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Sample records for albumin excretion rates

  1. [Microalbuminuria and urinary albumin excretion in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Tagle, Rodrigo; González, Fernando; Acevedo, Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Microalbuminuria is a new tool in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Microalbuminuria is an easily measured biomarker in a urine sample. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in first morning urine sample correlates with 24 hours urinary albumin excretion, but it is easier to obtain, and can identify hypertensive or diabetic patients with high risk for cardiovascular events. Therapeutic interventions such as renin angiotensin system blockade have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing urinary albumin excretion in clinical studies. It would be advisable to incorporate urinary albumin to creatinine ratio to the routine clinical monitoring of patients with cardiovascular risk, such as those with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  2. Effect of lercanidipine compared with ramipril on albumin excretion rate in hypertensive Type 2 diabetic patients with microalbuminuria: DIAL study (diabete, ipertensione, albuminuria, lercanidipina).

    PubMed

    Dalla Vestra, M; Pozza, G; Mosca, A; Grazioli, V; Lapolla, A; Fioretto, P; Crepaldi, G

    2004-10-01

    Microalbuminuria and hypertension are risk factors for diabetic nephropathy in Type 2 diabetic patients. Recent data suggest that blockade of the renin-angiotensin system slows the progression of diabetic nephropathy; in contrast, the results on the renoprotective effect of calcium channel antagonists are conflicting. We evaluated the effectiveness of lercanidipine, in comparison with ramipril, on the reduction in albumin excretion rate (AER) and blood pressure in mild-to-moderate hypertensive patients with Type 2 diabetes and persistent microalbuminuria. A total of 277 patients were enrolled in a multicentric, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group trial; 180 were randomized to receive 10-20 mg/day of lercanidipine or 5-10 mg/day of ramipril and followed up for 9-12 months. The primary outcome was the change in AER from baseline. After 9-12 months of follow-up, a reduction in AER of -17.4+/-65 microg/min (p<0.05) and -19.7+/-52.5 (p<0.05) in the lercanidipine and ramipril group, respectively, was observed, without differences between the groups. A significant reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed in both the lercanidipine and ramipril-based treatment groups (p<0.0001 for both). This study demonstrated that treatment with lercanidipine 10-20 mg/day does not worsen albuminuria in microalbuminuric Type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension. Indeed, both lercanidipine and ramipril treatments resulted in a significant reduction in AER without a statistically significant difference between the two groups.

  3. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  4. Copiea - excretion rates of salamaders

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Stoichiometry of excreta and excretion rates of a stream-dwelling plethodontid salamander in Cincinnati, OH, USAThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Milanovich , J., and M. Hopton. Stoichiometry of excreta in larval stream salamanders: implications regarding the ecological roles of salamanders. FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY. Blackwell Publishing, Malden, MA, USA, 00, (2012).

  5. Biliary albumin excretion induced by bile salts in rats is a pathological phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, M.; Kitani, K.; Kanai, S. )

    1989-09-01

    The bile to plasma 125I-albumin concentration ratio (B/P ratio) was examined before and during various bile salt infusions in male Wistar rats that had previously received iv injection of 125I-albumin. Endogenous rat albumin and IgG concentrations in the bile were also determined by a single radial immunodiffusion method. Taurocholate (TC) infusion (1.0 mumol/min/100 g body wt) significantly increased the bile flow rate in the first hr but the flow began to decline in the second hr. The B/P ratio as well as rat albumin (and IgG) excretion into the bile significantly increased as early as 15 min after the start of TC infusion, and the increase became more pronounced in the second hr, when the bile flow began to decrease. Infusion of taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC, 0.4 mumol/min/100 g) caused a reduction in bile flow 15 min after the start of infusion but the B/P ratio increased 40 times at its peak compared with the basal value before the bile salt infusion. Simultaneous infusion of tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC, 0.6 mumol/min/100 g) and TCDC not only abolished the cholestasis induced by TCDC but maintained stable choleresis as long as for 2 hr. During this choleretic period, the B/P ration never exceeded the basal value. The choleresis induced by either taurodehydrocholate (TDHC) or bucolome was not accompanied by enhanced albumin excretion. In rats given TDHC infusion, albumin excretion started to increase only after the bile flow began to decline following the initial choleretic period. The enhanced excretion of albumin induced by TC and TCDC is therefore suggested to be caused not by the choleresis per se but by a possible concomitant increase in the communication between sinusoids and bile canaliculi, which eventually leads to cholestasis.

  6. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with renovascular hypertension.

    PubMed

    Růzicka, M; Stríbrná, J; Englis, M; Lánská, V; Skibová, J; Peregrin, J

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of albumin (UEalb), IgG and beta-2 microglobulin was investigated at a 3 hour-interval in a control group (C) of healthy subjects, in 30 patients with renovascular hypertension (RVH), and in 16 patients with essential hypertension (EH). Mean UEalb in RVH was significantly higher than in C. A significant direct correlation was demonstrated between diastolic blood pressure and UEalb (p < 0.01). Microalbuminuria (MA) > or = 30 micrograms.min-1 was found in about 18% of RVH patients; it was higher than 16.7 micrograms.min-1 in approx. 31%. These results did not substantially differ from those obtained in patients with EH. The cause for increased UEalb in hypertensive patients may be functional, haemodynamic changes, or structural ones. In either case, MA indicates renal injury, and these patients should be given increased attention when monitoring their blood pressure and when selecting antihypertensive drugs.

  7. Radioactive excretion in human milk following administration of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Pittard, W.B.; Merkatz, R.; Fletcher, B.D.

    1982-08-01

    Albumin-tagged sodium pertechnetate (technetium) is routinely used in nuclear medicine for scanning procedures of the lung. The rate of excretion of this radionuclide into breast milk and the resultant potential radiation hazard to the nursing infant have received little attention. Therefore the milk from a nursing mother who required a lung scan because of suspected pulmonary emboli using an intravenous injection of 4 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated human serum albumin was monitored. Albumin tagging severely limited the entrance of technetium into her milk and the radioactivity of the milk returned to base line by 24 hours. A total of 2.02 muCi of technetium was measured in the 24-hour milk collection after technetium injection and 94% of this amount was excreted by 15.5 hours. This amount of technetium administered orally to a newborn would deliver a total body radiation dose of .3 mrad. Therefore, an infant would receive trivial doses of radiation if breast-feeding were resumed 15.5 hours after administration of the radionuclide to the mother and nursing can clearly be resumed safely 24 hours after injection.

  8. Administration of ascorbic acid and an aldose reductase inhibitor (tolrestat) in diabetes: effect on urinary albumin excretion.

    PubMed

    McAuliffe, A V; Brooks, B A; Fisher, E J; Molyneaux, L M; Yue, D K

    1998-11-01

    The important role of ascorbic acid (AA) as an anti-oxidant is particularly relevant in diabetes mellitus where plasma concentrations of AA are reduced. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of treatment with AA or an aldose reductase inhibitor, tolrestat, on AA metabolism and urinary albumin excretion in diabetes. Blood and urine samples were collected at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months from 20 diabetic subjects who were randomized into two groups to receive either oral AA 500 mg twice daily or placebo. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, HbA1c, plasma lipids, urinary albumin, and total glycosaminoglycan excretion were measured at all time points, and heparan sulphate (glycosaminoglycan) was measured at 0 and 12 months. The same parameters, as well as urinary AA excretion, were determined at 0 and 3 months for 16 diabetes subjects receiving 200 mg tolrestat/day. AA treatment increased plasma AA (ANOVA, F ratio = 12.1, p = 0.004) and reduced albumin excretion rate (AER) after 9 months (ANOVA, F ratio = 3.2, p = 0.03), but did not change the other parameters measured. Tolrestat lowered plasma AA (Wilcoxon's signed-rank test, p < 0.05), but did not change AER or the other parameters measured. The ability of AA treatment to decrease AER may be related to changes in extracellular matrix or improvement in oxidative defence mechanism. Unlike the rat model of diabetes, inhibition of aldose reductase did not normalize plasma AA or AER in humans. In fact, tolrestat reduced the plasma AA concentration, a phenomenon which may be due to increased utilization of AA. Dietary supplementation of AA in diabetic subjects may have long-term benefits in attenuating the progression of diabetic complications.

  9. Monitoring and managing urinary albumin excretion: practical advice for primary care clinicians.

    PubMed

    Bakris, George L; Kuritzky, Louis

    2009-07-01

    Albuminuria has a strong, continuous, direct, linear relationship with adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes and chronic kidney disease progression. Even at levels below the accepted upper limit of what is considered "normal" daily albumin excretion (< 30 mg/24 h), a relationship between albumin excretion level and adverse CV events is evident. Primary care clinicians (eg, physicians, nurse practitioners, physicians' assistants) are usually the first point of contact for patients at risk for CV and kidney disease. Hence, identifying and treating problematic albuminuria levels are important in primary care. Both the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the National Kidney Foundation (NKF) endorse routine annual screening for microalbuminuria (small amounts of albumin in the urine). Once excess albumin excretion is detected, clinicians must employ aggressive CV risk reduction. To optimize outcomes, treatment of microalbuminuria often requires the combined skills of experts in primary care, cardiology, metabolic disease, and nephrology. Although blood pressure reduction usually improves microalbuminuria, agents that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are most efficacious. Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers (ie, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors) may confer CV and kidney advantages in high-risk patients. Their effects on microalbuminuria reduction are greater than those associated with attaining guideline-recommended blood pressure goals. Effective RAAS blockade sometimes induces transient changes in creatinine and potassium, which merit consistent monitoring for the first 2 to 3 months of their use, but rarely necessitate discontinuation. This article also presents an approach to managing increases in creatinine and potassium that should fit comfortably in the hands of primary care clinicians.

  10. Comparative microRNA profiling in relation to urinary albumin excretion in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Parthenakis, F I; Marketou, M E; Kontaraki, J E; Maragoudakis, F; Maragkoudakis, S; Nakou, H; Roufas, K; Patrianakos, A; Chlouverakis, G; Malliaraki, N; Vardas, P E

    2016-11-01

    Microalbuminuria is an established early marker of endothelial dysfunction and damage. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as essential modulators of cardiovascular physiology and disease. In the present study, we sought an association between the differential expression of related miRNAs in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of untreated patients with newly diagnosed essential hypertension and the levels of urinary albumin excretion. We assessed the expression of the miRNAs miRNA-1, miRNA-133a, miRNA-26b, miRNA-208b, miRNA-499 and miRNA-21 in consecutive subjects with untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension (aged 62.5±9.7 years) and with no indications of other organic heart disease. MiRNA expression levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were quantified by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was 9.8%. miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a were independently correlated with 24-h urinary albumin excretion. More specifically, a strong association was found between the gene expression levels of miRNA-208b in our patients' peripheral blood cells and urinary albumin (r=0.72, P<0.001). A similar association was found for miRNA-133a (r=0.372, P<0.001). In conclusion, miRNA-208b and miRNA-133a show distinct profiling in peripheral blood cells isolated from untreated patients with recently diagnosed essential hypertension. Their gene expression levels reveal a strong correlation with urinary albumin excretion levels. Our findings provide new perspectives on the development of a new generation of biomarkers for the better monitoring of end-organ damage in hypertension.

  11. Prognostic Significance of Initial Serum Albumin and 24 Hour Daily Protein Excretion before Treatment in Multiple Myeloma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia-Hong; Hsu, Shun-Neng; Huang, Tzu-Chuan; Wu, Yi-Ying; Lin, Chin; Chang, Ping-Ying; Chen, Yeu-Chin; Ho, Ching-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Renal failure is a common morbidity in multiple myeloma (MM). Although proteinuria has been increasingly reported in malignancies, it is not routinely used to refine risk estimates of survival outcomes in patients with MM. Here we aimed to investigate initial serum albumin and 24-hour daily protein excretion (24-h DPE) before treatment as prognostic factors in patients with MM. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 102 patients with myeloma who were ineligible for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation between October 2000 and December 2012. Initial proteinuria was assessed before treatment by quantitative analysis of 24-hour urine samples. The demographic and laboratory characteristics, survival outcome, and significance of pre-treatment 24-h DPE and albumin in the new staging system of MM were analyzed. Pre-treatment proteinuria (>300 mg/day) was present in 66 patients (64.7%). The optimal cut-off value of 24-h DPE before treatment was 500 mg/day. Analysis of the time-dependent area under the curve showed that the serum albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment were better than 24-h creatinine clearance rate and β2-microglobulin. A subgroup analysis showed that an initial excess proteinuria (24-h DPE ≥ 500 mg) was associated with poor survival status (17.51 vs. 34.24 months, p = 0.002). Furthermore, initial serum albumin was an independent risk factor on multivariate analysis (<2.8 vs. ≥ 2.8, hazard ratio = 0.486, p = 0.029). Using the A-DPE staging system, there was a significant survival difference among patients with stage I, II, and III MM (p < 0.001). Initial serum albumin and 24-h DPE before treatment showed significant prognostic factors in patients with MM, and the new A-DPE staging system may be utilized instead of the International Staging System. Its efficacy should be evaluated by further large prospective studies.

  12. Urine Albumin Excretion as a Marker of Acute Glycemic Changes in Isolated Postprandial Hyperglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Shilpasree, Alagilawada S; Patil, Vidya S; Patil, Vijayetha P; Ingleshwar, Deepti G

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Postprandial hyperglycemia is a major risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), and Most of the times it occurs in patients with normal glycemic control diagnosed by fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycated hemoglobin levels. Urine albumin excretion (UAE) is an independent predictor of CVD risk. Aim: To estimate UAE in isolated postprandial hyperglycemia (IPPHG) patients and to assess the relationship of UAE with FBG and postprandial blood glucose (PPBG) levels. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 318 patients with Type II diabetes in the age group 30–60 years for 6 months. Materials and Methods: Patients were divided into five groups based on their FBG and PPBG values. UAE and lipid profile were measured in all the groups. Statistical Analysis: UAE and lipid profile in different groups were compared using ANOVA. Regression analysis was used to predict the variation of UAE with FBG, PPBG, and total cholesterol (TC). Results: Patients with IPPHG had significantly higher albumin excretion compared to normoglycemia (NG) group [P < 0.0001]. In impaired glucose tolerance and isolated fasting hyperglycemia groups, it did not differ significantly from NG group [P = 0.206 and P = 0.173]. Lipid profile did not show any significant difference between the groups. On regression analysis, PPBG but not FBG or TC correlated positively with UAE. Conclusion: UAE is easy, less expensive, and Widely available method done on spot urine samples which predicts the acute glycemic changes and increased risk of developing CVDs in patients with IPPHG. PMID:28042215

  13. Cohort study of predictive value of urinary albumin excretion for atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Deckert, T.; Yokoyama, H.; Mathiesen, E.; Rønn, B.; Jensen, T.; Feldt-Rasmussen, B.; Borch-Johnsen, K.; Jensen, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether slightly elevated urinary albumin excretion precedes development of atherosclerotic vascular disease in patients with insulin dependent diabetes independently of conventional atherogenic risk factors and of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cohort study with 11 year follow up. SETTING: Diabetes centre in Denmark. SUBJECTS: 259 patients aged 19-51 with insulin dependent diabetes of 6-34 years' duration and without atherosclerotic vascular disease or diabetic nephropathy at baseline. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Baseline variables: urinary albumin excretion, blood pressure, smoking habits, and serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor. End point: atherosclerotic vascular disease assessed by death certificates, mailed questionnaires, and hospital records. RESULTS: Thirty patients developed atherosclerotic vascular disease during follow up of 2457 person year. Elevated urinary albumin excretion was significantly predictive of atherosclerotic vascular disease (hazard ratio 1.06 (95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.18) per 5 mg increase in 24 hour urinary albumin excretion, P = 0.002). Predictive effect was independent of age; sex; blood pressure; smoking; serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, sialic acid, and von Willebrand factor; level of haemoglobin A(lc); insulin dose, duration of diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy (hazard ratio 1.04 (1.01 to 1.08) per 5 mg increase PMID:8611873

  14. Human serum albumin homeostasis: a new look at the roles of synthesis, catabolism, renal and gastrointestinal excretion, and the clinical value of serum albumin measurements

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, David G; Levitt, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin concentration (CP) is a remarkably strong prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality in both sick and seemingly healthy subjects. Surprisingly, the specifics of the pathophysiology underlying the relationship between CP and ill-health are poorly understood. This review provides a summary that is not previously available in the literature, concerning how synthesis, catabolism, and renal and gastrointestinal clearance of albumin interact to bring about albumin homeostasis, with a focus on the clinical factors that influence this homeostasis. In normal humans, the albumin turnover time of about 25 days reflects a liver albumin synthesis rate of about 10.5 g/day balanced by renal (≈6%), gastrointestinal (≈10%), and catabolic (≈84%) clearances. The acute development of hypoalbuminemia with sepsis or trauma results from increased albumin capillary permeability leading to redistribution of albumin from the vascular to interstitial space. The best understood mechanism of chronic hypoalbuminemia is the decreased albumin synthesis observed in liver disease. Decreased albumin production also accounts for hypoalbuminemia observed with a low-protein and normal caloric diet. However, a calorie- and protein-deficient diet does not reduce albumin synthesis and is not associated with hypoalbuminemia, and CP is not a useful marker of malnutrition. In most disease states other than liver disease, albumin synthesis is normal or increased, and hypoalbuminemia reflects an enhanced rate of albumin turnover resulting either from an increased rate of catabolism (a poorly understood phenomenon) or enhanced loss of albumin into the urine (nephrosis) or intestine (protein-losing enteropathy). The latter may occur with subtle intestinal pathology and hence may be more prevalent than commonly appreciated. Clinically, reduced CP appears to be a result rather than a cause of ill-health, and therapy designed to increase CP has limited benefit. The ubiquitous occurrence of

  15. Effect of Pentoxifylline on Renal Function and Urinary Albumin Excretion in Patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease: The PREDIAN Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Fernández, Carmen; Muros de Fuentes, Mercedes; Chahin, Jesús; Méndez, María L.; Gallego, Eduardo; Macía, Manuel; del Castillo, Nieves; Rivero, Antonio; Getino, María A.; García, Patricia; Jarque, Ana; García, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of ESRD. We conducted an open-label, prospective, randomized trial to determine whether pentoxifylline (PTF), which reduces albuminuria, in addition to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade, can slow progression of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and stages 3–4 CKD. Participants were assigned to receive PTF (1200 mg/d) (n=82) or to a control group (n=87) for 2 years. All patients received similar doses of RAS inhibitors. At study end, eGFR had decreased by a mean±SEM of 2.1±0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the PTF group compared with 6.5±0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the control group, with a between-group difference of 4.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.1 to 5.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2; P<0.001) in favor of PTF. The proportion of patients with a rate of eGFR decline greater than the median rate of decline (0.16 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per month) was lower in the PTF group than in the control group (33.3% versus 68.2%; P<0.001). Percentage change in urinary albumin excretion was 5.7% (95% CI, −0.3% to 11.1%) in the control group and −14.9% (95% CI, −20.4% to −9.4%) in the PTF group (P=0.001). Urine TNF-α decreased from a median 16 ng/g (interquartile range, 11–20.1 ng/g) to 14.3 ng/g (interquartile range, 9.2–18.4 ng/g) in the PTF group (P<0.01), with no changes in the control group. In this population, addition of PTF to RAS inhibitors resulted in a smaller decrease in eGFR and a greater reduction of residual albuminuria. PMID:24970885

  16. Urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin in hypertensive and normotensive renal transplant recipients during urinary diluting and concentrating tests.

    PubMed

    Jespersen, B; Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Kornerup, H J; Knudsen, F; Mogensen, C E; Nielsen, A H

    1986-11-01

    Urinary excretion of albumin and beta-2-microglobulin was measured in nine hypertensive and nine normotensive renal transplant recipients and 10 healthy control subjects before and after an oral water load of 20 ml (kg body weight)-1 (study 1) and in eight hypertensive and 11 normotensive renal transplant recipients and 11 healthy control subjects during 24-h water deprivation (study 2). In both studies 1 and 2 urinary albumin excretion was significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients that in the normotensive patients and the control subjects (levels before loading; hypertensives: 23.9 micrograms/min (median), range 7.5-58.7; normotensives: 3.4 micrograms/min, range 1.0-49.3; controls: 2.9 micrograms/min, range 1.3-10.3). Urinary albumin excretion was significantly positive correlated to both systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure (for mean blood pressure: rho = 0.625, n = 18, p less than 0.01) in transplanted patients. Albumin excretion tended to increase after water loading and to decrease during water deprivation in all groups. Beta-2-microglobulin excretion was approximately the same in all groups in both studies 1 and 2 and was not correlated to blood pressure. During a follow-up period of at least 18 months, none of the renal transplant recipients developed signs of chronic graft failure. Increased urinary albumin excretion in hypertensive renal transplant recipients thus appears to be caused by increased glomerular permeability that may be due to glomerular damage induced by arterial hypertension corresponding to the findings in essential hypertension.

  17. Systemic excretion of benzo(a)pyrene in the control and microsomally induced rat: the influence of plasma lipoproteins and albumin as carrier molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, H.P.; Bymun, E.N.

    1983-02-01

    In vitro studies have previously indicated that benzo(a)pyrene distributes primarily into the plasma lipoprotein fraction when incubated with whole plasma. Hydroxylated metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene distribute increasingly into the albumin fraction as the degree of metabolite hydroxylation increases. This report assesses the influence of plasma lipoproteins and albumin as carriers for benzo(a)pyrene on carcinogen excretion in the control and microsomally induced rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats cannulated in the bile duct received i.v. injections of radiolabeled benzo(a)pyrene noncovalently bound to the very-low-density, low-density, or high-density lipoproteins in equimolar amounts. Bile was collected and measured for radioactivity. Cumulative biliary excretions of benzo(a)pyrene complexed with rat lipoproteins were 39.6 +/- 9.7 (S.D.), 24.6 +/- 1.3, and 21.2 +/- 8.8% for very low-density, low-density, and high-density lipoprotein, respectively. Values for excretion of benzo(a)pyrene complexed with rat or human lipoproteins were comparable. These data suggest that the transport molecule can effect a 2-fold difference in benzo(a)pyrene excretion under conditions of the present study. Thus, excretion increased as the degree of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylation increased. The effect of microsomal enzyme induction on excretion of lipoprotein-bound benzo(a)pyrene was also assessed. Contrary to expectation, excretion of benzo(a)pyrene bound to the very-low-density, low-density, or high-density lipoproteins in Aroclor-induced rats was not greater than that of control animals. Hence, under the conditions of the present study, 60 to 80% of the injected benzo(a)pyrene and 50 to 60% of the injected benzo(a)pyrene metabolites were not excreted immediately in control or microsomally induced animals. This benzo(a)pyrene may represent a carcinogen pool that is slowly excreted.

  18. Urinary clearance of albumin is critically determined by its tertiary structure.

    PubMed

    Clavant, Steven P; Comper, Wayne D

    2003-12-01

    The excretion of serum albumin in the urine is considered the net result of renal glomerular filtration and tubular uptake. During routine experiments, we observed that a batch of tritium-labeled albumin yielded anomalous results, being excreted in the urine of isolated perfused kidneys at 10 times the rate of normal tritiated albumin. This anomalous albumin, when simultaneously studied with normal carbon 14-labeled albumin, exhibited 10 times greater excretion than normal [(14)C]albumin. Anomalous albumin could not be reversed to normal albumin by means of conditioning with blood. In vivo clearances of anomalous albumin could not be quantitated because anomalous albumin is degraded during circulation. Anomalous albumin appeared to have the same molecular size (as determined with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, capillary electrophoresis, and gel chromatography) and isoelectric-point profile (2-dimensional electrophresis) as normal albumin. Normal albumin could be transformed to anomalous albumin with alkali/heat treatment. Reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of fragments from tryptic digests of anomalous albumin, alkali/heat-treated albumin, and normal albumin suggest that anomalous albumin and alkali/heat-treated albumin have altered tertiary structure, possibly as a result of denaturation and disulfide exchange. These studies show that the tertiary structure of albumin, beyond simple size and charge, is a critical determinant for albumin processing by the kidney and suggest that a specific albumin-recognition event by the kidneys is critical to normal renal handling of albumin.

  19. Albumin extravasation rates in tissues of anesthetized and unanesthetized rats

    SciTech Connect

    Renkin, E.M.; Joyner, W.L.; Gustafson-Sgro, M.; Plopper, G.; Sibley, L.

    1989-05-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled with /sup 131/I was injected intravenously in chronically prepared, unanesthetized rats and into pentobarbital-anesthetized rats that had received 2 ml 5% BSA to help sustain plasma volume. Initial uptake rates (clearances) in skin, skeletal muscles, diaphragm, and heart (left ventricle) were measured over 1 h. BSA labeled with /sup 125/I was injected terminally to correct for intravascular /sup 131/I-BSA. Observed clearances were in the following order in both groups of animals: heart much greater than diaphragm approximately equal to skin greater than resting skeletal muscles. Differences between unanesthetized and anesthetized animals were small and inconsistently directed. Our results suggest that the lower albumin clearances reported in the literature for anesthetized rats are not the result of their immobility or any direct effect of anesthesia on albumin transport in these tissues. The lower transport rates appear to result indirectly from changes produced by anesthesia and/or surgery in controllable parameters such as plasma volume and intravascular protein mass.

  20. Improvements in Augmentation Index and Urinary Albumin Excretion With Benidipine in Hypertensive Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Tadateru; Yoda, Shunichi; Yajima, Yoshiharu; Kasamaki, Yuji; Kunimoto, Satoshi; Kanai, Takashi; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Although calcium channel blockers (CCB) are expected to improve the augmentation index (AI) in CKD patients, the potential effect of benidipine on AI has been poorly studied.The present study aimed to compare the effect of benidipine and amlodipine in the treatment of CKD patients as measured through AI and urinary albumin excretion (UAE). Eligible patients with CKD were randomized to either the benidipine group or amlodipine group. Changes in UAE and AI were compared with target blood pressure level set at < 130/80 mmHg. A total of 108 patients were enrolled; 88 patients who were followed up were included in the analysis. Although no significant change in renal function was noted in either group, there was a significant improvement in AI only in the benidipine group (85.7 ± 13.3% to 81.4 ± 15.2%; P = 0.021) A subgroup analysis of 64 patients who achieved SBP < 140 mmHg at the end of follow-up (31 on amlodipine and 33 on benidipine) was carried out. Significant improvement in AI was noted only in the benidipine group (84.5 ± 13.6% to 79.5 ± 15.2%; P = 0.0138). In another subgroup of patients with UAE ≥ 300 mg/g Cr, a significant improvement in UAE in the benidipine group was found compared with the amlodipine group (-25 ± 46, 51 ± 60%, P = 0.031, respectively).These results suggest that benidipine might reduce significantly AI and might have potentially greater improvements in UAE than amlodipine in advanced CKD patients receiving RAS inhibitors.

  1. Testosterone urinary excretion rate increases during hypergravity in male monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strollo, F.; Barger, L.; Fuller, C.

    2000-01-01

    Real and simulated microgravity impairs T secretion both in animals and in the human. To verify whether hypergravity might enhance T secretion as a consequence of an opposite mechanical effect, 6 male monkeys were centrifuged at 2 G for 3 weeks after a 1 G stabilization period lasting 3 weeks and then taken back to 1 G for 1 week and urine were collected daily for T excretion measurement. Significantly higher level were observed during the initial 2 G phase as compared to pre- and post centrifugation periods and the trend was the same during the remaining 2 G period. This may reflect changes in testicular perfusion rather than endocrine adaptation per se.

  2. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Nicolli, Annamaria; Chiara, Federica; Gambalunga, Alberto; Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females). Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine. PMID:25019265

  3. Urinary Albumin Excretion Reflects Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women without Diabetes: The 2011 to 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hee Jung; Moon, Do Sik; Kang, Da Yeong; Lee, Jung In; Kim, Da Young; Kim, Jin Hwa; Bae, Hak Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of the current study was to determine whether there was an association between urinary albumin excretion and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by estimating the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) in postmenopausal women without diabetes. Methods This study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted by the Korean Ministry of Health and Welfare in 2011 to 2013. Data on 2,316 postmenopausal women from a total of 24,594 participants was included in the analysis. Results The mean FRS was significantly different in each of the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) subgroups, and it increased with UACR. The FRS was 12.69±0.12 in the optimal group, 14.30±0.19 in the intermediate normal group, 14.62±0.26 in the high normal group, and 15.86±0.36 in the microalbuminuria group. After fully adjusting for potential confounding factors, high normal levels and microalbuminuria were significantly associated with the highest tertile of FRS ([odds ratio (OR), 1.642; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.124 to 2.400] and [OR, 3.385; 95% CI, 2.088 to 5.488], respectively) compared with the optimal subgroup. High normal levels and microalbuminuria were also significantly associated with a ≥10% 10-year risk of CVD ([OR, 1.853; 95% CI, 1.122 to 3.060] and [OR, 2.831; 95% CI, 1.327 to 6.037], respectively) after adjusting for potential confounding covariates. Conclusion Urinary albumin excretion reflects CVD risk in postmenopausal women without diabetes, and high normal levels and microalbuminuria were independently associated with a higher risk of CVD. PMID:27834079

  4. Neurogenic hypertension associated with an excessively high excretion rate of catecholamine metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Funck-Brentano, C; Pagny, J Y; Menard, J

    1987-01-01

    A 60 year old hypertensive patient suffered several cerebral infarctions. A phaeochromocytoma was suspected because the excretion rates of vanillylmandelic acid and its methoxy derivatives were raised and the patient had hypertensive crises. No tumour was found, however, by 131mI-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy and computed tomography of the abdomen. Moreover, the enhanced orthostatic plasma catecholamine response suggested that the high excretion rates of catecholamine metabolites were more likely to be caused by the syndrome of raised catecholamines after cerebrovascular accidents than a phaeochromocytoma. A phaeochromocytoma should not be diagnosed within several months of cerebral infarction without first excluding the possibility of a hyperadrenergic state induced by cerebral infarction. PMID:3593621

  5. A novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonist, NIP-222, reduces urinary albumin excretion in streptozotocin-diabetic mice independent of PPARgamma activation.

    PubMed

    Yotsumoto, Takashi; Naitoh, Takeshi; Kanaki, Tatsuro; Matsuda, Maho; Tsuruzoe, Nobutomo

    2003-12-01

    NIP-222 is a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonist. This study provides evidence that NIP-222 decreases urinary albumin excretion (UAE) in diabetic mice independent of its PPARgamma activation. We compared the effect of NIP-222 and another PPARgamma agonist, troglitazone, on UAE, plasma glucose level, blood pressure, and creatinine clearance (C(cr)) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Treatment for 3 weeks with NIP-222 (30 mg/kg) was associated with a significant decrease in UAE without any change in blood pressure, creatinine clearance, or plasma glucose level. In contrast, UAE did not decrease in mice treated with troglitazone (300 mg/kg). These results indicate that NIP-222 has PPARgamma independent effects on UAE in diabetic mice and suggest that this agent may have potential to minimize the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy.

  6. Relative rates of albumin equilibration in the skin interstitium and lymph during increased permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Powers, M.R.; Wallace, J.R.; Bell, D.R.

    1986-03-05

    The initial equilibration of /sup 125/I-labelled albumin between the vascular and extravascular compartments was studied in hindpaw heel skin of anesthetized rabbits. Bradykinin (0.3 ..mu..g/min) was infused into a small branch of the femoral artery. A second group of rabbits served as control. Following bradykinin, prenodal popliteal lymph flow was 4 times control flow. The lymph-to-plasma concentration ratios for total protein and albumin were, respectively, 60% and 50% larger than control. Tissue albumin concentration was twice control. After reaching a steady, elevated lymph flow, tracer albumin was infused to maintain plasma activity constant for 3 hrs. The plasma volume in tissue samples was measured using /sup 131/I-labeled albumin injected 10 min before ending the experiment. Endogenous albumin was measured in plasma, lymph, and tissue samples using rocket electroimmunoassay. After 3 hrs of tracer infusion, lymph specific activity was 3 times greater than control. In the control group, plasma albumin equilibrated more rapidly with lymph than with tissue (p < 0.05). Following bradykinin, extravascular specific activity was 4 times control, resulting in lymph and tissue equilibrating with plasma at similar rates. Thus, increasing capillary permeability causes the extravascular albumin mass to behave as if distributed in a single compartment.

  7. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-10-01

    Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis.The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04).UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE.

  8. Impacts of active urea secretion into pars recta on urine concentration and urea excretion rate

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Anita T; Bankir, Lise

    2013-01-01

    It has been observed experimentally that early distal tubular urea flow exceeds urea delivery by the proximal convoluted tubule to the pars recta and loop of Henle. Moreover, the fractional excretion of urea in the urine may exceed values compatible with the reabsorption known to occur in the proximal convoluted tubule in the cortex. A likely explanation for these observations is that urea may be actively secreted into the pars recta, as proposed in a few studies. However, this hypothesis has yet to be demonstrated experimentally. In this study, we used a mathematical model of the renal medulla of the rat kidney to investigate the impacts of active urea secretion in the intrarenal handling of urea and in the urine concentrating ability. The model represents only the outer and inner medullary zones, with the actions taking place in the cortex incorporated via boundary conditions. Blood flow in the model vasculature is divided into plasma and red blood cell compartments. We compared urea flow rates and other related model variables without and with the hypothetical active urea secretion in the pars recta. The simulation suggests that active urea secretion induces a “urea-selective” improvement in urine concentrating ability by enhancing the efficiency of urea excretion without requiring a higher urine flow rate, and with only modest changes in the excretion of other solutes. These results should encourage experimental studies in order to assess the existence of an active urea secretion in the rodent kidney. PMID:24058732

  9. Urine albumin excretion, within normal range, reflects increasing prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Vyssoulis, Gregory; Karpanou, Eva; Spanos, Pangiotis; Kyvelou, Stella-Maria; Adamopoulos, Dionysios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2010-08-01

    Microalbuminuria is a prognostic marker of cardiovascular disease and is related to metabolic syndrome (MetS). For this purpose, the authors examined the relationship of low grade albuminuria to MetS, using 4 current definitions and a MetS score. They studied 6650 consecutive, nondiabetic, hypertensive patients with normal microalbumin excretion. MetS was defined by Adult Treatment Panel III, American Heart Association, World Heart Organization, International Diabetes Federation criteria, and MetS Gruppo Italiano per lo Studio della Streptochinasi nell'Infarcto Miocardico (GISSI) score. Urine microalbumin concentration was measured after a 24-hour urine collection by immunonephelometry. By all definitions, hypertensive patients with MetS had higher microalbumin levels. Significantly higher microalbumin levels were observed as the number of metabolic components rose. After adjustment for systolic blood pressure, the strength of this association was reduced to a nonsignificant level. Microalbumin levels, within normal range, are increased in patients with MetS, irrespective of the definition criteria.

  10. Diagnostic accuracy of the urinary albumin: creatinine ratio determined by the CLINITEK Microalbumin and DCA 2000+ for the rule-out of albuminuria in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Guy, Mark; Newall, Ronald; Borzomato, Joanna; Kalra, Philip A; Price, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    An increased urinary albumin excretion (albuminuria) is an established test for the early detection of renal disease and is also recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and mortality in a number of clinical settings. There is an established body of data which shows that a random urinary albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) based on a random urine sample correlates well with 24-hour urinary albumin excretion measurement. However, there is little data to show whether specific point-of-care testing devices can be used to rule-in or rule-out increased urinary albumin excretion in comparison to a 24-hour urinary albumin excretion measurement. This study evaluated the ability to rule-in or rule-out albuminuria in a cohort of patients attending a renal outpatient clinic, using the urinary ACR determined by the CLINITEK Microalbumin (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc., Deerfield, US) a semi-quantitative strip test, and by the DCA 2000+ (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics Inc.) a quantitative cassette based test using 3 random urine samples collected within a 24-hour period compared to 24-hour urinary albumin measurement. The CLINITEK system was shown to be a reliable test for ruling out increased urinary albumin excretion with negative likelihood ratios less than 0.05 above the 24-hour urinary albumin excretion rate of 30 mg/24 h (threshold for microalbuminuria), and less than 0.01 above the albumin excretion rate of 100 mg/24 h. The DCA 2000+ system demonstrated similar performance as a rule-out test, with likelihood ratios of less than 0.02 at 24-hour albumin excretion rates above 30 mg/24 h. Both the CLINITEK and DCA 2000+ systems could be used to rule-out increased urinary albumin excretion at the albumin excretion cut-off rate of 30 mg/24 h in this cohort of patients.

  11. 40 CFR Table Jj-3 to Subpart Jj of... - State-Specific Volatile Solids (VS) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle JJ Table JJ-3 to Subpart JJ of Part 98 Protection of... Volatile Solids (VS) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle State Volatile solids excretion rate (kg VS/day/1000 kg animal mass) Dairy cows Dairy heifers Feedlot steer Feedlot heifers Nitrogen...

  12. 40 CFR Table Jj-3 to Subpart Jj of... - State-Specific Volatile Solids (VS) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle JJ Table JJ-3 to Subpart JJ of Part 98 Protection of... REPORTING Manure Management Pt. 98, Subpt. JJ, Table JJ-3 Table JJ-3 to Subpart JJ of Part 98—State-Specific Volatile Solids (VS) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle State Volatile solids excretion rate...

  13. A global database of nitrogen and phosphorus excretion rates of aquatic animals

    DOE PAGES

    Vanni, Michael J.; McIntyre, Peter B.; Allen, Dennis; ...

    2017-03-06

    Though their importance varies greatly among species and ecosystems, animals can be important in modulating ecosystem-level nutrient cycling. Nutrient cycling rates of individual animals represent valuable data for testing the predictions of important frameworks such as the Metabolic Theory of Ecology (MTE) and ecological stoichiometry (ES). They also represent an important set of functional traits that may reflect both environmental and phylogenetic influences. Over the past two decades, studies of animal-mediated nutrient cycling have increased dramatically, especially in aquatic ecosystems. Here we present a global compilation of aquatic animal nutrient excretion rates. The dataset includes 10,534 observations from freshwater andmore » marine animals of N and/or P excretion rates. Furthermore, these observations represent 491 species, including most aquatic phyla. Coverage varies greatly among phyla and other taxonomic levels. The dataset includes information on animal body size, ambient temperature, taxonomic affiliations, and animal body N:P. We used this data set to test predictions of MTE and ES, as described in Vanni and McIntyre (2016; Ecology DOI: 10.1002/ecy.1582).« less

  14. Urinary excretion rates of natural estrogens and androgens from humans, and their occurrence and fate in the environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ze-Hua; Kanjo, Yoshinori; Mizutani, Satoshi

    2009-09-01

    Endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) are pollutants with estrogenic or androgenic activities at very low concentrations and are emerging as a major concern for water quality. For sewage of municipal wastewater treatment plants in cities, one of the most important sources of EDCs are natural estrogens and natural androgens (NEAs) excreted from humans. Therefore, estrogenic/androgenic potencies or relative binding affinity of the NEAs were first outlined from different sources, and data of urinary excretion rates of NEAs were summarized. To evaluate their estrogenic activities, their excretion rates of estrogen equivalent (EEQ) or testosterone (T) equivalent (TEQ) were also calculated. Based on our summary, the total excretion rates of EEQ by estrone (E1), 17beta-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3) only accounted for 66-82% of the total excretion rate of EEQ among four different groups, and the other corresponding natural estrogens contributed 18-34%, which meant that some of the other natural estrogens may also exist in wastewater with high estrogenic activities. Based on the contribution ratio of individual androgens to the total excretion rate of TEQ, five out of 12 natural androgens, T, dihydrotestosterone (DHT), androsterone (AD), 5beta-androstanediol (beta-ADL), and androstenediol (ANL) were evaluated as the priority natural androgens, which may exist in wastewater with high androgenic activities. Published data on occurrence and fate of the NEAs including natural estrogen conjugates in the environment were also summarized here.

  15. Proximal Tubules Have the Capacity to Regulate Uptake of Albumin.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mark C; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B; Chowdhury, Mahboob; Flores, Brittany; Lai, Xianyin; Myslinski, Jered; Pandit, Sweekar; Sandoval, Ruben M; Wean, Sarah E; Wei, Yuan; Satlin, Lisa M; Wiggins, Roger C; Witzmann, Frank A; Molitoris, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Evidence from multiple studies supports the concept that both glomerular filtration and proximal tubule (PT) reclamation affect urinary albumin excretion rate. To better understand these roles of glomerular filtration and PT uptake, we investigated these processes in two distinct animal models. In a rat model of acute exogenous albumin overload, we quantified glomerular sieving coefficients (GSC) and PT uptake of Texas Red-labeled rat serum albumin using two-photon intravital microscopy. No change in GSC was observed, but a significant decrease in PT albumin uptake was quantified. In a second model, loss of endogenous albumin was induced in rats by podocyte-specific transgenic expression of diphtheria toxin receptor. In these albumin-deficient rats, exposure to diphtheria toxin induced an increase in albumin GSC and albumin filtration, resulting in increased exposure of the PTs to endogenous albumin. In this case, PT albumin reabsorption was markedly increased. Analysis of known albumin receptors and assessment of cortical protein expression in the albumin overload model, conducted to identify potential proteins and pathways affected by acute protein overload, revealed changes in the expression levels of calreticulin, disabled homolog 2, NRF2, angiopoietin-2, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that a regulated PT cell albumin uptake system can respond rapidly to different physiologic conditions to minimize alterations in serum albumin level.

  16. Changes in alpha-fetoprotein and albumin synthesis rates and their levels during fetal and neonatal development of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ali, M; Sahib, M K

    1983-02-01

    An attempt was made to find a correlation between AFP and albumin levels in brain and their rates of synthesis in the brain cells during maturation of rat brain. Levels of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and albumin in the developing brain were studied by rocket immunoassay. Rate of synthesis of AFP and albumin in brain cell cultures, established from rat brain at various stages of development, were determined by incorporation of [14C]leucine into immuno-precipitable intracellular AFP and albumin. AFP and albumin levels in brain as well as rates of their synthesis by brain cells in culture registered a continuous decline during development. Synthesis of AFP and albumin in the brain is switched off after first week of postnatal life with a concomitant disappearance of these proteins from the brain. Levels of AFP and albumin in brain correlated well with rates of their synthesis by brain cells in vitro at any specific stage of brain maturation implying that levels of AFP and albumin in brain are regulated by controlling rates of their synthesis in the maturing brain cells.

  17. Excretion rates of indigestible plastic balls of different specific gravities and diameters in dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Seyama, Tomohiro; Hirayasu, Hirofumi; Kasai, Koji

    2017-01-01

    We used plastic balls to investigate how their specific gravity and diameter affect excretion rate and rumination in dairy cattle, to develop a capsule that can be used for reaching the lower gastrointestinal tract without physical breakdown and/or degradation in the rumen. Twelve types of indigestible plastic balls composed of a combination of four specific gravities (0.95, 1.19, 1.41, or 2.20) and three diameters (3.97, 6.35, or 7.94 mm) were orally administered to lactating dairy cows, and the balls were collected from feces, after 120 h post-administration, to evaluate the recovery rate. Recovery rate of the balls with specific gravity 1.19 or 1.41 and diameter 6.35 or 7.94 mm was higher than those with specific gravity 0.95 or 2.20 and diameter 3.97 mm. The cumulative recovery rate at 24 and 48 h post-administration was higher for balls with specific gravity 1.19 than that for balls with other specific gravities. These results suggest that specific gravity 1.19 or 1.41 and diameters 6.35-7.94 mm are optimal for use in bypass capsules for administration to cattle. In addition, the passage time of capsules differed between specific gravities 1.19 and 1.41.

  18. A Microtus fortis protein, serum albumin, is a novel inhibitor of Schistosoma japonicum schistosomula

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rong; Wu, Guo-Jun; Xiong, De-Hui; Gong, Qiang; Yu, Ruan-Jing; Hu, Wei-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is an endemic parasite disease and praziquantel is the only drug currently in use to control this disease. Experimental and epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that Microtus fortis ( Mf ) is a naturally resistant vertebrate host of Schistosoma japonicum . In the present study, we found that Mf serum albumin ( Mf -albumin) and the conditioned medium of pcDNA3.1- Mf -albumin caused 46.2% and 38.7% schistosomula death rates in 96 h, respectively, which were significantly higher than that of the negative control (p < 0.05). We also found that mice injected with Mf -albumin had a 43.5% reduction in worm burden and a 48.1% reduction in liver eggs per gram (p < 0.05) in comparison to the control animals. To characterise the mechanisms involved in clearance, schistosomula were incubated with fluorescein isothiocyanate-labelled Mf -albumin and fluorescent enrichment effects were found in the gut lumen of schistosomula after 48 h of incubation. Next, digestive tract excretions from schistosomula were collected and the sensitivity of Mf -albumin to digestive tract excretions was evaluated. The results indicated that schistosomula digestive tract excretions showed indigestibility of Mf -albumin. The death of schistosomula could be partially attributed to the lack of digestion of Mf -albumin by digestive tract excretions during the development of the schistosomula stage. Therefore, these data indicate the potential of Mf -albumin as one of the major selective forces for schistosomiasis. PMID:24271043

  19. Effects of an intravenous bolus calcium injection on glomerular filtration rate and electrolyte excretion in the kidney in conscious pigs.

    PubMed

    Maier, H; Járos, G G; van Hoorn-Hickman, R; Hall, A

    1985-03-02

    This paper reports the changes observed in the concentration of various constituents of plasma and in their excretion in the urine after a bolus intravenous injection of 2,2 mM calcium gluconate into conscious pigs weighing 20 kg. In the plasma, both ionic and total calcium concentrations increased but returned to normal within 35 minutes, while sodium, potassium and inorganic phosphate did not change significantly. In the kidney, the urine volume, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and fractional sodium excretion increased slightly during the first 10 minutes but became significantly depressed later. Potassium and phosphate levels decreased, the latter significantly, while the calcium concentration increased significantly and only returned to normal after 70 minutes. These results suggest that since the disturbances in urinary volume, GFR and fractional phosphate excretion persist after both the plasma calcium and urinary calcium levels have returned to normal, factors other than these calcium values may be responsible for changes in the former measurements.

  20. Inhibition of the metabolic degradation of filtered albumin is a major determinant of albuminuria.

    PubMed

    Vuchkova, Julijana; Comper, Wayne D

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of the degradation of filtered albumin has been proposed as a widespread, benign form of albuminuria. There have however been recent reports that radiolabeled albumin fragments in urine are not exclusively generated by the kidney and that in albuminuric states albumin fragment excretion is not inhibited. In order to resolve this controversy we have examined the fate of various radiolabeled low molecular weight protein degradation products (LMWDPs) introduced into the circulation in rats. The influence of puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis on the processing and excretion of LMWDPs is also examined. The status and destinies of radiolabeled LMWDPs in the circulation are complex. A major finding is that LMWDPs are rapidly eliminated from the circulation (>97% in 2 h) but only small quantities (<4%) are excreted in urine. Small (<4%) but significant amounts of LMWDPs may have prolonged elimination (>24 h) due to binding to high molecular weight components in the circulation. If LMWDPs of albumin seen in the urine are produced by extra renal degradation it would require the degradation to far exceed the known catabolic rate of albumin. Alternatively, if an estimate of the role of extra renal degradation is made from the limit of detection of LMWDPs in plasma, then extra renal degradation would only contribute <1% of the total excretion of LMWDPs of albumin. We confirm that the degradation process for albumin is specifically associated with filtered albumin and this is inhibited in albuminuric states. This inhibition is also the primary determinant of the massive change in intact albuminuria in nephrotic states.

  1. Prevention of hemodynamic and vascular albumin filtration changes in diabetic rats by aldose reductase inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, R.G.; Chang, K.; Pugliese, G.; Eades, D.M.; Province, M.A.; Sherman, W.R.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R. )

    1989-10-01

    This study investigated hemodynamic changes in diabetic rats and their relationship to changes in vascular albumin permeation and increased metabolism of glucose to sorbitol. The effects of 6 wk of streptozocin-induced diabetes and three structurally different inhibitors of aldose reductase were examined on (1) regional blood flow (assessed with 15-microns 85Sr-labeled microspheres) and vascular permeation by 125I-labeled bovine serum albumin (BSA) and (2) glomerular filtration rate (assessed by plasma clearance of 57Co-labeled EDTA) and urinary albumin excretion (determined by radial immunodiffusion assay). In diabetic rats, blood flow was significantly increased in ocular tissues (anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, and optic nerve), sciatic nerve, kidney, new granulation tissue, cecum, and brain. 125I-BSA permeation was increased in all of these tissues except brain. Glomerular filtration rate and 24-h urinary albumin excretion were increased 2- and 29-fold, respectively, in diabetic rats. All three aldose reductase inhibitors completely prevented or markedly reduced these hemodynamic and vascular filtration changes and increases in tissue sorbitol levels in the anterior uvea, posterior uvea, retina, sciatic nerve, and granulation tissue. These observations indicate that early diabetes-induced hemodynamic changes and increased vascular albumin permeation and urinary albumin excretion are aldose reductase-linked phenomena. Discordant effects of aldose reductase inhibitors on blood flow and vascular albumin permeation in some tissues suggest that increased vascular albumin permeation is not entirely attributable to hemodynamic change.

  2. Excretion of iodine-123-hippuran, technetium-99m-red blood cells, and technetium-99m-macroaggregated albumin into breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, M.R.; Prescott, M.C.; Herman, K.J. )

    1990-06-01

    The amount of radioactivity excreted in breast milk following three different nuclear medicine procedures on twelve nursing mothers has been measured. Some of this information has already been incorporated into the latest guidelines on suspension of feeding after maternal radiopharmaceutical administration. The overall radiation dose that the patients' babies would have sustained had breast feeding not been interrupted has been estimated as an effective dose equivalent. A model has been developed to describe the relationship between clearance of activity from the milk, time between expressions, and the fraction of milk expressed. Some simple guidance is given on calculation of suitable interruption times for any individual mother from counts on her milk samples.

  3. Association of a high normalized protein catabolic rate and low serum albumin level with carpal tunnel syndrome in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Hung; Hsu, Ching-Wei; Weng, Cheng-Hao; Yen, Tzung-Hai; Lin, Jui-Hsiang; Lee, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common mononeuropathy in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The association between chronic inflammation and CTS in hemodialysis (HD) patients has rarely been investigated. HD patients with a high normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) and low serum albumin level likely have adequate nutrition and inflammation. In this study, we assume that a low serum albumin level and high nPCR is associated with CTS in HD patients. We recruited 866 maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients and divided them into 4 groups according to their nPCR and serum albumin levels: (1) nPCR <1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level <4 g/dL; (2) nPCR ≥1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level <4 g/dL; (3) nPCR <1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level ≥4 g/dL; and (4) nPCR ≥1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level ≥4 g/dL. After adjustment for related variables, HD duration and nPCR ≥1.2 g/kg/d and serum albumin level <4 g/dL were positively correlated with CTS. By calculating the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve, we calculated that the nPCR and HD duration cut-off points for obtaining the most favorable Youden index were 1.29 g/kg/d and 7.5 years, respectively. Advance multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that in MHD patients, nPCR ≥1.29 g/kg/d and serum albumin <4 g/dL, and also HD duration >7.5 years were associated with CTS. A high nPCR and low serum albumin level, which likely reflect adequate nutrition and inflammation, were associated with CTS in MHD patients. PMID:27368039

  4. Tissue vitamin concentrations are maintained constant by changing the urinary excretion rate of vitamins in rats' restricted food intake.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Katsumi; Fukuwatari, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    We previously reported that mild food restriction induces a reduction in tryptophan-nicotinamide conversion, which helps to explain why death secondary to pellagra is pandemic during the hungry season. In this study, we investigated the levels of B-group vitamins in the liver, kidney, blood, and urine in rats that underwent gradual restriction of food intake (80, 60, 40, and 20% restriction vs. ad libitum food intake). No significant differences in the B-group vitamin concentrations (mol/g tissue) in the liver and kidney were observed at any level of food restriction. However, the urine excretion rates exhibited some characteristic phenomena that differed by vitamin. These results show that the tissue concentrations of B-group vitamins were kept constant by changing the urinary elimination rates of vitamins under various levels of food restriction. Only vitamin B12 was the only (exception).

  5. Effect of the Direct Renin Inhibitor Aliskiren on Urinary Albumin Excretion in Spontaneous Type 2 Diabetic KK-A (y) Mouse.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Masako; Gohda, Tomohito; Hagiwara, Shinji; Tanimoto, Mitsuo; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Funabiki, Kazuhiko; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although angiotensin II-mediated inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation are considered to be associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy, these processes have not yet been sufficiently clarified. The objective of this study was to determine whether the correction of the abnormal renal expression of MMPs and its inhibitors (MMPs/TIMPs) and cytokines following the administration of aliskiren to KK-A (y) mice results in a renoprotective effect. Methods. KK-A (y) mice were divided into two groups, that is, untreated (saline) and treated (aliskiren) groups. Systolic BP, HbA1c levels, and the albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured. The renal expression of MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) was examined using real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemical staining. Renal MAPK and NF- κ B activity were also examined by Western blot analyses and ELISA, respectively. Results. Significant decreases in systolic BP and ACR levels were observed in treated KK-A (y) mice compared with the findings in untreated KK-A (y) mice. Furthermore, increases in MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (P)RR expression, in addition to MAPK and NF- κ B activity, were significantly attenuated by aliskiren administration. Conclusions. It appears that aliskiren improves albuminuria and renal fibrosis by regulating inflammation and the alteration of collagen synthesis and degradation.

  6. A Topical Medication of All-Trans Retinoic Acid Reduces Sebum Excretion Rate in Patients With Forehead Acne.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Wang, Qian; Tu, Ping

    2016-02-11

    Acne is a disease of the hair follicles of the face, chest, and back that affects almost all teenagers during puberty. This study is conducted to investigate if all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) could reduce sebum excretion rate (SER) in acne patients by influencing content of skin-surface lipid production. Thirty-nine patients with forehead acne were topically treated with cream base (vehicle) and 0.025% ATRA cream once a night for 7 days. Separation and identification of sebum production collected from the skin on the acne were performed using thin-layer chromatography. SER was calculated according to the total amount of individual sebum productions that were quantified by using Alphaimager IS-2200 imaging analysis. Our data showed that the value of SER on the acne-affected skin was significantly decreased in the ATRA-treated patients as compared with ones treated with vehicle (P < 0.01). Treatment with ATRA resulted in inducing significant decreases in the contents of wax esters (WE), triglycerides and fatty acids, and free fatty acids (FFA) productions (all P < 0.01). In further analysis, the changes in the data before and after treatments with vehicle and ATRA were compared with significant differences exhibited in the values of SER, WE, and FFA (all P < 0.05). This study indicates that the topical application of ATRA in treatment of acne patients induces decrease in SER by inhibiting the excretion of WE and FFA productions.

  7. Biliary and urinary excretion rates and serum concentration changes of four bilirubin photoproducts in Gunn rats during total darkness and low or high illumination.

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, S; Ogino, T; Yokoyama, T; Isobe, K; Itoh, S; Yamakawa, T; Hashimoto, T

    1984-01-01

    On cycled exposure of Gunn rats to total darkness and low and high illumination, biliary excretion rates of (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin and (EZ)-cyclobilirubin increased up to approx. 10-fold from the mean basal values of 1.2 and 0.2 microgram/h to the mean maximum values of 25.2 and 4.2 micrograms/h respectively, and at the same time those of (EE)-bilirubin and (EE)-cyclobilirubin also increased, but at very much lower rates than those of the first-mentioned two. During the low illumination only (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin and (EZ)-cyclobilirubin appeared in the urine; during the high illumination (EE)-bilirubin and (EE)-cyclobilirubin also appeared, showing a similar excretion pattern to that observed in the bile, but the total urinary excretion rates were lower than the total biliary excretion rates. The serum bilirubin concentrations fell gradually to lower values, accompanied by an increment in (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin, but (EZ)-cyclobilirubin was not detected. It is concluded that during phototherapy the predominant pathway for the removal of bilirubin from the body in the Gunn rat is by biliary excretion of the geometric photoisomers (EZ)- and (ZE)-bilirubin, derived from Z----E isomerization, and the structural photoisomer (EZ)-cyclobilirubin, formed from intramolecular endo-vinyl cyclization. PMID:6477496

  8. A global database of nitrogen and phosphorus excretion rates of aquatic animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animals can be important in modulating ecosystem-level nutrient cycling, although their importance varies greatly among species and ecosystems. Nutrient cycling rates of individual animals represent valuable data for testing the predictions of important frameworks such as the Metabolic Theory of Eco...

  9. Metabolism and Excretion Rates of Parent and Hydroxy-PAHs in Urine Collected after Consumption of Traditionally Smoked Salmon for Native American Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Motorykin, Oleksii; Santiago-Delgado, Lisandra; Rohlman, Diana; Schrlau, Jill E.; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Harding, Anna; Kile, Molly L.; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have been published on the excretion rates of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) following oral exposure. This study investigated metabolism and excretion rates of 4 parent PAHs and 10 OH-PAHs after the consumption of smoked salmon. Nine members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation consumed 50 g of traditionally smoked salmon with breakfast and five urine samples were collected during the following 24 hours. The concentrations of OH-PAHs increased from 43.9 μg/g creatinine for 2-OH-Nap to 349 ng/g creatinine for 1-OH-Pyr, 3 to 6 hr post-consumption. Despite volunteers following a restricted diet, there appeared to be a secondary source of naphthalene and fluorene, which led to excretion efficiencies greater than 100%. For the parent PAHs that were detected in urine, the excretion efficiencies ranged from 13% for phenanthrene (and its metabolite) to 240% for naphthalene (and its metabolites). The half-lives for PAHs ranged from 1.4 hr for retene to 3.3 hr for pyrene. The half-lives for OH-PAHs were higher and ranged from 1.7 hr for 9-OH-fluorene to 7.0 hr for 3-OH-fluorene. The concentrations of most parent PAHs, and their metabolites, returned to the background levels 24 hr post-consumption. PMID:25659315

  10. Metabolism and excretion rates of parent and hydroxy-PAHs in urine collected after consumption of traditionally smoked salmon for Native American volunteers.

    PubMed

    Motorykin, Oleksii; Santiago-Delgado, Lisandra; Rohlman, Diana; Schrlau, Jill E; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Harding, Anna; Kile, Molly L; Massey Simonich, Staci L

    2015-05-01

    Few studies have been published on the excretion rates of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) following oral exposure. This study investigated the metabolism and excretion rates of 4 parent PAHs and 10 OH-PAHs after the consumption of smoked salmon. Nine members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation consumed 50 g of traditionally smoked salmon with breakfast and five urine samples were collected during the following 24 h. The concentrations of OH-PAHs increased from 43.9 μg/g creatinine for 2-OH-Nap to 349 ng/g creatinine for 1-OH-Pyr, 3 to 6 h post-consumption. Despite volunteers following a restricted diet, there appeared to be a secondary source of naphthalene and fluorene, which led to excretion efficiencies greater than 100%. For the parent PAHs that were detected in urine, the excretion efficiencies ranged from 13% for phenanthrene (and its metabolite) to 240% for naphthalene (and its metabolites). The half-lives for PAHs ranged from 1.4 h for retene to 3.3h for pyrene. The half-lives for OH-PAHs were higher and ranged from 1.7 h for 9-OH-fluorene to 7.0 h for 3-OH-fluorene. The concentrations of most parent PAHs, and their metabolites, returned to the background levels 24 h post-consumption.

  11. Furosemide renal excretion rate and the effects of the diuretic on different tubular sites are modified by endogenous dopamine in normohydrated rats.

    PubMed

    Nowicki, S; Opezzo, J A; Levin, G; Gonzalez, D; Elias, M M

    1995-09-01

    The present study was designed to explore the involvement of endogenous dopamine in furosemide excretion and in the actions of the diuretic on tubular sodium reabsorption. The dose-response relationship for the diuretic effect of furosemide given as i.v. bolus injections (0.2-7.5 mg.kg-1) was studied by clearance technique in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats treated with vehicle, benserazide (BZ) (25 mg.kg-1 i.v.) or SCH 23390 (50 micrograms.kg-1 + 10 micrograms.kg-1.min-1 i.v.). Furosemide induced the maximal diuresis 15 to 30 min after i.v. administration. The diuretic response was dose-dependent and was reduced in the animals treated with BZ and SCH 23390. Fractional sodium excretion was also increased by furosemide from 1.8 to 7.5% during the same period. This effect was reduced by both BZ or SCH 23390 by 35 to 50%. The effects of furosemide on proximal and distal renal tubules were dissected by measuring the renal lithium clearance (CLi+). Furosemide effective on proximal tubular sites (measured by FENa+ prox = CLi+/Cln) were completely abolished by BZ and SCH 23390, whereas both drugs reduced furosemide effects on distal tubular sites (measured by FENa+ distal = CNa+/CLi+) by 20 to 40%. Furosemide excretion rate during the peak response to the diuretic was measured in the urine. BZ and SCH 23390 diminished furosemide excretion by 45 to 80% as compared with vehicle-treated animals. The furosemide tubular effects and the proximal and distal functions measured by CLi+ determined during the peak response were correlated to the maximal excretion rate of furosemide in the urine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Biodeposition, respiration, and excretion rates of an introduced clam Mercenaria mercenaria in ponds with implications for potential competition with the native clam Meretrix meretrix in Shuangtaizi estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Anguo; Yuan, Xiutang; Hou, Wenjiu; Li, Xiaodong; Zhao, Kai; Chen, Weixin; Su, Xiurong

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential impacts of an introduced clam Mercenaria mercenaria on estuarine ecosystem, and implications for the niche competition with a native clam Meretrix meretrix. The biodeposition, respiration, and excretion rates of M. mercenaria were determined seasonally using a sediment trap and a closed respirator in field. The biodeposition rates of M. mercenaria were 0.06-0.37 g/ (ind.·d), and the respiration rates were 0.31-14.66 mg/(ind.·d). The ammonia and phosphate excretion rates were 0.18-36.70 and 1.44-14.87 μg/(ind.·d), respectively. The hard clam M. mercenaria may discharge dry deposits up to 2.1×105 t, contribute 18.3 t ammonia and 9.0 t phosphate to culture ponds, and consume 7.9×103 t O2 from ponds annually. It suggested that the hard clam M. mercenaria might play an important role in pelagic-benthic coupling in pond ecosystem through biodeposition and excretion. A comparison of the key physiological parameters of the introduced clam M. mercenaria and the native clam Meretrix meretrix suggested that M. mercenaria had a niche similar to that of Meretrix meretrix in Shuangtaizi estuary and might have a potential competition with Meretrix meretrix for habitat and food if M. mercenaria species escaped from the culture pond or artificially released in estuarine ecosystem.

  13. Cubilin is an albumin binding protein important for renal tubular albumin reabsorption.

    PubMed

    Birn, H; Fyfe, J C; Jacobsen, C; Mounier, F; Verroust, P J; Orskov, H; Willnow, T E; Moestrup, S K; Christensen, E I

    2000-05-01

    Using affinity chromatography and surface plasmon resonance analysis, we have identified cubilin, a 460-kDa receptor heavily expressed in kidney proximal tubule epithelial cells, as an albumin binding protein. Dogs with a functional defect in cubilin excrete large amounts of albumin in combination with virtually abolished proximal tubule reabsorption, showing the critical role for cubilin in the uptake of albumin by the proximal tubule. Also, by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry we show that previously identified low-molecular-weight renal albumin binding proteins are fragments of cubilin. In addition, we find that mice lacking the endocytic receptor megalin show altered urinary excretion, and reduced tubular reabsorption, of albumin. Because cubilin has been shown to colocalize and interact with megalin, we propose a mechanism of albumin reabsorption mediated by both of these proteins. This process may prove important for understanding interstitial renal inflammation and fibrosis caused by proximal tubule uptake of an increased load of filtered albumin.

  14. The effect of low level radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in operators during 24-hour shifts.

    PubMed

    Vangelova, K; Israel, M; Mihaylov, S

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of long term exposure to low level radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic (EM) radiation on the excretion rates of stress hormones in satellite station operators during 24-hour shifts. Twelve male operators at a satellite station for TV communications and space research were studied during 24-hour shifts. Dosimetric evaluation of the exposure was carried out and showed low level exposure with specific absorption of 0.1127 J.kg-1. A control group of 12 unexposed male operators with similar job task and the same shift system were studied, too. The 11-oxycorticosteroids (11-OCS), adrenaline and noradrenaline were followed by spectrofluorimetric methods on 3-hour intervals during the 24-hour shifts. The data were analyzed by tests for interindividual analysis, Cosinor analysis and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Significant increase in the 24-hour excretion of 11-OCS and disorders in its circadian rhythm, manifested by increase in the mesor, decrease in the amplitude and shift in the acrophase were found in the exposed operators. The changes in the excretion rates of the catecholamines were significant and showed greater variability of both variables. The long term effect of the exposure to low-level RF EM radiation evoked pronounced stress reaction with changes in the circadian rhythm of 11-OCS and increased variability of catecholamines secretion. The possible health hazards associated with observed alteration in the stress system need to be clarified by identification of their significance and prognostic relevance.

  15. Albumin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... may also be ordered to evaluate a person's nutritional status. ^ Back to top When is it ordered? An ... albumin test to check or monitor a person's nutritional status. However, since albumin concentrations respond to a variety ...

  16. Albumin holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Vega-Criollo, R.; Berriel-Valdos, L. R.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.

    2011-02-01

    A Characterization is made with performance analysis of new photosensitive films of albumin to certain conditions for holographic recording based on interferometric array. We carried out the photo-oxidation of gallus gallus albumin albumin chemically combining powdered sugar (Glass ®) to an aqueous solution of ammonium dichromate. It was the analysis of the behavior of diffraction efficiency parameter through the intensity diffraction pattern produced by the gratings made with albumin.

  17. 40 CFR Table Jj-3 to Subpart Jj of... - State-Specific Volatile Solids (VS) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle JJ Table JJ-3 to Subpart JJ of Part 98 Protection of... REPORTING Manure Management Pt. 98, Subpt. JJ, Table JJ-3 Table JJ-3 to Subpart JJ of Part 98—State-Specific....35 3.91 4.27 0.58 0.46 0.33 0.34 Arkansas 7.59 8.35 3.98 4.35 0.46 0.46 0.33 0.35 California 10.02...

  18. 40 CFR Table Jj-3 to Subpart Jj of... - State-Specific Volatile Solids (VS) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) and Nitrogen (N) Excretion Rates for Cattle JJ Table JJ-3 to Subpart JJ of Part 98 Protection of... REPORTING Manure Management Pt. 98, Subpt. JJ, Table JJ-3 Table JJ-3 to Subpart JJ of Part 98—State-Specific....35 3.91 4.27 0.58 0.46 0.33 0.34 Arkansas 7.59 8.35 3.98 4.35 0.46 0.46 0.33 0.35 California 10.02...

  19. Effects of high environmental ammonia on branchial ammonia excretion rates and tissue Rh-protein mRNA expression levels in seawater acclimated Dungeness crab Metacarcinus magister.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michael; Fehsenfeld, Sandra; Sourial, Mary M; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2011-10-01

    In the present study of the marine Dungeness crabs Metacarcinus magister, the long term effects of high environmental ammonia (HEA) on hemolymph ammonia and urea concentrations, branchial ammonia excretion rates and mRNA expression levels of the crustacean Rh-like ammonia transporter (RhMM), H(+)-ATPase (subunit B), Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (α-subunit) and Na(+)/H(+)-exchanger (NHE) were investigated. Under control conditions, the crabs' hemolymph exhibited a total ammonia concentration of 179.3±14.5μmol L(-1), while urea accounted for 467.2±33.5μmol L(-1), respectively. Both anterior and posterior gills were capable of excreting ammonia against a 16-fold inwardly directed gradient. Under control conditions, mRNA expression levels of RhMM were high in the gills in contrast to very low expression levels in all other tissues investigated, including the antennal gland, hepatopancreas, and skeletal muscle. After exposure to 1mmol L(-1) NH(4)Cl, hemolymph ammonia increased within the first 12h to ca. 500µmol L(-1) and crabs were able the keep this hemolymph ammonia level for at least 4 days. During this initial period, branchial RhMM and H(+)-ATPase (subunit B) mRNA expression levels roughly doubled. After 14 days of HEA exposure, hemolymph ammonia raised up to environmental levels, whereas urea levels increased by ca. 30%. At the same time, whole animal ammonia and urea excretion vanished. Additionally, branchial RhMM, H(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and NHE mRNA levels decreased significantly after long term HEA exposure, whereas expression levels of RhMM in the internal tissues increased substantially. Interestingly, crabs acclimated to HEA showed no mortality even after 4 weeks of HEA exposure. This suggests that M. magister possesses a highly adaptive mechanism to cope with elevated ammonia concentrations in its body fluids, including an up-regulation of an Rh-like ammonia transporter in the internal tissues and excretion or storage of waste nitrogen in a so far

  20. Mayak Worker Dosimetry System (MWDS-2013): Phase I-Quality Assurance of Organ Doses and Excretion Rates From Internal Exposures of Plutonium-239 for the Mayak Worker Cohort.

    PubMed

    Dorrian, M-D; Birchall, A; Vostrotin, V

    2016-06-20

    The calculation of reliable and realistic doses for use in epidemiological studies for the quantification of risk from internal exposure to radioactive material is fundamental to the development of advice, guidance and regulations for the control and use of radioactive material. Thus, any programme of work carried out which requires the calculation of doses for use by epidemiologists ideally should contain a rigorous program of quality assurance (QA). This paper describes the initial QA (Phase I) implemented by Public Health England (PHE) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI) as part of the work programme on internal dosimetry in the Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research Project 2.4 for the 2013 Mayak Worker Dosimetry System. SUBI designed and implemented new software (PANDORA) to include the latest Mayak Worker Dosimetry System and to calculate organ burdens, urinary excretion rates, intakes and absorbed doses, while PHE modified their commercially available IMBA Professional Plus software package. Comparisons of output from the two codes for the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2013 showed calculated values of absorbed doses, intakes, organ burdens and urinary excretion agreed to within 1%. The 1% discrepancy can be explained by the approximation used in IMBA to speed up dose calculations.

  1. Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio Associated With Hearing Impairment Among Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yunji; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, June; Lee, Joo Kyung; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Nam, Ga-Eun; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Chung-Woo; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) with hearing impairment among diabetic adults in Korea. The study was based on data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2012. Participants were 1206 diabetic adults, aged over 19 years, who completed audiometric testing supervised by nationally certified clinicians. Hearing impairment was defined in three grades: no hearing impairment (pure-tone average 0–25 dB), slight hearing impairment (26–40 dB), and disabling hearing impairment (>40 dB) in the better ear at frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Using logistic regression, risk of hearing impairment was assessed after having controlled for confounding factors. Higher levels of ACR and lower levels of eGFR correlated with an increase in percentage of disabling hearing impairment both unilaterally and bilaterally (P < 0.001). Controlling for possible confounding covariates, odds ratios for hearing impairment showed tendency to increase in higher ACR groups (P for trend = 0.029). Similar pattern was examined between eGFR and hearing impairment (P for trend = 0.006). Odds ratios were 1.981 (1.146, 3.424) for ACR Q4 and 2.773 (1.286, 5.983) for eGFR < 60 mL/min. Fall in eGFR and rise in ACR correlated with severity of hearing impairment. The association existed independently of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, exercise, new onset of diabetes, education, income, mental stress, noise exposure, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:27124027

  2. Clinical study of urinary excretion of Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ibuka, K.; Hashizume, T.; Noguchi, A.; Kojima, J.; Sasakuma, F.; Ishigami, S. )

    1990-04-01

    Ga-67 urinary excretion was examined in 59 patients. The 72-hour urinary excretion rate ranged from 4.3 to 67.8% of the injected dose. Within the first 24 hours, 60.9% of the 72-hour urinary excretion was excreted. There was no significant difference in the Ga-67 urinary excretion rate between males and females, nor between the Ga-67 positive and negative cases. A significant negative correlation was found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and the unsaturated iron binding capacity. Notably, four patients with hyperferremia, which was considered secondary to leukemia and/or chemotherapy or liver cirrhosis, excreted more than 46.8% of Ga-67 within 72 hours. A significant negative correlation was also found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and age. Urinary excretion of Ga-67 may be related to the glomerular filtration rate, which decreases with age.

  3. Cross sectional longitudinal study of spot morning urine protein:creatinine ratio, 24 hour urine protein excretion rate, glomerular filtration rate, and end stage renal failure in chronic renal disease in patients without diabetes.

    PubMed Central

    Ruggenenti, P.; Gaspari, F.; Perna, A.; Remuzzi, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the protein:creatinine ratio in spot morning urine samples is a reliable indicator of 24 hour urinary protein excretion and predicts the rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate and progression to end stage renal failure in non-diabetic patients with chronic nephropathy. DESIGN: Cross sectional correlation between the ratio and urinary protein excretion rate. Univariate and multivariate analysis of baseline predictors, including the ratio and 24 hour urinary protein, of decline in glomerular filtration rate and end stage renal failure in the long term. SETTING: Research centre in Italy. SUBJECTS: 177 non-diabetic outpatients with chronic renal disease screened for participation in the ramipril efficacy in nephropathy study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rate of decline in filtration rate evaluated by repeated measurements of unlabelled iohexol plasma clearance and rate of progression to renal failure. RESULTS: Protein:creatinine ratio was significantly correlated with absolute and log transformed 24 hour urinary protein values (P = 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively.) Ratios also had high predictive value for rate of decline of the glomerular filtration rate (univariate P = 0.0003, multivariate P = 0.004) and end stage renal failure (P = 0.002 and P = 0.04). Baseline protein:creatinine ratios and rate of decline of the glomerular filtration rate were also significantly correlated (P < 0.0005). In the lowest third of the protein:creatinine ratio (< 1.7) there was 3% renal failure compared with 21.2% in the highest third (> 2.7) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Protein:creatinine ratio in spot morning urine samples is a precise indicator of proteinuria and a reliable predictor of progression of disease in non-diabetic patients with chronic nephropathies and represents a simple and inexpensive procedure in establishing severity of renal disease and prognosis. PMID:9501711

  4. Association of Increased Urinary Albumin With Risk of Incident Clinical Fracture and Rate of Hip Bone Loss: the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study.

    PubMed

    Fink, Howard A; Vo, Tien N; Langsetmo, Lisa; Barzilay, Joshua I; Cauley, Jane A; Schousboe, John T; Orwoll, Eric S; Canales, Muna T; Ishani, Areef; Lane, Nancy E; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2016-12-24

    Prior studies suggest that increased urine albumin is associated with a heightened fracture risk in women, but results in men are unclear. We used data from Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS), a prospective cohort study of community-dwelling men aged ≥65 years, to evaluate the association of increased urine albumin with subsequent fractures and annualized rate of hip bone loss. We calculated albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) from urine collected at the 2003-2005 visit. Subsequent clinical fractures were ascertained from triannual questionnaires and centrally adjudicated by review of radiographic reports. Total hip BMD was measured by DXA at the 2003-2005 visit and again an average of 3.5 years later. We estimated risk of incident clinical fracture using Cox proportional hazards models, and annualized BMD change using ANCOVA. Of 2982 men with calculable ACR, 9.4% had ACR ≥30 mg/g (albuminuria) and 1.0% had ACR ≥300 mg/g (macroalbuminuria). During a mean of 8.7 years of follow-up, 20.0% of men had an incident clinical fracture. In multivariate-adjusted models, neither higher ACR quintile (p for trend 0.75) nor albuminuria (HR versus no albuminuria, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.65 to 1.20) was associated with increased risk of incident clinical fracture. Increased urine albumin had a borderline significant, multivariate-adjusted, positive association with rate of total hip bone loss when modeled in ACR quintiles (p = 0.06), but not when modeled as albuminuria versus no albuminuria. Macroalbuminuria was associated with a higher rate of annualized hip bone loss compared to no albuminuria (-1.8% more annualized loss than in men with ACR <30 mg/g; p < 0.001), but the limited prevalence of macroalbuminuria precluded reliable estimates of its fracture associations. In these community-dwelling older men, we found no association between urine albumin levels and risk of incident clinical fracture, but found a borderline significant, positive association with rate of hip

  5. Non-inferiority of creatinine excretion rate to urinary L-FABP and NGAL as predictors of early renal allograft function

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We evaluated accuracy of urinary liver type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) for prediction of early allograft function and compared it to neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL), diuresis and urinary creatinine excretion rate (UCr). Methods Urine samples from 71 consecutive patients were taken 4, 10, 24 and 48 h after transplantation. We classified recipients into two groups: immediate graft function (IGF), with more than 70% reduction of serum Cr at 7th day post-transplant, and delayed graft function (DGF)/slow graft function (SGF) group (DGF - the need for hemodialysis procedure in the first week, SGF - less than 70% reduction of serum Cr in the first week). Results Thirty-one recipients had IGF and 40 had DGF/SGF. L-FABP was only useful 48 h post-transplant with ROC AUC of 0.85 (95% C.I. 0.74-0.92); NGAL 24 h post-transplant had ROC AUC of 0.82 (0.7-0.91). Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV for prediction of DGF/SGF with L-FABP > 9.5 mg/mmol Cr and NGAL > 33.1 μg/mmol Cr were: 86, 80, 83 and 83% (L-FABP), and 68, 93, 91, and 73% (NGAL). The difference in urine output between the groups was largest 4 h post-transplant (p = 0.001), later on the difference diminished. There were no significant differences in ROC AUC between L-FABP at 48 h, NGAL at 24 h, urine output at 4 h and UCr excretion rate at 10 h post-transplant. UCr < 0.56 mmol/h 10 h post-transplant predicted DGF/SGF with 94% sensitivity, 84% specificity, 89% PPV and 91% NPV, ROC AUC was 0.9. Classification tree with urine output 4 h and UCr 10 h post-transplant accurately predicted 89% of outcomes. When L-FABP or NGAL were added, the prediction was accurate in 92 or 90%, respectively. Conclusions L-FABP is comparable to NGAL for prediction of first week allograft function, however UCr and diuresis were non-inferior. PMID:25027586

  6. Environmental studies on natural halogen compounds. I Estimation of biomass of the acorn wormPtychodera flava Eschscholtz (Hemichordata: Enteropneusta) and excretion rate of metabolites at Kattore Bay, Kohama Island, Okinawa.

    PubMed

    Higa, T; Sakemi, S

    1983-04-01

    In order to study the environmental significance of the acorn wormPtychodera flava, which excretes a copious amount of halogenated metabolites, the biomass and the excretion rate were estimated at Kattore Bay, Kohama Island, Okinawa. The habitat, which extends over 1 km(2), could be divided into two areas: zone A, 3.0 × 10(5)m(2), density 95.6/m(2); and zone B, 7.2 × 10(5) m(2), density 48.8/m(2), according to the densities. The total population was estimated to be 6.4 × 10(7) ± 2.0 × 10(7) individuals or 93.0 ± 28.9 tons. These worms daily excrete about 480 tons of fecal sand which was estimated to contain 43 kg of the material extractable with organic solvents. The material contained halogenated metabolites which showed antimicrobial activity.

  7. Albumin synthesis in surgical patients.

    PubMed

    Hülshoff, Ansgar; Schricker, Thomas; Elgendy, Hamed; Hatzakorzian, Roupen; Lattermann, Ralph

    2013-05-01

    Albumin plasma concentrations are being used as indicators of nutritional status and hepatic function based on the assumption that plasma levels reflect the rate of albumin synthesis. However, it has been shown that albumin levels are not reliable markers of albumin synthesis under a variety of clinical conditions including inflammation, malnutrition, diabetes mellitus, liver disease, and surgical tissue trauma. To date, only a few studies have measured albumin synthesis in surgical and critically ill patients. This review summarizes the findings from these studies, which used different tracer methodology in various surgical or critically ill patient populations. The results indicate that the fractional synthesis rate of albumin appears to decrease during surgery, followed by an increase during the postoperative phase. In the early postoperative phase, albumin fractional synthesis rate can be stimulated by perioperative nutrition, if enough amino acids are being provided and if nutrition is being initiated before the operation. The physiologic meaning of albumin synthesis after surgery, however, still needs to be further clarified.

  8. Utilizing Estimated Creatinine Excretion to Improve the Performance of Spot Urine Samples for the Determination of Proteinuria in Kidney Transplant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Pierre; Hussain, Naser; Hiremath, Swapnil; Knoll, Greg

    2016-01-01

    Background Agreement between spot and 24-hour urine protein measurements is poor in kidney transplant recipients. We investigated whether using formulae to estimate creatinine excretion rate (eCER), rather than assuming a standard creatinine excretion rate, would improve the estimation of proteinuria from spot urine samples in kidney transplant recipients. Methods We measured 24 hour urine protein and albumin and spot albumin:creatinine (ACR) and spot protein:creatinine (PCR) in 181 Kidney transplant recipients.” We utilized 6 different published formulae (Fotheringham, CKD-EPI, Cockcroft-Gault, Walser, Goldwasser and Rule) to estimate eCER and from it calculated estimated albumin and protein excretion rate (eAER and ePER). Bias, precision and accuracy (within 15%, 30% and 50%) of ACR, PCR, eAER, ePER were compared to 24-hour urine protein and albumin. Results ACR and PCR significantly underestimated 24-hour albumin and protein excretion (ACR Bias (IQR), -5.9 mg/day; p< 0.01; PCR Bias, (IQR), -35.2 mg/day; p<0.01). None of the formulae used to calculate eAER or ePER had a bias that was significantly different from the 24-hour collection (eAER and ePER bias: Fotheringham -0.3 and 7.2, CKD-EPI 0.3 and 13.5, Cockcroft-Gault -3.2 and -13.9, Walser -1.7 and 3.1, Goldwasser -1.3 and -0.5, Rule -0.6 and 4.2 mg/day respectively. The accuracy for ACR and PCR were lower (within 30% being 38% and 43% respectively) than the corresponding values estimated by utilizing eCER (for eAER 46% to 49% and ePER 46–54%). Conclusion Utilizing estimated creatinine excretion to calculate eAER and ePER improves the estimation of 24-hour albuminuria/proteinuria with spot urine samples in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:27911917

  9. Modification of the relationship between blood pressure and renal albumin permeability by impaired excretory function and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fotheringham, James; Odudu, Aghogho; McKane, William; Ellam, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    In animal models, reduced nephron mass impairs renal arteriolar autoregulation, increasing vulnerability of the remaining nephrons to elevated systemic blood pressure (BP). A feature of the resulting glomerular capillary hypertension is an increase in glomerular permeability. We sought evidence of a similar remnant nephron effect in human chronic kidney disease. In participants from the United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 1999 to 2010 (N=23 710), we examined the effect of reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on the relationship between brachial artery BP and albumin permeability. Renal albumin permeability increased exponentially with systolic BP >110 mm Hg, and this association was modified by independent interactions with both excretory impairment and diabetes mellitus. Each 10 mm Hg increase in systolic BP was accompanied by an increase in fractional albumin excretion of 1.10-, 1.11-, 1.17-, 1.22-, and 1.38-fold for participants with eGFR≥90, 90>eGFR≥60, 60>eGFR≥45, 45>eGFR≥30, and eGFR<30 mL/min/1.73 m(2), respectively, adjusted for age, sex, race, antihypertensive use, eGFR category, diabetes mellitus, smoking, history of cardiovascular disease, body mass index, and C-reactive protein. A 10 mm Hg systolic BP increment was associated with increases in fractional albumin excretion of 1.10- and 1.21-fold in nondiabetic and diabetic participants, respectively. Using urine albumin creatinine ratio as an alternative measure of albumin leak in eGFR-adjusted analyses gave the same conclusions. Our findings are consistent with the presence of a remnant nephron effect in human kidney disease. Future trials should consider the nephroprotective benefits of systolic BP lowering in kidney disease populations stratified by eGFR.

  10. Carotenoids, birdsong and oxidative status: administration of dietary lutein is associated with an increase in song rate and circulating antioxidants (albumin and cholesterol) and a decrease in oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Casagrande, Stefania; Pinxten, Rianne; Zaid, Erika; Eens, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the appealing hypothesis that carotenoid-based colouration signals oxidative status, evidence supporting the antioxidant function of these pigments is scarce. Recent studies have shown that lutein, the most common carotenoid used by birds, can enhance the expression of non-visual traits, such as birdsong. Nevertheless, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we hypothesized that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) fed extra lutein increase their song rate as a consequence of an improved oxidative status. Although birdsong may be especially sensitive to the redox status, this has, to the best of our knowledge, never been tested. Together with the determination of circulating oxidative damage (ROMs, reactive oxygen metabolites), we quantified uric acid, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol, and testosterone, which are physiological parameters potentially sensitive to oxidation and/or related to both carotenoid functions and birdsong expression. We found that the birds fed extra lutein sang more frequently than control birds and showed an increase of albumin and cholesterol together with a decrease of oxidative damage. Moreover, we could show that song rate was associated with high levels of albumin and cholesterol and low levels of oxidative damage, independently from testosterone levels. Our study shows for the first time that song rate honestly signals the oxidative status of males and that dietary lutein is associated with the circulation of albumin and cholesterol in birds, providing a novel insight to the theoretical framework related to the honest signalling of carotenoid-based traits.

  11. Carotenoids, Birdsong and Oxidative Status: Administration of Dietary Lutein Is Associated with an Increase in Song Rate and Circulating Antioxidants (Albumin and Cholesterol) and a Decrease in Oxidative Damage

    PubMed Central

    Casagrande, Stefania; Pinxten, Rianne; Zaid, Erika; Eens, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Despite the appealing hypothesis that carotenoid-based colouration signals oxidative status, evidence supporting the antioxidant function of these pigments is scarce. Recent studies have shown that lutein, the most common carotenoid used by birds, can enhance the expression of non-visual traits, such as birdsong. Nevertheless, the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. In this study we hypothesized that male European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) fed extra lutein increase their song rate as a consequence of an improved oxidative status. Although birdsong may be especially sensitive to the redox status, this has, to the best of our knowledge, never been tested. Together with the determination of circulating oxidative damage (ROMs, reactive oxygen metabolites), we quantified uric acid, albumin, total proteins, cholesterol, and testosterone, which are physiological parameters potentially sensitive to oxidation and/or related to both carotenoid functions and birdsong expression. We found that the birds fed extra lutein sang more frequently than control birds and showed an increase of albumin and cholesterol together with a decrease of oxidative damage. Moreover, we could show that song rate was associated with high levels of albumin and cholesterol and low levels of oxidative damage, independently from testosterone levels. Our study shows for the first time that song rate honestly signals the oxidative status of males and that dietary lutein is associated with the circulation of albumin and cholesterol in birds, providing a novel insight to the theoretical framework related to the honest signalling of carotenoid-based traits. PMID:25549336

  12. A Comparison of the Segmental Analysis of Sodium Reabsorption during Ringer's and Hyperoncotic Albumin Infusion in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Jay H.; Osgood, Richard W.; Boonjarern, Sampanta; Ferris, Thomas F.

    1973-01-01

    Studies were designed to compare the segmental analysis of sodium reabsorption along the nephron during volume expansion with either 10% body weight Ringer's or 0.6% body weight hyperoncotic albumin. Total kidney and nephron glomerular filtration rate increased similarly with both, but urinary sodium excretion (12.7 vs. 4.0 μeq/min, P < 0.001) and fractional sodium excretion (5.0 vs. 1.6%, P < 0.001) increased to a greater extent with Ringer's. Fractional reabsorption of sodium in the proximal tubule was diminished in both groups but to a significantly greater extent during Ringer's (P < 0.005). Absolute reabsorption was inhibited only in the Ringer's group. Delivery of filtrate out of the proximal tubule was greater in the Ringer's studies, 45 vs. 37 nl/min (P < 0.001). However, both fractional and absolute sodium delivery to the early and late distal tubule were not significantly different in the two groups. Fractional reabsorption in the collecting duct decreased from 96% in hydropenia to 31% during Ringer's but fell only slightly to 80% in the albumin studies. Absolute collecting duct reabsorption was also greater in the albumin studies, 0.55 vs. 0.21 neq/min (P < 0.001), which could totally account for the difference in urinary sodium excretion between the two groups. 22Na recovery in the final urine after end distal microinjections was 71% during Ringer's infusion and 34% during albumin (P < 0.001). From these data we conclude that: (a) Ringer's solution has a greater inhibitory effect on proximal tubular sodium reabsorption, and (b) in spite of this effect, differences in mucosal to serosal collecting duct sodium transport are primarily responsible for the greater natriuresis during Ringer's infusion. PMID:4727461

  13. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-04-12

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth.

  14. The albumin controversy.

    PubMed

    Uhing, Michael R

    2004-09-01

    There are relatively few studies of albumin use in neonates and children, with most showing no consistent benefit compared with the use of crystalloid solutions. Certainly, albumin treatment is not indicated for treatment of hypoalbuminemia alone. Studies also show that albumin is not indicated in neonates for the initial treatment of hypotension, respiratory distress, or partial exchange transfusions. In adults, albumin is not considered to be the initial therapy for hypovolemia, burn injury, or nutritional supplementation. Based on the evidence, albumin should be used rarely in the neonatal ICU. Albumin may be indicated in the treatment of hypovolemia only after crystalloid infusion has failed. In patients with acute hemorrhagic shock, albumin may be used with crystalloids when blood products are not available immediately. Inpatients with acute or continuing losses of albumin and normal capillary permeability and lymphatic function, such as during persistent thoracostomy tube or surgical site drainage, albumin supplementation will prevent the development of hypoalbuminemia, and possibly edema formation. This has not been studied systematically, however. In patients with hypoalbuminemia and increased capillary permeability, albumin supplementation often leads to greater albumin leakage across the capillary membrane, contributing to edema formation without improvement in outcome. As the disease process improves and capillary permeability normalizes, albumin supplementation may accelerate recovery, but long-term benefits of albumin treatment usually cannot be demonstrated. These patients will recover whether or not albumin is administered.

  15. Kinetic study of the concentration dependence of the mass transfer rate coefficient in anion-exchange chromatography of bovine serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Miyabe, Kanji; Guiochon, G. |

    1999-07-01

    The experimental results of a previous study of the mass transfer kinetics of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in ion-exchange chromatography under nonlinear conditions are reevaluated. The analysis of the concentration dependence of the lumped mass-transfer rate coefficient (k{sub m,L}) provides information on the kinetics of axial dispersion, fluid-to-particle mass transfer, intraparticle mass transfer, and adsorption/desorption. The new analysis shows that the contribution of intraparticle mass transfer is the dominant one. Similar to k{sub m,L}, the surface diffusivity (D{sub s}) of BSA increases with increasing concentration. The linear concentration dependence of k{sub m,L} seems to originate in a similar dependence of D{sub s}. The use of a heterogeneous-surface model for the anion-exchange resin provides an explanation of the positive concentration dependence of D{sub s}. This work illustrates how frontal analysis data can be used for a detailed investigation of the kinetics of mass transfer between the phases of a chromatographic column, in addition to its conventional use in the determination of the thermodynamic characteristics of the phase equilibrium.

  16. Excreting and non-excreting grasses exhibit different salt resistance strategies

    PubMed Central

    Moinuddin, Muhammad; Gulzar, Salman; Ahmed, Muhammad Zaheer; Gul, Bilquees; Koyro, Hans-Werner; Khan, Muhammad Ajmal

    2014-01-01

    The combination of traits that makes a plant successful under saline conditions varies with the type of plant and its interaction with the environmental conditions. Knowledge about the contribution of these traits towards salt resistance in grasses has great potential for improving the salt resistance of conventional crops. We attempted to identify differential adaptive response patterns of salt-excreting versus non-excreting grasses. More specifically, we studied the growth, osmotic, ionic and nutrient (carbon/nitrogen) relations of two salt-excreting (Aeluropus lagopoides and Sporobolus tremulus) and two non-excreting (Paspalum paspalodes and Paspalidium geminatum) perennial C4 grasses under non-saline and saline (0, 200 and 400 mM NaCl) conditions. Growth and relative growth rate decreased under saline conditions in the order P. geminatum > S. tremulus = A. lagopoides > P. paspalodes. The root-to-shoot biomass allocation was unaffected in salt-excreting grasses, increased in P. paspalodes but decreased in P. geminatum. Salt-excreting grasses had a higher shoot/root Na+ ratio than non-excreting grasses. K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ homoeostasis remained undisturbed among test grasses possibly through improved ion selectivity with rising substrate salinity. Salt-excreting grasses increased leaf succulence, decreased ψs and xylem pressure potential, and accumulated proline and glycinebetaine with increasing salinity. Higher salt resistance of P. paspalodes could be attributed to lower Na+ uptake, higher nitrogen-use efficiency and higher water-use efficiency among the test species. However, P. geminatum was unable to cope with salt-induced physiological drought. More information is required to adequately document the differential strategies of salt resistance in salt-excreting and non-excreting grasses. PMID:24996428

  17. Lorry drivers' work stress evaluated by catecholamines excreted in urine.

    PubMed Central

    van der Beek, A J; Meijman, T F; Frings-Dresen, M H; Kuiper, J I; Kuiper, S

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate lorry drivers' work stress by measurement of adrenaline and noradrenaline excreted in the urine, and to find out which factors in their working situation are related to the excretion rates of these catecholamines. METHODS--The urinary excretion of adrenaline and noradrenaline of 32 lorry drivers, who also had loading and unloading activities to perform, was studied for one working day and one rest day. Each driver was asked to provide six urine samples on both days. RESULTS--For all samples, except the first (overnight) sample, the excretion rates of both catecholamines on the working day were higher than those on the rest day. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were carried out to find out which factors in the drivers' working situation were related to the excretion rate of the working day. The excretion rate of adrenaline on the rest day, age, and psychosomatic complaints were positively related to the excretion rate on the working day (all P < 0.05). Body mass index and physical workload during loading and unloading were positively related to noradrenaline excretion rate (both P < 0.01). Psychosocial job strain did not significantly contribute to the proportion of variance explained in the excretion rates of both catecholamines. CONCLUSIONS--The excretion rates of adrenaline and, especially, noradrenaline on the working day were higher than those found in earlier studies among professional drivers and insufficient recovery took place after the work was ended. The only association between excretion rate on the working day and work stressors was found for noradrenaline and physical workload. The drivers' sympathoadrenal medullary reactivity to everyday work demands shows the characteristics of sustained activation. PMID:7670621

  18. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

    ... that is present in high concentrations in the blood. Virtually no albumin is present in the urine when the kidneys ... on trying to determine if increased levels of albumin in the urine are also indicative of CVD risk in those who do not have diabetes or high blood pressure. ^ Back to ... Proudly sponsored by ... Learn ...

  19. Albumin - blood (serum) test

    MedlinePlus

    ... protein in the clear liquid portion of the blood. Albumin can also be measured in the urine . How ... Results Mean A lower-than-normal level of blood albumin may be a sign of: Kidney diseases Liver ...

  20. Microalbumin excretion in patients with positive exercise electrocardiogram tests.

    PubMed

    Horton, R C; Gosling, P; Reeves, C N; Payne, M; Nagle, R E

    1994-10-01

    Thirty-three subjects underwent exercise electrocardiogram testing, 20 had a history of myocardial infarction and 13 were age-matched volunteers. Exercise electrocardiograms were positive in 15 subjects, negative in 12 and anomalous in six. Urinary microalbumin excretion was measured at rest, 30 and 60 min after exercise. Urinary microalbumin excretion was expressed as the albumin-creatinine ratio in mg.mmol-1. In the positive exercise electrocardiogram group median albumin-creatinine ratio increased from 1.0 mg.mmol-1 (95% CI 0.94-1.49) at rest to 2.0 mg.mmol-1 (95% CI 1.51-3.94) 30 min after exercise, whilst in the negative electrocardiogram group median resting and 30 min post exercise albumin-creatinine ratio values of 0.85 (95% CI 0.53-1.32) and 1.80 (95% CI 0.63-2.32) mg.mmol-1 respectively were not significantly different. These results suggest that exercise-induced myocardial ischaemia is associated with increased urinary microalbumin excretion.

  1. Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular /sup 125/I-albumin permeation and blood flow in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, R.G.; Pugliese, G.; Chang, K.; Speedy, A.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1989-05-01

    Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular 125I-albumin permeation and on blood flow were assessed in multiple tissues of male Sprague-Dawley rats rendered hypothyroid by dietary supplementation with 0.5% (wt/wt) 2-thiouracil or by thyroidectomy. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, body weights, kidney weight, arterial blood pressure, and pulse rate were decreased significantly v age-matched controls. After 10 to 12 weeks of thiouracil treatment, 125I-albumin permeation was increased significantly in the kidney, aorta, eye (anterior uvea, choroid, retina), skin, and new granulation tissue, remained unchanged in brain, sciatic nerve, and heart, and was decreased in forelimb skeletal muscle. A similar pattern was observed in thyroidectomized rats, except that increases in 125I-albumin permeation for all tissues were smaller than those observed in thiouracil-treated rats, and 125I-albumin permeation in retina did not differ from controls. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, changes in blood flow (assessed with 15-microns, 85Sr-labeled microspheres) relative to the decrease in arterial blood pressure were indicative of a decrease in regional vascular resistance except in the choroid and in the kidney, in which vascular resistance was increased significantly. Glomerular filtration rate was decreased, but filtration fraction and urinary excretion of albumin remained unchanged by thiouracil treatment and thyroidectomy. These results indicate that vascular hemodynamics and endothelial cell barrier functional integrity are modulated in many different tissues by the thyroid. In view of the correspondence of hypothyroid- and diabetes-induced vascular permeability changes, these results raise the possibility that altered thyroid function in diabetes may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease.

  2. Renal metabolism and urinary excretion of platelet-activating factor in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Noris, M.; Perico, N.; Macconi, D.; Nanni, V.; Dadan, J.; Peterlongo, F.; Remuzzi, G. )

    1990-11-15

    The origin of platelet-activating factor (PAF) in the urine remains ill defined. The present study documents that (3H)PAF (3.5 mu Ci) injected into the renal artery of isolated control rat kidney preparations perfused at constant pressure with a cell-free medium containing 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA) was excreted in negligible amounts (0.034%) in the urine, whereas 6% was retained by the kidney. When kidneys were perfused with a BSA-free medium, 0.029 and 71% of the total radioactivity added to the perfusate was recovered in the urine and in the renal tissue, respectively. (3H)PAF urine excretion in proteinuric kidneys from adriamycin-treated rats was still negligible (0.015%). Analysis of the renal tissue-retained radioactivity in control and proteinuric kidneys perfused with 1% BSA indicated metabolism into long chain acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine species, lyso-PAF, glycerols, and intact PAF. Thin layer chromatography analysis of (3H)glycerol fraction in these renal extracts showed two major components comigrating with 1-O-alkylglycerol and 1-O-alkyl-2-fatty acylglycerol. Isolated proximal tubules, but not glomeruli from nephrotic rats exposed to increasing concentrations of BSA (0-4%), had a higher PAF uptake than control tubules for BSA concentrations ranging from 0 to 0.1%. Our findings in the isolated perfused kidneys indicate that, in normal conditions, circulating PAF is excreted in the urine in negligible amounts and that the altered glomerular permeability to proteins does not affect this excretion rate. Moreover, analysis of renal tissue radioactivity documented that the renal metabolism of PAF is comparable in control and nephrotic kidneys.

  3. Salt excretion in Suaeda fruticosa.

    PubMed

    Labidi, Nehla; Ammari, Manel; Mssedi, Dorsaf; Benzerti, Maali; Snoussi, Sana; Abdelly, C

    2010-09-01

    Suaeda fruticosa is a perennial "includer" halophyte devoid of glands or trichomes with a strong ability of accumulating and sequestrating Na(+) and Cl(-). We were interested in determining whether leaf cuticle salt excretion could be involved as a further mechanism in salt response of this species after long-term treatment with high salinity levels. Seedlings had been treated for three months with seawater (SW) diluted with tap water (0, 25, 50 and 75% SW). Leaf scanning electron microscopy revealed a convex adaxial side sculpture and a higher accumulation of saline crystals at the lamina margin, with a large variability on repartition and size between treatments. No salt gland or salt bladder was found. Threedimensional wax decorations were the only structures found on leaf surface. Washing the leaf surface with water indicated that sodium and chloride predominated in excreted salts, and that potassium was poorly represented. Optimal growth of whole plant was recorded at 25% SW, correlating with maximum Na(+) and Cl(-) absolute secretion rate. The leaves of plants treated with SW retained more water than those of plants treated with tap water due to lower solute potential, especially at 25% SW. Analysis of compatible solute, such as proline, total soluble carbohydrates and glycinebetaine disclosed strong relationship between glycinebetaine and osmotic potential (r = 0.92) suggesting that tissue hydration was partly maintained by glycinebetaine accumulation. Thus in S. fruticosa , increased solute accumulation associated with water retention, and steady intracellular ion homeostasis confirms the "includer" strategy of salt tolerance previously demonstrated. However, salt excretion at leaf surface also participated in conferring to this species a capacity in high salinity tolerance.

  4. Virus excretion in smallpox

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, J. K.; Mitra, A. C.; Mukherjee, M. K.; De, S. K.

    1973-01-01

    Throat swabs of 34 of 328 family contacts of 52 smallpox cases, examined 4-8 days after the onset of the disease in the family, were positive for variola virus. The log titre of virus per swab ranged from 2 to 3.95. A higher proportion of unvaccinated than of vaccinated contacts excreted the virus. Only 4 of the virus-positive contacts developed clinical smallpox; this occurred 5-7 days after their swabs were examined. Excretion of virus in the throats of these contacts, a few of whom were in the incubation period of the disease, suggests the possibility that they could have spread the infection. This possibility, if kept in mind, may help in tracing the source of infection or in determining the incubation period in a few instances when difficulty is experienced. PMID:4359679

  5. Excretion rates of 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol, uric acid and microalbuminuria as glycemic control indexes in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Cong; Sheng, Junqin; Liu, Zhiwen; Guo, Minghao

    2017-01-01

    1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG), uric acid and urinary proteins are excreted into the urine with increasing glucosuria. In the present retrospective study we analyzed whether these factors could be used as indicators for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) glucose control in 6,766 (T2DM) patients. There were 3,988 cases (58.9%) with HbA1c ≤ 6.5%, 853 cases (12.61%) with HbA1c levels ranging from 6.5% to 7% and 1,925 cases (28.5%) with HbA1c > 7%. HbA1c percentages were correlated with age, MA and 1,5-AG serum concentrations (P < 0.001). The serum uric acid concentration (P < 0.001) was significantly lower in elevated MA (P < 0.001) and 24-hour urinary protein (P = 0.024) patients. Hb1Ac percentages (P < 0.001) were significantly enhanced in patients with 1,5-AG serum concentrations ≤10 mg/L compared to >10 mg/L. With a derived receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, a 1,5-AG cut-off value of 11.55 mg/L for hyperglycemia could be diagnosed with a specificity of 71.2 (69.7–72.6) and a sensitivity of 75.3 (73.6–76.9). The serum 1,5-AG concentration is a marker for hyperglycemia and may be particularly useful as an indicator for short-term glycemic excursions in order to improve treatments in T2DM patients. PMID:28281675

  6. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd. Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (kq) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes.

  7. Interaction of amphiphilic drugs with human and bovine serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-Ud-Din

    2012-11-01

    To know the interaction of amphiphilic drugs nortriptyline hydrochloride (NOT) and promazine hydrochloride (PMZ) with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), techniques of UV-visible, fluorescence, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies are used. The binding affinity is more in case of PMZ with both the serum albumins. The quenching rate constant (k(q)) values suggest a static quenching process for all the drug-serum albumin interactions. The UV-visible results show that the change in protein conformation of PMZ-serum albumin interactions are more prominent as compared to NOT-serum albumin interactions. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with the drugs. The increment in %α-helical structure is slightly more for drug-BSA complexes as compared to drug-HSA complexes.

  8. Enhancement of radiopharmaceutical excretion by chemical interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Brill, A.B.; Sacker, D.F.; Atkins, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    The goal was to find methods of decreasing the radiation dose after radionuclide studies, by giving a compound that will increase the rate of excretion of the radionuclide. Sprague - 1 Dawley rats were given Tc-99m pertechnetate, Ga-67 citrate or Tl-201 chloride intravenously followed at intervals of 1 to 24 hours by one of the following compounds: desferroxamine (DFO), 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (BAL), triethylene tetraamine hexaacetic acid (TETHA), stannous tartarate, bleomycin (BLEO), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), DTPA+SnCl.2H/sub 2/O, dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), and ferric-cyanoferrate (IT)(Prussian blue, PB). All the agents except PB are chelators. Some of these agents enhance excretion through the urinary tract (DFO), while most are excreted through the bile. PB was shown to increase Cs excrection through the G.I. tract. (ACR)

  9. Analysis of albumin hologram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Berriel-Valdos, L. R.; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, M.; Villa-Manríquez, J. F.

    2012-03-01

    We present the characterizations of the photosensitive film made with albumins gallus gallus and callipepla cali, with the purpose to make holographic recording. Albumin was combined with propylene glycol, to build colloidal systems by adding the ammonium dichromate solution as photosensitive salt at certain concentrations. Hence, we conducted the photo-oxidation process with laser, λ=442nm. Obtaining holograms that allowed the analysis of the diffraction efficiency parameter. One of the objectives of this work was to obtain some mechanical and chemical stability of films made with albumin when prepared with propylene glycol. At once, experimental studies were performed to compare the results of the holographic recording films between chicken albumin and quail albumin film to prove the recording capabilities and to quantify the diffraction efficiency in holographic grating made with each kind of albumin.

  10. Protein Crystal Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As the most abundant protein in the circulatory system albumin contributes 80% to colloid osmotic blood pressure. Albumin is also chiefly responsible for the maintenance of blood pH. It is located in every tissue and bodily secretion, with extracellular protein comprising 60% of total albumin. Perhaps the most outstanding property of albumin is its ability to bind reversibly to an incredible variety of ligands. It is widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry that the overall distribution, metabolism, and efficiency of many drugs are rendered ineffective because of their unusually high affinity for this abundant protein. An understanding of the chemistry of the various classes of pharmaceutical interactions with albumin can suggest new approaches to drug therapy and design. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter/New Century Pharmaceuticals

  11. Hepatobiliary excretion of berberine.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pi-Lo; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2004-04-01

    Berberine is a bioactive herbal ingredient isolated from the roots and bark of Berberis aristata or Coptis chinensis. To investigate the detailed pharmacokinetics of berberine and its mechanisms of hepatobiliary excretion, an in vivo microdialysis coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was performed. In the control group, rats received berberine alone; in the drug-treated group, 10 min before berberine administration, the rats were injected with cyclosporin A (CsA), a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor; quinidine, both organic cation transport (OCT) and P-gp inhibitors; SKF-525A (proadifen), a cytochrome P450 inhibitor; and probenecid to inhibit the glucuronidation. The results indicate that berberine displays a linear pharmacokinetic phenomenon in the dosage range from 10 to 20 mg kg(-1), since a proportional increase in the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of berberine was observed in this dosage range. Moreover, berberine was processed through hepatobiliary excretion against a concentration gradient based on the bile-to-blood distribution ratio (AUC(bile)/AUC(blood)); the active berberine efflux might be affected by P-gp and OCT since coadministration of berberine and CsA or quinidine at the same dosage of 10 mg kg(-1) significantly decreased the berberine amount in bile. In addition, berberine was metabolized in the liver with phase I demethylation and phase II glucuronidation, as identified by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Also, the phase I metabolism of berberine was partially reduced by SKF-525A treatment, but the phase II glucuronidation of berberine was not obviously affected by probenecid under the present study design.

  12. The excretion of pethidine and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    ASATOOR, A M; LONDON, D R; MILNE, M D; SIMENHOFF, M L

    1963-04-01

    The excretion of pethidine and its metabolite norpethidine is increased in acid urine and decreased in alkaline urine. Excretion of these two bases is the main route of removal of pethidine from the body if the urine is highly acid. If the urine is alkaline, excretion of the hydrolysis products meperidinic and normeperidinic acids, both as free acids and as conjugates, is the more important means of elimination of the drug. Acidification of the urine with ammonium chloride is indicated in the therapy of cases of pethidine poisoning in patients with reduced metabolic breakdown of the drug by the microsomal enzyme systems within liver cells. Reversed-phase chromatography of the dinitrophenyl derivative of norpethidine may prove to be of forensic importance in the diagnosis of pethidine poisoning or of pethidine addiction. Norpethidine can be detected in the urine by this method for at least 3 days after the last dose of pethidine. Analytical sensitivity is increased by acidification of the urine which produces a temporary rise of the excretion rate.

  13. Structure of Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Ho, Joseph X.

    1994-01-01

    Because of its availability, low cost, stability, and unusual ligand-binding properties, serum albumin has been one of the mst extensively studied and applied proteins in biochemistry. However, as a protein, albumin is far from typical, and the widespread interest in and application of albumin have not been balanced by an understanding of its molecular structure. Indeed, for more than 30 years structural information was surmised based solely on techniques such as hydrodynamics, low-angle X-ray scattering, and predictive methods.

  14. [Effect of electroacupuncture on the urine flow, sodium excretion and potassium excretion in the conscious dog].

    PubMed

    Lin, M Z; Wei, Z Y

    1989-01-01

    Unanesthetized dogs with chronic ureteral and gastric fistulae were infused with 0.8% NaCl solution into the stomach at a constant rate for maintaining a state of saline loading. In these animals, there was a steady renal excretion of water, sodium and potassium. However, after a 20-minute unilateral electroacupuncture of the points corresponding to "Sanyinjao" and "Zhaohai" in human leg as described in Traditional Chinese Medicine caused a marked increase in urine flow and urinary sodium excretion, but had no significant effect on urinary potassium excretion. In another group of normal unanesthetized dogs (without saline loading), the effect of electroacupuncture mentioned above no longer appeared. Owing to the facts that electroacupuncture merely increased the water and sodium excretion of kidneys in saline-loading unanesthetized dogs, and had no effect in normal unanesthetized dogs, it is concluded that the effects of electroacupuncture on the urine flow and sodium excretion in saline-loading unanesthetized dogs is an action of normalization by acupuncture.

  15. Impact of aspen furniture and restricted feeding on activity, blood pressure, heart rate and faecal corticosterone and immunoglobulin A excretion in rats (Rattus norvegicus) housed in individually ventilated cages.

    PubMed

    Kemppinen, N; Hau, J; Meller, A; Mauranen, K; Kohila, T; Nevalainen, T

    2010-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of adding different items in individually ventilated rat cages on the animal's activity, cardiovascular parameters and faecal stress indicators. The following three cage items made of aspen were compared: a cross made of two intersecting boards, a similar cross where drilled holes were loaded with food pellets (restricted feeding) and a rectangular tube. Male rats of the strains BN and F344 (n = 12) were housed in groups of three; one rat in each group was implanted with a telemetric transponder to measure mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). In a crossover design, each group spent 14 days with each type of cage furniture, thereafter faecal pellets were collected for faecal analyses. The means of activity and means and coefficient of variation for MAP and HR were calculated for days 2, 6, 10 and 14. As a way of determining which of the statistically significant MAP and HR mean changes were biologically meaningful, the night-day differences of the controls on day 14 were used. Both board types lowered MAP of F344 rats; hence dividing walls seem beneficial for F344 welfare. None of the MAP or HR differences in BN rats were biologically significant. No statistically significant differences in faecal corticosterone or IgA excretion were detected. In conclusion, provision of general recommendations with respect to cage furniture for rat cages is complicated because there is a clear genetic component involved in how animals respond to these structures.

  16. [Structure of fish serum albumins].

    PubMed

    Andreeva, A M

    2010-01-01

    Data are presented about the presence of serum albumins in fishes of different classes and orders inhabiting different ecological conditions, about structure of typical albumins and albumin-like proteins, and about the degree of homology of these proteins to mammalian albumins. There is shown a wide spectrum of structural diversity of albumins in Pisces due to their participation in osmotic, plastic, and transport functions under conditions of environment and of the organism internal media. Detection of similar motifs in the piscine and mammalian albumin genes allows uniting these genes into one superfamily and considering vertebrate albumins the homologous proteins.

  17. A structurally driven analysis of thiol reactivity in mammalian albumins.

    PubMed

    Spiga, Ottavia; Summa, Domenico; Cirri, Simone; Bernini, Andrea; Venditti, Vincenzo; De Chiara, Matteo; Priora, Raffaella; Frosali, Simona; Margaritis, Antonios; Di Giuseppe, Danila; Di Simplicio, Paolo; Niccolai, Neri

    2011-04-01

    Understanding the structural basis of protein redox activity is still an open question. Hence, by using a structural genomics approach, different albumins have been chosen to correlate protein structural features with the corresponding reaction rates of thiol exchange between albumin and disulfide DTNB. Predicted structures of rat, porcine, and bovine albumins have been compared with the experimentally derived human albumin. High structural similarity among these four albumins can be observed, in spite of their markedly different reactivity with DTNB. Sequence alignments offered preliminary hints on the contributions of sequence-specific local environments modulating albumin reactivity. Molecular dynamics simulations performed on experimental and predicted albumin structures reveal that thiolation rates are influenced by hydrogen bonding pattern and stability of the acceptor C34 sulphur atom with donor groups of nearby residues. Atom depth evolution of albumin C34 thiol groups has been monitored during Molecular Dynamic trajectories. The most reactive albumins appeared also the ones presenting the C34 sulphur atom on the protein surface with the highest accessibility. High C34 sulphur atom reactivity in rat and porcine albumins seems to be determined by the presence of additional positively charged amino acid residues favoring both the C34 S⁻ form and the approach of DTNB.

  18. Serum albumins - unusual allergens

    PubMed Central

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Mikolajczak, Katarzyna; Mank, Nicholas; Majorek, Karolina A.; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Minor, Wladek

    2015-01-01

    Background Albumins are multifunctional proteins present in the blood serum of animals. They can bind and transport a wide variety of ligands which they accommodate due to their conformational flexibility. Serum albumins are highly conserved both in amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure. Several mammalian and avian serum albumins (SAs) are also allergens. Sensitization to one of the SAs coupled with the high degree of conservation between SAs may result in cross-reactive antibodies in allergic individuals. Sensitivity to SA generally begins with exposure to an aeroallergen, which can then lead to cross-sensitization to serum albumins present in food. Scope of Review This review focuses on the allergenicity of SAs presented in a structural context. Major Conclusions SA allergenicity is unusual taking into account the high sequence identity and similarity between SA from different species and human serum albumin. Cross-reactivity of human antibodies towards different SAs is one of the most important characteristics of these allergens. General Significance Establishing a relationship between sequence and structure of different SAs and their interactions with antibodies is crucial for understanding the mechanisms of cross-sensitization of atopic individuals. Structural information can also lead to better design and production of recombinant SAs to replace natural proteins in allergy testing and desensitization. Therefore, structural analyses are important for diagnostic and treatment purposes. PMID:23811341

  19. Ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels is facilitated by ciliary beating.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, J; Himmerkus, N; Holland, N; Sartoris, F J; Bleich, M; Tresguerres, M

    2016-08-01

    The excretion of nitrogenous waste products in the form of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 (+)) is a fundamental process in aquatic organisms. For mytilid bivalves, little is known about the mechanisms and sites of excretion. This study investigated the localization and the mechanisms of ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels. An Rh protein was found to be abundantly expressed in the apical cell membrane of the plicate organ, which was previously described as a solely respiratory organ. The Rh protein was also expressed in the gill, although at significantly lower concentrations, but was not detectable in mussel kidney. Furthermore, NH3/NH4 (+) was not enriched in the urine, suggesting that kidneys are not involved in active NH3/NH4 (+) excretion. Exposure to elevated seawater pH of 8.5 transiently reduced NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates, but they returned to control values following 24 h acclimation. These mussels had increased abundance of V-type H(+)-ATPase in the apical membranes of plicate organ cells; however, NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates were not affected by the V-type H(+)-ATPase specific inhibitor concanamycin A (100 nmol l(-1)). In contrast, inhibition of ciliary beating with dopamine and increased seawater viscosity significantly reduced NH3 excretion rates under control pH (8.0). These results suggest that NH3/NH4 (+) excretion in mytilid mussels takes place by passive NH3 diffusion across respiratory epithelia via the Rh protein, facilitated by the water current produced for filter feeding, which prevents accumulation of NH3 in the boundary layer. This mechanism would be energy efficient for sessile organisms, as they already generate water currents for filter feeding.

  20. Holograms of fluorescent albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Berriel-Valdos, L. R.; Mejias-Brizuela, N. Y.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2011-09-01

    We report the characterization and analysis of photochromic films gallus gallus albumin as a matrix modified for holographic recording. Photo-oxidation of homogeneous mixtures prepared with albumin-propylene glycol, to combine chemically with aqueous solution of ammonium dichromate at certain concentrations. We analyzed the diffraction gratings, through the diffraction efficiency of the proposed material. Also, eosin was used as a fluorescent agent, so it is found that produces an inhibitory effect, thus decreasing the diffraction efficiency of the matrices prepared in near-identical circumstances. The work was to achieve stability of albumin films, were prepared with propylene glycol. Finally, experimental studies were performed with films when subjected to aqueous solution of eosin (fluorescent agent) to verify the ability to increase or decrease in diffraction efficiency.

  1. Homeostatic control of manganese excretion in the neonatal rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ballatori, N.; Miles, E.; Clarkson, T.W.

    1987-05-01

    Previous studies in neonatal and suckling animals showed that immature animals have a greatly diminished capacity to excrete manganese and therefore were considered to be unable to regulate tissue manganese concentrations. In contrast, the present studies indicate that suckling rats have the capacity to excrete excess manganese at rates nearly comparable to those of adults. Eight- to 10-day-old rats given a tracer dose of /sup 54/MnCl/sub 2/ (essentially carrier free), either via gavage or by intraperitoneal injection showed little elimination of the /sup 54/Mn until the 18-19th day of life, when there was an abrupt increase in the rate of the metal's excretion. However, when manganese was given in doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg, the young animals excreted from 30-70% of the dose in only 4 days, at which time a new rate of excretion was achieved. This enhanced rate of excretion remained constant until the 18-19th day of life, when it was again accelerated. Biliary excretion of manganese, the primary route for the elimination of the metal, was only 30-60% lower in 14-day-old rats compared with adults at doses ranging from tracer to 10 mg /sup 54/Mn/kg. For both the 14-day-old and adult rats, an apparent biliary transport maximum was reached at a dose of 10 mg Mn/kg. These studies indicate that the excretory pathways for manganese are well developed in the neonatal rat. The avid retention of tracer quantities of manganese by the neonate may be a consequence of the scarcity of this essential trace metal in its diet.

  2. Effects of feeding and confinement on nitrogen metabolism and excretion in the gulf toadfish Opsanus beta

    PubMed

    Walsh; Milligan

    1995-01-01

    In order to elucidate further the cues for, and the biochemical mechanisms of, the transition to ureogenesis in the gulf toadfish Opsanus beta, experiments on the effects of feeding (i.e. nitrogen loading) were carried out. Baseline nitrogen excretion rates were first measured on solitary toadfish in large water volumes (i.e. unconfined conditions). These nitrogen excretion rates were higher, and had a higher proportion as ammonia (61 %), than previously published 'control' measurements. Feeding of unconfined toadfish elevated total nitrogen excretion approximately threefold, with little change in the proportion of urea versus ammonia. During the first 24 h of confinement of unfed toadfish, absolute levels of urea excretion remained constant while ammonia excretion rates fell to near zero, so that toadfish became 90 % ureotelic. When fed prior to confinement, urea excretion rates remained constant for the first 24 h, and the bulk of the nitrogen was excreted as ammonia (80 %); excretion of the excess dietary nitrogen took up to 48 h to complete. If pre-adapted to confinement and then fed, toadfish excreted only about 55 % of their nitrogenous waste as ammonia, and excretion of excess dietary nitrogen was completed by 24 h. Elevations of hepatic glutamine synthetase (GNS) activities accompanied confinement and were shown to be almost exclusively in the cytosolic compartment and to be correlated with a decrease in the ratio of hepatic levels of glutamate:glutamine. These GNS activity increases also appear to account in part for the decrease in the percentage of ammoniotely in toadfish under conditions of nitrogen loading after confinement. However, additional means of regulating total nitrogen excretion (e.g. changes in protein turnover rates) and the degree of ureogenesis versus ammoniogenesis (e.g. N-acetylglutamate stimulation of carbamoylphosphate synthetase) must be postulated to account fully for changes in nitrogen excretion rates and activation of ureogenesis

  3. Ammonia excretion in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

    PubMed

    Weihrauch, Dirk; Chan, Ainsely C; Meyer, Heiko; Döring, Carmen; Sourial, Mary; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2012-09-15

    In aquatic invertebrates, metabolic nitrogenous waste is excreted predominately as ammonia. Very little is known, however, of the underlying mechanisms of ammonia excretion, particularly in freshwater species. Our results indicate that in the non-parasitic freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, ammonia excretion depends on acidification of the apical unstirred layer of the body surface and consequent ammonia trapping. Buffering of the environment to a pH of 7 or higher decreased the excretion rate. Inhibitor experiments suggested further that the excretion mechanism involves the participation of the V-type H(+)-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase and possibly also the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. Alkalinization (pH 8.5, 2 days) of the environment led to a 1.9-fold increase in body ammonia levels and to a downregulation of V-ATPase (subunit A) and Rh-protein mRNA. Further, a 2 day exposure to non-lethal ammonia concentrations (1 mmol l(-1)) caused a doubling of body ammonia levels and led to an increase in Rh-protein and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (α-subunit) mRNA expression levels. In situ hybridization studies indicated a strong mRNA expression of the Rh-protein in the epidermal epithelium. The ammonia excretion mechanism proposed for S. mediterranea reveals striking similarities to the current model suggested to function in the gills of freshwater fish.

  4. Active hydrogen excretion and sodium absorption through isolated frog skin.

    PubMed

    Ehrenfeld, J; Garcia-Romeu, F

    1977-07-01

    The in vitro skin of Rana esculenta was studied in open-circuit conditions. It was shown that when the external face is bathed in a 2-meq solution of NaCl, sodium is absorbed at a significantly higher rate than chloride. The ionic balance is maintained by excretion of hydrogen. With a mucosal solution of 2 meq Na2SO4 the equation relating sodium absorption to proton excretion is JnH+ = (-25 +/- 7) - (0.73 +/- 0.04) JnNa+. The correlation between the two variables is highly significant. Hydrogen excretion obeys saturation kinetics in relation to the sodium concentration of the mucosal solution. Maximum excretion occurs at a sodium concentration of 4 meq. When the mucosal solution is a 115-meq solution of Na2SO4 the net flux of sodium is 2.3 times higher than that of hydrogen. The balance is maintained by absorption of SO42-. The effects of various substances on the Na+ext/H+int exchange were studied. With a mucosal solution of 2 meq Na2SO4 and short-circuit conditions it was shown that the hydrogen excretion is active and nearly the same as in open circuit, the short-circuit current is equal (to within 8%) to the sum of the sodium and hydrogen net fluxes, and the correlation between the movements of the two ions is low. A model relating the active proton excretion with the sodium transport mechanism is proposed.

  5. Fecal and urinary excretion of six iodothyronines in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    DiStefano, J.J. III; Sapin, V.

    1987-11-01

    Fecal and urinary excretion rates of six iodothyronines were assessed in the rat maintained under normal steady state physiological conditions, to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms of control of normal thyroid hormone economy and metabolism. Groups of young adult male rats were injected with trace doses of T4, T3, rT3, 3,3'-diiodothyronine (T2), 3',5'-T2, or 3'-monoiodothyronine, each labeled with /sup 125/I, and feces and urine were collected separately for up to 10 days. Pooled fecal pellets were homogenized in saline, extracted in ethanol, evaporated under vacuum, and reconstituted in NaOH. Fecal extracts and urine were chromatographed on Sephadex G25 columns under conditions providing quantitative separations of components of interest. A new technique was also developed, based on a model of the in vitro extraction and measurement process, to correct chromatographic results for possible variable recoveries and possible artifactious degradation of radioactively labeled components. No iodothyronines or their conjugates were excreted in urine; all radioactivity was in the form of iodide. In feces, about 30% of the (/sup 125/I)T3 injected was excreted as T3; and 24% of the (/sup 125/I)T4 injected was excreted as T4, plus 4% as T3. Together, these results imply that about 24% of endogenous T4 production is excreted as T4 and 76% is irreversibly metabolized; and for T3, about 30% of endogenous T3 production is excreted as T3 and 70% is degraded. For the nonhormonal iodothyronines, about 6% of injected monoiodothyronine, 3% of injected 3',5'-T2, 2% of injected 3,3'-T2, and less than 1% of injected rT3 were excreted in feces as such, indicating that these substances are nearly completely deiodinated in vivo. Very little (1-7%) iodide was excreted as such in feces, which also were devoid of measurable conjugates.

  6. Effects of polybrominated biphenyls on the excretion of steroids.

    PubMed

    Willett, L B; Schanbacher, F L; Moorhead, P D

    1983-05-01

    When polybrominated biphenyls (fireMaster BP-6, PBB) are ingested by cattle, they have been shown to alter hepatic enzyme systems, and produce renal lesions with chronic high exposure. These changes provide mechanisms for alteration of the metabolism and clearance of steroid hormones that might then affect reproductive function. This study was conducted to examine the effects of PBB on the excretion of radiolabel from injected estradiol-17 beta and progesterone. Toxicity was induced by dosing two Holstein cows with 25 g of fireMaster BP-6/d for 39 or 50 d. Single iv injections of 35 microCi [4-14C] progesterone and 400 microCi [2,4,6,7-3H] estradiol-17 beta were given on d -5, 10, 30 and 38 or 48 relative to dosing. Last injections were given when animals were terminally toxic. Clinical signs and necropsy findings confirmed the typical toxic syndrome and renal lesions. Excretion of 14C was primarily in feces, while 3H appeared in both urine and feces. As toxicosis developed, the excretion of steroids in feces was delayed as anorexia reduced mass and rate of passage of feces. This had little effect on the amount of steroid excreted and the rate of urinary excretion was affected only minimally. Recovery of both radiolabels declined 10 to 20% by d 30 of dosing as excretion rate was reduced from pre-PBB dosing. Excretion declined sharply when animals were moribund. Despite developing toxicosis, both animals continued to have estrous cycles with normal periodicity.

  7. Platelet retention by albuminated glass and polystyrene beads.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D L; Atwood, A I; Andrade, J D

    1976-11-01

    Ex vivo platelet retention by albuminated glass and polystyrene beads has been evaluated as a function of flow rate, bead surface area, blood exposure time and albumin treatment. The stability of the albumin coatings as well as scanning electron microscopy of the various surfaces before and after blood exposure has also been included. Results indicate that platelet retention is sensitive to changes in the above parameters and that albumin pretreatment of different substrates can decrease platelet retention. This decrease is substrate dependent in that platelet retention is different for the albuminated glass and polystyrene substrates. Chemical analysis of the substrate materials by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as bulk chemical analysis is also reported.

  8. Urinary zinc excretion in infancy.

    PubMed

    Sievers, E; Oldigs, H D; Dörner, K; Schaub, J

    1990-03-01

    In view of the conflicting data on urinary Zn excretion in infancy we investigated the possible influence of contamination, collecting methods, nutrition (human milk versus formula) and longitudinal changes during the first 16 weeks of life. Methodical investigation showed that special attention is necessary to avoid contamination due to the use of Zn-containing baby creams in the genital region. The sampling device for collection should include the smallest area of skin possible and the use of Zn-containing baby creams has to be avoided both during the collection and at least 24 hours prior to urine collection. Previous fractional urine sampling of the collecting method to be evaluated proves that erroneously high values are not obtained at the beginning of collection. Midstream urinary samples reduce the possibility of contamination. Increased urinary excretion was shown in pre-term infants under theophylline or coffeine medication. The median daily urinary Zn excretion in healthy breast-fed term infants declined significantly from 0.063 (0.027-0.111) mg per kg body weight at the age of 2 weeks to 0.018 (0.004-0.059) mg per kg body weight at the age of 16 weeks. Comparable values for formula-fed term infants were 0.029 (0.025-0.063) mg per kg body weight initially and 0.025 (0.007-0.059) mg per kg body weight at the end of the study. These values can be used as reference values for the urinary Zn excretion of healthy infants.

  9. Cholesterol excretion and colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Broitman, S A

    1981-09-01

    Populations consuming diets high in fat and cholesterol exhibit a greater incidence of colon cancer than those consuming less fat and cholesterol. Lowering elevated serum cholesterol levels experimentally or clinically is associated with increased large-bowel tumorigenesis. Thus, cholesterol lost to the gut, either dietary or endogenously synthesized, appears to have a role in large-bowel cancer. Whether the effect(s) is mediated by increases in fecal bile acid excretion or some other mechanism is not clear.

  10. Cubilin maintains blood levels of HDL and albumin.

    PubMed

    Aseem, Obaidullah; Smith, Brian T; Cooley, Marion A; Wilkerson, Brent A; Argraves, Kelley M; Remaley, Alan T; Argraves, W Scott

    2014-05-01

    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it mediates uptake of albumin and filtered forms of apoA-I/HDL. Cubilin deficiency leads to urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I; however, the consequences of cubilin loss on the homeostasis of blood albumin and apoA-I/HDL have not been studied. Using mice heterozygous for cubilin gene deletion (cubilin HT mice), we show that cubilin haploinsufficiency leads to reduced renal proximal tubular uptake of albumin and apoA-I and significantly increased urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I. Moreover, cubilin HT mice displayed significantly decreased blood levels of albumin, apoA-I, and HDL. The levels of albumin and apoA-I protein or mRNA expressed in the liver, kidney, or intestine of cubilin HT mice did not change significantly. The clearance rate of small HDL3 particles (density>1.13 g/ml) from the blood increased significantly in cubilin HT mice. In contrast, the rate of clearance of larger HDL2 particles from the blood did not change significantly, indicating a decreased half-life for HDL particles capable of filtering through the glomerulus. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that cubilin deficiency reduces renal salvage and delivery back to the blood of albumin and apoA-I, which decreases blood levels of albumin and apoA-I/HDL. These findings raise the possibility that therapeutic increase of renal cubilin expression might reduce proteinuria and increase blood levels of albumin and HDL.

  11. Cubilin Maintains Blood Levels of HDL and Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Aseem, Obaidullah; Smith, Brian T.; Cooley, Marion A.; Wilkerson, Brent A.; Argraves, Kelley M.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2014-01-01

    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it mediates uptake of albumin and filtered forms of apoA-I/HDL. Cubilin deficiency leads to urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I; however, the consequences of cubilin loss on the homeostasis of blood albumin and apoA-I/HDL have not been studied. Using mice heterozygous for cubilin gene deletion (cubilin HT mice), we show that cubilin haploinsufficiency leads to reduced renal proximal tubular uptake of albumin and apoA-I and significantly increased urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I. Moreover, cubilin HT mice displayed significantly decreased blood levels of albumin, apoA-I, and HDL. The levels of albumin and apoA-I protein or mRNA expressed in the liver, kidney, or intestine of cubilin HT mice did not change significantly. The clearance rate of small HDL3 particles (density>1.13 g/ml) from the blood increased significantly in cubilin HT mice. In contrast, the rate of clearance of larger HDL2 particles from the blood did not change significantly, indicating a decreased half-life for HDL particles capable of filtering through the glomerulus. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that cubilin deficiency reduces renal salvage and delivery back to the blood of albumin and apoA-I, which decreases blood levels of albumin and apoA-I/HDL. These findings raise the possibility that therapeutic increase of renal cubilin expression might reduce proteinuria and increase blood levels of albumin and HDL. PMID:24357674

  12. Glucose and Fluoxetine Induce Fine Structural Change in Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Minoo; Daneshi-Mehr, Fatemeh; Tadayon, Roya; Hoseinzade Salavati, Behrooz; Akbar Zadeh-Baghban, Ali-Reza; Zamanian, Abbas; Rezaei-Tavirani, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    Human serum albumin has been used as a model protein for protein folding and ligand binding studies over many decades. Due to its long life period and high concentration in plasma, HSA is highly sensitive to glycation. It is reported that 175 mg/dL glucose concentration is a threshold of kidney activity for the beginning of excretion of glucose. pH denaturation of HSA in absence and presence of different concentrations of glucose is studied and based on the Pace two-state model, the findings are analyzed. In addition, florescence emission data of albumin range in the period of 300-500 nm was depicted. The amounts of free energy change and [D]1/2 parameters of unfolding in correspond to florescence date indicate that glucose induces fine structural change in human serum albumin. Results showed that 175 mg/dL glucose concentration is a critical point for albumin structural and functional alteration. PMID:24250587

  13. Nitrogen metabolism and excretion during aestivation.

    PubMed

    Ip, Y K; Chew, S F

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, up-to-date information on nitrogen metabolism and excretion in various aestivators is presented. Although aestivation involves long-term fasting and corporal torpor, adaptive responses with regard to excretory nitrogen metabolism exhibited by aestivators during aestivation differ from those exhibited by nonaestivators undergoing fasting or immobilization. Special efforts were made to address current issues pertaining to excretory nitrogen metabolism and related phenomena in aestivators. Adaptations exhibited by aestivators were discussed in relation to the induction, maintenance, and arousal phases of aestivation. For the induction phase, we included topics like urea as an internal induction signal for aestivation, alteration in the permeability of the skin to ammonia, and changes in rate of ammonia production and urea synthesis. For the maintenance phase, the emphasis was on protein synthesis and degradation, ammonia production, and urea synthesis and accumulation. For the arousal phase, the focus was on rehydration, urea excretion, and phenomena related to feeding. Adaptations exhibited by aestivators specifically to each of these three phases of aestivation are essential to the understanding of the overall aestivation process, but, at present, only limited information is available on excretory nitrogen metabolism in animals during the induction or arousal phases of aestivation. Therefore, future efforts should be made to identify adaptive responses particular to each of the three phases of aestivation in various aestivators.

  14. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-12-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with /sup 125/I or /sup 131/I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return.

  15. Quantitative studies of human urinary excretion of uropontin.

    PubMed

    Min, W; Shiraga, H; Chalko, C; Goldfarb, S; Krishna, G G; Hoyer, J R

    1998-01-01

    Uropontin is the urinary form of osteopontin, an aspartic acid-rich phosphorylated glycoprotein. Uropontin has been previously shown to be a potent inhibitor of the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and the binding of these crystals to renal epithelial cells. Quantitative data defining the excretion of this protein are necessary to determine its role in urinary stone formation. In the present studies, we determined uropontin excretion rates of normal humans. Urine samples were obtained under conditions of known dietary intake from young adult human volunteers with no history, radiographic or laboratory evidence of renal disease. Urinary concentrations of uropontin were measured by a sensitive ELISA employing an affinity purified polyclonal antiserum to uropontin. Thirteen normal subjects ingested a constant diet providing 1 gram of calcium, 1 gram of phosphorus, 150 mEq of sodium and 1 gram of protein per kilogram of body wt per day during an eight day study period. The relationship of urinary volume to uropontin excretion was assessed by varying fluid intake on the last four days of the study to change the mean urine volume/24 hr by > 500 ml. Urine collected in six hour aliquots for eight days was analyzed for uropontin by ELISA, and for calcium, and creatinine. Daily uropontin excretion of 13 individual subjects was 3805 +/- 1805 micrograms/24 hr (mean +/- 1 SD). The mean urinary levels (1.9 micrograms/ml) detected in the present study are sufficient for inhibition of crystallization; our previous studies have demonstrated that the nucleation, growth and aggregation of calcium oxalate crystals and their binding to renal cells in vitro are inhibited by this concentration of purified uropontin. In contrast to the regular pattern of diurnal variation of calcium excretion seen in most subjects, uropontin excretion showed no regularity of diurnal variation and was not directly related to either calcium or creatinine excretion or changes in

  16. Renal FcRn reclaims albumin but facilitates elimination of IgG.

    PubMed

    Sarav, Menaka; Wang, Ying; Hack, Bradley K; Chang, Anthony; Jensen, Mark; Bao, Lihua; Quigg, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    The widely distributed neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) contributes to maintaining serum levels of albumin and IgG in adults. In the kidney, FcRn is expressed on the podocytes and the brush border of the proximal tubular epithelium. Here, we evaluated the role of renal FcRn in albumin and IgG metabolism. Compared with wild-type controls, FcRn(-/-) mice had a lower t((1/2)) for albumin (28.7 versus 39.9 h) and IgG (29.5 versus 66.1 h). Renal loss of albumin could account for the former, suggested by the progressive development of hypoalbuminemia in wild-type mice transplanted with FcRn-deficient kidneys. Furthermore, serum albumin levels returned to normal in FcRn(-/-) recipients of wild-type kidneys after removing the native FcRn-deficient kidneys. In contrast, renal loss could not account for the enhanced elimination of IgG in FcRn(-/-) mice. These mice had minimal urinary excretion of native and labeled IgG, which increased to wild-type levels in FcRn(-/-) recipients of a single FcRn-sufficient kidney (t((1/2)) of IgG was 21.7 h). Taken together, these data suggest that renal FcRn reclaims albumin, thereby maintaining the serum concentration of albumin, but facilitates the loss of IgG from plasma protein pools.

  17. Increased Renal Solute Excretion in Rats Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moore, A. L.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Following space flight a diuresis, due to an increase in free water clearance, has been suggested in humans. To assess the effects of space flight on renal function, rats were flown in space for 14 days. Rats were divided into three groups; vivarium controls (V;n=6; housed 2/shoe box cage), flight controls (FC;n=6; group housed in a flight cage), and flight animals (F;n=6). Upon landing all animals were placed into individual metabolic cages. Urine was collected daily for 7 days and every other day for 14 days. Urine output was increased (p less than 0.05; ANOVA) following flight for 3 days. On postflight day 1, flow rates were, V=6.8 plus or minus 0.9, FC=8.711.8 and F=16.6 plus or minus 2.7 microliter/min. Excretion rates of Na+ and K+ were increased, resulting in an increased osmotic excretion rate (V=7.9 plus or minus 0.9, FC=6.1 plus or minus 0.7 and F=13.5 plus or minus 0.7 uOsm/min). Creatinine excretion rate was increased over the first two postflight days. In the absence of changes in plasma creatinine, Na+, or K+ (samples obtained immediately post flight from similar rats compared to Day 14), GFR was increased following space flight. The increased excretion of solute was thus the result of increased delivery and decreased reabsorption. Osmotic clearance was increased (V=28, FC=27 and F=51 microliter/min), while free water clearance was decreased post flight (V=-21,FC=-18 and F=-34 microliter/min). In rats, the postflight diuresis is the result of an increase in solute (osmotic) excretion with an accompanying reduction in free water clearance.

  18. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.A.; Cistola, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by TC NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted (1- TC)oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles, the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with greater than or equal to80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was greater than or equal to90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The TC NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  19. Thiophilic interaction chromatography of serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Bourhim, Mustapha; Rajendran, Anita; Ramos, Yanira; Srikrishnan, Thamarapu; Sulkowski, Eugene

    2008-07-01

    An investigation of the binding of native and recombinant human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin on three thiophilic gels, PyS, 2S, and 3S was performed. In addition to these proteins, we studied serum albumins from several species such as goat, rabbit, guinea pig, rat, hamster, baboon, and pig. Our results reveal that recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) binds completely to PyS whereas native human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin bind only partially to PyS. The binding affinities of rHSA, human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin to 2S and 3S gels are less than their binding to PyS. Serum albumins from goat, rabbit, guinea pig, rat, hamster, baboon, and pig bind much stronger to 3S gel than human and bovine serum albumins. The binding of pig and hamster serum albumins is stronger than that of rat, goat, baboon, and rabbit.

  20. Spectroscopic approach of the interaction study of amphiphilic drugs with the serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abbul Bashar; Khan, Javed Masood; Ali, Mohd Sajid; Khan, Rizwan Hasan; Kabir-ud Din

    2011-10-15

    The interaction of the amphiphilic drugs, i.e., amitriptyline hydrochloride (AMT) and promethazine hydrochloride (PMT), with serum albumins (i.e., human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)), has been examined by the various spectroscopic techniques, like fluorescence, UV-vis, and circular dichroism (CD). Fluorescence results indicate that in case of HSA-drug complexes the quenching of fluorescence intensity at 280 nm is less effective as compared to at 295 nm while in case of BSA-drug complexes both have almost same effect and for most of drug-serum albumin complexes there is only one independent class of binding. For all drug-serum albumin complexes the quenching rate constant (K(q)) values suggest the static quenching procedure. The UV-vis results show that the change in protein conformation of PMT-serum albumin complexes was more prominent as compared to AMT-serum albumin complexes. The CD results also explain the conformational changes in the serum albumins on binding with drugs. The increase in α-helical structure for AMT-serum albumin complexes is found to be more as compared to PMT-serum albumin complexes. Hence, the various spectroscopic techniques provide a quantitative understanding of the binding of amphiphilic drugs with serum albumins.

  1. Renal function in sick very low birthweight infants: 4. Glucose excretion.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, B H

    1992-01-01

    Renal glucose excretion was measured on 239 occasions in a sample of 36 infants of 25.5-33 weeks' gestation, birth weight 720-2000 g, between the ages of 0.5 and 32 days. Glucose was invariably present in urine from the first day. Fractional glucose excretion varied widely from 0.1% to 90% of filtered glucose and glucose excretion rate was up to 15.5 mmol/kg/day and was higher in the most immature infants, especially below 28 weeks' gestation. The highest values were in association with hyperglycaemia between 5 and 15 days but there was no consistent plasma glucose threshold with frequent glucose spillage at normal blood glucose concentrations. There was some correlation with sodium excretion in the first week suggesting that in the absence of hyperglycaemia with a normal filtered glucose load, glucose excretion is caused by proximal tubular immaturity. PMID:1444549

  2. Influence of magnesium on the absorption and excretion of calcium and oxalate ions.

    PubMed

    Berg, W; Bothor, C; Pirlich, W; Janitzky, V

    1986-01-01

    In two test series additional oxalic acid excretion in urine was induced in healthy test persons by administering a spinach diet. This additional excretion could be markedly reduced by magnesium administration. Calcium and citrate excretions are largely unaffected by magnesium administration. Magnesium excretions, however, are clearly increased. The calcium oxalate crystallization rates in the 5-or 7-hour urines reveal a behavior parallel to that of the oxalic acid excretion profile. In the control urines, the crystal picture is characterized by numerous medium-sized whewellite crystals. In contrast, in the test series weddellite crystals are reduced in size and frequency after magnesium administration. New aspects of magnesium effects must be discussed; above all the possible absorption changes resulting from gastrointestinal diseases.

  3. Distribution and excretion of 2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, the major component of Firemaster BP-6.

    PubMed

    Matthews, H B; Kato, S; Morales, N M; Tuey, D B

    1977-10-01

    The intestinal absorption, distribution, and excretion of the major component of Firemaster BP-6,2,4,5,2',4',5'-hexabromobiphenyl, has been studied in the male rat. This polybrominated biphenyl was readily absorbed from the intestine, initially distributed throughout the body, and eventually stored primarily in the adipose tissue, was not subject to appreciable metabolism, and was excreted almost exclusively in the feces and at a very slow rate. Approximately 90% of an oral dose was absorbed from the intestine, and extrapolation of the rate of excretion to infinity indicates that less than 10% of the total dose would ever be excreted.

  4. Grazing and excretion by zooplankton in the Peru upwelling system during April 1977

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagg, M.; Cowles, T.; Whitledge, T.; Smith, S.; Howe, S.; Judkins, D.

    1980-01-01

    Rates of ingestion and excretion by adult females of the copepods Calanus chilensis, Eucalanus inermis, and Centropages brachiatus were measured in natural seawater during a cruise in the Peru upwelling system during April 1977. Simultaneously, zooplankton samples were collected for later determination of the abundance and distribution of these and other species. For these three organisms, feeding, and excretion rates of individuals are combined with information on the animal concentrations to estimate the grazing stress on the phytoplankton at each station, and to estimate the excretory nitrogen produced at each station. Comparison of grazing stresses with measured rates of primary production indicates that these large copepods were harvesting less than 5% of the daily phytoplankton production. Comparison of the nitrogen excretion rates with the amounts of excreted nitrogen in the water column indicates that less than 3% of the ambient excretory nitrogen was produced daily by these copepods. The importance of the abundant small zooplankton in the system is suggested.

  5. Impairment of renal sodium excretion in tropical residents - phenomenological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, S. K.; Aryee, P. A.; Amuasi, J.; Hesse, I. F. A.; Affram, R. K.

    There is evidence of impaired renal sodium excretion in salt-sensitive African Blacks. A decreased rate of renal sodium chloride (NaCl) excretion, low plasma renin activity and a tendency to elevated blood pressure are the hallmarks of salt sensitivity. Recent evidence indicates that increased proximal and distal tubular fluid reabsorption in some tropical residents may explain the impaired sodium excretion in these people. In this study of a cohort population, we speculated that subjects selected from that population might be salt-sensitive. We therefore measured the sodium balance in 10 normotensive male subjects over 10 consecutive days, after they had ingested a normal or a high amount of sodium, as NaCl (salt) in their diet. We quantified their renal sodium excretion rate by phenomenological analysis of their sodium balance data. We also measured plasma renin activity for 7 consecutive days in a separate group of 6 male and 4 female subjects in order to assess the state of their renin/angiotensin system. We selected all our subjects from a cohort population of 269 subjects randomly selected from a community known to have a high prevalence of primary hypertension. Our data on two separate groups of subjects from the same cohort population revealed delayed renal sodium excretion with t1/2 of about 5 days, compared to published data for normal individuals with t1/2 of less than 24 h. Also, plasma renin activity levels were low. Hence, our subjects are salt-sensitive. Quantification of their renal impairment is important for various reasons: it heightens one's appreciation of the problem of salt retention in African Blacks who are salt-sensitive and it also underlines the importance of the need for further research into the benefits of dietary salt restriction for reducing cardiovascular mortality in African populations, as has been done in some Western countries.

  6. Mercury excretion and intravenous ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Dirks, M J; Davis, D R; Cheraskin, E; Jackson, J A

    1994-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intravenous ascorbic acid increases urinary excretion of mercury in subjects with low mercury levels from dental amalgam, food, and other sources. From 89 adult volunteers we selected 28 subjects with the highest mercury excretions (2 to 14 micrograms/24 h). We administered intravenous infusions of 500 ml lactated Ringer's solution with and without addition of 750 mg of ascorbic acid/kg body weight, up to 60 g ascorbic acid. Average mercury excretion during the 24 h after infusion of ascorbic acid was 4.0 +/- 0.5 micrograms (mean +/- SEM), which was not significantly more than after infusion of Ringer's solution alone (3.7 +/- 0.5 micrograms). Lead excretion was similarly unaffected. If ascorbic acid administered intravenously benefits some persons with suspected adverse reactions to mercury, the benefit in subjects similar to ours appears unrelated to short-term enhanced excretion of mercury or lead.

  7. Effect of sodium taurolithocholate on bile flow and bile acid excretion

    PubMed Central

    Javitt, Norman B.; Emerman, Sidney

    1968-01-01

    Sodium taurolithocholate and sodium taurocholenate were infused intravenously into rats and hamsters. Each bile acid salt was given alone or in combination with varying amounts of a primary bile salt, either sodium taurocholate or sodium taurochenodeoxycholate. Bile flow, total bile acid salt excretion, and the excretion of sodium taurolithocholate were quantitatively determined. In addition, mannitol excretion in bile was determined at various flow rates. Sodium taurolithocholate was found to be rapidly excreted in bile in concentrations greater than its aqueous solubility. When the endogenous excretion rate of bile salt or the infusion of primary bile salt was less than the molar amount of administered sodium taurolithocholate, cholestasis always occurred. Increasing molar amounts of primary bile salt prevented cholestasis and enhanced the excretion rate of sodium taurolithocholate. Infusion of sodium taurocholenate, a nonhemolytic bile salt, caused an effect on bile flow and bile acid salt excretion qualitatively similar to sodium taurolithocholate. The induction of cholestasis can be attributed to the physical properties of these poorly water soluble bile salts. The reduction in bile flow could not be shown to be related to water reabsorption from the biliary tree since there was no increase in mannitol concentration in bile during cholestasis. Reduction in bile flow may be related to obstruction of segments of the biliary tree by precipitates of sodium taurolithocholate and possibly to a decrease in water entry into the biliary tree during infusion of this bile acid salt. PMID:5645847

  8. Human albumin: old, new, and emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Rozga, Jacek; Piątek, Tomasz; Małkowski, Piotr

    2013-05-10

    Human serum albumin has been widely used in an array of clinical settings for nearly 7 decades. Although there is no evidence to support the use of albumin rather than crystalloid in acute volume resuscitation, many clinicians continue to use albumin because it has other important physiologic effects besides the oncotic function. In keeping with the improved understanding of albumin physiology and pathophysiology of many acute and chronic diseases, use of albumin for medical applications has increased in recent years. This, along with increased costs of manufacturing and lower production volume of medical-grade albumin, has lead to an ongoing shortage and rapid increase in albumin prices. This review is based on the analysis of major publications, related to albumin chemistry, physiology, and medical uses including guidelines developed by professional and governmental organizations. Results reflect current knowledge about the role of albumin in health and disease and relevance of albumin therapy in specific clinical settings. Albumin therapy is currently recommended in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis with ascites, refractory ascites not responsive to diuretics, large-volume paracentesis, post-paracentesis syndrome, and the treatment of hepatorenal syndrome as an adjunct to vasoconstrictors. New indications for albumin therapy are linked to the antioxidant activity of albumin and its effects on capillary integrity. In recent years, large-pore hemofiltration and albumin exchange have emerged as promising liver support therapies for liver failure and other toxic syndromes. They are designed to remove a broad range of blood-borne toxins and to restore normal functions of the circulating albumin by replacing defective forms of albumin and albumin molecules saturated with toxins with normal albumin. In view of the ongoing worldwide shortage and high cost of human albumin (native and recombinant), new usage criteria, protocols, and guidelines for appropriate utilization

  9. Efficient delivery of therapeutic agents by using targeted albumin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kouchakzadeh, Hasan; Safavi, Maryam Sadat; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Albumin nanoparticles are one of the most important drug carriers for the delivery of therapeutic drugs, especially for the treatment of malignancies. This potential is due to their high binding capacity for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and the possibility of surface modification. Accumulation of albumin-bound drugs in the tumor interstitium occurs by the enhanced permeability and retention effect, which is also facilitated by the 60-kDa glycoprotein transcytosis pathway and binding to secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine located in the tumor extracellular matrix. In addition, specific ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, folic acid, transferrin, and peptides can be conjugated to the surface of albumin nanoparticles to actively target the drug to its site of action. The albumin-bound paclitaxel, Abraxane, is one of the several therapeutic nanocarriers that have been approved for clinical use. By the development of Abraxane that demonstrates a higher response rate and improved tolerability and therapeutic efficiency in comparison with solvent-based formulation, and with consideration of its commercial success, albumin is attracting the interest of many biotechnological and pharmaceutical companies. This chapter explores the current targeted and nontargeted albumin-based nanoparticles that are in various stages of development for the delivery of therapeutic agents in order to enhance the efficacy of cancer treatment.

  10. Effect of demographics on excretion of key urinary factors related to kidney stone risk

    PubMed Central

    Perinpam, Majuran; Ware, Erin B.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Turner, Stephen T.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Lieske, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of demographics including age and sex on excretion of four key urinary factors (calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), oxalate (Ox) and uric acid (UA)) related to kidney stone risk. Methods Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from non-Hispanic white sibships in Rochester, MN. Height, weight, blood pressure, serum creatinine and cystatin C (CC) were measured. Diet was assessed using the Viocare food frequency questionnaire. Effects of demographics and dietary elements on urinary excretions were evaluated in univariate, multivariate, and interaction models that included age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Results Samples were available from 709 individuals. In multivariate models, sex was a significant predictor of all four urinary factors, age was significant for all but UA excretion, and serum creatinine was significant only for Ca and Mg excretion (p<0.05). BMI or weight positively correlated with Mg, Ox and UA excretion (p<0.05). Use of a thiazide diuretic (lower) and dietary protein (higher) were associated with Ca excretion, while dietary Ca was associated with higher Mg excretion. Urinary UA excretion increased with animal protein intake and CC estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and was lower with concurrent loop diuretic use. Significant interaction effects on urinary UA excretion were observed for loop diuretic use and sex, eGFR and sex, age and animal protein intake, and BMI and eGFR (p<0.05). Conclusions Age and sex influence excretion of key urinary factors related to kidney stone risk, and should be taken into account when evaluating kidney stone patients. PMID:26206452

  11. Dynamics of Albumin Synthetic Response to Intra-Abdominal Abscess in Patients with Gastrointestinal Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Bo; Han, Gang; Chen, Yu; A, Jiye; Gu, Guosheng; Chen, Jun; Wang, Gefei; Li, Jieshou

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Low serum albumin concentration is a predictor of failure of source control for intra-abdominal infection. However, data on dynamics of albumin synthesis in these patients and to what extent these changes contribute to hypoalbuminemia are relatively scarce. We investigated in a group of patients with gastrointestinal fistula the dynamic response of liver albumin synthesis to intra-abdominal abscess and how these related to hypoalbuminemia and circulating endocrine hormone profiles. Methods: Eight gastrointestinal fistula patients scheduled to undergo percutaneous abscess sump drainage were enrolled prospectively to measure albumin synthesis rates at different stages of the inflammatory response (immediately after diagnosis and 7 d following sump drainage when clinical signs of intra-abdominal sepsis had been eradicated). Eight age-, sex-, and body mass index–matched intestinal fistula patients were studied as control patients. Consecutive arterial blood samples were drawn during a primed-constant infusion (priming dose: 4 micromol·kg−1, infusion rate: 6 micromol·kg−1·min−1) to determine the incorporation rate of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine directly into plasma albumin using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Patients suffering from intra-abdominal infection had reduced plasma albumin and total plasma protein concentrations, compared with control patients. Albumin fractional synthesis rates in patients with intra-abdominal abscess were decreased, compared with those in the control group. When the source of infection was removed, albumin synthesis rates returned to control values, whereas albumin concentrations did not differ significantly from the corresponding concentrations in control subjects and patients with intra-abdominal abscess. Conclusion: Despite nutritional intervention, albumin synthesis rate is decreased in intestinal fistula patients with intra-abdominal abscess; albumin synthesis returns to

  12. Albumin Kinetics in Patients Undergoing Major Abdominal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Norberg, Åke; Rooyackers, Olav; Segersvärd, Ralf; Wernerman, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background The drop in plasma albumin concentration following surgical trauma is well known, but the temporal pattern of the detailed mechanisms behind are less well described. The aim of this explorative study was to assess changes in albumin synthesis and transcapillary escape rate (TER) following major surgical trauma, at the time of peak elevations in two well-recognized markers of inflammation. Methods This was a clinical trial of radiolabeled human serum albumin for the study of TER and plasma volume. Ten patients were studied immediately preoperatively and on the 2nd postoperative day after major pancreatic surgery. Albumin synthesis rate was measured by the flooding dose technique employing incorporation of isotopically labelled phenylalanine. Results Fractional synthesis rate of albumin increased from 11.7 (95% CI: 8.9, 14.5) to 15.0 (11.7, 18.4) %/day (p = 0.027), whereas the corresponding absolute synthesis rate was unchanged, 175 (138, 212) versus 150 (107, 192) mg/kg/day (p = 0.21). TER was unchanged, 4.9 (3.1, 6.8) %/hour versus 5.5 (3.9, 7.2) (p = 0.63). Plasma volume was unchanged but plasma albumin decreased from 33.5 (30.9, 36.2) to 22.1 (19.8, 24.3) g/L. (p<0.001). Conclusion Two days after major abdominal surgery, at the time-point when two biomarkers of generalised inflammation were at their peak and the plasma albumin concentration had decreased by 33%, we were unable to show any difference in the absolute synthesis rate of albumin, TER and plasma volume as compared with values obtained immediately pre-operatively. This suggests that capillary leakage, if elevated postoperatively, had ceased at that time-point. The temporal relations between albumin kinetics, capillary leakage and generalised inflammation need to be further explored. Trial Registration clinicaltrialsregister.eu: EudraCT 2010-08529-21 ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01194492 PMID:26313170

  13. The pharmacokinetics of albumin conjugates of D-penicillamine in humans.

    PubMed

    Joyce, D A; Day, R O; Murphy, B R

    1991-01-01

    D-penicillamine (D-PEN) is incompletely recovered during short-term balance studies, despite rapid elimination of D-PEN and its low molecular weight metabolites. Urinary excretion of metabolites of D-PEN also persists long after cessation of chronic therapy. A study was performed to determine whether the formation and later breakdown of a stable disulfide between D-PEN and plasma albumin could explain these aspects of D-PEN pharmacokinetics. Five human volunteers received D-penicillamine, 250 mg orally, daily for 21 days. Plasma concentration-time profiles for D-PEN and D-PEN-albumin disulfide (D-PEN-albumin) were determined during the first day and pre-dose concentrations were measured on five further occasions. The pharmacokinetics of D-PEN on the first day were similar to those reported previously. No D-PEN was found in any of the pre-dose specimens. The concentration of D-PEN-albumin rose rapidly during the first day, with an estimated 8.6% of the bioavailable D-PEN being transformed to D-PEN-albumin. Pseudo-steady-state concentrations of D-PEN-albumin were achieved in three subjects at between 14 and 21 days. The mean trough concentration of D-PEN-albumin at 21 days (19.5 microM) exceeded the peak concentration of D-PEN (during the first day) by 5.7-fold. The terminal elimination half-life of D-PEN-albumin was 1.65 +/- 0.29 days, which compared with an elimination half-life of 59 +/- 8.4 min for D-PEN.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Urinary Excretion of Antidiuretic Hormone in Man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M.

    1972-01-01

    It is shown that urinary excretion of ADH can be detected readily and quantitated accurately. The ADH excretion in normal subjects is inhibited following the administration of a water load and stimulated following water deprivation. It appears that measurement of ADH excretion in man provides a means of quantitating alterations in neurohypophyseal ADH secretion. By determining not only the basal excretion of ADH but also the response to such physiological influences as water loading and dehydration, it becomes possible to study the dynamics of ADH release. Thus, the ability to extract ADH efficiently from urine combined with a sensitive and specific technique for determination of ADH concentration allows the exploration of regulatory systems for ADH control in the normal state as well as the etiological role of altered ADH secretion in clinical disorders of water balance.

  15. Amadori albumin in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Neelofar, Km.; Ahmad, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation of macromolecules in diabetes mellitus (DM) is accelerated due to persistent hyperglycemia. Reducing sugar such as glucose reacts non enzymatically with free €-amino groups of proteins through series of reactions forming Schiff bases. These bases are converted into Amadori product and further into AGEs. Non enzymatic glycation has the potential to alter the biological, structural and functional properties of macromolecules both in vitro and in vivo. Studies have suggested that amadori as well as AGEs are involved in the micro-macro vascular complications in DM, but most studies have focused on the role of AGEs in vascular complications of diabetes. Recently putative AGE-induced patho-physiology has shifted attention from the possible role of amadori-modified proteins, the predominant form of the glycated proteins in the development of the diabetic complications. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in circulation contains 59 lysine and 23 arginine residues that could, in theory be involved in glycation. Albumin has dual nature, first as a marker of intermediate glycation and second as a causative agent of the damage of tissues. Among the blood proteins, hemoglobin and albumin are the most common proteins that are glycated. HSA with a shorter half life than RBC, appears to be an alternative marker of glycemic control as it can indicate blood glucose status over a short period (2-3 weeks) and being unaffected by RBCs life span and variant haemoglobin, anemia etc which however, affect HbA1c. On the other hand, Amadori albumin may accumulate in the body tissues of the diabetic patients and participate in secondary complications. Amadori-albumin has potential role in diabetic glomerulosclerosis due to long term hyperglycaemia and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. This review is an approach to compile both the nature of glycated albumin as a damaging agent of tissues and as an intermediate

  16. Excretion of drugs in human breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, R.M.; Findlay, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The present report briefly discusses some of the morphological, physiological, and compositional aspects of animal and human breast milk and how these characteristics might be important for the accumulation of drugs and foreign compounds. In addition, a study is described confirming the presence of caffeine, codeine, morphine, phenacetin, acetaminophen, and salicylic acid in the breast milk of a lactating mother following oral administration of a combination analgesic containing aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine, and codeine. Although the study is limited to one subject, it has provided critically needed data on the rates of appearance in, and elimination of these drugs from, breast milk. A similar amount of information is presented on phenacetin, also a component of the analgesic mixture, which has not been previously reported to enter human milk. The distribution of these drugs between the slightly more acidic breast milk and the relatively neutral plasma is consistent with their weakly basic, acidic, or relatively neutral properties. In general, the study shows that codeine and morphine milk concentrations are higher than, salicylic acid milk levels are much lower than, and phenacetin, caffeine, and acetaminophen milk concentrations are relatively similar to their respective plasma levels. It is projected, from estimated steady-state milk concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites studied, that very low percentages of the therapeutic dosages (less than 0.7%) would be excreted in mother's milk, too low an amount to be clinically significant to the infant.

  17. Effects of chronic lithium administration on renal acid excretion in humans and rats

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, I. David; Leader, John P.; Bedford, Jennifer J.; Verlander, Jill W.; Ellis, Gaye; Kalita, Priyakshi; Vos, Frederiek; de Jong, Sylvia; Walker, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Lithium therapy's most common side effects affecting the kidney are nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and chronic kidney disease. Lithium may also induce a distal renal tubular acidosis. This study investigated the effect of chronic lithium exposure on renal acid–base homeostasis, with emphasis on ammonia and citrate excretion. We compared 11 individuals on long‐term lithium therapy with six healthy individuals. Under basal conditions, lithium‐treated individuals excreted significantly more urinary ammonia than did control subjects. Following an acute acid load, urinary ammonia excretion increased approximately twofold above basal rates in both lithium‐treated and control humans. There were no significant differences between lithium‐treated and control subjects in urinary pH or urinary citrate excretion. To elucidate possible mechanisms, rats were randomized to diets containing lithium or regular diet for 6 months. Similar to humans, basal ammonia excretion was significantly higher in lithium‐treated rats; in addition, urinary citrate excretion was also significantly greater. There were no differences in urinary pH. Expression of the critical ammonia transporter, Rhesus C Glycoprotein (Rhcg), was substantially greater in lithium‐treated rats than in control rats. We conclude that chronic lithium exposure increases renal ammonia excretion through mechanisms independent of urinary pH and likely to involve increased collecting duct ammonia secretion via the ammonia transporter, Rhcg. PMID:25501430

  18. Urinary excretion of phytoestrogens and risk of breast cancer among Chinese women in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qi; Franke, Adrian A; Jin, Fan; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Hebert, James R; Custer, Laurie J; Cheng, Jiarong; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei

    2002-09-01

    Although the majority of ecological and experimental studies have suggested a potential role of phytoestrogens in breast cancer prevention, findings from epidemiological studies have been inconsistent. Part of the inconsistencies may be attributable to the difficulty in measuring intake levels of phytoestrogens. Overnight urine samples from 250 incident breast cancer cases and their individually matched controls were analyzed for urinary excretion rates of isoflavonoids, mammalian lignans, and citrus flavonoids. The study subjects were a subset of the participants in the Shanghai Breast Cancer Study, a large population-based case-control study conducted in Shanghai from 1996-1998. To minimize potential influence of treatment on the exposure of interest, urine samples from breast cancer cases were collected before cancer therapy. Urinary excretion of total isoflavonoids and mammalian lignans was substantially lower in breast cancer cases than in controls. The median excretion rate of total isoflavonoids was 13.97 nmol/mg creatinine in cases and 23.09 in controls (P = 0.01), and the median excretion rate of total lignans was 1.77 in cases and 4.16 in controls (P < 0.01). The risk of breast cancer was reduced with increasing excretion of total isoflavonoids (P for trend, 0.04) and total lignans (P for trend, <0.01), with adjusted odds ratios of 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.99) and 0.40 (95% confidence interval, 0.24-0.64) observed for the highest versus the lowest tertile of total isoflavonoid and lignan excretion, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.28 (95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.50) for women who had a high excretion rate of both total lignans and isoflavonoids compared with those with a low excretion of both groups of phytoestrogens. No association was observed with citrus flavonoids. The results from this study suggest that high intake of certain phytoestrogens may reduce the risk of breast cancer.

  19. Albumin dialysis in artificial liver support systems: open-loop or closed-loop dialysis mode?

    PubMed

    Pei, Yingying; Sun, Yize; Sun, Sijie; Gao, Dayong; Ding, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    In artificial liver support systems, the open-loop albumin dialysis mode (OLM) is usually used to remove protein-bound toxins from the blood of patients with liver failure. However, there is still interest in the closed-loop albumin dialysis mode (CLM) because this mode may enable not only the regeneration and reuse of albumin but also the miniaturization of artificial liver systems. In this article, we compared the two modes under a fixed amount of albumin in dialysate experimentally and theoretically. The results show that according to the detoxification efficiency in the 3 hour dialysis for removing albumin-bound bilirubin, CLM is better than OLM. The usage efficiency of albumin in CLM is also higher. Moreover, the advantage of CLM is more significant when the concentration of bilirubin in blood is lower. Under a given amount of albumin in dialysate, if the concentration of bilirubin in blood is high, one may further increase the performance of CLM by means of increasing the flow rate of the albumin dialysate or using the highly concentrated albumin dialysate.

  20. Predicting nutrient excretion of aquatic animals with metabolic ecology and ecological stoichiometry: a global synthesis.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Michael J; McIntyre, Peter B

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) and ecological stoichiometry (ES) are both prominent frameworks for understanding energy and nutrient budgets of organisms. We tested their separate and joint power to predict nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) excretion rates of ectothermic aquatic invertebrate and vertebrate animals (10,534 observations worldwide). MTE variables (body size, temperature) performed better than ES variables (trophic guild, vertebrate classification, body N:P) in predicting excretion rates, but the best models included variables from both frameworks. Size scaling coefficients were significantly lower than predicted by MTE (<0.75), were lower for P than N, and varied greatly among species. Contrary to expectations under ES, vertebrates excreted both N and P at higher rates than invertebrates despite having more nutrient-rich bodies, and primary consumers excreted as much nutrients as carnivores despite having nutrient-poor diets. Accounting for body N:P hardly improved upon predictions from treating vertebrate classification categorically. We conclude that basic data on body size, water temperature, trophic guild, and vertebrate classification are sufficient to make general estimates of nutrient excretion rates for any animal taxon or aquatic ecosystem. Nonetheless, dramatic interspecific variation in size-scaling coefficients and counter-intuitive patterns with respect to diet and body composition underscore the need for field data on consumption and egestion rates. Together, MTE and ES provide a powerful conceptual basis for interpreting and predicting nutrient recycling rates of aquatic animals worldwide.

  1. Evidence that auxin-induced growth of soybean hypocotyls involves proton excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Rayle, D.L.; Cleland, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    The role of H/sup +/ excretion in auxin-induced growth of soybean hypocotyl tissues has been investigated, using tissues whose cuticle was rendered permeable to protons or buffers by scarification (scrubbing). Indoleacetic acid induces both elongation and H/sup +/ excretion after a lag of 10 to 12 minutes. Cycloheximide inhibits growth and causes the tissues to remove protons from the medium. Neutral buffers (pH 7.0) inhibit auxin-induced growth of scrubbed but not intact sections; the inhibition increases as the buffers strength is increased. Both live and frozen-thawed sections, in the absence of auxin, extend in response to exogenously supplied protons. Fusicoccin induces both elongation and H/sup +/ excretion at rates greater than does auxin. These results indicate that H/sup +/ excretion is involved in the initiation of auxin-induced elongation in soybean hypocotyl tissue.

  2. Ammonium and phosphate excretion in three common echinoderms from Philippine coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Dy; Yap

    2000-08-30

    The ammonium and phosphate excretion and oxygen consumption of three species of echinoderms (Tripneustes gratilla, Protoreaster nodosus and Ophiorachna incrassata) commonly encountered in Philippine coral reefs were investigated in relation to time of day (i.e. daytime between 10:00 and 12:00 h vs. nighttime between 22:00 and 24:00 h) and their recent feeding history (i.e. recently-collected vs. short-term starvation for 3+/-1 days). The experiment used whole organism incubations and followed a nested hierarchical design. Ammonium excretion rates were 1447+/-310 nmolg(-1) DWh(-1) (mean+/-S.E., n=24) for T. gratilla, 361+/-33 for O. incrassata and 492+/-38 for P. nodosus. Ammonium excretion differed significantly among species, time of incubation and recent feeding history. Interaction between species and recent feeding history was also significant. The organisms excreted more ammonium during daytime except for starved specimens of O. incrassata. In addition, animals that were starved in the laboratory for a few days had a tendency to excrete more ammonium than recently-collected specimens. Phosphate excretion rates were 25+/-13 nmolg(-1) DWh(-1) for T. gratilla, 10+/-2 for O. incrassata and 4+/-1 for P. nodosus. There were no significant differences in phosphate excretion among the three species of echinoderms, their recent feeding history and time of day. Oxygen consumption rates were 286+/-24 µg O(2)g(-1) DWh(-1) for T. gratilla, 64+/-3 for O. incrassata and 54+/-3 for P. nodosus. Oxygen consumption differed significantly among species and recent feeding history but differed only slightly with time of incubation. There was a significant correlation between oxygen consumption and ammonium excretion (r=0.48, P=0.018), and between oxygen consumption and phosphate excretion (r=0.41, P=0.047) for T. gratilla. The nutrient excretion by tropical echinoderms is another pathway by which inorganic nutrients are regenerated in coral reef communities. However, the quantity

  3. Specific albumin binding to microvascular endothelium in culture

    SciTech Connect

    Schnitzer, J.E.; Carley, W.W.; Palade, G.E. )

    1988-03-01

    The specific binding of rat serum albumin (RSA) to confluent microvascular endothelial cells in culture derived from the vasculature of the rat epididymal fat pad was studied at 4{degree}C by radioassay and immunocytochemistry. Radioiodinated RSA ({sup 125}I-RSA) binding to the cells reached equilibrium at {approximately} 20 min incubation. Albumin binding was a slowly saturating function over concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 50 mg/ml. Specific RSA binding with a moderate apparent affinity constant of 1.0 mg/ml and with a maximum binding concentration of 90 ng/cm{sup 2} was immunolocalized with anti-RSA antibody to the outer (free) side of the enothelium. Scatchard analysis of the binding yielded a nonlinear binding curve with a concave-upward shape. Dissociation rate analysis supports negative cooperativity of albumin binding, but multiple binding sites may also be present. Albumin binding fulfilled many requirements for ligand specificity including saturability, reversibility, competibility, and dependence on both cell type and cell number. The results are discussed in terms of past in situ investigations on the localization of albumin binding to vascular endothelium and its effect on transendothelial molecular transport.

  4. Mechanism of Impaired Water Excretion in the Hypothyroid Rat

    PubMed Central

    Emmanouel, Dimitrios S.; Lindheimer, Marshall D.; Katz, Adrian I.

    1974-01-01

    The ability to excrete an oral water load and the renal diluting mechanism were studied in hypothyroid rats and in age-matched euthyroid controls. Hypothyroid animals excreted a significantly smaller fraction of a 50-ml/kg oral water load than controls, demonstrating the same limited ability to excrete free water as thyroid-deficient man. During hypotonic (0.45%) saline infusion, absolute sodium delivery to the diluting segment and free water clearance were markedly lower in hypothyroid rats. However, both fractional distal sodium delivery and fractional free water clearance were similar in hypothyroid and control animals, suggesting that the reduced absolute free water formation in hypothyroid rats was due to decreased net distal delivery. In support of this hypothesis was the observation that fractional distal sodium reabsorption was equal or higher in thyroid-deficient rats, which indicates that the sodium reabsorptive capacity of the diluting segment was preserved in these animals. The results cannot be attributed to incomplete suppression of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) since they were identical in diabetes insipidus rats, nor to different rates of non-ADH-dependent backflux of filtrate since tissue osmolality and solute concentrations in the cortex, medulla, and papilla were similar in hypothyroid and control rats of both Sprague-Dawley and Brattleboro strains. The functional integrity of the diluting segment in hypothyroid rats was further demonstrated in experiments in which distal delivery was increased by contralateral nephrectomy or by administration of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors which decrease proximal sodium reabsorption. In both studies, fractional free water clearance increased markedly reaching levels significantly greater than in euthyroid controls. These results demonstrate that the impaired ability of the hypothyroid rat to excrete a water load is not due to incomplete suppression of ADH or decreased reabsorptive capacity of the diluting segment

  5. Waste nitrogen metabolism and excretion in zebrafish embryos: effects of light, ammonia, and nicotinamide.

    PubMed

    Bucking, Carol; Lemoine, Christophe M R; Walsh, Patrick J

    2013-08-01

    Bony fish primarily excrete ammonia as adults however the persistence of urea cycle genes may reflect a beneficial role for urea production during embryonic stages in protecting the embryo from toxic effects of ammonia produced from a highly nitrogenous yolk. This study aimed to examine the dynamic scope for changes in rates of urea synthesis and excretion in one such species (zebrafish, Danio rerio) by manipulating the intrinsic developmental rate (by alteration of light:dark cycles), as well as by direct chemical manipulation via ammonia injection (to potentially activate urea production) and nicotinamide exposure (to potentially inhibit urea production). Continuous dark exposure delayed development in embryos as evidenced by delayed appearance of hallmark anatomical features (heartbeat, eye pigmentation, body pigmentation, lateral line, fin buds) at 30 and 48 hr post-fertilization, as well by a lower hatching rate compared to embryos reared in continuous light. Both ammonia and urea excretion were similarly effected and were generally higher in embryos continuously exposed to light. Ammonia injection resulted in significant increases (up to fourfold) of urea N excretion and no changes to ammonia excretion rates along with modest increases in yolk ammonia content during 2-6 hr post-injection. Nicotinamide (an inhibitor of urea synthesis in mammals) reduced the ammonia-induced increase in urea excretion and led to retention of ammonia in the yolk and body of the embryo. Our results indicate that there is a relatively rapid and large scope for increases in urea production/excretion rates in developing embryos. Potential mechanisms for these increases are discussed.

  6. Albumin-deficient mouse models for studying metabolism of human albumin and pharmacokinetics of albumin-based drugs

    PubMed Central

    Roopenian, Derry C; Low, Benjamin E; Christianson, Gregory J; Proetzel, Gabriele; Sproule, Thomas J; Wiles, Michael V

    2015-01-01

    Serum albumin is the major determinant of blood colloidal osmotic pressure acting as a depot and distributor of compounds including drugs. In humans, serum albumin exhibits an unusually long half-life mainly due to protection from catabolism by neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated recycling. These properties make albumin an attractive courier of therapeutically-active compounds. However, pharmaceutical research and development of albumin-based therapeutics has been hampered by the lack of appropriate preclinical animal models. To overcome this, we developed and describe the first mouse with a genetic deficiency in albumin and its incorporation into an existing humanized FcRn mouse model, B6.Cg-Fcgrttm1Dcr Tg(FCGRT)32Dcr/DcrJ (Tg32). Albumin-deficient strains (Alb-/-) were created by TALEN-mediated disruption of the albumin (Alb) gene directly in fertilized oocytes derived from Tg32 mice and its non-transgenic background control, C57BL/6J (B6). The resulting Alb-/- strains are analbuminemic but healthy. Intravenous administration of human albumin to Tg32-Alb-/- mFcRn-/- hFcRnTg/Tg) mice results in a remarkably extended human albumin serum half-life of ∼24 days, comparable to that found in humans, and in contrast to half-lives of 2.6–5.8 d observed in B6, B6-Alb-/- and Tg32 strains. This striking increase can be explained by the absence of competing endogenous mouse albumin and the presence of an active human FcRn. These novel albumin-deficient models provide unique tools for investigating the biology and pathobiology of serum albumin and are a more appropriate rodent surrogates for evaluating human serum albumin pharmacokinetics and albumin-based compounds. PMID:25654695

  7. Debate: Albumin administration should not be avoided

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Simon P; Lobo, Dileep N

    2000-01-01

    The recent Cochrane report on albumin administration is analysed and criticised on the grounds of clinical methodology, content and interpretation. Although it is naïve and illogical to treat hypoalbuminaemia with albumin infusions, a more balanced view on the use of albumin for resuscitation in acute hypovolaemia is necessary. Once the acute phase of critical illness is past, interstitial volume is often expanded causing oedema, with a low plasma volume. We argue for the use of salt-poor albumin solutions in this situation and conclude that, on current evidence, the assertion that albumin should be avoided in all situations is irrational and untenable. PMID:11211855

  8. Adherence of platelets to in situ albumin-binding surfaces under flow conditions: role of surface-adsorbed albumin.

    PubMed

    Guha Thakurta, Sanjukta; Miller, Robert; Subramanian, Anuradha

    2012-08-01

    Surfaces that preferentially bind human serum albumin (HSA) were generated by grafting albumin-binding linear peptide (LP1) onto silicon surfaces. The research aim was to evaluate the adsorption pattern of proteins and the adhesion of platelets from platelet-poor plasma and platelet-rich plasma, respectively, by albumin-binding surfaces under physiological shear rate (96 and 319 s(-1)) conditions. Bound proteins were quantified using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A ratio of ∼1000:100:1 of adsorbed HSA, human immunoglobulin (HIgG) and human fibrinogen (HFib) was noted, respectively, on LP1-functionalized surfaces, and a ratio of ∼5:2:1 of the same was noted on control surfaces, as confirmed by ELISAs. The surface-adsorbed von Willebrand factor was undetectable by sensitive ELISAs. The amount of adhered platelets correlated with the ratio of adsorbed HSA/HFib. Platelet morphology was more rounded on LP1-functionalized surfaces when compared to control surfaces. The platelet adhesion response on albumin-binding surfaces can be explained by the reduction in the co-adsorption of other plasma proteins in a surface environment where there is an excess of albumin molecules, coupled with restrictions in the conformational transitions of other surface-adsorbed proteins into hemostatically active forms.

  9. A study on the effect of the internal exposure to (210)Po on the excretion of urinary proteins in rats.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Baki; Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Daka, Joseph; Yusuf, Hamdi; Wyatt, Heather; Surette, Joel; Priest, Nick; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of a noninvasive urine specimen for the detection of proteins as indicators of internal exposure to ionizing radiation. Three groups of rats (five in each group) were intravenously injected with 1601 ± 376, 10,846 ± 591 and 48,467 ± 2812 Bq of (210)Po in citrate form. A sham-exposed control group of five rats was intravenously injected with sterile physiological saline. Daily urine samples were collected over 4 days following injection. Purification and pre-concentration of urinary proteins were carried out by ultrafiltration using a 3000 Da molecular weight cutoff membrane filter. The concentration of common urinary proteins, namely albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary excretion of albumin decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.05) 96 h post-injection relative to the control group. In contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for other proteins tested. The dose-dependent decrease in urinary excretion of albumin observed in this study underscores the need for further research, which may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers that would reflect the changes in the primary target organs for deposition of (210)Po.

  10. Tissular localization and excretion of intravenously administered silica nanoparticles of different sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Guangping; Sun, Jiao; Zhong, Gaoren

    2012-01-01

    The nanotoxicology as a new subdiscipline of nanotechnology needs to be studied in vivo. To do so, it is essential to understand certain pharmacological information of the nanoparticles in vivo. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been developed for a number of biomedical uses; however, research on their tissular localization and excretion has been limited. In this study, we analyzed the localization of intravenously administered SiNPs with sizes of 20 and 80 nm in liver and spleen and quantitatively investigated the excretion of SiNPs through urine and feces. The results of the tissular localization study showed that the SiNPs were located in liver evenly; however, they were mainly accumulated in the white pulp of spleen. The quantitative excretory assay found the renal excretion being the main excretion pathway of SiNPs and indicated that the accumulated excretory rate of 80 nm SiNPs through urine was higher than that of 20 nm SiNPs because of the higher hemoconcentration. Further analysis of radioactive substances in the excreta showed the convincing confirmatory evidence that the SiNPs of both the sizes of 20 and 80 nm could be excreted through urine. These results provide important information on in vivo distribution and excretion of SiNPs.

  11. Plasma pharmacokinetics and urinary excretion of hexamethylene bisacetamide metabolites.

    PubMed

    Egorin, M J; Zuhowski, E G; Cohen, A S; Geelhaar, L A; Callery, P S; Van Echo, D A

    1987-11-15

    In order to further understand the clinical toxicities of hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA) and to allow appropriate in vitro studies, we developed a suitable gas chromatographic assay and quantified plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of four metabolites which we had previously identified in urine of patients receiving 5-day HMBA infusions at 4.8-43.2 g/m2/day. 6-Acetamidohexanoic acid (AcHA) was the major plasma metabolite and reached steady state concentration (Css) by 24 h. AcHA Css increased from 0.12 +/- 0.02 (SD) mM at 4.8 g/m2/day to 0.72 mM at 43.2 g/m2/day. The Css AcHA:Css HMBA ratio decreased with increasing HMBA dosage. At dosages below 24 g/m2/day plasma Css of N-acetyl-1,6-diaminohexane (NADAH), the initial metabolite of HMBA, were below the limit of detection of our assay. With HMBA infusions of 24, 33.6, and 43.2 g/m2/day, Css of NADAH were 0.16 +/- 0.05, 0.14 +/- 0.06, and 0.19 +/- 0.04 mM, respectively. Css NADAH:Css HMBA ratios at 24, 33.6, and 43.2 g/m2/day were 0.18 +/- 0.06, 0.08 +/- 0.02, and 0.31 +/- 0.05, respectively. Plasma Css of 1,6-diaminohexane and 6-aminohexanoic acid were below the limit of detection of our assay. Each patient's urinary excretion of NADAH, AcHA, and 1,6-diaminohexane was consistent from day to day. The fraction of dose excreted in urine as AcHA was not affected by HMBA dosage and accounted for 12.7 +/- 3.9% of the daily dose. The percentage of daily HMBA dose accounted for by excretion of NADAH decreased with increasing HMBA dosage (10.8 +/- 6.0% at 4.8 g/m2/day to 4.2 +/- 1.2% at 33.6 g/m2/day). Urinary excretion of 1,6-diaminohexane always accounted for less than 3% of the daily dose. Our results indicate that: (a) plasma concentrations of AcHA alone cannot explain the degree of acidosis observed with toxic doses of HMBA; (b) NADAH is present in plasma at concentrations that we have found to cause differentiation in vitro; and (c) the probable rate-limiting step in HMBA metabolism is the initial

  12. Familial hypercatabolic hypoproteinemia. A disorder of endogenous catabolism of albumin and immunoglobulin.

    PubMed Central

    Waldmann, T A; Terry, W D

    1990-01-01

    The metabolism of albumin and IgG was investigated in two siblings, products of a first-cousin marriage, a female aged 34 yr and a male aged 17, who had a marked reduction in their respective serum concentrations of IgG (1.3 and 3.1 mg/ml) and albumin (19 and 21 mg/ml). The metabolism of radioiodinated IgG and albumin was studied in the two patients. The total circulating and body pools of IgG were less than 28% of normal. The IgG synthetic rates were within the normal range. However, the IgG survival was short, with their respective fractional catabolic rates increased fivefold to 31% and 36% of the intravenous pool per day (normal, 6.7 +/- 2%/d). Furthermore, the patients had reduced total body pools, normal synthetic rates, and increased fractional catabolic rates for albumin. There was no proteinuria or abnormality of renal or liver function. In addition, the patients did not have circulating antibodies directed toward IgG, IgA, or albumin. Furthermore, both patients had normal fecal 51Cr-labeled albumin tests, thus excluding excessive gastrointestinal protein loss. We propose that these siblings have a previously unrecognized familial disorder characterized by reduced serum concentrations of IgG and albumin caused by a defect in endogenous catabolism, leading to a short survival of these proteins that is associated in this family with chemical diabetes and a skeletal deformity. Images PMID:2254461

  13. Albumin acts like transforming growth factor β1 in microbubble-based drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yueh-Hsun; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Chang, Tien-Kuei; Lin, Ching-Jung; Li, Pai-Chi

    2014-04-01

    Unlike lipid-shelled microbubbles (MBs), albumin-shelled microbubbles (MBs) have not been reported to be actively targeted to cells without the assistance of antibodies. Recent studies indicate that the albumin molecule is similar to transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) both structurally and functionally. The TGF-β superfamily is important during early tumor outgrowth, with an elevated TGF-β being tumor suppressive; at later stages, this switches to malignant conversion and progression, including breast cancer. TGF-β receptors I and II play crucial roles in both the binding and endocytosis of albumin. However, until now, no specific albumin receptor has been found. On the basis of the above-mentioned information, we hypothesized that non-antibody-conjugated albumin-shelled MBs can be used to deliver drugs to breast cancer cells. We also studied the possible roles of TGF-β1 and radiation force in the behavior of cells and albumin-shelled MBs. The results indicate that albumin-shelled MBs loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) induce breast cancer cell apoptosis without the specific targeting produced by an antibody. Applying either an acoustic radiation force or cavitation alone to cells with PTX-loaded albumin MBs increased the apoptosis rate to 23.2% and 26.3% (p < 0.05), respectively. We also found that albumin-shelled MBs can enter MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and remain there for at least 24 h, even in the presence of PTX loading. Confocal micrographs revealed that 70.5% of the breast cancer cells took up albumin-shelled MBs spontaneously after 1 d of incubation. Applying an acoustic radiation force further increased the percentage to 91.9% in our experiments. However, this process could be blocked by TGF-β1, even with subsequent exposure to the radiation force. From these results, we conclude that TGF-β1 receptors are involved in the endocytotic process by which albumin-shelled MBs enter breast cancer cells. The acoustic radiation force increases the contact

  14. Thrombin stimulates albumin transcytosis in lung microvascular endothelial cells via activation of acid sphingomyelinase.

    PubMed

    Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Wittenberg, Claudia; Lee, Warren L; Reppien, Eike; Goldenberg, Neil M; Lindner, Karsten; Gao, Yizhuo; Winoto-Morbach, Supandi; Drab, Marek; Mühlfeld, Christian; Dombrowsky, Heike; Ochs, Matthias; Schütze, Stefan; Uhlig, Stefan

    2016-04-15

    Transcellular albumin transport occurs via caveolae that are abundant in lung microvascular endothelial cells. Stimulation of albumin transcytosis by proinflammatory mediators may contribute to alveolar protein leak in lung injury, yet the regulation of albumin transport and its underlying molecular mechanisms are so far incompletely understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that thrombin may stimulate transcellular albumin transport across lung microvascular endothelial cells in an acid-sphingomyelinase dependent manner. Thrombin increased the transport of fluorescently labeled albumin across confluent human lung microvascular endothelial cell (HMVEC-L) monolayers to an extent that markedly exceeds the rate of passive diffusion. Thrombin activated acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) and increased ceramide production in HMVEC-L, but not in bovine pulmonary artery cells, which showed little albumin transport in response to thrombin. Thrombin increased total caveolin-1 (cav-1) content in both whole cell lysates and lipid rafts from HMVEC-L, and this effect was blocked by inhibition of ASM or de novo protein biosynthesis. Thrombin-induced uptake of albumin into lung microvascular endothelial cells was confirmed in isolated-perfused lungs by real-time fluorescence imaging and electron microscopy of gold-labeled albumin. Inhibition of ASM attenuated thrombin-induced albumin transport both in confluent HMVEC-L and in intact lungs, whereas HMVEC-L treatment with exogenous ASM increased albumin transport and enriched lipid rafts in cav-1. Our findings indicate that thrombin stimulates transcellular albumin transport in an acid sphingomyelinase-dependent manner by inducing de novo synthesis of cav-1 and its recruitment to membrane lipid rafts.

  15. Roles of P-glycoprotein, Bcrp, and Mrp2 in biliary excretion of spiramycin in mice.

    PubMed

    Tian, Xianbin; Li, Jun; Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J; Bridges, Arlene S; Zhang, Peijin; Patel, Nita J; Raub, Thomas J; Pollack, Gary M; Brouwer, Kim L R

    2007-09-01

    The multidrug resistance proteins P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) are the three major canalicular transport proteins responsible for the biliary excretion of most drugs and metabolites. Previous in vitro studies demonstrated that P-gp transported macrolide antibiotics, including spiramycin, which is eliminated primarily by biliary excretion. Bcrp was proposed to be the primary pathway for spiramycin secretion into breast milk. In the present study, the contributions of P-gp, Bcrp, and Mrp2 to the biliary excretion of spiramycin were examined in single-pass perfused livers of male C57BL/6 wild-type, Bcrp-knockout, and Mrp2-knockout mice in the presence or absence of GF120918 (GW918), a P-gp and Bcrp inhibitor. Spiramycin was infused to achieve steady-state conditions, followed by a washout period, and parameters governing spiramycin hepatobiliary disposition were recovered by using pharmacokinetic modeling. In the absence of GW918, the rate constant governing spiramycin biliary excretion was decreased in Mrp2(-) knockout mice (0.0013 +/- 0.0009 min(-1)) relative to wild-type mice (0.0124 +/- 0.0096 min(-1)). These data are consistent with the approximately 8-fold decrease in the recovery of spiramycin in the bile of Mrp2-knockout mice and suggest that Mrp2 is the major canalicular transport protein responsible for spiramycin biliary excretion. Interestingly, biliary recovery of spiramycin in Bcrp-knockout mice was increased in both the absence and presence of GW918 compared to wild-type mice. GW918 significantly decreased the rate constant for spiramycin biliary excretion and the rate constant for basolateral efflux of spiramycin. In conclusion, the biliary excretion of spiramycin in mice is mediated primarily by Mrp2 with a modest P-gp component.

  16. Urate excretion by the cat kidney.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y K; Jung, D K; Jung, J S; Lee, S H

    1992-08-01

    1. The renal handling of urate by the cat kidney was investigated during continuous infusion of urate. 2. Fractional urate excretion (FE(UA)) in cats was 0.57 +/- 0.04, indicating net reabsorption of urate. In contrast, FE(UA) in rabbits was 1.76 +/- 0.08, reflecting net secretion of urate. 3. Fractional PAH excretion (FE(PAH)) was 3.94 +/- 0.26 in cats and 4.12 +/- 0.76 in rabbits, showing net secretion in both species. 4. FE(UA) in cats was dependent on urine flow, but was independent of plasma urate concentration. 5. The urate excretion in cats was enhanced by probenecid, but was insensitive to PAH and PZA. 6. The PAH excretion in cats was reduced by probenecid, but was unaltered by urate and PZA. 7. These results indicate that urate is handled in the cat kidney by a unique transport system which is distinct from that for organic anions.

  17. Protein degradation by ruminal microorganisms from sheep fed dietary supplements of urea, casein, or albumin.

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, R J; Broderick, G A; Brammall, M L

    1987-01-01

    Ruminal fluid from sheep fed hay plus concentrate diets containing 1.8% urea, 6% casein, or 6% egg albumin had proteolytic activities of 4.12, 3.02, or 4.00 mg of [14C]casein hydrolyzed ml-1 h-1, respectively. Dietary albumin had no effect on the rate of albumin breakdown relative to that of casein (0.06). Greater numbers of highly proteolytic bacteria, mainly Butyrivibrio spp., were isolated from the rumens of sheep receiving albumin. Albumin hydrolysis by these isolates was even slower relative to that of casein (0.03) than in ruminal fluid and was similar to that found in isolates from urea- and casein-fed sheep. Hence, there appears to be no mechanism by which ruminal bacteria can alter their proteolytic activity to utilize resistant soluble protein more effectively. PMID:3579280

  18. Renal function, aldosterone, and vasopressin excretion following repeated long-distance running.

    PubMed

    Wade, C E; Dressendorfer, R H; O'Brien, J C; Claybaugh, J R

    1981-04-01

    Renal and endocrine responses were studied in 10 male runners during a 20-day 500-km race. Overnight urine and prerun blood samples were taken prior to running on days 1, 2, 5, 8, 14, 17, and 20. Day 13 followed 70 h of rest. Urine flow rate, osmotic clearance, tubular free water reabsorption, urinary vasopressin excretion rate, and body weight were not significantly changed. Creatinine clearance was constant except for an elevation on day 5. Plasma osmolality was elevated on days 2, 14, and 17. Plasma sodium was increased (P less than 0.05) on days 2 and 13 but reduced on day 20. The percentage of filtered sodium excreted was significantly reduced on all nights following running and elevated on recovery day 13. Urinary aldosterone excretion rate was significantly elevated 162, 117, and 97% on days 5, 8, and 20 and returned to control levels on day 13 after 70 h of rest. These data suggest that in response to repeated long-distance running normal fluid balance is regained within 12 h. However, it is necessary to conserve sodium for at least 24 h after exercise as evidenced by the decrease in the percent filtered sodium excreted and continued elevation of aldosterone excretion.

  19. Renal electrolyte excretion and renin release during calcium and parathormone infusions in conscious rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Peart, W S; Roddis, S A; Unwin, R J

    1986-01-01

    Following a random block experimental design in each case, three repeated measurement studies were carried out in three different groups of conscious rabbits, to investigate the renal effects of increasing doses of intravenous calcium chloride (CaCl2) and bovine parathyroid hormone (PTH). In the first study, each rabbit received either CaCl2 (0.15, 0.3, 0.5 or 1.0 mg kg-1 min-1) or vehicle alone (control) for 160 min. In the second study, rabbits were given either PTH (0.15 microgram kg-1 min-1), CaCl2 (1.0 mg kg-1 min-1), PTH plus CaCl2 (0.15 microgram kg-1 min-1 and 1.0 mg kg-1 min-1, respectively) or vehicle alone; PTH was infused for just over 60 min. In the third study, a much smaller dose (0.05 mg kg-1 min-1) of CaCl2 was infused for 100 min. CaCl2 infusion produced a striking fall in fractional excretion of sodium of at least 50% (P less than 0.01), but this was not dose related, being almost maximal at the smaller doses infused. Although this effect was evident in the absence of any changes in total plasma calcium concentration at the lower doses of CaCl2, renal calcium excretion was increased between 2- and 20-fold (P less than 0.01) at all doses infused. Fractional excretion of chloride doubled at the two higher doses of CaCl2 (P less than 0.01), but potassium excretion was unchanged. There were no consistent alterations in mean arterial blood pressure, effective renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate or plasma renin activity (PRA); total plasma calcium concentration was consistently elevated only during infusion of the high dose by just under 1 mmol l-1. PTH infusion had no measured effect on fractional excretion of sodium or renal calcium excretion, but doubled fractional potassium excretion (P less than 0.05). Heart rate and PRA increased (P less than 0.01 and less than 0.05, respectively), the latter by 50%, but systemic pressure and renal haemodynamics were not significantly affected. By contrast, PTH infused with CaCl2 produced a 4-fold rise

  20. Nitrogen and phosphorus retention and excretion in late-gestation dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Hill, S R; Knowlton, K F; James, R E; Pearson, R E; Bethard, G L; Pence, K J

    2007-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of limit feeding diets containing concentrates or by-products in place of forages on manure and nutrient excretion in growing, gravid heifers. Eighteen Holstein heifers confirmed pregnant were grouped by due date and fed 1 of 3 diets (n = 6 per treatment) for the last 14 wk of pregnancy. Diets were high forage, fed ad libitum (HF); by-product based (BP), fed at the same rate as HF-fed heifers; or low forage (LF), fed at 86% of the HF diet. Diets were designed to supply equal quantities of P, N, and metabolizable energy. Total collection of feces and urine was conducted in wk 14, 10, 6, and 2 prepartum. The HF ration was 90.7% forage, 13.7% crude protein (CP), and contained orchardgrass hay, corn silage, corn grain, soybean meal 44%, and a vitamin-mineral premix. The BP diet was 46.2% forage and 14.0% CP, with 70% of the grain mix space replaced with soybean hulls and cottonseed hulls in a 1:1 ratio, with intake limited to 93% of the dry matter intake (DMI) of HF. The LF ration was 45.3% forage and 17.8% CP, with intake limited to 86% of the DMI of HF. The effect of diet was analyzed with repeated measures, using preplanned contrasts to compare HF with BP and LF with HF and BP. As designed, heifers fed HF and BP had greater DMI than the heifers limit-fed LF, and there was no effect of diet on average daily gain or BW. Intake and digestibility of N were lower, and fecal N excretion was higher, in heifers fed HF and BP than heifers fed LF. Mean feces excretion on both a wet and dry basis was greater for HF heifers compared with BP heifers and less for LF heifers than for HF and BP heifers. Despite differences in urinary output, diet had no effect on urea N excretion, but there was a trend for heifers fed HF and BP rations to excrete less urinary N compared with those fed LF. Compared with HF and BP heifers, LF heifers tended to have lower fecal P excretion and had higher urinary P excretion. Measured manure and

  1. Overview of Albumin and Its Purification Methods

    PubMed Central

    Raoufinia, Ramin; Mota, Ali; Keyhanvar, Neda; Safari, Fatemeh; Shamekhi, Sara; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal

    2016-01-01

    As the most frequent plasma protein, albumin constitutes more than 50% of the serum proteins in healthy individuals. It has a key role in oncotic pressure maintenance and it is known as a versatile protein carrier for transportation of various endogenous and exogenous ligands. Reduced amounts of albumin in the body will lead to different kinds of diseases such as hypovolemia and hypoproteinemia. It also has various indications in shocks, burns, cardiopulmonary bypass, acute liver failure and etc. Further applications in research consist of cell culture supplement, drug delivery carrier and protein/drug stabilizer. So, the demand for albumin increased annually worldwide. Due to different applications of albumin, many efforts have been accomplished to achieve albumin during a long period of time. In this review, an overview of serum albumin and different purification methods are summarized. PMID:28101456

  2. Differential receptor targeting of liver cells using 99mTc-neoglycosylated human serum albumins.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sungeun; Jeong, Jae Min; Hong, Mee Kyung; Jang, Ja-June; Lee, Jaetae; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2008-01-01

    Neolactosyl human serum albumin (LSA) targets asialoglycoprotein receptor and shows high liver uptake due to accumulation in hepatocytes. Although neomannosyl human serum albumin (MSA) also shows high liver uptake, it has been reported to be taken up by Kupffer cells and endothelial cells. We compared the biological properties of LSA and MSA. 99mTc-LSA and 99mTc-MSA biodistribution in mice were investigated after intravenous injection. In vivo localization of rhodaminisothiocyanate (RITC)-LSA and fluoresceineisothiocyanate (FITC)-MSA were investigated in mouse liver. Excretion routes of 99mTc-LSA and 99mTc-MSA metabolites were examined. Both 99mTc-LSA and 99mTc-MSA showed high liver uptakes. RITC-LSA was taken up by hepatocytes whereas FITC-MSA was taken up by Kupffer cells and endothelial cells. 99mTc-MSA showed higher spleen and kidney uptakes than 99mTc-LSA. 99mTc-LSA metabolites excreted in urine and feces accounted for 44.4 and 50.0% of 99mTc-LSA injected, respectively, while 99mTc-MSA metabolites accounted for 51.5 and 10.3%, respectively. In conclusion, LSA is specifically taken up by hepatcytes while MSA by Kupffer cells and endothelial cells. After taken up by the liver, LSA is metabolized by the hepatocytes and then excreted through both the hepatobiliary tract and kidney, whereas MSA is metabolized by Kupffer cells and endoghelial cells and then excreted mainly through the kidney.

  3. D-glucaric acid excretion in critical care patients--comparison with 6 beta-hydroxycortisol excretion and serum gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase activity and relation to multiple drug therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Heinemeyer, G; Roots, I; Lestau, P; Klaiber, H R; Dennhardt, R

    1986-01-01

    The incidence of increased drug metabolism activity as a consequence of multiple drug therapy at a surgical intensive care ward has been studied non-invasively by determinations of daily urinary D-glucaric acid (GA) excretion rates. Among 165 randomly selected patients, GA excretion was stimulated in 76 cases (= 46%). Exploratory data analysis showed that increases in GA excretion are primarily due to administration of barbiturates (pentobarbitone, Nembutal), miconazole (Daktar) and, to a lesser extent, neuroleptics. Surprisingly, the large number of simultaneously administered additional drugs failed to increase GA excretion. Urinary 6 beta-hydroxycortisol (6 beta-OHF) and 17-hydroxycorticosteroid (17-OHCS) excretion rates were correlated in 34 patients with GA excretion; patients not receiving known enzyme inducers showed low GA values but high 6 beta-OHF and 17-OHCS values, however, with a ratio of 6 beta-OHF/17-OHCS in the normal range. Patients receiving high dose pentobarbitone treatment failed to exhibit significantly increased 6 beta-OHF and 17-OHCS or 6 beta-OHF/17-OHCS values. Miconazole treatment resulted in a significantly increased ratio of 6 beta-OHF/17-OHCS. gamma-Glutamyltranspeptidase activity in serum showed no correlation with GA excretion (n = 91). PMID:2868749

  4. Urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion in thalassaemia

    PubMed Central

    Fessas, Ph.; Koniavitis, A.; Zeis, P. M.

    1969-01-01

    The quantity of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) excreted in the urine of patients with an intact spleen suffering from thalassaemia major appears to be proportional to the number of the circulating normoblasts and inversely proportional to the haemoglobin level. After splenectomy only minute amounts of BAIB are excreted. Transfusion constantly, but temporarily, reduces urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid. Other anaemic but non-thalassaemic patients may excrete low levels. Images PMID:5776546

  5. Urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid excretion in thalassaemia.

    PubMed

    Fessas, P; Koniavitis, A; Zeis, P M

    1969-03-01

    The quantity of beta-aminoisobutyric acid (BAIB) excreted in the urine of patients with an intact spleen suffering from thalassaemia major appears to be proportional to the number of the circulating normoblasts and inversely proportional to the haemoglobin level. After splenectomy only minute amounts of BAIB are excreted. Transfusion constantly, but temporarily, reduces urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid. Other anaemic but non-thalassaemic patients may excrete low levels.

  6. Wavelength-dependence of the relative rate constants for the main geometric and structural photoisomerization of bilirubin IX alpha bound to human serum albumin. Demonstration of green light at 510 nm as the most effective wavelength in photochemical changes from (ZZ)-bilirubin IX alpha to (EZ)-cyclobilirubin IX alpha via (EZ)-bilirubin.

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, S; Itoh, S; Isobe, K

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics for the quantitatively important reaction: (Formula: see text) that is, the photochemical interconversion between bilirubin and its geometric and structural photoisomers bound to human serum albumin in aqueous solution when various wavelengths of monochromatic light were used, were assayed by h.p.l.c. In order to clarify the wavelength-dependence of the relative rate constants in the individual steps, a light-source with a half-bandwidth of 10 nm was used at increments of 20 nm, in the range from 410 nm to 550 nm. We describe for the first time studies on the wavelength-dependence of rate constants in geometric and structural photoisomerization reactions in vitro of (ZZ)-bilirubin or (EZ)-bilirubin bound to human serum albumin, especially the relative rate constants of cyclization of (EZ)-bilirubin into (EZ)-cyclobilirubin. Because studies in vitro have demonstrated that the wavelengths from 350 to 450 nm are mutagenic, the results obtained indicated that the safest and ideal light-source for phototherapy is green light of 510 nm, which keeps (ZE)-bilirubin concentrations as low as possible, as shown by a maximal value of k2 at 510 nm and a relatively low value of k1 at 510 nm. This light-source still ensures the substantial absorption of (ZZ)-bilirubin, which is the precursor of (EZ)-bilirubin, the intermediate in (EZ)-cyclobilirubin formation and, furthermore, as shown by the maximal value of k5 and a considerable value of k4 at 510 nm, promotes the cyclization of (EZ)-bilirubin derived from (ZZ)-bilirubin even though k3 at 510 nm also shows a peak value. PMID:3790073

  7. Faecal alpha-1-antitrypsin and excretion of 111indium granulocytes in assessment of disease activity in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, W; Becker, W; Mössner, J; Koch, W; Reiners, C

    1987-01-01

    Intestinal protein loss in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases may be easily determined by measurement of alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) stool concentration and alpha 1-AT clearance. Both parameters were significantly raised in 36 and 34 patients respectively with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, compared with eight patients with non-inflammatory bowel diseases, or 19 healthy volunteers. There was wide range of overlap between active and inactive inflammatory disease. Contrary to serum alpha 1-AT, faecal excretion and clearance of alpha 1-AT did not correlate with ESR, serum-albumin, orosomucoid, and two indices of disease activity. A comparison of alpha 1-AT faecal excretion and clearance with the faecal excretion of 111In labelled granulocytes in 27 patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, showed no correlation between the intestinal protein loss and this highly specific marker of intestinal inflammation. Enteric protein loss expressed by faecal excretion and clearance of alpha 1-AT does not depend on mucosal inflammation only, but may be influenced by other factors. PMID:3495470

  8. Sodium chloride crystallization from drying drops of albumin-salt solutions with different albumin concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakhno, T. A.

    2015-11-01

    The salt nature of crystalline structures resulting from drying albumin-salt solutions with a low (<1 wt %) and high (7 and 9 wt %) concentration of albumin and a NaCl concentration kept at a physiological level (0.9 wt %) is experimentally substantiated. Such a conclusion is drawn from the dynamics of phase transitions, morphological studies, and differences between the physicochemical properties of albumin and salt. Obtained data give a deeper insight into the albumin and salt distributions in drying liquids.

  9. Campylobacter Immunity and Quantitative Excretion Rates in Thai Children

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Fort Detrick Frederick, Maryland 21702-5012 Title of Project Order: Studies of the Outer Membrane Proteins of Campylobacter Jejuni for Vaccine...mental Campylobacter jejuni infection in humans. J Infect Dis dren with diarrhea. J Infect Dis 1991;163:1062-7. 1988-.157:472-9. Capsular Types of Vibrio

  10. Does administering albumin to postoperative gastroschisis patients improve outcome?

    PubMed Central

    Tannuri, Ana Cristina A; Silva, Luanna M; Leal, Antonio José G; de Moraes, Augusto César F; Tannuri, Uenis

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Newborns who undergo surgery for gastroschisis correction may present with oliguria, anasarca, prolonged postoperative ileus, and infection. New postoperative therapeutic procedures were tested with the objective of improving postoperative outcome. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred thirty-six newborns participated in one of two phases. Newborns in the first phase received infusions of large volumes of crystalloid solution and integral enteral formula, and newborns in the second phase received crystalloid solutions in smaller volumes, with albumin solution infusion when necessary and the late introduction of a semi-elemental diet. The studied variables were serum sodium and albumin levels, the need for albumin solution expansion, the occurrence of anasarca, the length of time on parenteral nutrition, the length of time before initiating an enteral diet and reaching a full enteral diet, orotracheal intubation time, length of hospitalization, and survival rates. RESULTS: Serum sodium levels were higher in newborns in the second phase. There was a correlation between low serum sodium levels and orotracheal intubation time; additionally, low serum albumin levels correlated with the length of time before the initiation of an oral diet and the time until a full enteral diet was reached. However, the discharge weights of newborns in the second phase were higher than in the first phase. The other studied variables, including survival rates (83.4% and 92.0%, respectively), were similar for both phases. CONCLUSIONS: The administration of an albumin solution to newborns in the early postoperative period following gastroschisis repair increased their low serum sodium levels but did not improve the final outcome. The introduction of a semi-elemental diet promoted an increase in body weight at the time of discharge. PMID:22358234

  11. Enhancement of anammox by the excretion of diel vertical migrators

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, Daniele; Babbin, Andrew R.; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    Measurements show that anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite (anammox) is a major pathway of fixed nitrogen removal in the anoxic zones of the open ocean. Anammox requires a source of ammonium, which under anoxic conditions could be supplied by the breakdown of sinking organic matter via heterotrophic denitrification. However, at many locations where anammox is measured, denitrification rates are small or undetectable. Alternative sources of ammonium have been proposed to explain this paradox, for example through dissimilatory reduction of nitrate to ammonium and transport from anoxic sediments. However, the relevance of these sources in open-ocean anoxic zones is debated. Here, we bring to attention an additional source of ammonium, namely, the daytime excretion by zooplankton and micronekton migrating from the surface to anoxic waters. We use a synthesis of acoustic data to show that, where anoxic waters occur within the water column, most migrators spend the daytime within them. Although migrators export only a small fraction of primary production from the surface, they focus excretion within a confined depth range of anoxic water where particle input is small. Using a simple biogeochemical model, we suggest that, at those depths, the source of ammonium from organisms undergoing diel vertical migrations could exceed the release from particle remineralization, enhancing in situ anammox rates. The contribution of this previously overlooked process, and the numerous uncertainties surrounding it, call for further efforts to evaluate the role of animals in oxygen minimum zone biogeochemistry. PMID:25288743

  12. Enhancement of anammox by the excretion of diel vertical migrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Daniele; Babbin, Andrew R.; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2014-11-01

    Measurements show that anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite (anammox) is a major pathway of fixed nitrogen removal in the anoxic zones of the open ocean. Anammox requires a source of ammonium, which under anoxic conditions could be supplied by the breakdown of sinking organic matter via heterotrophic denitrification. However, at many locations where anammox is measured, denitrification rates are small or undetectable. Alternative sources of ammonium have been proposed to explain this paradox, for example through dissimilatory reduction of nitrate to ammonium and transport from anoxic sediments. However, the relevance of these sources in open-ocean anoxic zones is debated. Here, we bring to attention an additional source of ammonium, namely, the daytime excretion by zooplankton and micronekton migrating from the surface to anoxic waters. We use a synthesis of acoustic data to show that, where anoxic waters occur within the water column, most migrators spend the daytime within them. Although migrators export only a small fraction of primary production from the surface, they focus excretion within a confined depth range of anoxic water where particle input is small. Using a simple biogeochemical model, we suggest that, at those depths, the source of ammonium from organisms undergoing diel vertical migrations could exceed the release from particle remineralization, enhancing in situ anammox rates. The contribution of this previously overlooked process, and the numerous uncertainties surrounding it, call for further efforts to evaluate the role of animals in oxygen minimum zone biogeochemistry.

  13. Effect of chloroquine on the urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Ilo, Cajetan E; Ezejiofor, Ndidi A; Agbakoba, Nneka; Brown, Sinye A; Maduagwuna, Chinonye A; Agbasi, Patrick U; Orisakwe, Orish E; Orisakweph, Orish E

    2008-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is an inexpensive antibacterial, whereas chloroquine is an inexpensive antimalarial. The coadministration of chloroquine and ciprofloxacin is easily encountered because both drugs are commonly prescribed to patients in the tropics. Five healthy male volunteers aged 19 to 31 years who were not taking any of the prescribed medications and who had no sensitivity to either ciprofloxacin or chloroquine each received 500 mg ciprofloxacin orally with 250 mL of water, and after a 2-week washout period, 500 mg ciprofloxacin plus 600 mg chloroquine was administered orally with 250 mL of water after providing informed consent. A urine sample (7 mL) was collected just before taking the drug at 8:00 AM representing 0 hour and continued afterward at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours the next day. The samples were stored at -20 degrees C until analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations by diffusion through agar technique were used for the assay of urine ciprofloxacin. The rate of ciprofloxacin excretion and cumulative urine ciprofloxacin were significantly increased. The coadministration of chloroquine increased the cumulative urinary concentration and excretion rate of ciprofloxacin.

  14. 2S Albumin Storage Proteins: What Makes them Food Allergens?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, F. Javier; Clemente, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    2S albumin storage proteins are becoming of increasing interest in nutritional and clinical studies as they have been reported as major food allergens in seeds of many mono- and di-cotyledonous plants. This review describes the main biochemical, structural and functional properties of these proteins thought to play a role in determining their potential allergenicity. 2S albumins are considered to sensitize directly via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The high stability of their intrinsic protein structure, dominated by a well-conserved skeleton of cysteine residues, to the harsh conditions present in the GIT suggests that these proteins are able to cross the gut mucosal barrier to sensitize the mucosal immune system and/or elicit an allergic response. The flexible and solvent-exposed hypervariable region of these proteins is immunodominant and has the ability to bind IgE from allergic patients´ sera. Several linear IgE-binding epitopes of 2S albumins spanning this region have been described to play a major role in allergenicity; the role of conformational epitopes of these proteins in food allergy is far from being understood and need to be investigated. Finally, the interaction of these proteins with other components of the food matrix might influence the absorption rates of immunologically reactive 2S albumins but also in their immune response. PMID:18949071

  15. Chlordecone impaired biliary excretion: In vivo and in vitro correlates

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The focus of this research was to investigate mechanisms of impaired biliary excretion localized to the bile canaliculus. Two modes of chlordecone (CD) action were investigated: (1) direct effects on organic anion transport at the bile canaliculus; and/or (2) general membrane perturbation, indirectly affecting anion transport proteins. Bile canaliculi-enriched fractions (BCEF) were isolated from rat livers in order to characterize effects of CD on this domain of the plasma membranes. CD inhibited the initial rate leading to a peak Na{sup +}-stimulated ({sup 3}H)L-glutamate uptake in BCEF CD inhibition of the initial or Na{sup +}-gradient driven phase of ({sup 3}H)L-glutamate uptake suggested that CD was affecting maintenance of the Na{sup +}-gradient by the BCEF membrane vesicles. In vivo PG anion excretion was inhibited as well as in vitro ({sup 3}H)L-glutamate transport at 24 hr following in vivo CD treatment of rats. Seventy-two hr following CD treatment, rats recovered to control PG excretion levels. PG excretory performance was regained in 72 hr pretreated rats despite an increase in liver CD concentration. Liver CD concentrations in 24 hr pretreated rats were approximately 50% of the concentrations in 72 hr pretreated rats. At low CD concentrations, there was no evidence of general membrane perturbation in terms of immobilization of the lipid electron spin resonance probe, 16-doxyl stearate, in BCEF. Mobility of 16-doxyl stearate in BCEF was reduced at in vitro CD concentrations of 0.20 {mu}mol/mg protein or greater. CD did reduce hepatobiliary permeability to ({sup 14}C)mannitol in 24 and 72 hr pretreated rats; perhaps restricting movement through membrane aqueous pores.

  16. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)
Seed Powder.

    PubMed

    Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet; Man Le, Van Viet

    2015-12-01

    In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability.

  17. Comparison of Enzymatic and Ultrasonic Extraction of Albumin from Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)
Seed Powder

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Gia Loi; Bui, Thi Hoang Nga; Tran, Thi Thu Tra; Ton, Nu Minh Nguyet

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this study, ultrasound- and enzyme-assisted extractions of albumin (water-soluble protein group) from defatted pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed powder were compared. Both advanced extraction techniques strongly increased the albumin yield in comparison with conventional extraction. The extraction rate was two times faster in the ultrasonic extraction than in the enzymatic extraction. However, the maximum albumin yield was 16% higher when using enzymatic extraction. Functional properties of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrates obtained using the enzymatic, ultrasonic and conventional methods were then evaluated. Use of hydrolase for degradation of cell wall of the plant material did not change the functional properties of the albumin concentrate in comparison with the conventional extraction. The ultrasonic extraction enhanced water-holding, oil-holding and emulsifying capacities of the pumpkin seed albumin concentrate, but slightly reduced the foaming capacity, and emulsion and foam stability. PMID:27904383

  18. Luminescent probe in the study of surfactant-induced structural changes in serum albumin in human blood plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnikov, A. G.; Pravdin, A. B.; Kochubey, V. I.; Melnikov, G. V.

    2005-06-01

    The luminescence-kinetic technique of the monitoring of structural changes in albumins of human blood plasma that uses a luminescent probe-eosin is proposed. Phosphorescence of eosin bound to the globular proteins of blood plasma-albumins was recorded at room temperature. It is found that under the action of sodium dodecylsulfate on the albumins the rate constant of eosin phosphorescence decay grows and the intensity of eosin phosphorescence decreases. It is assumed that these changes are connected with the denaturing of blood plasma albumins by sodium dodecylsulfate.

  19. [Urinary albumin fragmentation and immunoreactivity].

    PubMed

    Kurihara, Yuriko; Nishimaki, Junichi; Nakajima, Toshie; Ida, Takashi; Shiba, Kiyoko

    2009-02-01

    Urinary albumin (ALB) has been measured as a marker for the early detection of diabetic nephropathy. In 2004, Comper et al. developed a gel-filtration high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) procedure for the determination of urinary ALB. They demonstrated the presence in its albumin fraction of non immunoreactive ALB with the total molecular weight of a monomeric ALB that was non-reactive with the existing anti-ALB antibody, and reported that the level of urinary non-immunoreactive ALB was higher in diabetic patients than in normal subjects. In this study, we isolated urinary ALB from diabetic patients using an anti-ALB antibody-coupled affinity column to test its immunoreactivity. In some diabetic patients, the results of HPLC and turbidimetric immunoassay for urinary ALB were discrepant. Western blot analysis showed that ALB samples from such patients were contaminated with proteins other than ALB, and contained ALB, whose molecular weight became lower using a reductive procedure. In addition, the reactivity of ALB with anti-ALB antibody differed depending on whether it was in a reduced or non-reduced state. These results indicate that ALB in such patients is susceptible to structural changes due to disease-induced urinary factors and, thus, their urine contains ALB with an altered reactivity to antibody.

  20. [Secret excretion from the mouse mammary gland].

    PubMed

    Tolkunov, Iu A; Balakina, G B; Markov, A G

    2000-02-01

    Histological studies revealed that the mammary gland nipple have smooth muscle fibres along the nipple channel. These fibres infiltrate the connective tissue parallel to the skin. The ring muscles are not obvious. Delays in the milk excretion in mice may be due to specifics of allocation and functioning of the nipple smooth muscles. To obtain milk, a mechanical action upon the nipple and a synchronised release of oxitocin into the blood are necessary.

  1. Breath hydrogen excretion in infants with colic.

    PubMed

    Miller, J J; McVeagh, P; Fleet, G H; Petocz, P; Brand, J C

    1989-05-01

    Breath hydrogen excretion as an index of incomplete lactose absorption was measured in 118 healthy infants who were either breast fed or given a formula feed containing lactose, some of whom had colic. Infants with colic (n = 65) were selected on the basis of the mother's report of a history of inconsolable crying lasting several hours each day. Infants in the control group (n = 53) were not reported to cry excessively by their mothers. Breath samples were collected using a face mask sampling device preprandially, and 90 and 150 minutes after the start of a feed. Normalised breath hydrogen concentrations were higher in the group with colic than in the control group at each time point. The median maximum breath hydrogen concentration in the colic group was 29 ppm, and in the control group 11 ppm. The percentage of infants with incomplete lactose absorption (breath hydrogen concentration more than 20 ppm) in the colic group was 62% compared with 32% in the control group. The clinical importance of the observed association between increased breath hydrogen excretion and infantile colic remains to be determined. Increased breath hydrogen excretion indicative of incomplete lactose absorption may be either a cause or an effect of colic in infants.

  2. Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.

    PubMed

    Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P

    2014-11-01

    Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ∼40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis.

  3. Ammonium excretion and oxygen respiration of tropical copepods and euphausiids exposed to oxygen minimum zone conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiko, Rainer; Hauss, Helena; Buchholz, Friedrich; Melzner, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Calanoid copepods and euphausiids are key components of marine zooplankton communities worldwide. Most euphausiids and several copepod species perform diel vertical migrations (DVMs) that contribute to the export of particulate and dissolved matter to midwater depths. In vast areas of the global ocean, and in particular in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific, the daytime distribution depth of many migrating organisms corresponds to the core of the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). At depth, the animals experience reduced temperature and oxygen partial pressure (pO2) and an increased carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2) compared to their near-surface nighttime habitat. Although it is well known that low oxygen levels can inhibit respiratory activity, the respiration response of tropical copepods and euphausiids to relevant pCO2, pO2, and temperature conditions remains poorly parameterized. Further, the regulation of ammonium excretion at OMZ conditions is generally not well understood. It was recently estimated that DVM-mediated ammonium supply could fuel bacterial anaerobic ammonium oxidation - a major loss process for fixed nitrogen in the ocean considerably. These estimates were based on the implicit assumption that hypoxia or anoxia in combination with hypercapnia (elevated pCO2) does not result in a down-regulation of ammonium excretion. We exposed calanoid copepods from the Eastern Tropical North Atlantic (ETNA; Undinula vulgaris and Pleuromamma abdominalis) and euphausiids from the Eastern Tropical South Pacific (ETSP; Euphausia mucronata) and the ETNA (Euphausia gibboides) to different temperatures, carbon dioxide and oxygen levels to study their survival, respiration and excretion rates at these conditions. An increase in temperature by 10 °C led to an approximately 2-fold increase of the respiration and excretion rates of U. vulgaris (Q10, respiration = 1.4; Q10, NH4-excretion = 1.6), P. abdominalis (Q10, respiration = 2.0; Q10, NH4-excretion = 2.4) and

  4. The prevention of prosthetic infection using a cross-linked albumin coating in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    An, Y H; Bradley, J; Powers, D L; Friedman, R J

    1997-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of a serum protein coating on prosthetic infection in 29 adult male rabbits divided into three groups: control, albumin-coated and uncoated. We used 34 grit-blasted, commercially pure titanium implants. Eleven were coated with cross-linked albumin. All the implants were exposed to a suspension of Staphylococcus epidermidis before implantation. Our findings showed that albumin-coated implants had a much lower infection rate (27%) than the uncoated implants (62%). This may be a useful method of reducing the infection of prostheses.

  5. Recent Topics in Chemical and Clinical Research on Glycated Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Yuki; Matsumoto, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    The measuring method for glycated albumin (GA) has been developed as a new glycemic control marker since the beginning of the 21st century. Since GA has an advantage in reflecting glycemic status over a shorter period than hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), much research and many reviews have been reported. However, so far there have been few reports on glycation sites based on the tertiary structure of human serum albumin (HSA) and the comparison of glycation rates between GA and HbA1c in detail. The present review discusses how the glycation sites of lysine residues in HSA are modified with glucose, whereas the glycation sites of lysine residues are located inside of HSA as well as the direct comparison of glycation rates between GA and HbA1c using human blood. Moreover, the most recent clinical researches on GA are described. PMID:25614014

  6. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  7. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  8. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  9. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  10. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  11. Is albumin administration in the acutely ill associated with increased mortality? Results of the SOAP study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Sakr, Yasser; Reinhart, Konrad; Sprung, Charles L; Gerlach, Herwig; Ranieri, V Marco

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Albumin administration in the critically ill has been the subject of some controversy. We investigated the use of albumin solutions in European intensive care units (ICUs) and its relationship to outcome. Methods In a cohort, multicenter, observational study, all patients admitted to one of the participating ICUs between 1 May and 15 May 2002 were followed up until death, hospital discharge, or for 60 days. Patients were classified according to whether or not they received albumin at any time during their ICU stay. Results Of 3,147 admitted patients, 354 (11.2%) received albumin and 2,793 (88.8%) did not. Patients who received albumin were more likely to have cancer or liver cirrhosis, to be surgical admissions, and to have sepsis. They had a longer length of ICU stay and a higher mortality rate, but were also more severely ill, as manifested by higher simplified acute physiology score (SAPS) II and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores than the other patients. A Cox proportional hazard model indicated that albumin administration was significantly associated with decreased 30-day survival. Moreover, in 339 pairs matched according to a propensity score, ICU and hospital mortality rates were higher in the patients who had received albumin than in those who had not (34.8 versus 20.9% and 41.3 versus 27.7%, respectively, both p < 0.001). Conclusion Albumin administration was associated with decreased survival in this population of acutely ill patients. Further prospective randomized controlled trials are needed to examine the effects of albumin administration in sub-groups of acutely ill patients. PMID:16356223

  12. Inappropriate phosphate excretion in idiopathic hypercalciuria: the key to a common cause and future treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Williams, C P; Child, D F; Hudson, P R; Soysa, L D; Davies, G K; Davies, M G; De Bolla, A R

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To present experimental evidence in support of a proposed common cause for absorptive hypercalciuria, renal hypercalciuria, renal phosphate leak and enhancement of 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D concentrations in patients presenting with renal stone disease; and to suggest further investigation with a view to new management. METHODS: An oral calcium loading test was administered to 15 patients with renal stones and 10 normal controls in the fasting state: urine and blood were collected hourly. After the second urine sample, 400 mg calcium dissolved in water was administered orally. Serum calcium, albumin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and phosphate were measured together with urine calcium clearance and urinary phosphate from which the TmPO4/glomerular filtration rate (GFR) ratio was calculated. Serum 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D was measured in the first serum sample. In addition, 24 hour urine calcium results were collected retrospectively from the patients' case notes over the previous 18 months. RESULTS: In the basal state, renal stone patients had an overall greater phosphaturia (lower TmPO4/GFR: median 1.72 compared with 2.10 in controls) and increased calcium clearance. Serum corrected calcium and PTH concentrations did not differ between the groups. After calcium loading, serum calcium and urine calcium clearance rose in both groups, with patients with renal stones experiencing a greater percentage fall in phosphaturia. In both groups TmPO4/GFR fell (greater phosphaturia) with increased serum corrected calcium, with the patients showing notably greater phosphaturia for any given calcium concentration. Patients also had notably greater phosphaturia compared with the serum calcium concentration for any given PTH value. Serum 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D was higher in patients than controls and for any 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D concentration phosphaturia measured against serum calcium was greater in patients than controls. 1,25-(OH)2-vitamin D did not correlate with phosphaturia relative

  13. Metabolism and excretion of novel pulmonary-targeting docetaxel liposome in rabbits

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Zhang, Li; Wang, Lijuan; Liu, Zhonghong

    2017-01-01

    Our study aims to determine the metabolism and excretion of novel pulmonary-targeting docetaxel liposome (DTX-LP) using the in vitro and in vivo animal experimental models. The metabolism and excretion of DTX-LP and intravenous DTX (DTX-IN) in New Zealand rabbits were determined with ultraperformance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We found DTX-LP and DTX-IN were similarly degraded in vitro by liver homogenates and microsomes, but not metabolized by lung homogenates. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry identified two shared DTX metabolites. The unconfirmed metabolite Mun differed structurally from all DTX metabolites identified to date. DTX-LP likewise had a similar in vivo metabolism to DTX-IN. Conversely, DTX-LP showed significantly diminished excretion in rabbit feces or urine, approximately halving the cumulative excretion rates compared to DTX-IN. Liposomal delivery of DTX did not alter the in vitro or in vivo drug metabolism. Delayed excretion of pulmonary-targeting DTX-LP may greatly enhance the therapeutic efficacy and reduce the systemic toxicity in the chemotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer. The identification of Mun may further suggest an alternative species-specific metabolic pathway. PMID:28066140

  14. Excretion of berberine and its metabolites in oral administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing-Yi; Feng, Ru; Tan, Xiang-Shan; Ma, Chao; Shou, Jia-Wen; Fu, Jie; Huang, Min; He, Chi-Yu; Chen, Shuo-Nan; Zhao, Zhen-Xiong; He, Wen-Yi; Wang, Yan; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2013-11-01

    Berberine (BBR) has been confirmed to show extensive bioactivities for the treatments of diabetes and hypercholesterolemia in clinic. However, there are few pharmacokinetic studies to elucidate the excretions of BBR and its metabolites. Our research studied the excretions of BBR and its metabolites in rats after oral administration (200 mg/kg). Metabolites in bile, urine, and feces were detected by liquid chromatography coupled to ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry; meanwhile, a validated liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for their quantifications. Sixteen metabolites, including 10 Phase I and six Phase II metabolites were identified and clarified after dosing in vivo. Total recovered rate of BBR was 22.83% (19.07% of prototype and 3.76% of its metabolites) with 9.2 × 10(-6) % in bile (24 h), 0.0939% in urine (48 h), and 22.74% in feces (48 h), respectively. 83% of BBR was excreted as thalifendine (M1) from bile, whereas thalifendine (M1) and berberrubine (M2) were the major metabolites occupying 78% of urine excretion. Most of BBR and its metabolites were found in feces containing 84% of prototype. In summary, we provided excretion profiles of BBR and its metabolites after oral administration in rats in vivo.

  15. Urinary Excretion of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Arellano-Buendía, Abraham Said; García-Arroyo, Fernando Enrique; Cristóbal-García, Magdalena; Loredo-Mendoza, María Lilia; Tapia-Rodríguez, Edilia; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura Gabriela; Osorio-Alonso, Horacio

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that tubular damage precedes glomerular damage in the progression of diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, we evaluated oxidative stress and urinary excretion of tubular proteins as markers of tubular dysfunction. Methods. Diabetes was induced in rats by streptozotocin administration (50 mg/kg). Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and superoxide dismutase (SOD); additionally, expression levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), and oxidized protein (OP) were quantified. Whole glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was measured. Urinary excretion of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), osteopontin (uOPN), and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (uNAG) was also determined. Results. Diabetic rats showed an increase in uNGAL excretion 7 days following induction of diabetes. Diuresis, proteinuria, albuminuria, creatinine clearance, and GFR were significantly increased by 30 days after induction. Furthermore, there was an increase in both CAT and SOD activity, in addition to 3-NT, 4-HNE, and OP expression levels. However, GPx activity was lower. Serum levels of NGAL and OPN, as well as excretion levels of uNGAL, uOPN, and uNAG, were increased in diabetics. Tubular damage was observed by 7 days after diabetes induction and was further aggravated by 30 days after induction. Conclusion. The tubular dysfunction evidenced by urinary excretion of NGAL precedes oxidative stress during diabetes. PMID:25243053

  16. Intrarenal role of angiotensin II in controlling sodium excretion during dehydration in dogs.

    PubMed

    Trippodo, N C; Hall, J E; Lohmeier, T E; Guyton, A C

    1977-05-01

    1. The intrarenal role of angiotensin II in controlling sodium excretion was examined in anaesthetized, dehydrated dogs by infusing the angiotensin II antagonist Sar1-Ile8-angiotensin II directly into the renal artery. Comparisons were made with dehydrated dogs receiving only sodium chloride solution intrarenally. 2. Intrarenal angiotensin II blockade resulted in significant increases in urinary sodium excretion and urine flow rate. 3. The results indicate that during the high-renin state of dehydration endogenous angiotensin II has intrarenal effects which lead to salt and water retention.

  17. Spectroscopic, structural and thermodynamic properties of chlorpyrifos bound to serum albumin: A comparative study between BSA and HSA.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiao-Le; Tian, Fang-Fang; Ge, Yu-Shu; Jiang, Feng-Lei; Lai, Lu; Li, Dong-Wei; Yu, Qiu-Liyang; Wang, Jia; Lin, Chen; Liu, Yi

    2012-04-02

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a widely used organophosphate insecticide which could bind with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The binding behavior was studied employing fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, electrochemistry and molecular modeling methods. The fluorescence spectra revealed that CPF causes the quenching of the fluorescence emission of serum albumin. Stern-Volmer plots were made and quenching constants were thus obtained. The results suggested the formation of the complexes of CPF with serum albumins, which were in good agreement with the results from electrochemical experiments. Association constants at 25°C were 3.039 × 10(5) mol L(-1) for HSA, and 0.3307 × 10(5) mol L(-1) for BSA, which could affect the distribution, metabolism, and excretion of pesticide. The alterations of protein secondary structure in the presence of CPF were confirmed by the evidences from UV and CD spectra. Site competitive experiments also suggested that the primary binding site for CPF on serum albumin is close to tryptophan residues 214 of HSA and 212 of BSA, which was further confirmed by molecular modeling.

  18. Effect of 14 days of bed rest on urine metabolite excretion and plasma enzyme levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pace, N.; Grunbaum, B. W.; Kodama, A. M.; Rahlmann, D. F.; Newsom, B. D.

    1974-01-01

    After 1 week of ambulatory base-line measurement, a group of 8 men 19-26 years of age remained continuously recumbent for 14 days. Studies were continued for 1 week following the prolonged recumbency. Urine excretion rates for a number of constituents were determined 2 days before bed rest, on day 14 of bed rest, and day 6 after bed rest. Blood plasma samples were also obtained at these times, and analyzed for several enzymes. On day 14 of bed rest significant increases were observed in urine excretion of total osmotically-active substances, magnesium, calcium, phosphate, creatinine, hydroxyproline, and 17-OH corticosteroids. A decrease occurred in urinary glucose excretion. Plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase and LDH-3 were depressed, while plasma GPT was elevated. Many of these changes persisted on day 6 after bed rest, and are interpreted as concomitants of the disuse atrophy of the musculoskeletal system that characterizes prolonged bed rest and weightlessness.

  19. Ammonia excretion in Caenorhabditis elegans: Physiological and molecular characterization of the rhr-2 knock-out mutant.

    PubMed

    Adlimoghaddam, Aida; O'Donnell, Michael J; Kormish, Jay; Banh, Sheena; Treberg, Jason R; Merz, David; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown the free living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (N2 strain) to be ammonotelic. Ammonia excretion was suggested to take place partially via the hypodermis, involving the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA), V-ATPase (VAT), carbonic anhydrase, NHX-3 and a functional microtubule network and at least one Rh-like ammonia transporter RHR-1. In the current study, we show that a second Rh-protein, RHR-2, is highly expressed in the hypodermis, here also in the apical membrane of that tissue. To further characterize the role of RHR-2 in ammonia excretion, a knock-out mutant rhr-2 (ok403), further referred to as ∆rhr-2, was employed. Compared to wild-type worms (N2), this mutant showed a lower rate of ammonia excretion and a lower hypodermal H(+) excretion rate. At the same time rhr-1, nka, vat, and nhx-3 showed higher mRNA expression levels when compared to N2. Also, in contrast to N2 worms, ∆rhr-2 did not show enhanced ammonia excretion rates when exposed to a low pH environment, suggesting that RHR-2 represents the apical NH3 pathway that allows ammonia trapping via the hypodermis in N2 worms. A hypothetical model for the mechanism of hypodermal ammonia excretion is proposed on the basis of data in this and previous investigations.

  20. Engineering of Bispecific Affinity Proteins with High Affinity for ERBB2 and Adaptable Binding to Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Nilvebrant, Johan; Åstrand, Mikael; Georgieva-Kotseva, Maria; Björnmalm, Mattias; Löfblom, John; Hober, Sophia

    2014-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor 2, ERBB2, is a well-validated target for cancer diagnostics and therapy. Recent studies suggest that the over-expression of this receptor in various cancers might also be exploited for antibody-based payload delivery, e.g. antibody drug conjugates. In such strategies, the full-length antibody format is probably not required for therapeutic effect and smaller tumor-specific affinity proteins might be an alternative. However, small proteins and peptides generally suffer from fast excretion through the kidneys, and thereby require frequent administration in order to maintain a therapeutic concentration. In an attempt aimed at combining ERBB2-targeting with antibody-like pharmacokinetic properties in a small protein format, we have engineered bispecific ERBB2-binding proteins that are based on a small albumin-binding domain. Phage display selection against ERBB2 was used for identification of a lead candidate, followed by affinity maturation using second-generation libraries. Cell surface display and flow-cytometric sorting allowed stringent selection of top candidates from pools pre-enriched by phage display. Several affinity-matured molecules were shown to bind human ERBB2 with sub-nanomolar affinity while retaining the interaction with human serum albumin. Moreover, parallel selections against ERBB2 in the presence of human serum albumin identified several amino acid substitutions that dramatically modulate the albumin affinity, which could provide a convenient means to control the pharmacokinetics. The new affinity proteins competed for ERBB2-binding with the monoclonal antibody trastuzumab and recognized the native receptor on a human cancer cell line. Hence, high affinity tumor targeting and tunable albumin binding were combined in one small adaptable protein. PMID:25089830

  1. Cubilin Is Essential for Albumin Reabsorption in the Renal Proximal Tubule

    PubMed Central

    Amsellem, Sabine; Gburek, Jakub; Hamard, Ghislaine; Nielsen, Rikke; Willnow, Thomas E.; Devuyst, Olivier; Nexo, Ebba; Verroust, Pierre J.

    2010-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is responsible for protein reabsorption in the proximal tubule. This process involves two interacting receptors, megalin and cubilin, which form a complex with amnionless. Whether these proteins function in parallel or as part of an integrated system is not well understood. Here, we report the renal effects of genetic ablation of cubilin, with or without concomitant ablation of megalin, using a conditional Cre-loxP system. We observed that proximal tubule cells did not localize amnionless to the plasma membrane in the absence of cubilin, indicating a mutual dependency of cubilin and amnionless to form a functional membrane receptor complex. The cubilin-amnionless complex mediated internalization of intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complexes, but megalin considerably increased the uptake. Furthermore, cubilin-deficient mice exhibited markedly decreased uptake of albumin by proximal tubule cells and resultant albuminuria. Inactivation of both megalin and cubilin did not increase albuminuria, indicating that the main role of megalin in albumin reabsorption is to drive the internalization of cubilin-albumin complexes. In contrast, cubulin deficiency did not affect urinary tubular uptake or excretion of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), which binds cubilin and megalin. In addition, we observed cubilin-independent reabsorption of the “specific” cubilin ligands transferrin, CC16, and apoA-I, suggesting a role for megalin and perhaps other receptors in their reabsorption. In summary, with regard to albumin, cubilin is essential for its reabsorption by proximal tubule cells, and megalin drives internalization of cubilin-albumin complexes. These genetic models will allow further analysis of protein trafficking in the progression of proteinuric renal diseases. PMID:20798259

  2. Cubilin is essential for albumin reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Amsellem, Sabine; Gburek, Jakub; Hamard, Ghislaine; Nielsen, Rikke; Willnow, Thomas E; Devuyst, Olivier; Nexo, Ebba; Verroust, Pierre J; Christensen, Erik I; Kozyraki, Renata

    2010-11-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is responsible for protein reabsorption in the proximal tubule. This process involves two interacting receptors, megalin and cubilin, which form a complex with amnionless. Whether these proteins function in parallel or as part of an integrated system is not well understood. Here, we report the renal effects of genetic ablation of cubilin, with or without concomitant ablation of megalin, using a conditional Cre-loxP system. We observed that proximal tubule cells did not localize amnionless to the plasma membrane in the absence of cubilin, indicating a mutual dependency of cubilin and amnionless to form a functional membrane receptor complex. The cubilin-amnionless complex mediated internalization of intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 complexes, but megalin considerably increased the uptake. Furthermore, cubilin-deficient mice exhibited markedly decreased uptake of albumin by proximal tubule cells and resultant albuminuria. Inactivation of both megalin and cubilin did not increase albuminuria, indicating that the main role of megalin in albumin reabsorption is to drive the internalization of cubilin-albumin complexes. In contrast, cubulin deficiency did not affect urinary tubular uptake or excretion of vitamin D-binding protein (DBP), which binds cubilin and megalin. In addition, we observed cubilin-independent reabsorption of the "specific" cubilin ligands transferrin, CC16, and apoA-I, suggesting a role for megalin and perhaps other receptors in their reabsorption. In summary, with regard to albumin, cubilin is essential for its reabsorption by proximal tubule cells, and megalin drives internalization of cubilin-albumin complexes. These genetic models will allow further analysis of protein trafficking in the progression of proteinuric renal diseases.

  3. Site-selective conjugation of an anticoagulant aptamer to recombinant albumins and maintenance of neonatal Fc receptor binding.

    PubMed

    Schmøkel, Julie; Voldum, Anders; Tsakiridou, Georgia; Kuhlmann, Matthias; Cameron, Jason; Sørensen, Esben; Wengel, Jesper; Howard, Kenneth A

    2017-03-31

    Aptamers are an attractive molecular medicine that offers high target specificity. Nucleic acid-based aptamers however, are prone to nuclease degradation and rapid renal excretion that require blood circulatory half-life extension enabling technologies. The long circulatory half-life, predominately facilitated by engagement with the cellular recycling neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), and ligand transport properties of albumin promote it as an attractive candidate to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of aptamers. This study investigates the effect of Cys34 site-selective covalent attachment of a factor IXa anticoagulant aptamer on aptamer functionality and FcRn engagement using recombinant human albumin (rHA) of either a wild type (WT) or an engineered human FcRn high binding variant (HB). Aptamer-albumin conjugates, connected covalently through a heterobifunctional succinimidyl 4-(N-maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate linker, were successfully prepared and purified by high performance liquid chromatography as confirmed by gel electrophoresis band-shift analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight. Minimal reduction (~ 25%) in activity of WT-linked aptamer to that of aptamer alone was found using an anticoagulant activity assay measuring temporal levels of activated partial thrombin. Covalent aptamer-albumin conjugation, however, substantially compromised binding to FcRn, to 10% affinity of that of non-conjugated WT, determined by biolayer interferometry. Binding could be rescued by aptamer conjugation to recombinant albumin engineered for higher FcRn affinity (HB) that exhibited an 8-fold affinity compared to WT alone. This work describes a novel albumin-based aptamer delivery system whose FcRn binding can be increased using a high binding engineered albumin.

  4. Excretion of trazodone in breast milk.

    PubMed Central

    Verbeeck, R K; Ross, S G; McKenna, E A

    1986-01-01

    The excretion of breast milk was studied in six lactating women following the oral administration of a single trazodone tablet (50 mg). The milk/plasma ratio of trazodone based on area under the plasma and milk curves was small: 0.142 +/- 0.045 (mean +/- s.d.). Assuming that the babies would drink 500 ml 12 h-1, they would be exposed to less than 0.005 mg kg-1 as compared to 0.77 mg kg-1 for the mothers. It is concluded that exposure of babies to trazodone via breast milk is very small. PMID:3768252

  5. Albumin for end-stage liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, June Sung

    2012-03-01

    Albumin has been widely used in patients with cirrhosis in an attempt to improve circulatory and renal functions. The benefits of albumin infusions in preventing the deterioration in renal function associated with large-volume paracentesis, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and established hepatorenal syndrome in conjunction with a vasoconstrictor are well established. While some of these indications are supported by the results of randomized studies, others are based only on clinical experience and have not been proved in prospective studies. The paucity of well-designed trials, the high cost of albumin, the lack of a clear-cut survival benefit, and fear of transmitting unknown infections make the use of albumin controversial. The recent development of the molecular adsorbent recirculating system, an albumin dialysis, is an example of the capacity of albumin to act by mechanisms other than its oncotic effect. Efforts should be made to define the indications for albumin use, the dose required, and predictors of response, so that patients gain the maximum benefit from its administration.

  6. Evaluation of albumin structural modifications through cobalt-albumin binding (CAB) assay.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunyoung; Eom, Ji-Eun; Jeon, Kyung-Hwa; Kim, Tae Hee; Kim, Eunnam; Jhon, Gil-Ja; Kwon, Youngjoo

    2014-03-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in the human body. HSA injections prepared by fractionating human blood have mainly covered the demand for albumin to treat hypoalbuminemia, the state of low concentration of albumin in blood. HSA in solution may exist in various forms such as monomers, oligomers, polymers, or as mixtures, and its conformational change and/or aggregation may occur easily. Considering these characteristics, there is a great chance of modification and polymer formation during the preparation processes of albumin products, especially injections. The albumin cobalt binding (ACB) test reported by Bar-Or et al. was originally designed to detect ischemia modified albumin (IMA), which contains the modified HSA N-terminal sequence by cleavage of the last two amino acids. In this study, we developed a cobalt albumin binding (CAB) assay to correct the flaws of the ACB test with improving the sensitivity and precision. The newly developed CAB assay easily detects albumin configuration alterations and may be able to be used in developing a quality control method for albumin and its pharmaceutical formulations including albumin injections.

  7. Initial plasma disappearance and tissue uptake of 131I-albumin in normal rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Bent-Hansen, L. )

    1991-05-01

    The simultaneous plasma disappearance curves of 131I-albumin and 125I-fibrinogen were recorded in normal rabbits for 1 hr. Using fibrinogen as a plasma reference, the disappearance curves of albumin were shown to contain two separate phases of efflux: one fast from zero to 10 min. comprising 8% of the total tracer; and one slow appearing in the interval of 10 to 60 min. containing another 9% of the tracer. Total albumin escape was analyzed to yield an initial slope of 0.024 {plus minus} 0.004 min-1, corresponding to a wholebody unidirectional albumin clearance (Cl(0)) of 0.090 {plus minus} 0.009 ml(min{asterisk}100 g)-1. The distribution of efflux was assessed by biopsy uptakes using the same tracers in spleen, kidney, heart, lung, liver, intestine, skin, muscle, and brain. The disappearance curve generally reflects a biphasic pattern of uptake in peripheral tissue, predominantly by muscle and lung. The rapid phase has contributions from the fast near equilibration of liver, and intestine and skin are significant codeterminants of the slow phase. Due to their low body masses highly perfused organs such as kidney, spleen, and heart have little influence on the plasma disappearance. In accordance, the Cl(0) determined for the wholebody was higher than initial clearances found in skin (0.053 ml(min{asterisk}100 g)-1) and muscle (0.054 ml(min{asterisk}100 g)-1), but much lower than those found in the highly perfused organs. The initial (unidirectional) rates of peripheral albumin transfer demonstrated, ranged from 10 to 30 times higher than estimates of lymphatic return, suggesting that transcapillary albumin exchange is mediated by high-rate bidirectional diffusion. The rapid decrease of net albumin exchange rates suggests a second, highly significant barrier located within the interstitial matrix, which restricts plasma escape and reduces plasma to lymph albumin transport.

  8. The effect of ACTH upon faecal glucocorticoid excretion in the koala.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nicole; Gillett, Amber; McAlpine, Clive; Seabrook, Leonie; Baxter, Greg; Lunney, Daniel; Bradley, Adrian

    2013-10-01

    Environmental changes result in physiological responses of organisms, which can adversely affect population dynamics and reduce resistance to disease. These changes are expressed in chronic levels of stress. The measurement of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations in faeces is a non-invasive method for monitoring stress in wildlife. The metabolism and excretion of steroids differ significantly between species and, as a consequence, non-invasive methods must be physiologically validated for each species. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are declining in numbers through much of their range. The role of chronic stress in koala populations has not been identified. Prior to the assessment of faecal GC concentrations in wild koala populations, the excretion timing and concentrations of GCs need to be determined. In this study, we assessed a method for identifying and measuring the concentrations of GC metabolites in faecal pellets of captive koalas following ACTH treatment. The results show that an elevation of plasma cortisol concentrations, using sustained release of ACTH, results in elevated concentrations of faecal cortisol/cortisol metabolites. Taking into account the excretion time lag, an increase in faecal cortisol metabolite concentrations corresponds to the release of GCs from the adrenal cortex as early as 36 h before faecal pellet collection. The calculations of steroid partitioning of plasma cortisol showed that the ACTH-stimulated values were significantly different from the control values for the concentrations of free, corticosteroid-binding globulin-bound and albumin-bound cortisol. This study validates the use of faecal cortisol analysis to assess the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in freshly collected koala faecal pellets and indicates that the method should be suitable to assess the adrenocortical status of koalas in wild populations.

  9. Prolonged excretion of a low-pathogenicity H5N2 avian influenza virus strain in the Pekin duck

    PubMed Central

    Carranza-Flores, José Manuel; Padilla-Noriega, Luis; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    H5N2 strains of low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus (LPAIV) have been circulating for at least 17 years in some Mexican chicken farms. We measured the rate and duration of viral excretion from Pekin ducks that were experimentally inoculated with an H5N2 LPAIV that causes death in embryonated chicken eggs (A/chicken/Mexico/2007). Leghorn chickens were used as susceptible host controls. The degree of viral excretion was evaluated with real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) using samples from oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. We observed prolonged excretion from both species of birds lasting for at least 21 days. Prolonged excretion of LPAIV A/chicken/Mexico/2007 is atypical. PMID:23820212

  10. Decrease in Urinary Creatinine Excretion in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tynkevich, Elena; Flamant, Martin; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Metzger, Marie; Thervet, Eric; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Vrtovsnik, François; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. Methods We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. Results Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3±3.1 to 12.1±3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20±0.03 to 0.15±0.04 mmol/kg/24 h) in men, with mGFR falling from ≥60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, and from 9.6±1.9 to 7.6±2.5 (0.16±0.03 to 0.12±0.03) in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53±0.12 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28±0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. Conclusions Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass. PMID:25401694

  11. Urinary oxalate excretion in urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis

    PubMed Central

    Neuhaus, T.; Belzer, T.; Blau, N.; Hoppe, B.; Sidhu, H.; Leumann, E.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To investigate urinary oxalate excretion in children with urolithiasis and/or nephrocalcinosis and to classify hyperoxaluria (HyOx).
METHODS—A total of 106 patients were screened. In those in whom the oxalate: creatinine ratio was increased, 24 hour urinary oxalate excretion was measured. Liver biopsy and/or genomic analysis was performed if primary hyperoxaluria (PH) was suspected. Stool specimens were examined for Oxalobacter formigenes in HyOx not related to PH type 1 or 2 (PH1, PH2) and in controls.
RESULTS—A total of 21 patients screened had HyOx (>0.5 mmol/24 h per 1.73 m2); they were classified into five groups. Eleven had PH (PH1 in nine and neither PH1 nor PH2 in two). Six had secondary HyOx: two enteric and four dietary. Four could not be classified. Seven patients had concomitant hypercalciuria. Only one of 12 patients was colonised with O formigenes compared to six of 13controls.
CONCLUSIONS—HyOx is an important risk factor for urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis in children, and can coexist with hypercalciuria. A novel type of PH is proposed. Absence of O formigenes may contribute to HyOx not related to PH1.

 PMID:10735843

  12. Effect of metoprolol on 24-hour urinary excretion of adrenal steroids and kallikrein in patients with essential hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Fritschka, E.; Gotzen, R.; Kittler, R.; Schöneshöfer, M.

    1984-01-01

    Treatment of fifteen patients with essential hypertension over four weeks using the beta 1-adrenoceptor blocking agent, metoprolol, resulted in a decrease in 24 h urinary excretion of kallikrein and aldosterone along with a decrease in plasma renin activity. There was no significant change in 24 h excretion rates of the free adrenal steroids deoxycorticosterone, 18-OH-deoxycorticosterone, corticosterone, cortisol or 18-OH-corticosterone during treatment, which were not significantly different from excretion rates of normal males, thus excluding inhibitory effects of adrenal steroids on urinary kallikrein activity. A positive correlation was found between plasma renin activity and urinary excretion of kallikrein during the control period and after 2 weeks on metoprolol, supporting the assumption of a preserved link between the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the renal excretion of kallikrein in these patients. The decrease in kallikrein excretion during beta 1-adrenoceptor blockade in patients with essential hypertension may be explained by a reduction in sympathetic tone and by reduced activity of the renin-aldosterone system. PMID:6367871

  13. Tissue to plasma capillary permeability of sup 131 I-albumin in the perfused rabbit ear

    SciTech Connect

    Bent-Hansen, L.; Svendsen, J.H. )

    1991-03-01

    The tissue to plasma transfer of {sup 131}I-albumin was recorded in perfused rabbit ears (n = 6) following equilibration for 24 hr. 125I-fibrinogen served as the plasma marker, and was introduced intravenously 15 min before clamping. The ears were rollerpump perfused with isotonic diluted plasma at a constant rate of (mean {plus minus} SD) 5.1 {plus minus} 1.5 ml (min.100 g)-1. The mean extravascular albumin distribution volume was 12.4 {plus minus} 1.1 ml.100 g-1, and the fibrinogen volume (plasma volume in tissue) was 3.1 {plus minus} 0.4 ml.100 g-1 as determined from biopsies of the contralateral ear. The initial transfer of albumin was marked, and occurred at rates corresponding to a unidirectional clearance (Cl(0)) of 0.068 {plus minus} 0.012 ml (min.100 g)-1. However, with a reduction of mean interstitial albumin tracer content of no more than 4%, net transport decreased to reach slowly declining levels 5 to 10 times lower within 10 min of continued perfusion. The decrease was considered due to rapid exhaustion of a small interstitial pool of tracer immediately adjacent to the exchange vessel membrane, followed by an increasingly retarded outwash from more distant areas. The results suggest a bimodal structural resistance to albumin movement: a relatively low resistance in the capillary membrane, and a considerable restriction to albumin transport located within the interstitial space.

  14. Sex and age differences in mercury distribution and excretion in methylmercury-administered mice

    SciTech Connect

    Hirayama, K.; Yasutake, A.

    1986-01-01

    Sex differences in mercury distribution and excretion after single administration of methylmercury chloride (MMC, 5 mg/kg were studied in mice. A sex difference in urinary mercury excretion was found in sexually mature mice (age of 7 wk) of C57BL/6N and BALB/cA strains. Males showed higher mercury levels in urine than females, though no significant difference was found in fecal mercury levels 24 h post exposure to MMC. The higher urinary excretion rates in males accounted for significant lowering of mercury levels in the brain, liver, and blood, but not in the kidney, which showed higher values. At 5 min, however, the sex difference was found only in the kidney, showing higher levels in males. Changes in mercury distribution with time were studied in C57BL/6N mice. The brain mercury increased in both sexes up to 3 d, and decreased only in males on d 5. Liver and blood mercury decreased with time in both sexes, and these were constantly higher in females than in males. Renal mercury in males decreased to similar levels to females on d 3. The sex differences at various ages were studied with C57BL/6N mice 24 h after dosing. Two-week-old mice did not show significant sex differences in the mercury distribution and excretion, and their urinary mercury levels were much lower as compared to the older mice. Urinary mercury excretion in both sexes increased at 4 wk of age and then decreased at 45 wk of age. At 4, 7, 10, and 45 wk of age, males showed higher urinary mercury levels than females. From these findings, it has been suggested that urinary mercury excretion may be related to sex hormones, especially androgens.

  15. Bioengineered kidney tubules efficiently excrete uremic toxins

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, J.; Fedecostante, M.; Wilmer, M. J.; Peters, J. G.; Kreuser, U. M.; van den Broek, P. H.; Mensink, R. A.; Boltje, T. J.; Stamatialis, D.; Wetzels, J. F.; van den Heuvel, L. P.; Hoenderop, J. G.; Masereeuw, R.

    2016-01-01

    The development of a biotechnological platform for the removal of waste products (e.g. uremic toxins), often bound to proteins in plasma, is a prerequisite to improve current treatment modalities for patients suffering from end stage renal disease (ESRD). Here, we present a newly designed bioengineered renal tubule capable of active uremic toxin secretion through the concerted action of essential renal transporters, viz. organic anion transporter-1 (OAT1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4). Three-dimensional cell monolayer formation of human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC) on biofunctionalized hollow fibers with maintained barrier function was demonstrated. Using a tailor made flow system, the secretory clearance of human serum albumin-bound uremic toxins, indoxyl sulfate and kynurenic acid, as well as albumin reabsorption across the renal tubule was confirmed. These functional bioengineered renal tubules are promising entities in renal replacement therapies and regenerative medicine, as well as in drug development programs. PMID:27242131

  16. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression is enhanced in renal parietal epithelial cells of zucker diabetic Fatty rats and is induced by albumin in in vitro primary parietal cell culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; George, Jasmine; Li, Yun; Olufade, Rebecca; Zhao, Xueying

    2015-01-01

    As a subfamily of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), gelatinases including MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix. However, conflicting results have been reported regarding their expression level and activity in the diabetic kidney. This study investigated whether and how MMP-9 expression and activity were changed in glomerular epithelial cells upon albumin overload. In situ zymography, immunostaining and Western blot for renal MMP gelatinolytic activity and MMP-9 protein expression were performed in Zucker lean and Zucker diabetic rats. Confocal microscopy revealed a focal increase in gelatinase activity and MMP-9 protein in the glomeruli of diabetic rats. Increased glomerular MMP-9 staining was mainly observed in hyperplastic parietal epithelial cells (PECs) expressing claudin-1 in the diabetic kidneys. Interestingly, increased parietal MMP-9 was often accompanied by decreased staining for podocyte markers (nephrin and podocalyxin) in the sclerotic area of affected glomeruli in diabetic rats. Additionally, urinary excretion of podocyte marker proteins was significantly increased in association with the levels of MMP-9 and albumin in the urine of diabetic animals. To evaluate the direct effect of albumin on expression and activity of MMP-9, primary cultured rat glomerular PECs were incubated with rat serum albumin (0.25 - 1 mg/ml) for 24 - 48 hrs. MMP-9 mRNA levels were significantly increased following albumin treatment. Meanwhile, albumin administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in MMP-9 protein and activity in culture supernatants of PECs. Moreover, albumin activated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in PECs. Inhibition of p44/42 MAPK suppressed albumin-induced MMP-9 secretion from glomerular PECs. Taken together, we have demonstrated that an up-regulation of MMP-9 in activated parietal epithelium is associated with a loss of adjacent podocytes in progressive diabetic nephropathy

  17. Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.

    PubMed

    Liou, Yu-Ren; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Chia-Ying; Li, Pai-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs) conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs). Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs), which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+)) and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-), which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+) is a commonly used cancer-stem-cell biomarker, our

  18. Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  19. A review of albumin binding in CKD.

    PubMed

    Meijers, Björn K I; Bammens, Bert; Verbeke, Kristin; Evenepoel, Pieter

    2008-05-01

    Hypoalbuminemia is associated with excess mortality in patients with kidney disease. Albumin is an important oxidant scavenger and an abundant carrier protein for numerous endogenous and exogenous compounds. Several specific binding sites for anionic, neutral, and cationic ligands were described. Overall, the extent of binding depends on the ligand and albumin concentration, albumin-binding affinity, and presence of competing ligands. Chronic kidney disease affects all these determinants. This may result in altered pharmacokinetics and increased risk of toxicity. Renal clearance of albumin-bound solutes mainly depends on tubular clearance. Dialytic clearance by means of conventional hemodialysis/hemofiltration and peritoneal dialysis is limited. Other epuration techniques combining hemodialysis with adsorption have been developed. However, the benefit of these techniques remains to be proved.

  20. [Modified albumin in harp seal blood serum].

    PubMed

    Erokhina, I A

    1999-01-01

    The content of modified albumin (Am) in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandica Erxleben, 1777) blood serum was studied. Am was determined by paper electrophoresis by means of re-precipitation in the trichloroacetic acid-ethanol system. Modified albumin content in normal seal pups' blood serum increased from 1990 to 1994. The Am level in undernourished pups was stable from year to year and higher than in normal pups. In oceanarium investigations it was revealed a low albumin resistance to denaturation and the dependence of Am content on the animals' physiological state. Thus there is a possibility to regard modified albumin content as one of the significant parameters in biomonitoring of harp seal population and, moreover, as a supplementary criterion for estimation of seals' health state in captivity.

  1. Metabolism of Albumin after Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration in Patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Qin, Xiaodong; Li, Guanwei; Zhou, Bo; Gu, Guosheng; Hong, Zhiwu; Aa, JiYe; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    Background. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is characterized by a hypercatabolic state induced by inflammatory mediators. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) stabilizes the internal environment but also aggravates loss of amino acids. The effect of CVVH on protein dynamics is largely unknown. We adopted the stable isotopic tracer technology to investigate how CVVH changed serum albumin metabolism. Methods. Twenty SIRS patients were randomized into low- (2000 mL/h) and high- (4000 mL/h) volume CVVH groups according to the rate of replacement fluid. Eight patients with abdominal infection matched for age, sex, and laboratory index served as controls. Consecutive arterial blood samples were drawn during a primed-constant infusion of two stable isotopes to determine the albumin fractional synthesis rate (FSR) and fractional breakdown rate (FBR). Results. Before treatment, there was no significant difference of FSR and FBR among 3 groups. After CVVH, the albumin FSR in high- and low-volume groups was 7.75 ± 1.08% and 7.30 ± 0.89%, respectively, both higher than in the control (5.83 ± 0.94%). There was no significant difference in albumin FBR after treatment. Conclusions. Protein dynamic indicators could reflect protein synthesis and breakdown state directly and effectively. CVVH increased albumin synthesis, while the breakdown rate remained at a high level independently of the CVVH rate. PMID:25650044

  2. Cytostatic drugs are without significant effect on digitoxin plasma level and renal excretion.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, J; Wilke, J; Rietbrock, N

    1982-11-01

    In three patients with malignant lymphoma who received 0.5 mg digitoxin before and 24 hr after combination therapy with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) or cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, and prednisone (COP), plasma glycoside concentrations and renal excretion were measured 0 to 168 hr after digitoxin and the areas under plasma concentration-time curves *(AUCs) were calculated. In 10 patients receiving 0.1 mg digitoxin, daily plasma glycoside concentration and daily renal excretion were measured before and after COPP, COP, or cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, cytosine-arabinoside, and prednisone (COAP) treatment schemes. In contrast to previous reports on digoxin, cytostatic drug therapy does not lead to a reduction in steady-state digitoxin plasma levels and daily renal excretion. During cytostatic therapy attainment of peak digitoxin level was delayed after a single dose, showing that the rate of digitoxin absorption was reduced, but that the AUCs and renal excretion of digitoxin (parameters of the extent of digitoxin absorption) were not diminished. Since the absorption rate is not clinically relevant in patients on long-term glycoside therapy, our results indicate that digitoxin is preferable to digoxin in such patients.

  3. Bisalbuminemia. A new molecular variant, albumin Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, J; Kozier, J; Campbell, D J; Curnow, J V; Tárnoky, A L

    1978-11-01

    Of 18 members of a Fiji Indian family investigated, eight of the 12 males and two of the six females had an electrophoretically slow-type bisalbuminemia (alloalbuminemia). The albumin was characterized by the hiterto unique ratio of the two bands (Al A 35%: variant 65%), and by dye-binding studies and electrophoretic mobility in different media. The data suggest that this is a new variant, which we propose to call albumin Vancouver (Al Va).

  4. Urinary excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 (apolipoprotein H) and other markers of tubular malfunction in "non-tubular" renal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, F. V.; Lapsley, M.; Sansom, P. A.; Cohen, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1 assays can provide improved discrimination between chronic renal diseases which are primarily of tubular or glomerular origin. METHODS: Urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, alpha 1-microglobulin, beta 2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosa-minidase and albumin were measured in 51 patients with primary glomerular disease, 23 with obstructive nephropathy, and 15 with polycystic kidney disease, and expressed per mmol of creatinine. Plasma beta 2-glycoprotein-1 was assayed in 52 patients and plasma creatinine in all 89. The findings were compared between the diagnostic groups and with previously published data relating to primary tubular disorders. RESULTS: All 31 patients with plasma creatinine greater than 200 mumol/l excreted increased amounts of beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin, and 29 had increased N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase; the quantities were generally similar to those found in comparable patients with primary tubular pathology. Among 58 with plasma creatinine concentrations under 200 mumol/l, increases in beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin excretion were less common and much smaller, especially in those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. The ratios of the excretion of albumin to the other proteins provided the clearest discrimination between the patients with glomerular or tubular malfunction, but an area of overlap was present which embraced those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Increased excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 due to a raised plasma concentration or diminution of tubular reabsorption, or both, is common in all the forms of renal disease investigated, and both plasma creatinine and urinary albumin must be taken into account when interpreting results. Ratios of urinary albumin: beta 2-glycoprotein-1 greater than 1000 are highly suggestive

  5. Review: Glycation of human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Anguizola, Jeanethe; Matsuda, Ryan; Barnaby, Omar S.; Joseph, K.S.; Wa, Chunling; DeBolt, Erin; Koke, Michelle; Hage, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Glycation involves the non-enzymatic addition of reducing sugars and/or their reactive degradation products to amine groups on proteins. This process is promoted by the presence of elevated blood glucose concentrations in diabetes and occurs with various proteins that include human serum albumin (HSA). This review examines work that has been conducted in the study and analysis of glycated HSA. The general structure and properties of HSA are discussed, along with the reactions that can lead to modification of this protein during glycation. The use of glycated HSA as a short-to-intermediate term marker for glycemic control in diabetes is examined, and approaches that have been utilized for measuring glycated HSA are summarized. Structural studies of glycated HSA are reviewed, as acquired for both in vivo and in vitro glycated HSA, along with data that have been obtained on the rate and thermodynamics of HSA glycation. In addition, this review considers various studies that have investigated the effects of glycation on the binding of HSA with drugs, fatty acids and other solutes and the potential clinical significance of these effects. PMID:23891854

  6. Portal copper transport in rats by albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, D.T.; Leinart, A.S.; Cousins, R.J.

    1987-03-01

    The distribution of newly absorbed copper among serum proteins obtained from the portal circulation of rats was examined by conventional and high-performance gel filtration chromatography, affinity chromatography, and Western blotting. Within 10-30 min after being administered by gavage or directly into the intestine, /sup 67/Cu and /sup 64/Cu, respectively, were recovered in the albumin fraction. By 8 h after administration of the radionuclides, virtually all of the radioactivity was found with ceruloplasmin. Affigel blue fractionation and subsequent Superose-6 chromatography further demonstrated that all of the copper in the albumin-containing fractions was in fact bound to this protein rather than high molecular weight moieties. Vascular perfusion of the isolated rat intestine, where /sup 64/Cu was infused into the lumen, showed that newly absorbed /sup 64/Cu in the vascular perfusate collected from the cannulated portal vein was associated with albumin. Uptake of radioactivity by isolated rat liver parenchymal cells from medium containing rat serum with /sup 67/Cu bound to albumin was demonstrated. In vitro binding of /sup 64/Cu to serum proteins that were transferred to nitrocellulose by Western blotting techniques showed that albumin is essentially the only protein that binds appreciable amounts of copper. The data suggest that albumin is the plasma protein that is responsible for the initial transport of copper after absorption.

  7. In vitro inhibition of human neutrophil elastase by oleic acid albumin formulations from derivatized cotton wound dressings.

    PubMed

    Edwards, J Vincent; Howley, Phyllis; Cohen, I Kelman

    2004-10-13

    Human neutrophil elastase (HNE) is elevated in chronic wounds. Oleic acid albumin formulations that inhibit HNE may be applicable to treatment modalities for chronic wounds. Oleic acid/albumin formulations with mole ratios of 100:1, 50:1, and 25:1 (oleic acid to albumin) were prepared and found to have dose response inhibition properties against HNE. The IC50 values for inhibition of HNE with oleic acid/albumin formulations were 0.029-0.049 microM. Oleic acid/albumin (BSA) formulations were bound to positively and negatively charged cotton wound dressings and assessed for elastase inhibition using a fiber bound formulation in an assay designed to mimic HNE inhibition in the wound. Cotton derivatized with both carboxylate and amine functional groups were combined with oleic acid/albumin formulations at a maximum loading of 0.030 mg oleic acid + 0.14 mg BSA/mg fiber. The IC50 values for inhibition of HNE with oleic acid/albumin formulations bound to derivatized cotton were 0.26-0.42 microM. Release of the oleic acid/albumin formulation from the fiber was measured by measuring oleic acid levels with quantitative GC analysis. Approximately, 35-50% of the fiber bound formulation was released into solution within the first 15 min of incubation. Albumin was found to enhance the rate of elastase hydrolysis of the substrate within a concentration range of 0.3-50 g/L. The acceleration of HNE substrate hydrolysis by albumin required increased concentration of inhibitor in the formulation to obtain complete inhibition of HNE. Oleic acid formulations prepared with albumin enable transport, solubility and promote dose response inhibition of HNE from derivatized cotton fibers under aqueous conditions mimicking the chronic wound.

  8. Effects of N-acetylcysteine and terbutaline treatment on hemodynamics and regional albumin extravasation in porcine septic shock

    SciTech Connect

    Groeneveld, A.B.; den Hollander, W.; Straub, J.; Nauta, J.J.; Thijs, L.G. )

    1990-03-01

    We studied the therapeutic effects of continuously infused N-acetylcysteine, an O2 radical scavenger (N, n = 6), and terbutaline, a beta 2-agonist (T, n = 6), versus dextrose (controls C, N = 6) on hemodynamics and regional albumin extravasation in porcine septic shock. After instrumentation, injection of 99mTc-labeled red blood cells, and baseline measurements, pigs received a 90 min infusion of 11 +/- 9 X 10(8).kg-1 live Escherichia coli bacteria. Thereafter, therapy was started, and 131I human serum albumin was injected. Images were obtained hourly using a gamma camera and a computer until 5 hours after baseline. Regions of interest were drawn in the 99mTc images, yielding regional 131I/99mTc radioactivity ratios, with blood samples as reference. From these ratios, an albumin leak index, a rate constant of transvascular albumin transport, was calculated. Control pigs developed pulmonary hypertension, arterial hypotension, hemoconcentration, and lactic acidemia. In spite of tachycardia and unchanged filling pressures, cardiac output fell. In arterial blood, white cell count, PO2, albumin level, and colloid osmotic pressure fell. The albumin leak index (X10(-3).min-1) measured 1.56 +/- 0.59 over the lungs and 2.87 +/- 1.19 over the abdomen in C, confirming previously found increased albumin flux in both lung and abdomen, the latter exceeding the former. Neither N nor T significantly affected hemodynamic and biochemical changes. The drugs neither decreased the regional albumin leak index nor attenuated the formation of albumin-rich ascites found at autopsy. However, the lung albumin index obtained at autopsy was significantly reduced with N (P less than .01 vs. C), at similar gravimetrically determined extravascular lung water (EVLW). EVLW positively correlated with pulmonary albumin extravasation in C and T but not in N.

  9. Relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation, using urinary excretion

    PubMed Central

    Aswania, O A; Corlett, S A; Chrystyn, H

    1999-01-01

    Aims To determine if a urinary excretion method, previously described for salbutamol, could also indicate the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation from a metered dose inhaler. Method Inhaled (INH), inhaled+oral charcoal (INHC), oral (ORAL) and oral+oral charcoal (ORALC) 20 mg doses of sodium cromoglycate were given via a randomised cross-over design to 11 healthy volunteers trained on how to use a metered dose inhaler. Urine samples were collected at 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and up to 24 h post dosing and the sodium cromoglycate urinary concentration was measured using a high performance liquid chromatographic method. Results No sodium cromoglycate was detected in the urine up to 24 h following ORALC dosing. A mean (s.d.) of 3.6 (4.3) μg, 10.4 (10.9) μg and 83.7 (71.1) μg of the ORAL dose was excreted, in the urine, during the 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h post dose collection periods, respectively. Following INH dosing, the renal excretion was significantly higher (P < 0.01) with 32.9 (14.5) μg, 61.2 (28.3) μg and 305.6 (82.3) μg excreted, respectively. The SCG excreted at 0.5, 1.0 and 24 h collection periods following INHC dosing were 26.3 (8.4) μg, 49.3 (18.1) μg and 184.9 (98.4) μg, respectively. There was no significant difference between the excretion rate of sodium cromoglycate following INHC when compared with INH dosing in the first 0.5 and 1.0 h. Conclusions The urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate in the first 0.5 h post inhalation can be used to compare the relative lung deposition of two inhaled products or of the same product using different inhalation techniques. This represents the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the lung following inhalation. Similar 24 h urinary excretion of sodium cromoglycate can be use to compare the total dose delivered to the body from two different inhalation products/inhalation methods. This represents the relative bioavailability of sodium cromoglycate to the body

  10. Cisplatin loaded albumin mesospheres for lung cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hung-Yen; Mohammed, Kamal A; Goldberg, Eugene P; Kaye, Frederic; Nasreen, Najmunnisa

    2015-01-01

    The low solubility of cisplatin in aqueous solution limits the treatment effectiveness and the application of cisplatin in various kinds of drug-eluting devices. Although cisplatin has a high solubility in Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the toxicity of cisplatin can be greatly reduced while dissolved in DMSO. In this study, the solid powder of cisplatin-loaded albumin mesospheres (CDDP/DMSO-AMS), in a size range of 1 to 10 µm, were post-loaded with cisplatin and showed high cisplatin content (16% w/w) and effective cytotoxicity to lung cancer cells. Cisplatin were efficiently absorbed into the albumin mesospheres (AMS) in DMSO and, most importantly, the toxicity of cisplatin was remained at 100% after the loading process. This CDDP/DMSO-AMS was designed for the intratumoral injection through the bronchoscopic catheter or dry powder inhalation (DPI) due to its high stability in air or in solution. This CDDP/DMSO-AMS showed a fast cisplatin release within 24 hours. In the in vitro study, CDDP/DMSO-AMS showed high effectiveness on killing the lung cancer cells including the non-small cell lung cancer (NCL-H23 and A549), malignant mesothelioma (CRL-2081) and the mouse lung carcinoma (Lewis lung carcinoma) cell lines. The albumin based mesospheres provide an ideal loading matrix for cisplatin and other metal-based drugs due to the high swelling degree and fast uptake rate in the organic solvents with high polarity. In addition, to investigate the effects of polysaccharides, such as chitosan and chondroitin, on enhancing loading efficiency and lasting cytotoxicity of cisplatin, the polysaccharide-modified albumin mesospheres were synthesized and loaded with cisplatin in this study. PMID:25973300

  11. Lungfish albumin is more similar to tetrapod than to teleost albumins: purification and characterisation of albumin from the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Victoria J; George, Peter M; Brennan, Stephen O

    2007-07-01

    Lobe-finned fish, particularly lungfish, are thought of as the closest extant relatives to tetrapods. Albumin, the major vertebrate plasma protein, has been well studied in tetrapods, but there exists no comparative study of the presence and characteristics of albumin in lobe-finned fish versus other vertebrates. There is a controversy over the presence of albumin in fish, although it is present in salmonids and lamprey. The presence of albumin in lungfish has also recently been documented. We identified albumin in plasma of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, using a combination of agarose gel electrophoresis, [(14)C]palmitic acid binding and SDS-PAGE. Lungfish albumin was purified using DEAE-ion exchange chromatography, and has a mass of 67 kDa, is present at approximately 8 g/L in plasma and like other fish albumins, does not bind nickel. However, like tetrapod albumins, it is not glycosylated. N-terminal and internal peptide sequencing generated 101 amino acids of sequence, which showed a high degree of identity with tetrapod albumins. Despite the similarity in sequence but congruent with the evolutionary distances separating them, lungfish albumin did not cross-react with anti-chicken or anti-tuatara A albumin antisera. Lungfish albumin has characteristics more akin with tetrapod albumin and less like those of other fish.

  12. Relationships among glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, and autonomic nerve function in insulin-dependent and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Sterner, N G; Nilsson, H; Rosén, U; Lilja, B; Sundkvist, G

    1997-01-01

    The associations among autonomic neuropathy, urinary albumin excretion, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured with 51Cr-EDTA and iohexol clearance were studied in 41 patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 15 patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The study showed that increased urinary albumin excretion was more common in NIDDM than in IDDM. In contrast with IDDM, albuminuria in NIDDM was not related to GFR. Autonomic neuropathy was common in IDDM as well as in NIDDM, and also in patients without nephropathy, but was not connected with hyperfiltration. Low brake index, an ortostatic autonomic index, was associated with nephropathy in NIDDM. Iohexol, a non-ionic contrast medium, was found to be a useful alternative to 51Cr-EDTA for determination of GFR. Moreover, comparison between conventional four-sample plasma clearance and single-sample clearance showed a close correlation. Accordingly, assessment of GFR using a single plasma sample provides reliable results even at high GFR values.

  13. Factors Associated With Serum Albumin in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 With Microalbuminuria Using Non-Normal Mixed Models: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Khoundabi, Batoul; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Mansourian, Marjan; Faghihimani, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background: The globally increasing epidemic of diabetes will lead to serious problems including diabetic nephropathy and kidney diseases in near future. The first clinical diagnosable stage in a diabetic kidney disease is microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion of 30 - 300 g/24 hours). Objectives: This prospective cohort study investigated the risk factors of microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes who had been registered in endocrine and metabolism research center in Isfahan city, Iran. Patients and Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed on 90 diabetic type 2 patients with microalbuminuria, who were selected according to the consecutive sample selection method during 6 years. Data were collected through regular and systematic measurements of serum albumin as the response variable and body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) as the related factors. Non-normal mixed models were used to investigate the impact of effective factors on the amount of excreted serum albumin. Results: According to the deviance information criterion (DIC = 56.2), the non-normal mixed effects model with the skewed t distribution had a best fit and indicated that HbA1c, HDL and total cholesterol had a significant effect on the amount of albumin in urine (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Using nonnormal mixed models may lead to the best results as compared to common normality assumption. PMID:26889385

  14. pH and redox sensitive albumin hydrogel: A self-derived biomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Raja, S Thirupathi Kumara; Thiruselvi, T; Mandal, Asit Baran; Gnanamani, A

    2015-01-01

    Serum albumin can be transformed to a stimuli (pH and redox) responsive hydrogel using the reduction process followed by oxidative refolding. The preparation of albumin hydrogel involves a range of concentrations (75, 150, 300, 450, 600 and 750 μM) and pH (2.0–10.0) values and the gelation begins at a concentration of 150 μM and 4.5–8.0 pH value. The hydrogel shows maximum swelling at alkali pH (pH > 9.0). The increase in albumin concentration increases hydrogel stability, rheological property, compressive strength, proteolytic resistance and rate of in vivo biodegradation. Based on the observed physical and biological properties of albumin hydrogel, 450 μM was determined to be an optimum concentration for further experiments. In addition, the hemo- and cytocompatibility analyses revealed the biocompatibility nature of albumin hydrogel. The experiments on in vitro drug (Tetracycline) delivery were carried out under non reducing and reducing conditions that resulted in the sustained and fast release of the drug, respectively. The methodology used in the preparation of albumin hydrogel may lead to the development of autogenic tissue constructs. In addition, the methodology can have various applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery. PMID:26527296

  15. Facilitation by serum albumin of renal tubular secretion of organic anions.

    PubMed

    Besseghir, K; Mosig, D; Roch-Ramel, F

    1989-03-01

    The role of albumin in tubular secretion of the organic anions p-aminohippurate (PAH, 21% albumin-bound at 1 microM) and methotrexate (MTX, 55% bound at 1 microM), and of the organic cation N1-methylnicotinamide (NMN, not bound), was investigated in isolated rabbit S2 proximal tubules. PAH or MTX secretory rates were low in the absence of colloids or in the presence of 1 g/dl dextran 40, and were reversibly two- to sevenfold stimulated by either 1 g/dl bovine (BSA, either regular, defatted, and/or dialyzed) or rabbit serum albumin, or by dialyzed native rabbit plasma. NMN secretion was not stimulated by either dextran or albumin. Luminal BSA had no effect, but stimulation of PAH secretion was observed when albumin was present in both lumen and bath. This secretion was BSA concentration-dependent up to a 1 g/dl BSA. Saturation experiments suggested that 1 g/dl BSA may increase PAH apparent affinity for secretion, with no change in its maximum velocity. Albumin appears therefore to facilitate organic anion proximal secretion by an effect unrelated to oncotic pressure or to the extent of organic anion binding.

  16. pH and redox sensitive albumin hydrogel: A self-derived biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Raja, S Thirupathi Kumara; Thiruselvi, T; Mandal, Asit Baran; Gnanamani, A

    2015-11-03

    Serum albumin can be transformed to a stimuli (pH and redox) responsive hydrogel using the reduction process followed by oxidative refolding. The preparation of albumin hydrogel involves a range of concentrations (75, 150, 300, 450, 600 and 750 μM) and pH (2.0-10.0) values and the gelation begins at a concentration of 150 μM and 4.5-8.0 pH value. The hydrogel shows maximum swelling at alkali pH (pH > 9.0). The increase in albumin concentration increases hydrogel stability, rheological property, compressive strength, proteolytic resistance and rate of in vivo biodegradation. Based on the observed physical and biological properties of albumin hydrogel, 450 μM was determined to be an optimum concentration for further experiments. In addition, the hemo- and cytocompatibility analyses revealed the biocompatibility nature of albumin hydrogel. The experiments on in vitro drug (Tetracycline) delivery were carried out under non reducing and reducing conditions that resulted in the sustained and fast release of the drug, respectively. The methodology used in the preparation of albumin hydrogel may lead to the development of autogenic tissue constructs. In addition, the methodology can have various applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery.

  17. Loss of albumin and megalin binding to renal cubilin in rats results in albuminuria after total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yammani, Raghunatha R; Sharma, Mukut; Seetharam, Shakuntla; Moulder, John E; Dahms, Nancy M; Seetharam, Bellur

    2002-08-01

    The role of the renal apical brush-border membrane (BBM) endocytic receptors cubilin and megalin in the onset of albuminuria in rats exposed to a single dose of total body irradiation (TBI) has been investigated. Albuminuria was evident as immunoblot (IB) analysis of the urine samples from TBI rats revealed excretion of large amounts of albumin. IB analysis of the BBM proteins did not reveal any significant changes in cubilin or megalin levels, but (125)I-albumin binding to BBM from TBI rats declined by 80% with a fivefold decrease (from 0.5 to 2.5 microM) in the affinity for albumin. IB analysis of cubilin from the BBM demonstrated a 75% loss when purified using albumin, but not intrinsic factor (IF)-cobalamin (Cbl) ligand affinity chromatography. Immunoprecipitation (IP) of Triton X-100 extract of the BBM with antiserum to cubilin followed by IB of the immune complex with an antiserum to megalin revealed a 75% loss of association between megalin and cubilin. IP studies with antiserum to cubilin or megalin and IB with antiserum to the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II-receptor (CIMPR) revealed that CIMPR interacted with both cubilin and megalin. In addition, TBI did not disrupt the association of CIMPR with either cubilin or megalin in BBM. These results suggest that albuminuria noted in TBI rats is due to selective loss of albumin and megalin, but not CIMPR or IF-Cbl binding by cubilin. Furthermore, these results also suggest that albumin and IF-Cbl binding to cubilin occur at distinct sites and that in the rat renal BBM, CIMPR interacts with both cubilin and megalin.

  18. Bromophenol blue binding to mammalian albumins and displacement of albumin-bound bilirubin.

    PubMed

    Kim, B Boon; Abdul Kadir, H; Tayyab, S

    2008-10-15

    Interaction of bromophenol blue (BPB) with serum albumins from different mammalian species, namely, human (HSA), bovine (BSA), goat (GSA), sheep (SSA), rabbit (RbSA), porcine (PSA) and dog (DSA) was studied using absorption and absorption difference spectroscopy. BPB-albumin complexes showed significant differences in the spectral characteristics, i.e., extent of bathochromic shift and hypochromism relative to the spectral features of free BPB. Absorption difference spectra of these complexes also showed variations in the position of maxima and absorption difference (deltaAbs.) values. Absorption difference spectra of different bilirubin (BR)-albumin complexes showed a significant blue shift accompanied by decrease in deltaAbs. values in presence of BPB which were indicative of the displacement of bound BR from its binding site in BR-albumin complexes. These changes in the difference spectral characteristics of BR-albumin complexes were more marked at higher BPB concentration. However, the extent of these changes was different for different BR-albumin complexes. Taken together, all these results suggest that BPB partially shares BR binding site on albumin and different mammalian albumins show differences in the microenvironment of the BR/BPB binding site.

  19. Pattern of Salmonella excretion in amphibians and reptiles in a vivarium.

    PubMed

    Pfleger, Silvia; Benyr, Gerald; Sommer, Regina; Hassl, Andreas

    2003-01-01

    During a period of about three years the faeces of five species of amphibians (35 individuals) and of 23 species of reptiles (103 individuals) living in one vivarium with terrariums imitating different types of ecosystems were examined for salmonellae. From 54 out of 376 faecal samples Salmonella spp. was isolated (= 14%). Twenty-one different Salmonella strains were found. Salmonellae could be isolated about twice as often from animals kept under arid or mesic conditions than from animals living in humid or aquatic environments although this was not statistically significant. Statistically significant for the rate of Salmonella excretion was the animals' diet and the class the animals are belonging to. Animals feeding on mice (p = 0.04) and reptiles in general (p = 0.04) were more commonly excreting Salmonella. Duration of stay was also a significant factor (p = 0.0005), whereby the relative risk for Salmonella excretion increased with the factor 2.91 per year during the investigation period. Salmonella strains were not necessarily transferred among animals living in the same terrarium or among the inhabitants of different terrariums. The pattern of Salmonella excretion was generally fragmentary. The outsides as well as the insides of the walls of the terrariums were also tested for salmonellae several times, but salmonellae have never been isolated.

  20. Bioactivity of albumins bound to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Jessy; Sivakami, S; Kothari, D C; Dongre, P M

    2014-06-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous rise in the proposed applications of nanomaterials in the field of medicine due to their very attractive physiochemical properties and novel actions such as the ability to reach previously inaccessible targets such as brain. However biological activity of functional molecules bound to nanoparticles and its physiological consequences is still unclear and hence this area requires immediate attention. The functional properties of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) bound to silver nanoparticles (~60 nm) have been studied under physiological environment. Esterase activity, binding of drugs (warfarin and ibuprofen), antioxidant activity and copper binding by albumins was evaluated. The catalytic efficiencies of HSA and BSA diminished upon binding to silver nanoparticles. Perturbation in binding of warfarin and ibuprofen, loss of free sulphydryls, antioxidant activity and enhancement of copper binding were observed in albumins bound to nanoparticles. These alterations in functional activity of nanoparticle bound albumins which will have important consequences should be taken into consideration while using nanoparticles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  1. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-04

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride-HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure.

  2. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride–HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 104 M−1, at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 104 M−1, at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure. PMID:26742031

  3. Excretion is Faster Than Diagenesis for Nutrient Recycling in Lake Michigan Benthos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, C.; Cuhel, R. L.

    2013-12-01

    nucleic acids and lipid) being excreted. Oddly, the highest quality food resources (low C:N and C:P ratios) lead to the greatest excretion of N and P nutrients in healthy organisms with high metabolic rates. This suggestion is borne out by the spatial distribution of QM excretion rates in transects across seamount-like bathymetric features in south-central Lake Michigan. On the upstream side and plateaus of Northeast and Sheboygan Reefs, where freshly advected bottom water flows across mussel communities, excretion rates in summer 2013 varied around 0.8 and 30 nmol/animal/hr (HPO4= and NH4+ respectively) for robust young adult mussels 15-20mm in length. On the downstream slope, where particles are likely reprocessed several times, nutritional quality and excretion rates were lower, especially for NH4+. Inshore shallow stations have similar rates to upstream nutrient-sufficient populations. Excretion size spectrum regressions combined with population size frequency analyses enable estimation of areal flux. N:P excretion ratios (30-40) are greater than Redfield, and consistent with growing animals nearing their late summer spawning effort. Several years of trophic gradient transects for mussel excretion, and pre- vs. post-QM porewater profiles will support these conclusions.

  4. Repeated quantitative measurements of De Novo synthesis of albumin and fibrinogen

    PubMed Central

    Rooyackers, Olav; Klaude, Maria; Hebert, Christina; Wernerman, Jan; Norberg, Åke

    2017-01-01

    The possibility of using two different isotopomers, for the incorporation of isotopically labeled amino acids, was explored to enable longitudinal studies of de novo synthesis of two export liver proteins, albumin and fibrinogen. The agreement of the synthesis rates between the two different labels was evaluated along with the reproducibility of repeated experiments using different time intervals. Healthy volunteers were studied in a standardized fed state. Protocol A (n = 10) involved two measurements 48 hours apart. Protocol B (n = 6) involved three measurements at baseline and five hours and then seven days after the initial measurement. De novo synthesis of albumin and fibrinogen by the incorporation of D5-phenylalanine or D8-phenylalanine were measured using the flooding dose technique. Albumin and fibrinogen were isolated from plasma using standard techniques. Fractional and absolute synthesis rates were calculated. Repeated measurements employing the two isotoptomers showed good agreement for albumin fractional synthesis rate after 48 hours (p = 0.92) and after 7 days (p = 0.99), with a coefficient of variation of 5.9% when using the same isotopic label. For fibrinogen, the coefficient of variation for the fractional synthesis rate employing the same isotopic label was 16.6%. Repeated measurements after 48 hours and seven days showed less agreement although there was no statistical difference (P = 0.32 and P = 0.30 respectively). Repeated measurement after five hours showed a statistical significant difference for the fractional synthesis rate of fibrinogen (p = 0.008) but not for albumin (p = 0.12). Repeated measurements of albumin de novo synthesis more than 48 hours apart show acceptable agreement using either one or two different isotopic labels. For fibrinogen the larger intra-individual scatter necessitates larger study groups to detect changes in longitudinal studies. Repeated measurements within 48 hours need to be validated further. PMID:28350862

  5. Preliminary crystallographic studies of four crystal forms of serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. C.; Chang, B.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Krishnasami, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Several crystal forms of serum albumin suitable for three-dimensional structure determination have been grown. These forms include crystals of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin, baboon serum albumin, and canine serum albumin. The intrinsic limits of X-ray diffraction for these crystals are in the range 0.28-0.22 nm. Two of the crystal forms produced from human and canine albumin include incorporated long-chain fatty acids. Molecular replacement experiments have been successfully conducted on each crystal form using the previously determined atomic coordinates of human serum albumin illustrating the conserved tertiary structure.

  6. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  7. Effects of dietary protein level on growth performance and nitrogen excretion of dairy heifers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Chong; Liu, He; Liu, Jianxin; Liu, Hongyun

    2017-01-01

    Objective Protein supplementation is costly and can result in excess nitrogen (N) excretion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of dietary protein on average daily gain, body size, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen excretion of 8 to 10 month-old Holstein heifers. Methods Thirty-six Holstein heifers were divided into 12 blocks according to age (273±6.2 d) and were randomly assigned to diets containing a low (10.2% dry matter [DM]), medium (11.9% DM), or high (13.5% DM) level of dietary crude protein (CP). All diets contained approximately 70% roughage and 30% concentrate with similar dietary metabolizable energy (ME) content (2.47 Mcal/kg). Results Dry matter intake did not differ among the treatments, and average daily gain increased with the increasing dietary protein, 0.79, 0.95, 0.97 kg/d for low, medium, and high group, respectively. Body height increased linearly with increasing dietary CP but no other significant differences in body dimensions were found among the treatments. The increased ratios of dietary CP improved the rate of rear teat length growth remarkably (p<0.05). There was no difference in rumen pH or ruminal major volatile fatty acid (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) concentration among the 3 diets, but rumen ammonia-N concentration increased with the higher dietary CP (p<0.05). Increasing N intake led to increased total N excretion; urinary N excretion was significantly increased (p<0.05) but fecal N excretion was similar among the treatments. Conclusion These data suggest that the diet containing 11.9% CP (ME 2.47 Mcal/kg) could meet the maintenance and growth requirements of 9 to 11 month-old Holstein heifers gaining approximately 0.9 kg/d. PMID:27554361

  8. Lamprey parasitism of sharks and teleosts: high capacity urea excretion in an extant vertebrate relic.

    PubMed

    Wilkie, Michael P; Turnbull, Steven; Bird, Jonathan; Wang, Yuxiang S; Claude, Jaime F; Youson, John H

    2004-08-01

    We observed 10 sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) parasitizing basking sharks (Cetorhinus maximus), the world's second largest fish, in the Bay of Fundy. Due to the high concentrations of urea in the blood and tissues of ureosmotic elasmobranchs, we hypothesized that sea lampreys would have mechanisms to eliminate co-ingested urea while feeding on basking sharks. Post-removal urea excretion rates (J(Urea)) in two lampreys, removed from separate sharks by divers, were initially 450 ( approximately 9000 micromol N kg-1 h-1) and 75 times ( approximately 1500 micromol N kg-1 h-1) greater than basal (non-feeding) rates ( approximately 20 micromol N kg-1 h-1). In contrast, J(Urea) increased by 15-fold after parasitic lampreys were removed from non-ureosmotic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Since activities of the ornithine urea cycle (OUC) enzymes, carbamoyl phosphate synthetase III (CPSase III) and ornithine carbamoyl transferase (OCT) were relatively low in liver and below detection in intestine and muscle, it is unlikely that the excreted urea arose from de novo urea synthesis. Measurements of arginase activity suggested that hydrolysis of dietary arginine made a minor contribution to J(Urea.). Post-feeding ammonia excretion rates (J(Amm)) were 15- to 25-fold greater than basal rates in lampreys removed from both basking sharks and rainbow trout, suggesting that parasitic lampreys have a high capacity to deaminate amino acids. We conclude that the sea lamprey's ability to penetrate the dermal denticle armor of sharks, to rapidly excrete large volumes of urea and a high capacity to deaminate amino acids, represent adaptations that have contributed to the evolutionary success of these phylogenetically ancient vertebrates.

  9. Urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate excretion in intellectually disabled subjects with sleep disorders and multiple medications: validation of measurements in urine extracted from diapers.

    PubMed

    Laakso, M-L; Lindblom, N; Kaipainen, P; Kaski, M

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the applicability of urinary 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate (MT6s) measurements in the evaluation of melatonin secretion in intellectually disabled patients with sleep disorders. All 17 patients received drugs with potential interactions with melatonin metabolism. Serum melatonin 24-h profiles were determined at hourly intervals. The area under the curve (AUC) value, peak amplitude, half-rise time, and half-decline time were calculated individually. Urinary MT6s excretion was determined from samples collected from disposable diapers during three consecutive days at varying intervals. The average excretion rate for each hour of the day was calculated. The excretion profiles were characterized by total amount of MT6s excretion/24 h/kg body mass, amount of excreted MT6s during 6 h of maximum excretion (MAX 6h), and start time of the maximum excretion (start MAX 6h). There were significant positive correlations between serum melatonin AUC value and total excretion of MT6s/body mass, between serum melatonin amplitude and urinary MAX 6h, and between melatonin half-rise time and start MAX 6h; one patient on phenobarbital medication was out of line. The serum melatonin profiles of the patients were classified by comparing them with those of matched healthy volunteers (low-, normal-, or high secretors, normal or delayed rhythm). Similarly, the parameters of MT6s profiles were compared with those obtained from healthy controls, and the patients were reclassified as normal or aberrant. The classifications based on serum melatonin and urinary MT6s measurements were mostly concordant. The daily pattern of urinary MT6s excretion reliably reflected the phase of the serum melatonin rhythm irrespective of the medications, but in some cases, the total amount of excreted MT6s was lower than expected based on serum melatonin measurements.

  10. A synergistic effect of oxytocin and vasopressin on sodium excretion in the neurohypophysectomized rat.

    PubMed Central

    Balment, R J; Brimble, M J; Forsling, M L; Kelly, L P; Musabayane, C T

    1986-01-01

    1. Renal function and the effect of oxytocin and vasopressin replacement have been examined in anaesthetized male neurohypophysectomized rats. 2. Rates of urine flow were higher but sodium excretion markedly lower in neurohypophysectomized rats than in intact animals receiving hypotonic saline infusion (33.8 +/- 2.3 vs. 27.0 +/- 0.7 ml and 472 +/- 84 vs. 1946 +/- 124 mumol respectively for the third to sixth hour of study). 3. In intact animals, mean arterial blood pressure stabilized at 106 mmHg. Haematocrit (46%) remained stable but glomerular filtration rates declined slightly over the 8 h of study to 2.5 +/- 0.2 ml/h. These values in neurohypophysectomized rats did not differ significantly from those in intact rats. 4. Although plasma corticosterone levels (54 +/- 13 ng/ml) did not differ significantly from those in intact rats, neurohypophysectomy was associated with greatly reduced aldosterone concentration (0.12 +/- 0.03 vs. 0.76 +/- 0.04 ng/ml). Trace levels of vasopressin (0.17 +/- 0.03 microunit/ml) were found in neurohypophysectomized rat plasma. 5. Oxytocin administration at 15 microunits/min, which produced plasma hormone levels of 1.62 +/- 0.19 microunit/ml, had no detectable effect on sodium excretion but increased urine flow. Arginine vasopressin administration (12 microunits/min) inducing plasma levels of 1.24 +/- 0.08 microunit/ml, reduced urine flow by 80% and produced a small increase in sodium excretion. 6. Concurrent administration of oxytocin (15 microunits/min) potentiated the natriuretic response to vasopressin (12 microunits/min). Total sodium excretion during the 3 h combined hormone infusion (1256 +/- 149 mumol) greatly exceeded that in animals receiving vasopressin alone (549 +/- 132 mumol) and approached that observed in intact animals (1946 +/- 124 mumol). Combined hormone administration at the lower rate of 5 microunits/min oxytocin and 4 microunits/min vasopressin produced a similar large increment in sodium excretion. 7. It is

  11. Urine beta-thromboglobulin concentration or beta-thromboglobulin/creatinine ratio in single voided urine samples cannot be reliably used to estimate quantitative beta-thromboglobulin excretion.

    PubMed

    Musumeci, V; Rosa, S; Caruso, A; Zappacosta, B; Tutinelli, F; Zuppi, C

    1986-02-28

    Different procedures are currently used in the urine beta-thromboglobulin (BTG) assay. We investigated the reliability of limited urine collections and of different expressions of urine BTG results (concentration, urine BTG/creatinine ratio) for the measurement of hourly or daily BTG excretion rates. BTG was measured by a sensitive RIA method in various urine collections of normal subjects (n.80) and patients (n.120) with miscellaneous diseases where an enhanced in-vivo platelet activation could be expected. The BTG concentration in a 6-hour urine collection appeared to change in relation to the urine flow rate (r = -0.53 in normals, r = 0.27 in patients, p less than 0.01) and urine osmolality (r = 0.46 in normals, r = 0.31 in patients, p less than 0.01). In both normals and patients not a very good correlation was observed between the urine BTG/creatinine ratio and the BTG excretion rate (r = 0.54 and r = 0.48; p less than 0.001, respectively). Variable coefficients of correlation (r = 0.83-0.34) were observed between the BTG excretion rate of single voidings of the morning, afternoon-evening and night and the daily BTG excretion both in normals and patients. Reliable measurements of the BTG in urine should be expressed as the hourly excretion rate in a given period of the day for limited urine collections or as the daily excretion for 24-hour urine collections.

  12. Evaluation of solids, nitrogen, and phosphorus excretion models for lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hollmann, M; Knowlton, K F; Hanigan, M D

    2008-03-01

    , respectively; 182 g/d was presumably volatilized. All models of N excretion appeared to underestimate N excretion. Volatilization rate of N amounted to 18.1%/h for the 6-h flush interval. Measured outflow of manure-P from the facility was similar to excretion predictions. Presentation of excreted solids as both total solids and DM is warranted. We conclude that using excretion prediction equations is useful for predicting excretion and outflow of P in a lactating cow facility, but N excretion predictions exhibited bias and have to be used prudently for predicting N outflow and N volatilization.

  13. Comparison of Normal Saline, Hypertonic Saline Albumin and Terlipressin plus Hypertonic Saline Albumin in an Infant Animal Model of Hypovolemic Shock

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In series of cases and animal models suffering hemorrhagic shock, the use of vasopressors has shown potential benefits regarding hemodynamics and tissue perfusion. Terlipressin is an analogue of vasopressin with a longer half-life that can be administered by bolus injection. We have previously observed that hypertonic albumin improves resuscitation following controlled hemorrhage in piglets. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the treatment with the combination of terlipressin and hypertonic albumin can produce better hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters than normal saline or hypertonic albumin alone at early stages of hemorrhagic shock in an infant animal model. Methods Experimental, randomized animal study including 39 2-to-3-month-old piglets. Thirty minutes after controlled 30 ml/kg bleed, pigs were randomized to receive either normal saline (NS) 30 ml/kg (n = 13), 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline (AHS) 15 ml/kg (n = 13) or single bolus of terlipressin 15 μg/kg i.v. plus 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline 15 ml/kg (TAHS) (n = 13) over 30 minutes. Global hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters were compared. Results After controlled bleed a significant decrease of blood pressure, cardiac index, central venous saturation, carotid and peripheral blood flow, brain saturation and an increase of heart rate, gastric PCO2 and lactate was observed. After treatment no significant differences in most hemodynamic (cardiac index, mean arterial pressure) and perfusion parameters (lactate, gastric PCO2, brain saturation, cutaneous blood flow) were observed between the three therapeutic groups. AHS and TAHS produced higher increase in stroke volume index and carotid blood flow than NS. Conclusions In this pediatric animal model of hypovolemic shock, albumin plus hypertonic saline with or without terlipressin achieved similar hemodynamics and perfusion parameters than twice the volume of NS. Addition of terlipressin did not

  14. Structural basis of transport of lysophospholipids by human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Shihui; Shi, Xiaoli; Yang, Feng; Chen, Liqing; Meehan, Edward J.; Bian, Chuanbing; Huang, Mingdong

    2010-10-08

    Lysophospholipids play important roles in cellular signal transduction and are implicated in many biological processes, including tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, immunity, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, cancer and neuronal survival. The intracellular transport of lysophospholipids is through FA (fatty acid)-binding protein. Lysophospholipids are also found in the extracellular space. However, the transport mechanism of lysophospholipids in the extracellular space is unknown. HSA (human serum albumin) is the most abundant carrier protein in blood plasma and plays an important role in determining the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs. In the present study, LPE (lysophosphatidylethanolamine) was used as the ligand to analyse the interaction of lysophospholipids with HSA by fluorescence quenching and crystallography. Fluorescence measurement showed that LPE binds to HSA with a K{sub d} (dissociation constant) of 5.6 {micro}M. The presence of FA (myristate) decreases this binding affinity (K{sub d} of 12.9 {micro}M). Moreover, we determined the crystal structure of HSA in complex with both myristate and LPE and showed that LPE binds at Sudlow site I located in subdomain IIA. LPE occupies two of the three subsites in Sudlow site I, with the LPE acyl chain occupying the hydrophobic bottom of Sudlow site I and the polar head group located at Sudlow site I entrance region pointing to the solvent. This orientation of LPE in HSA suggests that HSA is capable of accommodating other lysophospholipids and phospholipids. The study provides structural information on HSA-lysophospholipid interaction and may facilitate our understanding of the transport and distribution of lysophospholipids.

  15. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the reagents used to measure by immunochemical techniques the albumin (a plasma protein) in serum and other body fluids. Measurement of albumin aids in the diagnosis of kidney and intestinal diseases....

  16. Relationship Between Serum Albumin Levels and Infections in Newborn Late Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunyan; Liu, Zhaoguo; Tian, Min; Xu, Ping; Li, Baoyun; Yang, Qiaozhi; Yang, Yujun

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to evaluate the clinical value of serum albumin levels for the evaluation and prognosis of late preterm infants with infections. Material/Methods This was a retrospective study performed in late preterm infants admitted at the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of the Liaocheng People’s Hospital between July 2012 and March 2013. Data, including laboratory test results, neonatal critical illness score (NCIS), perinatal complications and prognosis, were analyzed. The newborn infants were divided into 3 groups according to their serum albumin levels, (≥30 g/L, 25–30 g/L and ≤25 g/L for high, moderate, and low, respectively). Results Among 257 patients, birth weight was 2003±348 g, gestational age was 35.7±2.3 weeks, and 59.1% were male. In addition, 127 (49.4%) were in the low albumin group. There were 32 patients with sepsis, 190 with infections, and 35 without infection, and their rates of hypoalbuminemia were 86.0%, 50.5%, and 30.7%, respectively (P<0.05). Albumin levels of the patients who survived were higher than those of the patients who died. In the low albumin group, the number of individual-event-critical NCIS cases and the frequency of multiple organs injuries were 63.8% and 28.3%, respectively, and were higher than in the 2 other groups. Mortality was higher in patients with sepsis. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with severe adverse outcomes (odds ratio=6.3, 95% confidence interval: 3.7–10.9, P<0.001). Conclusions Hypoalbuminemia was frequent among neonates with sepsis. Lower albumin levels might be associated with a poorer prognosis. Albumin levels could be appropriate for the diagnosis and prognosis of late preterm neonates with infections. PMID:26747243

  17. Urinary excretion of cortisol from rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) habituated to restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, C. E.; Ortiz, R. M.

    1997-01-01

    Use of monkeys in research has often required that they be restrained in a chair. However, chair restraint can elicit an initial neuroendocrine stress response. Also, inactivity associated with restraint can induce muscular atrophy. We proposed that prior habituation of monkeys to chair restraint would attenuate these neuroendocrine responses without causing substantial muscle wasting. Four rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained and habituated to a restraint chair specifically designed for spaceflight. During the study, monkeys were placed in metabolic cages for 7 days (prerestraint, Phase I), placed in a chair restraint for 18 days (Phase II), and then returned to their metabolic cages for 5 days (postrestraint, Phase III). Urine was collected between 0700-1100 daily, and measurements of cortisol, creatinine, and electrolyte concentrations were adjusted for hourly excretion rates. Body weights of the monkeys did not change between start of the prerestraint and postrestraint phases (10.3 +/- 0.8 vs. 10.3 +/- 0.9 kg, respectively). During the 3 phases, mean excretion rate of cortisol did not change (24.1 +/- 10.3, 26.7 +/- 7.7, and 19.3 +/- 5.8 microg/h, respectively). Mean excretion rate of creatinine (37.3 +/- 7.5, 37.5 +/- 12.2, and 36.9 +/- 17.1 mg/h, respectively), Na+ (3.3 +/- 1.2, 3.2 +/- 1.2, 2.2 +/- 1.8 mmol/h, respectively), and K+ (5.3 +/- 1.8, 5.4 +/- 1.6, and 4.3 +/- 2.8 mmol/h, respectively) were also not altered. Lack of an increase in excreted urinary cortisol suggested that prior habituation to chair restraint attenuated neuroendocrine responses reported previously. Also, the chair restraint method used appeared to allow adequate activity, because the monkeys did not have indices of muscle wasting.

  18. Excretion of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in Sweat

    PubMed Central

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Scheidweiler, Karl B.; Saito, Takeshi; Fortner, Neil; Abraham, Tsadik; Gustafson, Richard A.; Smith, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Sweat testing is a noninvasive technique for monitoring drug exposure over a 7-day period in treatment, criminal justice, and employment settings. We evaluated Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) excretion in 11 daily cannabis users after cessation of drug use. PharmChek® sweat patches worn for 7 days were analyzed for THC by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The limit of quantification (LOQ) for the method was 0.4 ng THC/patch. Sweat patches worn the first week of continuously monitored abstinence had THC above the United States Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration’s proposed cutoff concentration for federal workplace testing of 1 ng THC/patch. Mean ± S.E.M. THC concentrations were 3.85 ± 0.86 ng THC/patch. Eight of 11 subjects had negative patches the second week and one produced THC positive patches for four weeks of monitored abstinence. We also tested daily and weekly sweat patches from 7 subjects who were administered oral doses of up to 14.8 mg THC/day for five consecutive days. In this oral THC administration study, no daily or weekly patches had THC above the LOQ; concurrent plasma THC concentrations were all less than 6.1 μg/L. In conclusion, using proposed federal cutoff concentrations, most daily cannabis users will have a positive sweat patch in the first week after ceasing drug use and a negative patch after subsequent weeks, although patches may remain positive for four weeks or more. Oral ingestion of up to 14.8 mg THC daily does not produce a THC positive sweat patch test. PMID:17481836

  19. Biliary excretion of TT virus (TTV).

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, N; Ikoma, J; Ishihara, T; Yasui-Kawamura, N; Fujita, N; Iwasa, M; Kaito, M; Watanabe, S; Adachi, Y

    2000-08-01

    A novel DNA virus (TT virus; TTV) was isolated from a patient with post-transfusion hepatitis of unknown etiology. If TTV replicates in the liver, TTV may appear in the bile. In the present study, to clarify whether fecal-oral infection occur via biliary excretion, the presence of TTV DNA was assessed in paired serum and bile samples collected from 28 patients with obstructive jaundice without parenchymal liver disease. TTV DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using semi-nested primers, and quantified by Real Time Detection PCR (RTD-PCR). The nucleotide sequence of isolates TTV DNAs was also determined and the sequences were compared between serum and bile samples. Among 28 patients, 7 were positive for TTV DNA in both samples, and 3 and 2 were positive in serum and bile respectively. Of 7 patients positive for TTV DNA in both samples, the TTV DNA titer was higher in serum of 4 patients and in bile of 1 patient. Among 7 patients positive for TTV DNA in serum and bile, 6 had the same sequence in both samples. Multiple distinct types of TTV DNA clones were isolated from serum in 2 patients and from bile in 4 patients. In conclusion, TTV DNA is detected frequently in bile from patients with obstructive jaundice, suggesting a fecal-oral route of infection and high prevalence of asymptomatic TTV carriers. TTV DNA was detected only in serum from some patients, suggesting that replication of TTV may occur in other organs as well as in the liver.

  20. Albumin-Based Nanodevices as Drug Carriers.

    PubMed

    Loureiro, Ana; Azoia, Nuno G; Gomes, Andreia C; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Nanomedicine, the application of nanotechnology to medicine, is being increasingly used to improve and exploit the advantages of efficient drug delivery. Different nanodevices have been developed in recent years, among them protein-based nanoparticles which have gained considerable interest. Albumin is a versatile protein carrier with several characteristics that make it an ideal candidate for drug delivery, such as its availability, its biocompatibility, its biodegradability, and its lack of toxicity and immunogenicity. This review embodies an overview of different methods available for production of albumin-based nanoparticles, with focus on high-energy emulsification methods. A comparison between production by using sonication, which involves acoustic cavitation, and the high pressure homogenization method, where occurs hydrodynamic cavitation, is presented. Taking into account important properties of nanoparticles required for intravenous administration, the use of poloxamers, tri-block copolymer surfactants is discussed as it improves blood circulation time and bioavailability of nanoparticles. Thus, nanoparticles can be engineered to provide adequate features to therapeutic applications, in which can be included surface functionalization with targeting agents. Different albumin-based formulations and their therapeutic applications are presented in this review, with emphasis on applications in cancer therapy, where albumin-based strategies are promising for targeted drug delivery in innovative clinical strategies.

  1. [Current role of albumin in critical care].

    PubMed

    Aguirre Puig, P; Orallo Morán, M A; Pereira Matalobos, D; Prieto Requeijo, P

    2014-11-01

    The use of colloids in fluid therapy has been, and still continues to be a controversial topic, particularly when referring to the critical patient. The choice of the fluid that needs to be administered depends on several factors, many of which are theoretical, and continue being an object of debate. The interest in the clinical use of the albumin has emerged again, immediately after recent publications in the search of the most suitable colloid. It is the most abundant protein in the plasma, being responsible for 80% of the oncotic pressure. It regulates the balance between the intra- and extra-vascular volumes. Recent multicenter studies question the supposed lack of safety that was previously assigned to it. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate other important actions besides oncotic, for example neutralization of free radicals, and exogenous (drugs) and endogenous substances (bile pigments, cholesterol). Being aware of these secondary properties of albumin, and evaluating the pathophysiology of the critical patient (in particular, sepsis), to maintain plasma albumin levels within the normal range, could be of great importance. Based on the most recent publications, the aim of this review is to briefly analyze the pathophysiology of albumin, as well as to discuss its possible indications in the critical patient.

  2. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Poór, Miklós; Lemli, Beáta; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Sali, Nikolett; Kőszegi, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3) and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I). In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions. PMID:26633504

  3. Mechanism of ammonia excretion in the freshwater leech Nephelopsis obscura: characterization of a primitive Rh protein and effects of high environmental ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Quijada-Rodriguez, Alex R.; Treberg, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Remarkably little is known about nitrogenous excretion in freshwater invertebrates. In the current study, the nitrogen excretion mechanism in the carnivorous ribbon leech, Nephelopsis obscura, was investigated. Excretion experiments showed that the ribbon leech is ammonotelic, excreting 166.0 ± 8.6 nmol·grams fresh weight (gFW)−1·h−1 ammonia and 14.7 ± 1.9 nmol·gFW−1·h−1 urea. Exposure to high and low pH hampered and enhanced, respectively, ammonia excretion rates, indicating an acid-linked ammonia trapping mechanism across the skin epithelia. Accordingly, compared with body tissues, the skin exhibited elevated mRNA expression levels of a newly identified Rhesus protein and at least in tendency the Na+/K+-ATPase. Pharmacological experiments and enzyme assays suggested an ammonia excretion mechanism that involves the V-ATPase, Na+/K+-ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase, but not necessarily a functional microtubule system. Most importantly, functional expression studies of the identified Rh protein cloned from leech skin tissue revealed an ammonia transport capability of this protein when expressed in yeast. The leech Rh-ammonia transporter (NoRhp) is a member of the primitive Rh protein family, which is a sister group to the common ancestor of vertebrate ammonia-transporting Rh proteins. Exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA) caused a new adjustment of body ammonia, accompanied with a decrease in NoRhp and Na+/K+-ATPase mRNA levels, but unaltered ammonia excretion rates. To our knowledge, this is only the second comprehensive study regarding the ammonia excretion mechanisms in a freshwater invertebrate, but our results show that basic processes of ammonia excretion appear to also be comparable to those found in freshwater fish, suggesting an early evolution of ionoregulatory mechanisms in freshwater organisms. PMID:26180186

  4. Mechanism of ammonia excretion in the freshwater leech Nephelopsis obscura: characterization of a primitive Rh protein and effects of high environmental ammonia.

    PubMed

    Quijada-Rodriguez, Alex R; Treberg, Jason R; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2015-09-15

    Remarkably little is known about nitrogenous excretion in freshwater invertebrates. In the current study, the nitrogen excretion mechanism in the carnivorous ribbon leech, Nephelopsis obscura, was investigated. Excretion experiments showed that the ribbon leech is ammonotelic, excreting 166.0 ± 8.6 nmol·grams fresh weight (gFW)(-1)·h(-1) ammonia and 14.7 ± 1.9 nmol·gFW(-1)·h(-1) urea. Exposure to high and low pH hampered and enhanced, respectively, ammonia excretion rates, indicating an acid-linked ammonia trapping mechanism across the skin epithelia. Accordingly, compared with body tissues, the skin exhibited elevated mRNA expression levels of a newly identified Rhesus protein and at least in tendency the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase. Pharmacological experiments and enzyme assays suggested an ammonia excretion mechanism that involves the V-ATPase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and carbonic anhydrase, but not necessarily a functional microtubule system. Most importantly, functional expression studies of the identified Rh protein cloned from leech skin tissue revealed an ammonia transport capability of this protein when expressed in yeast. The leech Rh-ammonia transporter (NoRhp) is a member of the primitive Rh protein family, which is a sister group to the common ancestor of vertebrate ammonia-transporting Rh proteins. Exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA) caused a new adjustment of body ammonia, accompanied with a decrease in NoRhp and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase mRNA levels, but unaltered ammonia excretion rates. To our knowledge, this is only the second comprehensive study regarding the ammonia excretion mechanisms in a freshwater invertebrate, but our results show that basic processes of ammonia excretion appear to also be comparable to those found in freshwater fish, suggesting an early evolution of ionoregulatory mechanisms in freshwater organisms.

  5. Gababuline induces delta-aminolevulinic acid excretion by cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, L.; Guikema, J.A.

    1986-04-01

    Gabaculine (5-amino-1,3-cyclohexadienylcarboxylic acid) was examined as an inhibitor of Chl biosynthesis in the cyanobacterium, Anacystis nidulans. At 20 ..mu..M, it blocked the synthesis of both Chl and phycocyanin. Similar results were obtained using aminooxyacetic acid. Because gabaculine is well established as an inhibitor of aminotransferase activity, the authors expected it to cause an inhibition of ..delta..-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthesis. However, an excretion of ALA was observed instead. Concentrated cell cultures were incubated in the presence of gabaculine, and the spent media was examined for ALA excretion using modified Ehrlick's reagent. Gabaculine induced ALA excretion in normal cultures, and in those stressed by iron or phosphate deficiency. Nitrate deficiency depressed the extent of ALA excretion. These results suggest that, in cyanobacteria, gabaculine inhibits CHl biosynthesis at a site after ALA formation.

  6. Evaluation of exposure to phenol: absorption of phenol vapour in the lungs and through the skin and excretion of phenol in urine

    PubMed Central

    Piotrowski, Jerzy K.

    1971-01-01

    Piotrowski, J. K. (1971).Brit. J. industr. Med.,28, 172-178. Evaluation of exposure to phenol: absorption of phenol vapour in the lungs and through the skin and excretion of phenol in urine. Volunteers were exposed to phenol vapour (5 to 25 mg/m3) by inhalation and through the skin, respectively, and the excretion of phenol in urine was examined. The retention of vapour in the lungs decreased from about 80 to 70% in the course of exposure. The absorption of vapour through the whole of the skin was approximately proportional to the concentration of vapour used, the absorption rate being somewhat lower than in the lungs. Almost 100% of the phenol was excreted in the urine within one day. The rate of excretion of phenol in the urine may be used as an exposure test which permits the absorbed dose to be estimated with a precision of about ±2 mg. PMID:5572685

  7. Infusion of maintenance fluids with glucose (Veen 3G) is superior to maltose infusion (Actit) in the rate of energy utilization in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Kojima, J; Yamana, K; Yanagida, S; Ohtani, S; Onodera, K

    2002-05-01

    In the present study, we examined the rates of urinary excretion of glucose and maltose after an infusion of maintenance fluid with glucose or maltose in adult rabbits. Three maintenance fluids (sugar-free, 5% glucose [Veen 3G] and 5% maltose [Actit]), which contained different sugars but were identical in electrolyte and acetate compositions and concentrations (Na: 45, K: 17, Mg: 5, Cl: 37, H2PO4: 10 and CH3COO: 20 mEq/l), were used in this study. In addition, the optimum infusion speed for maintenance therapy (10 ml/kg/h) was used. Animals were not given food or water during the 10-day period of administration. The body weights of the animals were measured every day. The concentrations of total protein, albumin, free fatty acids and glucose in the serum were measured. Urine samples for determination of glucose and maltose concentrations were collected from the 1st to 10th administrations. After infusion with 5% maltose, urinary maltose excretion decreased time-dependently, while that of glucose increased. This suggests that maltase activity time-dependently increases after infusion with maltose. In addition, total sugar was only minimally excreted into urine in the 5% glucose group compared with the 5% maltose group. Thus, the glucose infusion was superior to the maltose infusion in the rate of energy utilization. However, neither the loss of body weight nor the increase in concentration of free fatty acids in serum differed significantly among the 3 groups. In conclusion, infusion of maintenance fluid with 5% maltose results in the excretion of maltose and glucose into urine, since enzymatic hydrolysis of maltose to glucose is limited to that by maltase.

  8. Renal phenotype in Bardet-Biedl syndrome: a combined defect of urinary concentration and dilution is associated with defective urinary AQP2 and UMOD excretion.

    PubMed

    Zacchia, Miriam; Zacchia, Enza; Zona, Enrica; Capolongo, Giovanna; Raiola, Ilaria; Rinaldi, Luca; Trepiccione, Francesco; Ingrosso, Diego; Perna, Alessandra; Di Iorio, Valentina; Simonelli, Francesca; Moe, Orson W; Capasso, Giovambattista

    2016-10-01

    The renal phenotype in Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS) is highly variable. The present study describes renal findings in 41 BBS patients and analyzes the pathogenesis of hyposthenuria, the most common renal dysfunction. Five of 41 patients (12%) showed an estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 ml·min(-1)·1.73 m(-2) Urine protein and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio were over 200 and 30 mg/g in 9/24 and 7/23 patients, respectively. Four of 41 patients showed no renal anomalies on ultrasound. Twenty of 34 patients had hyposthenuria in the absence of renal insufficiency. In all 8 of the hyposthenuric patients studied, dDAVP failed to elevate urine osmolality (Uosm), suggesting a nephrogenic origin. Interestingly, water loading (WL) did not result in a significant reduction of Uosm, indicating combined concentrating and diluting defects. dDAVP infusion induced a significant increase of plasma Factor VIII and von Willebrand Factor levels, supporting normal function of the type 2 vasopressin receptor at least in endothelial cells. While urinary aquaporin 2 (u-AQP2) abundance was not different between patients and controls at baseline, the dDAVP-induced increased u-AQP2 and the WL-induced reduction of u-AQP2 were blunted in patients with a combined concentrating and diluting defect, suggesting a potential role of AQP2 in the defective regulation of water absorption. Urine Uromodulin excretion was reduced in all hyposthenuric patients, suggesting a thick ascending limb defect. Interestingly, renal Na, Cl, Ca, but not K handling was impaired after acute WL but not at basal. In summary, BBS patients show combined urinary concentration and dilution defects; a thick ascending limb and collecting duct tubulopathy may underlie impaired water handling.

  9. Renal sodium excretion in sons of hypertensive parents.

    PubMed

    Turner, S T; Reilly, S L

    1993-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether renal excretion of sodium is impaired and whether tubular reabsorption of sodium is increased in normotensive white men with a familial predisposition to develop essential hypertension. We compared 11 normotensive sons of two hypertensive parents (SOHT) with 11 normotensive sons of two normotensive parents (SONT); renal sodium handling was assessed after 1 week of low-sodium diet (10 mmol/d) and after 1 week of high-sodium diet (200 mmol/d). The SOHT were on average 5.5 years older than the SONT (46.9 +/- 5.2 [SD] vs 41.4 +/- 4.1, P = .012). On the sixth day of each diet, mean urinary sodium excretion did not differ between the two groups (12.9 +/- 6.3 vs 12.7 +/- 6.7 mmol/d on low-sodium diet, P = .930; 197 +/- 25 vs 200 +/- 27 mmol/d on high-sodium diet, P = .817). On the seventh day of each diet, baseline means for filtered load of sodium, absolute excretion of sodium, fractional excretion of sodium (an index of total tubular sodium reabsorption), and fractional excretion of lithium (an inverse index of proximal tubular sodium reabsorption) also did not differ between the groups. To assess renal sodium handling under non-steady-state conditions, we infused 2 L normal saline intravenously over a 2-hour period. The means for absolute excretion of sodium, fractional excretion of sodium, and fractional excretion of lithium increased from baseline, but the increases did not differ in magnitude between the groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Pseudo-esterase Activity of Human Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Lockridge, Oksana; Xue, Weihua; Gaydess, Andrea; Grigoryan, Hasmik; Ding, Shi-Jian; Schopfer, Lawrence M.; Hinrichs, Steven H.; Masson, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Human albumin is thought to hydrolyze esters because multiple equivalents of product are formed for each equivalent of albumin. Esterase activity with p-nitrophenyl acetate has been attributed to turnover at tyrosine 411. However, p-nitrophenyl acetate creates multiple, stable, acetylated adducts, a property contrary to turnover. Our goal was to identify residues that become acetylated by p-nitrophenyl acetate and determine the relationship between stable adduct formation and turnover. Fatty acid-free human albumin was treated with 0.5 mm p-nitrophenyl acetate for 5 min to 2 weeks, or with 10 mm p-nitrophenyl acetate for 48 h to 2 weeks. Aliquots were digested with pepsin, trypsin, or GluC and analyzed by mass spectrometry to identify labeled residues. Only Tyr-411 was acetylated within the first 5 min of reaction with 0.5 mm p-nitrophenyl acetate. After 0.5–6 h there was partial acetylation of 16–17 residues including Asp-1, Lys-4, Lys-12, Tyr-411, Lys-413, and Lys-414. Treatment with 10 mm p-nitrophenyl acetate resulted in acetylation of 59 lysines, 10 serines, 8 threonines, 4 tyrosines, and Asp-1. When Tyr-411 was blocked with diisopropylfluorophosphate or chlorpyrifos oxon, albumin had normal esterase activity with β-naphthyl acetate as visualized on a nondenaturing gel. However, after 82 residues had been acetylated, esterase activity was almost completely inhibited. The half-life for deacetylation of Tyr-411 at pH 8.0, 22 °C was 61 ± 4 h. Acetylated lysines formed adducts that were even more stable. In conclusion, the pseudo-esterase activity of albumin is the result of irreversible acetylation of 82 residues and is not the result of turnover. PMID:18577514

  11. Chicken albumin exhibits natural resistance to glycation.

    PubMed

    Zuck, Jessica; Borges, Chad R; Braun, Eldon J; Sweazea, Karen L

    2017-01-01

    Glycation of proteins and subsequent production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) is a major contributor to the pathophysiology of diabetes. The objective of the present study was to compare the glycation of avian and human serum albumin to elucidate the mechanisms by which protein glycation in birds is prevented in the presence of naturally high plasma glucose concentrations. Solutions of purified chicken and human serum albumin (CSA and HSA) were prepared with four different glucose concentrations (0, 5.56, 11.1, and 22.2mM) and incubated at three temperatures (37.0, 39.8, and 41.4°C) for seven days. The solutions were sampled on Days 0, 3, and 7 and analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry for the presence of glycated albumin. Four-way repeated measures ANOVA (p=0.032) indicate that all independent variables (albumin type, glucose concentration, temperature and time) interacted to affect the degree of glycation. With increasing glucose concentration, the glycation of both HSA and CSA increased with time at all temperatures. In addition, HSA was glycated to a greater extent than CSA at the two higher glucose concentrations for all temperature conditions. Glycation was elevated with increasing temperatures for HSA but not CSA. The results suggest an inherent difference between human and chicken albumin that contributes to the observed differences in glycation. Further research is needed to characterize this inherent difference in an effort to elucidate mechanisms by which avian plasma protein is glycated to a lesser degree than that of mammals (humans).

  12. Selenium absorption, distribution, and excretion in white sturgeon orally dosed with l-selenomethionine.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Diran H; Hung, Silas S O

    2006-10-01

    The usefulness of a newly developed, combined technique consisting of esophageal intubation, dorsal aortic cannulation, and urinary catheterization to deliver Se orally and to monitor Se uptake, accumulation, and excretion in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was explored. Groups of five yearling sturgeon (1-2 kg) each were intubated with 0 (sham), 250, 500, or 1,000 microg Se/kg body weight in the form of L-selenomethionine, an ecologically relevant organic form of Se. Selenium concentrations in whole blood, plasma, and red blood cells did not change in the sham group but began to rise within 2 h postintubation in the other groups, and levels remained near maximum concentrations throughout the 48-h sampling period. Average urinary Se excretion rates over the entire 48-h period were 0.05, 0.46, 0.61, and 2.15 microg Se/kg/h in sturgeon intubated with 0, 250, 500, and 1,000 microg Se/kg, respectively. Selenium excretion rates were highest within the first 6 h in all treatment groups except the sham group. Selenium concentrations in the liver were positively correlated with the intubated Se dosage.

  13. Species differences in biliary excretion of benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Weyand, E.H.; Bevan, D.R.

    1986-05-01

    Biliary excretion of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was investigated in rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs following intratracheal administration. (/sup 3/H)-B(a)P, in amounts of approximately 150 ng or 350 ..mu..g, was instilled into lungs and amounts of radioactivity excreted in bile were monitored for six hrs following administration. Differences in biliary excretion of (/sup 3/H)-B(a)P and/or metabolites among species were observed at low doses but not at high doses. Six hours after instillation of a low dose of B(a)P, 70, 54, and 62% of the dose was excreted in bile of rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs, respectively. Upon administration of the higher dose of B(a)P, approximately 50% of the dose was excreted in bile in six hrs by all species. Thus, rats and guinea pigs exhibit differences in biliary excretion of low and high doses of B(a)P whereas hamsters do not. Profiles of phase II metabolites in rats and hamsters were similar at both low and high doses, with the majority of metabolites being glucuronides and thioether conjugates. However, differences in relative amounts of these conjugates were observed between the two doses, with a shift towards a greater proportion of glucuronides at the higher dose. Metabolites in bile from guinea pigs were primarily thioether conjugates, which accounted for 88% of metabolites at the low dose and 95% at the high dose.

  14. Immunocytoma effect upon circadian variation in murine urinary excretion of beta-aminoisobutyric acid, beta-alanine, phenylalanine and tyrosine.

    PubMed

    Halberg, F; Gehrke, C W; Kuo, K; Nelson, W L; Sothern, R B; Cadotte, L M; Haus, E; Scheving, L E

    1978-01-01

    Under the conditions of disynchronization by the manipulation of both the alternation of light and darkness and the availability and unavailability of food, circadian rhythms characterize the excretion of several amino acids by inbred LOU rats bearing an immunocytoma. Large amplitude rhythms can be demonstrated for urinary beta-aminoisobutyric acid, beta-alanine, phenylalanine and tyrosine. Under the same conditions of disynchronization, control animals excrete the same compounds also with a marked circadian variation but at an invariably lower average rate. These excretory rhythms, along with those demonstrated earlier for polyamines and light-chains, are of interest as potential markers for the chronotherapy of cancer.

  15. Ocular Albumin Fluorophotometric Quantitation of Endotoxin-Induced Vascular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Scott W.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Guss, Robert B.; Egbert, Peter R.

    1982-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) is known to alter systemic vascular permeability, but this effect is difficult to monitor and quantitate in vivo. The ocular vessels of the rabbit are particularly sensitive to LPS. Using a slit lamp equipped with a fluorophotometer, we have adapted a method to quantitate endotoxin-induced ocular vascular permeability by measuring the accumulation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated albumin into the anterior chamber of the eye. After intravenous administration of Salmonella typhimurim LPS, the anterior chamber fluorescence and blood fluorescence were measured at intervals of 15 min and 1 h, respectively, over 4 h. In controls, maximal fluorescence in the anterior chamber was 3.1 ± 0.8% of blood fluorescence. Doses of LPS as low as 0.25 μg/kg produced an ocular/serum fluorescence ratio of 17.6 ± 4.9. A dose of 2.5 μg of LPS per kg tended to produce a higher ratio (68.0 ± 7.1) than a larger dose of 50 μg/kg (30.5 ± 16.6). Permeability changes began within 30 min after LPS, and the rate of dye accumulation varied over time, with maximal leakage usually occurring 90 min after LPS, but occasionally occurring much later. Repeated doses produced tolerance. By conjugating albumin to rhodamine and utilizing a second filter with the slit lamp to measure accumulation of this dye, we demonstrated the persistence of marked permeability during a period when intraocular fluorescein isothiocyanate and albumin levels were relatively constant. This methodology indicates that extremely low doses of LPS induce ocular permeability changes and that neither the time course nor the dose response of this effect is linear. Ocular fluorophotometry is a sensitive, noninvasive technique to study the dynamics and pharmacology of LPS-induced permeability changes. PMID:6806194

  16. Human albumin use at hospitals in the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matos, Guacira Corrêa de; Rozenfeld, Suely; Martins, Monica

    2010-05-01

    The study analyzes the use of human albumin in hospitals in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using inpatient data from the information system of Brazil's health system between 1999 and 2001. Death was the main outcome as patients died in 32% of admissions in which human albumin was used as compared with 4% of all admissions in the same period and region. The Charlson Comorbidity Index was included for risk adjustment. Human albumin was used in 10,111 in-patients more than 1 year old. 87,774 50-ml bottles of 20% human albumin were consumed at a cost of US$ 1,755. The main diagnoses were neoplasms (29.1%), diseases of the digestive system (17.5%) and circulatory system (16%). Death rate increased with age, public ownership of the hospital, clinical services (as opposed to surgical services), length of stay and use of intensive care. Death was associated with use of more than four bottles of human albumin (PR: 1.30; 99%CI: 1.23-1.37), adjusted for severity and speciality. The results are cause for concern as they may be related to poor compliance with guidelines, excess of risk to patients and unnecessary expenses for the public health system.

  17. In vivo binding of 1-nitropyrene to albumin in the rat.

    PubMed

    el-Bayoumy, K; Johnson, B; Partian, S; Upadhyaya, P; Hecht, S S

    1994-01-01

    Human risk assessment from exposure to nitropolynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (NO2-PAH) has not been clearly defined, despite the widespread occurrence of such agents in the environment and their possible involvement in the etiology of some human cancers. This study was conducted since methods to determine exposure to and uptake of metabolically activated NO2-PAH are lacking. 1-Nitropyrene (1-NP), the most abundant and most extensively studied NO2-PAH, was found to bind to rat albumin at a level of 0.04 +/- 0.01% (mean +/- SD, n = 3) of the dose administered by gavage; the binding was linear over five orders of magnitude (P < 0.01). The adducts cleared at a rate (half-life = 60 h) similar to that of the unmodified rat albumin. Chromatographic analysis revealed that albumin adducts could be resolved further into a major and a minor component. Mild acid hydrolysis of the major 1-NP-albumin adduct yielded phenolic derivatives that, when subjected to acetylation, produced a material with a mass spectrum similar to that of a synthetically prepared mixture, consisting of more than one isomer, 1-acetylamino-X,Y-diacetoxypyrenes (chromatographic separation of the individual isomers was not achieved). Thus, this phenolic material that is released upon the acid treatment of albumin adducts may be a suitable indicator(s) for monitoring exposure to and metabolic activation of 1-NP.

  18. Albumin oxidation leads to neutrophil activation in vitro and inaccurate measurement of serum albumin in patients with diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Michelis, Regina; Kristal, Batya; Zeitun, Teuta; Shapiro, Galina; Fridman, Yoav; Geron, Ronit; Sela, Shifra

    2013-07-01

    Previous studies suggest that oxidative modifications of serum albumin lead to underestimation of albumin concentrations using conventional assays. In addition, oxidation of serum albumin may cause neutrophil activation and further oxidation of albumin, which may result in a series of reciprocal cyclical processes. Because hypoalbuminemia, systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress are common in diabetic nephropathy patients, the aim of this study was to show that albumin modifications and neutrophil activation underlie these reciprocal systemic processes. Blood samples from a cohort of 19 patients with diabetic nephropathy and 15 healthy controls were used for albumin separation. An oxidation-dependent "albumin detection index," representing the detection efficacy of the universal bromocresol green assay, was determined for each subject. This index was correlated with serum albumin levels, various markers of oxidative stress or inflammation, and kidney function. Activation of separated neutrophils by glycoxidized albumin was assessed by the release of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and myeloperoxidase (MPO). The albumin detection index of diabetic nephropathy patients was significantly lower compared to that of controls, correlating positively with serum levels of albumin and kidney function and negatively with albumin glycoxidation and inflammatory markers. Glycoxidized albumin had a direct role in neutrophil activation, resulting in NGAL and MPO release. The hypoalbuminemia observed in patients with diabetic nephropathy partially results from underestimation of modified/oxidized albumin using the bromocresol green assay. However, modified or oxidized albumin may lead to a cycle of accelerated oxidative stress and inflammation involving neutrophil activation. We suggest that the albumin detection index, a new marker of oxidative stress, may also serve as a biomarker of diabetic nephropathy severity and its progression.

  19. Plasma albumin concentrations and intestinal permeability in Bangladeshi children infected with Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed

    Northrop, C A; Lunn, P G; Wainwright, M; Evans, J

    1987-01-01

    Plasma albumin concentration and intestinal permeability have been investigated in Bangladeshi children before and 9-14 d after successful treatment for ascariasis. Children infected with A. lumbricoides had lower plasma albumin concentrations than counterparts not harbouring this worm and values increased with successful treatment. Intestinal permeability tests indicated that the children had impaired gastrointestinal function and some loss of mucosal integrity; these factors had not improved 9-14 d after A. lumbricoides expulsion. The lowered nitrogen nutritional status implied by the reduced plasma albumin values in infected children, and the improvement following treatment, are in keeping with previous reports that A. lumbricoides impairs protein digestion or absorption. This may be the basis of the better growth rates of dewormed children in this area.

  20. Albumin modulates lateral assembly of fibrin polymers: evidence of enhanced fine fibril formation and of unique synergism with fibrinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Galanakis, D.K.; Lane, B.P.; Simon, S.R.

    1987-04-21

    The authors identified a new property of human albumin. It enhances formation of fine fibril (or leptofibril) structure during fibrin gelation, and by nephelometric and electron microscopic measurements, this property is independent of and synergistic with that of fibrinogen. They examined fibrin aggregation using physiologic temperatures and pH and albumin:fibrin concentration ratios below those at which the known accelerating effect on fibrin aggregation occurs. An albumin concentration dependent decrease in gel turbidity maxima was consistently demonstrable in buffers containing or lacking (2-5 mM) CaCl/sub 2/. Electron microscopic measurements of cross-sectional fibril widths, performed on sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed gels, disclosed differences between albumin-containing and control gels which were significant. Spin-labeled albumin displayed no change in electron (para) magnetic spin resonance spectral measurements during its inhibition of fibrin, indicating no perturbation on albumin conformation in the vicinities of Cys-34 and of fatty acid binding sites. Certain fibrinogen:albumin ratios designed to induce maximal inhibition yet permit gelation in the presence of either alone prevented gelation of buffer-diluted fibrin monomers. Aliquots from these which were dried and negatively stained on formvar-coated grids disclosed strands of 5-17 nm width, most displaying a 60-250-nm approximate length. The amounts of /sup 131/I-labeled coagulable fibrin which remained soluble in fibrinogen solutions were increased by albumin. They conclude that albumin enhances formation of leptofibril-rich gel domains when other plasma factors favor formation of such structures. Available evidence indicating decreased permeability implies that such gel domains limit efflux rates from the intrathrombus environment and from intra- to extravascular space.

  1. Nitrogenous and phosphorus excretions in juvenile silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to different water hardness, humic acid, and pH levels.

    PubMed

    Golombieski, Jaqueline Ineu; Koakoski, Gessi; Becker, Alessandra Janaína; Almeida, Ana Paula Gottlieb; Toni, Cândida; Finamor, Isabela Andres; Pavanato, Maria Amália; de Almeida, Tielle Moraes; Baldisserotto, Bernardo

    2013-08-01

    This study examined ammonia, urea, creatinine, protein, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphorus (P) excretion at different water hardness, humic acid, or pH levels in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) juveniles. The fish were exposed to different levels of water hardness (4, 24, 50, or 100 mg L(-1) CaCO3), humic acid (0, 2.5, or 5.0 mg L(-1)), or pH (5.0, 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, or 9.0) for 10 days. The overall measured nitrogen excretions were 88.1% (244-423 μmol kg(-1 )h(-1)) for ammonia, 10.9% (30-52 μmol kg(-1 )h(-1)) for creatinine, 0.02% (0.05-0.08 μmol kg(-1 )h(-1)) for protein, 0.001 % (0.002-0.004 μmol kg(-1 )h(-1)) for urea, 0.5% (0.64-3.6 μmol kg(-1 )h(-1)) for nitrite, and 0.5% (0.0-6.9 μmol kg(-1 )h(-1)) for nitrate, and these proportions were not affected by water hardness or humic acid levels. The overall P excretion in R. quelen was 0.14-2.97 μmol kg(-1) h(-1). Ammonia excretion in R. quelen usually was significantly higher in the first 12 h after feeding, and no clear effect of water hardness, humic acid levels, and pH on this daily pattern of ammonia excretion could be observed. Water hardness only affected the ammonia and P excretion of R. quelen juveniles in the initial and fifth days after transfer, respectively. The exposure of this species to humic acid increased ammonia excretion after 10 days of exposure but did not affect P excretion. An increase in pH decreased ammonia and increased creatinine excretion but did not change P excretion in R. quelen. Therefore, when there is any change on humic acid levels or pH in the culture of this species, nitrogenous compounds must be monitored because their excretion rates are variable. On the other hand, P excretion rates determined in the present study are applicable to a wide range of fish culture conditions.

  2. Prevalence of Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii in German cattle herds and factors influencing oocyst excretion.

    PubMed

    Bangoura, Berit; Mundt, Hans-Christian; Schmäschke, Ronald; Westphal, Bernhard; Daugschies, Arwid

    2011-08-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of the pathogenic coccidia species E. bovis and E. zuernii in shed-reared animals in German dairy and fattening facilities.Samples were obtained from 65 cattle farms distributed randomly across all the regions of Germany, regardless of the occurrence of clinical problems. The samples were obtained rectally. Faecal consistency and the total number of oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG) were determined for Eimeria spp., along with the separate OPG values for Eimeria (E.) bovis and E. zuernii. A questionnaire was completed for each farm to record information about herd size and management together with individual animal data. Eimeria oocysts, regardless of the kind of Eimeria spp., were detected in 62 of these farms, which gives a prevalence of 95.4 %. The farm prevalence of the pathogenic species was 76.9 % for E. bovis and 83.1 % for E. zuernii. The average oocyst excretion level was 2,950 OPG in terms of total Eimeria spp. oocyst excretion, 700 OPG for E. bovis and 1,500 OPG for E. zuernii.The number of oocysts excreted could not be correlated significantly with farm type or farm management but depended on the floor type which influences the infection pressure, on the age of the calves and the time after rehousing. In general, higher oocyst excretion rates were found in calves kept on litter compared to rearing on slatted floor. Younger calves and calves sampled early after housing shed higher amounts of oocysts than older calves and calves stabled a longer period before sampling, respectively. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between OPG and the observation of diarrhoea, defined as observation of a loose to liquid faecal consistency. Excretion of E. zuernii oocysts was more closely linked to the occurrence of diarrhoea than E. bovis oocyst excretion. This study confirms that the pathogenic coccidia E. bovis and E. zuernii are ubiquitous in German cattle populations and a significant cause of

  3. Urinary protein excretion profile: A contribution for subclinical renal damage identification among environmental heavy metals exposure in Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlipp, C. R.; Bottini, P. V.; de Capitan, E. M.; Pinho, M. C.; Panzan, A. D. N.; Sakuma, A. M. A.; Paoliello, M. B.

    2003-05-01

    In Southeast Brazil. Ribeira Valley region has been a major public health concern due to he environmental heavy metals contamination indexes of vegetation, rocks and aquifers, caused by locai mining in the past. Human contamination low levels of heavy rnetals doesn't cause acute intoxication but ni chronic exposure, renal damage may occur with progressive tubuJointerstitial changes evolvil1g to glomemlar 1esiol1, ln this stndy we invesligated the relationship between thc profile of utillan, excreted proteins (glomerular or lubular origin) of arsenic and mercury and blood lead concentration in chiJdren and adults from highly e) qJosed regions of the Ribeira Valley. The subjects were classieed as GROUP 1 (GI; higher environmental risk n=333) and GROUP 2 (G2; lower risk of contamination. n=104). In order to determine the urinary excretion of total protein, albumin (MA, glomerular marker) and alpha i microglobulin (AIM, tubular marker) and the blood lead concentrations. random wine and blood samples were obtaiiied. Plasmatic lead levels were assessed by atomic absorption spectrometty with graphite fumace. Totai protein concentration (PROT) was assessed on a biochemical analyzer ,progallol red method). MA and AIM were determined by nephelometric method. Croup 1 showcd a higher frequency of altered urinary excretion of PROT (GI=3.4%; G2=1.0%), MA (Gl=9.0%; G2=5.1%) and AIM (Gt=7.5%, G2=3.8%), without significant differences between both groups. Elevated arscnic levels were more prevaient among subjects from Group 1 (2.8.8%) and demonstrated a significant corrolation with abiiormal iirinarv excretion of ilbumin and alpha-l-micrglobulin (p=0.019).Leadaand mercury levels showed no difference among the groups and no correlation will MAa and/or M. Oti-c dala suggests that abnormal itrinary protein excretion is relatively frequent in this population independently of the plasmatic or urinaryl heavy metal levels. The early detection of possible renal damage become necessary for

  4. [Trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE): a new route for cholesterol excretion].

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Claire; Moreau, François; Cariou, Bertrand; Le May, Cédric

    2014-10-01

    The small intestine plays a crucial role in dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption, as well as its lymphatic secretion as chylomicrons (lipoprotein exogenous way). Recently, a new metabolic pathway called TICE (trans-intestinal excretion of cholesterol) that plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism has emerged. TICE is an inducible way, complementary to the hepatobiliary pathway, allowing the elimination of the plasma cholesterol directly into the intestine lumen through the enterocytes. This pathway is poorly characterized but several molecular actors of TICE have been recently identified. Although it is a matter of debate, two independent studies suggest that TICE is involved in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Thus, TICE is an innovative drug target to reduce -cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Effect of albumin on the kinetics of ascorbate oxidation.

    PubMed

    Lozinsky, E; Novoselsky, A; Shames, A I; Saphier, O; Likhtenshtein, G I; Meyerstein, D

    2001-04-03

    The fluorescence intensity of the fluorophore in dansyl piperidine-nitroxide is intramolecularly quenched by the nitroxyl fragment. Therefore, the oxidation of ascorbic acid by the fluorophore-nitroxide (FN) probe can be monitored by two independent methods: steady-state fluorescence and electron paramagnetic resonance. Bovine serum albumin (BSA) affects the rate of this reaction. The influence of BSA on the rate is attributed to the adsorption of both ascorbate and the probe to BSA. Adsorption of ascorbate to BSA is confirmed by NMR relaxation experiments. The spatial distribution of the molecules on the BSA surface changes the availability of ascorbate and FN to each other. The results also point out that, in the presence of BSA, the autoxidation of ascorbate is significantly slowed down. The effect is studied at different pH values and explained in terms of the electrostatic interaction between the ascorbate anion and the BSA molecule.

  6. Contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Goodman, H. O.; Assimos, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate excreted in urine has a significant impact on calcium oxalate supersaturation and stone formation. Dietary oxalate is believed to make only a minor (10 to 20%) contribution to the amount of oxalate excreted in urine, but the validity of the experimental observations that support this conclusion can be questioned. An understanding of the actual contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion is important, as it is potentially modifiable. METHODS: We varied the amount of dietary oxalate consumed by a group of adult individuals using formula diets and controlled, solid-food diets with a known oxalate content, determined by a recently developed analytical procedure. Controlled solid-food diets were consumed containing 10, 50, and 250 mg of oxalate/2500 kcal, as well as formula diets containing 0 and 180 mg oxalate/2500 kcal. Changes in the content of oxalate and other ions were assessed in 24-hour urine collections. RESULTS: Urinary oxalate excretion increased as dietary oxalate intake increased. With oxalate-containing diets, the mean contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion ranged from 24.4 +/- 15.5% on the 10 mg/2500 kcal/day diet to 41.5 +/- 9.1% on the 250 mg/2500 kcal/day diet, much higher than previously estimated. When the calcium content of a diet containing 250 mg of oxalate was reduced from 1002 mg to 391 mg, urinary oxalate excretion increased by a mean of 28.2 +/- 4.8%, and the mean dietary contribution increased to 52.6 +/- 8.6%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dietary oxalate makes a much greater contribution to urinary oxalate excretion than previously recognized, that dietary calcium influences the bioavailability of ingested oxalate, and that the absorption of dietary oxalate may be an important factor in calcium oxalate stone formation.

  7. Glucocorticoids increase salt appetite by promoting water and sodium excretion.

    PubMed

    Thunhorst, Robert L; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2007-09-01

    Glucocorticoids [e.g., corticosterone and dexamethasone (Dex)], when administered systemically, greatly increase water drinking elicited by angiotensin and sodium ingestion in response to mineralocorticoids [e.g., aldosterone and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)], possibly by acting in the brain. In addition, glucocorticoids exert powerful renal actions that could influence water and sodium ingestion by promoting their excretion. To test this, we determined water and sodium intakes, excretions, and balances during injections of Dex and DOCA and their coadministration (DOCA+Dex) at doses commonly employed to stimulate ingestion of water and sodium. In animals having only water to drink, Dex treatment greatly increased water and sodium excretion without affecting water intake, thereby producing negative water and sodium balances. Similar results were observed when Dex was administered together with DOCA. In animals having water and saline solution (0.3 M NaCl) to drink, Dex treatment increased water and sodium excretion, had minimal effects on water and sodium intakes, and was associated with negative water and sodium balances. DOCA treatment progressively increased sodium ingestion, and both water and sodium intakes exceeded their urinary excretion, resulting in positive water and sodium balances. The combination of DOCA+Dex stimulated rapid, large increases in sodium ingestion and positive sodium balances. However, water excretion outpaced total fluid intake, resulting in large, negative water balances. Plasma volume increased during DOCA treatment and did not change during treatment with Dex or DOCA+Dex. We conclude that increased urinary excretion, especially of water, during glucocorticoid treatment may explain the increased ingestion of water and sodium that occurs during coadministration with mineralocorticoids.

  8. Urinary calcium excretion in postmenopausal African American women

    PubMed Central

    Aloia, John F.; Shieh, Albert; Mikhail, Mageda; Islam, Shahidul

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to develop a reference range for urine calcium excretion (both 24-hour and fasting) for African American women compared to White women. In addition, the variables that determine urine calcium excretion were identified. Material: Data were analyzed for baseline studies of healthy postmenopausal volunteers who participated in seven separate studies conducted at one site. Methods: Some studies included fasting urine Ca/Cr and others 24-hour urine calcium excretion. 24-hour urine calcium was considered with and without correction for urinary creatinine excretion. Calcium was measured initially by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and more recently by an automated method (ADVIA 2400 Chemistry System). Results: Participants were considered healthy based on history and physical and routine laboratory studies. Those screened who had a history of nephrolithiasis were excluded. A reference range for 24-hour urine calcium and fasting urine calcium/creatinine was developed. Reference intervals of 11 – 197 mg/24-hour urine calcium excretion and of 0.007 – 0.222 of fasting Ca/Cr were found for African American women compared to 21 – 221 mg/24 hours and 0.019 – 0.264 in White women, respectively. Urine creatinine excretion was higher in African Americans consistent with their higher muscle mass. Conclusion: Urine calcium excretion is lower in postmenopausal African American than White women. The reference range developed should be considered in the diagnosis of hypocalciuric states and may also be useful in the diagnosis of hypercalciuria. PMID:26226948

  9. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Mills, Katherine T; Appel, Lawrence J; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Lee, Belinda T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Porter, Anna; Makos, Gail; Weir, Matthew R; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W

    2016-04-01

    CKD is a major risk factor for ESRD, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Whether dietary sodium and potassium intake affect CKD progression remains unclear. We prospectively studied the association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among 3939 patients with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured using three 24-hour urine specimens, and CKD progression was defined as incident ESRD or halving of eGFR. During follow-up, 939 CKD progression events and 540 deaths occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (<116.8 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (≥194.6 mmol/24 h) were 1.54 (1.23 to 1.92) for CKD progression, 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for all-cause mortality, and 1.43 (1.18 to 1.73) for the composite outcome of CKD progression and all-cause mortality after adjusting for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR. Additionally, compared with the lowest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (<39.4 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios for the highest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (≥67.1 mmol/24 h) were 1.59 (1.25 to 2.03) for CKD progression, 0.98 (0.71 to 1.35) for all-cause mortality, and 1.42 (1.15 to 1.74) for the composite outcome. These data indicate that high urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with increased risk of CKD progression. Clinical trials are warranted to test the effect of sodium and potassium reduction on CKD progression.

  10. Reductive unfolding of serum albumins uncovered by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    David, Catalina; Foley, Sarah; Mavon, Christophe; Enescu, Mironel

    2008-07-01

    The reductive unfolding of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) induced by dithiothreitol (DTT) is investigated using Raman spectroscopy. The resolution of the S-S Raman band into both protein and oxidized DTT contributions provides a reliable basis for directly monitoring the S-S bridge exchange reaction. The related changes in the protein secondary structure are identified by analyzing the protein amide I Raman band. For the reduction of one S-S bridge of BSA, a mean Gibbs free energy of -7 kJ mol(-1) is derived by studying the reaction equilibrium. The corresponding value for the HSA S-S bridge reduction is -2 kJ mol(-1). The reaction kinetics observed via the S-S or amide I Raman bands are identical giving a reaction rate constant of (1.02 +/- 0.11) M(-1) s(-1) for BSA. The contribution of the conformational Gibbs free energy to the overall Gibbs free energy of reaction is further estimated by combining experimental data with ab initio calculations.

  11. Fluorescent holograms with albumin-acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    We describe fluorescent holograms were made with photosensitive films of albumin (protein) quail, used as modified matrices. Albumin is mixed with acrylamide and eosin Y. Therefore, prepare a photosensitive emulsion and solid hydrated with the ability to phase transmission holograms and volume (VPH). Eosin Y is a fluorescent agent that acts as a photo-sensitizing dye which stimulates the polymerization of acrylamide. To record the interference pattern produced by two waves superimposed on the modified matrix, we use a He-Cd laser. To reconstruct the diffraction pattern is observed with He- Ne laser, λ = 632.8nm, the material is self-developing properties. Measure the diffraction efficiency of the diffracted orders (η[-1, +1]) as a function of exposure energy. We work with various thicknesses and measure the variation of the refractive index using the coupled wave theory of Kogelnik, the holographic gratings meet Bragg condition.

  12. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Horse Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.

  13. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.

  14. Rabbit serum albumin hydrolyzes the carbamate carbaryl.

    PubMed

    Sogorb, Miguel A; Carrera, Victoria; Benabent, Mónica; Vilanova, Eugenio

    2002-04-01

    One of the main detoxification processes of the carbamate insecticides is the hydrolysis of the carbamic ester bond. Carboxylesterases seem to play important roles in the metabolization of carbamates. This study performs a biochemical characterization of the capabilities of rabbit serum albumin (RSA) to hydrolyze the carbamate carbaryl. Rabbit serum albumin was able to hydrolyze carbaryl with a K(cat) of 7.1 x 10(-5) s(-1). The K(m) for this hydrolysis reaction was 240 microM. Human, chicken, and bovine serum albumins were also able to hydrolyze carbaryl. The divalent cation Cu(2+) at 1 mM concentration inhibited around 50% of the hydrolysis of carbaryl by RSA. Other mono- and divalent cations at 1 mM concentration and 5 mM EDTA exerted no significant effects on the hydrolysis of carbaryl by RSA. The inhibition of the carbaryl hydrolysis by sulfydril blocking agents suggests that a cysteine residue plays an important role in the active center of the catalytic activity. Both caprylic and palmitic acids were noncompetitive inhibitors of the carbaryl hydrolysis by RSA. The carboxyl ester p-nitrophenyl butyrate is a substrate of RSA and competitively inhibited the hydrolysis of carbaryl by this protein, suggesting that the hydrolysis of carbaryl and the hydrolysis of carboxyl esters occur in the same catalytic site and through a similar mechanism. This mechanism might be based on the carbamylation of a tyrosine residue of the RSA. Serum albumin is a protein universally present in nontarget species of insecticides; therefore, the capability of this protein to hydrolyze other carbamates must be studied because it might have important toxicological and ecotoxicological implications.

  15. Renal excretion profiles of psilocin following oral administration of psilocybin: a controlled study in man.

    PubMed

    Hasler, Felix; Bourquin, Daniel; Brenneisen, Rudolf; Vollenweider, Franz X

    2002-09-05

    In a clinical study eight volunteers received psilocybin (PY) in psychoactive oral doses of 212+/-25 microg/kg body weight. To investigate the elimination kinetics of psilocin (PI), the first metabolite of PY, urine was collected for 24 h and PI concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with column switching and electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD). Sample workup included protection of the unstable PI with ascorbic acid, freeze-drying, and extraction with methanol. Peak PI concentrations up to 870 microg/l were measured in urine samples from the 2-4 h collection interval. The PI excretion rate in this period was 55.5+/-33.8 microg/h. The limit of quantitation (10 microg/L) was usually reached 24 h after drug administration. Within 24 h, 3.4+/-0.9% of the applied dose of PY was excreted as free PI. Addition of beta-glucuronidase to urine samples and incubation for 5 h at 40 degrees C led to twofold higher PI concentrations, although 18+/-7% of the amount of unconjugated PI was decomposed during incubation. We conclude that in humans PI is partially excreted as PI-O-glucuronide and that enzymatic hydrolysis extends the time of detectability for PI in urine samples.

  16. Ammonium excretion in two benthic cnidarians: Alcyonium digitatum (Linnaeus, 1758) and Urticina felina (Linnaeus, 1767)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migné, A.; Davoult, D.

    1997-05-01

    As part of an evaluation of nitrogen fluxes between the water column and a macrobenthic community of the Strait of Dover (eastern English Channel), ammonium excretion was measured throughout the year in two common cnidarians (the octocoral Alcyonium digitatum and the sea anemone Urticina felina) which together accounted for 37% of the biomass. Mean ammonium excretion rates were 6.48 (±2.44 s.d.) μg N g -1 h -1 (ash-free dry weight) for A. digitatum and 4.12 (±l.38 s.d.) μg N g -1 h -1 for U. felina. Seasonal variations were observed in the excretion of A. digitatum, whereas such variations were less pronounced in U. felina. These trends are discussed in relation to temperature, food availability, nutritional state and nutritional habits of the two species. The results of this and a previous study indicate a nitrogen production of 18.9 g N m -2 y -1 for the entire benthic community.

  17. Oral intake of ranitidine increases urinary excretion of N-nitrosodimethylamine.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Teng; Mitch, William A

    2016-06-01

    The H2-receptor antagonist, ranitidine, is among the most widely used pharmaceuticals to treat gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcers. While previous studies have demonstrated that amines can form N-nitrosamines when exposed to nitrite at stomach-relevant pH, N-nitrosamine formation from ranitidine, an amine-based pharmaceutical, has not been demonstrated under these conditions. In this work, we confirmed the production of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), a potent carcinogen, by nitrosation of ranitidine under stomach-relevant pH conditions in vitro We also evaluated the urinary NDMA excretion attributable to ingestion of clinically used ranitidine doses. Urine samples collected from five female and five male, healthy adult volunteers over 24-h periods before and after consumption of 150mg ranitidine were analyzed for residual ranitidine, ranitidine metabolites, NDMA, total N-nitrosamines and dimethylamine. Following ranitidine intake, the urinary NDMA excreted over 24h increased 400-folds from 110 to 47 600ng, while total N-nitrosamines increased 5-folds. NDMA excretion rates after ranitidine intake equaled or exceeded those observed previously in patients with schistosomiasis, a disease wherein N-nitrosamines are implicated as the etiological agents for bladder cancer. Due to metabolism within the body, urinary NDMA measurements represent a lower-bound estimate of systemic NDMA exposure. Our results suggest a need to evaluate the risks attributable to NDMA associated with chronic consumption of ranitidine, and to identify alternative treatments that minimize exposure to N-nitrosamines.

  18. Phytoplankton uptake and excretion of assimilated nitrate in a small Canadian shield lake.

    PubMed

    Chan, H K; Campbell, N E

    1978-06-01

    Nitrate uptake in the epilemnetic waters of a small eutrophic Canadian Shield lake was studied by using a 15N method during summer stratification. Concurrent with inhibition of primary production, 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea inhibited NO3- assimilation. Nitrate up to 1 mg of N/liter did not affect the rate of primary production during 3 h of incubation. The NO3- fertilizer added to the lake weekly was consumed through algal assimilation in about 3 days. Excretion of the photoassimilated NO3- as dissolved organic nitrogen represented a significant portion of the nutrient incorporated by the cells. Only 40% of the NO3- -15N which disappeared could be accounted for in the particulate fraction. Although the rest was presumably excreted, only 15% of the 15N label was accounted for as cationic dissolved organic nitrogen by isotope assays. These excreted organic forms were predominantly serine and glycine in the dissolved free amino acid fraction. Bacteria as well as algae might be expected to contribute to and modify the extracellular nitrogen pool.

  19. Effects of cytostatic drugs on plasma level and renal excretion of beta-acetyldigoxin.

    PubMed

    Kuhlmann, J; Zilly, W; Wilke, J

    1981-10-01

    Mucosal defects decrease digoxin absorption in patients with malabsorption syndromes. Since the intestinal mucosa can be damaged by cytostatic drugs, we investigated their effects on digoxin plasma levels and urinary digoxin excretion. In six patients with malignant lymphoma who received 0.8 mg beta-acetyldigoxin before and 24 hr after treatment with a combination of cyclophosphamide, oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) or cyclophosphamide, oncovin, and prednisone (COP), plasma digoxin concentrations were measured 0 to 8 hr after the dose and areas under the plasma concentration-time curves were calculated. In 15 patients on 0.3 mg of beta-acetyldigoxin daily, plasma glycoside concentrations and renal excretion were measured daily before and after COPP, COP, cyclophosphamide, oncovin, cytosine-arabinosine, and prednisone (COAP), or adriamycin, bleomycin, and prednisone (ABP) treatment schemes. The diminished steady-state glycoside plasma concentrations and daily renal glycoside excretion during the 24 to 168 hr after the cytostatic drug established reversible impairment of digoxin absorption. The delayed time to peak after a single dose of digoxin during cytostatic drug therapy shows that extent and rate of digoxin absorption are reduced. To maintain adequate control of digoxin therapy in patients treated with cytostatic drugs, plasma levels should be monitored.

  20. Human Excretion of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether Flame Retardants: Blood, Urine, and Sweat Study

    PubMed Central

    Genuis, Shelagh K.; Birkholz, Detlef

    2017-01-01

    Commonly used as flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely detected in the environment, animals, and humans. Although these persistent organic pollutants are increasingly recognized as having serious health implications, particularly for children, this is the first study, to our knowledge, to investigate an intervention for human elimination of bioaccumulated PBDEs. Objectives. To determine the efficacy of blood, urine, and perspiration as PBDE biomonitoring mediums; assess excretion of five common PBDE congeners (28, 47, 99, 100, and 153) in urine and perspiration; and explore the potential of induced sweating for decreasing bioaccumulated PBDEs. Results. PBDE congeners were not found in urine samples; findings focus on blood and perspiration. 80% of participants tested positive in one or more body fluids for PBDE 28, 100% for PBDE 47, 95% for PBDE 99, and 90% for PBDE 100 and PBDE 153. Induced perspiration facilitated excretion of the five congeners, with different rates of excretion for different congeners. Conclusion. Blood testing provides only a partial understanding of human PBDE bioaccumulation; testing of both blood and perspiration provides a better understanding. This study provides important baseline evidence for regular induced perspiration as a potential means for therapeutic PBDE elimination. Fetotoxic and reproductive effects of PBDE exposure highlight the importance of further detoxification research. PMID:28373979

  1. Collagen cross-link excretion during space flight and bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Nillen, J. L.; Leblanc, A.; Lipton, A.; Demers, L. M.; Lane, H. W.; Leach, C. S.; LeBlanc, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Extended exposure to weightlessness results in bone loss. However, little information exists as to the precise nature or time course of this bone loss. Bone resorption results in the release of collagen breakdown products, including N-telopeptide and the pyridinium (PYD) cross-links, pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline. Urinary pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline are known to increase during bed rest. We assessed excretion of PYD cross-links and N-telopeptide before, during, and after long (28-day, 59-day, and 84-day) Skylab missions, as well as during short (14-day) and long (119-day) bed-rest studies. During space flight, the urinary cross-link excretion level was twice those observed before flight. Urinary excretion levels of the collagen breakdown products were also 40-50% higher, during short and long bed rest, than before. These results clearly show that the changes in bone metabolism associated with space flight involve increased resorption. The rate of response (i.e. within days to weeks) suggests that alterations in bone metabolism are an early effect of weightlessness. These studies are important for a better understanding of bone metabolism in space crews and in those who are bedridden.

  2. Circadian rhythm of water balance and aldosterone excretion in the whitebellied sunbird Nectarinia talatala.

    PubMed

    Fleming, P A; Gray, D A; Nicolson, S W

    2004-05-01

    Nectarivorous whitebellied sunbirds, Nectarinia talatala, demonstrate distinct circadian patterns in osmoregulatory parameters. We recorded intake of a 1 mol/l sucrose solution which enabled calculation of total water gain, and collected cloacal fluid for measurements of volume, osmolality and aldosterone concentration. These variables were assessed hourly over 12 h of photophase, and averaged over the 12-h scotophase period. Overnight, when sunbirds were in negative water balance, aldosterone concentrations and outputs were significantly higher than diurnal levels, reflecting a shut-down of cloacal fluid production. Early morning was marked by a high rate of osmotic excretion, disproportionate to water gain or cloacal fluid output, followed by steady intake and cloacal fluid output during the morning and early afternoon. Reduced water flux (decreased feeding and cloacal fluid output) during mid-afternoon was accompanied by a paradoxical decline in osmotic excretion, whilst a significant increase in the discrepancy between water intake and output was recorded as the birds effectively stored water before the scotophase. These patterns of intake and excretion may be informative in explaining drinking and foraging behaviour in the field.

  3. Calcium inhibits diacylglycerol uptake by serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Ahyayauch, Hasna; Arana, Gorka; Sot, Jesús; Alonso, Alicia; Goñi, Félix M

    2009-03-01

    Serum albumin is an abundant protein in blood plasma, that is well-known for its ability to transport hydrophobic biomolecules and drugs. Recent hypotheses propose that serum albumin plays a role in the regulation of lipid metabolism in addition to its lipid transport properties. The present work explores the capacity of bovine serum albumin (BSA) to extract diacylglycerols (DAG) from phospholipid bilayers, and the inhibition of such interaction by divalent cations. Quantitative measurements using radioactive DAG and morphological evidence derived from giant unilamellar vesicles examined by confocal microscopy provide concurrent results. BSA extracts DAG from vesicles consisting of phosphatidylinositol/DAG. Long, saturated DAG species are incorporated more readily than the shorter-chain or unsaturated ones. Divalent cations hinder DAG uptake by BSA. For Ca(2+), the concentration causing half-maximal inhibition is approximately 10 muM; 90% inhibition is caused by 100 muM Ca(2+). Sr(2+) requires concentrations one order of magnitude higher, while Mg(2+) has virtually no effect. As an example on how DAG uptake by BSA, and its inhibition by Ca(2+), could play a regulating role in lipid metabolism, a PI-specific phospholipase C has been assayed in the presence of BSA and/or Ca(2+). BSA activates the enzyme by removing the end-product DAG, but the activation is reverted by Ca(2+) that inhibits DAG uptake.

  4. Urinary excretion of metabolites following a single dermal dose of [14C]methyl parathion in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Abu-Qare, A W; Abou-Donia, M B

    2000-09-07

    The identification and kinetics of urinary excretion of metabolites of uniformly phenyl-labeled O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate ([14C]methyl parathion) were carried out following a single dermal dose of 10.0 mg (10 microCi)/kg in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at 14-18 days of gestation. Urine was collected at each time interval of 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after dosing. Total p-nitrophenol in the conjugated and non-conjugated metabolites was measured as a marker of methyl parathion exposure. Elimination of radioactivity in the urine was rapid. Of the total 14C urinary excretion, 30% of the dose was excreted within 4 h, while 50 and 90% of the dose were recovered in the urine by 24 and 96 h, respectively. Excretion rate of total radioactivity was 60 microgram methyl parathion equivalent/h (1.4 mg/day). By the end of the 96-h experiment, conjugated and non-conjugated metabolites accounted for 78.1 and 21.9%, respectively. Of the non-conjugated metabolites, p-nitrophenol and O,O-dimethyl O-4-nitrophenyl phosphate (methyl paraoxon) were identified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that accounted for 20%, and 1.9% of total urinary excretion, respectively. Appearance and disappearance rate constants of p-nitrophenol in urine were 0.12 and 0.048 microgram/h, respectively. Conjugated metabolites were classified as: glucuronides 12% of urinary excretion, sulfates 3%, hot sulfuric acid hydrolysable residues 47% and 16.1% remained as unidentified water soluble metabolites. Direct hot acid hydrolysis of urine yielded 49% of extractable 14C-radioactivity compared to 62% when hot acid hydrolysis followed the enzymatic hydrolysis. The presence of the conjugated metabolites as the major class of metabolites of the total excretion indicates that determining only unbound p-nitrophenol as a biological marker for methyl parathion exposure underestimates total urinary excretion of p-nitrophenol. Sequential enzymatic and acid hydrolyses of urine prior

  5. [Pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline excretion in urine of healthy children--dependence on age].

    PubMed

    Marowska, J; Lukaszkiewicz, J; Kobylińska, M; Matusik, H; Tałajko, A; Lebiedowski, M; Olszaniecka, M; Madej, M; Lorenc, R S

    1993-11-01

    Pyridinoline (Pyr) and deoxypyridinoline (DPyr) are crosslinking compounds of bone collagen. Their urinary excretion is considered to be the first sensitive and specific marker of bone resorption in a number of metabolic bone diseases in adults. Application of crosslinks measurements to evaluate bone turnover rate in pediatric patients is so far limited because of lack of reference values. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine urinary excretion of Pyr and DPyr in healthy children aged 3-18 yrs, and to evaluate the possible relationship between the levels of both compounds and body height, weight, BMC, and BMD. Pyr and DPyr levels were determined in first void urine samples obtained from 249 children (124 boys, 125 girls). Urine aliquots were hydrolysed, Pyr and DPyr extracted on CF1 cellulose, and analysed by HPLC with fluorimetric detection. Bone mineral content (BMC) and density (BMD) were measured with Lunar DPX-L apparatus in 205 children (104 boys, 101 girls) from the same population, aged over 5.5 yrs. In prepubertal children, a tendency towards lowering of urinary Pyr and DPyr levels with advancing age was shown. At puberty, urinary excretion of both crosslinks markedly decreased. This phenomenon was observed at various calendar age in girls as compared to boys, reflecting sex-dependent differences. Significant negative correlation (p < 0.0001) between urinary Pyr and DPyr levels and calendar age, body height and weight, BMC and BMD, were also found. The obtained results suggest that references values for Pyr and DPyr excretion in growing children should be related to calendar age, sex, and--in case of adolescents--phase of puberty.

  6. Changes in parasite transmission stage excretion after pheasant release.

    PubMed

    Villanúa, D; Acevedo, P; Höfle, U; Rodríguez, O; Gortázar, C

    2006-09-01

    The production of parasite transmission stages was investigated in the faeces of 77 farm-bred ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Coccidian oocysts (Eimeria sp.), and nematode eggs (Heterakis sp., and Capillaria-like eggs) were recovered before and after release but all birds were treated prior to release. Treatment with fenbendazole significantly reduced the abundance of transmission-stage excretion for all parasites, and reduced the prevalence in the case of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. Nonetheless, a significant increase in the excretion abundance for all parasites and in the prevalence of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. was found after release. Eggs of Ascaridia sp. were found only after releasing, suggesting infection ocurred in the wild. A negative relationship was found between the pheasant body condition and Heterakis excretion abundance and a higher abundance of Capillaria sp. eggs in female birds. No significant relationship was found between parasite excretion abundance and pheasant survival. Despite this, results suggest that an increase in the excretion of parasite transmission stages follows the release of captive pheasants into the wild. This can in part explain restocking failures, but also means that autochtonous free-living birds may become exposed to new and potentially harmful pathogens. To avoid these risks it is proposed that improved prophylactic measures should be taken.

  7. Systemic lanthanum is excreted in the bile of rats.

    PubMed

    Damment, Stephen J P; Pennick, Michael

    2007-06-15

    Lanthanum carbonate is a non-calcium-based oral phosphate binder for the control of hyperphosphataemia in patients with chronic kidney disease Stage 5. As part of its pre-clinical safety evaluation, studies were conducted in rats to determine the extent of absorption and routes of excretion. Following oral gavage of a single 1500 mg/kg dose, the peak plasma lanthanum concentration was 1.04+/-0.31 ng/mL, 8 h post-dose. Lanthanum was almost completely bound to plasma proteins (>99.7%). Within 24h of administration of a single oral dose, 97.8+/-2.84% of the lanthanum was recovered in the faeces of rats. Comparing plasma exposure after oral and intravenous administration of lanthanum yielded an absolute oral bioavailability of 0.0007%. Following intravenous administration of lanthanum chloride (0.3 mg/kg), 74.1+/-5.82% of the dose (96.9+/-0.50% of recovered lanthanum) was excreted in faeces in 42 days, and in bile-duct cannulated rats, 10.0+/-2.46% of the dose (85.6+/-2.97% of recovered lanthanum) was excreted in bile in 5 days. Renal excretion was negligible, with <2% of the intravenous dose recovered in urine. These studies demonstrate that lanthanum undergoes extremely low intestinal absorption and that absorbed drug is predominantly excreted in the bile.

  8. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys.

    PubMed

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-10-20

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal's ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the "stepwise peristaltic ureter" (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney.

  9. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal’s ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the “stepwise peristaltic ureter” (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney. PMID:26392557

  10. Biliary excretion of acetaminophen-glutathione as an index of toxic activation of acetaminophen: effect of chemicals that alter acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Madhu, C.; Gregus, Z.; Klaassen, C.D.

    1989-03-01

    Acetaminophen (AA) is converted, presumably by cytochrome P-450, to an electrophile which is conjugated with glutathione (GS). AA-GS is excreted into bile, therefore the biliary excretion rate of AA-GS may reflect the rate of activation of AA in vivo. In order to test this hypothesis, the effect of agents capable of altering the activation of AA including cytochrome P-450 inducers and inhibitors, cobaltous chloride which decreases the amount of P-450, prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors (indomethacin and naproxen), antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid palmitate) and other chemicals known to decrease AA hepatotoxicity (dimethylsulfoxide and cysteamine), on the biliary excretion of AA-GS was studied in hamsters, the species most sensitive to AA-induced hepatotoxicity. The biliary excretion of AA-GS increased linearly up to 1 mmol/kg of AA i.v., but at higher dosages exhibited saturation kinetics. Dosages above 0.5 mmol/kg lowered hepatic GS concentration. Of the cytochrome P-450 inducers, 3-methylcholanthrene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, increased the biliary excretion of AA-GS (2.9- and 3.2-fold, respectively) whereas ethanol and isoniazid did not affect it, and pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile tended to decrease it (43%). Phenobarbital tended to increase the biliary excretion of AA-GS, but not in a statistically significant manner. Several cytochrome P-450 inhibitors (metyrapone, 8-methoxypsoralen, 2-(4,6-dichloro-biphenyloxy) ethylamine, alpha-naphthoflavone and cimetidine) decreased the biliary excretion of AA-GS, although SKF 525-A and piperonyl butoxide did not. Cobaltous chloride decreased dramatically the biliary excretion of AA-GS.

  11. An electrochemical albumin-sensing system utilizing microfluidic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chao-June; Lu, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Thong-Yueh; Chou, Tse-Chuan; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports an integrated microfluidic chip capable of detecting the concentration of albumin in urine by using an electrochemical method in an automatic format. The integrated microfluidic chip was fabricated by using microelectromechanical system techniques. The albumin detection was conducted by using the electrochemical sensing method, in which the albumin in urine was detected by measuring the difference of peak currents between a bare reference electrode and an albumin-adsorption electrode. To perform the detection of the albumin in an automatic format, pneumatic microvalves and micropumps were integrated onto the microfluidic chip. The albumin sample and interference mixture solutions such as homovanillic acid, dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine were first stored in one of the three reservoirs. Then the solution comprising the albumin sample and interference solutions was transported to pass through the detection zone utilizing the pneumatic micropump. Experimental data showed that the developed system can successfully detect the concentration of the albumin in the existence of interference materials. When compared with the traditional albumin-sensing method, smaller amounts of samples were required to perform faster detection by using the integrated microfluidic chip. Additionally, the microfluidic chip integrated with pneumatic micropumps and microvalves facilitates the transportation of the samples in an automatic mode with lesser human intervention. The development of the integrated microfluidic albumin-sensing system may be promising for biomedical applications. Preliminary results of the current paper were presented at the 2nd International Meeting on Microsensors and Microsystems 2006 (National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan, 15-18 January).

  12. Lowering urinary oxalate excretion to decrease calcium oxalate stone disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight, John; Assimos, Dean G.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary modifications should be considered as a first line approach in the treatment of idiopathic calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis. The amounts of oxalate and calcium consumed in the diet are significant factors in the development of the disease due to their impact on urinary oxalate excretion. There are a number of strategies that can be employed to reduce oxalate excretion. The consumption of oxalate-rich foods should be avoided and calcium intake adjusted to 1000–1200 mg/day. To encourage compliance it should be emphasized to patients that they be vigilant with this diet as a deviation in any meal or snack could potentially result in significant stone growth. The evidence underlying these two modifications is outlined and other strategies to reduce urinary oxalate excretion are reviewed. PMID:26614109

  13. Excretion of technetium 99m hexakismethoxyisobutylisonitrile in milk.

    PubMed

    Rubow, S M; Ellmann, A; le Roux, J; Klopper, J

    1991-01-01

    The amount of radioactivity excreted in breast milk following the administration of technetium 99m hexakismethoxyisobutylisonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) to a patient referred for cold spot myocardial scintigraphy was determined. During the first 24 h after administration, only 41.2 kBq 99mTc (0.0084% of the injected dose) was excreted in 448 ml milk with the highest concentration of 0.49 kBq/ml in the first sample. The images obtained show a high concentration of 99mTc-MIBI in the lactating breasts contrary to the very small percentage excreted in the milk. Comparison with various recommendations regarding nursing after administration of radiopharmaceuticals seems to indicate that the administration of 99mTc-MIBI does not necessitate an interruption of breast-feeding.

  14. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.M.; Boston, R.C.; Leaver, D.D.

    1987-04-01

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of /sup 32/P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney.

  15. Reduction in urinary prostaglandin excretion in the premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Piccoli, A; Modena, F; Calò, L; Cantaro, S; Avogadro, A; Nardo, G; Cerutti, R

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the present work was to study some factors involved in renal handling of salt and water in the premenstrual syndrome (PMS), in which salt and water retention is frequently observed. In 18 women with PMS and in 18 healthy women we studied the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, aldosterone, prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2 alpha and kallikrein in urinary samples collected during the luteal phase. There was no difference between the two groups regarding sodium, aldosterone and kallikrein urinary excretion. In the PMS group there was a significant reduction in urinary excretion of cyclic adenosine monophosphate, prostaglandin E2 and prostaglandin F2 alpha with respect to the control group. At multivariate analysis sodium urinary excretion proved not to be the same as the model validated in healthy women. There may be different renal handling of water and electrolytes during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in women with PMS.

  16. Dynamics of renal electrolyte excretion in growing mice.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Katharina; Ripper, Maria; Tegtmeier, Ines; Humberg, Evelyn; Sterner, Christina; Reichold, Markus; Warth, Richard; Bandulik, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified mice represent important models for elucidating renal pathophysiology, but gene deletions frequently cause severe failure to thrive. In such cases, the analysis of the phenotype is often limited to the first weeks of life when renal excretory function undergoes dramatic physiological changes. Here, we investigated the postnatal dynamics of urinary ion excretion in mice. The profiles of urinary electrolyte excretion of mice were examined from birth until after weaning using an automated ion chromatography system. Postnatally, mice grew about 0.4 g/day, except during two phases with slower weight gain: (i) directly after birth during adaptation to extrauterine conditions (P0-P2) and (ii) during the weaning period (P15-P21), when nutrition changed from mother's milk to solid chow and water. During the first 3 days after birth, remarkable changes in urinary Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and phosphate concentrations occurred, whereas K(+) and Cl(-) concentrations hardly changed. From days 4-14 after birth, Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), and Cl(-) concentrations remained relatively stable at low levels. Urinary concentrations of creatinine, NH4(+), phosphate, and sulfate constantly increased from birth until after weaning. Profiles of salt excretion in KCNJ10(-/-) mice exemplified the relevance of age-dependent analysis of urinary excretion. In conclusion, the most critical phases for analysis of renal ion excretion during the first weeks of life are directly after birth and during the weaning period. The age dependence of urinary excretion varies for the different ions. This should be taken into consideration when the renal phenotype of mice is investigated during the first weeks of life.

  17. Renal excretion of plasma soluble melanins by healthy human adults.

    PubMed

    Hegedus, Z L; Nayak, U

    1993-01-01

    The soluble melanins of blood plasma form in vivo and in vitro from dopa, catecholamines, catechol, hydroquinone, homogentisic acid, 3-hydroxykynurenine, 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid, p-aminophenol, p-phenylenediamine and other structurally related end(ex)ogenous compounds by oxidative polymerization. The mean quantity of natural melanins in normal plasma is 1.61 +/- 0.10 (standard deviation) mg/ml, (n = 20) and in uraemic plasma 2.72 +/- 0.38 mg/ml, (n = 16). The plasma melanins (approximately 3%), are associated with proteins (approximately 85%), mucoproteins (approximately 0.25%), lipids (approximately 0.4%), as soluble lipofuscins, and probably are associated with proteins without lipids as soluble melanoproteins. Fluorescence, UV-VIS and IR spectroscopies and the melanin isolation method show the presence of soluble melanins in the urine of healthy people. Soluble melanins can also be formed in vitro in the urine by oxidative polymerization of the precursors. In most of the urine samples we studied, melanins were present in larger amounts than the urinary proteins, indicating that the kidneys can selectively excrete the melanin components of the lipofuscins, and that the solubility of melanins does not depend upon combination with proteins. The quantities of purified melanins precipitated with 6 N HCl at 110 degrees C during 72 h from urine samples collected during 24 h periods ranged from 0.1460 g to 3.7627 g (mean 1.1303 +/- 1.1739 g, n = 8) and the plasma clearance rates ranged from 0.06 ml/min to 1.56 ml/min (mean 0.48 +/- 0.48 ml/min, n = 8). From the individual 24 h urine samples we obtained from 9 to 216 mg/dl of precipitated melanins while the individual plasma samples contained from 145 to 175 mg/dl.

  18. Increased urinary excretion of thioether in new rubber workers

    PubMed Central

    Kilpikari, I; Savolainen, H

    1982-01-01

    ABSTRACT Urinary excretion of thioether before starting work and in the early work period in a rubber factory was measured in urine samples collected after one, two to four, and five or more months of starting work. The study population consisted of 84 new workers. The urinary excretion of thioether decreased after one month's exposure and increased thereafter up to five months. Measurement of urinary thioethers in groups of new workers is therefore informative of exposure to alkylating agents only after several months from starting work. This effect may be mediated by the induction of the pertinent metabolic pathway. PMID:7138800

  19. Increase in bile flow and biliary excretion of glutathione-derived sulfhydryls in rats by drug-metabolizing enzyme inducers is mediated by multidrug resistance protein 2.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David R; Habeebu, Sultan S M; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2002-03-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is an important cellular constituent for normal liver homeostasis. Certain drug-metabolizing enzyme inducers (i.e., phenobarbital [PB] and pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile [PCN]) increase biliary excretion of GSH-derived sulfhydryls (SH) as well as bile flow, whereas other drug-metabolizing enzyme inducers (i.e., 3-methylcholanthrene [3MC] and benzo(a)pyrene [BaP]), do not. The purpose of the study was to determine whether rat multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) is the inducible transporter responsible for increasing biliary SH excretion and bile flow. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were injected ip daily for 4 days with PB, PCN, 3MC, BaP, or vehicle; Mrp2-null Eisai hyperbilirubinemic (EHBR) rats were injected ip daily for 4 days with PCN or vehicle. Although no drug-metabolizing enzyme inducer altered hepatic GSH in SD rats, PB and PCN significantly increased the rate of biliary SH excretion and bile flow. Neither 3MC nor BaP affected the biliary SH excretion rate or bile flow. In control EHBR rats, despite elevated hepatic GSH, the rate of biliary SH excretion was almost completely eliminated and bile flow was dramatically reduced compared with SD rats. Furthermore, PCN treatment did not affect bile flow or the biliary SH excretion rate in EHBR rats. PB and PCN also increased Mrp2 protein levels, but 3MC and BaP did not. None of the drug-metabolizing enzyme inducers tested significantly increased Mrp2 mRNA levels. PCN increased Mrp2 protein, but not Mrp2 mRNA, in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, Mrp2 is the inducible efflux transporter responsible for increased biliary SH excretion and bile flow after administration of some drug-metabolizing enzyme inducers.

  20. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by kidney proximal tubule cells is regulated by phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Brunskill, N J; Stuart, J; Tobin, A B; Walls, J; Nahorski, S

    1998-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin is an important function of the kidney proximal tubule epithelium. We have measured endocytosis of [125I]-albumin in opossum kidney cells and examined the regulation of this process by phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase). Albumin endocytosis was inhibited by both wortmannin (IC50 6.9 nM) and LY294002 (IC50 6.5 microM) at concentrations that suggested the involvement of PI 3-kinase in its regulation. Recycling rates were unaffected. We transfected OK cells with either a wild-type p85 subunit of PI 3-kinase, or a dominant negative form of the p85 subunit (Deltap85) using the LacSwitch expression system. Transfects were screened by immunoblotting with anti-PI 3-kinase antibodies. Under basal conditions, transfects demonstrated no expression of p85 or Deltap85, but expression was briskly induced by treatment of the cells with IPTG (EC50 13.7 microM). Inhibition of PI 3-kinase activity by Deltap85 was confirmed by in vitro kinase assay of anti-phosphotyrosine immunoprecipitates from transfected cells stimulated with insulin. Expression of Deltap85 resulted in marked inhibition of albumin endocytosis, predominantly as a result of reduction of the Vmax of the transport process. Expression of p85 had no significant effect on albumin uptake. The results demonstrate that PI 3-kinase regulates an early step in the receptor-mediated endocytosis of albumin by kidney proximal tubular cells. PMID:9593770

  1. The mouse albumin enhancer contains a negative regulatory element that interacts with a novel DNA-binding protein.

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, R S; Boczko, E M; Darnell, J E; Babiss, L E

    1990-01-01

    The far-upstream mouse albumin enhancer (-10.5 to -8.43 kilobases) has both positive and negative regulatory domains which contribute to the rate and tissue specificity of albumin gene transcription. (R. S. Herbst, N. Friedman, J. E. Darnell, Jr., and L. E. Babiss, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 86:1553-1557). In this work, the negative regulatory region has been functionally localized to sequences -8.7 to -8.43 kilobases upstream of the albumin gene cap site. In the absence of the albumin-modulating region (in which there are binding sites for the transcription factor C/EBP), the negative region can suppress a neighboring positive-acting element, thereby interfering with albumin enhancer function. The negative region is also capable of negating the positive action of the heterologous transthyretin enhancer in an orientation-independent fashion. Within this negative-acting region we can detect two DNA-binding sites, both of which are recognized by a protein present in all cell types tested. This DNA-binding activity is not competed for by any of a series of known DNA-binding sites, and hence this new protein is a candidate for a role in suppressing the albumin gene in nonhepatic cells. Images PMID:2370857

  2. [Sports and measurement of components in urine--responses of renal blood flow, electrolytes and hormones and of excretion of proteins into urine to exercise].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Machida, K

    1996-07-01

    Renal blood flow decreased depending on the increase in exercise intensity. The kidneys may have roles to conserve the electrolytes and body fluid, and maintenance of acid-base balance during and after severe exercise. Increases in plasma hormones involved in the regulation of electrolyte-water balance, and decreases in urine flow, Na, Cl and K excretions into urine were observed following moderate exercise under a warm environment. Inhibition of electrolytes and water excretion into urine following exercise in water was less than that following exercise on land. Exercise in water is good for patients with hypertension, obesity and a mild renal disease who have tendency to conserve sodium and/or water. Increase in urinary albumin excretion, glomerular-type proteinuria was observed after moderate exercise (50 approximately 75%HRmax) in the obese individuals who had higher levels of hematocrit, serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cho, apoprotein B, CIII, and fasting insulin. The findings suggest that moderate exercise causes a latent abnormality of renal glomerular basement membrane in the obese individuals who had an early disturbance of glucose-fatty metabolism.

  3. Insulin Pump Therapy Is Associated with Lower Rates of Retinopathy and Peripheral Nerve Abnormality

    PubMed Central

    Zabeen, Bedowra; Craig, Maria E.; Virk, Sohaib A.; Pryke, Alison; Chan, Albert K. F.; Cho, Yoon Hi; Benitez-Aguirre, Paul Z.; Hing, Stephen; Donaghue, Kim C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of microvascular complications in adolescents with type 1 diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) versus multiple daily injections (MDI). Research Design and Methods Prospective cohort of 989 patients (aged 12–20 years; diabetes duration >5 years) treated with CSII or MDI for >12 months. Microvascular complications were assessed from 2000–14: early retinopathy (seven-field fundal photography), peripheral nerve function (thermal and vibration threshold testing), autonomic nerve abnormality (heart rate variability analysis of electrocardiogram recordings) and albuminuria (albumin creatinine ratio/timed overnight albumin excretion). Generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to examine the relationship between treatment and complications rates, adjusting for socio-economic status (SES) and known risk factors including HbA1c and diabetes duration. Results Comparing CSII with MDI: HbA1C was 8.6% [70mmol/mol] vs. 8.7% [72 mmol/mol]) (p = 0.7), retinopathy 17% vs. 22% (p = 0.06); microalbuminuria 1% vs. 4% (p = 0.07), peripheral nerve abnormality 27% vs. 33% (p = 0.108) and autonomic nerve abnormality 24% vs. 28% (p = 0.401). In multivariable GEE, CSII use was associated with lower rates of retinopathy (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45–0.95, p = 0.029) and peripheral nerve abnormality (OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.42–0.95, p = 0.026), but not albuminuria (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.10–2.17, p = 0.33). SES was not associated with any of the complication outcomes. Conclusions In adolescents, CSII use is associated with lower rates of retinopathy and peripheral nerve abnormality, suggesting an apparent benefit of CSII over MDI independent of glycemic control or SES. PMID:27050468

  4. Albumin regeneration in liver support-comparison of different methods.

    PubMed

    Mitzner, Steffen; Klammt, Sebastian; Stange, Jan; Schmidt, Reinhart

    2006-04-01

    Albumin is the most abundant human plasma protein. Among many other functions it is an important transporter of hydrophobic internal and external substances such as intermediate and end products of metabolism and drugs. In liver failure the albumin binding capacity is decreased because of a disproportion between available albumin molecules caused by decreased hepatic synthesis and hydrophobic toxins because of decreased hepatic clearance. The resulting increase in plasma and tissue concentrations of these substances is associated with multiple organ dysfunctions frequently seen in severe liver failure. The scope of the present article is to compare different liver support strategies with regard to their ability to regenerate the patients albumin pool by removing albumin-bound toxins. Most prominent technique in this group is the molecular adsorbent recirculating system (MARS). It will be compared with single pass albumin dialysis (SPAD), fractionated plasma separation and adsorption system (FPSA, Prometheus), and plasma perfusion/bilirubin adsorption with special regard to efficacy and selectivity.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of 2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid albumin.

    PubMed

    Bauer, H H; Ehmig, S; Engels, J W; Voelcker, G

    1998-06-01

    Autoimmune patients treated with ifosfamide (CAS 3778-73-2) and mesna (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid, CAS 3375-50-6) in some cases suffered from severe allergic reactions that were proposed to be due to mesna linked to serum albumin by a disulfide bond. To prove the existence of the hypothetic mesna albumin adduct in vivo it was synthesized: The free thiol group of albumin (molecular mass determined by MALDI spectroscopy: 67009 Da) was converted to S-phenylsulfonyl albumin and reacted with mesna to albumin mesna (molecular mass: 67159 Da). In an alternative synthesis albumin was incubated with mesna at pH 8, 40 degrees C (molecular mass of the adduct: 67166 Da).

  6. Ammonia excretion in Caenorhabditis elegans: mechanism and evidence of ammonia transport of the Rhesus protein CeRhr-1.

    PubMed

    Adlimoghaddam, Aida; Boeckstaens, Mélanie; Marini, Anna-Maria; Treberg, Jason R; Brassinga, Ann-Karen C; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2015-03-01

    The soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a bacteriovorous animal, excreting the vast majority of its nitrogenous waste as ammonia (25.3±1.2 µmol gFW(-1) day(-1)) and very little urea (0.21±0.004 µmol gFW(-1) day(-1)). Although these roundworms have been used for decades as genetic model systems, very little is known about their strategy to eliminate the toxic waste product ammonia from their bodies into the environment. The current study provides evidence that ammonia is at least partially excreted via the hypodermis. Starvation reduced the ammonia excretion rates by more than half, whereas mRNA expression levels of the Rhesus protein CeRhr-2, V-type H(+)-ATPase (subunit A) and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (α-subunit) decreased correspondingly. Moreover, ammonia excretion rates were enhanced in media buffered to pH 5 and decreased at pH 9.5. Inhibitor experiments, combined with enzyme activity measurements and mRNA expression analyses, further suggested that the excretion mechanism involves the participation of the V-type H(+)-ATPase, carbonic anhydrase, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, and a functional microtubule network. These findings indicate that ammonia is excreted, not only by apical ammonia trapping, but also via vesicular transport and exocytosis. Exposure to 1 mmol l(-1) NH4Cl caused a 10-fold increase in body ammonia and a tripling of ammonia excretion rates. Gene expression levels of CeRhr-1 and CeRhr-2, V-ATPase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase also increased significantly in response to 1 mmol l(-1) NH4Cl. Importantly, a functional expression analysis showed, for the first time, ammonia transport capabilities for CeRhr-1 in a phylogenetically ancient invertebrate system, identifying these proteins as potential functional precursors to the vertebrate ammonia-transporting Rh-glycoproteins.

  7. Ammonia excretion in Caenorhabditis elegans: mechanism and evidence of ammonia transport of the Rhesus protein CeRhr-1

    PubMed Central

    Adlimoghaddam, Aida; Boeckstaens, Mélanie; Marini, Anna-Maria; Treberg, Jason R.; Brassinga, Ann-Karen C.; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The soil-dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a bacteriovorous animal, excreting the vast majority of its nitrogenous waste as ammonia (25.3±1.2 µmol gFW−1 day−1) and very little urea (0.21±0.004 µmol gFW−1 day−1). Although these roundworms have been used for decades as genetic model systems, very little is known about their strategy to eliminate the toxic waste product ammonia from their bodies into the environment. The current study provides evidence that ammonia is at least partially excreted via the hypodermis. Starvation reduced the ammonia excretion rates by more than half, whereas mRNA expression levels of the Rhesus protein CeRhr-2, V-type H+-ATPase (subunit A) and Na+/K+-ATPase (α-subunit) decreased correspondingly. Moreover, ammonia excretion rates were enhanced in media buffered to pH 5 and decreased at pH 9.5. Inhibitor experiments, combined with enzyme activity measurements and mRNA expression analyses, further suggested that the excretion mechanism involves the participation of the V-type H+-ATPase, carbonic anhydrase, Na+/K+-ATPase, and a functional microtubule network. These findings indicate that ammonia is excreted, not only by apical ammonia trapping, but also via vesicular transport and exocytosis. Exposure to 1 mmol l−1 NH4Cl caused a 10-fold increase in body ammonia and a tripling of ammonia excretion rates. Gene expression levels of CeRhr-1 and CeRhr-2, V-ATPase and Na+/K+-ATPase also increased significantly in response to 1 mmol l−1 NH4Cl. Importantly, a functional expression analysis showed, for the first time, ammonia transport capabilities for CeRhr-1 in a phylogenetically ancient invertebrate system, identifying these proteins as potential functional precursors to the vertebrate ammonia-transporting Rh-glycoproteins. PMID:25740900

  8. The excretion and environmental effects of amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline residues in layer chicken manure.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ping-cai; Wang, Yan; Liu, Long-yong; Zou, Yong-de; Liao, Xin-di; Liang, Juan-boo; Wu, Yin-bao

    2016-05-01

    The excretion rates and ecological risk to the environment of three commonly used veterinary antibiotics (VAs), amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, and doxycycline, in layer hen manure during the application and withdrawal periods were investigated in a study consisting of a control group fed with VA-free basal diet and nine treatment groups consisted of three levels (200 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg, and 50 mg/kg) of amoxicillin (AMX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), or doxycycline (DOC). Each treatment group was replicated seven times with three layer hens per replication. Results of the study showed that the average excretion rates of AMX in the 200, 100, and 50 mg/kg groups were 67.88, 55.82, and 66.15%, respectively, while those for CIP and DOC were 47.84, 51.85, and 44.87% and 82.67, 94.39, and 95.72%, respectively. The concentrations of the above veterinary drugs in manure decreased sharply in the withdrawal period (7, 28, and 10 d, respectively), for AMX, DOC, and CIP. Neither AMX nor DOC was detected in the manure after the withdrawal period. In contrast to AMX and DOC, the excretion rate of CIP was significantly lower and thus had a longer residence time. Ecological risk study, estimated using hazard quotient values, showed that AMX in the 100 and 50 mg/kg groups posed no risk to the environment after d 1 of withdrawal, while CIP in the 50 mg/kg group posed no risk to the environment from d 5 of withdrawal. CIP in the 200 and 100 mg/kg groups required 10 d withdrawal in order to pose no risk to the environment. In contrast, DOC residue during withdrawal in the manure posed no risk to the environment, thus making it more environmentally safe.

  9. Experimental investigation of the serum albumin fascia microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.; Shishpor, I. V.

    2012-09-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of biological liquids are reported. Structural effects observed in fascias are considered with account of the molecular features of albumin and the concept of supramolecular organization of polymers. It is revealed that the morphology of human serum albumin fascias depends on the concentration and quality of the solvent. It is shown that the water-salt fascias of albumin are more structured than water solutions with the same concentration.

  10. [Characteristics of serum albumin in patients with intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke].

    PubMed

    Martynov, M Iu; Koplik, E V; Shchukin, I A; Smolina, N V; Kapel'nitskiĭ, P V; Chubykin, V I; Glukhareva, A P; Makarov, A N; Sudakov, K V

    2012-01-01

    Authors studied the influence of the psychoemotional stress preceding the stroke on the dynamics of neurological symptoms (Glasgo coma scale, Scandinavian stroke scale and Barthel index) and on the conformational changes of albumin in 59 patients with intracerebral hemorrhage due to arterial hypertension. The psychoemotional stress was associated with less favorable clinical course and outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage. Conformational properties of albumin were changed in all patients with intracerebral hemorrhage compared to controls. Psychoemotional stress preceding stroke aggravated changes in albumin molecule.

  11. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  12. Development of an albumin copper binding (ACuB) assay to detect ischemia modified albumin.

    PubMed

    Eom, Ji-Eun; Lee, Eunyoung; Jeon, Kyung-Hwa; Sim, Jeongeun; Suh, Minah; Jhon, Gil-Ja; Kwon, Youngjoo

    2014-01-01

    Myocardial ischemia (MI) induces many changes in the body, including pH decrease and electrolyte imbalance. No obvious symptoms of MI appear until irreversible cellular injuries occur. Since early treatment is critical for recovery from ischemia, the development of reliable diagnostic tool is demanded to detect the early ischemic status. Ischemia modified albumin (IMA), formed by cleavage of the last two amino acids of the human serum albumin (HSA) N-terminus, has been considered so far as the most trustworthy and accurate marker for the investigation of ischemia. IMA levels are elevated in plasma within a few minutes of ischemic onset, and may last for up to 6 h. In the present study, we developed a novel assay for the examination of IMA levels to ameliorate the known albumin cobalt binding (ACB) test established previously. We observed a stronger copper ion bound to the HSA N-terminal peptide than cobalt ion by HPLC and ESI-TOF mass spectrometric analyses. The copper ion was employed with lucifer yellow (LY), a copper-specific reagent to develop a new albumin copper binding (ACuB) assay. The parameters capable of affecting the assay results were optimized, and the finally-optimized ACuB assay was validated. The result of the IMA level measurement in normal versus stroke rat serum suggests that the ACuB assay is likely to be a reliable and sensitive method for the detection of ischemic states.

  13. Episodic hypoglycemia with psi-hydroxy fatty acid excretion.

    PubMed

    Colle, E; Mamer, O A; Montgomery, J A; Miller, J D

    1983-02-01

    We present case histories of two young children with episodes of hypoglycemia, elevation of SGOT, low insulin levels, increased urinary excretion of psi-hydroxy fatty acids (5-hydroxyhexanoic, 7-hydroxyoctanoic and 9-hydroxydecanoic), traces of the corresponding psi-ketoacids and elevations of urinary adipic, suberic, and sebacic acids. The ratio of psi-hydroxy fatty acids to 3-hydroxybutyric in the urine of these patients is higher than in patients of similar ages with similar illnesses. These acids persisted while the patients were well. Increased urinary psi-hydroxy fatty acids could be reproduced by a load of medium chain triglycerides without precipitating other clinical symptoms. Three children with hypoglycemia were found not to excrete measurable amounts of these unusual acids while ill. A medium chain triglyceride load in one of these children after recovery failed to elicit psi-hydroxy acid excretion. Small amounts of urinary 5-hydroxyhexanoic acid only were found in two patients with acute Reye's syndrome and in three of five severely ill children with starvation ketonuria. In this last group, no urinary psi-hydroxyacids could be detected after recovery. Normal children do not excrete measurable amounts (less than 1 mg/g creatinine) of these psi-hydroxyacids.

  14. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY ARSENIC ON URINARY ARSENIC METABOLITE EXCRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of Dietary Arsenic on Urinary Arsenic Metabolite Excretion

    Cara L. Carty, M.S., Edward E. Hudgens, B.Sc., Rebecca L. Calderon, Ph.D., M.S.P.H., Richard Kwok, M.S.P.H., Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch/HSD, NHEERL/US EPA; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., Pharmacokinetics...

  15. Biliary excretion in dogs: evidence for a molecular weight threshold.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xinning; Gandhi, Yash A; Morris, Marilyn E

    2010-04-16

    Molecular weight (MW) is known as an important factor of biliary excretion in rats, guinea pigs, rabbits and humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the biliary excretion and MW of drugs in dogs. Data on the percentage of dose excreted into bile as parent drug (PD(b)) in dogs were collected from the literature for 134 compounds. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was utilized to determine whether a MW threshold exists for PD(b). A MW threshold of 375-400 Da was established for anions in dogs, which is similar with the cutoff value observed in rats (400 Da) but lower than the one in humans (475 Da). No MW threshold was found for cations or cations/neutral compounds. A molecular volume threshold of 300A(3) was also determined for anions in dogs, which corresponds to a MW of 394 Da. In conclusion, our analysis suggested the presence of a MW cutoff for anions in dogs, which may be related with the molecular size of a compound. This represents the first report of the influence of MW or molecular volume as a determinant of biliary excretion for a structurally diverse set of compounds in dogs.

  16. Increased leukotriene E4 excretion in systemic mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Joseph H

    2010-06-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes such as LTE(4) are produced by mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages. LTE(4) levels have not been reported in systemic mastocytosis, a disorder with a large increase in mast cell numbers. Urinary LTE(4) from patients referred for symptoms potentially due to mast cell degranulation or systemic mastocytosis was measured by a commercial cysteinyl leukotriene enzyme immunoassay kit. The diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis was established using current World Health Organization criteria. Compared with a control group of patients with various potential mast cell-related symptoms (e.g., "spells"), patients with systemic mastocytosis had a significant (P=.01) increase in urinary LTE(4) excretion, whether expressed as LTE(4) ng/g creatinine or as LTE(4) ng/24h. There was a moderate correlation of LTE(4) ng/24h with excretion of N-methyl histamine and serum tryptase but not with urinary 11beta-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (11beta-PGF(2alpha)) excretion. LTE(4) excretion is increased in patients with systemic mastocytosis and potentially contributes to clinical symptoms.

  17. Renal Regulation of Acid-Base Balance: Ammonia Excretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, George A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment which demonstrates changes in ammonia excretion and urine pH that occur in response to metabolic acidosis (induced by ammonium chloride ingestion) or metabolic alkalosis (produced by sodium bicarbonate ingestion). List of materials needed and background information are included. Typical results are provided and discussed.…

  18. Predicting nitrogen excretion in commercial grazing system dairy farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving nitrogen (N) management on dairy farms is best facilitated through management of dairy cow feed N intakes (NI), due to strong associations between NI, feed N use efficiencies (NUE, proportion of NI secreted as milk N) and manure N excretion (Nex). Milk urea N (MUN) has also been used as an...

  19. Albumin synthesis in humans increases immediately following the administration of endotoxin.

    PubMed

    Barle, Hans; Januszkiewicz, Anna; Hållström, Lars; Essén, Pia; McNurlan, Margaret A; Garlick, Peter J; Wernerman, Jan

    2002-11-01

    In order to investigate the immediate (i.e. within 3 h) response of albumin synthesis to the administration of endotoxin, as a model of a moderate and well controlled catabolic insult, two measurements employing L-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine were performed in 16 volunteers. One group ( n =8) received an intravenous injection of endotoxin (4 ng/kg; lot EC-6) immediately after the first measurement of albumin synthesis, whereas the other group received saline. A second measurement was initiated 1 h later. In the endotoxin group, the fractional synthesis rate of albumin was 6.9+/-0.6%/day (mean+/-S.D.) in the first measurement. In the second measurement, a significant increase was observed (9.6+/-1.2%/day; P <0.001). The corresponding values in the control group were were 6.6+/-0.6%/day and 7.0+/-0.6%/day respectively (not significant compared with first measurement and P <0.001 compared with the second measurement in the endotoxin group). The absolute synthesis rates of albumin were 148+/-35 and 201+/-49 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) before and after endotoxin ( P <0.01). In the control group, the corresponding values were 131+/-21 and 132+/-20 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) (not significant compared with the first measurement and P <0.01 compared with the second measurement in the endotoxin group). In conclusion, these results indicate that albumin synthesis increases in the very early phase after a catabolic insult, as represented by the administration of endotoxin.

  20. Determination of the distribution of selenium between selenoprotein P, glutathione peroxidase and albumin in plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Whanger, P.D.; Butler, J.A.; Deagen, J.T. )

    1991-03-11

    A chromatographic method was developed to determine the distribution of selenium between selenoprotein P, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and albumin, using two small columns of heparin-Sepharose CL-6B (white) and Reactive Blue 2-Sepharose CL-6B (blue) linked together in tandem. One ml of plasma was diluted to 10 ml with 0.02 M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, the equilibration buffer, and applied to the white column. This was eluted at flow rate of 30 ml per hour. GSHp-Px was not retained by either column but selenoprotein P was retained by the white column and albumin by the blue column. After the two columns were separated, selenoprotein P was eluted for 90 min from the white column with a solution containing 500 units of heparin per ml. The albumin was eluted for 55 min from the blue column with 1.4 M NaCl. This method indicated that over 50% of the selenium in plasma from rats, monkeys, humans and sheep was with selenoprotein P, even during deficiency. From 15 to 22% of the selenium was associated with GSH-Px. The percentage of selenium with albumin was dependent upon the selenomethionine content of the diet.

  1. The thiol pool in human plasma: The central contribution of albumin to redox processes

    PubMed Central

    Turell, Lucía; Radi, Rafael; Alvarez, Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The plasma compartment has particular features regarding the nature and concentration of low and high molecular weight thiols and oxidized derivatives. Plasma is relatively poor in thiol-based antioxidants; thiols are in lower concentrations than in cells and mostly oxidized. The different thiol-disulfide pairs are not in equilibrium and the steady-state concentrations of total thiols as well as reduced versus oxidized ratios are maintained by kinetic barriers, including the rates of reactions and transport processes. The single thiol of human serum albumin (HSA-SH) is the most abundant plasma thiol. It is an important target for oxidants and electrophiles due to its reactivity with a wide variety of species and its relatively high concentration. A relatively stable sulfenic (HSA-SO3H) acid can be formed in albumin exposed to oxidants. Plasma increases in mixed disulfides (HSA-SSR) or in sulfinic (HSA-SO2H) and sulfonic (HSA-SO3H) acids are associated with different pathologies and may constitute biomarkers of the antioxidant role of the albumin thiol. In this work we provide a critical review of the plasma thiol pool with a focus on human serum albumin. PMID:23747983

  2. Determinants of formation of aflatoxin-albumin adducts: a seven-township study in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Sun, C-A; Wu, D-M; Wang, L-Y; Chen, C-J; You, S-L; Santella, R M

    2002-01-01

    Dietary exposure to aflatoxins is one of the major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. Individual susceptibility to aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis may be modulated by both genetic and environmental factors affecting metabolism. A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate determinants of the formation of aflatoxin covalently bound to albumin (AFB1-albumin adducts). A total of 474 subjects who were free of liver cancer and cirrhosis and were initially selected as controls for previous case–control studies of aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Taiwan, were employed in this study. Aflatoxin-albumin adducts were determined by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to hepatitis C virus by enzyme immunoassay, as well as genotypes of glutathione S-transferase M1-1 and T1-1 by polymerase chain reaction. The detection rate of AFB1-albumin adducts was significantly higher in males (42.5%) than in females (21.6%) (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio=2.6, 95% confidence interval=1.4–5.0). The formation of detectable albumin adducts was moderately higher in hepatitis B surface antigen carriers (42.8%) than in non-carriers (36.6%) (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio=1.4, 95% confidence interval=1.0–2.1). In addition, the detection rate of AFB1-albumin adducts tended to increase with the increasing number of null genotypes of glutathione S-transferase M1-1 and glutathione S-transferase T1-1. In conclusion, this cross-sectional study has assessed the relative contributions of environmental exposure and host susceptibility factors in the formation of AFB1-albumin adducts in a well characterised Chinese adult population. This study further emphasises the necessity to reduce aflatoxin exposure in people living in an area endemic for chronic hepatitis B virus infection. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 966–970. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600584 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12434285

  3. Effects of temperature on oxygen consumption and ammonia—N excretion of Chlamys farreri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Ping; He, Yi-Chao; Zhang, Fu-Sui

    1998-06-01

    Effects of temperature on oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and ammonia—N excretion rate of scallop Chlamys farreri (1.7 6.2 cm in shell height) were studied in laboratory from Dec. 30,1996 to Jan. 28,1997. Under the controlled conditions of ambient water temperature 10 31°C and salinity 32, the concentrations of dissolved oxygen and ammonia—N were determined by the Winkle method and the hypobromite method, respectively. Results showed that the OCR ranged from 1.20 mg/g (DW) · h to 5.76 mg/g (DW) · h. The OCR increased with temperature from 10°C to 23°C, but at 28°C the OCR of mature individuals decreased, and that of different size scallops reduced at 31°C. The ammonia—N excretion rate ranged from 113.03 μg NH4-N/g (DW) · h to 486.63 μg NH4-N/g (DW) · h, and increased with temperature from 10°C to 31°C.

  4. Interactions of aptamers with sera albumins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortez, Célia Martins; Silva, Dilson; Silva, Camila M. C.; Missailidis, Sotiris

    2012-09-01

    The interactions of two short aptamers to human and bovine serum albumins were studied by fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. Intrinsic fluorescence of BSA and HSA were measured by selectively exciting their tryptophan residues. Gradual quenching was observed by titration of both proteins with aptamers. Aptamers are oligonucleic acid or peptide molecules that bind a specific target and can be used for both biotechnological and clinical purposes, since they present molecular recognition properties like that commonly found in antibodies. Two aptamers previously selected against the MUC1 tumour marker were used in this study, one selected for the protein core and one for the glycosylated MUC1. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Plots obtained from experiments carried out at 25 °C and 37 °C showed the quenching of fluorescence of by aptamers to be a collisional phenomenon. Stern-Volmer constants estimated for HSA quenched by aptamer A were 1.68 × 105 (±5 × 103) M-1 at 37 °C, and 1.37 × 105 (±103) M-1 at 25 °C; and quenched by aptamer B were 1.67 × 105 (±5 × 103) M-1 at 37 °C, and 1.32 × 105 (±103) M-1 at 25 °C. Results suggest that the primary binding site for aptamers on albumin is close to tryptophan residues in sub domain IIA.

  5. Release and pharmacokinetics of near-infrared labeled albumin from monodisperse poly(d,l-lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) microspheres after subcapsular renal injection.

    PubMed

    Kazazi-Hyseni, F; van Vuuren, S H; van der Giezen, D M; Pieters, E H; Ramazani, F; Rodriguez, S; Veldhuis, G J; Goldschmeding, R; van Nostrum, C F; Hennink, W E; Kok, R J

    2015-08-01

    Subcapsular renal injection is a novel administration method for local delivery of therapeutics for the treatment of kidney related diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of polymeric microspheres for sustained release of protein therapeutics in the kidney and study the subsequent redistribution of the released protein. For this purpose, monodisperse poly(d,l-lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) (PLHMGA) microspheres (40 μm in diameter) loaded with near-infrared dye-labeled bovine serum albumin (NIR-BSA) were prepared by a membrane emulsification method. Rats were injected with either free NIR-BSA or with NIR-BSA loaded microspheres (NIR-BSA-ms) and the pharmacokinetics of the released NIR-BSA was studied for 3 weeks by ex vivo imaging of organs and blood. Quantitative release data were obtained from kidney homogenates and possible metabolism of the protein was investigated by SDS-PAGE analysis of the samples. The ex vivo images showed a rapid decrease of the NIR signal within 24h in kidneys injected with free NIR-BSA, while, importantly, the signal of the labeled protein was still visible at day 21 in kidneys injected with NIR-BSA-ms. SDS-PAGE analysis of the kidney homogenates showed that intact NIR-BSA was released from the microspheres. The locally released NIR-BSA drained to the systemic circulation and subsequently accumulated in the liver, where it was degraded and excreted renally. The in vivo release of NIR-BSA was calculated after extracting the protein from the remaining microspheres in kidney homogenates. The in vivo release rate was faster (89 ± 4% of the loading in 2 weeks) compared to the in vitro release of NIR-BSA (38 ± 1% in 2 weeks). In conclusion, PLHMGA microspheres injected under the kidney capsule provide a local depot from which a formulated protein is released over a prolonged time-period.

  6. Schistosome albumin is of host, not parasite, origin.

    PubMed

    DeMarco, Ricardo; Mathieson, William; Dillon, Gary P; Wilson, R Alan

    2007-09-01

    Recent work has implicated schistosome albumin as part of a mechanism for neutralizing the oxidative assault by host immune defenses and suggested that the gene had been acquired by horizontal transfer from the mammalian host. In the course of proteomic analyses of Schistosoma mansoni adult worm vomitus and eggs recovered from mice, we identified numerous peptides, largely derived from murine rather than parasite albumin. We therefore conjectured that the supposed S. mansoni albumin sequence deposited on GenBank might be the result of contamination rather than horizontal gene transfer. Based on phylogenetic analysis the most likely source was the Syrian (golden) hamster Mesocricetus auratus. Proteomic analysis of Syrian hamster albumin generated peptide identities to S. mansoni as the top hit, with a high ion score >1,500 and 63% coverage of the translated cDNA sequence. RT-PCR using specific primers permitted amplification of the M. auratus albumin transcript, which is identical to the deposited S. mansoni albumin sequence. PCR amplification of a fragment of the M. auratus albumin gene from genomic DNA suggests a homologous structure to the Mus musculus albumin gene. We were unable to find the S. mansoni albumin gene sequence by in silico searching on either version 3 of the S. mansoni genome assembly or the >3 million shotgun DNA reads. Finally, Southern blotting detected the albumin gene in M. auratus but not in S. mansoni genomic DNA, even when the latter was present in a 10-fold excess. Collectively, our data make the strongest case that the schistosome albumin protein described in previous reports is of host origin and all nucleotide-derived data are the result of contamination with host material. By analogy, we suggest that other reported examples of horizontal gene transfer to schistosomes might similarly be explained by complementary/genomic DNA contamination.

  7. Intrarenal distribution of inorganic mercury and albumin after coadministration

    SciTech Connect

    Zalups, R.K. ); Barfuss, D.W. )

    1993-01-01

    The renal disposition and the intrarenal distribution of albumin and mercury were studied simultaneously in rats co-injected with a 0.5-[mu]mol/kg dose of albumin and a 0.25-[mu]mol/kg dose of inorganic mercury at 2, 5, 30, and 180 min after injection. These studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms involved in the renal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury is cotransport with albumin. By the end of the first 2 min after injection, the ratio of inorganic mercury to albumin in the renal cortex and outer strip of the outer medulla was approximately 2.6 and 1.6, respectively. Both the cortex and outer stripe contain segments of the proximal tubule, and it is these segments that have been shown to be principally involved in the renal tubular uptake of both albumin and inorganic mercury. The ration increased slightly in these two zones after 5 and 20 min after injection. These data demonstrate that there is a relatively close relationship in the renal content of inorganic mercury and albumin. However, the ratios are significantly greater than the ratio of inorganic mercury of albumin in the injection solution, which was 0.5. After 180 min following co-injection, the ratio increased to about 38 in the cortex and 15 in the outer stripe. This increase in the ratio is probably related to the metabolism of albumin. Based on the ratios of inorganic mercury to albumin in the renal cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla, it appears that some proximal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury occurs by mechanisms other than endocytotic cotransport of inorganic mercury with albumin. However, since the ratios were small during the early times after injection, cotransport of inorganic mercury with albumin cannot be excluded as one of the mechanisms involved in the proximal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury. 32 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Increased feeding and nutrient excretion of adult Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, exposed to enhanced carbon dioxide (CO₂).

    PubMed

    Saba, Grace K; Schofield, Oscar; Torres, Joseph J; Ombres, Erica H; Steinberg, Deborah K

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification has a wide-ranging potential for impacting the physiology and metabolism of zooplankton. Sufficiently elevated CO(2) concentrations can alter internal acid-base balance, compromising homeostatic regulation and disrupting internal systems ranging from oxygen transport to ion balance. We assessed feeding and nutrient excretion rates in natural populations of the keystone species Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill) by conducting a CO(2) perturbation experiment at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO(2) levels in January 2011 along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). Under elevated CO(2) conditions (∼672 ppm), ingestion rates of krill averaged 78 µg C individual(-1) d(-1) and were 3.5 times higher than krill ingestion rates at ambient, present day CO(2) concentrations. Additionally, rates of ammonium, phosphate, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) excretion by krill were 1.5, 1.5, and 3.0 times higher, respectively, in the high CO(2) treatment than at ambient CO(2) concentrations. Excretion of urea, however, was ∼17% lower in the high CO(2) treatment, suggesting differences in catabolic processes of krill between treatments. Activities of key metabolic enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were consistently higher in the high CO(2) treatment. The observed shifts in metabolism are consistent with increased physiological costs associated with regulating internal acid-base equilibria. This represents an additional stress that may hamper growth and reproduction, which would negatively impact an already declining krill population along the WAP.

  9. Increased Feeding and Nutrient Excretion of Adult Antarctic Krill, Euphausia superba, Exposed to Enhanced Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Grace K.; Schofield, Oscar; Torres, Joseph J.; Ombres, Erica H.; Steinberg, Deborah K.

    2012-01-01

    Ocean acidification has a wide-ranging potential for impacting the physiology and metabolism of zooplankton. Sufficiently elevated CO2 concentrations can alter internal acid-base balance, compromising homeostatic regulation and disrupting internal systems ranging from oxygen transport to ion balance. We assessed feeding and nutrient excretion rates in natural populations of the keystone species Euphausia superba (Antarctic krill) by conducting a CO2 perturbation experiment at ambient and elevated atmospheric CO2 levels in January 2011 along the West Antarctic Peninsula (WAP). Under elevated CO2 conditions (∼672 ppm), ingestion rates of krill averaged 78 µg C individual−1 d−1 and were 3.5 times higher than krill ingestion rates at ambient, present day CO2 concentrations. Additionally, rates of ammonium, phosphate, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) excretion by krill were 1.5, 1.5, and 3.0 times higher, respectively, in the high CO2 treatment than at ambient CO2 concentrations. Excretion of urea, however, was ∼17% lower in the high CO2 treatment, suggesting differences in catabolic processes of krill between treatments. Activities of key metabolic enzymes, malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), were consistently higher in the high CO2 treatment. The observed shifts in metabolism are consistent with increased physiological costs associated with regulating internal acid-base equilibria. This represents an additional stress that may hamper growth and reproduction, which would negatively impact an already declining krill population along the WAP. PMID:23300621

  10. Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

  11. Structures of bovine, equine and leporine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Bujacz, Anna

    2012-10-01

    Serum albumin first appeared in early vertebrates and is present in the plasma of all mammals. Its canonical structure supported by a conserved set of disulfide bridges is maintained in all mammalian serum albumins and any changes in sequence are highly correlated with evolution of the species. Previous structural investigations of mammalian serum albumins have only concentrated on human serum albumin (HSA), most likely as a consequence of crystallization and diffraction difficulties. Here, the crystal structures of serum albumins isolated from bovine, equine and leporine blood plasma are reported. The structure of bovine serum albumin (BSA) was determined at 2.47 Å resolution, two crystal structures of equine serum albumin (ESA) were determined at resolutions of 2.32 and 2.04 Å, and that of leporine serum albumin (LSA) was determined at 2.27 Å resolution. These structures were compared in detail with the structure of HSA. The ligand-binding pockets in BSA, ESA and LSA revealed different amino-acid compositions and conformations in comparison to HSA in some cases; however, much more significant differences were observed on the surface of the molecules. BSA, which is one of the most extensively utilized proteins in laboratory practice and is used as an HSA substitute in many experiments, exhibits only 75.8% identity compared with HSA. The higher resolution crystal structure of ESA highlights the binding properties of this protein because it includes several bound compounds from the crystallization solution that provide additional structural information about potential ligand-binding pockets.

  12. Albumin binds self-assembling dyes as specific polymolecular ligands.

    PubMed

    Stopa, Barbara; Rybarska, Janina; Drozd, Anna; Konieczny, Leszek; Król, Marcin; Lisowski, Marek; Piekarska, Barbara; Roterman, Irena; Spólnik, Paweł; Zemanek, Grzegorz

    2006-12-15

    Self-assembling dyes with a structure related to Congo red (e.g. Evans blue) form polymolecular complexes with albumin. The dyes, which are lacking a self-assembling property (Trypan blue, ANS) bind as single molecules. The supramolecular character of dye ligands bound to albumin was demonstrated by indicating the complexation of dye molecules outnumbering the binding sites in albumin and by measuring the hydrodynamic radius of albumin which is growing upon complexation of self-assembling dye in contrast to dyes lacking this property. The self-assembled character of Congo red was also proved using it as a carrier introducing to albumin the intercalated nonbonding foreign compounds. Supramolecular, ordered character of the dye in the complex with albumin was also revealed by finding that self-assembling dyes become chiral upon complexation. Congo red complexation makes albumin less resistant to low pH as concluded from the facilitated N-F transition, observed in studies based on the measurement of hydrodynamic radius. This particular interference with protein stability and the specific changes in digestion resulted from binding of Congo red suggest that the self-assembled dye penetrates the central crevice of albumin.

  13. Effects of glycation on meloxicam binding to human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trynda-Lemiesz, Lilianna; Wiglusz, Katarzyna

    2011-05-01

    The current study reports a binding of meloxicam a pharmacologically important new generation, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to glycated form of the human serum albumin (HSA). The interaction of the meloxicam with nonglycated and glycated albumin has been studied at pH 7.4 in 0.05 M sodium phosphate buffer with 0.1 M NaCl, using fluorescence quenching technique and circular dichroism spectroscopy. Results of the present study have shown that the meloxicam could bind both forms of albumin glycated and nonglycated at a site, which was close to the tryptophan residues. Similarly, how for native albumin glycated form has had one high affinity site for the drug with association constants of the order of 10 5 M -1. The glycation process of the HSA significantly has affected the impact of the meloxicam on the binding of other ligands such as warfarin and bilirubin. The affinity of the glycated albumin for bilirubin as for native albumin has been reduced by meloxicam but observed effect was weaker by half (about 20%) compared with nonglycated albumin. In contrast to the native albumin meloxicam binding to glycated form of the protein only slightly affected the binding of warfarin. It seemed possible that the effects on warfarin binding might be entirely attributable to the Lys 199 modification which was in site I.

  14. Protein-thiol substitution or protein dethiolation by thiol/disulfide exchange reactions: the albumin model.

    PubMed

    Summa, Domenico; Spiga, Ottavia; Bernini, Andrea; Venditti, Vincenzo; Priora, Raffaella; Frosali, Simona; Margaritis, Antonios; Di Giuseppe, Danila; Niccolai, Neri; Di Simplicio, Paolo

    2007-11-01

    Dethiolation experiments of thiolated albumin with thionitrobenzoic acid and thiols (glutathione, cysteine, homocysteine) were carried out to understand the role of albumin in plasma distribution of thiols and disulfide species by thiol/disulfide (SH/SS) exchange reactions. During these experiments we observed that thiolated albumin underwent thiol substitution (Alb-SS-X+RSH<-->Alb-SS-R+XSH) or dethiolation (Alb-SS-X+XSH<-->Alb-SH+XSSX), depending on the different pK(a) values of thiols involved in protein-thiol mixed disulfides (Alb-SS-X). It appeared in these reactions that the compound with lower pK(a) in mixed disulfide was a good leaving group and that the pK(a) differences dictated the kind of reaction (substitution or dethiolation). Thionitrobenzoic acid, bound to albumin by mixed disulfide (Alb-TNB), underwent rapid substitution after thiol addition, forming the corresponding Alb-SS-X (peaks at 0.25-1 min). In turn, Alb-SS-X were dethiolated by the excess nonprotein SH groups because of the lower pK(a) value in mixed disulfide with respect to that of other thiols. Dethiolation of Alb-SS-X was accompanied by formation of XSSX and Alb-SH up to equilibrium levels at 35 min, which were different for each thiol. Structures by molecular simulation of thiolated albumin, carried out for understanding the role of sulfur exposure in mixed disulfides in dethiolation process, evidenced that the sulfur exposure is important for the rate but not for determining the kind of reaction (substitution or dethiolation). Our data underline the contribution of SH/SS exchanges to determine levels of various thiols as reduced and oxidized species in human plasma.

  15. Ligand-dependent conformational equilibria of serum albumin revealed by tryptophan fluorescence quenching.

    PubMed Central

    Chadborn, N; Bryant, J; Bain, A J; O'Shea, P

    1999-01-01

    Ligand-dependent structural changes in serum albumin are suggested to underlie its role in physiological solute transport and receptor-mediated cellular selection. Evidence of ligand-induced (oleic acid) structural changes in serum albumin are shown in both time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence quenching and anisotropy measurements of tryptophan 214 (Trp214). These studies were augmented with column chromatography separations. It was found that both the steady-state and time-resolved Stern-Volmer collisional quenching studies of Trp214 with acrylamide pointed to the existence of an oleate-dependent structural transformation. The bimolecular quenching rate constant of defatted human serum albumin, 1.96 x 10(9) M-1 s-1, decreased to 0.94 x 10(9) M-1 s-1 after incubation with oleic acid (9:1). Furthermore, Stern-Volmer quenching studies following fractionation of the structural forms by hydrophobic interaction chromatography were in accordance with this interpretation. Time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy measurements of the Trp214 residue yielded information of motion within the protein together with the whole protein molecule. Characteristic changes in these motions were observed after the binding of oleate to albumin. The addition of oleate was accompanied by an increase in the rotational diffusion time of the albumin molecule from approximately 22 to 33.6 ns. Within the body of the protein, however, the rotational diffusion time for Trp214 exhibited a slight decrease from 191 to 182 ps and was accompanied by a decrease in the extent of the angular motion of Trp214, indicating a transition after oleate binding to a more spatially restricted but less viscous environment. PMID:10096914

  16. Osmotic and osmotic-loop diuresis in brain surgery. Effects on plasma and CSF electrolytes and ion excretion.

    PubMed

    Schettini, A; Stahurski, B; Young, H F

    1982-05-01

    In 22 patients to be operated on for brain tumors or cerebral aneurysms, the effect of osmotic diuresis was compared with that of osmotic-loop diuresis on plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) electrolytes, and water and ion excretion. Mannitol or mannitol plus furosemide were used to reduce brain bulk. After treatment with thiopental and hyperventilation, patients received randomly a rapid infusion of mannitol (1.4 gm/kg), or mannitol (1.4 gm/kg) plus furosemide (0.3 mg/kg). Brain shrinkage was considerably greater and more consistent with mannitol plus furosemide than with mannitol alone. However, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypochloremia, and hyperosmolality were also more marked (p less than 0.05) with mannitol plus furosemide than with mannitol. The rate of water and ion excretion was even more striking. At 30 minutes after absorption of mannitol alone, water excretion peaked at 17 ml/min, and gradually decreased to 3.8 ml/min 70 minutes later. With mannitol plus furosemide, during an identical time course, initial water excretion was 30 ml/min, followed by a further rise to 42 ml/min and then a decline to 17 ml/min. At peak diuresis after mannitol, Na+ and Cl- excretion average 0.57 and 0.62 mEq/min, respectively. This compares with mean values of 3.7 and 4.12 mEq/min for Na+ and Cl-, respectively, after mannitol plus furosemide. Although optimum brain shrinkage is achieved with osmotic-loop diuresis, the rapid electrolyte depletion (Na+ and Cl-) must be corrected to avoid altered sensorium during the patients' postoperative course.

  17. Visualizing Trimming Dependence of Biodistribution and Kinetics with Homo- and Heterogeneous N-Glycoclusters on Fluorescent Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Ogura, Akihiro; Tahara, Tsuyoshi; Nozaki, Satoshi; Morimoto, Koji; Kizuka, Yasuhiko; Kitazume, Shinobu; Hara, Mitsuko; Kojima, Soichi; Onoe, Hirotaka; Kurbangalieva, Almira; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Tanaka, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    A series of N-glycans, each sequentially trimmed from biantennary sialoglycans, were homo- or heterogeneously clustered efficiently on fluorescent albumin using a method that combined strain-promoted alkyne-azide cyclization and 6π-azaelectrocyclization. Noninvasive in vivo kinetics and dissection analysis revealed, for the first time, a glycan-dependent shift from urinary to gall bladder excretion mediated by sequential trimming of non-reducing end sialic acids. N-glycoalbumins that were trimmed further, in particular, GlcNAc- and hybrid biantennary-terminated congeners, were selectively taken up by sinusoidal endothelial and stellate cells in the liver, which are critical for diagnosis and treatment of liver fibrillation. Our glycocluster strategy can not only reveal the previously unexplored extracellular functions of N-glycan trimming, but will be classified as the newly emerging glycoprobes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:26902314

  18. Absence of cadmium excretion and high assimilation result in cadmium biomagnification in a wolf spider.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Frederik; Maelfait, Jean-Pierre; Langenbick, Francis

    2003-07-01

    Cd biomagnification in the terrestrial food chain appears to be dependent on the physiological properties of the organisms rather than on their trophic level. Although high Cd body burdens in spiders from the field have been reported many times, experimental verification of the key factors that determine the rate of cadmium accumulation is lacking. We investigated the cadmium assimilation rate in the common wolf spider Pirata piraticus fed with contaminated fruit flies. Spiders were fed for 42 days with contaminated flies, followed by a detoxicification period of 28 days. Every 14 days, a subsample of spiders and flies was taken for Cd determination. It was demonstrated that a high cadmium assimilation (69.5%) and an excretion rate approaching zero resulted in high Cd concentration factors. The results indicate the importance of spiders in cadmium biomagnification along critical pathways.

  19. Interaction of coffee compounds with serum albumins. Part II: Diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Guercia, Elena; Forzato, Cristina; Navarini, Luciano; Berti, Federico

    2016-05-15

    Cafestol and 16-O-methylcafestol are diterpenes present in coffee, but whilst cafestol is found in both Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, 16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC) was reported to be specific of only C. canephora. The interactions of such compounds, with serum albumins, have been studied. Three albumins have been considered, namely human serum albumin (HSA), fatty acid free HSA (ffHSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The proteins interact with the diterpenes at the interface between Sudlow site I and the fatty acid binding site 6 in a very peculiar way, leading to a significant change in the secondary structure. The diterpenes do not displace reference binding drugs of site 2, but rather they enhance the affinity of the site for the drugs. They, therefore, may alter the pharmacokinetic profile of albumin - bound drugs.

  20. Serum albumin induces osmotic swelling of rat retinal glial cells.

    PubMed

    Löffler, Silvana; Wurm, Antje; Kutzera, Franziska; Pannicke, Thomas; Krügel, Katja; Linnertz, Regina; Wiedemann, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas; Bringmann, Andreas

    2010-03-04

    Edema in the ischemic neural tissue develops by increased vascular permeability associated with extravasation of albumin, and by glial swelling. Here, we show that bovine serum albumin acutely administered to slices of the rat retina causes swelling of glial somata under hypoosmotic conditions. The effect of albumin was dose-dependent, with half-maximal and maximal effects at 10 nM and 1 microM, respectively, and was mediated by activation of transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II, oxidative stress, and the production of arachidonic acid and prostaglandins. Albumin-induced glial swelling was prevented by glutamate and purinergic receptor agonists. The data suggest that serum albumin may induce glial swelling in the presence of osmotic gradients.

  1. Interaction of sulpiride and serum albumin: Modeling from spectrofluorimetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragoso, Viviane Muniz da Silva; Silva, Dilson

    2015-12-01

    We have applied the fluorescence quenching modeling to study the process of interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine (BSA). Albumin is more abundant protein in blood and it emits fluorescence when excited by 260-295 nm. Sulpiride is an atypical antipsychotic used in the treatment of many psychiatric disorders. As sulpiride is fluorescent, we developed a mathematical model to analyzing the interaction of two fluorescent substances. This model was able to separate the albumin fluorescence from the quencher fluorescence. Results have shown that sulpiride quenches the fluorescence of both albumins by a static process, due to the complex formation drugalbumin. The association constants calculated for sulpiride-HSA was 2.20 (± 0.08) × 104 M-1 at 37° C, and 5.46 (± 0.20) × 104 M-1, 25 ° C, and the primary binding site to sulpiride in the albumin is located closer to the subdomain IB.

  2. Ghrelin binding to serum albumin and its biological impact.

    PubMed

    Lufrano, Daniela; Trejo, Sebastián A; Llovera, Ramiro E; Salgueiro, Mariano; Fernandez, Gimena; Martínez Damonte, Valentina; González Flecha, F Luis; Raingo, Jesica; Ermácora, Mario R; Perelló, Mario

    2016-11-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of the body weight and glucose homeostasis. In plasma, ghrelin circulates bound to larger proteins whose identities are partially established. Here, we used size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry and isothermal titration microcalorimetry to show that ghrelin interacts with serum albumin. Furthermore, we found that such interaction displays an estimated dissociation constant (KD) in the micromolar range and involves albumin fatty-acid binding sites as well as the octanoyl moiety of ghrelin. Notably, albumin-ghrelin interaction reduces the spontaneous deacylation of the hormone. Both in vitro experiments-assessing ghrelin ability to inhibit calcium channels-and in vivo studies-evaluating ghrelin orexigenic effects-indicate that the binding to albumin affects the bioactivity of the hormone. In conclusion, our results suggest that ghrelin binds to serum albumin and that this interaction impacts on the biological activity of the hormone.

  3. The effect of lithium salts on the urinary excretion of α-oxoglutarate in man

    PubMed Central

    Bond, P. A.; Jenner, F. A.; Lee, C. R.; Lenton, Elizabeth; Pollitt, R. J.; Sampson, Gwyneth A.

    1972-01-01

    1. Lithium ions in therapeutic doses cause an increase in the renal excretion of α-oxoglutarate and glutaric acid. 2. The excretion is probably due to reduced renal tubular reabsorption. 3. Neither citrate, lactate nor pyruvate excretion rises. PMID:5084816

  4. Thrombin-induced increase in albumin permeability across the endothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, J.G.; Siflinger-Birnboim, A.; Bizios, R.; Del Vecchio, P.J.; Fenton, J.W. 2d.; Malik, A.B.

    1986-07-01

    We studied the effect of thrombin on albumin permeability across the endothelial monolayer in vitro. Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were grown on micropore membranes. Morphologic analysis confirmed the presence of a confluent monolayer with interendothelial junctions. Albumin permeability was measured by the clearance of 125I-albumin across the endothelial monolayer. The control 125I-albumin clearance was 0.273 +/- 0.02 microliter/min. The native enzyme, alpha-thrombin (10(-6) to 10(-10) M), added to the luminal side of the endothelium produced concentration-dependent increases in albumin clearance (maximum clearance of 0.586 +/- 0.08 microliter/min at 10(-6) M). Gamma (gamma) thrombin (10(-6) M and 10(-8) M), which lacks the fibrinogen recognition site, also produced a concentration-dependent increase in albumin clearance similar to that observed with alpha-thrombin. Moreover, the two proteolytically inactive forms of the native enzyme, i-Pr2 P-alpha-thrombin and D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2-alpha-thrombin, increased the 125I-albumin clearance (0.610 +/- 0.09 microliter/min and 0.609 +/- 0.02 microliter/min for i-Pr2 P-alpha-thrombin and D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2-alpha-thrombin at 10(-6) M, respectively). Since the modified forms of thrombin lack the fibrinogen recognition and active serine protease sites, the results indicate that neither site is required for increased albumin permeability. The increase in albumin clearance with alpha-thrombin was not secondary to endothelial cell lysis because lactate dehydrogenase concentration in the medium following thrombin was not significantly different from baseline values. There was also no morphological evidence of cell lysis. Moreover, the increase in 125I-albumin clearance induced by alpha-thrombin was reversible by washing thrombin from the endothelium.

  5. Laboratory reporting of urine protein and albumin.

    PubMed

    Jones, Graham Rd

    2011-05-01

    Communication between pathology laboratories and clients involves more than just a result. There may be advice on recommended specimen type as well as the units and reference intervals used to report results. Between-laboratory variability in these factors has the potential to cause unnecessary confusion and even to lead to variation in interpretation for samples sent to different laboratories. A survey of Australian and New Zealand laboratories covering sample recommendations, specimens received, units and reference intervals for urine albumin and urine protein was conducted through the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program (RCPA QAP). The results confirm earlier findings of wide between-laboratory variability in all these factors. It is proposed that only recommendations developed by relevant professional societies and adopted by all laboratories can lead to reduction in this variability.

  6. An artificially evolved albumin binding module facilitates chemical shift epitope mapping of GA domain interactions with phylogenetically diverse albumins.

    PubMed

    He, Yanan; Chen, Yihong; Rozak, David A; Bryan, Philip N; Orban, John

    2007-07-01

    Protein G-related albumin-binding (GA) modules occur on the surface of numerous Gram-positive bacterial pathogens and their presence may promote bacterial growth and virulence in mammalian hosts. We recently used phage display selection to evolve a GA domain, PSD-1 (phage selected domain-1), which tightly bound phylogenetically diverse albumins. With respect to PSD-1's broad albumin binding specificity, it remained unclear how the evolved binding epitope compared to those of naturally occurring GA domains and whether PSD-1's binding mode was the same for different albumins. We investigate these questions here using chemical shift perturbation measurements of PSD-1 with rabbit serum albumin (RSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) and put the results in the context of previous work on structure and dynamics of GA domains. Combined, these data provide insights into the requirements for broad binding specificity in GA-albumin interactions. Moreover, we note that using the phage-optimized PSD-1 protein significantly diminishes the effects of exchange broadening at the binding interface between GA modules and albumin, presumably through stabilization of a ligand-bound conformation. The employment of artificially evolved domains may be generally useful in NMR structural studies of other protein-protein complexes.

  7. Excretion of (3H)prednisolone in clinically normal and experimentally infected bovine udders

    SciTech Connect

    Geleta, J.N.; Shimoda, W.; Mercer, H.D.

    1984-08-01

    The excretion rate of (3H)prednisolone from clinically normal and experimentally infected udders of 10 lactating cows was studied. Each quarter of 6 cows was injected with a single dose of (3H)prednisolone mixed with non-radioactive prednisolone equivalent to 10 mg in 10 ml of peanut oil base. Each of the remaining 4 cows was given 40 mg of nonradioactive prednisolone and (3H)prednisolone in 60% ethanol IV. Control and postadministration samples of blood, milk, and urine were examined for radioactivity. The effects of (3H)prednisolone were evaluated in the same cows, first in clinically normal udders, then 2 weeks later in udders experimentally infected with Streptococcus agalactiae. Absorption and elimination of prednisolone were the same before and after induced infection. Within 3 hours after intramammary injection, 95% of the labeled prednisolone was absorbed systemically, less than 5% of this dose was recovered in milk, and 29% was excreted in urine. After IV injection of (3H)prednisolone, less than 0.2% of the total radioactivity was recovered in milk and less than 46% was excreted in urine. Clinical mastitis induced by S agalactiae was moderate. Circulating blood leukocytes and somatic cells in the milk of normal cows remained essentially unchanged. The leukocyte response to induced infection was rapid in blood and milk. Large numbers of leukocytes were noticed in the milk and a severe leukopenia occurred. Prednisolone treatment did not alter the number of somatic cells in milk or reduce the inflammatory response of experimentally infected cows.

  8. Antioxidant flavonoids bind human serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanakis, C. D.; Tarantilis, P. A.; Polissiou, M. G.; Diamantoglou, S.; Tajmir-Riahi, H. A.

    2006-10-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is a principal extracellular protein with a high concentration in blood plasma and carrier for many drugs to different molecular targets. Flavonoids are powerful antioxidants and prevent DNA damage. The antioxidative protections are related to their binding modes to DNA duplex and complexation with free radicals in vivo. However, flavonoids are known to inhibit the activities of several enzymes such as calcium phospholipid-dependent protein kinase, tyrosine protein kinase from rat lung, phosphorylase kinase, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and DNA topoisomerases that exhibit the importance of flavonoid-protein interaction. This study was designed to examine the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with quercetin (que), kaempferol (kae) and delphinidin (del) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using constant protein concentration of 0.25 mM (final) and various drug contents of 1 μM-1 mM. FTIR and UV-vis spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyphenolic binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of flavonoid complexation on protein secondary structure. The spectroscopic results showed that flavonoids are located along the polypeptide chains through H-bonding interactions with overall affinity constant of Kque = 1.4 × 10 4 M -1, Kkae = 2.6 × 10 5 M -1 and Kdel = 4.71 × 10 5 M -1. The protein secondary structure showed no alterations at low pigment concentration (1 μM), whereas at high flavonoid content (1 mM), major reduction of α-helix from 55% (free HSA) to 42-46% and increase of β-sheet from 15% (free HSA) to 17-19% and β-anti from 7% (free HSA) to 10-20% occurred in the flavonoid-HSA adducts. The major reduction of HSA α-helix is indicative of a partial protein unfolding upon flavonoid interaction.

  9. Efficient production of ectoine using ectoine-excreting strain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling-hua; Lang, Ya-jun; Nagata, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    Halophilic bacteria strain Halomonas salina DSM 5928 was found to excrete ectoine, suggesting its potential in the development of a new method of ectoine production. We performed HPLC and LC-MS analyses that showed that Halomonas salina DSM 5928 excreted ectoine under constant extracellular osmolarity. Medium adopting monosodium glutamate as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen was beneficial for ectoine synthesis. The total concentration of ectoine was not affected by NaCl concentration in the range 0.5-2 mol l(-1). The total concentration of ectoine and productivity in a 10-l fermentor with 0.5 mol l(-1) NaCl were 6.9 g l(-1) and 7.9 g l(-1) d(-1), respectively. These findings show that Halomonas salina DSM 5928 efficiently produces ectoine at relatively low NaCl concentration. This research also indicates the potential application of free or immobilized cells for continuous culture to produce ectoine.

  10. Urinary selenium excretion in patients with cervical uterine cancer.

    PubMed

    Navarrete, M; Gaudry, A; Revel, G; Martínez, T; Cabrera, L

    2001-02-01

    In this work, we report on a relationship between urinary selenium and the development of cervical uterine cancer. A simple chemical method was developed to concentrate trace amounts of selenium from relatively large urine samples by use of small activated carbon filters. When these filters are irradiated with thermal neutrons, selenium can be determined either by 77mSe (t1/2 = 17.5 s) or 75Se (t1/2 = 120 d). In this article, we report the results for 82 urine samples from women with cervical uterine cancer in several stages of development and from healthy controls. These results show a statistically significant increase of selenium excretion in cancer patients as compared to controls. Urinary selenium excretion is highest for patients in the intermediate stages of the disease.

  11. Altered amino acid excretion in children with autism.

    PubMed

    Evans, Craig; Dunstan, R Hugh; Rothkirch, Tony; Roberts, Tim K; Reichelt, Karl L; Cosford, Robyn; Deed, Gary; Ellis, Libby B; Sparkes, Diane L

    2008-02-01

    Autism is a complex and life-long behavioural disorder of unknown aetiology. Recent reports have indicated the involvement of digestive tract dysfunction and possible complications from inadequate nutrition. In this study, 34 autistic children (12 untreated and 22 receiving therapeutic treatments related to digestive function and nutritional uptake) and 29 control subjects (all 5-15 years of age) were investigated to determine whether there were any anomalies in the urinary excretion of amino acids, glucose, sucrose, arabinose and tartaric acid using GC/FID and GC/MS analysis techniques. Significantly lower relative urinary levels of essential amino acids were revealed for both the untreated (mean +/- SEM, 32.53 +/- 3.09%) and treated (31.98 +/- 2.87%) autistic children compared with the controls (37.87 +/- 1.50%). There were no significant differences in measured excretions of sugars or tartaric acid. It was concluded that the untreated autistic children had evidence of altered metabolic homeostasis.

  12. Metabolism and excretion of orally administered arsenobetaine in the hamster

    SciTech Connect

    Yamauchi, H.; Kaise, T.; Yamamura, Y.

    1986-03-01

    Arsenobetaine, one of the trimethylarsenic compounds (TMA), occurs abundantly in seafoods. The urinary excretion pattern of arsenic in man following oral ingestion of TMA contained in fishes once only indicates that the most portion of the TMA is excreted in urine. These experiments in humans have used fish arsenic but no authentic arsenobetaine. From previous experiments in mice, rats and rabbits using/sup 73/As-labeled arsenobetaine, it was reported that arsenobetaine is not converted in vivo into any other chemical species of arsenic. The metabolic and excretory patterns of arsenic compounds in the hamster seem to be similar to those in humans. In the present study, the authors examined arsenobetaine-treated hamsters for what chemical species of arsenic this arsenic compound (arsenobetaine) would be metabolized into in vivo and also for its excretory patterns in urine and feces with time.

  13. Moderate alcohol consumption and urinary excretion of magnesium and calcium.

    PubMed

    Rylander, R; Mégevand, Y; Lasserre, B; Amstutz, W; Granbom, S

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the magnesium (Mg) status of male subjects consuming moderate amounts of alcohol (n = 14) in comparison with that of a group of non-consumers of alcohol (n = 10). Plasma ionized Mg levels and total erythrocyte Mg content were determined as well as the excretion of Mg in urine before and after an oral loading test. Intake of Mg via food and water was estimated using a one-week dietary records. The results showed a significantly higher, alcohol dose-related excretion of Mg and Ca (calcium) in the urine after the oral Mg load among consumers of alcohol. Although the study is based on a small number of subjects with differences in smoking habits, it is suggested that alcohol consumption even in moderate amounts could contribute to Mg deficiency.

  14. III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretion in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Bravo, David; Sauvant, Daniel; Bogaert, Catherine; Meschy, François

    2003-01-01

    Ruminant phosphorus excretion and metabolism were studied through a database. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is the main pathway of phosphorus excretion and averages 0.85 of total faecal phosphorus. The remaining 0.15 is unabsorbed dietary phosphorus. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is mainly unabsorbed phosphorus, with saliva being the major source, and is correlated to factors influencing saliva secretion (DM intake, physical dietary characteristics and dietary phosphorus content). Another source of faecal endogenous phosphorus is rumen microbial phosphorus that escaped solubilisation during post-rumen digestion. All factors stimulating microbial growth would increase phosphorus uptake by the rumen microbes and consequently the faecal endogenous phosphorus. Understanding the determinants of faecal endogenous phosphorus flow will help to precise the determination of net phosphorus requirements for maintenance. The role of plasma phosphorus in urinary phosphorus loss is discussed.

  15. Results of a quality assurance exercise for urinary glycosaminoglycan excretion.

    PubMed

    Brimble, A; Pennock, C; Stone, J

    1990-03-01

    Urine samples collected from four patients with a mucopolysaccharide storage disease (MPS) and two non-MPS patients were distributed to up to 33 laboratories as a test of their ability to detect abnormal glycosaminoglycan excretion. Seven national reference laboratories made a correct diagnostic assignment to all samples analysed. Qualitative turbidity and spot tests were shown to be unreliable. Failure to identify the excretion pattern occurred when reliance was placed on one-dimensional electrophoresis or thin layer chromatography as the sole method for glycosaminoglycan identification. Two-dimensional electrophoresis appeared to be the method of choice provided that staff had adequate experience in interpretation. Clinically unacceptable delays in analysis were common, with 80% of laboratories taking longer than 10 days to issue a report.

  16. Salivary excretion of rabies virus by healthy vampire bats.

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Setien, A.; Loza-Rubio, E.; Salas-Rojas, M.; Brisseau, N.; Cliquet, F.; Pastoret, P. P.; Rojas-Dotor, S.; Tesoro, E.; Kretschmer, R.

    2005-01-01

    Salivary excretion of rabies virus was evaluated in 14 adult vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) intramuscularly injected with a large dose (10(6) MICLD50) of vampire rabies virus variant CASS88. Saliva samples were obtained from surviving bats every other day for 30 days, then weekly for 2 months, and finally 1 and 2 years later. Rabies virus was isolated in murine neuroblastoma cells and in randomly selected cases by PCR. Rabies virus was not detected in the saliva of any of the 11 animals that succumbed (somewhat early) to rabies challenge, nor in the control bats. In contrast, virus was detected early, and only once (days 6, 6 and 21) in each of the three animals that survived rabies challenge and remained healthy for at least 2 years after challenge. At that time even vigorous dexamethasone and cyclosporine administration failed to provoke further viral excretion. PMID:15966107

  17. Salivary excretion of rabies virus by healthy vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Setien, A; Loza-Rubio, E; Salas-Rojas, M; Brisseau, N; Cliquet, F; Pastoret, P P; Rojas-Dotor, S; Tesoro, E; Kretschmer, R

    2005-06-01

    Salivary excretion of rabies virus was evaluated in 14 adult vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) intramuscularly injected with a large dose (10(6) MICLD50) of vampire rabies virus variant CASS88. Saliva samples were obtained from surviving bats every other day for 30 days, then weekly for 2 months, and finally 1 and 2 years later. Rabies virus was isolated in murine neuroblastoma cells and in randomly selected cases by PCR. Rabies virus was not detected in the saliva of any of the 11 animals that succumbed (somewhat early) to rabies challenge, nor in the control bats. In contrast, virus was detected early, and only once (days 6, 6 and 21) in each of the three animals that survived rabies challenge and remained healthy for at least 2 years after challenge. At that time even vigorous dexamethasone and cyclosporine administration failed to provoke further viral excretion.

  18. A Micropuncture Study of Potassium Excretion by the Remnant Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Bank, Norman; Aynedjian, Hagop S.

    1973-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of enhanced potassium excretion by the remaining nephrons of the remnant kidney, micropuncture and clearance experiments were carried out in rats after surgical ablation of 3/4 of the total renal mass. The potassium intake in all animals was approximately 5 meq/day. Animals were studied 24 h and 10-14 days after 3/4 nephrectomy. Balance measurements in the chronic animals before micropuncture study indicated that 24 h K+ excretion by the remnant kidney was equal to that of the two kidneys before ablation of renal mass. Measurements of distal tubular inulin and potassium concentrations revealed progressive reabsorption of potassium in this segment of the nephron in both the 24-h and chronic 3/4-nephrectomized rats, as well as in normal control rats. A large increase in tubular fluid potassium content occurred between the end of the distal tubule and the final urine in the 3/4-nephrectomized rats, but not in the normal controls. These observations suggest that the segment of the nephron responsible for enhanced potassium excretion by remaining nephrons was the collecting duct. In additional experiments, potassium was completely eliminated from the diet of chronic 3/4-nephrectomized rats before micropuncture study. In these animals, no addition of K+ occurred beyond the distal tubules. Normal rats infused with 0.15 M KCl to acutely elevate serum K+ concentration, demonstrated reabsorption of K+ in the distal tubule and a large addition of K+ to the urine beyond the distal tubule. We conclude that the collecting duct is the major site of regulation of urinary potassium excretion in normal rats and is responsible for the adaptation to nephron loss by the remnant kidney. PMID:4703232

  19. Steroid hormone excretion is enhanced by sucrose feeding to rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kruger, T.C.; Hsu, H.; Saunders, J.P.; Kim, S.S.; Given-Proctor, J.; Ahrens, R.A.

    1986-03-01

    The hypothesis tested was that feeding rats sucrose rather than invert sugar (50:50 mixture of glucose and fructose) or cornstarch would result in a more rapid excretion of intravenously injected 1,2-/sup 3/H aldosterone or 1,2,6,7-/sup 3/H cortisol. The three carbohydrate sources provided 45% of dietary energy when fed, respectively, to one of three groups of 10 male, Sprague Dawley rats. After 4 or 8 weeks of ad lib feeding of the three diets 5 ..mu..CI of /sup 3/H-labeled hormones were injected intravenously and % recovery in urine and feces was measured for 4 days by liquid scintillation counting. Nearly 90% of the /sup 3/H injected as 1,2-/sup 3/H aldosterone was recovered over 4 days in the excreta of the sucrose fed rats. This recovery of /sup 3/H from aldosterone was significantly greater (P < 0.01) than when invert sugar (65%) or cornstarch (60%) were fed. The recovery of /sup 3/H from intravenously injected 1,2,6,7-/sup 3/H cortisol followed a similar pattern. The authors anticipate that the excretion of all metabolic end products and xenobiotics excreted as glucuronides would be enhanced by sucrose feeding. Oxocarbonium ions from the glucose portion of sucrose digestion in the mammalian small intestine are thought to compete with oxocarbonium ions from the glucuronic acid portion of glucuronide hydrolysis. Such competition may slow glucuronide hydrolysis and promote glucuronide excretion, including the glucuronides derived from aldosterone and cortisol.

  20. Study of the cross-reaction between rabbit anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies and equine serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, H.

    1965-01-01

    Cross-reactions between bovine serum albumin and equine serum albumin were studied using heterologous soluble complexes and specifically purified cross-reacting antibody. Experiments with soluble complexes showed that homologous antigen can displace heterologous antigen specifically bound to antibody but heterologous antigen cannot displace homologous antigen. On gel precipitation tests a specific precipitation resulted when heterologous soluble complex reacted with homologous antigen. By using equine serum albumin conjugated to polyaminopolystyrene the cross-reacting antibodies from anti-bovine serum albumin imune sera could be isolated. These are divalent 7S, γ-globulin antibodies. A figure of cross-reaction was obtained when these purified antibodies were tested by double diffusion in agar with bovine and equine serum albumins. The results obtained both with soluble complexes and with purified antibody support the view that cross-reacting antibody is more avid for the homologous than for the heterologous antigen. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:14245318

  1. Biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in idiopathic hemochromatosis

    SciTech Connect

    Hultcrantz, R.; Angelin, B.; Bjoern-Rasmussen, E.E.; Ewerth, S.; Einarsson, K.

    1989-06-01

    The role of biliary excretion of iron and ferritin in iron overload was studied and evaluated. Ten patients with idiopathic hemochromatosis and two groups of controls (14 gallstone patients and 16 healthy subjects) were included. Liver tissue (obtained by percutaneous or operative biopsy) was investigated with light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy in combination with x-ray microanalysis. Fasting bile samples were obtained through duodenal aspiration or at cholecystectomy. Iron was determined in liver tissue and bile using atomic absorption spectroscopy, and ferritin was determined in serum and bile with a radioimmunoassay technique. All patients with hemochromatosis had iron-positive staining as seen in light microscopy. Electron microscopy showed iron-containing proteins in the lysosomes and cytosol of liver parenchymal cells, and this observation was supported by x-ray microanalysis. Hepatic iron concentration was increased about eightfold in the patients with hemochromatosis (p less than 0.001). Biliary iron concentration, expressed per millimole of bile acid, was increased about twofold (p less than 0.05) and biliary ferritin concentration about fivefold (p less than 0.001) in hemochromatosis. Four of the patients with hemochromatosis were reexamined after completed treatment with venesection; this resulted in normalized biliary concentrations of iron and ferritin. We conclude that biliary secretion of ferritin occurs in humans and that both iron and ferritin excretion are enhanced in hepatic iron overload. The apparently limited capacity of biliary iron excretion may be of importance for the hepatic iron accumulation in hemochromatosis.

  2. A proteolytic modification of AIM promotes its renal excretion

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Tomoko; Sugisawa, Ryoichi; Hiramoto, Emiri; Takai, Ryosuke; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Senda, Yoshie; Nakashima, Katsuhiko; Nelson, Peter S.; Lucas, Jared M.; Morgan, Andrew; Li, Zhenghua; Yamamura, Ken-ichi; Arai, Satoko; Miyazaki, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM, encoded by cd5l) is a multi-functional circulating protein that has a beneficial role in the regulation of a broad range of diseases, some of which are ameliorated by AIM administration in mice. In blood, AIM is stabilized by association with IgM pentamers and maintains its high circulating levels. The mechanism regulating the excessive accumulation of blood AIM remains unknown, although it is important, since a constitutive increase in AIM levels promotes chronic inflammation. Here we found a physiological AIM-cleavage process that induces destabilization of AIM and its excretion in urine. In blood, IgM-free AIM appeared to be cleaved and reduced in size approximately 10 kDa. Cleaved AIM was unable to bind to IgM and was selectively filtered by the glomerulus, thereby excreted in urine. Amino acid substitution at the cleavage site resulted in no renal excretion of AIM. Interestingly, cleaved AIM retained a comparable potency with full-length AIM in facilitating the clearance of dead cell debris in injured kidney, which is a key response in the recovery of acute kidney injury. Identification of AIM-cleavage and resulting functional modification could be the basis for designing safe and efficient AIM therapy for various diseases. PMID:27929116

  3. Excreted Cytoplasmic Proteins Contribute to Pathogenicity in Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Ebner, Patrick; Rinker, Janina; Nguyen, Minh Thu; Popella, Peter; Nega, Mulugeta; Luqman, Arif; Schittek, Birgit; Di Marco, Moreno; Stevanovic, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Excretion of cytoplasmic proteins in pro- and eukaryotes, also referred to as “nonclassical protein export,” is a well-known phenomenon. However, comparatively little is known about the role of the excreted proteins in relation to pathogenicity. Here, the impact of two excreted glycolytic enzymes, aldolase (FbaA) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), on pathogenicity was investigated in Staphylococcus aureus. Both enzymes bound to certain host matrix proteins and enhanced adherence of the bacterial cells to host cells but caused a decrease in host cell invasion. FbaA and GAPDH also bound to the cell surfaces of staphylococcal cells by interaction with the major autolysin, Atl, that is involved in host cell internalization. Surprisingly, FbaA showed high cytotoxicity to both MonoMac 6 (MM6) and HaCaT cells, while GAPDH was cytotoxic only for MM6 cells. Finally, the contribution of external FbaA and GAPDH to S. aureus pathogenicity was confirmed in an insect infection model. PMID:27001537

  4. Urinary excretion of morphine and biosynthetic precursors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Grobe, Nadja; Lamshöft, Marc; Orth, Robert G.; Dräger, Birgit; Kutchan, Toni M.; Zenk, Meinhart H.; Spiteller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    It has been firmly established that humans excrete a small but steady amount of the isoquinoline alkaloid morphine in their urine. It is unclear whether it is of dietary or endogenous origin. There is no doubt that a simple isoquinoline alkaloid, tetrahydropapaveroline (THP), is found in human and rodent brain as well as in human urine. This suggests a potential biogenetic relationship between both alkaloids. Unlabeled THP or [1,3,4-D3]-THP was injected intraperitoneally into mice and the urine was analyzed. This potential precursor was extensively metabolized (96%). Among the metabolites found was the phenol-coupled product salutaridine, the known morphine precursor in the opium poppy plant. Synthetic [7D]-salutaridinol, the biosynthetic reduction product of salutaridine, injected intraperitoneally into live animals led to the formation of [7D]-thebaine, which was excreted in urine. [N-CD3]-thebaine was also administered and yielded [N-CD3]-morphine and the congeners [N-CD3]-codeine and [N-CD3]-oripavine in urine. These results show for the first time that live animals have the biosynthetic capability to convert a normal constituent of rodents, THP, to morphine. Morphine and its precursors are normally not found in tissues or organs, presumably due to metabolic breakdown. Hence, only that portion of the isoquinoline alkaloids excreted in urine unmetabolized can be detected. Analysis of urine by high resolution-mass spectrometry proved to be a powerful method for tracking endogenous morphine and its biosynthetic precursors. PMID:20421505

  5. Elevation of CSF albumin in old sheep: relations to CSF turnover and albumin extraction at blood-CSF barrier.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruo-Li; Chen, Carl Pai-Chu; Preston, Jane Elizabeth

    2010-06-01

    Albumin is the most abundant protein in both CSF and plasma, and albumin quotient is often used to assess the functions of brain barriers especially that of the blood-CSF barrier [i.e. the choroid plexus (CP) which also secretes CSF]. In this study, we took albumin as a model molecule to investigate ageing-related alterations in the CSF-CP system in sheep. We found significant ageing-related increases in the weight of lateral CP [122.4 +/- 14.0 mg in the young, 198.6 +/- 35.4 mg in the middle aged, 286.1 +/- 25.1 mg in the old (p < 0.05)], in the CSF albumin as well as the albumin quotient. Albumin protein spots in old CSF displayed wider on 2D western immunoblotting images, and had higher densities on images of 2D large gels stained with Pro-Q Emerald 488 compared to the young samples, suggesting ageing-related post-translational modification in the albumin. CSF secretion was reduced with age: 0.148 +/- 0.013 mL/min/g in the young, 0.092 +/- 0.02 mL/min/g in the middle aged, 0.070 +/- 0.013 mL/min/g in the old (p < 0.05). The (125)I-BSA extraction was not different among the sheep groups, nor was altered by temperature reduction, monensin, nocodazole, anti-transforming growth factor beta receptor II antibody, as well as unlabelled albumins. In conclusion, elevation of albumin in old CSF is associated with reduced CSF secretion by the CP, which size increases with age. (125)I-BSA extract, reflecting the extracellular space rather than the active albumin uptake in the CP, is not different between ages. These early changes in health ageing may result in the accumulation and modifications of CSF proteins leading to neurotoxicity.

  6. Effect of fluoride and albumin concentration on the corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Her-Hsiung

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of fluoride and albumin concentration on the corrosion behavior of Ti-6Al-4V alloy in acid artificial saliva (pH 5/37 degrees C) using potentiodynamic polarization and linear polarization test. Chemical analyses of the surface passive film were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results showed that either the NaF (0-0.5%) or the presence of albumin (0-0.2%) in 0.1% NaF-containing media had a significant influence on the corrosion potential (E(corr)), corrosion rate (I(corr)), passive current density (I(pass)), and polarization resistance (R(p)) (p<0.01). The I(corr) and I(pass) values increased on increasing the NaF concentration, but decreased with the presence of albumin in NaF-containing media. The R(p) value decreased on increasing the NaF concentration, but increased with the presence of albumin in NaF-containing media. When the NaF concentration was higher than 0.1%, the protectiveness of TiO(2) passive film formed on Ti-6Al-4V alloy was destroyed by fluoride ions, leading to the formation of Na(2)TiF(6). The presence of albumin, regardless of the concentration, in 0.1% NaF-containing acid media improved the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

  7. Bilirubin-albumin binding, bilirubin/albumin ratios, and free bilirubin levels: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Hulzebos, Christian V; Dijk, Peter H

    2014-11-01

    Treatment for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia is predominantly based on one parameter, i.e., total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels. Yet, overt kernicterus has been reported in preterm infants at relatively low TSB levels, and it has been repeatedly shown that free unconjugated bilirubin (freeUCB) levels, or bilirubin/albumin (B/A) ratios for that matter, are more closely associated with bilirubin neurotoxicity. In this article, we review bilirubin-albumin binding, UCBfree levels, and B/A ratios in addition to TSB levels to individualize and optimize treatment especially in preterm infants. Methods to measure bilirubin-albumin binding or UCBfree are neither routinely performed in Western clinical laboratories nor incorporated in current management guidelines on unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia. For bilirubin-albumin binding, this seems justified because several of these methods have been challenged, and sufficiently powered prospective trials on the clinical benefits are lacking. Technological advances in the measurement of UCBfree may provide a convenient means for integrating UCBfree measurements into routine clinical management of jaundiced infants. A point-of-care method, as well as determination of UCBfree levels in various newborn populations, is desirable to learn more about variations in time and how various clinical pathophysiological conditions affect UCBfree levels. This will improve the estimation of approximate UCBfree levels associated with neurotoxicity. To delineate the role of UCBfree in the management of jaundiced (preterm) infants, trials are needed using UCBfree as treatment parameter. The additional use of the B/A ratio in jaundiced preterms has been evaluated in the Bilirubin Albumin Ratio Trial (BARTrial; Clinical Trials: ISRCTN74465643) but failed to demonstrate better neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm infants <32 weeks assigned to the study group. Awaiting a study in which infants are assigned to be managed solely on the basis of their B

  8. Role of renal medullary adenosine in the control of blood flow and sodium excretion.

    PubMed

    Zou, A P; Nithipatikom, K; Li, P L; Cowley, A W

    1999-03-01

    This study determined the levels of adenosine in the renal medullary interstitium using microdialysis and fluorescence HPLC techniques and examined the role of endogenous adenosine in the control of medullary blood flow and sodium excretion by infusing the specific adenosine receptor antagonists or agonists into the renal medulla of anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Renal cortical and medullary blood flows were measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Analysis of microdialyzed samples showed that the adenosine concentration in the renal medullary interstitial dialysate averaged 212 +/- 5.2 nM, which was significantly higher than 55.6 +/- 5.3 nM in the renal cortex (n = 9). Renal medullary interstitial infusion of a selective A1 antagonist, 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX; 300 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 8), did not alter renal blood flows, but increased urine flow by 37% and sodium excretion by 42%. In contrast, renal medullary infusion of the selective A2 receptor blocker 3, 7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX; 150 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 9) decreased outer medullary blood flow (OMBF) by 28%, inner medullary blood flows (IMBF) by 21%, and sodium excretion by 35%. Renal medullary interstitial infusion of adenosine produced a dose-dependent increase in OMBF, IMBF, urine flow, and sodium excretion at doses from 3 to 300 pmol. kg-1. min-1 (n = 7). These effects of adenosine were markedly attenuated by the pretreatment of DMPX, but unaltered by DPCPX. Infusion of a selective A3 receptor agonist, N6-benzyl-5'-(N-ethylcarbonxamido)adenosine (300 pmol. kg-1. min-1, n = 6) into the renal medulla had no effect on medullary blood flows or renal function. Glomerular filtration rate and arterial pressure were not changed by medullary infusion of any drugs. Our results indicate that endogenous medullary adenosine at physiological concentrations serves to dilate medullary vessels via A2 receptors, resulting in a natriuretic response that overrides the tubular A1 receptor

  9. Association between urinary sodium, creatinine, albumin, and long-term survival in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    McQuarrie, Emily P; Traynor, Jamie P; Taylor, Alison H; Freel, E Marie; Fox, Jonathan G; Jardine, Alan G; Mark, Patrick B

    2014-07-01

    Dietary sodium intake is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular risk in the general population. In patients with chronic kidney disease, sodium intake has been associated with progressive renal disease, but not independently of proteinuria. We studied the relationship between urinary sodium (UNa) excretion and UNa to creatinine ratio and mortality or requirement for renal replacement therapy in chronic kidney disease. Adult patients attending a renal clinic who had ≥1 24-hour UNa measurement were identified. Twenty-four-hour UNa measures were collected and UNa to creatinine ratio calculated. Time to renal replacement therapy or death was recorded. Four hundred twenty-three patients were identified with mean estimated glomerular filtration rate of 48 mL/min per 1.73 m(2). Ninety patients required renal replacement therapy and 102 patients died. Mean slope decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate was -2.8 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) per year. Median follow-up was 8.5 years. Patients who died or required renal replacement therapy had significantly higher UNa excretion and UNa to creatinine ratio, but the association with these parameters and poor outcome was not independent of renal function, age, and albuminuria. When stratified by albuminuria, UNa to creatinine ratio was a significant cumulative additional risk for mortality, even in patients with low-level albuminuria. There was no association between low UNa and risk, as observed in some studies. This study demonstrates an association between UNa excretion and mortality in chronic kidney disease, with a cumulative relationship between sodium excretion, albuminuria, and reduced survival. These data support reducing dietary sodium intake in chronic kidney disease, but additional study is required to determine the target sodium intake.

  10. Photoreactions of macrocyclic dyes bound to human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Davila, J; Harriman, A

    1990-01-01

    The photophysical properties of tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (H2TSPP), its tin (IV) complex (SnTSPP), aluminium(III) trisulfonatophthalocyanine (AIPCS), and the corresponding zinc(II) complex (ZnPCS), have been measured in H2O, D2O, and upon binding to human serum albumin (HSA). The triplet excited states of the various macrocyclic dyes generate singlet molecular oxygen, O2(1 delta g) in high quantum yield upon illumination in O2-saturated solution, even in the presence of HSA. The triplet states also abstract an electron from 4-aminophenol, forming the radical anion of the macrocycle. Quenching rate constants and quantum yields have been measured for the various processes in the presence and absence of HSA. It is found that HSA binds all the dyes at nonspecific sites close to the interface in such a manner that the dyes remain accessible to species residing in the solution phase. Dyes that do not possess axial ligands complexed to the central cation (e.g. H2TSPP, ZnPCS) are able to bind also at a deeper, more specific site on the protein where they are protected from species in solution. Under such conditions, triplet quenching by 4-aminophenol is restricted to long-distance electron tunnelling, for which the rate is relatively slow.

  11. Nephroprotective Potential of Human Albumin Infusion: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Wiedermann, Christian J.; Joannidis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Albumin infusion improves renal function in cirrhosis; however, mechanisms are incompletely understood. In clinical practice, human albumin is used in various intensive care unit indications to deal with a wide range of problems, from volume replacement in hypovolemic shock, or sepsis, to treatment of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis. Against the background of the results of recent studies on the use of human albumin in septic patients, the importance of the natural colloid in these critically ill patients is being redefined. In addition to the hemodynamic effects of administration of human albumin impacting on sympathetic tone, attention is being paid to other effects in which its pharmacodynamics is associated with the physiological importance of endogenous albumin. The morbidity and mortality data discussed in this paper support the importance of both the hemodynamic and the pharmacological effects of the administration of human albumin in various indications. The contribution that human albumin could make towards the maintenance of renal function in the course and treatment of severe sepsis and cirrhosis of the liver is the subject of this narrative review. PMID:26136776

  12. Albumin grafting on biomaterial surfaces using gamma-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Surface modification has been used extensively in various fields to introduce desirable surface properties without affecting the bulk properties of the material. In the area of biomaterials, the approach of surface modification offers an effective alternative to the synthesis of new biomaterials. The specific objective of this study was to modify different biomaterial surfaces by albumin grafting to improve their blood compatibility. The modified surfaces were characterized for surface-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation. This behavior was correlated with the conditions used for grafting. In particular, albumin was functionalized to introduce pendant double bonds into the molecule. The functionalized albumin was covalently attached to various surfaces, such as dimethyldichlorosilane-coated glass, polypropylene, polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride), and polyethylene by gamma-irradiation. Platelet adhesion and activation on these surfaces was examined using video microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The extent of grafting was found to be dependent on the albumin concentration used for adsorption and the gamma-irradiation time. Release of the grafted albumin during exposure to blood was minimal. The albumin-grafted fibers maintained their thromboresistant properties even after storage at elevated temperatures for prolonged time periods. Finally, the approach was used to graft albumin on the PLEXUS Adult Hollow Fiber Oxygenators (Shiley). The blood compatibility of the grafted oxygenators improved significantly when compared to controls.

  13. Albumin, steroid hormones and the origin of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Baker, M E

    2002-10-01

    Albumin, the major serum protein, binds a wide variety of lipophilic compounds including steroids, other lipophilic hormones and various phytochemicals and xenobiotics that bind to receptors for steroids and other lipophilic hormones. Despite albumin's low affinity (K(d) approximately 10(-4) M to 10(-6) M) for these lipophilic compounds, the high concentration of albumin in serum makes this protein a major carrier of steroids and lipophilic hormones and a regulator of their access to receptors. Albumin also functions as a sink for xenobiotics, diminishing the binding of xenobiotics to hormone receptors and other cellular proteins. This protects animals from endocrine disruption by xenobiotics. We propose that these properties of albumin were important in protochordates and primitive vertebrates, such as jawless fish, about 600 to 530 million years ago, just before and during the Cambrian period. It is at that time that the ancestral receptors of adrenal and sex steroids - androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, and progestins - arose in multicellular animals. Albumin regulated access of steroids to their receptors, as well as protecting animals from endocrine disruptors, such as phytochemicals, fungal chemicals and phenolics, and other chemicals formed at hydrothermal vents by geochemical processes. Thus, animals in which albumin expression was high had a selective advantage in regulating the steroid response and avoiding endocrine disruption by xenobiotics.

  14. Transport of nitrated albumin across continuous vascular endothelium.

    PubMed

    Predescu, Dan; Predescu, Sanda; Malik, Asrar B

    2002-10-15

    Because modification of plasma albumin on tyrosine residues generates nitrated albumin (NOA) that may function as a mechanism of nitrogen monoxide clearance from microcirculation, we investigated biochemicaly and morphologically the cell surface binding and the transendothelial transport of NOA. An electron microscopic study was carried out with mouse lungs and hearts perfused in situ with NOA and NOA-Au complexes. The results indicate that NOA-Au can bind to the endothelial cell surface, and its binding can be blocked by albumin plus nitrotyrosine (NO-tyrosine) or abolished by excess NOA. We detected NOA-Au into perivascular spaces as early as 30 sec after the beginning of its perfusion. NOA, unlike native albumin, leaves the vascular lumina via both endothelial caveolae and open junctions. By cross-linking and ligand blotting analysis, we showed that NOA interacted with the same albumin binding proteins of 16-18, 30-32, 60, and 74 kDa as native albumin. ELISA performed on tissue homogenates obtained from the same specimens showed that NOA transport was 2- to 4-fold greater than native albumin. The augmented transendothelial transport of NOA reflects its transcytosis as well as its exit from the microcirculation via open junctions. The increased transport of NOA may serve as an important mechanism that protects a vascular bed against the damaging effects of nitrogen monoxide and peroxynitrite.

  15. Estimation of nutrient excretion factors of broiler and layer chickens in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Akifumi; Murakami, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Takahiro; Furuya, Motohiro; Kawahara, Hirofumi; Ohkubo, Takako; Osada, Takashi

    2017-04-01

    We estimated the nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) excretion factors of broiler and layer chickens in Japan, using two approaches and the latest data available. In the top-down approach, we determined the nutrient amounts in the feeds and those in the products (i.e. the liveweight gain, eggs), and the national nutrient excretions were determined as the difference between these amounts. We then calculated the nutrient excretion factors by dividing the national excretions by the number of animals. In the bottom-up approach, we calculated the amounts of nutrients in the feed and product per head using productivity parameters (feed conversion ratio, etc.). The differences between these amounts were considered the nutrient excretion factors. The average nutrient excretion factors of broilers (g/day/head) estimated using the top-down and bottom-up approaches were: N, 1.40 and 1.87; P, 0.36, 0.50; K, 0.54, 0.77; Mg, 0.13, 0.18, respectively. The excretion factors obtained by the top-down approach can be used to calculate the national/regional excretions. The two approaches resulted in almost the same excretion factors for layers, and the average nutrient excretion factors of layers (g/day/head) estimated were: N, 2.20; P, 0.55; K, 0.68; Mg, 0.23. The estimated excretion factors for N (only) are smaller than the reported factors.

  16. Abnormalities of sodium excretion and other disorders of renal function in fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, S P; Arroyo, V A; Moodie, H; Blendis, L M; Williams, R

    1976-01-01

    Renal function was evaluated in 40 patients with fulminant hepatic failure, They were divided into two groups on the basis of glomerular filtration rates greater than 40 ml/min or less than 25 ml/min. A number of patients in group 1 had markedly abnormal renal retention of sodium together with a reduced free water clearance and low potassium excretion which could be explained by increased proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium. The patients in group 2 had evidence that renal tubular integrity was maintained when the glomerular filtration rate was greater than or equal ml/min (functional renal failure), but evidence of tubular damage was present when this was less than 3 ml/min (acute tubular necrosis). PMID:964682

  17. Dextran/Albumin hydrogel sealant for Dacron(R) vascular prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Lisman, Anna; Butruk, Beata; Wasiak, Iga; Ciach, Tomasz

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a novel type of hydrogel coating prepared from the copolymer of human serum albumin and oxidized dextran. The material was designed as a hydrogel sealant for polyester (Dacron®)-based vascular grafts. Dextran was chosen as a coating material due to its anti-thrombogenic properties. Prepared hydrogels were compared with similar, already known biomaterial made from gelatine with the same cross-linking agent. Obtained hydrogels, prepared from various ratios of oxidized dextran/albumin or oxidized dextran/gelatine, showed different cross-linking densities, which caused differences in swelling, degradation rate and mechanical properties. Permeability tests confirmed the complete tightness of the hydrogel-modified prosthesis. Results showed that application of the hydrogel coating provided leakage-free prosthesis and eliminated the need of pre-clotting.

  18. [Results of a drug use investigation of nanoparticle albumin-bound Paclitaxel for breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Seigo; Iwata, Hiroji; Funato, Yuya; Ito, Kunio; Ito, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    A drug use investigation of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel was conducted based on conditions for approval. A total of 963 patients were enrolled in this study from September 24, 2010 to February 14, 2011. Twenty-nine patients were excluded, and a total of 934 patients were evaluated for determining the safety of nanoparticle albumin-bound paclitaxel. Adverse drug reactions were observed in 92.8%of the patients, and major adverse drug reactions included myelosuppression and peripheral sensory neuropathy, both of which are characteristic adverse reactions of paclitaxel treatment. Both adverse drug reactions were observed at a high frequency after the second course of treatment, resulting in these reactions being primary causes for discontinuation. Increase in the rates of continuous drug administration may be accomplished by carrying out laboratory tests and noting the medical history in order to prevent myelosuppression from becoming serious and to perform earlier countermeasures for peripheral sensory neuropathy, leading to improved therapeutic effects.

  19. A New Application for Albumin Dialysis in Extracorporeal Organ Support: Characterization of a Putative Interaction Between Human Albumin and Proinflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and TNFα.

    PubMed

    Pfensig, Claudia; Dominik, Adrian; Borufka, Luise; Hinz, Michael; Stange, Jan; Eggert, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Albumin dialysis in extracorporeal organ support is often performed in the treatment of liver failure as it facilitates the removal of toxic components from the blood. Here, we describe a possible effect of albumin dialysis on proinflammatory cytokine levels in vitro. Initially, albumin samples were incubated with different amounts of cytokines and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Analysis of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels indicated that increased concentrations of albumin reduce the measureable amount of the respective cytokines. This led to the hypothesis that the used proinflammatory cytokines may interact with albumin. Size exclusion chromatography of albumin spiked with cytokines was carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The corresponding fractions were evaluated by immunoblotting. We detected albumin and cytokines in the same fractions indicating an interaction of the small-sized cytokines IL-6 and TNFα with the larger-sized albumin. Finally, a two-compartment albumin dialysis in vitro model was used to analyze the effect of albumin on proinflammatory cytokines in the recirculation circuit during 6-h treatment. These in vitro albumin dialysis experiments indicated a significant decrease of IL-6, but not of TNFα, when albumin was added to the dialysate solution. Taken together, we were able to show a putative in vitro interaction of human albumin with the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6, but with less evidence for TNFα, and demonstrated an additional application for albumin dialysis in liver support therapy where IL-6 removal might be indicated.

  20. Effect of penicillin on fatty acid synthesis and excretion in Streptococcus mutans BHT

    SciTech Connect

    Brissette, J.L.; Pieringer, R.A.

    1985-03-01

    Treatment of exponentially growing cultures of Streptococcus mutans BHT with growth-inhibitory concentrations (0.2 microgram/ml) of benzylpenicillin stimulates the incorporation of (2-/sup 14/C) acetate into lipids excreted by the cells by as much as 69-fold, but does not change the amount of /sup 14/C incorporated into intracellular lipids. At this concentration of penicillin cellular lysis does not occur. The radioactive label is incorporated exclusively into the fatty acid moieties of the glycerolipids. During a 4-hr incubation in the presence of penicillin, the extracellular fatty acid ester concentration increases 1.5 fold, even though there is no growth or cellular lysis. An indication of the relative rate of fatty acid synthesis was most readily obtained by placing S. mutans BHT in a buffer containing /sup 14/C-acetate. Under these nongrowing conditions free fatty acids are the only lipids labeled, a factor which simplifies the assay. The addition of glycerol to the buffer causes all of the nonesterified fatty acids to be incorporated into glycerolipid. The cells excrete much of the lipid whether glycerol is present or not. Addition of penicillin to the nongrowth supporting buffer system does not stimulate the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)-acetate into fatty acids.

  1. [Functional status of the bile excretion system and upper gastrointestinal tract in patients with duodenal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Razarenova, T G; Koshel', A P; Klokov, S S; Dibina, T V

    2010-01-01

    The research of functional condition of biliary tract in 35 patients suffered from gastroduodenal ulcers compared with 30 almost healthy patients was conducted. Disorders of motor function were found out in 13.2% patients in control group. The motor-evacuative function of biliary tract conformed to average scores of healthy patients group in only 8.6% cases. The accelerated gallbladder empting (11.4%), the hypermotoric biliary dyskinesia with the absence of latent period of biliary excretion (17.1%), the hypomotoric dysfunction of biliary tract (34.3%) were found out in the rest cases. The separate group of patients were patients with distortion of biliary excretion that was consisted in periodic increase and decrease of gall bladder volume during the contraction. We concluded that motor-evacuative function of biliary tract doesn't depend on the type of pathological process in the stomach or duodenum but correlates with gastric evacuation contents, the rate of cholagogic meal advancement along the duodenum and acid-productive function of the stomach.

  2. Bioconcentration and excretion of diazinon, IBP, malathion and fenitrothion by carp.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, T; Aoki, S; Kojima, M; Harada, H

    1990-01-01

    1. Bioconcentration and excretion of diazinon, IBP, malathion and fenitrothion were studied for carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). 2. The concentrations of these pesticides in muscle and viscera of the carp reached plateaus in 12-48 hr exposure. 3. The average values of bioconcentration factors (BCF) for diazinon were 20.9 in muscle, 60.0 in liver, 111.1 in kidney and 32.2 in gallbladder over the 168 hr exposure period. Similarly, those values were 4.3-26.7 for IBP, 2.7-17.3 for malathion, and 36.0-157.1 for fenitrothion. 4. The excretion rate constants of malathion (hr-1) were 0.13 for muscle, 0.12 for liver, 0.08 for kidney and 0.06 for gallbladder. Those of diazinon, IBP and fenitrothion (g.ng-1.hr-1) were 0.002-0.024 for muscle, 0.001-0.020 for liver, 0.0004-0.004 for kidney and 0.002-0.023 for gallbladder, respectively.

  3. O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin is limited by nitrogen monoxide dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    Ascenzi, Paolo; Gullotta, Francesca; Gioia, Magda; Coletta, Massimo; Fasano, Mauro

    2011-03-04

    Research highlights: {yields} Human serum heme-albumin displays globin-like properties. {yields} O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated human serum heme-albumin. {yields} Allosteric modulation of human serum heme-albumin reactivity. {yields} Rifampicin is an allosteric effector of human serum heme-albumin. {yields} Human serum heme-albumin is a ROS and NOS scavenger. -- Abstract: Human serum heme-albumin (HSA-heme-Fe) displays globin-like properties. Here, kinetics of O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous nitrosylated HSA-heme-Fe (HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO) is reported. Values of the first-order rate constants for O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for ferric HSA-heme-Fe formation) and for NO dissociation from HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO (i.e., for NO replacement by CO) are k = 9.8 x 10{sup -5} and 8.3 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}, and h = 1.3 x 10{sup -4} and 8.5 x 10{sup -4} s{sup -1}, in the absence and presence of rifampicin, respectively, at pH = 7.0 and T = 20.0 {sup o}C. The coincidence of values of k and h indicates that NO dissociation represents the rate limiting step of O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO. Mixing HSA-heme-Fe(II)-NO with O{sub 2} does not lead to the formation of the transient adduct(s), but leads to the final ferric HSA-heme-Fe derivative. These results reflect the fast O{sub 2}-mediated oxidation of ferrous HSA-heme-Fe and highlight the role of drugs in modulating allosterically the heme-Fe-atom reactivity.

  4. Serum albumin concentrations and oedema in the newborn.

    PubMed Central

    Cartlidge, P H; Rutter, N

    1986-01-01

    Serum albumin concentration was measured in 195 infants of 25 to 42 weeks' gestation during the neonatal period. Concentrations were significantly lower in preterm infants, rising from a mean of 19 g/l at 26 weeks to 31 g/l at term. There was a 15% increase in albumin concentrations in the first three weeks of life. Oedema in the early and late neonatal period was common in preterm infants but correlated poorly with hypoalbuminaemia. Measurement of serum albumin concentrations in preterm infants either routinely or because of oedema is not clinically useful. PMID:3740904

  5. Atomic structure and chemistry of human serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Xiao M.; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been determined crystallographically to a resolution of 2.8 A. It comprises three homologous domains that assemble to form a heart-shaped molecule. Each domain is a product of two subdomains that possess common structural motifs. The principal regions of ligand binding to human serum albumin are located in hydrophobic cavities in subdomains IIA and ILIA, which exhibit similar chemistry. The structure explains numerous physical phenomena and should provide insight into future pharmacokinetic and genetically engineered therapeutic applications of serum albumin.

  6. Genetic variants of serum albumin in Americans and Japanese

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, J.; Sakamoto, Yasushi; Watkins, S.; Davis, E.; Putnam, F.W. ); Arai, Kunio ); Feld, R.D. ); Kyle R.A. ); Matsuda, Yuhichi; Amaki, Itta )

    1991-11-01

    A collaborative search for albumin genetic variants (alloalbumins) was undertaken by cellulose acetate and agarose electrophoresis at pH 8.6 of the sera of patients at two major medical centers in the United States and of nearly 20,000 blood donors in Japan. Seventeen instances of alloalbuminemia were ascertained, and seven different alloalbumin types were characterized by structural study. Two previously unreported alloalbumin types were identified. All of the variants characterized in this study are point mutants, and the sites are spread throughout the albumin gene. However, about one-fourth of all known albumin mutations are clustered in the sequence segment from position 354 through 382.

  7. Urinary excretion of digoxin-like immunoreactive factor and arginine-vasopressin in rats after several osmotic loads.

    PubMed

    Vargas, F; Andrade, J L; Jódar, E; Castillo, M A; Luna, J D; Haro, J M

    1991-01-01

    Urinary digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and other urinary parameters were investigated under normal conditions and after the i.p. injection of the following solutions: distilled water, isotonic and hypertonic NaCl, NaHCO3, KCl and urea, at a rate of 3 ml/100 g body weight. The measurement of digoxin-like immunoreactivity by two different radioimmunoassays showed that DLIF was stimulated by all volume loads regardless of the presence or absence of osmolar compounds. This dissociation between DLIF and urinary sodium excretion suggests that DLIF may not constitute the natriuretic hormone. Moreover, a dissociation between DLIF and AVP excretion also were found, which speaks against the hypothesis of a common mechanism of stimulation for both substances.

  8. Quantitative measurement of urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl carnitine by LC-MS/MS as an indicator of biotin status in humans.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Thomas D; Stratton, Shawna L; Bogusiewicz, Anna; Owen, Suzanne N; Mock, Donald M; Moran, Jeffery H

    2010-11-15

    Abnormally increased urinary excretion of 3-hydroxyisovaleryl carnitine (3HIA-carnitine) results from impairment in leucine catabolism caused by reduced activity of the biotin-dependent enzyme 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase. Accordingly, urinary 3HIA-carnitine might reflect biotin status. Here, we describe an LC-MS/MS method for accurately quantitating the urinary concentration of 3HIA-carnitine at concentrations that are typical for excretion rates that are normal or only modestly increased. This method allows for high sample throughput and does not require solid-phase extraction. We used this method to provide evidence validating urinary 3HIA-carnitine as a biomarker of biotin deficiency in humans. Four healthy adult subjects were successfully made marginally biotin deficient by feeding a 30% egg white diet for 28 days. From study day 0 to 28, the mean urinary excretion of 3HIA-carnitine increased 3.5-fold (p = 0.026). These preliminary results indicate that urinary excretion of 3HIA-carnitine increases with marginal biotin deficiency. If these results are confirmed in studies involving larger numbers of subjects, urinary excretion of 3HIA-carnitine may potentially be a clinically useful indicator of biotin status.

  9. Technical Basis Document: A Statistical Basis for Interpreting Urinary Excretion of Plutonium Based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for Selected Atoll Populations in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect

    Bogen, K; Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Martinelli, R E; Marchetti, A A; Kehl, S R; Langston, R G

    2007-05-01

    We have developed refined statistical and modeling techniques to assess low-level uptake and urinary excretion of plutonium from different population group in the northern Marshall Islands. Urinary excretion rates of plutonium from the resident population on Enewetak Atoll and from resettlement workers living on Rongelap Atoll range from <1 to 8 {micro}Bq per day and are well below action levels established under the latest Department regulation 10 CFR 835 in the United States for in vitro bioassay monitoring of {sup 239}Pu. However, our statistical analyses show that urinary excretion of plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) from both cohort groups is significantly positively associated with volunteer age, especially for the resident population living on Enewetak Atoll. Urinary excretion of {sup 239}Pu from the Enewetak cohort was also found to be positively associated with estimates of cumulative exposure to worldwide fallout. Consequently, the age-related trends in urinary excretion of plutonium from Marshallese populations can be described by either a long-term component from residual systemic burdens acquired from previous exposures to worldwide fallout or a prompt (and eventual long-term) component acquired from low-level systemic intakes of plutonium associated with resettlement of the northern Marshall Islands, or some combination of both.

  10. Polynitroxyl albumin and albumin therapy after pediatric asphyxial cardiac arrest: effects on cerebral blood flow and neurologic outcome.

    PubMed

    Manole, Mioara D; Kochanek, Patrick M; Foley, Lesley M; Hitchens, T Kevin; Bayır, Hülya; Alexander, Henry; Garman, Robert; Ma, Li; Hsia, Carleton J C; Ho, Chien; Clark, Robert S B

    2012-03-01

    Postresuscitation cerebral blood flow (CBF) disturbances and generation of reactive oxygen species likely contribute to impaired neurologic outcome after pediatric cardiac arrest (CA). Hence, we determined the effects of the antioxidant colloid polynitroxyl albumin (PNA) versus albumin or normal saline (NS) on CBF and neurologic outcome after asphyxial CA in immature rats. We induced asphyxia for 9 minutes in male and female postnatal day 16 to 18 rats randomized to receive PNA, albumin, or NS at resuscitation from CA or sham surgery. Regional CBF was measured serially from 5 to 150 minutes after resuscitation by arterial spin-labeled magnetic resonance imaging. We assessed motor function (beam balance and inclined plane), spatial memory retention (water maze), and hippocampal neuronal survival. Polynitroxyl albumin reduced early hyperemia seen 5 minutes after CA. In contrast, albumin markedly increased and prolonged hyperemia. In the delayed period after resuscitation (90 to 150 minutes), CBF was comparable among groups. Both PNA- and albumin-treated rats performed better in the water maze versus NS after CA. This benefit was observed only in males. Hippocampal neuron survival was similar between injury groups. Treatment of immature rats with PNA or albumin resulted in divergent acute changes in CBF, but both improved spatial memory retention in males after asphyxial CA.

  11. Preparation and characterization of albumin nanoparticles encapsulating curcumin intended for the treatment of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jithan, AV; Madhavi, K; Madhavi, M; Prabhakar, K

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: For the real-time clinical utilization of curcumin (an ayurvedic natural product) to treat breast cancer, its dissolution, rate limited solubility, poor tissue absorption, and extensive in vivo metabolism that leads to its poor systemic bioavailability should be overcome. A polymer-based nanoparticle formulation using bovine serum albumin can increase its aqueous solubility and can achieve protected, sustained, and targeted therapy in breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Desolvation technique was optimized for the preparation of albumin nanoparticles. Particle size, drug release, encapsulation efficiency, drug polymer interaction were the in vitro properties that were determined. Cell culture studies, in vivo pharmacokinetics in rats were used for biological characterization of the formulation. Results: The formulations were successfully prepared using 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 drug: polymer ratios and the percent entrapment was found to be 74.76%, 91.01%, 85.36%, 86.42%, respectively, and particle size determined by zetasizer was found to be 225.1, 223.5, 226.3, 228.7 nm, respectively, and in vitro release was sustained for at least one month with drug release of 75.74%, 65.97%, 64.42%, 54%, respectively. The dissolution rate and aqueous solubility of curcumin was enhanced with this formulation. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) studies demonstrated that the drug was not changed in the formulation during the fabrication process. The proliferation assays in MDA-MB-231 tumor cell lines indicated more effectiveness of the formulation compared to its solution form. In rats, albumin nanoparticles sustained drug release, demonstrated more bioavailability, improved pharmacokinetic properties, and enhanced tissue targetability of the drug. Conclusions: An effective curcumin-albumin nanoparticle formulation was successfully developed using a desolvation technique. PMID:23071931

  12. Albumin uptake by renal lymphatics with and without obstruction of the renal vein

    SciTech Connect

    Threefoot, S.A.; Pearson, J.E. Jr.; Georgiardis, A. )

    1989-08-02

    Experiments involving injection of radio-iodinated albumin into the left renal arteries or left ureters of dogs indicate that the renal lymphatics are capable of a major contribution in returning to the circulation albumin (or other large molecules) escaping from renal capillaries. I-131-albumin was injected into the jugular vein of controls or into the left renal artery or in retrograde manner into the left ureter of female dogs. Experimental groups included those with no obstruction, occlusion of left renal veins or left renal lymphatics, or both. Collections were made from the right femoral artery, both renal veins, thoracic duct and both ureters at frequent intervals for 2 to 4 hours. Data analysis included I-131 concentration, specific activity, rate of recovery and selected ratios. After renal arterial injection, the percentage of I131 recovered in thoracic duct lymph of dogs without renal venous obstruction was 5 to 10 times that recovered in those that received injections into the jugular vein. In dogs with renal venous obstruction, recovery from the thoracic duct was 10 to 1,000 times that in control dogs. Most of the differences occurred during the first hour, after which time as recirculation and redistribution occurred the rates of appearance in thoracic duct lymph in each group were similar. The differences in the ratios of concentration in thoracic duct lymph to concentration in femoral arterial blood were also much greater when the renal vein was obstructed than in dogs with no obstruction. The greater return of albumin through the thoracic duct in those with impeded renal venous outflow was probably related to both sequestered concentration and increased intrarenal pressure.

  13. Effect of low-protein diets and single sex on production performance, plasma metabolites, digestibility, and nitrogen excretion in 1- to 48-day-old broilers.

    PubMed

    Hernández, F; López, M; Martínez, S; Megías, M D; Catalá, P; Madrid, J

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of low-CP diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids, according to an ideal amino acid ratio, on the performance, plasma metabolites, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and water intake in male and female chickens from 1 to 48 d of age using a 4-phase feeding program: prestarter (1-7 d), starter (8-21 d), grower (22-35 d), and finisher (36-48 d). Three experimental diets were formulated for each phase: a control diet with a CP level of 24.5, 23.0, 21.5, and 20.5%, respectively, and medium- and low-CP diets containing 1.5 and 3% less than that of the control, respectively, but the same ME and digestible lysine levels. In experiment 1, in males, the reduction in dietary protein content by 3% increased the feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05) in the starter, grower, and finisher phases, and plasma albumin levels were reduced (P < 0.05) during the prestarter, starter, and finisher phases. In females, the same effect on plasma album levels was observed (P < 0.05) only in the starter phase. Sex affected plasma albumin levels during the prestarter, starter, and finisher phases, being higher in females. In experiment 2, the reduction in dietary protein content linearly decreased water consumption in both sexes (P < 0.05). The reduction of dietary protein by 1.5 or 3% reduced nitrogen excretion to the environment by 9.5 and 17% in males and by 11.8 and 14.6% in females, respectively. In summary, the low-CP 4-phase feeding reduced water intake and nitrogen excretion with an adverse effect on the feed conversion ratio in males but not in females. So, single-sex rearing could be used to reduce the environmental impact of chicken farms.

  14. Excretion of radioactivity following the intraperitoneal administration of /sup 14/C-DDT, /sup 14/C-DDD, /sup 14/C-DDE and /sup 14/C-DDMU to the rat and Japanese Quail

    SciTech Connect

    Fawcett, S.C.; Bunyan, P.J.; Huson, L.W.; King, L.J.; Stanley, P.I.

    1981-09-01

    A study in progress to examine the metabolic fate of DDT in birds and mammals is discussed. The first phase of the study, which is reported in this article, has been to establish the rate of excretion of ratioactivity following the intraperitoneal administrations of /sup 14/C-DDT, /sup 14/C-DDE, /sup 14/C-DDD, and /sup 14/C-DDMU to male rats and male Japanese quail. The mean values from the three animals in each experimental group for the amount of radioactivity excreted daily are given, and it was found that the rats excreted the radioactivity administered as DDT, DDD, and DDE substantially faster than did the quail. DDMU was excreted relatively rapidly and at similar rates. This finding suggests that apparent differences in the rates of excretion of DDT by birds and mammals probably arise from differences in the conversion of DDT to DDD or DDE or in the degradation of these metabolites to DDMU. The Japanese quail differ from the rats in excreting substantial amounts of unchanged DDT, DDE, and DDD, which probably reflects the inability of the Japanese quail to readily metabolise these compounds.

  15. Resveratrol binding to human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    N' soukpoe-Kossi, C N; St-Louis, C; Beauregard, M; Subirade, M; Carpentier, R; Hotchandani, S; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2006-12-01

    Resveratrol (Res), a polyphenolic compound found largely in the skin of red grape and wine, exhibits a wide range of pharmaceutical properties and plays a role in prevention of human cardiovascular diseases [Pendurthi et al., Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 19, 419-426 (1999)]. It shows a strong affinity towards protein binding and used as inhibitor for cyclooxygenase and ribonuclease reductase. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of resveratrol with human serum albumin (HSA) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions, using a constant protein concentration (0.3 mM) and various pigment contents (microM to mM). FTIR, UV-Visible, CD, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods were used to determine the resveratrol binding mode, the binding constant and the effects of pigment complexation on protein secondary structure. Structural analysis showed that resveratrol bind non-specifically (H-bonding) via polypeptide polar groups with overall binding constant of K(Res) = 2.56 x 10(5) M(-1). The protein secondary structure, analysed by CD spectroscopy, showed no major alterations at low resveratrol concentrations (0.125 mM), whereas at high pigment content (1 mM), major increase of alpha-helix from 57% (free HSA) to 62% and a decrease of beta-sheet from 10% (free HSA) to 7% occurred in the resveratrol-HSA complexes. The results indicate a partial stabilization of protein secondary structure at high resveratrol content.

  16. Distribution of chylomicrons and albumin in dog kidney

    PubMed Central

    Pinter, G. G.

    1967-01-01

    1. Under specified experimental conditions the distribution space of labelled chylomicrons in the kidney was 13·8 ± 0·9 ml./100 g. tissue. The assumption is supported that this provides a measure for the quantity of intravascular plasma constituents. 2. Values for red blood cells and albumin distribution spaces were 5·2 ± 0·6 and 20·2 ± 1·0 ml./100 g tissue, respectively, in the whole kidney. The ratio of tissue haematocrit over simultaneous arterial haematocrit averaged 0·56. The extravascular albumin fraction amounted to about 31·0% of the total albumin in the whole kidney. 3. A statistically significant correlation was demonstrated between osmotic urine/plasma (U/P) ratios (within the approximate limits of 0·6-1·8) and quantities of extravascular albumin in the medulla. PMID:6059001

  17. Dielectric properties of albumin and yolk of avian egg.

    PubMed

    Lokhande, M P; Arbad, B R; Landge, M G; Mehrotra, S C

    1996-04-01

    The dielectric properties of albumin and yolk of eggs of hen and duck have been investigated using the time domain reflectometry (TDR) technique in the frequency range 10 MHz to 10 GHz at room temperature. The conductivity and pH values were also measured. It has been found that the values of dielectric constant (epsilon s) is lower, while the values of relaxation time tau(ps) are higher than that of pure water possibly due to the bound water present in the yolk and albumin of the avian egg. The dielectric constant for albumin is more than that for yolk of eggs, while reverse is found with the values of relaxation time. Also albumin shows approximately three times higher conductivity than that of yolk. In the case of relatively older (by 2 days) eggs, the dielectric parameters tend to be slightly increased.

  18. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    DOEpatents

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  19. Diurnal nitrogen excretion rhythm of the functionally ureogenic gobiid fish Mugilogobius abei.

    PubMed

    Kajimura, Makiko; Iwata, Katsuya; Numata, Hideharu

    2002-02-01

    This study was performed to determine the daily periodicity of urea excretion in the ureogenic gobiid fish Mugilogobius abei. In 20% seawater, urea excretion of all the fish examined showed daily periodic changes under a 12-h light-dark cycle, and some showed a free-running rhythm under constant darkness. This is the first report of a circadian rhythm in urea excretion in fishes. Daily variations in urea excretion under light-dark cycles were also observed under various conditions, i.e. exposure to water ammonia, confinement/non-confinement and solitary/group. Due to the daily variations in urea excretion, urea contents in tissues changed periodically, whereas enzyme activities related to urea synthesis did not change significantly. The index of urea permeability as determined by changes in body urea contents after 2-h immersion of 25 mM urea solution was high during the peak of daily variation in urea excretion. Locomotor activity and urea excretion showed clear daily variations under light-dark cycles, both of which were diurnal. Furthermore, daily variations in urea excretion were maintained even when the diurnal pattern in the locomotor activity was disturbed. These results suggest that periodic urea excretion was mediated by periodic enhancement of permeability for urea at excretion sites.

  20. Albumin leakage in online hemodiafiltration, more convective transport, more losses?

    PubMed

    Vega, Almudena; Quiroga, Borja; Abad, Soraya; Aragoncillo, Inés; Arroyo, David; Panizo, Nayara; López-Gómez, Juan M

    2015-06-01

    Online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) has now demonstrated some benefits in reducing mortality. It seems that rising convective volumes improve the outcomes, but the risks of it, such as albumin leakage, are not well defined yet. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the albumin leakage using two different filters with 20 and 30 L of post-dilution OL-HDF. In this cross-sectional study, 20 prevalent patients receiving post-dilution OL-HDL were included. We analyzed two dialyzers: FX1000, FMC and Polyflux 210H, Gambro. During four consecutive dialysis sessions, monitors were programmed using control-volume to obtain 20 or 30 L with both dialyzers. We collected albumin samples of the effluent at 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and performed area under the curve (AUC) determinations for evaluating the losses. Mean patient age was 60 ± 9 years, and 70% were men. Albumin leakage was significant higher with Polyflux 210H when compared to FX 1000 FMC. A convective volume of 30 L produced greater albumin leakage than 20 L with both filters, though only with the FX 1000 FMC was it significant (minimum albumin leakage during first hour with FX 1000 FMC 20 L: 79.2 [0.0-175.7] mg; 30 liters: 403.3 [63.5-960.7] mg; with PF 210 Gambro 20 L: 869.1 [420.0-3214.7] mg; 30 L: 1841.7 [443.8-3417.5] mg). During OL-HDF, convective transport causes albumin leakage at least during the first hour. The albumin concentration in the effluent differs according to the type of filter used and the convective volume.

  1. Estimation of oxidative DNA damage in man from urinary excretion of repair products.

    PubMed

    Loft, S; Poulsen, H E

    1998-01-01

    DNA is constantly damaged and repaired in living cells. The repair products of the oxidative DNA lesions, i.e. oxidised nucleosides and bases, are poor substrates for the enzymes involved in nucleotide synthesis, are fairly water soluble, and generally excreted into the urine without further metabolism. Among the possible products, 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-oxoguanine, thymine glycol, thymidine glycol and, 5-hydroxymethyluracil have so far been identified in urine. It should be emphasised that the excretion of the repair products in urine represents the average rate of damage in the total body whereas the level of oxidised bases in nuclear DNA is a concentration measurement in that specific tissue/cells in the moment of sampling. The rate of oxidative DNA modifications has been studied in humans by means of the repair products as urinary biomarkers, particularly with respect to 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine. The data obtained so far indicate that the important determinants of the oxidative damage rate include tobacco smoking, oxygen consumption and some inflammatory diseases whereas diet composition, energy restriction and antioxidant supplements have but a minimal influence, possibly with the exception of yet unidentified phytochemicals, e.g. from cruciferous vegetables. The data are consistent with the experimentally based notion that oxidative DNA damage is an important mutagenic and apparently carcinogenic factor. However, the proof of a causal relationship in humans is still warranted. In the future the use of biomarkers may provide this evidence and allow further investigations on the qualitative and quantitative importance of oxidative DNA modification and carcinogenesis in man, as well as elucidate possible preventive measures.

  2. Hereditary Orotic Aciduria and the Excretion of Orotidine.

    PubMed

    Nyhan, William L; Gangoiti, Jon A

    2016-12-01

    Objective Orotic aciduria and deficiency of uridine monophosphate synthetase have been observed in a patient, studied over 10 years, who had no megaloblastic anemia. Excretion of orotic acid and orotidine were 8.24 and 0.52 mmol/mol of creatinine. The ratio of 15.85 differed appreciably from that of 6 patients reported with no megaloblastic anemia. Methods The analysis of orotidine by gas chromotography mass spectrometry was conducted. Conclusion Patients with orotic aciduria with and without megaloblastic anemia cannot be distinguished by ratio of orotic acid to orotidine.

  3. Radiation dosimetry from breast milk excretion of radioiodine and pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, W.R.; Di Simone, R.N.; Keen, R.L.

    1986-10-01

    Measurements were made of the activity in samples of breast milk obtained from a patient with postpartum thyroiditis following administration of (/sup 123/I)sodium iodide and subsequently (99mTc)pertechnetate 24 hr later. Both /sup 123/I and 99mTc were found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 5.8 hr and 2.8 hr, respectively. Less than 10% of the activity was incorporated into breast-milk protein. After administration of (/sup 123/I)sodium iodide breast feeding should be discontinued for 24-36 hr to reduce the absorbed dose to the child's thyroid.

  4. Kinetics of excretion in milk of some antimastitis drugs.

    PubMed

    Aureli, P; Dominici, S; Ferrini, A M; Lepri, M L

    1990-01-01

    A study on the kinetics of excretion in milk of some antimastitis drugs is described. The five antibiotic molecules used were detected by confronting two methods: the Galesloot-Hassing method which, even though specific for the detection of penicillin in milk, is officially used for the detection of antibiotic residues in general; and the M. luteus paper disk assay, which uses M. luteus ATCC 9341 as test microorganism. The obtained results show that withdrawal times for the assayed molecules are longer than those declared and that M. luteus is more efficient for the detection of kanamycin residues.

  5. Peptide-derivatized albumins that inhibit fibrin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Watson, Joseph W; Doolittle, Russell F

    2011-11-15

    Synthetic peptides patterned on sequences that appear during thrombin proteolysis of fibrinogen are known to influence fibrin formation in very different ways. A-Knob sequences (GPR-) inhibit polymerization, but B-knob sequences (GHR-) can actually enhance the process. We now report that when such peptides are attached to albumin carriers, both knob conjugates inhibit fibrin formation. In contrast, the 2-aminoethylthiol-albumin conjugate control enhances the polymerization to the same degree as albumin. The peptide AHRPam, which is known to bind exclusively to the βC holes of fibrinogen/fibrin, nullifies the inhibitory effects of the GHRPYGGGCam-albumin conjugate on fibrin polymerization, indicating that the inhibition was exclusively due to interactions with βC holes. AHRPam was much less effective in countering inhibition by the GPRPGGGGCam-albumin conjugate, suggesting that the observed effects with this conjugate involve mainly the γC holes of fibrin/fibrinogen. This study demonstrates that peptides modeled on fibrin polymerization knobs tethered to albumin retain their capacity to interact with fibrinogen/fibrin and may prove useful as inhibitors of clotting in vivo.

  6. Identification of albumin-binding proteins in capillary endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Isolated fat tissue microvessels and lung, whose capillary endothelia express in situ specific binding sites for albumin, were homogenized and subjected to SDS-gel electrophoresis and electroblotting. The nitrocellulose strips were incubated with either albumin-gold (Alb-Au) and directly visualized, or with [125I]albumin (monomeric or polymeric) and autoradiographed. The extracts of both microvascular endothelium and the lung express albumin-binding proteins (ABPs) represented by two pairs of polypeptides with major components of molecular mass 31 and 18 kD. The ABP peptides have pIs 8.05 to 8.75. Rabbit aortic endothelium, used as control, does not express detectable amounts of ABPs. The ABPs subjected to electrophoresis bind specifically and with high affinity (Kd = approximately 60 X 10(-9)M) both monomeric and polymeric albumin: the binding is saturable at approximately 80 nM concentration and 50% inhibition is reached at 5.5 micrograms/ml albumin concentration. Sulfhydryl-reducing agents beta-mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol do not markedly affect the ABPs electrophoretic mobility and binding properties. As indicated by cell surface iodination of isolated capillary endothelium followed by electroblotting, autoradiography, and incubation with Alb-Au, the bands specifically stained by this ligand are also labeled with radioiodine. PMID:2839518

  7. Adsorption of albumin on prosthetic materials: implication for tribological behavior.

    PubMed

    Serro, A P; Gispert, M P; Martins, M C L; Brogueira, P; Colaço, R; Saramago, B

    2006-09-01

    The orthopedic prosthesis used to substitute damaged natural joints are lubricated by a pseudosynovial fluid that contains biological macromolecules with potential boundary lubrication properties. Proteins are some of those macromolecules whose role in the lubrication process is not yet completely understood. In a previous work, we investigated the influence of the presence of albumin, the major synovial protein, upon the tribological behavior of three of the most used pairs of artificial joint materials: ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) against counterfaces of alumina, CoCrMo alloy, and 316L stainless steel. Albumin was found to cause a significant decrease in the friction coefficient when the counterfaces were metallic because transfer of UHMWPE was avoided, but this effect was much weaker in the case of alumina. The objective of the present work was to look for an explanation for these differences in tribological behavior in terms of albumin adsorption. With this goal, studies on adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the counterface materials, from a biological model fluid (Hanks' balanced salt solution), were carried out using radiolabeled albumin ((125)I-BSA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The conclusion from all techniques is that the driving force for albumin adsorption is higher on the metals than on alumina. These results confirm that the greater the amount of protein adsorbed on the counterface, the more efficient is the protection against the transfer of polymeric film to the counterface.

  8. Mineralisation of two phosphate ceramics in HBSS: role of albumin.

    PubMed

    Marques, P A A P; Serro, A P; Saramago, B J; Fernandes, A C; Magalhães, M C F; Correia, R N

    2003-02-01

    The role of albumin in the mineralisation process of commercial hydroxyapatite (HAp) and synthesised biphasic (HAp-tricalcium phosphate) ceramics in a bufferless simulated inorganic plasma (HBSS) was investigated by conventional in vitro tests and static and dynamic wettability measurements. Albumin was either pre-adsorbed or solubilised in HBSS. It was found that calcium complexation by albumin plays a key role in early mineralisation kinetics, so that mineralisation is favoured when albumin is pre-adsorbed and hindered when it is dissolved in HBSS. In the biphasic ceramic this picture is complicated by the fact that albumin, in solution, seems to promote the dissolution of tricalcium phosphate, and simultaneously compete for calcium with the ceramic. It also appears that albumin has a stabilising effect of octacalcium phosphate present in deposits on commercial HAp. The same effect may be present in the case of the biphasic ceramic, at earlier mineralisation times, when octacalcium phosphate appears as a precursor of HAp. Octacalcium phosphate formation on commercial apatite is accompanied by carbonate substitution in phosphate positions.

  9. Gemcitabine-loaded magnetic albumin nanospheres for cancer chemohyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongbo; Ke, Fei; An, Yanli; Hou, Xinxin; Zhang, Hao; Lin, Mei; Zhang, Dongsheng

    2013-03-01

    Eliminating cancer without harming normal body tissue remains a longstanding challenge in medicine. Toward this goal, we prepared nanosized magnetic albumin nanospheres encapsulating magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) and antitumor drugs (Gemcitabine, GEM). Magnetic albumin nanospheres (average size ≈ 224 nm) had good magnetic responsiveness upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field even though Fe3O4 was encased in nanospheres. Thermodynamic test showed that Fe3O4 could serve as a heating source under AMF and lead the nanospheres to reach their steady temperature (45 °C). The release results in vitro indicated that nanospheres had an obvious effect of sustained release of GEM. The result of cytotoxicity assay showed that the toxicity of this material was classified as grade 1, which belongs to no cytotoxicity. The antitumor efficacy of the GEM/Fe3O4 albumin nanospheres combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia on non-small lung cancer cell line GlC-82 was examined by MTT assay and flow cytometry assay. Compared with nanospheres entrapping GEM group, nanospheres entrapping Fe3O4 combined with MFH group, and GEM/Fe3O4 albumin nanospheres without MFH group, the GEM/Fe3O4 albumin nanospheres exhibited enhanced antitumor efficacy. Thus, the GEM/Fe3O4 albumin nanospheres have promising applications in cancer treatment.

  10. Albumin reverses the echinocytic shape transformation of stored erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Reinhart, Sophie A; Schulzki, Thomas; Reinhart, Walter H

    2015-01-01

    The storage of red blood cells (RBCs) leads to storage lesions, which have a negative impact on the clinical outcome after transfusion. A hallmark of storage lesions is echinocytosis. Albumin may reverse this shape transformation, which was the topic of this study. Echinocytosis was generated by incubation of blood for 48 h at room temperature or in RBC units stored 48 days at 5°C. Human serum albumin was diluted in phosphate-buffered saline. RBCs were fixed in 1% glutaraldehyde and examined by light and scanning electron microscopy. The degree of echinocytosis was quantified by calculating the morphological index. Incubation and storage of RBCs led to an echinocytic shape transformation, which was reversible upon incubation in albumin solutions. This process was time-, concentration- and hematocrit-dependent. Treating RBC units at the end of their shelf-life by adding 20% albumin or washing them in 0.2% albumin reversed all degrees of echinocytosis towards discocytosis. In conclusion, albumin has the capacity to reverse echinocytosis generated by RBC storage. This observation may improve the quality of RBC units stored for longer periods of time.

  11. Measurement of lung fluid volumes and albumin exclusion in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Pou, N.A.; Roselli, R.J.; Parker, R.E.; Clanton, J.A.; Harris, T.R. )

    1989-10-01

    A radioactive tracer technique was used to determine interstitial diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) and albumin distribution volume in sheep lungs. {sup 125}I- and/or {sup 131}I-labeled albumin were injected intravenously and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h. {sup 99m}Tc-labeled DTPA and {sup 51}Cr-labeled erythrocytes were injected and allowed to equilibrate (2 h and 15 min, respectively) before a lethal dose of thiamylal sodium. Two biopsies (1-3 g) were taken from each lung and the remaining tissue was homogenized for wet-to-dry lung weight and volume calculations. Estimates of distribution volumes from whole lung homogenized samples were statistically smaller than biopsy samples for extravascular water, interstitial {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA, and interstitial albumin. The mean fraction of the interstitium (Fe), which excludes albumin, was 0.68 +/- 0.04 for whole lung samples compared with 0.62 +/- 0.03 for biopsy samples. Hematocrit may explain the consistent difference. To make the Fe for biopsy samples match that for homogenized samples, a mean hematocrit, which was 82% of large vessel hematocrit, was required. Excluded volume fraction for exogenous sheep albumin was compared with that of exogenous human albumin in two sheep, and no difference was found at 24 h.

  12. Plasma protein loss during surgery: beneficial effects of albumin substitution.

    PubMed

    Horstick, G; Lauterbach, M; Kempf, T; Ossendorf, M; Kopacz, L; Heimann, A; Lehr, H A; Bhakdi, S; Horstick, M; Meyer, J; Kempski, O

    2001-07-01

    Plasma protein loss during abdominal surgery is a known phenomenon, but its possible pathophysiological relevance has remained unknown. The present study evaluates the effects of albumin substitution on systemic and local hemodynamics and cellular interactions in the mesenteric microcirculation. Rats underwent median laparotomy and exteriorization of an ileal loop for intravital microscopy of the mesenteric microcirculation. Plasma protein concentrations, systemic and local hemodynamics were recorded during the follow up period, with or without albumin substitution. Depending on the time course of plasma protein loss in control experiments, 80% of the calculated protein loss was infused during the first 2 h of surgery, and the other 20% over the following 5 h of intravital microscopy. The control group received a continuous infusion of normal saline. Plasma protein loss was mainly due to loss of albumin. A significant increase in adherent and rolling leukocytes was observed during the course of mesenteric exteriorization, which was almost entirely reversed by albumin replacement. Albumin substitution led to stabilisation of mean arterial pressure and abdominal blood flow and also attenuated reductions in arterial base excess. Albumin infusions to replace plasma protein loss may be a simple and effective measure to attenuate microcirculatory disturbances and may be of benefit in patients undergoing abdominal surgery.

  13. Novel routes of albumin passage across the glomerular filtration barrier.

    PubMed

    Castrop, H; Schießl, I M

    2017-03-01

    Albuminuria is a hallmark of kidney diseases of various aetiologies and an unambiguous symptom of the compromised integrity of the glomerular filtration barrier. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that albuminuria per se aggravates the development and progression of chronic kidney disease. This review covers new aspects of the movement of large plasma proteins across the glomerular filtration barrier in health and disease. Specifically, this review focuses on the role of endocytosis and transcytosis of albumin by podocytes, which constitutes a new pathway of plasma proteins across the filtration barrier. Thus, we summarize what is known about the mechanisms of albumin endocytosis by podocytes and address the fate of the endocytosed albumin, which is directed to lysosomal degradation or transcellular movement with subsequent vesicular release into the urinary space. We also address the functional consequences of overt albumin endocytosis by podocytes, such as the formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which might eventually result in a deterioration of podocyte function. Finally, we consider the diagnostic potential of podocyte-derived albumin-containing vesicles in the urine as an early marker of a compromised glomerular barrier function. In terms of new technical approaches, the review covers how our knowledge of the movement of albumin across the glomerular filtration barrier has expanded by the use of new intravital imaging techniques.

  14. Kinetics of Thermal Denaturation and Aggregation of Bovine Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Borzova, Vera A.; Markossian, Kira A.; Chebotareva, Natalia A.; Kleymenov, Sergey Yu.; Poliansky, Nikolay B.; Muranov, Konstantin O.; Stein-Margolina, Vita A.; Shubin, Vladimir V.; Markov, Denis I.; Kurganov, Boris I.

    2016-01-01

    Thermal aggregation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied using dynamic light scattering, asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation and analytical ultracentrifugation. The studies were carried out at fixed temperatures (60°C, 65°C, 70°C and 80°C) in 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, at BSA concentration of 1 mg/ml. Thermal denaturation of the protein was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Analysis of the experimental data shows that at 65°C the stage of protein unfolding and individual stages of protein aggregation are markedly separated in time. This circumstance allowed us to propose the following mechanism of thermal aggregation of BSA. Protein unfolding results in the formation of two forms of the non-native protein with different propensity to aggregation. One of the forms (highly reactive unfolded form, Uhr) is characterized by a high rate of aggregation. Aggregation of Uhr leads to the formation of primary aggregates with the hydrodynamic radius (Rh,1) of 10.3 nm. The second form (low reactive unfolded form, Ulr) participates in the aggregation process by its attachment to the primary aggregates produced by the Uhr form and possesses ability for self-aggregation with formation of stable small-sized aggregates (Ast). At complete exhaustion of Ulr, secondary aggregates with the hydrodynamic radius (Rh,2) of 12.8 nm are formed. At 60°C the rates of unfolding and aggregation are commensurate, at 70°C the rates of formation of the primary and secondary aggregates are commensurate, at 80°C the registration of the initial stages of aggregation is complicated by formation of large-sized aggregates. PMID:27101281

  15. Effect of human serum albumin on the kinetics of 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N-N'-N″ Triacetylchitotrioside hydrolysis catalyzed by hen egg white lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Cristian; Abuin, Elsa; Lissi, Eduardo; Montecinos, Rodrigo

    2011-08-01

    The effect of human serum albumin (HSA) addition on the rate of hydrolysis of the synthetic substrate 4-methylumbelliferyl-β-D-N-N'-N″ triacetylchitotrioside ((NAG)(3)-MUF) catalyzed by hen egg white lysozyme has been measured in aqueous solution (citrate buffer 50 mM pH = 5.2 at 37 °C). The presence of HSA leads to a decrease in the rate of the process. The reaction follows a Michaelis-Menten mechanism under all the conditions employed. The catalytic rate constant decreases tenfold when the albumin concentration increases, while the Michaelis constant remains almost constant in the albumin concentration range employed. Ultracentrifugation experiments indicate that the main origin of the observed variation in the kinetic behavior is related to the existence of an HSA-lysozyme interaction. Interestingly, the dependence of the catalytic rate constant with albumin concentration parallels the decrease of the free enzyme concentration. We interpret these results in terms of the presence in the system of two enzyme populations; namely, the HSA associated enzyme which does not react and the free enzyme reacting as in the absence of albumin. Other factors such as association of the substrate to albumin or macromolecular crowding effects due to the presence of albumin are discarded. Theoretical modeling of the structure of the HSA-lysozyme complex shows that the Glu35 and Asp52 residues located in the active site of lysozyme are oriented toward the HSA surface. This conformation will inactivate lysozyme molecules bound to HSA.

  16. A New Episomic Element Controlling Fermentative Metabolism and Excretion of Amino Acids by Citrobacter intermedium C3

    PubMed Central

    Pares, R.; Guinea, J.; Hernandez, S.; Valoix, Josefina; Jofre, J.

    1974-01-01

    Glutamate excretion by colonies of Citrobacter intermedium C3 was detected by using the auxotrophic strain Leuconostoc mesenteroides P-60. A constant ratio of strain C3 colonies did not excrete glutamate. These colonies were subcultured, and colonial analysis of their descendants established that the change from non-excretor to excretor (Sg− → Sg+) is a spontaneous and random process with occurs at a high rate, and that an equilibrium state results from the back-transition Sg+ → Sg− in large populations. Acridine orange, ethidium bromide, and shaking have a strong influence on Sg+-to-Sg− interconversion, which suggests that a genetic element like an episome is implicated (S factor). Various auxotrophic mutants of bacterial strain C3 have been cured of the S factor. Strains lacking the S factor (S− strains) do not excrete glutamate and lose their fermentative metabolism completely. Consequently, the S factor is different from other extrachromosomal genetic factors whose elimination does not modify central metabolism. The gain of the S factor by infectious transfer has been shown with different C3 auxotrophic mutant strains. Also, the S factor has been transferred to Paracolobactrum intermedium ATCC 11606. These findings suggest that phenotypic changes observed are a consequence of elimination or infectious gain of the S factor, with its autonomous or integrated multiplication. PMID:4600693

  17. Fluorescence lifetime measurements of native and glycated human serum albumin and bovine serum albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Joshi, Virgina O. d.; Contreras, Silvia; Gil, Herminia; Medina, Honorio; Siemiarczuk, Aleksander

    1999-05-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation, also known as Maillard reaction, plays an important role in the secondary complications of the diabetic pathology and aging, therefore, human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) were glycated by a conventional method in our laboratory using glucose as the glycating agent. Fluorescence lifetime measurements were carried out with a laser strobe fluorometer equipped with a nitrogen/dye laser and a frequency doubler as a pulsed excitation source. The samples were excited at 295 nm and the emission spectra were recorded at 345 nm. The obtained decay curves were tried for double and triple exponential functions. It has been found that the shorter lifetime increases for glycated proteins as compared with that of the native ones. For example, in the case of glycated BSA the lifetime increased from 1.36 ns to 2.30 ns. Similarly, for HSA, the lifetime increases from 1.58 ns to 2.26 ns. Meanwhile, the longer lifetime changed very slightly for both proteins (from 6.52 ns to 6.72 ns). The increase in the lifetime can be associated with the environmental effect; originated from the attachment of glucose to some lysine residues. A good example is Trp 214 which is in the cage of Lys 225, Lys 212, Lys 233, Lys 205, Lys 500, Lys 199 and Lys 195. If fluorescence lifetime technique is calibrated and properly used it could be employed for assessing glycation of proteins.

  18. RBC-/Cr-51/ half-life and albumin turnover in growing Beagle dogs during chronic radial acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckman, D. A.; Evans, J. W.; Oyama, J.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of chronic centrifugation on growing Beagle dogs exposed to -2 or -2.6 Gx on albumin and RBC turnover rates, albumin concentration and space, and total blood volume were determined and compared with caged and run control of animals. Albumin-(I-125) and autologous RBC-(Cr-51) preparations were injected into all dogs at day 82 of the centrifugation periods, and the disappearance curves were determined by successive bleedings of the animals over the next 35 d, during which the centrifugation was continued. There were no differences in albumin turnover rates or space. Two populations of RBCs were found in both centrifugated groups, one with a normal half-life of 27 + or - 1 S.E.M. d, and one with a significantly (p less than 0.01) shorter half-life of 15 + or - 2 S.E.M. d. An absolute polycythemia was also observed in both centrifuged groups. The results suggest that chronic centrifugation acts through some as-yet unknown mechanism to affect RBC population kinetics.

  19. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zaloga, Jan; Stapf, Marcus; Nowak, Johannes; Pöttler, Marina; Friedrich, Ralf P.; Tietze, Rainer; Lyer, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEONLA-BSA, which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEONLA-BSA particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v). Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEONLA-BSA changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 °C up to 64.9 °C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment. PMID:26287178

  20. Tangential Flow Ultrafiltration Allows Purification and Concentration of Lauric Acid-/Albumin-Coated Particles for Improved Magnetic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Zaloga, Jan; Stapf, Marcus; Nowak, Johannes; Pöttler, Marina; Friedrich, Ralf P; Tietze, Rainer; Lyer, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey; Odenbach, Stefan; Hilger, Ingrid; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-08-14

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) are frequently used for drug targeting, hyperthermia and other biomedical purposes. Recently, we have reported the synthesis of lauric acid-/albumin-coated iron oxide nanoparticles SEON(LA-BSA), which were synthesized using excess albumin. For optimization of magnetic treatment applications, SPION suspensions need to be purified of excess surfactant and concentrated. Conventional methods for the purification and concentration of such ferrofluids often involve high shear stress and low purification rates for macromolecules, like albumin. In this work, removal of albumin by low shear stress tangential ultrafiltration and its influence on SEON(LA-BSA) particles was studied. Hydrodynamic size, surface properties and, consequently, colloidal stability of the nanoparticles remained unchanged by filtration or concentration up to four-fold (v/v). Thereby, the saturation magnetization of the suspension can be increased from 446.5 A/m up to 1667.9 A/m. In vitro analysis revealed that cellular uptake of SEON(LA-BSA) changed only marginally. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was not greatly affected by concentration. In contrast, the maximum temperature Tmax in magnetic hyperthermia is greatly enhanced from 44.4 °C up to 64.9 °C by the concentration of the particles up to 16.9 mg/mL total iron. Taken together, tangential ultrafiltration is feasible for purifying and concentrating complex hybrid coated SPION suspensions without negatively influencing specific particle characteristics. This enhances their potential for magnetic treatment.

  1. Inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis in rats reduces renal ability to excrete fluid and electrolytes during acute hydration

    PubMed Central

    Stridh, Sara; Palm, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Background. Hyaluronan (HA) is the dominant glycosaminoglycan in the renomedullary interstitium. Renomedullary HA has been implicated in tubular fluid handling due to its water-attracting properties and the changes occurring in parallel to acute variations in the body hydration status. Methods. HA production was inhibited by 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU in drinking water for 5 days, 1.45 ± 0.07 g/day/kg body weight) in rats prior to hydration. Results. Following hypotonic hydration for 135 min in control animals, diuresis and osmotic excretion increased while sodium excretion and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) remained unchanged. The medullary and cortical HA contents were 7.85 ± 1.29 ng/mg protein and 0.08 ± 0.01 ng/mg protein, respectively. Medullary HA content after 4-MU was 38% of that in controls (2.98 ± 0.95 ng/g protein, p < 0.05), while the low cortical levels were unaffected. Baseline urine flow was not different from that in controls. The diuretic response to hydration was, however, only 51% of that in controls (157 ± 36 versus 306 ± 54 µl/g kidney weight/135 min, p < 0.05) and the osmolar excretion only 47% of that in controls (174 ± 47 versus 374 ± 41 µOsm/g kidney weight/135 min, p < 0.05). Sodium excretion, GFR, and arterial blood pressure were similar to that in control rats and unaltered during hydration. Conclusions. Reduction of renomedullary interstitial HA using 4-MU reduces the ability of the kidney to respond appropriately upon acute hydration. The results strengthen the concept of renomedullary HA as a modulator of tubular fluid handling by changing the physicochemical properties of the interstitial space. PMID:24102146

  2. Relation Between Excreted Lipopolysaccharide Complexes and Surface Structures of a Lysine-Limited Culture of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Knox, K. W.; Vesk, Maret; Work, Elizabeth

    1966-01-01

    Knox, K. W. (Twyford Laboratories, London, England), Maret Vesk, and Elizabeth Work. Relation between excreted lipopolysaccharide complexes and surface structures of a lysine-limited culture of Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 92:1206–1217. 1966.—The lysine-requiring mutant Escherichia coli 12408, when grown in 15 liters of defined medium containing a suboptimal amount of lysine, showed a biphasic type of growth. During a long stationary phase of 15 hr, there was a steady accumulation of diaminopimelic acid (DAP) and an antigenic complex of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and lipoprotein; the accumulation continued unchanged until the end of the second growth phase. The rapid rate of DAP excretion suggested that it was the result of a derepressed state of a biosynthetic pathway. LPS excretion was such that the amount in the culture fluid was doubled during a period corresponding to the normal generation time for the organism; this suggested that the LPS-lipoprotein complex was a product of unbalanced growth. Surface defects were suggested by the action of lysozyme, which, in low concentrations (10 μg/ml), lysed the lysine-limited cells even in the absence of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, but had no effect at 10 μg/ml on cells grown with adequate lysine. Electron microscopy of cells excreting the LPS complex showed them to be surrounded by a mass of stacked leaflets and globules, some of which were bounded by triple membranes. Sections showed no lysis but changes in cell surfaces; outer layers of the walls had numerous blebs whose outer membranes were sometimes continuous with the outer triple membrane of the wall. LPS-lipoprotein probably originates from these blebs. Images PMID:4959044

  3. Albumin and Uptake of Drugs in Cells: Additional Validation Exercises of a Recently Published Equation that Quantifies the Albumin-Facilitated Uptake Mechanism(s) in Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Modeling Research.

    PubMed

    Poulin, Patrick; Haddad, Sami

    2015-12-01

    The impact of albumin concentration on the uptake of drugs in cells might involve mechanisms going beyond the free drug concentration hypothesis. Proceeding from the assumption that both the unbound and protein-bound drug fractions can be available for uptake, several authors have argued that the uptake of highly bound drugs in cells might be driven mainly by the albumin-facilitated uptake mechanism(s). Hence, a novel approach quantifying the additional contribution of the protein-bound drug complex and pH gradient effect in diverse in vitro-to-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) procedures of drug uptake and clearance has been proposed and extensively validated by Poulin et al. (2015. J Pharm Sci. Epub ahead of print); this approach consisted of replacing the unbound fraction in plasma (fup ) with an adjusted fup value (fup-adjusted ). After a second review of literature, the objective of the present study was to perform further validation exercises of the concept of fup-adjusted by using additional case examples of IVIVEs that covered diverse drug properties and experimental settings with varied albumin concentrations (e.g., perfused liver, isolated and suspended hepatocytes, and cultured cells overexpressing transporters). Again, the novel IVIVE method based on fup-adjusted was the best-performing prediction method of the uptake rate (or clearance) as a function of protein binding compared with the conventional method based on the fup theory (absolute average fold error of 1.4 vs. 7.4). Therefore, the present study confirms the utility of fup-adjusted compared with fup in IVIVE procedures for drugs highly bound to albumin, and the improvement was observed particularly in the higher range of albumin concentrations. From these findings, we may conclude that uptake of these drugs in cells is primarily driven by the albumin-bound form. Consequently, it is suggested to estimate the uptake kinetic parameters with cell-based assays incubated in 100% human serum or to make a

  4. Polyamine analogues bind human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Beauchemin, R; N'soukpoé-Kossi, C N; Thomas, T J; Thomas, T; Carpentier, R; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2007-10-01

    Polyamine analogues show antitumor activity in experimental models, and their ability to alter activity of cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agents in breast cancer is well documented. Association of polyamines with nucleic acids and protein is included in their mechanism of action. The aim of this study was to examine the interaction of human serum albumin (HSA) with several polyamine analogues, such as 1,11-diamino-4,8-diazaundecane (333), 3,7,11,15-tetrazaheptadecane.4HCl (BE-333), and 3,7,11,15,19-pentazahenicosane.5HCl (BE-3333), in aqueous solution at physiological conditions using a constant protein concentration and various polyamine contents (microM to mM). FTIR, UV-visible, and CD spectroscopic methods were used to determine the polyamine binding mode and the effects of polyamine complexation on protein stability and secondary structure. Structural analysis showed that polyamines bind nonspecifically (H-bonding) via polypeptide polar groups with binding constants of K333 = 9.30 x 10(3) M(-1), KBE-333 = 5.63 x 10(2) M(-1), and KBE-3333 = 3.66 x 10(2) M(-1). The protein secondary structure showed major alterations with a reduction of alpha-helix from 55% (free protein) to 43-50% and an increase of beta-sheet from 17% (free protein) to 29-36% in the 333, BE-333, and BE-3333 complexes, indicating partial protein unfolding upon polyamine interaction. HSA structure was less perturbed by polyamine analogues compared to those of the biogenic polyamines.

  5. [Hepatoduodenal circulation and excretion of the new GABA derivative citrocard].

    PubMed

    Tiurenkov, I N; Perfilova, V N; Smirnova, L A; Riabukha, A F; Suchkov, E A; Lebedeva, S A

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic investigation of a new gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) derivative cirtocard showed that, upon the intravenous introduction, the drug is determined in high concentrations in organs of elimination--the liver and kidneys. The tissue accessibility amounts to 1.341 for the liver and 4.053 for the kidneys and the separation factor is 1.041 for the liver and 4.486 for the kidneys. The study of drug excretion showed that cirtocard is determined in the urine for 48 h, its nephritic clearance being 0.047 L/h and extra-nephritic clearance, 0.33 L/h. For the unchanged substance, a large significance ofhepatoduodenal circulation is low probable, since no more than 1 - 2% of the introduced dose was isolated with bile over entire experiment. It is established that the removal of the unchanged substance does not exceed 10% of the introduced dose. There is high probability of hepatoduodenal circulation and excretion of the preparation in the form of metabolites.

  6. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-04-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension.

  7. Possible parameters in the urinary excretion of tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Cawley, C.N.; Lewis, B.A.; Cannon, L.A.

    1985-11-01

    Because of its mobility in both physical and biological systems, tritium is interesting both as a tracer and as an issue in health physics. Because tritium is extremely difficult to contain, it is one of the major radionuclides of concern if released to the environment from nuclear facilities. Relatively very large releases are tolerated because the beta particle has low energy and, therefore, the radioisotope is not a health hazard unless deposited internally. Moreover, on release to the environment, tritium enters the hydrologic cycle and is diluted and dispersed widely through the hydrosphere. It is likely that tritium uptake and loss in humans is more complex than generally believed and may be more functionally related to physiological processes, such as the bicarbonate and electrolyte balances, than to ambient environmental conditions such as temperature. Despite the many uncertainties in the analyses of experimental data on tritium contamination and excretion, it is likely that further investigations will establish both a better understanding of the tritium health hazard and the physiological processes governing excretion and, perhaps, its indefinite recycling through metabolic pools.

  8. Longitudinal fecal steroid excretion in maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus).

    PubMed

    Velloso, A L; Wasser, S K; Monfort, S L; Dietz, J M

    1998-10-01

    This study used a fecal steroid monitoring technique to evaluate reproductive cycles in male (4) and female (15) maned wolves, endangered South American canids. A radiolabeled testosterone infusion on a male revealed a fast and predominantly fecal route of excretion for this steroid. Testosterone was also excreted as eight unidentified metabolites, which was not the primary form of this steroid quantified in our assays. Fecal steroid concentrations (estradiol, E2; progestins, P; testosterone, T) in males and acyclic, nonpregnant (pseudo-pregnant), and pregnant females were monitored over four breeding seasons (October-January). Significant differences were detected between longitudinal P profiles of cyclic and acyclic females during estrus, luteal phase, and after birth/end of pseudo-pregnancy. Concentrations of P were also significantly higher in pregnant, compared to nonpregnant females, from proestrus to the end of the pregnant luteal phase. Although levels of T were higher in males than in females throughout the breeding season, no cyclicity in male fecal T concentrations was detected. Values of fecal P, T, and the ratio P/T were useful for differentiating gender and detecting pregnancy in females. Similarities to available data on other canids and the management and conservation implications of these findings were discussed.

  9. The pharmacokinetics, urinary and biliary excretion of pipecuronium bromide.

    PubMed

    Wierda, J M; Szenohradszky, J; De Wit, A P; Zentai, G; Agoston, S; Kakas, M; Kleef, U W; Meijer, D K

    1991-11-01

    The pharmacodynamics and -kinetics of pipecuronium were studied in 12 patients, six of whom received 100 micrograms kg-1 for laryngectomy (Group L), and six who underwent choledochotomy after insertion of the T-drain and were given 50 micrograms kg-1 (Group C). Onset time and clinical duration were 2.3 and 109 min and 2.8 and 39 min in Groups L and C, respectively. All patients could be sufficiently reversed with neostigmine. Terminal half-lives were 101.5 min (Group L) and 179 min (Group C) in a three-exponent decay; the distribution volumes at steady state 0.339 l kg-1 (Group L) and 0.506 l kg-1 (Group C); the plasma clearance 3.4 ml kg-1 min-1 (Group L) and 2.5 ml kg-1 min-1 (Group C). Within 24 h, 38.6% and 37% were excreted unchanged in the urine and 4.4% and 1% as 3-desacetyl pipecuronium in Groups L and C, respectively. Within 24 h only 2% was excreted into the bile in Group C. Distribution volume and terminal half-life in Group C were positively correlated with pre-operative serum aminotransferase levels (P less than 0.005).

  10. Oxalic acid excretion after intravenous ascorbic acid administration.

    PubMed

    Robitaille, Line; Mamer, Orval A; Miller, Wilson H; Levine, Mark; Assouline, Sarit; Melnychuk, David; Rousseau, Caroline; Hoffer, L John

    2009-02-01

    Ascorbic acid is frequently administered intravenously by alternative health practitioners and, occasionally, by mainstream physicians. Intravenous administration can greatly increase the amount of ascorbic acid that reaches the circulation, potentially increasing the risk of oxalate crystallization in the urinary space. To investigate this possibility, we developed gas chromatography mass spectrometry methodology and sampling and storage procedures for oxalic acid analysis without interference from ascorbic acid and measured urinary oxalic acid excretion in people administered intravenous ascorbic acid in doses ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 g/kg body weight. In vitro oxidation of ascorbic acid to oxalic acid did not occur when urine samples were brought immediately to pH less than 2 and stored at -30 degrees C within 6 hours. Even very high ascorbic acid concentrations did not interfere with the analysis when oxalic acid extraction was carried out at pH 1. As measured during and over the 6 hours after ascorbic acid infusions, urinary oxalic acid excretion increased with increasing doses, reaching approximately 80 mg at a dose of approximately 100 g. We conclude that, when studied using correct procedures for sample handling, storage, and analysis, less than 0.5% of a very large intravenous dose of ascorbic acid is recovered as urinary oxalic acid in people with normal renal function.

  11. [Basic mechanisms: absorption and excretion of cholesterol and other sterols].

    PubMed

    Cofan Pujol, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol is of vital importance for vertebrate cell membrane structure and function. It is obvious that adequate regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is essential. Hypercholesterolemia promotes atherosclerosis and thereby represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The liver has been considered the major site of control in maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. The liver facilitates clearance of (very) low density lipoprotein particles and cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants, synthesizes cholesterol, synthesizes and secretes (nascent) high density lipoprotein particles, secretes cholesterol and bile salts to bile, and is involved in reverse cholesterol transport. In recent years, however, the importance of the intestine in many aspects of cholesterol physiology is increasingly recognized. It has become apparent that direct secretion of cholesterol from the blood compartment into the intestine, or transintestinal cholesterol excretion, plays a major role in disposal of cholesterol via the feces. This review will discuss current knowledge on the physiology of cholesterol homeostasis, with emphasis on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and fecal excretion, and therapeutic options for hypercholesterolemia.

  12. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na+/K+-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:27043552

  13. Rapid Hepatobiliary Excretion of Micelle-Encapsulated/Radiolabeled Upconverting Nanoparticles as an Integrated Form

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyo Jung; Nam, Sang Hwan; Im, Hyung-Jun; Park, Ji-yong; Lee, Ji Youn; Yoo, Byeongjun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Who Kim, Ji; Lee, Jae Sung; Jang, In-Jin; Cho, Joo-Youn; Hwang, Do Won; Suh, Yung Doug; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    In the field of nanomedicine, long term accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) in the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) such as liver is the major hurdle in clinical translation. On the other hand, NPs could be excreted via hepatobiliary excretion pathway without overt tissue toxicity. Therefore, it is critical to develop NPs that show favorable excretion property. Herein, we demonstrated that micelle encapsulated 64Cu-labeled upconverting nanoparticles (micelle encapsulated 64Cu-NOTA-UCNPs) showed substantial hepatobiliary excretion by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) and also upconversion luminescence imaging (ULI). Ex vivo biodistribution study reinforced the imaging results by showing clearance of 84% of initial hepatic uptake in 72 hours. Hepatobiliary excretion of the UCNPs was also verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination. Micelle encapsulated 64Cu-NOTA-UCNPs could be an optimal bimodal imaging agent owing to quantifiability of 64Cu, ability of in vivo/ex vivo ULI and good hepatobiliary excretion property. PMID:26494465

  14. Studies on Nonoxynol-9. II. Intravaginal absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion in rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chvapil, M; Eskelson, C D; Stiffel, V; Owen, J A; Droegemueller, W

    1980-09-01

    Some pharmacological aspects of Igepal CO-630, used by some pharmaceutical companies as the source of nonylphenoxypoly (ethyleneoxy) ethanol (Nonoxynol-9, N-9) in various spermicidal formulations, were studied. It was found that Igepal CO-630 contains at least 13 components, 70% having molecular weights near that of N-9. After intravaginal administration, the detergent is rapidly and quantitatively absorbed through the vaginal wall into the systemic circulation. The rate of vaginal absorption of N-9 depends on the vehicle in which the detergent is carried. Once in the blood, N-9 is excreted by liver-bile-feces and the kidney-urine routes, the first being more effective in rats, the latter in rabbits. Following intravaginal or intraperitoneal injection of radioactive N-9, the highest content of radioactivity was found in the liver and kidney. The detergent was detected in the milk of lactating rats and the serum of their pups within two hours after the intravaginal dose.

  15. Excretion of stable isotopes in man: A valuable source of information on trace metal kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Fennessey, P.V.; Miller, L.V.; Westcott, J.E.; Kindstrand, L.; Hambidge, K.M. )

    1991-03-15

    The analysis of individual fecal samples collected for at least ten days following an oral dose of {sup 70}Zn provides data on transit time, absorption and the excretion of isotope that has been absorbed and then secreted back into the lumen of the intestine. The analysis of data from more than 80 human studies where enriched Zn stable isotopes were given orally has provided a valuable data base on Zn kinetics. A plot of enrichment in the fecal samples as a function of time reveals the average time of maximum appearance as well as the time limit needed for elimination of unabsorbed isotope. A plot of cumulative enrichment as a function of time reveals information on both absorption and secretion rate of absorbed isotope. This data base provides investigators with new information that they can use to optimize their data collection schemes and serves as a model for the study of other trace metals.

  16. Preparation of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) nanoparticles by desolvation using a membrane contactor: a new tool for large scale production.

    PubMed

    Yedomon, B; Fessi, H; Charcosset, C

    2013-11-01

    Albumin nanoparticles are attractive drug delivery systems as they can be prepared under soft conditions and incorporate several kinds of molecules. The aim of this study was to upscale the desolvation process for preparing Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) nanoparticles using a membrane contactor. At a first step, the BSA nanoparticles were prepared at small scale using a syringe pump. BSA nanoparticles of 139 nm in size, with a polydispersity index of 0.046, were obtained at the optimal conditions: pH 8.2, 100 mg mL(-1) BSA albumin solution (2 mL), and 1 mL min(-1) flow rate of ethanol addition (8 mL). The upscaling with a membrane contactor was achieved by permeating ethanol through the pores of a Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG Technology Co., Japan) membrane and circulating the aqueous phase tangentially to the membrane surface. By increasing the pressure of the ethanol from 1 to 2.7 bars, a progressive decrease in nanoparticle size was obtained with a high nanoparticles yield (around 94-96%). In addition, the flow rate of the circulating phase did not affect the BSA nanoparticle characteristics. At the optimal conditions (pH 8.2, 100 mg mL(-1) BSA albumin solution, pressure of ethanol 2.7 bars, flow rate of the circulating phase 30.7 mL s(-1)), the BSA nanoparticles showed similar characteristics to those obtained with the syringe pump. Large batches of BSA nanoparticles were prepared up to 10 g BSA. The BSA nanoparticles were stable at least during 2 months at 4 °C, and their characteristics were reproducible. It was then concluded that the membrane contactor technique could be a suitable method for the preparation of albumin nanoparticles at large scale with properties similar to that obtained at small scale.

  17. Why mammals more susceptible to the hepatotoxic microcystins than fish: evidences from plasma and albumin protein binding through equilibrium dialysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liang, Gaodao; Wu, Laiyan; Tuo, Xun; Wang, Wenjing; Chen, Jun; Xie, Ping

    2013-08-01

    To elucidate the interspecies variation of susceptibility to microcystins (MCs), fresh plasma and purified albumin from six kinds of mammals and fish were used in toxins-substances binding test. Protein contents in the test plasma were analyzed and the binding characteristics to MCs were compared. Two kinds of widely observed MCs, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and microcystin-RR (MC-RR) were tested and data were collected through the method of equilibrium dialysis. It was found that total plasma protein and albumin content in mammals were nearly two times and four times higher than that in fish, respectively. In the test range of 0-100 μg/mL, binding rates of fish plasma to MCs were considered significant lower (p < 0.01) than that of mammals. And human plasma demonstrated the highest binding rate in mammals. In all the test species, plasma protein binding rates of MC-RR were significantly higher than MC-LR (p < 0.01). Besides, binding profiles of albumin were acquired under the protein content of 0.67 mg/mL. Human serum albumin demonstrated the highest affinity to MCs throughout the six species and differences among the other five species were considered not significant (p > 0.05). From the view of protein binding, it is concluded that both the variation of plasma protein composition and albumin binding characteristic could influence the existing form of MCs in circulation, change MCs utilization, alter MCs half-life and further contribute to the difference of susceptibility between mammals and fish.

  18. Breathing Assistance by the Iron Lung Increases Sympathetic Tone and Modifies Fluid Excretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisch, F. J.; Gerzer, R.

    Adaptation to weightlessness is not accompanied by an increase in sodium- and urine- excretion in humans in contrast to the expectations and the bed rest model in use to simulate effects of weightlessness on earth. On earth the thorax remains compressed by gravity in the horizontal body position while its unloading in weightlessness reduces transmural pressure in the mediastinal walls and membranes. Thus, wall stretching. or the Henry-Gauer mechanism, is reduced and may even result in a reduced water and sodium excretion. We have therefore lowered the transmural mediastinal pressure by the principle of the "Iron Lung" in a terrestrial model, and have studied whether or not this principle might reduce body fluid loss seen during onset of head down tilt bed rest. Methods: Two experiment runs were performed in a cross over design: one run pure 6° head down tilt body position (HDT) and the other with iron lung assistance. Six male subjects (26.5 +/- 8.1 years old; 187+/- 5 cm tall; 84.0 +/- 6.6 kg body weight) participated. Lung pressure was modified by the iron lung where the whole body except the head is enclosed in a box. The air pressure inside the box was 5 cm H2O lower than ambient during activation of the iron lung. For inspiration negative pressure increased up to 15 cm H2O, roughly doubling resting breath tide. The counteracting lung pressure was 8.1 +/- 0.6 cm H2O for 4 hours in mean. Breathing rate was reduced under iron lung to avoid hyperventilation (10.2 +/- 0.6 bpm [iron lung] versus 14.0 +/- 1.2 Bpm [spontaneously]). The relationship between expiration and inspiration remained at 2:1 in both runs. End expiratory CO2 was measured breath by breath via a nose clip. Heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, and sphygmomanometric blood pressure were determined every half hour. Urine volume was measured hourly. sodium excretion and pH was determined. Ambient conditions were kept constant at thermoneutral conditions. Evaporative fluid loss was evaluated by a

  19. Tissue Distribution, Excretion, and Hepatic Biotransformation of Microcystin-LR in Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-07-09

    Distribution, Excretion, and Hepatic Biotiansformation of Microcystin -LR in Mice 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Nancy A. Robinson, Judith G. Pace, Charles F...number) The distribution, excretion, and hepatic metabolism of [3H] microcystin -LR ([3H]MCYST-LR, sublethal, i.v.) were measured in mice. Plasma...Distribution, Excretion, and Hepatic Biotransformation of Microcystin -LR in Mice 𔃼 Nancy A. Robinson, Judith G. Pace, Charles F. Matson, George A. Miura, and

  20. Biliary excretion of diazepam in rats: influence of the route of administration and dosage.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R; Plaa, G L

    1981-01-01

    The biliary excretion of diazepam metabolites was found in rats. Equivalent dosages of diazepam were administered orally and intraperitoneally. The biliary excretion was dose-dependent and was greater following intraperitoneal administration. After intravenous administration, a greater percentage of the diazepam dosage administered was excreted into the bile. Repetitive intravenous administrations yielded results which approached those observed after intraperitoneally administered dosages given as a bolus.

  1. Passage marker excretion in red kangaroo (Macropus rufus), collared peccary (Pecari tajacu) and colobine monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. polykomos, Trachypithecus johnii).

    PubMed

    Schwarm, Angela; Ortmann, Sylvia; Wolf, Christian; Streich, W Jürgen; Clauss, Marcus

    2009-11-01

    Ruminants are characterized by an efficient particle-sorting mechanism in the forestomach (FRST) followed by selective rechewing of large food particles. For the nonruminating foregut fermenter pygmy hippo it was demonstrated that large particles are excreted as fast as, or faster than, the small particles. The same has been suggested for other nonruminating foregut fermenters. We determined the mean retention time of fluids and different-sized particles in six red kangaroos (Macropus rufus), seven collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu) and three colobine monkeys (Colobus angolensis, C. polykomos, Trachypithecus johnii). We fed Co-EDTA as fluid and mordanted fiber as particle markers (Cr, Ce). Mean (+ or - SD) total tract retention time for fluids, small and large particles was 14 + or - 2, 29 + or - 10 and 30 + or - 9 hr in red kangaroos, 26 + or - 2, 34 + or - 5 and 32 + or - 3 hr in collared peccaries and 57 + or - 17, 55 + or - 19 and 54 + or - 19 hr in colobine monkeys, respectively. Large and small particles were excreted simultaneously in all species. There was no difference in the excretion of fluids and particles in the colobine monkeys, in contrast to the other foregut fermenters. In the nonprimate, nonruminant foregut fermenters, the difference in the excretion of fluids and small particles decreases with increasing food intake. On the contrary, ruminants keep this differential excretion constant at different intake levels. This may be a prerequisite for the sorting of particles in their FRST and enable them to achieve higher food intake rates. The functional significance of differential excretion of fluids and particles from the FRST requires further investigations.

  2. Relationship between urinary prostaglandin E2 and F2 alpha excretion and plasma arginine vasopressin during renal concentrating and diluting tests in renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, E B; Christensen, P; Danielsen, H; Eiskjaer, H; Jespersen, B; Knudsen, F; Kornerup, H J; Leyssac, P P; Nielsen, A H; Sørensen, S S

    1987-10-01

    Urinary excretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) and plasma concentration of arginine vasopressin (AVP) were determined during urinary concentrating and diluting tests in renal transplant recipients and control subjects. During the concentrating test PGE2 and PGF2 alpha remained unchanged in the renal transplant recipients, whereas both PGE2 and PGF2 alpha were significantly reduced in the control subjects. During the diluting test PGE2 and PGF2 alpha increased in both groups but, contrary to PGF2 alpha, PGE2 was significantly higher in all periods in the transplant recipients compared to the controls. However, the prostaglandin excretion rates per kidney were significantly higher in the renal transplant recipients than control subjects, for all periods during both the concentrating and the diluting test. Arginine vasopressin was significantly higher in renal transplant recipients than control subjects during basal conditions, increased to a significantly higher level in the transplant recipients after thirst, but was reduced to the same levels in the two groups during the diluting test. It is concluded that the increased excretion of prostaglandins in renal transplant recipients may be a compensatory phenomenon representing an adaptation to a reduced renal mass in order to maintain adequate renal water excretion. Although a direct relationship between the prostaglandin excretions of PGE2 and PGF2 alpha and AVP does not seem to exist, it is possible that the higher prostaglandin excretion in the renal transplant recipients may be a counterbalancing mechanism to the higher AVP level, which most likely is secondary to a decreased responsiveness to vasopressin of the renal collecting ducts in the transplanted kidney.

  3. Drug interaction between sunitinib and cimetidine and contribution of the efflux transporter ATP-binding cassette C2 to biliary excretion of sunitinib in rats.

    PubMed

    Arakawa-Todo, Maki; Ueyama, Jun; Nomura, Hiroshi; Abe, Fumie; Tsukiyama, Ikuto; Matsuura, Katsuhiko; Hasegawa, Takaaki

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigated the effect of the H2 antagonist cimetidine on the pharmacokinetics of a multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor, sunitinib, in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic mutant rats (EHBR) lacking the efflux transporter, ATP-binding cassette C2 protein (ABCC2). Rats received an intraperitoneal injection of cimetidine (10 mg/kg) once a day for three days. On day 4, sunitinib (3 mg/kg) was administered intravenously 30 min after the final injection of cimetidine or saline to SD rats. Disappearance of sunitinib from plasma was significantly delayed by cimetidine. The pharmacokinetic parameter of sunitinib, systemic clearance (CLSYS), was significantly reduced and the half-life was significantly prolonged, with no change in the volume of distribution at steady-state (VSS). When the effect of cimetidine on the biliary excretion of sunitinib at steady-state condition was investigated in SD rats, cimetidine had no effect on some transporter-mediated biliary excretion of sunitinib. Furthermore, the contribution of ABCC2 to the biliary excretion of sunitinib was also examined in SD rats and EHBR. The biliary clearance of sunitinib was significantly lower in EHBR, but the biliary excretion rate of EHBR was not different from that of SD rats, and the contribution of biliary excretion to systemic elimination was small, suggesting that sunitinib is mainly eliminated by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4)-mediated metabolism and is not excreted into the bile via ABCC2. These findings indicate that co-administration of cimetidine alters the pharmacokinetics of sunitinib probably due to inhibition of CYP3A4, suggesting the possibility that cimetidine should be used carefully for patients with cancer being treated with sunitinib therapy.

  4. Human pharmacology of ayahuasca: subjective and cardiovascular effects, monoamine metabolite excretion, and pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Riba, Jordi; Valle, Marta; Urbano, Gloria; Yritia, Mercedes; Morte, Adelaida; Barbanoj, Manel J

    2003-07-01

    The effects of the South American psychotropic beverage ayahuasca on subjective and cardiovascular variables and urine monoamine metabolite excretion were evaluated, together with the drug's pharmacokinetic profile, in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. This pharmacologically complex tea, commonly obtained from Banisteriopsis caapi and Psychotria viridis, combines N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT), an orally labile psychedelic agent showing 5-hydroxytryptamine2A agonist activity, with monoamine oxidase (MAO)-inhibiting beta-carboline alkaloids (harmine, harmaline, and tetrahydroharmine). Eighteen volunteers with prior experience in the use of psychedelics received single oral doses of encapsulated freeze-dried ayahuasca (0.6 and 0.85 mg of DMT/kg of body weight) and placebo. Ayahuasca produced significant subjective effects, peaking between 1.5 and 2 h, involving perceptual modifications and increases in ratings of positive mood and activation. Diastolic blood pressure showed a significant increase at the high dose (9 mm Hg at 75 min), whereas systolic blood pressure and heart rate were moderately and nonsignificantly increased. Cmax values for DMT after the low and high ayahuasca doses were 12.14 ng/ml and 17.44 ng/ml, respectively. Tmax (median) was observed at 1.5 h after both doses. The Tmax for DMT coincided with the peak of subjective effects. Drug administration increased urinary normetanephrine excretion, but, contrary to the typical MAO-inhibitor effect profile, deaminated monoamine metabolite levels were not decreased. This and the negligible harmine plasma levels found suggest a predominantly peripheral (gastrointestinal and liver) site of action for harmine. MAO inhibition at this level would suffice to prevent first-pass metabolism of DMT and allow its access to systemic circulation and the central nervous system.

  5. Renal excretion of water in men under hypokinesia and physical exercise with fluid and salt supplementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Yan G.; Federenko, Youri F.; Togawa, Mitsui N.

    It has been suggested that under hypokinesia (reduced number of steps/day) and intensive physical exercise, the intensification of fluid excretion in men is apparently caused as a result of the inability of the body to retain optimum amounts of water. Thus, to evaluate this hypothesis, studies were performed with the use of fluid and sodium chloride (NaCl) supplements on 12 highly trained physically healthy male volunteers aged 19-24 years under 364 days of hypokinesis (HK) and a set of intensive physical exercises (PE). They were divided into two groups with 6 volunteers per group. The first group of subjects were submitted to HK and took daily fluid and salt supplements in very small doses and the second group of voluntee