lw) were found in the brain of an adult penguin. The strongest accumulation factor for BFRs was also established for brain tissue, but it showed stronger magnification in muscle than in liver. HBCD and TBBPA were found in penguin guano and eggs, thus showing effective removal from the birds' systems. BFRs content in yolk was approximately ten times greater than in albumen indicating the lipophilic character of these compounds.

  6. Embryonic modulation of maternal steroids in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris).

    PubMed

    Paitz, Ryan T; Bowden, Rachel M; Casto, Joseph M

    2011-01-07

    In birds, maternally derived yolk steroids are a proposed mechanism by which females can adjust individual offspring phenotype to prevailing conditions. However, when interests of mother and offspring differ, parent-offspring conflict will arise and embryonic interests, not those of the mother, should drive offspring response to maternal steroids in eggs. Because of this potential conflict, we investigated the ability of developing bird embryos to process maternally derived yolk steroids. We examined how progesterone, testosterone and oestradiol levels changed in both the yolk/albumen (YA) and the embryo of European starling eggs during the first 10 days of development. Next, we injected tritiated testosterone into eggs at oviposition to characterize potential metabolic pathways during development. Ether extractions separated organic and aqueous metabolites in both the embryo and YA homogenate, after which major steroid metabolites were identified. Results indicate that the concentrations of all three steroids declined during development in the YA homogenate. Exogenous testosterone was primarily metabolized to an aqueous form of etiocholanolone that remained in the YA. These results clearly demonstrate that embryos can modulate their local steroid environment, setting up the potential for parent-offspring conflict. Embryonic regulation must be considered when addressing the evolutionary consequences of maternal steroids in eggs.

  7. Validation of FoodChek™ - Salmonella for Rapid Detection of Salmonella in Eggs, Derivative Products, and the Environment.

    PubMed

    Buzinhani, Melissa; Tremblay, Renaud; Martinez, Gabriela; Giuffre, Michael; Hammack, Thomas; Fernandez, Maria Cristina; Ziemer, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    The FoodChek™ - Salmonella assay is an immunomagnetic lateral flow assay for the rapid detection (shorter than 24 h) of the most frequently isolated Salmonella (groups B-E) in eggs, egg-derivative products, and environmental surfaces. The FoodChek - Salmonella assay correctly identified 99.6% (239/240) of the samples tested in the matrix studied, and the statistical analysis of the method comparison study results demonstrated that it performs as well as U.S. culture-based reference methods. Ninety-nine percent of the 103 Salmonella strains tested belonging to serogroups B-E were detected during the inclusivity study. Concerning the exclusivity, 31 nontarget strains were tested. No cross-reactivity was observed in FoodChek - Salmonella assay enrichment conditions. In addition, the assay shows strong robustness, good stability, and consistency among lots. The present study proves that the assay is an effective tool for the rapid detection of Salmonella spp. in whole liquid eggs, liquid egg white (liquid egg albumen), shell eggs, dried whole eggs, dried egg yolks, and environmental surfaces as stainless steel, plastic, rubber, ceramic tiles, and sealed concrete.

  8. The chronic infusion of nicotine into the developing chick embryo does not alter the density of (-)-[3H]nicotine-binding sites or vestibular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roll, R. L.; Jones, T. A.; Benowitz, N. L.; Morley, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    (-)-Nicotine (1.2 mg/day) or saline was infused into chick embryos (Gallus domesticus) for 10 days beginning 12 h beyond the eight day of incubation (E8 + 12 h). Twelve h beyond the eighteenth day of incubation (E18 + 12 h), the eggs were opened to access the embryos and subcutaneous skull electrodes placed. Short latency vestibular response thresholds and input/output functions were determined to assess neurophysiological consequences of chronic nicotine administration. Samples of serum and extraembryonic (amniotic and albumen) fluid were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the levels of nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine. The brains were removed and divided into diencephalon and mesencephalon and the density of (-)-[3H]nicotine binding sites in each brain area was measured. Nicotine and cotinine were found in the serum and extraembryonic fluid, but nicotinic receptors were not up-regulated in the brains of animals infused with nicotine in comparison to controls. Vestibular response thresholds also did not differ between nicotine-treated and control animals.

  9. Effects of chitosan coating and storage with dry ice on the freshness and quality of eggs.

    PubMed

    Jo, C; Ahn, D U; Liu, X D; Kim, K H; Nam, K-C

    2011-02-01

    To develop a method that can maintain egg freshness during practical storage conditions, eggs were coated with chitosan and stored with or without dry ice. The physicochemical and microbiological qualities of eggs were evaluated during 14 d of storage at 4 and 23°C without dry ice and at 23°C with dry ice. The combination of chitosan coating and dry ice significantly inhibited a Haugh unit decrease during storage at 23 °C. No difference in functional properties, such as foaming ability, foam stability, and viscosity, among treatments was observed, but chitosan coating and storage with dry ice decreased the rate of pH increase and moisture loss in albumen at d 7 and 14. The eggs treated with chitosan coating and storage with dry ice had a significantly lower number of Salmonella Typhimurium inoculated on the egg surface than did control eggs during storage at 23°C. Results revealed that the combination of chitosan coating and storage with dry ice limited the moisture loss, CO(2) emission, and pH increase, which helped maintaining the freshness of eggs. Microbial growth was also inhibited during storage at 23°C.

  10. Effects of Dietary Corticosterone on Yolk Colors and Eggshell Quality in Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeon-Hwa; Kim, Jimin; Yoon, Hyung-Sook; Choi, Yang-Ho

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary corticosterone on egg quality. For 2 weeks hens received either control or experimental diet containing corticosterone at 30 mg/kg diet. Feed intake and egg production were monitored daily, and body weight measured weekly. Egg weights and egg quality were measured daily. Corticosterone treatment resulted in a remarkable increase in feed intake and sharp decrease in egg production compared with control (p<0.05) whereas body weight remained unchanged. Decreased albumen height, but no changes in egg weight, led to decreased Haugh unit (p<0.05). Corticosterone caused elevated eggshell thickness (p<0.05) without altering weight and strength, suggesting possible changes in shell structure. Yolk color and redness were increased by corticosterone (p<0.05) but lightness and yellowness were either not changed or inconsistent over the time period of measurements. Increased concentrations in plasma were also found for corticosterone, glucose, cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and amylase (p<0.05), suggesting that corticosterone increased protein breakdown, renal dysfunctions and pancreatitis. Together, the current results imply that dietary corticosterone affects egg quality such as yolk colors and shell thickness, in addition to its effects on feed intake and egg production. PMID:25925061

  11. Differences in the timing of cardio-respiratory development determine whether marine gastropod embryos survive or die in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Rudin-Bitterli, Tabitha S; Spicer, John I; Rundle, Simon D

    2016-04-01

    Physiological plasticity of early developmental stages is a key way by which organisms can survive and adapt to environmental change. We investigated developmental plasticity of aspects of the cardio-respiratory physiology of encapsulated embryos of a marine gastropod, Littorina obtusata, surviving exposure to moderate hypoxia (PO2 =8 kPa) and compared the development of these survivors with that of individuals that died before hatching. Individuals surviving hypoxia exhibited a slower rate of development and altered ontogeny of cardio-respiratory structure and function compared with normoxic controls (PO2 >20 kPa). The onset and development of the larval and adult hearts were delayed in chronological time in hypoxia, but both organs appeared earlier in developmental time and cardiac activity rates were greater. The velum, a transient, 'larval' organ thought to play a role in gas exchange, was larger in hypoxia but developed more slowly (in chronological time), and velar cilia-driven, rotational activity was lower. Despite these effects of hypoxia, 38% of individuals survived to hatching. Compared with those embryos that died during development, these surviving embryos had advanced expression of adult structures, i.e. a significantly earlier occurrence and greater activity of their adult heart and larger shells. In contrast, embryos that died retained larval cardio-respiratory features (the velum and larval heart) for longer in chronological time. Surviving embryos came from eggs with significantly higher albumen provisioning than those that died, suggesting an energetic component for advanced development of adult traits.

  12. The chronic infusion of nicotine into the developing chick embryo does not alter the density of (-)-[3H]nicotine-binding sites or vestibular function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roll, R. L.; Jones, T. A.; Benowitz, N. L.; Morley, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    (-)-Nicotine (1.2 mg/day) or saline was infused into chick embryos (Gallus domesticus) for 10 days beginning 12 h beyond the eight day of incubation (E8 + 12 h). Twelve h beyond the eighteenth day of incubation (E18 + 12 h), the eggs were opened to access the embryos and subcutaneous skull electrodes placed. Short latency vestibular response thresholds and input/output functions were determined to assess neurophysiological consequences of chronic nicotine administration. Samples of serum and extraembryonic (amniotic and albumen) fluid were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the levels of nicotine and its major metabolite, cotinine. The brains were removed and divided into diencephalon and mesencephalon and the density of (-)-[3H]nicotine binding sites in each brain area was measured. Nicotine and cotinine were found in the serum and extraembryonic fluid, but nicotinic receptors were not up-regulated in the brains of animals infused with nicotine in comparison to controls. Vestibular response thresholds also did not differ between nicotine-treated and control animals.

  13. Tracking of buried layers during plasma-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of compound targets

    SciTech Connect

    Zhvaniya, I. A. Garmatina, A. A.; Makarov, I. A.; Gordienko, V. M.

    2016-07-28

    It was shown that drilling of multi-layered target placed in the air by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation with high fluence (up to 1000 J/cm{sup 2}) can be monitored online using plasma-induced X-ray emission and second harmonic of incident laser radiation. The technique based on X-rays registration is appeared to be more flexible than the method based on detection of second harmonic since its accuracy depends crucially on the target type. We demonstrated that the X-ray signal clearly indicates the transition from one layer to another during the microdrilling of targets consisting of 2–4 layers of titanium foil when a laser beam is focused beneath the target surface at a depth comparable to the layer thickness. The diagnostics of microchannel production in the chicken eggshell was performed for the first time. It was found that the presence of albumen beneath the shell accounts for longtime generation of X-ray pulses.

  14. Identification of protein components of egg masses indicates parental investment in immunoprotection of offspring by Biomphalaria glabrata (gastropoda, mollusca).

    PubMed

    Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Adema, Coen M; Stout, Barbara A; Mobarak, Charlotte D; Loker, Eric S

    2010-04-01

    The macromolecules contributed by the freshwater gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, to developing offspring inside egg masses are poorly known. SDS-PAGE fractionated egg mass fluids (EMF) of M line and BB02 B. glabrata were analyzed by MALDI-TOF (MS and tandem MS). A MASCOT database was assembled with EST data from B. glabrata and other molluscs to aid in sequence characterization. Of approximately 20 major EMF polypeptides, 16 were identified as defense-related, including protease inhibitors, a hemocyanin-like factor and tyrosinase (each with possible phenoloxidase activity), extracellular Cu-Zn SOD, two categories of C-type lectins, Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein (GNBP), aplysianin/achacin-like protein, as well as versions of lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bacterial permeability-increasing proteins (LBP/BPI) that differed from those previously described from hemocytes. Along with two sequences that were encoded by "unknown" ESTs, EMF also yielded a compound containing a vWF domain that is likely involved in defense and a polypeptide with homology to the Aplysia pheromone temptin. Further study of B. glabrata pheromones is warranted as these could be useful in efforts to control these schistosome-transmitting snails. Several of the EMF polypeptides were contained in the albumen gland, the organ that produces most EMF. Thus, parental investment of B. glabrata in immunoprotection of its offspring is indicated to be considerable.

  15. Distribution of semduramicin in hen eggs and tissues after administration of cross-contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Olejnik, Małgorzata; Szprengier-Juszkiewicz, Teresa; Jedziniak, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Semduramicin is an ionophore coccidiostat used in the poultry industry as a feed additive. Cross-contamination of feeds for non-target animals with semduramicin is unavoidable. However, it is not known whether undesirable residues of semduramicin may occur in food after cross-contaminated feed is administered to animals. The aim of the work was to determine the levels of semduramicin in hen eggs (yolks and albumen) and tissues (liver, muscle, spleen, gizzard, ovarian yolks and ovaries) after administration of feed contaminated with 0.27 mg kg(-1) of this coccidiostat. The residues were determined using LC-MS/MS. The distribution pattern confirmed the high lipophilicity of semduramicin. Residues were found mainly in egg yolks (28.8 µg kg(-1)), ovarian yolks (19.5 µg kg(-1)) and liver (2.57 µg kg(-1)), while hens' muscle was free from semduramicin (LOD = 0.1 µg kg(-1)). Among edible tissues, the maximum level (2 µg kg(-1)) was exceeded only in the liver.

  16. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Kai; Long, Lei; Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Shunxi

    2016-01-01

    A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 9 (OCT9), 18 (OCT18), and 27 (OCT27) mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (p<0.05) laying rate, egg weight, egg mass, egg albumen height, Haugh unit and eggshell strength on d 42, but decreased (p<0.05) feed conversion rate and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum as compared to those of Control. Feed intake, yolk color, yolk diameter, eggshell thickness and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens. PMID:27282970

  17. Transcriptome of the Australian Mollusc Dicathais orbita Provides Insights into the Biosynthesis of Indoles and Choline Esters

    PubMed Central

    Baten, Abdul; Ngangbam, Ajit Kumar; Waters, Daniel L. E.; Benkendorff, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Dicathais orbita is a mollusc of the Muricidae family and is well known for the production of the expensive dye Tyrian purple and its brominated precursors that have anticancer properties, in addition to choline esters with muscle-relaxing properties. However, the biosynthetic pathways that produce these secondary metabolites in D. orbita are not known. Illumina HiSeq 2000 transcriptome sequencing of hypobranchial glands, prostate glands, albumen glands, capsule glands, and mantle and foot tissues of D. orbita generated over 201 million high quality reads that were de novo assembled into 219,437 contigs. Annotation with reference to the Nr, Swiss-Prot and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) databases identified candidate-coding regions in 76,152 of these contigs, with transcripts for many enzymes in various metabolic pathways associated with secondary metabolite biosynthesis represented. This study revealed that D. orbita expresses a number of genes associated with indole, sulfur and histidine metabolism pathways that are relevant to Tyrian purple precursor biosynthesis, and many of which were not found in the fully annotated genomes of three other molluscs in the KEGG database. However, there were no matches to known bromoperoxidase enzymes within the D. orbita transcripts. These transcriptome data provide a significant molecular resource for gastropod research in general and Tyrian purple producing Muricidae in particular. PMID:27447649

  18. An analysis of the response of Sooty Tern eggs to sonic boom overpressures.

    PubMed

    Ting, Carina; Garrelick, Joel; Bowles, Ann

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that sonic booms caused a mass hatching failure of Sooty Terns in the Dry Tortugas in Florida by cracking the eggshells. This paper investigates this possibility analytically, complementing previous empirical studies. The sonic boom is represented as a plane-wave excitation with an N-wave time signature. Two models for the egg are employed. The first model, intended to provide insight, consists of a spherical shell, with the embryo represented as a rigid, concentric sphere and the albumen as an acoustic fluid filling the intervening volume. The substrate is modeled as a doubling of the incident pressure. The second, numerical model includes the egg-shape geometry and air sac. More importantly, the substrate is modeled as a rigid boundary of infinite extent with acoustic diffraction included. The peak shell stress, embryo acceleration, and reactive force are predicted as a function of the peak sonic boom overpressure and compared with damage criteria from the literature. The predicted peak sonic boom overpressure necessary for egg damage is much higher than documented sonic boom overpressures, even for extraordinary operational conditions. Therefore, as with previous empirical studies, it is concluded that it is unlikely that sonic boom overpressures damage avian eggs.

  19. An analysis of the response of Sooty Tern eggs to sonic boom overpressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Carina; Garrelick, Joel; Bowles, Ann

    2002-01-01

    It has been proposed that sonic booms caused a mass hatching failure of Sooty Terns in the Dry Tortugas in Florida by cracking the eggshells. This paper investigates this possibility analytically, complementing previous empirical studies. The sonic boom is represented as a plane-wave excitation with an N-wave time signature. Two models for the egg are employed. The first model, intended to provide insight, consists of a spherical shell, with the embryo represented as a rigid, concentric sphere and the albumen as an acoustic fluid filling the intervening volume. The substrate is modeled as a doubling of the incident pressure. The second, numerical model includes the egg-shape geometry and air sac. More importantly, the substrate is modeled as a rigid boundary of infinite extent with acoustic diffraction included. The peak shell stress, embryo acceleration, and reactive force are predicted as a function of the peak sonic boom overpressure and compared with damage criteria from the literature. The predicted peak sonic boom overpressure necessary for egg damage is much higher than documented sonic boom overpressures, even for extraordinary operational conditions. Therefore, as with previous empirical studies, it is concluded that it is unlikely that sonic boom overpressures damage avian eggs.

  20. Calcium Isotope Systematics During Development of the Domestic Chicken (Gallus gallus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, P. V.

    2003-12-01

    Calcium isotope distributions have been recognized as showing systematic and predictable fractionation in nature. However, most of the observed calcium isotope fractionation to date is due to biological processes. The presence of abundant amounts of calcium in mineralized tissues makes the isotopic system of calcium particularly valuable in biological and paleobiological questions involving biomineralization. In order to apply calcium isotope systematics to paleobiological questions the changes in the calcium isotope signatures of mineralized tissue in modern animals should be studied. My study observed the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus) through embryologic ontogeny. This was accomplished by obtaining fertilized eggs staged in a growth series from day 12 to day 20. The eggs were dissected and shell, embryonic bone, albumen, and yolk were analyzed in order to characterize the calcium isotopic composition of the individual components over the course of the growth series. Several systematic changes in the isotopic signatures of various tissues were observed during the course of the development of the embryos. In general, mineralization in biological systems preferentially partitions the lighter isotopes of calcium into hard parts. As a result of this fractionation during mineralization, partitioning of light isotopes of calcium into the mineralized tissues may result in residual tissues being enriched in the heavier isotopes as ontogeny progresses. Better understanding of the behavior of calcium in modern biological systems will improve its application to fossils and expand the number of paleobiological and evolutionary questions that can be addressed using calcium isotopic data.

  1. Investigation of Properties of Infrared Absorption of α-HELIX Protein Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Huai-Wu

    2006-05-01

    The mechanism and properties of infrared absorption of α-helix protein molecules are studied by a theory of bio-energy transport established on the basis of molecular structure. From the vibrational energy-spectra of molecules obtained from this theory we know that the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 µm -7 µm can be absorbed by α-helix protein molecules. This is basically consistent with experimental data of infrared absorption of collagen and hemoglobin and bivine serum albumen (BSA) proteins with α-helix structure. From these results we account further for the mechanism and properties of biological effect of infrared lights absorbed by the living systems, i.e., the energy of infrared lights is directly absorbed by the amide-Is in amino acid residues in the protein molecules, which results in vibration of amide-1 and change of conformation of proteins and transport of bio-energy from one place to other along the protein molecular chains in human beings and animals. This is a kind of non-thermally biological effect.

  2. Proteomic analysis of egg white proteins during the early phase of embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Ning; Ma, Meihu; Cai, Zhaoxia; Jin, Yongguo; Huang, Xi; Huang, Qun; Sun, Shuguo

    2012-03-16

    Avian egg albumen participates in embryonic development by providing essential nutrients as well as antimicrobial protection. Although various biological functions of egg white proteins were suggested during embryogenesis, global changes of these proteins under incubation conditions remained uninvestigated. This study presents a proteomic analysis on the change of egg white proteins during the first week of embryonic development. By using 2-DE, together with MALDI-TOF MS/MS, thirty protein spots representing eight proteins were identified showing significant changes in abundance during incubation. An accelerating degradation of ovalbumin was observed in a wide range of molecular weight. In addition, four protein complexes were predicted according to the detected molecular weight increase. Among these speculated protein complexes, an ovalbumin spot coupled with RNA-binding protein was detected. The absence of these protein complexes before incubation, followed by the constant increase in abundance during incubation indicates conceivable pivotal roles in embryonic development. To better understand the function of the proteins identified in this study, discrepancies of egg white protein changes between fertilized and unfertilized chicken eggs were additionally demonstrated. These findings will provide insight into the embryogenesis process to improve our knowledge of egg white proteins in regulating and supporting early embryonic development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of dietary defatted diatom biomass on egg production and quality of laying hens

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was to determine if feeding laying hens with defatted diatom microalgal biomass (DFA) from biofuel production affected their egg production and health status. Methods Five replicates of 5 individually caged ISA Babcock White leghorn hens were fed 4 diets, including a corn-soybean meal control diet, a diet containing 7.5% DFA substituting for soybean meal, and diets containing 7.5% or 15% DFA substituting for corn and soybean meal. Body weights, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), rate of egg production, egg size, egg mass, and several characteristics of eggs were determined at 4 and 8 wk. Venous blood was sampled at 4 and 8 wk for measurement of 5 biomarkers of health. Results The 15% DFA diet decreased (P < 0.05) feed intake, egg production, and plasma uric acid concentrations as compared with the control diet, but increased (P < 0.05) egg albumen weight and height compared with the 7.5% DFA diets. The two levels of DFA produced dose-dependent (P < 0.05) changes in three color measures of egg yolk, without affecting four hen plasma biochemical indicators of health. Conclusions Feeding laying hens with 7.5% DFA in the corn-soybean meal diet for 8 wk had no adverse effect on their health, egg production, or egg quality, but 15% inclusion reduced feed intake, egg production, and efficiency of feed utilization. PMID:24401600

  4. Tracking of buried layers during plasma-assisted femtosecond laser drilling of compound targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhvaniya, I. A.; Garmatina, A. A.; Makarov, I. A.; Gordienko, V. M.

    2016-07-01

    It was shown that drilling of multi-layered target placed in the air by tightly focused femtosecond laser radiation with high fluence (up to 1000 J/cm2) can be monitored online using plasma-induced X-ray emission and second harmonic of incident laser radiation. The technique based on X-rays registration is appeared to be more flexible than the method based on detection of second harmonic since its accuracy depends crucially on the target type. We demonstrated that the X-ray signal clearly indicates the transition from one layer to another during the microdrilling of targets consisting of 2-4 layers of titanium foil when a laser beam is focused beneath the target surface at a depth comparable to the layer thickness. The diagnostics of microchannel production in the chicken eggshell was performed for the first time. It was found that the presence of albumen beneath the shell accounts for longtime generation of X-ray pulses.

  5. One-Pot Synthesis of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots via Exfoliating and Disintegrating Graphite Flakes

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Na-Jung; Chen, Yu-Syuan; Wu, Chien-Wei; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Chan, Yang-Hsiang; Chen, I-Wen Peter

    2016-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have drawn tremendous attention on account of their numerous alluring properties and a wide range of application potentials. Here, we report that hydrophilic and hydrophobic N-doped GQDs can be prepared via exfoliating and disintegrating graphite flakes. Various spectroscopic characterizations including TEM, AFM, FTIR, PL, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the hydrophilic N-doped GQDs (IN-GQDs) and the hydrophobic N-doped GQDs (ON-GQDs) are mono-layered and multi-layered, respectively. In terms of practical aspects, the supercapacitor of an ON-GQDs/SWCNTs composite paper electrode was fabricated and exhibited an areal capacitance of 114 mF/cm2, which is more than 250% higher than the best reported value to date for a GQDs/carbon nanotube hybrid composite. For IN-GQDs applications, bio-memristor devices of IN-GQDs-albumen combination exhibited on/off current ratios in excess of 104 accompanied by stable switching endurance of over 250 cycles. The resistance stability of the high resistance state and the low resistance state could be maintained for over 104 s. Moreover, the IN-GQDs exhibited a superior quantum yield (34%), excellent stability of cellular imaging, and no cytotoxicity. Hence, the solution-based method for synchronized production of IN-GQDs and ON-GQDs is a facile and processable route that will bring GQDs-based electronics and composites closer to actualization. PMID:27452118

  6. Females Paired with New and Heavy Mates Reduce Intra-Clutch Differences in Resource Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Poisbleau, Maud; Dehnhard, Nina; Demongin, Laurent; Parenteau, Charline; Quillfeldt, Petra; Eens, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive investment affects both offspring and parental fitness and influences the evolution of life histories. Females may vary their overall primary reproductive effort in relation to the phenotypic characteristics of their mate. However, the effects of male quality on differential resource allocation within clutches have been largely neglected despite the potential implications for mate choice and population dynamics, especially in species exhibiting biparental care and brood reduction. Female southern rockhopper penguins Eudyptes chrysocome paired with heavy mates reduced intra-clutch variation in egg and albumen masses. Females paired with new mates also reduced intra-clutch variation in yolk androgen levels. Since both an increased mass and increased androgen concentrations positively influence chick survival under sibling competition, the chances of fledging the whole clutch are likely to be higher for newly formed pairs with heavy males than for previously formed pairs with light males. Interestingly, total clutch provisioning did not vary with male quality. We show for the first time that females vary intra-clutch variation in resource allocation according to male quality. In species with brood reduction, it may be more adaptive for females to modulate the distribution of resources within the clutch according to breeding conditions, than to change their total clutch provisioning. PMID:23967280

  7. One-Pot Synthesis of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots via Exfoliating and Disintegrating Graphite Flakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Na-Jung; Chen, Yu-Syuan; Wu, Chien-Wei; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Chan, Yang-Hsiang; Chen, I.-Wen Peter

    2016-07-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have drawn tremendous attention on account of their numerous alluring properties and a wide range of application potentials. Here, we report that hydrophilic and hydrophobic N-doped GQDs can be prepared via exfoliating and disintegrating graphite flakes. Various spectroscopic characterizations including TEM, AFM, FTIR, PL, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the hydrophilic N-doped GQDs (IN-GQDs) and the hydrophobic N-doped GQDs (ON-GQDs) are mono-layered and multi-layered, respectively. In terms of practical aspects, the supercapacitor of an ON-GQDs/SWCNTs composite paper electrode was fabricated and exhibited an areal capacitance of 114 mF/cm2, which is more than 250% higher than the best reported value to date for a GQDs/carbon nanotube hybrid composite. For IN-GQDs applications, bio-memristor devices of IN-GQDs-albumen combination exhibited on/off current ratios in excess of 104 accompanied by stable switching endurance of over 250 cycles. The resistance stability of the high resistance state and the low resistance state could be maintained for over 104 s. Moreover, the IN-GQDs exhibited a superior quantum yield (34%), excellent stability of cellular imaging, and no cytotoxicity. Hence, the solution-based method for synchronized production of IN-GQDs and ON-GQDs is a facile and processable route that will bring GQDs-based electronics and composites closer to actualization.

  8. Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Pediatric Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Asmaa Mohamad; Elsayh, Khalid Ibrahim; Mohamad, Ismail Lotfy; Hassan, Gamal Mohamad; Abdou, Madleen Adel A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPs) in pediatric patients with sepsis and correlating it with the severity of the disease and its outcome. The study included 19 children with sepsis, 26 with complicated sepsis, and 30 healthy controls. The patients were investigated within 48 hours of pediatric intensive care unit admission together with flow cytometric detection of CECs and CEPs. The levels of both CECs and CEPs were significantly higher in patient with sepsis and complicated sepsis than the controls. The levels of CECs were higher in patients with complicated sepsis, whereas the levels of CEPs were lower in patients with complicated sepsis. Comparing the survival and nonsurvival septic patients, the levels of CEPs were significantly higher in the survival than in nonsurvival patients, whereas the levels of CECs were significantly lower in the survival than in nonsurvival patients. Serum albumin was higher in survival than in nonsurvival patients. Estimation of CECs and CEPs and their correlation with other parameters such as serum albumen could add important information regarding prognosis in septic pediatric patients.

  9. Stable isotope analysis of avian eggs: Determining diet, feeding source and role of endogenous reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Hobson, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    Contemporary and archived avian eggs have been used extensively as a means of assessing and monitoring contaminants in the environment. Eggs can also be analyzed for stable-isotope ratios to provide dietary information that may be used to link diet of laying females with contaminant levels in eggs. Various egg components can provide integrated dietary information based on periods ranging from about a day (e.g. albumen, shell carbonate) to a week (egg yolk). In addition, some species may mobilize stored proteins and lipids from endogenous reserves during egg formation and this needs to be considered when correlating contaminant levels in eggs with dietary patterns in adult females. The role of endogenous reserves in egg formation may be assessed if individuals move between food webs with distinct isotopic profiles. This approach is illustrated using isotopic investigations of captive quail, falcons and waterfowl raised on controlled diets and of wild birds (Phalacrocorax auritus, Larus argentatus, Stema caspia, Chen caerulescens) that migrate between marine and terrestrial biomes using a variety of isotopes ({sup 13}C, {sup 15}N, {sup 34}S and D) . Whereas {sup 15}N measurements may provide information primarily of trophic level, {sup 13}C, {sup 34}S and D measurements reveal important information on source of feeding and origin of endogenous reserves.

  10. Hematology, parasitology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Miller, Debra Lee; Schrecengost, Joshua; Merrill, Anita; Kilgo, John; Ray, H Scott; Miller, Karl V; Baldwin, Charles A

    2009-07-01

    Blood and feces were collected from 34 adult (19 males, 15 females) and seven juvenile (three males, one female, three not reported) free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (South Carolina, USA). Significant (P<0.05) hematologic differences by sex were noted for red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Biochemical differences by sex occurred only for albumen (P<0.05). Twenty-one adults were antibody positive for at least one of four viruses: canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1; 68%), West Nile virus (WNV; 60%), Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; 38%), and Canine distemper virus (CDV; 15%). Of the seven Leptospira serovars tested for, seven (25%) of 28 adults were positive for one or more of five serovars: Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Bratislava, and Autumnalis. Three (43%) of seven juveniles had seropositivity for a virus, one each for CDV, CAV-1, and WNV. No juveniles were seropositive for EEEV or any of the seven Leptospira serovars. Blood smears of 12 adults were positive for Dirofilaria immitis microfilaria, but blood smears from all juveniles were negative. Parvovirus was identified by electron microscopy from the feces of one adult. Ancylostoma spp., Trichuris spp., and Isospora spp. were observed in fecal samples. These data may aid in understanding the role of coyotes in disease ecology.

  11. The population density effects on the reproductive biology of the snail Bradybaena similaris (Férussac, 1821) (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C S de; Vasconcellos, M C; Pinheiro, J

    2008-05-01

    The influence of population density on some aspects of the reproductive biology of the snail Bradybaena similaris was studied. Molluscs were maintained under 0.2 (isolated), 0.3, 0.6, 1.0, 1.3 and 1.7 snail/m(2) densities. The animals maintained under 0.3 and 0.6 snail/m(2) showed the lowest numbers of eggs laid/snail, being the highest value observed to the 1.7 snail/m(2). The hatching of the snails maintained under 0.3 snail/m(2) density, begun at the 21st day after laying, and the maximum time required to the hatching was 36 days was observed to the eggs came from snails maintained under the densities 0.6, 1.0, 1.3 snail/m(2), respectively. The highest percentage hatchability (55.56%) was observed to isolated snails. The galactogen content in the albumen gland did not seem to accompany the alterations occurred in the reproduction of B. similaris in response to the different population densities.

  12. Identification of protein components of egg masses indicates parental investment in immunoprotection of offspring by Biomphalaria glabrata (Gastropoda, Mollusca)

    PubMed Central

    Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Adema, Coen M.; Stout, Barbara A.; Mobarak, Charlotte D; Loker, Eric S

    2009-01-01

    The macromolecules contributed by the freshwater gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, intermediate host of Schistosoma mansoni, to developing offspring inside egg masses are poorly known. SDS-PAGE fractionated egg mass fluids (EMF) of M line and BB02 B. glabrata were analyzed by MALDI-TOF (MS and tandem MS). A MASCOT database was assembled with EST data from B. glabrata and other molluscs to aid in sequence characterization. Of approximately 20 major EMF polypeptides, 16 were identified as defense-related, including protease inhibitors, a hemocyanin-like factor and tyrosinase (each with possible phenoloxidase activity), extracellular Cu-Zn SOD, two categories of C-type lectins, Gram negative bacteria-binding protein (GNBP), aplysianin/achacin-like protein, as well as versions of lipopolysaccharide binding protein/bacterial permeability increasing proteins (LBP/BPI) that differed from those previously described from hemocytes. Along with two sequences that were encoded by “unknown” ESTs, EMF also yielded a compound containing a vWF domain that is likely involved in defense and a polypeptide with homology to the Aplysia pheromone temptin. Further study of B. glabrata pheromones is warranted as these could be useful in efforts to control these schistosome-transmitting snails. Several of the EMF polypeptides were contained in the albumen gland, the organ that produces most EMF. Thus parental investment of B. glabrata in immunoprotection of its offspring is indicated to be considerable. PMID:19995576

  13. Effect of grass-clover forage and whole-wheat feeding on the sensory quality of eggs.

    PubMed

    Horsted, Klaus; Hammershøj, Marianne; Allesen-Holm, Bodil H

    2010-01-30

    A sensory panel evaluated the sensory profile of eggs from hens from three experimental systems: (1) an indoor system x normal layer diet (InL), (2) a grass-clover forage system x normal layer diet (GrL), and (3) a grass-clover forage system x whole wheat and oyster shells (GrW). The taste of the albumen was significantly more 'watery' and the yolks a darker yellow/orange in the eggs from the GrL and GrW groups. The yolk was darkest from the GrW group. The yolks from the InL and GrW groups had a significantly more 'fresh', less 'animal', 'cardboard', and 'intense' aroma than the GrL group. The taste of the yolks from the InL and GrW groups was significantly more 'fresh' and less 'cardboard'-like compared to the GrL group. The yolks tasted significantly less 'sulfurous' in the GrW group than in the GrL group. The combination of a high feed intake from a grass-clover pasture and the type of feed allocated is an important factor in relation to the sensory quality of eggs. Thus, a less favourable sensory profile of eggs was found from hens on a grass-clover pasture and fed a normal layer diet. Copyright (c) 2009 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Stable isotopes as a tool to differentiate eggs laid by caged, barn, free range, and organic hens.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Karyne M

    2009-05-27

    Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope values of whole yolk, delipidized yolk, albumen, and egg membrane were analyzed from 18 different brands of chicken eggs laid under caged, barn, free range, and organic farming regimes. In general, free range and organic egg components showed enrichment of (15)N values up to 4‰ relative to caged and barn laid eggs, suggesting a higher animal protein (trophic) contribution to the chicken's diet than pure plant-based foods and/or that the feed was organically manufactured. One sample of free range and two samples of organic eggs had δ(15)N values within the range of caged or barn laid eggs, suggesting either that these eggs were mislabeled (the hens were raised under "battery" or "barn" conditions, and not permitted to forage outside) or that there was insufficient animal protein gained by foraging to shift the δ(15)N values of their primary food source. δ(13)C values of potential food sources are discussed with respect to dietary intake and contribution to the isotopic signature of the eggs to determine mixing of C(3) and C(4) diets, although they did not elucidate laying regimen. The study finds that stable nitrogen isotope analysis of egg components is potentially a useful technique to unravel dietary differences between caged or barn hens and free range hens (both conventional and organic) and could be further developed as an authentication tool in the egg industry.

  15. One-Pot Synthesis of Hydrophilic and Hydrophobic N-Doped Graphene Quantum Dots via Exfoliating and Disintegrating Graphite Flakes.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Na-Jung; Chen, Yu-Syuan; Wu, Chien-Wei; Huang, Chun-Yuan; Chan, Yang-Hsiang; Chen, I-Wen Peter

    2016-07-25

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have drawn tremendous attention on account of their numerous alluring properties and a wide range of application potentials. Here, we report that hydrophilic and hydrophobic N-doped GQDs can be prepared via exfoliating and disintegrating graphite flakes. Various spectroscopic characterizations including TEM, AFM, FTIR, PL, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that the hydrophilic N-doped GQDs (IN-GQDs) and the hydrophobic N-doped GQDs (ON-GQDs) are mono-layered and multi-layered, respectively. In terms of practical aspects, the supercapacitor of an ON-GQDs/SWCNTs composite paper electrode was fabricated and exhibited an areal capacitance of 114 mF/cm(2), which is more than 250% higher than the best reported value to date for a GQDs/carbon nanotube hybrid composite. For IN-GQDs applications, bio-memristor devices of IN-GQDs-albumen combination exhibited on/off current ratios in excess of 10(4) accompanied by stable switching endurance of over 250 cycles. The resistance stability of the high resistance state and the low resistance state could be maintained for over 10(4) s. Moreover, the IN-GQDs exhibited a superior quantum yield (34%), excellent stability of cellular imaging, and no cytotoxicity. Hence, the solution-based method for synchronized production of IN-GQDs and ON-GQDs is a facile and processable route that will bring GQDs-based electronics and composites closer to actualization.

  16. Effects of fish oil and conjugated linoleic acids on carnitine homeostasis in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Shibani, M; Keller, J; König, B; Kluge, H; Hirche, F; Stangl, G I; Ringseis, R; Eder, K

    2012-01-01

    1. The effects of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) on genes involved in carnitine homeostasis were compared in laying hens. Three groups of laying hens were fed on a control diet or a diet with either 3% of fish oil or CLA for 4 weeks. 2. Feed intake and egg production rate did not differ between the three groups. Diets with fish oil or CLA had only a weak effect on mRNA levels of PPARα target genes (ACO, CPT-I) in the liver and did not influence mRNA concentrations of the most important carnitine transporter OCTN2, enzymes of involved in carnitine synthesis (TMLD, TMABA-DH, BBD) or concentrations of carnitine in plasma, liver and total egg contents. 3. Hens fed the CLA diet had lower concentrations of free and total carnitine in egg yolk but higher concentrations of carnitine in albumen than control hens (P < 0·05), whereas the amount of free and total carnitine in whole egg did not differ. 4. In conclusion, the study showed that feeding fish oil or CLA causes only a weak activation of PPARα in tissues of laying hens that probably explained the lack of effect on carnitine homeostasis. The results contrast with those in humans and mice that show a significant effect of synthetic PPARα agonists on carnitine homeostasis in humans and mice.

  17. [Camera-cinematography of the heart (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Adam, W E; Meyer, G; Bitter, F; Kampmann, H; Bargon, G; Stauch, M

    1975-07-01

    By "camera-cinematography" of the heart, we mean an isotope method which permits detailed observation of cardiac mechanics without the use of a catheter. All that is necessary is an intravenous injection of 10 to 15 mCi 99mTc human serum albumen followed after ten minutes by a five to ten minute period of observation with a scintilation camera. At this time the isotope has become distributed in the blood. Variations in the precordial impulses correspond with intra-cardiac changes of blood volume during a cardiac cycle. Analysis of the R-wave provides adequate information of cyclical volume changes in limited portions of the heart. This is achieved by a monitor with a pseudo-3-dimensional display; contraction and relaxation of the myocardium can be shown for any chosen longitudinal or horizontal diameter of the heart. Our programme allows simultaneous presentation of the movement of any point on the myocardium as a time-activity curve. The method is recommended as an addition to chest radiography, heart screening or cardiac kymography before carrying out cardiac catheterisation.

  18. Long-term culture of decapsulated gastropod embryos: a transplantation study.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Shihuan; Regnier, Marette; Goldberg, Jeffrey I

    2002-12-01

    Encapsulated embryos of the pond snail Helisoma trivolvis have been useful for examining neural development and neural circuit function during development. However, their full potential in developmental studies is limited by the lack of an effective method for long-term culture of decapsulated embryos. In the present study, decapsulated early embryos were either cultivated ex ovo in various media under different environmental conditions or transplanted into host egg capsules. Although diluted capsular fluid, 30% M199, and albumen-gland-conditioned medium were partially effective in promoting embryonic growth for a short time, none of the media promoted normal embryonic development in long-term tests. In contrast, after previously decapsulated and experimentally manipulated embryos were transplanted into host capsules, their growth and development were similar to their intact siblings. In combination with laser ablation, this transplantation technique was used to demonstrate the role played by a pair of serotonergic neurons in regulating an embryonic rotational behavior. These results suggest that embryonic transplantation is an extremely effective technique for achieving long-term growth and development of previously decapsulated embryos and therefore can be instrumental in investigating cell lineage, function, and development in encapsulated embryos.

  19. Magnetic resonance segmentation with the bubble wave algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, Harvey E.; Ludke, Siegwalt

    2003-05-01

    A new bubble wave algorithm provides automatic segmentation of three-dimensional magnetic resonance images of both the peripheral vasculature and the brain. Simple connectivity algorithms are not reliable in these medical applications because there are unwanted connections through background noise. The bubble wave algorithm restricts connectivity using curvature by testing spherical regions on a propagating active contour to eliminate noise bridges. After the user places seeds in both the selected regions and in the regions that are not desired, the method provides the critical threshold for segmentation using binary search. Today, peripheral vascular disease is diagnosed using magnetic resonance imaging with a timed contrast bolus. A new blood pool contrast agent MS-325 (Epix Medical) binds to albumen in the blood and provides high-resolution three-dimensional images of both arteries and veins. The bubble wave algorithm provides a means to automatically suppress the veins that obscure the arteries in magnetic resonance angiography. Monitoring brain atrophy is needed for trials of drugs that retard the progression of dementia. The brain volume is measured by placing seeds in both the brain and scalp to find the critical threshold that prevents connections between the brain volume and the scalp. Examples from both three-dimensional magnetic resonance brain and contrast enhanced vascular images were segmented with minimal user intervention.

  20. How important is the eggshell as a source for initial acquisition of Salmonella in hatchling turtles?

    PubMed

    Holgersson, Mikael C N; Nichols, Wade A; Paitz, Ryan T; Bowden, Rachel M

    2016-02-01

    How and when turtles first acquire gut microflora is largely speculative. In this study, the eggshell and hatching process were evaluated for their role in the initial acquisition of Salmonella, by red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta elegans). First, we examined whether the eggshell is a viable substrate for bacterial persistence during incubation, and if internal egg components (i.e., albumen, yolk, and embryo) have detectable bacterial loads. Second, we experimentally manipulated Salmonella by treating eggs with combinations of Salmonella and gentamicin, an effective Gram-negative antibiotic. We found that the eggshell is a viable substrate for maintaining bacteria, as well as an effective barrier to Salmonella transmission as internal egg components were largely bacteria-free. Water samples collected 18 days post-hatch from individuals that were experimentally inoculated with a topical application of Salmonella as eggs had a higher prevalence of Salmonella than those from eggs inoculated with Salmonella but topically treated with gentamicin prior to hatching, control eggs, and eggs only treated with gentamicin, but by day 35 post-hatch there were no detectable differences among the treatment groups. Though it can also act as a barrier that prevents the bacteria from infecting the embryo prior to hatching these findings suggest that the eggshell is a likely source of Salmonella infection in turtle hatchlings. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effects of feeding deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin)-contaminated wheat to female White Leghorn chickens from day old through egg production.

    PubMed

    Kubena, L F; Harvey, R B; Corrier, D E; Huff, W E

    1987-10-01

    White Leghorn chickens one day of age were fed starter and grower diets containing either a control (noncontaminated) wheat diet or a naturally contaminated deoxynivalenol (DON) wheat diet (18 mg DON/kg) from 1 day of age to the onset of egg production. The hens were then placed on their respective layer diets of control wheat or DON-contaminated wheat (18 mg DON/kg) for six 28-day egg production periods. Feeding the DON-contaminated diet did not significantly influence body weights during the growing or the laying phases. Overall, hen-day egg production and egg weights were significantly higher for hens receiving the DON diet. Feeding DON contaminated wheat caused no significant changes in percent shell, albumen height, percent fertility, percent hatch of fertile eggs, percent hatch of eggs set, or weight of chicks at hatch. There were slight, although significant, changes in shell weight and shell thickness and in some serum chemistry values. There were no significant differences in the hematology parameters measured or in prothrombin times. None of the eggs collected from hens fed the control and the DON-contaminated wheat diet contained detectable quantities of DON. Microscopic examination of sections of the liver, kidney, and proventriculus of control and treated hens revealed no unusual histopathology. The results indicate that feeding DON at relatively high levels beginning at 1 day of age and continuing through six egg production periods had only slight effects on the parameters measured.

  2. Influence of Fusarium-infected corn and F-2 on laying hens.

    PubMed

    Marks, H L; Bacon, C W

    1976-09-01

    Diets containing either Fusarium-infected corn supplying 25 and 100 p.p.m. of F-2 (zearalenone) or purified F-2 at these levels did not adversely influence the reproductive performance of laying hens. In trial 1, no deleterious effects were observed for 20- and 36-week body weights, age at first egg, egg weight, albumen height, shell deformation, fertility or hatchability when Fusarium-infected corn was fed to 20-week-old pullets for 28 days. Percent hen-day egg production of birds fed Fusarium-infected corn supplying 25 and 100 p.p.m. of F-2 was superior (P less than or equal to 0.5) to egg production of nontreated controls. In trial 2, three replications of ten adult Leghorn hens were evaluated under five dietary treatments: (1) 16.7% protein basal; (2) basal plus Fusarium-infected corn (25 p.p.m. of F-2); (3) basal plus 25 p.p.m. of (purified) F-2; (4) basal plus Fusarium-infected corn (100 p.p.m. of F-2); (5) basal plus 100 p.p.m. of (purified) F-2. Difference between dietary treatments for 14-day pre-treatment, treatment and post-treatment periods were nonsignificant for 42- and 44-week body weights, egg production, egg weights, fertility and hatchability. Body weights of chicks from hens fed F-2 diets were not significantly different from those of chicks from hens fed the basal diet.

  3. Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kai; Long, Lei; Wang, Yuxi; Wang, Shunxi

    2016-10-01

    A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 9 (OCT9), 18 (OCT18), and 27 (OCT27) mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (p<0.05) laying rate, egg weight, egg mass, egg albumen height, Haugh unit and eggshell strength on d 42, but decreased (p<0.05) feed conversion rate and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum as compared to those of Control. Feed intake, yolk color, yolk diameter, eggshell thickness and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens.

  4. The Investigation of Property of Radiation and Absorbed of Infrared Lights of the Biological Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng; Deng, Bo; Xiao, He-Lan; Cai, Guo-Ping

    2010-04-01

    The properties of absorption of infrared light for collagen, hemoglobin, bivine serum albumen (BSA) protein molecules with α- helix structure and water in the living systems as well as the infrared transmission spectra for person’s skins and finger hands of human body in the region of 400-4000 cm-1 (i.e., wavelengths of 2-20 μm) have been collected and determined by using a Nicolet Nexus 670 FT-IR Spectrometer, a Perkin Elmer GX FT-IR spectrometer, an OMA (optical multichannel analysis) and an infrared probe systems, respectively. The experimental results obtained show that the protein molecules and water can all absorb the infrared lights in the ranges of 600-1900 cm-1 and 2900-3900 cm-l, but their properties of absorption are somewhat different due to distinctions of their structure and conformation and molecular weight. We know from the transmission spectra of person’s finger hands and skin that the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 μm-7 μm can not only transmit over the person’s skin and finger hands, but also be absorbed by the above proteins and water in the living systems. Thus, we can conclude from this study that the human beings and animals can absorb the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 μm-7 μm.

  5. Infrared differential-absorption Mueller matrix spectroscopy and neural network-based data fusion for biological aerosol standoff detection.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Arthur H; Copper, Jack; Owens, David J; Roese, Erik S; Bottiger, Jerold R; Everly, Robert D; Hung, Kevin C

    2010-01-20

    An active spectrophotopolarimeter sensor and support system were developed for a military/civilian defense feasibility study concerning the identification and standoff detection of biological aerosols. Plumes of warfare agent surrogates gamma-irradiated Bacillus subtilis and chicken egg white albumen (analytes), Arizona road dust (terrestrial interferent), water mist (atmospheric interferent), and talcum powders (experiment controls) were dispersed inside windowless chambers and interrogated by multiple CO(2) laser beams spanning 9.1-12.0 microm wavelengths (lambda). Molecular vibration and vibration-rotation activities by the subject analyte are fundamentally strong within this "fingerprint" middle infrared spectral region. Distinct polarization-modulations of incident irradiance and backscatter radiance of tuned beams generate the Mueller matrix (M) of subject aerosol. Strings of all 15 normalized elements {M(ij)(lambda)/M(11)(lambda)}, which completely describe physical and geometric attributes of the aerosol particles, are input fields for training hybrid Kohonen self-organizing map feed-forward artificial neural networks (ANNs). The properly trained and validated ANN model performs pattern recognition and type-classification tasks via internal mappings. A typical ANN that mathematically clusters analyte, interferent, and control aerosols with nil overlap of species is illustrated, including sensitivity analysis of performance.

  6. Effects of dietary conjugated linoleic acid and fish oil supplementation on performance and egg quality in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, C; Cachaldora, P; Méndez, J; García-Rebollar, P; De Blas, J C

    2004-08-01

    1. Laying hen performance, yolk fat fatty acid concentrations and firmness of eggs were evaluated with respect to the inclusion in the diet of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and fish oil. 2. Nine diets were arranged factorially, with three levels of supplementation of CLA (1, 3 and 5 g/kg) and fish oil (0, 14 and 20 g/kg). 3. Type of diet did not affect egg production traits. 4. CLA addition increased yolk weight and yolk fat concentrations of CLA, saturated and total long-chain n-3 fatty acids, but decreased those of monounsaturated and total long-chain n-6 fatty acids. 5. Fish oil addition increased long-chain n-3 fatty acids yolk fat concentrations but decreased those of CLA, saturated and long-chain n-6 fatty acids. 6. Effects of CLA addition on yolk fat concentrations of C22:4 n-6 and C20:5 n-3 were greater when no fish oil was added to the diet. 7. CLA supplementation increased linearly yolk moisture and firmness and altered albumen and yolk pH.

  7. Activity of antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory in compounds andrographolide salt.

    PubMed

    Wen, Li; Xia, Nan; Chen, Xianghong; Li, Yingxiu; Hong, Yi; Liu, YaJie; Wang, ZiZhen; Liu, YaJie

    2014-10-05

    Andrographolide sulfonic acid sodium salt (ASS) was synthesized to increase the the solubility of Andrographolide in aqueous solution. We have studied its pharmacological effect of antibiosis, anti-inflammatory and immunoregulation. Cylinder-plate method was used to study ASS׳s in vitro antibacterial activity, and its protection for mice infected by Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella dysenteriae. Various inflammation models, including the auricular edema induced by xylene in mice, CMC-Na induced air pounch model and the paw edema induced by albumen in rats were used to explore the characteristic of ASS׳s anti-inflammation effect. We built up the immune model by injecting chicken red cells in enter celiac of mice and study the effect of ASS on immunoregulation, taking andrographolide as the positive control. bacteriostasis in vivo and in vitro experiments show that ASS has a weak antibacterial effect and no bactericidal effect, but can reduce the mice mortality of Staphylococcus aureus infected. Anti-inflammatory experiments show that ASS can reduce the mouse ear swelling induced by xylene and rat paw swelling induced by egg albumin, and lessen leukocytes in air bag caused by CMCNa, and lower IL1 not ably in rat serum. Immune tests indicate that ASS can get spleen and thymus gain weight and increase rate of abdominal macrophage phagocytosis of mice. The result of bacteriostasis shows that ASS has weak in vitro antibacterial effect. ASS shows significant effects of anti-inflammation and improving immunity, thus enables the mice against bacteria better.

  8. Changes in yolk states of duck egg during long-term brining.

    PubMed

    Lai, K M; Chi, S P; Ko, W C

    1999-02-01

    To elucidate the relationship between shyandan yolk formation and NaCl penetration degree, fresh duck eggs were brined in 26% NaCl and a prolonged brining test was conducted for up to 24 weeks. Shyandan yolk was obtained from brine-cured duck shell eggs in 26% NaCl for 4-6 weeks and subsequently heated at 85 degrees C for 90 min. Though NaCl contents for albumen and yolk increased to 14.8 and 8.9%, respectively, during the prolonged test for up to 24 weeks, the R values (NaCl/water x 100) were similar (increased from 0.6 to 21) throughout the brining process. The oil-off ratio of the yolk increased rapidly from 14 to 50% (0-6 weeks) and gradually decreased during the extended brining. Granulation and gelation of yolk appeared in the different stages of the brining process. This study demonstrates that the formation of shyandan yolk was determined by the degree of NaCl penetration.

  9. Effect of starting body fat content and genotype of laying hens on the changes in their live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition during the first egg-laying period.

    PubMed

    Milisits, G; Szentirmai, E; Donkó, T; Budai, Z; Ujvári, J; Áprily, S; Bajzik, G; Sütő, Z

    2015-01-01

    A total 120 laying hens (60 TETRA BLANCA white egg layers and 60 TETRA SL brown egg layers) were selected from 250 TETRA BLANCA and 250 TETRA SL pullets based on their predicted body fat content by means of computed tomography (CT) at 16 weeks of age. Three groups of pullets were chosen for the investigation with the highest (n = 20), lowest (n = 20) and average (n = 20) body fat content. Changes in the live weight, body fat content, egg production and egg composition of the chosen animals were recorded at 32, 52 and 72 weeks of age. Based on the results, it was established that differences in starting body fat content of the hens remained the same during the experimental period. The differences between the two extreme groups were statistically significant at each age. The starting body fat content of the hens affected the rate of egg production, i.e. hens with high starting body fat content produced 11-14 eggs fewer than the hens with a low or average body fat content but had no effect on the composition of the eggs. Genotype affected almost all of the examined traits: TETRA BLANCA hens had lower live weight and higher body fat content during the experimental period and produced fewer eggs with lower albumen and higher yolk, dry matter and crude fat content than the TETRA SL hens.

  10. Upgrade of egg quality through different heat-combating systems during high environmental temperature.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Muhammad Safdar; Sandhu, Mansur Abdullah; Mukhtar, Nasir; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to find out the effect of various heat-combating systems (HCS) on the egg quality characteristics of commercial laying hens during high environmental temperature of the year. Three hundred pullets were wing banded and randomly divided into 15 experimental units comprising of 20 pullets each. These units were randomly allotted to five treatment groups, replicated thrice according to four heat-combating systems (desert cooling, water sprinkling, time limit feeding, ascorbic acid supplementation), and the control was maintained under the same housing system. The mean values of egg weight, eggshell thickness, Haugh unit, thick albumen height, yolk height, and yolk diameter were calculated. The layers kept under the influence of desert cooling produced eggs with more weight and thicker shells than those under other systems. Results of the present study did not show any difference in the shell thickness between water sprinkling and ascorbic acid supplementation as compared to the control group. Haugh unit and yolk index values obtained from the layers kept under various HCS did not significantly differ from those of the control group. All HCS significantly reduced the occurrence of blood spots in the eggs as compared to the control. All the treatments in general markedly reduced the incidence of meat spots in the eggs especially with the supplementation of ascorbic acid being the most effective. Among all of the treatments, the desert cooling system proved to be the best for producing better-quality eggs during hot periods of the year with less humidity.

  11. Fuzzy modeling to predict chicken egg hatchability in commercial hatchery.

    PubMed

    Peruzzi, N J; Scala, N L; Macari, M; Furlan, R L; Meyer, A D; Fernandez-Alarcon, M F; Kroetz Neto, F L; Souza, F A

    2012-10-01

    Experimental studies have shown that hatching rate depends, among other factors, on the main physical characteristics of the eggs. The physical parameters used in our work were egg weight, eggshell thickness, egg sphericity, and yolk per albumen ratio. The relationships of these parameters in the incubation process were modeled by Fuzzy logic. The rules of the Fuzzy modeling were based on the analysis of the physical characteristics of the hatching eggs and the respective hatching rate using a commercial hatchery by applying a trapezoidal membership function into the modeling process. The implementations were performed in software. Aiming to compare the Fuzzy with a statistical modeling, the same data obtained in the commercial hatchery were analyzed using multiple linear regression. The estimated parameters of multiple linear regressions were based on a backward selection procedure. The results showed that the determination coefficient and the mean square error were higher using the Fuzzy method when compared with the statistical modeling. Furthermore, the predicted hatchability rates by Fuzzy Logic agreed with hatching rates obtained in the commercial hatchery.

  12. Higher Storage Temperature Causes Greater Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Internal Penetration of Artificially Contaminated, Commercially Available, Washed Free Range Eggs.

    PubMed

    Whiley, Alice; Fallowfield, Howard; Ross, Kirstin; McEvoy, Vanessa; Whiley, Harriet

    2016-07-01

    Foodborne salmonellosis is a major public health concern, with contaminated eggs identified as a significant source of infection. In Australia, the most prevalent cause of salmonellosis from eggs is Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. This study explored the effect of temperature after 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of storage on commercially available washed free range eggs, artificially contaminated with Salmonella Typhimurium on the external surface. At each time point, the external surface of the egg, the crushed eggshell, and the internal egg yolk and albumen were analyzed for Salmonella. After 28 days of storage, 25% of eggs stored at 4°C, 50% of eggs stored at 14°C, and 100% of eggs stored at 23 and 35°C were internally contaminated with Salmonella. After 1 day of storage, more than 50% of all eggs had Salmonella present in the crushed shell after the external surface had been disinfected with ethanol. This is the first study to demonstrate that refrigeration reduced the potential for Salmonella Typhimurium to penetrate the eggshell membrane and internally contaminate table eggs commercially available in Australia. It also suggests that the processes of cracking eggs may be a source of cross-contamination within the kitchen.

  13. Effect of Egg Washing and Correlation between Eggshell Characteristics and Egg Penetration by Various Salmonella Typhimurium Strains

    PubMed Central

    Gole, Vaibhav C.; Chousalkar, Kapil K.; Roberts, Juliet R.; Sexton, Margaret; May, Damian; Tan, Jessica; Kiermeier, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen, causing an estimated 11,992 cases of infection in Australia per year. Egg or egg product related salmonellosis is a major concern for the egg industry. Worldwide, S. Typhimurium is one of the most common serovars identified in Salmonella food poisoning cases. The current study investigated the ability of five S. Typhimurium strains to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods. All S. Typhimurium strains were able to penetrate eggshells and survive in egg albumen (at 20°C) according to whole egg penetration results. Polymerase Chain Reaction results demonstrated that S. Typhimurium strain 2 (103 and 105 CFU/mL), and strain 5 (103 and 105 CFU/mL) egg penetration was significantly higher (p<0.05) in washed eggs when compared to unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis of the agar penetration experiment indicated that S. Typhimurium was able to penetrate washed eggs at a significantly higher rate when compared to unwashed eggs (p<0.05). When compared to unwashed eggs, washed eggs also had significantly damaged cuticles. Statistical analysis also indicated that eggshell penetration by S. Typhimurium was related to various eggshell ultrastructural features such as cap quality, alignment, erosion, confluence, Type B bodies and cuticle cover. PMID:24621821

  14. Effect of ultrasonic treatment on reduction of Esherichia coli ATCC 25922 and egg quality parameters in experimentally contaminated hens' shell eggs.

    PubMed

    Sert, Durmus; Aygun, Ali; Torlak, Emrah; Mercan, Emin

    2013-09-01

    In this study, hen eggs which were experimentally contaminated with Esherichia coli ATCC 25922 were used. Contaminated eggs were washed statically (S5 to S30; 0 kHz) and by ultrasonic waves (U5 to U30; 35 kHz) for given applications of time (5, 15 and 30 min), then the eggs were stored at 22°C for 14 days. Depending on the time of ultrasonic application, a significant increase in egg shell strength (P < 0.01) was recorded. The highest value of the Haugh unit (67.93, 1 day) was observed on the eggs which were washed by ultrasonic waves. Yolk width values of ultrasonic washed eggs diminished. E. coli was completely removed by 30 min of ultrasonic application. During storage E. coli growth was not detected on the eggs which were washed by ultrasonic waves except the eggs in U5 group (2.04 log CFU eggshell⁻¹) on the first day of storage. Depending on the time of ultrasonic application a significant increase in egg quality parameters (shell strength, albumen height, Haugh units, and yolk height) were observed. The application of ultrasound led to a significant reduction in E. coli numbers on egg shells. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Effects of exposing ostrich eggs to doses of gamma radiation on hatchability, growth performance, and some blood biochemicals of hatched chicks.

    PubMed

    Mahrose, Khalid; Elsayed, Mohammed; Basuony, Hamdy; Gouda, Nour

    2016-11-01

    Effects of radiating ostrich eggs before incubation on hatchability, growth performance, and some blood components of ostrich chicks were studied. 72 ostrich eggs were randomly distributed into four groups. The first group was kept without exposure to gamma radiation (control). The 2nd, 3rd, and 4th groups were exposed to 0.8, 1.6, and 3.2 Gy, respectively, of (60)Co gamma rays just before incubation. Total bacterial counts (×10(3) CFU) were significantly increased with the increase in gamma radiation levels before incubation. Feed conversion was lower (P ≤ 0.01) in the control group than those irradiated. Embryonic mortality rate (%), hatchability (%) and chick weight at hatch, body weight, daily body weight gain, feed consumption, and all of hematology parameters studied were insignificantly fluctuated with the doses of gamma rays used. Serum concentrations of total protein, albumen, globulin, glucose, and triiodothyronin of the chicks from eggs of the control and the 1st group were significantly the highest. Chicks of the control group had significantly the lowest values of serum concentrations of uric acid, creatinine, triglyceride, total cholesterol, ALT, and AST when compared with the other groups. In conclusion, radiation of ostrich eggs before incubation with a dose of 0.8 Gy gamma has a stimulative effect upon the metabolism of hatched chicks.

  16. Dose-response feeding study of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in laying hens: effects on laying performance and tissue distribution, accumulation and elimination kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ueberschär, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven; Matthes, Siegfried

    2007-02-01

    Technical short chain chlorinated paraffins (C10-C13 with 60% chlorine) were fed to 93 laying hens from 24 to 32 weeks of age in increasing concentrations of up to 100 mg/kg feed. No significant influence on health, relative organ weights or performance (laying intensity, egg weight, feed consumption) was noted. The chlorinated paraffin content of the tissues was linearly related to the concentration of short chain paraffins of the feed. The highest concentrations were found in abdominal fat, egg yolk and fatty tissues. Breast muscle, egg albumen and bile fluid contained minimal or no residues. Less than 1% of the chlorinated paraffins ingested were incorporated into the body (without head, feet, gut and feathers), whereas about 1.5% were eliminated with the egg yolk and 30% were excreted with urine and faeces. A six-week kinetic depuration study revealed a biphasic elimination with half-lifes of 4-40 min (liver, kidneys, legs, fat, blood) for the initial rapid phase, and 15-30 days (blood, fat, liver, yolk, kidneys, legs) for the terminal slow phase.

  17. Nicarbazin contamination in feeds as a cause of residues in eggs.

    PubMed

    Cannavan, A; Ball, G; Kennedy, D G

    2000-10-01

    A survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of nicarbazin residues in eggs in Northern Ireland. Nicarbazin, in the form of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), was detected in 39 of the 190 eggs analysed. An experiment was designed to establish the relationship between nicarbazin-contaminated feed and nicarbazin residues in eggs. The concentrations of both the DNC and 4,6-dimethyl-2-hydroxypyrimidine (DHP) components of the drug in eggs were proportional to feed levels. The maximum feed nicarbazin concentration of 12.1 mg/kg (8.6 mg/kg DNC and 3.5 mg/kg DHP) gave rise to mean maximum whole egg concentrations of 631 micrograms/kg DNC and 51.8 micrograms/kg DHP. After withdrawal of the experimental diet, DNC was undetectable in eggs after 12 days and DHP after 3 days. Feed contaminated with nicarbazin at concentrations greater than about 2 mg/kg gave rise to egg DNC residues at concentrations greater than the Differential Action Limit (DAL) set by the UK (100 micrograms/kg). DNC was contained almost entirely in the yolk of the egg, whereas DHP was distributed between albumen and yolk in a ratio of approximately 3:1.

  18. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on seed production in C3 annual plants.

    PubMed

    Hikosaka, Kouki; Kinugasa, Toshihiko; Oikawa, Shimpei; Onoda, Yusuke; Hirose, Tadaki

    2011-02-01

    The response of seed production to CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) is known to vary considerably among C(3) annual species. Here we analyse the interspecific variation in CO(2) responses of seed production per plant with particular attention to nitrogen use. Provided that seed production is limited by nitrogen availability, an increase in seed mass per plant results from increase in seed nitrogen per plant and/or from decrease in seed nitrogen concentration ([N]). Meta-analysis reveals that the increase in seed mass per plant under elevated [CO(2)] is mainly due to increase in seed nitrogen per plant rather than seed [N] dilution. Nitrogen-fixing legumes enhanced nitrogen acquisition more than non-nitrogen-fixers, resulting in a large increase in seed mass per plant. In Poaceae, an increase in seed mass per plant was also caused by a decrease in seed [N]. Greater carbon allocation to albumen (endosperm and/or perisperm) than the embryo may account for [N] reduction in grass seeds. These differences in CO(2) response of seed production among functional groups may affect their fitness, leading to changes in species composition in the future high-[CO(2)] ecosystem.

  19. Flavor and appearance of whole shell eggs made safe with ozone pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Maxkwee, Esther N; Perry, Jennifer J; Lee, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Raw eggs are a potential health hazard and a new federally approved process uses ozone to maintain freshness while ensuring safety. The impact of an ozone process on the flavor, color, and shell integrity of eggs must be known for market acceptance. The visual perception and consumer acceptance of full commercial scale ozone-pasteurized eggs are reported, using a degree of liking test and a Just-About-Right analysis. Instrumental analysis of albumen turbidity, yolk color, and Haugh Units correlate with human perception. Visual tests reveal that ozone-pasteurized eggs were equivalent to thermally pasteurized eggs in attributes such as appearance, spread, and cloudiness. They were equivalent to untreated eggs in yolk height, yellowness, and appeal. There were no differences in taste among all egg treatments for measures of aroma, flavor, texture and overall liking. Ozone-pasteurized eggs have the same appeal as raw eggs, and can be cooked without flavor loss. This promising new ozone process maintains good sensory quality relative to thermal processing.

  20. Geographical Variation in Egg Mass and Egg Content in a Passerine Bird

    PubMed Central

    Ruuskanen, Suvi; Siitari, Heli; Eeva, Tapio; Belskii, Eugen; Järvinen, Antero; Kerimov, Anvar; Krams, Indrikis; Moreno, Juan; Morosinotto, Chiara; Mänd, Raivo; Möstl, Erich; Orell, Markku; Qvarnström, Anna; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Slater, Fred; Tilgar, Vallo; Visser, Marcel E.; Winkel, Wolfgang; Zang, Herwig; Laaksonen, Toni

    2011-01-01

    Reproductive, phenotypic and life-history traits in many animal and plant taxa show geographic variation, indicating spatial variation in selection regimes. Maternal deposition to avian eggs, such as hormones, antibodies and antioxidants, critically affect development of the offspring, with long-lasting effects on the phenotype and fitness. Little is however known about large-scale geographical patterns of variation in maternal deposition to eggs. We studied geographical variation in egg components of a passerine bird, the pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca), by collecting samples from 16 populations and measuring egg and yolk mass, albumen lysozyme activity, yolk immunoglobulins, yolk androgens and yolk total carotenoids. We found significant variation among populations in most egg components, but ca. 90% of the variation was among individuals within populations. Population however explained 40% of the variation in carotenoid levels. In contrast to our hypothesis, we found geographical trends only in carotenoids, but not in any of the other egg components. Our results thus suggest high within-population variation and leave little scope for local adaptation and genetic differentiation in deposition of different egg components. The role of these maternally-derived resources in evolutionary change should be further investigated. PMID:22110579

  1. Fission Models of Population Variability

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, E. A.

    1979-01-01

    Most models in population genetics are models of allele frequency, making implicit or explicit assumptions of equilibrium or constant population size. In recent papers, we have attempted to develop more appropriate models for the analysis of rare variant data in South American Indian tribes; these are branching process models for the total number of replicates of a variant allele. The spatial distribution of a variant may convey information about its history and characteristics, and this paper extends previous models to take this factor into consideration. A model of fission into subdivisions is superimposed on the previous branching process, and variation between subdivisions is considered. The case where fission is nonrandom and the locations of like alleles are initially positively associated, as would happen were a tribal cluster or village to split on familial lines, is also analyzed. The statistics developed are applied to Yanomama Indian data on rare genetic variants. Due to insufficient time depth, no definitive new inferences can be drawn, but the analysis shows that this model provides results consistent with previous conclusions, and demonstrates the general type of question that may be answered by the approach taken here. In particular, striking confirmation of a higher-than-average growth rate, and hence smaller-than-previously-estimated age, is obtained for the Yan2 serum albumen variant. PMID:535728

  2. Towards the development of an embryotoxicity bioassay with terrestrial snails: screening approach for cadmium and pesticides.

    PubMed

    Druart, Coline; Scheifler, Renaud; de Vaufleury, Annette

    2010-12-15

    Currently no bioassays are available to assess the embryotoxicity of chemicals with terrestrial soil invertebrates. We therefore presented a new method for embryotoxicity testing with snail eggs: a relevant biological material that incubates in soil and that can be exposed to contaminants from leachates and soil solution. The effects of aqueous solutions of two herbicide formulations, Reglone(®) (active ingredient (a.i.), diquat) and Roundup(®) or its a.i., glyphosate, of a surfactant (Agral(®) 90, a.i., nonylphenol polyethoxylates) and of cadmium (Cd) were studied. Endpoints were the hatching success and observations of embryo abnormalities after exposure. Roundup(®) was found to be more toxic than its a.i. alone (EC50(a.i.)=18 mg/l and about 1300 mg/l, respectively). Reglone(®) (EC50(a.i.)=0.72 mg/l) and Agral(®) (EC50(a.i.) ≈ 50 mg/l) were also tested together, revealing that Reglone(®) accounted for more than 99% of the mixture's toxicity. An antagonistic interaction between the two substances was found. For Cd (EC50=3.9 mg/l), a significant transfer from exposure medium to eggs was emphasized, particularly affecting the albumen. Abnormalities of embryogenesis in non-hatched embryos depended on the substance and the concentration considered.

  3. Are antimicrobial defences in bird eggs related to climatic conditions associated with risk of trans-shell microbial infection?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction All bird eggs are exposed to microbes in the environment, which if transmitted to the developing embryo, could cause hatching failure. However, the risk of trans-shell infection varies with environmental conditions and is higher for eggs laid in wetter environments. This might relate to generally higher microbial abundances and diversity in more humid environments, including on the surface of eggshells, as well as the need for moisture to facilitate microbial penetration of the eggshell. To protect against microbial infection, the albumen of avian eggs contains antimicrobial proteins, including lysozyme and ovotransferrin. We tested whether lysozyme and ovotransferrin activities varied in eggs of larks (Alaudidae) living along an arid-mesic gradient of environmental aridity, which we used as a proxy for risk of trans-shell infection. Results Contrary to expectations, lysozyme activity was highest in eggs from hotter, more arid locations, where we predicted the risk of trans-shell infection would be lower. Ovotransferrin concentrations did not vary with climatic factors. Temperature was a much better predictor of antimicrobial protein activity than precipitation, a result inconsistent with studies stressing the importance of moisture for trans-shell infection. Conclusions Our study raises interesting questions about the links between temperature and lysozyme activity in eggs, but we find no support for the hypothesis that antimicrobial protein deposition is higher in eggs laid in wetter environments. PMID:25057281

  4. Comparison of changes in production and egg composition in relation to in vivo estimates of body weight and composition of brown and white egg layers during the first egg-laying period.

    PubMed

    Szentirmai, E; Milisits, G; Donkó, T; Budai, Z; Ujvári, J; Fülöp, T; Repa, I; Sütő, Z

    2013-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to compare the changes in the production and in the body and egg composition of 45 TETRA SL brown egg layers and 45 TETRA BLANCA white egg layers during the first egg-laying period. 2. Changes in the body composition of the hens were followed in vivo by means of computed tomography (CT) four-weekly, between 20 and 72 weeks of age. The measurements covered the whole body of the hens using overlapping 10 mm slice thicknesses on a Siemens Somatom Emotion 6 multislice CT scanner. 3. The yolk, albumen and shell ratio of the eggs, produced on the days of the CT measurements by the hens, were determined and their composition was analysed chemically. 4. The body fat content of the hens increased continuously until 44 weeks of age and plateaued thereafter in both genotypes. However, the body fat content of the white egg layers was always higher than that of the brown egg layers. 5. The yolk ratio and the dry matter and crude fat content of the eggs of white egg layers were higher than the brown egg layers throughout the experiment. 6. Moderate correlations were observed in both genotypes between the body fat content of the hens and egg yolk ratio of their eggs.

  5. Effects of non-feed removal molting methods on egg quality traits in commercial brown egg laying hens in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Petek, Metin; Gezen, S Sule; Alpay, Fazli; Cibik, Recep

    2008-08-01

    Non-feed removal molting programme in commercial brown laying hens and its influence on pre-molting, post-molting and end of cycle egg quality traits were investigated. Overall 54 birds were randomly divided into three treatment groups and each group was fed with one of the following diets during 10 days of molting period: (i) grain barley, (ii) alfalfa meal, or (iii) commercial layer ration (non-molted control group). Eggs obtained from groups in pre-molting, post-molting and end of cycle periods were examined for several quality performance traits such as egg weight, specific gravity, shape index, shell strength, shell thickness, eggshell weight, haugh unit, albumen index, yolk index and yolk color. Results indicated that non-feed removal molting programme based particularly on grain barley had positive effect on egg quality traits in laying hens. Notably, yolk color and haugh unit, which are considered as the most important quality parameters from the consumer point of view, were relatively improved in barley molted group.

  6. Long-term effects of feeding flaxseed on performance and egg fatty acid composition of brown and white hens.

    PubMed

    Bean, L D; Leeson, S

    2003-03-01

    Two hundred fifty-six 18-wk-old Shaver White and ISA-Brown pullets were fed commercial diets containing either 0 or 10% flaxseed in order to study the long-term effects of feeding flaxseed on hen performance and egg production parameters. Performance was monitored over 10 consecutive 28-d periods. Flaxseed was introduced gradually at 28 wk of age and was maintained until hens were 53 wk of age, when flaxseed was gradually eliminated from the diet. Feed intake was less (P < 0.05) for hens fed flaxseed compared to those consuming the control diet. Flax-fed hens were also lighter (P < 0.05) compared to the control birds. Egg production, egg weight, shell weight, albumen height, and shell thickness were not significantly (P > 0.05) different for hens consuming 0 and 10% flaxseed; however, yolk weight was reduced (P < 0.05) in hens fed flaxseed. Both strains of birds fed flaxseed deposited significantly more n-3 fatty acids into their eggs. Sampling of livers at the end of the trial showed that hens fed flaxseed had a higher (P < 0.05) incidence of liver hemorrhages.

  7. Energy sensing in developing chicken embryos and posthatch chicks from different size eggs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Q; Agarwal, U; Bequette, B J

    2013-06-01

    We hypothesized that 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a ubiquitous energy sensor, plays a key role in coordinating nutrient use in developing broiler breeder embryos. To test this hypothesis, we measured AMPK activity in the liver of embryos developing in small versus large (typical) eggs. Small (53.2 ± 1.0 g) eggs from 26-wk-old and large (69.0 ± 1.9 g) eggs from 42-wk-old broiler breeder hens were acquired and measurements were made on embryonic day (e) 11, 14, 17, and 20, and on posthatch d 1. The initial weight of dry yolk to albumen was higher (2.3 vs. 1.7) in large versus small eggs, and embryo weight differed from e17 onward. The AMPK activity was higher in livers of embryos from large versus small eggs across all sampling days, and activity was highest on e14 for both sizes of eggs. We speculate that higher AMPK activity in livers of embryos from large eggs may facilitate increased metabolism of their larger nutrient supplies to support faster growth rate in ovo. Taken together, our results are the first to investigate the relationship between liver AMPK activity and egg size and nutrient composition in developing chicken embryos.

  8. Depletion of florfenicol and florfenicol amine residues in chicken eggs.

    PubMed

    Filazi, A; Sireli, U T; Yurdakok, B; Aydin, F G; Kucukosmanoglu, A G

    2014-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable method for the analysis of florfenicol (FF) and its metabolite florfenicol amine (FFA) in chicken eggs and to determine FF and FFA residue depletion in eggs of laying hens. 2. The analytes were extracted from yolk, albumen and whole egg by phosphate buffer and ethyl acetate. Following purification, samples were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. 3. Fifty laying hens were divided into 5 groups, and each hen received doses of 20 mg/kg FF: Group 1 (received a single oral dose by gavage); Group 2 (a single intramuscular dose); Group 3 (a single subcutaneous dose); Group 4 (multiple oral doses for 3 d) and Group 5 (multiple oral doses for 5 d). 4. Limits of detection and of quantitation values were 1.94 and 6.45 g/10(9) g (ppb) for FF, respectively, and 0.48 and 1.58 ppb for FFA, respectively. Relative standard deviation values of intra-day and inter-day variation below 11% also confirmed the usefulness of the method for analysing FF and FFA in eggs. 5. From the first day of both oral and parenteral administration, FF and FFA were detected at 0.1% and 0.08% of dosage, respectively, and 57% of the drugs were eliminated from the egg yolk. Elimination time of FF was 8 d in Groups 1, 2 and 3; 9 d in Group 4 and 10 d in Group 5.

  9. Physical quality and composition of retail shell eggs.

    PubMed

    Jones, D R; Musgrove, M T; Anderson, K E; Thesmar, H S

    2010-03-01

    There are a number of specialty shell eggs available to consumers in the US retail market. A survey consisting of white and brown large shell eggs with various production and nutritional differences (traditional, cage-free, free-roaming, pasteurized, nutritionally enhanced, and fertile) was conducted to determine if physical quality and compositional differences exist. Identical brands of eggs were purchased from the same retail outlets on 3 occasions (replicates) in a single city. The average range of time from processing to purchase for all eggs was 7.67 to 25.33 d, with traditional white eggs in retail having the shortest time. Haugh unit values ranged from 66.67 (cage-free, docosahexaenoic acid, and n-3 enhanced) to 84.42 (traditional white). Albumen height followed a similar pattern. Egg weight was greater for brown eggs (61.12 vs. 58.85 g). Brown eggs also had greater static compression shell strength than white eggs (4,130.61 vs. 3,690.31 g force). Vitelline membrane strength was greatest for traditional brown eggs (2.24 g force). Percentage of total solids and crude fat was greatest in the cage-free, n-3-enhanced white eggs (25.07 and 11.71%, respectively). Although significant differences were found between white and brown shell eggs and production methods, average values for quality attributes varied without one egg type consistently maintaining the highest or lowest values.

  10. The metabolite products of chlorocholine chloride (CCC) in eggs and meat of laying hens fed 15N-CCC containing diets.

    PubMed

    Chakeredza, S; Edrada, R A; Ebel, R; ter Meulen, U

    2006-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the metabolic products of chlorocholine chloride (CCC) in eggs and meat of laying hens fed a diet containing (15)N-CCC. Ten brown laying hens were randomly divided into two groups of five each. One group was offered (15)N-CCC free diet while the other group received a diet with 100 ppm (15)N-CCC for 11 days. Samples of eggs and meat from the laying hens were collected. Egg yolks and albumen were separated. Meat was collected from the breast and femur. The metabolic products of CCC were measured using ion trap electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ion trap-ESI-MS/MS). Determination of CCC or its metabolites in eggs and meat showed that CCC was metabolised to choline. Corresponding MS/MS spectra were obtained for m/z 104 (choline) or 105 ((15)N-choline), whereas nothing was detected at m/z 122 (CCC) or 123 ((15)N-CCC). The results from this study indicate that CCC will be metabolised in tissues of laying hens.

  11. Effect of daily feed intake in laying period on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition of genetically fat and lean lines of chickens.

    PubMed

    Li, F; Xu, L M; Shan, A S; Hu, J W; Zhang, Y Y; Li, Y H

    2011-04-01

    1. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of feed intake on laying performance, egg quality and egg composition in a Fat line and a Lean line during the laying period (34 to 54 weeks of age). 2. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial design with two dietary intake levels (nutrition recommendation and 75% of recommendation) and two broiler genotypes (Fat line and Lean line). Hens (384 of each line) were randomly divided at 23 weeks of age into 4 treatments, with each treatment represented by 12 replicates of 16 birds each. The experiment started when the rate of lay reached 5% and continued until 54 weeks of age. 3. The results indicated that there was a significant interaction between daily feed intake and genotype on egg production, egg weight, percentage yolk, yolk/albumen ratio and yolk cholesterol content. Fat line hens produced significantly more eggs and had a lower incidence of cracked eggs than the Lean line hens. The reduction in feed intake decreased egg weight and increased egg production, egg-shape index and cholesterol content of yolk significantly.

  12. TCam-2 Seminoma Cells Exposed to Egg-Derived Microenvironment Modify Their Shape, Adhesive Pattern and Migratory Behaviour: A Molecular and Morphometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ferranti, Francesca; D’Anselmi, Fabrizio; Caruso, Maria; Lei, Vittorio; Dinicola, Simona; Pasqualato, Alessia; Cucina, Alessandra; Palombo, Alessandro; Ricci, Giulia; Catizone, Angela; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Seminoma is one of the most common Testicular Germ Cell Tumours that originates during embryonic development due to an alteration of the local niche that in turn results in a delayed or blocked differentiation of Primordial Germ Cells. The block of differentiation is actually a common way to develop cancer disease as postulated by the "embryonic rest theory of cancer". In agreement with this theory different studies have demonstrated that embryonic cues display the capacity of reprogramming aggressive cancer cells towards a less aggressive phenotype. Herein we investigate the ability of a culture medium added with 10% egg albumen (EW, Egg White) to modulate seminoma cell phenotype and behaviour, by ensuring a proper set of morphogenetic signals. We chose to use the TCam-2 seminoma cell line that has been established as the only available cell line, obtained from a primary testicular seminoma. EW is able to: 1) modify TCam-2 cell spreading rate and cell-substrate adhesion without affecting proliferation and survival indexes; 2) modulate TCam-2 actin distribution pattern increasing cortical localization of actin filaments; 3) increase TCam-2 cell-cell junction capability; 4) decrease both chemo-sensitive and collective TCam-2 migratory behaviour. According to these observations morphometric fractal analysis revealed the ability of EW to increase Circularity and Solidity parameters and, consequently, to decrease Fractal dimension. Prompted by these observations we hypothesize that EW treatment could rescue, at least in part, the neoplastic-metastatic behaviour of seminoma cells. PMID:24098438

  13. TCam-2 seminoma cells exposed to egg-derived microenvironment modify their shape, adhesive pattern and migratory behaviour: a molecular and morphometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferranti, Francesca; D'Anselmi, Fabrizio; Caruso, Maria; Lei, Vittorio; Dinicola, Simona; Pasqualato, Alessia; Cucina, Alessandra; Palombo, Alessandro; Ricci, Giulia; Catizone, Angela; Bizzarri, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Seminoma is one of the most common Testicular Germ Cell Tumours that originates during embryonic development due to an alteration of the local niche that in turn results in a delayed or blocked differentiation of Primordial Germ Cells. The block of differentiation is actually a common way to develop cancer disease as postulated by the "embryonic rest theory of cancer". In agreement with this theory different studies have demonstrated that embryonic cues display the capacity of reprogramming aggressive cancer cells towards a less aggressive phenotype. Herein we investigate the ability of a culture medium added with 10% egg albumen (EW, Egg White) to modulate seminoma cell phenotype and behaviour, by ensuring a proper set of morphogenetic signals. We chose to use the TCam-2 seminoma cell line that has been established as the only available cell line, obtained from a primary testicular seminoma. EW is able to: 1) modify TCam-2 cell spreading rate and cell-substrate adhesion without affecting proliferation and survival indexes; 2) modulate TCam-2 actin distribution pattern increasing cortical localization of actin filaments; 3) increase TCam-2 cell-cell junction capability; 4) decrease both chemo-sensitive and collective TCam-2 migratory behaviour. According to these observations morphometric fractal analysis revealed the ability of EW to increase Circularity and Solidity parameters and, consequently, to decrease Fractal dimension. Prompted by these observations we hypothesize that EW treatment could rescue, at least in part, the neoplastic-metastatic behaviour of seminoma cells.

  14. Lead in blood and eggs of the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, from the Eastern Pacific: concentration, isotopic composition and maternal transfer.

    PubMed

    Páez-Osuna, F; Calderón-Campuzano, M F; Soto-Jiménez, M F; Ruelas-Inzunza, J R

    2010-03-01

    Concentrations of lead were assessed in the sea turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea, from a nesting colony of the Eastern Pacific. Twenty-five female turtles were sampled and a total of 250 eggs were collected during the "arribada" event of the 2005-2006 season. Considering the nesting season, the maternal transfer of lead (Pb) via egg-laying, in terms of metal burden in whole body, was 0.5%. Pb concentrations (in dry weight) in blood (0.95+/-0.18microgg(-1)) and egg samples (yolk, 0.80+/-0.10microg g(-1); albumen, 1.08+/-0.20microg g(-1); eggshell, 1.05+/-0.20microg g(-1)) were comparable or even lower than those found in other sea turtles. The isotope ratios ((206)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(208)Pb) in blood (1.183+/-0.0006 and 2.452+/-0.0006, respectively) were comparable to that of natural Pb-bearing bedrock in Mexico (1.188+/-0.005 and 2.455+/-0.008, respectively). According to international norms of Pb, the health of this population and its habitats is acceptable for Pb and corresponds to basic levels of a nearly pristine environment.

  15. Challenges in Radiofrequency Pasteurization of Shell Eggs: Coagulation Rings.

    PubMed

    Lau, Soon Kiat; Thippareddi, Harshavardhan; Jones, David; Negahban, Mehrdad; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan

    2016-10-01

    A total of 50 different configurations of simple radiofrequency (RF) heating at 27.12 MHz of a shell egg were simulated using a finite element model with the purpose of pasteurizing the egg. Temperature-dependent thermal and dielectric properties of the yolk, albumen, and shell were measured, fitted, and introduced into the model. A regression equation that relates the top electrode voltage to the gap between the electrodes and vertical position of the egg was developed. Simulation and experimental results had good agreement in terms of temperature deviation (root mean squared error ranged from 0.35 °C to 0.48 °C) and both results demonstrated the development of a "coagulation ring" around the air cell. The focused heating near the air cell of the egg prevented pasteurization of the egg due to its impact on quality (coagulation). Analysis of the electric field patterns offered a perspective on how nonuniform RF heating could occur in heterogeneous food products. The results can be used to guide development of RF heating for heterogeneous food products and further development of RF pasteurization of eggs.

  16. Effects of externally supplied protein on root morphology and biomass allocation in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Lonhienne, Thierry G. A.; Trusov, Yuri; Young, Anthony; Rentsch, Doris; Näsholm, Torgny; Schmidt, Susanne; Paungfoo-Lonhienne, Chanyarat

    2014-01-01

    Growth, morphogenesis and function of roots are influenced by the concentration and form of nutrients present in soils, including low molecular mass inorganic N (IN, ammonium, nitrate) and organic N (ON, e.g. amino acids). Proteins, ON of high molecular mass, are prevalent in soils but their possible effects on roots have received little attention. Here, we investigated how externally supplied protein of a size typical of soluble soil proteins influences root development of axenically grown Arabidopsis. Addition of low to intermediate concentrations of protein (bovine serum albumen, BSA) to IN-replete growth medium increased root dry weight, root length and thickness, and root hair length. Supply of higher BSA concentrations inhibited root development. These effects were independent of total N concentrations in the growth medium. The possible involvement of phytohormones was investigated using Arabidopsis with defective auxin (tir1-1 and axr2-1) and ethylene (ein2-1) responses. That no phenotype was observed suggests a signalling pathway is operating independent of auxin and ethylene responses. This study expands the knowledge on N form-explicit responses to demonstrate that ON of high molecular mass elicits specific responses. PMID:24852366

  17. Effectiveness of Phytogenic Feed Additive as Alternative to Bacitracin Methylene Disalicylate on Hematological Parameters, Intestinal Histomorphology and Microbial Population and Production Performance of Japanese Quails

    PubMed Central

    Manafi, M.; Hedayati, M.; Khalaji, S.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of phytogenic additive and antibiotic growth promoter in laying Japanese quails. One hundred and sixty five quails were divided into three groups of 5 replicates and 11 quails (8 females and 3 males) in each replicate. Treatment 1 was fed control diet, treatment 2 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.05% bacitracin methylene disalicylate as antibiotic growth promoter and treatment 3 was fed control diet supplemented with 0.1% phytogenic feed additive (PFA) for two periods of 3 weeks each from 37 to 42 weeks of age. Results showed that egg production, eggshell strength, eggshell weight, villus height and villus height to crypt depth ratio were significantly (p≤0.05) increased and feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, albumen, Haugh unit, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, high-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, number of goblet cell, crypt depth and intestinal bacterial population of Coliforms, Salmonella and E. coli were significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in PFA fed group. It is concluded that addition of PFA containing phytomolecules and organic acids as main ingredients could significantly improve the production parameters and the general health of laying quails as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. PMID:27189636

  18. Quality of eggs from different laying hen production systems, from indigenous breeds and specialty eggs.

    PubMed

    Lordelo, M; Fernandes, E; Bessa, R J B; Alves, S P

    2016-11-02

    Consumers are concerned about the quality of commercially available eggs. Eggs used in this study were marketed in Portugal and originated from laying hens raised in cages, barns, free-range, organic eggs, and eggs enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and from native Portuguese breeds. The eggs were analyzed for chemical and physical properties. Results indicated that yolk color was lighter in organic eggs and darker in n-3 PUFA enriched eggs. Eggs from caged hens had lower Haugh units in contrast with organic eggs. Caged hens produced eggs with a higher protein content while organic eggs had the lowest level of protein in the albumen. As might be expected, eggs enriched in n-3 PUFA had the highest n-3 PUFA content. Choosing an egg by its production system or labeling specificities may not be a guarantee of superior product quality. The layer genotype, age, diet, and the quality of the range also may affect egg properties. Due to a different layer diet, enriched eggs seem to be of superior quality.

  19. Flavor and appearance of whole shell eggs made safe with ozone pasteurization

    PubMed Central

    Maxkwee, Esther N; Perry, Jennifer J; Lee, Ken

    2014-01-01

    Raw eggs are a potential health hazard and a new federally approved process uses ozone to maintain freshness while ensuring safety. The impact of an ozone process on the flavor, color, and shell integrity of eggs must be known for market acceptance. The visual perception and consumer acceptance of full commercial scale ozone-pasteurized eggs are reported, using a degree of liking test and a Just-About-Right analysis. Instrumental analysis of albumen turbidity, yolk color, and Haugh Units correlate with human perception. Visual tests reveal that ozone-pasteurized eggs were equivalent to thermally pasteurized eggs in attributes such as appearance, spread, and cloudiness. They were equivalent to untreated eggs in yolk height, yellowness, and appeal. There were no differences in taste among all egg treatments for measures of aroma, flavor, texture and overall liking. Ozone-pasteurized eggs have the same appeal as raw eggs, and can be cooked without flavor loss. This promising new ozone process maintains good sensory quality relative to thermal processing. PMID:25473516

  20. Bioactive thermoresponsive polyblend nanofiber formulations for wound healing.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Mahesh D; Rathna, G V N; Agrawal, Shubhang; Kuchekar, Bhanudas S

    2015-03-01

    The rationale of this work is to develop new bioactive thermoresponsive polyblend nanofiber formulations for wound healing (topical). Various polymer compositions of thermoresponsive, poly(N-isopropylacrylamide), egg albumen and poly(ε-caprolactone) blend solutions with and without a drug [gatifloxacin hydrochloride, Gati] were prepared. Non-woven nanofibers of various compositions were fabricated using an electrospinning technique. The morphology of the nanofibers was analyzed by an environmental scanning electron microscope. The morphology was influenced by the concentration of polymer, drug, and polymer blend composition. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis showed the shift in bands due to hydrogen ion interactions between polymers and drug. Thermogram of PNIPAM/PCL/EA with Gati recorded a shift in lower critical solution temperature (LCST) and glass transition temperature (Tg) of PNIPAM. Similarly Tg and melting temperature (Tm) of PCL were shifted. X-ray diffraction patterns recorded a decrease in the crystalline state of PCL nanofibers and transformed crystalline drug to an amorphous state. In vitro release study of nanofibers with Gati showed initial rapid release up to 10h, followed by slow and controlled release for 696h (29days). Nanofiber mats with Gati exhibited antibacterial properties to Staphylococcus aureus, supported suitable controlled drug release with in vitro cell viability and in vivo wound healing.

  1. Femtosecond laser induced nanostructuring for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Messaoudi, H.; Das, S. K.; Lange, J.; Heinrich, F.; Schrader, S.; Frohme, M.; Grunwald, R.

    2014-03-01

    The formation of periodical nanostructures with femtosecond laser pulses was used to create highly efficient substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). We report about the structuring of silver and copper substrates and their application to the SERS of DNA (herring sperm) and protein molecules (egg albumen). The maximum enhancement factors were found on Ag substrates processed with the second harmonic generation (SHG) of a 1-kHz Ti:sapphire laser and structure periods near the SHG wavelength. In the case of copper, however, the highest enhancement was obtained with long-period ripples induced with at fundamental wavelength. This is explained by an additional significant influence of nanoparticles on the surface. Nanostructured areas in the range of 1.25 mm2 were obtained in 10 s. The surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fast Fourier Transform and Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, the role of the chemical modification of the metal structures is addressed. Thin oxide layers resulting from working in atmosphere which improve the biocompatibility were indicated by vibration spectra. It is expected that the detailed study of the mechanisms of laser-induced nanostructure formation will stimulate further applications of functionalized surfaces like photocatalysis, selective chemistry and nano-biology.

  2. [Investigations on the pathogenesis of changes in somatic growth of Lymnaea stagnalis (Gastropoda: Pulmonata) experimentally infected with parthenites Opisthioglyphe ranae (Digenea: Plagiorchiida). I. Relative weight of accessory sex organs and synthetic activity of neurosecretory cells].

    PubMed

    Pokora, Z

    1996-01-01

    In the paper an attempt to define pathogenesis of changes in somatic growth of juvenile individuals of the popular freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis experimentally infected with parthenites of the trematode Opisthioglyphe ranae was undertaken. Significant enlargement of relative wet weight of examined accessory sex organs (albumen gland, oothecal gland, prostate, male copulatory organ) observed in infected snails permits to explain increase of their somatic growth basing on the hypothesis of disturbances in energetistic budget of the host-as a consequence of reduction by the parasite activity of the snail's reproductive system. Pathogenesis of this phenomenon has probably a complicated character, including also effect of parthenites on activity of the neurosecretory cells that control somatic growth in examined species of the snail. An argument for this standpoint is, observed in infected snails, increase of amount of neurosecretory material and RNA in cytoplasm of these cells (the light green cells of cerebral ganglia), as well as amount of the loose fraction of chromatine in their nuclei.

  3. Showing Food Foams Properties with Common Dairy Foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo-Diaz, Carlos; Gonzalez-Romero, Elisa

    1997-09-01

    Most writers on food either ignore scientific principles that underlie cooking or disparage the value of such information on the grounds that can not be easily reduced to the test tube. However, people who have not yet logged years preparing food might require some explanation about what is going on or just simple may be curious about what foods are and how cooking works. In this work we show some easy to carry, inexpensive and safe experiments developed using familiar kitchen materials related with egg foams. Eggs's properties are not only limited to prepare excellent and delicious emulsions like mayonnaise but also makes excellent foams, increasing their volume significantly in two primary ways: the first one may be attributed to the albumen (a major component of egg white) because it is a thick viscous solution and it drains more slowly out of bubble walls than does a thin liquid and the second one is because egg white introduces a kind of reinforcement into the bubble walls. As the egg white is beaten and air bubbles are incorporated into it, the proteins in the bubble wall are subjected to an imbalance of forces due to the air-liquid interface which makes them to unfold and bond each other forming a delicate but definitely reinforcing network.

  4. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  5. [False eggs (SAGs) facilitate social post-hatching emergence behaviour in Leatherback turtles Dermochelys coriacea (Testudines: Dermochelyidae) nests].

    PubMed

    Patiño-Martinez, Juan; Marco, Adolfo; Quiñones, Liliana; Calabuig, Cecilia P

    2010-09-01

    Hatchling emergence to the beach surface from deep sand nests occurs without parental care. Social behaviour among siblings is crucial to overcome this first challenge in sea turtles life. This study, carried out at the Caribbean coast of Colombia, describes the emergence social behaviour of hatchlings from eight nests, and assess the nests translocation effects on temporal patterns of emergence. For the first time, we propose that space released by dehydration of shelled albumen globes (SAGs) at the top of the clutch, might be a reproductive advantage, while facilitating neonates to group together in a very limited space, and favouring the synchrony of emergence. The mean time of groups emergence was of 3.3 days, varying between 1 and 6 days. We found that relocation of the nests did not significantly affect the temporal pattern of emergence, which was mainly nocturnal (77.7% of natural nests and 81.7% of translocated ones). The maximum number of emergences to the surface occurred at the lowest air temperatures (22:00h-06:00h). The selective advantage of this pattern is probably related to the greater rate of predation and mortality by hyperthermia observed during the day.

  6. Effect of egg washing and correlation between eggshell characteristics and egg penetration by various Salmonella Typhimurium strains.

    PubMed

    Gole, Vaibhav C; Chousalkar, Kapil K; Roberts, Juliet R; Sexton, Margaret; May, Damian; Tan, Jessica; Kiermeier, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella is an important foodborne pathogen, causing an estimated 11,992 cases of infection in Australia per year. Egg or egg product related salmonellosis is a major concern for the egg industry. Worldwide, S. Typhimurium is one of the most common serovars identified in Salmonella food poisoning cases. The current study investigated the ability of five S. Typhimurium strains to penetrate washed and unwashed eggs using whole egg and agar egg penetration methods. All S. Typhimurium strains were able to penetrate eggshells and survive in egg albumen (at 20°C) according to whole egg penetration results. Polymerase Chain Reaction results demonstrated that S. Typhimurium strain 2 (10(3) and 10(5) CFU/mL), and strain 5 (10(3) and 10(5) CFU/mL) egg penetration was significantly higher (p<0.05) in washed eggs when compared to unwashed eggs. Statistical analysis of the agar penetration experiment indicated that S. Typhimurium was able to penetrate washed eggs at a significantly higher rate when compared to unwashed eggs (p<0.05). When compared to unwashed eggs, washed eggs also had significantly damaged cuticles. Statistical analysis also indicated that eggshell penetration by S. Typhimurium was related to various eggshell ultrastructural features such as cap quality, alignment, erosion, confluence, Type B bodies and cuticle cover.

  7. Surfactant-disinfectant resistance of Salmonella and Staphylococcus adhered and dried on surfaces with egg compounds.

    PubMed

    Kuda, Takashi; Iwase, Taichiro; Yuphakhun, Chaturongkasmurit; Takahashi, Hajime; Koyanagi, Takashi; Kimura, Bon

    2011-08-01

    To confirm the importance of eliminating food sediments from the surfaces of food-related environments, we examined the resistance of pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus) cells, dried and adhered on glass with 25% w/v egg albumen, 25% yolk or 50% whole egg solutions, against benzalkonium chloride and alkyldiaminoethylglycine hydrochloride. Bacterial suspensions (0.1 ml of 8 log cfu/ml) were put on 47 mmφ glass dishes and dried at room temperature (20-24 °C) for 180 min in a bio safety cabinet with ventilation. Although the viable cells in distilled water decreased 2.0 (S. aureus)-3.5 (S. Typhimurium) log fold during the drying period, the egg compounds protected the bacteria. The disinfectant treatments (2.0 mg/ml for 10 min) showed a clear bactericidal effect in the absence of egg compounds. However, the bactericidal effect disappeared in the presence of yolk and whole egg. Imaging before and after drying and the disinfectant treatments were carried out using a phase-contrast microscope and an atomic force microscope. The protective effect of egg compounds on bacterial viability disappeared with a proper washing process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An assessment of the microbiological risks involved with egg washing under commercial conditions.

    PubMed

    Hutchison, M L; Gittins, J; Sparks, A Walker N; Humphrey, T J; Burton, C; Moore, A

    2004-01-01

    The potential benefits of washing eggs is offset by a historical perception in the European Union that wetted eggs are prone to spoilage and water loss. This study describes the effects of spray jet washing under various processing conditions to shell surface counts of Salmonella and the presence of bacteria in egg contents. Experiments used eggs that were contaminated with Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 or Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 before cuticle hardening. Washing of contaminated eggs under optimum conditions resulted in a more than 5-log reduction of Salmonella counts from the shell surface. Salmonella was not isolated from the yolk or albumen of any egg washed by the optimal protocol, suggesting that when properly controlled, egg washing did not cause Salmonella to enter the contents. However, contamination did arise if strict control was not maintained over the wash and rinse water temperatures. Both Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium were shown to enter the egg contents when water temperatures were lowered, indicating that strict temperature control must be maintained in order to prevent the ingress of Salmonella into egg contents. Other washing machine parameters that were investigated did not significantly affect Salmonella entry into the egg contents but influenced shell surface kill levels to varying degrees.

  9. Abusive use of antibiotics in poultry farming in Cameroon and the public health implications.

    PubMed

    Guetiya Wadoum, R E; Zambou, N F; Anyangwe, F F; Njimou, J R; Coman, M M; Verdenelli, M C; Cecchini, C; Silvi, S; Orpianesi, C; Cresci, A; Colizzi, V

    2016-08-01

    The types and methods of use of antibiotics in poultry farms in Cameroon, residual levels and potential microbial resistance were determined. A questionnaire-based survey identified the different antibiotics used and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used to determine residual levels of antibiotics. Pathogens were isolated, identified by use of commercial API kits and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) was determined. Oxytetracyclin, tylocip and TCN (oxytetracycline, chloramphenicol and neomycin) were the most frequently used antibiotics. Antibiotics screened by HPLC were chloramphenicol, tetracycline and vancomycin. All of them except vancomycin were detected, and the concentration of these antibiotics was higher than the maximum residual limits (MRL) set by regulatory authorities. No residues of various antibiotics were found in egg albumen or yolk. The concentration of tetracycline was significantly higher in liver (150 ± 30 µg/g) than in other tissues. Foodborne pathogens, including Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus spp., Listeria spp., Clostridium spp. and Escherichia spp., were identified. Most of the pathogens were resistant to these various antibiotics tested. These findings imply the need for better management of antibiotic use to control sources of food contamination and reduce health risks associated with the presence of residues and the development of resistant pathogens by further legislation and enforcement of regulations on food hygiene and use of antibiotics.

  10. [Effect of polymeric aluminum-iron on EPS and bio-flocculation in A2/O system].

    PubMed

    Wen, Qin-Xue; Liu, Ai-Cui; Chen, Zhi-Qiang; Shi, Han-Chang; Lü, Bing-Nan

    2012-04-01

    Polymeric aluminum-iron (PAFC) was added at the end of aeration tank to enhance phosphorus removal, so that the phosphorus concentration in the effluent could meet the calss A standard in municipal sewage treatment plant pollutant discharge standard (GB 18918-2002). The characteristics of extracellular polymer substances (EPS) and bio-flocculation for the activated sludge in the A2/O system were analyzed in the experiment. The results showed that, the gross of EPS varied little with the increase in PAFC dosage, while, the ratio of albumen to polysaccharide declined from 3.30 to 2.30. When the PAFC dosage increased, the concentration of Al3+ in EPS increased during the whole anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic cycle. The flocs of activated sludge became larger after PAFC addition, Zeta potential of the effluent dropped significantly from - 15.83 mV to -21.20 mV and sludge yield increased. Therefore, bio-flocculation of the activated sludge in the A2/O system improved when a proper amount of PAFC was added, subsequently improve the water quality of the effluent.

  11. King eider use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N.; O'Brien, Diane M.

    2010-01-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves (“capital”) and current diet (“income”). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 ± 18%, N: 99 ± 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 ± 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 ± 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual

  12. A nonlethal microsampling technique to monitor the effects of mercury on wild bird eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stebbins, Katherine R.; Klimstra, Jon D.; ,; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Heinz, Gary

    2009-01-01

    Methylmercury is the predominant chemical form of mercury reported in the eggs of wild birds, and the embryo is the most sensitive life stage to methylmercury toxicity. Protective guidelines have been based mainly on captive-breeding studies with chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) or on field studies where whole eggs were collected and analyzed and the effects of the mercury were measured based on the reproductive success of the remaining eggs. However, both of these methods have limitations. As an alternative, we developed a technique that involves extracting a small sample of albumen from a live egg, sealing the egg, returning the egg to its nest to be naturally incubated by the parents, and then relating the hatching success of this microsampled egg to its mercury concentration. After first developing this technique in the laboratory using chicken and mallard eggs, we selected the laughing gull (Larus atricilla) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) as test subjects in the field. We found that 92% of the microsampled laughing gull eggs met our reproductive endpoint of survival to the beginning of hatching compared to 100% for the paired control eggs within the same nests. Microsampled black-necked stilt eggs exhibited 100% hatching success compared to 93% for the paired control eggs. Our results indicate that microsampling is an effective tool for nonlethally sampling mercury concentrations in eggs and, as such, can be used for monitoring sensitive species, as well as for improving studies that examine the effects of mercury on avian reproduction.

  13. Development and application of a multiplex PCR method for rapid differential detection of subgroup A, B, and J avian leukosis viruses.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qi; Yun, Bingling; Wang, Qi; Jiang, Lili; Zhu, Haibo; Gao, Yanni; Qin, Liting; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Gao, Honglei; Wang, Xiaomei; Gao, Yulong

    2014-01-01

    Avian leukosis virus (ALV) subgroups A, B, and J are very common in poultry flocks and have caused serious economic losses in recent years. A multiplex PCR (mPCR) method for the detection of these three subgroups was developed and optimized in this study. We first designed a common forward primer, PF, and three downstream primers, AR, BR, and JR, which can amplify 715 bp for subgroup A, 515 bp for subgroup B, and 422 bp for subgroup J simultaneously in one reaction. The mPCR method produced neither cross-reactions with other subgroups of ALVs nor nonspecific reactions with other common avian viruses. The detection limit of the mPCR was as low as 1 × 10(3) viral DNA copies of each of the three subgroups. In animal experiments, the mPCR detected ALVs 2 to 4 days earlier than did virus isolation from whole-blood samples and cloaca swabs. Furthermore, a total of 346 clinical samples (including 127 tissue samples, 86 cloaca swabs, 59 albumen samples, and 74 whole-blood samples) from poultry flocks with suspected ALV infection were examined by mPCR, routine PCR, and virus isolation. The positive sample/total sample ratios for ALV-A, ALV-B, and ALV-J were 48% (166/346) as detected by mPCR and 48% (166/346) as detected by routine PCR. However, the positive sample/total sample ratio detected by virus isolation was 40% (138/346). The results of the mPCR and routine PCR were confirmed by sequencing the specific fragments. These results indicate that the mPCR method is rapid, specific, sensitive, and convenient for use in epidemiological studies of ALV, clinical detection of ALV, and ALV eradication programs.

  14. Impact of temperature-humidity index on egg-laying characteristics and related stress and immunity parameters of Japanese quails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud Salah

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature-humidity index (THI) level on productive parameters, welfare, and immunity in Japanese quails. One hundred and eighty (180) birds of Japanese quail, 14 weeks old, were used. Birds were divided randomly into three equal groups, control (at low THI, less than 70), H1 (at moderate THI, 70-75), and H2 (at high THI, 76-80). Birds in the control group had higher body weight (281.2 g, p = 0.001), egg mass (745 g, p = 0.001), fertility (85.4 %, p = 0.039), hatchability (80.4 %, p = 0.001), and immune response titer to Newcastle disease virus ( p = 0.031), compared with H2 group. Furthermore, the thermoneutral group had higher internal egg quality score [albumen height (5.14 mm, p = 0.001), yolk height (10.88 mm, p = 0.015), yolk index (42.32 %, p = 0.039), and Haugh unit (92.67, p = 0.001)]. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in fertility percentage, immune response, and corticosterone concentration between control and H1 group. Birds in the H2 group had the lowest total leucocytic count and lymphocyte percentage ( p = 0.001 and 0.020, respectively) but the highest H/L ratio (0.83, p = 0.001). Corticosterone concentration was lower in control and H1 groups (5.49 and 6.41 ng/mL, respectively, p = 0.024) than that in H2 group. Japanese quail exposed to heat stress revealed drop in production and immunological parameters, as well as a detrimental effects on welfare. Thus, practical approaches might be used to reduce the detrimental effects of greater THI level.

  15. Carbon dioxide laser-assisted nerve repair: effect of solder and suture material on nerve regeneration in rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Menovsky, Tomas; Beek, Johan F

    2003-01-01

    In order to further improve and explore the role of lasers for nerve reconstruction, this study was designed to investigate regeneration of sharply transected peripheral nerves repaired with a CO(2) milliwatt laser in combination with three different suture materials and a bovine albumin protein solder as an adjunct to the welding process. Unilateral sciatic nerve repair was performed in 44 rats. In the laser group, nerves were gently apposed, and two stay sutures (10-0 nylon, 10-0 polyglycolic acid, or 25 microm stainless steel) were placed epi/perineurially. Thereafter, the repair site was fused at 100 mW with pulses of 1.0 s. In the subgroup of laser-assisted nerve repair (LANR), albumen was used as a soldering agent to further reinforce the repair site. The control group consisted of nerves repaired by conventional microsurgical suture repair (CMSR), using 4-6 10-0 nylon sutures. Evaluation was performed at 1 and 6 weeks after surgery, and included qualitative and semiquantitative light microscopy. LANR performed with a protein solder results in a good early peripheral nerve regeneration, with an optimal alignment of nerve fibers and minimal connective tissue proliferation at the repair site. All three suture materials produced a foreign body reaction; the least severe was with polyglycolic acid sutures. CMSR resulted in more pronounced foreign-body granulomas at the repair site, with more connective-tissue proliferation and axonal misalignment. Furthermore, axonal regeneration in the distal nerve segment was better in the laser groups. Based on these results, CO(2) laser-assisted nerve repair with soldering in combination with absorbable sutures has the potential of allowing healing to occur with the least foreign-body reaction at the repair site. Further experiments using this combination are in progress.

  16. Development of an analytical protocol for a fast, sensitive and specific protein recognition in paintings by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

    PubMed

    Palmieri, M; Vagnini, Manuela; Pitzurra, L; Rocchi, P; Brunetti, B G; Sgamellotti, A; Cartechini, L

    2011-03-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis of proteins offers a particularly promising approach for investigations in cultural heritage on account of its appreciated properties of being highly specific, sensitive, relatively fast, and cost-affordable with respect to other conventional techniques. In spite of that, it has never been fully exploited for routine analyses of painting materials in consideration of several analytical issues that inhibited its diffusion in conservation science: limited sample dimensions, decrease of binder solubility and reduced availability of antibody bonding sites occurring with protein degradation. In this study, an ELISA analytical protocol suited for the identification of aged denatured proteins in ancient painting micro-samples has been developed. We focused on the detection of bovine β-casein and chicken ovalbumin as markers of bovine milk (or casein) and chicken albumen, respectively. A systematic experimentation of the ELISA protocol has been carried out on mock-ups of mural and easel painting prepared with 13 different pigments to assess limits and strengths of the method when applied for the identification of proteins in presence of a predominant inorganic matrix. The analytical procedure has been optimized with respect to protein extraction, antibodies' concentrations, incubation time and temperature; it allows the detection of the investigated proteins with sensitivity down to nanograms. The optimized protocol was then tested on artificially aged painting models. Analytical results were very encouraging and demonstrated that ELISA allows for protein analysis also in degraded painting samples. To address the feasibility of the developed ELISA methodology, we positively investigated real painting samples and results have been cross-validated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  17. The nutritional effect of Moringa oleifera fresh leaves as feed supplement on Rhode Island Red hen egg production and quality.

    PubMed

    Abou-Elezz Fouad Mohammed, Khaled; Sarmiento-Franco, Luis; Santos-Ricalde, Ronald; Solorio-Sanchez, Javier Francisco

    2012-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential of Moringa oleifera fresh leaves (MOL) as feed supplement on the performance and egg quality of Rhode Island Red (RIR) hens under the tropical conditions of Yucatan, Mexico. Forty-eight RIR hens were allocated in 12 floor pen replicates each with four birds. Thereafter, the replicates were divided into three groups which were corresponded to ad libitum feed (control), ad libitum feed supplemented with MOL T1 (AL + MOL) and restricted feed amount (20% lower than control) with MOL T2 (RCD + MOL), respectively. T1 (AL + MOL) had higher egg laying rate (71.4% versus 66.6%), higher daily egg mass production (45.4 versus 41.9 g/day), lower feed intake (121.3 versus 127.5 g/day) and better feed conversion ratio (2.8 versus 3.2 g feed:g egg) versus control. T2 / (RCD + MOL) had lower values of body weight, egg laying rate, egg weight and egg mass, and recorded better feed conversion ratio than the control group. The control group recorded a higher percentage of pecked eggs versus T1 and T2 (6.5% versus 1.2% and 2.0 %). Similar intake of MOL (3.1 and 3.4 g DM/day) was recorded in T1 (AL + MOL) and T2 (RCD + MOL). Yolk color was improved significantly in T1 (AL + MOL) than both control and T2 (RCD + MOL), while T2 (RCD + MOL) had eggs with lower yolk and higher albumen percentages than the other two ad libitum groups. The results suggest that MOL could be used successfully as sustainable tropical feed resource for RIR hens.

  18. Performance of laying pullets fed on cereal-free diets based on maize offal, cassava peel and reject cashew nut meal.

    PubMed

    Onifade, A A; Tewe, O O; Okunola, O; Fanimo, A O

    1999-03-01

    1. A 70-d experiment was conducted to determine the response of 26-week-old laying pullets to cereal-free diets based on maize offal, cassava peel and full-fat cashew nut meal (CNM) in comparison with a standard 550 g maize/kg reference diet. The 4 test diets all contained 315 g CNM/kg 232.5, 155.0, 77.5 and 0.0 g/kg of maize offal in combination with 77.5, 155.0, 232.5 and 315.0 g/kg of cassava peel, respectively. 2. Pullets fed on the 4 CNM-based diets consumed (P<0.05) less food than those fed on the reference diet; they also had lower (P<0.05) rates of lay, produced less (P<0.05) egg mass, had lower (P<0.05) food conversion efficiencies and their eggs had a lighter (P<0.05) yolk colour. Pullets fed some of the CNM-based diets also gained more (P<0.05) weight, the heaviest (P<0.05) being birds reared on the diet containing 315 g/kg cassava peel. Egg weight, shell thickness and albumen height from all eggs were similar. Pullets fed on the CNM-based diets had inferior (P<0.05) retention of dry matter and protein. 4. It was concluded that feeding full-fat CNM allowed for high dietary inclusion rates of cassava peel and maize offal and the resultant diets, which contained no maize, supported satisfactory performance of laying hens.

  19. Consumer acceptance of ozone-treated whole shell eggs.

    PubMed

    Kamotani, Setsuko; Hooker, Neal; Smith, Stephanie; Lee, Ken

    2010-03-01

    Ozone-based processing is a novel technology with potentially fewer adverse effects than in-shell thermal pasteurization of eggs. There are no consumer acceptance studies published on ozone-treated eggs. This study examines consumers' ability to detect changes between ozone-treated, thermal-treated, and fresh untreated eggs. Consumers (n = 111) evaluated visual attributes of uncooked eggs and a separate group of consumers (n = 132) evaluated acceptability of cooked eggs. Consumers evaluated attribute intensity of the eggs. The yolks and albumens of the thermal-treated and ozone-treated eggs were perceived to be significantly cloudier than the untreated control, while the ozone-treated eggs were more similar to control (P < 0.05). The yolks of ozone-treated eggs were perceived to have significantly lower heights and greater spreads than the others (P < 0.05). Despite these perceptions, overall visual appeal of ozone-treated eggs was not significantly different from control eggs. A separate set of consumers used hedonic scales to evaluate overall liking, appearance, aroma, flavor, and texture of cooked eggs. Just-about-right (JAR) scales were used to rate the color, moistness, and texture. There were no differences on any attribute scores between the treatments, except thermal-treated and ozone-treated were perceived as less moist than the control. There were no adverse effects on consumer acceptance of eggs, treated with ozone, with acceptance the same as an untreated control. These findings are useful as ozone pasteurization can enhance the safety of fresh shell eggs to meet the goals of the U.S. Egg Safety Action Plan. The U.S. Egg Safety Action Plan requires all shell eggs to be pasteurized to prevent foodborne illness. Heat pasteurization partially cooks the egg, so an alternative process uses ozone with less heat. This study shows the ozone pasteurization has no detectable sensory defects.

  20. Chemical Compositions of Egg Yolks and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Prebiotic, Probiotic, and Synbiotic Diets.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shirley Gee Hoon; Sieo, Chin Chin; Kalavathy, Ramasamy; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Yong, Su Ting; Wong, Hee Kum; Ho, Yin Wan

    2015-08-01

    A 16-wk feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a prebiotic, isomaltooligosaccharide (IMO), a probiotic, PrimaLac®, and their combination as a synbiotic on the chemical compositions of egg yolks and the egg quality of laying hens. One hundred and sixty 16-wk-old Hisex Brown pullets were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet + 1% IMO (PRE), (iii) basal diet + 0.1% PrimaLac® (PRO), and (iv) basal diet + 1% IMO + 0.1% PrimaLac® (SYN). PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation not only significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the egg yolk cholesterol (24- and 28-wk-old) and total saturated fatty acids (SFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), but also significantly (P < 0.05) increased total unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old), total omega 6 and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), including linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid levels in the eggs (28-wk-old). However, the total lipids, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the egg yolks were similar among all dietary treatments in the 24-, 28-, 32-, and 36-wk-old hens. Egg quality (Haugh unit, relative weights of the albumen and yolk, specific gravity, shell thickness, and yolk color) was not affected by PRE, PRO, or SYN supplementation. The results indicate that supplementations with IMO and PrimaLac® alone or in combination as a synbiotic might be useful for improving the cholesterol content and modifying the fatty acid compositions of egg yolk without affecting the quality of eggs from laying hens between 24 and 36 wk of age. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Long-term effects of choline on productive performance and egg quality of brown-egg laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Q H; Dong, X F; Tong, J M; Guo, Y M; Bao, Y E

    2013-07-01

    A total of five hundred forty 19-wk-old HyLine Brown hens were used to study the long-term effects of increasing choline with 0 (control), 425, 850, 1,700, 3,400, and 6,800 mg/kg of corn-soybean meal-based diets on productive performance and egg quality. Phase 1 was from 19 to 58 wk, and phase 2 was from 59 to 68 wk. During the whole experimental period, dietary choline had no significant effects on feed intake, egg weight, and egg mass (P > 0.05). During phase 1, egg production decreased linearly (P < 0.05) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) tended to increase linearly (P = 0.057) with increasing choline level in the diet. Moreover, BW decreased both linearly (P < 0.01) and quadratically (P < 0.05) as choline increased from 0 to 6,800 mg/kg. No significant treatment effects were found for shell thickness and shell strength of eggs (P > 0.05). However, albumen height and Haugh units increased linearly (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively) as choline increased during phase 2. Compared with the control group, diets supplemented with 425 or 850 mg of choline/kg significantly (P < 0.01) improved yolk color during phase 1. This study indicates that a dietary choline level of no more than 700 mg/kg is sufficient to maintain egg production. The effect of choline on egg quality was minimal when hens were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet from 19 to 68 wk of age.

  2. Variation in the ovocalyxin-32 gene in commercial egg-laying chickens and its relationship with egg production and egg quality traits.

    PubMed

    Fulton, J E; Soller, M; Lund, A R; Arango, J; Lipkin, E

    2012-07-01

    Avian eggshell quality is an important trait for commercial egg production, as the eggshell is the primary packaging material and antimicrobial barrier for the internal food resource. Strong eggshells are essential to ensure that eggs can reach their final destination without damage. Ovocalyxin-32 (OCX32) is a matrix protein found within the outer layers of the eggshell and in the cuticle. Numerous reports in the literature have identified association between variants in the gene encoding this protein, OCX32, and various eggshell quality traits. Thus, OCX32 is a candidate gene for selection for eggshell traits in commercial poultry populations. Sequencing of exons 2-6 of the OCX32 gene in eight elite brown and white eggshell commercial egg-laying lines revealed 28 SNPs and one SNP/indel. Eighteen of these SNPs were predicted to alter the amino acid sequence of the protein. Clusters of SNPs in complete linkage disequilibrium were found in both exons 2 and 6. A total of 19 different versions or protein-sequence haplotypes of the OCX32 protein were inferred, revealing considerable variation within commercial lines. Genotypes for 13 of the SNPs were determined for 330-1819 individuals per line. Trait association studies revealed a significant effect of OCX32 on shell color in white egg lines and line-specific significant effects on albumen height, early egg weight, puncture score, and yolk weight. Three of the lines showed a significant change in OCX32 frequency over time, indicating selection pressure for certain variants of this gene during the breeding program. © 2012 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2012 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  3. Effects of bacteriophage supplementation on egg performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, and moisture content in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Zhao, P Y; Baek, H Y; Kim, I H

    2012-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of bacteriophage supplementation on egg performance, egg quality, excreta microflora, and moisture content in laying hens. A total of 288 Hy-line brown commercial laying hens (36-wk-old) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments in this 6-wk trial and dietary treatments included: i) CON, basal diet; ii) T1, CON+0.020% bacteriophage; iii) T2, CON+0.035% bacteriophage; iv) T3, CON+0.050% bacteriophage. There were 6 replicates for each treatment with 6 adjacent cages (2 hens/cage). Laying hens in T2 and T3 treatments had higher (p<0.05) egg production than those in CON and T1 treatments during wk 0 to 3. In addition, egg production in T1, T2, and T3 treatments was increased (p<0.05) compared with that in CON treatment during wk 4 to 6. At wk 4 and 5, birds in T2 group had higher (p<0.05) HU than those in CON. In addition, at wk 5 and 6, HU in birds fed T1 and T3 diets was greater (p<0.05) than those fed CON diet. E. coli and Salmonella spp. concentrations in excreta were decreased (p<0.05) by T1, T2, and T3 treatments. However, egg weight, egg shell color, yolk height, yolk color unit, egg shell strength, egg shell thickness, egg gravity, and excreta moisture content were not influenced by dietary treatments during the entire experimental period. In conclusion, bacteriophage supplementation has beneficial effects on egg production, egg albumen, and excreta microflora concentration in laying hens.

  4. Genetic parameters of egg quality traits on different pedigree layers with special focus on dynamic stiffness.

    PubMed

    Blanco, A E; Icken, W; Ould-Ali, D; Cavero, D; Schmutz, M

    2014-10-01

    Egg quality traits are of utmost importance in layer breeding programs due to their effect on profitability in the egg production industry and on the production of quality chicks. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and estimate genetic parameters of different quality traits: egg weight, breaking strength, dynamic stiffness (Kdyn), egg shape index, eggshell thickness, and albumen height. Eggs were obtained from 4 pure lines of birds. Two different tests were performed: a white breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a white egg layer program that were analyzed at 67 to 70 wk of age, and a brown breeding program, with eggs from a male and female line of a brown egg layer program that were analyzed at 32 to 36 wk of age. In general, heritabilities were moderate to high for all traits (h² = 0.23 to 0.71). A high genetic correlation was estimated in both tests between breaking strength and Kdyn (rg = +0.40 to +0.61). Shell thickness was also positively correlated with breaking strength (rg = +0.50 to +0.63) and Kdyn (rg = +0.28 to +0.69). These moderate relationships demonstrate that the strength of an egg not only relies on the shell thickness but also on the quality and uniformity of eggshell construction. Dynamic stiffness might be preferred for breeding purposes due to its lower negative genetic correlation with egg weight and its higher heritability (h² = 0.35 to 0.70) compared with breaking strength (h² = 0.23 to 0.35). Breaking strength and Kdyn were positively correlated with shape index, which confirms that round eggs will show higher shell stability. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor egg shape to maintain an optimal form.

  5. Changes in egg quality traits during the last phase of production: is there potential for an extended laying cycle?

    PubMed

    Molnár, A; Maertens, L; Ampe, B; Buyse, J; Kempen, I; Zoons, J; Delezie, E

    2016-12-01

    1. A field study was conducted to investigate the deterioration of eggshell quality at the end of lay and examine the potential to extend the production cycle. A total of 1200 eggs were assessed originating from commercial farms in Belgium: eggs were random sampled at the collection belt at 57-65 weeks of age and at the end of the production cycle (74-92 weeks). 2. Based on a linear mixed model, egg quality was estimated for an average flock at 60 weeks of age and changes in quality traits were predicted until the end of the laying cycle. 3. Egg weight increased by 0.07 g every week from 60 weeks of age onwards and shape index decreased by 0.04 unit weekly (P < 0.001). Haugh unit values decreased weekly by 0.38 units whereas relative yolk weight was unaffected after 60 weeks of age. Relative albumen weight showed a weekly increase of 0.02% and relative shell decreased by 0.02% weekly until the end of lay. 4. Shell quality traits were also influenced by age: shell index decreased by 0.013 g weekly, shell thickness was calculated to be 0.23 µm thinner every week, deformation increased by 0.06 µm weekly from 60 weeks to the end of the laying cycle. Variability of the deformation of eggs indicated more heterogeneous shell quality at the end of the production cycle. Dynamic stiffness increased from 60 weeks of age on. 5. Laying hens were depopulated on average at 80 weeks of age (varying from 74-92 weeks). Although ageing had a significant effect on most of the egg quality traits, egg quality was still acceptable at the end of lay, indicating the potential to extend the laying cycle.

  6. Effect of egg composition and oxidoreductase on adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude.

    PubMed

    Jia, C L; He, L J; Li, P C; Liu, H Y; Wei, Z H

    2016-07-01

    Tibetan chickens have good adaptation to hypoxic conditions, which can be reflected by higher hatchability than lowland breeds when incubated at high altitude. The objective of this trial was to study changes in egg composition and metabolism with regards the adaptation of Tibetan chickens to high altitude. We measured the dry weight of chicken embryos, egg yolk, and egg albumen, and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) in breast muscle, heart, and liver from embryos of Tibetan chicken and Dwarf chicken (lowland breed) incubated at high (2,900 m) and low (100 m) altitude. We found that growth of chicken embryos was restricted at high altitude, especially for Dwarf chicken embryos. In Tibetan chicken, the egg weight was lighter, but the dry weight of egg yolk was heavier than that of Dwarf chicken. The LDH activities of the three tissues from the high altitude groups were respectively higher than those of the lowland groups from d 15 to hatching, except for breast muscle of Tibetan chicken embryos on d 15. In addition, under the high altitude environment, the heart tissue from Tibetan chicken had lower LDH activity than that from Dwarf chicken at d 15 and 18. The lactic acid content of blood from Tibetan chicken embryos was lower than that of Dwarf chicken at d 12 and 15 of incubation at high altitude. There was no difference in SDH activity in the three tissues between the high altitude groups and the lowland groups except in three tissues of hatchlings and at d 15 of incubation in breast muscle, nor between the two breeds at high altitude except in the heart of hatchlings. Consequently, the adaptation of Tibetan chicken to high altitude may be associated with higher quantities of yolk in the egg and a low metabolic oxygen demand in tissue, which illuminate the reasons that the Tibetan chicken have higher hatchability with lower oxygen transport ability.

  7. Induction of immune suppression in the chick by an optimal dose of an immunizing antigen in the presence of its specific maternal antibody.

    PubMed

    Elazab, Mohamed Fahmy Abou; Fukushima, Yuji; Fujita, Yukihiro; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki; Matsuda, Haruo; Furusawa, Shuichi

    2010-03-01

    Prolonged interference or suppression of maternal antibodies of the humoral immune response of newly hatched chicks to active immunization has been documented; however, the immunological mechanisms responsible for such suppression are still unclear. Laying hens were immunized with dinitrophenyl-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (DNP-KLH). Purified maternal anti-DNP or non-specific IgY antibodies were transferred by yolk sac inoculation to newly hatched chicks, and they were immunized with DNP-KLH or rabbit serum albumen (RSA) at 1 and 4 weeks of age. The concentrations of anti-DNP and anti-RSA antibodies in serum samples of these chicks were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The immune responses of the chicks that received a high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and were immunized with an appropriate dose of DNP-KLH were suppressed. However, those of the chicks that received the same high dose of maternal non-specific IgY antibodies and were immunized with an appropriate dose of DNP-KLH and those of the chicks that received a high dose of maternal anti-DNP antibodies and were immunized with RSA were not suppressed. On the other hand, suppression of anti-DNP antibody production would not be induced if the chicks received a high dose of antigen specific maternal antibodies and were immunized with a high dose of the same antigen. These results revealed that the immune suppressive effect of maternal antibodies on the immune response of the newly hatched chicks was antigen specific and depended mainly on the ratio of antigen/maternal antibody at the time of immunization.

  8. Effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on performance, egg quality, yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activity of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Feng, Z H; Gong, J G; Zhao, G X; Lin, X; Liu, Y C; Ma, K W

    2017-09-04

    1. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation of resveratrol on laying performance, egg quality, egg yolk cholesterol and antioxidant enzyme activities of laying hens. 2. A total of 360 Beijing PINK-1 laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly distributed among five dietary treatments, each of which included 6 replicates of 12 hens. Dietary treatments were basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg diet resveratrol. The study lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week of adaptation and 8 weeks of the main experimental period. 3. The results indicated that dietary resveratrol significantly improved feed conversion ratios during 5-8 weeks and 1-8 weeks of the trial. Increasing dietary concentrations of the resveratrol linearly improved Haugh unit and albumen height of eggs. 4. The content of total cholesterol (TC), total triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) in serum and cholesterol in yolk was significantly decreased by dietary resveratrol, and there were significant linear correlations between these indexes and resveratrol supplemental levels. 5. Dietary resveratrol supplementation significantly improved serum Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzyme activity and decreased serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content in groups with 2.0 and 4.0 g/kg resveratrol as compared to the control, respectively. However, supplementation of resveratrol did not affect the activity of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). 6. It is concluded that resveratrol supplementation has a positive effect on performance, lipid-related traits and antioxidant activity of laying hens.

  9. Effect of diets supplemented with different levels of manganese, zinc, and copper from their organic or inorganic sources on egg production and quality characteristics in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Gheisari, Abbas Ali; Sanei, Abbas; Samie, Abdolhossein; Gheisari, Mohamad Mehdi; Toghyani, Majid

    2011-09-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc, manganese, and copper sources (inorganic vs. organic) in the diet on laying performance and eggshell quality characteristics. One hundred and eighty Hy-Line W-36 layers at 38 weeks of age were allocated to 36-layer cages of five hens each. Each six cages were randomly assigned to one of the six experimental diets fed from 38 to 53 week of age. In three experimental treatments, the basal diet was supplemented with 65-75-7 or 65-75-7 or 40-40-7 mg/kg of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively, from their oxide or sulfate sources. Three other groups were fed diets supplemented with 20-20-3.5 or 40-40-7.5 or 60-60-10.5 mg/kg of organic forms of Zn, Mn, and Cu, respectively. Dietary treatments significantly did affect feed intake (P < 0.001), feed conversion ratio (P < 0.001) and percentage of broken eggs (P < 0.05). Substitution of Zn and Mn oxides (65 and 75 mg kg(-1), respectively) with equal amounts of their sulfate forms significantly improved feed intake, feed conversion ratio, percentage of broken eggs, and Haugh Unit (P < 0.05). In addition, laying hens maintained their performance when substitution of Zn and Mn oxides and Cu sulfate (65, 75, and 7 mg kg(-1), respectively) reduced up to 20, 20, and 3.5 mg kg(-1) by amino acid complexes of the microelements. The results showed that a corn-soybean diet supplemented with the organic forms of Zn, Mn, and Cu at a dosage 50% to 75% lower than NRC recommendation is sufficient to maintain laying performance and can improve eggshell and albumen qualities of the egg in laying hens.

  10. Hepatoprotective Effect and Chemical Assessment of a Selected Egyptian Chickpea Cultivar.

    PubMed

    Mekky, Reham H; Fayed, Mostafa R; El-Gindi, Mohamed R; Abdel-Monem, Azza R; Contreras, María Del Mar; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2016-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. In Egypt, chickpea seeds are usually consumed at raw green and tender stage, or in the form of mature dry seeds. In our previous study, 'Giza 1' seeds exhibited stronger antioxidant activity and higher total phenol content than those from other Egyptian cultivars. In order to assess the biological potential of 'Giza 1' seeds in vivo, the extraction procedure was reproduced here. The extract was standardized using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to evaluate their hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and acute toxicity. Administration of the extract to rats in doses up to 2 g/Kg) did not cause any mortalities or observable signs of toxicity. Further, the plant extract showed a strong hepatoprotective activity based on assessing serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase and levels of albumen, globulin, total protein, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein. The antioxidative activity was evaluated by assessing hepatic catalase and superoxide dismutase activity as well as reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde levels. Additionally, anti-inflammatory activity was observed as the extract significantly lowered the hepatic tumor necrosis factor α content. Histopathological examination of liver tissues indicated that the extract-treated animals showed almost normal hepatic architecture with fewer pathological changes. In conclusion, the current results suggest that the chickpea extract possesses an excellent safety profile with very low acute toxicity. Also, it exhibits a significant hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. This can be attributed, at least partly, to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of the isoflavones and phenolic acids content of the

  11. Food allergy among Iranian children with inflammatory bowel disease: A preliminary report

    PubMed Central

    Imanzadeh, Farid; Nasri, Peiman; Sadeghi, Somayeh; Sayyari, Aliakbar; Dara, Naghi; Abdollah, Karimi; Nilipoor, Yalda; Mansuri, Mahbubeh; Khatami, Katayoon; Rouhani, Pejman; Olang, Beheshteh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence has shown a link between allergic disease and inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). We investigated food allergy in Iranian pediatric IBD patients. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on a consecutive sample of children with newly diagnosed IBD referring to Mofid Children's University Hospital in Tehran (Iran) between November 2013 and March 2015. Data on age, gender, history of cow's milk allergy (CMA), IBD type, routine laboratory tests, and colonoscopic and histopathological findings were gathered. Food allergy was assessed with the skin prick test (SPT). Results: A total of 28 patients including 19 ulcerative colitis (UC), 7 Cronh's disease (CD), and two with unclassified colitis with a mean age of 8.3 ± 4.4 years. (57.1% females, 42.9% were studied. History of CMA was present in eight patients (28.6%). Seventeen patients (60.7%) had at least one food allergy (68.4% of UC vs. 42.9% of CD, P = 0.230). Ten patients (35.7%) had multiple food allergies (36.8% of UC vs. 42.9% of CD, P > 0.999). Common allergic foods were cow's milk (28.6%), beef, seafood, albumen, wheat, and walnuts (each 10.7%), and peanuts and chestnuts (each 7.1%). The SPT showed CMA in 68.4% (8/17) of UC but none of the CD patients (P = 0.077). Conclusion: Food allergy is frequent in Iranian pediatric IBD patients with CMA being the most common observed allergy. The CMA seems to be more frequent in UC than in CD patients. PMID:26759572

  12. Mineral oil-chitosan emulsion coatings affect quality and shelf-life of coated eggs during refrigerated and room temperature storage.

    PubMed

    Torrico, Damir D; No, Hong Kyoon; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Janes, Marlene; Corredor, José A H; Osorio, Luis F

    2011-05-01

    Effects of mineral oil (MO) and 4 emulsions (prepared with different emulsifier types) of MO and chitosan solution (CH) at a fixed ratio of MO:CH = 25:75 as coating materials in preserving the internal quality of eggs were evaluated during 5 wk at 25 °C and 20 wk at 4 °C. Generally, as storage time increased, Haugh unit and yolk index values decreased whereas weight loss increased. However, MO and/or 4 emulsion coatings minimized the weight loss (<1.5%) and preserved the albumen and yolk quality of eggs (with the final B grade) for at least 3 wk longer than those observed for noncoated eggs at 25 °C. At 4 °C, all coated eggs changed from AA to A grade after 5 wk and they maintained this grade for 10 wk (5 wk longer than that of noncoated eggs). Although refrigeration (4 °C) alone could maintain the B grade of noncoated eggs for up to 20 wk, coating treatments were necessary to keep the weight loss below 2%. Compared with 4 °C, the increasing weight loss showed stronger negative correlation (P < 0.01) with the decreasing Haugh unit (-0.46 to -0.89) and yolk index (-0.36 to -0.89) at 25 °C. The emulsifier type used in this study generally did not affect the internal quality of eggs. Salmonella spp. detection was negative for all coated and noncoated eggs. This study demonstrated that MO and MO:CH emulsion coatings preserved the internal quality, prolonged the shelf-life, and minimized weight loss (<2%) of eggs. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. A genome-wide SNP scan reveals novel loci for egg production and quality traits in white leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbo; Li, Dongfeng; Liu, Jianfeng; Chen, Sirui; Qu, Lujiang; Zheng, Jiangxia; Xu, Guiyun; Yang, Ning

    2011-01-01

    Availability of the complete genome sequence as well as high-density SNP genotyping platforms allows genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in chickens. A high-density SNP array containing 57,636 markers was employed herein to identify associated variants underlying egg production and quality traits within two lines of chickens, i.e., White Leghorn and brown-egg dwarf layers. For each individual, age at first egg (AFE), first egg weight (FEW), and number of eggs (EN) from 21 to 56 weeks of age were recorded, and egg quality traits including egg weight (EW), eggshell weight (ESW), yolk weight (YW), eggshell thickness (EST), eggshell strength (ESS), albumen height(AH) and Haugh unit(HU) were measured at 40 and 60 weeks of age. A total of 385 White Leghorn females and 361 brown-egg dwarf dams were selected to be genotyped. The genome-wide scan revealed 8 SNPs showing genome-wise significant (P<1.51E-06, Bonferroni correction) association with egg production and quality traits under the Fisher's combined probability method. Some significant SNPs are located in known genes including GRB14 and GALNT1 that can impact development and function of ovary, but more are located in genes with unclear functions in layers, and need to be studied further. Many chromosome-wise significant SNPs were also detected in this study and some of them are located in previously reported QTL regions. Most of loci detected in this study are novel and the follow-up replication studies may be needed to further confirm the functional significance for these newly identified SNPs.

  14. Magnetically recyclable Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/Zn0.95Ni0.05O nano-photocatalyst: Structural, optical, magnetic and photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qasim, Mohd; Asghar, Khushnuma; Singh, Braj Raj; Prathapani, Sateesh; Khan, Wasi; Naqvi, A. H.; Das, Dibakar

    2015-02-01

    A novel visible light active and magnetically separable nanophotocatalyst, Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4/Zn0.95Ni0.05O (denoted as NZF@Z), with varying amount of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, has been synthesized by egg albumen assisted sol gel technique. The structural, optical, magnetic, and photocatalytic properties have been studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) techniques. Powder XRD, TEM, FTIR and energy dispersive spectroscopic (EDS) analyses confirm coexistence of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and Zn0.95Ni0.05O phases in the catalyst. Crystallite sizes of Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 and Zn0.95Ni0.05O in pure phases and nanocomposites, estimated from Debye-Scherrer equation, are found to be around 15-25 nm. The estimated particle sizes from TEM and FESEM data are ∼(22 ± 6) nm. The calculated energy band gaps, obtained by Tauc relation from UV-Vis absorption spectra, of Zn0.95Ni0.05O, 15%NZF@Z, 40%NZF@Z and 60%NZF@Z are 2.95, 2.72, 2.64, and 2.54 eV respectively. Magnetic measurements (field (H) dependent magnetization (M)) show all samples to be super-paramagnetic in nature and saturation magnetizations (Ms) decrease with decreasing ferrite content in the nanocomposites. These novel nanocomposites show excellent photocatalytic activities on Rhodamin Dye.

  15. Safety evaluation of thaumatin (Talin protein).

    PubMed

    Higginbotham, J D; Snodin, D J; Eaton, K K; Daniel, J W

    1983-12-01

    Thaumatin, the sweet proteinaceous extract of the arils of Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benth.) has been studied for its subacute toxicity in rats and dogs and its ability to produce anaphylactic antibodies following oral administration to rats and normal human subjects. Thaumatin was readily digested prior to absorption in rats and no adverse effects resulted from its continuous administration to rats and dogs at dietary concentrations of 0, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0% for 13 wk. It was not teratogenic when administered orally to rats at 0, 200, 600 and 2000 mg/kg body weight/day from day 6 to 15 of gestation and was without effect on the incidence of dominant lethal mutations when administered on five consecutive days to male mice at 200 and 2000 mg/kg/day. The lack of mutagenic potential was confirmed in bacterial mutagenic assays with Salmonella typhimurium (strains TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98 and TA100) and Escherichia coli WP2, at levels of addition of 0.05-50 mg/plate. In rats, thaumatin was found to be a weak sensitizer, comparable with egg albumen, when administered systemically but to be inactive when administered orally. Prick testing of laboratory personnel who had been intermittently exposed by inhalation to thaumatin for periods up to 7 yr showed that 9.3% (13/140) responded positively to commercial thaumatin, while 30.7% were positive to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (house dust mite). None of the subjects who gave a positive skin reaction to commercial thaumatin responded to the plant components remaining after removal of the specific sweet Thaumatin proteins. Challenge tests in man did not demonstrate any oral sensitization. The results indicate that thaumatin when used as a flavour modifier and extender, and partial sweetener, is unlikely to be hazardous at the anticipated level of consumption.

  16. [Fatty liver syndrome in laying hens].

    PubMed

    Dimitrov, A; Antonov, S; Stoianov, P; Petrova, L; Aleksandrova, E

    1980-01-01

    Pathomorphological and biochemical investigations on liver and blood serum laying hens affected by the liver obesity syndrome were carried out. It was established that the mortality due to the liver obesity syndrome varies within the range of 3.1 and 3.7% for the entire period of exploitation. A rise in mortality is observed in case fodder mixtures with higher peroxide and aldehyde number are prepared. Besides the typical changes in the liver, the pathologo-anatomical investigation established varying in its expression duodenitis of rupture of the liver and hemorrhage. In hens suffering from advanced liver obesity an increased content of total protein in the blood serum was observed. The relative and absolute content of prealbumens and albumens was also higher, while the content of globulins was relatively lower. The content of beta-lipoproteins was raised and total lipids in the blood serum were considerably increased. The investigation on total lipids and lipid fractions in the liver established a correlation between the extent of obesity and the content of total lipids. A trend toward increasing the total and particularly the esterificated holesterin was evident in affected birds. The chemical investigation of various lots of fodder mixtures established often cases of rancid fats, which was manifested by high values of the peroxide and aldehyde number. The aminoacid composition of fodder also varied too much. It is assumed that besides the genetic control of liver obesity rancid fats and insufficient content of essential amino acids in the fodder mixtures also lead to an increased mortality percentage in the affected birds.

  17. Development in vitro of the neuromusculature of two strigeid trematodes, Apatemon cobitidis proterorhini and Cotylurus erraticus.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael T; Mousley, Angela; Koubková, Bozena; Sebelová, Sárka; Marks, Nikki J; Halton, David W

    2003-04-01

    Confocal microscopy interfaced with cytochemical procedures has been used to monitor development of the major muscle systems and associated serotoninergic (5-HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine) and peptidergic (FaRP, FMRFamide-related peptide) innervation of the strigeid trematodes, Apatemon cobitidis proterorhini and Cotylurus erraticus during cultivation in vitro. Sexually undifferentiated metacercariae were successfully grown to ovigerous adults using tissue culture medium NCTC 135, chicken serum and egg albumen. Eggs were produced after 5 days in culture but had abnormal shells and failed to embryonate. 5-HT and FaRP (the flatworm FaRP, GYIRFamide) were localised immunocytochemically in both central and peripheral nervous systems of developing worms. During cultivation, the central serotoninergic and FaRPergic neuronal pathways of the forebody became more extensive, but retained the same basic orthogonal arrangement as found in the excysted metacercaria. Longitudinal extensor and flexor muscles of the hindbody provide support for the developing reproductive complex. The male reproductive tracts were established in advance (day 3) of those of the female system (day 4); completion of the latter was marked by the appearance of the ootype/egg chamber. The inner longitudinal muscle fibres of the female tract appeared prior to the outer and more densely arranged circular muscles. Circular fibres dominate the muscle complement of both alimentary and reproductive tracts. 5-HT- and GYIRFamide-immunoreactivities were demonstrable in the central nervous system (CNS) and subtegumental parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) throughout the culture period, but innervation of the developing reproductive structures was reactive just for 5-HT. Only at the onset of egg production was FaRP-IR observed in the reproductive system and was expressed only in the innervation of the ootype, a finding consistent with the view that FaRPs may regulate egg assembly in platyhelminths.

  18. Chemical exchange rotation transfer imaging of intermediate-exchanging amines at 2 ppm.

    PubMed

    Zu, Zhongliang; Louie, Elizabeth A; Lin, Eugene C; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Does, Mark D; Gore, John C; Gochberg, Daniel F

    2017-10-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging of amine protons exchanging at intermediate rates and whose chemical shift is around 2 ppm may provide a means of mapping creatine. However, the quantification of this effect may be compromised by the influence of overlapping CEST signals from fast-exchanging amines and hydroxyls. We aimed to investigate the exchange rate filtering effect of a variation of CEST, named chemical exchange rotation transfer (CERT), as a means of isolating creatine contributions at around 2 ppm from other overlapping signals. Simulations were performed to study the filtering effects of CERT for the selection of transfer effects from protons of specific exchange rates. Control samples containing the main metabolites in brain, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and egg white albumen (EWA) at their physiological concentrations and pH were used to study the ability of CERT to isolate molecules with amines at 2 ppm that exchange at intermediate rates, and corresponding methods were used for in vivo rat brain imaging. Simulations showed that exchange rate filtering can be combined with conventional filtering based on chemical shift. Studies on samples showed that signal contributions from creatine can be separated from those of other metabolites using this combined filter, but contributions from protein amines may still be significant. This exchange filtering can also be used for in vivo imaging. CERT provides more specific quantification of amines at 2 ppm that exchange at intermediate rates compared with conventional CEST imaging. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. [Food contamination by pathogens of acute intestinal infections and survival of microorganisms in them under some variants of thermal processing and storage].

    PubMed

    Sergevnin, V I

    2013-01-01

    The contamination of the surface of vegetables and fruits with conditionally pathogenic enterobacteria, intestinal protozoa and enteric viruses has been revealed. The experiment showed an opportunity of penetration of enteric viruses inside of vegetables and fruits with intact (without visible damages) surface. S. enteritidis survive on the shells of the eggs 4 months in the refrigerator, in the albumen and yolk--more than 5 months and in the long storage (more than one month) of chicken eggs in the refrigerator S. enteritidis could penetrate into the egg through the intact shell and multiply in the yolk. It was shown in the experiment on the condition laying of chicken eggs of room temperature in cold water and their subsequent cooking S. enteritidis full destruction of pathogens comes on the 5 minute of heat processing, when the temperature inside the eggs reaches more than 80 degrees C. In mayonnaise at the temperature of the refrigerator S. enteritidis reproduce, but remain viable for 13 days. In the egg powder at the room temperature noted smooth death of S. enteritidis, term viability of microorganisms is 5 months. Addition 10% acetic acid to egg powder in the ratio 1:2 provides for the death of S. enteritidis for a minute. In experimental conditions was established that the processing of chicken on the grill in the process of cooking "Shaverma" provides exemption meat from Salmonella only in the thickness of a piece of up to 2 centimeters. The deeper layers of meat and meat juice which accumulates on the pallet grill, throughout the duration of thermal processing may remain contaminated Salmonella.

  20. Dietary Protein Sources Affect Internal Quality of Raw and Cooked Shell Eggs under Refrigerated Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X. C.; Zhang, H. J.; Wu, S. G.; Yue, H. Y.; Wang, J.; Li, J.; Qi, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; cottonseed protein, CSP; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on the internal quality of refrigerated eggs. A total of 360 laying hens (32 wk of age) were randomly allotted to six treatment groups (five replicates per treatment) and fed diets containing SBM, CSP, or DRM individually or in combination with equal crude protein content (SBM-CSP, SBM-DRM, and CSP-DRM) as the protein ingredient(s). A 6×3 factorial arrangement was employed with dietary types and storage time (0 d, 2 wk, and 4 wk) as the main effects. After 12 wk of diet feeding, a total of 270 eggs were collected for egg quality determination. The egg Haugh unit (HU) in the CSP, SBM-DRM, and DRM groups were significantly lower than those in the SBM and SBM-CSP groups. The hardness and springiness of the cooked yolk in the CSP group were significantly higher than those in the other treatment groups. A lower HU, lower yolk index and higher albumen pH were observed in the DRM group compared to the SBM and SBM-CSP groups when the eggs were stored to 4 wk, and the HU was improved in the CSP-DRM group compared to the DRM group (p<0.05). Higher yolk hardness was observed in the CSP group compared to the other groups during storage (p<0.05), but the hardness of the cooked yolk in the SBM-CSP and CSP-DRM groups showed no difference in comparison to the SBM group. In conclusion, CSP may ameliorate the negative effects of DRM on the HU of refrigerated eggs, and SBM or DRM may alleviate the adverse effects of CSP on yolk hardness. PMID:26580286

  1. Toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs when dissolved in water versus corn oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil was compared among 26 species of birds. Corn oil is not soluble in the water-based matrix that constitutes the albumen of an egg. To determine whether the use of corn oil limited the usefulness of this earlier study, a comparison was made of the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil versus water. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs were injected with methylmercury chloride dissolved in corn oil or water to achieve concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6??g/g mercury in the egg on a wet weight basis. Hatching success at each dose of mercury was compared between the two solvents. For mallards, 16.4% of the eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in water hatched, which was statistically lower than the 37.6% hatch rate of eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in corn oil, but no differences in hatching success were observed between corn oil and water at any of the other doses. With chicken eggs, no significant differences occurred in percentage hatch of eggs between corn oil and water at any of the mercury doses. Methylmercury dissolved in corn oil seems to have a toxicity to avian embryos similar to that of does methylmercury dissolved in water. Consequently, the results from the earlier study that described the toxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil to avian embryos were probably not compromised by the use of corn oil as a solvent. ?? 2011 SETAC.

  2. Effect of Ingredients on the Quality of Gluten-Free Sorghum Pasta.

    PubMed

    Palavecino, Pablo Martín; Bustos, Mariela Cecilia; Heinzmann Alabí, María Belén; Nicolazzi, Melani Solange; Penci, María Cecilia; Ribotta, Pablo Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Sorghum is an underutilized cereal in human food production, despite its flour being a potential gluten-free (GF) source in the development of several foods. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effects and interactions of different ingredients on cooking quality and texture of GF pasta. Egg albumen (A), egg powder (E), xanthan gum (X), and pregelatinized corn starch (P) were used as ingredients, and Box-Behnken experimental design was applied to study the effects of these ingredients on pasta cooking behavior, color, and texture attributes. Responses were fitted to a second order polynomial equation, and multivariable optimization was performed using maximization of general desirability. Next, optimal formulations were validated, compared with two commercial gluten-free pastas by sensory evaluation, and finally, an industrial assay was carried out. Regression coefficients indicated that A and P improved cooking properties while A and E contributed the most to improving the pasta textural properties. As, X and P effects varied depending on the kind of sorghum flour used, the optimal formulations levels were different, but in both cases these models were satisfactory and capable of predicting responses. The industrial assay was carried out with white sorghum flour because it showed a higher acceptability in the sensory evaluation than brown sorghum flour pasta. This industrially made pasta resulted in slightly better cooking properties than the laboratory produced one, with the formulation adapting well to the conventional wheat pasta industrial process. Gluten-free sorghum pasta was produced, showing good cooking and textural properties and being a suitable option for gluten-sensitive individuals. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  3. A nonlethal microsampling technique to monitor the effects of mercury on wild bird eggs.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, Katherine R; Klimstra, Jon D; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Ackerman, Joshua T; Heinz, Gary H

    2009-03-01

    Methylmercury is the predominant chemical form of mercury reported in the eggs of wild birds, and the embryo is the most sensitive life stage to methylmercury toxicity. Protective guidelines have been based mainly on captive-breeding studies with chickens (Gallus gallus), mallards (Anas platyrhynchos), and ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus) or on field studies where whole eggs were collected and analyzed and the effects of the mercury were measured based on the reproductive success of the remaining eggs. However, both of these methods have limitations. As an alternative, we developed a technique that involves extracting a small sample of albumen from a live egg, sealing the egg, returning the egg to its nest to be naturally incubated by the parents, and then relating the hatching success of this microsampled egg to its mercury concentration. After first developing this technique in the laboratory using chicken and mallard eggs, we selected the laughing gull (Larus atricilla) and black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) as test subjects in the field. We found that 92% of the microsampled laughing gull eggs met our reproductive endpoint of survival to the beginning of hatching compared to 100% for the paired control eggs within the same nests. Microsampled black-necked stilt eggs exhibited 100% hatching success compared to 93% for the paired control eggs. Our results indicate that microsampling is an effective tool for nonlethally sampling mercury concentrations in eggs and, as such, can be used for monitoring sensitive species, as well as for improving studies that examine the effects of mercury on avian reproduction.

  4. Effect of thermal stress on fertility and egg quality of Japanese quail.

    PubMed

    El-Tarabany, Mahmoud S

    2016-10-01

    Heat stress is one of the major causes of a decreased performance of laying quail in tropical and subtropical countries. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature humidity index (THI) on fertility aspects, external and internal egg quality parameters in Japanese quail. One hundred and forty four (144) Japanese quail, 12 of weeks age, were used. Birds were divided randomly into three equal groups, control (at low THI, lower than 70), H1 (at moderate THI, 70-75) and H2 (at high THI, 76-80). Quail in the control and H1 groups had significant greater fertility (p=0.021) and hatchability % (p=0.037), compared with H2 group. Quail in the control group (at low THI) laid heavier egg weight with a higher external (egg weight (p=0.03), shell thickness, shell weight, eggshell ratio and eggshell density (p=0.001)) and internal egg quality score (albumin weight (p=0.026), yolk height (p=0.003), yolk index (p=0.039) and Haugh unit (p=0.001)). Otherwise, such quality traits were compromised in heat-stressed quail. At the high THI level, egg weight had a significant positive correlation with albumin weight (r=0.58, p<0.01), yolk weight (r=0.22, p<0.05), albumen ratio (r=0.17, p<0.05), yolk height (r=0.14, p<0.05) and yolk index (r=0.18, p<0.05), but was negatively correlated with yolk ratio (r=-0.15, p<0.05). Japanese quail exposed to heat stress (THI over 75) revealed drop in fertility indices and egg quality traits, indicating a detrimental policy of economic income. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. King eiders use an income strategy for egg production: a case study for incorporating individual dietary variation into nutrient allocation research.

    PubMed

    Oppel, Steffen; Powell, Abby N; O'Brien, Diane M

    2010-09-01

    The use of stored nutrients for reproduction represents an important component of life-history variation. Recent studies from several species have used stable isotopes to estimate the reliance on stored body reserves in reproduction. Such approaches rely on population-level dietary endpoints to characterize stored reserves ("capital") and current diet ("income"). Individual variation in diet choice has so far not been incorporated in such approaches, but is crucial for assessing variation in nutrient allocation strategies. We investigated nutrient allocation to egg production in a large-bodied sea duck in northern Alaska, the king eider (Somateria spectabilis). We first used Bayesian isotopic mixing models to quantify at the population level the amount of endogenous carbon and nitrogen invested into egg proteins based on carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios. We then defined the isotopic signature of the current diet of every nesting female based on isotope ratios of eggshell membranes, because diets varied isotopically among individual king eiders on breeding grounds. We used these individual-based dietary isotope signals to characterize nutrient allocation for each female in the study population. At the population level, the Bayesian and the individual-based approaches yielded identical results, and showed that king eiders used an income strategy for the synthesis of egg proteins. The majority of the carbon and nitrogen in albumen (C: 86 +/- 18%, N: 99 +/- 1%) and the nitrogen in lipid-free yolk (90 +/- 15%) were derived from food consumed on breeding grounds. Carbon in lipid-free yolk derived evenly from endogenous sources and current diet (exogenous C: 54 +/- 24%), but source contribution was highly variable among individual females. These results suggest that even large-bodied birds traditionally viewed as capital breeders use exogenous nutrients for reproduction. We recommend that investigations of nutrient allocation should incorporate individual variation into

  6. Phosphate flame retardants and novel brominated flame retardants in home-produced eggs from an e-waste recycling region in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaobo; Xu, Fuchao; Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    Phosphate flame retardants (PFRs) and novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs) (2-ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-benzoate (EH-TBB) and bis-(2-ethylhexyl)-3,4,5,6-tetrabromo-phthalate (BEH-TEBP)) were measured in free-range chicken eggs from three e-waste recycling sites and a negative control site located in Guangdong province, Southern China. BEH-TEBP, tris-(chloroethyl)-phosphate (TCEP), tris-(chloropropyl)-phosphate (∑TCPP, two isomers) and tris-(1,3-dichloroisopropyl)-phosphate (TDCIPP) were detected in more than 50% of eggs samples with low concentrations. The median values of BEH-TEBP and total PFRs were 0.17-0.46 ng/g ww (wet weight) and 1.62-2.59 ng/g ww in eggs from the e-waste sites, respectively. The results indicate that EH-TBB, BEH-TEBP and PFRs are less persistent and bioaccumulative than polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in chicken eggs, and possibly also in other bio-matrices. Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) were identified in albumen with higher frequencies, but at similar concentrations compared to yolk, while BEH-TEBP was mainly detected in yolk. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of BEH-TEBP and total PFRs from consumption of chicken eggs ranged from 0.03 to 0.09 and 0.32-0.52 ng/kg bw/day for adults, and 0.20-0.54 and 1.89-3.02 ng/kg bw/day for children in e-waste sites, respectively. Indoor dust ingestion seems to be a more important pathway for the intake of these FRs, while egg consumption is probably a more important exposure pathway for PBDEs.

  7. Residues of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its metabolite de-epoxy-DON in eggs, plasma and bile of laying hens of different genetic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Ebrahem, Mohammad; Kersten, Susanne; Valenta, Hana; Breves, Gerhard; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the potential for carry-over of deoxynivalenol (DON) into eggs and DON residues in plasma and bile of laying hens of different genetic backgrounds after long-term feeding trial was investigated. A total of 80, 23-week-old laying hens were assigned to a feeding trial with two diets, a control diet and a Fusarium toxin-contaminated diet (FUS) (0.4 and 9.9 mg DON kg(-1), respectively). In the 60th week of hen's life, 10 eggs from each group were collected. In the 70th week of hen's life, all hens were slaughtered and samples of blood and bile were collected. The samples were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for DON and de-epoxy-DON. DON was only detected in samples of hens which fed the FUS diet while none of the samples analysed had detectable levels of de-epoxy-DON. In plasma and bile samples, DON levels ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 ng ml(-1) and from 1.8 to 4.1 ng ml(-1), respectively. DON levels in egg yolk and albumen ranged between 0.0-0.46 ng g(-1) and 0.0-0.35 ng g(-1), respectively, corresponding to carry-over rates of DON into eggs from 0.0 to 0.000016. Moreover, no differences in DON levels or carry-over rates were noticed between the two tested breeds. These results show that very low levels of DON were transferred into eggs and indicate that although eggs could contribute to human exposure to DON, the levels are very low and insignificant.

  8. Effects of arsenic supplementation in feed on laying performance, arsenic retention of eggs and organs, biochemical indices and endocrine hormones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X Y; Zhou, M Y; Li, L L; Jiang, Y J; Zou, X T

    2017-02-01

    1. The primary objective of this experiment was to estimate the toxic effects of arsenic (As) supplementation in feed on laying performance, As retention by eggs and organs, serum biochemical indices and endocrine hormones in laying hens. 2. A total of 320 "Jinghong Number 1" hens, 56-week-old, were randomly allocated into four treatments of four replicates with 20 layers in each. Graded arsenical was added to the basal diet in the experimental diets at As levels of 0, 17, 34 and 51 mg/kg, respectively. The trial lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week for acclimatisation. 3. Supplementation of dietary As for eight weeks had no effect on laying performance. As retention in albumen, yolk, egg, liver and kidney increased as As levels increased The level of serum phosphorus (P) was minimised at the 17 mg As/kg group. The activity of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) increased linearly. No differences were observed for levels of serum calcium (Ca), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT). Concentrations of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (PG) declined at 34 and 51 mg/kg As levels compared with the control group. As supplementation exerted no influence on levels of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and the ratio between T3 and T4. 4. In conclusion, dietary As supplementation accelerated retention in tissues and eggs, and affected the laying rate by diminishing hormone levels of E2 and PG at 51 mg/kg.

  9. Effect of crude glycerin level in the diet of laying hens on egg performance and nutrient utilization.

    PubMed

    Swiatkiewicz, S; Koreleski, J

    2009-03-01

    An experiment was conducted with 72 Bovans Brown laying hens to determine the effect of dietary crude glycerin on laying performance; egg quality; retention of N, Ca, and P; and metabolizability of energy. The dietary treatments consisted of a control corn-soybean diet containing 6% corn starch (17% CP, 2,775 kcal/kg of AME(n), 0.81% lysine, 0.36% methionine, 3.60% Ca, and 0.37% available P) and 3 experimental diets. In the experimental diets, 2, 4, or 6% crude glycerin (a coproduct of commercial biodiesel production from rapeseed) was substituted for corn starch. During the experimental period (28 to 53 wk of hen age), the dietary level of glycerin had no significant effects on performance indices [i.e., egg production (mean value of all 4 dietary treatments was 95.6%), egg weight (60.4 g), daily egg mass (57.8 g/hen), daily feed consumption (121 g/hen), and feed conversion (0.477 g of egg mass/g of feed consumed)]. No significant treatment effects were found for egg quality parameters (albumen height, Haugh units, yolk color and thickness, density and breaking strength of eggshell), excretion and retention of N, Ca and P, or metabolizability of energy. Linear regression analysis revealed that the AME(n) value of crude glycerol was 3,970 kcal/kg (as-is basis). The results of this study demonstrated that crude glycerin may be incorporated to a level of 6% in the diet of laying hens without any detrimental effect on egg performance, egg quality, nutrient retention, and metabolizability of energy.

  10. Measurement of the Acoustic Nonlinearity Parameter for Biological Media.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobb, Wesley Nelson

    In vitro measurements of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter are presented for several biological media. With these measurements it is possible to predict the distortion of a finite amplitude wave in biological tissues of current diagnostic and research interest. The measurement method is based on the finite amplitude distortion of a sine wave that is emmitted by a piston source. The growth of the second harmonic component of this wave is measured by a piston receiver which is coaxial with and has the same size as the source. The experimental measurements and theory are compared in order to determine the nonlinearity parameter. The density, sound speed, and attenuation for the medium are determined in order to make this comparison. The theory developed for this study accounts for the influence of both diffraction and attenuation on the experimental measurements. The effects of dispersion, tissue inhomogeneity and gas bubbles within the excised tissues are studied. To test the measurement method, experimental results are compared with established values for the nonlinearity parameter of distilled water, ethylene glycol and glycerol. The agreement between these values suggests that the measurement uncertainty is (+OR-) 5% for liquids and (+OR-) 10% for solid tissues. Measurements are presented for dog blood and bovine serum albumen as a function of concentration. The nonlinearity parameters for liver, kidney and spleen are reported for both human and canine tissues. The values for the fresh tissues displayed little variation (6.8 to 7.8). Measurements for fixed, normal and cirrhotic tissues indicated that the nonlinearity parameter does not depend strongly on pathology. However, the values for fixed tissues were somewhat higher than those of the fresh tissues.

  11. Effects of dietary rosemary and oregano volatile oil mixture on quail performance, egg traits and egg oxidative stability.

    PubMed

    Yesilbag, D; Gezen, S S; Biricik, H; Meral, Y

    2013-01-01

    1. This study was conducted to determine the effects of volatile oil mixture on quail laying performance, egg traits and egg malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. 2. A total of 260 Pharaoh quails (Coturnix coturnix Pharaoh) aged 6 weeks were equally divided into 5 groups of 65 (4 replicates of 13 quails each). The mixture of diets was as follows: a control treatment with 0 mg volatile oil/kg of diet; (1) 200 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil; (2) 200 mg/kg oregano volatile oil; (3) 40 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil plus 160 mg/kg oregano volatile oil (ratio 20:80) and (4) 160 mg/kg rosemary volatile oil plus 40 mg/kg oregano volatile oil (ratio 80:20). The diets were prepared fresh for each treatment. The experimental period lasted 10 weeks. 3. At the end of the experiment, there were no significant differences amongst the groups in body weight, egg weight, egg mass, egg shape index, Haugh unit, egg shell thickness or egg shell-breaking strength. 4. Diets containing rosemary volatile oil increased the egg production significantly. Feed intake significantly increased in the groups containing volatile oil mixture (groups 4 and 5). The inclusion of rosemary volatile oil at 200 mg/kg improved feed efficiency. 5. Egg albumen and egg yolk index values showed significant increases in the group given diets containing rosemary volatile oil. Egg yolk colour became darker with the addition of rosemary and oregano volatile oil. The treatment group had lower egg yolk MDA concentration than the control group. 6. It is concluded that, alone or in combination, rosemary and oregano volatile oil can be used in quail diets without adverse effects on the measured parameters. Inclusion of rosemary and oregano volatile oil in quail diets enhanced the antioxidant status of eggs.

  12. Oxygen isotope fractionation between bird eggshell calcite and body water: application to fossil eggs from Lanzarote (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Lazzerini, Nicolas; Lécuyer, Christophe; Amiot, Romain; Angst, Delphine; Buffetaut, Eric; Fourel, François; Daux, Valérie; Betancort, Juan Francisco; Flandrois, Jean-Pierre; Marco, Antonio Sánchez; Lomoschitz, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    Oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of fossil bird eggshell calcite (δ(18)Ocalc and δ(13)Ccalc) are regularly used to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions. However, the interpretation of δ(18)Ocalc values of fossil eggshells has been limited to qualitative variations in local climatic conditions as oxygen isotope fractionations between calcite, body fluids, and drinking water have not been determined yet. For this purpose, eggshell, albumen water, and drinking water of extant birds have been analyzed for their oxygen and carbon isotope compositions. Relative enrichments in (18)O relative to (16)O between body fluids and drinking water of +1.6 ± 0.9 ‰ for semi-aquatic birds and of +4.4 ± 1.9 ‰ for terrestrial birds are observed. Surprisingly, no significant dependence to body temperature on the oxygen isotope fractionation between eggshell calcite and body fluids is observed, suggesting that bird eggshells precipitate out of equilibrium. Two empirical equations relating the δ(18)Ocalc value of eggshell calcite to the δ(18)Ow value of ingested water have been established for terrestrial and semi-aquatic birds. These equations have been applied to fossil eggshells from Lanzarote in order to infer the ecologies of the Pleistocene marine bird Puffinus sp. and of the enigmatic giant birds from the Pliocene. Both δ(13)Ccalc and δ(18)Ocalc values of Puffinus eggshells point to a semi-aquatic marine bird ingesting mostly seawater, whereas low δ(13)Ccalc and high δ(18)Ocalc values of eggshells from the Pliocene giant bird suggest a terrestrial lifestyle. This set of equations can help to quantitatively estimate the origin of waters ingested by extinct birds as well as to infer either local environmental or climatic conditions.

  13. Effect of dietary supplementation of Ligustrum lucidum on performance, egg quality and blood biochemical parameters of Hy-Line Brown hens during the late laying period.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; He, W L; Yang, M L; Yan, Y M; Xue, Y H; Zhao, S T

    2017-03-16

    The fruit of Ligustrum lucidum (FLL, Nuzhenzi in Chinese) is an important traditional medicine, and have attracted significant research attention because of their various biological activities. However, there are few research reports available on the use of FLL as a feed additive in livestock nutrition, particularly in layers. This study was conducted to determine the effects of supplementation of the diet of laying hens with FLL on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites. A total of 360 72-week-old hens were allocated to three dietary treatments (eight replications of 15 hens/treatment group) and were fed either a control diet or a diet supplemented with an inclusion level of 0.25% or 0.50% of FLL powder in the final feed, until 78 weeks of age. Hens were housed in a three-tier cage system. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. Blood samples and eggs were collected at the end of the experiment. The results showed that dietary supplementation with FLL did not affect egg weight, feed conversion ratio, eggshell thickness, albumen height, egg yolk color, eggshell breaking strength or egg shape index. However, FLL supplementation significantly decreased (P<0.001) mortality, cracked-egg rate and blood serum levels of cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and alanine aminotransferase, and increased (P<0.001) blood serum levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. No differences in serum levels of total protein, albumin, glucose, calcium, aspartate aminotransferase or alkaline phosphatase were observed in hens fed FLL compared with the control group. It can be concluded that FLL, at a supplementation level of 0.25% final feed, can be used as an effective feed additive to improve the performance of laying hens during the late laying period.

  14. Hepatoprotective Effect and Chemical Assessment of a Selected Egyptian Chickpea Cultivar

    PubMed Central

    Mekky, Reham H.; Fayed, Mostafa R.; El-Gindi, Mohamed R.; Abdel-Monem, Azza R.; Contreras, María del Mar; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Abdel-Sattar, Essam

    2016-01-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae. In Egypt, chickpea seeds are usually consumed at raw green and tender stage, or in the form of mature dry seeds. In our previous study, ‘Giza 1’ seeds exhibited stronger antioxidant activity and higher total phenol content than those from other Egyptian cultivars. In order to assess the biological potential of ‘Giza 1’ seeds in vivo, the extraction procedure was reproduced here. The extract was standardized using liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detector and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to evaluate their hepatoprotective effect on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatotoxicity in rats and acute toxicity. Administration of the extract to rats in doses up to 2 g/Kg) did not cause any mortalities or observable signs of toxicity. Further, the plant extract showed a strong hepatoprotective activity based on assessing serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase and levels of albumen, globulin, total protein, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and low density lipoprotein. The antioxidative activity was evaluated by assessing hepatic catalase and superoxide dismutase activity as well as reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde levels. Additionally, anti-inflammatory activity was observed as the extract significantly lowered the hepatic tumor necrosis factor α content. Histopathological examination of liver tissues indicated that the extract-treated animals showed almost normal hepatic architecture with fewer pathological changes. In conclusion, the current results suggest that the chickpea extract possesses an excellent safety profile with very low acute toxicity. Also, it exhibits a significant hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced liver injury in rats. This can be attributed, at least partly, to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of the isoflavones and phenolic acids content

  15. Egg Drop Syndrome-76 (EDS-76) in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica): an experimental study revealing pathology, effect on egg production/quality and immune responses.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Narayan; Kataria, Jag Mohan; Chakraborty, Sandip; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2014-06-01

    Egg Drop Syndrome-76 (EDS-76) is a recognized disease of chickens and Japanese Quails, which is of high economic importance due to its drastic negative effects on egg production in laying birds. The aim of the present study was to better understand the EDS-76 viral disease process in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica), since very limited studies have been conducted in this species of birds. For this purpose, an experimental study was conducted with infection of EDS-76 virus in laying Japanese quails to reveal pathology, effect on egg production/quality and immune responses of this virus in these birds. By 7, 9 and 13-15 Days Post Infection (DPI), drop as well as aberrant egg production and lower mean egg quality were observed compared to control birds. Significant histopathological changes were observed in genitalia and spleen. Haemagglutination Inhibition (HI) and Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) titres rose rapidly by 2nd week when it became maximum; thereafter declined and maintained at low levels up to 10 week post infection. The mean total protein values in infected quail gradually increased to 4.10±0.05/100 mL without any change in mean albumen value at 12 DPI. In conclusion, the course of the EDS-76 is significant not only in chickens but also in quails even though it occurs occasionally in quails. Explorative pathological, blood biochemical and immunological studies are suggested during EDS-76 viral disease course in quails. This would aid in formulating effective disease prevention and control measures for this economically important disease of poultry.

  16. Impact of cage stocking density on egg laying characteristics and related stress and immunity parameters of Japanese quails in subtropics.

    PubMed

    El-Tarabany, M S

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different cage stocking densities on egg production parameters, as well as related stress and immunity indices in Japanese quails under subtropical Egyptian conditions. Two hundred and sixteen birds of Japanese quail at 14th week of age were used in this experiment. The birds were divided randomly into three groups: 60, 72 and 84. Each group subdivided into 4 replicates, where the cages' floor spaces were 200 (S1 ), 167 (S2 ) and 143 (S3 ) cm(2) /bird, respectively. Birds housed at 200 cm(2) /bird (S1 ) had superior fertility (fertility % (p = 0.013) and hatchability % (p = 0.041)), egg production (egg weight (p = 0.034) and egg mass (p = 0.001)) and immunity parameters (higher geometric mean of antibody titres against Newcastle disease virus, p = 0.024). Furthermore, they had higher internal egg quality score: albumen height (p = 0.003), yolk height (p = 0.023), yolk index (p = 0.006) and Haugh unit (p = 0.035). Birds housed at 143 cm(2) /bird (S3 ) had the lowest total leucocytic count and lymphocyte % (p = 0.022), but the highest H/L ratio (p = 0.001). Corticosterone concentration was lower in S1 group (p = 0.031) than that in groups housed at higher densities. Japanese quail housed at high densities revealed drop in fertility, hatchability, production and immunity parameters, indicating a detrimental effects on both welfare and economic income. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. The cooling time of fertile chicken eggs at different stages of incubation.

    PubMed

    Mortola, Jacopo P; Gaonac'h-Lovejoy, Vanda

    2016-01-01

    We asked whether or not the thermal characteristics of fertile avian eggs changed throughout incubation. The cooling and warming times, expressed by the time constant τ of the egg temperature response to a rapid change in ambient temperature, were measured in fertile chicken eggs at early (E7), intermediate (E11) and late (E20) stages of embryonic development. Same measurements were conducted on eggs emptied of their content and refilled with water by various amounts. The results indicated that (1) the τ of a freshly laid egg was ~50 min; (2) τ decreased linearly with the drop in egg water volume; (3) the dry eggshell had almost no thermal resistance but its wet inner membrane contributed about one-third to the stability of egg temperature; (4) the egg constituents (yolk, albumen and embryonic tissues) and the chorioallantoic circulation had no measurable effect on τ; (5) the presence of an air pocket equivalent in volume to the air cell of fertile eggs reduced τ by about 3 min (E7), 5 min (E11) and 11 min (E20). Hence, in response to warming the egg τ at E20 was slightly shorter than at E7. In response to cooling, the egg τ at E20 was similar to, or longer than, E7 because embryonic thermogenesis (evaluated by measurements of oxygen consumption during cold) offset the reduction in τ introduced by the air cell. In conclusion, until the onset of thermogenesis the thermal behavior of a fertile egg is closely approximated by that of a water-filled egg with an air volume equivalent to the air cell. It is possible to estimate the cooling τ of avian eggs of different species from their weight and incubation time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of Cobb and Ross strains in embryo physiology and chick juvenile growth.

    PubMed

    Tona, K; Onagbesan, O M; Kamers, B; Everaert, N; Bruggeman, V; Decuypere, E

    2010-08-01

    Broiler performance is known to be related to embryonic developmental parameters. However, strain or genotype differences with regard to embryo physiological parameters and juvenile growth have received little attention. A total of 1,200 hatching eggs produced by Cobb and Ross broiler breeders of the same age were studied. At setting for incubation and between 66 and 130 h of incubation, egg resonant frequency (RF) was measured as an indicator of embryonic development. Also, eggs were weighed before setting and at d 18. From d 10 to 18 of incubation, remaining albumen was weighed. During the last days of incubation, hatching events such as internal pipping (IP), external pipping, and hatch were monitored every 2 h. Hatched chicks were recorded and weighed. At IP stage, gas partial pressures in the egg air chamber were measured. Hatched chicks were reared for 7 d and weighed. Results indicate that RF of Ross eggs were lower than those of Cobb eggs (P < 0.01) and starting time point of RF decrease occurred earlier in Cobb eggs than in Ross eggs. Relative egg weight loss up to 18 d of incubation was lower in Cobb than in Ross (P < 0.05). At IP, partial pressure of CO(2) was higher in Cobb than in Ross (P < 0.05) with shorter incubation duration in Cobb. Between 6 and 60 h posthatch, heat production was higher in Cobb than in Ross (P < 0.05). At 7 d posthatch, Cobb chicks were heavier than Ross chicks (P < 0.05). It is concluded that Cobb and Ross embryos-chicks have different growth trajectories leading in different patterns of growth resulting from differences in physiological parameters.

  19. The effect of fermented buckwheat on producing l-carnitine- and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-enriched designer eggs.

    PubMed

    Park, Namhyeon; Lee, Tae-Kyung; Nguyen, Thi Thanh Hanh; An, Eun-Bae; Kim, Nahyun M; You, Young-Hyun; Park, Tae-Sub; Kim, Doman

    2017-07-01

    The potential of fermented buckwheat as a feed additive was studied to increase l-carnitine and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in designer eggs. Buckwheat contains high levels of lysine, methionine and glutamate, which are precursors for the synthesis of l-carnitine and GABA. Rhizopus oligosporus was used for the fermentation of buckwheat to produce l-carnitine and GABA that exert positive effects such as enhanced metabolism, antioxidant activities, immunity and blood pressure control. A novel analytical method for simultaneously detecting l-carnitine and GABA was developed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC/MS/MS. The fermented buckwheat extract contained 4 and 34 times more l-carnitine and GABA respectively compared with normal buckwheat. Compared with the control, the fermented buckwheat extract-fed group showed enriched l-carnitine (13.6%) and GABA (8.4%) in the yolk, though only l-carnitine was significantly different (P < 0.05). Egg production (9.4%), albumen weight (2.1%) and shell weight (5.8%) were significantly increased (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in yolk weight, and total cholesterol (1.9%) and triglyceride (4.9%) in the yolk were lowered (P < 0.05). Fermented buckwheat as a feed additive has the potential to produce l-carnitine- and GABA-enriched designer eggs with enhanced nutrition and homeostasis. These designer eggs pose significant potential to be utilized in superfood production and supplement industries. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Stereo-electro-encephalography-Guided Radiofrequency Thermocoagulation: From In Vitro and In Vivo Data to Technical Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Bourdillon, Pierre; Isnard, Jean; Catenoix, Hélène; Montavont, Alexandra; Rheims, Sylvain; Ryvlin, Philippe; Ostrowsky-Coste, Karine; Mauguiere, François; Guénot, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Deep brain electrodes have been used for the past 10 years to produce bipolar stereo-electro-encephalography-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation (SEEG RF-TC). However, this technique is based on empiric knowledge. The aim of this study is 3-fold: 1) provide in vivo animal data concerning the effect of bipolar RF-TC on brain and its safety; 2) assess the parameters of this procedure (current delivery and dipole selection) that produce the most efficient lesion; and 3) provide technical guidelines. First we achieved in vivo RF-TC on rabbit brains with several conditions (power delivered and lesioning duration) and analyzed their influence on the lesion produced. Only a difference in terms of volume was found, and type of histologic lesions was similar whatever the settings were. We then performed multiple RF-TC in vitro on egg albumen, first with several parameters of radiofrequency and then with different dipole spatial selections. The end point was the size of the radiofrequency thermolesion produced. Using unfixed parameters of radiofrequency current delivery and increasing it until the power delivered by the generator collapsed produced significantly larger lesions (P = 0.008) than other conditions. Concerning the dipole selection, the use of contiguous contacts on electrodes led to lesions with a higher volume (P = 7.7 × 10(-13)) than those produced with noncontiguous ones. Besides the target selection in SEEG RF-TC, which is summarized on the basis of a literature review, we report the optimal parameters: Radiofrequency current must be increased until the power delivered collapses, and dipoles should be constituted by contiguous electrode contacts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Near infrared imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes in invasive urinary bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Adams, Larry G.; Niles, Jacqueline D.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Bonney, Patty L.; deGortari, Amalia E.; Frangioni, John V.

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 12,000 people are diagnosed with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (InvTCC) each year in the United States. Surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy) and regional lymph node dissection are considered frontline therapy. Cystectomy causes extensive acute morbidity, and 50% of patients with InvTCC have occult metastases at the time of diagnosis. Better staging procedures for InvTCC are greatly needed. This study was performed to evaluate an intra-operative near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) system (Frangioni laboratory) for identifying sentinel lymph nodes draining InvTCC. NIRF imaging was used to map lymph node drainage from specific quadrants of the urinary bladder in normal dogs and pigs, and to map lymph node drainage from naturally-occurring InvTCC in pet dogs where the disease closely mimics the human condition. Briefly, during surgery NIR fluorophores (human serum albumen-fluorophore complex, or quantum dots) were injected directly into the bladder wall, and fluorescence observed in lymphatics and regional nodes. Conditions studied to optimize the procedure including: type of fluorophore, depth of injection, volume of fluorophore injected, and degree of bladder distention at the time of injection. Optimal imaging occurred with very superficial injection of the fluorophore in the serosal surface of the moderately distended bladder. Considerable variability was noted from dog to dog in the pattern of lymph node drainage. NIR fluorescence was noted in lymph nodes with metastases in dogs with InvTCC. In conclusion, intra-operative NIRF imaging is a promising approach to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer.

  2. Influence of cottonseed meal on vanadium toxicity and /sup 48/vanadium distribution in body tissues of laying hens

    SciTech Connect

    Sell, J.L.; Davis, C.Y.; Scheideler, S.E.

    1986-01-01

    Hens of two commercial White Leghorn strains were fed diets representing a complete factorial arrangement of 0, 3, or 6 ppm vanadium (V) from dicalcium phosphate and 0 or 5% cottonseed meal (CSM). Test diets were fed for 4 consecutive weeks beginning when hens were 25, 40, 62, or 76 weeks old. After each 4-week treatment period, all hens were fed a diet containing no added V or CSM. Albumen quality (Haugh units) was determined on eggs produced on Days 6 and 7 of each week of feeding the test diets. Three ppm V caused a slight decrease in Haugh units, while 6 ppm V reduced Haugh unit score (HU) by 6 to 15 units when fed to hens 29, 44, or 80 weeks old. The relative influence of V on HU of eggs from 66-week-old hens was less pronounced. The inclusion of 5% CSM in the diet counteracted most of the adverse effects of V on egg quality, irrespective of strain of hens. Egg production and egg weight were not affected by V or CSM. In a second experiment, hens fed diets containing no V + no CSM, 6 ppm V + no CSM, no V + 5% CSM, or 6 ppm V + 5% CSM were given 110 microCi of /sup 48/V by oral capsule. Greatest concentrations of /sup 48/V were found in bone, kidney, liver, and magnum. Little /sup 48/V was detected in whites, and none was found in yolks of eggs produced 2 days after /sup 48/V dose.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and membrane-stabilizing stigmastane steroids from Alchornea floribunda leaves.

    PubMed

    Okoye, Festus B C; Osadebe, Patience O; Proksch, Peter; Edrada-Ebel, Ru Angelie; Nworu, Chukwuemeka S; Esimone, Charles O

    2010-02-01

    Alchornea floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) leaves are widely used in African ethnomedicine for the management of acute and chronic inflammatory disorders. In the present study, bioactivity-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two known (1 and 3) and one new (2) stigmastane steroids from the hexane extract of Alchor