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Sample records for albumin creatinine ratio

  1. Urine albumin to creatinine ratio: A marker of early endothelial dysfunction in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) is a useful predictor of cardiovascular (CV) events in adults. Its relationship to vascular function in children is not clear. We investigated whether UACR was related to insulin resistance and endothelial function, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis...

  2. Significance of normal range urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in Chinese subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jing; Zhang, Jin-ping; Xie, Ling-ting; He, Yi-fan; Lv, Yan-yu; Jiang, Hong; Xing, Xiao-Yan

    2015-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate clinical features of Chinese metabolic syndrome (MS) subjects with normal urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) and to estimate independent correlation factor for UACR. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional survey in participants having MS. The patients with different grade of albuminuria were divided into 4 groups according to the value of UACR (<10, 10-20, 21-30, >30 mg/g). All underwent biochemical tests. Bioelectrical impedance body fat content, islet β-cell function and insulin sensitivity were measured. Multivariable linear regression models were applied to further determine association between UACR and clinical factors with adjustment. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), TG, fat mass, fat content and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were significantly higher in the group with UACR at 10-20 mg/g than those in the group with UACA lower than 10 mg/g (P<0.05). Multivariable linear regression showed that TG, HbA1c, waist-hip ratio (WHR) and SBP were independently associated with UACR. The patients with normal UACR had abnormal levels of MS components. The factors independently associated with UACR were TG, HbA1c, WHR and SBP. PMID:26670437

  3. Association between Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio within the Normal Range and Incident Hypertension in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Dhananjay; Kang, Dae Ryong; Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Jang-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There have been few studies on gender difference in the impact of a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) within the normal range on the risk of hypertension. We evaluated whether the association between the UACR below the microalbuminuria range and the incident risk of hypertension is different between men and women. Materials and Methods A total of 1173 individuals (442 men and 731 women) aged 40 to 70 years without hypertension was examined at baseline (2005–2008) and followed (2008–2011). We defined the UACR as the amount of albumin (mg/dL) divided by creatinine (g/dL) in randomly voided urine. The subjects were classified according to UACR tertile. Results During an average of 2.6 years of follow-up, 57 men (12.9%) and 66 women (9.0%) developed hypertension. In multivariable-adjusted models, the odds ratio for new-onset hypertension comparing the highest and lowest tertiles of UACR was 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85–3.94] in men and 2.69 (95% CI 1.27–5.73) in women. In stratified analyses by menopausal status, higher tertiles of UACR were associated with an increased risk of incident hypertension in postmenopausal women. Conclusion Higher normal UACR levels were associated with an increased risk of incident hypertension in women. The UACR could have a clinical role in predicting the development of hypertension. PMID:27593874

  4. Spot urinary albumin-creatinine ratio predicts left ventricular hypertrophy in young hypertensive African-American men.

    PubMed

    Post, W S; Blumenthal, R S; Weiss, J L; Levine, D M; Thiemann, D R; Gerstenblith, G; Hill, M N

    2000-11-01

    Hypertensive patients with target organ damage are at increased cardiovascular risk, and should be treated most aggressively. The association between urinary albumin excretion and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in prior studies is inconsistent, and has not been described using a single, random spot urine specimen. Therefore, we evaluated the association between the urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) and left ventricular (LV) mass and also tested the hypothesis that a simple random, single-void urine ACR would identify high risk young, hypertensive, African-American men. We measured echocardiographic LV mass and a random spot urinary ACR in 109 untreated, hypertensive, young, inner city, African-American men. The mean age was 41 +/- 6 years and the mean blood pressure (BP) was 157 +/- 19/107 +/- 13 mm Hg. Microalbuminuria (ACR 30 to 300 mg/g) was present in 22% of subjects. The ACR is higher in the men with LVH than in the men without LVH (P < .05). Increased ACR is a predictor of increased LV mass index (P < .003) using multiple linear regression. An ACR >30 mg/g has a sensitivity of 33% and a specificity of 82% for the diagnosis of echocardiographic LVH. In conclusion, elevated random spot ACR is a marker of increased LV mass, independent of BP, in young urban African-American men with hypertension, and may help to determine the aggressiveness of antihypertensive therapy in this high-risk group.

  5. The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio is a reliable indicator for evaluating complications of chronic kidney disease and progression in IgA nephropathy in China

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Lu; Yuezhong, Luo; Chao, Wang; HaiTao, Tu

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the correlation between the albumin-to-creatinine ratio in the urine and 24-hour urine proteinuria and whether the ratio can predict chronic kidney disease progression even more reliably than 24-hour proteinuria can, particularly in primary IgA nephropathy. METHODS: A total of 182 patients with primary IgA nephropathy were evaluated. Their mean urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour proteinuria were determined during hospitalization. Blood samples were also analyzed. Follow-up data were recorded for 44 patients. A cross-sectional study was then conducted to test the correlation between these parameters and their associations with chronic kidney disease complications. Subsequently, a canonical correlation analysis was employed to assess the correlation between baseline proteinuria and parameters of the Oxford classification. Finally, a prospective observational study was performed to evaluate the association between proteinuria and clinical outcomes. Our study is registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, and the registration number is ChiCTR-OCH-14005137. RESULTS: A strong correlation (r=0.81, p<0.001) was found between the ratio and 24-hour proteinuria except in chronic kidney disease stage 5. First-morning urine albumin-to-creatinine ratios of ≥125.15, 154.44 and 760.31 mg/g reliably predicted equivalent 24-hour proteinuria ‘thresholds’ of ≥0.15, 0.3 and 1.0 g/24 h, respectively. In continuous analyses, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio was significantly associated with anemia, acidosis, hypoalbuminemia, hyperphosphatemia, hyperkalemia, hypercholesterolemia and higher serum cystatin C. However, higher 24-hour proteinuria was only associated with hypoalbuminemia and hypercholesterolemia. Higher tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis scores were also associated with a greater albumin-to-creatinine ratio, as observed in the canonical correlation analysis. Finally, the albumin-to-creatinine ratio and 24-hour

  6. Influence of random urine albumin-creatinine ratio of pregnant women with hypertension during the gestation period on perinatal outcome

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qian; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Ronghui; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Jingying; Wang, Lijuan; Guo, Yuanying

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the random urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) of pregnant women with hypertension during the gestation period on perinatal outcome. A total of 6,758 pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension and proteinuria were randomly selected between September, 2009 and June, 2015 for the study. Kidney function, blood pressure, history of gravidity and parity, embryo number and the birth weight of the participants was determined. Logistic regression and paired data correlation analyses were carried out with kidney function, blood pressure, history of gravidity and parity, embryo number, birth weight, maternal age, labor presentation and other risk factors as the independent variables and the newborn APGAR score as the dependent variable. The results showed that random urine ACR was increased and negatively correlated with the APGAR score (OR=−0.095, P=0.017). In conclusion, the increased random urine ACR can influence the postpartum outcome. Early intervention of women of childbearing age in early pregnancy or before pregnancy can minimize the adverse complications of infants and mothers such as pregnancy hypertension syndrome, and improve the outcome of the pregnancy. PMID:27703509

  7. The Association between Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio and Osteoporosis in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ye Yeon; Kim, Han Byul; Lee, Jong Won; Lee, Gyu Min; Kim, Sang Yoon; Hur, Ji An

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a progressive bone disease that is characterized by a decrease in bone mass density and destruction of microstructure, which can lead to an increased risk of fracture. Although many studies have been published about the relationship between end-stage renal disease and osteoporosis, research on the relationship between proteinuria and the prevalence of osteoporosis is still lacking. Methods We assessed 91 postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes who visited our hospital from January 2009 to January 2012. Results Among 91 patients, the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia was 35.2% (32 cases) and 32.9% (30 cases) according to bone mineral density. The patients with microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria (urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio [UACR] ≥ 30) had a significantly higher incidence of osteoporosis compared to subjects with normoalbuminuria (P<0.05). Conclusions This study indicates that UACR may be a useful biomarker for increased risk of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes who have been linked to higher UACR levels. PMID:26981514

  8. Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio Associated With Hearing Impairment Among Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yunji; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, June; Lee, Joo Kyung; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Nam, Ga-Eun; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Chung-Woo; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) with hearing impairment among diabetic adults in Korea. The study was based on data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2012. Participants were 1206 diabetic adults, aged over 19 years, who completed audiometric testing supervised by nationally certified clinicians. Hearing impairment was defined in three grades: no hearing impairment (pure-tone average 0–25 dB), slight hearing impairment (26–40 dB), and disabling hearing impairment (>40 dB) in the better ear at frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Using logistic regression, risk of hearing impairment was assessed after having controlled for confounding factors. Higher levels of ACR and lower levels of eGFR correlated with an increase in percentage of disabling hearing impairment both unilaterally and bilaterally (P < 0.001). Controlling for possible confounding covariates, odds ratios for hearing impairment showed tendency to increase in higher ACR groups (P for trend = 0.029). Similar pattern was examined between eGFR and hearing impairment (P for trend = 0.006). Odds ratios were 1.981 (1.146, 3.424) for ACR Q4 and 2.773 (1.286, 5.983) for eGFR < 60 mL/min. Fall in eGFR and rise in ACR correlated with severity of hearing impairment. The association existed independently of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, exercise, new onset of diabetes, education, income, mental stress, noise exposure, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:27124027

  9. The relationship of nitric oxide synthesis capacity, oxidative stress, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio in black and white men: the SABPA study.

    PubMed

    Mels, Catharina M C; Huisman, Hugo W; Smith, Wayne; Schutte, Rudolph; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Atzler, Dorothee; Böger, Rainer H; Ware, Lisa J; Schutte, Aletta E

    2016-02-01

    Inadequate substrate availability and increased nitric oxide synthase inhibitor levels attenuate nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, whereas increased vascular oxidative stress may lead to inactivation of NO. We compared markers of NO synthesis capacity and oxidative stress in a bi-ethnic male population. Inter-relationships of ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio with NO synthesis capacity and oxidative stress markers were investigated. NO synthesis capacity markers (L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA)) and oxidative stress markers (serum peroxides, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase) were measured. Black men displayed higher blood pressure and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (all p < 0.001), while NO synthesis capacity was more favorable (higher L-arginine and lower ADMA (p ≤ 0.003)). Antioxidant enzyme activities were similar except for the redox status markers (GR activity and GR/GPx ratio), which were upregulated in black men (p < 0.001). In black men, ADMA was inversely related to GPx activity (R (2) = 0.15; β = -0.20; p = 0.050) and GPx/SOD ratio (R (2) = 0.24; β = -0.37; p < 0.001), but none of these markers related to blood pressure or albumin-to-creatinine ratio. In white men, albumin-to-creatinine ratio was positively associated with ADMA (R (2) = 0.18; β = 0.39; p < 0.001) while ADMA was inversely related to GR activity (R (2) = 0.26; β = -0.29; p = 0.002) and GR/GPx ratio (R (2) = 0.25; β = -0.28; p = 0.003). Black men with elevated blood pressure and albumin-to-creatinine ratio displayed a favorable NO synthesis capacity. This may be counteracted by increased inactivation of NO, although it was not linked to vascular or renal phenotypes. In white men, reduced NO synthesis capacity may lower NO bio-availability, thereby influencing the albumin-to-creatinine

  10. Urinary Total Hydroxyproline: Creatinine Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, B. A.; Gough, G.; Williams, Angela; Kitts, Sheila; Pennock, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    The total hydroxyproline: creatinine ratio has been determined in random samples of urine collected from 1577 normal Bristol children and from children with hypothyroidism, growth hormone deficiency, coeliac disease, and rickets. The results in normal children had a profile similar to that of length velocity. When specific therapy was given to the children with growth failure there was a prompt increase in the total hydroxyproline: creatinine ratio, which occurred well before a growth spurt could be detected by anthropometry. The ratio could be a useful chemical adjunct to anthropometry and radiology in the assessment of normal and abnormal growth. The prompt response of the ratio to changes in growth rate suggests that it may be particularly useful in studying physiological variation in growth over short periods of time and in close monitoring of treatment regimens for growth failure. Random samples of urine may be used, automated methods of analysis are available, and other specialities find the investigation a useful one, so that for the paediatrician the urine total hydroxyproline: creatinine ratio has a potentially wide application. PMID:5018659

  11. Cumulative Systolic BP and Changes in Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratios in Nondiabetic Participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zemaitis, Paul; Liu, Kiang; Jacobs, David R.; Cushman, Mary; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Shoham, David; Palmas, Walter; Cooper, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Cumulative exposure to elevated systolic BP (cumSBP) may affect progression of urine albumin excretion in the absence of diabetes. The objective of this study was to examine the association between cumSBP exposure and progression of spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in a multi-ethnic cohort of adults without diabetes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The analysis included 3789 participants without severely increased urine albumin excretion or diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a cohort of 6814 adults aged 45–84 years. UACR was measured at baseline and approximately 1.6, 3.1, and 9.4 years after the baseline examination. cumSBP was calculated as the summed average systolic BP (SBP; mmHg) between two consecutive examinations multiplied by the time between the two examinations (mmHg×year) and categorized as ≤1128 (SBP<120 mmHg), 1129–1222 (SBP≥120–129 mmHg), 1223–1316 (SBP≥130–130 mmHg), and >1316 (SBP≥140 mmHg). Baseline UACR was categorized as normal, mildly increased, or moderately increased, and definite progression of UACR was defined as a persistently higher UACR category at subsequent examinations. No UACR progression was defined as remaining in the same UACR category across all examinations or regressing. Results In fully adjusted models, compared with cumSBP≤1128 mmHg, cumSBP 1223–1316 and >1316 mmHg was associated with a 85% and 130% significantly higher odds of definite UACR progression (95% confidence interval, 24% to 178% and 56% to 243%, respectively) versus no UACR progression. Every 100-mmHg higher level of cumSBP was associated with a 1.23-fold higher odds of definite UACR progression (95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.34) versus no UACR progression. Conclusion Exposure to higher cumSBP was associated with increased UACR progression among adults without diabetes. PMID:25200476

  12. Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio Associated With Hearing Impairment Among Korean Adults With Diabetes: A Nationwide Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yunji; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, June; Lee, Joo Kyung; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Nam, Ga-Eun; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Chung-Woo; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) with hearing impairment among diabetic adults in Korea. The study was based on data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2012. Participants were 1206 diabetic adults, aged over 19 years, who completed audiometric testing supervised by nationally certified clinicians. Hearing impairment was defined in three grades: no hearing impairment (pure-tone average 0-25 dB), slight hearing impairment (26-40 dB), and disabling hearing impairment (>40 dB) in the better ear at frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Using logistic regression, risk of hearing impairment was assessed after having controlled for confounding factors. Higher levels of ACR and lower levels of eGFR correlated with an increase in percentage of disabling hearing impairment both unilaterally and bilaterally (P < 0.001). Controlling for possible confounding covariates, odds ratios for hearing impairment showed tendency to increase in higher ACR groups (P for trend = 0.029). Similar pattern was examined between eGFR and hearing impairment (P for trend = 0.006). Odds ratios were 1.981 (1.146, 3.424) for ACR Q4 and 2.773 (1.286, 5.983) for eGFR < 60 mL/min. Fall in eGFR and rise in ACR correlated with severity of hearing impairment. The association existed independently of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, exercise, new onset of diabetes, education, income, mental stress, noise exposure, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:27124027

  13. Disability of Hearing Impairment Is Positively Associated With Urine Albumin/Creatinine Ratio in Korean Adults: The 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Soo; Lee, Dong-Hee; Chae, Hiun Suk; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Sohn, Tae Seo; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Kim, Hee Yeon; Lee, Jae-Im; Song, Jae Yen; Yeo, Chang Dong; Lee, Young Bok; Ahn, Hyo-Suk; Hong, Mihee; Han, Kyungdo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with hearing thresholds in the nationwide, large-scaled Korean population. Methods. This study analyzed the data of 9,798 subjects of 19 years and older (4,387 males and 5,411 females). Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured from first-voided spot urine samples. The air-conduction hearing threshold was measured at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz and pure tone audiogram (PTA) average was calculated as the four-frequency average of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz. Results. Urine ACR was significantly correlated with the PTA average of better ear in both genders, especially at 3 and 6 kHz in males and at 1, 3, 4, and 6 kHz in females. After adjusting, urine ACR also increased the risk of hearing loss in female, especially if urine ACR was 30 mg/g and more (odds ratio, 1.636–2.229. This study showed that the degree of hearing loss was significantly different according to categories of urine ACR in both genders. Hearing loss without disability was found less but that with bilateral hearing disability was found more as urine ACR increased. In generally, prevalence of hearing loss with disability was higher in males than females. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that urine ACR was significantly correlated with the PTA average of better ear in Korean adults of both genders. This study suggests that clinicians should carefully monitor the hearing level for subjects with elevated urine ACR, even though high urine ACR within the normal range. PMID:27416740

  14. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

    Advertisement Proceeds from website advertising help sustain Lab Tests Online. AACC is a not-for-profit organization ... for trustworthy health information. Verify Compliance . Produced by Advertisement

  15. MedlinePlus: Creatinine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney Diseases Resources Creatinine (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Creatinine - blood Also in Spanish Creatinine - urine Also ... and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio ( ...

  16. Elevated serum creatinine and low albumin are associated with poor outcomes in patients with liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Panotopoulos, Joannis; Posch, Florian; Funovics, Philipp T; Willegger, Madeleine; Scharrer, Anke; Lamm, Wolfgang; Brodowicz, Thomas; Windhager, Reinhard; Ay, Cihan

    2016-03-01

    Low serum albumin levels and impaired kidney function have been associated with decreased survival in patients with a variety of cancer types. In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed 84 patients with liposarcoma treated at from May 1994 to October 2011. Uni- and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models and competing risk analyses were performed to evaluate the association between putative biomarkers with disease-specific and overall survival. The median age of the study population was 51.7 (range 19.6-83.8) years. In multivariable analysis adjusted for AJCC tumor stage, serum creatinine was highly associated with disease-specific survival (Subdistribution Hazard ratio (SHR) per 1 mg/dl increase = 2.94; 95%CI 1.39-6.23; p = 0.005). High albumin was associated with improved overall and disease-specific survival (Hazard Ratio (HR) per 10 units increase = 0.50; 95%CI 0.26-0.95; p = 0.033 and SHR = 0.64; 95%CI 0.42-1.00; p = 0.049). The serum albumin-creatinine-ratio emerged to be associated with both overall and disease-specific survival after adjusting for AJCC tumor stage (HR = 0.95; 95%CI 0.92-0.99; p = 0.011 and SHR = 0.96; 95%CI 0.93-0.99; p = 0.08). Our study provides evidence for a tumor-stage-independent association between higher creatinine and lower albumin with worse disease-specific survival. Low albumin and a high albumin-creatinine-ratio independently predict poor overall survival. Our work identified novel prognostic biomarkers for prognosis of patients with liposarcoma.

  17. The 27-bp repeat polymorphism in intron 4 (27 bp-VNTR) of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene is associated with albumin to creatinine ratio in Mexican Americans.

    PubMed

    Nath, Subrata D; He, Xin; Voruganti, V Saroja; Blangero, John; MacCluer, Jean W; Comuzzie, Anthony G; Arar, Nedal H; Abboud, Hanna E; Thameem, Farook

    2009-11-01

    The T-786C, Glu298Asp, and 27 bp variable number of tandem repeats (27 bp-VNTR-a/b) polymorphsims of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene are thought to alter nitric oxide production and contribute to the development of vascular and renal disease risk. The objective of this study is to investigate whether these three polymorphisms examined previously by others are associated with cardiovascular and renal disease risk in Mexican Americans. Study participants (N = 848; 21 families) were genotyped for T-786C, Glu298Asp, and 27 bp-VNTR-a/b polymorphisms by PCR followed by restriction digestion. Association analyses were performed by a measured genotype approach implemented in the program SOLAR. Of the phenotypes (type 2 diabetes, hypertension, body mass index, waist circumference, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR), and estimated glomerular filtration rate) examined for association, the 27 bp-VNTR-a/b variant exhibited statistically significant association with ACR (P = 0.047) after accounting for the trait specific covariate effects. In addition, the promoter variant (T-786C) showed a significant association with triglycerides (P = 0.034) after accounting for covariate influences. In conclusion, the present study adds evidence to the role of eNOS candidate gene polymorphisms in modulating the risk factors related to cardiovascular-renal disease in Mexican Americans although the magnitude of the genetic effect is small. PMID:19468830

  18. Amylase creatinine clearance ratio after biliary surgery.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, L A; McIntosh, W; Joffe, S N

    1977-01-01

    The amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) is considered to be a more sensitive index of acute pancreatitis than the serum amylase level. Serial ACCR estimations were undertaken in 25 patients undergoing an elective cholecystectomy. Using accepted criteria, 28% of these patients developed, in the postoperative period, biochemical evidence of pancreatic gland damage, although the serum amylase level remained normal. This raised ACCR was particularly noted in patients who had undergone an exploration of the common bile duct. The ACCR would appear to be a more sensitive index of pancreatic gland disruption secondary to biliary surgery than the serum amylase level.

  19. Amylase creatinine clearance ratio after biliary surgery.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, L A; McIntosh, W; Joffe, S N

    1977-01-01

    The amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) is considered to be a more sensitive index of acute pancreatitis than the serum amylase level. Serial ACCR estimations were undertaken in 25 patients undergoing an elective cholecystectomy. Using accepted criteria, 28% of these patients developed, in the postoperative period, biochemical evidence of pancreatic gland damage, although the serum amylase level remained normal. This raised ACCR was particularly noted in patients who had undergone an exploration of the common bile duct. The ACCR would appear to be a more sensitive index of pancreatic gland disruption secondary to biliary surgery than the serum amylase level. PMID:402305

  20. Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: 24-Hour Urine Protein; Urine Total Protein; Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio; ...

  1. Creatinine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Results from creatinine tests may be used in calculations that help assess kidney function: Blood creatinine measurements, ... seen with conditions that result in decreased muscle mass. Levels of 24-hour urine creatinine are evaluated ...

  2. Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin Ratio Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Share this ... Globulin Ratio; A/G Ratio Formal name: Total Protein; Albumin to Globulin Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Liver ...

  3. [Amylase-creatinine clearance ratios in burned patients (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Minaire, Y; Marichy, J; Forichon, J; Motin, J

    1978-09-01

    The amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) has been examined every 3 days, in 34 burned patients during the 20 days following the accident. This ratio was often abnormal since it was found increased at least on one occasion, in 75% of these patients, to be compared with 23 and 13% for amylase in serum and urine respectively. In another group of 9 burned patients, the ACCR was monitored for time-period between 10 to 52 days. It was observed that a high frequency in increased ACCR was associated with a fatal outcome. Finally simultaneous measurements of ACCR and of the beta2 microglobulin/creatinine clearance ratio (MCCR) showed that increased ACCR were statistically associated with increased MCCR suggesting a decreased renal tubular reabsorption of low molecular weight proteins in these burned patients.

  4. [Amylase-creatinine clearance ratios in burned patients (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Minaire, Y; Marichy, J; Forichon, J; Motin, J

    1978-09-01

    The amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) has been examined every 3 days, in 34 burned patients during the 20 days following the accident. This ratio was often abnormal since it was found increased at least on one occasion, in 75% of these patients, to be compared with 23 and 13% for amylase in serum and urine respectively. In another group of 9 burned patients, the ACCR was monitored for time-period between 10 to 52 days. It was observed that a high frequency in increased ACCR was associated with a fatal outcome. Finally simultaneous measurements of ACCR and of the beta2 microglobulin/creatinine clearance ratio (MCCR) showed that increased ACCR were statistically associated with increased MCCR suggesting a decreased renal tubular reabsorption of low molecular weight proteins in these burned patients. PMID:360162

  5. The amylase creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Murray, W R; Mackay, C

    1977-03-01

    One hundred and twenty-two patients have been studied in order to evaluate the usefulness of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) as a simple diagnostic test for acute pancreatitis. Sixteen out of 17 patients with acute pancreatitis had significant elevations in ACCR; in only 10 of these 17 cases was the serum amylase greater than 1200iu/l. The mean ACCR was within the normal range in control patients, in patients with chronic gastro-intestinal disease and in patients with acute abdominal conditions excluding pancreatitis; however, the mean serum amylase was significantly greater in patients with acute abdominal conditions than in the control group (P less than 0-05). The ACCR remained significantly elevated in patients with acute pancreatitis for longer than either serum or urine amylase values. The findings of the study suggest that the amylase creatinine clearance ratio is a simple yet reliable diagnostic test which could be used when screening patients suspected of having acute pancreatitis.

  6. The amylase creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Murray, W R; Mackay, C

    1977-03-01

    One hundred and twenty-two patients have been studied in order to evaluate the usefulness of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) as a simple diagnostic test for acute pancreatitis. Sixteen out of 17 patients with acute pancreatitis had significant elevations in ACCR; in only 10 of these 17 cases was the serum amylase greater than 1200iu/l. The mean ACCR was within the normal range in control patients, in patients with chronic gastro-intestinal disease and in patients with acute abdominal conditions excluding pancreatitis; however, the mean serum amylase was significantly greater in patients with acute abdominal conditions than in the control group (P less than 0-05). The ACCR remained significantly elevated in patients with acute pancreatitis for longer than either serum or urine amylase values. The findings of the study suggest that the amylase creatinine clearance ratio is a simple yet reliable diagnostic test which could be used when screening patients suspected of having acute pancreatitis. PMID:890263

  7. A Dual Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Test-strip Assay for the Quantitative Determination of Albumin and Creatinine.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Kiba, Yuya; Mizutani, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    A dual-electrochemical sensor based on a test-strip assay with immunochemistry and enzyme reactions has been developed for the determination of albumin and creatinine. Each nitrocellulose membrane with an immobilization area of an anti-albumin antibody or three enzymes was prepared in the device with three working electrodes for measuring albumin, creatinine, and ascorbic acid, as well as an Ag/AgCl electrode used as a counter/pseudo-reference electrode. The reactions of three enzymes were initiated by flowing a solution containing creatinine to detect an oxidation current of hydrogen peroxide. A sandwich-type immunocomplex was formed by albumin and antibody labeled with glucose oxidase (GOx). Captured GOx catalyzed the reduction of Fe(CN)6(3-) to Fe(CN)6(4-), which was oxidized electrochemically to determine the captured albumin. The responses for creatinine and albumin increased with the concentrations in millimolar order and over the range 18.75 - 150 μg mL(-1), respectively. The present sensor would be a distinct demonstration for producing quantitative dual-assays for various biomolecules used for clinical diagnoses.

  8. A Dual Electrochemical Sensor Based on a Test-strip Assay for the Quantitative Determination of Albumin and Creatinine.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Tomoyuki; Kiba, Yuya; Mizutani, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    A dual-electrochemical sensor based on a test-strip assay with immunochemistry and enzyme reactions has been developed for the determination of albumin and creatinine. Each nitrocellulose membrane with an immobilization area of an anti-albumin antibody or three enzymes was prepared in the device with three working electrodes for measuring albumin, creatinine, and ascorbic acid, as well as an Ag/AgCl electrode used as a counter/pseudo-reference electrode. The reactions of three enzymes were initiated by flowing a solution containing creatinine to detect an oxidation current of hydrogen peroxide. A sandwich-type immunocomplex was formed by albumin and antibody labeled with glucose oxidase (GOx). Captured GOx catalyzed the reduction of Fe(CN)6(3-) to Fe(CN)6(4-), which was oxidized electrochemically to determine the captured albumin. The responses for creatinine and albumin increased with the concentrations in millimolar order and over the range 18.75 - 150 μg mL(-1), respectively. The present sensor would be a distinct demonstration for producing quantitative dual-assays for various biomolecules used for clinical diagnoses. PMID:26165278

  9. The amylase-creatinine clearance ratio following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Murray, W R; Mittra, S; Mittra, D; Roberts, L B; Taylor, K M

    1981-08-01

    The incidence of unexplained pancreatitis in patients dying after cardiac operations has been recorded as 16%, with evidence to implicate ischemia in the pathogenesis of the pancreatitis. Increased amylase--to--creatinine clearance ratios (ACCR), suggesting pancreatic dysfunction, have been reported in patients following nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Pulsatile CPB is increasingly recognized to be a more physiological form of perfusion, particularly with respect to capillary blood flow. In this study the ACCR has been determined before, during, and after cardiac operations performed with both nonpulsatile and pulsatile CPB. Twenty patients undergoing elective cardiac operations were studied. Ten patients had nonpulsatile CPB (nonpulsatile group) and 10 had pulsatile CPB (pulsatile group). The two groups were comparable as regards perioperative variables and perfusion parameters. In both groups the ACCR was estimated preoperatively, on three occasions during the operation, and daily on the first 5 postoperative days. A significant elevation in ACCR was observed in nine of 10 patients in the nonpulsatile group but in only one of 10 patients in the pulsatile group (p less than 0.001). The significant improvement of ACCR stability following pulsatile CPB may indicate that this form of perfusion will reduce the risk of pancreatitis following cardiac operations performed with CPB.

  10. The amylase-creatinine clearance ratio following cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Murray, W R; Mittra, S; Mittra, D; Roberts, L B; Taylor, K M

    1981-08-01

    The incidence of unexplained pancreatitis in patients dying after cardiac operations has been recorded as 16%, with evidence to implicate ischemia in the pathogenesis of the pancreatitis. Increased amylase--to--creatinine clearance ratios (ACCR), suggesting pancreatic dysfunction, have been reported in patients following nonpulsatile cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Pulsatile CPB is increasingly recognized to be a more physiological form of perfusion, particularly with respect to capillary blood flow. In this study the ACCR has been determined before, during, and after cardiac operations performed with both nonpulsatile and pulsatile CPB. Twenty patients undergoing elective cardiac operations were studied. Ten patients had nonpulsatile CPB (nonpulsatile group) and 10 had pulsatile CPB (pulsatile group). The two groups were comparable as regards perioperative variables and perfusion parameters. In both groups the ACCR was estimated preoperatively, on three occasions during the operation, and daily on the first 5 postoperative days. A significant elevation in ACCR was observed in nine of 10 patients in the nonpulsatile group but in only one of 10 patients in the pulsatile group (p less than 0.001). The significant improvement of ACCR stability following pulsatile CPB may indicate that this form of perfusion will reduce the risk of pancreatitis following cardiac operations performed with CPB. PMID:6166815

  11. The screening value of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Van Hee, R; Hubens, A

    1979-01-01

    The screening value of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis is studied. A series of 28 patients with pancreatic disease is compared with 80 controls and 82 patients with other intra-abdominal disease. The greatest specificity of the amylase creatinine clearance ratio value is reached at the 3.5 level. The amylase creatinine clearance ratio value proves to be of interest, not only in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis but also in differentiating mild and heavy forms of pancreatitis.

  12. Serum creatinine and albumin decline predict the contraction of nosocomial aspiration pneumonia in patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Minakuchi, Hitoshi; Wakino, Shu; Hayashi, Koichi; Inamoto, Hajime; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Aspiration pneumonia (AP) is prevalent in older adults and the hemodialysis (HD) population has been getting older. Therefore, it is speculated that increasing number of HD patients would suffer from AP. However, the clinical aspects of AP in HD patients have not been elucidated. Consecutive HD patients with nosocomial AP hospitalized in our university hospital from April 2007 to December 2008 were recruited. Their clinical characteristics, risk factors for contraction, and the fatality of AP and treatment options were described. Nineteen out of 356 hospitalized HD patients had AP and 8 out of 19 AP patients died, indicating the incidence rate and fatality rate were 5.34% and 42.1%, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the risk factors for contracting AP included age, body mass index, serum creatinine levels (Cre) and the monthly decline rate of Cre. It also revealed that serum albumin (Alb) and basal total cholesterol levels, the decline rate of Alb and Cre levels, and the duration of AP were independent risk factors for fatality. Survivors were most often treated with tube feeding. Both contraction rate and fatality of nosocomial AP were high among HD patients. Both the malnutrition as well as the decline rate for nutrition and muscle volume indicated by falls in Alb and Cre, respectively, had clinical relevance in AP. Maintaining nutritional state by tube feeding and muscle volume seems to be the mainstay for the prevention and the treatment of AP in HD patients.

  13. Enhancement of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Naeije, R; Neuray, F; Van Melsen, A; Delcourt, A

    1979-01-01

    The renal clearance of amylase, expressed as a proportion of simultaneous creatinine clearance (Cam/-Ccr), was determined in 131 women in various stages of pregnancy. No abnormal serum levels of amylase were found. A moderate but significant increase in Cam/Ccr occurred during the last 15 weeks of pregnancy. Possible causes for this change were investigated in smaller groups of subjects. No increase in rapidly cleared isoamylase could be detected. No modification in renal tubular handling of protein could be evidenced, as assessed by measurements of the renal clearance of beta 2 microglobulin, expressed as a proportion of simultaneous creatinine clearance. An incrased glomerular permeability to amylase probably accounts for elevated Cam/Ccr in pregnancy.

  14. [Sensitivity and specificity of blood amylase, amylase and creatinine clearance ratio and urinary amylase/urinary creatinine ratio in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Ligny, G; Meunier, J C; Hayard, P; Ligny, C; Van Cauter, J

    1987-12-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of amylasemia, the ratios of amylase/creatinine clearance and amylasuria/creatininuria were determined in four groups of patients: a control group (n = 43), patients with acute pancreatitis detected on computed tomography (n = 30, 25 cases of alcoholic pancreatitis), patients with an acute surgical abdomen without pancreatitis (n = 25), and patients with renal failure (n = 20). Sensitivity was defined for the acute pancreatitis group and specificity for the other groups. When amylasemia was greater than 20 UI/dl and the amylasuria/creatininuria ratio greater than 100, sensitivity was 98 per cent. The specificity of these two results in patients with an acute surgical abdomen was 98 per cent. When the ratio amylase/creatinine clearance ratio was greater than 4 sensitivity was 73 per cent and specificity in patients with acute surgical abdomen was 75 per cent. These two values were lower than those of the two preceding tests (p less than 0.01). Sensitivity of the association of an amylasemia greater than 13 UI/dl (m + 2SD) with a clearance ratio greater than 4 was 73 per cent. The amylase/creatinine clearance ratio did not seem to be reliable since its change was delayed with respect to the increase of amylasemia and amylasuria. This ratio has a poor specificity as it increased when the clearance of creatinine decreased in the group with an acute surgical abdomen associated with functional or organic renal failure. In these two groups, the correlation between the amylase/creatinine clearance ratio and creatininemia was significant. This suggested that the clearance of creatinine fell more rapidly than the clearance of amylase as renal failure increased.

  15. Limitation of amylase creatinine clearance ratio as a diagnostic test for postoperative pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wapnick, S; Evans, M I; Hadas, N; Grosberg, S J

    1980-05-01

    The mean +/- S.E.M. ratio of amylase to creatinine clearance significantly increased at 24 hours after operations on the stomach and gallbladder but not after operations at sites remote from the abdominal cavity. Clinically, the elevated amylase to creatinine clearance ratio was not accompanied by pancreatitis. In dogs, surgical handling of the pancreas alone caused a significant increase in this measurement. The amylase to creatinine clearance ratio is not likely to be helpful in predicting the rare, but serious, postoperative complication of pancreatitis.

  16. The amylase-to-creatinine clearance ratio--a non-specific response to acute illness?

    PubMed

    McMahon, M J; Playforth, M J; Rashid, S A; Cooper, E H

    1982-01-01

    It was felt that the apparent specificity of the amylase-to-creatine clearance ratio (ACCR) in several previous studies of pancreatitis might reflect a failure to utilize adequately ill control subjects. The ACCR and the renal clearances of beta 2-microglobulin (B2-m), similarly related to creatinine (BCCR) as well as the urinary concentration of albumin, were compared in 27 patients with acute pancreatitis, 8 with a perforated peptic ulcer and 7 with mild biliary colic, during the first 5 days in hospital. Acute pancreatitis was graded as mild (6), moderate (14) or severe (7), using a combination of clinical data, diagnostic peritoneal lavage and multiple criteria. Further assessment of the severity of the acute illness was obtained from measurement of C-reactive protein (C-RP). Lowest C-RP levels were found in the patients with mild pancreatitis and biliary colic, and highest levels in the patients with severe pancreatitis and perforated ulcer (P less than 0.002). Similarly, ACCR and BCCR levels were significantly lower in the two mild groups than in the two severe ones (P less than 0.01 and less than 0.002 respectively), although plasma amylase was raised only in patients with pancreatitis and plasma B2-m was similar in all groups. Electrophoresis of urine showed dense bands of tubuloprotein in patients from both severe groups. Urine albumin was higher in severe pancreatitis than in perforated ulcer (P less than 0.1), perhaps indicating a more specific glomerular lesion in pancreatitis. Thus a rise in amylase clearance appeared to be related to the severity of the acute illness, and may be a component of a non-specific tubuloproteinuria. In this study patients with a perforated peptic ulcer had increases in ACCR similar to those seen in patients with severe pancreatitis, and we are therefore doubtful whether ACCR has any role in the clinical diagnosis of pancreatic disease.

  17. The amylase-to-creatinine clearance ratio--a non-specific response to acute illness?

    PubMed

    McMahon, M J; Playforth, M J; Rashid, S A; Cooper, E H

    1982-01-01

    It was felt that the apparent specificity of the amylase-to-creatine clearance ratio (ACCR) in several previous studies of pancreatitis might reflect a failure to utilize adequately ill control subjects. The ACCR and the renal clearances of beta 2-microglobulin (B2-m), similarly related to creatinine (BCCR) as well as the urinary concentration of albumin, were compared in 27 patients with acute pancreatitis, 8 with a perforated peptic ulcer and 7 with mild biliary colic, during the first 5 days in hospital. Acute pancreatitis was graded as mild (6), moderate (14) or severe (7), using a combination of clinical data, diagnostic peritoneal lavage and multiple criteria. Further assessment of the severity of the acute illness was obtained from measurement of C-reactive protein (C-RP). Lowest C-RP levels were found in the patients with mild pancreatitis and biliary colic, and highest levels in the patients with severe pancreatitis and perforated ulcer (P less than 0.002). Similarly, ACCR and BCCR levels were significantly lower in the two mild groups than in the two severe ones (P less than 0.01 and less than 0.002 respectively), although plasma amylase was raised only in patients with pancreatitis and plasma B2-m was similar in all groups. Electrophoresis of urine showed dense bands of tubuloprotein in patients from both severe groups. Urine albumin was higher in severe pancreatitis than in perforated ulcer (P less than 0.1), perhaps indicating a more specific glomerular lesion in pancreatitis. Thus a rise in amylase clearance appeared to be related to the severity of the acute illness, and may be a component of a non-specific tubuloproteinuria. In this study patients with a perforated peptic ulcer had increases in ACCR similar to those seen in patients with severe pancreatitis, and we are therefore doubtful whether ACCR has any role in the clinical diagnosis of pancreatic disease. PMID:6172175

  18. Sensitivity of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Farrar, W H; Calkins, G

    1978-06-01

    An elevated amylase-creatinine clearance ratio has been established as being highly specific for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis. In the present study, the sensitivity of this test was compared to that of the serum amylase and the one-hour urinary amylase test in 29 patients with acute pancreatitis. Abnormal elevations of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio were found less frequently than abnormal elevations of the serum and one-hour urinary amylases. Moreover, abnormal elevations of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio showed less deviation from normal and values returned to normal sooner than those of the serum and one-hour urinary amylases. When compared to the serum amylase and the one-hour urinary amylase tests, the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio is a relatively insensitive test in patients with acute pancreatitis.

  19. A practical approach to using spot urine protein/creatinine ratios for assessing proteinuria in pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Marnoch, Catherine A; Larson, Lucia; Weitzen, Sherry; Phipps, Maureen G; Sung, C James; Powrie, Raymond O

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the spot urine protein/creatinine ratio compared with the 24-hour urine protein in pregnancy. Study Design: In this prospective cohort study of inpatient pregnant women, the protein/creatinine ratio and dipstick protein were assessed from a single urine sample collected at the start of the 24-hour urine. Both tests were compared with the 24-hour urine protein for correlation and test characteristics. Results: In the 196 specimens analysed, we found a strong correlation between the spot urine protein/creatinine ratio and 24-hour urine protein (r 2 = 0.78, P < 0.01). A protein/creatinine ratio <0.1 ruled out significant proteinuria (≥300 mg/day) with sensitivity and negative predictive value 100%. A protein/creatinine ratio ≥0.4 detected significant proteinuria (specificity and positive predictive value of 100%). A protein/creatinine ratio ≥4.6 had a specificity and positive predictive value of 100% for detecting severe proteinuria (≥5000 mg/day). Urine dipsticks correlated poorly with the 24-hour urine protein (r 2 = 0.40, P = 0.826). Nineteen percent of dipsticks reading nil or trace were false-negative results. Conclusion: The spot urine protein/creatinine ratio correlated well with the 24-hour urine protein and performed better than the urine dipsticks. Significant proteinuria in pregnancy was excluded if the protein/creatinine ratio was <0.1 and identified when it was ≥0.4. PMID:27630741

  20. The value of the amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Solomon, A R

    1978-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis usually confronts the clinician with a difficult diagnostic task. For years, the primary laboratory diagnostic tests were the serum and urine amylase and the serum lipase determinations. Recent studies have introduced the concept of the amylase/creatinine clearance ratio as a means of increasing the specificity of the laboratory diagnosis. This paper reviews the laboratory evaluation of acute pancreatitis with emphasis on the rationale, derivation, and specificity of the amylase/creatinine clearance ratio.

  1. Random Urinary Calcium/Creatinine Ratio for Screening Hypercalciuria in Children with Hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In Su; Jung, Eui Seok; Choi, Young Earl; Cho, Young Kuk; Kim, Chan Jong

    2013-01-01

    Background Hypercalciuria is one of the most common causes of unexplained isolated hematuria. The diagnostic methods for hypercalciuria have not yet been standardized. The aim of this study was to assess whether random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio could be used as a screening tool for hypercalciuria in children with hematuria. Methods This prospective study included 264 children with primary hematuria for whom both random and 24 hr urinary evaluations were performed. Pearson correlation and ROC curve were used to assess the correlations. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze effects of age, weight, height, body mass index, and body surface area on random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio. Results There was a moderately strong correlation between random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio and 24 hr urinary calcium excretion (r=0.584, P<0.001). The most appropriate cutoff value of random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio for the estimation of hypercalciuria was 0.075 mg/mg (sensitivity, 77.8%; specificity, 64.3%; area under the curve, 0.778). Body mass index and 24 hr urinary calcium excretion significantly affected random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio with a low coefficient of determination (r2=0.380, P<0.001). Conclusions Random urinary calcium/creatinine ratio is not suitable for screening hypercalciuria in children with hematuria. Twenty-four hour urinary analysis should be performed to diagnose hypercalciuria in children with hematuria. PMID:24205487

  2. Amylase-creatinine clearance ratios and serum amylase isoenzymes in moderate renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Banks, P A; Sidi, S; Gelman, M L; Lee, K H; Warshaw, A L

    1979-12-01

    Both the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (normal 1.55%) and proportion of pancreatic isoamylase in serum (normal 41.0%) increase in acute pancreatitis, and are therefore useful measurements to support that diagnosis. Whether renal insufficiency interferes with the accuracy and specificity of these tests has been debated. Our study indicates that even moderate renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance 30.5 ml/minute) raises the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (3.23%) close enough to values characteristic of acute pancreatitis (4.41%) to cause potential diagnostic confusion. The fraction of pancreatic isoamylase in serum is also increased (69.9%), but not to the levels of acute pancreatitis (91.0%). We therefore caution against the use of the amylase-creatinine clearance ratio for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in patients with moderate renal insufficiency.

  3. Specificity of increased amylase to creatinine clearance ratio in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Lankisch, P G; Koop, H; Otto, J; Oberdieck, U; Winckler, K; Wolfrum, D I

    1977-01-01

    The amylase to creatinine clearance ratio was found to be normal in 11 of 33 patients with acute pancreatitis. The ratio was elevated in 10 of 19 patients with renal insufficiency. Thus, it does not seem to be a specific index in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis.

  4. Amylase: creatinine clearance ratio and urinary excretion of lysozyme in acute pancreatitis and acute duodenal perforation.

    PubMed

    Berger, G M; Cowlin, J; Turner, T J

    1976-09-18

    The amylase:creatinine clearance ratio in patients suffering from acute pancreatitis or acute duodenal perforation was higher than normal in both groups of patients. These findings cast doubt on the value of this parameter as a specific index of acute pancreatitis. The mechanism or mechanisms underlying the increased amylase excretion have not been determined. However, the markedly elevated urinary excretion of lysozyme observed in some patients suggests, by analogy, that diminished tubular reabsorption of amylase may contribute towards the elevated amylase:creatinine ratio.

  5. Role of trypsin/creatinine clearance ratio in the differential diagnosis of chronic pancreatic disease.

    PubMed

    Farini, R; Fabris, C; del Favero, G; Bonvicini, P; de' Best, T; Piccoli, A; Baccaglini, U; Plebani, M; Pedrazzoli, S; Kind, R; Ceriotti, G; Naccarato, R

    1981-08-01

    Trypsin/creatinine clearance ratio--a recently proposed screening test for pancreatic cancer--was assessed in 45 subjects (17 control subjects, 15 patients with pancreatic cancer, and 13 with chronic pancreatitis). A statistically significant increase of the ratio was detected not only in pancreatic cancer, but also in chronic calcifying pancreatitis. Thus, the previously reported clinical usefulness of the test in pancreatic cancer diagnosis was not substantiated by the present data. Although not fully investigated as yet, reasons for an abnormal ratio are probably independent of the neoplastic or inflammatory nature of the pancreatic disease. Science renal enzyme excretion (alpha-glucosidase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase, leucine aminopeptidase) was not found to be invariably elevated when trypsin/creatinine clearance ratio was increased, tubular damage cannot be assumed as constituting the only reason for an altered clearance ratio.

  6. Determination of Urinary Neopterin/Creatinine Ratio to Distinguish Active Tuberculosis from Latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhut, Michael; Hargreaves, Dougal S.; Scott, Anne; Housley, David; Walters, Andrew; Mulla, Rohinton

    2016-01-01

    Background. Biomarkers to distinguish latent from active Mycobacterium (M.) tuberculosis infection in clinical practice are lacking. The urinary neopterin/creatinine ratio can quantify the systemic interferon-gamma effect in patients with M. tuberculosis infection. Methods. In a prospective observational study, urinary neopterin levels were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in patients with active tuberculosis, in people with latent M. tuberculosis infection, and in healthy controls and the urinary neopterin/creatinine ratio was calculated. Results. We included a total of 44 patients with M. tuberculosis infection and nine controls. 12 patients had active tuberculosis (8 of them culture-confirmed). The median age was 15 years (range 4.5 to 49). Median urinary neopterin/creatinine ratio in patients with active tuberculosis was 374.1 micromol/mol (129.0 to 1072.3), in patients with latent M. tuberculosis infection it was 142.1 (28.0 to 384.1), and in controls it was 146.0 (40.3 to 200.0), with significantly higher levels in patients with active tuberculosis (p < 0.01). The receiver operating characteristics curve had an area under the curve of 0.84 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.97) (p < 0.01). Conclusions. Urinary neopterin/creatinine ratios are significantly higher in patients with active tuberculosis compared to patients with latent infection and may be a significant predictor of active tuberculosis in patients with M. tuberculosis infection. PMID:27433370

  7. Amylase:creatinine clearance ratios, serum amylase, and lipase after operations with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Smith, C R; Schwartz, S I

    1983-09-01

    Forty-two adults who underwent cardiac operations were studied prospectively for evidence of clinical or subclinical pancreatitis. Clinically detectable pancreatitis was not seen. Serum amylase and lipase levels did not change significantly following operation. The amylase:creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) immediately following operation was abnormally elevated in 31% of the samples obtained, and the mean ACCR increased from 2.08 +/- 1.85% before operation to 6.2% +/- 6.77% (P less than 0.05). An abnormally elevated ACCR was most often associated with a low urine creatinine concentration. The mean urine creatinine level decreased significantly from 78 +/- 53 mg/dl before operation to 38 +/- 49 mg/dl immediately following operation (P less than 0.02), and 73% of the samples obtained at that time had an abnormally low urine creatinine level (P less than 0.01). The abnormalities observed in ACCR and urine creatinine could not be related to any of several variables presumed to reflect the degree of perioperative physiologic stress, nor could they be related to postoperative hemodynamic performance. It was concluded that ACCR rises following cardiac operation because of perioperative changes in renal function, and not as a reflection of subclinical pancreatic injury.

  8. Amylase:creatinine clearance ratios, serum amylase, and lipase after operations with cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Smith, C R; Schwartz, S I

    1983-09-01

    Forty-two adults who underwent cardiac operations were studied prospectively for evidence of clinical or subclinical pancreatitis. Clinically detectable pancreatitis was not seen. Serum amylase and lipase levels did not change significantly following operation. The amylase:creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) immediately following operation was abnormally elevated in 31% of the samples obtained, and the mean ACCR increased from 2.08 +/- 1.85% before operation to 6.2% +/- 6.77% (P less than 0.05). An abnormally elevated ACCR was most often associated with a low urine creatinine concentration. The mean urine creatinine level decreased significantly from 78 +/- 53 mg/dl before operation to 38 +/- 49 mg/dl immediately following operation (P less than 0.02), and 73% of the samples obtained at that time had an abnormally low urine creatinine level (P less than 0.01). The abnormalities observed in ACCR and urine creatinine could not be related to any of several variables presumed to reflect the degree of perioperative physiologic stress, nor could they be related to postoperative hemodynamic performance. It was concluded that ACCR rises following cardiac operation because of perioperative changes in renal function, and not as a reflection of subclinical pancreatic injury. PMID:6193594

  9. Lower Plasma Creatinine and Urine Albumin in Individuals at Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes with Factor V Leiden Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Fritsche, Andreas; Machicao, Fausto; Nawroth, Peter P.; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Isermann, Berend

    2014-01-01

    The factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation is the most frequent genetic cause of venous thrombosis in Caucasians. However, protective effects have been suggested to balance the disadvantages. We have recently observed protective effects of FVL mutation on experimental diabetic nephropathy in mice as well as an association with reduced albuminuria in two human cohorts of diabetic patients. In the present study we aimed to reevaluate these findings in an independent, larger cohort of 1905 Caucasians at risk of developing type 2 diabetes and extend possible associations to earlier disease stages of nephropathy. Carriers of FVL mutation had a significantly lower urine albumin excretion (P = 0.03) and tended to have lower plasma creatinine concentrations (P = 0.07). The difference in plasma creatinine concentrations was significant after adjustment for the influencing factors: age, gender, and lean body mass (P = 0.048). These observations at a very early “disease” stage are an important extension of previous findings and suggest that modification of glomerular dysfunction by FVL mutation is relevant during very early stages of diabetic nephropathy. This makes the underlying mechanism an interesting therapeutic target and raises the question whether FVL mutation may also exert protective effects in other glomerulopathies. PMID:24729885

  10. Serum amylase determinations and amylase to creatinine clearance ratios in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, F J; Harter, H R; Alpers, D H

    1976-10-01

    Patients with severe chronic renal failure may have significant hyperamylasemia in the absence of clinical symptoms or signs of acute pancreatitis. Amylase to creatinine clearance (CA/CC) ratios were usually elevated in patients with chronic renal failure and were not helpful in evaluating the possibility of acute pancreatitis. The mean amylase to creatinine clearance ratio for the controls with normal renal function was 1.24 +/- 0.13. In patients with chronic renal failure, it was 3.17 +/- 0.42 (P less than 0.001). Serum amylase isoenzyme patterns revealed no difference in salivary to pancreatic isoenzyme ratios between normals (1.04 +/- 0.12) and patients with severe renal insufficiency without evidence of pancreatic disease (1.07 +/- 0.13). The isoenzymes were helpful in excluding the diagnosis of pancreatic in 1 renal failure patient whose hyperamylasemia was primarily salivary in origin and in confirming the diagnosis in another who had only a pancreatic band.

  11. Clinical evaluation of amylase-creatinine clearance ratio and amylase isoenzyme clearance in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Otsuki, M; Okano, K; Yamasaki, T; Baba, S

    1981-01-01

    Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) and amylase isoenzyme clearance were determined simultaneously in patients with chronic renal failure. ACCR in patients with compensated renal failure (3.5 +/- 0.4%) was not significantly different from normals (2.6 +/- 0.2%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure (6.7 +/- 0.4%) was significantly higher than that in normals. Clearance ratio of pancreatic isoamylase (Amylase-1) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 1/Ccr) in patients with both compensated (5.9 +/- 1.0%) and non-compensated (6.8 +/- 0.4%) renal failure was as high as that in patients with acute pancreatitis (6.6 +/- 0.5%). On the other hand, clearance ratio of salivary isoamylase (Amylase-3) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 3/CCr) in patients with compensated renal failure (1.5 +/- 0.3%) was almost the same as that in normals (2.1 +/- 0.1%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure was 5.9 +/- 0.7%, which was significantly higher than that in normals. The present study revealed that elevated ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function was due to the increase of the clearance ratio for both pancreatic and salivary amylase. These facts suggested that glomerular permeability and tubular reabsorption for pancreatic and salivary amylase might play an important role on ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function.

  12. Clinical evaluation of amylase-creatinine clearance ratio and amylase isoenzyme clearance in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Maeda, M; Otsuki, M; Okano, K; Yamasaki, T; Baba, S

    1981-01-01

    Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) and amylase isoenzyme clearance were determined simultaneously in patients with chronic renal failure. ACCR in patients with compensated renal failure (3.5 +/- 0.4%) was not significantly different from normals (2.6 +/- 0.2%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure (6.7 +/- 0.4%) was significantly higher than that in normals. Clearance ratio of pancreatic isoamylase (Amylase-1) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 1/Ccr) in patients with both compensated (5.9 +/- 1.0%) and non-compensated (6.8 +/- 0.4%) renal failure was as high as that in patients with acute pancreatitis (6.6 +/- 0.5%). On the other hand, clearance ratio of salivary isoamylase (Amylase-3) relative to creatinine clearance (CAmy . 3/CCr) in patients with compensated renal failure (1.5 +/- 0.3%) was almost the same as that in normals (2.1 +/- 0.1%), while that in patients with non-compensated renal failure was 5.9 +/- 0.7%, which was significantly higher than that in normals. The present study revealed that elevated ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function was due to the increase of the clearance ratio for both pancreatic and salivary amylase. These facts suggested that glomerular permeability and tubular reabsorption for pancreatic and salivary amylase might play an important role on ACCR in patients with severely impaired renal function. PMID:6167484

  13. Trypsin/creatinine clearance ratio and serum immunoreactive trypsin in digestive and pancreatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Del Favero, G; Fabris, C; Bonvicini, P; Piccoli, A; Baccaglini, U; Pedrazzoli, S; Burlina, A; Naccarato, R

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of trypsin/creatinine clearance ratio (Ctr/Ccr) and serum immunoreactive trypsin (IRT) was evaluated in a total of 168 subjects with pancreatic cancer, chronic pancreatitis and non-pancreatic digestive diseases. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (Cam/Ccr) and serum amylase levels were also evaluated in order to establish their possible relationship with Ctr/Ccr and IRT values. Elevated Ctr/Ccr and IRT values were observed in several patients with pancreatic cancer and chronic pancreatitis. Abnormal IRT and Ctr/Ccr values were found in 28.2 and 4% of non-pancreatic digestive diseases, respectively. IRT and amylase serum levels showed consensual modifications, while Ctr/Ccr showed a behavior different from that of Cam/Ccr. Liver damage seems to play a role in increasing serum IRT levels of patients without pancreatic involvement, while the increased Ctr/Ccr seems to depend on other factors, for instance renal tubular dysfunction.

  14. Prolonged winter undernutrition and the interpretation of urinary allantoin: creatinine ratios in ungulates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, G.G.; Kerr, K.D.; Mech, L.D.; Seal, U.S.

    2000-01-01

    The urinary allantoin:creatinine (A:C) ratio (expressed in micromoles of allantoin to micromoles of creatinine) has shown potential as an index of recent winter energy intake in preliminary controlled studies of elk (Cervus elaphus) involving mild condition deterioration (up to 11% loss of body mass). To ensure reliable nutritional assessments of free-ranging cervids by measuring A:C ratios of urine in snow, it is essential to extend this work. We assessed the effect of moderate and severe winter nutritional restriction on urinary A:C ratios of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) that lost up to 32% body mass and related these ratios to metabolizable energy intake (MEI), body-mass loss, and other reported nutritional indicators. Deer in the control group were fed a low-protein, low-energy diet ad libitum, whereas deer in the treatment group were fed restricted amounts of the same diet. MEI was below the winter maintenance requirement for all deer, but was lower (P = 0.029) in treatment deer than in control deer. Percent body-mass loss differed between the two groups as the study progressed, and represented the full range of physiological tolerance (0-32% loss). Mean A:C ratios of control deer, which lost up to 17.4% body mass, showed a slight increasing (P = 0.086) trend, whereas initially similar A:C ratios of severely restricted deer increased (P = 0.0002) markedly by the eighth week (0.52 vs. 0.09 |mol:|mol). The urinary A:C ratio was not related (P = 0.839) to recent (2 days prior to urine sampling) MEI, but there was a marginally significant relation (r2 = 0.42, P = 0.110) between the A:C ratio and cumulative percent mass loss. The urinary A:C ratio was directly related to urinary urea nitrogen: creatinine (r2 = 0.59, P < 0.0001) and 3-methylhistidine:creatinine (r2 = 0.43, P < 0.0001) ratios. This study confirms that elevated and increasing A:C ratios may be due either to increasing energy intake or to accelerated tissue catabolism and

  15. Mechanism and specificity of increased amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Marten, A; Beales, D; Elias, E

    1977-09-01

    The amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (Cam/Ccr ratio) was determined in 239 subjects. In 87 hospitalised patients without pancreatic disease (controls) the Cam/Ccr ratio was 3.02 +/- 0.69 (mean +/- ISD). The ratio was above the normal range in all patients with acute pancreatitis but was normal in those with chronic pancreatitis and carcinoma of the pancreas. In 18 patients with choledocholithiasis a raised ratio distinguished those with pancreatitis as assessed independently by the surgeon at laparotomy from those with a macroscopically normal pancreas. Raised Cam/Ccr ratios were also found in diabetics with ketoacidosis and in three patients with fulminant alcoholic liver disease. Though a positive correlation was found between the Cam/Ccr ratio and serum creatinine concentration, abnormally high ratios did not occur in 30 patients with chronic renal failure. A significant increase in Cam/Ccr ratios was produced in six healthy volunteers by intravenous injection of glucagon. However, it is unlikely that hyperglucagonaemia alone accounts for the increased Cam/Ccr ratio seen in acute pancreatitis, as no correlation was found between the clearance ratio and the plasma glucagon concentration in a series of patients. In two other patients in whom excess circulating pancreatic polypeptide was detected the Cam/Ccr ratio was normal. It is concluded that, in view of the sensitivity and relative specificity of finding an increased Cam/Ccr ratio in acute pancreatitis, its determination should be valuable clinically, especially in those cases of hyperamylasaemia where the cause is in doubt. The mechanism whereby the ratio is increased is unknown, and it is unlikely that either glucagon or pancreatic polypeptide is a major factor in its production.

  16. Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio. A simple test to predict gentamicin nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Aderka, D; Tene, M; Graff, E; Levo, Y

    1988-05-01

    The initial target of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity is the proximal tubule. Yet, no simple test is available to predict such toxicity. Taking advantage of the fact that amylase is filtered in the glomerulus and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules, we prospectively examined in 23 patients if changes in renal amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) can predict gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Eighteen of these patients had an initial creatinine clearance (rCcr) above 30 mL/min. Eleven of them (group A) had an ACCR above 3.5% (control 3% +/- 1.03%) and all exhibited an average reduction of 32.2% +/- 11.6% in rCcr following one week of gentamicin therapy. In contrast, only one of seven patients (group B) with an initial ACCR below 3.5% had a reduction, albeit transient, in rCcr. During gentamicin therapy, group A patients had a further increase in ACCR which was proportional to the reduction observed in rCcr (r = -.54). Our preliminary data suggest that ACCR may prove a simple and possibly a reliable predictor of kidney function deterioration during gentamicin therapy in patients with rCcr above 30 mL/min: patients with pretherapy ACCR above 3.5% may exhibit a deterioration in the creatinine clearance during the first week of therapy. For patients with pretherapy renal failure (rCcr less than 30 mL/min) the creatinine levels (but not the ACCR) seem to retain their significance in predicting and monitoring further renal function deterioration during aminoglycoside therapy.

  17. Amylase-creatinine clearance ratio. A simple test to predict gentamicin nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Aderka, D; Tene, M; Graff, E; Levo, Y

    1988-05-01

    The initial target of aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity is the proximal tubule. Yet, no simple test is available to predict such toxicity. Taking advantage of the fact that amylase is filtered in the glomerulus and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules, we prospectively examined in 23 patients if changes in renal amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) can predict gentamicin nephrotoxicity. Eighteen of these patients had an initial creatinine clearance (rCcr) above 30 mL/min. Eleven of them (group A) had an ACCR above 3.5% (control 3% +/- 1.03%) and all exhibited an average reduction of 32.2% +/- 11.6% in rCcr following one week of gentamicin therapy. In contrast, only one of seven patients (group B) with an initial ACCR below 3.5% had a reduction, albeit transient, in rCcr. During gentamicin therapy, group A patients had a further increase in ACCR which was proportional to the reduction observed in rCcr (r = -.54). Our preliminary data suggest that ACCR may prove a simple and possibly a reliable predictor of kidney function deterioration during gentamicin therapy in patients with rCcr above 30 mL/min: patients with pretherapy ACCR above 3.5% may exhibit a deterioration in the creatinine clearance during the first week of therapy. For patients with pretherapy renal failure (rCcr less than 30 mL/min) the creatinine levels (but not the ACCR) seem to retain their significance in predicting and monitoring further renal function deterioration during aminoglycoside therapy. PMID:2452611

  18. [Ratio of amylase clearance and creatinine clearance in the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Haffter, D; Reichlin, B; Gyr, K

    1981-05-30

    In 21 healthy volunteers the ratio of amylase clearance and creatinine clearance (Cam/Ccr) was determined in urine collected at admission, after a 1-hour collection period and after a 2-hour collection period. The normal values were 1.8 +/- 1.6%, 1.9 +/- 2% and 2.0 +/- 1.7% respectively. They were comparable with those published by others. The reproducibility of the method was acceptable (r = 0.62). When compared with serum amylase determinations, Cam/Ccr showed neither better sensitivity in 19 patients suffering an acute episode of proven pancreatitis, nor better specificity in 19 patients with acute abdomen but no evidence of pancreatitis.

  19. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio and tubular proteinuria in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Lankisch, P G; Wolfrum, D I; Koop, H; Winckler, K

    1979-01-01

    Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (CAm/CCr), urinary protein concentration and urinary protein pattern were studied in 102 samples from 27 patients with acute pancreatitis and in 46 controls. Raised CAm/CCr, proteinuria and a tubular protein pattern were present in 74, 56 and 96% of the patients, respectively. However, CAm/CCr and proteinuria and CAm/CCr and tubular protein pattern were not correlated. These results do not support the suggestion that an elevated CAm/CCr in acute pancreatitis is due to generalized tubular protein reabsorption failure presenting with tubular proteinuria.

  20. Ratio of C-Reactive Protein to Albumin Predicts Muscle Mass in Adult Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Tong; Wu, Pei-Yu; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Hsu, Yung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that the ratio of C-reactive protein to albumin (CRP–Alb ratio) is associated with clinical outcomes in patients with disease. We examined the predictive value of this ratio in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD). In this cross-sectional study, 91 eligible adult HD patients were analyzed, and the correlation between the CRP–Alb ratio and skeletal muscle mass normalized for body weight (SMM/wt; estimated using a bioelectrical impedance analyzer) was investigated. The mean age of the study participants was 54.9 ± 6.6 years (ranging from 27 to 64 years); 43 (47.2%) were men. The mean values for the SMM/wt were 39.1% ± 5.4%. The CRP–Alb ratio was found to be negatively correlated with SMM/wt (r = −0.33, P = 0.002) and creatinine (r = −0.20, P = 0.056). All the univariate significant and nonsignificant relevant covariates were selected for multivariable stepwise regression analysis. We determined that the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance and CRP–Alb ratio were independent risk determinants for SMM/wt (βHOMA-IR = −0.18 and βCRP–Alb ratio = −3.84, adjusted R2 = 0.32). This study indicated that the CRP–Alb ratio may help clinicians in predicting muscle mass in adult patients undergoing HD. PMID:27768746

  1. Influence of amylase assay technique on renal clearance of amylase-creatinine ratio.

    PubMed

    Levitt, M D; Johnson, S G; Ellis, C J; Engel, R R

    1977-06-01

    The influence of amylase assay technique on the renal amylase/creatinine clearance measurement was determined by analysis of serum and urine specimens obtained from 10 normal subjects. CAm/CCr averaged 2.19 +/- 0.18% with a saccharogenic technique, 1.52 +/- 0.2% with an iodometric technique, and 0.80 +/- 0.08% with a chromogenic technique. Each of these values differed significantly (P less than 0.05) from the other two. Recovery studies were carried out by adding partially purified human salivary or pancreatic amylase to human newborn serum or urine (which contain minimal endogenous amylase). Equal amylase activity was recovered from serum and urine by the saccharogenic technique whereas recovery from urine was less than 50% of that from serum using the iodometric and chromogenic techniques. The accuracy of the chromogenic technique is markedly improved by the addition of albumin to the urine assay system. Although it appears that only the saccharogenic method provides an accurate estimate of CAm/CCr, each assay technique distinguished the elevated CAm/CCr of patients with pancreatitis from the normal range established for that technique. Accurate clinical interpretation of CAm/CCr measurment requires knowledge of the amylase assay technique used.

  2. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Boybeyi, Ozlem; Ergür, Ayça Törel; Dursun, Zarife Esra; Gülerman, Fulya

    2014-11-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) accompanies any other intra-abdominal pathology. Serum amylase/lipase levels are commonly used in order to rule out acute pancreatitis in patients having abdominal pain in DKA. A more specific and noninvasive diagnostic tool - amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) - can be used to rule out pancreatitis in patients with DKA. A 14-year-old girl was admitted with abdominal pain and nausea. She had been followed up for type 1 diabetes mellitus for the last 5 years. The serum amylase levels were increased up to 687 U/L (normal: 28-120 U/L) on the third day of hospitalization. Simultaneous serum and urinary amylase concentrations were measured, and ACCR was calculated (1.2%). The diagnosis of pancreatitis was ruled out. The serum amylase levels decreased in the following days, and she was discharged. ACCR determination is a simple and specific test to diagnose pancreatitis, especially in patients with DKA.

  3. Assessment of the amylase--creatinine clearance ratio in postoperative patients.

    PubMed

    Leckie, P A; Ferreira, P; Debas, H T

    1980-08-01

    The value of the amylase--creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) in the diagnosis of postoperative pancreatitis was prospectively assessed. In 77 patients undergoing operations known to have a significant incidence of postoperative pancreatitis (gastric, biliary or pancreatic) i.e. "high risk" group, the ACCR was abnormally elevated postoperatively in 36 patients (47%). However, overt clinical pancreatitis occurred in only eight patients (10%). In 60 other patients undergoing nonabdominal operations (orthiipedic, head and neck, varicose vein surgery etc.) i.e. "low risk" group, the ACCR was abnormally elevated postoperatively in 23 patients (38%). No patient in this group developed clinical pancreatitis. We conclude, therefore, the ACCR is often abnormally elevated nonspecifically following any type of surgery, and cannot be used as evidence of postoperative pancreatitis. These data do suggest, however, that a normal ACCR, especially on successive daily determinations, might help to exclude the diagnosis of postoperative pancreatitis.

  4. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in diabetic ketoacidosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Boybeyi, Ozlem; Ergür, Ayça Törel; Dursun, Zarife Esra; Gülerman, Fulya

    2014-11-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) accompanies any other intra-abdominal pathology. Serum amylase/lipase levels are commonly used in order to rule out acute pancreatitis in patients having abdominal pain in DKA. A more specific and noninvasive diagnostic tool - amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) - can be used to rule out pancreatitis in patients with DKA. A 14-year-old girl was admitted with abdominal pain and nausea. She had been followed up for type 1 diabetes mellitus for the last 5 years. The serum amylase levels were increased up to 687 U/L (normal: 28-120 U/L) on the third day of hospitalization. Simultaneous serum and urinary amylase concentrations were measured, and ACCR was calculated (1.2%). The diagnosis of pancreatitis was ruled out. The serum amylase levels decreased in the following days, and she was discharged. ACCR determination is a simple and specific test to diagnose pancreatitis, especially in patients with DKA. PMID:25153214

  5. Assessment of the amylase--creatinine clearance ratio in postoperative patients.

    PubMed

    Leckie, P A; Ferreira, P; Debas, H T

    1980-08-01

    The value of the amylase--creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) in the diagnosis of postoperative pancreatitis was prospectively assessed. In 77 patients undergoing operations known to have a significant incidence of postoperative pancreatitis (gastric, biliary or pancreatic) i.e. "high risk" group, the ACCR was abnormally elevated postoperatively in 36 patients (47%). However, overt clinical pancreatitis occurred in only eight patients (10%). In 60 other patients undergoing nonabdominal operations (orthiipedic, head and neck, varicose vein surgery etc.) i.e. "low risk" group, the ACCR was abnormally elevated postoperatively in 23 patients (38%). No patient in this group developed clinical pancreatitis. We conclude, therefore, the ACCR is often abnormally elevated nonspecifically following any type of surgery, and cannot be used as evidence of postoperative pancreatitis. These data do suggest, however, that a normal ACCR, especially on successive daily determinations, might help to exclude the diagnosis of postoperative pancreatitis. PMID:6157370

  6. [Amylase in serum, amylase excretion and the amylase-creatinine-ratio. Individual variation and diagnostic specifity (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Koch, C D; Rommel, K

    1981-06-01

    The amylase activity in serum, the amylase excretion and the amylase-creatinine-ratio was investigated in 25 volunteers monthly for one year and daily for two weeks. The intraindividual variation of the amylase-activity in serum showed only small oscillations. The large refernce value of the group and the need to use individual reference values prefer the 24 hour amylase excretion as a diagnostic tool. The amylase-creatinine-ratio showed individual and seasonal large variations. Therefore the ratio is not suitable for diagnostic questions.

  7. Underestimation of urinary biomarker-to-creatinine ratio resulting from age-related gain in muscle mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Tonomura, Yutaka; Morikawa, Yuji; Takagi, Shingo; Torii, Mikinori; Matsubara, Mitsunobu

    2013-01-01

    Recent efforts have been made to identify useful urinary biomarkers of nephrotoxicity. Furthermore, the application of urine to the other toxicities as new biomarker source has been recently expanded. Meanwhile, correction of urinary biomarker concentrations according to fluctuations in urine flow rate is required for adequate interpretation of the alteration. The urinary biomarker-to-creatinine ratio (UBCR) is widely used because of the convenience, while the urinary biomarker-excretion rate is regarded as the gold standard corrective method. Because creatinine is a catabolite in energy production in muscles, we hypothesized that altered muscle mass could affect creatinine kinetics, ultimately affecting UBCR. However, no study has examined this hypothesis. In this study, we examined the influence of muscle mass gain on UBCR, using male Sprague-Dawley rats during the growth phase, 6-12-week old. Both plasma creatinine and excretion of urinary creatinine (Ucr excretion) showed increases with muscle mass gain in rats, in which the alterations of UBCR were lowered. The renal mRNA level of the organic cation transporter-2 (Oct2), a creatinine transporter, showed an age-related increase, whereas the mRNA level of multidrug and toxin extrusions-1 (Mate1) remained constant. Multiple regression analysis showed that the increase in creatinine clearance highly contributed to the age-related increase in Ucr excretion compared to the mRNA levels of Oct2 and Mate1. This suggested that the age-related increase in Ucr excretion may be attributable to the increased transglomerular passage of creatinine. In conclusion, the results suggest that muscle mass gain can affect creatinine kinetics, leading to underestimation of UBCR. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics of the corrective method when using urinary biomarker, the failure of which can result in an incorrect diagnosis.

  8. Multicentre physiological reference values for some urinary component-to-creatinine (creatininium) concentration ratios.

    PubMed

    Fuentes-Arderiu, Xavier; Mas-Serra, Roser; de-Nó-Lengaran, Carmen; Espejo-López, Francisco; Filgueiras-Martínez, Paula; Gassiot-Cordomí, Paula; Idoate-Cervantes, Isabel; Poncela-García, María Victoria; Porras-Gracia, Juan; Sanz-Lobo, Irene; Viloria-Peñas, María del Mar; Juvé-Cuxart, Santiago

    2005-01-01

    Nine clinical laboratories in different regions of Spain have shared the search for reference individuals and the production of reference values for urinary component-to-creatininium concentration ratios measured in first morning urine samples using RD/Hitachi analysers. These urinary quantities include albumin, calcium(II), chloride, magnesium(II), phosphate, potassium ion, protein, sodium ion, urate and urea. All the logistic work was done in co-operation with the reagents' and analysers' supplier (Roche Diagnostics España, S.L., Sant Cugat del Vallès, Catalonia, Spain). From the blend of reference values obtained by each laboratory, the multicentre reference limits were estimated parametrically after mathematical transformation of original data.

  9. [The amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in the differential diagnosis of pancreatitis and gastroduodenal ulcer with hyperamylasemia].

    PubMed

    Pezzangora, V; Della Dora, R; Pagliarini, A; Dell'Olivo, I

    1978-04-01

    The Authors followed 29 patients, hospitaled with a diagnosis of pancreatitis. They all presented the same sympotomatology and a considerable increase of the serum amylase ad urinary amylase. The examination of the ratio between the clearance of amylasis and creatinine permitted to make a differential diagnosis for 8 cases (4rd group) that were nothing but peptic ulcera. Such a diagnosis was confirmed by the radiological contrastographic examination or by the intraoperative report. So if the ratio between the clearance of amylase and creatinine is normal we must think about a pathological situation were the iperamylasemia has a pathogenetic cause different from pancreatitis.

  10. Timely Diagnosis of Acute Kidney Injury Using Kinetic eGFR and the Creatinine Excretion to Production Ratio, E/eG - Creatinine Can Be Useful!

    PubMed

    Endre, Zoltán H; Pianta, Timothy J; Pickering, John W

    2016-01-01

    Post transplant repeated measurements of urine volume and serum creatinine (sCr) are used to assess kidney function. Under non-steady state conditions, repeated measurement of sCr allows calculation of the kinetic estimated GFR (KeGFR). Additional measurement of urinary creatinine allows the calculation of the creatinine excretion to (estimated) production ratio (E/eG). We hypothesized that post-transplant KeGFR and E/eG would predict delayed graft function (DGF), as early as 4 h and outperform a validated clinical model at 12 h. This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively acquired data in a study of 56 recipients of deceased-donor kidney transplant. We assessed predictive performance with the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) and the added value to a clinical model with integrated discrimination improvement analysis. At 4 h, the AUC for E/eG was 0.87 (95% CI 0.77-0.96) and for KeGFR 0.69 (95% CI 0.56-0.83). Both E/eG and KeGFR improved the risk prediction of a clinical model for DGF by 32 and 18%, and for non-DGF by 17 and 10%, respectively. While E/eG had better predictive performance of DGF than KeGFR, KeGFR might also facilitate perioperative management including drug dosing after kidney transplantation. Together these measurements may facilitate the possibility of conducting trials of early intervention to ameliorate the adverse effects of ischaemia-reperfusion injury on long-term DGF. PMID:26950884

  11. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio response to hyperglucagonemia in diabetes and obesity.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Y; Piell, E; Santo, M

    1986-11-01

    Hyperglucagonemia accompanies several disorders such as acute pancreatitis and diabetic ketoacidosis characterized by increased amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR). We tested the hypothesis that glucagon may be responsible for the augmental ACCR among diabetic and/or obese subjects. A constant glucagon infusion (15 ng/kg/min) was given to eight noninsulin-dependent diabetics and to eight obese subjects to attain glucagon levels comparable with those obtained during acute pancreatitis. The ACCR significantly increased from 0.9 +/- 0.1 to 1.5 +/- 0.1% (p less than 0.005) in both noninsulin-dependent diabetics and obese subjects, whereas among normal control subjects the ACCR increased from 0.84 +/- 0.8 to 1.3 +/- 0.14% (p less than 0.001). Because the increased values observed in either noninsulin-dependent diabetics or obese subjects are less than the ACCR values observed in acute pancreatitis or in diabetic ketoacidosis, the elevated ACCR in those conditions is only partially explained by the hyperglucagonemia.

  12. Amylase/creatinine clearance ratio response to hyperglucagonemia in diabetes and obesity.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Y; Piell, E; Santo, M

    1986-11-01

    Hyperglucagonemia accompanies several disorders such as acute pancreatitis and diabetic ketoacidosis characterized by increased amylase/creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR). We tested the hypothesis that glucagon may be responsible for the augmental ACCR among diabetic and/or obese subjects. A constant glucagon infusion (15 ng/kg/min) was given to eight noninsulin-dependent diabetics and to eight obese subjects to attain glucagon levels comparable with those obtained during acute pancreatitis. The ACCR significantly increased from 0.9 +/- 0.1 to 1.5 +/- 0.1% (p less than 0.005) in both noninsulin-dependent diabetics and obese subjects, whereas among normal control subjects the ACCR increased from 0.84 +/- 0.8 to 1.3 +/- 0.14% (p less than 0.001). Because the increased values observed in either noninsulin-dependent diabetics or obese subjects are less than the ACCR values observed in acute pancreatitis or in diabetic ketoacidosis, the elevated ACCR in those conditions is only partially explained by the hyperglucagonemia. PMID:2430451

  13. Validation of a noninvasive diagnostic tool to verify neuter status in dogs: The urinary FSH to creatinine ratio.

    PubMed

    Albers-Wolthers, C H J; de Gier, J; Oei, C H Y; Schaefers-Okkens, A C; Kooistra, H S

    2016-09-15

    Determining the presence of functional gonadal tissue in dogs can be challenging, especially in bitches during anestrus or not known to have been ovariectomized, or in male dogs with nonscrotal testes. Furthermore, in male dogs treated with deslorelin, a slow-release GnRH agonist implant for reversible chemical castration, the verification of complete downregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis can be difficult, especially if pretreatment parameters such as the size of the testes or prostate gland are not available. The aims of this study were to validate an immunoradiometric assay for measurement of FSH in canine urine, to determine if the urinary FSH to creatinine ratio can be used to verify the neuter status in bitches and male dogs, as an alternative to the plasma FSH concentration, and to determine if downregulation of the HPG axis is achieved in male dogs during deslorelin treatment. Recovery of added canine FSH and serial dilutions of urine reported that the immunoradiometric assay measures urinary FSH concentration accurately and with high precision. Plasma FSH concentrations (the mean of two samples, taken 40 minutes apart) and the urinary FSH to creatinine ratio were determined before gonadectomy and 140 days (median, range 121-225 days) and 206 days (median, range 158-294 days) after gonadectomy of 13 bitches and five male dogs, respectively, and in 13 male dogs before and 132 days (median, range 117-174 days) after administration of a deslorelin implant. In both bitches and male dogs, the plasma FSH concentration and the urinary FSH to creatinine ratio were significantly higher after gonadectomy, with no overlapping of their ranges. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of the urinary FSH to creatinine ratio revealed a cut-off value of 2.9 in bitches and 6.5 in males to verify the presence or absence of functional gonadal tissue. In male dogs treated with deslorelin, the plasma FSH concentrations and urinary FSH to

  14. Urine Protein/Creatinine Ratios during Labor: A Prospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Tanamai, Vaya W.; Seagle, Brandon-Luke L.; Yeh, Judy Y.; Brady, Bethany; Miller, Corrie B.; Sena, Salvador; Dodge, Jessica; Shahabi, Shohreh; Samuelson, Robert; Norwitz, Errol R.; Luo, Guoyang

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the utility of urine protein/creatinine ratio (uPCR) measurements among healthy parturients at term we performed a prospective cohort study at a community teaching hospital. Methods Serial urine samples were collected. Ninety-three women contributed 284 urine samples. uPCRs were determined. Multiple imputation and paired sampled analysis was performed when appropriate. Results Two-thirds (63/93) of women had at least one measured uPCR ≥ 0.3. One-third (31/93) had a uPCR ≥ 0.3 at admission, including 39.1% (9/23) of women not in labor. Median (IQR) uPCRs increased during labor and after delivery: latent phase/no labor, 0.15 (0.06–0.32); active phase, 0.29 (0.10–0.58); early postpartum, 0.45 (0.18–1.36) (all p < 0.04). Median uPCRs were significantly < 0.3 in the latent phase and significantly > 0.3 in the immediate postpartum period (p < 0.01). Women who labored before cesarean delivery had the highest early postpartum uPCRs: median (IQR) 1.16 (0.39–1.80). A negative urine dipstick protein result did not exclude uPCR ≥ 0.3. uPCRs were similar when compared by method of urine collection. Conclusion uPCR ≥ 0.3 is common among healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies at term. uPCR increases during labor and is not a reliable measure of pathologic proteinuria at term or during the peripartum period. PMID:27479123

  15. Elevated amylase creatinine clearance ratio and normal serum amylase levels in chronic relapsing pancreatitis after partial pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Cattau, E L; Garcia-Torres, F

    1980-12-01

    A 29-year-old woman admitted for alcohol detoxification five years after a 90% distal pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis had abdominal pain similar to that associated with preoperative pancreatitis. Although her clinical course was consistent with recurrent pancreatitis, the serum amylase level remained normal, but the amylase creatinine clearance ratio became elevated and then returned to normal, paralleling her clinical course. The ACCR may be a useful laboratory method in diagnosing chronic recurrent pancreatitis in patients with decreased functional pancreatic tissue.

  16. Prolonged winter undernutrition and the interpretation of urinary allantoin:creatinine ratios in white-tailed deer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, Glenn D.; Kerr, Ken D.; Mech, L. David; Seal, Ulysses S.

    2000-01-01

    The urinary allantoin:creatinine (A:C) ratio (expressed in micromoles of allantoin to micromoles of creatinine) has shown potential as an index of recent winter energy intake in preliminary controlled studies of elk (Cervus elaphus) involving mild condition deterioration (up to 11% loss of body mass). To ensure reliable nutritional assessments of free-ranging cervids by measuring A:C ratios of urine in snow, it is essential to extend this work. We assessed the effect of moderate and severe winter nutritional restriction on urinary A:C ratios of captive white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) that lost up to 32% body mass and related these ratios to metabolizable energy intake (MEI), body-mass loss, and other reported nutritional indicators. Deer in the control group were fed a low-protein, low-energy diet ad libitum, whereas deer in the treatment group were fed restricted amounts of the same diet. MEI was below the winter maintenance requirement for all deer, but was lower (P = 0.029) in treatment deer than in control deer. Percent body-mass loss differed between the two groups as the study progressed, and represented the full range of physiological tolerance (0-32% loss). Mean A:C ratios of control deer, which lost up to 17.4% body mass, showed a slight increasing (P = 0.086) trend, whereas initially similar A:C ratios of severely restricted deer increased (P = 0.0002) markedly by the eighth week (0.52 vs. 0.09 µmol:µmol). The urinary A:C ratio was not related (P = 0.839) to recent (2 days prior to urine sampling) MEI, but there was a marginally significant relation (r2 = 0.42, P = 0.110) between the A:C ratio and cumulative percent mass loss. The urinary A:C ratio was directly related to urinary urea nitrogen:creatinine (r2 = 0.59, P < 0.0001) and 3-methylhistidine:creatinine (r2 = 0.43, P < 0.0001) ratios. This study confirms that elevated and increasing A:C ratios may be due either to increasing energy intake or to accelerated tissue catabolism and

  17. Spot urine cortisol–creatinine ratio – A useful screening test in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Nitin; Job, Victoria; Jayaseelan, L.; Rajaratnam, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Although, there are several tests available, not one of them fulfils the criteria of being an ideal screening test. Continuing the search for an ideal screening test, we explored the use of urine spot cortisol-creatinine ratio as a novel method of evaluating patients with Cushing's syndrome. Method: A total of 35 subjects were studied and divided into 3 groups - 15 having cushings syndrome, 15 patients with obesity and 5 normal weight subjects. All patients with cushings syndrome were positive for the other screening tests. Results: The mean (standard deviation) of cortisol:creatinine ratio among the 3 groups (cushings, obese and control subjects) was 36.00(24.74), 7.01(2.73) and 3.49(2.68) respectively. Using the cutoff of 12.27 nano mol/ micro mol(based on data of normal subjects) for the urine cortisol creatinine ratio we get a sensitivity of 93.75% and a specificity of 100%. Also the positive and negative predictive value as calculated with this cutoff is 100% and 93.3% respectively. Conclusion: In this study we found that UCCR is similar in both Obese and Non Obese subjects who did not have cushings syndrome. UCCR is significantly elevated in individuals with Cushing's syndrome as compared to those who do not have cushings syndrome. Also when a cut off of 12.27 nano mol/ micro mol was used this test had a higher sensitivity, however this test had a higher specificity at a cut off of 15.35. PMID:23565435

  18. Elevated amylase creatinine clearance ratio and normal serum amylase levels in chronic relapsing pancreatitis after partial pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Cattau, E L; Garcia-Torres, F

    1980-12-01

    A 29-year-old woman admitted for alcohol detoxification five years after a 90% distal pancreatectomy for chronic pancreatitis had abdominal pain similar to that associated with preoperative pancreatitis. Although her clinical course was consistent with recurrent pancreatitis, the serum amylase level remained normal, but the amylase creatinine clearance ratio became elevated and then returned to normal, paralleling her clinical course. The ACCR may be a useful laboratory method in diagnosing chronic recurrent pancreatitis in patients with decreased functional pancreatic tissue. PMID:6160621

  19. Urinary Uric Acid/Creatinine Ratio as a Marker of Mortality and Unfavorable Outcome in NICU-Admitted Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Nariman, Shahin; Mosayebi, Ziba; Sagheb, Setareh; Rastad, Hadith; Hosseininodeh, Seyyed Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background The survival of neonates who have been admitted to the NICU, especially premature infants with few mortality and morbidity, is the most important attitude. Objectives We presumed whether urinary uric acid/creatinine (UUA/Cr) ratio can be a marker of mortality and adverse outcome in neonates which were admitted to the NICU. Patients and Methods All preterm infants admitted to our NICU after birth from March 2014 to April 2015 were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. UUA/Cr was measured during the first day of life. The severity of diseases (indicated by the need for high set-up of mechanical ventilation, complications of prematurity, and duration of stay in the NICU) and neonatal death were considered to be the final unfavorable outcomes. The relationship between the Log-transformation (Ln) urinary uric acid/creatinine ratio and the Apgar score at the first and 5th minute after birth and the duration of stay were analyzed by using linear regression. Statistical analysis was done by using STATA version 11 (STATA Corp, TX, USA). A P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results A total of 362 preterm infants with a mean gestational age of 32.7 (± 3.9) weeks were admitted to the NICU, out of whom 64 (17.6%) had severe disease and 43 (11.8%) died. The mean UUA/Cr ratio was significantly higher in the admitted neonates (3.30 ± 1.95 vs. 1.36 ± 0.42. P = 0.0001). There was a negative correlation between the UUA/Cr ratio and the 1-minute Apgar score (r = -0.17, P = 0.006) and the 5-minute Apgar score (r = -0.19, P = 0.003). The 1-minute Apgar scores were negatively correlated with the outcome (OR = 0.68; P < 0.001) and the duration of stay (β = -.28; P < 0.001). There was no significant correlation between 5-minute Apgar scores and the outcome. There was a significant positive correlation between the UUA/Cr ratio and an unfavorable outcome (OR = 1.24; CI %95: 1.06 to 1.43, P = 0.006) and increasing duration of stay (β = 0.17; P = 0

  20. Personal exposure and health effect relationship for NO2 with urinary hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio as indicator

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagisawa, Y.; Nishimura, H.; Matsuki, H.; Osaka, F.; Kasuga, H.

    1986-01-01

    Establishment of an exposure-effect relationship was attempted between personal nitrogen dioxide (NO/sub 2/) exposure and urinary hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio of approximately 800 adult women, who were mothers of primary schoolchildren living in two communities around Tokyo. Daily average of the personal NO/sub 2/ exposure (ENO/sub 2/) was measured during wintertime by a newly developed personal monitor exposed for 24 hours. The hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio (HOP:C) in the urine sample collected early in the morning of the day for ENO/sub 2/ measurement was used as a biochemical indicator of the health effect of NO/sub 2/ exposure. The HOP:C was found to have significant correlation with ENO/sub 2/ and number of cigarettes smoked actively and passively. ENO/sub 2/, however, had no correlation with the intensity of the smoking levels; they might affect HOP:C independently. Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that HOP:C could be predicted by ENO/sub 2/ and smoking habits at a high confidence level. The regression analysis of the active smokers group indicated that a few cigarettes was enough to increase the HOP:C, while in the case of passive smoking, HOP:C increased proportionally to the number of cigarettes.

  1. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio might help prediction of acute myocardial infarction in patients with elevated serum creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Nalbant, Ahmet; Cinemre, Hakan; Kaya, Tezcan; Varim, Ceyhun; Varim, Perihan; Tamer, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: Diagnostic performance of troponin assays is affected by renal insufficiency. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio(NLR) is an independent predictor of acute coronary syndrome. Our objective was to evaluate performance of NLR in diagnosing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) among patients with elevated serum creatinine. Methods: Patients with elevated creatinine levels evaluated for coronary artery disease were included (n=284). Patients were divided into two groups according to having AMI or non-specific chest pain. AMI diagnosis was made based on clinical and laboratory data, including serial EKG and cardiac enzymes, ECHO and coronary angiography. Results: Troponin, neutrophil, and NLR were found to be higher in patients with AMI, compared to patients without AMI (P= 0.001, P= 0.001 and P=0.028, respectively). ROC curve analysis for NLR in diagnosing AMI was significant (AUC: 0.607; P=0.003). Sensitivity, specificity, LR +, LR-, PPV and NPV for NLR>7.4 were found as 42.3%, 74.7%, 1.68%, 0.77%, 77% and 40%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis revealed that patients whose NLR>7.4 were 2.18 times as likely to have AMI. Conclusions: NLR can be used as an independent predictor of AMI in patients with renal insufficiency. This seems to get more important in the era of high sensitivity troponin assays. Our results might also help in early diagnosis of AMI in this high risk population while serial cardiac enzyme results are pending. PMID:27022355

  2. Changes of serum amylase, its isozyme fractions and amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in dogs with experimentally induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Akuzawa, M; Morizono, M; Nagata, K; Hayano, S; Sakamoto, H; Yasuda, N; Okamoto, K; Kawasaki, Y; Deguchi, E

    1994-04-01

    To investigate the diagnostic application of amylase to canine pancreatic diseases, serum amylase activities, its isozyme fractions and amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) were analyzed in normal intact dogs and dogs experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. There was no statistic difference between normal male and female dogs. Amylase specific activities in pancreatic tissue extracts were more than 2,300 times higher than that in serum, and were also higher than those in other tissues; parotid and mandibular salivary glands, lung, heart, liver, spleen, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and kidney. Following the chloroform injection into the pancreatic tissue, WBC increased from 6 to 240 hr and serum glucose significantly increased at 72 and 96 hr, and no urine glucose was detected. BUN as well as serum and urine creatinine showed normal levels. ACCR increased until 96 hr without statistic significance. Serum amylase activities increased significantly after 3 hr and its isozyme was separated into 4 fractions (Amy1-Amy4) in contrast to 3 fractions (Amy2-Amy4) in intact dogs. Since this extra Amy1 seen from 1 hr increasing after 6 hr similarly to other 3 fractions, the evaluation of serum amylase and its isozyme fractions was indicated to be useful for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in dogs.

  3. Changes of serum amylase, its isozyme fractions and amylase-creatinine clearance ratio in dogs with experimentally induced acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Akuzawa, M; Morizono, M; Nagata, K; Hayano, S; Sakamoto, H; Yasuda, N; Okamoto, K; Kawasaki, Y; Deguchi, E

    1994-04-01

    To investigate the diagnostic application of amylase to canine pancreatic diseases, serum amylase activities, its isozyme fractions and amylase-creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR) were analyzed in normal intact dogs and dogs experimentally induced acute pancreatitis. There was no statistic difference between normal male and female dogs. Amylase specific activities in pancreatic tissue extracts were more than 2,300 times higher than that in serum, and were also higher than those in other tissues; parotid and mandibular salivary glands, lung, heart, liver, spleen, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and kidney. Following the chloroform injection into the pancreatic tissue, WBC increased from 6 to 240 hr and serum glucose significantly increased at 72 and 96 hr, and no urine glucose was detected. BUN as well as serum and urine creatinine showed normal levels. ACCR increased until 96 hr without statistic significance. Serum amylase activities increased significantly after 3 hr and its isozyme was separated into 4 fractions (Amy1-Amy4) in contrast to 3 fractions (Amy2-Amy4) in intact dogs. Since this extra Amy1 seen from 1 hr increasing after 6 hr similarly to other 3 fractions, the evaluation of serum amylase and its isozyme fractions was indicated to be useful for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis in dogs. PMID:7521216

  4. Postoperative elevation of amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in patients without pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Gross, J B; Levitt, M D

    1979-09-01

    An elevated CAm/CCr ratio has been used as evidence for the frequent occurrence of acute pancreatitis in the postoperative period. We measured CAm/CCr pre and postoperatively in 28 patients undergoing extraperitoneal surgical procedures. None of the patients had clinical evidence of pancreatitis, although 2 of the 28 patients had elevated CAm/CCr ratios preoperatively. Mean CAm/CCr rose from a preoperative level of 2.3 +/- 0.3% (1 SE) to 3.2 +/- 0.3% on the first postoperative day (P less than 0.001). Of the 26 patients with normal preoperative CAm/CCr, 12% (3 of 26) developed a clearly abnormal ratio and 12% (3 of 26) developed borderline elevated values. An elevated CAm/CCr appears to be a nonspecific postoperative finding and cannot be used as evidence of acute pancreatitis during this period.

  5. Effects of Aging and Blood Contamination on the Urinary Protein–Creatinine Ratio in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    PubMed Central

    Lammey, Michael L; Ely, John J; Zavaskis, Tony; Videan, Elaine; Sleeper, Meg M

    2011-01-01

    The initial goal of this study was to evaluate proteinuria by using the protein to creatinine (UPC) ratio of urine obtained by cystocentesis of healthy adult captive chimpanzees. Urine samples were collected by using ultrasound-guided cystocentesis from 125 (80 male, 45 female) captive chimpanzees. All samples were collected over a 17-mo time period (August 2008 to January 2010) during the animal's annual physical examination. Samples were assayed at a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Results indicated that both age and blood contamination affect the UPC ratio and therefore alter the diagnostic utility of the UPC ratio in chimpanzees. In addition, this research establishes reference ranges by age for the UPC ratio in healthy adult chimpanzees. Chimps younger than the median age of 24.6 y have a median UPC ratio of 0.098 (range, 0 to 1.76), whereas older animals have a median UPC of 0.288 (range, 0 to 2.44). Our results likely will enable veterinarians working with chimpanzees to better evaluate their renal function. PMID:21640034

  6. Effects of aging and blood contamination on the urinary protein-creatinine ratio in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    PubMed

    Lammey, Michael L; Ely, John J; Zavaskis, Tony; Videan, Elaine; Sleeper, Meg M

    2011-05-01

    The initial goal of this study was to evaluate proteinuria by using the protein to creatinine (UPC) ratio of urine obtained by cystocentesis of healthy adult captive chimpanzees. Urine samples were collected by using ultrasound-guided cystocentesis from 125 (80 male, 45 female) captive chimpanzees. All samples were collected over a 17-mo time period (August 2008 to January 2010) during the animal's annual physical examination. Samples were assayed at a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. Results indicated that both age and blood contamination affect the UPC ratio and therefore alter the diagnostic utility of the UPC ratio in chimpanzees. In addition, this research establishes reference ranges by age for the UPC ratio in healthy adult chimpanzees. Chimps younger than the median age of 24.6 y have a median UPC ratio of 0.098 (range, 0 to 1.76), whereas older animals have a median UPC of 0.288 (range, 0 to 2.44). Our results likely will enable veterinarians working with chimpanzees to better evaluate their renal function. PMID:21640034

  7. Monitoring urinary excretion of cannabinoids by fluorescence-polarization immunoassay: a cannabinoid-to-creatinine ratio study.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Albert D; Worth, David

    2002-12-01

    Drug testing in substance abuse treatment programs is focused on urine analysis of parent drugs and major metabolites. Huestis reported that serial monitoring of the major urinary cannabinoid metabolite (delta9-THC-COOH)-to-creatinine ratios in paired urine specimens (collected at least 24 hours apart) could differentiate new marijuana or hashish use from residual cannabinoid metabolite excretion in urine after previous drug use. Subjects with a history of chronic marijuana use were screened for cannabinoids in urine over several months by an enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) with a cut-off value of 50 ng/mL. Presumptive positive specimens were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for delta9-THC-COOH with a cut-off value of 15 ng/mL. The objective of this study was to determine whether a semiquantitative cannabinoids immunoassay (corrected for creatinine concentration) could differentiate new marijuana use from residual cannabinoid excretion in chronic users of marijuana or hashish compared with GC-MS. The criterion for new marijuana use was a cannabinoid-to-creatinine ratio > or =0.5 (dividing the immunoassay quantitative result to creatinine ratio of specimen 2 by the specimen 1 ratio, specimen 3 by the specimen 2 ratio, etc.). Urine specimens were analyzed by fluorescence-polarization immunoassay (FPIA) on an Abbott TDxFLx analyzer after analysis by GC-MS. In 90 urine specimens (group A) with delta9-THC-COOH values determined by GC-MS, the mean delta9-THC-COOH concentration was 44.4 ng/mL (range, 16-100), and the mean FPIA total cannabinoids value was 91.7 ng/mL (range, 21-204 ng/mL) with a correlation coefficient of 0.993 (group A). In 111 specimens (group B), the mean delta9-THC-COOH concentration was 361 ng/mL (range, 101-960 ng/mL). The mean FPIA value was 657 ng/mL (range, 211-1,270 ng/mL), and the correlation coefficient of the B series was 0.975. Percent cross-reactivity for delta9-THC-COOH standards prepared in drug-free urine by FPIA was 82

  8. Measurement of the Urinary Lactate/Creatinine Ratio for Early Diagnosis of the Hypoxic–Ischemic Encephalopathy in Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Ghotbi, Nahid; Najibi, Babak

    2010-01-01

    Objective Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of permanent neurological disabilities. Perinatal asphyxia may induce neonatal mortality after birth or neurological impairment among survivors. There are no reliable methods for identifying infants at risk for this disorder. Methods We measured the ratio of lactate/creatinine (L/C) in urine by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy within 6 and 24 hours after birth in 50 normal infants and 50 infants with asphyxia who developed hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy. The study was performed from September 2006 to May 2007. For statistical analysis, the SPSS software was used. Group comparisons were performed with chi-square and t-test(1, 5). Findings L/C ratio was 3.3±2 among asphyxiated neonates in the first six hours after birth which was 11 folds greater than in normal neonates (0.3±0.08, P=0.0001). This ratio decreased to 1.5±0.55 for asphyxiated cases in the first 24 hours after birth, which was 5 folds greater than in control group (P=0.0001). Asphyxiated neonates were subdivided into Group A with mild asphyxia and L/C ratio 2.5±0.5; Group B with moderate asphyxia and L/C ratio 4.2±1.5; and Group C with severe asphyxia and L/C ratio 3.4±3.3. The severity of asphyxia correlated with the greater L/C ratio among our cases and was significant (P=0.0007). The sensitivity and specificity of L/C ratio in cut off point of 0.48, was 96.1% and 100% respectively. Conclusion Measurement of the urinary L/C ratio soon after birth maybe a promising tool to identify asphyxiated neonates and also to predict the severity of asphyxia. PMID:23056679

  9. Specificity of serum amylase and amylase creatinine clearance ratio in the diagnosis of acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Grosberg, S J; Wapnick, S; Purow, E; Purow, J R

    1979-07-01

    In 31 patients with pancreatitis, the amylase to creatinine clearance ratio (CACR) was significantly greater than for controls (10.7 +/- 1.7 vs. 2.6 +/- 0.3, P less than .001). Sixteen pancreatitis patients with serum amylase (SAm) within the normal range had a mean CACR significantly greater than that of 19 hospital control patients with normal SAm (9.2 +/- 1.5 vs. 3.0 +/- 0.4, P less than .001). For control patients a highly significant inverse correlation between SAm and CACR was observed. No relationship was detected between these parameters for pancreatitis patients. The results suggest that the CACR may be of aid in establishing the diagnosis of pancreatitis even in patients without hyperamylasemia.

  10. Urinary excretion profiles of 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Study III. A Delta9-THC-COOH to creatinine ratio study.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Albert D; Worth, David

    2003-11-26

    Huestis and Cone reported in [J. Anal. Toxicol. 22 (1998) 445] that serial monitoring of Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratios in paired urine specimens collected at least 24h apart could differentiate new drug use from residual Delta(9)-THC-COOH excretion following acute marijuana use in a controlled setting. The best accuracy (85.4%) for predicting new marijuana use was for a Delta(9)-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio > or = 0.5 (dividing the Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio of specimen no. 2 by the specimen no. 1 ratio). In previous studies in this laboratory [J. Anal. Toxicol. 23 (1999) 531 and Forensic Sci. Int. 133 (2003) 26], urine specimens were collected from chronic marijuana users > or = 24 h or > = 48 h apart in an uncontrolled setting. Subjects with a history of chronic marijuana use were screened for cannabinoids with the EMIT II Plus cannabinoids assay (cut-off 50 ng/ml) followed by confirmation for Delta9-THC-COOH by GC-MS (cut-off 15 ng/ml). Creatinine was analyzed as an index of dilution. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether creatinine corrected specimens could differentiate new marijuana or hashish use from the excretion of residual Delta(9)-THC-COOH in chronic marijuana users based on the Huestis 0.5 ratio. Urine specimens (N=376) were collected from 29 individuals > or = 96 h between urine collections. The mean urinary Delta9-THC-COOH concentration was 464.4 ng/ml, mean Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio (ng/(ml Delta9-THC-COOH mmoll creatinine)) was 36.8 and the overall mean Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio of specimen 2/mean Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine ratio of specimen 1 was 1.37. The Huestis ratio calculation indicated new drug use in 83% of all sequentially paired urine specimens. The data were sub-divided into three groups (Groups A-C) based on mean Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine values. Interindividual mean Delta9-THC-COOH/creatinine values ranged from 4.7 to 13.4 in Group A where 80% of paired specimens indicated new drug use (N=10

  11. Urinary amylase / urinary creatinine ratio (uAm/uCr) - a less-invasive parameter for management of hyperamylasemia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The serum level of amylase (sAm) is commonly used as a biochemical marker for diagnosis and management of pancreatic disorders. However, the use of the urine level of amylase (uAm) is limited in practice, because the diagnostic ability of uAm is inferior to that of sAm. In the present study, the possible concordance of uAm-rerated parameters with sAm was investigated, and evaluate the usefulness of uAm for management of hyperamylasemia. Methods From June 1995 to October 2009, 804 samples of both urine and blood were collected from 128 patients in order to measure the serum level of amylase (sAm) and the urine level of amylase (uAm) and creatinine (uCr). Concordance of parameters using uAm compared to sAm was assessed. Parameters used were uAm, amylase creatinine clearance ratio (ACCR), and the ratio of uAm to uCr (uAm/uCr). Results uAm/uCr had the best correlation with sAm (r = 0.779, p < 0.001) compared to uAm (r = 0.620, p < 0.001) and to ACCR (r = 0.374, p < 0.001), when sAm was over the standard level. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of uAm/uCr (0.884) was significantly higher than that of uAm (0.766) and of ACCR (0.666) (p < 0.001 for each). The cutoff value of uAm/uCr was 569.8, with a sensitivity of 81.0% and a specificity of 83.1%. Conclusions The uAm/uCr ratio correlated with sAm, and may be an alternative to sAm for prediction of hyperamylasemia. Use of urine samples results in a decreased need for blood sampling, which is especially beneficial in pediatric patients. PMID:24330759

  12. The amylase/creatinine clearance ratio in normal pregnancy and pregnancies complicated by pancreatitis, hyperemesis gravidarum, and toxemia.

    PubMed

    DeVore, G R; Bracken, M; Berkowitz, R L

    1980-03-15

    The Cam/Ccr% has been suggested to be of value in the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The Cam/Ccr% was determined throughout gestation in normal pregnant and nonpregnant patients. The Cam/Ccr% was lower (p less than 0.05) throughout pregnancy and was a function of increased creatinine clearance. The Cam/Ccr% was increased in pregnant patients with pancreatitis. Two of four patients with the clinical diagnosis of hyperemesis gravidarum demonstrated elevations of the Cam/Ccr%. Toxemia with epigastric pain was noted to be associated with an elevated CamCcr% in all patients, whereas toxemia without epigastric pain was not routinely noted to be associated with an elevated ratio. The normal Cam/Ccr% in pregnancy is lower than the nonpregnant value, and this should be taken into consideration when evaluating a patient with suspected pancreatitis who is pregnant. Patients with the clinical diagnosis of hyperemesis gravidarum and toxemia should be screened with serial Cam/Ccr% for possible evolving pancreatitis.

  13. Right liver lobe/albumin ratio: Contribution to non-invasive assessment of portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Alempijevic, Tamara; Bulat, Vladislava; Djuranovic, Srdjan; Kovacevic, Nada; Jesic, Rada; Tomic, Dragan; Krstic, Slobodan; Krstic, Miodrag

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the value of biochemical and ultraso-nographic parameters in prediction of presence and size of esophageal varices. METHODS: The study includes selected cirrhotic patients who underwent a complete biochemical workup, upper digestive endoscopic and ultrasonographic examinations. Albumin/right liver lobe diameter and platelet count/spleen diameter ratios were calculated. The correlation between calculated ratio and the presence and degree of esophageal varices was evaluated. RESULTS: Ninety-four subjects (62 males, 32 females), with a mean age of 52.32 ± 13.60 years, were studied. Child-Pugh class A accounted for 42.6%, class B 37.2%, whereas class C 20.2%. Esophageal varices (OE) were not demonstrated by upper digestive endoscopy in 24.5%, while OE gradeIwas found in 22.3% patients, grade II in 33.0%, grade III in 16.0%, and grade IV in 4.3%. The mean value of right liver lobe diameter/albumin ratio was 5.51 ± 1.82 (range from 2.76 to 11.44), while the mean platelet count/spleen diameter ratio was 1017.75 ± 729.36 (range from 117.39 to 3362.50), respectively. Statistically significant correlation was proved by Spearman's test between OE grade and calculated ratios. The P values were 0.481 and -0.686, respectively. CONCLUSION: The right liver lobe diameter/albumin and platelet count/spleen diameter ratios are non-invasive parameters providing accurate information pertinent to determination of presence of esophageal varices, and their grading in patients with liver cirrhosis. PMID:17879402

  14. Prognostic significance of pretreatment albumin/globulin ratio in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yan; Pang, Qing; Miao, Run-Chen; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Yan-Yan; Bi, Jian-Bin; Liu, Su-Shun; Zhang, Jing-Yao; Qu, Kai; Liu, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background Pretreatment nutritional and immunological statuses play an indispensable role in predicting the outcome of patients with various types of malignancies. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of albumin/globulin ratio (AGR) in overall survival (OS) and recurrence in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following radical hepatic carcinectomy. Patients and methods This retrospective study included a total of 172 patients with HCC with complete medical and follow-up information between 2002 and 2012. AGR was calculated according to the following formula: AGR = albumin/globulin. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal cutoff value. The associations of AGR with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis were assessed. Further multivariate analysis using Cox regression model and subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive value. Results Receiver operating characteristic curve determined 37.65, 31.99, and 1.48 as the optimal cutoff values of albumin, globulin, and AGR in terms of 5-year OS or death, respectively. On the basis of the cutoff value of AGR, all the patients were divided, respectively, into low-AGR (n=105) and high-AGR (n=67) groups. AGR was found to be significantly correlated with age, cancer embolus, international normalized ratio, and postoperative outcome (P<0.05). Hepatitis B virus infection (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.125; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.285–3.153), tumor node metastasis stage (HR: 1.656; 95% CI: 1.234–2.223), serum albumin (HR: 0.546; 95% CI: 0.347–0.857), and AGR (HR: 0.402; 95% CI: 0.233–0.691) were independent predictors of OS via univariate and multivariate survival analyses. However, alpha-fetoprotein (HR: 1.708; 95% CI: 1.027–2.838), tumor node metastasis stage (HR: 1.464; 95% CI: 1.078–1.989), and AGR (HR: 0.493; 95% CI: 0.293–0.828) functioned as independent risk variables for predicting recurrence. Moreover

  15. Prognostic significance of pretreatment albumin/globulin ratio in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yan; Pang, Qing; Miao, Run-Chen; Chen, Wei; Zhou, Yan-Yan; Bi, Jian-Bin; Liu, Su-Shun; Zhang, Jing-Yao; Qu, Kai; Liu, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Background Pretreatment nutritional and immunological statuses play an indispensable role in predicting the outcome of patients with various types of malignancies. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of albumin/globulin ratio (AGR) in overall survival (OS) and recurrence in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) following radical hepatic carcinectomy. Patients and methods This retrospective study included a total of 172 patients with HCC with complete medical and follow-up information between 2002 and 2012. AGR was calculated according to the following formula: AGR = albumin/globulin. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal cutoff value. The associations of AGR with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis were assessed. Further multivariate analysis using Cox regression model and subgroup analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive value. Results Receiver operating characteristic curve determined 37.65, 31.99, and 1.48 as the optimal cutoff values of albumin, globulin, and AGR in terms of 5-year OS or death, respectively. On the basis of the cutoff value of AGR, all the patients were divided, respectively, into low-AGR (n=105) and high-AGR (n=67) groups. AGR was found to be significantly correlated with age, cancer embolus, international normalized ratio, and postoperative outcome (P<0.05). Hepatitis B virus infection (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.125; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.285–3.153), tumor node metastasis stage (HR: 1.656; 95% CI: 1.234–2.223), serum albumin (HR: 0.546; 95% CI: 0.347–0.857), and AGR (HR: 0.402; 95% CI: 0.233–0.691) were independent predictors of OS via univariate and multivariate survival analyses. However, alpha-fetoprotein (HR: 1.708; 95% CI: 1.027–2.838), tumor node metastasis stage (HR: 1.464; 95% CI: 1.078–1.989), and AGR (HR: 0.493; 95% CI: 0.293–0.828) functioned as independent risk variables for predicting recurrence. Moreover

  16. The frequency of marcroamylasemia and the diagnostic value of the amylase to creatinine clearance ratio in patients with elevated serum amylase activity.

    PubMed

    Dürr, H K; Bindrich, D; Bode, J C

    1977-01-01

    190 patients with elevated serum amylase levels were tested for macroamylasemia and the amylase to creatinine clearance ratio. Macroamylasemia was found in 3 patients. In these patients macroamylasemia persisted after the total activity of serum amylase had fallen to nearly normal levels. The Cam/Ccr-ratios were determined 14 times in the 3 macroamylasemic patients. Only one of the 14 values was clearly less than 1%. Cam/Ccr-ratios above 4% were found in 83 patients. In 56 of them the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis could not be confirmed. 19 out of 46 patients with the established diagnosis of acute pancreatitis had Cam/Ccr-ratios below 4%. Cam/Ccr-ratios below 1% were also found in patients without macroamylasemia. It is concluded that high and low Cam/Ccr-ratios are not specific for acute pancreatitis and macroamylasemia, respectively, and--moreover--that a normal Cam/Ccr-ratio excludes neither acute pancreatitis nor macroamylesemia.

  17. The urinary MHPG/creatinine ratio and its relationship to platelet monoamine oxidase activity in abstinent alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Farren, C K; Tipton, K F

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the baseline noradrenergic turnover of subgroups of postwithdrawal abstinent alcoholics and healthy controls. The method chosen was an overnight fasting urine sample of the breakdown product of norepinephrine, MHPG, related to urinary creatinine. A comparison was made with platelet monoamine oxidase activity and also within subgroups of the study population. This study found no difference between alcoholics and controls, nor between subgroups of postwithdrawal alcoholics in their level of urinary MHPG corrected for creatinine, and no significant correlation with major subject characteristics or with platelet monoamine oxidase. There was a trend, however, towards a significant correlation with duration of abstinence from alcohol, and there was a correlation with a history of fighting when drinking alcohol, but not with sociopathic traits overall. Within the type 2 alcoholics there was a significant correlation with a history of fighting when drinking and a negative correlation with behavioral tolerance to alcohol. It is possible that only the subset of type 2 alcoholics with certain antisocial characteristics have noradrenergic abnormalities. Although no statistical difference was found between the different groups under study, the information is helpful in increasing understanding of the noradrenergic system in abstinent alcoholics. PMID:20575773

  18. Glucagonoma, chronic recurrent peptic ulcer disease, and enhanced amylase-creatinine clearance ratio. Report of a case with review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Pitchumoni, C S; Thelmo, W; Ahmed, K S; Kumar, A; Davidian, M; Einhorn, R; Adler, J; McCarthy, J

    1979-09-01

    A 53-year-old white woman developed diabetes mellitus, migratory erythema, and anemia, clinical features suggesting the presence of a "glucagonoma." Ten years earlier, after laparotomy and pancreatic biopsy, she had been told that she had an inoperable pancreatic carcinoma. Review of that biopsy together with current hormonal assay now confirms the diagnosis of glucagonoma. The recurrent peptic ulcer in this patient despite high levels of glucagon, a gastric inhibitory agent, is noted but not explained. An enhanced amylase-creatinine clearance ratio supports the notion that glucagon increases the clearances of amylase.

  19. Albumin concentrations plus neutrophil lymphocyte ratios for predicting overall survival after curative resection for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaowei; Wang, Juncheng; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Shangxiang; Liu, Xuechao

    2016-01-01

    Background In patients with gastric cancer (GC), survival is poor, given the late diagnosis. Risk-stratifying these patients earlier could help improve care. We determined whether combining preoperative albumin concentration and the neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (COA-NLR) could predict overall survival (OS) better than other prognostic indexes. Methods We calculated the COA-NLR and other prognostic indexes with data obtained within 1 week before surgery in a retrospective analysis of patients with GC undergoing curative resection between September 2000 and November 2012. Patients with concentrations of hypoalbuminemia above 35 g/L and an NLR value of 2.3 or higher were given a score of 2. Patients with one of these conditions or neither were allocated scores of 1 or 0, respectively. Patients were monitored until July 2014. Results OS in the 873 eligible patients was 44.9% in patients with a COA-NLR score of 0, 29.8% in patients with a score of 1, and 20.3% in patients with a score of 2 (P<0.001). The COA-NLR score was independently associated with OS (hazard ratio, 1.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 1.63; P=0.002). Moreover, the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve was 0.62 for the COA-NLR, which was significantly higher (<0.001) than that of the NLR ratio (0.60), the Glasgow prognostic score (0.58), and the platelet lymphocyte ratio (0.54). The COA-NLR was especially accurate for patients with stage I–II GC and the three values (0, 1, and 2) divided patients into subgroups more accurately than did the other indexes (area under the curve value: 0.66, P<0.001). Conclusion The preoperative COA-NLR index is useful for predicting postoperative OS in patients with GC and can be used to guide targeted therapy. PMID:27536130

  20. The 10:00-11:00 pm urine cortisol/creatinine ratio. An alternative to late-night salivary cortisol for the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Oscar D; Rossi, María A; Juárez-Allen, Lea; Serra, Héctor A; Albiero, María C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate interchangeability of two tests to diagnose Cushing's syndrome. We compared 10:00-11:00 PM urinary free cortisol/creatinine ratio (UFC/Cr) with late night 11:00 PM salivary cortisol (LNSC) in normal and obese controls vs. patients with Cushing's syndrome. Mean UFC/Cr did not differ between 69 normal and 62 obese controls (9.9 ± 7.9 vs. 9.7 ± 9.3) whereas 116 Cushing's patients had significantly higher values (277.0 ± 318.0; z: -11.1 and -10.2, respectively; p < 0.001). LNSC was 1.9 ± 1.2 nmol/l in 44 normal and 2.5 ± 1.6 in 45 obese subjects with no differences between them, but was significantly higher in 47 Cushing's patients (24.8 ± 23.3; z: -7.22 and -6.96, respectively, p < 0.001). Comparison of UFC/Cr and LNSC in samples obtained simultaneously showed that UFC/Cr was 12.0 ± 8.7 ng cortisol/mg creatinine in 34 normal, 12.3 ± 8.9 in 40 obese and 319.5 ± 333.4 in 35 CS subjects (p < 0.001 vs. normal and obese), whereas LNSC was 1.8 ± 1.2 nmol/l in normal, 2.6 ± 1.7 in obese and 24.6 ± 17.4 in CS patients (p < 0.001 vs. normal and obese); ROC curves showed comparable high sensitivity and specificity figures for the diagnosis of CS. We concluded that UFC/Cr test is easy to perform, readily available in routine laboratories, has high sensitivity and specificity, and offers a valuable alternative to LNSC in the study of Cushing's syndrome.

  1. Creatinine clearance test

    MedlinePlus

    Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical the body makes to supply energy, mainly to muscles. By comparing the creatinine level in urine with the creatinine level in blood , this test estimates the ...

  2. The pretreatment albumin to globulin ratio predicts survival in patients with natural killer/T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Xi-wen; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Wen-wen; Yan, Shu-mei; Sun, Peng; Xia, Yi; Li, Zhi-ming

    2016-01-01

    Background. The pretreatment albumin to globulin ratio (AGR) has been reported to be a predictor of survival in several types of cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of AGR in patients with natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the available serum biochemistry results for 331 NKTCL patients before treatment. AGR was calculated as albumin/(total protein—albumin), and a cut-off value of 1.3 was used to define AGR as low or high. Survival analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of AGR. Results. A low AGR (<1.3) was associated with significantly more adverse clinical features, including old age, poor performance status, advanced stage, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, B symptoms, and high International Prognostic Index (IPI) and natural killer/T-cell lymphoma prognostic index (NKPI) scores. Patients with a low AGR had a significantly lower 5-year overall survival (44.5 vs. 65.2%, P < 0.001) and progression-free survival (33.1 vs. 57.4%, P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, a low AGR remained an independent predictor of poorer survival. Additionally, AGR distinguished patients with different outcomes in the IPI low-risk group and in the NKPI high-risk group. Discussion. Pretreatment AGR may serve as a simple and effective predictor of prognosis in patients with NKTCL. PMID:26966671

  3. The pretreatment albumin to globulin ratio predicts survival in patients with natural killer/T-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bi, Xi-Wen; Wang, Liang; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Yan, Shu-Mei; Sun, Peng; Xia, Yi; Li, Zhi-Ming; Jiang, Wen-Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background. The pretreatment albumin to globulin ratio (AGR) has been reported to be a predictor of survival in several types of cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of AGR in patients with natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL). Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the available serum biochemistry results for 331 NKTCL patients before treatment. AGR was calculated as albumin/(total protein-albumin), and a cut-off value of 1.3 was used to define AGR as low or high. Survival analysis was used to assess the prognostic value of AGR. Results. A low AGR (<1.3) was associated with significantly more adverse clinical features, including old age, poor performance status, advanced stage, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, B symptoms, and high International Prognostic Index (IPI) and natural killer/T-cell lymphoma prognostic index (NKPI) scores. Patients with a low AGR had a significantly lower 5-year overall survival (44.5 vs. 65.2%, P < 0.001) and progression-free survival (33.1 vs. 57.4%, P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, a low AGR remained an independent predictor of poorer survival. Additionally, AGR distinguished patients with different outcomes in the IPI low-risk group and in the NKPI high-risk group. Discussion. Pretreatment AGR may serve as a simple and effective predictor of prognosis in patients with NKTCL.

  4. Urinary calcium to creatinine ratio: a potential marker of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A.

    PubMed

    Miyai, Kentaro; Onishi, Toshikazu; Kashimada, Kenichi; Hasegawa, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Patients with vitamin D-dependent rickets type 1A (VDDR1A) are usually treated with alfacalcidol, an analog of vitamin D. Around puberty, an increased dose of alfacalcidol is recommended for these patients to avoid hypocalcemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, no indicators of secondary hyperparathyroidism except for PTH are presently known. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether urinary calcium to creatinine ratio (U-Ca/Cr) is useful as a biomarker of secondary hyperparathyroidism in VDDR1A patients in order to determine the proper dose of alfacalcidol. Two brothers with VDDR1A were recruited who had null mutations of CYP27B1 which encodes 1-alpha-hydroxylase of vitamin D. We investigated the relationship between U-Ca/Cr and intact-PTH around puberty when the brothers showed hypocalcemia with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The results were compared to those of five patients with vitamin D deficiency (VDD). As a result, high intact-PTH levels were observed when U-Ca/Cr decreased to less than 0.1 (mg/mg) in both VDDR1A brothers. This relationship was also observed in the VDD patients. However, it is necessary to take into account body calcium status, either in depletion or in excess, to accurately evaluate the relationship between U-Ca/Cr and secondary hyperparathyroidism. First, low U-Ca/Cr was detected in situations with calcium depletion without hyperparathyroidism in the VDDR1A patients. Second, high U-Ca/Cr with hyperparathyroidism could be detected theoretically in a condition of excess calcium supply. In conclusion, a U-Ca/Cr ratio of less than 0.1 (mg/mg) in VDDR1A patients is useful to accurately evaluate calcium depletion and secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  5. Combination of Urinary Sodium/Creatinine Ratio and Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level Predicts Successful Tolvaptan Therapy in Patients With Heart Failure and Volume Overload.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuichi; Dohi, Kaoru; Watanabe, Kiyotaka; Tanimura, Muneyoshi; Takeuchi, Tetsushiro; Sugiura, Emiyo; Sugimoto, Tadafumi; Kumagai, Naoto; Ogura, Toru; Nakamori, Shiro; Fujimoto, Naoki; Yamada, Norikazu; Ito, Masaaki

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the short-term clinical and hemodynamic effects of tolvaptan therapy and to identify predictors of the therapeutic outcomes, we retrospectively recruited 60 consecutive hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients (70 ± 11 years) with volume overload. The subjects were divided into two groups on the basis of the changes in HF symptom scores and hemodynamic status assessed by right heart catheterization after tolvaptan therapy (median: 7 days). The majority of patients were successfully treated (group 1). However, 22% of patients (group 2) were unsuccessfully treated, in whom 1) the HF symptom score worsened or 2) there was a stationary HF symptom score ≥ 6 points, and mean PCWP > 18 mmHg and mean RAP > 10 mmHg, after tolvaptan therapy. HF symptom scores, hemodynamic parameters, and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) level improved in group 1, but all of these parameters remained unchanged in group 2. Lower urine sodium/creatinine ratio (UNa/UCr) and higher BNP level at baseline were independently associated with unsuccessful tolvaptan therapy, and UNa/UCr best predicts unsuccessful tolvaptan therapy with a cut-off value of 46.5 mEq/g·Cr (AUC 0.847, 95% CI: 0.718-0.976, sensitivity 77%, specificity 81%, P < 0.01). Double-positive results of UNa/UCr < 46.5 mEq/g·Cr and plasma BNP level > 778 pg/mL predicted unsuccessful tolvaptan therapy with high diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity 54%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 89%, and accuracy 90%). In summary, short-term tolvaptan therapy ameliorated HF symptoms and provided hemodynamic improvement in the majority of patients, and UNa/UCr and BNP level strongly predicted the therapeutic outcomes. PMID:26973271

  6. Creatinine urine test

    MedlinePlus

    Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical the body makes to supply energy, mainly to muscles. This test is done to see how well your kidneys work. Creatinine is removed by the body ...

  7. The ratio of glycated albumin to hemoglobin A1c measured in IFCC units accurately represents the glycation gap.

    PubMed

    Akatsuka, Junya; Mochizuki, Mie; Musha, Ikuma; Ohtake, Akira; Kobayashi, Kisho; Kikuchi, Toru; Kikuchi, Nobuyuki; Kawamura, Tomoyuki; Urakami, Tatsuhiko; Sugihara, Shigetaka; Hoshino, Tadao; Amemiya, Shin

    2015-01-01

    The glycation gap (G-gap: difference between measured hemoglobin A1c [A1C] and the value predicted by its regression on the fructosamine level) is stable and associated with diabetic complications. Measuring A1C level in International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) units (A1C-SI; mmol/mol) and National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program units (A1C-NGSP; %) and using glycated albumin (GA) level instead of fructosamine level for calculating the G-gap, we investigated whether the G-gap is better represented by GA/A1C ratio if expressed in SI units (GA/A1C-SI ratio) rather than in NGSP units (GA/A1C-% ratio). We examined 749 Japanese children with type 1 diabetes using simultaneous GA and A1C measurements. Of these, 369 patients were examined more than five times to assess the consistency of the G-gap and the GA/A1C ratio within individuals. The relationship of GA/A1C-% ratio to the corresponding A1C-NGSP was stronger than that of GA/A1C-SI ratio to A1C-IFCC. At enrollment, the inverse relationship between the GA/A1C-SI ratio and G-gap was highly significant (R(2) = 0.95) compared with that between the GA/A1C-% ratio and G-gap (R(2) = 0.69). A highly significant inverse relationship was also observed between the mean GA/A1C-SI ratio and the mean G-gaps obtained individually over time (R(2) = 0.95) compared with that using the corresponding A1C-NGSP (R(2) = 0.67). We conclude that the G-gap is better represented by the GA/A1C-SI ratio. We propose the use of mean GA/A1C-SI ratios easily obtained individually over time as reference values in Japanese children with type 1 diabetes (6.75 ± 0.60 [means ± SD]).

  8. Comparative methyl linoleate and methyl linolenate oxidation in the presence of bovine serum albumin at several lipid/protein ratios.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2003-07-30

    The oxidation of methyl linoleate (LMe) and methyl linolenate (LnMe) in the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the dark at 60 degrees C was studied to analyze the role of the type of fatty acid and the protein/lipid ratio on the relative progression of the processes involved when lipid oxidation occurs in the presence of proteins. The disappearance of the fatty acid, the formation of primary and secondary products of lipid peroxidation, the loss of amino acid residues, the production of oxidized lipid/amino acid reaction products, and the development of color and fluorescence were studied as a function of incubation time in protein/lipid samples at 10:1, 6:1, and 3:1 w/w ratios. The incubation of LMe and LnMe in the presence of BSA at 60 degrees C rapidly produced lipid peroxidation and protein damage. Although reaction rates were much faster for LnMe than for LMe, both fatty acids had similar behaviors, and LnMe seemed to be only slightly more reactive than LMe for BSA by producing a higher increase of protein pyrroles in the protein and the development of increased browning and fluorescence. The protein/lipid ratio also influenced the relative progress of the reactions implicated. Thus, a lower protein/lipid ratio increased sample oxidation and protein damage. This also produced an increased browning, in accordance with the mechanisms proposed for browning production by oxidized lipid/protein reactions. On the contrary, browning of extracted lipids increased at higher protein/lipid ratios. This opposite tendency allowed evaluation of the overall significance of the different browning processes implicated in the final colors observed, concluding that color changes observed in BSA/lipid samples were mostly a consequence of oxidized lipid/protein reactions. PMID:14705893

  9. The neutrophil to albumin ratio as a predictor of pathological complete response in rectal cancer patients following neoadjuvant chemoradiation.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Bernard; Mokdad, Ali A; Patel, Prachi M; Li, Hsiao C; Huerta, Sergio

    2016-10-01

    Pathological complete response (pCR) following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) and total mesorectal excision (TME), in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer, occurs in 15-27% of patients. Because blood cell counts and albumin are a direct indicator of the host environment, a response to nCRT might be predicted by these markers. This study was carried out to determine whether the neutrophil to albumin ratio (NAR) was predictive of pCR in veteran patients. Ninety-eight patients with rectal cancer who underwent standard nCRT, followed by TME were analyzed. Pre-nCRT and post-nCRT hematologic data were collected. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed with our primary endpoint of pCR. Male patients (99%), age 62.4±9.1 years, BMI=27.4±5.9 kg/m, rectal cancer distance from anal verge=7.1±4.5 cm (SD), interval between nCRT and TME=8 weeks, 55% patients=low anterior resection, 95% received 5-fluorouracil, and all patients received radiation, with 15% achieving a pCR. Univariate analysis showed that pre-nCRT carcinoembryonic antigen (15.8±45.1 vs. 3.5±5.3 ng/dl; P=0.002) and the pre-nCRT NAR (16.4±4.8 vs. 14.2±1.6; P=0.002) were associated with pCR. On multivariate analysis, pre-nCRT carcinoembryonic antigen (odds ratio=0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.22-0.77) and pre-nCRT NAR (odds ratio=0.76, 95% confidence interval 0.60-0.97) remained independent predictors of pCR. Overall survival between nonresponders and pCR patients at 1, 5, and 10 years was 96, 62, and 44% versus 93, 85, and 61%, P=0.13, and disease-free survival was 95, 60, and 47% versus 93, 85, and 61%, P=0.17; respectively. Our study shows that the pre-nCRT NAR is an independent predictor of pCR. These findings should be applied to other cohorts to determine its validity and reliability for use as a potential predictor of pCR.

  10. Creatinine blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Creatinine is a chemical waste product of creatine. Creatine is a chemical made by the body and is used to supply energy mainly to muscles. This test is done to see how well your kidneys work. Creatinine is removed from the body ...

  11. Precedent Fluctuation of Serum hs-CRP to Albumin Ratios and Mortality Risk of Clinically Stable Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jyh-Chang; Jiang, Ming-Yan; Lu, Yi-Hua; Wang, Charn-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Background A high sensitivity C-reactive protein to albumin ratio (hs-CRP/Alb) predicts mortality risk in patients with acute kidney injury. However, it varies dynamically. This study was conducted to evaluate whether a variation of this marker was associated with long-term outcome in clinically stable hemodialysis (HD) patients. Methods hs-CRP/Alb was checked bimonthly in 284 clinically stable HD outpatients throughout all of 2008. Based on the “slope” of trend equation derived from 5–6 hs-CRP/alb ratios for each patient, the total number of patients was divided into quartiles—Group 1: β≦ −0.13, n = 71; group 2: β>-0.13≦0.003; n = 71, group 3: β>0.003≦0.20; and group 4: β>0.20, n = 71. The observation period was from January 1, 2009 to August 31, 2012. Results Group 1+4 showed a worse long-term survival (p = 0.04) and a longer 5-year hospitalization stay than Group 2+3 (38.7±44.4 vs. 16.7±22.4 days, p<0.001). Group 1+4 were associated with older age (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01–1.05) and a high prevalence of congestive heart failure (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.00–4.11). Standard deviation (SD) of hs-CRP/Alb was associated with male sex (β = 0.17, p = 0.003), higher Davies co-morbidity score (β = 0.16, p = 0.03), and baseline hs-CRP (β = 0.39, p<0.001). Patients with lower baseline and stable trend of hs-CRP/Alb had a better prognosis. By multivariate Cox proportional methods, SD of hs-CRP/alb (HR: 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01–1.08) rather than baseline hs-CRP/Alb was an independent predictive factor for long-term mortality after adjusting for sex and HD vintage. Conclusion Clinically stable HD patients with a fluctuating variation of hs-CRP/Alb are characterized by old age, and more co-morbidity, and they tend to have longer subsequent hospitalization stay and higher mortality risk. PMID:25793462

  12. CD36 mediates proximal tubular binding and uptake of albumin and is upregulated in proteinuric nephropathies.

    PubMed

    Baines, Richard J; Chana, Ravinder S; Hall, Matthew; Febbraio, Maria; Kennedy, David; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2012-10-01

    Dysregulation of renal tubular protein handling in proteinuria contributes to the development of chronic kidney disease. We investigated the role of CD36 as a novel candidate mediator of albumin binding and endocytosis in the kidney proximal tubule using both in vitro and in vivo approaches, and in nephrotic patient renal biopsy samples. In CD36-transfected opossum kidney proximal tubular cells, both binding and uptake of albumin were substantially enhanced. A specific CD36 inhibitor abrogated this effect, but receptor-associated protein, which blocks megalin-mediated endocytosis of albumin, did not. Mouse proximal tubular cells expressed CD36 and this was absent in CD36 null animals, whereas expression of megalin was equal in these animals. Compared with wild-type mice, CD36 null mice demonstrated a significantly increased urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio and albumin-to-creatinine ratio. Proximal tubular cells expressed increased CD36 when exposed to elevated albumin concentrations in culture medium. Expression of CD36 was studied in renal biopsy tissue obtained from adult patients with heavy proteinuria due to minimal change disease, membranous nephropathy, or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Proximal tubular CD36 expression was markedly increased in proteinuric individuals. We conclude that CD36 is a novel mediator influencing binding and uptake of albumin in the proximal tubule that is upregulated in proteinuric renal diseases. CD36 may represent a potential therapeutic target in proteinuric nephropathy. PMID:22791331

  13. Association of the cystatin C/creatinine ratio with the renally cleared hormones parathyroid hormone (PTH) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in primary care patients: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Risch, Martin; Risch, Lorenz; Purde, Mette-Triin; Renz, Harald; Ambühl, Patrice; Szucs, Thomas; Tomonaga, Yuki

    2016-09-01

    The ratio of cystatin C to creatinine (cysC/crea) is regarded as a marker of glomerular filtration quality and predicts mortality. It has been hypothesized that increased mortality may be mediated by the retention of biologically active substances due to shrinking glomerular pores. The present study investigated whether cysC/crea is independently associated with the levels of two renally cleared hormones, which have been linked to increased mortality. We conducted a multicenter, cross-sectional study with a random selection of general practitioners (GPs) from all GP offices in seven Swiss cantons. Markers of glomerular filtration quality were investigated together with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albuminuria and urinary neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (uNGAL) as well as two renally cleared low-molecular-weight protein hormones (i.e. BNP and PTH), Morbidity was assessed with the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). A total of 1000 patients (433 males; mean age 57 ± 17 years) were included. There was a significant univariate association of BNP (r = 0.36, p < 0.001) and PTH (r = 0.18, p < 0.001) with cysC/crea. An adjusted model that accounted for kidney function (eGFR), altered glomerular structure (albuminuria), renal stress (uNGAL), and CCI showed that BNP and PTH were independently associated with cysC/crea as well as with the ratio of cystatin C-based to creatinine-based eGFR. In conclusion, in primary care patients, BNP and PTH are independently associated both with markers of glomerular filtration quality and eGFR regardless of structural kidney damage or renal stress. These findings offer an explanation, how altered glomerular filtration quality could contribute to increased mortality.

  14. Albumin activation of urinary amylase as determined with the Du Pont aca.

    PubMed

    Garber, C C; Carey, R N

    1978-04-01

    Protein activation of urinary alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) activity was observed during an evaluation of the Du Pont aca procedure for the determination of urinary alpha-amylase. This activation effect became constant for urinary albumin concentrations exceeding 1.50 g/liter. It is recommended that urinary alpha-amylase be analyzed with sufficient albumin added to maximize this effect. The aca alpha-amylase procedure is compared to an amyloclastic method for both serum and urine analysis. Expected ranges are presented for the aca method for serum and urinary amylase, amylase clearance, and the amylase clearance/creatinine clearance ratio.

  15. Evaluation of Ischemia-Modified Albumin, Malondialdehyde, and Advanced Oxidative Protein Products as Markers of Vascular Injury in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Afzal; Manjrekar, Poornima; Yadav, Charu; Agarwal, Ashish; Srikantiah, Rukmini Mysore; Hegde, Anupama

    2016-01-01

    AIM This study aimed at evaluation of ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), malondialdehyde (MDA), and advanced oxidative protein products (AOPP) as markers of vascular injury in diabetic nephropathy (DN) with derivation of cutoff values for the same. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study population comprised 60 diabetes patients and 30 controls, with diabetes patients further categorized into three groups based on urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) of <30 mg/g (diabetes without microalbuminuria), 30–300 mg/g (early DN), and >300 mg/g of creatinine (overt DN). Serum IMA, MDA, and AOPP were estimated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; HbA1c, serum creatinine, urine albumin, and urine creatinine were estimated using automated analyzers. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and receiver-operating characteristic curve. RESULTS A statistically significant difference was found in the levels of IMA among patients with early DN (154 ng/mL), diabetes without nephropathy (109.4 ng/mL), and healthy controls (45.7 ng/mL), with highest levels in early DN cases. Similar increase was seen in AOPP as well. A significant correlation was observed between IMA and UACR in diabetes without nephropathy (r = 0.448). CONCLUSION The present study postulates serum IMA as a novel biomarker for the assessment of disease progression in diabetes even before microalbuminuria, and a cutoff point ≥99 ng/mL can be used for detection of early DN. PMID:27158221

  16. Stamping SERS for creatinine sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Santos, Greggy M.; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-03-01

    Urine can be obtained easily, readily and non-invasively. The analysis of urine can provide metabolic information of the body and the condition of renal function. Creatinine is one of the major components of human urine associated with muscle metabolism. Since the content of creatinine excreted into urine is relatively constant, it is used as an internal standard to normalize water variations. Moreover, the detection of creatinine concentration in urine is important for the renal clearance test, which can monitor the filtration function of kidney and health status. In more details, kidney failure can be imminent when the creatinine concentration in urine is high. A simple device and protocol for creatinine sensing in urine samples can be valuable for point-of-care applications. We reported quantitative analysis of creatinine in urine samples by using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) based SERS substrate. S-SERS technique enables label-free and multiplexed molecular sensing under dry condition, while NPGD provides a robust, controllable, and high-sensitivity SERS substrate. The performance of S-SERS with NGPDs is evaluated by the detection and quantification of pure creatinine and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges.

  17. Exploration and Validation of C-Reactive Protein/Albumin Ratio as a Novel Inflammation-Based Prognostic Marker in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuan; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Liu, Xu; Chen, Lei; Li, Wen-Fei; Tang, Ling-Long; Liu, Qing; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The prognostic value of C-reactive protein/albumin ratio (CRP/Alb), a novel inflammation-based marker, remains unknown in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of 1572 consecutive patients with non-metastatic NPC. Patients were randomly divided into a training set (n = 514) and validation set (n = 1058). The prognostic value of the CRP/Alb ratio and the modified Glasgow prognostic score (mGPS; a well-recognized inflammation-based score) was assessed. Results: Receiver-operating characteristic analysis identified 0.05 as the optimal CRP/Alb cut-off value for disease failure in the training set. Patients with a CRP/Alb > 0.05 had poorer overall survival (OS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the training set (all P < 0.05). These results were confirmed in the validation set (all P < 0.05) and the whole cohort (all P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis of the entire cohort, the pretreatment CRP/Alb ratio was an independent prognostic factor for OS (HR, 1.394; 95% CI, 1.004-1.937; P = 0.048) and DMFS (HR, 1.545; 95% CI, 1.124-2.122; P = 0.007), but not for DFS (P = 0.083). The mGPS had no significant independent prognostic value for any end-point. Conclusion: CRP/Alb ratio is an useful prognostic indicator in patients with NPC, independent of disease stage. PMID:27471556

  18. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pieringer, Herwig; Brummaier, Tobias; Piringer, Bettina; Auer-Hackenberg, Lorenz; Hartl, Andreas; Puchner, Rudolf; Pohanka, Erich; Schmid, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  19. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  20. Serum Creatinine and Functional Limitation in Elderly Persons

    PubMed Central

    Shlipak, Michael G.; Tager, Ira B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Creatinine is a commonly used measure of kidney function, but serum levels are also influenced by muscle mass. We hypothesized that higher serum creatinine would be associated with self-reported functional limitation in community-dwelling elderly. Methods Subjects (n = 1,553) were participants in the Study of Physical Performance and Age-Related Changes in Sonomans, a cohort to study aging and physical function. We explored three strategies to account for the effects of muscle mass on serum creatinine. Results We observed a J-shaped association of creatinine with functional limitation. Above the study-specific mean creatinine (0.97 mg/dL in women and 1.15 mg/dL in men), the unadjusted odds ratio of functional limitation per standard deviation (0.20 mg/dL in women and 0.23 mg/dL in men) higher creatinine was 2.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.75–2.94, p < .001) in women and 1.42 (95% CI 1.12–1.80, p = .003) in men. This association was inverted in persons with creatinine levels below the mean. Adjustment for muscle mass did not have an important effect on the association between creatinine and functional limitation. These associations remained after multivariable adjustment for demographics and health conditions but were statistically significant only in women. Conclusions In elderly adults, higher creatinine levels are associated with functional limitation, consistent with prior literature that has demonstrated reduced physical performance in persons with kidney disease. However, the association of low creatinine levels with functional limitation suggests that creatinine levels are influenced by factors other than kidney function and muscle mass in the elderly. PMID:19181716

  1. A novel mechanism of action for salidroside to alleviate diabetic albuminuria: effects on albumin transcytosis across glomerular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dan; Yang, Xiaoyan; Zheng, Tao; Xing, Shasha; Wang, Jianghong; Chi, Jiangyang; Bian, Fang; Li, Wenjing; Xu, Gao; Bai, Xiangli; Wu, Guangjie; Jin, Si

    2016-02-01

    Salidroside (SAL) is a phenylethanoid glycoside isolated from the medicinal plant Rhodiola rosea. R. rosea has been reported to have beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy (DN) and high-glucose (HG)-induced mesangial cell proliferation. Given the importance of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in transcytosis of albumin across the endothelial barrier, the present study was designed to elucidate whether SAL could inhibit Cav-1 phosphorylation and reduce the albumin transcytosis across glomerular endothelial cells (GECs) to alleviate diabetic albuminuria as well as to explore its upstream signaling pathway. To assess the therapeutic potential of SAL and the mechanisms involved in DN albuminuria, we orally administered SAL to db/db mice, and the effect of SAL on the albuminuria was measured. The albumin transcytosis across GECs was explored in a newly established in vitro cellular model. The ratio of albumin to creatinine was significantly reduced upon SAL treatment in db/db mice. SAL decreased the albumin transcytosis across GECs in both normoglycemic and hyperglycemic conditions. SAL reversed the HG-induced downregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase and upregulation of Src kinase and blocked the upregulation Cav-1 phosphorylation. Meanwhile, SAL decreased mitochondrial superoxide anion production and moderately depolarized mitochondrial membrane potential. We conclude that SAL exerts its proteinuria-alleviating effects by downregulation of Cav-1 phosphorylation and inhibition of albumin transcytosis across GECs. These studies provide the first evidence of interference with albumin transcytosis across GECs as a novel approach to the treatment of diabetic albuminuria.

  2. Albumin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a variety of conditions in addition to malnutrition , a decrease in albumin needs to be evaluated ... can also be seen in inflammation , shock, and malnutrition . They may be seen with conditions in which ...

  3. Comparison of cystatin C- and creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate to predict coronary heart disease risk in Japanese patients with obesity and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ito, Ryo; Yamakage, Hajime; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Wada, Hiromichi; Otani, Sumire; Yonezawa, Kazuya; Ogo, Atsushi; Okajima, Taiichiro; Adachi, Masahiro; Araki, Rika; Yoshida, Kazuro; Saito, Miho; Nagaoka, Tadasu; Toyonaga, Tetsushi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Tsutomu; Ota, Itsuro; Oishi, Mariko; Miyanaga, Fumiko; Shimatsu, Akira; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine which indicator of chronic kidney disease most closely correlates with 10-year Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk among serum creatinine, serum cystatin C (S-CysC), urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR), estimated creatinine-based GFRs (eGFRcre), and estimated CysC-based GFRs (eGFRcys) in patients with obesity and diabetes. Serum creatinine, S-CysC, UACR, and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) were examined in 468 outpatients with obesity and type 2 diabetes, free of severe renal dysfunction or previous history of cardiovascular disease, as a cross-sectional survey using baseline data from the multi-centered Japan Diabetes and Obesity Study. S-CysC and eGFRcys had significantly stronger correlations with the 10-year Framingham CHD risk than serum creatinine, eGFRcre, and UACR (creatinine, ρ = 0.318; S-CysC, ρ = 0.497; UACR, ρ = 0.174; eGFRcre, ρ = -0.291; eGFRcys, ρ = -0.521; P < 0.01 by Fisher's z-test). S-CysC and eGFRcys had significantly stronger correlations with CAVI than serum creatinine, eGFRcre, and UACR (creatinine, ρ = 0.198; S-CysC, ρ = 0.383; UACR, ρ = 0.183; eGFRcre, ρ = -0.302; eGFRcys, ρ = -0.444; P < 0.05 by Fisher's z-test). The receiver operating characteristic curves to distinguish the high-risk patients for CHD revealed significantly larger areas under the curve of S-CysC and eGFRcys than those of serum creatinine, UACR, and eGFRcre (serum creatinine, 0.64; S-CysC, 0.75; UACR, 0.56; eGFRcre, 0.63; eGFRcys, 0.76; P < 0.01). The data suggested that eGFRcys can be more predictive of the 10-year CHD risk than eGFRcre in Japanese patients with obesity and diabetes.

  4. Recognition and Sensing of Creatinine.

    PubMed

    Guinovart, Tomàs; Hernández-Alonso, Daniel; Adriaenssens, Louis; Blondeau, Pascal; Martínez-Belmonte, Marta; Rius, F Xavier; Andrade, Francisco J; Ballester, Pablo

    2016-02-12

    Current methods for creatinine quantification suffer from significant drawbacks when aiming to combine accuracy, simplicity, and affordability. Here, an unprecedented synthetic receptor, an aryl-substituted calix[4]pyrrole with a monophosphonate bridge, is reported that displays remarkable affinity for creatinine and the creatininium cation. The receptor works by including the guest in its deep and polar aromatic cavity and establishing directional interactions in three dimensions. When incorporated into a suitable polymeric membrane, this molecule acts as an ionophore. A highly sensitive and selective potentiometric sensor suitable for the determination of creatinine levels in biological fluids, such as urine or plasma, in an accurate, fast, simple, and cost-effective way has thus been developed. PMID:26749029

  5. Urine Creatinine Excretion and Clinical Outcomes in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Di Micco, Lucia; Quinn, Robert Ross; Ronksley, Paul Everett; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Lewin, Adriane Marlene; Cianciaruso, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Twenty-four–hour urine creatinine excretion is a reliable approximation of muscle mass. Whether changes in urine creatinine predict clinical outcomes in persons with CKD is unknown. This work studied the relationship between urine creatinine and patient and renal survival in people with CKD not requiring renal replacement therapy. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This longitudinal cohort study included incident stages 3–5 CKD patients referred to the renal clinic at the University Federico II in Naples between January of 1995 and December of 2005. Clinical data and urine creatinine were updated at each visit. Main outcomes were all-cause mortality and kidney failure requiring dialysis. Results This study enrolled 525 individuals and followed them for a median of 6 years (range of 4 months to 15 years). Urine creatinine excretion declined by 16 mg/d per year (95% confidence interval, 14 to 19) in participants with CKD stages 3a, 3b, and 4, and it remained stable in participants with stage 5 CKD. Per each 20 mg/d decline in urine creatinine, mortality increased by 3% (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.05), and the risk of initiating dialysis increased by 2% (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.03). These associations were independent of body mass index and GFR. Conclusions In persons with CKD stages 3 and 4, urine creatinine declines at a rate of 16 mg/d per year. Lower urine creatinine excretion predicts greater risk of kidney failure and patient mortality. PMID:24158796

  6. A creatinine biosensor based on admittance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Sun, Tai-Ping; Jheng, Deng-Yun; Tsai, Hou-Wei; Shieh, Hsiu-Li

    2015-08-01

    Regular check of blood creatinine level is very important as it is a measurement of renal function. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a simple and reliable creatinine biosensor based on admittance measurement for precise determination of creatinine. The creatinine biosensor was fabricated with creatinine deiminase immobilized on screen-printed carbon electrodes. Admittance measurement at a specific frequency ranges (22.80 - 84.71 Hz) showed that the biosensor has an excellent linear (r2 > 0.95) response range (50 - 250 uM), which covers the normal physiological and pathological ranges of blood creatinine levels. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed that the biosensor has excellent reliability and validity (ICC = 0.98). In conclusion, a simple and reliable creatinine biosensor was developed and it is capable of precisely determining blood creatinine levels in both the normal physiological and pathological ranges.

  7. [New topics regarding equations for GFR estimation based on serum creatinine and cystatin C].

    PubMed

    Horio, Masaru

    2014-02-01

    Japanese GFR equations and CKD-EPI equations based on standardized serum creatinine and standardized cystatin C are recommended in recent Japanese CKD guides and KDIGO guidelines for CKD management, respectively. CKD-EPIcreat overestimates GFR in Japanese subjects, probably due to the difference in muscle mass between Japanese and Caucasians. Unlike CKD-EPIcreat, CKD-EPIcys performs well in Japanese subjects, indicating the advantages of using cystatin C as a GFR marker. KDIGO guidelines suggest measuring eGFRcys in adults with eGFRcreat of 45-59 ml/min/1.73 m2 who do not have markers of kidney damage if confirmation of CKD is required. Creatinine is excreted by glomerular filtration, but also secreted by the tubules. Alteration of the tubular secretion of creatinine may influence the performance of GFR equations based on serum creatinine. Multivariate analysis showed that GFR and serum albumin levels were independent parameters affecting the fractional excretion of creatinine (FE-Cr). Alteration of FE-Cr according to the serum albumin levels may be one of the reasons for the bias of GFR equations based on serum creatinine. Low GFR is a risk factor for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a general population. However, the relationship between eGFR and the hazard risk of events is different depending on whether cystatin C or creatinine is used to calculate eGFR. The association between eGFRcys and the hazard risk is much stronger compared with eGFRcreat. Cystatin C may be a useful alternative to creatinine for detecting a high risk of complications in a general population and subjects with CKD.

  8. Renal handling of beta-2-microglobulin, amylase and albumin in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, F A; Jacobson, G

    1979-01-01

    The renal handling of beta-2-microglobulin, amylase and albumin was studied in patients with acute pancreatitis. The data were compared with results obtained from patients with glomerular proteinuria and from patients with tubular proteinuria. Initially during acute pancreatitis, the clearance ratio (clearance protein/clearance creatinine) for beta-2-microglobulin was increased dramatically (77-fold) compared to normals. After four to seven days this ratio had fallen and was elevated only 7-fold. The corresponding figures for amylase were 3.3 and 1.8 times and for albumin 9 and 5 times respectively. In glomerular disease, the clearance ratios for beta-2-microglobulin, amylase and albumin were increased 6, 1.1, and 154 times and in tubular disease 448, 1.1, and 28 times, respectively. The electrophoretic pattern of the urinary proteins during pancreatitis was mostly normal. In a few cases, slight tubular proteinuria was noticed. Amylase activity in serum and urine from patients with pancreatitis was found to sediment, (S20,W = 4.6) in a sucrose gradient, identical to amylase from normal serum and urine. The marked increase in the excretion of beta-2-microglobulin probably reflects interference of the kidney function at the proximal tubular level. Determinations of this protein in urine may be of value in studies of kidney dysfunction that can accompany pancreatitis.

  9. Kinetics of advanced glycation end products formation on bovine serum albumin with various reducing sugars and dicarbonyl compounds in equimolar ratios.

    PubMed

    Luers, Lars; Rysiewski, Karolina; Dumpitak, Christian; Birkmann, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Reducing sugars and reactive dicarbonyl compounds play a major role in glycation of proteins in vivo. Glycation of proteins is the first step in of a nonenzymatic reaction, resulting in advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs can inactivate proteins or modify their biological activities. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism of AGE formation. Here, we systematically analyzed the kinetics of AGE formation in vitro by fluorescence and absorption measurements utilizing a microplate reader system and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. Comparing different concentrations of BSA, we applied various reducing sugars and reactive dicarbonyl compounds as AGE-inducing agents at different concentrations. In summary, this experimental setup enabled us to measure the kinetics of AGE formation in an efficient and defined way.

  10. Kinetics of advanced glycation end products formation on bovine serum albumin with various reducing sugars and dicarbonyl compounds in equimolar ratios.

    PubMed

    Luers, Lars; Rysiewski, Karolina; Dumpitak, Christian; Birkmann, Eva

    2012-04-01

    Reducing sugars and reactive dicarbonyl compounds play a major role in glycation of proteins in vivo. Glycation of proteins is the first step in of a nonenzymatic reaction, resulting in advanced glycation end products (AGEs). AGEs can inactivate proteins or modify their biological activities. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanism of AGE formation. Here, we systematically analyzed the kinetics of AGE formation in vitro by fluorescence and absorption measurements utilizing a microplate reader system and bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein. Comparing different concentrations of BSA, we applied various reducing sugars and reactive dicarbonyl compounds as AGE-inducing agents at different concentrations. In summary, this experimental setup enabled us to measure the kinetics of AGE formation in an efficient and defined way. PMID:22533432

  11. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  12. Renal clearance of pancreatic and salivary amylase relative to creatinine in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Keogh, J B; McGeeney, K F; Drury, M I; Counihan, T B; O'Donnell, M D

    1978-12-01

    Pancreatic and salivary amylase/creatinine clearance ratios in patients with various degrees of renal impairment were compared with those obtained for control subjects. In chronic renal insufficiency (mean GFR 30 ml/min +/- 15 SD; n = 13) the clearance ratios for pancreatic (mean 3.5 +/- 1.85 SD) and salivary (mean 2.3 +/- 1.3 SD) amylase were significantly higher (P less than 0.05) than those in controls. Corresponding control values (n = 26) were 2.64 +/- 0.86 (pancreatic) and 1.64 +/- 0.95 (salivary). Three patients showed values above the normal limit. In the diabetic group (mean GFR 41 ml/min +/- 22 SD; n = 10) salivary amylase/creatinine clearance ratios (mean 2.36 +/- 1.55 SD) were significantly higher than in controls (P less than 0.05). Three patients showed raised values. Pancreatic amylase clearance was raised in only one of these patients. Three patients with terminal disease (mean GFR 10 ml/min) showed markedly raised (two- to threefold) clearance ratios for both salivary and pancreatic amylase. Of a total of 26 patients, eight had increased total amylase/creatinine clearance ratios. Pancreatic amylase/creatinine clearance was increased in seven patients, while nine patients showed raised salivary amylase/creatinine ratios. Patients with raised clearance ratios did not have clinical evidence of pancreatitis. We suggest that, in the presence of impaired renal function, a high amylase/creatinine clearance ratio need not be indicative of pancreatic disease.

  13. Cystatin C, creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration, and long-term mortality in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Hojs Fabjan, Tanja; Penko, Meta; Hojs, Radovan

    2014-02-01

    Renal dysfunction is associated with mortality in patients after ischemic stroke. Cystatin C is a potentially superior marker of renal function compared to creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). In our observational cohort study, 390 Caucasian patients suffered from acute ischemic stroke (mean age 70.9 years; 183 women and 207 men) were included and prospectively followed up to maximal 56 months. Serum creatinine and cystatin C were measured at admission to the hospital; GFR was estimated according to CKD-EPI creatinine and CKD-EPI creatinine/cystatin equations. According to values of serum creatinine, estimated GFR and serum cystatin C patients were divided into quintiles. In the follow-up period, 191 (49%) patients died. For serum cystatin C and estimated GFR based on creatinine and cystatin C, the mortality and the hazard ratios for long-term mortality increased from the first to the fifth quintile nearly linearly. The associations of serum creatinine and estimated GFR categories based on creatinine with long-term mortality were J-shaped. As compared with lowest quintile of serum cystatin C, the fifth quintile was associated with long-term mortality significantly also after multivariate adjustment (age, gender, initial stroke severity, known risk factors for stroke mortality). In contrast, in adjusted analysis serum creatinine and estimated GFR (CKD-EPI creatinine and CKD-EPI creatinine/cystatin) were not associated with long-term mortality. In summary, serum cystatin C was independently and better associated with the risk of long-term mortality in patients suffering from ischemic stroke than were creatinine and estimated GFR using both CKD-EPI equations.

  14. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-04-12

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth.

  15. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth. PMID:27067000

  16. Why 24-h Urine Albumin Excretion Rate Method Still is Used for Screening of Diabetic Nephropathy in Isfahan Laboratories?

    PubMed Central

    Teimoury, Azam; Iraj, Bijan; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Amini, Massoud; Hosseiny, Seyed-Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: The first step in diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is measurement of albumin in a spot urine sample. The aim of this study was assessment of the accuracy of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) in random urine specimens (RUS) for microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria screening in Iranian diabetic patients. Methods: A total of 200 diabetic patients participated to our study. 24 h timed urine specimens followed by RUS were collected. 24-h urine albumin excretion (24-h urinary albumin excretion (UAE)) and UACR in RUS were measured. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and McNemar test. Results: A total of 165 patients finalized the study. Pearson's correlation of coefficient for 24-h UAE versus UACR was 0.64. The area under ROC curve for UACR was 0.83 in microalbuminuria and 0.91 in macroalbuminuria. The cutoff point of 30 mg/g in UACR method had 86% sensitivity and 60% specificity for microalbuminuria screening and cut-off point of 300 mg/g had 75% sensitivity and 99% specificity for macroalbuminuria screening respectively. Conclusions: UACR in RUS showed acceptable performance as a screening test for diagnosis of both micro and macroalbuminuria in Iranian diabetic patients. PMID:24829719

  17. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  18. Serum creatinine concentration at the onset of uremia: higher levels in black males.

    PubMed

    Abuelo, J G; Shemin, D; Chazan, J A

    1992-06-01

    We compared serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen concentrations, estimated creatinine clearances and frequency of uremic symptoms at the start of chronic hemodialysis in all 20 black and 179 white males treated between 1969 and 1983. Serum creatinine concentrations were significantly higher in black males (16.5 +/- 5.9 mg/dl) than in white males (11.7 +/- 4.7 mg/dl; p = 0.016). There were no significant differences in blood urea nitrogen concentration, estimated creatinine clearance and frequency of uremic symptoms between the two groups. Blood urea nitrogen to serum creatinine ratios were lower in black males, (7.3 +/- 1.9) than in white males (11.4 +/- 3.8; p = 0.0001), and only one black male had a ratio greater than 10 compared to 60% of whites. We concluded that black males tend to have higher serum creatinine concentrations than white males at the onset of uremic symptoms, and that higher striated muscle creatinine production in black males and not lower renal function may be the cause.

  19. Serum albumin and risk of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, Aaron. R.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Cushman, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Summary The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increased in patients with albuminuria. However, whether a low serum albumin concentration is associated with increased risk of VTE has been a matter of controversy. We determined the association of serum albumin with VTE incidence in two large, prospective, population-based cohorts: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (n = 15,300) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) (n = 5,400). Validated VTE occurrence (n=462 in ARIC and n=174 in CHS) was ascertained during follow-up. In both studies, after adjustment for age, sex, race, use of hormone replacement therapy, estimated GFR, history of cancer, and diabetes, serum albumin tended to be associated inversely with VTE. The adjusted hazard ratio per standard deviation lower albumin was 1.18 (95% CI = 1.08, 1.31) in ARIC and 1.10 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.29) in CHS. The hazard ratio for albumin below (versus above) the fifth percentile was 1.28 (95% CI = 0.90, 1.84) in ARIC and 1.80 (95% CI = 1.11, 2.93) in CHS. In conclusion, low serum albumin was a modest marker of increased VTE risk. The observed association likely does not reflect cause and effect, but rather that low serum albumin reflects a hyperinflammatory or hypercoagulable state. Whether this association has clinical relevance warrants further study. PMID:20390234

  20. Bisalbuminemia. A new molecular variant, albumin Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, J; Kozier, J; Campbell, D J; Curnow, J V; Tárnoky, A L

    1978-11-01

    Of 18 members of a Fiji Indian family investigated, eight of the 12 males and two of the six females had an electrophoretically slow-type bisalbuminemia (alloalbuminemia). The albumin was characterized by the hiterto unique ratio of the two bands (Al A 35%: variant 65%), and by dye-binding studies and electrophoretic mobility in different media. The data suggest that this is a new variant, which we propose to call albumin Vancouver (Al Va).

  1. Effects of topiroxostat and febuxostat on urinary albumin excretion and plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Murase, Takayo; Nampei, Mai; Morimoto, Nobutaka; Ashizawa, Naoki; Iwanaga, Takashi; Sakamoto, Ryusuke

    2016-06-01

    Topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor, has been shown to decrease the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio compared with placebo in hyperuricemic patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Thus, we aimed to ascertain the albuminuria-lowering effect of topiroxostat in diabetic mouse. Db/db mice were fed standard diets with or without topiroxostat (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg/day) and febuxostat (0.1, 0.3, and 1mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Urinary albumin and purine bodies levels, XOR activities, and drug concentrations in the liver, kidney, and plasma were measured. Moreover, the XOR inhibitory activity of each XOR inhibitor was evaluated with or without an exogenous protein in vitro. Topiroxostat decreased dose-dependently the urinary albumin excretion, but febuxostat did not show such a tendency. Treatment with topiroxostat inhibited plasma XOR activity with dose-dependent increase in plasma purine levels, which was not observed by febuxostat. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis revealed that topiroxostat and febuxostat concentration in each tissue showed a good correlation with both the hypouricemic effect and plasma drug concentration, whereas the change in albuminuria correlated neither with the change in uric acid nor with drug concentration in plasma. However, the change in urinary albumin and plasma XOR activity showed good correlation in topiroxostat group. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) of febuxostat against plasma XOR in vitro was 12-fold higher than that of topiroxostat, and increased by approximately 13-fold by interfering with an exogenous protein. Topiroxostat caused reduced urinary albumin excretion, in which potent inhibition of the plasma XOR activity might be involved.

  2. Plasma exogenous creatinine clearance in clinically healthy cats: comparison with urinary exogenous creatinine clearance, tentative reference intervals and indexation to bodyweight.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, B S; Massal, M R; Nguyen, P; Grégoire, L L; Périgaud, A E; Concordet, D; Biourge, V; Lefebvre, H P

    2014-10-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered to be the best indicator of overall kidney function. The major objectives of this study were to compare plasma exogenous creatinine clearance (PECC) with a reference method, to establish reference intervals (RIs) for PECC and to assess the effects of indexation of GFR to bodyweight (BW) in cats. PECC was compared with urinary clearance of exogenous creatinine (UECC) in six clinically healthy domestic shorthair cats (experiment 1). Tentative RIs were determined according to current guidelines and the effects of indexation to BW and of covariables on GFR were assessed in 43 clinically healthy cats of various breeds (experiment 2). PECC was 15% higher than UECC (P <0.01), but the two estimates were strongly correlated (r(2)=0.97, P = 0.001). RIs for PECC were 6.4-21.3 mL/min or 1.2-4.9 mL/min/kg. The absolute (i.e. non-indexed) GFR value was not dependent on BW. Thus, indexation of GFR to BW in cats would not standardize the GFR value, but could introduce bias in clinical interpretation. Significant effects of breed, plasma protein concentration and plasma albumin concentration on GFR were demonstrated. Plasma concentrations of urea and creatinine, when assessed separately, were also weakly correlated with GFR in healthy cats. These combined findings contribute to a better understanding of renal function assessment in cats.

  3. Intrarenal distribution of inorganic mercury and albumin after coadministration

    SciTech Connect

    Zalups, R.K. ); Barfuss, D.W. )

    1993-01-01

    The renal disposition and the intrarenal distribution of albumin and mercury were studied simultaneously in rats co-injected with a 0.5-[mu]mol/kg dose of albumin and a 0.25-[mu]mol/kg dose of inorganic mercury at 2, 5, 30, and 180 min after injection. These studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms involved in the renal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury is cotransport with albumin. By the end of the first 2 min after injection, the ratio of inorganic mercury to albumin in the renal cortex and outer strip of the outer medulla was approximately 2.6 and 1.6, respectively. Both the cortex and outer stripe contain segments of the proximal tubule, and it is these segments that have been shown to be principally involved in the renal tubular uptake of both albumin and inorganic mercury. The ration increased slightly in these two zones after 5 and 20 min after injection. These data demonstrate that there is a relatively close relationship in the renal content of inorganic mercury and albumin. However, the ratios are significantly greater than the ratio of inorganic mercury of albumin in the injection solution, which was 0.5. After 180 min following co-injection, the ratio increased to about 38 in the cortex and 15 in the outer stripe. This increase in the ratio is probably related to the metabolism of albumin. Based on the ratios of inorganic mercury to albumin in the renal cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla, it appears that some proximal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury occurs by mechanisms other than endocytotic cotransport of inorganic mercury with albumin. However, since the ratios were small during the early times after injection, cotransport of inorganic mercury with albumin cannot be excluded as one of the mechanisms involved in the proximal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury. 32 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Protein Crystal Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As the most abundant protein in the circulatory system albumin contributes 80% to colloid osmotic blood pressure. Albumin is also chiefly responsible for the maintenance of blood pH. It is located in every tissue and bodily secretion, with extracellular protein comprising 60% of total albumin. Perhaps the most outstanding property of albumin is its ability to bind reversibly to an incredible variety of ligands. It is widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry that the overall distribution, metabolism, and efficiency of many drugs are rendered ineffective because of their unusually high affinity for this abundant protein. An understanding of the chemistry of the various classes of pharmaceutical interactions with albumin can suggest new approaches to drug therapy and design. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter/New Century Pharmaceuticals

  5. A review on creatinine measurement techniques.

    PubMed

    Mohabbati-Kalejahi, Elham; Azimirad, Vahid; Bahrami, Manouchehr; Ganbari, Ahmad

    2012-08-15

    This paper reviews the entire recent global tendency for creatinine measurement. Creatinine biosensors involve complex relationships between biology and micro-mechatronics to which the blood is subjected. Comparison between new and old methods shows that new techniques (e.g. Molecular Imprinted Polymers based algorithms) are better than old methods (e.g. Elisa) in terms of stability and linear range. All methods and their details for serum, plasma, urine and blood samples are surveyed. They are categorized into five main algorithms: optical, electrochemical, impedometrical, Ion Selective Field-Effect Transistor (ISFET) based technique and chromatography. Response time, detection limit, linear range and selectivity of reported sensors are discussed. Potentiometric measurement technique has the lowest response time of 4-10 s and the lowest detection limit of 0.28 nmol L(-1) belongs to chromatographic technique. Comparison between various techniques of measurements indicates that the best selectivity belongs to MIP based and chromatographic techniques.

  6. Quantification of creatinine in biological samples based on the pseudoenzyme activity of copper-creatinine complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Avinash, Krishnegowda; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Krishna, Honnur

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), the marker of chronic kidney disease can be analyzed by the concentration of cystatin C or creatinine and its clearance in human urine and serum samples. The determination of cystatin C alone as an indicator of GFR does not provide high accuracy, and is more expensive, thus measurement of creatinine has an important role in estimating GFR. We have made an attempt to quantify creatinine based on its pseudoenzyme activity of creatinine in the presence of copper. Creatinine in the presence of copper oxidizes paraphenylenediamine dihydrochloride (PPDD) which couples with dimethylamino benzoicacid (DMAB) giving green colored chromogenic product with maximum absorbance at 710 nm. Kinetic parameters relating this reaction were evaluated. Analytical curves of creatinine by fixed time and rate methods were linear at 8.8-530 μmol L-1 and 0.221-2.65 mmol L-1, respectively. Recovery of creatinine varied from 97.8 to 107.8%. Limit of detection and limit of quantification were 2.55 and 8.52 μmol L-1 respectively whereas Sandell's sensitivity and molar absorption coefficient values were 0.0407 μg cm-2 and 0.1427 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1 respectively. Precision studies showed that within day imprecision was 0.745-1.26% and day-to-day imprecision was 1.55-3.65%. The proposed method was applied to human urine and serum samples and results were validated in accordance with modified Jaffe's procedure. Wide linearity ranges with good recovery, less tolerance from excipients and application of the method to serum and urine samples are the claims which ascertain much advantage to this method.

  7. Structure of Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Ho, Joseph X.

    1994-01-01

    Because of its availability, low cost, stability, and unusual ligand-binding properties, serum albumin has been one of the mst extensively studied and applied proteins in biochemistry. However, as a protein, albumin is far from typical, and the widespread interest in and application of albumin have not been balanced by an understanding of its molecular structure. Indeed, for more than 30 years structural information was surmised based solely on techniques such as hydrodynamics, low-angle X-ray scattering, and predictive methods.

  8. Evaluation of dementia by acrolein, amyloid-β and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Kazuei; Yoshida, Madoka; Waragai, Masaaki; Kashiwagi, Keiko

    2015-10-23

    Plasma, urine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were examined for biochemical markers of dementia. Protein-conjugated acrolein (PC-Acro) and the amyloid-β (Aβ)40/42 ratio in plasma can be used to detect mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). In plasma, PC-Acro and the Aβ40/42 ratio in MCI and AD were significantly higher relative to non-demented subjects. Furthermore, urine acrolein metabolite, 3-hydroxypropyl mercapturic acid (3-HPMA)/creatinine (Cre) and amino acid-conjugated acrolein (AC-Acro)/Cre in AD were significantly lower than MCI. It was also shown that reduced urine 3-HPMA/Cre correlated with increased plasma Aβ40/42 ratio in dementia. The Aβ40/PC-Acro ratio in CSF, together with Aβ40 and Aβ40/42 ratio, was lower in AD than MCI. Increased plasma PC-Acro and Aβ40/42 ratio and decreased urine 3-HPMA/Cre correlated with cognitive ability (MMSE). These results indicate that the measurements of acrolein derivatives together with Aβ and Cre in biologic fluids is useful to estimate severity of dementia.

  9. Albumin - blood (serum) test

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions for which the test may be performed: Burns (widespread) Wilson disease If you are receiving large amounts of intravenous fluids, the result of this test may be inaccurate. Albumin will be decreased during pregnancy.

  10. Effect of glucagon infusion on the renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine.

    PubMed

    Tedesco, F J; Davila, E; Gardner, L B

    1978-10-01

    Recent data seem to support a tubular defect as the mechanism of the elevated renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine in acute pancreatitis. Glucagon has been proposed by some to be an important factor in this phenomenon. To examine the role of glucagon as this "tubular dysfunction factor", we investigated the effect of intravenously infused glucagon on the fractional excretion of amylase and the tubular handling of a low molecular weight protein, beta2 microglobulin, in normal, healthy volunteers. At glucagon levels far in excess of those seen in pancreatitis, the clearance ratio of beta2 microglobulin relative to creatinine increased, whereas the clearance ratio of amylase relative to creatinine did not increase above the normal range. The dissociation between beta2 microglobulin clearance and amylase clearance allows one to question the theory that tubular dysfunction is the mechanism of the elevated renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine in acute pancreatitis. Glucagon does not appear to be the sole factor responsible for the elevation of renal clearance of amylase relative to creatinine in acute pancreatitis.

  11. Is the fasting calcium/creatinine a bone resorption marker in patients with calcium renal stones?

    PubMed

    Arrabal-Polo, Miguel Angel; Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; Poyatos-Andujar, Antonio; Cardenas-Grande, Encarnacion; Merino-Salas, Sergio; Zuluaga-Gomez, Armando

    2012-06-01

    Osteoporosis and osteopenia are an important endocrine-metabolic disease that affect women and men from a certain age and it has a high risk and health cost. The aim of this short communication is to show that fasting calcium/creatinine ratio in patients with calcium stones is a marker of bone resorption.We studied 180 patients with renal stones with calcium composition and the relationship of them between the calcium/creatinine in urine after 8 h of fasting with bone densitometry (T-score) and values of bone resorption marker β-crosslaps (ng/ml). The Pearson correlation test was applied for the analysis of linear correlations between quantitative variables.We have observed a statistically significant positive linear correlation between the fasting calcium/creatinine and serum and β-crosslaps (R = 0.534, p < 0.0001) and a statistically significant negative linear correlation between fasting calcium/creatinine and T-score of bone densitometry in hip (R = -0.237, p = 0.002), femoral neck (R = -0.217, p = 0.009) and lumbar spine (R = 0.292, p = 0.001).The fasting ratio calcium/creatinine in urine is associated with increased levels of β-crosslaps marker and therefore may be useful as a marker of bone resorption in these patients.

  12. Effects of serum-isolated vs synthetic bilirubin-albumin complexes on dye-binding methods for estimating serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Ihara, H; Nakamura, H; Aoki, Y; Aoki, T; Yoshida, M

    1991-07-01

    Bush and Reed reported (Clin Chem 1987;33:821-3) that the reaction of albumin with bromcresol purple but not with bromcresol green underestimated the concentration of albumin in synthetically obtained bilirubin-albumin (Bd) by 29%. Their unproven assumption was that chemically synthesized Bd behaved in a manner indistinguishable from the natural Bd in icteric serum. Here we verify that Bd, whether synthetically obtained or isolated from serum, causes an underestimation of albumin in the bromcresol purple but not in the bromcresol green method. The molar ratio of Bd from either source to underestimated albumin approximates 1.0, suggesting that one molecule of Bd would react equivalently to a molecule of albumin in the bromcresol purple method. This underestimation might falsely suggest hypoalbuminemia in patients with increased serum Bd. PMID:1855300

  13. Urinary Albumin Excretion is Increased in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Associated with Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Becetti, Karima; Oeser, Annette; Ormseth, Michelle; Solus, Joseph F.; Raggi, Paolo; Stein, C. Michael; Chung, Cecilia P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). High urinary albumin excretion is a risk factor for CVD in the general population, but its role in atherosclerosis in patients with RA is not well defined. Methods We determined the urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) in 136 patients with RA and 79 controls. Individuals with diabetes or a clinical history of CVD were excluded. We measured coronary artery calcium (CAC) with electron beam computer tomography and augmentation index (AIX) using pulse wave analysis. In patients with RA, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and concentrations of vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1), interleukin-10 (IL-10), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cystatin-C were measured and results correlated with UACR. Results Patients with RA had higher UACR [median (IQR): 7.6 (4.0-15.5) mg/g than control subjects: 5.6 (3.3-9.0)mg/g, p=0.02]. The presence of CAC was not associated with UACR in RA or control subjects. In patients with RA, UACR was significantly correlated with AIX (rho=0.24, p=0.01), higher levels of VCAM-1 (rho=0.2, p=0.01) and lower levels of IL-10 (rho=-0.2, p=0.02). The association between AIX and higher UACR remained significant in multivariate analysis [β coefficient of 1.9 (95% CI 0.4-3.4), p=0.01 that adjusted for age, sex, and race]. Conclusion Urinary albumin excretion was higher in RA patients than controls and correlated with increased arterial stiffness, higher VCAM-1, and lower IL-10 concentrations. PMID:25641887

  14. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Urinary Albumin Excretion in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Canales, Muna T.; Paudel, Misti L.; Taylor, Brent C.; Ishani, Areef; Mehra, Reena; Steffes, Michael; Stone, Katie L.; Redline, Susan; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sleep-disordered breathing(SDB) may be deleterious to the cardiovascular system and other organs, including the kidney. Although older men are at increased risk for both kidney disease and SDB, it is unknown whether SDB is associated with higher urinary albumin excretion in this population. Methods We examined 507 community-dwelling men age ≥67 years(mean 76.0±5.3) enrolled in the MrOS Sleep study who underwent overnight polysomnography and gave a spot urine sample. SDB severity was categorized using the respiratory disturbance index and percent total sleep time <90% oxygen saturation(%time O2<90). Urinary albumin excretion was expressed using the albumin-to-creatinine ratio(ACR). Results There was a graded association between respiratory disturbance index and ACR (age and race-adjusted mean ACR=9.35 mg/gCr for respiratory disturbance index≥30 versus 6.72 mg/gCr for respiratory disturbance index<5, p=0.007). This association was attenuated after further adjustment for body mass index(BMI), hypertension and diabetes and no longer reached significance(p=0.129). However, even after adjustment for age, race, BMI, hypertension and diabetes, greater %time O2<90 was associated with higher ACR(10.35 mg/gCr for ≥10%time O2<90 versus 7.45 mg/gCr for <1%time O2<90, p=0.046). Conclusion SDB, measured by elevated respiratory disturbance index or nocturnal hypoxemia, was associated with higher ACR. The relationship between respiratory disturbance index and ACR was partially explained by higher BMI and greater prevalence of hypertension and diabetes among men with SDB. However, greater nocturnal hypoxemia was independently associated with higher ACR, suggesting that the hypoxia component of SDB may mediate any detrimental effect of SDB on the kidney. PMID:20186573

  15. [Albumin in sepsis].

    PubMed

    Tamion, F

    2010-09-01

    Human serum albumin is a small (66kD) globular protein representing over 60 % of the total plasma protein content. It is made up of 585 amino 6 acids and contains 35 cysteine residues forming disulfide bridges that contribute to its overall tertiary structure. It has a free cysteine-derived thiol group at Cys-34, which accounts for 80 % of its redox activity. Physiologically, serum albumin exists in a reduced form with a free thiol contributing to its antioxidant properties. It is synthesized primarily in the liver and is an acute-phase protein. It is a multifunctional plasma protein ascribed ligand-binding and transport properties as well as antioxidants and enzymatic functions. It maintains colloid osmotic pressure, modulates inflammatory response and may influence oxidative damage. Hypoalbuminemia is common in the intensive care unit and may be due to decreased synthesis by the liver and/or to increased losses or increased proteolysis and clearance. Although albumin was long used to control vascular collapse in critically ill patients, the evidence suggests that it does not offer a benefit over crystalloid solutions in vascular collapse. However, human serum albumin is an important circulating antioxidant and it may be beneficial in critically ill patients to limit oxidative damage. A number of studies suggest that in specific groups of hypoalbuminemic critically ill patients, albumin administration may have beneficial effects on organ function, although the exact mechanisms remain undefined. Further trials are needed to confirm theses observations and to clearly demonstrate whether albumin should be administered in critically ill patients with hypoalbuminemia. PMID:20675098

  16. Transendothelial albumin flux: evidence against active transport of albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Siflinger-Birnboim, A.; Del Vecchio, P.J.; Cooper, J.A.; Malik, A.B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors studied whether albumin is actively transported across cultured pulmonary endothelium by comparing the transendothelial flux of /sup 125/I-albumin from the luminal-to-abluminal side to the flux from the abluminal-to-luminal side. Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were grown to confluence on gelatinized polycarbonated filters separating abluminal from luminal compartments. Each compartment had an albumin concentration of 1 g/100 ml to equalize oncotic pressure gradients. The effect of hydrostatic pressure was eliminated by maintaining an equal level of fluid in both compartments. The transendothelial flux of albumin across the monolayer was measured by placing /sup 125/I-albumin tracer either on the luminal or the abluminal side. Equal fluxes of /sup 125/I-albumin from luminal-to-abluminal side and from abluminal-to-luminal side were observed. The results indicate that the pulmonary endothelium behaves symmetrically for albumin, indicating the absence of active transport of albumin.

  17. Effect of glycation of albumin on its renal clearance in normal and diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, G.J.; Jerums, G.

    1988-03-01

    Two independent techniques have been used to study the renal clearances of nonenzymatically glycated albumin and nonglycated albumin in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, 16 to 24 weeks after the onset of diabetes. In the first technique, serum and urinary endogenous glycated and nonglycated albumin were separated using m-aminophenylboronate affinity chromatography and subsequently quantified by radioimmunoassay. Endogenous glycated albumin was cleared approximately twofold faster than nonglycated albumin in normal and diabetic rats. However, no difference was observed in the glycated albumin/nonglycated albumin clearance ratios (Cga/Calb) in normal and diabetic rats, respectively (2.18 +/- 0.39 vs 1.83 +/- 0.22, P greater than 0.05). The second technique measured the renal clearance of injected 125I-labelled glycated albumin and 125I-labelled albumin. The endogenous results were supported by the finding that 125I-labelled glycated albumin was cleared more rapidly than 125I-labelled albumin in normal (P less than 0.01) and diabetic (P less than 0.05) rats. The Cga/Calb ratio calculated for the radiolabelled albumins was 1.4 and 2.0 in normal and diabetic rats, respectively. This evidence suggests that nonenzymatic glycation of albumin increases its renal clearance to a similar degree in normal and diabetic rats.

  18. Elevated plasma creatinine due to creatine ethyl ester use.

    PubMed

    Velema, M S; de Ronde, W

    2011-02-01

    Creatine is a nutritional supplement widely used in sport, physical fitness training and bodybuilding. It is claimed to enhance performance. We describe a case in which serum creatinine is elevated due to the use of creatine ethyl esther. One week after withdrawal, the plasma creatinine had normalised. There are two types of creatine products available: creatine ethyl esther (CEE) and creatine monohydrate (CM). Plasma creatinine is not elevated in all creatine-using subjects. CEE , but not CM, is converted into creatinine in the gastrointestinal tract. As a result the use of CEE may be associated with elevated plasma creatinine levels. Since plasma creatinine is a widely used marker for renal function, the use of CEE may lead to a false assumption of renal failure.

  19. Creatinine metabolism in Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus bacillisporus.

    PubMed Central

    Polacheck, I; Kwon-Chung, K J

    1980-01-01

    The pathogenic species of Cryptococcus, C. neoformans and C. bacillisporus, utilized creatinine as a source of nitrogen but not of carbon. Chromatographic and autoradiographic studies suggest that creatinine metabolism in both species involves a single step resulting in the production of methylhydantoin and ammonia. The enzyme responsible for this step, creatinine deiminase, was produced by the cells only in the presence of creatinine in both species. The synthesis of creatinine deiminase was repressed by ammonia in C. neoformans, but not in C. bacillisporus. A possible explanation for this variation, based on the ecological differences between the two species, is discussed. A novel method for measuring creatinine deiminase activity is also described. Images PMID:6989801

  20. Urinary albumin in space missions.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina; Norsk, Peter; Elmann-Larsen, Benny; Bellini, Luigi; Stellato, Davide; Drummer, Christian

    2002-07-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity).

  1. Effects of moderate-dose versus high-dose trimethoprim on serum creatinine and creatinine clearance and adverse reactions.

    PubMed Central

    Naderer, O; Nafziger, A N; Bertino, J S

    1997-01-01

    The effects of a 10-day course of moderate-dose (10 mg/kg/day) or high-dose (20 mg/kg/day) trimethoprim therapy on serum creatinine, measured creatinine clearance, urinary creatinine excretion, and serum folate were studied in 20 healthy volunteers. Serum creatinine concentrations increased significantly during trimethoprim therapy, began to decrease near day 10, and returned to baseline during the washout phase at both dosage levels. At the same time, measured creatinine clearance and urine creatinine changed in the opposite direction. No clinical or statistical differences were noted between changes in the moderate- versus the high-dose phases. Serum folate concentration decreases during high-dose trimethoprim therapy were statistically significant. Adverse drug reactions in the two groups were statistically different during the first study period, with the high-dose group having a 75% incidence rate and the moderate-dose group having an 11% incidence rate (P < 0.02). Serum creatinine, measured creatinine clearance, and urinary creatinine excretion demonstrated statistically, but not clinically, significant changes during trimethoprim therapy. In addition, high-dose trimethoprim caused significantly more adverse drug reactions than moderate-dose trimethoprim in normal volunteers. PMID:9371351

  2. Distribution of creatinine following intravenous and oral administration to rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, J; Hirate, J; Iwamoto, K; Ozeki, S

    1981-05-01

    To evaluate the distribution of creatinine in rats, urinary, fecal and expiratory excretion, plasma levels and whole-body autoradiography following intravenous or oral administration of [carbonyl-14C]creatinine was investigated. More than 90% of the exogeneous creatinine was excreted in the urine in 24 hr following intravenous administration, and both fecal and expiratory excretion were only about 1%. In case of oral administration, however, it was found that expiratory excretion could not be neglected, ranging from about 1 to 30%. Plasma creatinine concentration-time curves following the intravenous administration (70.4 micrograms/kg or 400 mg/kg as creatinine) were analyzed according to a two-compartment open model. There were significant but very small differences in the pharmacokinetic parameters for these two doses. When these parameters were compared with those of urea, k12 and k21, which are transfer rate constants between compartment 1 and 2, for creatinine were significantly smaller than those of urea. On the other hand, k10 was larger in creatinine. Furthermore, (V'd)extrap for creatinine was about three times that of urea. Whole-body autoradiograms at 5 minutes following intravenous administration showed that exogeneous creatinine distributes with higher concentrations in liver, lung and kidney than in muscle and fat. This results was remarkably different from that of urea which distributes almost uniformly throughout the body at the same time. This difference observed in the autoradiograms would be the consequence of the fact that urea has larger k12 and k21 than creatinine.

  3. Creatinine Deiminase Adsorption onto Silicalite-Modified pH-FET for Creation of New Creatinine-Sensitive Biosensor.

    PubMed

    Marchenko, Svitlana V; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kurc, Burcu Akata; Soldatkin, Alexei P; Dzyadevych, Sergei V

    2016-12-01

    In the work, silicalite particles were used for the surface modification of pH-sensitive field-effect transistors (pH-FETs) with the purpose of developing new creatinine-sensitive biosensor. Creatinine deiminase (CD) adsorbed on the surface of silicalite-coated pH-FET served as a bioselective membrane. The biosensor based on CD immobilized in glutaraldehyde vapor (GA) was taken as control. The creatinine-sensitive biosensor obtained by adsorption on silicalite was shown to have better analytical characteristics (two- to threefold increased sensitivity to creatinine, three- to fourfold lesser response and recovery times, a decrease of the detection limit of creatinine determination to 5 μM, etc.).Additionally, the biosensor based on CD adsorbed on silicalite (Sil/CD) was characterized by high signal reproducibility (relative standard deviation (RSD) for creatinine measurement = 2.6 %) and stability during storage (over 13 months). It was experimentally confirmed that the proposed biosensor was not sensitive either to high concentrations of sodium chloride or to the macromolecular protein fractions and can be used for direct quantitative analysis of creatinine in the blood serum.It was concluded that the method of CD adsorption on silicalite is well-suited for the creation of creatinine-sensitive biosensor with improved working characteristics. PMID:27033849

  4. Creatinine Deiminase Adsorption onto Silicalite-Modified pH-FET for Creation of New Creatinine-Sensitive Biosensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, Svitlana V.; Soldatkin, Oleksandr O.; Kasap, Berna Ozansoy; Kurc, Burcu Akata; Soldatkin, Alexei P.; Dzyadevych, Sergei V.

    2016-03-01

    In the work, silicalite particles were used for the surface modification of pH-sensitive field-effect transistors (pH-FETs) with the purpose of developing new creatinine-sensitive biosensor. Creatinine deiminase (CD) adsorbed on the surface of silicalite-coated pH-FET served as a bioselective membrane. The biosensor based on CD immobilized in glutaraldehyde vapor (GA) was taken as control. The creatinine-sensitive biosensor obtained by adsorption on silicalite was shown to have better analytical characteristics (two- to threefold increased sensitivity to creatinine, three- to fourfold lesser response and recovery times, a decrease of the detection limit of creatinine determination to 5 μM, etc.).

  5. Low molecular weight fucoidan protects renal tubular cells from injury induced by albumin overload

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yingli; Sun, Yi; Weng, Lin; Li, Yingjie; Zhang, Quanbin; Zhou, Hong; Yang, Baoxue

    2016-01-01

    Albuminuria is a causative and aggravating factor for progressive renal damage in chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study was to determine if low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) could protect renal function and tubular cells from albumin overload caused injury. Treatment with 10 mg/g bovine serum albumin caused renal dysfunction, morphological changes, and overexpression of inflammation and fibrosis associated proteins in 129S2/Sv mice. LMWF (100 mg/kg) protected against kidney injury and renal dysfunction with decreased blood creatinine by 34% and urea nitrogen by 25%, increased creatinine clearance by 48%, and decreased significantly urinary albumin concentration. In vitro proximal tubule epithelial cell (NRK-52E) model showed that LMWF dose-dependently inhibited overexpression of proinflammatory and profibrotic factors, oxidative stress and apoptosis caused by albumin overload. These experimental results indicate that LMWF protects against albumin overload caused renal injury by inhibiting inflammation, fibrosis, oxidative stress and apoptosis, which suggests that LMWF could be a promising candidate drug for preventing CKD. PMID:27545472

  6. Specific gravity as an alternative to creatinine for estimating urine concentration in captive and wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Samples.

    PubMed

    Anestis, Stephanie F; Breakey, Alicia A; Beuerlein, Melanie M; Bribiescas, Richard G

    2009-02-01

    The measurement of hormones in urine has become a widely used technique in primatology. Because urine concentration varies according to fluid intake, concentration must be measured in each sample collected, and hormone values are always expressed per unit of concentration. Traditionally, creatinine has been used as a concentration index, but some studies in humans have shown that creatinine varies among populations and even within and between individuals within a population, and that it begins to degrade after just one freeze-thaw cycle. In addition, creatinine measurement is relatively time-consuming and expensive and creates hazardous waste. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that specific gravity, or the ratio of the density of a sample to that of water, is highly correlated with creatinine measurement in urine samples collected from captive chimpanzees at the New Iberia Research Center in Louisiana and wild chimpanzees at the Ngogo study site in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. We found that specific gravity and creatinine were highly correlated in both captive (N=124) and wild (N=13) chimpanzee samples, and that specific gravity measurement was robust to actual and simulated transport conditions and repeated freeze-thaw cycles. We recommend that researchers consider specific gravity measurement as a preferable alternative to creatinine measurement in their studies of primate endocrinology.

  7. Minor Postoperative Increases of Creatinine Are Associated with Higher Mortality and Longer Hospital Length of Stay in Surgical Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kork, Felix; Balzer, Felix; Spies, Claudia D.; Wernecke, Klaus-Dieter; Ginde, Adit A.; Jankowski, Joachim; Eltzschig, Holger K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Surgical patients frequently experience postoperative increases in creatinine levels. The authors hypothesized that even small increases in postoperative creatinine levels are associated with adverse outcomes. Methods The authors examined the association of postoperative changes from preoperative baseline creatinine with all-cause in-hospital mortality and hospital length of stay (HLOS) in a retrospective analysis of surgical patients at a single tertiary care center between January 2006 and June 2012. Results The data of 39,369 surgical patients (noncardiac surgery n = 37,345; cardiac surgery n = 2,024) were analyzed. Acute kidney injury (AKI)—by definition of the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcome group—was associated with a five-fold higher mortality (odds ratio [OR], 4.8; 95% CI, 4.1 to 5.7; P < 0.001) and a longer HLOS of 5 days (P < 0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, comorbidities, congestive heart failure, preoperative hemoglobin, preoperative creatinine, exposure to radiocontrast agent, type of surgery, and surgical AKI risk factors. Importantly, even minor creatinine increases (Δcreatinine 25 to 49% above baseline but < 0.3 mg/dl) not meeting AKI criteria were associated with a two-fold increased risk of death (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.4; P < 0.001) and 2 days longer HLOS (P < 0.001). This was more pronounced in noncardiac surgery patients. Patients with minor creatinine increases had a five-fold risk of death (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 1.5 to 20.3; P < 0.05) and a 3-day longer HLOS (P < 0.01) when undergoing noncardiac surgery. Conclusions Even minor postoperative increases in creatinine levels are associated with adverse outcomes. These results emphasize the importance to find effective therapeutic approaches to prevent or treat even mild forms of postoperative kidney dysfunction to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:26492475

  8. Mechanism of increased renal clearnace of amylase/creatinine in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, S G; Ellis, C J; Levitt, M D

    1976-11-25

    We investigated three possible causes of the increased ratio of amylase/creatinine clearance observed in acute pancreatitis. The presence of rapidly cleared isoamylase was excluded by studies of serum and urine, which demonstrated no anomalous isoamylases. In pancreatitis, the ratios (+/-1 S.E.M.) of both pancreatic isoamylase (9.2+/-0.6 per cent) and salivary isoamylase (8.6+/-1.6 per cent) were significantly (P less than 0.01) elevated over respective control values (2.4+/-0.2 and 1.8+/-0.2 per cent). Increased glomerular permeability to amylase was excluded by the demonstration of normal renal clearance of dextrans. We tested tubular reabsorption of protein by measuring the renal clearance of beta2-microglobulin, which is relatively freely filtered at the glomerulus and then avidly reabsorbed by the normal tubule. During acute pancreatitis the ratio of the renal clearance of beta2-microglobulin to that of creatinine was 1.22+/-0.52 per cent, an 80-fold increase over normal (0.015+/-0.002 per cent), with a rapid return toward normal during convalescence. Presumably, this reversible renal tubular defect also reduces amylase reabsorption and accounts for the elevated renal clearance of amylase/creatinine observed in acute pancreatitis.

  9. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis. The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04). UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE. PMID:26496329

  10. Binding studies of creatinine and urea on iron-nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Banerji, Biswadip; Pramanik, Sumit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Kidney diseases are complicated and can be fatal. Dialysis and transplantation are the only survival solutions to the patients suffering from kidney failures. Both hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are risky, due to the possibility of infection and these are expensive and time consuming. The development of simple and reliable technique for the clearance of creatinine and urea from the body is an important part of biotechnology. We have synthesized an iron nanoparticle (INP) and studied its binding with creatinine and urea. The DLS, TEM, AFM, FT-IR and Powder-XRD studies demonstrate strong binding of creatinine and urea to the nanoparticles. This finding may be helpful if it is used in the dialysis technologies. The proposed method may substantially decrease dialysis time and improve its quality in terms of urea and creatinine clearances.

  11. Effect of angiotensin on glomerular filtration of albumin.

    PubMed

    Eisenbach, G M; Van Liew, J B

    1975-01-01

    Angiotensin-induced proteinuria was examined at the glomerular-tubular level in rats. Ultra-micro-disc electrophoresis was employed to determine albumin concentration of rat proximal tubular fluid samples under control conditions and during the infusion of 0.15 mug/min X 100 g body weight angiotensin II using micropuncture techniques. Under control conditions proximal tubular albumin concentration was 1.32 +/- 0.79 (SD) mg/100 ml (n = 71). There was no correlation between albumin concentration and (TF/P)-inulin ratio indicating an albumin reabsorption in the proximal tubule parallel to fluid reabsorption under control conditions. During angiotensin infusion using re-collection techniques, there is an average increase of 26 times in tubular albumin concentration, indicating an increase in albumin filtered. There was no change in GFR, SNGFR, transit time, (TF/P)-inulin ratio, an increase in urine flow rate, sodium excretion, protein excretion, mean arterial blood pressure during angiotensin infusion. Since effective glomerular filtration pressure was not increased during angiotensin it is concluded that angiotensin-induced proteinuria is due to an increase in filtered protien mediated by a change in glomerular permeability to proteins.

  12. Determination of renal clearances of amylase/creatinine with chromogenic and enzymatic methods.

    PubMed

    Hohenwallner, W; Wimmer, E; Sommer, R

    1979-12-01

    Urinary amylase was estimated by chromogenic (amylochrome Roche) as well as enzymatic methods (SKI and Beckman: substrate starch and substrate maltotetraose respectively). Random and timed urines (24 hour collections) were analysed. Clearances of amylase gave different results dependent upon the amylase-test used and the glomerular filtration rate. Correlation between chromogenic and enzymatic methods (starch as substrate) was poor. The ratio of amylase and creatinine clearance was used to test different methods. Reference values for this ratio for the amylochrome method (N = 106) were 2.85 +/- 0.99% and for the Beckman-DS method (N = 60) 2.82 +/- 0.87%.

  13. [Considerations when using creatinine as a measure of kidney function].

    PubMed

    Drion, I Iefke; Fokkert, M J Marion; Bilo, H J G Henk

    2013-01-01

    Reported serum creatinine concentrations can sometimes vary considerably, even when the renal function does less so or even not. This variation is partly due to true changes in actual serum concentration, and partly due to interferences in the measurement technique, thus not reflecting a true change in concentration. Increased or decreased endogenous creatinine production, ingested creatinine sources through meat eating or certain creatine formulations, and interference by either browning of chromogenic substances in Jaffe measurement techniques or promotors and inhibitors of enzymatic reaction methods do play a role. Reliable serum creatinine measurements are needed for renal function estimating equations. In screening circumstances and daily practice, chronic kidney disease staging is based on these estimated glomerular filtration rate values. Given the possible influences on reported serum creatinine concentrations, it is important for health care workers to remain critical when interpreting outcomes of renal function estimating equations and to not see every reported result based on an equation as a true reflection of renal function. PMID:24330793

  14. Immobilized enzyme electrode for creatinine determination in serum.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, V K; Wolff, C M; Seris, J L; Schwing, J P

    1991-03-15

    An immobilized enzyme electrode for continuous creatinine determination in blood serum is described. The enzymes creatinine amidohydrolase, creatine amidinohydrolase, and sarcosine oxidase are coimmobilized to the surface of the polypropylene membrane of a Clark-type electrode responsive to oxygen. The immobilized enzymes catalyze the decomposition of creatinine with the consumption of oxygen and thus permit the creatinine measurement. The whole assay takes less than 1 min. Effects of pH and temperature on electrode response are also described. The proposed technique offers a rapid, simple, and inexpensive means to determine creatinine in blood serum within the normal and abnormal ranges. The repeatability of the creatine determination in serum is 2.5% (relative standard deviation), and the detection limit is 3 x 10(-6) mol L-1. The results obtained by this method were compared to those obtained with the Technicon AutoAnalyzer SMAC system based on the Jaffé reaction; the correlation factor between the two methods was found to be r = 0.9997.

  15. Chemiluminescence of creatinine/H2O2/Co(2+) and its application for selective creatinine detection.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Saima; John, Peter; Gao, Wenyue; Saqib, Muhammad; Qi, Liming; Xu, Guobao

    2016-01-15

    Creatinine is an important biomarker in clinical diagnosis and biomonitoring programs as well as urinary metabolomic/metabonomics research. Current methods are either nonselective, time consuming or require heavy and expensive instruments. In this study, chemiluminescence of creatinine with hydrogen peroxide has been reported for the first time, and its chemiluminescence is remarkably enhanced in the presence of cobalt ions. By utilizing these phenomena, we have developed a sensitive and selective chemiluminescence method for creatinine determination by coupling with flow injection analysis. The calibration curve is linear in the range of 1×10(-7)-3×10(-5)mol/L with a limit of detection (S/N=3) of 7.2×10(-8)mol/L, which is adequate for detecting creatinine in the clinically accepted range. The relative standard deviation for seven measurements of 3×10(-5)mol/L creatinine is 1.2%. The chemiluminescence method was then utilized to detect creatinine in human urine samples after simple dilution with water. It takes less than 1min each measurement and the recoveries for spiked urine samples were 100-103%. The interference study demonstrates that some common species in urine, such as amino acids, ascorbic acid and creatine, have negligible effects on creatinine detection. The present method does not use expensive instruments, enzymes and separation technique. This method has the advantages of sensitivity, selectivity, simplicity, rapidity, and low cost. It holds great promise for basic or comprehensive metabolic panel, drug screening, anti-dopping, and urinary metabolomic/metabonomics research. PMID:26339931

  16. To compare anti-albumin urea effects of valsartan alone with combination of valsartan and amlodipine in patients of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Ameen; Kashif, Muhammad Ali; Sumreen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare anti-albumin urea effects of Valsartan alone with combination of Valsartan and Amlodipine in patients of chronic kidney disease. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted at the Department of Medicine, Combined Military Hospital Bahawalpur, from April 2014 to 30 September 2014. 140 patients of chronic kidney disease with baseline blood pressure more than 140/90mm Hg having raised urinary albumin: creatinine ratio (UACR). UACR more than 3.5 mg/mmol was considered abnormal. Group-A was treated with Valsartan 80mg daily and Group-B was treated with valsartan 80 and amlodipine 10mg once a day. We did not change the dose of drugs and check spot UACR at base line and after six months with therapy and compare improvement in UACR between Group-A and B. Data was analyzed by statistical software packages (SPSS 16.0). Results: In both the groups, BP was significantly lower than the respective value. Mean decrease in spot UACR in Group-A was 3.18±2.64 mg/mmol and UACR in Group-B mean decrease in UACR was 13.01±20.11 mg/mmol. P value was< 0.05. Conclusion: The combination therapy of valsartan with amlodipine significantly lowers the albuminuria in chronic Kidney disease and reduce the progression of disease as compared to Valsartan alone therapy. PMID:27375700

  17. An artificial enzyme-based assay: DNA detection using a peroxidase-like copper-creatinine complex.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amardeep; Patra, Srikanta; Lee, Jeong-Ah; Park, Kang Hyun; Yang, Haesik

    2011-08-15

    We report an artificial enzyme-based DNA assay using a peroxidase-like copper (Cu)-creatinine complex as a catalyst for 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) oxidation. The assay employs double signal amplification and a homogeneous catalytic reaction: (i) fast catalytic growth of Cu on a gold (Au) nanoparticle (NP) label forms a thick Cu layer (first amplification); (ii) dissolution of the Cu layer generates many Cu-creatinine complexes per NP (generation of homogeneous catalysts); (iii) peroxidase-like Cu-creatinine complexes rapidly convert TMB into a colored product (second amplification). To investigate the effect of ligand on the catalytic activities of Cu complexes, the kinetics of catalytic TMB oxidation is tested with and without using imidazole ring-containing ligands (creatinine, imidazole, and poly(l-histidine)). Both fast oxidation of TMB and slow further oxidation of the colored product are required for high signal-to-background ratios. Cu-creatinine complex allows relatively fast oxidation and slow further oxidation. Fast seed-mediated Cu growth on Au NP and slow Cu autonucleation (i.e., slow formation of Cu NP in the absence of Au NP) are also required for high signal-to-background ratios. In tris-EDTA (tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) buffer (pH 7.7) containing high concentrations of Cu(2+) (90 mM), ascorbic acid (50mM), and Mg(2+) (200 mM), Cu growth on Au NP is very fast and autonucleation is significantly suppressed. Fast catalytic oxidation by Cu-creatinine complex along with fast Cu growth on Au NP allows a detection limit of 0.1 pM for DNA in a simple microplate format. PMID:21726993

  18. Blood pressure and creatinine clearance in lead-exposed children: the effect of treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, M.A.; Brooks, C.T.; Sheehe, P.R.

    1981-01-01

    The authors speculated that normal growth might cause the release of stored lead in children, providing an endogenous source of exposure for years after the acute toxic episode had resolved. The purpose of this study was to answer the following two questions: (1) is a chelation-responsive lead burden present 2 to 5 yr after therapy for acute poisoning; and (2) does blood pressure or creatinine clearance correlate with body lead burden, as demonstrated by chelation. Thirty-eight children who had undergone ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid mobilization testing at least one time during the course of treatment in a lead clinic returned for follow-up care within 2-5 yr. All were asymptomatic. To determine the current level of body lead burden, a single-dose oral chelation with penicillamine was performed. Blood pressure and creatinine clearences were measured. From the data obtained for each child, we generated a geometric ''area'' representing the magnitude of lead burden integrated over the length of carriage of this burden. Multiple regression analysis indicated that after adjustment for the background variables of age, sex, height, and weight, none of the three parameters-mobilization ratio ''area,'' blood lead level, or FEP level-was a significant contributor to the variation observed in the blood pressures or creatinine clearances of the 38 lead-exposed children (P>.05).

  19. Isolation and characterization of serum albumin from Camelus dromedarius

    PubMed Central

    MALIK, AJAMALUDDIN; AL-SENAIDY, ABDULRAHMAN; SKRZYPCZAK-JANKUN, EWA; JANKUN, JERZY

    2013-01-01

    Serum albumin constitutes 35–50 mg/ml of plasma proteins and performs various physiological activities including the regulation of osmotic pressure on blood, maintaining buffering of the blood pH, carrying different fatty acids and other small molecules, such as bilirubin, hormones, drugs and metal ions, as well as participating in immunological responses. Serum albumin is an extensively used protein in biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. The camel (Camelus dromedarius) is well tailored to successfully survive in extremely hot and dry climates. Plasma osmolality in the camel increases during water-deprived conditions. In such circumstances serum albumin is crucial in the regulation of blood pressure. The study of biochemical, biophysical and immunological aspects of camel serum albumin (CSA) are likely to provide molecular insights into camel physiology and may render it an alternative to human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in all cases. However, these proteins are currently not available or cannot be utilized due to a variety of considerations. In this study, 12 mg of highly pure CSA was obtained from 1 ml plasma. Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining of SDS-PAGE yielded one band and RP-HPLC results revealed a single sharp peak, indicating homogenous preparation of the CSA. The charge/mass ratio and surface hydrophobicity of the CSA was similar to that of BSA. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified protein confirmed the identity of CSA. PMID:24137219

  20. Albumin Dialysis for Liver Failure: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tsipotis, Evangelos; Shuja, Asim; Jaber, Bertrand L

    2015-09-01

    Albumin dialysis is the best-studied extracorporeal nonbiologic liver support system as a bridge or destination therapy for patients with liver failure awaiting liver transplantation or recovery of liver function. We performed a systematic review to examine the efficacy and safety of 3 albumin dialysis systems (molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS], fractionated plasma separation, adsorption and hemodialysis [Prometheus system], and single-pass albumin dialysis) in randomized trials for supportive treatment of liver failure. PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane's Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched. Two authors independently screened citations and extracted data on patient characteristics, quality of reports, efficacy, and safety end points. Ten trials (7 of MARS and 3 of Prometheus) were identified (620 patients). By meta-analysis, albumin dialysis achieved a net decrease in serum total bilirubin level relative to standard medical therapy of 8.0 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.6 to -5.4) but not in serum ammonia or bile acids. Albumin dialysis achieved an improvement in hepatic encephalopathy relative to standard medical therapy with a risk ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.16-2.08) but had no effect survival with a risk ratio of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.84-1.07). Because of inconsistency in the reporting of adverse events, the safety analysis was limited but did not demonstrate major safety concerns. Use of albumin dialysis as supportive treatment for liver failure is successful at removing albumin-bound molecules, such as bilirubin and at improving hepatic encephalopathy. Additional experience is required to guide its optimal use and address safety concerns.

  1. Albumin Dialysis for Liver Failure: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tsipotis, Evangelos; Shuja, Asim; Jaber, Bertrand L

    2015-09-01

    Albumin dialysis is the best-studied extracorporeal nonbiologic liver support system as a bridge or destination therapy for patients with liver failure awaiting liver transplantation or recovery of liver function. We performed a systematic review to examine the efficacy and safety of 3 albumin dialysis systems (molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS], fractionated plasma separation, adsorption and hemodialysis [Prometheus system], and single-pass albumin dialysis) in randomized trials for supportive treatment of liver failure. PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane's Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched. Two authors independently screened citations and extracted data on patient characteristics, quality of reports, efficacy, and safety end points. Ten trials (7 of MARS and 3 of Prometheus) were identified (620 patients). By meta-analysis, albumin dialysis achieved a net decrease in serum total bilirubin level relative to standard medical therapy of 8.0 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.6 to -5.4) but not in serum ammonia or bile acids. Albumin dialysis achieved an improvement in hepatic encephalopathy relative to standard medical therapy with a risk ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.16-2.08) but had no effect survival with a risk ratio of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.84-1.07). Because of inconsistency in the reporting of adverse events, the safety analysis was limited but did not demonstrate major safety concerns. Use of albumin dialysis as supportive treatment for liver failure is successful at removing albumin-bound molecules, such as bilirubin and at improving hepatic encephalopathy. Additional experience is required to guide its optimal use and address safety concerns. PMID:26311600

  2. Cellular Specificity of the Blood–CSF Barrier for Albumin Transfer across the Choroid Plexus Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Liddelow, Shane A.; Dzięgielewska, Katarzyna M.; Møllgård, Kjeld; Whish, Sophie C.; Noor, Natassya M.; Wheaton, Benjamin J.; Gehwolf, Renate; Wagner, Andrea; Traweger, Andreas; Bauer, Hannelore; Bauer, Hans-Christian; Saunders, Norman R.

    2014-01-01

    To maintain the precise internal milieu of the mammalian central nervous system, well-controlled transfer of molecules from periphery into brain is required. Recently the soluble and cell-surface albumin-binding glycoprotein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) has been implicated in albumin transport into developing brain, however the exact mechanism remains unknown. We postulate that SPARC is a docking site for albumin, mediating its uptake and transfer by choroid plexus epithelial cells from blood into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used in vivo physiological measurements of transfer of endogenous (mouse) and exogenous (human) albumins, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (in situ PLA), and qRT-PCR experiments to examine the cellular mechanism mediating protein transfer across the blood–CSF interface. We report that at all developmental stages mouse albumin and SPARC gave positive signals with in situ PLAs in plasma, CSF and within individual plexus cells suggesting a possible molecular interaction. In contrast, in situ PLA experiments in brain sections from mice injected with human albumin showed positive signals for human albumin in the vascular compartment that were only rarely identifiable within choroid plexus cells and only at older ages. Concentrations of both endogenous mouse albumin and exogenous (intraperitoneally injected) human albumin were estimated in plasma and CSF and expressed as CSF/plasma concentration ratios. Human albumin was not transferred through the mouse blood–CSF barrier to the same extent as endogenous mouse albumin, confirming results from in situ PLA. During postnatal development Sparc gene expression was higher in early postnatal ages than in the adult and changed in response to altered levels of albumin in blood plasma in a differential and developmentally regulated manner. Here we propose a possible cellular route and mechanism by which albumin is transferred from blood into CSF across a sub-population of

  3. Evaluating an alternative method for rapid urinary creatinine determination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Creatinine (CR) is an endogenously-produced chemical routinely assayed in urine specimens to assess kidney function, sample dilution. The industry-standard method for CR determination, known as the kinetic Jaffe (KJ) method, relies on an exponential rate of a colorimetric change,...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  8. 21 CFR 862.1225 - Creatinine test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Creatinine test system. 862.1225 Section 862.1225 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  9. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Turkmen, K.; Tufan, F.; Selçuk, E.; Akpınar, T.; Oflaz, H.; Ecder, T.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction (ED), insulin resistance (IR), and inflammation are risk factors for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). ADPKD patients may have increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and decreased coronary flow velocity reserve (CFVR). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) was introduced as a marker to determine inflammation in various disorders. We aimed to investigate the relationship between NLR and IR, CFVR, CIMT, and the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) in normotensive ADPKD patients. Twentynine ADPKD patients (age 38.8 ± 10.2 years; 8 men and 21 women) and 19 healthy controls (age 33.8 ± 7.4 years; 8 men and 11 women) were included in this cross-sectional study. CFVR was calculated with echocardiography as the ratio of hyperemic to baseline diastolic peak coronary flow velocities. CIMT was measured in the distal common carotid artery by using a 10-MHz linear echocardiography probe. HOMA-IR was calculated NLR was calculated as the ratio of the neutrophil and lymphocyte counts. Age, sex, body mass index, and levels of glucose, creatinine, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP), microalbuminuria, and creatinine clearance were similar between ADPKD patients and healthy subjects. NLR, CIMT, LVMI, and HOMA-IR were significantly higher and CFVR values were significantly lower in patients with ADPKD compared to that in healthy subjects. NLR showed positive correlation with CIMT, HOMA, insulin, glucose, and HDL cholesterol levels, while it was inversely correlated with CFVR and albumin level in all subjects. In patients with ADPKD, NLR showed positive correlation with HDL cholesterol level and inverse correlation with LVMI and albumin level. NLR that was found to be increased in patients with ADPKD may be a readily available marker of inflammation and ED. PMID:23580803

  10. Urinary chromium excretion, diurnal changes, and relationship to creatinine excretion in healthy and sick individuals of different ages.

    PubMed

    Gürson, C T; Saner, G

    1978-07-01

    Since urine is the main excretory pathway for chromium, this study was conducted to compare in normal individuals the daily urinary chromium excretion with a 4 hr sample, to investigate diurnal fluctuations of urinary chromium and age-dependent relationship between urinary chromium and creatinine excretion. The results can be summarized as 1) there was no significant difference between the observed 24 hr chromium excretion and 24 hr excretion calculated from the one 4 hr samples, 2) a diurnal variation was observed when urinary excretion was expressed as chromium per minute, but no time-related variation could be established when chromium/creatinine (Cr/Cre) ratios in samples from three different periods of the same day were compared, although a significant positive correlation existed between urinary chromium and creatinine concentration, 3) the Cr/Cre ratio was found to be age-dependent, 4) in malnourished children the Cr/Cre ratio was very high and significantly different from that of normal infants, 5) This ratio for the eight diabetics was found to be significantly higher when compared with normal adults. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that morning 4 hr urinary chromium reflects the daily chromium excretion and that the Cr/Cre ratio of single urine samples obtained during this period is a reliable criterion in the evaluation of chromium nutrition of individuals in different conditions, provided that the influence of age is taken into consideration.

  11. A general photonic crystal sensing motif: creatinine in bodily fluids.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Anjal C; Jana, Tushar; Kesavamoorthy, Rasu; Shi, Lianjun; Virji, Mohamed A; Finegold, David N; Asher, Sanford A

    2004-03-10

    We developed a new sensing motif for the detection and quantification of creatinine, which is an important small molecule marker of renal dysfunction. This novel sensor motif is based on our intelligent polymerized crystalline colloidal array (IPCCA) materials, in which a three-dimensional crystalline colloidal array (CCA) of monodisperse, highly charged polystyrene latex particles are polymerized within lightly cross-linked polyacrylamide hydrogels. These composite hydrogels are photonic crystals in which the embedded CCA diffracts visible light and appears intensely colored. Volume phase transitions of the hydrogel cause changes in the CCA lattice spacings which change the diffracted wavelength of light. We functionalized the hydrogel with two coupled recognition modules, a creatinine deiminase (CD) enzyme and a 2-nitrophenol (2NPh) titrating group. Creatinine within the gel is rapidly hydrolyzed by the CD enzyme in a reaction which releases OH(-). This elevates the steady-state pH within the hydrogel as compared to the exterior solution. In response, the 2NPh is deprotonated. The increased solubility of the phenolate species as compared to that of the neutral phenols causes a hydrogel swelling which red-shifts the IPCCA diffraction. This photonic crystal IPCCA senses physiologically relevant creatinine levels, with a detection limit of 6 microM, at physiological pH and salinity. This sensor also determines physiological levels of creatinine in human blood serum samples. This sensing technology platform is quite general. It may be used to fabricate photonic crystal sensors for any species for which there exists an enzyme which catalyzes it to release H(+) or OH(-). PMID:14995215

  12. Amadori albumin in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Neelofar, Km.; Ahmad, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation of macromolecules in diabetes mellitus (DM) is accelerated due to persistent hyperglycemia. Reducing sugar such as glucose reacts non enzymatically with free €-amino groups of proteins through series of reactions forming Schiff bases. These bases are converted into Amadori product and further into AGEs. Non enzymatic glycation has the potential to alter the biological, structural and functional properties of macromolecules both in vitro and in vivo. Studies have suggested that amadori as well as AGEs are involved in the micro-macro vascular complications in DM, but most studies have focused on the role of AGEs in vascular complications of diabetes. Recently putative AGE-induced patho-physiology has shifted attention from the possible role of amadori-modified proteins, the predominant form of the glycated proteins in the development of the diabetic complications. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in circulation contains 59 lysine and 23 arginine residues that could, in theory be involved in glycation. Albumin has dual nature, first as a marker of intermediate glycation and second as a causative agent of the damage of tissues. Among the blood proteins, hemoglobin and albumin are the most common proteins that are glycated. HSA with a shorter half life than RBC, appears to be an alternative marker of glycemic control as it can indicate blood glucose status over a short period (2-3 weeks) and being unaffected by RBCs life span and variant haemoglobin, anemia etc which however, affect HbA1c. On the other hand, Amadori albumin may accumulate in the body tissues of the diabetic patients and participate in secondary complications. Amadori-albumin has potential role in diabetic glomerulosclerosis due to long term hyperglycaemia and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. This review is an approach to compile both the nature of glycated albumin as a damaging agent of tissues and as an intermediate

  13. Effect of the Direct Renin Inhibitor Aliskiren on Urinary Albumin Excretion in Spontaneous Type 2 Diabetic KK-Ay Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Masako; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Funabiki, Kazuhiko; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although angiotensin II-mediated inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation are considered to be associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy, these processes have not yet been sufficiently clarified. The objective of this study was to determine whether the correction of the abnormal renal expression of MMPs and its inhibitors (MMPs/TIMPs) and cytokines following the administration of aliskiren to KK-Ay mice results in a renoprotective effect. Methods. KK-Ay mice were divided into two groups, that is, untreated (saline) and treated (aliskiren) groups. Systolic BP, HbA1c levels, and the albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured. The renal expression of MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) was examined using real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemical staining. Renal MAPK and NF-κB activity were also examined by Western blot analyses and ELISA, respectively. Results. Significant decreases in systolic BP and ACR levels were observed in treated KK-Ay mice compared with the findings in untreated KK-Ay mice. Furthermore, increases in MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (P)RR expression, in addition to MAPK and NF-κB activity, were significantly attenuated by aliskiren administration. Conclusions. It appears that aliskiren improves albuminuria and renal fibrosis by regulating inflammation and the alteration of collagen synthesis and degradation. PMID:23819050

  14. Influence of diets with different levels of protein and energy on liver albumin content in the rat.

    PubMed

    Maurice, M; Lardeux, B; De Saint-Steban, C; Bourdel, G; Feldmann, G

    1986-11-01

    The influence of protein ingestion on liver albumin synthesis and albumin content was investigated in rats fed protein as a meal (90% casein) given apart from the other dietary components provided ad libitum. In this condition, protein ingestion rapidly stimulates liver total protein synthesis. Separately fed rats were studied 6 and 20 h after the protein meal. Control rats fed mixed diets containing 13 or 80% casein were killed either during the absorptive (night) or postabsorptive (light) periods. The ratio of hepatic albumin synthesis to total protein synthesis remained fairly constant (12-15%) in all groups, indicating that albumin synthesis paralleled total protein synthesis. Liver albumin content measured in microsomes by immunonephelometry was significantly higher in separately fed rats killed 6 h postmeal than in those killed after 20 h. In rats fed 13% casein, the liver albumin content remained high regardless of the time of killing. In rats fed 80% casein, the albumin content was higher during the absorptive period than during the postabsorptive period. Immunoperoxidase staining of the hepatocyte organelles involved in albumin synthesis, especially the Golgi apparatus, was more intense for separately fed rats killed 6 h postmeal than for those killed after 20 h. Livers of rats fed 13% casein also exhibited a pattern indicative of high hepatocyte albumin content, whereas livers of rats fed 80% casein contained less. These results show that, in separate feeding, wide circadian variations of albumin synthesis run parallel to changes in liver albumin content.

  15. Elevated levels of serum creatinine: recommendations for management and referral

    PubMed Central

    Mendelssohn, D C; Barrett, B J; Brownscombe, L M; Ethier, J; Greenberg, D E; Kanani, S D; Levin, A; Toffelmire, E B

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The potential benefits of earlier referral to a nephrologist of patients with elevated levels of serum creatinine include identifying and treating reversible causes of renal failure, slowing the rate of decline associated with progressive renal insufficiency, managing the coexisting conditions associated with chronic renal failure and facilitating efficient entry into dialysis programs for all patients who might benefit. METHODS: A subcommittee of the Canadian Society of Nephrology, which included representatives from family practice and internal medicine, conducted a MEDLINE search for the period 1966 to 1998 using the key words referral and consultation, dialysis, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, renal replacement therapy and kidney diseases. Where published evidence was lacking, conclusions were reached by consensus. GUIDELINES: Earlier referral to nephrologists of patients with elevated creatinine levels is expected to lead to better health care outcomes and lower costs for both the patients and the health care system. All patients with newly discovered renal insufficiency (as evidenced by serum creatinine elevated to a level above the upper limit of the normal range of that laboratory, adjusted for age and height in children) must undergo investigations to determine the potential reversibility of disease, to evaluate the prognosis and to optimize planning of care. All patients with an established, progressive increase in serum creatinine level should be followed with a nephrologist. Adequate preparation for dialysis or transplantation (or both) requires at least 12 months of relatively frequent contact with a renal care team. Nephrologists should provide consultation in a timely manner for any patient with an elevated serum creatinine level. In addition, they should provide advice about what aspects of the condition require particularly urgent or emergency assessment. SPONSORS: This clinical practice guideline has been endorsed by the Canadian

  16. Albumin receptor effect may be due to a surface-induced conformational change in albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.G.; Burrington, C.M.

    1989-06-15

    To determine whether equilibrium binding between albumin and hepatocytes involves a cell surface receptor for albumin, we incubated freshly isolated rat hepatocytes with /sup 125/I-albumin and determined the amount of albumin associated with the cells as a function of the total albumin concentration. The resulting two-phase binding curve showed the rat albumin-hepatocyte interaction to consist of a saturable binding interaction with a dissociation constant of 1.1 microM and 2 X 10(6) sites/cell in addition to a weak, nonsaturable binding interaction. However, the saturable binding of albumin to hepatocytes did not appear to result from the presence of an albumin receptor on the cell surface; the interaction was the same for different species of albumin, for chemically modified albumins, and for fragments of albumin representing mutually exclusive domains of the molecule. The saturable binding was, instead, found to involve a subpopulation of albumin with an enhanced affinity for the cell surface. We show that this subpopulation of albumin is generated upon contact with either solid surfaces or cell surfaces and can be transferred from one surface to another. We propose that the two-phase Scatchard binding curve and the ''albumin receptor effect'' reflect two populations of albumin that bind to the cell surface with different affinities rather than one population of albumin that binds to two classes of binding sites.

  17. PROTEOMIC PROFILING OF URINE IDENTIFIES SPECIFIC FRAGMENTS OF SERPINA-1 AND ALBUMIN AS BIOMARKERS OF PREECLAMPSIA

    PubMed Central

    Buhimschi, Irina A.; Zhao, Guomao; Funai, Edmund F.; Harris, Nathan; Sasson, Isaac E.; Bernstein, Ira M.; Saade, George R.; Buhimschi, Catalin S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The cause of preeclampsia remains unknown and the diagnosis can be uncertain. We used proteomic-based analysis of urine to improve disease classification and extend the pathophysiological understanding of preeclampsia. Study design Urine samples from 284 women were analyzed by mass spectrometry-based proteomics (SELDI). In the exploratory phase, 59 samples were used to extract the proteomic fingerprint characteristic of severe preeclampsia requiring mandated delivery and develop a diagnostic algorithm. In the challenge phase we sought to prospectively validate the algorithm in 225 women screened for a variety of high and low-risk conditions, including preeclampsia. Of these, 19 women were followed longitudinally throughout pregnancy. Presence of biomarkers was interpreted relative to clinical classification, need for delivery and other urine laboratory measures (ratios of protein-to-creatinine and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1-to-placental growth factor). In the translational phase biomarker identification by tandem mass spectrometry and validation experiments in urine, serum and placenta were employed to identify, quantify and localize the biomarkers or related proteins. Results We report that women with preeclampsia appear to present a unique urine proteomic fingerprint which predicts preeclampsia in need for mandated delivery with highest accuracy. This characteristic proteomic profile also has the ability to distinguish preeclampsia from other hypertensive or proteinuric disorders in pregnancy. Pregnant women followed longitudinally who developed preeclampsia displayed abnormal urinary profiles >10 weeks prior to clinical manifestation. Tandem mass spectrometry followed by de-novo sequencing identified the biomarkers as non-random cleavage products of SERPINA-1 and albumin. Of these, the 21-aminoacid C-terminus fragment of SERPINA-1 was highly associated with severe forms of preeclampsia requiring early delivery. In preeclampsia, increased and

  18. Cytotoxicity change with albumin binding of talaporfin sodium in extracellular photosensitization reaction on cardiomyocyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Emiyu; Motohashi, Sayaka; Arai, Tsunenori

    2015-03-01

    We studied the myocardial cell necrosis measuring cell lethality with various albumin concentrations against oxidative stress by extracellular photosensitization reaction using talaporfin sodium. We have proposed to induce the photosensitization reaction in interstitial space of myocardium with short drug-light interval to realize the immediate cell damage by myocardial cell membrane for tachyarrhythmia treatment. To understand the effect of the particular extracellular photosensitization reaction in interstitial space, we measured the myocardial cell lethality 2 hours after the photosensitization reaction by WST assay varying the talaporfin sodium concentration, radiant exposure, and wide albumin concentration of 0-15 mg/ml. The cell lethality was decreased with albumin concentration increasing over 85 % in binding ratio between talaporfin sodium and albumin. The cell lethality didn't change between 0-85% in binding ratio between talaporfin sodium and albumin. The calculated deposited energy to the talaporfin sodium solution was nearly constant of 8.4±1.6 J/well in average varying albumin concentration. We think the cell killing effect by the extracellular photosensitization reaction has a threshold between 85-100% in the binding ratio between talaporfin sodium and albumin in the case of the talaporfin sodium concentration of 40 μg/ml and radiant exposure of 0-40 J/cm2.

  19. Comparison of Acarbose and Metformin on Albumin Excretion in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qingrong; Xu, Yuan; Yang, Ning; Gao, Xia; Liu, Jia; Yang, Wenying; Wang, Guang

    2016-04-01

    Increased urinary albumin excretion in diabetes not only signals nephropathy but also serves as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. The data of MARCH (Metformin and AcaRbose in Chinese as the initial Hypoglycaemic treatment) trial demonstrated that acarbose and metformin were similarly efficacious at lowering blood glucose and blood pressure, as well as improving insulin sensitivity in Chinese patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of acarbose and metformin therapy on albumin excretion in MARCH study.Baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) of 762 newly diagnosed, drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was measured. Included patients were randomized to receive either acarbose or metformin and followed for 48 weeks. In addition to change in ACR, the estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) and frequency of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were also assessed.Elevated ACR levels (≥30 mg/g) were present at baseline in 21.9% of all participants. A significant decline in urine ACR was observed in both the acarbose and metformin groups at week 24 and 48 (all P < 0.001). The proportion of patients with elevated ACRs was also reduced in both treatment groups at week 24 and 48 compared with baseline values (all P < 0.05). The change in urine ACR at week 48 was significantly greater in patients prescribed acarbose than in those prescribed metformin (P = 0.01). Both acarbose and metformin significantly decreased the frequency of MetS at week 24 and 48 (both P < 0.05). Neither treatment affected eGFR.In sum, both acarbose and metformin decreased urine ACR levels and reduced the frequency of elevated ACR and MetS in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus without affecting eGFR. After 48 weeks' intervention, acarbose therapy resulted in a greater reduction in urine ACR compared with metformin.

  20. Fluorescence study of binding of adenosine derivatives to phospholipid membranes — effect of serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sułkowska, Anna; Kłoczko, Magdalena; Sułkowski, Wiesław

    2001-05-01

    To increase stability against serum albumin and to minimize permeability increases caused by interaction with serum albumin, two types of liposomes consisting of various molar ratio lecithin/cholesterol were prepared. The adenosine derivatives were encapsulated in liposome vesicles of two sizes: 100 and 450 nm, prepared by modified reverse-phase evaporation method. The dependence of the stability of liposomes on the presence of serum albumin was studied by use of spectrofluorimetric technique. In the presence of serum albumin the studied ligands encapsulated into various types of liposome vesicles were released and this resulted in a decrease in the fluorescence spectrum of serum albumin in the region of tryptophan emission. Increase in the cholesterol content of the liposomes resulted in decreased leakage of the entrapped drugs, the effect of liposome size on leakage being less important.

  1. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-10-01

    Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis.The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04).UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE.

  2. Evaluation of Serum Creatinine Changes With Integrase Inhibitor Use in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infected Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lindeman, Tara A.; Duggan, Joan M.; Sahloff, Eric G.

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective chart review evaluated changes in serum creatinine and creatinine clearance (CrCl) after initiation of an integrase inhibitor (INSTI)-based regimen as initial treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. Serum creatinine and CrCl changes were similar to those seen in clinical trials for INSTIs. No renal-related serious adverse events or discontinuations occurred. PMID:27092314

  3. Colorimetric Detection of Creatinine Based on Plasmonic Nanoparticles via Synergistic Coordination Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Du, Jianjun; Zhu, Bowen; Leow, Wan Ru; Chen, Shi; Sum, Tze Chien; Peng, Xiaojun; Chen, Xiaodong

    2015-09-01

    A simple and portable colorimetric assay for creatinine detection is fabricated based on the synergistic coordination of creatinine and uric acid with Hg(2+) on the surface of gold nanoparticles, which exhibits good selectivity and sensitivity. Point-of-care clinical creatinine monitoring can be supported for monitoring renal function and diagnosing corresponding renal diseases at home.

  4. Albumin-deficient mouse models for studying metabolism of human albumin and pharmacokinetics of albumin-based drugs

    PubMed Central

    Roopenian, Derry C; Low, Benjamin E; Christianson, Gregory J; Proetzel, Gabriele; Sproule, Thomas J; Wiles, Michael V

    2015-01-01

    Serum albumin is the major determinant of blood colloidal osmotic pressure acting as a depot and distributor of compounds including drugs. In humans, serum albumin exhibits an unusually long half-life mainly due to protection from catabolism by neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated recycling. These properties make albumin an attractive courier of therapeutically-active compounds. However, pharmaceutical research and development of albumin-based therapeutics has been hampered by the lack of appropriate preclinical animal models. To overcome this, we developed and describe the first mouse with a genetic deficiency in albumin and its incorporation into an existing humanized FcRn mouse model, B6.Cg-Fcgrttm1Dcr Tg(FCGRT)32Dcr/DcrJ (Tg32). Albumin-deficient strains (Alb-/-) were created by TALEN-mediated disruption of the albumin (Alb) gene directly in fertilized oocytes derived from Tg32 mice and its non-transgenic background control, C57BL/6J (B6). The resulting Alb-/- strains are analbuminemic but healthy. Intravenous administration of human albumin to Tg32-Alb-/- mFcRn-/- hFcRnTg/Tg) mice results in a remarkably extended human albumin serum half-life of ∼24 days, comparable to that found in humans, and in contrast to half-lives of 2.6–5.8 d observed in B6, B6-Alb-/- and Tg32 strains. This striking increase can be explained by the absence of competing endogenous mouse albumin and the presence of an active human FcRn. These novel albumin-deficient models provide unique tools for investigating the biology and pathobiology of serum albumin and are a more appropriate rodent surrogates for evaluating human serum albumin pharmacokinetics and albumin-based compounds. PMID:25654695

  5. Protease inhibition by oleic acid transfer from chronic wound dressings to albumin.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J Vincent; Howley, Phyllis; Davis, Rachel; Mashchak, Andrew; Goheen, Steven C

    2007-08-01

    High elastase and cathepsin G activities have been observed in chronic wounds to inhibit healing through degradation of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins. Oleic acid is a non-toxic elastase inhibitor. Cotton wound dressing material was characterized as a transfer carrier for affinity uptake of oleic acid by albumin under conditions mimicking chronic wounds. The mechanism of oleic acid uptake from cotton and binding by albumin was examined with both intact dressings and cotton fiber-designed chromatography. Raman spectra of the albumin-oleic acid complexes under liquid equilibrium conditions revealed fully saturated albumin-oleic acid complexes with a 1:1 weight ratio of albumin:oleic acid. Liquid-solid equilibrium conditions revealed oleic acid transfer from cotton to albumin at 27 mole equivalents of oleic acid per mole albumin. Comparing oleic acid formulated wound dressings for dose dependent ability to lower elastase activity, we found cotton gauze>hydrogel>hydrocolloid. In contrast, the cationic serine protease cathepsin G was inhibited by oleic acid within a narrow range of oleic acid-cotton formulations. 2% albumin was sufficient to transfer quantities of oleic acid necessary to achieve a significant elastase-lowering effect. Oleic acid bound to cotton wound dressings may have promise in the selective lowering of cationic serine protease activity useful in topical application for chronic inflammatory pathogenesis.

  6. Colloids Versus Albumin in Large Volume Paracentesis to Prevent Circulatory Dysfunction: Evidence-based Case Report.

    PubMed

    Widjaja, Felix F; Khairan, Paramita; Kamelia, Telly; Hasan, Irsan

    2016-04-01

    Large volume paracentesis may cause paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction (PICD). Albumin is recommended to prevent this abnormality. Meanwhile, the price of albumin is too expensive and there should be another alternative that may prevent PICD. This report aimed to compare albumin to colloids in preventing PICD. Search strategy was done using PubMed, Scopus, Proquest, dan Academic Health Complete from EBSCO with keywords of "ascites", "albumin", "colloid", "dextran", "hydroxyethyl starch", "gelatin", and "paracentesis induced circulatory dysfunction". Articles was limited to randomized clinical trial and meta-analysis with clinical question of "In hepatic cirrhotic patient undergone large volume paracentesis, whether colloids were similar to albumin to prevent PICD". We found one meta-analysis and four randomized clinical trials (RCT). A meta analysis showed that albumin was still superior of which odds ratio 0.34 (0.23-0.51). Three RCTs showed the same results and one RCT showed albumin was not superior than colloids. We conclude that colloids could not constitute albumin to prevent PICD, but colloids still have a role in patient who undergone paracentesis less than five liters. PMID:27550886

  7. Detection of urinary creatinine using gold nanoparticles after solid phase extraction.

    PubMed

    Sittiwong, Jarinya; Unob, Fuangfa

    2015-03-01

    Label-free gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were utilized in the detection of creatinine in human urine after a sample preparation by extraction of creatinine on sulfonic acid functionalized silica gel. With the proposed sample preparation method, the interfering effects of the urine matrix on creatinine detection by AuNPs were eliminated. Parameters affecting creatinine extraction were investigated. The aggregation of AuNPs induced by creatinine resulted in a change in the surface plasmon resonance signal with a concomitant color change that could be observed by the naked eye and quantified spectrometrically. The effect of AuNP concentration and reaction time on AuNP aggregation was investigated. The method described herein provides a determination of creatinine in a range of 15-40mgL(-1) with a detection limit of 13.7mgL(-1) and it was successfully used in the detection of creatinine in human urine samples.

  8. Normalization of urinary drug concentrations with specific gravity and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Caplan, Yale H; Moser, Frank; Robert, Tim; Shelby, Melinda K; Black, David L

    2009-01-01

    Excessive fluid intake can substantially dilute urinary drug concentrations and result in false-negative reports for drug users. Methods for correction ("normalization") of drug/metabolite concentrations in urine have been utilized by anti-doping laboratories, pain monitoring programs, and in environmental monitoring programs to compensate for excessive hydration, but such procedures have not been used routinely in workplace, legal, and treatment settings. We evaluated two drug normalization procedures based on specific gravity and creatinine. These corrections were applied to urine specimens collected from three distinct groups (pain patients, heroin users, and marijuana/ cocaine users). Each group was unique in characteristics, study design, and dosing conditions. The results of the two normalization procedures were highly correlated (r=0.94; range, 0.78-0.99). Increases in percent positives by specific gravity and creatinine normalization were small (0.3% and -1.0%, respectively) for heroin users (normally hydrated subjects), modest (4.2-9.8%) for pain patients (unknown hydration state), and substantial (2- to 38-fold increases) for marijuana/cocaine users (excessively hydrated subjects). Despite some limitations, these normalization procedures provide alternative means of dealing with highly dilute, dilute, and concentrated urine specimens. Drug/metabolite concentration normalization by these procedures is recommended for urine testing programs, especially as a means of coping with dilute specimens.

  9. Urinary creatinine concentrations in the U.S. population: implications for urinary biologic monitoring measurements.

    PubMed

    Barr, Dana B; Wilder, Lynn C; Caudill, Samuel P; Gonzalez, Amanda J; Needham, Lance L; Pirkle, James L

    2005-02-01

    Biologic monitoring (i.e., biomonitoring) is used to assess human exposures to environmental and workplace chemicals. Urinary biomonitoring data typically are adjusted to a constant creatinine concentration to correct for variable dilutions among spot samples. Traditionally, this approach has been used in population groups without much diversity. The inclusion of multiple demographic groups in studies using biomonitoring for exposure assessment has increased the variability in the urinary creatinine levels in these study populations. Our objectives were to document the normal range of urinary creatinine concentrations among various demographic groups, evaluate the impact that variations in creatinine concentrations can have on classifying exposure status of individuals in epidemiologic studies, and recommend an approach using multiple regression to adjust for variations in creatinine in multivariate analyses. We performed a weighted multivariate analysis of urinary creatinine concentrations in 22,245 participants of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-1994) and established reference ranges (10th-90th percentiles) for each demographic and age category. Significant predictors of urinary creatinine concentration included age group, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and fat-free mass. Time of day that urine samples were collected made a small but statistically significant difference in creatinine concentrations. For an individual, the creatinine-adjusted concentration of an analyte should be compared with a "reference" range derived from persons in a similar demographic group (e.g., children with children, adults with adults). For multiple regression analysis of population groups, we recommend that the analyte concentration (unadjusted for creatinine) should be included in the analysis with urinary creatinine added as a separate independent variable. This approach allows the urinary analyte concentration to be appropriately adjusted for

  10. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ≤18 years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (Δ creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72 hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48 hours (P = .011) and 72 hours (P = .013) as also Δ creatinine at 48 hours (P = .042) and 72 hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or Δ creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% Δ creatinine at 48 and 72 hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and Δ creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72 hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, Δ creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance.

  11. Modest Salt Reduction Lowers Blood Pressure and Albumin Excretion in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Rebecca J; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-06-01

    The role of salt restriction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus is controversial, with a lack of well controlled, longer term, modest salt reduction trials in this group of patients, in spite of the marked increase in cardiovascular risk. We carried out a 12-week randomized double-blind, crossover trial of salt restriction with salt or placebo tablets, each for 6 weeks, in 46 individuals with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and untreated normal or high normal blood pressure (BP). From salt to placebo, 24-hour urinary sodium was reduced by 49±9 mmol (2.9 g salt). This reduction in salt intake led to fall in clinic BP from 136/81±2/1 mm Hg to 131/80±2/1 mm Hg, (systolic BP; P<0.01). Mean ambulatory 24-hour BP was reduced by 3/2±1/1 mm Hg (systolic BP, P<0.01 and diastolic BP, P<0.05), and albumin/creatinine ratio was reduced from 0.73 mg/mmol (0.5-1.5) to 0.64 mg/mmol (0.3-1.1; P<0.05). There was no significant change in fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, or insulin sensitivity. These results demonstrate that a modest reduction in salt intake, to approximately the amount recommended in public health guidelines, leads to significant and clinically relevant falls in BP in individuals who are early on in the progression of diabetes mellitus with normal or mildly raised BP. The reduction in urinary albumin excretion may carry additional benefits in reducing cardiovascular disease above the effects on BP. PMID:27160199

  12. Modest Salt Reduction Lowers Blood Pressure and Albumin Excretion in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Rebecca J; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-06-01

    The role of salt restriction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus is controversial, with a lack of well controlled, longer term, modest salt reduction trials in this group of patients, in spite of the marked increase in cardiovascular risk. We carried out a 12-week randomized double-blind, crossover trial of salt restriction with salt or placebo tablets, each for 6 weeks, in 46 individuals with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and untreated normal or high normal blood pressure (BP). From salt to placebo, 24-hour urinary sodium was reduced by 49±9 mmol (2.9 g salt). This reduction in salt intake led to fall in clinic BP from 136/81±2/1 mm Hg to 131/80±2/1 mm Hg, (systolic BP; P<0.01). Mean ambulatory 24-hour BP was reduced by 3/2±1/1 mm Hg (systolic BP, P<0.01 and diastolic BP, P<0.05), and albumin/creatinine ratio was reduced from 0.73 mg/mmol (0.5-1.5) to 0.64 mg/mmol (0.3-1.1; P<0.05). There was no significant change in fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, or insulin sensitivity. These results demonstrate that a modest reduction in salt intake, to approximately the amount recommended in public health guidelines, leads to significant and clinically relevant falls in BP in individuals who are early on in the progression of diabetes mellitus with normal or mildly raised BP. The reduction in urinary albumin excretion may carry additional benefits in reducing cardiovascular disease above the effects on BP.

  13. Shank2 Regulates Renal Albumin Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Lewis, Linda; Doctor, R Brian; Okamura, Kayo; Lee, Min Goo; Altmann, Christopher; Faubel, Sarah; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Blaine, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong and independent predictor of kidney disease progression but the mechanisms of albumin handling by the kidney remain to be fully defined. Previous studies have shown that podocytes endocytose albumin. Here we demonstrate that Shank2, a large scaffolding protein originally identified at the neuronal postsynaptic density, is expressed in podocytes in vivo and in vitro and plays an important role in albumin endocytosis in podocytes. Knockdown of Shank2 in cultured human podocytes decreased albumin uptake, but the decrease was not statistically significant likely due to residual Shank2 still present in the knockdown podocytes. Complete knockout of Shank2 in podocytes significantly diminished albumin uptake in vitro. Shank2 knockout mice develop proteinuria by 8 weeks of age. To examine albumin handling in vivo in wild-type and Shank2 knockout mice we used multiphoton intravital imaging. While FITC-labeled albumin was rapidly seen in the renal tubules of wild-type mice after injection, little albumin was seen in the tubules of Shank2 knockout mice indicating dysregulated renal albumin trafficking in the Shank2 knockouts. We have previously found that caveolin-1 is required for albumin endocytosis in cultured podocytes. Shank2 knockout mice had significantly decreased expression and altered localization of caveolin-1 in podocytes suggesting that disruption of albumin endocytosis in Shank2 knockouts is mediated via caveolin-1. In summary, we have identified Shank2 as another component of the albumin endocytic pathway in podocytes. PMID:26333830

  14. High serum creatinine nonlinearity: a renal vital sign?

    PubMed

    Palant, Carlos E; Chawla, Lakhmir S; Faselis, Charles; Li, Ping; Pallone, Thomas L; Kimmel, Paul L; Amdur, Richard L

    2016-08-01

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may have nonlinear serum creatinine concentration (SC) trajectories, especially as CKD progresses. Variability in SC is associated with renal failure and death. However, present methods for measuring SC variability are unsatisfactory because they blend information about SC slope and variance. We propose an improved method for defining and calculating a patient's SC slope and variance so that they are mathematically distinct, and we test these methods in a large sample of US veterans, examining the correlation of SC slope and SC nonlinearity (SCNL) and the association of SCNL with time to stage 4 CKD (CKD4) and death. We found a strong correlation between SCNL and rate of CKD progression, time to CKD4, and time to death, even in patients with normal renal function. We therefore argue that SCNL may be a measure of renal autoregulatory dysfunction that provides an early warning sign for CKD progression. PMID:27194712

  15. Creatinine biomaterial thin films grown by laser techniques.

    PubMed

    György, E; Axente, E; Mihailescu, I N; Predoi, D; Ciuca, S; Neamtu, J

    2008-03-01

    Creatinine thin films were synthesised by matrix assisted pulsed laser deposition (PLD) techniques for enzyme-based biosensor applications. An UV KrF* (lambda=248 nm, tau approximately 10 ns) excimer laser source was used for the irradiation of the targets at incident fluence values in the 0.3-0.5 J/cm2 range. For the matrix assisted PLD the targets consisted on a frozen composite obtained by dissolving the biomaterials in distilled water. The surface morphology, chemical composition and structure of the obtained biomaterial thin films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy as a function of the target preparation procedure and incident laser fluence.

  16. Recombinant albumin monolayers on latex particles.

    PubMed

    Sofińska, Kamila; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Kujda, Marta; Nattich-Rak, Małgorzata

    2014-01-14

    The adsorption of recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) on negatively charged polystyrene latex micro-particles was studied at pH 3.5 and the NaCl concentration range of 10(-3) to 0.15 M. The electrophoretic mobility of latex monotonically increased with the albumin concentration in the suspension. The coverage of adsorbed albumin was quantitatively determined using the depletion method, where the residual protein concentration was determined by electrokinetic measurements and AFM imaging. It was shown that albumin adsorption was irreversible. Its maximum coverage on latex varied between 0.7 mg m(-2) for 10(-3) M NaCl to 1.3 mg m(-2) for 0.15 M NaCl. The latter value matches the maximum coverage previously determined for human serum albumin on mica using the streaming potential method. The increase in the maximum coverage was interpreted in terms of reduced electrostatic repulsion among adsorbed molecules. These facts confirm that albumin adsorption at pH 3.5 is governed by electrostatic interactions and proceeds analogously to colloid particle deposition. The stability of albumin monolayers was measured in additional experiments where changes in the latex electrophoretic mobility and the concentration of free albumin in solutions were monitored over prolonged time periods. Based on these experimental data, a robust procedure of preparing albumin monolayers on latex particles of well-controlled coverage and molecule distribution was proposed. PMID:24354916

  17. Vitamin D and inflammation: evaluation with neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio

    PubMed Central

    Gungor, Adem; Ozcicek, Adalet; Akbas, Nergis; Askin, Seda; Polat, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Association of vitamin D, inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, beside the classic bone metabolism disorders, may explain the pathogenesis of numerous diseases associated with vitamin D deficiency. While large numbers of reports support the relationship of vitamin D with inflammation, several reports fail to confirm this relationship. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are novel and inexpensive markers of inflammation that can be studied in all centers. The goal of this study was to investigate the association between 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) and inflammation with the novel inflammatory markers NLR and PLR. Material and methods This study was performed retrospectively. Results of the simultaneously performed 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone, albumin, calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and creatinine level measurements and complete blood count were recorded. The data of 4120 patients were included in the study. Results Between vitamin D deficient and non-deficient groups there were significant differences in PLR (p < 0.001) and NLR (p = 0.001). Vitamin D had a significant negative correlation with PLR (p < 0.001) and NLR (p < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis indicated that 25(OH)D was independently and negatively correlated with PLR (OR = 0.994, 95% CI 0.991–0.998, p = 0.02). Conclusions Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio and NLR were significantly associated with 25(OH)D levels, and PLR was found to be an independent predictor of 25(OH)D levels. Our study revealed an inverse association of vitamin D levels and inflammation with these inexpensive and universally available markers. PMID:27478451

  18. Urinary trace element concentrations in environmental settings: is there a value for systematic creatinine adjustment or do we introduce a bias?

    PubMed

    Hoet, Perrine; Deumer, Gladys; Bernard, Alfred; Lison, Dominique; Haufroid, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Systematic creatinine adjustment of urinary concentrations of biomarkers has been a challenge over the past years because the assumption of a constant creatinine excretion rate appears erroneous and the issue of overadjustment has recently emerged. This study aimed at determining whether systematic creatinine adjustment is to be recommended for urinary concentrations of trace elements (TEs) in environmental settings. Paired 24-h collection and random spot urine samples (spotU) were obtained from 39 volunteers not occupationally exposed to TEs. Four models to express TEs concentration in spotU were tested to predict the 24-h excretion rate of these TEs (TEμg/24h) considered as the gold standard reference: absolute concentration (TEμg/l); ratio to creatinine (TEμg/gcr); TEμg/gcr adjusted to creatinine (TEμg/gcr-adj); and concentration adjusted to specific gravity (TEμg/l-SG). As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Li, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Sb, Se, Te, V and Zn were analyzed by inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry. There was no single pattern of relationship between urinary TEs concentrations in spotU and TEμg/24h. TEμg/l predicted TEμg/24h with an explained variance ranging from 0 to 60%. Creatinine adjustment improved the explained variance by an additional 5 to ~60% for many TEs, but with a risk of overadjustment for the most of them. This issue could be addressed by adjusting TE concentrations on the basis of the regression coefficient of the relationship between TEμg/gcr and creatinine concentration. SG adjustment was as suitable as creatinine adjustment to predict TEμg/24h with no SG-overadjustment (except V). Regarding Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Te, none of the models were found to reflect TEμg/24h. In the context of environmental exposure, systematic creatinine adjustment is not recommended for urinary concentrations of TEs. SG adjustment appears to be a more reliable alternative. For some TEs, however, neither methods appear suitable.

  19. Single baseline serum creatinine measurements predict mortality in critically ill patients hospitalized for acute heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Schefold, Joerg C.; Hodoscek, Lea Majc; Blöchlinger, Stefan; Doehner, Wolfram; von Haehling, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute heart failure (AHF) is a leading cause of death in critically ill patients and is often accompanied by significant renal dysfunction. Few data exist on the predictive value of measures of renal dysfunction in large cohorts of patients hospitalized for AHF. Methods Six hundred and eighteen patients hospitalized for AHF (300 male, aged 73.3 ± 10.3 years, 73% New York Heart Association Class 4, mean hospital length of stay 12.9 ± 7.7 days, 97% non‐ischaemic AHF) were included in a retrospective single‐centre data analysis. Echocardiographic data, serum creatinine/urea levels, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and clinical/laboratory markers were recorded. Mean follow‐up time was 2.9 ± 2.1 years. All‐cause mortality was recorded, and univariate/multivariate analyses were performed. Results Normal renal function defined as eGFR > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was noted in only 3% of AHF patients at baseline. A significant correlation of left ventricular ejection fraction with serum creatinine levels and eGFR (all P < 0.002) was noted. All‐cause mortality rates were 12% (90 days) and 40% (at 2 years), respectively. In a multivariate model, increased age, higher New York Heart Association class at admission, higher total cholesterol levels, and lower eGFR independently predicted death. Patients with baseline eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 had an exceptionally high risk of death (odds ratio 2.80, 95% confidence interval 1.52–5.15, P = 0.001). Conclusions In a large cohort of patients with mostly non‐ischaemic AHF, enhanced serum creatinine levels and reduced eGFR independently predict death. It appears that patients with eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 have poorest survival rates. Our data add to mounting data indicating that impaired renal function is an important risk factor for non‐survival in patients hospitalized for AHF.

  20. Serum Albumin as Predictor of Nutritional Status in Patients with ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Gama-Axelsson, Thiane; Heimbürger, Olof; Stenvinkel, Peter; Bárány, Peter; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Serum albumin is a widely used biomarker of nutritional status in patients with CKD; however, its usefulness is debated. This study investigated serum albumin and its correlation with several markers of nutritional status in incident and prevalent dialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a cross-sectional study, serum albumin (bromocresol purple), and other biochemical (serum creatinine), clinical (subjective global assessment [SGA]), anthropometric (handgrip strength; skinfold thicknesses), and densitometry (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) markers of nutritional status were assessed in 458 incident (61% male; mean age, 54±13 years; GFR, 6.6±0.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2; recruited 1994–2010) and 383 prevalent (56% male; mean age, 62±14 years; recruited 1989–2004) dialysis patients. Results In incident patients, serum albumin was correlated with age (β =−0.15; P<0.001), diabetes (β=−0.30; P<0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β =−0.37; P<0.001), and urinary albumin excretion (β=−0.38; P<0.001) but less so with poor nutritional status (SGA score > 1; β=−0.19; P<0.001). In prevalent patients, serum albumin was correlated with age (β=−0.15; P<0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β=−0.30; P<0.001), diabetes (β=−0.31; P<0.001), and SGA score > 1 (β=−0.16; P<0.001). In predicting nutritional status assessed by SGA and other markers, adding serum albumin to models that included age, sex, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease did not significantly increase explanatory power. Conclusions In incident and prevalent dialysis patients, serum albumin correlates poorly with several markers of nutritional status. Thus, its value as a reliable marker of nutritional status in patients with ESRD is limited. PMID:22723451

  1. Effect of Diet on Serum Creatinine in Healthy Subjects During a Phase I Study

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Eduardo; Jensen, Markus; Jung, David; Schaumann, Frank; Boxnick, Stefanie; Truebel, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    Creatinine is widely used as an indirect marker of renal function. However, interfering factors such as diet, exercise and problems with the assay can generate false results and misinterpretation of real kidney function. In this article, we report the dietary effects on serum creatinine during a phase I single dose escalation study and discuss the reasons why serum creatinine should be measured under fasting conditions. PMID:27738487

  2. ["Occult" renal insufficiency due to evaluating renal function using only serum creatinine].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fresnedo, G; de Francisco, A L M; Rodrigo, E; Piñera, C; Herráez, I; Ruiz, J C; Arias, M

    2002-01-01

    Timely referral to nephrologists depends on identification of renal failure. Most primary care physicians and specialists rely on serum creatinine as the standard test for determination of renal function. Creatinine clearance requires 24 hours urine collection with many pitfalls and wrong results. We compare serum creatinine and the Cockcroft-Gault (C-G) equation as measure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The study included 1,053 outpatients with serum creatinine lower than 2.5 mg/dl referred to our nephrological laboratory for serum creatinine and GFR determination using the C-G formula. Patients were grouped into two groups: normal renal function (serum creatinine < 1.3 mg/dl) and "incipient" abnormal renal function (serum creatinine 1.3-2.5 mg/dl). In the group of females with normal creatinine 22% (60-70 y), 35% (70-80 y) and 57% (> 80 y) had GFR values below 50 ml/min. In the group of males 11.3% (70-80 y) and 33.3% (> 80 y) also had GFR reduction in spite of normal serum creatinine. A severe renal insufficiency with creatinine clearance lower than 30 ml/min was observed in the group with "incipient" renal failure based on serum creatinine: 22.7%, 40% and 82.9% for females and 6%, 22.7% and 57% for male (60-70 y; 70-80 y; and > 80 y respectively). In order to improve management and prevention of renal failure appropriate measurements of renal function other than serum creatinine should be emphasize.

  3. Effect of the Direct Renin Inhibitor Aliskiren on Urinary Albumin Excretion in Spontaneous Type 2 Diabetic KK-A (y) Mouse.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Masako; Gohda, Tomohito; Hagiwara, Shinji; Tanimoto, Mitsuo; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Funabiki, Kazuhiko; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although angiotensin II-mediated inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation are considered to be associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy, these processes have not yet been sufficiently clarified. The objective of this study was to determine whether the correction of the abnormal renal expression of MMPs and its inhibitors (MMPs/TIMPs) and cytokines following the administration of aliskiren to KK-A (y) mice results in a renoprotective effect. Methods. KK-A (y) mice were divided into two groups, that is, untreated (saline) and treated (aliskiren) groups. Systolic BP, HbA1c levels, and the albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured. The renal expression of MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) was examined using real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemical staining. Renal MAPK and NF- κ B activity were also examined by Western blot analyses and ELISA, respectively. Results. Significant decreases in systolic BP and ACR levels were observed in treated KK-A (y) mice compared with the findings in untreated KK-A (y) mice. Furthermore, increases in MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (P)RR expression, in addition to MAPK and NF- κ B activity, were significantly attenuated by aliskiren administration. Conclusions. It appears that aliskiren improves albuminuria and renal fibrosis by regulating inflammation and the alteration of collagen synthesis and degradation. PMID:23819050

  4. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and terbutaline treatment on hemodynamics and regional albumin extravasation in porcine septic shock

    SciTech Connect

    Groeneveld, A.B.; den Hollander, W.; Straub, J.; Nauta, J.J.; Thijs, L.G. )

    1990-03-01

    We studied the therapeutic effects of continuously infused N-acetylcysteine, an O2 radical scavenger (N, n = 6), and terbutaline, a beta 2-agonist (T, n = 6), versus dextrose (controls C, N = 6) on hemodynamics and regional albumin extravasation in porcine septic shock. After instrumentation, injection of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells, and baseline measurements, pigs received a 90 min infusion of 11 +/- 9 X 10(8).kg-1 live Escherichia coli bacteria. Thereafter, therapy was started, and 131I human serum albumin was injected. Images were obtained hourly using a gamma camera and a computer until 5 hours after baseline. Regions of interest were drawn in the 99mTc images, yielding regional 131I/99mTc radioactivity ratios, with blood samples as reference. From these ratios, an albumin leak index, a rate constant of transvascular albumin transport, was calculated. Control pigs developed pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypotension, hemoconcentration, and lactic acidemia. In spite of tachycardia and unchanged filling pressures, cardiac output fell. In arterial blood, white cell count, PO2, albumin level, and colloid osmotic pressure fell. The albumin leak index (X10(-3).min-1) measured 1.56 +/- 0.59 over the lungs and 2.87 +/- 1.19 over the abdomen in C, confirming previously found increased albumin flux in both lung and abdomen, the latter exceeding the former. Neither N nor T significantly affected hemodynamic and biochemical changes. The drugs neither decreased the regional albumin leak index nor attenuated the formation of albumin-rich ascites found at autopsy. However, the lung albumin index obtained at autopsy was significantly reduced with N (P less than .01 vs. C), at similar gravimetrically determined extravascular lung water (EVLW). EVLW positively correlated with pulmonary albumin extravasation in C and T but not in N.

  5. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  6. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  7. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  8. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  9. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  10. Exposure of iron foundry workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: benzo(a)pyrene-albumin adducts and 1-hydroxypyrene as biomarkers for exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Omland, O; Sherson, D; Hansen, A M; Sigsgaard, T; Autrup, H; Overgaard, E

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in foundry workers has been evaluated by determination of benzo(a)pyrene-serum albumin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene binding to albumin and 1-hydroxypyrene were quantitatively measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. 70 male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. High and low exposure groups were defined from breathing zone hygienic samples, consisting of 16 PAH compounds in particulate and gaseous phase. Mean total PAH was 10.40 micrograms/m3 in the breathing zone, and mean dust adsorbed PAH was 0.15 microgram/m. All carcinogenic PAH was adsorbed to dust. Median benzo(a)pyrene-albumin adduct concentrations (10-90% percentiles) were similar in foundry workers (smokers 0.55 (0.27-1.00) and non-smokers 0.58 (0.17-1.15)) pmol/mg albumin and age matched controls (smokers 0.57 (0.16-1.45) and non-smokers 0.70 (0.19-1.55) pmol/mg albumin). Median 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.0001) in smoking and non-smoking foundry workers (0.022 (0.006-0.075) and 0.027 (0.006-0.164)) mumol/mol creatinine than in smoking and non-smoking controls (0 (0-0.022) and 0 (0-0.010) mumol/mol creatinine). Dose-response relations between total PAH, pyrene, carcinogenic PAHs, and 1-hydroxypyrene for smokers, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed to dust for non-smokers are suggested. Exposure to PAHs adsorbed to dust showed an additive effect. There was no correlation between the concentrations of 1-hydroxypyrene and benzo(a)pyrene-albumin adducts. The change in 1-hydroxypyrene over a weekend was also studied. Friday morning median 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations were significantly higher in both smokers and non-smokers (0.021 (0-0.075) and 0.027 (0.06-0.164)) mumol/mol creatinine than Monday morning median concentrations (0.007 (0-0.021) and 0.008 (0-0.021) mumol

  11. Prognostic Value of Rising Serum Albumin During Hospitalization in Patients With Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Satoshi; Kuragaichi, Takashi; Shiba, Masayuki; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi; Takatsu, Yoshiki; Sato, Yukihito

    2016-04-15

    Hypoalbuminemia is an important predictor of a poor long-term prognosis in acute heart failure (AHF). However, changes in serum albumin levels in AHF have not been described to date. Therefore, we investigated the changes in serum albumin levels in patients hospitalized for AHF. This observational study included 115 consecutive patients admitted with AHF. Serum albumin was measured on days 1, 2, 4, and 7 of their hospitalization, and the changes in its levels were assessed. Cox multivariate analysis was used to compare the long-term mortality and readmission rate between 2 groups defined according to whether their serum albumin changes showed a rising pattern (serum albumin level increased from day 2 to day 7) or not. The mean serum albumin levels were 3.51 mg/dl on day 1, 3.21 mg/dl on day 2, 3.23 mg/dl on day 4, and 3.35 mg/dl on day 7 (p <0.001 by multivariate analysis of variance). The rising pattern group including 66 patients (60.6%) was independently associated with a lower mortality and readmission rate (hazard ratios 0.450 and 0.522; p = 0.01 and 0.02, respectively). Furthermore, based on multiple linear regression analysis, the changes in hemoglobin and C-reactive protein levels during days 1 to 7 were independently correlated with the changes in serum albumin levels over the same period. In conclusion, a rising pattern of serum albumin change in a patient with AHF was correlated with a good long-term prognosis. Furthermore, the change in serum albumin levels was also associated with changes in cachectic factors. PMID:27020611

  12. Biliary albumin excretion induced by bile salts in rats is a pathological phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, M.; Kitani, K.; Kanai, S. )

    1989-09-01

    The bile to plasma 125I-albumin concentration ratio (B/P ratio) was examined before and during various bile salt infusions in male Wistar rats that had previously received iv injection of 125I-albumin. Endogenous rat albumin and IgG concentrations in the bile were also determined by a single radial immunodiffusion method. Taurocholate (TC) infusion (1.0 mumol/min/100 g body wt) significantly increased the bile flow rate in the first hr but the flow began to decline in the second hr. The B/P ratio as well as rat albumin (and IgG) excretion into the bile significantly increased as early as 15 min after the start of TC infusion, and the increase became more pronounced in the second hr, when the bile flow began to decrease. Infusion of taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC, 0.4 mumol/min/100 g) caused a reduction in bile flow 15 min after the start of infusion but the B/P ratio increased 40 times at its peak compared with the basal value before the bile salt infusion. Simultaneous infusion of tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC, 0.6 mumol/min/100 g) and TCDC not only abolished the cholestasis induced by TCDC but maintained stable choleresis as long as for 2 hr. During this choleretic period, the B/P ration never exceeded the basal value. The choleresis induced by either taurodehydrocholate (TDHC) or bucolome was not accompanied by enhanced albumin excretion. In rats given TDHC infusion, albumin excretion started to increase only after the bile flow began to decline following the initial choleretic period. The enhanced excretion of albumin induced by TC and TCDC is therefore suggested to be caused not by the choleresis per se but by a possible concomitant increase in the communication between sinusoids and bile canaliculi, which eventually leads to cholestasis.

  13. Doubling of serum creatinine and the risk of cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Cornelia; Coll, Blai; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R

    2016-01-01

    Background Doubling of serum creatinine is often used as a marker for worsening kidney function in nephrology trials. Most people with chronic kidney disease die of other causes before reaching end-stage renal disease. We were interested in the association between doubling of serum creatinine and the risk of a first-time diagnosis of angina pectoris, congestive heart failure (CHF), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or transient ischemic attack in patients with chronic kidney disease and with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods We identified all adult patients registered in the “Clinical Practice Research Datalink” between 2002 and 2011 with incident chronic kidney disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus and did a cohort study with a Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results We identified in total 27,811 patients, 693 developed angina pectoris, 1,069 CHF, 508 MI, 970 stroke, and 578 transient ischemic attacks. Patients whose serum creatinine doubled during follow-up had increased risks of CHF (hazard ratio [HR] 2.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.27–3.89), MI (HR 2.53, 95% CI 1.62–3.96), and stroke (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.38–2.69), as compared with patients whose serum creatinine did not double. The relative risks of angina pectoris (HR 1.18, 95% CI 0.66–2.10) or a transient ischemic attack (HR 1.32, 95% CI 0.78–2.22) were similar in both groups. Conclusion Diabetic patients with a doubling of serum creatinine were at an increased risk of CHF, MI, or stroke, compared with diabetic patients whose serum creatinine did not double during follow-up. PMID:27354825

  14. Albumin in Burn Shock Resuscitation: A Meta-Analysis of Controlled Clinical Studies

    PubMed Central

    Greenhalgh, David G.; Wilkes, Mahlon M.

    2016-01-01

    Critical appraisal of outcomes after burn shock resuscitation with albumin has previously been restricted to small relatively old randomized trials, some with high risk of bias. Extensive recent data from nonrandomized studies assessing the use of albumin can potentially reduce bias and add precision. The objective of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of burn shock resuscitation with albumin on mortality and morbidity in adult patients. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled clinical studies evaluating mortality and morbidity in adult patients receiving albumin for burn shock resuscitation were identified by multiple methods, including computer database searches and examination of journal contents and reference lists. Extracted data were quantitatively combined by random-effects meta-analysis. Four randomized and four nonrandomized studies with 688 total adult patients were included. Treatment effects did not differ significantly between the included randomized and nonrandomized studies. Albumin infusion during the first 24 hours showed no significant overall effect on mortality. However, significant statistical heterogeneity was present, which could be abolished by excluding two studies at high risk of bias. After those exclusions, albumin infusion was associated with reduced mortality. The pooled odds ratio was 0.34 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.19 to 0.58 (P < .001). Albumin administration was also accompanied by decreased occurrence of compartment syndrome (pooled odds ratio, 0.19; 95% confidence interval, 0.07–0.50; P < .001). This meta-analysis suggests that albumin can improve outcomes of burn shock resuscitation. However, the scope and quality of current evidence are limited, and additional trials are needed. PMID:25426807

  15. Effect of creatinine and specific gravity normalization on urinary biomarker 1,6-hexamethylene diamine.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Linda G T; Fent, Kenneth W; Flack, Sheila L; Thomasen, Jennifer M; Ball, Louise M; Zhou, Haibo; Whittaker, Stephen G; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2010-03-01

    Urine amine levels used as biomarkers of diisocyanate exposure have usually been normalized with creatinine concentration. The suitability of using creatinine concentration or specific gravity for these biomarkers in exposure assessment has not been established. We investigated the effect of creatinine concentration and specific gravity on urine 1,6-hexamethylene diamine (HDA) levels in multiple mixed linear regression models using quantitative dermal and inhalation exposure data derived from a survey of automotive spray painters occupationally exposed to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). Painters' dermal and breathing-zone HDI exposure were monitored for an entire workday for up to three workdays spaced approximately one month apart. One urine sample was collected before the start of work with HDI-containing paints, and multiple samples were collected throughout the workday. Both creatinine concentration and specific gravity were highly significant predictors (p < 0.0001) of urine HDA levels. When these two were used together in the same model, creatinine remained highly significant (p < 0.0001), but specific gravity decreased in significance (p-values 0.10-0.17). We used different individual factors to determine which affected creatinine and specific gravity. Urine collection time was a highly significant predictor of specific gravity (p = 0.003) and creatinine concentration (p = 0.001). Smoker status was significant (p = 0.026) in the creatinine model. The findings indicate that creatinine concentration is more appropriate to account for urine water content than specific gravity and that creatinine is best used as an independent variable in HDI exposure assessment models instead of traditional urine normalization with creatinine concentration.

  16. An exploratory study of serum creatinine levels in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xueping; Guo, Xiaoyan; Huang, Rui; Zheng, Zhenzhen; Chen, Yongping; Shang, Hui-Fang

    2014-10-01

    The etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains unknown, but existing data argue for a role of creatinine in ALS pathophysiology. Our aim is to clarify the correlation between serum creatinine and ALS in Chinese population. A total of 512 sporadic ALS (SALS) patients and 501 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included. Revised ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALS-FRS-R) was used to assess the motor functional status of SALS patients. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier method. Serum creatinine levels were significantly lower in SALS patients than in controls (p < 0.001). Patients with the second, the third and highest quartiles of creatinine levels had a significantly lower presence of ALS compared to those with the lowest quartile (p for trend <0.001). However, decreased presence of ALS was not found in the highest quartiles compared with the lowest quartiles in females. Sporadic ALS patients with different site of onset have similar serum creatinine levels, but underweight patients presented lower levels of serum creatinine. Patients with low serum creatinine levels are more likely to have severe motor impairment and low body mass index (BMI) values. This study demonstrates that SALS patients have lower serum creatinine levels than well-matched controls. Higher levels of serum creatinine are less likely to be associated with the presence of ALS in Chinese populations. Low serum creatinine levels may be related to severe motor impairment in SALS patients, after adjusting the confounding factor-BMI. However, serum creatinine has no deleterious impact on survival in ALS.

  17. Addition of Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS®) Albumin Dialysis for the Preoperative Management of Jaundiced Patients with Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Regimbeau, Jean-Marc; Fuks, David; Chapuis-Roux, Emilie; Yzet, Thierry; Cosse, Cyril; Bartoli, Eric; N'Guyen-Khac, Eric; Robert, Brice; Lobjoie, Eric

    2013-01-01

    The preoperative management of hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC) with jaundice focuses on decreasing the total serum bilirubin level (SBL) by performing preoperative biliary drainage (PBD). However, it takes about 6–8 weeks for the SBL to fall at a sufficient extent. The objective of this preliminary study was to evaluate the impact of Molecular Adsorbent Recirculating System (MARS®) dialysis (in association with PBD) on SBL decrease. From January 2010 to January 2011, we prospectively selected all jaundiced patients admitted to our university hospital for resectable HC and requiring PBD prior to major hepatectomy. The PBD was followed by 3 sessions of MARS dialysis over a period of 72 h. A total of 10 patients with HC were screened and two of them were included (Bismuth-Corlette stage IIIa, gender ratio 1, median age 68 years). The initial SBL in the two patients was 328 and 242 μmol/l, respectively. After three MARS dialysis sessions, the SBL had fallen by 30 and 52%, respectively. After the end of each session, there was a SBL rebound of about 10 μmol/l. The MARS decreased the serum creatinine level, the platelet count and the prothrombin index, but did not modify the serum albumin level. Pruritus disappeared after one and two sessions, respectively. MARS-related morbidity included hypotension (n = 1), tachycardia (n = 1), thrombocytopenia (n = 2) and anaemia (n = 1). When combined with PBD, MARS dialysis appears to accelerate the decrease in SBL and thus may enable earlier surgery. This hypothesis must be validated in a larger study. PMID:24163652

  18. Protease Inhibition by Oleic Acid Transfer From Chronic Wound Dressings to Albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, J. V.; Howley, Phyllis; Davis, Rachel M.; Mashchak, Andrew D.; Goheen, Steven C.

    2007-08-01

    High elastase and cathepsin G activities have been observed in chronic wounds. These levels can inhibit healing through degradation of growth factors, cytokines, and extracellular matrix proteins. Oleic acid (18:1) is a non-toxic elastase inhibitor with some potential for redressing the imbalance of elastase activity found in chronic wounds. Cotton wound dressing material was characterized as a transfer carrier for affinity uptake of 18:1 by albumin under conditions mimicking chronic wounds. 18:1-treated cotton was examined for its ability to bind and release the fatty acid in the presence of albumin. The mechanism of 18:1 uptake from cotton and binding by albumin was examined with both intact dressings and cotton fiber-designed chromatography. Raman spectra of the albumin-18:1 complexes under liquid-liquid equilibrium conditions revealed fully saturated albumin-18:1 complexes with a 1:1 weight ratio of albumin:18:1. Cotton chromatography under liquid-solid equilibrium conditions revealed oleic acid transfer from cotton to albumin at 27 mole equivalents of 18:1 per mole albumin. Cotton was contrasted with hydrogel, and hydrocolloid wound dressing for its comparative ability to lower elastase activity. Each dressing material evaluated was found to release 18:1 in the presence of albumin with significant inhibition of elastase activity. The 18:1-formulated wound dressings lowered elastase activity in a dose dependent manner in the order cotton gauze > hydrogel > hydrocolloid. In contrast the cationic serine protease Cathepsin G was inihibited by 18:1 within a narrow range of 18:1-cotton formulations. Four per cent Albumin solutions were most effective in binding cotton bound-18:1. However, 2% albumin was sufficient to transfer quantities of 18:1 necessary to achieve a significant elastase-lowering effect. Formulations with 128 mg 18:1/g cotton gauze had equivalent elastase lowering with 1 - 4% albumin. 18:1 bound to cotton wound dressings may have promise in the

  19. Automated urinalysis technique determines concentration of creatine and creatinine by colorimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rho, J. H.

    1967-01-01

    Continuous urinalysis technique is useful in the study of muscle wastage in primates. Creatinine concentration in urine is determined in an aliquot mixture by a color reaction. Creatine is determined in a second aliquot by converting it to creatinine and measuring the difference in color intensity between the two aliquots.

  20. Serum Creatinine Detection by a Conducting Polymer Based Electrochemical Sensor to Identify Allograft Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Fang; Cheng, Scott; Korin, Yael; Reed, Elaine F.; Gjertson, David; Ho, Chih-ming; Gritsch, H. Albin; Veale, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplant recipients who have abnormally high creatinine levels in their blood often have allograft dysfunction secondary to rejection. Creatinine has become the preferred marker for renal dysfunction and is readily available in hospital clinical settings. We developed a rapid and accurate polymer-based electrochemical point-of-care (POC) assay for creatinine detection from whole blood to identify allograft dysfunction. The creatinine concentrations of 19 blood samples from transplant recipients were measured directly from clinical serum samples by the conducting polymer based electrochemical (EC) sensor arrays. These measurements were compared to the traditional clinical laboratory assay. The time required for detection was less than 5 minutes from sample loading. Sensitivity of the detection was found to be 0.46 mg/dL of creatinine with only 40 μL sample in the creatinine concentration range of 0 mg/dL to 11.33 mg/dL. Signal levels that were detected electrochemically correlated closely with the creatinine blood concentration detected by the UCLA Ronald Reagan Medical Center traditional clinical laboratory assay (correlation coefficient 0.94). This work is encouraging for the development of a rapid and accurate POCT device for measuring creatinine levels in whole blood. PMID:22881369

  1. Buoyancy-Activated Cell Sorting Using Targeted Biotinylated Albumin Microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Yu-Ren; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Chia-Ying; Li, Pai-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including florescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs) conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs). Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4°C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs), which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44+) and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44–), which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44+ is a commonly used cancer-stem-cell biomarker, our targeted

  2. Investigations of acetaminophen binding to bovine serum albumin in the presence of fatty acid: Fluorescence and 1H NMR studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojko, B.; Sułkowska, A.; Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Równicka, J.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2009-04-01

    The binding of acetaminophen to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied by the quenching fluorescence method and the proton nuclear magnetic resonance technique ( 1H NMR). For fluorescence measurements 1-anilino-9-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS) hydrophobic probe was used to verify subdomain IIIA as acetaminophen's likely binding site. Three binding sites of acetaminophen in subdomain IIA of bovine serum albumin were found. Quenching constants calculated by the Stern-Volmer modified method were used to estimate the influence of myristic acid (MYR) on the drug binding to the albumin. The influence of [fatty acid]/[albumin] molar ratios on the affinity of the protein towards acetaminophen was described. Changes of chemical shifts and relaxation times of the drug indicated that the presence of MYR inhibits interaction in the AA-albumin complex. It is suggested that the elevated level of fatty acids does not significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen.

  3. Point of care creatinine measurement for diagnosis of renal disease using a disposable microchip.

    PubMed

    Ávila, Mónica; Floris, Arjan; Staal, Steven; Ríos, Ángel; Eijkel, Jan; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-11-01

    A point-of-care device for the determination of elevated creatinine levels in blood is reported. This device potentially offers a new and simple clinical regime for the determination of creatinine that will give huge time savings and removal of several steps of determination. The test employs a disposable prefilled microchip and the handheld Medimate Multireader®. By optimizing the analytical conditions it was found that the LOD of the proposed method was 87 μM creatinine, close to the normal human serum levels that are in the range of 60 to 100 μM. A statistical analysis of the residual shows a normal distribution, indicating the absence of systematic errors in the proposed method. The test can be used to distinguish patients with renal insufficiency (creatinine levels >100 μM) from healthy persons. Long-term monitoring could furthermore distinguish between acute renal failure and chronic kidney disease by the rate of creatinine concentration rise.

  4. Dried blood spot analysis of creatinine with LC-MS/MS in addition to immunosuppressants analysis.

    PubMed

    Koster, Remco A; Greijdanus, Ben; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C; Touw, Daan J

    2015-02-01

    In order to monitor creatinine levels or to adjust the dosage of renally excreted or nephrotoxic drugs, the analysis of creatinine in dried blood spots (DBS) could be a useful addition to DBS analysis. We developed a LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of creatinine in the same DBS extract that was used for the analysis of tacrolimus, sirolimus, everolimus, and cyclosporine A in transplant patients with the use of Whatman FTA DMPK-C cards. The method was validated using three different strategies: a seven-point calibration curve using the intercept of the calibration to correct for the natural presence of creatinine in reference samples, a one-point calibration curve at an extremely high concentration in order to diminish the contribution of the natural presence of creatinine, and the use of creatinine-[(2)H3] with an eight-point calibration curve. The validated range for creatinine was 120 to 480 μmol/L (seven-point calibration curve), 116 to 7000 μmol/L (1-point calibration curve), and 1.00 to 400.0 μmol/L for creatinine-[(2)H3] (eight-point calibration curve). The precision and accuracy results for all three validations showed a maximum CV of 14.0% and a maximum bias of -5.9%. Creatinine in DBS was found stable at ambient temperature and 32 °C for 1 week and at -20 °C for 29 weeks. Good correlations were observed between patient DBS samples and routine enzymatic plasma analysis and showed the capability of the DBS method to be used as an alternative for creatinine plasma measurement.

  5. Mechanisms Underpinning Increased Plasma Creatinine Levels in Patients Receiving Vemurafenib for Advanced Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Hurabielle, Charlotte; Pillebout, Evangéline; Stehlé, Thomas; Pagès, Cécile; Roux, Jennifer; Schneider, Pierre; Chevret, Sylvie; Chaffaut, Cendrine; Boutten, Anne; Mourah, Samia; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Lebbé, Céleste; Flamant, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Context Serum creatinine has been reported to increase in patients receiving Vemurafenib, yet neither the prevalence nor the mechanism of this adverse event are known. Objective We aimed to evaluate the frequency and the mechanisms of increases in plasma creatinine level in patients receiving Vemurafenib for advanced melanoma. Methods We performed a retrospective monocentric study including consecutive patients treated with Vemurafenib for an advanced melanoma. We collected clinical and biological data concerning renal function before introduction of Vemurafenib and in the course of monthly follow-up visits from March 2013 to December 2014. Cystatin C-derived glomerular filtration rate was evaluated before and after Vemurafenib initiation, as increase in serum cystatin C is specific to a decrease in the glomerular filtration rate. We also performed thorough renal explorations in 3 patients, with measurement of tubular secretion of creatinine before and after Vemurafenib initiation and a renal biopsy in 2 patients. Results 70 patients were included: 97% of them displayed an immediate, and thereafter stable, increase in creatinine (+22.8%) after Vemurafenib initiation. In 44/52 patients in whom Vemurafenib was discontinued, creatinine levels returned to baseline. Serum cystatin C increased, although proportionally less than serum creatinine, showing that creatinine increase under vemurafenib was indeed partly due to a renal function impairment. In addition, renal explorations demonstrated that Vemurafenib induced an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion. Conclusion Thus, Vemurafenib induces a dual mechanism of increase in plasma creatinine with both an inhibition of creatinine tubular secretion and slight renal function impairment. However, this side effect is mostly reversible when Vemurafenib is discontinued, and should not lead physicians to discontinue the treatment if it is effective. PMID:26930506

  6. [At what concentration should albumin be prescribed?].

    PubMed

    Mantz, J

    1996-01-01

    Human albumin is available either as a 4 or a 20% solution. Only the latter is a plasma expander which increases volaemia by an amount corresponding to the four-fold of the infused volume. In addition, the sodium load by the latter per gramme of albumin is five times lower as both solutions have the same sodium content. Therefore, when the administration of albumin is indicated, the 20% solution should be preferred, as well as for volume expansion as for other uses, due to a decreased sodium load. However, this recommendation has not been substantiated by comparative studies.

  7. Albumin fiber scaffolds for engineering functional cardiac tissues.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Sharon; Shapira, Assaf; Regev, Omri; Nseir, Nora; Zussman, Eyal; Dvir, Tal

    2014-06-01

    In recent years attempts to engineer contracting cardiac patches were focused on recapitulation of the myocardium extracellular microenvironment. We report here on our work, where for the first time, a three-dimensional cardiac patch was fabricated from albumin fibers. We hypothesized that since albumin fibers' mechanical properties resemble those of cardiac tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) and their biochemical character enables their use as protein carriers, they can support the assembly of cardiac tissues capable of generating strong contraction forces. Here, we have fabricated aligned and randomly oriented electrospun albumin fibers and investigated their structure, mechanical properties, and chemical nature. Our measurements showed that the scaffolds have improved elasticity as compared to synthetic electrospun PCL fibers, and that they are capable of adsorbing serum proteins, such as laminin leading to strong cell-matrix interactions. Moreover, due to the functional groups on their backbone, the fibers can be chemically modified with essential biomolecules. When seeded with rat neonatal cardiac cells the engineered scaffolds induced the assembly of aligned cardiac tissues with high aspect ratio cardiomyocytes and massive actinin striation. Compared to synthetic fibrous scaffolds, cardiac cells cultured within aligned or randomly oriented scaffolds formed functional tissues, exhibiting significantly improved function already on Day 3, including higher beating rate (P = 0.0002 and P < 0.0001, respectively), and higher contraction amplitude (P = 0.009 and P = 0.003, respectively). Collectively, our results suggest that albumin electrospun scaffolds can play a key role in contributing to the ex vivo formation of a contracting cardiac muscle tissue.

  8. Acute and chronic effect of ethanol on hepatic albumin synthesis in rat liver in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtake, H.; Kato, S.; Murawaki, Y.; Kishimoto, Y.; Wakushima, T.; Hirayama, C.

    1986-08-01

    To study the effects of ethanol and its metabolite on albumin metabolism, we examined the hepatic albumin synthesis and secretion in male Wistar rats in vitro, following acute and chronic ethanol administration. After acute ethanol administration, proalbumin synthesis in rat liver in vitro, declined to 47% of the control level at 4 hrs, the lowest level, and increased thereafter to slightly higher than the control level at 16 hrs. On the other hand, chronic ethanol administration for 4 weeks, increased proalbumin synthesis to 1.5 times that of the control level. In the acute ethanol group, a significant negative correlation was observed between proalbumin radioactivity and the concentration of hepatic ethanol and acetaldehyde. The variation between proalbumin radioactivity and hepatic ethanol concentration was wider than the variation between proalbumin and hepatic acetaldehyde. In the chronic ethanol group, ethanol was not detected in the liver. No significant differences from the proalbumin/albumin ratio were seen at any time point after acute or chronic ethanol administration. These findings suggest that the effects of ethanol on hepatic albumin synthesis differ with the method of ethanol administration, and acetaldehyde and/or ethanol is involved in the reduction in albumin synthesis, however, proalbumin-albumin conversion is not disturbed.

  9. Antioxidant activity of albumin-bound bilirubin.

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, R; Glazer, A N; Ames, B N

    1987-01-01

    Bilirubin, when bound to human albumin and at concentrations present in normal human plasma, protects albumin-bound linoleic acid from peroxyl radical-induced oxidation in vitro. Initially, albumin-bound bilirubin (Alb-BR) is oxidized at the same rate as peroxyl radicals are formed and biliverdin is produced stoichiometrically as the oxidation product. On an equimolar basis, Alb-BR successfully competes with uric acid for peroxyl radicals but is less efficient in scavenging these radicals than vitamin C. These results show that 1 mol of Alb-BR can scavenge 2 mol of peroxyl radicals and that small amounts of plasma bilirubin are sufficient to prevent oxidation of albumin-bound fatty acids as well as of the protein itself. The data indicate a role for Alb-BR as a physiological antioxidant in plasma and the extravascular space. PMID:3475708

  10. Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  11. [Modified albumin in harp seal blood serum].

    PubMed

    Erokhina, I A

    1999-01-01

    The content of modified albumin (Am) in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandica Erxleben, 1777) blood serum was studied. Am was determined by paper electrophoresis by means of re-precipitation in the trichloroacetic acid-ethanol system. Modified albumin content in normal seal pups' blood serum increased from 1990 to 1994. The Am level in undernourished pups was stable from year to year and higher than in normal pups. In oceanarium investigations it was revealed a low albumin resistance to denaturation and the dependence of Am content on the animals' physiological state. Thus there is a possibility to regard modified albumin content as one of the significant parameters in biomonitoring of harp seal population and, moreover, as a supplementary criterion for estimation of seals' health state in captivity.

  12. Large fragments of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Geisow, M J; Beaven, G H

    1977-03-01

    Large fragments of human serum albumin were produced by treatment of the native protein with pepsin at pH3.5. Published sequences of human albumin [Behrens, Spiekerman & Brown (1975) Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 34, 591; Meloun, Moravek & Kostka (1975) FEBSLett.58, 134-137]were used to locate the fragments in the primary structure. The fragments support both the sequence and proposed disulphide-linkage pattern (Behrens et al., 1975). As the pH of a solution of albumin is lowered from pH4 to pH3.5, the protein undergoes a reversible conformational change known as the N-F transition. The distribution of large fragments of human albumin digested with pepsin in the above pH region was critically dependent on pH. It appeared that this distribution was dependent on the conformation of the protein at low pH, rather than the activity of pepsin. The yields of the large fragments produced by peptic digestion at different values of pH suggested that the C-terminal region of albumin unfolds or separates from the rest of the molecule during the N-F transition. The similarity of peptic fragments of human and bovine albumin produced under identical conditions supports the proposed similar tertiary structure of these molecules.

  13. Differences in urine cadmium associations with kidney outcomes based on serum creatinine and cystatin C

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Virginia M.; Kim, Nam-Soo; Lee, Byung-Kook; Parsons, Patrick J.; Spector, June; Fadrowski, Jeffrey; Jaar, Bernard G.; Steuerwald, Amy J.; Todd, Andrew C.; and others

    2011-11-15

    Cadmium is a well-known nephrotoxicant; chronic exposure increases risk for chronic kidney disease. Recently, however, associations between urine cadmium and higher creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) have been reported. Analyses utilizing alternate biomarkers of kidney function allow evaluation of potential mechanisms for these observations. We compared associations of urine cadmium with kidney function measures based on serum cystatin C to those with serum creatinine in 712 lead workers. Mean (standard deviation) molybdenum-corrected urine cadmium, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) eGFR and multi-variable cystatin C eGFR were 1.02 (0.65) {mu}g/g creatinine, and 97.4 (19.2) and 112.0 (17.7) mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, respectively. The eGFR measures were moderately correlated (r{sub s}=0.5; p<0.001). After adjustment, ln (urine cadmium) was not associated with serum cystatin-C-based measures. However, higher ln (urine cadmium) was associated with higher creatinine-based eGFRs including the MDRD and an equation incorporating serum cystatin C and creatinine (beta-coefficient=4.1 mL/min/1.73 m{sup 2}; 95% confidence interval=1.6, 6.6). Urine creatinine was associated with serum creatinine-based but not cystatin-C-based eGFRs. These results support a biomarker-specific, rather than a kidney function, effect underlying the associations observed between higher urine cadmium and creatinine-based kidney function measures. Given the routine use of serum and urine creatinine in kidney and biomarker research, additional research to elucidate the mechanism(s) for these associations is essential.

  14. Determination of Urinary Creatinine in Washington State Residents via Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    West, Caroline E.; Rhodes, Blaine N.

    2014-01-01

    A viable, quick, and reliable method for determining urinary creatinine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and used to evaluate spot urine samples collected for the Washington Environmental Biomonitoring Survey (WEBS): part of the Washington State Department of Health, Public Health Laboratories (PHL). 50 µL of urine was mixed with a 1 : 1 acetonitrile/water solution containing deuterated creatinine as the internal standard and then analyzed by LC/MS/MS. Utilizing electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive mode, the transition ions for creatinine and creatinine-d3 were determined to be 114.0 to 44.1 (quantifier), 114.0 to 86.1 (qualifier), and 117.0 to 47.1 (creatinine-d3). The retention time for creatinine was 0.85 minutes. The linear calibration range was 20–4000 mg/L, with a limit of detection at 1.77 mg/L and a limit of quantitation at 5.91 mg/L. LC/MS/MS and the colorimetric Jaffé reaction were associated significantly (Pearson r = 0.9898 and R2 = 0.9797, ρ ≤ 0.0001). The LC/MS/MS method developed at the PHL to determine creatinine in the spot urine samples had shorter retention times, and was more sensitive, reliable, reproducible, and safer than other LC/MS/MS or commercial methods such as the Jaffé reaction or modified versions thereof. PMID:25614740

  15. Creatinine Change on Vasoconstrictors as Mortality Surrogate in Hepatorenal Syndrome: Systematic Review & Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Belcher, Justin M.; Coca, Steven G.; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Hepatorenal syndrome is a severe complication of cirrhosis and associates with significant mortality. Vasoconstrictor medications improve renal function in patients with hepatorenal syndrome. However, it is unclear to what extent changes in serum creatinine during treatment may act as a surrogate for changes in mortality. We have performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials of vasoconstrictors assessing the association between changes in serum creatinine, taken as a continuous variable, and mortality, both while on treatment and during the follow-up period for survivors. Methods The electronic databases of PubMed, Web of Science and Embase were searched for randomized trials evaluating the efficacy of vasoconstrictor therapy for treatment of HRS type 1 or 2. The relative risk (RR) for mortality was calculated against delta creatinine. The proportion of treatment effect explained (PTE) was calculated for delta creatinine. Results Seven trials enrolling 345 patients were included. The correlation between delta creatinine and ln (RR) was moderately good (R2 = 0.61). The intercept and parameter estimate indicated a fall in creatinine while on treatment of 1 mg/dL resulted in a 27% reduction in RR for mortality compared to the control arm. In patients surviving the treatment period, a fall in creatinine while on treatment of 1 mg/dL resulted in a 16% reduction in RR for post-treatment mortality during follow-up. The PTE of delta creatinine for overall mortality was 0.91 and 0.26 for post-treatment mortality. Conclusions Changes in serum creatinine in response to vasoconstrictor therapy appear to be a valid surrogate for mortality, even in the period following the completion of treatment. PMID:26295585

  16. Lungfish albumin is more similar to tetrapod than to teleost albumins: purification and characterisation of albumin from the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Victoria J; George, Peter M; Brennan, Stephen O

    2007-07-01

    Lobe-finned fish, particularly lungfish, are thought of as the closest extant relatives to tetrapods. Albumin, the major vertebrate plasma protein, has been well studied in tetrapods, but there exists no comparative study of the presence and characteristics of albumin in lobe-finned fish versus other vertebrates. There is a controversy over the presence of albumin in fish, although it is present in salmonids and lamprey. The presence of albumin in lungfish has also recently been documented. We identified albumin in plasma of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, using a combination of agarose gel electrophoresis, [(14)C]palmitic acid binding and SDS-PAGE. Lungfish albumin was purified using DEAE-ion exchange chromatography, and has a mass of 67 kDa, is present at approximately 8 g/L in plasma and like other fish albumins, does not bind nickel. However, like tetrapod albumins, it is not glycosylated. N-terminal and internal peptide sequencing generated 101 amino acids of sequence, which showed a high degree of identity with tetrapod albumins. Despite the similarity in sequence but congruent with the evolutionary distances separating them, lungfish albumin did not cross-react with anti-chicken or anti-tuatara A albumin antisera. Lungfish albumin has characteristics more akin with tetrapod albumin and less like those of other fish.

  17. The influence of creatinine versus GFR on NSAID prescriptions in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Krupa; Diamantidis, Clarissa; Zhan, Min; Hsu, Van Doren; Walker, Loreen D.; Gardner, James; Weir, Matthew R.; Fink, Jeffrey C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors, are generally contraindicated in chronic kidney disease (CKD). This investigation sought to identify the frequency of NSAID/COX2 prescription and determine the influence of serum Cr versus estimated GFR on this practice pattern. Methods An established Veterans Health Administration (VHA) CKD safety cohort (n = 70,154) was examined to determine the frequency of NSAID/COX2 in fiscal year 2005 (FY05) for up to 30 days preceding the index hospitalization and as many as 365 days during that year. Binomial regression was used to determine adjusted prevalence ratios for prescription of NSAID/COX2 with respect to continuous eGFR measurement and serum creatinine (Cr) categories. CKD was defined as eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2. Results 15.4% of subjects had an NSAID/COX2 prescription during the observation period with the proportion prescribed these agents decreasing with declining renal function, but remained significant at any stage of CKD given the renal harm related to these medications. At specific GFR estimates, serum creatinine (Cr) remained a significant predictor of NSAID/COX prescription. At GFR set at 42 ml/min/1.73, the predicted proportion prescribed NSAID/COX2 was 0.29 (95% CI: 0.24,0.36); 0.23 (95% CI: 0.22,0.26); 0.20 (95%: 0.19,0,22); 0.12 (95% CI: 0.10,0.14) for Cr strata of ≤ 1.3 mg/dl, 1.4 – 1.6 mg/dl, 1.7 –2.1 mg/dl, ≥ 2.2 mg/dl, respectively (all p < 0.05). Conclusion A significant proportion of individuals with CKD continue to be prescribed NSAID/COX2 and serum Cr remains an influential guide to NSAID/COX2 prescription, even in GFR ranges where these agents are ill-advised. PMID:22699456

  18. Ocular Albumin Fluorophotometric Quantitation of Endotoxin-Induced Vascular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Scott W.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Guss, Robert B.; Egbert, Peter R.

    1982-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) is known to alter systemic vascular permeability, but this effect is difficult to monitor and quantitate in vivo. The ocular vessels of the rabbit are particularly sensitive to LPS. Using a slit lamp equipped with a fluorophotometer, we have adapted a method to quantitate endotoxin-induced ocular vascular permeability by measuring the accumulation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated albumin into the anterior chamber of the eye. After intravenous administration of Salmonella typhimurim LPS, the anterior chamber fluorescence and blood fluorescence were measured at intervals of 15 min and 1 h, respectively, over 4 h. In controls, maximal fluorescence in the anterior chamber was 3.1 ± 0.8% of blood fluorescence. Doses of LPS as low as 0.25 μg/kg produced an ocular/serum fluorescence ratio of 17.6 ± 4.9. A dose of 2.5 μg of LPS per kg tended to produce a higher ratio (68.0 ± 7.1) than a larger dose of 50 μg/kg (30.5 ± 16.6). Permeability changes began within 30 min after LPS, and the rate of dye accumulation varied over time, with maximal leakage usually occurring 90 min after LPS, but occasionally occurring much later. Repeated doses produced tolerance. By conjugating albumin to rhodamine and utilizing a second filter with the slit lamp to measure accumulation of this dye, we demonstrated the persistence of marked permeability during a period when intraocular fluorescein isothiocyanate and albumin levels were relatively constant. This methodology indicates that extremely low doses of LPS induce ocular permeability changes and that neither the time course nor the dose response of this effect is linear. Ocular fluorophotometry is a sensitive, noninvasive technique to study the dynamics and pharmacology of LPS-induced permeability changes. PMID:6806194

  19. EVALUATION OF DISPOSABLE DIAPERS FOR QUANTATIVE MEASUREMENTS OF PESTICIDE METABOLITES AND CREATININE IN URINE SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project consisted of a laboratory study to evaluate an extraction and analysis method for quantifying biomarkers of pesticide exposure and creatinine in urine samples collected with commercially-available disposable diapers. For large exposure studies, such as the National ...

  20. Kidney injury biomarkers and urinary creatinine variability in nominally healthy adults

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental exposure diagnostics use creatinine concentrations in urine aliquots as the internal standard for dilution normalization of all other excreted metabolites when urinary excretion rate data are not available. This is a reasonable approach for healthy adults as creati...

  1. A facile low-cost enzymatic paper-based assay for the determination of urine creatinine.

    PubMed

    Talalak, Kwanrutai; Noiphung, Julaluk; Songjaroen, Temsiri; Chailapakul, Orawon; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida

    2015-11-01

    Creatinine is one of many markers used to investigate kidney function. This paper describes a low-cost enzymatic paper-based analytical device (enz-PAD) for determining urine creatinine. The disposable dead volumes of creatinine enzyme reagents from an automatic analyser cassette were utilised. Whatman No. 3 paper was cut into long rectangular shapes (4×40 mm(2)) on which the enzyme reagents, R1 and R2, were adsorbed in two consecutive regions. The assay was performed by immersing test strips into urine samples contained in microwells to allow creatinine in the sample to react with immobilised active ingredients and, then, traverse via capillary action to the detection area where chromogen products accumulated. The method is based on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation via creatinine conversion using creatininase, creatinase, and sarcosine oxidase. The liberated H2O2 reacts with 4-aminophenazone and 2,4,6-triiodo-3-hydroxybenzoic acid to form quinoneimine with a pink-red colour at the detection zone. The linear range of the creatinine assay was 2.5-25 mg dL(-1) (r(2)=0.983), and the detection limit was 2.0 mg dL(-1). The colorimetric enz-PAD for the creatinine assay was highly correlated with a conventional alkaline picrate method when real urine samples were evaluated (r(2)=0.977; n=40). This simple and nearly zero-cost paper-based device provides a novel alternative method for screening urinary creatinine and will be highly beneficial for developing countries.

  2. Effect of co-trimoxazole and sulfamethoxazole on serum creatinine in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Roy, M T; First, M R; Myre, S A; Cacini, W

    1982-01-01

    Significant elevation of serum creatinine concentration and reduction in creatinine clearance have been reported following cotrimoxazole therapy in patients with normal and impaired renal function. Both components of co-trimoxazole, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, have been proposed as the causative agent. Ten healthy male volunteers were treated for seven days with either sulfamethoxazole (5 subjects) or co-trimoxazole (5 subjects) in the usual recommended doses. After a one-week recovery period, the subjects were allocated to the alternate treatment regimen for another seven days. Cotrimoxazole caused a mean elevation in the serum creatinine concentration of 0.12 mg/dl over the base-line value (p less than 0.05). Sulfamethoxazole produced an insignificant fall in the serum creatinine level. The increase in the serum creatinine concentration induced by co-trimoxazole was reversed seven days after discontinuation of the drug. From this study, it can be concluded that either trimethoprim alone or an interaction between trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole is responsible for the increase in serum creatinine observed following co-trimoxazole therapy and that sulfamethoxazole alone is not the causative agent. PMID:7071907

  3. Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r=0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2 mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

  4. Quantifying creatinine and urea in human urine through Raman spectroscopy aiming at diagnosis of kidney disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Bispo, Jeyse Aliana Martins; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Due to their importance in the regulation of metabolites, the kidneys need continuous monitoring to check for correct functioning, mainly by urea and creatinine urinalysis. This study aimed to develop a model to estimate the concentrations of urea and creatinine in urine by means of Raman spectroscopy (RS) that could be used to diagnose kidney disease. Midstream urine samples were obtained from 54 volunteers with no kidney complaints. Samples were subjected to a standard colorimetric assay of urea and creatinine and submitted to spectroscopic analysis by means of a dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm, 350 mW, 30 s). The Raman spectra of urine showed peaks related mainly to urea and creatinine. Partial least squares models were developed using selected Raman bands related to urea and creatinine and the biochemical concentrations in urine measured by the colorimetric method, resulting in r=0.90 and 0.91 for urea and creatinine, respectively, with root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSEcv) of 312 and 25.2 mg/dL, respectively. RS may become a technique for rapid urinalysis, with concentration errors suitable for population screening aimed at the prevention of renal diseases.

  5. Bioactivity of albumins bound to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Jessy; Sivakami, S; Kothari, D C; Dongre, P M

    2014-06-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous rise in the proposed applications of nanomaterials in the field of medicine due to their very attractive physiochemical properties and novel actions such as the ability to reach previously inaccessible targets such as brain. However biological activity of functional molecules bound to nanoparticles and its physiological consequences is still unclear and hence this area requires immediate attention. The functional properties of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) bound to silver nanoparticles (~60 nm) have been studied under physiological environment. Esterase activity, binding of drugs (warfarin and ibuprofen), antioxidant activity and copper binding by albumins was evaluated. The catalytic efficiencies of HSA and BSA diminished upon binding to silver nanoparticles. Perturbation in binding of warfarin and ibuprofen, loss of free sulphydryls, antioxidant activity and enhancement of copper binding were observed in albumins bound to nanoparticles. These alterations in functional activity of nanoparticle bound albumins which will have important consequences should be taken into consideration while using nanoparticles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  6. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-04

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride-HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure.

  7. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride–HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 104 M−1, at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 104 M−1, at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure. PMID:26742031

  8. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride-HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure. PMID:26742031

  9. At physiologic albumin/oleate concentrations oleate uptake by isolated hepatocytes, cardiac myocytes, and adipocytes is a saturable function of the unbound oleate concentration. Uptake kinetics are consistent with the conventional theory.

    PubMed Central

    Sorrentino, D; Robinson, R B; Kiang, C L; Berk, P D

    1989-01-01

    To reexamine the role of albumin in cellular uptake of long chain fatty acids, we measured [3H]oleate uptake by isolated hepatocytes, adipocytes, and cardiac myocytes from incubations containing oleate/albumin complexes at molar ratios from 0.01:1 to 2:1. For each ratio the uptake was studied over a wide range of albumin concentrations. In all three cell types and at any given oleate/albumin ratio, the uptake appeared saturable with increasing concentrations of oleate:albumin complexes despite the fact that the unbound oleate concentration for each molar ratio is essentially constant. However, the "Km" but not the "Vmax" of these pseudosaturation curves was influenced by substrate availability. At low albumin concentrations, uptake velocities did not correlate with unbound oleate concentrations. However, observed and expected uptake velocities coincided at albumin concentrations approaching physiologic levels and were a saturable function of the oleate/albumin ratios and the consequent unbound oleate concentrations employed. Hence, under the experimental conditions employed in this study using a variety of suspended cell types, oleate uptake kinetics were consistent with the conventional theory at physiologic concentrations of albumin. PMID:2794064

  10. Proximal Tubules Have the Capacity to Regulate Uptake of Albumin.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mark C; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B; Chowdhury, Mahboob; Flores, Brittany; Lai, Xianyin; Myslinski, Jered; Pandit, Sweekar; Sandoval, Ruben M; Wean, Sarah E; Wei, Yuan; Satlin, Lisa M; Wiggins, Roger C; Witzmann, Frank A; Molitoris, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Evidence from multiple studies supports the concept that both glomerular filtration and proximal tubule (PT) reclamation affect urinary albumin excretion rate. To better understand these roles of glomerular filtration and PT uptake, we investigated these processes in two distinct animal models. In a rat model of acute exogenous albumin overload, we quantified glomerular sieving coefficients (GSC) and PT uptake of Texas Red-labeled rat serum albumin using two-photon intravital microscopy. No change in GSC was observed, but a significant decrease in PT albumin uptake was quantified. In a second model, loss of endogenous albumin was induced in rats by podocyte-specific transgenic expression of diphtheria toxin receptor. In these albumin-deficient rats, exposure to diphtheria toxin induced an increase in albumin GSC and albumin filtration, resulting in increased exposure of the PTs to endogenous albumin. In this case, PT albumin reabsorption was markedly increased. Analysis of known albumin receptors and assessment of cortical protein expression in the albumin overload model, conducted to identify potential proteins and pathways affected by acute protein overload, revealed changes in the expression levels of calreticulin, disabled homolog 2, NRF2, angiopoietin-2, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that a regulated PT cell albumin uptake system can respond rapidly to different physiologic conditions to minimize alterations in serum albumin level.

  11. Repression of the albumin gene in Novikoff hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Capetanaki, Y.G.; Flytzanis, C.N.; Alonso, A.

    1982-03-01

    Novikoff hepatoma cells have lost their capacity to synthesize albumin. As a first approach to study the mechanisms underlying this event, in vitro translation in a reticulocyte system was performed using total polyadenylated mRNA from rat liver and Novikoff hepatoma cells. Immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products with albumin-specific antibody revealed a total lack of albumin synthesis in Novikoff hepatoma, suggesting the absence of functional albumin mRNA in these cells. Titration experiments using as probe albumin cDNA cloned in pBR322 plasmid demonstrated the absence of albumin-specific sequences in both polysomal and nuclear polyadenylated and total RNA from Novikoff cells. This albumin recombinant plasmid was obtained by screening a rat liver cDNA library with albumin (/sup 32/P)cDNA reverse transcribed from immuno-precipitated mRNA. The presence of an albumin-specific gene insert was documented with translation assays as well as by restriction mapping. Repression of the albumin gene at the transcriptional level was further demonstrated by RNA blotting experiments using the cloned albumin cDNA probe. Genomic DNA blots using the cloned albumin cDNA as probe did not reveal any large-scale deletions, insertions, or rearrangements in the albumin gene, suggesting that the processes involved in the suppression of albumin mRNA synthesis do not involve extensive genomic rearrangements.

  12. Human podocytes perform polarized, caveolae-dependent albumin endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Okamura, Kayo; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Doctor, R Brian; Blaine, Judith

    2014-05-01

    The renal glomerulus forms a selective filtration barrier that allows the passage of water, ions, and small solutes into the urinary space while restricting the passage of cells and macromolecules. The three layers of the glomerular filtration barrier include the vascular endothelium, glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and podocyte epithelium. Podocytes are capable of internalizing albumin and are hypothesized to clear proteins that traverse the GBM. The present study followed the fate of FITC-labeled albumin to establish the mechanisms of albumin endocytosis and processing by podocytes. Confocal imaging and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of immortalized human podocytes showed FITC-albumin endocytosis occurred preferentially across the basal membrane. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis demonstrated that the majority of FITC-albumin entered podocytes through caveolae. Once internalized, FITC-albumin colocalized with EEA1 and LAMP1, endocytic markers, and with the neonatal Fc receptor, a marker for transcytosis. After preloading podocytes with FITC-albumin, the majority of loaded FITC-albumin was lost over the subsequent 60 min of incubation. A portion of the loss of albumin occurred via lysosomal degradation as pretreatment with leupeptin, a lysosomal protease inhibitor, partially inhibited the loss of FITC-albumin. Consistent with transcytosis of albumin, preloaded podocytes also progressively released FITC-albumin into the extracellular media. These studies confirm the ability of podocytes to endocytose albumin and provide mechanistic insight into cellular mechanisms and fates of albumin handling in podocytes.

  13. Avosentan Reduces Albumin Excretion in Diabetics with Macroalbuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, René R.; Littke, Thomas; Kuranoff, Susan; Jürgens, Christiane; Bruck, Heike; Ritz, Eberhard; Philipp, Thomas; Mitchell, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Despite the first-line use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), there is still a large need to improve the prevention and progression of diabetic nephropathy and its associated cardiovascular events. Endothelin antagonists have shown anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and antiproteinuric effects in experimental studies. This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-design, dosage-range study of the effect of the endothelin-A antagonist avosentan (SPP301) on urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in patients with diabetic nephropathy. We randomly assigned 286 patients with diabetic nephropathy, macroalbuminuria (UAER 0.2 to 5.6 mg/min), and BP <180/110 mmHg to 12 wk of avosentan (5, 10, 25, and 50 mg) or placebo, in addition to standard ACEI/ARB therapy. Relative to baseline, all avosentan dosages decreased mean relative UAER (−16.3 to −29.9%) compared with placebo (35.5%). Median relative UAER decreased with all avosentan dosages (−28.7 to −44.8%) compared with placebo (12.1%). Creatinine clearance and BP were unchanged at 12 wk. The main adverse events were peripheral edema (12%), mainly with high (≥25 mg) dosages of avosentan; significant increases in liver enzymes did not occur. Twenty-one (7.3%) patients experienced adverse events that led to withdrawal from study medication. In summary, the endothelin-A antagonist avosentan given in addition to standard ACEI/ARB treatment decreases UAER in patients with diabetic nephropathy and macroalbuminuria. PMID:19144760

  14. Relationship Between Serum Albumin Levels and Infections in Newborn Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunyan; Liu, Zhaoguo; Tian, Min; Xu, Ping; Li, Baoyun; Yang, Qiaozhi; Yang, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the clinical value of serum albumin levels for the evaluation and prognosis of late preterm infants with infections. Material/Methods This was a retrospective study performed in late preterm infants admitted at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Liaocheng People’s Hospital between July 2012 and March 2013. Data, including laboratory test results, neonatal critical illness score (NCIS), perinatal complications and prognosis, were analyzed. The newborn infants were divided into 3 groups according to their serum albumin levels, (≥30 g/L, 25–30 g/L and ≤25 g/L for high, moderate, and low, respectively). Results Among 257 patients, birth weight was 2003±348 g, gestational age was 35.7±2.3 weeks, and 59.1% were male. In addition, 127 (49.4%) were in the low albumin group. There were 32 patients with sepsis, 190 with infections, and 35 without infection, and their rates of hypoalbuminemia were 86.0%, 50.5%, and 30.7%, respectively (P<0.05). Albumin levels of the patients who survived were higher than those of the patients who died. In the low albumin group, the number of individual-event-critical NCIS cases and the frequency of multiple organs injuries were 63.8% and 28.3%, respectively, and were higher than in the 2 other groups. Mortality was higher in patients with sepsis. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with severe adverse outcomes (odds ratio=6.3, 95% confidence interval: 3.7–10.9, P<0.001). Conclusions Hypoalbuminemia was frequent among neonates with sepsis. Lower albumin levels might be associated with a poorer prognosis. Albumin levels could be appropriate for the diagnosis and prognosis of late preterm neonates with infections. PMID:26747243

  15. [Mercury and creatinine in urine of employees exposed to magnetic fields. A study of a group electrolysis-operators in Norzink A/S in Odda].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, F; Mannsåker

    1997-01-20

    The results described are based on a study of 26 male cell house employees. They were exposed to a combination of static magnetic fields (3-10 mT) and low frequency oscillating magnetic fields of variable frequency and strength for eight hours a day over a period of four weeks. Every fifth week was spent off work. Urine samples collected at the end of the four weeks of exposure were compared with samples collected at the end of the week off work. The results show that the cell house workers excreted significantly more mercury in their urine after exposure to magnetic fields (p = 0.01). The mercury/creatinine ratio was also significantly higher after exposure (p < 0.01). These results support findings by Schmidt in a study from 1992 when the levels of mercury and creatinine in the urine of cell house workers were compared with the levels in office personnel.

  16. Albumin extinction without methylation of its gene.

    PubMed

    Ott, M O; Sperling, L; Weiss, M C

    1984-03-01

    In earlier work we identified at the 5' end of the rat albumin gene an Msp I site whose undermethylation appears to be necessary but not sufficient for stable expression of the gene in rat hepatoma cells. Here, we ask whether the block to expression of albumin production, which occurs when rat hepatoma cells are hybridized with cells that do not produce the protein, could be the result of de novo methylation of this site. In two types of somatic hybrids, rat hepatoma-mouse L cell fibroblasts, and rat hepatoma-dedifferentiated variant rat hepatoma cells, extinction occurs and is maintained during the first 5-15 generations after fusion. During this time the Msp I site of the now inactive rat albumin gene remained unmethylated.

  17. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  18. Preliminary crystallographic studies of four crystal forms of serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. C.; Chang, B.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Krishnasami, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Several crystal forms of serum albumin suitable for three-dimensional structure determination have been grown. These forms include crystals of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin, baboon serum albumin, and canine serum albumin. The intrinsic limits of X-ray diffraction for these crystals are in the range 0.28-0.22 nm. Two of the crystal forms produced from human and canine albumin include incorporated long-chain fatty acids. Molecular replacement experiments have been successfully conducted on each crystal form using the previously determined atomic coordinates of human serum albumin illustrating the conserved tertiary structure.

  19. Gamma scintigraphic analysis of albumin flux in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Sugerman, H.J.; Tatum, J.L.; Burke, T.S.; Strash, A.M.; Glauser, F.L.

    1984-06-01

    Computerized gamma-scintigraphy provides a new method for the analysis of albumin flux in patients with pulmonary permeability edema. In this technique, 10 mCi of /sup 99/mTc -tagged human serum albumin is administered and lung:heart radioactivity ratios are determined. This ratio remains constant unless there is a leak of albumin, when a rising ratio with time, called the ''slope index'' (SI), is seen. Thirty-five scintigraphic studies were obtained in 28 patients by means of a portable computerized gamma-camera. Thirteen of these patients had clinical evidence of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and six had or were recovering from left ventricular induced congestive heart failure (CHF). Five of the patients with CHF and pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) below 30 mm Hg had normal scintigraphic studies. The patients with ARDS were found to have significantly higher SIs than patients who did not have, or had recovered from, ARDS. Positive SIs were present from 1 to 8 days following the apparent onset of ARDS in seven studies in five patients. Recovery of gas exchange was associated with a return to a normal SI in four patients. In conclusion, computerized gamma-scintigraphy was a sensitive, noninvasive tool for the detection of a pathologic increase in pulmonary protein flux. Positive scintigraphic findings were associated with significantly impaired gas exchange. The method documented that the leak of albumin in patients with ARDS may last for days but resolves with recovery.

  20. Accurate prediction of kidney allograft outcome based on creatinine course in the first 6 months posttransplant.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, L; Hoerstrup, J; Budde, K; Reinke, P; Neumayer, H-H; Frei, U; Schlaefer, A

    2005-03-01

    Most attempts to predict early kidney allograft loss are based on the patient and donor characteristics at baseline. We investigated how the early posttransplant creatinine course compares to baseline information in the prediction of kidney graft failure within the first 4 years after transplantation. Two approaches to create a prediction rule for early graft failure were evaluated. First, the whole data set was analysed using a decision-tree building software. The software, rpart, builds classification or regression models; the resulting models can be represented as binary trees. In the second approach, a Hill-Climbing algorithm was applied to define cut-off values for the median creatinine level and creatinine slope in the period between day 60 and 180 after transplantation. Of the 497 patients available for analysis, 52 (10.5%) experienced an early graft loss (graft loss within the first 4 years after transplantation). From the rpart algorithm, a single decision criterion emerged: Median creatinine value on days 60 to 180 higher than 3.1 mg/dL predicts early graft failure (accuracy 95.2% but sensitivity = 42.3%). In contrast, the Hill-Climbing algorithm delivered a cut-off of 1.8 mg/dL for the median creatinine level and a cut-off of 0.3 mg/dL per month for the creatinine slope (sensitivity = 69.5% and specificity 79.0%). Prediction rules based on median and slope of creatinine levels in the first half year after transplantation allow early identification of patients who are at risk of loosing their graft early after transplantation. These patients may benefit from therapeutic measures tailored for this high-risk setting. PMID:15848516

  1. Preparation and analysis of peptide fragments produced by pepsin hydrolysis of human plasma albumin and their relationship to its structure

    PubMed Central

    Franglen, G.; Swaniker, G. R. E.

    1968-01-01

    Human plasma albumin was prepared and subjected to proteolysis by pepsin at pH2·45 at 25° for 10min. with albumin/pepsin ratio 3000:1. Five peptide fragments were detected in the proteolysate by means of zone electrophoresis and gel filtration; these were separated and purified. Molecular weights, amino acid composition and disulphide bond content of the purified fragments were determined. The results show that a high proportion of the polypeptide chain of albumin appears to have a low cystine content, and at low pH values the molecule would be expected to have a considerable degree of freedom in its structure in these regions of the chain. A tripartite model for the structure of plasma albumin is proposed. PMID:4876098

  2. Associations of increases in serum creatinine with mortality and length of hospital stay after coronary angiography.

    PubMed

    Weisbord, Steven D; Chen, Huanyu; Stone, Roslyn A; Kip, Kevin E; Fine, Michael J; Saul, Melissa I; Palevsky, Paul M

    2006-10-01

    The absence of a universally accepted definition of radiocontrast nephropathy (RCN) has hampered efforts to characterize effectively the incidence and the clinical significance of this condition. The objective of this study was to identify a clinically relevant definition of RCN by assessment of the relationships between increases in serum creatinine (Scr) of varying magnitude after coronary angiography and clinical outcomes. An electronic medical database was used to identify all patients who underwent coronary angiography at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center during a 12-yr period and abstract Scr levels before and after angiography, as well as demographic characteristics and comorbid conditions. Changes in Scr after angiography were categorized into mutually exclusive categories on the basis of absolute and relative changes from baseline levels, with a separate category denoting "unknown" change. Discrete proportional odds models were used to examine the association between increases in Scr and 30-d in-hospital mortality and length of stay. A total of 27,608 patients who underwent coronary angiography were evaluated. Small absolute (0.25 to 0.5 mg/dl) and relative (25 to 50%) increases in Scr were associated with risk-adjusted odds ratios for in-hospital mortality of 1.83 and 1.39, respectively. Larger increases in Scr generally were associated with greater risks for these clinical outcomes. Small increases in Scr after the administration of intravascular radiocontrast are associated with adverse patient outcomes. This observation will help guide the post-procedure care of patients who undergo coronary angiography and has important implications for future studies that investigate RCN.

  3. Trajectories of Serum Albumin Predict Survival of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ping-Fang; Tsai, Chun-Chieh; Wu, Chia-Lin; Yang, Tse-Yen; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Chen, Hung-Lin; Kor, Chew-Teng; Chang, Chia-Chu; Chang, Horng-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although initial serum albumin level is highly associated with overall and cardiovascular mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, we consider that the dynamic change and trend of albumin after initiation of PD are also essential. We enrolled patients who received PD for more than 3 months from January 1999 to March 2014. We categorized these patients into 2 groups by the difference in serum albumin level (Δalbumin = difference between peak with initial albumin level = peak albumin level − initial albumin level) after PD. The patients with Δalbumin < 0.2 g/dL (median level) were considered as group A (n, number = 238) and those with Δalbumin ≥ 0.2 g/dL were considered as group B (n = 278). Further, we stratified these patients into quartiles: Q1 Δalbumin < −0.2 g/dL; Q2, −0.2 ≦∼ <0.2 g/dL; Q3, 0.2 ≦∼ <0.6 g/dL; and Q4, ≥0.6 g/dL. Regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation of initial albumin and Δalbumin. Group A patients presented with higher levels of serum albumin (3.71 ± 0.54 vs 3.04 ± 0.55 g/dL; P < 0.001) and hematocrit as well as better initial residual renal function. However, those in group A had lower serum albumin increment and downward-sloped trends after dialysis. In contrast, the albumin trend was upward sloped and the increment of albumin was remarkable in group B, despite the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Overtime, group A patients had poorer survival and experienced more frequent and longer hospitalizations. Group Q1 patients with least albumin increment had worst survival. Group Q4 patients with lowest initial albumin also had poor survival. Age, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, BMI, initial albumin, and Δalbumin could affect patient outcomes independently. Regression analysis showed a better outcome can be obtained if the initial albumin level is at least above 3.15 g/dL. (Initial albumin level

  4. Creatinine adjustment of spot urine samples and 24 h excretion of iodine, selenium, perchlorate, and thiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-ichi; Kirk, Andrea B; Dyke, Jason V; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2008-12-15

    Creatinine (CR) adjustment is widely used for the estimation of urinary 24 h excretion from spot urine samples. We have compared CR-adjusted values for urinary iodine, selenium, perchlorate, and thiocyanate to measured 24 h excretion. The urine samples were collected from a cohort of 14 breastfeeding mothers with both spot samples and 24 h collection, 52 24 h and spot sample pairs where the 24 h CR value fell within the "normal" adult female CR excretion range of 0.6-1.6 g/day were considered for this analysis. In addition, a nonlactating female and a male subject provided all micturitions for 1 and 5 days, respectively. Creatinine was analyzed with a Jáffe reaction-based automated analyzer. Iodine and selenium were determined with induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Perchlorate and thiocyanate were measured with ion chromatography (IC)-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Creatinine-adjusted values were poor substitutes of the actual 24 h excretion values (average deviation +/-69, 78, 105, and 104% for iodine, selenium, perchlorate, and thiocyanate, respectively.). Over a 5 day period, the 24 h iodine excretion predicted based on creatinine adjustment of spot samples for the same individual deviated between -83.5 to +101% from the actual measured value, the minimum absolute error being 2.5%. Creatinine adjustment for estimation of 24 h excretion from spot samples was not effective for iodine, selenium, perchlorate, or thiocyanate.

  5. Two low-cost digital camera-based platforms for quantitative creatinine analysis in urine.

    PubMed

    Debus, Bruno; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Yaroshenko, Irina; Sidorova, Alla; Piven, Alena; Legin, Andrey

    2015-10-01

    In clinical analysis creatinine is a routine biomarker for the assessment of renal and muscular dysfunctions. Although several techniques have been proposed for a fast and accurate quantification of creatinine in human serum or urine, most of them require expensive or complex apparatus, advanced sample preparation or skilled operators. To circumvent these issues, we propose two home-made platforms based on a CD Spectroscope (CDS) and Computer Screen Photo-assisted Technique (CSPT) for the rapid assessment of creatinine level in human urine. Both systems display a linear range (r(2) = 0.9967 and 0.9972, respectively) from 160 μmol L(-1) to 1.6 mmol L(-1) for standard creatinine solutions (n = 15) with respective detection limits of 89 μmol L(-1) and 111 μmol L(-1). Good repeatability was observed for intra-day (1.7-2.9%) and inter-day (3.6-6.5%) measurements evaluated on three consecutive days. The performance of CDS and CSPT was also validated in real human urine samples (n = 26) using capillary electrophoresis data as reference. Corresponding Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression models provided for mean relative errors below 10% in creatinine quantification.

  6. CREATININE DETERMINATION IN URINE BY LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY METHOD.

    PubMed

    Dereziński, Paweł; Klupczyńska, Agnieszka; Sawicki, Wojciech; Kokot, Zenon J

    2016-01-01

    Creatinine determination in urine is used to estimate the completeness of the 24-h urine collection, compensation for variable diuresis and as a preliminary step in protein profiling in urine. Despite the fact that a wide range of methods of measuring creatinine level in biofluids has been developed, many of them are adversely affected by interfering substances. A new liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for creatinine determination in urine has been developed. Chromatographic separation was performed by applying C18 column and a gradient elution. Analyses were carried out on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ion source. The developed method was fully validated according to the international guidelines. The quantification range of the method was 5-1500 ng/mL, which corresponds to 1-300 mg/dL in urine. Limit of detection and quantitation were 2 and 5 ng/mL, respectively. Additionally, the comparison of creatinine determination by newly developed method to the colorimetric method was performed. The method enables the determination of creatinine in urine samples with a minimal sample preparation, excellent sensitivity and prominent selectivity. Since mass spectrometry allows to measure a number of compounds simultaneously, a future perspective would be to incorporate the determination of other clinically important compounds excreted in urine. PMID:27180423

  7. Two low-cost digital camera-based platforms for quantitative creatinine analysis in urine.

    PubMed

    Debus, Bruno; Kirsanov, Dmitry; Yaroshenko, Irina; Sidorova, Alla; Piven, Alena; Legin, Andrey

    2015-10-01

    In clinical analysis creatinine is a routine biomarker for the assessment of renal and muscular dysfunctions. Although several techniques have been proposed for a fast and accurate quantification of creatinine in human serum or urine, most of them require expensive or complex apparatus, advanced sample preparation or skilled operators. To circumvent these issues, we propose two home-made platforms based on a CD Spectroscope (CDS) and Computer Screen Photo-assisted Technique (CSPT) for the rapid assessment of creatinine level in human urine. Both systems display a linear range (r(2) = 0.9967 and 0.9972, respectively) from 160 μmol L(-1) to 1.6 mmol L(-1) for standard creatinine solutions (n = 15) with respective detection limits of 89 μmol L(-1) and 111 μmol L(-1). Good repeatability was observed for intra-day (1.7-2.9%) and inter-day (3.6-6.5%) measurements evaluated on three consecutive days. The performance of CDS and CSPT was also validated in real human urine samples (n = 26) using capillary electrophoresis data as reference. Corresponding Partial Least-Squares (PLS) regression models provided for mean relative errors below 10% in creatinine quantification. PMID:26454461

  8. Technical note: variation in muscle mass in wild chimpanzees: application of a modified urinary creatinine method.

    PubMed

    Emery Thompson, Melissa; Muller, Martin N; Wrangham, Richard W

    2012-12-01

    Individual body size and composition are important variables for a variety of questions about the behavioral ecology and life histories of non-human primates. Standard methodologies for obtaining body mass involve either capture, which poses risks to the subject, or provisioning, which can disrupt the processes being studied. There are no methods currently available to assess body composition from living animals in the wild. Because of its derivation in muscle, the amount of creatinine that an individual excretes in 24 hours is a reliable and frequently used indicator of relative muscle mass in humans and laboratory animals. Although it is not feasible to collect 24-hour urine samples from wild primates, we apply here a simple method to approximate muscle mass variation from collections of spot urine samples. Specific gravity (SG), an alternative method for assessing urinary water content, is both highly correlated to creatinine and free of mass-dependent effects. Individuals with greater muscle mass should excrete more creatinine for a given SG. We examine this relationship in a dataset of 12,598 urine samples from wild chimpanzees in the Kibale National Park, Uganda. As expected from known differences in body composition, the slope of the relationship between SG and creatinine is significantly greater in adult males than adult females and in adults versus immature individuals. Growth curves generated through this method closely approximate published weight curves for wild chimpanzees. Consistent with the role of testosterone in muscle anabolism, urinary testosterone predicted relative creatinine excretion among adult male chimpanzees. PMID:23077085

  9. Creatinine Clearance Is Associated with Toxicity from Molecularly Targeted Agents in Phase I Trials

    PubMed Central

    Basu, B.; Vitfell-Pedersen, J.; Moreno Garcia, V.; Puglisi, M.; Tjokrowidjaja, A.; Shah, K.; Malvankar, S.; Anghan, B.; de Bono, J.S.; Kaye, S.B.; Molife, L.R.; Banerji, U.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate any correlations between baseline creatinine clearance and the development of grade 3/4 toxicities during treatment within oncology phase I trials of molecularly targeted agents where entry criteria mandate a serum creatinine of ≤1.5 × the upper limit of normal. Methods Documented toxicity and creatinine clearance (calculated by the Cockcroft-Gault formula) from all patients treated with molecularly targeted agents in the context of phase I trials within our centre over a 5-year period were analyzed. Results Data from 722 patients were analyzed; 116 (16%) developed at least one episode of grade 3/4 toxicity. Patients who developed a late-onset (>1 cycle) grade 3/4 toxicity had a lower creatinine clearance than those who did not (82.69 ml/min vs. 98.97 ml/min; p = < 0.001). Conclusion Creatinine clearance (even when within normal limits) should be studied as a potential factor influencing late toxicities in the clinical trials of molecularly targeted anti-cancer drugs. PMID:22889980

  10. Accuracy of GFR estimation formula in determination of glomerular filtration rate in kidney donors: Comparison with 24 h urine creatinine clearance.

    PubMed

    Hafeez, Abdul Rauf; Idrees, Muhammad Khalid; Akhtar, Syed Fazal

    2016-03-01

    To determine the accuracy of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using the modification of diet in renal disease (MDRD), Cockcroft-Gault (CG), and chronic kidney disease epidemiology (CKD-EPI) formulas in potential kidney donors compared with 24-h urine creatinine clearance, we studied 207 potential live kidney donors in our center. There were 126 (60.9%) males and 81 (39.1%) females. Male:female ratio was 1.6:1. The age of the donors ranged from 18-58 years, with mean age of 35.30 ± 9.23 years and most of the individuals were below 40 years of age. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated and venous blood samples were obtained for the measurement of serum creatinine and every study participant was instructed to collect 24-h urine. GFR was calculated based on 24-h urine creatinine clearance and the formulas. The accuracy of GFR estimation formula was taken as positive if the GFR calculated by the formulas and urine creatinine clearance fell between 90-120 mL/min/1.73 m(2). The accuracy of the MDRD formula was 48.8% and the CG formula was 41.5% whereas the accuracy of the CKD-EPI formula was 78.2%. The accuracy of the eGFR using the MDRD formula was significantly higher in males than females (57.9% vs. 33.3% P = 0.001), while there was no statistically significant difference in the eGFR between them in case of the use of the CG and the CKD-EPI formulas. BMI and obesity had no effect on the accuracy of eGFR by the use of the different formulas. The performance of GFR estimation formulas was sub optimal and these either underestimated and/or over-estimated the GFR in healthy subjects. CKD-EPI is closer to 24 -h urinary creatinine clearance in the calculation of eGFR. However, none of the eGFR formulas can be used in renal transplant donors because of their low accuracy, and 24-h urine creatinine clearance should be used for evaluation of the GFR in this population.

  11. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Poór, Miklós; Lemli, Beáta; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Sali, Nikolett; Kőszegi, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor

    2015-12-01

    Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3) and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow's Site I). In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions.

  12. [Current role of albumin in critical care].

    PubMed

    Aguirre Puig, P; Orallo Morán, M A; Pereira Matalobos, D; Prieto Requeijo, P

    2014-11-01

    The use of colloids in fluid therapy has been, and still continues to be a controversial topic, particularly when referring to the critical patient. The choice of the fluid that needs to be administered depends on several factors, many of which are theoretical, and continue being an object of debate. The interest in the clinical use of the albumin has emerged again, immediately after recent publications in the search of the most suitable colloid. It is the most abundant protein in the plasma, being responsible for 80% of the oncotic pressure. It regulates the balance between the intra- and extra-vascular volumes. Recent multicenter studies question the supposed lack of safety that was previously assigned to it. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate other important actions besides oncotic, for example neutralization of free radicals, and exogenous (drugs) and endogenous substances (bile pigments, cholesterol). Being aware of these secondary properties of albumin, and evaluating the pathophysiology of the critical patient (in particular, sepsis), to maintain plasma albumin levels within the normal range, could be of great importance. Based on the most recent publications, the aim of this review is to briefly analyze the pathophysiology of albumin, as well as to discuss its possible indications in the critical patient. PMID:24952825

  13. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Poór, Miklós; Lemli, Beáta; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Sali, Nikolett; Kőszegi, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3) and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I). In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions. PMID:26633504

  14. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-12-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with /sup 125/I or /sup 131/I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return.

  15. [Studies on the renal handling of urea nitrogen, creatinine, water and electrolytes in hyperthyroid patients with Graves' disease].

    PubMed

    Shirota, T

    1991-05-20

    To delineate the pathophysiological basis for increased blood urea nitrogen (BUN), decreased serum creatinine (SCr) and increased BUN/SCr ratio in patients with hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease, systematic evaluation on renal handling of solutes and water was carried out before and during treatment of the disease. First, BUN, SCr, serum sodium (Na), serum potassium (K), serum chloride (Cl), creatine kinase (CK), serum triiodothyronine (T3) and serum thyroxine (T4) were consecutively measured in 16 patients (aged 18-62 yrs, 4 males and 12 females) with Graves' disease before and during antithyroid drug therapy, and 16 healthy subjects (aged 22-64 yrs, 4 males and 12 females) served as controls. BUN (14.8 +/- 2.9 mg/100ml) was significantly higher (p less than 0.01), and SCr (0.62 +/- 0.16 mg/100ml) and CK (41.7 +/- 23.6 U/l) were significantly lower (p less than 0.01) in untreated patients compared to respective values in the control group (BUN, 13.2 +/- 2.9 mg/100ml; SCr, 0.87 +/- 0.16 mg/100ml; CK, 99.3 +/- 49.5 U/l). Consequently, BUN/SCr ratio was significantly elevated (p less than 0.01) in the patients. As T4 and T3 returned to normal, BUN, SCr, BUN/SCr ratio and CK of the patients also normalized. Serum electrolytes were not significantly different in the patients compared to the controls. Second, renal clearance of para-aminohippurate (CPAH), inulin (CIn), creatinine (CCr), free water (CH2O) and chloride (CCl) was evaluated in 7 untreated patients (aged 17-44 yrs, 4 males and 3 females) and in 7 controls (aged 24-39 yrs, 5 males and 2 females). In patients with untreated Graves' disease, CPAH, CCr and Curea were significantly greater than in the controls (847 +/- 367 vs 442 +/- 124 ml/min, p less than 0.05, 132.7 +/- 14.7 vs 76.6 +/- 14.4 ml/min, p less than 0.01, and 86.9 +/- 16.0 ml/min vs 52.1 +/- 12.6 ml/min, p less than 0.05, respectively). CIn was slightly but insignificantly increased in the patients (95.3 +/- 20.8 ml/min) compared to the

  16. Drug Delivery Vehicles Based on Albumin-Polymer Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanyan; Stenzel, Martina

    2016-06-01

    Albumin has been a popular building block to create nanoparticles for drug delivery purposes. The performance of albumin as a drug carrier can be enhanced by combining protein with polymers, which allows the design of carriers to encompass a broader spectrum of drugs while features unique to synthetic polymers such as stimuli-responsiveness are introduced. Nanoparticles based on polymer-albumin hybrids can be divided into two classes: one that carries album as a bioactive surface coating and the other that uses albumin as biocompatible, although nonbioactive, building block. Nanoparticles with bioactive albumin surface coating can either be prepared by self-assembly of albumin-polymer conjugates or by postcoating of existing nanoparticles with albumin. Albumin has also been used as building block, either in its native or denatured form. Existing albumin nanoparticles are coated with polymers, which can influence the degradation of albumin or impact on the drug release. Finally, an alternative way of using albumin by denaturing the protein to generate a highly functional chain, which can be modified with polymer, has been presented. These albumin nanoparticles are designed to be extremely versatile so that they can deliver a wide variety of drugs, including traditional hydrophobic drugs, metal-based drugs and even therapeutic proteins and siRNA.

  17. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040 Albumin immunological test system. (a) Identification. An albumin immunological test system is a device that consists...

  18. [Creatinine and calcium in urine and blood after brief exposure to magnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Schmidt, F; Mannsåker, T; Løvlie, R

    1999-02-10

    In this experimental study, 35 males were exposed to artificial magnetic fields. The fields were produced by a set of Helmholz coils internally isolated by a Faraday cage which effectively eliminated electrical fields. Each participant stayed inside the coils for 40 minutes on two occasions with an interval of seven days, but was actually only once exposed to a static magnetic field (9.6 mT) and oscillating magnetic fields of variable frequency and strength. Urine and blood samples were taken before and after exposure, and before and after non-exposure. Analysis detected significant changes in serum creatinine level after exposure (p < 0.0001). The changes in serum creatinine level in the nonexposed situation were significantly smaller than the changes found in the exposed situation (p < 0.0001). The changes i urine creatinine after 40 minutes of exposure was also found to be significant (p < 0.01). Exposure to magnetic fields may induce biological reactions.

  19. Creatinine determination according to Jaffe—what does it stand for?

    PubMed Central

    Speeckaert, Marijn M.

    2011-01-01

    In 1886, Max Jaffe discovered a reaction of creatinine with picric acid in an alkaline environment. Although the manuscript describes the nature of a precipitate and does not deal with an analytical assay, Jaffe's landmark paper elucidated the basic principles of the creatinine determination method (originally developed by Otto Folin), which became immensely popular and has easily withstood the test of time. Despite the advent of the enzymatic creatinine analysis, the analytical method is still popular due to its simplicity and low cost. As there is no standard recipe for the ‘Jaffe’ method, much methodological variation has occurred over time. This lack of methodological standardization implies that even in the 21st century, improving the interchangeability of Jaffe results is still an issue. PMID:25984118

  20. Creatinine generation is reduced in patients requiring continuous venovenous hemodialysis and independently predicts mortality

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Francis P.; Sheehan, Jessica M.; Mariani, Laura H.; Berns, Jeffrey S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Existing systems for grading severity of acute kidney injury (AKI) rely on a change of serum creatinine concentration over a defined time interval. The rate of change in serum creatinine increases by degree of reduction in glomerular filtration rate, but is mitigated by low creatinine generation rate (CGR). Failure to appreciate variation in CGR may lead to erroneous conclusions regarding severity of AKI and distorted predictions regarding patient outcomes based on AKI severity. Methods Cohort study of 103 patients who received continuous venovenous hemodialysis (CVVHD) over a 2-year period in a tertiary care hospital setting. Study participants entered the cohort when they were anuric, receiving a stable and uninterrupted dose of CVVHD with serum creatinine in steady state. They were followed until hospital discharge. CGR was measured based on dialyzate effluent volume and effluent creatinine concentration (prospective cohort) and via effluent volume and serum creatinine concentration (retrospective cohort). Results CGR (mean 10.5, range 1.7–22.4 mg/kg/day) was substantially lower in this patient population than what would be predicted from existing equations. Correlates of CGR in multivariable analysis included the length of hospitalization prior to measurement and presence of an oncologic diagnosis. Lower CGR was independently associated with in-hospital mortality in unadjusted analysis and after multivariable adjustment for measures of severity of illness. Conclusions Grading systems for severity of AKI fail to account for variation in CGR, limiting their ability to predict relevant outcomes. Calculation of CGR is superior to other risk metrics in predicting hospital mortality in this population. PMID:22273668

  1. Creatinine measurements often yielded false estimates of progression in chronic renal failure

    SciTech Connect

    Walser, M.; Drew, H.H.; LaFrance, N.D.

    1988-09-01

    In 9 of 22 observation periods (lasting an average of 15 months) in 17 patients with moderate to severe chronic renal failure (GFR 4 to 23 ml/min), rates of progression as estimated from the linear regression on time of 24-hour creatinine clearance (b1) differed significantly from rates of progression as estimated from the regression on time of urinary clearance of 99mTc-DTPA (b2), during all or part of the period of observation. b1 exceeded b2 in four cases and was less than b2 in the other five. Thus there were gradual changes in the fractional tubular secretion of creatinine in individual patients, in both directions. Owing to these changes, measurements of creatinine clearance gave erroneous impressions of the rate or existence of progression during all or a portion of the period of observation in nearly half of these patients. In the 22 studies as a group, using the entire periods of observation, b1 indicated significantly more rapid progression (by 0.18 +/- 0.06 ml/min/month, P less than 0.01) than did b2, and had a significantly greater variance. Measurements of progression based on the rate of change of reciprocal plasma creatinine (multiplied by an average rate of urinary creatinine excretion in each study) were equally misleading, even though less variable. We conclude that sequential creatinine measurements are often misleading as measures of progression and should, when feasible, be replaced by urinary clearance of isotopes in following patients with chronic renal failure.

  2. Pro-inflammatory cytokines: a possible relationship with dialytic adequacy and serum albumin in peritoneal dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Milan Manani, Sabrina; Virzì, Grazia Maria; Clementi, Anna; Brocca, Alessandra; de Cal, Massimo; Tantillo, Ilaria; Ferrando, Lorena; Crepaldi, Carlo; Ronco, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammation and serum albumin concentration are both important predictors of survival in patients treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD). Furthermore, systemic and local inflammatory mediators may induce structural and functional alterations in the peritoneal membrane, thus interfering with dialysis adequacy. PD adequacy is monitored primarily by indices of small solute clearance, such as Kt/V urea and weekly creatinine clearance (wCc). The aim of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and serum albumin and C-reactive protein (CRP). Moreover, the relationship between IL-6 and IL-1β and PD adequacy has been analysed. Methods We enrolled 46 stable PD patients undergoing maintenance PD for a minimum of 3 months. Plasma levels of serum albumin, high-sensitivity (hs)-CRP, IL-6 and IL-1β were measured in all patients. We used weekly Kt/V urea and wCc to monitor PD adequacy. Daily urine volume was measured in all patients. Results The median values of serum albumin, hs-CRP, IL-6 and IL-1β showed no significant differences between continuous ambulatory PD and automated PD patients. IL-6 levels showed a positive correlation with hs-CRP levels (P < 0.001) and a negative correlation with serum albumin concentration (P = 0.01). There was no statistically significant relationship between IL-1β and hs-CRP or serum albumin concentrations. Subsequently, PD patients were divided into two groups based on Kt/V urea value. PD patients with Kt/V ≤1.7 had significantly higher IL-6 levels compared with PD patients with Kt/V >1.7 (P = 0.015). No statistically significant relationship between IL-6 and wCc was observed. There was no significant difference in IL-1β levels between PD patients with Kt/V ≤1.7 and with Kt/V >1.7 [median (interquartile range) 0.82 (0.88–5.2) versus 1.82 (0.95–2.7)]. There was no significant difference in IL-6 and IL-1β levels in

  3. Raman spectroscopic approach to monitor the in vitro cyclization of creatine → creatinine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Sharma, Poornima; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Singh, Pushkar; Tarcea, Nicolae; Deckert, Volker; Popp, Jürgen; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2015-01-01

    The creatine → creatinine cyclization, an important metabolic phenomenon has been initiated in vitro at acidic pH and studied through Raman spectroscopic and DFT approach. The equilibrium composition of neutral, zwitterionic and protonated microspecies of creatine has been monitored with time as the reaction proceeds. Time series Raman spectra show clear signature of creatinine formation at pH 3 after ∼240 min at room temperature and reaction is faster at higher temperature. The spectra at pH 1 and pH 5 do not show such signature up to 270 min implying faster reaction rate at pH 3.

  4. Elevated Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio Predicts Intermediate-Term Outcomes in Patients Who Have Advanced Chronic Kidney Disease with Peripheral Artery Disease Receiving Percutaneous Transluminal Angioplasty

    PubMed Central

    Chen, I-Chih; Yu, Chao-Chin; Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Chao, Ting-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Background Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), an inflammatory biomarker, has not been evaluated in patients who have advanced CKD with peripheral artery disease (PAD) undergoing percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA), especially in Taiwan. Methods We retrospectively evaluated 148 advanced CKD (creatinine clearance rate ≤ 30 mL/min/1.73 m2) identified from a prospective registry in our hospital (303 PTA cases in total). Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test was used to study event-free survival, and all univariables (p value < 0.1) were put into multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results During the mean follow-up time of 8.6 ± 7.8 months, 35.1% of the cases achieved primary composite endpoint (all-cause mortality or major amputation), 25.5% underwent death from any cause, and 14.9% underwent major or minor amputation. Rutherford grade 6, either NLR or NLR ≥ 3.76, and a history of hypertension had a positively prognostic impact on the occurrence of primary composite endpoint, whereas higher albumin level (≥ 3.0 mg/dL) and technical success had a significantly protective effect. History of hypertension, either NLR or NLR ≥ 3.76, and age were associated with all-cause mortality. In addition, Rutherford 6, higher albumin level (≥ 3.0 mg/dL), technical success, NLR, and age could predict the occurrence of major amputation. Conclusions NLR, but not C-reactive protein or platelet-lymphocyte ratio, is an important prognostic predictor of all major clinical outcomes in patients with advanced CKD and PAD receiving PTA. Further studies are warranted to establish a better strategy and healthcare program in this clinical setting. PMID:27713601

  5. Uptake of oleate from albumin solutions by rat liver. Failure to detect catalysis of the dissociation of oleate from albumin by an albumin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Weisiger, R A; Ma, W L

    1987-01-01

    The hepatic removal of albumin-bound substances from plasma requires that they dissociate from albumin. Using indirect methods, we and others have proposed that dissociation may be catalyzed by interaction of albumin with the liver cell surface. This study looked for direct evidence of catalysis by comparing the rate of dissociation of oleate from albumin in vitro with the rate observed within the sinusoids of perfused rat liver. No evidence for catalysis was found. The rate of hepatic oleate removal from dilute albumin solutions did not exceed but instead closely paralleled the rate predicted from the in vitro dissociation rate constant (0.14s-1). These results suggest that under some conditions the liver can remove unbound material from the sinusoids faster than it can be replenished by dissociation from albumin, resulting in dissociation-limited removal. However, dissociation of oleate does not appear to be catalyzed by the liver. PMID:3031131

  6. [When should we give albumin in patients with cirrhosis?].

    PubMed

    Bochatay, L; Elkrief, L; Spahr, L

    2015-09-01

    The beneficial effects of the use of albumin, either alone or combines with other treat- ments, have been demonstrated in patients with various complications of cirrhosis. Therefore, albumin should be administred in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in association with antibiotics, and in association with terlipressin in patients with type 1 hepatorenal syndrome. Albumin use reduces the occurrence of paracentesis-related circulatory dysfunction, in patients with large ascites undergoing paracentesis. So far, the beneficial effect of albumin has not been demonstrated, neither for infections other than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis nor for hepatic encephalopathy. This article provides an overview of the data evaluating the effects of albumin in patients with cirrhosis.

  7. Fluorescent holograms with albumin-acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    We describe fluorescent holograms were made with photosensitive films of albumin (protein) quail, used as modified matrices. Albumin is mixed with acrylamide and eosin Y. Therefore, prepare a photosensitive emulsion and solid hydrated with the ability to phase transmission holograms and volume (VPH). Eosin Y is a fluorescent agent that acts as a photo-sensitizing dye which stimulates the polymerization of acrylamide. To record the interference pattern produced by two waves superimposed on the modified matrix, we use a He-Cd laser. To reconstruct the diffraction pattern is observed with He- Ne laser, λ = 632.8nm, the material is self-developing properties. Measure the diffraction efficiency of the diffracted orders (η[-1, +1]) as a function of exposure energy. We work with various thicknesses and measure the variation of the refractive index using the coupled wave theory of Kogelnik, the holographic gratings meet Bragg condition.

  8. Albumin use is beneficial in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Faisal M; Marotta, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    There are several indications for the use of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and its role has existed in clinical practice for many decades. While the drug enjoys immense popularity, it yet attracts intensive debate amongst clinicians and pharmacologists alike. Regardless of its pharmacological properties, its clinical use in cirrhotic patients has its fair share of proponents and opponents. At present, in the setting of cirrhosis this debate centers around the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, in patients with ascites treated with large volume paracentesis, and in those with hepato-renal syndrome. With the evolving evidence it has become imperative to shed old dogmas and address this issue in the light of evidence-based medicine. This article gives a representative view of albumin use in the above conditions across both sides of the clinical divide.

  9. [Position statement. Protein/creatinine in a randomly obtained urine sample in the diagnosis of proteinuria in pregnant patients with arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    Leaños Miranda and collaborators published that the measurement of protein/creatinine ratio in a single random urine sample is a reliable indicator of significant proteinuria and may be reasonably used as alternative to the 24-hours urine collection method as a diagnostic criteria for urinary protein, and it is also a criterion for identifying the disease severity. This leads us to present this successful result of the investigation as a position statement in the care of pregnant women with hypertension.

  10. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.

  11. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Horse Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.

  12. The role of creatinine and histidine in Benedict's qualitative test for reducing sugar in urine.

    PubMed

    Sur, B K; Shukla, R K; Agashe, V S

    1972-10-01

    The statement made in some standard textbooks that Benedict's qualitative test gives a green, yellow, or orange-red precipitate with pure solutions of glucose of varying strength has been shown to be incorrect. Pure solutions of glucose give only a bright red precipitate at all concentrations. These changes in the colour of the suspensions are observed with urinary glucose only. The difference in the action of glucose in water and in urine has been shown to be mostly due to creatinine and to a small extent to the histidine content of urine. The colour of the precipitate depends not only on the concentration of glucose but also on that of creatinine. An increase in concentration of creatinine tends to make the precipitate more yellow. Histidine has a similar though much smaller effect. Attention has been drawn to possible errors in the semi-quantitative assay of urinary glucose by Benedict's test arising out of variation in concentration of creatinine and histidine. PMID:4646301

  13. Mode of action of creatinine on colour of cuprous oxide precipitate in Benedict's qualitative sugar test.

    PubMed

    Sur, B K; Shukla, R K; Agashe, V S

    1972-10-01

    Creatinine appears to alter the colour and bulky nature of the cuprous oxide precipitate not by altering the chemical composition of the precipitate but by the physical process of retardation of the growth of newly formed yellow cuprous oxide crystals to large red crystals by adhering to their surface and blocking some sites for further crystal growth. PMID:4646302

  14. Biomarkers and creatinine in AKI: the trough of disillusionment or the slope of enlightenment?

    PubMed

    Endre, Zoltán H; Pickering, John W

    2013-10-01

    Assessment of acute kidney biomarkers against changes in plasma creatinine is beset by issues of heterogeneity of study cohorts and timing of sampling. Siew and colleagues attempt to minimize these issues in a case-control study of three biomarkers in the intensive care unit. The results highlight the inherent methodological difficulties and the need to reference structural injury biomarkers against more meaningful outcomes.

  15. Spectroscopic and structural study of the newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea.

    PubMed

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Sharma, Poornima; Mishra, Hirdyesh; Unnikrishnan, V K; Singh, Bachcha; Singh, Ranjan K

    2016-02-01

    Study of copper complex of creatinine and urea is very important in life science and medicine. In this paper, spectroscopic and structural study of a newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea has been discussed. Structural studies have been carried out using DFT calculations and spectroscopic analyses were carried out by FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence techniques. The copper complex of creatinine and the heteroligand complex were found to have much increased water solubility as compared to pure creatinine. The analysis of FT-IR and Raman spectra helps to understand the coordination properties of the two ligands and to determine the probable structure of the heteroligand complex. The LIBS spectra of the heteroligand complex reveal that the complex is free from other metal impurities. UV-visible absorption spectra and the fluorescence emission spectra of the aqueous solution of Cu-Crn-urea heteroligand complex at different solute concentrations have been analyzed and the complex is found to be rigid and stable in its monomeric form at very low concentrations.

  16. The role of creatinine and histidine in Benedict's qualitative test for reducing sugar in urine

    PubMed Central

    Sur, B. K.; Shukla, R. K.; Agashe, V. S.

    1972-01-01

    The statement made in some standard textbooks that Benedict's qualitative test gives a green, yellow, or orange-red precipitate with pure solutions of glucose of varying strength has been shown to be incorrect. Pure solutions of glucose give only a bright red precipitate at all concentrations. These changes in the colour of the suspensions are observed with urinary glucose only. The difference in the action of glucose in water and in urine has been shown to be mostly due to creatinine and to a small extent to the histidine content of urine. The colour of the precipitate depends not only on the concentration of glucose but also on that of creatinine. An increase in concentration of creatinine tends to make the precipitate more yellow. Histidine has a similar though much smaller effect. Attention has been drawn to possible errors in the semi-quantitative assay of urinary glucose by Benedict's test arising out of variation in concentration of creatinine and histidine. PMID:4646301

  17. Spectroscopic and structural study of the newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Debraj; Singh, Sachin Kumar; Sharma, Poornima; Mishra, Hirdyesh; Unnikrishnan, V. K.; Singh, Bachcha; Singh, Ranjan K.

    2016-02-01

    Study of copper complex of creatinine and urea is very important in life science and medicine. In this paper, spectroscopic and structural study of a newly synthesized heteroligand complex of copper with creatinine and urea has been discussed. Structural studies have been carried out using DFT calculations and spectroscopic analyses were carried out by FT-IR, Raman, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence techniques. The copper complex of creatinine and the heteroligand complex were found to have much increased water solubility as compared to pure creatinine. The analysis of FT-IR and Raman spectra helps to understand the coordination properties of the two ligands and to determine the probable structure of the heteroligand complex. The LIBS spectra of the heteroligand complex reveal that the complex is free from other metal impurities. UV-visible absorption spectra and the fluorescence emission spectra of the aqueous solution of Cu-Crn-urea heteroligand complex at different solute concentrations have been analyzed and the complex is found to be rigid and stable in its monomeric form at very low concentrations.

  18. A New Equation to Estimate Muscle Mass from Creatinine and Cystatin C

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheol-Ho; Kim, Kwang-il; Chin, Ho Jun; Lee, Hajeong

    2016-01-01

    Background With evaluation for physical performance, measuring muscle mass is an important step in detecting sarcopenia. However, there are no methods to estimate muscle mass from blood sampling. Methods To develop a new equation to estimate total-body muscle mass with serum creatinine and cystatin C level, we designed a cross-sectional study with separate derivation and validation cohorts. Total body muscle mass and fat mass were measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 214 adults aged 25 to 84 years who underwent physical checkups from 2010 to 2013 in a single tertiary hospital. Serum creatinine and cystatin C levels were also examined. Results Serum creatinine was correlated with muscle mass (P < .001), and serum cystatin C was correlated with body fat mass (P < .001) after adjusting glomerular filtration rate (GFR). After eliminating GFR, an equation to estimate total-body muscle mass was generated and coefficients were calculated in the derivation cohort. There was an agreement between muscle mass calculated by the novel equation and measured by DXA in both the derivation and validation cohort (P < .001, adjusted R2 = 0.829, β = 0.95, P < .001, adjusted R2 = 0.856, β = 1.03, respectively). Conclusion The new equation based on serum creatinine and cystatin C levels can be used to estimate total-body muscle mass. PMID:26849842

  19. Difficulties in diagnosing acute kidney injury post liver transplantation using serum creatinine based diagnostic criteria

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Banwari; Davenport, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Renal function in patients with advanced cirrhosis is an important prognostic factor for survival both prior to and following liver transplantation. The importance of renal function is reflected by the introduction of the model for end stage liver disease (MELD) score, which includes serum creatinine. The MELD score has been shown to predict the short term risk of death for transplant wait listed patients and is currently used by many countries to allocate liver transplants on the basis of severity of underlying illness. Changes in serum creatinine are also used to stage acute kidney injury. However prior to liver transplantation the serum creatinine typically over estimates underlying renal function, particularly when a colorimetric Jaffe based assay is used, and paradoxically then under estimates renal function post liver transplantation, particularly when immunophyllins are started early as part of transplant immunosuppression. As acute kidney injury is defined by changes in serum creatinine, this potentially leads to over estimation of the incidence and severity of acute kidney injury in the immediate post-operative period. PMID:25349641

  20. Associations of Pre-Transplant Serum Albumin with Post-Transplant Outcomes in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Molnar, Miklos Z; Kovesdy, Csaba P; Bunnapradist, Suphamai; Streja, Elani; Mehrotra, Rajnish; Krishnan, Mahesh; Nissenson, Allen R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar

    2011-01-01

    The association between pre-transplant serum albumin concentration and post-transplant outcomes in kidney transplant recipients is unclear. We hypothesized that in transplant-waitlisted hemodialysis patients, lower serum albumin concentrations are associated with worse post-transplant outcomes. Linking the 5-year patient data of a large dialysis organization (DaVita) to the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, we identified 8961 hemodialysis patients who underwent first kidney transplantation. Mortality or graft failure and delayed graft function (DGF) risks were estimated by Cox regression (hazard ratio [HR]) and logistic regression (Odds ratio [OR]), respectively. Patients were 48±13 years old and included 37% women and 27% diabetics. The higher pre-transplant serum albumin was associated with lower mortality, graft failure and DGF risk even after multivariate adjustment for case-mix, malnutrition-inflammation complex and transplant related variable. Every 0.2 g/dL higher pre-transplant serum albumin concentration was associated with 13% lower all-cause mortality (HR=0.87 [95% confidence interval: 0.82-0.93]), 17% lower cardiovascular mortality (HR=0.83[0.74-0.93]), 7% lower combined risk of death or graft failure (HR=0.93[0.89-0.97]), and 4% lower DGF risk (OR=0.96[0.93-0.99]). Hence, lower pre-transplant serum albumin level is associated with worse post-transplant outcomes. Clinical trials to examine interventions to improve nutritional status in transplant-wait-listed hemodialysis patients and their impacts on post-transplant outcomes are indicated. PMID:21449945

  1. The role of albumin in nutritional support.

    PubMed

    Mobarhan, S

    1988-12-01

    Hypoalbuminemia is considered one of the hallmarks of protein-calorie malnutrition and chronic liver disease. Recently, serum albumin has also been proposed as a critical predictor of the response to nutritional support and tolerance to enteral feeding in critically ill patients. Albumin is essential for maintenance of plasma colloidal osmotic pressure, prevention of edema, and transport of certain drugs and nutrients. Experimental studies have shown that rapid plasma expansion and reduced plasma protein concentration and osmotic pressure induce a net secretion of sodium and water into the small intestinal lumen. However, the effects of chronic hypoalbuminemia per se on intestinal absorption, independent of malnutrition, have not been fully studied. It is documented that both chronic illness and malnutrition may profoundly affect intestinal anatomical structure and function, inducing some degree of malabsorption. In the last few years, some have advocated albumin infusion to improve clinical response to patients with hypoalbuminemia receiving parenteral nutritional support or to reduce intestinal intolerance and diarrhea in patients receiving enteral tube feeding. A review of the literature shows that both clinical and experimental data to support these suggestions are scarce and further investigations are needed. Hypoalbuminemia is one of many parameters of malnutrition, and it is unlikely that correction of a single parameter for a short time would lead to major clinical benefits. PMID:3147998

  2. Serum albumin complexation of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Wiktor; Porebski, Grzegorz; Obtułowicz, Krystyna; Roterman, Irena

    2009-06-01

    One possible origin of the type I hypersensitivity reaction is reaction of drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolites being complexed with human serum albumin. Albumin, being transporting molecule abundant in blood plasma is able to bind large array of ligands varying from small single carbon particles to long hydrophobic tailed lipidic acids (e.g. myristic acid). This non specificity is possible because of multi domain scaffold and large flexibility of inter-domain loops, which results in serious reorientation of domains. Hypothesis that acetylsalicylic acid metabolites may play indirect role in activation of allergic reaction has been tested. Binding of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites in intra-domain space causes significant increase of liability of domains IIIA and IIIB. One of metabolites, salicyluric acid, once is bound causes distortion and partial unfolding of helices in domains IA, IIB and IIIB. Changed are both directions and amplitude of relative motions as well as intra-domain distances. In result albumin is able to cross-link of adjacent IgE receptors which subsequently starts allergic reaction.

  3. Serum albumin complexation of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Wiktor; Porebski, Grzegorz; Obtułowicz, Krystyna; Roterman, Irena

    2009-06-01

    One possible origin of the type I hypersensitivity reaction is reaction of drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolites being complexed with human serum albumin. Albumin, being transporting molecule abundant in blood plasma is able to bind large array of ligands varying from small single carbon particles to long hydrophobic tailed lipidic acids (e.g. myristic acid). This non specificity is possible because of multi domain scaffold and large flexibility of inter-domain loops, which results in serious reorientation of domains. Hypothesis that acetylsalicylic acid metabolites may play indirect role in activation of allergic reaction has been tested. Binding of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites in intra-domain space causes significant increase of liability of domains IIIA and IIIB. One of metabolites, salicyluric acid, once is bound causes distortion and partial unfolding of helices in domains IA, IIB and IIIB. Changed are both directions and amplitude of relative motions as well as intra-domain distances. In result albumin is able to cross-link of adjacent IgE receptors which subsequently starts allergic reaction. PMID:19689242

  4. [Albumin and artificial colloids for massive bleeding].

    PubMed

    Iijima, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and massive bleeding has to be counteracted by efficient volume restoration against rapid loss of intravascular volume. There are two phases of volume management for massive bleeding, uncontrolled phase and controlled phase. During initial uncontrolled phase, rapid infusion of crystalloid with RCC (red cell concentrate) is the first choice of volume management to prevent shock and profound decline of hemoglobin level. After shifting to the next controlled phase, artificial colloids and RCC become the next choice for efficient volume restoration. Although albumin has not been proven to improve prognosis in clinical studies, anti-inflammatory effect could be expected. Albumin infusion may be followed in this phase, and also albumin concentrate may be beneficial to reduce subsequent tissue edema due to massive infusion of crystalloid and artificial colloid. A new generation of hydroxyethyl starch is a promising blood substitute, designed with minimum side effect. Although renal damage especially in septic patient and coagulation disorder are theoretically suspected, beneficial effect as volume expansion overwhelms these stochastic side effects. Since the side effect depends on the dose and how much it remains in the body, a purposeful use during volume expansion phase should be recommended.

  5. New isocyanate-specific albumin adducts of 4,4'-methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anoop; Dongari, Nagaraju; Sabbioni, Gabriele

    2009-12-01

    4,4'-Methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) is the most important of the isocyanates used as intermediates in the chemical industry. Among the main types of damage after exposure to low levels of MDI are lung sensitization and asthma. Albumin adducts of MDI might be involved in the etiology of sensitization reactions. It is, therefore, necessary to have sensitive and specific methods for monitoring the isocyanate exposure of workers. To date, urinary metabolites or protein adducts have been used as biomarkers in workers exposed to MDI. However, with these methods it is not possible to determine whether the biomarkers result from exposure to MDI or to the parent aromatic amine 4,4'-methylenedianiline (MDA). This work presents a procedure for the determination of isocyanate-specific albumin adducts. In a long-term experiment, designed to determine the carcinogenic and toxic effects of MDI, rats were exposed chronically for 3 months, to 0.0 (control), 0.26, 0.70, and 2.06 mg MDI/m(3) as aerosols. Albumin was isolated from plasma, digested with Pronase E, and analyzed by LC-MS/MS. MDI formed adducts with lysine: N(6)-[({4-[4-aminobenzyl]phenyl}amino)carbonyl]lysine (MDI-Lys) and N(6)-[({4-[4-(acetylamino)benzyl]phenyl}amino)carbonyl] lysine (AcMDI-Lys). For the quantitation of the adducts in vivo, isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used to measure the adducts in 2 mg of albumin. The adducts found in vivo (MDI-Lys and AcMDI-Lys) and the corresponding isotope labeled compounds (MDI-[(13)C(6)(15)N(2)]Lys and Ac[(2)H(4)]MDI-Lys) were synthesized and used for quantitation. The MDI-Lys levels increased from 0-24.8 pmol/mg albumin, and the AcMDI-Lys levels increased from 0-1.85 pmol/mg albumin. The mean ratio of MDI-Lys/AcMDI-Lys for each dose level was greater than >20. The albumin adducts correlate with other biomarkers measured in the same rats in the past: urinary metabolites and hemoglobin adducts released after mild base hydrolysis. This method will enable one to

  6. Serum Creatinine Modifies Associations between Body Mass Index and Mortality and Morbidity in Prevalent Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Sakao, Yukitoshi; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Yasuda, Hideo; Hashimoto, Seiji; Hasegawa, Takeshi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Tsubakihara, Yoshiharu; Kato, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Background High body mass index (BMI) is paradoxically associated with better outcomes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study aimed to examine whether serum creatinine (Cr), a marker of muscle mass, could modify the association between BMI, and mortality and morbidity in prevalent HD patients. Methods A retrospective study was conducted using a nationwide database from the registry of the Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy. A total of 119,099 patients were selected (age: 65±12 years; median time on HD: 5.6 years; male: 62%), and we examined the association of basal BMI with mortality and morbidity after a 1-year period. Patients were stratified either by BMI into 4 groups or by serum Cr levels into 3 tertiles. Odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval] was calculated by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results Higher BMI did not predict a higher 1-year total mortality. However, when we stratified the patients by serum Cr levels, the risk of cardiac death became significantly higher in obese patients with the lowest Cr levels, in both males (OR 2.82 [1.51–5.27], p<0.01) and females (OR 2.00 [1.03–3.90], p<0.05). The risk of new cerebral infarction was also higher in obese male patients within the lowest Cr tertile. In contrast, there was a significantly lower risk of cardiac, cerebrovascular, and infection-related death in non-obese patients with higher levels of Cr. Higher serum Cr was also related to a lower risk of cardiovascular events and hip fracture in non-obese HD patients. Conclusions The obesity paradox was found to be present in HD patients only when obesity was defined by BMI. Decreased serum Cr levels were found to be positively associated with clinical poor outcomes in all BMI groups. Thus, irrespective of BMI, the evaluation of serum Cr levels is important to predict mortality and morbidity in patients receiving regular HD. PMID:26930325

  7. Association between Serum Albumin Concentration and Ketosis Risk in Hospitalized Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study examined the association between serum albumin concentration and ketosis risk in hospitalized individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted at a medical center in Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were endocrinology ward inpatients exceeding 21 years of age, with preexisting diagnosis of T2DM, and blood glucose above 13.9 millimoles per liter (mmol/L) at admission. Individuals without measurement of serum albumin, urine ketone, or hemoglobin A1C, or harboring active infection, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular event, cirrhosis, malignancy, or overt proteinuria were excluded. Using serum albumin concentration below 3.0 grams per deciliter to define hypoalbuminemia, 151 hypoalbuminemic cases and 104 normoalbuminemic controls were enrolled. The presence of ketones in urine established ketosis. Results. The prevalence of ketonuria was 48% in hypoalbuminemic subjects compared to 30% in normoalbuminemic controls (odds ratio (OR): 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26–3.57; P = 0.004). Moreover, among the 156 subjects with serum beta-hydroxybutyrate measurement in addition to urine ketone, 33% of the hypoalbuminemic individuals had ketonemia exceeding 3 mmol/L compared to 19% of those with normoalbuminemia (OR: 2.12, 95% CI: 0.99–4.48, P = 0.051). Conclusions. Serum albumin concentration is inversely associated with ketosis risk in hospitalized individuals with T2DM. PMID:27504458

  8. Association Between the Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio and Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiovascular Surgery: A Retrospective Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Ho; Park, Ji Young; Ok, Seong-Ho; Shin, Il-Woo; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2015-10-01

    A high neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio) was associated with the development of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with severe sepsis. We sought to investigate the association between the perioperative N/L ratios and postoperative AKI in patients undergoing high-risk cardiovascular surgery.A retrospective medical chart review was performed of 590 patients who underwent cardiovascular surgeries, including coronary artery bypass, valve replacement, patch closure for atrial or ventricular septal defect and surgery on the thoracic aorta with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Baseline perioperative clinical parameters, including N/L ratios measured before surgery, immediately after surgery, and on postoperative day (POD) one were obtained. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate risk factors.A total of 166 patients (28.1%) developed AKI defined by the KDIGO (kidney disease improving global outcomes) criteria in the first 7 PODs. Independent risk factors for AKI included old age, decreased left ventricular systolic function, preoperative high serum creatinine, low serum albumin and high uric acid levels, intraoperative large transfusion amount, oliguria, hyperglycemia, and elevated N/L ratio measured immediately after surgery and on POD one. The quartiles of immediately postoperative N/L ratio were associated with graded increase in risk of AKI development (fourth quartile [N/L ratio≥10] multivariate odds ratio 5.90, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.74-12.73; P < 0.001), a longer hospital stay, and a higher in-hospital and 1-year mortality rate (fourth quartile [N/L ratio≥10] adjusted hazard ratio for 1-year mortality [8.40, 95% CI 2.50-28.17]; P < 0.001).In patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery with CPB, elevated N/L ratios in the immediately postoperative period and on POD one were associated with an increased risk of postoperative AKI and 1-year mortality. The N/L ratio, which is easily calculable from routine work-up, can

  9. Preliminary Findings of Serum Creatinine and Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) in Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Lin, Lan-Ping; Hsieh, Molly; Lin, Pei-Ying

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe the kidney function profile--serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and to examine the relationships of predisposing factors to abnormal serum creatinine in people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Data were collected by a cross-sectional study of 827 aged 15-18 years adolescents…

  10. [Simultaneous determination of creatinine, pseudouridine and uric acid in serum and urine by high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Peng, Z; Wang, C; Li, C; Gao, Q; Wang, Z; Zhang, G; Zhang, J; Li, X; Peng, J

    1998-03-01

    In this paper a sensitive, rapid and simple HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of creatinine (Cr), pseudouridine (Pu) and uric acid(UA) has been established. We have evaluated clinical value of the method in the early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Separation was obtained using Shim-pack CLC-ODS 15 x 0.6 cm column and mobile phase of buffer solution of phosphate (pH 3.0, 0.02 mol/L) with flow rate of 1 mL/min. Detection was performed with UV detector at an automatic adjustment of wavelength. The recoveries of Cr, Pu and UA were 101.4%, 104.9% and 105.0% respectively. The calibration curves were linear within the concentration range of 8.6-274.6 mumol/L for Cr, 0.72-22.93 mumol/L for Pu and 19.1-612.7 mumol/L for UA (n = 6, r > 0.999, p < 0.01). The CV for within day and between day measurements were < 2.5% and < 5.0% respectively. In addition, Pu, Cr and UA were simultaneously determined in serum and urine of 39 patients with diabetic mellitus (DM). 15 patients with nephrotic syndrome (NS) and 53 normal subjects by the method. Results include: 1. the levels of serum Pu in all DM patients (100%) with microalbuminuria (MiAU) and macroalbuminuria (MaAU) were greater than maximum of normal subjects (X + 2S). In addition, in 9 DM patients (41%) with normal albuminuria (NAU) the levels were also greater than the maximum. 2. In patients with DM, there was no correlation between the serum Pu and the urinary albumin excretion (UAE), whereas the serum Pu correlated closely with the serum Cr. However, the incidence for serum Pu increase was significantly greater in patients. 3. The levels of serum Pu in patients with NS were greater than those in control subjects and patients with DM. Conclusion is that the determination of serum Pu could be used as sensitivity index for the early diagnosis of DN.

  11. Mechanisms of albumin uptake by proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, N

    2001-01-01

    The likely role of albumin in the induction tubulo-interstitial injury in proteinuria has stimulated considerable interest in the entry of albumin into the proximal tubule and its subsequent uptake by proximal tubular cells. Currently, there is considerable controversy over the degree of glomerular permeability to albumin. After filtration, however, albumin binds to megalin and cubulin, two giant receptors in the apical membrane of proximal tubular cells. Albumin is subsequently re-absorbed by proximal tubular cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, a process subject to complex regulation. The interaction of albumin with proximal tubule cells also leads to the generation of intracellular signals. The understanding of these pathways may provide important insights into the pathogenesis of renal scarring in proteinuria. PMID:11158855

  12. Albumin Metabolism in Rabbits and Rats with Transplanted Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Wraight, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Albumin distributions and turnover rates have been studied using 131I labelled tracer material in rabbits with Vx2 carcinoma and rats bearing SP7 fibrosarcoma in comparison with control animals. Albumin concentrations were reduced in the tumour bearing animals but plasma volumes increased as the tumours developed. Relative increases were seen in the extravascular distribution of albumin, due partly to albumin pooling in and around the tumours and possibly also to general increases in capillary permeability. In the rats there was a considerable increase in the catabolic rate of albumin which was not related to urinary protein loss. The tumour bearing rabbits showed evidence both of increased catabolism and of decreased synthesis and the combination of the two effects resulted in a greater lowering of albumin concentration than was seen in the rats. Possible mechanisms for these findings and their significance in human malignant disease are discussed. PMID:5115834

  13. Impact on creatinine renal clearance by the interplay of multiple renal transporters: a case study with INCB039110.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Warren, Mark S; Zhang, Xuexiang; Diamond, Sharon; Williams, Bill; Punwani, Naresh; Huang, Jane; Huang, Yong; Yeleswaram, Swamy

    2015-04-01

    Serum creatinine is commonly used as a marker of renal function, but increases in serum creatinine might not represent changes in glomerular filtration rate (GFR). INCB039110 (2-(3-(4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-day]pyrimidin-4-yl)-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)-1-(1-(3-fluoro-2-(trifluoromethyl)isonicotinoyl)piperidin-4-yl)azetidin-3-yl)acetonitrile) is an inhibitor of the Janus kinases (JAKs) with selectivity for JAK1. In a phase 1 study, a modest and reversible increase in serum creatinine was observed after treatment with INCB039110. However, a dedicated renal function study with INCB039110, assessed by iohexol plasma clearance, conducted in healthy volunteers indicated no change in GFR. In vitro studies were therefore conducted to investigate the interaction of INCB039110 with five transporters that are likely involved in the renal clearance of creatinine. Cell systems expressing individual or multiple transporters were used, including a novel quintuple-transporter model OAT2/OCT2/OCT3/MATE1/MATE2-K. INCB039110 potently inhibited OCT2-mediated uptake of creatinine as well as MATE1-/MATE2-K-mediated efflux of creatinine. Given the interactions of INCB039110 with multiple transporters affecting creatinine uptake and efflux, an integrated system expressing all five transporters was sought; in that system, INCB039110 caused a dose-dependent decrease in transcellular transport of creatinine with weaker net inhibition compared with the effects on individual transporters. In summary, a molecular mechanism for the increase in serum creatinine by INCB039110 has been established. These studies also underline the limitations of using serum creatinine as a marker of renal function. PMID:25605813

  14. Experimental investigation of the serum albumin fascia microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.; Shishpor, I. V.

    2012-09-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of biological liquids are reported. Structural effects observed in fascias are considered with account of the molecular features of albumin and the concept of supramolecular organization of polymers. It is revealed that the morphology of human serum albumin fascias depends on the concentration and quality of the solvent. It is shown that the water-salt fascias of albumin are more structured than water solutions with the same concentration.

  15. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J A; Cistola, D P

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by 13C NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted [1-13C]oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles (vesicles or albumin with oleic acid) and acceptor particles (fatty acid-free albumin or vesicles), the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with greater than or equal to 80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was greater than or equal to 90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin; at pH 5.4, less than or equal to 10% of the oleic acid was bound to albumin and greater than 90% was associated with vesicles. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The 13C NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data. PMID:3455761

  16. Transfer of Oleic Acid between Albumin and Phospholipid Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, James A.; Cistola, David P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by 13C NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted [1-13C]oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles (vesicles or albumin with oleic acid) and acceptor particles (fatty acid-free albumin or vesicles), the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with >= 80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was >= 90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin; at pH 5.4, <= 10% of the oleic acid was bound to albumin and >90% was associated with vesicles. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The 13C NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  17. Albumin-bound bilirubin in subchoroidal fluid.

    PubMed

    Lam, W K; Lee, P F; Ray, S; Feman, S; van Heuven, W A

    1979-01-01

    The most unique property of subchoroidal fluid was found to be the high bilirubin level. One distinct yellow band in the same position as albumin was observed when it was subjected to electrophoresis on agarose film. The yellow compound was very soluble in chloroform. Its identity to bilirubin was confirmed by its absorption maximum at 445 nm, and a positive reaction with Ehrlich's diazo reagent. Subretinal fluid and liquid vitreous often had a yellowish appearance after ocular hemorrhage. However, their bilirubin level was not elevated above that of serum. Our data indicated that the degradation of RBCs may be an important causative factor of persistant detachment. PMID:758891

  18. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  19. Reabsorption kinetics of albumin from pleural space of dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Miniati, M.; Parker, J.C.; Pistolesi, M.; Cartledge, J.T.; Martin, D.J.; Giuntini, C.; Taylor, A.E.

    1988-08-01

    The reabsorption of albumin from the pleural space was measured in eight dogs receiving 0.5 ml intrapleural injection of /sup 131/I-labeled albumin and a simultaneous intravenous injection of /sup 125/I-labeled albumin. Plasma curves for both tracers were obtained over 24 h. The /sup 125/I-albumin curve served as input function of albumin for interstitial spaces, including pleura, whereas the /sup 131/I-albumin curve represented the output function from pleural space. The frequency function of albumin transit times from pleural space to plasma was obtained by deconvolution of input-output plasma curves. Plasma recovery of /sup 131/I-albumin was complete by 24 h, and the mean transit time from pleura to plasma averaged 7.95 +/- 1.57 (SD) h. Albumin reabsorption occurred mainly via lymphatics as indicated by experiments in 16 additional dogs in which their right lymph ducts or thoracic ducts were ligated before intrapleural injection. A pleural lymph flow of 0.020 +/- 0.003 (SD) ml.kg-1.h-1 was estimated, which is balanced by a comparable filtration of fluid into the pleural space. This suggests that, under physiological conditions, the subpleural lymphatics represent an important control mechanism of pleural liquid pressure.

  20. Effect of trimethoprim on serum creatinine in healthy and chronic renal failure volunteers.

    PubMed

    Myre, S A; McCann, J; First, M R; Cluxton, R J

    1987-06-01

    The effect of trimethoprim (TMP) on serum creatinine concentration (SCr) was studied in 10 healthy (H) subjects and nine subjects with chronic renal failure (CRF). Each volunteer was given TMP 100 mg perorally every 12 h for 10 days followed by a 7-day washout period. SCr was measured colorimetrically immediately before the study (baseline), on day 10 of TMP, and 7 days after TMP had been discontinued. SCr increased an average of 14.8% from baseline during TMP administration in the H volunteers, but this increase was not statistically significant. During TMP administration to the CRF volunteers, a pronounced elevation (34.6%) of mean SCr from baseline was observed (p less than 0.05). SCr returned to baseline values in both groups following the 7-day washout period. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that TMP competitively inhibits the renal tubular secretion of creatinine. PMID:3617154

  1. Serum creatinine level, a surrogate of muscle mass, predicts mortality in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    Thongprayoon, Charat; Cheungpasitporn, Wisit

    2016-01-01

    Serum creatinine (SCr) has been widely used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Creatinine generation could be reduced in the setting of low skeletal muscle mass. Thus, SCr has also been used as a surrogate of muscle mass. Low muscle mass is associated with reduced survival in hospitalized patients, especially in the intensive care unit (ICU) settings. Recently, studies have demonstrated high mortality in ICU patients with low admission SCr levels, reflecting that low muscle mass or malnutrition, are associated with increased mortality. However, SCr levels can also be influenced by multiple GFR- and non-GFR-related factors including age, diet, exercise, stress, pregnancy, and kidney disease. Imaging techniques, such as computed tomography (CT) and ultrasound, have recently been studied for muscle mass assessment and demonstrated promising data. This article aims to present the perspectives of the uses of SCr and other methods for prediction of muscle mass and outcomes of ICU patients. PMID:27162688

  2. Reference intervals for serum cystatin C and serum creatinine in adults.

    PubMed

    Erlandsen, E J; Randers, E; Kristensen, J H

    1998-06-01

    The aim of this study was to establish reference intervals for cerum cystatin C and serum creatinine in adults. Blood samples were collected from 270 healthy blood donors (135 men and 135 women between 20 and 65 years old with 15 men and 15 women in each five-year-interval). Serum cystatin C was analyzed using an automated particle-enhanced immunoassay (DAKO Cystatin C PET kit) on the Cobas Mira S analyzer. Serum creatinine was analyzed using the Vitros Creatinine Slide, an enzymatic method on the Vitros 950 chemistry analyzer. The calculated reference intervals for serum cystatin C were 0.62-1.15 mg/l in women (median 0.84 mg/l, range 0.56-1.29 mg/l) and 0.51-1.25 mg/l in men (median 0.87 mg/l, range 0.42-1.39 mg/l). The Mann-Whithey U-test revealed no gender-related difference for cystatin C (p = 0.48). A common reference interval in women and men was calculated to be 0.54-1.21 mg/l (median 0.85 mg/l, range 0.42-1.39 mg/l). The non-parametric reference interval for serum creatinine was 57-95 mumol/l in women (median 72 mumol/l, range 44-105 mumol/l) and 69-111 mumol/l in men (median 89 mumol/l, range 58-123 mumol/l).

  3. A Simpler Creatinine Index Can Predict Long-Term Survival in Chinese Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Szu-Ying; Yang, Chung-Wei; Hung, Szu-Chun; Chiang, Chih-Kang; Huang, Jenq-Wen; Hung, Kuan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background Low lean body mass (LBM) is an indicator of malnutrition inflammation syndrome, which is common in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The creatinine index (CI) has been validated as a reliable method to estimate LBM and evaluate the protein-energy status of HD patients. However, the traditional creatinine index formula was complex. We sought to investigate the impact of CI derived from a new simple formula on Chinese HD patient outcomes. Methods In this retrospective cohort study, we enrolled 1269 patients who initiated HD between February 1981 and February 2012 and followed them until the end of February 2013. CI was calculated using the simple creatinine kinetic model (CKM) formula. Multiple linear regression analysis and Cox regression proportional hazard analysis were used to define independent variables and compare survival between groups. Results The 1269 HD patients were categorized into 3 groups according to the tertiles of calculated CI between men and women. Each group consisted of 423 patients (50.6% men, 49.4% women). Patients in the highest sex-specific tertile of CI had longer overall survival (HR, 0.46; P 0.002). BMI did not significantly associate with survival after adjustment (HR,0.99; P 0.613). Conclusions CI derived from the simple CKM formula serves as a good parameter than BMI to predict the survival of HD patients. The formula could extend its convenient use in clinical practice for HD patients. PMID:27780214

  4. Urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid levels in postmortem serum, vitreous humor, and pericardial fluid.

    PubMed

    Palmiere, Cristian; Mangin, Patrice

    2015-03-01

    Urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid are relatively stable in postmortem serum and may, therefore, be used for diagnostic purposes when chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal failure are investigated as causes of death. Nevertheless, uncertainties remain in defining the best alternative to postmortem serum for the identification and assessment of significantly decreased kidney function. In this study, we investigated urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid levels in postmortem serum, pericardial fluid, and vitreous humor in a series of medico-legal cases (500 autopsies) with various causes of death. No postmortem interval-related differences were observed in any of the investigated fluids for any analyzed parameter, confirming the biochemical stability of all compounds after death. Data analysis failed to reveal statistically significant differences between postmortem serum and pericardial fluid urea nitrogen, creatinine, and uric acid concentrations. Conversely, statistically significant differences were observed in all analyzed biomarkers between postmortem serum and vitreous humor levels, with lower concentrations of all markers measured in vitreous. The results of this study suggest that, in order to estimate as accurately as possible blood analyte concentrations at the time of death, pericardial fluid should be preferred to vitreous humor.

  5. The Effect of the Antioxidant Drug “U-74389G” on Creatinine Levels during Ischemia Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsompos, Constantinos; Panoulis, Constantinos; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Zografos, George; Papalois, Apostolos

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this experimental study was to examine the effect of the antioxidant drug “U-74389G” on a rat model using an ischemia reperfusion protocol. The effect of U-74389G was studied biochemically by measuring mean blood creatinine levels. Materials and Methods Forty rats were used in the study. Creatinine levels were measured at 60 min of reperfusion (groups A and C) or at 120 min of reperfusion (groups B and D), where groups A and B were controls and groups C and D received U-74389G administration. Results U-74389G administration significantly decreased the predicted creatinine levels by 21.02 ± 5.06% (p = 0.0001). Reperfusion time non-significantly increased the predicted creatinine levels by 4.20 ± 6.12% (p = 0.4103). However, U-74389G administration and reperfusion time together produced a significant combined effect in decreasing the predicted creatinine levels by 11.69 ± 3.16% (p = 0.0005). Conclusion Independent of reperfusion time, U-74389G administration significantly decreased the creatinine levels in an ischemic rat model. This study demonstrates that short-term U-74389G administration improves renal function by increasing creatinine excretion. PMID:27390579

  6. Four-week effects of allopurinol and febuxostat treatments on blood pressure and serum creatinine level in gouty men.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Ah; Seo, Young-Il; Song, Yeong W

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to observe the effects of uric acid lowering therapy (UALT), febuxostat and allopurinol, on blood pressure (BP) and serum creatinine level. Post-hoc data were derived from a phase-III, randomised, double-blind, 4-week trial of male gouty patients that compared the safety and efficacy of febuxostat and allopurinol in adults with gout. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of five groups, 35-37 in each group (febuxostat: 40, 80, 120 mg/d; allopurinol: 300 mg/d; control group: placebo). Blood pressure and serum creatinine level were measured at baseline and at weeks 2 and 4. Diastolic BP and creatinine level had decreased significantly in the UALT groups compared to the control group at week 4. Diastolic BP had decreased significantly in the allopurinol group and serum creatinine level had decreased significantly in the febuxostat groups at week 4. After adjusting for confounding variables, serum uric acid changes were found to be significantly correlated with changes in serum creatinine level but were not associated with changes in systolic or diastolic BP. UALT in gouty subjects significantly decreased diastolic BP and serum creatinine level. Changes in uric acid were significantly correlated with those in serum creatinine level, suggesting the feasibility of renal function improvement through UALT in gouty men.

  7. Creatinine and urea biosensors based on a novel ammonium ion-selective copper-polyaniline nano-composite.

    PubMed

    Zhybak, M; Beni, V; Vagin, M Y; Dempsey, E; Turner, A P F; Korpan, Y

    2016-03-15

    The use of a novel ammonium ion-specific copper-polyaniline nano-composite as transducer for hydrolase-based biosensors is proposed. In this work, a combination of creatinine deaminase and urease has been chosen as a model system to demonstrate the construction of urea and creatinine biosensors to illustrate the principle. Immobilisation of enzymes was shown to be a crucial step in the development of the biosensors; the use of glycerol and lactitol as stabilisers resulted in a significant improvement, especially in the case of the creatinine, of the operational stability of the biosensors (from few hours to at least 3 days). The developed biosensors exhibited high selectivity towards creatinine and urea. The sensitivity was found to be 85 ± 3.4 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the creatinine biosensor and 112 ± 3.36 mAM(-1)cm(-2) for the urea biosensor, with apparent Michaelis-Menten constants (KM,app), obtained from the creatinine and urea calibration curves, of 0.163 mM for creatinine deaminase and 0.139 mM for urease, respectively. The biosensors responded linearly over the concentration range 1-125 µM, with a limit of detection of 0.5 µM and a response time of 15s. The performance of the biosensors in a real sample matrix, serum, was evaluated and a good correlation with standard spectrophotometric clinical laboratory techniques was found.

  8. Reagent- and separation-free measurements of urine creatinine concentration using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Du, Yong; Zhao, Fusheng; Zeng, Jianbo; Mohan, Chandra; Shih, Wei-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    We report a novel reagent- and separation-free method for urine creatinine concentration measurement using stamping surface enhanced Raman scattering (S-SERS) technique with nanoporous gold disk (NPGD) plasmonic substrates, a label-free, multiplexed molecular sensing and imaging technique recently developed by us. The performance of this new technology is evaluated by the detection and quantification of creatinine spiked in three different liquids: creatinine in water, mixture of creatinine and urea in water, and creatinine in artificial urine within physiologically relevant concentration ranges. Moreover, the potential application of our method is demonstrated by creatinine concentration measurements in urine samples collected from a mouse model of nephritis. The limit of detection of creatinine was 13.2 nM (0.15 µg/dl) and 0.68 mg/dl in water and urine, respectively. Our method would provide an alternative tool for rapid, cost-effective, and reliable urine analysis for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of renal function. PMID:25798309

  9. Binding and hydrolysis of soman by human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Nachon, Florian; Froment, Marie-Thérèse; Verdier, Laurent; Debouzy, Jean-Claude; Brasme, Bernardo; Gillon, Emilie; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Lockridge, Oksana; Masson, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Human plasma and fatty acid free human albumin were incubated with soman at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C. Four methods were used to monitor the reaction of albumin with soman: progressive inhibition of the aryl acylamidase activity of albumin, the release of fluoride ion from soman, 31P NMR, and mass spectrometry. Inhibition (phosphonylation) was slow with a bimolecular rate constant of 15 +/- 3 M(-1) min (-1). MALDI-TOF and tandem mass spectrometry of the soman-albumin adduct showed that albumin was phosphonylated on tyrosine 411. No secondary dealkylation of the adduct (aging) occurred. Covalent docking simulations and 31P NMR experiments showed that albumin has no enantiomeric preference for the four stereoisomers of soman. Spontaneous reactivation at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C, measured as regaining of aryl acylamidase activity and decrease of covalent adduct (pinacolyl methylphosphonylated albumin) by NMR, occurred at a rate of 0.0044 h (-1), indicating that the adduct is quite stable ( t1/2 = 6.5 days). At pH 7.4 and 22 degrees C, the covalent soman-albumin adduct, measured by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, was more stable ( t1/2 = 20 days). Though the concentration of albumin in plasma is very high (about 0.6 mM), its reactivity with soman (phosphonylation and phosphotriesterase activity) is too slow to play a major role in detoxification of the highly toxic organophosphorus compound soman. Increasing the bimolecular rate constant of albumin for organophosphates is a protein engineering challenge that could lead to a new class of bioscavengers to be used against poisoning by nerve agents. Soman-albumin adducts detected by mass spectrometry could be useful for the diagnosis of soman exposure. PMID:18163544

  10. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S; Raghavendra, K M; Biswas, S

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  11. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, S; Raghavendra, K M; Biswas, S

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one.

  12. Identification of a Proteinaceous Component in the Leaf of Moringa Oleifera lam. with Effects on High Serum Creatinine

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, S.; Raghavendra, K. M.; Biswas, S.

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. has been an important plant in the history of mankind, both for its nutritional and medicinal uses. Apart from bactericidal effects, the parts of this plant have been effectively used in the treatment of circulatory, respiratory, endocrine, digestive as well as neural disorders. Till date, though, there has been no reported activity of the involvement of any proteinaceous extract from M. oleifera on high levels of serum creatinine. To address this issue, blood samples with high levels of serum creatinine (2 mg/dl and above) were treated with leaf extract from M. oleifera. The crude extract was partially purified initially and eventually purified to completion as well. All these proteinaceous fractions were used to treat samples with high levels of serum creatinine as mentioned above. While the treatment of serum sample having high creatinine with crude extract and partially purified protein fractions showed a decrease of approximately 20% in the levels of serum creatinine over a period of 24 h, the samples treated with purified protein fraction reduced the serum creatinine level by 50%. In light of the fact that increased level of serum creatinine levels have adverse downstream effects on the heart, lungs and other organs, this communication assumes significance because it suggests a way of reducing the level of serum creatinine as an emergency measure. Further, the identification and characterisation of this proteinaceous component and possible in vivo experiments would provide a major tool for the treatment of downstream complications associated with increased serum creatinine via a new sources, albeit a natural one. PMID:24799742

  13. Characterization and analytical application of Morin - Bovine serum albumin system by spectroscopic approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Wei; Miao, Xiaowen; Tang, Bo

    2012-12-01

    It is found that the fluorescence intensity of Morin can be strongly quenched by proteins. Based on this, a new fluorimetric method for the determination of protein was developed. Under optimum conditions, the quenchment of Morin fluorescence was in proportion to the concentration of proteins in the range 0.0001-0.1000 g · L-1 for bovine serum albumin (BSA) and 0.0005-0.1000 g · L-1 for human serum albumin (HSA). The reaction mechanism indicates that proteins can bind with Morin at the 3-hydroxyl and the 4-carbonyl and form a non-fluorescence complex 4:1 molar ratio of Morin/BSA, which results in the fluorescence of Morin and BSA are all quenched.

  14. [Method selected for the determination of creatinine in plasma or serum. Choice of optimal conditions of measurement].

    PubMed

    Labbé, D; Vassault, A; Cherruau, B; Baltassat, P; Bonète, R; Carroger, G; Costantini, A; Guérin, S; Houot, O; Lacour, B; Nicolas, A; Thioulouse, E; Trépo, D

    1996-01-01

    The method selected by the SFBC (Société française de biologie clinique) is derived from the colorimetric reaction of creatinine with alkaline picrate, measured kinetically, without any pretreatment step. The key parameters of the reaction determining the quality of the results are studied, with special regard to samples including known interferents. The aims of the study were to gain an optimal analytical sensitivity and to reduce main interferences (acetoacetate, bilirubine, glucose, protein) which plague the Jaffé reaction, through a comprehensive study of the reagents, of their concentrations and of the analytical procedures. The selected concentrations (in the test) are: 150 mmol/L sodium hydroxide, 10 mmol/L picric acid and 2 g/L sodium dodecyl sulfate. Ten millilitres of a BRIJ solution (30% volvol) are added to the reagent. The operating procedures are as follow: sample ratio 0.07 to 0.08; wavelength 505 to 510 nm; temperature 37 degrees C; incubation of the specimen with the alkaline reagent 5 mn (at least), before starting the reaction with picric acid. A seric calibrator is recommended. The first measurement is taken 20 to 40 s after starting the reaction. Total measurement time is 120 to 150 seconds.

  15. Performance of Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Creatinine-Cystatin C Equation for Estimating Kidney Function in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Mindikoglu, Ayse L.; Dowling, Thomas C.; Weir, Matthew R.; Seliger, Stephen L.; Christenson, Robert H.; Magder, Laurence S.

    2013-01-01

    Conventional creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR) equations are insufficiently accurate for estimating GFR in cirrhosis. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) recently proposed an equation to estimate GFR in subjects without cirrhosis using both serum creatinine and cystatin C levels. Performance of the new CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation (2012) was superior to previous creatinine- or cystatin C-based GFR equations. To evaluate the performance of the CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation in subjects with cirrhosis, we compared it to GFR measured by non-radiolabeled iothalamate plasma clearance (mGFR) in 72 subjects with cirrhosis. We compared the “bias”, “precision” and “accuracy” of the new CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation to that of 24-hour urinary creatinine clearance (CrCl), Cockcroft-Gault (CG) and previously reported creatinine- and/or cystatin C-based GFR-estimating equations. Accuracy of CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation as quantified by root mean squared error of difference scores [differences between mGFR and estimated GFR (eGFR) or between mGFR and CrCl, or between mGFR and CG equation for each subject] (RMSE=23.56) was significantly better than that of CrCl (37.69, P=0.001), CG (RMSE=36.12, P=0.002) and GFR-estimating equations based on cystatin C only. Its accuracy as quantified by percentage of eGFRs that differed by greater than 30% with respect to mGFR was significantly better compared to CrCl (P=0.024), CG (P=0.0001), 4-variable MDRD (P=0.027) and CKD-EPI creatinine 2009 (P=0.012) equations. However, for 23.61% of the subjects, GFR estimated by CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation differed from the mGFR by more than 30%. CONCLUSIONS The diagnostic performance of CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C equation (2012) in patients with cirrhosis was superior to conventional equations in clinical practice for estimating GFR. However, its diagnostic performance was substantially worse than

  16. Effects of Fenton Reaction on Human Serum Albumin: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Khosravifarsani, Meysam; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Pouramir, Mahdi; Zabihi, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Human serum albumin (HSA) is a critical protein in human blood plasma, which can be highly damaged by oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to analyze modifications of this protein after oxidation using a Fenton system. Methods In this 2015 experiment, different ratios of Fenton reagent (Fe2+/H2O2) was incubated with one concentration of human serum albumin (1mg/ml). Hence, HSA was incubated 30 min with various combinations of a Fenton system and quantified oxidation products such as carbonyl groups, fragmentations, degradations, and oxidized free thiol group using reliable techniques. Image and data analysis were carried out using ImageJ software and Excel (version 2007), respectively. Results An SDS-PAGE profile showed no cross link and aggregation. However, protein band intensity has decreased to 50% in the highest ratio of H2O2/Fe. Carbonylation assay indicated carbonyl/protein (molc/molp) ratio increased linearly in lower ratios and the values plateau at higher levels of H2O2/Fe 2+. The only free sulfhydryl group on HSA was oxidized in all ratios of the Fenton system. Conclusion To sum, the structure of HSA has been changed following treatment with Hydroxyl Radical as the main product of Fenton reaction. These data confirm the antioxidant activity of HSA. PMID:27790352

  17. Reviewing the binding of a series of parabens to human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Greige-Gerges, Hélène; Kaissi, Rana; Magdalou, Jacques; Jraij, Alia

    2013-04-01

    To better understand the factors that contribute to the accumulation of unmetabolized parabens (p-hydroxybenzoic acid esters) in breast cancer tissue, the binding of a series of parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, butyl-, benzyl-paraben) to human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and also their ability to modify the binding parameters of albumin site markers. Emission spectra of HSA upon fluorescence excitation of Trp 214 residue at 295 nm were recorded at different molar ratios of PB/HSA and data were corrected for the inner-filter effect. A significant inner-filter effect was obtained for molar ratios of 2.0 and above. For lower molar ratios, a slight increase in fluorescence of HSA was detected. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid, the main metabolite of parabens, did not modify the fluorescence of HSA whatever the molar ratio used. Binding parameters for compounds that are markers of site I, bilirubin and warfarin, were determined in the absence and presence of methyl, butyl and benzyl paraben at molar ratios of PB/HSA of 0, 1 and 2. No variation of the binding constants of these markers was observed. The results indicate that parabens weakly interact with HSA thus suggesting that they are in a free form in blood and therefore more available to reach tissues.

  18. Investigation of bovine serum albumin glycation by THz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkasova, Olga P.; Nazarov, Maxim M.; Shkurinov, Alexander P.

    2016-04-01

    Protein glycation is accelerated under hyperglycemic conditions resulting to loss in the structure and biological functions of proteins. The transmission THz spectroscopy has been used for measuring of bovine serum albumin glycation dynamics. It was found that amplitude of albumin THz absorption depends on type of sugars and incubation time.

  19. Albumin Is Recycled from the Primary Urine by Tubular Transcytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tenten, Verena; Menzel, Sylvia; Kunter, Uta; Sicking, Eva-Maria; van Roeyen, Claudia R. C.; Sanden, Silja K.; Kaldenbach, Michaela; Boor, Peter; Fuss, Astrid; Uhlig, Sandra; Lanzmich, Regina; Willemsen, Brigith; Dijkman, Henry; Grepl, Martin; Wild, Klemens; Kriz, Wilhelm; Smeets, Bart; Floege, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Under physiologic conditions, significant amounts of plasma protein pass the renal filter and are reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, but it is not clear whether the endocytosed protein, particularly albumin, is degraded in lysosomes or returned to the circulatory system intact. To resolve this question, a transgenic mouse with podocyte-specific expression of doxycycline-inducible tagged murine albumin was developed. To assess potential glomerular backfiltration, two types of albumin with different charges were expressed. On administration of doxycycline, podocytes expressed either of the two types of transgenic albumin, which were secreted into the primary filtrate and reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, resulting in serum accumulation. Renal transplantation experiments confirmed that extrarenal transcription of transgenic albumin was unlikely to account for these results. Genetic deletion of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), which rescues albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, abolished transcytosis of both types of transgenic albumin and IgG in proximal tubular cells. In summary, we provide evidence of a transcytosis within the kidney tubular system that protects albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, allowing these proteins to be recycled intact. PMID:23970123

  20. Facile cell patterning on an albumin-coated surface.

    PubMed

    Yamazoe, Hironori; Uemura, Toshimasa; Tanabe, Toshizumi

    2008-08-19

    Fabrication of micropatterned surfaces to organize and control cell adhesion and proliferation is an indispensable technique for cell-based technologies. Although several successful strategies for creating cellular micropatterns on substrates have been demonstrated, a complex multistep process and requirements for special and expensive equipment or materials limit their prevalence as a general experimental tool. To circumvent these problems, we describe here a novel facile fabrication method for a micropatterned surface for cell patterning by utilizing the UV-induced conversion of the cell adhesive property of albumin, which is the most abundant protein in blood plasma. An albumin-coated surface was prepared by cross-linking albumin with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether and subsequent casting of the cross-linked albumin solution on the cell culture dish. While cells did not attach to the albumin surface prepared in this way, UV exposure renders the surface cell-adhesive. Thus, surface micropatterning was achieved simply by exposing the albumin-coated surface to UV light through a mask with the desired pattern. Mouse fibroblast L929 cells were inoculated on the patterned albumin substrates, and cells attached and spread in a highly selective manner according to the UV-irradiated pattern. Although detailed investigation of the molecular-level mechanism concerning the change in cell adhesiveness of the albumin-coated surface is required, the present results would give a novel facile method for the fabrication of cell micropatterned surfaces. PMID:18627191

  1. Interaction of coffee compounds with serum albumins. Part II: Diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Guercia, Elena; Forzato, Cristina; Navarini, Luciano; Berti, Federico

    2016-05-15

    Cafestol and 16-O-methylcafestol are diterpenes present in coffee, but whilst cafestol is found in both Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, 16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC) was reported to be specific of only C. canephora. The interactions of such compounds, with serum albumins, have been studied. Three albumins have been considered, namely human serum albumin (HSA), fatty acid free HSA (ffHSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The proteins interact with the diterpenes at the interface between Sudlow site I and the fatty acid binding site 6 in a very peculiar way, leading to a significant change in the secondary structure. The diterpenes do not displace reference binding drugs of site 2, but rather they enhance the affinity of the site for the drugs. They, therefore, may alter the pharmacokinetic profile of albumin - bound drugs.

  2. Albumin Naskapi variant in North American Indians and Eti Turks.

    PubMed

    Franklin, S G; Wolf, S I; Ozdemir, Y; Yüregir, G T; Isbir, T; Blumberg, B S

    1980-09-01

    Both conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a new type of electrophoretic screening procedure indicate that the polymorphic albumin variants Naskapi, found chiefly in the Naskapi Indians of Quebec, and Mersin, found in the Eti Turks of southeastern Turkey, are molecularly identical or very similar and that the amino acid substitution site in these variants is located between residues 330 and 446. This discovery is consistent with a genetic relationship between the Eti Turks and American Indians. We also report a new variant found in the Eti Turks, albumin Adana, which migrates similarly to albumin B on conventional gels but which our new system shows to differ from the common albumin A and albumin B by a substitution between residues 549 and 585.

  3. Ghrelin binding to serum albumin and its biological impact.

    PubMed

    Lufrano, Daniela; Trejo, Sebastián A; Llovera, Ramiro E; Salgueiro, Mariano; Fernandez, Gimena; Martínez Damonte, Valentina; González Flecha, F Luis; Raingo, Jesica; Ermácora, Mario R; Perelló, Mario

    2016-11-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of the body weight and glucose homeostasis. In plasma, ghrelin circulates bound to larger proteins whose identities are partially established. Here, we used size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry and isothermal titration microcalorimetry to show that ghrelin interacts with serum albumin. Furthermore, we found that such interaction displays an estimated dissociation constant (KD) in the micromolar range and involves albumin fatty-acid binding sites as well as the octanoyl moiety of ghrelin. Notably, albumin-ghrelin interaction reduces the spontaneous deacylation of the hormone. Both in vitro experiments-assessing ghrelin ability to inhibit calcium channels-and in vivo studies-evaluating ghrelin orexigenic effects-indicate that the binding to albumin affects the bioactivity of the hormone. In conclusion, our results suggest that ghrelin binds to serum albumin and that this interaction impacts on the biological activity of the hormone. PMID:27431015

  4. Cabazitaxel-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles as a therapeutic agent against prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Na; Lee, Robert J; Sun, Yating; Cai, Guangsheng; Wang, Junyang; Wang, Mengqiao; Lu, Jiahui; Meng, Qingfan; Teng, Lirong; Wang, Di; Teng, Lesheng

    2016-01-01

    Cabazitaxel-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles (Cbz-NPs) were synthesized to overcome vehicle-related toxicity of current clinical formulation of the drug based on Tween-80 (Cbz-Tween). A salting-out method was used for NP synthesis that avoids the use of chlorinated organic solvent and is simpler compared to the methods based on emulsion-solvent evaporation. Cbz-NPs had a narrow particle size distribution, suitable drug loading content (4.9%), and superior blood biocompatibility based on in vitro hemolysis assay. Blood circulation, tumor uptake, and antitumor activity of Cbz-NPs were assessed in prostatic cancer xenograft-bearing nude mice. Cbz-NPs exhibited prolonged blood circulation and greater accumulation of Cbz in tumors along with reduced toxicity compared to Cbz-Tween. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin histopathological staining of organs revealed consistent results. The levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine in drug-treated mice showed that Cbz-NPs were less toxic than Cbz-Tween to the kidneys. In conclusion, Cbz-NPs provide a promising therapeutic for prostate cancer. PMID:27555767

  5. Cabazitaxel-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles as a therapeutic agent against prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Na; Lee, Robert J; Sun, Yating; Cai, Guangsheng; Wang, Junyang; Wang, Mengqiao; Lu, Jiahui; Meng, Qingfan; Teng, Lirong; Wang, Di; Teng, Lesheng

    2016-01-01

    Cabazitaxel-loaded human serum albumin nanoparticles (Cbz-NPs) were synthesized to overcome vehicle-related toxicity of current clinical formulation of the drug based on Tween-80 (Cbz-Tween). A salting-out method was used for NP synthesis that avoids the use of chlorinated organic solvent and is simpler compared to the methods based on emulsion-solvent evaporation. Cbz-NPs had a narrow particle size distribution, suitable drug loading content (4.9%), and superior blood biocompatibility based on in vitro hemolysis assay. Blood circulation, tumor uptake, and antitumor activity of Cbz-NPs were assessed in prostatic cancer xenograft-bearing nude mice. Cbz-NPs exhibited prolonged blood circulation and greater accumulation of Cbz in tumors along with reduced toxicity compared to Cbz-Tween. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin histopathological staining of organs revealed consistent results. The levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine in drug-treated mice showed that Cbz-NPs were less toxic than Cbz-Tween to the kidneys. In conclusion, Cbz-NPs provide a promising therapeutic for prostate cancer. PMID:27555767

  6. Loss of tubular creatinine secretion as the only sign of tubular proximal cell dysfunction in light chain proximal tubulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Stehlé, Thomas; Vignon, Marguerite; Flamant, Martin; Figueres, Marie-Lucile; Rabant, Marion; Rodenas, Anita; Noël, Laure-Hélène; Arnulf, Bertrand; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Light chain proximal tubulopathy (LCPT) is a rare disease, characterized by cytoplasmic inclusions of light chain (usually kappa) immunoglobulins. Clinical presentation is usually a Fanconi syndrome. The proximal tubular dysfunction can be incomplete, and exceptional cases of LCPT without any tubular dysfunction have even been described. Here, we report a case of LCPT in which the only sign of proximal tubulopathy is the absence of secretion of creatinine, as assessed by the simultaneous measurement of renal clearance of creatinine and 51CrEDTA. The loss of tubular creatinine secretion as a sign of tubular proximal cell dysfunction ought to be identified in patients with light chain proximal tubulopathy as it leads to a clinically relevant underestimation of GFR by the creatinine-derived equations. The prevalence and prognostic significance of this particular proximal tubular damage in LCPT remain to be determined. PMID:27367983

  7. How the use of creatine supplements can elevate serum creatinine in the absence of underlying kidney pathology.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Lydia; New, David

    2014-09-19

    Serum creatinine is a widely used marker in the assessment of renal function. Elevated creatinine levels suggest kidney dysfunction, prompting the need for further investigation. This report describes a case in which the consumption of the bodybuilding supplement creatine ethyl ester resulted in raised serum creatinine in the absence of true underlying kidney pathology. The abnormalities reversed after discontinuation of the supplement. A case of pseudo renal failure was recognised and kidney function was concluded to be normal. This report aims to address the mechanisms by which the ingestion of creatine ethyl ester can mimic the blood results expected in advanced renal failure, and confronts the problems faced when relying on serum creatinine as a diagnostic tool.

  8. How the use of creatine supplements can elevate serum creatinine in the absence of underlying kidney pathology

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Lydia; New, David

    2014-01-01

    Serum creatinine is a widely used marker in the assessment of renal function. Elevated creatinine levels suggest kidney dysfunction, prompting the need for further investigation. This report describes a case in which the consumption of the bodybuilding supplement creatine ethyl ester resulted in raised serum creatinine in the absence of true underlying kidney pathology. The abnormalities reversed after discontinuation of the supplement. A case of pseudo renal failure was recognised and kidney function was concluded to be normal. This report aims to address the mechanisms by which the ingestion of creatine ethyl ester can mimic the blood results expected in advanced renal failure, and confronts the problems faced when relying on serum creatinine as a diagnostic tool. PMID:25239988

  9. Study of the cross-reaction between rabbit anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies and equine serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, H.

    1965-01-01

    Cross-reactions between bovine serum albumin and equine serum albumin were studied using heterologous soluble complexes and specifically purified cross-reacting antibody. Experiments with soluble complexes showed that homologous antigen can displace heterologous antigen specifically bound to antibody but heterologous antigen cannot displace homologous antigen. On gel precipitation tests a specific precipitation resulted when heterologous soluble complex reacted with homologous antigen. By using equine serum albumin conjugated to polyaminopolystyrene the cross-reacting antibodies from anti-bovine serum albumin imune sera could be isolated. These are divalent 7S, γ-globulin antibodies. A figure of cross-reaction was obtained when these purified antibodies were tested by double diffusion in agar with bovine and equine serum albumins. The results obtained both with soluble complexes and with purified antibody support the view that cross-reacting antibody is more avid for the homologous than for the heterologous antigen. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:14245318

  10. KEY COMPARISON: CCQM-K12: The determination of creatinine in serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, Michael J.; Phinney, Curtis P.; Parris, Reenie M.; May, Willie E.; Heo, Gwi Suk; Henrion, Andre; O'Conner, Gavin; Schimmel, Heinz

    2003-01-01

    A Key Comparison on the determination of creatinine in human serum organized by the Consultative Committee on Amount of Substance (CCQM) was carried out in 2001. To address the measurement traceability needs of the clinical chemistry community, the CCQM is undertaking Key Comparisons to document the capabilities of national metrology institutes (NMIs) that provide measurement services in this area. This Key Comparison, along with two others recently completed, CCQM-K6 and CCQM-K11, determination of total cholesterol and glucose, respectively, in serum, will provide a basis for evaluating the capabilities of NMIs for the determination of well-defined, organic substances of similar molecular weights and concentrations in human serum. Participants in CCQM-K12 included: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) [USA], Coordinating Laboratory; Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM) [EU]; Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science (KRISS) [S Korea]; Laboratory of the Government Chemist, (LGC) [UK]; and Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) [Germany]. Two frozen human serum materials were analyzed by each of the participants using either ID-GC/MS-based methods (three laboratories) or ID-LC/MS-based methods (two laboratories). Agreement of results among the participants was excellent, in accordance with the agreement found in a pilot study (CCQM-P9) for creatinine in serum. The resulting Key Comparison Reference Values had expanded uncertainties of less than 1% for both materials. In conclusion, five NMIs have demonstrated their ability to make reference measurements of creatinine in serum using isotope dilution-based methods that, when executed properly, provide measurements that are precise, accurate and SI traceable. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer

  11. Renal Drug Dosage Adjustment According to Estimated Creatinine Clearance in Hospitalized Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Altunbas, Gokhan; Yazc, Mehmet; Solak, Yalcin; Gul, Enes E; Kayrak, Mehmet; Kaya, Zeynettin; Akilli, Hakan; Aribas, Alpay; Gaipov, Abduzhappar; Yazc, Raziye; Ozdemir, Kurtulus

    2016-01-01

    It is of clinical importance to determine creatinine clearance and adjust doses of prescribed drugs accordingly in patients with heart failure to prevent untoward effects. There is a scarcity of studies in the literature investigating this issue particularly in patients with heart failure, in whom many have impaired kidney function. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of awareness of medication prescription as to creatinine clearance in patients hospitalized with heart failure. Patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of heart failure were retrospectively evaluated. Among screened charts, patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <40% and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≤50 mL/min were included in the analysis. The medications and respective doses prescribed at discharge were recorded. Medications requiring renal dose adjustment were determined and evaluated for appropriate dosing according to eGFR. A total of 388 patients with concomitant heart failure and renal dysfunction were included in the study. The total number of prescribed medications was 2808 and 48.3% (1357 medications) required renal dose adjustment. Of the 1357 medications, 12.6% (171 medications) were found to be inappropriately prescribed according to eGFR. The most common inappropriately prescribed medications were famotidine, metformin, perindopril, and ramipril. A significant portion of medications used in heart failure requires dose adjustment. Our results showed that in a typical cohort of patients with heart failure, many drugs are prescribed at inappropriately high doses according to creatinine clearance. Awareness should be increased among physicians caring for patients with heart failure to prevent adverse events related to medications.

  12. Estimation of Glomerular Filtration Rate Based on Serum Cystatin C versus Creatinine in a Uruguayan Population

    PubMed Central

    Lujambio, Inés; Sottolano, Mariana; Robaina, Sebastián; Carusso, Florencia; da Rosa, Alicia; Ríos, Ana Carina; Olascoaga, Alicia; Gadola, Liliana; Noboa, Oscar; Staessen, Jan A.; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Background. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from biomarkers has evolved and multiple equations are available to estimate renal function at bedside. Methods. In a random sample of 119 Uruguayans (54.5% women; 56.2 years (mean)), we used Bland and Altman's method and Cohen's kappa statistic to assess concordance on a continuous or categorical (eGFR < 60 versus ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2) scale between eGFRcys (reference) and eGFR derived from serum creatinine according to the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (eGFRmdrd) or the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations (eGFRepi) or from both serum cystatin C and creatinine (eGFRmix). Results. In all participants, eGFRmdrd, eGFRepi, and eGFRmix were, respectively, 9.7, 11.5, and 5.6 mL/min/1.73 m2 higher (P < 0.0001) than eGFRcys. The prevalence of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was the highest for eGFRcys (21.8%), intermediate for eGFRmix (11.8%), and the lowest for eGFRmdrd (5.9%) and eGFRepi (3.4%). Using eGFRcys as reference, we found only fair agreement with the equations based on creatinine (Cohen's kappa statistic 0.15 to 0.23). Conclusion. Using different equations we reached clinically significant differences in the estimation of renal function. eGFRcys provides lower estimates, resulting in higher prevalence of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. PMID:25215234

  13. Specific gravity and creatinine as corrections for variation in urine concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys.

    PubMed

    White, Brent C; Jamison, Keri M; Grieb, Cassie; Lally, Drew; Luckett, Cloe; Kramer, Katie S; Phillips, Justin

    2010-12-01

    Hormones excreted in the urine are widely used to assess the physiological and psychological condition of unrestrained animals. In order to control for variation in the water concentration of urine samples, the hormone concentration is often indexed to the concentration of creatinine. Because there are several problems with using creatinine, we have investigated the efficacy of specific gravity as an alternative basis for adjusting the hormone concentration in humans, gorillas, and woolly monkeys. In an experimental manipulation of human urine hydration, ten volunteers drank a water load proportional to body weight, and provided complete urine collection and saliva samples for four consecutive 20 min intervals. From the urine, we measured cortisol (radioimmunoassay), creatinine (colorimetric assay), and specific gravity (refractometer). Only cortisol was assayed from saliva. During 80 min following water ingestion, cortisol, creatinine, and specific gravity declined as urine became diluted; however, total cortisol excretion remained constant. Only cortisol concentration indexed to specific gravity accurately reflected the consistent cortisol excretion. Specific gravity and creatinine-corrected cortisol values were highly correlated but were significantly different. Salivary cortisol provided evidence for the relative stability of serum cortisol. To determine the utility of these corrections in other primates, we compared specific gravity- and creatinine-corrected cortisol in urine samples from captive gorillas (N=16) and woolly monkeys (N=8). As with the human study, the two corrections were strongly correlated in each species, but the means were different. Specific gravity correction was superior in revealing the circadian variation in cortisol.

  14. The role of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations in the diagnosis of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Kin Tekce, Buket; Tekce, Hikmet; Aktas, Gulali; Uyeturk, Ugur

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty of measurement is the numeric expression of the errors associated with all measurements taken in clinical laboratories. Serum creatinine concentration is the most common diagnostic marker for acute kidney injury. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations on the diagnosis of acute kidney injury. We calculated the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine according to the Nordtest Guide. Retrospectively, we identified 289 patients who were evaluated for acute kidney injury. Of the total patient pool, 233 were diagnosed with acute kidney injury using the AKIN classification scheme and then were compared using statistical analysis. We determined nine probabilities of the uncertainty of measurement of serum creatinine concentrations. There was a statistically significant difference in the number of patients diagnosed with acute kidney injury when uncertainty of measurement was taken into consideration (first probability compared to the fifth p = 0.023 and first probability compared to the ninth p = 0.012). We found that the uncertainty of measurement for serum creatinine concentrations was an important factor for correctly diagnosing acute kidney injury. In addition, based on the AKIN classification scheme, minimizing the total allowable error levels for serum creatinine concentrations is necessary for the accurate diagnosis of acute kidney injury by clinicians.

  15. A simple and rapid creatinine sensing via DLS selectivity, using calix[4]arene thiol functionalized gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sutariya, Pinkesh G; Pandya, Alok; Lodha, Anand; Menon, Shobhana K

    2016-01-15

    A new, simple, ultra-sensitive and selective approach has been reported for the "on spot" colorimetric detection of creatinine based on calix[4]arene functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with excellent discrimination in the presence of other biomolecules. The lower detection limit of the method is 2.16nM. The gold nanoparticles and p-tert-butylcalix[4]arene were synthesized by microwave assisted method. Specifically, in our study, we used dynamic light scattering (DLS) which is a powerful method for the determination of small changes in particle size, improved selectivity and sensitivity of the creatinine detection system over colorimetric method. The nanoassembly is characterized by Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), DLS, UV-vis and ESI-MS spectroscopy, which demonstrates the binding affinity due its ability of hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction between -NH group of creatinine and pSDSC4. It exhibits fast response time (<60s) to creatinine and has long shelf-life (>5 weeks). The developed pSDSC4-AuNPs based creatinine biosensor will be established as simple, reliable and accurate tool for the determination of creatinine in human urine samples.

  16. Nephroprotective Potential of Human Albumin Infusion: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, Christian J; Joannidis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Albumin infusion improves renal function in cirrhosis; however, mechanisms are incompletely understood. In clinical practice, human albumin is used in various intensive care unit indications to deal with a wide range of problems, from volume replacement in hypovolemic shock, or sepsis, to treatment of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis. Against the background of the results of recent studies on the use of human albumin in septic patients, the importance of the natural colloid in these critically ill patients is being redefined. In addition to the hemodynamic effects of administration of human albumin impacting on sympathetic tone, attention is being paid to other effects in which its pharmacodynamics is associated with the physiological importance of endogenous albumin. The morbidity and mortality data discussed in this paper support the importance of both the hemodynamic and the pharmacological effects of the administration of human albumin in various indications. The contribution that human albumin could make towards the maintenance of renal function in the course and treatment of severe sepsis and cirrhosis of the liver is the subject of this narrative review. PMID:26136776

  17. Albumin grafting on biomaterial surfaces using gamma-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Surface modification has been used extensively in various fields to introduce desirable surface properties without affecting the bulk properties of the material. In the area of biomaterials, the approach of surface modification offers an effective alternative to the synthesis of new biomaterials. The specific objective of this study was to modify different biomaterial surfaces by albumin grafting to improve their blood compatibility. The modified surfaces were characterized for surface-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation. This behavior was correlated with the conditions used for grafting. In particular, albumin was functionalized to introduce pendant double bonds into the molecule. The functionalized albumin was covalently attached to various surfaces, such as dimethyldichlorosilane-coated glass, polypropylene, polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride), and polyethylene by gamma-irradiation. Platelet adhesion and activation on these surfaces was examined using video microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The extent of grafting was found to be dependent on the albumin concentration used for adsorption and the gamma-irradiation time. Release of the grafted albumin during exposure to blood was minimal. The albumin-grafted fibers maintained their thromboresistant properties even after storage at elevated temperatures for prolonged time periods. Finally, the approach was used to graft albumin on the PLEXUS Adult Hollow Fiber Oxygenators (Shiley). The blood compatibility of the grafted oxygenators improved significantly when compared to controls.

  18. Transport of nitrated albumin across continuous vascular endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Predescu, Dan; Predescu, Sanda; Malik, Asrar B.

    2002-01-01

    Because modification of plasma albumin on tyrosine residues generates nitrated albumin (NOA) that may function as a mechanism of nitrogen monoxide clearance from microcirculation, we investigated biochemicaly and morphologically the cell surface binding and the transendothelial transport of NOA. An electron microscopic study was carried out with mouse lungs and hearts perfused in situ with NOA and NOA-Au complexes. The results indicate that NOA-Au can bind to the endothelial cell surface, and its binding can be blocked by albumin plus nitrotyrosine (NO-tyrosine) or abolished by excess NOA. We detected NOA-Au into perivascular spaces as early as 30 sec after the beginning of its perfusion. NOA, unlike native albumin, leaves the vascular lumina via both endothelial caveolae and open junctions. By cross-linking and ligand blotting analysis, we showed that NOA interacted with the same albumin binding proteins of 16–18, 30–32, 60, and 74 kDa as native albumin. ELISA performed on tissue homogenates obtained from the same specimens showed that NOA transport was 2- to 4-fold greater than native albumin. The augmented transendothelial transport of NOA reflects its transcytosis as well as its exit from the microcirculation via open junctions. The increased transport of NOA may serve as an important mechanism that protects a vascular bed against the damaging effects of nitrogen monoxide and peroxynitrite. PMID:12370442

  19. Chlorpromazine interactions to sera albumins. A study by the quenching of fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Célia M.; Louro, Sônia R. W.

    2004-04-01

    Binding of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and hemin (Hmn) to human (HSA) and bovine (BSA) serum albumin was studied by fluorescence quenching technique. Intrinsic fluorescences of BSA and HSA were measured by selectively exciting their tryptophan residues. Gradual quenching was observed by titration of both proteins with CPZ and Hmn. CPZ is a widely used anti-psychosis drug that causes severe side effects and strongly interacts with biomembranes, both in its lipidic and proteic regions. CPZ also interacts with blood components, influences bioavailability, and affects the function of several biomolecules. Albumin plays an important role in the transport and storage of hormones, ions, fatty acids and others substances, including CPZ, affecting the regulation of their plasmatic concentration. Hmn is an important ferric residue of hemoglobin that binds within the hydrophobic region of albumin with great specificity. Hmn added to HSA and BSA solutions at a molar ratio of 1:1 quenched about half of their fluorescence. Stern-Volmer plots obtained from experiments carried out at 25 and 35 °C showed the quenching of fluorescence of HSA and BSA by CPZ to be a collisional phenomenon. Hmn quenches fluorescence by a static process, which specifically indicates the formation of a complex. Our results suggest the prime binding site for CPZ and Hmn on both HSA and BSA to be near tryptophan residues.

  20. Albumin microparticles as the carriers for allopurinol and applicable for the treatment of ischemic stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aganyants, Hovsep Alexandr; Nikohosyan, Gayane; Danielyan, Kristine Edgar

    2016-11-01

    Albumin nanoparticles are already used for the treatment of the cancer. In our current work, it is presented the technique for the preparation of small-size 1- to 5-micron particles coated with the allopurinol. We propose that this combination of the compounds might be useful for the ischemic stroke treatment as the agent preventing formation of the brain edema, reactive oxygen species, and initiation of cells regeneration. Glutaraldehyde was used for the polymerization of albumin. Determination of the particle size was performed by the light as well as phase contrast microscopies and analyzed by Pixcavator 6.0 and Image Tool programs. Modification and establishment of iodine-based method served as the base for quantification of bound with the particles and free allopurinol. As a consequence of the experiments, the best formulation of glutaraldehyde ratio and albumin quantity as well as conditions for the formation of the smallest sized spheroid-shaped particles were found for the further in vivo application.

  1. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.A.; Cistola, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by TC NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted (1- TC)oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles, the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with greater than or equal to80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was greater than or equal to90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The TC NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  2. Atomic structure and chemistry of human serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Xiao M.; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been determined crystallographically to a resolution of 2.8 A. It comprises three homologous domains that assemble to form a heart-shaped molecule. Each domain is a product of two subdomains that possess common structural motifs. The principal regions of ligand binding to human serum albumin are located in hydrophobic cavities in subdomains IIA and ILIA, which exhibit similar chemistry. The structure explains numerous physical phenomena and should provide insight into future pharmacokinetic and genetically engineered therapeutic applications of serum albumin.

  3. Colloid administration normalizes resuscitation ratio and ameliorates "fluid creep".

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Amanda; Faraklas, Iris; Watkins, Holly; Allen, Ashlee; Cochran, Amalia; Morris, Stephen; Saffle, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    Although colloid was a component of the original Parkland formula, it has been omitted from standard Parkland resuscitation for over 30 years. However, some burn centers use colloid as "rescue" therapy for patients who exhibit progressively increasing crystalloid requirements, a phenomenon termed "fluid creep." We reviewed our experience with this procedure. With Institutional Review Board approval, we reviewed all adult patients with > or =20%TBSA burns admitted from January 1, 2005, through December 31, 2007, who completed formal resuscitation. Patients were resuscitated using the Parkland formula, adjusted to maintain urine output of 30 to 50 ml/hr. Patients who required greater amounts of fluid than expected were given a combination of 5% albumin and lactated Ringer's until fluid requirements normalized. Results were expressed as an hourly ratio (I/O ratio) of fluid infusion (ml/kg/%TBSA/hr) to urine output (ml/kg/hr). Predicted values for this ratio vary for individual patients but are usually less than 0.5 to 1.0. Fifty-two patients were reviewed, of whom 26 completed resuscitation using crystalloid alone, and the remaining 26 required albumin supplementation (AR). The groups were comparable in age, gender, weight, mortality, and time between injury and admission. AR patients had larger total and full-thickness burns and more inhalation injuries. Patients managed with crystalloid alone maintained mean resuscitation ratios from 0.13 to 0.40, whereas AR patients demonstrated progressively increasing ratios to a maximum mean of 1.97, until albumin was started. Administration of albumin produced a dramatic and precipitous return of ratios to within predicted ranges throughout the remainder of resuscitation. No patient developed abdominal compartment syndrome. Measuring hourly I/O ratios is an effective means of expressing and tracking fluid requirements. The addition of colloid to Parkland resuscitation rapidly reduces hourly fluid requirements, restores normal

  4. Analytical nanosphere sensors using quantum dot-enzyme conjugates for urea and creatinine.

    PubMed

    Ruedas-Rama, Maria J; Hall, Elizabeth A H

    2010-11-01

    An enzyme-linked analytical nanosphere sensor (ANSor) is described, responding to enzyme-substrate turnover in the vicinity of a quantum dot (QD) due to coimmobilized enzyme and pH sensitive ligand. QD capping by mercapto-alkanoic acids were rejected as a pH sensitive ligand, but with the use of a layer-by-layer assembly on mercaptopropionic capped QDs and an intermediate poly(allylamine hydrochloride) layer, anthraquinone sulfonate (calcium red, CaR) was introduced to modify the pKa in the immobilized system > 8. QD-CaR absorption shows spectral overlap with QD530 emission at all pHs and gives a complex pH dependent fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency, due to excited state proton transfer (λ(ex) = 540 nm; λ(em) = 585 nm). In contrast QD615-CaR with spectral overlap between the QD and CaR gave a strong and reproducible pH response. QD-urease and QD-creatinine deiminase conjugates could be linked with pH changes produced by enzyme degradation of urea and creatinine, respectively. Close coupling between the pH sensitive QD and enzyme conjugate maximized signal compared with solution based assays: QD-urease and QD-CD bioconjugates were tested in model biological media (Dulbecco's modified Eagle's Medium and fetal calf serum) and in urine, showing a response in 3-4 min. PMID:20939534

  5. Glycated Albumin versus Glycated Hemoglobin as a Glycemic Indicator in Diabetic Patients on Peritoneal Dialysis

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hiroki; Abe, Masanori; Yoshida, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Hiroko; Maruyama, Noriaki; Okada, Kazuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Compared with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), glycated albumin (GA) is superior in estimating glycemic control in diabetic patients on hemodialysis (HD). However, the better index for assessment of glycemic control in diabetic patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and the impact of protein loss on GA are unknown. Twenty diabetic patients on HD were matched by age, sex, and baseline postprandial plasma glucose (PG) levels to 20 PD patients. PG, HbA1c, GA, and serum albumin levels were measured for six months. Protein loss in PD patients was estimated by measuring the protein concentration in the peritoneal dialysate and by 24 h urine collection. Although PG and HbA1c did not differ significantly between the groups, the PD group had significantly lower GA (17.8% versus 20.8%, p < 0.001) and GA/HbA1c ratio (2.95% versus 3.45%, p < 0.0001) than the HD group. Although the PG level correlated significantly with the GA levels in both groups, it was not correlated with the HbA1c levels in both groups. HbA1c level was negatively associated with erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA) dose in both groups, whereas GA was not significantly associated with serum albumin, hemoglobin concentration, ESA dose, and protein loss. Multiple regression analysis identified GA as the only independent factor associated with PG in PD patients. Our results suggested that GA was not significantly associated with protein loss, hemoglobin, serum albumin, and ESA dose. Although GA might underestimate glycemic status, it provided a significantly better measure for estimating glycemic control than HbA1c, even in PD patients. PMID:27120597

  6. Serum albumin and mortality risk in a hyperendemic area of HCV infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypoalbuminemia has been shown to be associated with increased mortality. We reported a mass screening in 1990 of X town in Japan, which demonstrated a high prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. This follow-up study determined, through a period of 12 years, whether serum albumin levels impact on the life prognosis of the residents of X town. Results Of the 509 subjects, 69 had died and 55 had moved to other regions by 2002. Therefore, we analyzed 454 people for whom we could confirm life and death between 1990 and 2002. Albumin levels were assigned to two groups, low (<4.0 g/L, group A) and normal (≥4.0 g/L, group B). Of the 454 subjects analyzed, 25 were in group A and 429 in group B and the mortality was 68.0% (17/25 cases, P < 0.00001 vs. group B) and 12.1% (52/429), respectively. Mortality from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was 66.7% in group A (6/9 cases, P = 0.01 vs. group B) and 15.8% (3/19) in group B. According to multivariate analysis, five factors - 50 years or older, low albumin level (<4.0 g/L), abnormal AST level, history of smoking, and absence of alcohol consumption - were associated with death. The adjusted odds ratios for these five factors were 20.65, 10.79, 2.58, 2.24 and 2.08, respectively, and each was statistically significant. Conclusions We show that the serum albumin level is an independent risk factor for mortality from all causes in the residents of X town and an important prognostic indicator. Improvement of hypoalbuminaemia should be considered for improvement of prognosis. PMID:21194423

  7. In vivo albumin labeling and lymphatic imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Lang, Lixin; Huang, Peng; Wang, Zhe; Jacobson, Orit; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Ali, Iqbal U; Teng, Gaojun; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to accurately and easily locate sentinel lymph nodes (LNs) with noninvasive imaging methods would assist in tumor staging and patient management. For this purpose, we developed a lymphatic imaging agent by mixing fluorine-18 aluminum fluoride-labeled NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid)-conjugated truncated Evans blue ((18)F-AlF-NEB) and Evans blue (EB) dye. After local injection, both (18)F-AlF-NEB and EB form complexes with endogenous albumin in the interstitial fluid and allow for visualizing the lymphatic system. Positron emission tomography (PET) and/or optical imaging of LNs was performed in three different animal models including a hind limb inflammation model, an orthotropic breast cancer model, and a metastatic breast cancer model. In all three models, the LNs can be distinguished clearly by the apparent blue color and strong fluorescence signal from EB as well as a high-intensity PET signal from (18)F-AlF-NEB. The lymphatic vessels between the LNs can also be optically visualized. The easy preparation, excellent PET and optical imaging quality, and biosafety suggest that this combination of (18)F-AlF-NEB and EB has great potential for clinical application to map sentinel LNs and provide intraoperative guidance. PMID:25535368

  8. In vivo albumin labeling and lymphatic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Lang, Lixin; Huang, Peng; Wang, Zhe; Jacobson, Orit; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Ali, Iqbal U.; Teng, Gaojun; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to accurately and easily locate sentinel lymph nodes (LNs) with noninvasive imaging methods would assist in tumor staging and patient management. For this purpose, we developed a lymphatic imaging agent by mixing fluorine-18 aluminum fluoride-labeled NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid)-conjugated truncated Evans blue (18F-AlF-NEB) and Evans blue (EB) dye. After local injection, both 18F-AlF-NEB and EB form complexes with endogenous albumin in the interstitial fluid and allow for visualizing the lymphatic system. Positron emission tomography (PET) and/or optical imaging of LNs was performed in three different animal models including a hind limb inflammation model, an orthotropic breast cancer model, and a metastatic breast cancer model. In all three models, the LNs can be distinguished clearly by the apparent blue color and strong fluorescence signal from EB as well as a high-intensity PET signal from 18F-AlF-NEB. The lymphatic vessels between the LNs can also be optically visualized. The easy preparation, excellent PET and optical imaging quality, and biosafety suggest that this combination of 18F-AlF-NEB and EB has great potential for clinical application to map sentinel LNs and provide intraoperative guidance. PMID:25535368

  9. Molecular interactions between albumin and proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, N J

    1998-01-01

    In glomerular diseases the filtration of excess proteins into the proximal tubule, together with their subsequent reabsorption may represent an important pathological mechanism underlying progressive renal scarring. The most prominent protein in glomerular filtrate, albumin, is reabsorbed by receptor-mediated endocytosis by proximal tubular cells. It binds both to scavenger-type receptors and to megalin in the proximal tubule. Some of these receptors appear to be shared with other cell types, particularly endothelial cells. The endocytic uptake of albumin is subjected to complex hormonal and enzymatic regulation. In addition to being reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, albumin may act as a signalling molecule in these cells, and may induce the expression of numerous pro-inflammatory genes. Modulation of the interaction of albumin with proximal tubular cells may eventually prove to be of therapeutic importance in the treatment of renal diseases. PMID:9807019

  10. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    DOEpatents

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  11. Study on Serum Albumin in Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sufrin, S; Nessa, A; Islam, M T; Das, R K; Rahman, M H

    2015-07-01

    Various hormones can cause marked changes in pregnant woman's appearance. Decreased level of serum albumin occurs in third trimester of pregnancy, which may be associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. So, this study was carried out to evaluate and assess the level of serum albumin in third trimester of pregnancy. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. This study enrolled 100 pregnant women of third trimester of pregnancy and 100 aged matched non-pregnant women from Mymensingh district. In this study serum albumin level in study group were 33.41 ± 4.62gm/l and in control group were 37.09 ± 4.21 gm/l, which was statistically decreased. The lower level of serum albumin in third trimester of pregnancy is the major concern of development of physiological edema during pregnancy and may be associated with pre-eclampsia.

  12. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other body fluids. Measurement of albumin aids in the diagnosis of kidney and intestinal diseases. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  13. Development of FET-type albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis.

    PubMed

    Park, Keun-Yong; Sohn, Young-Soo; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Hong-Seok; Bae, Young-Seuk; Choi, Sie-Young

    2008-07-15

    An albumin biosensor based on a potentiometric measurement using Biofield-effect-transistor (BioFET) has been designed and fabricated, and its characteristics were investigated. The BioFET was fabricated using semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) technology. The gate surface of the BioFET was chemically modified by newly developed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) synthesized by a thiazole benzo crown ether ethylamine (TBCEA)-thioctic acid to immobilize anti-albumin. SAM formation, antibody immobilization, and antigen-antibody interaction were verified using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The output voltage changes of the BioFET with respect to various albumin concentrations were obtained. Quasi-reference electrode (QRE) and reference FET (ReFET) has been integrated with the BioFET, and its output characteristic was investigated. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the BioFET as the albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis.

  14. Palmitate uptake by hepatocyte monolayers. Effect of albumin binding.

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, A B; Shurmantine, W O; Luxon, B A; Forker, E L

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of 14C-palmitate by rat liver cell monolayers is depressed by binding of the fatty acid to albumin. When the uptake flux is divided by the concentration of free palmitate in the bathing medium, however, the resulting clearance is approximately 14 times greater in the presence of albumin than in its absence. These findings are not accounted for by the different diffusion rates of free and bound palmitate across an unstirred fluid layer, nor attributable to nonequilibrium binding. Instead we argue that the most plausible explanation is accelerated dissociation of albumin-palmitate complexes mediated by the cell surface--an interpretation that also explains the uptake kinetics of other albumin-bound organic anions by perfused rat liver. Images PMID:3949983

  15. Differences in postmortem urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid levels between blood and pericardial fluid in acute death.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Tanaka, Sayaka; Zhao, Dong; Li, Dong-Ri; Quan, Li; Oritani, Shigeki; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2007-05-01

    Previous studies showed significant differences in postmortem urea nitrogen (UN), creatinine (Cr) and uric acid (UA) levels in heart blood depending on the causes of death, including acute death. In addition, the levels in pericardial fluid approximated the clinical serum reference ranges, and their elevations may be assessed based on clinical criteria. The present study investigated difference between blood and pericardial levels of these markers. Medicolegal autopsy cases (n=556, within 48h postmortem) of the following causes of death were examined: injury (n=136), asphyxiation (n=50), drowning (n=39), fire fatalities (n=99), hyperthermia (n=11), hypothermia (n=8), poisoning (n=26), delayed traumatic death (n=44) and natural diseases (n=143). When serum UN, Cr and UA levels were compared with the pericardial levels, there was an equivalency for delayed traumatic death and chronic renal failure, although each level was markedly elevated. Parallel increases in serum and pericardial UA and/or Cr levels were also observed for hypothermia and gastrointestinal bleeding. However, in drowning cases, the left cardiac and pericardial UN levels were lower than the right cardiac and peripheral levels, suggesting the influence of water aspiration. Significant elevations in serum and pericardial Cr and UA levels with a higher serum/pericardial UA ratio for fatal methamphetamine intoxication suggest progressive skeletal muscle damage due to advanced hypoxia/acidosis. Similar findings were often observed for other acute and subacute deaths. These findings suggest that a comparison between blood and pericardial nitrogenous compounds would be useful for investigating the cause and process of death.

  16. Albumin leakage in online hemodiafiltration, more convective transport, more losses?

    PubMed

    Vega, Almudena; Quiroga, Borja; Abad, Soraya; Aragoncillo, Inés; Arroyo, David; Panizo, Nayara; López-Gómez, Juan M

    2015-06-01

    Online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) has now demonstrated some benefits in reducing mortality. It seems that rising convective volumes improve the outcomes, but the risks of it, such as albumin leakage, are not well defined yet. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the albumin leakage using two different filters with 20 and 30 L of post-dilution OL-HDF. In this cross-sectional study, 20 prevalent patients receiving post-dilution OL-HDL were included. We analyzed two dialyzers: FX1000, FMC and Polyflux 210H, Gambro. During four consecutive dialysis sessions, monitors were programmed using control-volume to obtain 20 or 30 L with both dialyzers. We collected albumin samples of the effluent at 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and performed area under the curve (AUC) determinations for evaluating the losses. Mean patient age was 60 ± 9 years, and 70% were men. Albumin leakage was significant higher with Polyflux 210H when compared to FX 1000 FMC. A convective volume of 30 L produced greater albumin leakage than 20 L with both filters, though only with the FX 1000 FMC was it significant (minimum albumin leakage during first hour with FX 1000 FMC 20 L: 79.2 [0.0-175.7] mg; 30 liters: 403.3 [63.5-960.7] mg; with PF 210 Gambro 20 L: 869.1 [420.0-3214.7] mg; 30 L: 1841.7 [443.8-3417.5] mg). During OL-HDF, convective transport causes albumin leakage at least during the first hour. The albumin concentration in the effluent differs according to the type of filter used and the convective volume.

  17. An inhibitor to erythrocyte agglutination in bovine albumin preparations.

    PubMed

    Gunson, H H; Phillips, P K

    1975-01-01

    Three out of 28 commercial preparations of bovine serum albumin have been encountered which have an inhibitory effect on the assay of anti-Rh-o(D) using the Technicon AutoAnalyser. The inhibitory property, which can also be demonstrated by standard manual serological techniques, appears to be directed towards the second stage of the agglutination reaction. An automated screening procedure for bovine serum albumin preparations and some properties of the inhibitor are described.

  18. FRET-Aptamer Assays for Bone Marker Assessment, C-Telopeptide, Creatinine, and Vitamin D

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruno, John G.

    2013-01-01

    Astronauts lose 1.0 to 1.5% of their bone mass per month on long-duration spaceflights. NASA wishes to monitor the bone loss onboard spacecraft to develop nutritional and exercise countermeasures, and make adjustments during long space missions. On Earth, the same technology could be used to monitor osteoporosis and its therapy. Aptamers bind to targets against which they are developed, much like antibodies. However, aptamers do not require animal hosts or cell culture and are therefore easier, faster, and less expensive to produce. In addition, aptamers sometimes exhibit greater affinity and specificity vs. comparable antibodies. In this work, fluorescent dyes and quenchers were added to the aptamers to enable pushbutton, one-step, bind-and-detect fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assays or tests that can be freeze-dried, rehydrated with body fluids, and used to quantitate bone loss of vitamin D levels with a handheld fluorometer in the spacecraft environment. This work generated specific, rapid, one-step FRET assays for the bone loss marker C-telopeptide (CTx) when extracted from urine, creatinine from urine, and vitamin D congeners in diluted serum. The assays were quantified in nanograms/mL using a handheld fluorometer connected to a laptop computer to convert the raw fluorescence values into concentrations of each analyte according to linear standard curves. DNA aptamers were selected and amplified for several rounds against a 26- amino acid form of CTx, creatinine, and vitamin D. The commonalities between loop structures were studied, and several common loop structures were converted into aptamer beacons with a fluorophore and quencher on each end. In theory, when the aptamer beacon binds its cognate target (CTx bone peptide, creatinine, or vitamin D), it is forced open and no longer quenched, so it gives off fluorescent light (when excited) in proportion to the amount of target present in a sample. This proportional increase in fluorescence is

  19. Efficient delivery of therapeutic agents by using targeted albumin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kouchakzadeh, Hasan; Safavi, Maryam Sadat; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Albumin nanoparticles are one of the most important drug carriers for the delivery of therapeutic drugs, especially for the treatment of malignancies. This potential is due to their high binding capacity for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and the possibility of surface modification. Accumulation of albumin-bound drugs in the tumor interstitium occurs by the enhanced permeability and retention effect, which is also facilitated by the 60-kDa glycoprotein transcytosis pathway and binding to secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine located in the tumor extracellular matrix. In addition, specific ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, folic acid, transferrin, and peptides can be conjugated to the surface of albumin nanoparticles to actively target the drug to its site of action. The albumin-bound paclitaxel, Abraxane, is one of the several therapeutic nanocarriers that have been approved for clinical use. By the development of Abraxane that demonstrates a higher response rate and improved tolerability and therapeutic efficiency in comparison with solvent-based formulation, and with consideration of its commercial success, albumin is attracting the interest of many biotechnological and pharmaceutical companies. This chapter explores the current targeted and nontargeted albumin-based nanoparticles that are in various stages of development for the delivery of therapeutic agents in order to enhance the efficacy of cancer treatment.

  20. Surface molecularly imprinted magnetic microspheres for the recognition of albumin.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Fatma; Denizli, Adil

    2014-08-01

    A new approach, combining metal coordination with the molecular imprinting technique, was developed to prepare affinity materials. Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres in monosize form were used for specific recognition toward the target protein. The magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres were prepared by dispersion polymerization in the presence of magnetite nanopowder. Surface imprinted magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres based on metal coordination were prepared and used for the selective recognition of human serum albumin. Iminodiacetic acid was used as the metal coordinating agent and human serum albumin was anchored by Cu(2+) ions on the surface of magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres by metal coordination. The magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres were coated with a polymer formed by condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. The human serum albumin imprinted magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and particle size analysis. The maximum adsorption capacity of human serum albumin imprinted magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres was 37.7 mg/g polymer at pH 6.0. The selectivity experiments of human serum albumin imprinted magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres prepared with different concentrations in the presence of lysozyme, bovine serum albumin and cytochrome C were performed in order to determine the relative selectivity coefficients.

  1. Capillary electrophoresis of seed 2S albumins from Lupinus species.

    PubMed

    Salmanowicz, B P

    2000-10-13

    Two modes of capillary electrophoresis (CE)--free-solution capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate capillary electrophoresis (SDS-CE) using a non-gel sieving matrix--have been developed for comparative analysis of low-molecular-mass 2S albumin isoforms from lupins. The albumin fraction and 2S albumins were separated in uncoated fused-silica capillary by CZE with 0.02 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.3, containing the sodium salt of phytic acid. The use of phytic acid (0.025 M) as buffer modifier and ion-pairing agent improved migration reproducibility, peak shape and separation efficiency. The reduced 2S albumins were separated by SDS-CE using a high concentration (0.3-0.5 M) mixture of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and borate buffers in uncoated fused-silica capillary. Of the various polymers used as non-gel sieving matrix, SDS-CE with a 10% dextran solution was found to be suitable for separation of 2S albumin polypeptides with molecular masses of 4,000-7,000 and 8,000-11,000. The addition of glycerol or ethylene glycol to the SDS separating buffer improved the resolution of polypeptides. The examined Lupinus species showed species-specific CZE and SDS-CE migration profiles of the 2S albumins.

  2. Fast vaporization solid phase microextraction and ion mobility spectrometry: A new approach for determination of creatinine in biological fluids.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mostafa; Ebrahimzadeh, Homeira; Banitaba, Mohamma Hossein

    2015-11-01

    In this work a rapid and simple method for creatinine determination in urine and plasma samples based on aqueous derivatization of creatinine and complete vaporization of sample (as low as 10 µL), followed by ion mobility spectrometry analysis has been proposed. The effect of four important parameters (extraction temperature, total volume of solution, desorption temperature and extraction time) on ion mobility signal has been studied. Under the optimized conditions, the quantitative response of ion mobility spectrometry for creatinine was linear in the range of 0-500 mg L(-1) with a detection limit of 0.6 mg L(-1) in urine and 0-250 mg L(-1) with a detection limit of 2.6 mg L(-1) in plasma sample. The limit of quantitation of creatinine was 2.1 mg L(-1) and 8.7 mg L(-1) in urine and plasma samples, respectively. The relative standard deviation of the method was found to be 13%. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of creatinine in biological samples, showing recoveries from 92% to 104% in urine and 101-110% in plasma samples. PMID:26452850

  3. Estimating the concentration of urea and creatinine in the human serum of normal and dialysis patients through Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Maurício Liberal; Saatkamp, Cassiano Junior; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha; Pinheiro, Antonio Luiz Barbosa; Silveira, Landulfo

    2016-09-01

    Urea and creatinine are commonly used as biomarkers of renal function. Abnormal concentrations of these biomarkers are indicative of pathological processes such as renal failure. This study aimed to develop a model based on Raman spectroscopy to estimate the concentration values of urea and creatinine in human serum. Blood sera from 55 clinically normal subjects and 47 patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis were collected, and concentrations of urea and creatinine were determined by spectrophotometric methods. A Raman spectrum was obtained with a high-resolution dispersive Raman spectrometer (830 nm). A spectral model was developed based on partial least squares (PLS), where the concentrations of urea and creatinine were correlated with the Raman features. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to discriminate dialysis patients from normal subjects. The PLS model showed r = 0.97 and r = 0.93 for urea and creatinine, respectively. The root mean square errors of cross-validation (RMSECV) for the model were 17.6 and 1.94 mg/dL, respectively. PCA showed high discrimination between dialysis and normality (95 % accuracy). The Raman technique was able to determine the concentrations with low error and to discriminate dialysis from normal subjects, consistent with a rapid and low-cost test. PMID:27393683

  4. Quantitation of renal function with 99Tcm-DMSA. A comparison with creatinine clearance in children with single kidney.

    PubMed

    Baillet, G; Gagnadoux, M F; De Vernejoul, P; Broyer, M

    1985-11-01

    To study the accuracy of renal function quantification with 99Tcm-DMSA we compared DMSA renal uptake and creatinine clearance in 16 cases of children with single kidney. The age of the patients ranged from two months to fourteen years. Creatinine clearance was normalized to 1.73 m2. DMSA uptake was measured 7 h after intravenous injection. Background subtraction was used and soft tissue attenuation was taken into account. The uptake was normalized in percentage of the injected activity. A significant correlation was found between creatinine clearance and DMSA uptake (rt = 0.866, p less than 0.01). Normal creatinine clearance range in children (80 to 120 ml min-1/1.73 m2) allowed determination of normal uptake range (36 to 60%). This study indicates that in case of asymmetrical renal impairment renal uptake will reflect split renal creatinine clearance. Since the former is much easier to measure, DMSA should play an important role in the evaluation of differential renal function.

  5. Investigation of the photocatalytic degradation pathway of the urine metabolite, creatinine: the effect of pH.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Maria G; Nambiar, Usha; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the degradation pathway of creatinine (a urine metabolite) with immobilized titanium dioxide photocatalysts. The degradation of creatinine was studied at three different pH values (acidic, neutral and basic) in the absence of buffering solutions. The intermediates formed were identified by using electrospray ionization mass spectrometer (ESI-MS) in both negative and positive ion mode. Two distinct mechanistic pathways which govern the photocatalytic degradation of creatinine irrespective of the pH of the initial solution were identified. The initial solution pH affected only the selectivity between the two mechanisms. The primary oxidation steps of creatinine with hydroxyl radicals included demethylation, hydrogen abstraction, hydroxylation, oxidation, and ring opening. At acidic pH, additional transformation steps of the two mechanisms were identified. The intermediates detected in the positive ion mode, contained at least one atom of nitrogen in their structure, explaining the observed low nitrogen mineralization of creatinine with TiO(2) photocatalysis. The intermediates in the negative ion mode were low molecular weight organic acids that contained only carbon and hydrogen atoms. PMID:19595423

  6. Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) microbubbles for the induction of focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and concurrent MR and ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Liao, Ai-Ho; Liu, Hao-Li; Su, Chia-Hao; Hua, Mu-Yi; Yang, Hung-Wei; Weng, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Po-Hung; Huang, Sheng-Min; Wu, Shih-Yen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Li, Pai-Chi

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents new albumin-shelled Gd-DTPA microbubbles (MBs) that can concurrently serve as a dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound (US) imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening and detect intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) during focused ultrasound brain drug delivery. Perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were prepared with a mean diameter of 2320 nm and concentration of 2.903×10(9) MBs ml(-1) using albumin-(Gd-DTPA) and by sonication with perfluorocarbon (C(3)F(8)) gas. The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were then centrifuged and the procedure was repeated until the free Gd(3+) ions were eliminated (which were detected by the xylenol orange sodium salt solution). The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were also characterized and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by US and MR imaging. Focused US was used with the albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs to induce disruption of the BBB in 18 rats. BBB disruption was confirmed with contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence MR imaging. Heavy T(2)*-weighted 3D fast low-angle shot sequence MR imaging was used to detect ICH. In vitro US imaging experiments showed that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can significantly enhance the US contrast in T(1)-, T(2)- and T(2)*-weighted MR images. The r(1) and r(2) relaxivities for Gd-DTPA were 7.69 and 21.35 s(-1)mM(-1), respectively, indicating that the MBs represent a positive contrast agent in T(1)-weighted images. In vivo MR imaging experiments on 18 rats showed that focused US combined with albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can be used to both induce disruption of the BBB and detect ICH. To compare the signal intensity change between pure BBB opening and BBB opening accompanying ICH, albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MB imaging can provide a ratio of 5.14 with significant difference (p = 0.026), whereas Gd-DTPA imaging only provides a ratio of 2.13 and without significant difference (p = 0.108). The results indicate that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs have potential as a US/MR dual

  7. Paramagnetic perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) microbubbles for the induction of focused-ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier opening and concurrent MR and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Ai-Ho; Liu, Hao-Li; Su, Chia-Hao; Hua, Mu-Yi; Yang, Hung-Wei; Weng, Yu-Ting; Hsu, Po-Hung; Huang, Sheng-Min; Wu, Shih-Yen; Wang, Hsin-Ell; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Li, Pai-Chi

    2012-05-01

    This paper presents new albumin-shelled Gd-DTPA microbubbles (MBs) that can concurrently serve as a dual-modality contrast agent for ultrasound (US) imaging and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening and detect intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) during focused ultrasound brain drug delivery. Perfluorocarbon-filled albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were prepared with a mean diameter of 2320 nm and concentration of 2.903×109 MBs ml-1 using albumin-(Gd-DTPA) and by sonication with perfluorocarbon (C3F8) gas. The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were then centrifuged and the procedure was repeated until the free Gd3+ ions were eliminated (which were detected by the xylenol orange sodium salt solution). The albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs were also characterized and evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by US and MR imaging. Focused US was used with the albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs to induce disruption of the BBB in 18 rats. BBB disruption was confirmed with contrast-enhanced T1-weighted turbo-spin-echo sequence MR imaging. Heavy T2*-weighted 3D fast low-angle shot sequence MR imaging was used to detect ICH. In vitro US imaging experiments showed that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can significantly enhance the US contrast in T1-, T2- and T2*-weighted MR images. The r1 and r2 relaxivities for Gd-DTPA were 7.69 and 21.35 s-1mM-1, respectively, indicating that the MBs represent a positive contrast agent in T1-weighted images. In vivo MR imaging experiments on 18 rats showed that focused US combined with albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs can be used to both induce disruption of the BBB and detect ICH. To compare the signal intensity change between pure BBB opening and BBB opening accompanying ICH, albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MB imaging can provide a ratio of 5.14 with significant difference (p = 0.026), whereas Gd-DTPA imaging only provides a ratio of 2.13 and without significant difference (p = 0.108). The results indicate that albumin-(Gd-DTPA) MBs have potential as a US/MR dual-modality contrast agent for

  8. The Relationship between Albumin-Binding Capacity of Recombinant Polypeptide and Changes in the Structure of Albumin-Binding Domain.

    PubMed

    Bormotova, E A; Gupalova, T V

    2015-07-01

    Many bacteria express surface proteins interacting with human serum albumin (HSA). One of these proteins, PAB from anaerobic bacteria, contains an albumin-binding domain consisting of 45 amino acid residues known as GA domain. GA domains are also found in G proteins isolated from human streptococcal strains (groups C and G) and of albumin-binding protein isolated from group G streptococcal strains of animal origin. The GA domain is a left-handed three-helix bundle structure in which amino acid residues of the second and third helixes are involved in albumin binding. We studied the relationship between HSA-binding activity of the recombinant polypeptide isolated from group G streptococcus of animal origin and structure of the GA domain is studied. Structural changes in GA domain significantly attenuated HAS-binding capacity of the recombinant polypeptide. Hence, affinity HSA-binding polypeptide depends on stability of GA domain structure.

  9. Rosin Surfactant QRMAE Can Be Utilized as an Amorphous Aggregate Inducer: A Case Study of Mammalian Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Ishtikhar, Mohd; Chandel, Tajjali Ilm; Ahmad, Aamir; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Al-Lohadan, Hamad A; Atta, Ayman M; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary amine of diethylaminoethyl rosin ester (QRMAE), chemically synthesized biocompatible rosin based cationic surfactant, has various biological applications including its use as a food product additive. In this study, we examined the amorphous aggregation behavior of mammalian serum albumins at pH 7.5, i.e., two units above their isoelectric points (pI ~5.5), and the roles played by positive charge and hydrophobicity of exogenously added rosin surfactant QRMAE. The study was carried out on five mammalian serum albumins, using various spectroscopic methods, dye binding assay, circular dichroism and electron microscopy. The thermodynamics of the binding of mammalian serum albumins to cationic rosin modified surfactant were established using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). It was observed that a suitable molar ratio of protein to QRMAE surfactant enthusiastically induces amorphous aggregate formation at a pH above two units of pI. Rosin surfactant QRMAE-albumins interactions revealed a unique interplay between the initial electrostatic and the subsequent hydrophobic interactions that play an important role towards the formation of hydrophobic interactions-driven amorphous aggregate. Amorphous aggregation of proteins is associated with varying diseases, from the formation of protein wine haze to the expansion of the eye lenses in cataract, during the expression and purification of recombinant proteins. This study can be used for the design of novel biomolecules or drugs with the ability to neutralize factor(s) responsible for the aggregate formation, in addition to various other industrial applications.

  10. Rosin Surfactant QRMAE Can Be Utilized as an Amorphous Aggregate Inducer: A Case Study of Mammalian Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Ishtikhar, Mohd; Chandel, Tajjali Ilm; Ahmad, Aamir; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Al-lohadan, Hamad A.; Atta, Ayman M.; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary amine of diethylaminoethyl rosin ester (QRMAE), chemically synthesized biocompatible rosin based cationic surfactant, has various biological applications including its use as a food product additive. In this study, we examined the amorphous aggregation behavior of mammalian serum albumins at pH 7.5, i.e., two units above their isoelectric points (pI ~5.5), and the roles played by positive charge and hydrophobicity of exogenously added rosin surfactant QRMAE. The study was carried out on five mammalian serum albumins, using various spectroscopic methods, dye binding assay, circular dichroism and electron microscopy. The thermodynamics of the binding of mammalian serum albumins to cationic rosin modified surfactant were established using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). It was observed that a suitable molar ratio of protein to QRMAE surfactant enthusiastically induces amorphous aggregate formation at a pH above two units of pI. Rosin surfactant QRMAE-albumins interactions revealed a unique interplay between the initial electrostatic and the subsequent hydrophobic interactions that play an important role towards the formation of hydrophobic interactions-driven amorphous aggregate. Amorphous aggregation of proteins is associated with varying diseases, from the formation of protein wine haze to the expansion of the eye lenses in cataract, during the expression and purification of recombinant proteins. This study can be used for the design of novel biomolecules or drugs with the ability to neutralize factor(s) responsible for the aggregate formation, in addition to various other industrial applications. PMID:26418451

  11. Rosin Surfactant QRMAE Can Be Utilized as an Amorphous Aggregate Inducer: A Case Study of Mammalian Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Ishtikhar, Mohd; Chandel, Tajjali Ilm; Ahmad, Aamir; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Al-Lohadan, Hamad A; Atta, Ayman M; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary amine of diethylaminoethyl rosin ester (QRMAE), chemically synthesized biocompatible rosin based cationic surfactant, has various biological applications including its use as a food product additive. In this study, we examined the amorphous aggregation behavior of mammalian serum albumins at pH 7.5, i.e., two units above their isoelectric points (pI ~5.5), and the roles played by positive charge and hydrophobicity of exogenously added rosin surfactant QRMAE. The study was carried out on five mammalian serum albumins, using various spectroscopic methods, dye binding assay, circular dichroism and electron microscopy. The thermodynamics of the binding of mammalian serum albumins to cationic rosin modified surfactant were established using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). It was observed that a suitable molar ratio of protein to QRMAE surfactant enthusiastically induces amorphous aggregate formation at a pH above two units of pI. Rosin surfactant QRMAE-albumins interactions revealed a unique interplay between the initial electrostatic and the subsequent hydrophobic interactions that play an important role towards the formation of hydrophobic interactions-driven amorphous aggregate. Amorphous aggregation of proteins is associated with varying diseases, from the formation of protein wine haze to the expansion of the eye lenses in cataract, during the expression and purification of recombinant proteins. This study can be used for the design of novel biomolecules or drugs with the ability to neutralize factor(s) responsible for the aggregate formation, in addition to various other industrial applications. PMID:26418451

  12. Clinical value of creatinine kinase in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vitoratos, N; Gregoriou, O; Papadias, C; Konidaris, S; Kalogirou, D; Kalampokis, D; Chryssikopoulos, A

    1998-08-01

    The role of creatinine kinase (CK) in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was studied. We selected 56 patients divided into 4 groups. Group A consisted of 10 patients with asymptomatic tubal pregnancy, group B consisted of 11 patients with symptomatic tubal pregnancy whereas groups C and D consisted of 20 and 15 patients with normal and threatened intrauterine pregnancy, respectively. Serum samples of CK were taken from all patients on admission. No significant difference was observed in the median CK value of cases with normal pregnancy (58.5 +/- 7.24 U/1, mean +/- SE) as well as threatened abortion (73 +/- 11.43 U/1) compared to that of cases with asymptomatic 58.5 +/- 12.42 U/1) or symptomatic tubal pregnancy (59 +/- 10.08 U/1). We conclude that serum CK is not a useful biochemical marker in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. PMID:9701684

  13. Biomedical analytical monitor of artificial kidney operation: Monitoring of creatinine removal.

    PubMed

    Michalec, Michał; Tymecki, Łukasz; Koncki, Robert

    2016-09-01

    A general concept for the development of flow analysis system for non-invasive, bloodless monitoring of uremic toxins' removal in the course of clinical hemodialysis treatment is presented. The monitor operates in both (discrete and continuous) modes of measurements. In this study as a model uremic marker creatinine has been chosen. The monitor is based on solenoid operated microdevices (pumps and valves) and an optoelectronic flow-through detector made of paired light emitting diodes allowing photometric determination of this metabolite using Jaffé method. Additionally, a simple two microsolenoid pump-based module allowing the modeling of toxin removal by artificial kidney has been developed. The developed monitor has been validated with real samples of postdialysate fluid produced by artificial kidney in the course of clinical hemodialysis treatment. The results of hemodialysis monitoring are fully comparable with those obtained using reference off-line method. PMID:27214506

  14. [Correlation of the clearance of amylase and creatinine in acute pancreatitis and other pathologies].

    PubMed

    Morel, C; Ferraina, P; Valente, A; Cervio, R

    1981-01-01

    The study of a group of 151 patients confirms the diagnostic value of elevated ACCR in pancreatitis, it was positive in 89.4% of them, of the group, 30 were normal, 19 exhibited acute pancreatitis and 102 had various other pathologies. Serious pancreatitis has shown coincide with a long-lasting rise of ACCR, and its rise in the course of the disease was a sign of a new outburst of progressive necrosis. Total unreliability when abnormal creatinine clearance is present was ascertained. The possible mechanism of increase in ACCR has been considered also in connection with the study of the results obtained on a group of patients exhibiting renal insufficiency, gastrointestinal bleeding, acute colecystitis, vesicular lithiasis and obstructive jaundice. PMID:6172947

  15. Early and small changes in serum creatinine concentrations are associated with mortality in mechanically ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Nin, Nicolás; Lombardi, Raúl; Frutos-Vivar, Fernando; Esteban, Andrés; Lorente, José A; Ferguson, Niall D; Hurtado, Javier; Apezteguia, Carlos; Brochard, Laurent; Schortgen, Fréderique; Raymondos, Konstantinos; Tomicic, Vinko; Soto, Luis; González, Marco; Nightingale, Peter; Abroug, Fekri; Pelosi, Paolo; Arabi, Yaseen; Moreno, Rui; Anzueto, Antonio

    2010-08-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that minor changes in serum creatinine concentrations are associated with increased hospital mortality rates. However, whether serum creatinine concentration (SCr) on admission and its change are associated with an increased mortality rate in mechanically ventilated patients is not known. We have conducted an international, prospective, observational cohort study enrolling adult intensive care unit patients under mechanical ventilation (MV). Recursive partitioning was used to determine the values of SCr at the start of MV (SCr0) and the change in SCr ([DeltaSCr] defined as the maximal difference between the value at start of MV [day 0] and the value on MV day 2 at 8:00 am) that best discriminate mortality. In-hospital mortality, adjusted by a proportional hazards model, was the primary outcome variable. A total of 2,807 patients were included; median age was 59 years and median Simplified Acute Physiology Score II was 44. All-cause in-hospital mortality was 44%. The variable that best discriminated outcome was a SCr0 greater than 1.40 mg/dL (mortality, 57% vs. 36% for patients with SCr0

  16. Comparing GFR Estimating Equations Using Cystatin C and Creatinine in Elderly Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Li; Levey, Andrew S.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Andresdottir, Margret B.; Gudmundsdottir, Hrefna; Indridason, Olafur S.; Palsson, Runolfur; Mitchell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend reporting eGFR using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations unless other equations are more accurate, and recommend the combination of creatinine and cystatin C (eGFRcr-cys) as more accurate than either eGFRcr or eGFRcys alone. However, preferred equations and filtration markers in elderly individuals are debated. In 805 adults enrolled in the community-based Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study, we measured GFR (mGFR) using plasma clearance of iohexol, standardized creatinine and cystatin C, and eGFR using the CKD-EPI, Japanese, Berlin Initiative Study (BIS), and Caucasian and Asian pediatric and adult subjects (CAPA) equations. We evaluated equation performance using bias, precision, and two measures of accuracy. We first compared the Japanese, BIS, and CAPA equations with the CKD-EPI equations to determine the preferred equations, and then compared eGFRcr and eGFRcys with eGFRcr-cys using the preferred equations. Mean (SD) age was 80.3 (4.0) years. Median (25th, 75th) mGFR was 64 (52, 73) ml/min per 1.73 m2, and the prevalence of decreased GFR was 39% (95% confidence interval, 35.8 to 42.5). Among 24 comparisons with the other equations, CKD-EPI equations performed better in 9, similar in 13, and worse in 2. Using the CKD-EPI equations, eGFRcr-cys performed better than eGFRcr in four metrics, better than eGFRcys in two metrics, and similar to eGFRcys in two metrics. In conclusion, neither the Japanese, BIS, nor CAPA equations were superior to the CKD-EPI equations in this cohort of community-dwelling elderly individuals. Using the CKD-EPI equations, eGFRcr-cys performed better than eGFRcr or eGFRcys. PMID:25527647

  17. Glycated Albumin is Independently Associated With Arterial Stiffness in Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hoon Young; Park, Seung Kyo; Yun, Gi Young; Choi, Ah Ran; Lee, Jung Eun; Ha, Sung Kyu; Park, Hyeong Cheon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Glycated albumin (GA) exhibits atherogenic effects and increased serum GA levels are associated with the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients. GA production also increases with aging, oxidative stress, and renal dysfunction. We performed this study to further ascertain the association between GA and arterial stiffness in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We enrolled 129 nondiabetic CKD patients. Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) using a volume plethysmographic instrument along with simultaneous measurements of GA. Insulin resistance was determined with the homeostatic model assessment. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated using serum creatinine and cystatin C according to the CKD-EPI Creatinine-Cystatin C equation adjusted for age, sex, and race (eGFRcr-cys). Nondiabetic CKD patients with arterial stiffness (baPWV ≥1400 cm/s) showed higher GA levels than those without arterial stiffness (14.2 [8.7–20.2]% vs 13.0 [8.8–18.9]%, P = 0.004). In the subgroup analysis, the patients who had both a higher GA level and a lower eGFRcr-cys, showed the highest baPWV compared with patients with a higher GA or a lower GFR alone. By Spearman's correlation analysis, GA correlated significantly with baPWV (r = +0.291, P = 0.001) and fasting serum glucose level (r = +0.191, P = 0.030), whereas The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance did not show any significant correlation with baPWV. Systolic blood pressure (r = +0.401 P < 0.001), age (r = +0.574, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level (r = −0.317, P < 0.001), and eGFRcr-cys (r = −0.285, P = 0.002) had a significant correlation with baPWV. According to multivariable logistic regression analysis, higher GA and systolic blood pressure were the independent risk factors affecting arterial stiffness. Our results suggest

  18. Glycated Albumin is Independently Associated With Arterial Stiffness in Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease Patients.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hoon Young; Park, Seung Kyo; Yun, Gi Young; Choi, Ah Ran; Lee, Jung Eun; Ha, Sung Kyu; Park, Hyeong Cheon

    2016-04-01

    Glycated albumin (GA) exhibits atherogenic effects and increased serum GA levels are associated with the development of cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients. GA production also increases with aging, oxidative stress, and renal dysfunction. We performed this study to further ascertain the association between GA and arterial stiffness in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We enrolled 129 nondiabetic CKD patients. Arterial stiffness was measured by brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) using a volume plethysmographic instrument along with simultaneous measurements of GA. Insulin resistance was determined with the homeostatic model assessment. The estimated glomerular filtration rate was calculated using serum creatinine and cystatin C according to the CKD-EPI Creatinine-Cystatin C equation adjusted for age, sex, and race (eGFRcr-cys). Nondiabetic CKD patients with arterial stiffness (baPWV ≥1400 cm/s) showed higher GA levels than those without arterial stiffness (14.2 [8.7-20.2]% vs 13.0 [8.8-18.9]%, P = 0.004). In the subgroup analysis, the patients who had both a higher GA level and a lower eGFRcr-cys, showed the highest baPWV compared with patients with a higher GA or a lower GFR alone. By Spearman's correlation analysis, GA correlated significantly with baPWV (r = +0.291, P = 0.001) and fasting serum glucose level (r = +0.191, P = 0.030), whereas The homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance did not show any significant correlation with baPWV. Systolic blood pressure (r = +0.401 P < 0.001), age (r = +0.574, P < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level (r = -0.317, P < 0.001), and eGFRcr-cys (r = -0.285, P = 0.002) had a significant correlation with baPWV. According to multivariable logistic regression analysis, higher GA and systolic blood pressure were the independent risk factors affecting arterial stiffness. Our results suggest that serum GA is a

  19. Expanded and packed bed albumin adsorption on fluoride modified zirconia.

    PubMed

    Mullick, A; Griffith, C M; Flickinger, M C

    1998-11-01

    The expanded bed characteristics of 75-103microm fluoride-modified zirconia (FmZr) particles synthesized by a fed batch oil emulsion process were investigated. These particles are distinguished from commercially available expanded-bed adsorbents by virtue of their high density (2.8 g/cc) and the mixed mode protein retention mechanism which allows for the retention of both cationic and anionic proteins. The linear velocity versus bed porosity data agree with the Richardson-Zaki relationship with the terminal velocity in infinite medium of 2858.4 cm/h and a bed expansion index of 5.1. Residence time distribution (RTD) studies and bovine serum albumin (BSA) adsorption studies were performed as a function of the height of the settled bed to the column diameter (H:D) ratio and degree of bed expansion with superficial velocities of 440 to 870 cm/h. The settled bed, a 2x expanded bed, and a 3x expanded bed were studied for the H:D ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1. The dynamic binding capacity (DBC) at 5% breakthrough was low (2-8 mg BSA/mL settled bed) and was independent of the H:D ratio or the degree of bed expansion. The saturation DBC was 32.3 +/- 7.0 mg BSA/mL settled bed. The adsorption-desorption kinetics and intraparticle diffusion for protein adsorption on FmZr (38-75 micrometer) were investigated by studying the packed bed RTD and BSA adsorption as a function of temperature and flow rate. The data show that the adsorption-desorption kinetics along with intraparticle diffusion significantly influence protein adsorption on FmZr. Low residence times ( approximately 0.8 min) of BSA result in a DBC at 5% breakthrough which is 3.5-fold lower compared to that at 6-fold higher protein residence time. At low linear velocity (45 cm/h) the breakthrough curve is nearly symmetrical and becomes asymmetrical and more dispersed at higher linear velocity (270 cm/h) due to the influence of slow adsorption-desorption kinetics and intraparticle diffusion. Bioeng 60: 333-340, 1998. PMID

  20. Simultaneous determination of urinary creatinine and UV-absorbing amino acids using a novel low-capacity cation-exchange chromatography for the screening of inborn errors of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yukio; Yamasaki, Keiko; Sato, Hisakuni

    2005-02-25

    A simple and versatile low-capacity cation-exchange chromatography system for the simultaneous determination of creatinine and UV-absorbing amino acids was developed. The separation column was packed with a newly developed low-capacity sulfoacylated macro-porous polystyrene-divinylbenzene resin selective for amino-acid cations. Urinary creatinine, creatine, tyrosine, histidine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan were simultaneously separated and determined by an isocratic elution with phosphate/acetonitrile eluent in 25 min. Relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) of the retention times for the analytes were between 0.28 and 1.06%. R.S.D. of peak area responses for the analytes were between 0.75 and 3.51%. The r(2) values for the calibration lines were between 0.9994 and 0.9999. The method could provide the creatinine ratios for the analytes, and was applicable to the screening and/or chemical diagnosis of several inherited disorders of amino-acid metabolism such as phenylketonuria (PKU). PMID:15664367

  1. Creatinine clearance, urinary excretion of glomerular basement membrane antigens and renal histology in congenital nephrotic syndrome of Finnish type.

    PubMed

    Huttunen, N P

    1977-04-01

    The endogenous creatinine clearance and urinary excretion rate of glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antigens were followed from 2 to 19 months in fifteen patients with congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNF). The quantitative examination of renal morphology was made on fourteen of these patients. Creatinine clearance increased during the first few months of life and thereafter gradually decreased. The urinary excretion rate of GBM antigens rose during the course of the disease. The creatinine clearance did not correlate significantly with glomerular fibrosis but it did correlate with tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis. The urinary excretion of GBM antigens correlated significantly with glomerular and interstitial fibrosis and with tubular atrophy. It is concluded that there is a clear progress in the disease and the renal histological changes probably are caused by accumulation of GBM material in glomeruli.

  2. Serum creatinine elevation after switch to dolutegravir in a human immunodeficiency virus-positive kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Lee, D H; Malat, G E; Bias, T E; Harhay, M N; Ranganna, K; Doyle, A M

    2016-08-01

    Dolutegravir is a preferred antiretroviral drug for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients following solid organ transplantation. It has potent antiretroviral activity and does not interact with calcineurin inhibitors. We describe a case of an HIV-infected kidney transplant patient, who was noted to have a rising serum creatinine following initiation of dolutegravir. At first, an acute rejection episode was suspected, but this finding was later attributed to inhibition of creatinine secretion by dolutegravir. We suggest that an awareness of this potential effect of dolutegravir is important for providers who take care of HIV-positive kidney transplant recipients, in order to prevent potentially unnecessary testing. PMID:27159656

  3. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Asami; Kondo, Naoki; Murayama, Nobuko; Tanabe, Naohito; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Background Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults. Design We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES). The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women) aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models. Results With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was −0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, −0.33 to −0.01 g/L). The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when “body mass index”, “consumption of meat or fish”, “self-rated health”, “presence of medical conditions”, “hyperlipidemia”, or “respiratory disease “was included in the model. Conclusion Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways. PMID:27276092

  4. Impact of Precursors Creatine, Creatinine, and Glucose on the Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Grilled Patties of Various Animal Species.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    The impact of precursors such as creatine, creatinine, and glucose on the formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) were studied in patties of 9 different animal species equally heat treated with a double-plate contact grill. All grilled patties of the various species (veal, beef, pork, lamb, horse, venison, turkey, chicken, ostrich) contained several HAs such as MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline; 0.5-1.4 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline, 0 to 1.3 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine, 1.2 to 10.5 ng/g), harman (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole; 0.5 to 3.2 ng/g), and/or norharman (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole 0.5 to 1.9 ng/g). Residual glycogen (glucose) content varied greatly from 0.07 to 1.46 wt% on a dry matter (DM) basis. Total creatin(in)e content in raw meat (1.36 to 2.0 wt% DM) hardly differed between species, except in turkey and ostrich (1.1 wt% DM). Chicken contained, compared to all other species, very low concentrations of glucose (0.07 wt% DM) and the highest levels of nonprotein nitrogen compounds. The free amino acids lysine (r = 0.77, P < 0.001), tyrosine, phenylalanine, proline, isoleucine, and aspartic acid (r = 0.47-0.56, P < 0.05) showed significant correlation to PhIP in chicken. Also a linear correlation was found to exist between PhIP (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) and MeIQx (r = 0.35, P < 0.01), and the molar ratio of creatin(in)e to glucose, respectively. Harman as co-mutagens was linearly correlated to the concentration of glucose (r = 0.65, P < 0.001). By contrast, norharman was not significant correlated to glucose levels. PMID:26445401

  5. Impact of Precursors Creatine, Creatinine, and Glucose on the Formation of Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines in Grilled Patties of Various Animal Species.

    PubMed

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    The impact of precursors such as creatine, creatinine, and glucose on the formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines (HAs) were studied in patties of 9 different animal species equally heat treated with a double-plate contact grill. All grilled patties of the various species (veal, beef, pork, lamb, horse, venison, turkey, chicken, ostrich) contained several HAs such as MeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline; 0.5-1.4 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f] quinoxaline, 0 to 1.3 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine, 1.2 to 10.5 ng/g), harman (1-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b] indole; 0.5 to 3.2 ng/g), and/or norharman (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole 0.5 to 1.9 ng/g). Residual glycogen (glucose) content varied greatly from 0.07 to 1.46 wt% on a dry matter (DM) basis. Total creatin(in)e content in raw meat (1.36 to 2.0 wt% DM) hardly differed between species, except in turkey and ostrich (1.1 wt% DM). Chicken contained, compared to all other species, very low concentrations of glucose (0.07 wt% DM) and the highest levels of nonprotein nitrogen compounds. The free amino acids lysine (r = 0.77, P < 0.001), tyrosine, phenylalanine, proline, isoleucine, and aspartic acid (r = 0.47-0.56, P < 0.05) showed significant correlation to PhIP in chicken. Also a linear correlation was found to exist between PhIP (r = 0.87, P < 0.001) and MeIQx (r = 0.35, P < 0.01), and the molar ratio of creatin(in)e to glucose, respectively. Harman as co-mutagens was linearly correlated to the concentration of glucose (r = 0.65, P < 0.001). By contrast, norharman was not significant correlated to glucose levels.

  6. Depolymerization of insulin amyloid fibrils by albumin-modified magnetic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siposova, Katarina; Kubovcikova, Martina; Bednarikova, Zuzana; Koneracka, Martina; Zavisova, Vlasta; Antosova, Andrea; Kopcansky, Peter; Daxnerova, Zuzana; Gazova, Zuzana

    2012-02-01

    Pathogenesis of amyloid-related diseases is associated with the presence of protein amyloid deposits. Insulin amyloids have been reported in a patient with diabetes undergoing treatment by injection of insulin and causes problems in the production and storage of this drug and in application of insulin pumps. We have studied the interference of insulin amyloid fibrils with a series of 18 albumin magnetic fluids (MFBSAs) consisting of magnetite nanoparticles modified by different amounts of bovine serum albumin (w/w BSA/Fe3O4 from 0.005 up to 15). We have found that MFBSAs are able to destroy amyloid fibrils in vitro. The extent of fibril depolymerization was affected by nanoparticle physical-chemical properties (hydrodynamic diameter, zeta potential and isoelectric point) determined by the BSA amount present in MFBSAs. The most effective were MFBSAs with lower BSA/Fe3O4 ratios (from 0.005 to 0.1) characteristic of about 90% depolymerizing activity. For the most active magnetic fluids (ratios 0.01 and 0.02) the DC50 values were determined in the range of low concentrations, indicating their ability to interfere with insulin fibrils at stoichiometric concentrations. We assume that the present findings represent a starting point for the application of the active MFBSAs as therapeutic agents targeting insulin amyloidosis.

  7. Quantification of osmotic water transport in vivo using fluorescent albumin.

    PubMed

    Morelle, Johann; Sow, Amadou; Vertommen, Didier; Jamar, François; Rippe, Bengt; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane is applied during peritoneal dialysis to remove the excess water accumulated in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery of aquaporin water channels and the generation of transgenic animals have stressed the need for novel and accurate methods to unravel molecular mechanisms of water permeability in vivo. Here, we describe the use of fluorescently labeled albumin as a reliable indicator of osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane in a well-established mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. After detailed evaluation of intraperitoneal tracer mass kinetics, the technique was validated against direct volumetry, considered as the gold standard. The pH-insensitive dye Alexa Fluor 555-albumin was applied to quantify osmotic water transport across the mouse peritoneal membrane resulting from modulating dialysate osmolality and genetic silencing of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1). Quantification of osmotic water transport using Alexa Fluor 555-albumin closely correlated with direct volumetry and with estimations based on radioiodinated ((125)I) serum albumin (RISA). The low intraperitoneal pressure probably accounts for the negligible disappearance of the tracer from the peritoneal cavity in this model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the appropriateness of pH-insensitive Alexa Fluor 555-albumin as a practical and reliable intraperitoneal volume tracer to quantify osmotic water transport in vivo.

  8. Albumin-based nanocomposite spheres for advanced drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Misak, Heath E; Asmatulu, Ramazan; Gopu, Janani S; Man, Ka-Poh; Zacharias, Nora M; Wooley, Paul H; Yang, Shang-You

    2014-01-01

    A novel drug delivery system incorporating human serum albumin, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, magnetite nanoparticles, and therapeutic agent(s) was developed for potential application in the treatment of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and skin cancer. An oil-in-oil emulsion/solvent evaporation (O/OSE) method was modified to produce a drug delivery system with a diameter of 0.5–2 μm. The diameter was mainly controlled by adjusting the viscosity of albumin in the discontinuous phase of the O/OSE method. The drug-release study showed that the release of drug and albumin was mostly dependent on the albumin content of the drug delivery system, which is very similar to the drug occlusion-mesopore model. Cytotoxicity tests indicated that increasing the albumin content in the drug delivery system increased cell viability, possibly due to the improved biocompatibility of the system. Overall, these studies show that the proposed system could be a viable option as a drug delivery system in the treatment of many illnesses, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and skin and breast cancers. PMID:24106002

  9. Regional differences in pleural lymphatic albumin concentration in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Albertine, K.H.; Schultz, E.L.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Staub, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    We used quantitative reflectance autoradiography to compare the concentration of albumin in visceral pleural lymphatics at the cranial and caudal ends of the sheep's lung in the vertical (60 degrees head-up) and horizontal (supine) positions. Twelve to fourteen hours after injecting 125I-albumin intravenously we placed four anesthetized sheep in the vertical position to establish a microvascular hydrostatic pressure gradient along the vertical height of the lung. We placed two anesthetized sheep in the horizontal position. Four hours later, we fixed the left lung and removed visceral pleural tissue blocks from the cranial and caudal ends, separated by a 15-cm distance, along the costovertebral margin. We measured the silver grain density in the pleural lymphatic autoradiograms by dark-field reflectance microspectrophotometry. In the vertical position, the lymph albumin concentration at the cranial end (top) of the lung averaged 2.5 +/- 0.4 g/dl compared with the caudal end (bottom), which averaged 1.8 +/- 0.3 g/dl. The difference (42% greater at the top than the bottom) is significant (P less than 0.05). The computed gradient in perimicrovascular interstitial albumin osmotic pressure was 0.26 +/- 0.13 cmH2O/cm lung height. There were no differences between the cranial and caudal lymphatic groups in the two horizontal sheep. We conclude that in the sheep lung there is a gradient in perimicrovascular albumin concentration due to the vertical gradient in microvascular hydrostatic pressure.

  10. Albumin microvascular leakage in brains with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Ryuji; Chiba, Yoichi; Nakagawa, Toshitaka; Nishi, Nozomu; Murakami, Ryuta; Matsumoto, Koichi; Kawauchi, Machi; Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Ueno, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    Their aim was to examine whether microvascular leakage of endogenous albumin, a representative marker for blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage, was induced in the periventricular area of diabetic db/db mice because periventricular white matter hyperintensity formation in magnetic resonance images was accelerating in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus. Using light and electron microscopes, and semi-quantitative analysis techniques, immunoreactivity of endogenous albumin, indicating vascular permeability, was examined in the periventricular area and spinal cord of db/db mice and db/+m control mice. Greater immunoreactivity of albumin was observed in the vessel wall of the periventricular area of db/db mice than in controls. Additionally, weak immunoreactivity was observed in the spinal cord of both db/db mice and controls. The number of gold particles, indicating immunoreactivity of albumin, in the perivascular area of db/db mice was significantly higher than that of control mice, but there was no significant difference in the number of particles in the spinal cord between db/db mice and controls. These findings suggest that albumin microvascular leakage, or BBB breakdown, is induced in the periventricular area of diabetic mice. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:833-837, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27333535

  11. Bovine Serum Albumin Glutaraldehyde for Completely Sutureless Laparoscopic Heminephrectomy in a Survival Porcine Model

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa, Aldrin Joseph R.; Kaplan, Adam G.; Khosravi, Amanda; Truong, Hung; Andrade, Lorena; Lin, Rachelle; Alipanah, Reza; Ortiz, Cervando; McCormick, David; Box, Geoffrey N.; Lee, Hak J.; Deane, Leslie A.; Edwards, Robert A.; McDougall, Elspeth M.; Clayman, Ralph V.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy (LPN) has not received widespread clinical application because of its technical challenge. Bovine serum albumin glutaraldehyde (BSAG) is a hemostatic agent that is independent of the clotting cascade. We evaluated the use of BSAG as the sole agent for parenchymal and collecting system closure during LPN in a survival porcine model. Methods Eighteen pigs underwent hilar clamping and LPN by longitudinal excision of the lateral one-third of the right kidney. The opened collecting system was covered with oxidized cellulose to prevent BSAG seepage into the urinary tract. BSAG was allowed to set for 10 or 5 minutes. Twelve animals underwent survival LPN BSAG only closure; six control pigs were acutely studied using saline. Urinary extravasation was evaluated by injection of furosemide and indigo carmine, and then evaluating the renal surface and bladder catheter drainage for dye. A subjective bleeding score was assigned after hilum unclamping. At 6 weeks, BSAG kidneys were harvested for burst pressure testing and histopathological analysis. Results All 12 pigs survived for 6 weeks. No pigs had urinary extravasation. Mean percentage of kidney removed by weight was 19%. Mean warm ischemia time was 29 minutes. Five pigs required a second BSAG application to achieve a bleeding score of 0. Mean arterial and collecting system burst pressures were 301.8 and 322.4 mm Hg, respectively. Mean postoperative creatinine increase was 0.07 mg/dL. Conclusion BSAG for completely sutureless LPN in a survival porcine model was feasible. PMID:20059350

  12. The efficacy and safety profile of albumin administration for patients with cirrhosis at high risk of hepatorenal syndrome is dose dependent

    PubMed Central

    Afinogenova, Yuliya; Tapper, Elliot B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Albumin is a critical component in the standard therapeutic approach to acute renal failure (ARF) and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in the setting of ascites. However, data regarding the safety and minimum effective dose are limited. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of patients with decompensated cirrhosis who received albumin within the first 48 hours of hospitalization at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center between 2010 and 2013. Outcomes included 90-day risk of death or transplantation (primary) and (secondary) complications of albumin infusion (length of stay (LOS) and need for critical care)), all adjusted for comorbidity and severity of illness. Results: We included 169 patients with ARF and 88 patients with SBP. The optimal doses of albumin for a survival benefit were found to be 87.5 g and 100 g in the ARF and SBP cohorts, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) for the 90-day risk of death or liver transplantation associated with the optimal loading dose was 0.36 (95% CI: 0.17–0.76, P = 0.008) and 0.28 (95% CI: 0.07–0.97, P = 0.04) for the ARF and SBP cohorts, respectively. This effect persisted for patients with ARF who had neither hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) nor SBP (OR: 0.13, 95% CI: 0.007–0.79, P = 0.02). LOS (beta coefficient per log albumin dose: 1.69; 95% CI: 0.14–3.24, P = 0.03) and risk of critical care (OR/g albumin: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01–1.05, P = 0.01) were also dose dependent. Conclusion: Albumin has a dose-dependent effect on both survival and complications in patients with cirrhosis with ARF (HRS and otherwise) and/or SBP. PMID:26178624

  13. Variability of Creatinine Measurements in Clinical Laboratories: Results from the CRIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Marshall; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Feldman, Harold I.; Weir, Matthew; Landis, J.R.; Hamm, L. Lee

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Estimating equations using serum creatinine (SCr) are often used to assess glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Such creatinine (Cr)-based formulae may produce biased estimates of GFR when using Cr measurements that have not been calibrated to reference laboratories. In this paper, we sought to examine the degree of this variation in Cr assays in several laboratories associated with academic medical centers affiliated with the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study; to consider how best to correct for this variation, and to quantify the impact of such corrections on eligibility for participation in CRIC. Variability of Cr is of particular concern in the conduct of CRIC, a large multicenter study of subjects with chronic renal disease, because eligibility for the study depends on Cr-based assessment of GFR. Methods A library of 5 large volume plasma specimens from apheresis patients was assembled, representing levels of plasma Cr from 0.8 to 2.4 mg/dl. Samples from this library were used for measurement of Cr at each of the 14 CRIC laboratories repetitively over time. We used graphical displays and linear regression methods to examine the variability in Cr, and used linear regression to develop calibration equations. We also examined the impact of the various calibration equations on the proportion of subjects screened as potential participants who were actually eligible for the study. Results There was substantial variability in Cr assays across laboratories and over time. We developed calibration equations for each laboratory; these equations varied substantially among laboratories and somewhat over time in some laboratories. The laboratory site contributed the most to variability (51% of the variance unexplained by the specimen) and variation with time accounted for another 15%. In some laboratories, calibration equations resulted in differences in eligibility for CRIC of as much as 20%. Conclusions The substantial variability in SCr assays

  14. Quantitative Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry--the determination of creatinine by isotope dilution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Tony; Stokes, Peter; O'Connor, Gavin

    2005-01-01

    Accurate quantitation has been demonstrated on many different types of mass spectrometer. However, quantitative applications of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS) have been limited. In this study, the quantitative potential of FTICRMS has been investigated using an exact matching isotope dilution method for the determination of creatinine in serum. Creatinine is an important clinical biomarker and its measurement is used as an assessment of renal function. The quantitation of creatinine was selected because a high-accuracy high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) determination using a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer has already been successfully developed in-house. Therefore, a direct comparison of the quantitative capability of FTICRMS could be made against an established method. The accuracy of the quantitation of creatinine was found to be equivalent to that obtained using LC/MS. However, the expanded measurement uncertainty (k = 2) was larger, at 6%, when using FTICRMS compared with 1% when using HPLC/MS with the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  15. Benefits of direct glomerular filtration rate (GFR) determination versus creatinine-based tests for evaluating renal function.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, C J

    1998-08-01

    To diagnose renal disease earlier and thereby reduce the number of patients with endstage renal disease, accurate, specific diagnostic tests are necessary. The author explains the benefits of using tests that rely on the glomerular filtration rate measurement rather than on traditional creatinine-based diagnostic tests.

  16. Taste modulating N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene) α-amino acids formed from creatinine and reducing carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Christof; Walker, Alesia; Hofmann, Thomas

    2011-08-10

    Recent investigations led to the discovery of N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)aminopropionic acid as a taste modulator enhancing the typical thick-sour mouthdryness and mouthfulness imparted by stewed beef juice. In the present study, systematic model reactions were targeted toward the generation of a series of N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)-α-amino acids by Maillard-type reactions between creatinine and ribose, glucose, methylglyoxal, or glyoxal, respectively. By application of a comparative taste dilution analysis on fractions isolated from thermally treated creatinine/carbohydrate mixtures by means of hydrophilic liquid interaction chromatography (HILIC), a total of nine N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)-α-amino acids were identified by means of LC-MS, LC-TOF-MS, and 1D/2D NMR experiments. Six of the nine creatinine glycation products were previously not reported in the literature. Whereas creatinine exhibited a bitter taste, none of the N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)-α-amino acids imparted any intrinsic taste activity up to levels of 10 mmol/L (in water). Depending strongly on their chemical structure, these N-(1-methyl-4-oxoimidazolidin-2-ylidene)-α-amino acids induced a thick-sour, mouthdrying orosensation and mouthfulness enhancement when evaluated in model broth with recognition thresholds ranging from 31 to >1000 μmol/L.

  17. Tandem measurements of iron and creatinine by cross injection analysis with application to urine from thalassemic patients.

    PubMed

    Choengchan, N; Mantim, T; Inpota, P; Nacapricha, D; Wilairat, P; Jittangprasert, P; Waiyawat, W; Fucharoen, S; Sirankpracha, P; Morales, N Phumala

    2015-02-01

    This work presents development of a method for the dual determination of Fe(III) and creatinine using cross injection analysis (CIA). Two CIA platforms connected in series accommodated sample and reagents plugs aspirated via y-direction channels while water was pumped through the x-direction channel toward a flow-through cell of a diode array UV-vis. detector. Iron was detected from the colorimetric reaction between Fe(II) and 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(N-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)amino) aniline (5-Br-PSAA), with prior reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II) by ascorbic acid. The Jaffe's reaction was employed for the detection of creatinine. Under the optimal conditions, good linearity ranges were achieved for iron in the range 0.5 to 7 mg L(-1) and creatinine in the range 50 to 800 mg L(-1). The CIA system was applied to spot urine samples from thalassemic patients undergoing iron chelation therapy, and was successfully validated with ICP-OES and batchwise Jaffe's method. Normalization of urinary iron excretion with creatinine is useful for correcting the iron concentration between urine samples due to variation of the collected urine volume. PMID:25435226

  18. Scaffold materials from glycosylated and PEGylated bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; David, Allan E; Choi, Young-Suk; Wu, Yonnie; Buschle-Diller, Gisela

    2015-09-01

    Bovine serum albumin has been PEGylated and glycosylated to create mimetic materials for the extracellular matrix (ECM) with potential tissue engineering applications. Different surfaces for cell adhesion were achieved by crosslinking the initial albumin product and forming either a coating or a sponge-like three-dimensional morphology to mimic the mesh structure of natural ECM. The biocompatibility of the albumin matrix with mammalian cells was evaluated using cell culture assays with NIH 3T3 cells. The results indicated that glycoprotein composition and specific morphology of the assembly can improve the cell growth environment. These ECM mimetic structures might eventually be considered to serve as alternatives for the more expensive collagen and elastin based ECM substances currently in use in tissue engineering. PMID:25691091

  19. PRODUCTION OF UNIFORMLY SIZED SERUM ALBUMIN AND DEXTROSE MICROBUBBLES

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Michael J.; O’Brien, William D.; Bernock, Laura J.; Williams, Heather R.; Hamilton, Eric; Wu, Jonah; Oelze, Michael L.; Culp, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Uniformly-sized preparations with average microbubble (MB) diameters from 1 µm to 7 µm were produced reliably by sonicating decafluorobutane-saturated solutions of serum albumin and dextrose. Detailed protocols for producing and size-separating the MBs are presented, along with the effects that changing each production parameter (serum albumin concentration, sonication power, sonication time, etc.) had on MB size distribution and acoustic stability. These protocols can be used to produce MBs for experimental applications or serve as templates for developing new protocols that yield MBs with physical and acoustic properties better suited to specific applications. Size stability and ultrasonic performance quality control tests were developed to assure that successive MB preparations perform identically and to distinguish the physical and acoustic properties of identically sized MBs produced with different serum albumin-dextrose formulations and sonication parameters. MBs can be stored at 5°C for protracted periods (2 weeks to one year depending on formulation). PMID:21689961

  20. Unraveling the Interaction between FcRn and Albumin: Opportunities for Design of Albumin-Based Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Kine Marita Knudsen; Bern, Malin; Nilsen, Jeannette; Noordzij, Hanna Theodora; Sandlie, Inger; Andersen, Jan Terje

    2015-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) was first found to be responsible for transporting antibodies of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) class from the mother to the fetus or neonate as well as for protecting IgG from intracellular catabolism. However, it has now become apparent that the same receptor also binds albumin and plays a fundamental role in homeostatic regulation of both IgG and albumin, as FcRn is expressed in many different cell types and organs at diverse body sites. Thus, to gain a complete understanding of the biological function of each ligand, and also their distribution in the body, an in-depth characterization of how FcRn binds and regulates the transport of both ligands is necessary. Importantly, such knowledge is also relevant when developing new drugs, as IgG and albumin are increasingly utilized in therapy. This review discusses our current structural and biological understanding of the relationship between FcRn and its ligands, with a particular focus on albumin and design of albumin-based therapeutics. PMID:25674083

  1. Statin-sensitive endocytosis of albumin by glomerular podocytes.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Jeanette; Ioannou, Kyriakos; Grubb, Blair D; Saleem, Moin A; Mathieson, Peter W; Brunskill, Nigel J; Christensen, Erik I; Topham, Peter S

    2007-02-01

    Glomerular podocytes are critical regulators of glomerular permeability via the slit diaphragm and may play a role in cleaning the glomerular filter. Whether podocytes are able to endocytose proteins is uncertain. We studied protein endocytosis in conditionally immortalized mouse and human podocytes using FITC-albumin by direct quantitative assay and by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy in mouse podocytes. Furthermore, in vivo uptake was studied in human, rat, and mouse podocytes. Both mouse and human podocytes displayed specific one-site binding for FITC-albumin with K(d) of 0.91 or 0.44 mg/ml and B(max) of 3.15 or 0.81 microg/mg cell protein, respectively. In addition, they showed avid endocytosis of FITC-albumin with K(m) of 9.48 or 4.5 mg/ml and V(max) of 474.3 or 97.4 microg.mg cell protein(-1).h(-1), respectively. Immunoglobulin and transferrin were inefficient competitors of this process, indicating some specificity for albumin. Accumulation of endocytosed albumin could be demonstrated in intracellular vesicles by fluorescence confocal microscopy and electron microscopy. Endocytosis was sensitive to pretreatment with simvastatin. In vivo accumulation of albumin was found in all three species but was most pronounced in the rat. We conclude that podocytes are able to endocytose protein in a statin-sensitive manner. This function is likely to be highly significant in health and disease. In addition, protein endocytosis by podocytes may represent a useful, measurable phenotypic characteristic against which potentially injurious or beneficial interventions can be assessed. PMID:17032937

  2. Engineering Bispecificity into a Single Albumin-Binding Domain

    PubMed Central

    Nilvebrant, Johan; Alm, Tove; Hober, Sophia; Löfblom, John

    2011-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies as well as non-immunoglobulin based bispecific affinity proteins are considered to have a very high potential in future biotherapeutic applications. In this study, we report on a novel approach for generation of extremely small bispecific proteins comprised of only a single structural domain. Binding to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was engineered into an albumin-binding domain while still retaining the original affinity for albumin, resulting in a bispecific protein composed of merely 46 amino acids. By diversification of the non albumin-binding side of the three-helix bundle domain, followed by display of the resulting library on phage particles, bispecific single-domain proteins were isolated using selections with TNF-α as target. Moreover, based on the obtained sequences from the phage selection, a second-generation library was designed in order to further increase the affinity of the bispecific candidates. Staphylococcal surface display was employed for the affinity maturation, enabling efficient isolation of improved binders as well as multiparameter-based sortings with both TNF-α and albumin as targets in the same selection cycle. Isolated variants were sequenced and the binding to albumin and TNF-α was analyzed. This analysis revealed an affinity for TNF-α below 5 nM for the strongest binders. From the multiparameter sorting that simultaneously targeted TNF-α and albumin, several bispecific candidates were isolated with high affinity to both antigens, suggesting that cell display in combination with fluorescence activated cell sorting is a suitable technology for engineering of bispecificity. To our knowledge, the new binders represent the smallest engineered bispecific proteins reported so far. Possibilities and challenges as well as potential future applications of this novel strategy are discussed. PMID:21991353

  3. Preparation and Characterization of 125I Labeled Bovine Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Ashwitha Rai, K. S.; Jyothi; Rasmi, R. R.; Sarnaik, Jayula; Kadwad, V. B.; Shenoy, K. B.; Somashekarappa, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin is a model protein, which has been conventionally used as protein standard and in many areas of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. Radioiodination procedure for bovine serum albumin employing chloramine-T as an oxidant with slight modification was evaluated critically to establish the optimal conditions for the preparation of radiolabeled tracer (125I-BSA) with required specific activity without impairing the immune reactivity and biological activity. Optimized radioiodination procedure involving 10 µg of chloramine-T along with 20 µg of sodium metabisulphite with 60 seconds incubation at 2° yielded 125I-BSA with high integrity. PMID:25767326

  4. Evaluation of postmortem urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid levels in pericardial fluid in forensic autopsy.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bao-Li; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Li, Dong-Ri; Zhao, Dong; Quan, Li; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2005-10-01

    In postmortem biochemistry, there is insufficient data available for the practical analysis of factors in the pericardial fluid. The aim of the present study was to examine postmortem pericardial fluid for urea nitrogen (UN), creatinine (Cr) and uric acid (UA) levels to investigate the pathophysiology of death in forensic autopsy cases (total, n = 409; within 48 h postmortem), which included blunt, sharp instrument injury, asphyxiation, drowning, fire fatalities, hyperthermia, hypothermia, methamphetamine-related fatalities, other poisoning, delayed death from trauma and natural diseases. There was a significant elevation in the three markers for chronic renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, hyperthermia, hypothermia, methamphetamine fatalities and delayed traumatic death, which was comparable with the clinical criteria for their serum levels. These postmortem findings showed azotemia due to renal failure, elevated protein catabolism and rhabdomyolysis. Although the pericardial levels were otherwise similar to the clinical serum reference ranges, only the drowning fatalities showed significantly lower levels for each marker. These observations suggested the stability of UN, Cr and UA in the pericardial fluid within 48 h postmortem and their usefulness for the pathophysiological investigation of death involving azotemia.

  5. Configuration control on the shape memory stiffness of molecularly imprinted polymer for specific uptake of creatinine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ang, Qian Yee; Zolkeflay, Muhammad Helmi; Low, Siew Chun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, sol-gel processing was proposed to prepare a creatinine (Cre)-imprinted molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP). The intermolecular interaction constituted by the cross-linkers, i.e., 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid (AMPS) and aluminium ion (Al3+), was studied and compared in order to form a confined matrix that promises the effectiveness of molecular imprinting. In view of the shape recognition, the hydrogen bonded Cre-AMPS did not demonstrate good recognition of Cre, with Cre binding found only at 5.70 ± 0.15 mg g-1 of MIP. Whilst, MIP cross-linked using Al3+ was able to attain an excellent Cre adsorption capacity of 19.48 ± 0.64 mg g-1 of MIP via the stronger ionic interaction of Cre-Al3+. Based on the Scatchard analysis, a higher Cre concentration in testing solution required greater driving force to resolve the binding resistance of Cre molecules, so as to have a precise Cre binding with shape factor. The molecular recognition ability of Cre-MIP in present work was shape-specific for Cre as compared to its structural analogue, 2-pyrrolidinone (2-pyr), by an ideal selectivity coefficient of 6.57 ± 0.10. In overall, this study has come up with a practical approach on the preparation of MIP for the detection of renal dysfunction by point-of-care Cre testing.

  6. Polyomavirus JC Urinary Shedding in Kidney and Liver Transplant Recipients Associated With Reduced Creatinine Clearance

    PubMed Central

    Kusne, Shimon; Vilchez, Regis A.; Zanwar, Preeti; Quiroz, Jorge; Mazur, Marek J.; Heilman, Raymond L.; Mulligan, David; Butel, Janet S.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Polyomavirus reactivation can cause significant morbidity in solid organ transplant recipients, particularly BK virus (BKV) in kidney transplant patients. Less is known about dynamics of John Cunningham virus (JCV) in nonkidney organ transplant patients. Methods. We examined the frequency of urinary shedding of polyomaviruses BKV and JCV and their relationship to creatinine clearance (CrCl) in a longitudinal study of 41 kidney and 33 liver transplant recipients. Results. Any polyomavirus urinary shedding was more frequent in liver than kidney recipients (64% vs 39%; P = .03). JCV was excreted more frequently by liver than kidney recipients (71% vs 38%), whereas BKV was shed more often by kidney than liver patients (69% vs 52%). Mean JCV loads were significantly higher than those of BKV in both patient groups (P < .0001). Lower mean CrCl values were significantly associated with JCV shedding in both kidney and liver recipients (P < .001). Conclusions. These findings suggest that BKV and JCV display different patterns of reactivation and shedding in kidney and liver transplant patients and that JCV may have a role in renal dysfunction in some solid organ transplant recipients. PMID:22802433

  7. [The spectroscopic study on the interaction between edible pigment and human serum albumin in two-phase aqueous systems].

    PubMed

    Deng, Fan-zheng; Guo, Dong-fang; Wang, Hai-rong

    2007-02-01

    In polyethylene glycol 2000 (PEG)-(NH4)2SO4-edible pigment two-phase aqueous systems, the spectroscopic behaviour of the complexes of edible pigment and human serum albumin in PEG phase was investigated. Effects of different acidity, quantities of PEG and salt, reaction time, and coexistent matter on the determination of systems were discussed. Experimental results show that compared to BS spectra, the maximum wavelength of the complex of human serum albumin shifted to the red by 13 nm in buffer solution at pH 8, the maximum binding number of 40 was measured by molar ratio method, and the apparent molar absorptivity was 9.4 x 10(4) L x mol(-1) x cm(-1). The linear range was 0-21.07 mg x L(-1). With different surfactant, the interaction mechanism of protein and edible pigment was discussed.

  8. Surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles via human serum albumin conjugation for controlled delivery of docetaxel

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) based nanoparticles are considered to be a promising drug carrier in tumor targeting but suffer from the high level of opsonization by reticuloendothelial system due to their hydrophobic structure. As a result surface modification of these nanoparticles has been widely studied as an essential step in their development. Among various surface modifications, human serum albumin (HSA) possesses advantages including small size, hydrophilic surface and accumulation in leaky vasculature of tumors through passive targeting and a probable active transport into tumor tissues. Methods PLGA nanoparticles of docetaxel were prepared by emulsification evaporation method and were surface conjugated with human serum albumin. Fourier transform infrared spectrum was used to confirm the conjugation reaction where nuclear magnetic resonance was utilized for conjugation ratio determination. In addition, transmission electron microscopy showed two different contrast media in conjugated nanoparticles. Furthermore, cytotoxicity of free docetaxel, unconjugated and conjugated PLGA nanoparticles was studied in HepG2 cells. Results Size, zeta potential and drug loading of PLGA nanoparticles were about 199 nm, −11.07 mV, and 4%, respectively where size, zeta potential and drug loading of conjugated nanoparticles were found to be 204 nm, −5.6 mV and 3.6% respectively. Conjugated nanoparticles represented a three-phasic release pattern with a 20% burst effect for docetaxel on the first day. Cytotoxicity experiment showed that the IC50 of HSA conjugated PLGA nanoparticles (5.4 μg) was significantly lower than both free docetaxel (20.2 μg) and unconjugated PLGA nanoparticles (6.2 μg). Conclusion In conclusion surface modification of PLGA nanoparticles through HSA conjugation results in more cytotoxicity against tumor cell lines compared with free docetaxel and unconjugated PLGA nanoparticles. Albumin conjugated PLGA nanoparticles may

  9. Grading of severity of the condition in burn patients by serum protein and albumin/globulin studies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pramod

    2010-07-01

    Capillary permeability increases after inflammation with consequent leak of fluid, electrolytes, and proteins. The albumin molecule size being smaller (69 kDa) than the globulin molecule (90-156 kDa) will leak relatively at an early stage of the disease (with moderate increase in capillary pore size) than globulin leading to albumin/globulin reversal. In cases with severe permeability changes with rapid progression to larger pore size with simultaneous leak of both albumin and globulin, albumin/globulin reversal will not occur. In this study estimation the serum protein and albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio at frequent intervals was done to grade the severity of the condition of burn patients by assessing the severity of capillary leak.A total of 61 admitted patients (from March 2002 to December 2004) based on the protein values were divided into 3 groups (group 1: 6-8 g/dL, group 2: 5.1-5.9 g/dL, group 3: < or =5.0 g/dL), and all the patients who showed change in their protein levels during the study were shifted to appropriate group and were classified as group shifters. The mean survival time and mortality of various groups were compared, and A/G ratio of all the expired cases was analyzed.Group 3 patients showed higher mortality (95%) as compared to that in other groups (group 1 and 2: 0% each and group shifters: 30.2%). Median survival time of group 3 was significantly low as compared to that of group 1 (P < 0.0026), group 2 (P < 0.0006), and group shifters (P < 0.0000). In group shifters the mean time (days) required for shifting from one group to other just before death or discharge in survivors was significantly higher than that in expired cases. Of 26 cases expired during the study, initial A/G ratio at the time of first assigning the group was not reversed in 22 cases (84.6%).The study concluded that the severity (indicated by lower serum protein values) and speed (judged by A/G ratio changes and median survival time analysis) of capillary permeability changes

  10. Neuronal uptake of serum albumin is associated with neuron damage during the development of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zanhua; Liu, Jinjie; Wang, Suping; Liu, Sibo; Zhao, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that brain blood barrier dysfunction following the onset of seizures may lead to serum albumin extravasation into the brain. However, the effect of albumin extravasation on the development of epilepsy is yet to be fully elucidated. Previous studies have predominantly focused on the effect of albumin absorption by astrocytes; however, the present study investigated the effects of neuronal uptake of albumin in vitro and in kainic acid-induced Sprague-Dawley rat models of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, electroencephalogram recordings were conducted to record seizure onset, Nissl and Evans blue staining were used to detect neuronal damage and albumin extravasation, respectively, and double immunofluorescence was used to explore neuronal absorption of albumin. Cell counting was also conducted in vitro to determine whether albumin contributes to neuronal death. The results of the present study indicated that extravasated serum albumin was absorbed by neurons, and the neurons that had absorbed albumin died and were dissolved 28 days after seizure onset in vivo. Furthermore, significant neuronal death was detected after albumin absorption in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These results suggested that albumin may be absorbed by neurons following the onset of seizures. Furthermore, the results indicated that neuronal albumin uptake may be associated with neuronal damage and death in epileptic seizures. Therefore, attenuating albumin extravasation following epileptic seizures may reduce brain damage and slow the development of epilepsy. PMID:27446263

  11. Human serum albumin homeostasis: a new look at the roles of synthesis, catabolism, renal and gastrointestinal excretion, and the clinical value of serum albumin measurements.

    PubMed

    Levitt, David G; Levitt, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin concentration (CP) is a remarkably strong prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality in both sick and seemingly healthy subjects. Surprisingly, the specifics of the pathophysiology underlying the relationship between CP and ill-health are poorly understood. This review provides a summary that is not previously available in the literature, concerning how synthesis, catabolism, and renal and gastrointestinal clearance of albumin interact to bring about albumin homeostasis, with a focus on the clinical factors that influence this homeostasis. In normal humans, the albumin turnover time of about 25 days reflects a liver albumin synthesis rate of about 10.5 g/day balanced by renal (≈6%), gastrointestinal (≈10%), and catabolic (≈84%) clearances. The acute development of hypoalbuminemia with sepsis or trauma results from increased albumin capillary permeability leading to redistribution of albumin from the vascular to interstitial space. The best understood mechanism of chronic hypoalbuminemia is the decreased albumin synthesis observed in liver disease. Decreased albumin production also accounts for hypoalbuminemia observed with a low-protein and normal caloric diet. However, a calorie- and protein-deficient diet does not reduce albumin synthesis and is not associated with hypoalbuminemia, and CP is not a useful marker of malnutrition. In most disease states other than liver disease, albumin synthesis is normal or increased, and hypoalbuminemia reflects an enhanced rate of albumin turnover resulting either from an increased rate of catabolism (a poorly understood phenomenon) or enhanced loss of albumin into the urine (nephrosis) or intestine (protein-losing enteropathy). The latter may occur with subtle intestinal pathology and hence may be more prevalent than commonly appreciated. Clinically, reduced CP appears to be a result rather than a cause of ill-health, and therapy designed to increase CP has limited benefit. The ubiquitous occurrence of

  12. Human serum albumin homeostasis: a new look at the roles of synthesis, catabolism, renal and gastrointestinal excretion, and the clinical value of serum albumin measurements

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, David G; Levitt, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin concentration (CP) is a remarkably strong prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality in both sick and seemingly healthy subjects. Surprisingly, the specifics of the pathophysiology underlying the relationship between CP and ill-health are poorly understood. This review provides a summary that is not previously available in the literature, concerning how synthesis, catabolism, and renal and gastrointestinal clearance of albumin interact to bring about albumin homeostasis, with a focus on the clinical factors that influence this homeostasis. In normal humans, the albumin turnover time of about 25 days reflects a liver albumin synthesis rate of about 10.5 g/day balanced by renal (≈6%), gastrointestinal (≈10%), and catabolic (≈84%) clearances. The acute development of hypoalbuminemia with sepsis or trauma results from increased albumin capillary permeability leading to redistribution of albumin from the vascular to interstitial space. The best understood mechanism of chronic hypoalbuminemia is the decreased albumin synthesis observed in liver disease. Decreased albumin production also accounts for hypoalbuminemia observed with a low-protein and normal caloric diet. However, a calorie- and protein-deficient diet does not reduce albumin synthesis and is not associated with hypoalbuminemia, and CP is not a useful marker of malnutrition. In most disease states other than liver disease, albumin synthesis is normal or increased, and hypoalbuminemia reflects an enhanced rate of albumin turnover resulting either from an increased rate of catabolism (a poorly understood phenomenon) or enhanced loss of albumin into the urine (nephrosis) or intestine (protein-losing enteropathy). The latter may occur with subtle intestinal pathology and hence may be more prevalent than commonly appreciated. Clinically, reduced CP appears to be a result rather than a cause of ill-health, and therapy designed to increase CP has limited benefit. The ubiquitous occurrence of

  13. Relevance of non-albumin colloids in intensive care medicine.

    PubMed

    Ertmer, Christian; Rehberg, Sebastian; Van Aken, Hugo; Westphal, Martin

    2009-06-01

    Current guidelines on initial haemodynamic stabilization in shock states suggest infusion of either natural or artificial colloids or crystalloids. However, as the volume of distribution is much larger for crystalloids than for colloids, resuscitation with crystalloids alone requires more fluid and results in more oedema, and may thus be inferior to combination therapy with colloids. This chapter describes the currently available synthetic colloid solutions [i.e., dextran, gelatin and hydroxyethyl starch (HES)] in detail, and critically discusses their specific effects including potential adverse effects. Literature was selected from medical databases (including Medline and the Cochrane library), as well as references extracted from the available publications. Dextrans appear to have the most unfavourable risk/benefit ratio among the currently available synthetic colloids due to their relevant anaphylactoid potential, risk of renal failure and, particularly, their major impact on haemostasis. The effects of gelatin on kidney function are currently unclear, but potential disadvantages of gelatin include a high anaphylactoid potential and a limited volume effect compared with dextrans and HESs. Modern HES preparations have the lowest risk of anaphylactic reactions among the synthetic colloids. Older HES preparations (hetastarch, hexastarch and pentastarch) have repeatedly been reported to impair renal function and hemostasis, especially when the dose limit provided by the manufacturer is exceeded, but no such effects have been reported to date for modern tetrastarches compared with gelatin and albumin. However, no large-scale clinical studies have investigated the impact of tetrastarches on the incidence of renal failure in critically ill patients. When considering the efficacy and risk/benefit profile of synthetic colloids, modern tetrastarches appear to be most suitable for intensive care medicine, given their high volume effect, low anaphylactic potential and

  14. 2S Albumin Storage Proteins: What Makes them Food Allergens?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, F. Javier; Clemente, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    2S albumin storage proteins are becoming of increasing interest in nutritional and clinical studies as they have been reported as major food allergens in seeds of many mono- and di-cotyledonous plants. This review describes the main biochemical, structural and functional properties of these proteins thought to play a role in determining their potential allergenicity. 2S albumins are considered to sensitize directly via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The high stability of their intrinsic protein structure, dominated by a well-conserved skeleton of cysteine residues, to the harsh conditions present in the GIT suggests that these proteins are able to cross the gut mucosal barrier to sensitize the mucosal immune system and/or elicit an allergic response. The flexible and solvent-exposed hypervariable region of these proteins is immunodominant and has the ability to bind IgE from allergic patients´ sera. Several linear IgE-binding epitopes of 2S albumins spanning this region have been described to play a major role in allergenicity; the role of conformational epitopes of these proteins in food allergy is far from being understood and need to be investigated. Finally, the interaction of these proteins with other components of the food matrix might influence the absorption rates of immunologically reactive 2S albumins but also in their immune response. PMID:18949071

  15. Spontaneous formation of small sized albumin/acacia coacervate particles.

    PubMed

    Burgess, D J; Singh, O N

    1993-07-01

    Microgel coacervate particles form spontaneously on mixing aqueous solutions of oppositely charged albumin and acacia, under specific conditions of pH, ionic strength, and polyion concentration, close to but not at the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield. The mean particle diameter of these coacervate particles is approximately 6 microns when suspended in aqueous media, as determined by HIAC/Royco particle analysis. The geometric standard deviation of the particles falls in the range 1.2-1.9 microns. The particle size was not dependent on the method of emulsification of the coacervate in the equilibrium phase, or on the stirring speed applied during the manufacturing process. The microgel particles were stable on storage, for periods up to forty-six days, without the addition of a chemical cross-linking agent, or the application of heat. Stability was measured with respect to the change in particle size of samples stored at different temperatures. The non-cross-linked microcapsules were also shown to be stable on pH change, to pH values outside the coacervation pH range. At the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield the albumin/acacia system formed a very viscous coacervate phase, which was unsuitable for microcapsule preparation. The rheological properties of albumin/acacia and gelatin/acacia complex coacervates optimized for maximum coacervate yield were compared. The albumin/acacia coacervate was shown to be three orders of magnitude more viscous than the gelatin/acacia system.

  16. Separation of Albumin, Ceruloplasmin, and Transferrin from Human Plasma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Grady; Frieden, Earl

    1982-01-01

    Procedures are provided for separating the principal metalloproteins (albumin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin) from plasma using column chromatographic techniques. The experiment can be completed in two separate three-hour laboratory periods during which column chromatography is illustrated and the effect of pH on charge and affinity of a protein…

  17. Decreased albumin mRNA in immunodeficient wasted' mice

    SciTech Connect

    Libertin, C.R.; Buczek, N.; Weaver, P.; Mobarhan, S.; Woloschak, G.E. Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1991-03-15

    Mice bearing the autosomal recessive gene wst (wst/wst) develop a wasting syndrome' that leads to death by 28-32 days of age. These mice have faulty repair of damage induced by ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency at secretory sites, and neurologic abnormalities. In addition to a progressively more apparent wasted phenotype, wst/wst mice show other features of failure to thrive and malnutrition. Daily body weights of the animals revealed a loss in weight between 25 and 30 days of age, a time during which normal littermates were progressively and rapidly gaining weight. Albumin mRNA levels were measured by dilution dot blot hybridizations of liver-derived RNA preparations from wasted mice, littermates, and parental controls. In all wasted mice, albumin mRNA levels were reduced 5 to 10 fold compared to controls. Northern blots revealed that the albumin mRNA present in wasted mice was normal in length though reduced in amount. These results suggest there may be a relationship between low albumin synthesis and the wasting syndrome of the wst/wst mouse.

  18. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  3. Evidence of transcellular albumin transport after hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Childs, Ed W; Udobi, Kahdi F; Hunter, Felicia A; Dhevan, Vijian

    2005-06-01

    Hemorrhagic shock-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury is characterized by an increase in microvascular permeability. This increase in permeability is thought to occur mainly via passive transport through interendothelial cell junctions. However, recent data have suggested that a transcellular (caveolae) transport mechanism(s) may also play a role after shock. The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of caveolae transport after hemorrhagic shock. After a control period, blood was withdrawn to reduce the mean arterial pressure to 40 mmHg for 1 h in urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Mesenteric postcapillary venules in a transilluminated segment of small intestine were examined to determine changes in permeability. Rats received an intravenous injection of fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine albumin during the control period. The fluorescent light intensity emitted from the fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine albumin was recorded with digital microscopy within the lumen of the microvasculature and was compared with the intensity of light in the extravascular space. The images were downloaded to a computerized image analysis program that quantitates changes in light intensity. This change in light intensity represents albumin extravasation. Our results demonstrated a marked increase in albumin leak after hemorrhagic shock that was significantly attenuated with two different inhibitors of transcellular transport, N-ethylmaleimide and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. These data suggest that caveolae transport plays a significant role in microvascular permeability after hemorrhagic shock. PMID:15897811

  4. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040 Section 866.5040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040...

  5. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040 Section 866.5040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040...

  6. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040 Section 866.5040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040...

  7. Cationic albumin-conjugated chelating agent as a novel brain drug delivery system in neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Kamalinia, Golnaz; Khodagholi, Fariba; Shaerzadeh, Fatemeh; Tavssolian, Faranak; Chaharband, Farkhondeh; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Amini, Mohsen; Dinarvand, Rassoul

    2015-11-01

    The critical role of metal ions and in particular iron in oxidative stress and protein aggregation offers chelation therapy as a sensible pharmaceutical strategy in oxidative stress-induced neuronal damages. In this research, we conjugated an iron-chelating agent, deferasirox, to cationized human serum albumin molecules in order to develop a novel brain delivery system for the management of neurodegenerative disorders due to the significant role of oxidative stress-induced neuronal injury in such diseases. Cationized albumin is known to be able to transport to brain tissue via adsorptive-mediated transcytosis. The developed structures were molecularly characterized, and their conjugation ratio was determined. PC12 cell line was utilized to evaluate the neuroprotective features of these newly developed molecules in the presence of hydrogen peroxide neuronal damage and to identify the mechanisms behind the observed neuronal protection including apoptotic and autophagic pathways. Furthermore, a rat model of Alzheimer's disease was utilized to evaluate the impact of conjugated structures in vivo. Data analysis revealed that the conjugated species were able to hinder apoptotic cell death while enhancing autophagic process. The developed conjugated species were also able to attenuate amyloid beta-induced learning deficits when administered peripherally.

  8. 1HNMR study of methotrexate serum albumin (MTX SA) binding in rheumatoid arthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sułkowska, A.; Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Bojko, B.; Równicka, J.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2008-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an immunologically depended disease. It is characterized by a chronic, progressive inflammatory process. Methotrexate (4-amino-10-methylfolic acid, MTX) is the modifying drug used to treat RA. The aim of the presented studies is to determine the low affinity binding site of MTX in bovine (BSA) and human (HSA) serum albumin with the use of proton nuclear magnetic resonance ( 1HNMR) spectroscopy. The analysis of 1HNMR spectra of MTX in the presence of serum albumin (SA) allows us to observe the interactions between aromatic rings of the drug and the rings of amino acids located in the hydrophobic subdomains of the protein. On the basis of the chemical shifts σ [ppm] and the relaxation times T1 [s] of drug protons the hydrophobic interaction between MTX-SA and the stoichiometric molar ratio of the complex was evaluated. This work is a part of a spectroscopic study on MTX-SA interactions [A. Sułkowska, M. Maciążek, J. Równicka, B. Bojko, D. Pentak, W.W. Sułkowski, J. Mol. Struct. 834-836 (2007) 162-169].

  9. Influence of serum albumin on intracellular delivery of drug-loaded hyaluronan polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Nešporová, Kristina; Šógorková, Jana; Šmejkalová, Daniela; Kulhánek, Jaromír; Huerta-Angeles, Gloria; Kubala, Lukáš; Velebný, Vladimír

    2016-09-10

    Polymeric micelles are attractive drug delivery systems for intravenously administered nonpolar drugs. Although physical parameters like size, shape and loading capacity are considered as the most important for their efficiency, here we demonstrate that the effects of serum protein interaction and characteristics of loaded compound cannot be neglected during the micelle development and design of experimental set up. Polymeric micelles prepared from amphiphilic hyaluronic acid grafted with short (hexanoic) and long fatty acids (oleic) were tested after loading with two different hydrophobic models, Nile red and curcumin. The composition of micelles affected mainly the loading capacity. Both encapsulated compounds behaved differently in the in vitro cell uptake, which was also influenced by serum concentration, where serum albumin was found to be the primary destabilizing component. This destabilization was found to be influenced by polymeric micelle concentration. Thus, the chemical structure of micelle, the properties of non-covalently loaded substance and serum albumin/polymeric micelle ratio modulate the in vitro intracellular uptake of drugs loaded in nanocarriers. PMID:27473277

  10. Acute hypoproteinemic fluid overload: its determinants, distribution, and treatment with concentrated albumin and diuretics.

    PubMed

    Pappova, E; Bachmeier, W; Crevoisier, J L; Kollar, J; Kollar, M; Tobler, P; Zahler, H W; Zaugg, D; Lundsgaard-Hansen, P

    1977-01-01

    We simulated the use of massive volumes of crystalloid fluids as a treatment of acute plasma loss in a standardized experimental model and studied the factors determining the retention or excretion of the resulting acute hypoproteinemic fluid overload, its distribution within the body, and its treatment with concentrated albumin and diuretics. In accordance with the classic Starling concept, the serum protein level, i.e. the serum colloid osmotic pressure, determined the excretion/retention ratio of a given water and sodium load. Of the total fluid retention, fat and muscle each accommodated 25%, whereas the skin, which contributes only 7% to the total body weight, accounted for 37% and increased its volume by roughly one third. Concentrated albumin promoted fluid excretion in direct proportion to the achieved increment of the serum protein level and abolished the edema of fat, muscle and skin. Furosemide was virtually ineffective. The implications of these results for the 'adult respiratory distress syndrome' and disturbed wound healing are discussed and related to the concept of a critical threshold of the serum protein level. PMID:919420

  11. Impact of albumin on drug delivery--new applications on the horizon.

    PubMed

    Elsadek, Bakheet; Kratz, Felix

    2012-01-10

    Over the past decades, albumin has emerged as a versatile carrier for therapeutic and diagnostic agents, primarily for diagnosing and treating diabetes, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and infectious diseases. Market approved products include fatty acid derivatives of human insulin or the glucagon-like-1 peptide (Levemir(®) and Victoza(®)) for treating diabetes, the taxol albumin nanoparticle Abraxane(®) for treating metastatic breast cancer which is also under clinical investigation in further tumor indications, and (99m)Tc-aggregated albumin (Nanocoll(®) and Albures(®)) for diagnosing cancer and rheumatoid arthritis as well as for lymphoscintigraphy. In addition, an increasing number of albumin-based or albumin-binding drugs are in clinical trials such as antibody fusion proteins (MM-111) for treating HER2/neu positive breast cancer (phase I), a camelid albumin-binding nanobody anti-HSA-anti-TNF-α (ATN-103) in phase II studies for treating rheumatoid arthritis, an antidiabetic Exendin-4 analog bound to recombinant human albumin (phase I/II), a fluorescein-labeled albumin conjugate (AFL)-human serum albumin for visualizing the malignant borders of brain tumors for improved surgical resection, and finally an albumin-binding prodrug of doxorubicin (INNO-206) entering phase II studies against sarcoma and gastric cancer. In the preclinical setting, novel approaches include attaching peptides with high-affinity for albumin to antibody fragments, the exploitation of albumin-binding gadolinium contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, and physical or covalent attachment of antiviral, antibacterial, and anticancer drugs to albumin that are permanently or transiently attached to human serum albumin (HSA) or act as albumin-binding prodrugs. This review gives an overview of the expanding field of preclinical and clinical drug applications and developments that use albumin as a protein carrier to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug or to target the drug

  12. Acute Kidney Injury Classified by Serum Creatinine and Urine Output in Critically Ill Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Gómez, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill patients and is associated with higher mortality. Cancer patients are at an increased risk of AKI. Our objective was to determine the incidence of AKI in our critically ill cancer patients, using the criteria of serum creatinine (SCr) and urine output (UO) proposed by the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Methods. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of a prospectively collected database at the intensive care unit (ICU) of the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología from January 2013 to March 2015. Results. We classified AKI according to the KDIGO definition. We included 389 patients; using the SCr criterion, 192 (49.4%) had AKI; using the UO criterion, 219 (56.3%) had AKI. Using both criteria, we diagnosed AKI in 69.4% of patients. All stages were independently associated with six-month mortality; stage 1 HR was 2.04 (95% CI 1.14–3.68, p = 0.017), stage 2 HR was 2.73 (95% CI 1.53–4.88, p = 0.001), and stage 3 HR was 4.5 (95% CI 2.25–8.02, p < 0.001). Patients who fulfilled both criteria had a higher mortality compared with patients who fulfilled just one criterion (HR 3.56, 95% CI 2.03–6.24, p < 0.001). Conclusion. We diagnosed AKI in 69.4% of patients. All AKI stages were associated with higher risk of death at six months, even for patients who fulfilled just one AKI criterion. PMID:27803928

  13. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ahmet F.; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~ 5 minutes per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5–10 μg/mL (which is more than 3 times lower than clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23995895

  14. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Ahmet F; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in the urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~5 min per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5-10 μg mL(-1) (which is more than 3 times lower than the clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23995895

  15. Comparative formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in creatinine/phenylalanine and creatinine/phenylalanine/4-oxo-2-nonenal reaction mixtures.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Rosario; Alcón, Esmeralda; Hidalgo, Francisco J

    2013-05-01

    The comparative formation of the heterocyclic aromatic amine 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in both creatinine/phenylalanine (CRN/Phe) and creatinine/phenylalanine/4-oxo-2-nonenal (CRN/Phe/ON) systems was studied to analyse the ability of lipid-derived reactive carbonyls to promote PhIP formation. Although PhIP was produced to some extent in the CRN/Phe system, the presence of the oxidized lipid increased considerably the amount of PhIP produced. This increase seemed to be a consequence of the decrease in the E(a) of the reaction when the lipid was present, which diminished from 112.9 to 80.9 kJ/mol. On the other hand, the addition of the lipid did not seem to produce PhIP by an alternative mechanism because PhIP was formed analogously in both CRN/Phe and CRN/Phe/ON systems as a function of pH, creatinine concentration, phenylalanine concentration, time, temperature, oxygen concentration in the reaction atmosphere, and the addition of different amounts of ammonia. All these results suggest that the ability of lipid oxidation products to produce PhIP is related to their capacity to induce the Strecker degradation of phenylalanine to phenylacetaldehyde. Therefore, any other reactive carbonyl compound that can produce the Strecker degradation of phenylalanine should also be considered as a potential inducer of PhIP formation under appropriate conditions.

  16. Chromatographic and traditional albumin isotherms on cellulose: a model for wound protein adsorption on modified cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Albumin is the most abundant protein found in healing wounds. Traditional and chromatogrpahic protein isotherms of albumin binding on modified cotton fibers are useful in understanding albumin binding to cellulose wound dressings. An important consideration in the design of cellulosic wound dressin...

  17. Role of bovine serum albumin in the nutrition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, M; Wilson, A R; Solotorovsky, M

    1979-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin promotes the growth of small inocula of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in media containing unesterified fatty acids. Albumin binds fatty acids present in concentrations toxic for the organisms. In the present study, additional roles of albumin were investigated. When present in a basal medium, fatty acid-free albumin could be utilized by M. tuberculosis as a sole source of carbon. Since albumin could not substitute for the amino acids in basal medium as a nitrogen source, it was concluded that the protein component in albumin was not utilized as a nutrient by the organisms. An ether extract of fatty acid-free albumin supported a small but significant amount of growth. Analysis of the lipids in fatty acid-free albumin by gas chromatography revealed the presence of 686 microgram of fatty acid per g of albumin. Although a small amount of growth occurred when a lipid extract of albumin was present in the medium, growth stimulation was dependent in major part on the presence of undenatured albumin in the medium. Lipids, when bound to albumin, can serve as a nontoxic source of carbon and energy. PMID:120697

  18. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  2. Estimated glomerular filtration rate by serum creatinine or standardized cystatin C in Japanese patients with Graves׳ disease.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshitake; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Seimiya, Masanori; Yoshida, Toshihiko; Sawabe, Yuji; Ogawa, Makoto; Nomura, Fumio

    2015-12-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by serum creatinine (eGFRCr) or standardized cystatin C (eGFRCysC) were estimated in Japanese patients with Graves׳ disease (GD) of different sex. Clinical samples were collected from patients with GD with normal renal function to accurately validate eGFRCr and eGFRCysC levels and evaluate how hyperthyroidism affects renal function. Levels of eGFRCr and eGFRCysC showed clinical usefulness in successfully treated euthyroid patients with GD regardless of sex. The article includes detailed experimental methods and data used in our analysis. The data relates to the "Paradoxical effect of thyroid function on the estimated glomerular filtration rate by serum creatinine or standardized cystatin C in Japanese Graves' disease patients" (Suzuki et al., 2015) [1].

  3. Back to Basics: Is There a Good Reason to Not Systematically Measure Urine Creatinine in Acute Kidney Injury Monitoring?

    PubMed

    Maciel, Alexandre Toledo

    2016-01-01

    Regardless of the recent advancements in the understanding of the pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI), its diagnosis remains fundamentally dependent on the serum creatinine (sCr) level and urine output (UO), both of which are considered late markers of AKI, offering only a vague idea of the actual creatinine clearance (CrCl). Although not ideal, CrCl is still the most common alternative of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in clinical practice. It is generally accepted that early diagnosis of AKI must reveal kidney impairment before sCr increases. Much effort has been made to find tubular and glomerular markers of injury which increase (in blood and/or in urine) before the 'official' diagnosis of AKI. Most of these markers are expensive and not widely available, especially in developing countries. Urine creatinine (CrU), the major link between sCr and UO, has been systematically ignored and clinicians are usually unaware of its value. The reasons for this are unclear, but it may be related to the lack of a reference range, dependence of its concentration value on the urine flow (which in turn is only adequately assessed with an indwelling urinary catheter) and the clinical unavailability of its counterbalance part - creatinine production. Changes in urine tend to precede changes in blood in the course of AKI development and recovery. Hence, it is important to bear in mind that changes in sCr signal renal dysfunction with a significant delay. The search for a more dynamic, 'real-time' but pragmatic assessment of renal function, especially in patients at risk of abrupt decrease in GFR is certainly one of the most relevant focus of research in the field of AKI monitoring. Systematic CrU assessment may be highly relevant in this case. PMID:27270242

  4. Renal type a intercalated cells contain albumin in organelles with aldosterone-regulated abundance.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas Buus; Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Szymiczek, Agata; Damkier, Helle Hasager; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1), late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D) or recycling endosomes (Rab11). Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells.

  5. Renal Type A Intercalated Cells Contain Albumin in Organelles with Aldosterone-Regulated Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas Buus; Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Szymiczek, Agata; Damkier, Helle Hasager; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1), late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D) or recycling endosomes (Rab11). Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells. PMID:25874770

  6. Vanillin restrains non-enzymatic glycation and aggregation of albumin by chemical chaperone like function.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Saraswathi, N T

    2016-06-01

    Vanillin a major component of vanilla bean extract is commonly used a natural flavoring agent. Glycation is known to induce aggregation and fibrillation of globular proteins such as albumin, hemoglobin. Here we report the inhibitory potential of vanillin toward early and advanced glycation modification and amyloid like aggregation of albumin based on the determination of both early and advanced glycation and conformational changes in albumin using circular dichroism. Inhibition of aggregation and fibrillation of albumin was determined based on amyloid specific dyes i.e., Congo red and Thioflavin T and microscopic imaging. It was evident that vanillin restrains glycation of albumin and exhibits protective effect toward its native conformation. PMID:26893056

  7. Vanillin restrains non-enzymatic glycation and aggregation of albumin by chemical chaperone like function.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Saraswathi, N T

    2016-06-01

    Vanillin a major component of vanilla bean extract is commonly used a natural flavoring agent. Glycation is known to induce aggregation and fibrillation of globular proteins such as albumin, hemoglobin. Here we report the inhibitory potential of vanillin toward early and advanced glycation modification and amyloid like aggregation of albumin based on the determination of both early and advanced glycation and conformational changes in albumin using circular dichroism. Inhibition of aggregation and fibrillation of albumin was determined based on amyloid specific dyes i.e., Congo red and Thioflavin T and microscopic imaging. It was evident that vanillin restrains glycation of albumin and exhibits protective effect toward its native conformation.

  8. Solution combustion synthesis of calcium phosphate particles for controlled release of bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Junjie; Qian, Yu; Zhang, Xiali; Zhou, Feifei; Zhang, Hong; Lu, Hongbin; Chen, JianHua; Wang, XuHong; Yu, Wencong

    2015-05-01

    Four different phase compositions of calcium phosphate (CaP) particles were prepared via a solution combustion method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld analysis results revealed that the variations in the nominal Ca/P (molar) ratios were found to provide a favorable control in the different proportions of CaP materials. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) was used as a model protein to study the loading and release behavior. The release profile indicated that the BSA release rates depended on the phase compositions of the CaP particles, and showed an order of TCP-BSA>BCP-1-BSA>BCP-2-BSA>HA-BSA. The results suggested that the BSA protein release rate can be controlled by varying the phase compositions of CaP carriers. Moreover, the release process involved two stages: firstly surface diffusion via ion exchange and secondly intraparticle diffusion.

  9. Creatinine and specific gravity normalization in biological monitoring of occupational exposures.

    PubMed

    Sauvé, Jean-François; Lévesque, Martine; Huard, Mélanie; Drolet, Daniel; Lavoué, Jérôme; Tardif, Robert; Truchon, Ginette

    2015-01-01

    Reference values for the biological monitoring of occupational exposures are generally normalized on the basis of creatinine (CR) concentration or specific gravity (SG) to account for fluctuations in urine dilution. For instance, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH(®)) uses a reference value of 1g/L for CR. The comparison of urinary concentrations of biomarkers between studies requires the adjustment of results based on a reference CR and/or SG value, although studies have suggested that age, sex, muscle mass, and time of the day can exert non-negligible influences on CR excretion, while SG appears to be less affected. The objective of this study was to propose reference values for urinary CR and SG based on the results of samples sent for analysis by occupational health practitioners to the laboratory of the Occupational Health and Safety Research Institute of Québec (IRSST). We analyzed a database containing 20,395 urinary sample results collected between 1985 and 2010. Linear mixed-effects models with worker as a random effect were used to estimate the influence of sex and collection period on urinary CR and SG. Median CR concentrations were 25-30% higher in men (1.6 g/L or 14.4 mmol/L) than in women (1.2 g/L or 10.2 mmol/L). Four percent of the samples for men and 12% for women were below the acceptable threshold for CR (4.4 mmol/L). For SG, 5% of samples for men and 12% for women were below the threshold of 1.010. The difference in SG levels between sexes was lower than for CR, with a median of 1.024 for men compared to 1.020 for women. Our results suggest that the normalization of reference values based on a standard CR value of 1 g/L as proposed by the ACGIH is a conservative approach. According to the literature, CR excretion is more influenced by physiological parameters than SG. We therefore suggest that correction based on SG should be favored in future studies involving the proposal of reference values for the

  10. The urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio in Canadian women at risk of preeclampsia: does the time of day of testing matter?

    PubMed

    Lamontagne, Annie; Côté, Anne-Marie; Rey, Evelyne

    2014-04-01

    Objectifs : Déterminer le rendement d’un seuil de rapport protéines/créatinine de 30 mg/mmol chez les femmes enceintes qui font l’objet d’une exploration visant l’hypertension, en fonction du moment de la journée où l’échantillon a été prélevé. Méthodes : Cette étude prospective comptait des femmes enceintes ambulatoires qui faisaient l’objet d’une exploration visant des troubles hypertensifs. Un échantillon mictionnel aléatoire unique d’urine a été prélevé aux fins de la détermination du rapport protéines/créatinine, le tout ayant été immédiatement suivi d’un recueil des urines de 24 heures. Parmi les analyses statistiques utilisées, on trouvait la corrélation de Spearman, la sensibilité, la spécificité, les coefficients de prévision, les rapports de vraisemblance et les courbes d’efficacité du récepteur en fonction d’intervalles de confiance à 95 %. Une valeur P < 0,05 a été considérée comme étant significative sur le plan statistique. Résultats : Parmi les 91 échantillons analysés, 47,3 % ont présenté une protéinurie significative dans le cadre du recueil des urines de 24 heures et 33 % étaient issus de la première miction matinale. Le rapport protéines/créatinine et l’excrétion urinaire de protéines sur 24 heures présentaient une forte corrélation (r = 0,92, P < 0,001). La précision diagnostique du seuil de rapport protéines/créatinine de 30 mg/mmol était moins élevée dans le cas des échantillons issus de la première miction matinale que dans celui des échantillons obtenus à d’autres moments de la journée (sensibilité de 58 % et de 90 %, spécificité de 93 % et de 100 %, coefficient de prévision d’un test positif de 88 % et de 100 %, coefficient de prévision d’un test négatif de 72 % et de 92 %, rapport de vraisemblance positif de 8 et incalculable, et rapport de vraisemblance négatif de 0,45 et de 0,1, respectivement). La surface sous la courbe d’efficacité du récepteur était de 0,94 (IC à 95 %, 0,86 - 1) dans le cas des échantillons issus de la première miction matinale et de 1,0 (IC à 95 %, 0,99 - 1) dans le cas des autres échantillons. Conclusion : Bien qu’un seuil de rapport protéines/créatinine de 30 mg/mmol permette d’établir de façon fiable la présence d’une protéinurie significative, sa fiabilité est réduite dans le cas des échantillons issus de la première miction matinale. Par conséquent, de tels échantillons ne devraient pas être utilisés à cette fin.

  11. Bolus intravenous 0.9% saline, but not 4% albumin or 5% glucose, causes interstitial pulmonary edema in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Bihari, Shailesh; Wiersema, Ubbo F; Schembri, David; De Pasquale, Carmine G; Dixon, Dani-Louise; Prakash, Shivesh; Lawrence, Mark D; Bowden, Jeffrey J; Bersten, Andrew D

    2015-10-01

    Rapid intravenous (iv) infusion of 0.9% saline alters respiratory mechanics in healthy subjects. However, the relative cardiovascular and respiratory effects of bolus iv crystalloid vs. colloid are unknown. Six healthy male volunteers were given 30 ml/kg iv 0.9% saline, 4% albumin, and 5% glucose at a rate of 100 ml/min on 3 separate days in a double-blinded, randomized crossover study. Impulse oscillometry, spirometry, lung volumes, diffusing capacity (DLCO), and blood samples were measured before and after fluid administration. Lung ultrasound B-line score (indicating interstitial pulmonary edema) and Doppler echocardiography indices of cardiac preload were measured before, midway, immediately after, and 1 h after fluid administration. Infusion of 0.9% saline increased small airway resistance at 5 Hz (P = 0.04) and lung ultrasound B-line score (P = 0.01) without changes in Doppler echocardiography measures of preload. In contrast, 4% albumin increased DLCO, decreased lung volumes, and increased the Doppler echocardiography mitral E velocity (P = 0.001) and E-to-lateral/septal e' ratio, estimated blood volume, and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (P = 0.01) but not lung ultrasound B-line score, consistent with increased pulmonary blood volume without interstitial pulmonary edema. There were no significant changes with 5% glucose. Plasma angiopoietin-2 concentration increased only after 0.9% saline (P = 0.001), suggesting an inflammatory mechanism associated with edema formation. In healthy subjects, 0.9% saline and 4% albumin have differential pulmonary effects not attributable to passive fluid filtration. This may reflect either different effects of these fluids on active signaling in the pulmonary circulation or a protective effect of albumin.

  12. Influence of the binding of reduced NAMI-A to human serum albumin on the pharmacokinetics and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Novohradský, V; Bergamo, A; Cocchietto, M; Zajac, J; Brabec, V; Mestroni, G; Sava, G

    2015-01-28

    NAMI-A is a ruthenium-based drug endowed with the unique property of selectively targeting solid tumour metastases. Although two clinical studies had already been completed, limited information exists on the behavior of NAMI-A after injection into the bloodstream. PK data in humans informs us of a rather low free drug concentration, of a relatively high half-life time of elimination and of a linear relationship between the administered dose and the corresponding AUC for up to toxic doses. In the present study, we examined the chemical kinetics of albumin binding with or without the presence of reducing agents, and we evaluated how these chemical aspects might influence the in vivo PK and the in vitro ability of NAMI-A to inhibit cell migration, which is a bona fide, rapid and easy way to suggest anti-metastatic properties. The experimental data support the binding of NAMI-A to serum albumin. The reaction is facilitated when the drug is in its reduced form and, in agreement with already reported data, the adduct formed with albumin maintains the biological activity of the ruthenium drug. The formation of the adduct is favored by low ratios of NAMI-A : HSA and by the reduction of the drug with ascorbic acid. The difference in in vivo PK and the faster binding to albumin of the reduced NAMI-A seem to suggest that the drug is not rapidly reduced immediately upon injection, even at low doses. Most probably, cell and protein binding prevail over the reduction of the drug. This observation supports the thesis that the reduction of the drug before injection must be considered relevant for the pharmacological activity of NAMI-A against tumour metastases. PMID:25489765

  13. [Evaluation of a modified exogenous creatinine clearance as a suitable renal function test for the small animal practice].

    PubMed

    Höchel, Joachim; Finnah, Anke; Velde, Karsten; Hartmann, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    A suitable method in the routine veterinary practice for the quantitative determination of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in dogs and cats has not been available until to date. Therefore, we modified the known plasma clearance model (=P-CL). The resulting P-CLterminal was assessed concerning its diagnostic value. P-CL of exogenous creatinine (P-CLcrea) and of inulin were determined in dogs (n=12, Beagle, 6 months of age) and cats (n=11, Domestic Short Hair, 14 months of age). The marker substances were administered as a bolus injection. In fasted dogs, P-CLcrea was 84.3 +/- 14.85 ml/min/m2 after a creatinine dose of 2.4 g/m2. An electrolyte infusion during the clearance determination did not alter the resulting values (p>0.05). In fasted cats, P-CLcrea was 54.7 +/- 5.8 ml/min/m2 (creatinine dose 2.0 g/m2). The inulin clearance, determined at the same time, was 104.5 +/- 19.81 ml/min/m2. Feeding the cats just before and during the test increased P-CL of both markers significantly (p<0.05). In order to adapt the clearance method for diagnostic assessment of GFR in the small animal practice, we aimed at minimizing the number of required blood samples (3 instead of 7 or more) and introduced the modified exogenous creatinine clearance (P-CLterminal). These values determined were 108.4 +/- 20.81 ml/min/m2 in fasted dogs and 66.3 +/- 11.81 ml/min/m2 in fasted cats. An electrolyte infusion (dogs) and feeding (cats) had the same effect on P-CLterminal values as described above for P-CL. In conclusion,the modified exogenous creatinine clearance is a suitable renal function test for the early diagnosis of renal disease in dogs and cats presented in small animal practices. PMID:15495934

  14. Low preoperative albumin-globulin score predicts favorable survival in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fei; Sun, Peng; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, De Shen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Wang, Feng-Hua; Fu, Jian-Hua; Xu, Rui-Hua; Li, Yu-Hong

    2016-05-24

    This study retrospectively investigated the prognostic significance of the preoperative albumin-globulin score (AGS) and albumin/globulin ratio (AGR) in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A cohort of 458 newly diagnosed ESCC patients who underwent radical esophagectomy in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center (Guangzhou, China) between January 2006 and December 2010 were selected into this study. The optimal cut-off value was identified to be 45.6 g/L, 26.9 g/L and 1.30 for albumin (ALB), globulin (GLB) and AGR in terms of survival, respectively. Patients with low ALB levels (< 45.6 g/L) and high GLB levels (≥ 26.9 g/L) were assigned an AGS of 2, those with only one of the two abnormalities were assigned an AGS of 1, and those with neither of the two abnormalities were assigned an AGS of 0. Univariate survival analysis showed that low AGS (0) was significantly associated with favorable disease free survival (DFS) [hazard ratio (HR), 0.635; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.441-0.914; P = 0.015] and overall survival (OS) (HR, 0.578; 95% CI, 0.387-0.862; P = 0.007), and it remained an independent predictor for OS (HR, 0.630; 95% CI, 0.418-0.952; P = 0.028), but not for DFS (HR, 0.697; 95% CI, 0.479-1.061; P = 0.060) in multivariate models. High AGR (≥ 1.30) was also correlated with favorable DFS (HR, 0.626; 95% CI, 0.430-0.910; P = 0.014) and OS (HR, 0.622; 95% CI, 0.422-0.916; P = 0.016) in univariate analysis, but it failed to be an independent progn