Science.gov

Sample records for albumin excretion uae

  1. Effect of rosuvastatin or atorvastatin on urinary albumin excretion and renal function in type 2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed

    Sorof, Jonathan; Berne, Christian; Siewert-Delle, Annica; Jørgensen, Leif; Sager, Philip

    2006-04-01

    The effect of rosuvastatin or atorvastatin on urinary albumin excretion (UAE) was determined in type 2 diabetic patients. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, response-based design compared rosuvastatin 10mg (titrated to 40 mg) with atorvastatin 10mg (titrated to 80 mg) in type 2 diabetic patients with dyslipidemia, with dose titration to an LDL-C target of <3.0 mmol/L. Overnight timed urine collections were obtained at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks to UAE. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was determined using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Patients with paired, UAE collections of at least 8h duration were analyzed (n=344). No significant change from baseline in UAE was observed for either treatment group or between-treatment groups at 16 weeks, and median UAE for both treatment groups remained within normal limits (rosuvastatin 4.5 microg/min, atorvastatin 5.0 microg/min). A similar absence of change from baseline was observed for 51 patients with UAE above the normal range at study entry (>20 microg/min). No significant change in GFR from baseline after 16 weeks was observed for either treatment group. These data provide reassurance that type 2 diabetic patients can be treated with higher efficacy statins without clinically meaningful effects on urinary albumin excretion. PMID:16246447

  2. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis. The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04). UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE. PMID:26496329

  3. Why 24-h Urine Albumin Excretion Rate Method Still is Used for Screening of Diabetic Nephropathy in Isfahan Laboratories?

    PubMed Central

    Teimoury, Azam; Iraj, Bijan; Heidari-Beni, Motahar; Amini, Massoud; Hosseiny, Seyed-Mohsen

    2014-01-01

    Background: The first step in diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is measurement of albumin in a spot urine sample. The aim of this study was assessment of the accuracy of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) in random urine specimens (RUS) for microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria screening in Iranian diabetic patients. Methods: A total of 200 diabetic patients participated to our study. 24 h timed urine specimens followed by RUS were collected. 24-h urine albumin excretion (24-h urinary albumin excretion (UAE)) and UACR in RUS were measured. Data were analyzed by Pearson's correlation, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and McNemar test. Results: A total of 165 patients finalized the study. Pearson's correlation of coefficient for 24-h UAE versus UACR was 0.64. The area under ROC curve for UACR was 0.83 in microalbuminuria and 0.91 in macroalbuminuria. The cutoff point of 30 mg/g in UACR method had 86% sensitivity and 60% specificity for microalbuminuria screening and cut-off point of 300 mg/g had 75% sensitivity and 99% specificity for macroalbuminuria screening respectively. Conclusions: UACR in RUS showed acceptable performance as a screening test for diagnosis of both micro and macroalbuminuria in Iranian diabetic patients. PMID:24829719

  4. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pieringer, Herwig; Brummaier, Tobias; Piringer, Bettina; Auer-Hackenberg, Lorenz; Hartl, Andreas; Puchner, Rudolf; Pohanka, Erich; Schmid, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  5. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  6. Octreotide administration in diabetic rats: effects on renal hypertrophy and urinary albumin excretion.

    PubMed

    Flyvbjerg, A; Marshall, S M; Frystyk, J; Hansen, K W; Harris, A G; Orskov, H

    1992-04-01

    Initial renal hypertrophy in experimental diabetes is prevented by administration of a long-acting somatostatin analogue octreotide (SMS). To investigate the long-term effects of SMS on renal hypertrophy and urinary albumin excretion (UAE), streptozotocin-diabetic and non-diabetic rats were treated with two daily subcutaneous injections of SMS (100 micrograms x 2) for six months. Untreated diabetic and non-diabetic animals were used as reference groups. No differences were seen between the two diabetic groups in respect to body weight, food intake, blood glucose levels, urinary glucose output, hemoglobin A1C(HbA1C), fructosamine, serum growth hormone (rGH) or creatinine clearance, but kidney weight (896 +/- 36 vs. 1000 +/- 24 mg, P less than 0.02), UAE (417 +/- 131 vs. 1098 +/- 187 micrograms/24 hr, P less than 0.02), kidney insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (167 +/- 16 vs. 239 +/- 17 ng/g, P less than 0.01) and serum IGF-I (301 +/- 26 vs. 407 +/- 17 micrograms/liter, P less than 0.01) were all reduced in the SMS-treated diabetic animals when compared to the untreated diabetic group. In non-diabetic rats SMS reduced body weight (274 +/- 3 vs. 293 +/- 5 g, P less than 0.01), kidney weight (695 +/- 9 vs. 764 +/- 17 mg, P less than 0.01), UAE (83 +/- 29 vs. 364 +/- 114 micrograms/24 hr, P less than 0.02), kidney IGF-I (202 +/- 12 vs. 280 +/- 12 ng/g, P less than 0.01), serum IGF-I (428 +/- 21 vs. 601 +/- 54 micrograms/liter, P less than 0.01) and serum rGH (67 +/- 6 vs. 126 +/- 27 micrograms/liter, P less than 0.05) when compared to untreated controls. When kidney weights were expressed in relation to body weight no difference was found between SMS-treated and untreated controls, while the difference between SMS-treated and untreated diabetic animals was still present (P less than 0.01). In conclusion, chronic administration of SMS has abating effects on diabetic renal hypertrophy and UAE, and thus indicates that SMS may reduce development of diabetic kidney

  7. Reduction in urinary albumin excretion with a moderate low-carbohydrate diet in patients with type 2 diabetes: a 12-month intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haimoto, Hajime; Sasakabe, Tae; Umegaki, Hiroyuki; Wakai, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is a marker of the early phase of diabetic nephropathy. Although a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD) has been shown to effectively improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), its effects on UAE remain unknown. Patients and methods A total of 124 patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 61.6 ± 9.2 years) with T2DM were instructed to consume a moderate LCD (1734 ± 416 kcal/d; % carbohydrate:fat:protein = 38:37:19) for 12 months. We measured the levels of UAE, hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, fasting serum insulin (IRI), and the serum lipid profiles in the patients and recorded their dosages of antidiabetic drugs during this 12-month period. Results Of the 124 patients, 68 were normoalbuminuric, 50 were microalbuminuric, and six were macroalbuminuric at baseline. The patients had relatively good compliance with the moderate LCD diet. After 12 months, the mean levels of hemoglobin A1c, fasting plasma glucose, IRI, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance, and the body mass index of all participants significantly decreased (P = 0.003 for IRI and P < 0.001 for the other parameters). Among the microalbuminuric patients (n = 50), remission to normoalbuminuria was frequently achieved (52%) and the geometric mean UAE significantly decreased by 53% (95% confidence interval: 43, 62) over 12 months (P < 0.001). After patients taking an angiotensin 2 receptor blocker were excluded, the UAE significantly decreased by 41% (n = 26, 95% confidence interval: 25, 54; P < 0.001). Moreover, the reduction in UAE was significantly and positively correlated with a reduction in homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance levels (rs = 0.308; P = 0.031). Conclusion A moderate LCD (38% carbohydrate diet) achieved a remarkable reduction in UAE over 12 months in microalbuminuric patients with T2DM. PMID:22924004

  8. Association of Periodontitis With Urinary Albumin Excretion in Korean Adults With Diabetes: The 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Nam, Ga Eun; Kim, Do Hoon; Park, Jun-Beom; Ko, Youngkyung; Roh, Yong Kyun; Cho, Kyung Hwan; Park, Yong Gyu

    2015-10-01

    Albuminuria and periodontitis are both commonly associated with systemic inflammation. However, the association between urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and periodontitis in patients with type 2 diabetes has not been fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the association between UAE and periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes.This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from the 2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. A total of 547 patients, with type 2 diabetes without renal impairment, were included in this study. UAE was assessed using the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR). A community periodontal index greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontitis.The risk of periodontitis tended to increase as UACR increased even after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.05 in model 1; 0.02 in model 2; and 0.01 in model 3). In a subgroup analysis, the prevalence of periodontitis was significantly higher in the patients with albuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) than in those without albuminuria among patients younger than 65 years (P = 0.03), those with newly diagnosed diabetes (P = 0.04), or those without obesity (P = .04).UAE was positively associated with the risk of periodontitis in Korean adults with type 2 diabetes. In the patients who were younger, were newly diagnosed with diabetes, or had normal body mass index, individuals with albuminuria were more likely to have a higher prevalence of periodontitis. Early identification of periodontitis may be helpful in Korean diabetic adults with increased UAE.

  9. Avosentan Reduces Albumin Excretion in Diabetics with Macroalbuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Wenzel, René R.; Littke, Thomas; Kuranoff, Susan; Jürgens, Christiane; Bruck, Heike; Ritz, Eberhard; Philipp, Thomas; Mitchell, Anna

    2009-01-01

    Despite the first-line use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), there is still a large need to improve the prevention and progression of diabetic nephropathy and its associated cardiovascular events. Endothelin antagonists have shown anti-inflammatory, antifibrotic, and antiproteinuric effects in experimental studies. This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-design, dosage-range study of the effect of the endothelin-A antagonist avosentan (SPP301) on urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in patients with diabetic nephropathy. We randomly assigned 286 patients with diabetic nephropathy, macroalbuminuria (UAER 0.2 to 5.6 mg/min), and BP <180/110 mmHg to 12 wk of avosentan (5, 10, 25, and 50 mg) or placebo, in addition to standard ACEI/ARB therapy. Relative to baseline, all avosentan dosages decreased mean relative UAER (−16.3 to −29.9%) compared with placebo (35.5%). Median relative UAER decreased with all avosentan dosages (−28.7 to −44.8%) compared with placebo (12.1%). Creatinine clearance and BP were unchanged at 12 wk. The main adverse events were peripheral edema (12%), mainly with high (≥25 mg) dosages of avosentan; significant increases in liver enzymes did not occur. Twenty-one (7.3%) patients experienced adverse events that led to withdrawal from study medication. In summary, the endothelin-A antagonist avosentan given in addition to standard ACEI/ARB treatment decreases UAER in patients with diabetic nephropathy and macroalbuminuria. PMID:19144760

  10. Biliary albumin excretion induced by bile salts in rats is a pathological phenomenon

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, M.; Kitani, K.; Kanai, S. )

    1989-09-01

    The bile to plasma 125I-albumin concentration ratio (B/P ratio) was examined before and during various bile salt infusions in male Wistar rats that had previously received iv injection of 125I-albumin. Endogenous rat albumin and IgG concentrations in the bile were also determined by a single radial immunodiffusion method. Taurocholate (TC) infusion (1.0 mumol/min/100 g body wt) significantly increased the bile flow rate in the first hr but the flow began to decline in the second hr. The B/P ratio as well as rat albumin (and IgG) excretion into the bile significantly increased as early as 15 min after the start of TC infusion, and the increase became more pronounced in the second hr, when the bile flow began to decrease. Infusion of taurochenodeoxycholate (TCDC, 0.4 mumol/min/100 g) caused a reduction in bile flow 15 min after the start of infusion but the B/P ratio increased 40 times at its peak compared with the basal value before the bile salt infusion. Simultaneous infusion of tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDC, 0.6 mumol/min/100 g) and TCDC not only abolished the cholestasis induced by TCDC but maintained stable choleresis as long as for 2 hr. During this choleretic period, the B/P ration never exceeded the basal value. The choleresis induced by either taurodehydrocholate (TDHC) or bucolome was not accompanied by enhanced albumin excretion. In rats given TDHC infusion, albumin excretion started to increase only after the bile flow began to decline following the initial choleretic period. The enhanced excretion of albumin induced by TC and TCDC is therefore suggested to be caused not by the choleresis per se but by a possible concomitant increase in the communication between sinusoids and bile canaliculi, which eventually leads to cholestasis.

  11. The effect of water loading on albumin excretion in type I diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wiegmann, T B; Chonko, A M; Herron, K; MacDougall, M L; Moore, W V

    1989-01-01

    An increased albumin excretion rate is recognized as an important early marker for incipient kidney disease in patients with diabetes mellitus. Many different techniques have been used, and a single void technique has been proposed as the simplest method for screening for increased albumin excretion. We evaluated a previous observation that single void samples during water diuresis yield increased albumin excretion rates. Timed day, night, and 24 hour albumin excretion rates (AER) were obtained in 35 patients with Type I diabetes mellitus. This was followed by examination of 8 consecutive half-hour specimens obtained during continued water diuresis. We compared 26 patients with low AER (less than 20 micrograms/min/24 hr sample) to 9 patients with high AER (greater than 20 and less than 200 micrograms/min/24 hr). Sampling began 60 min after the initiation of the waterload. At first, the AER in the low AER group was significantly higher than it was at night, but it decreased over 60 to 90 min of sampling to levels comparable with daytime AER. This was paralleled by a similar pattern in urine flow rate, sodium, and solute excretion. The AER in the high AER group did not increase with the water load and remained high throughout the study periods. The pattern of urine flow rate, sodium, and solute excretion was similar to that of the group with low AER. The study demonstrates that early sampling after water-induced diuresis leads to overestimation of AER in patients with low AER as compared to patients with high AER.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Radioactive excretion in human milk following administration of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Pittard, W.B.; Merkatz, R.; Fletcher, B.D.

    1982-08-01

    Albumin-tagged sodium pertechnetate (technetium) is routinely used in nuclear medicine for scanning procedures of the lung. The rate of excretion of this radionuclide into breast milk and the resultant potential radiation hazard to the nursing infant have received little attention. Therefore the milk from a nursing mother who required a lung scan because of suspected pulmonary emboli using an intravenous injection of 4 mCi of /sup 99m/Tc macroaggregated human serum albumin was monitored. Albumin tagging severely limited the entrance of technetium into her milk and the radioactivity of the milk returned to base line by 24 hours. A total of 2.02 muCi of technetium was measured in the 24-hour milk collection after technetium injection and 94% of this amount was excreted by 15.5 hours. This amount of technetium administered orally to a newborn would deliver a total body radiation dose of .3 mrad. Therefore, an infant would receive trivial doses of radiation if breast-feeding were resumed 15.5 hours after administration of the radionuclide to the mother and nursing can clearly be resumed safely 24 hours after injection.

  13. Urinary Albumin Excretion is Increased in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis and Associated with Arterial Stiffness

    PubMed Central

    Becetti, Karima; Oeser, Annette; Ormseth, Michelle; Solus, Joseph F.; Raggi, Paolo; Stein, C. Michael; Chung, Cecilia P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). High urinary albumin excretion is a risk factor for CVD in the general population, but its role in atherosclerosis in patients with RA is not well defined. Methods We determined the urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR) in 136 patients with RA and 79 controls. Individuals with diabetes or a clinical history of CVD were excluded. We measured coronary artery calcium (CAC) with electron beam computer tomography and augmentation index (AIX) using pulse wave analysis. In patients with RA, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and concentrations of vascular cell adhesion protein-1 (VCAM-1), interleukin-10 (IL-10), C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cystatin-C were measured and results correlated with UACR. Results Patients with RA had higher UACR [median (IQR): 7.6 (4.0-15.5) mg/g than control subjects: 5.6 (3.3-9.0)mg/g, p=0.02]. The presence of CAC was not associated with UACR in RA or control subjects. In patients with RA, UACR was significantly correlated with AIX (rho=0.24, p=0.01), higher levels of VCAM-1 (rho=0.2, p=0.01) and lower levels of IL-10 (rho=-0.2, p=0.02). The association between AIX and higher UACR remained significant in multivariate analysis [β coefficient of 1.9 (95% CI 0.4-3.4), p=0.01 that adjusted for age, sex, and race]. Conclusion Urinary albumin excretion was higher in RA patients than controls and correlated with increased arterial stiffness, higher VCAM-1, and lower IL-10 concentrations. PMID:25641887

  14. Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Urinary Albumin Excretion in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Canales, Muna T.; Paudel, Misti L.; Taylor, Brent C.; Ishani, Areef; Mehra, Reena; Steffes, Michael; Stone, Katie L.; Redline, Susan; Ensrud, Kristine E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Sleep-disordered breathing(SDB) may be deleterious to the cardiovascular system and other organs, including the kidney. Although older men are at increased risk for both kidney disease and SDB, it is unknown whether SDB is associated with higher urinary albumin excretion in this population. Methods We examined 507 community-dwelling men age ≥67 years(mean 76.0±5.3) enrolled in the MrOS Sleep study who underwent overnight polysomnography and gave a spot urine sample. SDB severity was categorized using the respiratory disturbance index and percent total sleep time <90% oxygen saturation(%time O2<90). Urinary albumin excretion was expressed using the albumin-to-creatinine ratio(ACR). Results There was a graded association between respiratory disturbance index and ACR (age and race-adjusted mean ACR=9.35 mg/gCr for respiratory disturbance index≥30 versus 6.72 mg/gCr for respiratory disturbance index<5, p=0.007). This association was attenuated after further adjustment for body mass index(BMI), hypertension and diabetes and no longer reached significance(p=0.129). However, even after adjustment for age, race, BMI, hypertension and diabetes, greater %time O2<90 was associated with higher ACR(10.35 mg/gCr for ≥10%time O2<90 versus 7.45 mg/gCr for <1%time O2<90, p=0.046). Conclusion SDB, measured by elevated respiratory disturbance index or nocturnal hypoxemia, was associated with higher ACR. The relationship between respiratory disturbance index and ACR was partially explained by higher BMI and greater prevalence of hypertension and diabetes among men with SDB. However, greater nocturnal hypoxemia was independently associated with higher ACR, suggesting that the hypoxia component of SDB may mediate any detrimental effect of SDB on the kidney. PMID:20186573

  15. Effects of topiroxostat and febuxostat on urinary albumin excretion and plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity in db/db mice.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Murase, Takayo; Nampei, Mai; Morimoto, Nobutaka; Ashizawa, Naoki; Iwanaga, Takashi; Sakamoto, Ryusuke

    2016-06-01

    Topiroxostat, a xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor, has been shown to decrease the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio compared with placebo in hyperuricemic patients with stage 3 chronic kidney disease. Thus, we aimed to ascertain the albuminuria-lowering effect of topiroxostat in diabetic mouse. Db/db mice were fed standard diets with or without topiroxostat (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3mg/kg/day) and febuxostat (0.1, 0.3, and 1mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Urinary albumin and purine bodies levels, XOR activities, and drug concentrations in the liver, kidney, and plasma were measured. Moreover, the XOR inhibitory activity of each XOR inhibitor was evaluated with or without an exogenous protein in vitro. Topiroxostat decreased dose-dependently the urinary albumin excretion, but febuxostat did not show such a tendency. Treatment with topiroxostat inhibited plasma XOR activity with dose-dependent increase in plasma purine levels, which was not observed by febuxostat. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis revealed that topiroxostat and febuxostat concentration in each tissue showed a good correlation with both the hypouricemic effect and plasma drug concentration, whereas the change in albuminuria correlated neither with the change in uric acid nor with drug concentration in plasma. However, the change in urinary albumin and plasma XOR activity showed good correlation in topiroxostat group. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) of febuxostat against plasma XOR in vitro was 12-fold higher than that of topiroxostat, and increased by approximately 13-fold by interfering with an exogenous protein. Topiroxostat caused reduced urinary albumin excretion, in which potent inhibition of the plasma XOR activity might be involved.

  16. Suggested mechanism for the selective excretion of glucosylated albumin. The effects of diabetes mellitus and aging on this process and the origins of diabetic microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Kowluru, A; Kowluru, R; Bitensky, M W; Corwin, E J; Solomon, S S; Johnson, J D

    1987-11-01

    In previous studies in the Sprague-Dawley rat, Williams and coworkers reported the phenomenon of selective urinary excretion of glucosylated albumin (editing, i.e., the percent glucosylation of urinary albumin is more than that of plasma albumin) by the mammalian kidney. Ghiggeri and coworkers subsequently found that the extent of editing is reduced in human diabetics. Moreover, the reduction in editing in diabetes correlates inversely with levels of microalbuminuria. We also find reduction in the extent of editing in diabetic humans. We find a striking inverse correlation not only with the magnitude of microalbuminuria but also with the extent of plasma albumin glucosylation. In contrast, we found little correlation between the reduction in editing and the duration of diabetes in human subjects. Stz induced diabetes in the Sprague-Dawley rat is associated with a striking and rapid reduction in editing which develops virtually with the same kinetics exhibited by the appearance of hyperglycemia. This loss of editing is rapidly reversed by daily administration of insulin but not by aldose reductase inhibitors. Mannitol infusion in anesthetized Wistar rats resulted in an increase in urine volume, GFR, and microalbuminuria, and was also accompanied by a marked reduction in editing. This reduction was rapidly reversed by a cessation of mannitol infusion. We propose here that glucosylated albumin (in contrast to unmodified albumin) is not reabsorbed by the proximal tubule, and thus, is preferentially excreted in the urine. We postulate that the increase in GFR which emerges as a consequence of increased plasma osmolality in diabetes mellitus delivers more albumin to the proximal tubule than can be reabsorbed. This results in a dilution of excreted glucosylated albumin molecules by excreted unmodified albumin, which appears as the early microscopic albuminuria of diabetes. Paradoxically, the fall in apparent editing is accompanied by an absolute increase in the total

  17. Predominantly vegetarian diet in patients with incipient and early clinical diabetic nephropathy: effects on albumin excretion rate and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Jibani, M M; Bloodworth, L L; Foden, E; Griffiths, K D; Galpin, O P

    1991-12-01

    Several studies have suggested that dietary protein quality may be an important determinant in the natural history of renal disease. We have therefore studied the effects of a predominantly vegetarian diet in eight patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus and an albumin excretion rate (AER) in excess of 30 micrograms min-1. The AER was measured after an 8-week run-in period on the patient's usual diet, and again after 8 weeks of a predominantly vegetarian diet in which the proportion of vegetable protein was supplemented in order to minimize the reduction in total dietary protein intake. The median fractional albumin clearance fell during the study from an initial value of 188 x 10(-+) (range 58-810 x 10(-4)) at the end of the run-in period to 87 x 10(-4) (23-829 x 10(-4)) at the end of the period on low animal protein diet (difference 79 x 10(-4) (95% Cl 9-149 x 10(-4)), p less than 0.05). The AER then returned to values similar to those obtained at the beginning of the study after a further 8 weeks in those patients returning to their usual diet. No significant changes in blood glucose control or in arterial pressure were observed. A predominantly vegetarian diet may therefore have important beneficial effects on diabetic nephropathy without the need for a heavily restricted total protein intake.

  18. Comparison of Acarbose and Metformin on Albumin Excretion in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Pan, Qingrong; Xu, Yuan; Yang, Ning; Gao, Xia; Liu, Jia; Yang, Wenying; Wang, Guang

    2016-04-01

    Increased urinary albumin excretion in diabetes not only signals nephropathy but also serves as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease. The data of MARCH (Metformin and AcaRbose in Chinese as the initial Hypoglycaemic treatment) trial demonstrated that acarbose and metformin were similarly efficacious at lowering blood glucose and blood pressure, as well as improving insulin sensitivity in Chinese patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of acarbose and metformin therapy on albumin excretion in MARCH study.Baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) of 762 newly diagnosed, drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus was measured. Included patients were randomized to receive either acarbose or metformin and followed for 48 weeks. In addition to change in ACR, the estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) and frequency of metabolic syndrome (MetS) were also assessed.Elevated ACR levels (≥30 mg/g) were present at baseline in 21.9% of all participants. A significant decline in urine ACR was observed in both the acarbose and metformin groups at week 24 and 48 (all P < 0.001). The proportion of patients with elevated ACRs was also reduced in both treatment groups at week 24 and 48 compared with baseline values (all P < 0.05). The change in urine ACR at week 48 was significantly greater in patients prescribed acarbose than in those prescribed metformin (P = 0.01). Both acarbose and metformin significantly decreased the frequency of MetS at week 24 and 48 (both P < 0.05). Neither treatment affected eGFR.In sum, both acarbose and metformin decreased urine ACR levels and reduced the frequency of elevated ACR and MetS in Chinese patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus without affecting eGFR. After 48 weeks' intervention, acarbose therapy resulted in a greater reduction in urine ACR compared with metformin.

  19. Systemic excretion of benzo(a)pyrene in the control and microsomally induced rat: the influence of plasma lipoproteins and albumin as carrier molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Shu, H.P.; Bymun, E.N.

    1983-02-01

    In vitro studies have previously indicated that benzo(a)pyrene distributes primarily into the plasma lipoprotein fraction when incubated with whole plasma. Hydroxylated metabolites of benzo(a)pyrene distribute increasingly into the albumin fraction as the degree of metabolite hydroxylation increases. This report assesses the influence of plasma lipoproteins and albumin as carriers for benzo(a)pyrene on carcinogen excretion in the control and microsomally induced rat. Male Sprague-Dawley rats cannulated in the bile duct received i.v. injections of radiolabeled benzo(a)pyrene noncovalently bound to the very-low-density, low-density, or high-density lipoproteins in equimolar amounts. Bile was collected and measured for radioactivity. Cumulative biliary excretions of benzo(a)pyrene complexed with rat lipoproteins were 39.6 +/- 9.7 (S.D.), 24.6 +/- 1.3, and 21.2 +/- 8.8% for very low-density, low-density, and high-density lipoprotein, respectively. Values for excretion of benzo(a)pyrene complexed with rat or human lipoproteins were comparable. These data suggest that the transport molecule can effect a 2-fold difference in benzo(a)pyrene excretion under conditions of the present study. Thus, excretion increased as the degree of benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylation increased. The effect of microsomal enzyme induction on excretion of lipoprotein-bound benzo(a)pyrene was also assessed. Contrary to expectation, excretion of benzo(a)pyrene bound to the very-low-density, low-density, or high-density lipoproteins in Aroclor-induced rats was not greater than that of control animals. Hence, under the conditions of the present study, 60 to 80% of the injected benzo(a)pyrene and 50 to 60% of the injected benzo(a)pyrene metabolites were not excreted immediately in control or microsomally induced animals. This benzo(a)pyrene may represent a carcinogen pool that is slowly excreted.

  20. Human serum albumin homeostasis: a new look at the roles of synthesis, catabolism, renal and gastrointestinal excretion, and the clinical value of serum albumin measurements.

    PubMed

    Levitt, David G; Levitt, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin concentration (CP) is a remarkably strong prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality in both sick and seemingly healthy subjects. Surprisingly, the specifics of the pathophysiology underlying the relationship between CP and ill-health are poorly understood. This review provides a summary that is not previously available in the literature, concerning how synthesis, catabolism, and renal and gastrointestinal clearance of albumin interact to bring about albumin homeostasis, with a focus on the clinical factors that influence this homeostasis. In normal humans, the albumin turnover time of about 25 days reflects a liver albumin synthesis rate of about 10.5 g/day balanced by renal (≈6%), gastrointestinal (≈10%), and catabolic (≈84%) clearances. The acute development of hypoalbuminemia with sepsis or trauma results from increased albumin capillary permeability leading to redistribution of albumin from the vascular to interstitial space. The best understood mechanism of chronic hypoalbuminemia is the decreased albumin synthesis observed in liver disease. Decreased albumin production also accounts for hypoalbuminemia observed with a low-protein and normal caloric diet. However, a calorie- and protein-deficient diet does not reduce albumin synthesis and is not associated with hypoalbuminemia, and CP is not a useful marker of malnutrition. In most disease states other than liver disease, albumin synthesis is normal or increased, and hypoalbuminemia reflects an enhanced rate of albumin turnover resulting either from an increased rate of catabolism (a poorly understood phenomenon) or enhanced loss of albumin into the urine (nephrosis) or intestine (protein-losing enteropathy). The latter may occur with subtle intestinal pathology and hence may be more prevalent than commonly appreciated. Clinically, reduced CP appears to be a result rather than a cause of ill-health, and therapy designed to increase CP has limited benefit. The ubiquitous occurrence of

  1. Human serum albumin homeostasis: a new look at the roles of synthesis, catabolism, renal and gastrointestinal excretion, and the clinical value of serum albumin measurements

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, David G; Levitt, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    Serum albumin concentration (CP) is a remarkably strong prognostic indicator of morbidity and mortality in both sick and seemingly healthy subjects. Surprisingly, the specifics of the pathophysiology underlying the relationship between CP and ill-health are poorly understood. This review provides a summary that is not previously available in the literature, concerning how synthesis, catabolism, and renal and gastrointestinal clearance of albumin interact to bring about albumin homeostasis, with a focus on the clinical factors that influence this homeostasis. In normal humans, the albumin turnover time of about 25 days reflects a liver albumin synthesis rate of about 10.5 g/day balanced by renal (≈6%), gastrointestinal (≈10%), and catabolic (≈84%) clearances. The acute development of hypoalbuminemia with sepsis or trauma results from increased albumin capillary permeability leading to redistribution of albumin from the vascular to interstitial space. The best understood mechanism of chronic hypoalbuminemia is the decreased albumin synthesis observed in liver disease. Decreased albumin production also accounts for hypoalbuminemia observed with a low-protein and normal caloric diet. However, a calorie- and protein-deficient diet does not reduce albumin synthesis and is not associated with hypoalbuminemia, and CP is not a useful marker of malnutrition. In most disease states other than liver disease, albumin synthesis is normal or increased, and hypoalbuminemia reflects an enhanced rate of albumin turnover resulting either from an increased rate of catabolism (a poorly understood phenomenon) or enhanced loss of albumin into the urine (nephrosis) or intestine (protein-losing enteropathy). The latter may occur with subtle intestinal pathology and hence may be more prevalent than commonly appreciated. Clinically, reduced CP appears to be a result rather than a cause of ill-health, and therapy designed to increase CP has limited benefit. The ubiquitous occurrence of

  2. Effect of Pentoxifylline on Renal Function and Urinary Albumin Excretion in Patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease: The PREDIAN Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Fernández, Carmen; Muros de Fuentes, Mercedes; Chahin, Jesús; Méndez, María L.; Gallego, Eduardo; Macía, Manuel; del Castillo, Nieves; Rivero, Antonio; Getino, María A.; García, Patricia; Jarque, Ana; García, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of ESRD. We conducted an open-label, prospective, randomized trial to determine whether pentoxifylline (PTF), which reduces albuminuria, in addition to renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade, can slow progression of renal disease in patients with type 2 diabetes and stages 3–4 CKD. Participants were assigned to receive PTF (1200 mg/d) (n=82) or to a control group (n=87) for 2 years. All patients received similar doses of RAS inhibitors. At study end, eGFR had decreased by a mean±SEM of 2.1±0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the PTF group compared with 6.5±0.4 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the control group, with a between-group difference of 4.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.1 to 5.5 ml/min per 1.73 m2; P<0.001) in favor of PTF. The proportion of patients with a rate of eGFR decline greater than the median rate of decline (0.16 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per month) was lower in the PTF group than in the control group (33.3% versus 68.2%; P<0.001). Percentage change in urinary albumin excretion was 5.7% (95% CI, −0.3% to 11.1%) in the control group and −14.9% (95% CI, −20.4% to −9.4%) in the PTF group (P=0.001). Urine TNF-α decreased from a median 16 ng/g (interquartile range, 11–20.1 ng/g) to 14.3 ng/g (interquartile range, 9.2–18.4 ng/g) in the PTF group (P<0.01), with no changes in the control group. In this population, addition of PTF to RAS inhibitors resulted in a smaller decrease in eGFR and a greater reduction of residual albuminuria. PMID:24970885

  3. MISR UAE Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-07-23

    ... United Arab Emirates-Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2) 2004 field campaign scheduled for August 1 - October 31, 2004 targets the coastal ... regions of the United Arab Emirates. The main scientific goal is to evaluate and improve satellite derived aerosol and ocean products ...

  4. Modest Salt Reduction Lowers Blood Pressure and Albumin Excretion in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Rebecca J; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-06-01

    The role of salt restriction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus is controversial, with a lack of well controlled, longer term, modest salt reduction trials in this group of patients, in spite of the marked increase in cardiovascular risk. We carried out a 12-week randomized double-blind, crossover trial of salt restriction with salt or placebo tablets, each for 6 weeks, in 46 individuals with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and untreated normal or high normal blood pressure (BP). From salt to placebo, 24-hour urinary sodium was reduced by 49±9 mmol (2.9 g salt). This reduction in salt intake led to fall in clinic BP from 136/81±2/1 mm Hg to 131/80±2/1 mm Hg, (systolic BP; P<0.01). Mean ambulatory 24-hour BP was reduced by 3/2±1/1 mm Hg (systolic BP, P<0.01 and diastolic BP, P<0.05), and albumin/creatinine ratio was reduced from 0.73 mg/mmol (0.5-1.5) to 0.64 mg/mmol (0.3-1.1; P<0.05). There was no significant change in fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, or insulin sensitivity. These results demonstrate that a modest reduction in salt intake, to approximately the amount recommended in public health guidelines, leads to significant and clinically relevant falls in BP in individuals who are early on in the progression of diabetes mellitus with normal or mildly raised BP. The reduction in urinary albumin excretion may carry additional benefits in reducing cardiovascular disease above the effects on BP. PMID:27160199

  5. Modest Salt Reduction Lowers Blood Pressure and Albumin Excretion in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial.

    PubMed

    Suckling, Rebecca J; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-06-01

    The role of salt restriction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus is controversial, with a lack of well controlled, longer term, modest salt reduction trials in this group of patients, in spite of the marked increase in cardiovascular risk. We carried out a 12-week randomized double-blind, crossover trial of salt restriction with salt or placebo tablets, each for 6 weeks, in 46 individuals with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and untreated normal or high normal blood pressure (BP). From salt to placebo, 24-hour urinary sodium was reduced by 49±9 mmol (2.9 g salt). This reduction in salt intake led to fall in clinic BP from 136/81±2/1 mm Hg to 131/80±2/1 mm Hg, (systolic BP; P<0.01). Mean ambulatory 24-hour BP was reduced by 3/2±1/1 mm Hg (systolic BP, P<0.01 and diastolic BP, P<0.05), and albumin/creatinine ratio was reduced from 0.73 mg/mmol (0.5-1.5) to 0.64 mg/mmol (0.3-1.1; P<0.05). There was no significant change in fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, or insulin sensitivity. These results demonstrate that a modest reduction in salt intake, to approximately the amount recommended in public health guidelines, leads to significant and clinically relevant falls in BP in individuals who are early on in the progression of diabetes mellitus with normal or mildly raised BP. The reduction in urinary albumin excretion may carry additional benefits in reducing cardiovascular disease above the effects on BP.

  6. Effect of the Direct Renin Inhibitor Aliskiren on Urinary Albumin Excretion in Spontaneous Type 2 Diabetic KK-Ay Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Furukawa, Masako; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Funabiki, Kazuhiko; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although angiotensin II-mediated inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation are considered to be associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy, these processes have not yet been sufficiently clarified. The objective of this study was to determine whether the correction of the abnormal renal expression of MMPs and its inhibitors (MMPs/TIMPs) and cytokines following the administration of aliskiren to KK-Ay mice results in a renoprotective effect. Methods. KK-Ay mice were divided into two groups, that is, untreated (saline) and treated (aliskiren) groups. Systolic BP, HbA1c levels, and the albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured. The renal expression of MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) was examined using real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemical staining. Renal MAPK and NF-κB activity were also examined by Western blot analyses and ELISA, respectively. Results. Significant decreases in systolic BP and ACR levels were observed in treated KK-Ay mice compared with the findings in untreated KK-Ay mice. Furthermore, increases in MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (P)RR expression, in addition to MAPK and NF-κB activity, were significantly attenuated by aliskiren administration. Conclusions. It appears that aliskiren improves albuminuria and renal fibrosis by regulating inflammation and the alteration of collagen synthesis and degradation. PMID:23819050

  7. Relationship between urinary albumin excretion rate and renal histology in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus: with reference to the clinical significance of microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Inomata, S; Nakamoto, Y; Inoue, M; Itoh, M; Ohsawa, Y; Masamune, O

    1989-01-01

    The present study demonstrates the relationship between urinary albumin excretion rate (AER) and renal structural changes in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) without clinical proteinuria. Resting AER in 30 control subjects and 67 NIDDM patients were 10.4 +/- 4.8 (mean +/- SD) micrograms/min (range 4.3-21.1 micrograms/min) and 26.4 +/- 32.3 micrograms/min (range 0.4-155 micrograms/min), respectively. Persistent normoalbuminuria (less than 20 micrograms/min) and microalbuminuria (20-200 micrograms/min) were found in 43 (Group A) and 24 (Group B) diabetics. There were significant differences in age, diabetes duration, and frequency of retinopathy (background and proliferative) as well as that of proliferative retinopathy between Groups A and B, but not in the other clinical parameters such as body mass index, HbA1, Ccr, or systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP). When compared with 11 normoalbuminuric patients of similar age and equal diabetes duration to those in Group B, the sole difference in clinical parameters was the existence of proliferative retinopathy in Group B. Renal structural changes were investigated by light microscopy in 14 people in Group A and 13 people in Group B, and additionally in 5 NIDDM patients with both macroalbuminuria (greater than or equal to 200 micrograms/min) and normal or nearly normal renal function (Group C). The diffuse glomerular lesion (Gellman's classification) was grade I or II in A, II or III in B, and III in C.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Urinary albumin in space missions.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Massimo; De Santo, Natale G; Heer, Martina; Norsk, Peter; Elmann-Larsen, Benny; Bellini, Luigi; Stellato, Davide; Drummer, Christian

    2002-07-01

    Proteinuria was hypothesized for space mission but research data are missing. Urinary albumin, as index of proteinuria, was analyzed in frozen urine samples collected by astronauts during space missions onboard MIR station and on ground (control). Urinary albumin was measured by a double antibody radioimmunoassay. On average, 24h urinary albumin was 27.4% lower in space than on ground; the difference was statistically significant. Low urinary albumin excretion could be another effect of exposure to weightlessness (microgravity).

  9. Evaluation of aldosterone excretion in very low birth weight infants.

    PubMed

    Abdel Mohsen, Abdel Hakeem; Taha, Gamal; Kamel, Bothina A; Maksood, Mohamed Abdel

    2016-01-01

    Data about aldosterone production and excretion in the neonatal period are still few and controversial. Our objectives are to assess urinary aldosterone excretion (UAE) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants and to identify clinical and biochemical variables that may influence this excretion. Thirty VLBW infants (14 males and 16 females), their gestational age <32 weeks and body weight <1500 g, were included in the study. Demographic and clinical data were recorded, within the first 72 h of life and urine and blood samples were collected for the measurement of urinary aldosterone and serum potassium, sodium, and chloride. The mean UAE value was 0.176 ± 0.05 μg/24 h and the mean absolute UAE was 1906 ± 271 pg/mL. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between UAE and gestational age and birth weight; also, infants with respiratory distress syndrome had higher urinary aldosterone levels than infants without respiratory distress. Only plasma sodium was a significant independent factor that negatively influenced UAE on linear regression analysis. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system of VLBW infants seems to be able, even immediately after birth, to respond to variations of plasma sodium concentrations; measurement of UAE constitutes an interesting method to determine aldosterone production in VLBW infants. PMID:27424689

  10. Excretion of iodine-123-hippuran, technetium-99m-red blood cells, and technetium-99m-macroaggregated albumin into breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, M.R.; Prescott, M.C.; Herman, K.J. )

    1990-06-01

    The amount of radioactivity excreted in breast milk following three different nuclear medicine procedures on twelve nursing mothers has been measured. Some of this information has already been incorporated into the latest guidelines on suspension of feeding after maternal radiopharmaceutical administration. The overall radiation dose that the patients' babies would have sustained had breast feeding not been interrupted has been estimated as an effective dose equivalent. A model has been developed to describe the relationship between clearance of activity from the milk, time between expressions, and the fraction of milk expressed. Some simple guidance is given on calculation of suitable interruption times for any individual mother from counts on her milk samples.

  11. Effect of the Direct Renin Inhibitor Aliskiren on Urinary Albumin Excretion in Spontaneous Type 2 Diabetic KK-A (y) Mouse.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Masako; Gohda, Tomohito; Hagiwara, Shinji; Tanimoto, Mitsuo; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Funabiki, Kazuhiko; Tomino, Yasuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Although angiotensin II-mediated inflammation and extracellular matrix accumulation are considered to be associated with the progression of diabetic nephropathy, these processes have not yet been sufficiently clarified. The objective of this study was to determine whether the correction of the abnormal renal expression of MMPs and its inhibitors (MMPs/TIMPs) and cytokines following the administration of aliskiren to KK-A (y) mice results in a renoprotective effect. Methods. KK-A (y) mice were divided into two groups, that is, untreated (saline) and treated (aliskiren) groups. Systolic BP, HbA1c levels, and the albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured. The renal expression of MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (pro)renin receptor ((P)RR) was examined using real-time PCR and/or immunohistochemical staining. Renal MAPK and NF- κ B activity were also examined by Western blot analyses and ELISA, respectively. Results. Significant decreases in systolic BP and ACR levels were observed in treated KK-A (y) mice compared with the findings in untreated KK-A (y) mice. Furthermore, increases in MMPs/TIMPs, fibronectin, type IV collagen, MCP-1, and (P)RR expression, in addition to MAPK and NF- κ B activity, were significantly attenuated by aliskiren administration. Conclusions. It appears that aliskiren improves albuminuria and renal fibrosis by regulating inflammation and the alteration of collagen synthesis and degradation. PMID:23819050

  12. What Makes the UAE a Knowledge Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assaf, Mohammad Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    This paper starts with the idea that knowledge has become one of the most important factors to determine human development and explore the different requirements that need to be met by the government and the citizens of the UAE to succeed in building a knowledge society (KS). An explanation and examination of the five pillars of establishing a KS…

  13. Urinary Adiponectin Excretion

    PubMed Central

    von Eynatten, Maximilian; Liu, Dan; Hock, Cornelia; Oikonomou, Dimitrios; Baumann, Marcus; Allolio, Bruno; Korosoglou, Grigorios; Morcos, Michael; Campean, Valentina; Amann, Kerstin; Lutz, Jens; Heemann, Uwe; Nawroth, Peter P.; Bierhaus, Angelika; Humpert, Per M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Markers reliably identifying vascular damage and risk in diabetic patients are rare, and reports on associations of serum adiponectin with macrovascular disease have been inconsistent. In contrast to existing data on serum adiponectin, this study assesses whether urinary adiponectin excretion might represent a more consistent vascular damage marker in type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Adiponectin distribution in human kidney biopsies was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and urinary adiponectin isoforms were characterized by Western blot analysis. Total urinary adiponectin excretion rate was measured in 156 patients with type 2 diabetes who had a history of diabetic nephropathy and 40 healthy control subjects using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Atherosclerotic burden was assessed by common carotid artery intima-media-thickness (IMT). RESULTS A homogenous staining of adiponectin was found on the endothelial surface of glomerular capillaries and intrarenal arterioles in nondiabetic kidneys, whereas staining was decreased in diabetic nephropathy. Low-molecular adiponectin isoforms (∼30–70 kDa) were detected in urine by Western blot analysis. Urinary adiponectin was significantly increased in type 2 diabetes (7.68 ± 14.26 vs. control subjects: 2.91 ± 3.85 μg/g creatinine, P = 0.008). Among type 2 diabetic patients, adiponectinuria was associated with IMT (r = 0.479, P < 0.001) and proved to be a powerful independent predictor of IMT (β = 0.360, P < 0.001) in multivariable regression analyses. In a risk prediction model including variables of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study coronary heart disease risk engine urinary adiponectin, but not the albumin excretion rate, added significant value for the prediction of increased IMT (P = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS Quantification of urinary adiponectin excretion appears to be an independent indicator of vascular damage potentially identifying an increased risk for vascular events. PMID:19509019

  14. Tropospheric Enhancement of Ozone over the UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Naveed Ali; Majeed, Tariq; Iqbal, Mazhar; Kaminski, Jacek; Struzewska, Joanna; Durka, Pawel; Tarasick, David; Davies, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    We use the Global Environmental Multiscale - Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model to interpret the vertical profiles of ozone acquired with ozone sounding experiments at the meteorological site located at the Abu Dhabi airport. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the chemical and dynamical structures in the atmosphere of this unique subtropical location (latitude 24.45N; longitude 54.22E). Ozone observations for years 2012 - 2013 reveal elevated ozone abundances in the range from 70 ppbv to 120 ppbv near 500-400 hPa during summer. The ozone abundances in other seasons are much lower than these values. The preliminary results indicate that summertime enhancement in ozone is associated with the Arabian anticyclones centered over the Zagros Mountains in Iran and the Asir and Hijaz Mountain ranges in Saudi Arabia, and is consistent with TES observations of deuterated water. The model also shows considerable seasonal variation in the tropospheric ozone which is transported from the stratosphere by dynamical processes. The domestic production of ozone in the middle troposphere is estimated and compared GEM-AQ model. It is estimated that about 40-50% of ozone in the UAE is transported from the neighbouring petrochemical industries in the Gulf region. We will present ozone sounding data and GEM-AQ results including a discussion on the high levels of the tropospheric ozone responsible for contaminating the air quality in the UAE. This work is supported by National Research Foundation, UAE.

  15. Statistical Analysis of Refractivity in UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ansari, Kifah; Al-Mal, Abdulhadi Abu; Kamel, Rami

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents the results of the refractivity statistics in the UAE (United Arab Emirates) for a period of 14 years (1990-2003). Six sites have been considered using meteorological surface data (Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Al-Ain, Ras Al-Kaimah, and Al-Fujairah). Upper air (radiosonde) data were available at one site only, Abu Dhabi airport, which has been considered for the refractivity gradient statistics. Monthly and yearly averages are obtained for the two parameters, refractivity and refractivity gradient. Cumulative distributions are also provided.

  16. Prioritizing environmental health risks in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Willis, Henry H; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald; Shih, Regina A; Geschwind, Sandra; Olmstead, Sarah; Hu, Jianhui; Curtright, Aimee E; Cecchine, Gary; Moore, Melinda

    2010-12-01

    This article presents the results of a comparative environmental risk-ranking exercise that was conducted in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) to inform a strategic planning process led by the Environment Agency-Abu Dhabi (EAD). It represents the first national-level application of a deliberative method for comparative risk ranking first published in this journal. The deliberative method involves a five-stage process that includes quantitative risk assessment by experts and deliberations by groups of stakeholders. The project reported in this article considered 14 categories of environmental risks to health identified through discussions with EAD staff: ambient and indoor air pollution; drinking water contamination; coastal water pollution; soil and groundwater contamination; contamination of fruits, vegetables, and seafood; ambient noise; stratospheric ozone depletion; electromagnetic fields from power lines; health impacts from climate change; and exposure to hazardous substances in industrial, construction, and agricultural work environments. Results from workshops involving 73 stakeholders who met in five separate groups to rank these risks individually and collaboratively indicated strong consensus that outdoor and indoor air pollution are the highest priorities in the UAE. Each of the five groups rated these as being among the highest risks. All groups rated soil and groundwater contamination as being among the lowest risks. In surveys administered after the ranking exercises, participants indicated that the results of the process represented their concerns and approved of using the ranking results to inform policy decisions. The results ultimately shaped a strategic plan that is now being implemented.

  17. Albumin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... to a variety of conditions in addition to malnutrition , a decrease in albumin needs to be evaluated ... can also be seen in inflammation , shock, and malnutrition . They may be seen with conditions in which ...

  18. Pharmaceutical Consultation in UAE Community Pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Hamoudi, N M; Shirwaikar, A A; Ali, H S; Al Ayoubi, E I

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, the focus of pharmacists as traditional drug dispensers has shifted to more active and participative role in risk assessment, risk management, and other medication related consultation activities. Pharmacy profession is evolving steadily in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pharmacists in UAE are so much occupied in their administrative and managerial duties that dispensing is mostly attended to by pharmacy technicians. Pharmacist-led patient counseling is limited to the dosage and frequency of medications and rarely adverse reactions and drug interactions with other medications. Therefore we decided to perform quantitative questionnaires study to explore the role of pharmacist in patient counseling in UAE, the evaluation of pharmacist's opinion on patient counseling and the potential determinants of personal consultation. Results show the frequency and nature of inquiries received by pharmacist. Five to twenty inquires per month are received from patient, most of them related to drug prescription and dose recommendation. Thirty nine percent of pharmacists received inquiries from doctors, most of them related to the dose and mode of action. Ninty two percent of the pharmacists agreed that patient counseling is their professional responsibility. About 82% of pharmacists agreed that counseling will increase their sales and enhance the reputation of their pharmacies. Seventy percent of pharmacists mentioned that they need to undergo training for effective counseling while 46% of pharmacists felt that more staff in the pharmacies would have a positive influence on patient compliance to medication therapies and patient safety. The potential determinants of personal consultation show that 52% of participants trusted pharmacist and 55% considered the pharmacist as a friend. Forty eight percent of participants visited the pharmacy for medical recommendation while 30% for drug compounding, 72% agreed that pharmacist conducts full instruction while 31% agreed

  19. Pharmaceutical Consultation in UAE Community Pharmacies

    PubMed Central

    Hamoudi, N. M.; Shirwaikar, A. A.; Ali, H. S.; Al Ayoubi, E. I.

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the focus of pharmacists as traditional drug dispensers has shifted to more active and participative role in risk assessment, risk management, and other medication related consultation activities. Pharmacy profession is evolving steadily in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Pharmacists in UAE are so much occupied in their administrative and managerial duties that dispensing is mostly attended to by pharmacy technicians. Pharmacist-led patient counseling is limited to the dosage and frequency of medications and rarely adverse reactions and drug interactions with other medications. Therefore we decided to perform quantitative questionnaires study to explore the role of pharmacist in patient counseling in UAE, the evaluation of pharmacist's opinion on patient counseling and the potential determinants of personal consultation. Results show the frequency and nature of inquiries received by pharmacist. Five to twenty inquires per month are received from patient, most of them related to drug prescription and dose recommendation. Thirty nine percent of pharmacists received inquiries from doctors, most of them related to the dose and mode of action. Ninty two percent of the pharmacists agreed that patient counseling is their professional responsibility. About 82% of pharmacists agreed that counseling will increase their sales and enhance the reputation of their pharmacies. Seventy percent of pharmacists mentioned that they need to undergo training for effective counseling while 46% of pharmacists felt that more staff in the pharmacies would have a positive influence on patient compliance to medication therapies and patient safety. The potential determinants of personal consultation show that 52% of participants trusted pharmacist and 55% considered the pharmacist as a friend. Forty eight percent of participants visited the pharmacy for medical recommendation while 30% for drug compounding, 72% agreed that pharmacist conducts full instruction while 31% agreed

  20. Renal protein excretion after exercise in man.

    PubMed

    Poortmans, J R; Rampaer, L; Wolfs, J C

    1989-01-01

    Thirteen men were submitted to graded exhaustive cycle exercise to determine the kinetics of proteinuria in the recovery period. Venous blood samples were analysed for haematocrit, lactate, creatinine, total protein and albumin for 1 h following exercise. Urine samples were collected during a 3-h recovery period. Total protein, albumin, and creatinine levels were determined for these samples. Total protein and albumin urinary excretion increased to 581 and 315 micrograms min-1, respectively, at the end of the 1st h of recovery as compared to 42 and 15 micrograms.min-1 for resting values. Plasma volume returned to pre-exercise levels between 30 and 60 min after cessation of exercise, while urinary total protein and albumin content still remained above the resting values for the following 2 h. Both post-exercise urinary total protein and albumin excretion followed a logarithmic decline with the same half-life of 54 min, thus requiring about 4 h to regain resting values. The reduction of plasma volume and the degree of dehydration do not seem to be involved in the process. The present study indicates the delayed recovery of protein handling by the kidney, as compared with other biochemical parameters, and provides accurate information on the kinetics of post-exercise proteinuria. PMID:2759073

  1. Proximal Tubules Have the Capacity to Regulate Uptake of Albumin.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Mark C; Campos-Bilderback, Silvia B; Chowdhury, Mahboob; Flores, Brittany; Lai, Xianyin; Myslinski, Jered; Pandit, Sweekar; Sandoval, Ruben M; Wean, Sarah E; Wei, Yuan; Satlin, Lisa M; Wiggins, Roger C; Witzmann, Frank A; Molitoris, Bruce A

    2016-02-01

    Evidence from multiple studies supports the concept that both glomerular filtration and proximal tubule (PT) reclamation affect urinary albumin excretion rate. To better understand these roles of glomerular filtration and PT uptake, we investigated these processes in two distinct animal models. In a rat model of acute exogenous albumin overload, we quantified glomerular sieving coefficients (GSC) and PT uptake of Texas Red-labeled rat serum albumin using two-photon intravital microscopy. No change in GSC was observed, but a significant decrease in PT albumin uptake was quantified. In a second model, loss of endogenous albumin was induced in rats by podocyte-specific transgenic expression of diphtheria toxin receptor. In these albumin-deficient rats, exposure to diphtheria toxin induced an increase in albumin GSC and albumin filtration, resulting in increased exposure of the PTs to endogenous albumin. In this case, PT albumin reabsorption was markedly increased. Analysis of known albumin receptors and assessment of cortical protein expression in the albumin overload model, conducted to identify potential proteins and pathways affected by acute protein overload, revealed changes in the expression levels of calreticulin, disabled homolog 2, NRF2, angiopoietin-2, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. Taken together, these results suggest that a regulated PT cell albumin uptake system can respond rapidly to different physiologic conditions to minimize alterations in serum albumin level.

  2. ENSO Teleconnections on Wintertime Precipitation Variability Over UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondapalli, N. K.; Ouarda, T.

    2014-12-01

    For years, many studies have attempted to detect linkages between seasonal precipitation and remote ocean temperatures (called "teleconnections"). For example, the most widely studied climate phenomenon is the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Although ENSO generation primarily occurs in the west-central Pacific it causes short-term climate fluctuations in regions far from there. For instance, a variety of local studies have linked ENSO and Middle Eastern precipitation, although none specifically investigated the United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study we investigate the role of Equatorial Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) on the winter time precipitation variability over the UAE and adjoining Middle East regions. The UAE is located in the eastern corner of the Arabian Peninsula, dominated by arid to desert climates with low mean precipitation rates ranging from 40 mm/yr in the southern desert region to 160 mm/yr in the northeastern mountainous region with mean spatial annual rainfalls of about 78 mm/yr. Precipitation over the UAE are characterized by high spatial and temporal variability, with standard deviation occasionally exceeding the mean annual precipitation amounts. However, it is observed that statistically significant correlations exist between precipitation over the UAE and the Equatorial Pacific SSTs. The moisture budget analysis reveals the distinct change in the anomalous circulation (cyclonic and anti-cyclonic) associated with strong convergence and divergence of the moisture flux during warm and cold phases of ENSO respectively. Further, the composite analysis of upper troposheric zonal wind shows the equatorward shift (~2º latitude) of subtropical jet stream (STJ) over the Middle East during the warm phase of ENSO affecting the weather in the UAE. The findings suggest that the teleconnection linking ENSO and the precipitation over UAE and adjoining regions is mediated by the response of STJ to Rossby waves.

  3. Precipitation variability over UAE and global SST teleconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niranjan Kumar, K.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.

    2014-09-01

    The present study investigates the role of equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs) on the precipitation variability over the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and adjoining Middle East regions. Monthly precipitation data (1981-2011) assembled from rain gauge stations located in the UAE along with other global reanalysis data sets are used to explore the teleconnections. It is observed that statistically significant correlations exist between precipitation over the UAE and the equatorial Pacific and North Atlantic SSTs. Canonical correlation analysis between the monthly winter precipitation and the global SSTs (60°S to 60°N) reveals that the major portion of the precipitation variability is influenced by equatorial Pacific SSTs associated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The moisture budget analysis reveals the distinct change in the anomalous circulation (cyclonic and anticyclonic) associated with strong convergence and divergence of the moisture flux during the warm and cold phases of ENSO, respectively. Further, the composite analysis of upper troposheric zonal wind shows the equatorward shift (~2° latitude) of subtropical jet stream (STJ) over the Middle East during the warm phase of ENSO affecting the weather in the UAE. The findings suggest that the teleconnection linking ENSO and the precipitation over UAE and adjoining regions is mediated by the response of STJ to Rossby waves.

  4. Sources of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, Naveed; Majeed, Tariq; Iqbal, Mazhar; Riemer, Daniel; Apel, Eric; Lootah, Nadia

    The gas chromatography-flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry system has been used to identify major volatile organic compounds (VOCs) sources in the UAE (latitude 24.45N; longitude 54.22E). VOCs are emitted from an extensive number of sources in urban environments including fuel production, distribution, and consumption. Transport sources contribute a substantial portion of the VOC burden to the urban atmosphere in developed regions. UAE is located at the edge of the Persian Gulf and is highly affected by emissions from petrochemical industries in neighbouring Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Iran. VOCs emerging from these industries can be transported to the UAE with jet streams. The analysis of the collected air samples at three locations in Sharjah, UAE during the autumn and winter seasons indicates the presence of more than 100 VOC species. The concentrations of these species vary in magnitudes but the most prominent are: acetylene, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, benzene, and toluene. The possible tracers for various emission sources have also been identified such as 2-methylpentane, 1, 3-butadiene and 2, 2-dimethlybutane for vehicle exhaust, the light hydrocarbons, namely n-butane, trans-2-butene, and n-pentane for gasoline vapor, and n-nonane, n-decane, and n-undecane for diesel vapor and asphalt application processes. As various emission sources are characterized by overlapping VOC species, the ratio of possible VOC tracers are used to quantify the contribution of different sources. Our aim in this paper is to explore and discuss possible impacts of transported emissions on the local VOC emission inventory from various sources for the UAE. This work is partially supported by Office of Development and Alumni Affairs at the American University of Sharjah, U.A.E.

  5. Including Students with Disabilities in UAE Schools: A Descriptive Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anati, Nisreen M.; Ain, Al

    2012-01-01

    The United Arab Emirates is devoted to inclusive education, which respects the right for all learners, regardless of their strengths or weaknesses in any area, to become part of the mainstream school. This study describes the current practices that shape the nature of inclusive education in UAE schools from the teachers' perspective. Data drawn…

  6. The Path to Development: Expatriate Faculty Retention in the UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoepp, Kevin W.

    2011-01-01

    Given the rapid development and large expatriate majority within the United Arab Emirates, the country is extremely reliant upon expatriate faculty to educate its people. Through the lens provided by Social Exchange Theory, this study examined the motivations of expatriate faculty to remain or leave their positions at institutions within the UAE.…

  7. The Impact of Postmodernism on The UAE Educational Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarsar, Nasreddine

    2007-01-01

    This assignment discusses post-modernity and its effect on the UAE educational setting. Impacts of globalization, individualization, and uncertainty have all been explored in depth. In the first part of this essay, a definition of what it means to think sociologically has been provided and the importance of such thinking to understand the times we…

  8. Low-Level Educational Achievements in the UAE Model Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarsar, Nasreddine

    2007-01-01

    This research paper explores in depth the real causes behind underachievement among students at UAE Model Schools. The researcher suggests practical solutions to turn Model Schools into high-performance schools. He also sets out to discuss the issue of NESTs Vs NNESTs and the implications of such a distinction for the education profession. The aim…

  9. Water Budget in the UAE for Applications in Food Security.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Sanchez, R.; Ouarda, T.; Marpu, P. R.; Pearson, S.

    2014-12-01

    The current rate of population growth combined with climate change, have increased the impact on natural resources globally, especially water, land and energy, and therefore the food availability. Arid and semi-arid countries are highly vulnerable to these threats being already aware of the scarcity of resources depending mainly on imports. This study focuses on the UAE, with a very low rainfall, high temperatures and a very high rate of growth. It represents the perfect scenario to study the adaptive strategies that would allow to alleviate the effects of changing climate conditions and increase of population. Water is a key factor to food security especially in dry regions like the UAE, therefore, the first step of this approach is to analyze the water budget, first at a global scale (UAE), and after at smaller scales where particular and in-depth studies can be performed. The water budget is represented by the following equation: total precipitation and desalinated water minus the evapotranspiration equals the change in the terrestrial water storage. The UAE is highly dependent on desalinated water, therefore, this factor is included as a water input in the water budget. The procedure adopted in this study is applicable to other Gulf countries where desalination represents a large component of the water budget. Remotely sensed data will be used to obtain the components of the water budget equation performing a preliminary study of the suitability of TRMM data to estimate the precipitation in the UAE by comparison with six ground stations in the country. GRACE and TRMM data will then be used to obtain the terrestrial water storage and the precipitation respectively. The evapotranspiration will be estimated from the water budget equation and maps of these three variables will be obtained. This spatial analysis of the water resources will help to determine the best areas for cultivation and whether it can be planned in a way that increases the agricultural

  10. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-04-12

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth.

  11. Albumin and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    LeVine, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Leakage of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a common pathological feature in multiple sclerosis (MS). Following a breach of the BBB, albumin, the most abundant protein in plasma, gains access to CNS tissue where it is exposed to an inflammatory milieu and tissue damage, e.g., demyelination. Once in the CNS, albumin can participate in protective mechanisms. For example, due to its high concentration and molecular properties, albumin becomes a target for oxidation and nitration reactions. Furthermore, albumin binds metals and heme thereby limiting their ability to produce reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Albumin also has the potential to worsen disease. Similar to pathogenic processes that occur during epilepsy, extravasated albumin could induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and affect the ability of astrocytes to maintain potassium homeostasis thereby possibly making neurons more vulnerable to glutamate exicitotoxicity, which is thought to be a pathogenic mechanism in MS. The albumin quotient, albumin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/albumin in serum, is used as a measure of blood-CSF barrier dysfunction in MS, but it may be inaccurate since albumin levels in the CSF can be influenced by multiple factors including: 1) albumin becomes proteolytically cleaved during disease, 2) extravasated albumin is taken up by macrophages, microglia, and astrocytes, and 3) the location of BBB damage affects the entry of extravasated albumin into ventricular CSF. A discussion of the roles that albumin performs during MS is put forth. PMID:27067000

  12. HEALTHCARE FORECASTING IN THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (UAE).

    PubMed

    Younies, Hassan; Elzenaty, Raed J K; Gantasala, Swapna; Nwagwu, Emeka

    2016-01-01

    This study has been designed to address the issue of the forecasting of the healthcare needs of the United Arab Emirate (UAE) from 1974 to 2011. This includes predicting the health system's need for hospitals and hospital beds, as well as the public health manpower (example, physicians, nurses) requirements. The analysis was based on historical data: the number of hospitals, number of nurses, number of hospital beds, which have been posited as the measures of life expectancy in the Emirate. The study found that, although significant changes designed to enhance public health outcomes in the UAE have been made, beds to population ratio was the most significant factor in enhancing healthcare and the public health. PMID:27483972

  13. HEALTHCARE FORECASTING IN THE UNITED ARAB EMIRATES (UAE).

    PubMed

    Younies, Hassan; Elzenaty, Raed J K; Gantasala, Swapna; Nwagwu, Emeka

    2016-01-01

    This study has been designed to address the issue of the forecasting of the healthcare needs of the United Arab Emirate (UAE) from 1974 to 2011. This includes predicting the health system's need for hospitals and hospital beds, as well as the public health manpower (example, physicians, nurses) requirements. The analysis was based on historical data: the number of hospitals, number of nurses, number of hospital beds, which have been posited as the measures of life expectancy in the Emirate. The study found that, although significant changes designed to enhance public health outcomes in the UAE have been made, beds to population ratio was the most significant factor in enhancing healthcare and the public health.

  14. Inhibition of the metabolic degradation of filtered albumin is a major determinant of albuminuria.

    PubMed

    Vuchkova, Julijana; Comper, Wayne D

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of the degradation of filtered albumin has been proposed as a widespread, benign form of albuminuria. There have however been recent reports that radiolabeled albumin fragments in urine are not exclusively generated by the kidney and that in albuminuric states albumin fragment excretion is not inhibited. In order to resolve this controversy we have examined the fate of various radiolabeled low molecular weight protein degradation products (LMWDPs) introduced into the circulation in rats. The influence of puromycin aminonucleoside nephrosis on the processing and excretion of LMWDPs is also examined. The status and destinies of radiolabeled LMWDPs in the circulation are complex. A major finding is that LMWDPs are rapidly eliminated from the circulation (>97% in 2 h) but only small quantities (<4%) are excreted in urine. Small (<4%) but significant amounts of LMWDPs may have prolonged elimination (>24 h) due to binding to high molecular weight components in the circulation. If LMWDPs of albumin seen in the urine are produced by extra renal degradation it would require the degradation to far exceed the known catabolic rate of albumin. Alternatively, if an estimate of the role of extra renal degradation is made from the limit of detection of LMWDPs in plasma, then extra renal degradation would only contribute <1% of the total excretion of LMWDPs of albumin. We confirm that the degradation process for albumin is specifically associated with filtered albumin and this is inhibited in albuminuric states. This inhibition is also the primary determinant of the massive change in intact albuminuria in nephrotic states.

  15. Racial differences in microalbumin excretion in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hanevold, Coral D; Pollock, Jennifer S; Harshfield, Gregory A

    2008-02-01

    It has been suggested that "normal" levels of urine albumin excretion rate (AER) may be predictive of an increased risk for progression of hypertension, cardiovascular morbidity, and mortality. No data are available on the effect of race and gender on AER in normal youth. We evaluated AER in timed urine samples in subjects participating in a study of stress-induced pressure natriuresis. A total of 317 healthy, normotensive adolescents aged 15 to 18 years (155 males and 162 females; 216 blacks and 101 whites) participated in a 5-hour testing protocol, which included a 1-hour period of mental stress preceded and followed by a 2-hour rest period. AER (micrograms per minute) was determined after 60 minutes of rest, and log transformation was used to normalize the data. AER was significantly higher in blacks as compared with whites (P=0.006). We also found a race-by-sex interaction, which was driven by the low albumin excretion in white females (P=0.036). Indexing urine albumin to creatinine excretion revealed the same pattern. Among blacks, AER was also higher in subjects who demonstrated impaired stress-induced pressure natriuresis versus those with normal sodium excretion (P=0.024). AER was related to blood pressure only in African-American males. The relative elevation of AER in normotensive black adolescents and the association with impaired pressure natriuresis and blood pressure is noteworthy. These findings suggest that albumin excretion may be a marker for a population at increased risk for the development of vascular and renal injury even before the manifestation of hypertension. PMID:18172060

  16. Urine protein excretion and swimming events.

    PubMed

    Poortmans, J R; Engels, M F; Sellier, M; Leclercq, R

    1991-07-01

    To determine total urinary protein, albumin (ALB), and beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2m) excretion rates in relation to different speeds, 12 males were studied while swimming distances of 100, 600, and 2,000 m at maximal speed. Venous blood lactate concentrations rose to 16.1, 11.6, and 4.5 mmol.l-1 after the 100, 600, and 2,000 m events, while plasma volumes were reduced by 11.3, 7.7, and 5.5%, respectively. ALB urine excretion increased to 110-120 micrograms.min-1 after the 100 and 600 m swims and to 56 micrograms.min-1 after 2,000 m (resting values: 9 micrograms.min-1). In the meantime, the beta 2m excretion rate increased 21 and 10 times the resting values, respectively, for the two shorter swims, with no change for the longer one. Progressive plasma volume reduction was associated with the increase of the protein excretion rate. As evidenced by the creatinine clearance, the glomerular filtration rate did not change for the 100 m swim but dropped by 23 and 35% for the 600 and 2,000 m ones, respectively. On the other hand, the ALB clearance increases were elevated for the three swims, while the beta 2m clearance increases were inversely related to the swimming speeds. The data showed a relationship between the rate of protein excretion and the speed of the swim, and the reduction of plasma volume. The findings could indicate a renal glomerular alteration, with an additional dysfunction of the tubular reabsorption process when the exercise load is high during swimming events. PMID:1921676

  17. Effect of angiotensin on glomerular filtration of albumin.

    PubMed

    Eisenbach, G M; Van Liew, J B

    1975-01-01

    Angiotensin-induced proteinuria was examined at the glomerular-tubular level in rats. Ultra-micro-disc electrophoresis was employed to determine albumin concentration of rat proximal tubular fluid samples under control conditions and during the infusion of 0.15 mug/min X 100 g body weight angiotensin II using micropuncture techniques. Under control conditions proximal tubular albumin concentration was 1.32 +/- 0.79 (SD) mg/100 ml (n = 71). There was no correlation between albumin concentration and (TF/P)-inulin ratio indicating an albumin reabsorption in the proximal tubule parallel to fluid reabsorption under control conditions. During angiotensin infusion using re-collection techniques, there is an average increase of 26 times in tubular albumin concentration, indicating an increase in albumin filtered. There was no change in GFR, SNGFR, transit time, (TF/P)-inulin ratio, an increase in urine flow rate, sodium excretion, protein excretion, mean arterial blood pressure during angiotensin infusion. Since effective glomerular filtration pressure was not increased during angiotensin it is concluded that angiotensin-induced proteinuria is due to an increase in filtered protien mediated by a change in glomerular permeability to proteins.

  18. Prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of vaginal candidiasis in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Hamad, Mawieh; Kazandji, Norair; Awadallah, Samir; Allam, Hilda

    2014-03-01

    Vaginal candidiasis (VC) continues to be a health problem to women worldwide. Although the majority of VC cases are caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), non-albicans Candida spp. like C. glabrata and C. tropicalis are emerging as important and potentially resistant opportunistic agents of VC. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and epidemiology of VC in the UAE through retrospective analysis of pertinent data compiled by the microbiology and infection control unit at Latifa Hospital, Dubai between 2005 and 2011. The incidence of VC significantly increased from 10.76% in 2005 to 17.61% in 2011; average prevalence was 13.88%. C. albicans occurred at a frequency of 83.02%, C. glabrata at 16.5% and C. tropicalis at 1.2%. A single C. dubliniensis isolate was identified in the sample population. The percentage of C. albicans significantly decreased from 83.02% in the sample population as a whole to 60.8% in subjects over 45 years of age (P < 0.01) and that of C. glabrata, C. tropicalis and C. krusei significantly increased from 13.88%, 0.9% and 0.03% to 29.7%, 6.7% and 1.4% (P < 0.05) respectively. The incidence of VC in the UAE is on the rise and the frequency of non-albicans Candida spp. is noticeably increasing especially in postmenopausal women.

  19. Protein Crystal Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    As the most abundant protein in the circulatory system albumin contributes 80% to colloid osmotic blood pressure. Albumin is also chiefly responsible for the maintenance of blood pH. It is located in every tissue and bodily secretion, with extracellular protein comprising 60% of total albumin. Perhaps the most outstanding property of albumin is its ability to bind reversibly to an incredible variety of ligands. It is widely accepted in the pharmaceutical industry that the overall distribution, metabolism, and efficiency of many drugs are rendered ineffective because of their unusually high affinity for this abundant protein. An understanding of the chemistry of the various classes of pharmaceutical interactions with albumin can suggest new approaches to drug therapy and design. Principal Investigator: Dan Carter/New Century Pharmaceuticals

  20. Assessment of organic pollutants in coastal sediments, UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel Gawad, Esam A.; Al Azab, Mohamed; Lotfy, M. M.

    2008-05-01

    Twenty-five stations were selected along the UAE coastal region to delineate the distribution and to determine the source of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), total organic carbon (TOC), total Kjeldhal nitrogen (TKN), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). The concentrations of TPH ranged between 46 and 223 mg/kg and the level of TOC was in the range from 0.044 to 17.8 wt%, while TPAHs occupied the range of 5-102.2 μg/kg. On the other hand, TPCBs showed values between 60 and 205 μg/kg and TKN ranged from 104 to 1,073 mg/kg. The present study shows that the distribution of organic compounds in UAE sediments were within safe limits comparing with previous studies. The present study revealed that TOC can be used as an indicator of oil pollution in heavily oiled sediments. The highest values of TOC, TPH, TPAHs and TPCBs related to the stations covered in fine sand due to adsorption properties and the large surface areas of the grains. The evaporation of low-boiling point compounds from surface layers leads to the enrichment of sediments with a thick residual. Al Sharjah-1 exhibited the highest values of TPH and TOC at Ras Al-Khaima-5, Umm Al-Quwen-1 and Dubai-1, while the highest values of TPAHs were at KhorFakkan-9, the highest value of TPCBs was at Ajman-2, and the highest values of TKN were at KhorFakkan-1, KhorFakkan-6 and Dubai-1.

  1. Structure of Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; Ho, Joseph X.

    1994-01-01

    Because of its availability, low cost, stability, and unusual ligand-binding properties, serum albumin has been one of the mst extensively studied and applied proteins in biochemistry. However, as a protein, albumin is far from typical, and the widespread interest in and application of albumin have not been balanced by an understanding of its molecular structure. Indeed, for more than 30 years structural information was surmised based solely on techniques such as hydrodynamics, low-angle X-ray scattering, and predictive methods.

  2. A possible general mechanism for ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) suggested from the results of UAE of chlorogenic acid from Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke) leaves.

    PubMed

    Saleh, I A; Vinatoru, M; Mason, T J; Abdel-Azim, N S; Aboutabl, E A; Hammouda, F M

    2016-07-01

    The use of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the extraction of chlorogenic acid (CA) from Cynara scolymus L., (artichoke) leaves using 80% methanol at room temperature over 15 min gave a significant increase in yield (up to a 50%) compared with maceration at room temperature and close to that obtained by boiling over the same time period. A note of caution is introduced when comparing UAE with Soxhlet extraction because, in the latter case, the liquid entering the Soxhlet extractor is more concentrated in methanol (nearly 100%) that the solvent in the reservoir (80% methanol) due to fractionation during distillation. The mechanism of UAE is discussed in terms of the effects of cavitation on the swelling index, solvent diffusion and the removal of a stagnant layer of solvent surrounding the plant material. PMID:26964956

  3. A possible general mechanism for ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) suggested from the results of UAE of chlorogenic acid from Cynara scolymus L. (artichoke) leaves.

    PubMed

    Saleh, I A; Vinatoru, M; Mason, T J; Abdel-Azim, N S; Aboutabl, E A; Hammouda, F M

    2016-07-01

    The use of ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) for the extraction of chlorogenic acid (CA) from Cynara scolymus L., (artichoke) leaves using 80% methanol at room temperature over 15 min gave a significant increase in yield (up to a 50%) compared with maceration at room temperature and close to that obtained by boiling over the same time period. A note of caution is introduced when comparing UAE with Soxhlet extraction because, in the latter case, the liquid entering the Soxhlet extractor is more concentrated in methanol (nearly 100%) that the solvent in the reservoir (80% methanol) due to fractionation during distillation. The mechanism of UAE is discussed in terms of the effects of cavitation on the swelling index, solvent diffusion and the removal of a stagnant layer of solvent surrounding the plant material.

  4. Albumin - blood (serum) test

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditions for which the test may be performed: Burns (widespread) Wilson disease If you are receiving large amounts of intravenous fluids, the result of this test may be inaccurate. Albumin will be decreased during pregnancy.

  5. Study of the Impact of Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE) on Endometrial Microvessel Density (MVD) and Angiogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Guosheng; Xiang Xianhong; Guo Wenbo; Zhang Bing; Chen Wei; Yang Jianyong

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo investigate the influence of uterine artery embolization (UAE) on endometrial microvessel density (MVD) and angiogenesis.MethodsSixty female guinea pigs were divided into two groups, the control group (n = 15) and the UAE treatment group (n = 45). In the UAE group, tris-acryl gelatin microspheres were used to generate embolization. Animals were further divided into three subgroups, A1, A2, and A3 (n = 15 for each subgroup), with uterine specimens collected at 7-15, 16-30, and 31-45 days after UAE, respectively. Immunostaining for factor VIII and CD105 was performed to identify total endometrial MVD (MVD{sub FVIII}) and CD105-positive angiogenesis (MVD{sub CD105}) at the indicated time points after UAE.ResultsQuantitative analysis revealed that MVD{sub FVIII} significantly decreased in the A1 (11.40 {+-} 2.76, p < 0.05) and A2 (15.37 {+-} 3.06, p < 0.05) groups compared to the control group (19.40 {+-} 2.50), and was restored to normal in the A3 group (18.77 {+-} 2.69). UAE caused a temporal up-regulation of MVD{sub CD105}-positive angiogenesis in the A1 group (9.33 {+-} 2.37, p < 0.05) and the A2 group (11.63 {+-} 1.56, p < 0.05) compared to the control group (7.12 {+-} 1.67), and the MVD{sub CD105} value returned to normal in the A3 group (8.07 {+-} 1.97).ConclusionUAE caused a temporal decrease in endometrial MVD that reversed over time as a result of the increase of CD105-positive angiogenesis. Although the UAE-induced reduction of endometrial MVD was reversible, its long-term effect on endometrial receptivity still needs further study.

  6. United Arab Emirates (UAE): regional and global dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Nabeh, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    The study traces the background and development of the United Arab Emirates as a federal entity in an essentially tribal culture. It also identifies and discusses the political dynamics that form the vital region in which the Union has emerged, the function played by major regional individuals in this emergence, and the importance of this part of the Middle East in the conception of foreign policy makers of the super powers. The issues of the regional economic policies resulted in formation of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in 1981 among six Arab Gulf countries: Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates. Formation of the GCC was an essential step toward the comprehensive economic development of the region. One of the conclusions is that the attainment of socio-economic and political development is not a necessary condition for the emergence of a federal structure among highly authoritarian and formalistic political systems. The emergence of the UAE took place mainly as a consequence of the conception by pertinent political elites of the inability of the emirates to individually assume the responsibilities of statehood in a highly complicated world, and in light of the poor material and human resources each commanded after over a century of dependence on a foreign power.

  7. Documentation and Monitoring of Built Heritage in Abu Dhabi, Uae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, S.

    2013-07-01

    The ancient oasis-city of Al Ain in Abu Dhabi Emirate still retains the most important and outstanding cultural heritage of United Arab Emirates (UAE). The larger area of Abu Dhabi Emirate comprised of archaeological sites, cultural landscapes and historic buildings dating back to 3rd millennium to the recent pre-oil era. Traditional materials like stone, earth and palm wood were used in combination with local construction methods. For the last seven years the newly formed Abu Dhabi Tourism & Culture Authority (TCA Abu Dhabi)1 has been actively involved in conservation of built heritage in Abu Dhabi Emirate with the help of its Conservation Section. Documentation prior to any conservation and restoration works is considered as a basic pre-requisite for understanding an historic building or site. It is a process which continues during the conservation of any monument and is the only accurate tool for recording information in order to understand the structure, ultimately leading to the management of cultural heritage. Application and use of tools, ranging from basic manual techniques to 3D laser scanning, based on the best practices and international guidelines the exercise will help in establishing a documentation lab with standard procedures, specifications and tools for the documentation and monitoring the built heritage of Abu Dhabi Emirate. This paper will discuss a range of case studies and will demonstrate how documentation and monitoring of the built heritage has augmented the various conservation initiatives on a variety of building types.

  8. [Albumin in sepsis].

    PubMed

    Tamion, F

    2010-09-01

    Human serum albumin is a small (66kD) globular protein representing over 60 % of the total plasma protein content. It is made up of 585 amino 6 acids and contains 35 cysteine residues forming disulfide bridges that contribute to its overall tertiary structure. It has a free cysteine-derived thiol group at Cys-34, which accounts for 80 % of its redox activity. Physiologically, serum albumin exists in a reduced form with a free thiol contributing to its antioxidant properties. It is synthesized primarily in the liver and is an acute-phase protein. It is a multifunctional plasma protein ascribed ligand-binding and transport properties as well as antioxidants and enzymatic functions. It maintains colloid osmotic pressure, modulates inflammatory response and may influence oxidative damage. Hypoalbuminemia is common in the intensive care unit and may be due to decreased synthesis by the liver and/or to increased losses or increased proteolysis and clearance. Although albumin was long used to control vascular collapse in critically ill patients, the evidence suggests that it does not offer a benefit over crystalloid solutions in vascular collapse. However, human serum albumin is an important circulating antioxidant and it may be beneficial in critically ill patients to limit oxidative damage. A number of studies suggest that in specific groups of hypoalbuminemic critically ill patients, albumin administration may have beneficial effects on organ function, although the exact mechanisms remain undefined. Further trials are needed to confirm theses observations and to clearly demonstrate whether albumin should be administered in critically ill patients with hypoalbuminemia. PMID:20675098

  9. Transendothelial albumin flux: evidence against active transport of albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Siflinger-Birnboim, A.; Del Vecchio, P.J.; Cooper, J.A.; Malik, A.B.

    1986-03-01

    The authors studied whether albumin is actively transported across cultured pulmonary endothelium by comparing the transendothelial flux of /sup 125/I-albumin from the luminal-to-abluminal side to the flux from the abluminal-to-luminal side. Bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells were grown to confluence on gelatinized polycarbonated filters separating abluminal from luminal compartments. Each compartment had an albumin concentration of 1 g/100 ml to equalize oncotic pressure gradients. The effect of hydrostatic pressure was eliminated by maintaining an equal level of fluid in both compartments. The transendothelial flux of albumin across the monolayer was measured by placing /sup 125/I-albumin tracer either on the luminal or the abluminal side. Equal fluxes of /sup 125/I-albumin from luminal-to-abluminal side and from abluminal-to-luminal side were observed. The results indicate that the pulmonary endothelium behaves symmetrically for albumin, indicating the absence of active transport of albumin.

  10. Carbon recycling in ophiolite-hosted carbonates, Oman-UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephen, A.; Jenkin, G. R.; Smith, D. J.; Styles, M. T.; Naden, J.; Boyce, A. J.; Bryant, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    Large-scale surface and subsurface freshwater carbonate deposits of probable Quaternary age have formed on the Oman-UAE ophiolite. Here, serpentinisation reactions in ultramafic rocks have produced calcite and magnesite. These carbonates are frequently cited as examples of natural atmospheric CO2 sequestration, but the possibility of carbon recycling has not been addressed. The aim of this study is to assess the degree of atmospheric CO2 being incorporated into carbonates versus that which has been recycled from alternative sources such as soil CO2, or limestones that underlie the ophiolite. This has been determined through δ13C/δ18O, 87Sr/86Sr and 14C analysis of all major carbonate lithofacies identified. Our analyses of modern carbonate crusts forming on the surface of stagnant hyperalkaline (pH >11) waters show highly depleted δ13C and δ18O values (-25.5‰ ×0.5 PDB and -16.8‰ ×0.5 PDB respectively). This depletion has been attributed to a kinetic isotope effect occurring during atmospheric CO2 exchange with Ca(OH)2 hyperalkaline waters [1]. By comparison, inactive travertine deposits show a large range in δ13C (-10.5 to -21.8‰ PDB) which lies on a trajectory from the composition of modern crusts towards bicarbonate fluids in equilibrium with soil CO2. We interpret this trend as being produced by the mixing of different carbon sources, either at the time of formation or during later alteration. Modern carbonates and inactive travertines also have 87Sr/86Sr ratios and Sr concentrations similar to Cretaceous and Tertiary limestones which surround the ophiolite, whilst subsurface veins also display 87Sr/86Sr ratios similar to these Cretaceous limestones. Carbon recycling can also be determined with 14C. Modern atmospheric CO2 has a global average of 105-106% modern 14C (pMC), therefore freshwater carbonates forming solely from atmospheric CO2 would be expected to contain >100 pMC. However, modern carbonates display varied results from 94.5-101.4 p

  11. Human rights and health disparities for migrant workers in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Sevil; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Tran, Diane; Rentrope, Shantyana

    2011-01-01

    Systematic violations of migrant workers' human rights and striking health disparities among these populations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are the norm in member countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Migrant laborers comprise about 90 percent of the UAE workforce and include approximately 500,000 construction workers and 450,000 domestic workers. Like many other GCC members countries, the UAE witnessed an unprecedented construction boom during the early 2000s, attracting large numbers of Western expatriates and increasing demand for cheap migrant labor. Elite Emiratis' and Western expatriates' dependence on household staff further promoted labor migration. This paper offers a summary of existing literature on migrant workers and human rights in the UAE, focusing on their impact on related health ramifications and disparities, with specific attention to construction workers, domestic workers, and trafficked women and children. Construction workers and domestic laborers are victims of debt bondage and face severe wage exploitation, and experience serious health and safety problems resulting from inhumane work and living conditions. High rates of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse impact the health of domestic workers. Through a review of available literature, including official reports, scientific papers, and media reports, the paper discusses the responsibility of employers, governments, and the global community in mitigating these problems and reveals the paucity of systematic data on the health of migrant workers in the Gulf. PMID:22773029

  12. Inclusion of Student with Special Needs within Higher Education in UAE: Issues and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaad, Eman; Almotairi, Mishal

    2013-01-01

    This is an oral interactive presentation supported by evidences that present the current status of inclusion of students with special needs in the Higher Education sector in the UAE. It looks at the related issues and challenges in a country that is certainly heading towards inclusion of all learners in regular education following the ratification…

  13. Smart Board Technology Success in Tertiary Institutions: The Case of the UAE University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Qirim, Nabeel

    2016-01-01

    This research explores teaching-faculty's adoption and usage of the Interactive White Board Technology (IWBT) in UAE University (UAEU). The research findings suggested two perspectives concerning IWBT usage by teaching-faculty in UAEU. The first theme is concerned with IWBT's basic features where the IWBT proved its superiority when compared to…

  14. Human rights and health disparities for migrant workers in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, Sevil; Apostolopoulos, Yorghos; Tran, Diane; Rentrope, Shantyana

    2011-12-15

    Systematic violations of migrant workers' human rights and striking health disparities among these populations in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) are the norm in member countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Migrant laborers comprise about 90 percent of the UAE workforce and include approximately 500,000 construction workers and 450,000 domestic workers. Like many other GCC members countries, the UAE witnessed an unprecedented construction boom during the early 2000s, attracting large numbers of Western expatriates and increasing demand for cheap migrant labor. Elite Emiratis' and Western expatriates' dependence on household staff further promoted labor migration. This paper offers a summary of existing literature on migrant workers and human rights in the UAE, focusing on their impact on related health ramifications and disparities, with specific attention to construction workers, domestic workers, and trafficked women and children. Construction workers and domestic laborers are victims of debt bondage and face severe wage exploitation, and experience serious health and safety problems resulting from inhumane work and living conditions. High rates of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse impact the health of domestic workers. Through a review of available literature, including official reports, scientific papers, and media reports, the paper discusses the responsibility of employers, governments, and the global community in mitigating these problems and reveals the paucity of systematic data on the health of migrant workers in the Gulf.

  15. Higher Education and Development in Arab Oil Exporters: The UAE [United Arab Emirates] in Comparative Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandewalle, Diederik

    As exporters of oil in the Middle East and throughout the world, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) must address the following challenges in the area of development and economic growth: (1) an increasingly integrated world economy in which technology and knowledge will be paramount; (2) the need to diversify its economy from a natural resource-based…

  16. Special Needs Education in the United Arab Emirates (UAE): A Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arif, Mohammed; Gaad, Eman

    2008-01-01

    In order to obtain maximum benefits from the educational system, it is imperative that the system should work as a unified coherent unit. Gaad, Arif and Scott (2006) conducted the systems analysis of the United Arab Emirates' (UAE) general education system. They analysed three components of the system in order to assess the development, delivery…

  17. UAE University Male Students' Interests Impact on Reading and Writing Performance and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Murshidi, Ghadah

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the impact of the conjunction of structured journal writing and reading for pleasure on students' reading and writing skills. Forty male students from UAE University participated in the study. The participants are of different academic abilities, majors and nationalities. Many of them have little experience with reading for…

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23 from Dromedaries of the Middle East: Minimal Serological Cross-Reactivity between MERS Coronavirus and Dromedary Camel Coronavirus UAE-HKU23

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Patrick C. Y.; Lau, Susanna K. P.; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Lau, Candy C. Y.; Wong, Emily Y. M.; Joseph, Sunitha; Tsang, Alan K. L.; Wernery, Renate; Yip, Cyril C. Y.; Tsang, Chi-Ching; Wernery, Ulrich; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we reported the discovery of a dromedary camel coronavirus UAE-HKU23 (DcCoV UAE-HKU23) from dromedaries in the Middle East. In this study, DcCoV UAE-HKU23 was successfully isolated in two of the 14 dromedary fecal samples using HRT-18G cells, with cytopathic effects observed five days after inoculation. Northern blot analysis revealed at least seven distinct RNA species, corresponding to predicted subgenomic mRNAs and confirming the core sequence of transcription regulatory sequence motifs as 5′-UCUAAAC-3′ as we predicted previously. Antibodies against DcCoV UAE-HKU23 were detected in 58 (98.3%) and 59 (100%) of the 59 dromedary sera by immunofluorescence and neutralization antibody tests, respectively. There was significant correlation between the antibody titers determined by immunofluorescence and neutralization assays (Pearson coefficient = 0.525, p < 0.0001). Immunization of mice using recombinant N proteins of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), respectively, and heat-inactivated DcCoV UAE-HKU23 showed minimal cross-antigenicity between DcCoV UAE-HKU23 and MERS-CoV by Western blot and neutralization antibody assays. Codon usage and genetic distance analysis of RdRp, S and N genes showed that the 14 strains of DcCoV UAE-HKU23 formed a distinct cluster, separated from those of other closely related members of Betacoronavirus 1, including alpaca CoV, confirming that DcCoV UAE-HKU23 is a novel member of Betacoronavirus 1. PMID:27164099

  19. Ammonia excretion by Azobacter chroococcum

    SciTech Connect

    Narula, N.; Lakshminarayana, K.; Tauro, P.

    1981-02-01

    In recent years, research has focused attention on the development of biological systems for nitrogen fixation. In this report, two strains of Azotobacter chroococcum are identified which can excrete as much as 45 mg ammonia/ml of the culture broth in a sucrose supplemented synthetic medium.

  20. Cytomegalovirus excretion in gnotobiotic pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Edington, N.; Watt, R. G.; Plowright, W.

    1976-01-01

    Germ-free piglets were infected intranasally with porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) at 1 day (group A) or 3 weeks of age (group B). Viraemia and virus excretion by the nasal, pharyngeal and conjunctival routes was studied up to the time of death or to 12 weeks. Virus was also sought in tissues at death or at slaughter, as well as in a few urine samples. Viraemia was detected in group A between days 5 and 19 after infection and in group B between days 14 and 16 inclusive. The chief route of virus excretion was the nasal mucosa, followed by the pharynx and conjunctiva; the maximal duration of excretion by these routes was 32, 25 and 14 days for pigs of group A and 9, 7 and 4 days for group B. The quantity of virus was also greater in the former group, of which died of generalized PCMV infection. A viruria was demonstrated in 2 animals. Antibody detectable in indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) tests appeared towards the end of the third week, reaching maximal titres at 5 to 7 weeks after infection. The mean peak titre of antibody in group B was lower than in group A. Corticosteroid treatment at days 56--62 after infection resulted in some recrudescence of virus excretion, accompanied in group B by about a twofold increase in IIF antibody. PCMV was isolated in cultures of lung macrophages from 4 of 7 animals killed at about 12 weeks after inoculation. PMID:185292

  1. Gonadotropin excretion and body composition.

    PubMed

    Penny, R; Goldstein, I P; Frasier, S D

    1978-02-01

    Urinary follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) excretion was correlated with calculated total body water (TBW) and body fat (BF) in 140 normal girls and 142 normal boys, ages 3 to 16 years. In girls, there was a significant increase in gonadotropin excretion at the time of a significant increase in BF as a percent of body weight and decrease in TBW as a percent of body weight. Pubertal changes in body composition were seen in girls at the same chronological age and stage of puberty as increased gonadotropin excretion. Similar findings were observed in boys. Pubertal changes in body composition (an increase in TBW as a percent of body weight and decrease of BF as a percent of body weight) accompanied significantly increased gonadotropin excretion. Both developmental changes were seen at the same chronological age and stage of puberty. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that characteristic changes in body composition as well as the other hallmarks of puberty, including menarche in girls, result from increased gonadotropin and gonadal steroid secretion. They do not support the hypothesis that changes of body composition trigger increased hypothalamic function and hormone secretion leading to the subsequent events of puberty. PMID:634687

  2. Urine synaptopodin excretion is an important marker of glomerular disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Soon Kil; Kim, Seung Jung; Kim, Hye-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Podocytes play an important role in maintaining the glomerular filtration barrier and in formation of the slit diaphragm. Podocyte loss is associated with chronic kidney disease progression, but it is not clear whether urinary podocyte proteins in urine reflect the clinical extent of glomerular damage. We investigated the correlation between the amounts of urinary podocyte proteins and renal function and albuminuria. Methods: The study enrolled 33 patients with diabetic kidney disease or glomerular disease and measured urinary podocytes proteins using Western blotting. Urinary podocyte proteins were measured according to the density of the bands on Western blotting. We measured serum creatinine and the spot urine albumin/creatinine ratio as markers of renal damage, and compared the correlation of urinary podocyte protein in the glomerular disease patients. Results: The mean patient age was 49.3 ± 16.5 years, the mean serum creatinine level was 2.30 ± 1.76 mg/dL, and the mean albumin/creatinine ratio was 4.85 ± 3.52. Among the podocyte proteins, urine synaptopodin showed strong correlation with serum creatinine by multivariate regression analysis (p < 0.001) and showed linear correlation (r = 0.429, p < 0.01). Urine podocyte proteins were increased in patients with diabetes, and synaptopodin showed the greatest significant difference (7.68 ± 5.61 vs. 2.56 ± 3.11, p < 0.001), but this might be associated with renal impairment. The urine albumin excretion did not differ between the diabetics and non-diabetics (p = 0.73). Conclusions: Urine synaptopodin is associated with serum creatinine elevation in the patients with glomerulonephritis including diabetic kidney disease regardless of urine albumin excretion. We suggest that the urine synaptopodin level can predict glomerular damage independently of the urine albumin excretion. PMID:27604800

  3. Excretion of metabolites of prostacyclin and thromboxane by rats with nephrotoxic nephritis: effects of interleukin-1.

    PubMed Central

    Ward, P. S.; Fuller, R. W.; Ritter, J. M.; Cashman, S. J.; Rees, A. J.; Dollery, C. T.

    1991-01-01

    1. To obtain direct evidence of abnormal eicosanoid biosynthesis in rats injected with anti-glomerular-basement-membrane antibodies (a-GBM), products derived from thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) were measured in 24 h urine collections before and after a-GBM. 2. Administration of a-GBM (9.5 mg) caused albuminuria, decreased creatinine clearance, increased numbers of intra-glomerular neutrophils and increased excretion of TXB2, 2,3-dinor-TXB2 (products of TXA2) and 6-oxo-PGF 1 alpha and 2,3-dinor-6-oxo-PGF 1 alpha (products of PGI2) at 24 h. 3. Interleukin-1 (IL-1 beta; 5 micrograms) alone caused an increase in PGI2 metabolite excretion but had no effect on TXA2 metabolites. It had no effect on creatinine clearance but increased numbers of glomerular neutrophils by approximately 4-5 fold compared to a-GBM. 4. Pretreatment of rats with IL-1 beta before a-GBM synergistically increased albumin excretion but only additively increased eicosanoid excretion. Numbers of intra-glomerular neutrophils and creatinine clearance were unchanged compared to IL-1 beta alone. 5. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, ibuprofen (10 mgkg-1 i.p., twice daily for 4 days) inhibited both serum TXB2 production and urinary prostaglandin excretion. It also caused an almost complete attenuation of albumin excretion. Creatinine clearance and glomerular neutrophils remained unchanged after a-GBM/IL-1 beta. 6. We conclude that the 50% inhibition of thromboxane production induced by ibuprofen does not modify the fall in creatinine clearance of accumulation of neutrophils in the glomerulus caused by the a-GBM. This degree of inhibition of eicosanoid production was associated with a striking decrease in proteinuria, but this may reflect a haemodynamic rather than a disease modifying action. PMID:1933130

  4. Predicting nitrogen excretion from cattle.

    PubMed

    Reed, K F; Moraes, L E; Casper, D P; Kebreab, E

    2015-05-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) from cattle production facilities can lead to negative environmental effects, such as contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, leaching and runoff to aqueous ecosystems leading to eutrophication, and acid rain. To mitigate these effects and to improve the efficiency of N use, accurate prediction of N excretion and secretions are required. A genetic algorithm was implemented to select models to predict fecal, urinary, and total manure N excretions, and milk N secretions from 3 classes of animals: lactating dairy cows, heifers and dry cows, and steers. Two tiers of model classes were developed for each category of animals based on model input requirements. A total of 6 models for heifers and dry cows and steers and an additional 2 models for lactating dairy cattle were developed. Evaluation of the models using K-fold cross validation based on all data and using the most recent 6 yr of data showed better prediction for total manure N and fecal N compared with urinary N excretion, which was the most variable response in the database. Compared with extant models from the literature, the models developed in this study resulted in a significant improvement in prediction error for fecal and urinary N excretions from lactating cows. For total manure production by lactating cows, extant and new models were comparable in their prediction ability. Both proposed and extant models performed better than the prediction methods used by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the national inventory of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the proposed models are recommended for use in estimation of manure N from various classes of animals. PMID:25747829

  5. Predicting nitrogen excretion from cattle.

    PubMed

    Reed, K F; Moraes, L E; Casper, D P; Kebreab, E

    2015-05-01

    Manure nitrogen (N) from cattle production facilities can lead to negative environmental effects, such as contribution to greenhouse gas emissions, leaching and runoff to aqueous ecosystems leading to eutrophication, and acid rain. To mitigate these effects and to improve the efficiency of N use, accurate prediction of N excretion and secretions are required. A genetic algorithm was implemented to select models to predict fecal, urinary, and total manure N excretions, and milk N secretions from 3 classes of animals: lactating dairy cows, heifers and dry cows, and steers. Two tiers of model classes were developed for each category of animals based on model input requirements. A total of 6 models for heifers and dry cows and steers and an additional 2 models for lactating dairy cattle were developed. Evaluation of the models using K-fold cross validation based on all data and using the most recent 6 yr of data showed better prediction for total manure N and fecal N compared with urinary N excretion, which was the most variable response in the database. Compared with extant models from the literature, the models developed in this study resulted in a significant improvement in prediction error for fecal and urinary N excretions from lactating cows. For total manure production by lactating cows, extant and new models were comparable in their prediction ability. Both proposed and extant models performed better than the prediction methods used by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the national inventory of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the proposed models are recommended for use in estimation of manure N from various classes of animals.

  6. Ranking of priorities in employees' reward and recognition schemes: from the perspective of UAE health care employees.

    PubMed

    Younies, Hassan; Barhem, Belal; Younis, Mustafa Z

    2008-01-01

    A reward and recognition (RR) system is a tool widely applied by organizations to motivate their employees. Outstanding employees expect their effort to be acknowledged by the organization. However, the variety of rewards and recognitions systems used by organizations may be perceived differently by different employees. The diverse workforce structure in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) poses various challenges for organization managers. Managers need to implement the shrewd RR system which best fits their diverse workforce. This research studied how medical sector employees in the private and public health sector view the RR systems in the UAE. Two lists, comprising 26 major approaches to RR, were prepared and its items prioritized by taking inputs from 250 employees working in more than 30 varied public and private health care organizations in the UAE. The findings of the research are expected to provide guidelines for developing appropriate RR systems for organizations in general, and UAE health care organizations in particular.

  7. Renal FcRn reclaims albumin but facilitates elimination of IgG.

    PubMed

    Sarav, Menaka; Wang, Ying; Hack, Bradley K; Chang, Anthony; Jensen, Mark; Bao, Lihua; Quigg, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    The widely distributed neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) contributes to maintaining serum levels of albumin and IgG in adults. In the kidney, FcRn is expressed on the podocytes and the brush border of the proximal tubular epithelium. Here, we evaluated the role of renal FcRn in albumin and IgG metabolism. Compared with wild-type controls, FcRn(-/-) mice had a lower t((1/2)) for albumin (28.7 versus 39.9 h) and IgG (29.5 versus 66.1 h). Renal loss of albumin could account for the former, suggested by the progressive development of hypoalbuminemia in wild-type mice transplanted with FcRn-deficient kidneys. Furthermore, serum albumin levels returned to normal in FcRn(-/-) recipients of wild-type kidneys after removing the native FcRn-deficient kidneys. In contrast, renal loss could not account for the enhanced elimination of IgG in FcRn(-/-) mice. These mice had minimal urinary excretion of native and labeled IgG, which increased to wild-type levels in FcRn(-/-) recipients of a single FcRn-sufficient kidney (t((1/2)) of IgG was 21.7 h). Taken together, these data suggest that renal FcRn reclaims albumin, thereby maintaining the serum concentration of albumin, but facilitates the loss of IgG from plasma protein pools.

  8. Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shama, Ayman A.

    2011-03-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

  9. One Corner at a Time: Collaborating for Educational Change in the UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowa, Patience A.; De La Vega, Esperanza

    2008-01-01

    Education has been one of the highest priorities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) since it became a country in 1971 under the leadership of the late Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan. In 1962, when oil production started in Abu Dhabi, the country had just 20 schools for less than 4,000 students, most of them boys. The discovery of oil became the…

  10. Energy analysis of facade-integrated photovoltaic systems applied to UAE commercial buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Radhi, Hassan

    2010-12-15

    Developments in the design and manufacture of photovoltaic cells have recently been a growing concern in the UAE. At present, the embodied energy pay-back time (EPBT) is the criterion used for comparing the viability of such technology against other forms. However, the impact of PV technology on the thermal performance of buildings is not considered at the time of EPBT estimation. If additional energy savings gained over the PV system life are also included, the total EPBT could be shorter. This paper explores the variation of the total energy of building integrated photovoltaic systems (BiPV) as a wall cladding system applied to the UAE commercial sector and shows that the ratio between PV output and saving in energy due to PV panels is within the range of 1:3-1:4. The result indicates that for the southern and western facades in the UAE, the embodied energy pay-back time for photovoltaic system is within the range of 12-13 years. When reductions in operational energy are considered, the pay-back time is reduced to 3.0-3.2 years. This study comes to the conclusion that the reduction in operational energy due to PV panels represents an important factor in the estimation of EPBT. (author)

  11. Reporting child abuse cases by dentists working in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    PubMed

    Al-Amad, Suhail H; Awad, Manal A; Al-Farsi, Laila H; Elkhaled, Rawan H

    2016-05-01

    Reporting of suspicious cases of child abuse is a sensitive issue that is often hindered by uncertainty of diagnosis. This cross sectional study aimed to assess the UAE dentists' experiences in child abuse recognition, the factors that prevent them from reporting suspicious cases to authorities and their perceived training needs. A closed-ended, self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 350 dentists working in the UAE. Chi Square test was used to determine association between training needs on child abuse and its reporting rate. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between perceived training needs and other covariates. One hundred and ninety three respondents satisfied the inclusion criteria. Forty seven (25%) dentists reported encountering a suspicious child abuse case at least once in their career, but only 15 (32%) of those reported their suspicion. Fear of making the wrong diagnosis was the most frequent challenge hindering reporting and dentists who demonstrated a need for specialized training were more likely to express this fear (OR = 5.88, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.45; P = 0.00). The majority of UAE dentists do not report their suspicion to authorities and specialized training should be offered to build dentists' capacity in diagnosing and appropriately reporting suspicious child abuse cases.

  12. Public Perception on Disaster Management Using Volunteered Geographic Information (vgi): Case of Uae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagoub, M. M.

    2015-10-01

    The number of smart phones that are supported by location facility like Global Positioning System (GPS), Camera and connected to the internet has increased sharply in UAE during the last five years. This increase offers a chance to capitalize on using these devices as resources for data collection, therefore reducing cost. In many cases specific events may happen in areas or at time where there may be no governmental departments to collect such unrepeated events. The current research will showcase various studies that had been conducted on Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) debating various aspects such as accuracy, legal issues, and privacy. This research will also integrate Geographic Information System (GIS), VGI, social media tools, data mining, and mobile technology to design a conceptual framework for promoting public participation in UAE. The data gathered through survey will be helpful in correlating various aspects of VGI. Since there are diverse views about these aspects, policy makers are left undecided in many countries about how to deal with VGI. The assessment of the UAE case will contribute to the age-long debate by examining the willingness of the public to participate. The result will show the public perception to be as sensors for data collection. Additionally, the potential of citizen involvement in the risk and disaster management process by providing voluntary data collected for VGI applications will also be explored in the paper.

  13. Salt excretion in Suaeda fruticosa.

    PubMed

    Labidi, Nehla; Ammari, Manel; Mssedi, Dorsaf; Benzerti, Maali; Snoussi, Sana; Abdelly, C

    2010-09-01

    Suaeda fruticosa is a perennial "includer" halophyte devoid of glands or trichomes with a strong ability of accumulating and sequestrating Na(+) and Cl(-). We were interested in determining whether leaf cuticle salt excretion could be involved as a further mechanism in salt response of this species after long-term treatment with high salinity levels. Seedlings had been treated for three months with seawater (SW) diluted with tap water (0, 25, 50 and 75% SW). Leaf scanning electron microscopy revealed a convex adaxial side sculpture and a higher accumulation of saline crystals at the lamina margin, with a large variability on repartition and size between treatments. No salt gland or salt bladder was found. Threedimensional wax decorations were the only structures found on leaf surface. Washing the leaf surface with water indicated that sodium and chloride predominated in excreted salts, and that potassium was poorly represented. Optimal growth of whole plant was recorded at 25% SW, correlating with maximum Na(+) and Cl(-) absolute secretion rate. The leaves of plants treated with SW retained more water than those of plants treated with tap water due to lower solute potential, especially at 25% SW. Analysis of compatible solute, such as proline, total soluble carbohydrates and glycinebetaine disclosed strong relationship between glycinebetaine and osmotic potential (r = 0.92) suggesting that tissue hydration was partly maintained by glycinebetaine accumulation. Thus in S. fruticosa , increased solute accumulation associated with water retention, and steady intracellular ion homeostasis confirms the "includer" strategy of salt tolerance previously demonstrated. However, salt excretion at leaf surface also participated in conferring to this species a capacity in high salinity tolerance.

  14. Purine and pyrimidine excretion in psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Simmonds, H. A.; Bowyer, A.

    1974-01-01

    1 Urinary purine excretion has been investigated in two healthy controls and two patients with psoriasis, one a hyperuricaemic, one a normouricaemic. No difference was detected between the patients and controls. Therapy with allopurinol effectively lowered blood and urinary uric acid levels and produced a deficit in total urinary oxypurine excretion in both controls and patients with psoriasis. The concomitant increase in xanthine excretion was greater than the increase in hypoxanthine excretion and xanthine/hypoxanthine ratios (average 0.70 and 1.0 prior to therapy) were increased by allopurinol to an average of 3.0 and 3.8 respectively in the two groups. Allopurinol also reduced the excretion of 8-hydroxy-7-methyl guanine but no effect on the excretion levels of other minor purine bases was noted. 2 Allopurinol was metabolized similarly by both patients and controls, 84% of the administered allopurinol being accounted for as urinary metabolites. 74% of the drug in the urine was excreted as oxipurinol, 26% as unchanged allopurinol plus allopurinol riboside, the remainder being oxipurinol riboside. 3 Pseudouridine excretion in 25 healthy controls was 86.5 ± 17.8 mg/24 hours. Pseudouridine excretion was not excessive in the patients with psoriasis and was not altered by allopurinol therapy. 4 No abnormality or difference in purine or pyrimidine excretion in either patient was detected prior to or during therapy which could be related to the epidermal lesion. PMID:22454896

  15. The limited role of the glomerular endothelial cell glycocalyx as a barrier to transglomerular albumin transport.

    PubMed

    Comper, Wayne D

    2014-01-01

    For over 50 years, the glomerular filter has been thought to exert an uniquely significant barrier to the transport of albumin. The glomerular endothelial cell glycocalyx is considered to contribute to this important barrier restriction. In renal disease, structural alterations to this layer have been associated with albuminuria. It appears however the claims of the influence of this barrier have been overstated. The behaviour of albumin in systems that model the glycocalyx has been studied widely and the results demonstrate that the endothelial glycocalyx would offer only relatively small effective barrier to albumin. This has been confirmed in studies on macromolecular exchange in non-renal capillary beds with similar endothelial glycocalyx. The experimental perturbations to the glomerular endothelial glycocalyx (through enzyme treatments, saline washouts) also create only relatively small changes in the level of albuminuria as compared to changes in albumin excretion seen in renal disease and nephrotic states. Additionally, it is questionable how specific these perturbations are. Overall, the endothelial glycocalyx most likely has biological functions like it does in other extracellular regions involving hydration through osmotic pressure and offering charge-mediated binding of various molecules. This confirms work by Comper and colleagues that the glomerular sieving of albumin is not unique and is consistent with that of size selectivity that results in significant amounts of albumin being filtered normally, retrieved by proximal tubules and returned to the blood supply.

  16. [Renal calcium excretion and urolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Aruga, Seiji; Honma, Yukio

    2011-10-01

    Patients with urolithiasis have been increasing in the world, especially morbidity of calcium nephrolithiasis has been increasing in the advanced countries. The changes in the environmental factors including alternation of diet are said to be associated with the increment of morbidity of kidney stone. Idiopathic hypercalciuria is one of the most important risk factor of calcium nephrolithiasis and is classified into absorptive, resorptive, and renal leak. Though the origins of these three types of hypercalciuria are different, increased bone resorption and increased calcium absorption from gut tend to be observed simultaneously. Not only genetic abnormalities in the proteins which are involved in calcium metabolisms but environmental factors such as high sodium intake and chronic acid load caused by increased ingestion of animal protein have been considered to be associated with increased urinary calcium excretion. Renal metabolisms of oxalate and phosphate which are important compositions of calcium containing stone, uric acid as a promoter and citrate as a inhibitor of nephrolithiasis are also described.

  17. Electromagnetic mapping of buried paleochannels in eastern Abu Dhabi Emirate, U.A.E.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fitterman, D.V.; Menges, C.M.; Al Kamali, A.M.; Essa, Jama F.

    1991-01-01

    Transient electromagnetic soundings and terrain conductivity meter measurements were used to map paleochannel geometry in the Al Jaww Plain of eastern Abu Dhabi Emirate, U.A.E. as part of an integrated hydrogeologic study of the Quaternary alluvial aquifer system. Initial interpretation of the data without benefit of well log information was able to map the depth to a conductive clay layer of Tertiary age that forms the base of the aquifer. Comparison of the results with induction logs reveals that a resistive zone exists that was incorporated into the interpretation and its lateral extent mapped with the transient electromagnetic sounding data. ?? 1991.

  18. Rotational Augmentation Disparities in the MEXICO and UAE Phase VI Experiments: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Schreck, S.; Sant, T.; Micallef, D.

    2010-05-01

    Wind turbine structures and components suffer excessive loads and premature failures when key aerodynamic phenomena are not well characterized, fail to be understood, or are inaccurately predicted. Turbine blade rotational augmentation remains incompletely characterized and understood, thus limiting robust prediction for design. Pertinent rotational augmentation research including experimental, theoretical, and computational work has been pursued for some time, but large scale wind tunnel testing is a relatively recent development for investigating wind turbine blade aerodynamics. Because of their large scale and complementary nature, the MEXICO and UAE Phase VI wind tunnel experiments offer unprecedented synergies to better characterize and understand rotational augmentation of blade aerodynamics.

  19. Synergism between maggot excretions and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; Pawiroredjo, Janity S; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M J E; Schreurs, Marco W J; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2010-01-01

    Maggots are successfully used to treat severe, infected wounds. This study investigated whether maggot excretions/secretions influence the antibacterial activity of different antibiotics. Minimal inhibitory concentrations and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined of gentamicin and flucloxacillin for Staphylococcus aureus, of penicillin for Streptococcus pyogenes, of amoxicillin and vancomycin for Enterococcus faecalis, of gentamicin for Enterobacter cloacae, and of gentamicin, tobramycin, and ciprofloxacin for Pseudomonas aeruginosa by checkerboard titration. A range of concentrations of antibiotics in combination with excretions/secretions was examined to investigate the potential of maggot excretions/secretions to affect antibacterial activity. The results showed a dose-dependent increase of the antibacterial effect of gentamicin in the presence of excretions/secretions on S. aureus. Minimal concentrations and MBC of gentamicin decreased, respectively, 64- and 32-fold. The MBC of flucloxacillin and excretions/secretions against S. aureus were also decreased. The other antibiotic and excretions/secretions combinations exerted an indifferent effect. Excretions/secretions alone did not have any antibacterial effect. The synergism between gentamicin and maggot excretions/secretions could be of direct importance in clinical practice, because it could allow the use of lower doses of gentamicin and thus minimize the risk of gentamicin-related side effects.

  20. Amadori albumin in diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Neelofar, Km.; Ahmad, Jamal

    2015-01-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation of macromolecules in diabetes mellitus (DM) is accelerated due to persistent hyperglycemia. Reducing sugar such as glucose reacts non enzymatically with free €-amino groups of proteins through series of reactions forming Schiff bases. These bases are converted into Amadori product and further into AGEs. Non enzymatic glycation has the potential to alter the biological, structural and functional properties of macromolecules both in vitro and in vivo. Studies have suggested that amadori as well as AGEs are involved in the micro-macro vascular complications in DM, but most studies have focused on the role of AGEs in vascular complications of diabetes. Recently putative AGE-induced patho-physiology has shifted attention from the possible role of amadori-modified proteins, the predominant form of the glycated proteins in the development of the diabetic complications. Human serum albumin (HSA), the most abundant protein in circulation contains 59 lysine and 23 arginine residues that could, in theory be involved in glycation. Albumin has dual nature, first as a marker of intermediate glycation and second as a causative agent of the damage of tissues. Among the blood proteins, hemoglobin and albumin are the most common proteins that are glycated. HSA with a shorter half life than RBC, appears to be an alternative marker of glycemic control as it can indicate blood glucose status over a short period (2-3 weeks) and being unaffected by RBCs life span and variant haemoglobin, anemia etc which however, affect HbA1c. On the other hand, Amadori albumin may accumulate in the body tissues of the diabetic patients and participate in secondary complications. Amadori-albumin has potential role in diabetic glomerulosclerosis due to long term hyperglycaemia and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. This review is an approach to compile both the nature of glycated albumin as a damaging agent of tissues and as an intermediate

  1. Temporal and Spatial Assessment of Yearly Solar Maps Derived from Satellite Images over the UAE and Qatar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, Y.; Marpu, P. R.; Ghedira, H.; Chiesa, M.

    2012-12-01

    The unique climate of countries located within the Arabian Peninsula, characterized by high dust concentrations, high humidity and modest cloud coverage, requires regional models to retrieve the solar irradiance components from satellite images. An artificial neural network (ANN) model has shown promising results in estimating the direct normal, diffuse horizontal and global horizontal irradiances using thermal satellite channels over the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This model is trained with six thermal channels of the SEVIRI instrument, onboard Meteosat Second Generation, along with the solar zenith angle, day number, solar time and eccentricity correction. The outputs of this model are the solar irradiance components at 15-min temporal and 3-km spatial resolutions, which are then utilized to derive the daily, monthly and yearly irradiation maps over the UAE and Qatar. The purpose of this research is to examine the temporal and spatial variations for annual irradiation maps over the UAE and Qatar, derived using the ANN approach. For the period ranging from 2008 to 2010, the year of 2009 shows the lowest annual direct normal and global horizontal irradiation, and the highest diffuse horizontal irradiation. That is due to frequent dust events which occurred during 2009. The annual direct normal irradiation maps for 2008 to 2010 show the same trend, with the higher irradiation values in the southern area of UAE and the values decreasing as the coast approaches in the northern region. For any given year, Qatar generally shows lower direct normal irradiation values than the UAE. This might be explained by higher humidity in Qatar due to its coastal climate. As for the annual diffuse horizontal irradiation maps, the lower irradiation values are observed in the southern area of UAE and along some coastal regions, with the higher values being in the middle. Qatar shows higher values in the western region, due to the increased airborne dust coming from Saudi Arabia, as

  2. Road traffic fatalities in Qatar, Jordan and the UAE: estimates using regression analysis and the relationship with economic growth.

    PubMed

    Bener, A; Hussain, S J; Al-Malki, M a; Shotar, M M; Al-Said, M F; Jadaan, K S

    2010-03-01

    Smeed's equation is a widely used model for prediction of traffic fatalities but has been inadequate for use in developing countries. We applied regression analysis to time-series data on vehicles, exponential models for fatality prediction, producing an average absolute error of 20.9% for Qatar, 10.9% for population and traffic fatalities in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Jordan and Qatar. The data were fitted to Jordan and 5.5% for the UAE. We found a strong linear relationship between gross domestic product and fatality rate.

  3. Evaluation of rational use of medicines (RUM) in four government hospitals in UAE

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Amal; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Ali, Abdel Azim Ahmed; Hassan, Nageeb A.G.M.; Shehab, Abdulla; Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth

    2015-01-01

    Rational: Studies conducted showed that there were gaps regarding the rational use of medicines (RUM). Aims and objectives: Evaluate RUM in main government hospitals in four emirates in UAE, using WHO prescribing indicators. Method: Multicenter prospective cross-sectional comparative study was conducted in 4 hospitals in 4 different Emirates in UAE. Using consecutive random sampling method, a total of 1100 prescriptions (2741 prescribed drugs) were collected and analyzed from surveyed hospitals from April to October 2012. Index of Rational Drug Prescribing (IRDP) was used as an indicator of RUM. Results: The main finding of this study was that, the mean values of prescribing indicators of RUM in the surveyed hospitals were estimated to be within the WHO optimal values for generics (100.0 vs. 100.0), antibiotics (9.8 ± 4.8 vs. ⩽30), injections (3.14 ± 1.7 vs. ⩽10) and formulary (EML) prescribing (100.0 vs. 100.0). However, the only discrepancy was reported regarding the number of drugs per prescription which was found to be more than the WHO optimal value (2.49 ± 0.9 vs. ⩽2); respectively. The mean IRDP was 4.55 which was less than the WHO optimal value of 5. Conclusions: Strategies and interventions are desirable to promote RUM and minimize the consequences of poly-pharmacy. PMID:27013912

  4. UAE, MAE, SFE-CO2 and classical methods for the extraction of Mitragyna speciosa leaves.

    PubMed

    Orio, Laura; Alexandru, Lavinia; Cravotto, Giancarlo; Mantegna, Stefano; Barge, Alessandro

    2012-05-01

    Mitragyna speciosa, a tropical plant indigenous to Southeast Asia, is well known for its psychoactive properties. Its leaves are traditionally chewed by Thai and Malaysian farmers and manual labourers as it causes a numbing, stimulating effect. The present study aims to evaluate alkaloid yield and composition in the leaf extracts. For this purpose we have compared several non-conventional extraction techniques with classic procedures (room temperature or under heating). Dried M. speciosa leaves belonging to three batches of different origin (from Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia) were extracted using ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE), microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction SFE-CO(2), using methanol, ethanol, water and binary mixtures. The extracts were compared using an HPLC/ESI-MS analysis of mitragynine and four other related alkaloids which were present in the alkaloid fraction. The extraction technique influences both the raw product yield and the relative alkaloid content of M. speciosa leaves. Of the several methods tested, MAE in a closed vessel at 110 °C (60 W, methanol/water 1:1) gave the highest alkaloid fraction amount, while UAE with an immersion horn at 25 °C (21.4 kHz, 50 W, methanol) showed the best yield for mitragynine. This work may prove to be a useful contribution to forensic, toxicological and pharmacognosy studies. Although the potential applications of M. speciosa alkaloids clearly need further investigation, these results may facilitate the scaling-up of their extraction. PMID:22054912

  5. Gis-Based Wind Farm Site Selection Model Offshore Abu Dhabi Emirate, Uae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleous, N.; Issa, S.; Mazrouei, J. Al

    2016-06-01

    The United Arab Emirates (UAE) government has declared the increased use of alternative energy a strategic goal and has invested in identifying and developing various sources of such energy. This study aimed at assessing the viability of establishing wind farms offshore the Emirate of Abu Dhabi, UAE and to identify favourable sites for such farms using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) procedures and algorithms. Based on previous studies and on local requirements, a set of suitability criteria was developed including ocean currents, reserved areas, seabed topography, and wind speed. GIS layers were created and a weighted overlay GIS model based on the above mentioned criteria was built to identify suitable sites for hosting a new offshore wind energy farm. Results showed that most of Abu Dhabi offshore areas were unsuitable, largely due to the presence of restricted zones (marine protected areas, oil extraction platforms and oil pipelines in particular). However, some suitable sites could be identified, especially around Delma Island and North of Jabal Barakah in the Western Region. The environmental impact of potential wind farm locations and associated cables on the marine ecology was examined to ensure minimal disturbance to marine life. Further research is needed to specify wind mills characteristics that suit the study area especially with the presence of heavy traffic due to many oil production and shipping activities in the Arabian Gulf most of the year.

  6. The relationship between kallikrein and water excretion and the conditional relationship between kallikrein and sodium excretion.

    PubMed Central

    Mills, I H; Ward, P E

    1975-01-01

    1. The renal kallikrein-kinin system has previously been linked with renal control of sodium and water excretion. The present investigations were carried out to examine more closely these relationships. 2. In physiological studies with rabbits, urinary kallikrein was measured by a modification of the [3-H]TAME method. 3. With rabbits on free sodium and water intake, urinary kallikrein was positively correlated with both sodium and water excretion. Kallikrein excretion was also negatively correlated with urinary osmolality. 4. In rabbits on chronic high and low sodium diets, urinary kallikrein was positively correlated with urinary volume but not with sodium excretion. 5. In rabbits held to a constant fluid intake but with sodium intake changed, urinary kallikrein was not correlated with sodium excretion. 6. These results indicate that the positive correlation of kallikrein excretion with sodium excretion under conditions of free sodium and water intake may be only secondary to the positive relationship of kallikrein excretion with urinary volume. 7. The results of the present investigations do not support the hypothesis that the renal kallikrein-kinin system is necessarily involved in renal control of sodium excretion under normal conditions but it is where a change in sodium intake leads to a change in fluid intake and consequently of urinary volume. 8. In the above experiments, urinary kallikrein was always positively correlated with urinary volume and negatively correlated with urinary osmolality. This may indicate a functional relationship between renal kallikrein and water excretion. PMID:1133793

  7. Albumin receptor effect may be due to a surface-induced conformational change in albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, R.G.; Burrington, C.M.

    1989-06-15

    To determine whether equilibrium binding between albumin and hepatocytes involves a cell surface receptor for albumin, we incubated freshly isolated rat hepatocytes with /sup 125/I-albumin and determined the amount of albumin associated with the cells as a function of the total albumin concentration. The resulting two-phase binding curve showed the rat albumin-hepatocyte interaction to consist of a saturable binding interaction with a dissociation constant of 1.1 microM and 2 X 10(6) sites/cell in addition to a weak, nonsaturable binding interaction. However, the saturable binding of albumin to hepatocytes did not appear to result from the presence of an albumin receptor on the cell surface; the interaction was the same for different species of albumin, for chemically modified albumins, and for fragments of albumin representing mutually exclusive domains of the molecule. The saturable binding was, instead, found to involve a subpopulation of albumin with an enhanced affinity for the cell surface. We show that this subpopulation of albumin is generated upon contact with either solid surfaces or cell surfaces and can be transferred from one surface to another. We propose that the two-phase Scatchard binding curve and the ''albumin receptor effect'' reflect two populations of albumin that bind to the cell surface with different affinities rather than one population of albumin that binds to two classes of binding sites.

  8. Reflections on the Reggio Emilia Approach as Inspiration for Early Childhood Teacher Education in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Fiona S.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses a teacher educator's reflections on her participation in an international study group and visits to the infant-toddler and pre-schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy, as inspiration for early childhood teacher education in Abu Dhabi, UAE. The following five themes are reflected on, for teacher education in the context of Abu Dhabi:…

  9. The Effect of Student Teaching Experience on Preservice Elementary Teachers' Self-Efficacy Beliefs for Technology Integration in the UAE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Awidi, Hamed Mubarak; Alghazo, Iman Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of the student teaching experience on preservice elementary teachers' self-efficacy beliefs and the sources of their beliefs about technology integration in teaching in the UAE. The participants were 62 pre-service elementary teachers at the United Arab Emirates University. Pre- and post-survey was administered to…

  10. Economic risk and efficiency assessment of fisheries in Abu-Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE): A stochastic approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fishing industry in Abu-Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (UAE) plays an important role in diversifying food sources in order to enhance national food security. The fishing industry is facing increasing risk that may impact the sustainability (i.e., quantity and quality) of the fish caught and consume...

  11. Albumin-deficient mouse models for studying metabolism of human albumin and pharmacokinetics of albumin-based drugs

    PubMed Central

    Roopenian, Derry C; Low, Benjamin E; Christianson, Gregory J; Proetzel, Gabriele; Sproule, Thomas J; Wiles, Michael V

    2015-01-01

    Serum albumin is the major determinant of blood colloidal osmotic pressure acting as a depot and distributor of compounds including drugs. In humans, serum albumin exhibits an unusually long half-life mainly due to protection from catabolism by neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn)-mediated recycling. These properties make albumin an attractive courier of therapeutically-active compounds. However, pharmaceutical research and development of albumin-based therapeutics has been hampered by the lack of appropriate preclinical animal models. To overcome this, we developed and describe the first mouse with a genetic deficiency in albumin and its incorporation into an existing humanized FcRn mouse model, B6.Cg-Fcgrttm1Dcr Tg(FCGRT)32Dcr/DcrJ (Tg32). Albumin-deficient strains (Alb-/-) were created by TALEN-mediated disruption of the albumin (Alb) gene directly in fertilized oocytes derived from Tg32 mice and its non-transgenic background control, C57BL/6J (B6). The resulting Alb-/- strains are analbuminemic but healthy. Intravenous administration of human albumin to Tg32-Alb-/- mFcRn-/- hFcRnTg/Tg) mice results in a remarkably extended human albumin serum half-life of ∼24 days, comparable to that found in humans, and in contrast to half-lives of 2.6–5.8 d observed in B6, B6-Alb-/- and Tg32 strains. This striking increase can be explained by the absence of competing endogenous mouse albumin and the presence of an active human FcRn. These novel albumin-deficient models provide unique tools for investigating the biology and pathobiology of serum albumin and are a more appropriate rodent surrogates for evaluating human serum albumin pharmacokinetics and albumin-based compounds. PMID:25654695

  12. Acute hypoproteinemic fluid overload: its determinants, distribution, and treatment with concentrated albumin and diuretics.

    PubMed

    Pappova, E; Bachmeier, W; Crevoisier, J L; Kollar, J; Kollar, M; Tobler, P; Zahler, H W; Zaugg, D; Lundsgaard-Hansen, P

    1977-01-01

    We simulated the use of massive volumes of crystalloid fluids as a treatment of acute plasma loss in a standardized experimental model and studied the factors determining the retention or excretion of the resulting acute hypoproteinemic fluid overload, its distribution within the body, and its treatment with concentrated albumin and diuretics. In accordance with the classic Starling concept, the serum protein level, i.e. the serum colloid osmotic pressure, determined the excretion/retention ratio of a given water and sodium load. Of the total fluid retention, fat and muscle each accommodated 25%, whereas the skin, which contributes only 7% to the total body weight, accounted for 37% and increased its volume by roughly one third. Concentrated albumin promoted fluid excretion in direct proportion to the achieved increment of the serum protein level and abolished the edema of fat, muscle and skin. Furosemide was virtually ineffective. The implications of these results for the 'adult respiratory distress syndrome' and disturbed wound healing are discussed and related to the concept of a critical threshold of the serum protein level. PMID:919420

  13. Satellite-based retrieval of particulate matter concentrations over the United Arab Emirates (UAE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun; Temimi, Marouane; Hareb, Fahad; Eibedingil, Iyasu

    2016-04-01

    In this study, an empirical algorithm was established to retrieve particulate matter (PM) concentrations (PM2.5 and PM10) using satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) over the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Validation of the proposed algorithm using ground truth data demonstrates its good accuracy. Time series of in situ measured PM concentrations between 2014 and 2015 showed high values in summer and low values in winter. Estimated and in situ measured PM concentrations were higher in 2015 than 2014. Remote sensing is an essential tool to reveal and back track the seasonality and inter-annual variations of PM concentrations and provide valuable information on the protection of human health and the response of air quality to anthropogenic activities and climate change.

  14. Sensitivity of benzene natural attenuation to variations in kinetic and transport parameters in Liwa Aquifer, UAE.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed M; Saleh, Nawal E; Sherif, Mohsen M

    2010-04-01

    Dissolved benzene was detected in the shallow unconfined Liwa aquifer (UAE). This aquifer represents the main freshwater source for a nearby residence camp area. A finite element model is used to simulate the fate, transport, and attenuation of the dissolved benzene plume to help decision makers assess natural attenuation as a viable remediation option. Sensitivity of benzene attenuation to uncertainties in the estimation of some of the kinetic and transport parameters is studied. It was found that natural attenuation is more sensitive to microbial growth rate and half saturation coefficients of both benzene and oxygen than initial biomass concentration and dispersivity coefficients. Increasing microbial growth rate by fourfold increased natural attenuation effectiveness after 40 years by 10%; while decreasing it by fourfold decreased natural attenuation effectiveness by 77%. On the other hand, increasing half saturation coefficient by fourfold decreased natural attenuation effectiveness by 46% in 40 years. Decreasing the same parameter fourfold caused natural attenuation effectiveness to increase by 9%.

  15. Societal problems that patients with epilepsy are facing in Sharjah, UAE.

    PubMed

    Abduelkarem, Abduelmula R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the knowledge and gauge the level of understanding and attitudes of the public towards patients with epilepsy in Sharjah, UAE. A questionnaire-based survey was used, and a total of 400 surveys were distributed in several parts of the city. Among 388 (97%) returned surveys, 94.3% reported that they had heard about epilepsy, and 62.9% believed that epilepsy is a curable disease. More than half of the respondents believed that epilepsy is not a mental illness, and 61.1% respondents that epilepsy is a nervous system disorder. Interestingly, almost 4% of the sample believed that epilepsy is either a supernatural power or an evil spirit. Despite the fact that more than 80% of the respondents accepted that people with epilepsy can become useful members of society and can receive academic education, almost half of the sample reported that society discriminates against people with epilepsy, and 14% of respondents still think that people with epilepsy should be isolated from the healthy population. Furthermore, when respondents were asked if they will allow their son or daughter to marry a girl or boy with epilepsy, 213 (82.5%) and 217 (81.4%) of the respondents reported either "No" or "Don't know", respectively. Negative attitudes and inadequate knowledge among the public in Sharjah, UAE likely contribute to the stigma and discrimination faced by those with epilepsy in this region. Educational programs are urgently needed to increase awareness and to improve knowledge and attitudes among the public. PMID:27152460

  16. Multi-Temporal Satellite Imagery for Urban Expansion Assessment at Sharjah City /UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ruzouq, R.; Shanableh, A.

    2014-06-01

    Change detection is the process of identifying differences in land cover over time. As human and natural forces continue to alter the landscape, it is important to develop monitoring methods to assess and quantify these changes. Recent advances in satellite imagery, in terms of improved spatial and temporal resolutions, are allowing for efficient identification of change patterns and the prediction of areas of growth. Sharjah is the third largest and most populous city in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It is located along the northern coast of the Persian Gulf on the Arabian Peninsula. After the discovery of oil and its export in the last four decades at UAE, it has experienced very rapid growth in industry, economy and population. The main purpose of this study is to detect urban development in Sharjah city by detecting and registering linear features in multi-temporal Landsat images. This paper used linear features for image registration that were chosen since they can be reliably extracted from imagery with significantly different geometric and radiometric properties. Derived edges from the registered images are used as the basis for change detection. Image registration and pixel-pixel subtraction has been implement using multi- temporal Landsat images for Sharjah City. Straight-line segments have been used for accurate co-registration as well as main element for a reliable change detection procedure. Results illustrate that highest range of growth that represented by linear features (building and roads) have been accrued during 1976 - 1987 and stand for 36.24% of the total urban features inside Sharjah city. Moreover, result shows that since 1976 to 2010, the cumulative urban expansion inside Sharjah city is 71.9%.

  17. Maggot excretions affect the human complement system.

    PubMed

    Cazander, Gwendolyn; Schreurs, Marco W J; Renwarin, Lennaert; Dorresteijn, Corry; Hamann, Dörte; Jukema, Gerrolt N

    2012-01-01

    The complement system plays an important role in the activation of the inflammatory response to injury, although inappropriate complement activation (CA) can lead to severe tissue damage. Maggot therapy is successfully used to treat infected wounds. In this study, we hypothesized that maggot excretions/secretions influence CA in order to modulate the host's inflammatory response. Therefore, the effect of maggot excretions on CA was investigated in preoperatively and postoperatively obtained sera from patients. Our results show that maggot excretions reduce CA in healthy and postoperatively immune-activated human sera up to 99.9%, via all pathways. Maggot excretions do not specifically initiate or inhibit CA, but break down complement proteins C3 and C4 in a cation-independent manner and this effect proves to be temperature tolerant. This study indicates a CA-reducing substrate that is already successfully used in clinical practice and may explain part of the improved wound healing caused by maggot therapy. Furthermore, the complement activation-reducing substance present in maggot excretions could provide a novel treatment modality for several diseases, resulting from an (over)active complement system.

  18. Enhancement of radiopharmaceutical excretion by chemical interventions

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, Z.H.; Som, P.; Brill, A.B.; Sacker, D.F.; Atkins, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    The goal was to find methods of decreasing the radiation dose after radionuclide studies, by giving a compound that will increase the rate of excretion of the radionuclide. Sprague - 1 Dawley rats were given Tc-99m pertechnetate, Ga-67 citrate or Tl-201 chloride intravenously followed at intervals of 1 to 24 hours by one of the following compounds: desferroxamine (DFO), 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol (BAL), triethylene tetraamine hexaacetic acid (TETHA), stannous tartarate, bleomycin (BLEO), 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), diethylene-triaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA), DTPA+SnCl.2H/sub 2/O, dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), and ferric-cyanoferrate (IT)(Prussian blue, PB). All the agents except PB are chelators. Some of these agents enhance excretion through the urinary tract (DFO), while most are excreted through the bile. PB was shown to increase Cs excrection through the G.I. tract. (ACR)

  19. Urinary excretion of zinc and metabolic control of patients with diabetes type 2.

    PubMed

    Marreiro, Dilina do Nascimento; do Perpetuo Socorro C Martins, Maria; de Sousa, Simone Sady Ribeiro; Ibiapina, Véritas; Torres, Silva; Pires, Liliane Viana; do Nascimento Nogueira, Nadir; Lima, José Maria Correia; do Monte, Semíramis Jamil Hadad

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess urinary excretion of zinc and evaluation parameters of metabolic control in type 2 diabetic patients. Thirty-one type 2 diabetic patients, of both genders, with 5.8 +/- 5.6 years average time of the disease, age range 20-60 years, were selected. Evaluation of the nutritional status was performed using anthropometric measurements. To evaluate food consumption, the 3-day alimentary log method was used, and its analysis was performed using a software. Determination of urinary zinc was by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. From the obtained results, it was concluded that 51.6% of the patients were overweight. The mean of found waist circumference was 100.4 and 92.2 cm for men and women, respectively. Blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin values were higher than reference values, and plasma albumin concentration was adequate. The median of found urinary zinc excretion was 474.9 mug/24 h, within normal standards (300-600 mug/day). Regarding diet composition, calorie and protein concentration were above recommendation, while mean zinc concentration was adequate. This data allow the conclusion that the evaluated patients presented adequate urinary zinc excretion in comparison with reference values.

  20. A study on the effect of the internal exposure to (210)Po on the excretion of urinary proteins in rats.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Baki; Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Daka, Joseph; Yusuf, Hamdi; Wyatt, Heather; Surette, Joel; Priest, Nick; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of a noninvasive urine specimen for the detection of proteins as indicators of internal exposure to ionizing radiation. Three groups of rats (five in each group) were intravenously injected with 1601 ± 376, 10,846 ± 591 and 48,467 ± 2812 Bq of (210)Po in citrate form. A sham-exposed control group of five rats was intravenously injected with sterile physiological saline. Daily urine samples were collected over 4 days following injection. Purification and pre-concentration of urinary proteins were carried out by ultrafiltration using a 3000 Da molecular weight cutoff membrane filter. The concentration of common urinary proteins, namely albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary excretion of albumin decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.05) 96 h post-injection relative to the control group. In contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for other proteins tested. The dose-dependent decrease in urinary excretion of albumin observed in this study underscores the need for further research, which may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers that would reflect the changes in the primary target organs for deposition of (210)Po.

  1. A study on the effect of the internal exposure to (210)Po on the excretion of urinary proteins in rats.

    PubMed

    Sadi, Baki; Li, Chunsheng; Ko, Raymond; Daka, Joseph; Yusuf, Hamdi; Wyatt, Heather; Surette, Joel; Priest, Nick; Hamada, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    This study was designed to assess the feasibility of a noninvasive urine specimen for the detection of proteins as indicators of internal exposure to ionizing radiation. Three groups of rats (five in each group) were intravenously injected with 1601 ± 376, 10,846 ± 591 and 48,467 ± 2812 Bq of (210)Po in citrate form. A sham-exposed control group of five rats was intravenously injected with sterile physiological saline. Daily urine samples were collected over 4 days following injection. Purification and pre-concentration of urinary proteins were carried out by ultrafiltration using a 3000 Da molecular weight cutoff membrane filter. The concentration of common urinary proteins, namely albumin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, immunoglobulins IgA and IgG, was measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Urinary excretion of albumin decreased dose-dependently (p < 0.05) 96 h post-injection relative to the control group. In contrast, no statistically significant effects were observed for other proteins tested. The dose-dependent decrease in urinary excretion of albumin observed in this study underscores the need for further research, which may lead to the discovery of new biomarkers that would reflect the changes in the primary target organs for deposition of (210)Po. PMID:26961776

  2. Shank2 Regulates Renal Albumin Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Lewis, Linda; Doctor, R Brian; Okamura, Kayo; Lee, Min Goo; Altmann, Christopher; Faubel, Sarah; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Blaine, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Albuminuria is a strong and independent predictor of kidney disease progression but the mechanisms of albumin handling by the kidney remain to be fully defined. Previous studies have shown that podocytes endocytose albumin. Here we demonstrate that Shank2, a large scaffolding protein originally identified at the neuronal postsynaptic density, is expressed in podocytes in vivo and in vitro and plays an important role in albumin endocytosis in podocytes. Knockdown of Shank2 in cultured human podocytes decreased albumin uptake, but the decrease was not statistically significant likely due to residual Shank2 still present in the knockdown podocytes. Complete knockout of Shank2 in podocytes significantly diminished albumin uptake in vitro. Shank2 knockout mice develop proteinuria by 8 weeks of age. To examine albumin handling in vivo in wild-type and Shank2 knockout mice we used multiphoton intravital imaging. While FITC-labeled albumin was rapidly seen in the renal tubules of wild-type mice after injection, little albumin was seen in the tubules of Shank2 knockout mice indicating dysregulated renal albumin trafficking in the Shank2 knockouts. We have previously found that caveolin-1 is required for albumin endocytosis in cultured podocytes. Shank2 knockout mice had significantly decreased expression and altered localization of caveolin-1 in podocytes suggesting that disruption of albumin endocytosis in Shank2 knockouts is mediated via caveolin-1. In summary, we have identified Shank2 as another component of the albumin endocytic pathway in podocytes. PMID:26333830

  3. Characterization of the binding of chrysoidine, an illegal food additive to bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bingjun; Hao, Fang; Li, Jiarong; Wei, Kai; Wang, Wenyu; Liu, Rutao

    2014-03-01

    Chrysoidine is an industrial azo dye and the presence of chrysoidine in water and food has become an environmental concern due to its negative effects on human beings. Binding of dyes to serum albumins significantly influence their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion properties. In this work, the interactions of chrysoidine with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were explored. Isothermal titration calorimetry results reveal the binding stoichiometry of chrysoidine to BSA is 1:15.5, and van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions are the major driving force in the binding of chrysoidine to BSA. Molecular docking simulations show that chrysoidine binds to BSA at a cavity close to Sudlow site I in domain IIA. However, no detectable conformational change of BSA occurs in the presence of chrysoidine as revealed by UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy studies.

  4. Recombinant albumin monolayers on latex particles.

    PubMed

    Sofińska, Kamila; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Kujda, Marta; Nattich-Rak, Małgorzata

    2014-01-14

    The adsorption of recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) on negatively charged polystyrene latex micro-particles was studied at pH 3.5 and the NaCl concentration range of 10(-3) to 0.15 M. The electrophoretic mobility of latex monotonically increased with the albumin concentration in the suspension. The coverage of adsorbed albumin was quantitatively determined using the depletion method, where the residual protein concentration was determined by electrokinetic measurements and AFM imaging. It was shown that albumin adsorption was irreversible. Its maximum coverage on latex varied between 0.7 mg m(-2) for 10(-3) M NaCl to 1.3 mg m(-2) for 0.15 M NaCl. The latter value matches the maximum coverage previously determined for human serum albumin on mica using the streaming potential method. The increase in the maximum coverage was interpreted in terms of reduced electrostatic repulsion among adsorbed molecules. These facts confirm that albumin adsorption at pH 3.5 is governed by electrostatic interactions and proceeds analogously to colloid particle deposition. The stability of albumin monolayers was measured in additional experiments where changes in the latex electrophoretic mobility and the concentration of free albumin in solutions were monitored over prolonged time periods. Based on these experimental data, a robust procedure of preparing albumin monolayers on latex particles of well-controlled coverage and molecule distribution was proposed. PMID:24354916

  5. Clinical study of urinary excretion of Ga-67

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Ibuka, K.; Hashizume, T.; Noguchi, A.; Kojima, J.; Sasakuma, F.; Ishigami, S. )

    1990-04-01

    Ga-67 urinary excretion was examined in 59 patients. The 72-hour urinary excretion rate ranged from 4.3 to 67.8% of the injected dose. Within the first 24 hours, 60.9% of the 72-hour urinary excretion was excreted. There was no significant difference in the Ga-67 urinary excretion rate between males and females, nor between the Ga-67 positive and negative cases. A significant negative correlation was found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and the unsaturated iron binding capacity. Notably, four patients with hyperferremia, which was considered secondary to leukemia and/or chemotherapy or liver cirrhosis, excreted more than 46.8% of Ga-67 within 72 hours. A significant negative correlation was also found between the 72-hour Ga-67 urinary excretion rate and age. Urinary excretion of Ga-67 may be related to the glomerular filtration rate, which decreases with age.

  6. Urinary excretion of Iopamidol following intrathecal administration.

    PubMed

    Pitrè, D; Zingales, M F; Trevisan, C

    1983-01-01

    No iodinated compound other than Iopamidol was found in the urine of subjects who received intrathecal injection of 10 ml of Iopamiro "300". The compound was neither metabolized nor altered in its optical configuration and urinary iodide content was always in the normal range. Between 72 and 85% of injected Iopamidol was excreted within 72 h of injection.

  7. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  8. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  9. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  10. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  11. 21 CFR 640.80 - Albumin (Human).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... a sterile solution of the albumin derived from human plasma. (b) Source material. The source material of Albumin (Human) shall be plasma recovered from Whole Blood prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.1 through 640.5, or Source Plasma prepared as prescribed in §§ 640.60 through 640.76. (c) Additives...

  12. Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin Ratio Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Total Protein and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) Ratio Share this ... Globulin Ratio; A/G Ratio Formal name: Total Protein; Albumin to Globulin Ratio Related tests: Albumin ; Liver ...

  13. Incidence and detection of beak and feather disease virus in psittacine birds in the UAE

    PubMed Central

    Hakimuddin, F.; Abidi, F.; Jafer, O.; Li, C.; Wernery, U.; Hebel, Ch.; Khazanehdari, K.

    2015-01-01

    Beak and feather disease is caused by Circovirus, which affects actively growing beak and feather cells of avian species. The disease affects mainly young birds while older birds may overcome the disease with few lasting effects. Due to lack of treatment, the only way to control the disease is through hygiene and early diagnosis. As a diagnostic tool, we have established a Taqman probe based real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of the viral genome in psittacine birds in UAE and reported the incidence of circovirus in different species of psittacine birds. The sensitivity of our assay was found to be very high with detection limit of up to 3.5 fg of DNA in the sample. The mean prevalence of circovirus was found to be 58.33% in African Grey Parrots, 34.42% in Cockatoos, 31.8% in amazon parrots and 25.53% in Macaws. The Taqman assay is a quick, reliable and sensitive detection method that has been instrumental in identifying this disease that was not previously reported in the region. PMID:27077045

  14. The impact of organic pollution on the macrobenthic fauna of Dubai Creek (UAE).

    PubMed

    Saunders, James E; Al Zahed, Khalid Mohammed; Paterson, David M

    2007-11-01

    Dubai Creek is a tidal marine intrusion bisecting Dubai within the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The creek extends 14km inland from its opening into the Arabian Gulf, with a narrow lower creek channel leading to a lagoon section in the upper creek. The creek contains numerous sources of organic pollution including sewage outlet flows and boat waste. A survey of the creek was performed, assessing organic pollution, water properties, and the benthic macrofaunal community. The upper creek was heavily polluted with macrofauna communities commonly associated with organic pollution and eutrophication, while the lower creek contained low pollution and relatively healthy macrofauna communities. There is little net tidal flow of water within the creek and residence time in the lagoon is high, which may account for the high organic pollution levels. However, some evidence of the pollution effect moving into the lower creek was found. The results are considered in light of current and historic organic loading within the creek and future developments in the area.

  15. Race, space, place: notes on the racialisation and spatialisation of commercial sex work in Dubai, UAE.

    PubMed

    Mahdavi, Pardis

    2010-11-01

    This paper focuses on the perceived racialisation and resultant spatialisation of commercial sex in Dubai. In recent years, the sex industry in Dubai has grown to include women from the Middle East, Eastern Europe, East Asia and Africa. With the increase in sex workers of different nationalities has come a form of localised racism that is embedded in structures and desires seen within specific locations. The physical spatialisation of sex work hinges on perceived race and produces distinct income generating potential for women engaged in the sex industry in Dubai. The social and physical topography of Dubai is important in marginalising or privileging these various groups of sex workers, which correlates race, space and place with rights and assistance. I begin with a description of the multidirectional flows of causality between race, space, place and demand. I then discuss how these various groups are inversely spatialised within the discourse on assistance, protection and rights. The findings presented here are based on ethnographic research conducted with transnational migrants in the UAE in 2004, 2008 and 2009.

  16. The Ecology of Al-Samaliah Island, U.A.E.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahran, M. A.; Al-Ansari, F. M.

    1999-08-01

    Al-Samaliah Island is one of the inshore islands of U.A.E. located at about 12 km north-east of Abu Dhabi in the Arabian Gulf. It has a flat undulating surface with neither sand dunes nor rocky hills. Its sandy soil is generally salt-affected with variable percentages of salts. The vegetation of Al-Samaliah Island is essentially halophytic and may be categorized as: seagrasses, mangal and littoral saltmarsh types. The main species include: Cymodocea ciliata, Halophila spp. and Halodula univervis (seagrasses), some algae, Avicennia marina (mangrove), Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Seidlitzia rosmarinus, and Suaeda vermiculata (salt marsh). Other halophytes commonly present are: Anabasis setifera, Halocnemum strobilaeum, Halopeplis perfoliata, Salsola imbricata and Zygophyllum gatarense in addition to two annuals: Schangenia aegyptiaca and Zygophyllum simplex. Phoenix dactylifera is cultivated in local areas covered with sandy sheets. Between the date palm trees there is a thin growth of Cyperus conglomeratus. Some plant species have been analysed chemically to determine their main constituents. The relationships between the environmental factors and the plant life of the islands are discussed.

  17. Seismic design factors for RC special moment resisting frames in Dubai, UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alhamaydeh, Mohammad; Abdullah, Sulayman; Hamid, Ahmed; Mustapha, Abdilwahhab

    2011-12-01

    This study investigates the seismic design factors for three reinforced concrete (RC) framed buildings with 4, 16 and 32-stories in Dubai, UAE utilizing nonlinear analysis. The buildings are designed according to the response spectrum procedure defined in the 2009 International Building Code (IBC'09). Two ensembles of ground motion records with 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years (10/50 and 2/50, respectively) are used. The nonlinear dynamic responses to the earthquake records are computed using IDARC-2D. Key seismic design parameters are evaluated; namely, response modification factor ( R), deflection amplification factor ( C d), system overstrength factor ( Ω o), and response modification factor for ductility ( R d ) in addition to inelastic interstory drift. The evaluated seismic design factors are found to significantly depend on the considered ground motion (10/50 versus 2/50). Consequently, resolution to the controversy of Dubai seismicity is urged. The seismic design factors for the 2/50 records show an increase over their counterparts for the 10/50 records in the range of 200%-400%, except for the Ω o factor, which shows a mere 30% increase. Based on the observed trends, perioddependent R and C d factors are recommended if consistent collapse probability (or collapse prevention performance) in moment frames with varying heights is to be expected.

  18. Incidence and detection of beak and feather disease virus in psittacine birds in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Hakimuddin, F; Abidi, F; Jafer, O; Li, C; Wernery, U; Hebel, Ch; Khazanehdari, K

    2016-01-01

    Beak and feather disease is caused by Circovirus, which affects actively growing beak and feather cells of avian species. The disease affects mainly young birds while older birds may overcome the disease with few lasting effects. Due to lack of treatment, the only way to control the disease is through hygiene and early diagnosis. As a diagnostic tool, we have established a Taqman probe based real-time PCR assay to detect the presence of the viral genome in psittacine birds in UAE and reported the incidence of circovirus in different species of psittacine birds. The sensitivity of our assay was found to be very high with detection limit of up to 3.5 fg of DNA in the sample. The mean prevalence of circovirus was found to be 58.33% in African Grey Parrots, 34.42% in Cockatoos, 31.8% in amazon parrots and 25.53% in Macaws. The Taqman assay is a quick, reliable and sensitive detection method that has been instrumental in identifying this disease that was not previously reported in the region. PMID:27077045

  19. Effects of methylxanthines on urinary prostaglandin E excretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, K; Kogo, H; Aizawa, Y

    1981-04-01

    Effect of methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine and caffeine) on urinary prostaglandin E (PGE) excretion in male rats was studied. Oral administration of xanthines significantly increased the urinary excretion of PGE. Dose-response studies showed that the maximal excretion of urinary PGE and water was obtained by administration of theophylline (50 mg/kg), where the increase in PGE was about 20 times that of the control. The excretion of urinary sodium, potassium and chloride was also markedly increased by xanthines, particularly, theophylline. Increases in urinary PGE excretion, urine volume and electrolytes excretion were inhibited by 10 mg/kg of indomethacin administered prior to theophylline. The increase of urinary PGE excretion after theophylline administration (50 mg/kg) preceded increases in water and sodium excretion. These results suggest that renal PGE mediates, at least in part, the diuretic effect of theophylline. PMID:7311144

  20. Pentoxifylline, total urinary protein excretion rate and arterial blood pressure in long-term insulin-dependent diabetic patients with overt nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Solerte, S B; Fioravanti, M; Patti, A L; Schifino, N; Zanoletti, M G; Inglese, V; Ferrari, E

    1987-01-01

    A specific hemorheologic treatment might reduce urinary protein excretion and the decline in kidney function in diabetic patients with overt clinical nephropathy. Twenty-one insulin dependent (type I) diabetic patients were randomized and assigned to a treatment with conventional antihypertensive therapy (protocol I) or with pentoxifylline (Trental 400) (protocol II). A marked improvement of blood rheology pattern, together with a reduction of urinary albumin excretion rate and total urinary protein excretion rate, was demonstrated throughout a 1-year follow-up study with pentoxifylline. Furthermore a decrease of systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels was found during the treatment. The modification of these parameters was followed by a significant increase of creatinine clearance in each of the patients studied. The results obtained during pentoxifylline therapy were comparable to those obtained in patients treated with conventional antihypertensive drugs. Pentoxifylline may therefore be used in the treatment of advanced nephropathy in diabetic patients.

  1. Faecal alpha-1-antitrypsin and excretion of 111indium granulocytes in assessment of disease activity in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, W; Becker, W; Mössner, J; Koch, W; Reiners, C

    1987-01-01

    Intestinal protein loss in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases may be easily determined by measurement of alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) stool concentration and alpha 1-AT clearance. Both parameters were significantly raised in 36 and 34 patients respectively with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, compared with eight patients with non-inflammatory bowel diseases, or 19 healthy volunteers. There was wide range of overlap between active and inactive inflammatory disease. Contrary to serum alpha 1-AT, faecal excretion and clearance of alpha 1-AT did not correlate with ESR, serum-albumin, orosomucoid, and two indices of disease activity. A comparison of alpha 1-AT faecal excretion and clearance with the faecal excretion of 111In labelled granulocytes in 27 patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, showed no correlation between the intestinal protein loss and this highly specific marker of intestinal inflammation. Enteric protein loss expressed by faecal excretion and clearance of alpha 1-AT does not depend on mucosal inflammation only, but may be influenced by other factors. PMID:3495470

  2. Serum Albumin as Predictor of Nutritional Status in Patients with ESRD

    PubMed Central

    Gama-Axelsson, Thiane; Heimbürger, Olof; Stenvinkel, Peter; Bárány, Peter; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Serum albumin is a widely used biomarker of nutritional status in patients with CKD; however, its usefulness is debated. This study investigated serum albumin and its correlation with several markers of nutritional status in incident and prevalent dialysis patients. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In a cross-sectional study, serum albumin (bromocresol purple), and other biochemical (serum creatinine), clinical (subjective global assessment [SGA]), anthropometric (handgrip strength; skinfold thicknesses), and densitometry (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry) markers of nutritional status were assessed in 458 incident (61% male; mean age, 54±13 years; GFR, 6.6±0.3 ml/min per 1.73 m2; recruited 1994–2010) and 383 prevalent (56% male; mean age, 62±14 years; recruited 1989–2004) dialysis patients. Results In incident patients, serum albumin was correlated with age (β =−0.15; P<0.001), diabetes (β=−0.30; P<0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β =−0.37; P<0.001), and urinary albumin excretion (β=−0.38; P<0.001) but less so with poor nutritional status (SGA score > 1; β=−0.19; P<0.001). In prevalent patients, serum albumin was correlated with age (β=−0.15; P<0.001), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (β=−0.30; P<0.001), diabetes (β=−0.31; P<0.001), and SGA score > 1 (β=−0.16; P<0.001). In predicting nutritional status assessed by SGA and other markers, adding serum albumin to models that included age, sex, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease did not significantly increase explanatory power. Conclusions In incident and prevalent dialysis patients, serum albumin correlates poorly with several markers of nutritional status. Thus, its value as a reliable marker of nutritional status in patients with ESRD is limited. PMID:22723451

  3. Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular /sup 125/I-albumin permeation and blood flow in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, R.G.; Pugliese, G.; Chang, K.; Speedy, A.; Province, M.A.; Kilo, C.; Williamson, J.R.

    1989-05-01

    Effects of hypothyroidism on vascular 125I-albumin permeation and on blood flow were assessed in multiple tissues of male Sprague-Dawley rats rendered hypothyroid by dietary supplementation with 0.5% (wt/wt) 2-thiouracil or by thyroidectomy. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, body weights, kidney weight, arterial blood pressure, and pulse rate were decreased significantly v age-matched controls. After 10 to 12 weeks of thiouracil treatment, 125I-albumin permeation was increased significantly in the kidney, aorta, eye (anterior uvea, choroid, retina), skin, and new granulation tissue, remained unchanged in brain, sciatic nerve, and heart, and was decreased in forelimb skeletal muscle. A similar pattern was observed in thyroidectomized rats, except that increases in 125I-albumin permeation for all tissues were smaller than those observed in thiouracil-treated rats, and 125I-albumin permeation in retina did not differ from controls. In both thiouracil-treated and thyroidectomized rats, changes in blood flow (assessed with 15-microns, 85Sr-labeled microspheres) relative to the decrease in arterial blood pressure were indicative of a decrease in regional vascular resistance except in the choroid and in the kidney, in which vascular resistance was increased significantly. Glomerular filtration rate was decreased, but filtration fraction and urinary excretion of albumin remained unchanged by thiouracil treatment and thyroidectomy. These results indicate that vascular hemodynamics and endothelial cell barrier functional integrity are modulated in many different tissues by the thyroid. In view of the correspondence of hypothyroid- and diabetes-induced vascular permeability changes, these results raise the possibility that altered thyroid function in diabetes may play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular disease.

  4. Serum albumin and risk of venous thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Folsom, Aaron. R.; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Cushman, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Summary The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is increased in patients with albuminuria. However, whether a low serum albumin concentration is associated with increased risk of VTE has been a matter of controversy. We determined the association of serum albumin with VTE incidence in two large, prospective, population-based cohorts: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (n = 15,300) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) (n = 5,400). Validated VTE occurrence (n=462 in ARIC and n=174 in CHS) was ascertained during follow-up. In both studies, after adjustment for age, sex, race, use of hormone replacement therapy, estimated GFR, history of cancer, and diabetes, serum albumin tended to be associated inversely with VTE. The adjusted hazard ratio per standard deviation lower albumin was 1.18 (95% CI = 1.08, 1.31) in ARIC and 1.10 (95% CI = 0.94, 1.29) in CHS. The hazard ratio for albumin below (versus above) the fifth percentile was 1.28 (95% CI = 0.90, 1.84) in ARIC and 1.80 (95% CI = 1.11, 2.93) in CHS. In conclusion, low serum albumin was a modest marker of increased VTE risk. The observed association likely does not reflect cause and effect, but rather that low serum albumin reflects a hyperinflammatory or hypercoagulable state. Whether this association has clinical relevance warrants further study. PMID:20390234

  5. Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.

    PubMed

    Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P

    2014-11-01

    Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ∼40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis. PMID:25145278

  6. Chylomicrons enhance endotoxin excretion in bile.

    PubMed Central

    Read, T E; Harris, H W; Grunfeld, C; Feingold, K R; Calhoun, M C; Kane, J P; Rapp, J H

    1993-01-01

    Chylomicrons prevent endotoxin toxicity and increase endotoxin uptake by hepatocytes. As a consequence, less endotoxin is available to activate macrophages, thereby reducing tumor necrosis factor secretion. To determine whether the chylomicron-mediated increase in hepatocellular uptake of endotoxin results in increased endotoxin excretion into bile, we examined bile after endotoxin administration. A sublethal dose (7 micrograms/kg) of 125I-endotoxin was incubated with either rat mesenteric lymph containing nascent chylomicrons (500 mg of chylomicron triglyceride per kg of body weight) or an equal volume of normal saline (controls) for 3 h and then infused into male Sprague-Dawley rats. Bile samples were collected via a common bile duct catheter for 24 h. Infusion of endotoxin incubated with chylomicrons increased biliary excretion of endotoxin by 67% at 3 h (P < or = 0.006) and by 20% at 24 h (P < or = 0.01) compared with infusion of endotoxin incubated in saline. Endotoxin activity, as measured by the Limulus assay, was not detected in the bile of test animals. However, endotoxin activity was detected after hot phenol-water extraction of bile, demonstrating that endotoxin is inactive in the presence of bile but retains bioactivity after hepatic processing. Since the majority of an intravenous endotoxin load has been shown to be cleared by the liver, acceleration of hepatocyte clearance and biliary excretion of endotoxin may represent a component of the mechanism by which chylomicrons protect against endotoxin-induced lethality. PMID:8335381

  7. Urinary excretion of arsenic following rice consumption.

    PubMed

    Meharg, A A; Williams, P N; Deacon, C M; Norton, G J; Hossain, M; Louhing, D; Marwa, E; Lawgalwi, Y; Taggart, M; Cascio, C; Haris, P

    2014-11-01

    Patterns of arsenic excretion were followed in a cohort (n = 6) eating a defined rice diet, 300 g per day d.wt. where arsenic speciation was characterized in cooked rice, following a period of abstinence from rice, and other high arsenic containing foods. A control group who did not consume rice were also monitored. The rice consumed in the study contained inorganic arsenic and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) at a ratio of 1:1, yet the urine speciation was dominated by DMA (90%). At steady state (rice consumption/urinary excretion) ∼40% of rice derived arsenic was excreted via urine. By monitoring of each urine pass throughout the day it was observed that there was considerable variation (up to 13-fold) for an individual's total arsenic urine content, and that there was a time dependent variation in urinary total arsenic content. This calls into question the robustness of routinely used first pass/spot check urine sampling for arsenic analysis.

  8. [At what concentration should albumin be prescribed?].

    PubMed

    Mantz, J

    1996-01-01

    Human albumin is available either as a 4 or a 20% solution. Only the latter is a plasma expander which increases volaemia by an amount corresponding to the four-fold of the infused volume. In addition, the sodium load by the latter per gramme of albumin is five times lower as both solutions have the same sodium content. Therefore, when the administration of albumin is indicated, the 20% solution should be preferred, as well as for volume expansion as for other uses, due to a decreased sodium load. However, this recommendation has not been substantiated by comparative studies.

  9. Antioxidant activity of albumin-bound bilirubin.

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, R; Glazer, A N; Ames, B N

    1987-01-01

    Bilirubin, when bound to human albumin and at concentrations present in normal human plasma, protects albumin-bound linoleic acid from peroxyl radical-induced oxidation in vitro. Initially, albumin-bound bilirubin (Alb-BR) is oxidized at the same rate as peroxyl radicals are formed and biliverdin is produced stoichiometrically as the oxidation product. On an equimolar basis, Alb-BR successfully competes with uric acid for peroxyl radicals but is less efficient in scavenging these radicals than vitamin C. These results show that 1 mol of Alb-BR can scavenge 2 mol of peroxyl radicals and that small amounts of plasma bilirubin are sufficient to prevent oxidation of albumin-bound fatty acids as well as of the protein itself. The data indicate a role for Alb-BR as a physiological antioxidant in plasma and the extravascular space. PMID:3475708

  10. Paclitaxel Albumin-stabilized Nanoparticle Formulation

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains brief information about paclitaxel albumin-stabilized nanoparticle formulation and a collection of links to more information about the use of this drug, research results, and ongoing clinical trials.

  11. [Modified albumin in harp seal blood serum].

    PubMed

    Erokhina, I A

    1999-01-01

    The content of modified albumin (Am) in harp seal (Pagophilus groenlandica Erxleben, 1777) blood serum was studied. Am was determined by paper electrophoresis by means of re-precipitation in the trichloroacetic acid-ethanol system. Modified albumin content in normal seal pups' blood serum increased from 1990 to 1994. The Am level in undernourished pups was stable from year to year and higher than in normal pups. In oceanarium investigations it was revealed a low albumin resistance to denaturation and the dependence of Am content on the animals' physiological state. Thus there is a possibility to regard modified albumin content as one of the significant parameters in biomonitoring of harp seal population and, moreover, as a supplementary criterion for estimation of seals' health state in captivity.

  12. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression is enhanced in renal parietal epithelial cells of zucker diabetic Fatty rats and is induced by albumin in in vitro primary parietal cell culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; George, Jasmine; Li, Yun; Olufade, Rebecca; Zhao, Xueying

    2015-01-01

    As a subfamily of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), gelatinases including MMP-2 and MMP-9 play an important role in remodeling and homeostasis of the extracellular matrix. However, conflicting results have been reported regarding their expression level and activity in the diabetic kidney. This study investigated whether and how MMP-9 expression and activity were changed in glomerular epithelial cells upon albumin overload. In situ zymography, immunostaining and Western blot for renal MMP gelatinolytic activity and MMP-9 protein expression were performed in Zucker lean and Zucker diabetic rats. Confocal microscopy revealed a focal increase in gelatinase activity and MMP-9 protein in the glomeruli of diabetic rats. Increased glomerular MMP-9 staining was mainly observed in hyperplastic parietal epithelial cells (PECs) expressing claudin-1 in the diabetic kidneys. Interestingly, increased parietal MMP-9 was often accompanied by decreased staining for podocyte markers (nephrin and podocalyxin) in the sclerotic area of affected glomeruli in diabetic rats. Additionally, urinary excretion of podocyte marker proteins was significantly increased in association with the levels of MMP-9 and albumin in the urine of diabetic animals. To evaluate the direct effect of albumin on expression and activity of MMP-9, primary cultured rat glomerular PECs were incubated with rat serum albumin (0.25 - 1 mg/ml) for 24 - 48 hrs. MMP-9 mRNA levels were significantly increased following albumin treatment. Meanwhile, albumin administration resulted in a dose-dependent increase in MMP-9 protein and activity in culture supernatants of PECs. Moreover, albumin activated p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in PECs. Inhibition of p44/42 MAPK suppressed albumin-induced MMP-9 secretion from glomerular PECs. Taken together, we have demonstrated that an up-regulation of MMP-9 in activated parietal epithelium is associated with a loss of adjacent podocytes in progressive diabetic nephropathy

  13. Bisalbuminemia. A new molecular variant, albumin Vancouver.

    PubMed

    Frohlich, J; Kozier, J; Campbell, D J; Curnow, J V; Tárnoky, A L

    1978-11-01

    Of 18 members of a Fiji Indian family investigated, eight of the 12 males and two of the six females had an electrophoretically slow-type bisalbuminemia (alloalbuminemia). The albumin was characterized by the hiterto unique ratio of the two bands (Al A 35%: variant 65%), and by dye-binding studies and electrophoretic mobility in different media. The data suggest that this is a new variant, which we propose to call albumin Vancouver (Al Va).

  14. Renal handling of beta-2-microglobulin, amylase and albumin in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, F A; Jacobson, G

    1979-01-01

    The renal handling of beta-2-microglobulin, amylase and albumin was studied in patients with acute pancreatitis. The data were compared with results obtained from patients with glomerular proteinuria and from patients with tubular proteinuria. Initially during acute pancreatitis, the clearance ratio (clearance protein/clearance creatinine) for beta-2-microglobulin was increased dramatically (77-fold) compared to normals. After four to seven days this ratio had fallen and was elevated only 7-fold. The corresponding figures for amylase were 3.3 and 1.8 times and for albumin 9 and 5 times respectively. In glomerular disease, the clearance ratios for beta-2-microglobulin, amylase and albumin were increased 6, 1.1, and 154 times and in tubular disease 448, 1.1, and 28 times, respectively. The electrophoretic pattern of the urinary proteins during pancreatitis was mostly normal. In a few cases, slight tubular proteinuria was noticed. Amylase activity in serum and urine from patients with pancreatitis was found to sediment, (S20,W = 4.6) in a sucrose gradient, identical to amylase from normal serum and urine. The marked increase in the excretion of beta-2-microglobulin probably reflects interference of the kidney function at the proximal tubular level. Determinations of this protein in urine may be of value in studies of kidney dysfunction that can accompany pancreatitis.

  15. Large fragments of human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Geisow, M J; Beaven, G H

    1977-03-01

    Large fragments of human serum albumin were produced by treatment of the native protein with pepsin at pH3.5. Published sequences of human albumin [Behrens, Spiekerman & Brown (1975) Fed. Proc. Fed. Am. Soc. Exp. Biol. 34, 591; Meloun, Moravek & Kostka (1975) FEBSLett.58, 134-137]were used to locate the fragments in the primary structure. The fragments support both the sequence and proposed disulphide-linkage pattern (Behrens et al., 1975). As the pH of a solution of albumin is lowered from pH4 to pH3.5, the protein undergoes a reversible conformational change known as the N-F transition. The distribution of large fragments of human albumin digested with pepsin in the above pH region was critically dependent on pH. It appeared that this distribution was dependent on the conformation of the protein at low pH, rather than the activity of pepsin. The yields of the large fragments produced by peptic digestion at different values of pH suggested that the C-terminal region of albumin unfolds or separates from the rest of the molecule during the N-F transition. The similarity of peptic fragments of human and bovine albumin produced under identical conditions supports the proposed similar tertiary structure of these molecules.

  16. Leishmanial Excreted Factor: Protein-Bound and Free Forms from Promastigote Cultures of Leishmania tropica and Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Slutzky, Gerald M.; El-On, Joseph; Greenblatt, Charles L.

    1979-01-01

    Leishmania spp. growing in culture produce an immunologically active substance called excreted factor (EF), which precipitates antibodies raised against intact cells and has been implicated as the conditioning agent for parasite infection of host macrophages. An improved method for isolation of the material is described, based on Sephadex column chromatography of growth medium which had been boiled at pH 5.0. This procedure allows the detection of differences among the EF molecules of different species, and it overcomes previous shortcomings through the monitoring of immunological activity throughout. Analysis of the products of this procedure revealed that EFs from Leishmania tropica and Leishmania donovani share a common carrier protein, identified as rabbit serum albumin, and are chemically quite similar. Growth medium from L. tropica boiled at acidic pH contains primarily an EF-albumin complex of 75,000 molecular weight. Treated growth medium from L. donovani, on the other hand, contains both the albumin complex and a smaller molecule (less than 27,000 molecular weight) that is not associated with rabbit protein. This material accounts for nearly 20% of the EF of one L. donovani strain, but constitutes only a minute fraction of L. tropica EF. Treatment of the EF-albumin complex with trichloroacetic acid separates the molecule into two major subunits, one having a molecular weight of about 61,000 (without anti-Leishmania activity) and the other having a molecular weight of about 18,000 (with no anti-rabbit activity). The protein-free EF of L. tropica differs from that released by trichloroacetic acid extraction in that it is capable of precipitating antisera of nonhomologous serotypes, whereas the albumin complex and the trichloroacetic acid-treated EF fragment are not. EFs from both species display pH-dependent affinity for certain lectins. Images PMID:118936

  17. Lungfish albumin is more similar to tetrapod than to teleost albumins: purification and characterisation of albumin from the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Victoria J; George, Peter M; Brennan, Stephen O

    2007-07-01

    Lobe-finned fish, particularly lungfish, are thought of as the closest extant relatives to tetrapods. Albumin, the major vertebrate plasma protein, has been well studied in tetrapods, but there exists no comparative study of the presence and characteristics of albumin in lobe-finned fish versus other vertebrates. There is a controversy over the presence of albumin in fish, although it is present in salmonids and lamprey. The presence of albumin in lungfish has also recently been documented. We identified albumin in plasma of the Australian lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, using a combination of agarose gel electrophoresis, [(14)C]palmitic acid binding and SDS-PAGE. Lungfish albumin was purified using DEAE-ion exchange chromatography, and has a mass of 67 kDa, is present at approximately 8 g/L in plasma and like other fish albumins, does not bind nickel. However, like tetrapod albumins, it is not glycosylated. N-terminal and internal peptide sequencing generated 101 amino acids of sequence, which showed a high degree of identity with tetrapod albumins. Despite the similarity in sequence but congruent with the evolutionary distances separating them, lungfish albumin did not cross-react with anti-chicken or anti-tuatara A albumin antisera. Lungfish albumin has characteristics more akin with tetrapod albumin and less like those of other fish.

  18. Randomized Comparison of Uterine Artery Embolization (UAE) with Surgical Treatment in Patients with Symptomatic Uterine Fibroids (REST Trial): Subanalysis of 5-Year MRI Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Ananthakrishnan, Ganapathy; Murray, Lilian; Ritchie, Moira; Murray, Gordon; Bryden, Fiona; Lassman, Sue; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Moss, Jon G.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To report 5-year contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging findings of the REST trial recruits who underwent either uterine artery embolization (UAE) or myomectomy. Methods. A total of 157 patients were randomized to UAE or surgery (hysterectomy or myomectomy). Ninety-nine patients who had UAE and eight patients who had myomectomy were analyzed. MRI scans at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years were independently interpreted by two radiologists. Dominant fibroid diameter, uterine volume, total fibroid infarction (complete 100 %, almost complete 90-99 %, partial <90 %), and new fibroid formation were the main parameters assessed and related to the need for reintervention. Results. In the UAE group, mean {+-} standard deviation uterine volume was 670 {+-} 503, 422 {+-} 353, and 292 {+-} 287 mL at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years, respectively. Mean dominant fibroid diameter was 7.6 {+-} 3.0, 5.8 {+-} 2.9, and 5 {+-} 2.9 cm at baseline, 6 months, and 5 years. Fibroid infarction at 6 months was complete in 35 % of women, almost complete in 29 %, and partial in 36 %. Need for reintervention was 19, 10, and 33 % in these groups, respectively (p = 0.123). No myomectomy cases had further intervention. At 5 years, the prevalence of new fibroid was 60 % in the myomectomy group and 7 % in the UAE group (p = 0.008). Conclusion. There is a further significant reduction in both uterine volume and dominant fibroid diameter between 6 months and 5 years after UAE. Complete fibroid infarction does not translate into total freedom from a subsequent reintervention. New fibroid formation is significantly higher after myomectomy.

  19. The effect of ACTH upon faecal glucocorticoid excretion in the koala.

    PubMed

    Davies, Nicole; Gillett, Amber; McAlpine, Clive; Seabrook, Leonie; Baxter, Greg; Lunney, Daniel; Bradley, Adrian

    2013-10-01

    Environmental changes result in physiological responses of organisms, which can adversely affect population dynamics and reduce resistance to disease. These changes are expressed in chronic levels of stress. The measurement of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations in faeces is a non-invasive method for monitoring stress in wildlife. The metabolism and excretion of steroids differ significantly between species and, as a consequence, non-invasive methods must be physiologically validated for each species. Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are declining in numbers through much of their range. The role of chronic stress in koala populations has not been identified. Prior to the assessment of faecal GC concentrations in wild koala populations, the excretion timing and concentrations of GCs need to be determined. In this study, we assessed a method for identifying and measuring the concentrations of GC metabolites in faecal pellets of captive koalas following ACTH treatment. The results show that an elevation of plasma cortisol concentrations, using sustained release of ACTH, results in elevated concentrations of faecal cortisol/cortisol metabolites. Taking into account the excretion time lag, an increase in faecal cortisol metabolite concentrations corresponds to the release of GCs from the adrenal cortex as early as 36 h before faecal pellet collection. The calculations of steroid partitioning of plasma cortisol showed that the ACTH-stimulated values were significantly different from the control values for the concentrations of free, corticosteroid-binding globulin-bound and albumin-bound cortisol. This study validates the use of faecal cortisol analysis to assess the activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in freshly collected koala faecal pellets and indicates that the method should be suitable to assess the adrenocortical status of koalas in wild populations.

  20. Cervical Infection with Herpes simplex Virus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among Symptomatic Women, Dubai, UAE: A Molecular Approach.

    PubMed

    Mehrabani, Davood; Behzadi, Mohammad Amin; Azizi, Saeed; Payombarnia, Hamid; Vahdani, Ali; Namayandeh, Mandana; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2014-01-01

    Tragically, genital tract infections are still a major public health problem in many regions. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of cervical infection with Herpes simplex virus (HSV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) among married women referring to Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE. In a retrospective cross-sectional survey, 201 female patients aged 16-80 years who referred to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Department of Iranian Hospital, Dubai, UAE, in 2010 were enrolled. The patients were categorized into three age groups: 15-30 (group I), 31-40 (group II), and ≥41 years old (group III). A cervical swab sample was collected from each woman and the prevalence of cervical infection with HSV, CT, and NG was determined by PCR method. HSV, CT, and NG were detected in 6.5%, 10.4%, and 5.5% of swab samples, respectively. Regarding age, a significant difference was noticed for prevalence of NG and HSV between groups I and III. Because of public health importance of sexual transmitted diseases (STDs), their long-lasting impact on quality of life, and their economic burden, preventing measures and education of women seem necessary.

  1. Factors Associated With Serum Albumin in Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 With Microalbuminuria Using Non-Normal Mixed Models: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Khoundabi, Batoul; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Mansourian, Marjan; Faghihimani, Elham

    2016-01-01

    Background: The globally increasing epidemic of diabetes will lead to serious problems including diabetic nephropathy and kidney diseases in near future. The first clinical diagnosable stage in a diabetic kidney disease is microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion of 30 - 300 g/24 hours). Objectives: This prospective cohort study investigated the risk factors of microalbuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes who had been registered in endocrine and metabolism research center in Isfahan city, Iran. Patients and Methods: This prospective cohort study was performed on 90 diabetic type 2 patients with microalbuminuria, who were selected according to the consecutive sample selection method during 6 years. Data were collected through regular and systematic measurements of serum albumin as the response variable and body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, the duration of diabetes, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), fasting blood sugar (FBS), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) as the related factors. Non-normal mixed models were used to investigate the impact of effective factors on the amount of excreted serum albumin. Results: According to the deviance information criterion (DIC = 56.2), the non-normal mixed effects model with the skewed t distribution had a best fit and indicated that HbA1c, HDL and total cholesterol had a significant effect on the amount of albumin in urine (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Using nonnormal mixed models may lead to the best results as compared to common normality assumption. PMID:26889385

  2. Ammonia excretion in aquatic and terrestrial crabs.

    PubMed

    Weihrauch, Dirk; Morris, Steve; Towle, David W

    2004-12-01

    The excretory transport of toxic ammonia across epithelia is not fully understood. This review presents data combined with models of ammonia excretion derived from studies on decapod crabs, with a view to providing new impetus to investigation of this essential issue. The majority of crabs preserve ammonotely regardless of their habitat, which varies from extreme hypersaline to freshwater aquatic environments, and ranges from transient air exposure to obligate air breathing. Important components in the excretory process are the Na+/K+(NH4+)-ATPase and other membrane-bound transport proteins identified in many species, an exocytotic ammonia excretion mechanism thought to function in gills of aquatic crabs such as Carcinus maenas, and gaseous ammonia release found in terrestrial crabs, such as Geograpsus grayi and Ocypode quadrata. In addition, this review presents evidence for a crustacean Rhesus-like protein that shows high homology to the human Rhesus-like ammonia transporter both in its amino acid sequence and in its predicted secondary structure. PMID:15579545

  3. Bioengineered kidney tubules efficiently excrete uremic toxins

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, J.; Fedecostante, M.; Wilmer, M. J.; Peters, J. G.; Kreuser, U. M.; van den Broek, P. H.; Mensink, R. A.; Boltje, T. J.; Stamatialis, D.; Wetzels, J. F.; van den Heuvel, L. P.; Hoenderop, J. G.; Masereeuw, R.

    2016-01-01

    The development of a biotechnological platform for the removal of waste products (e.g. uremic toxins), often bound to proteins in plasma, is a prerequisite to improve current treatment modalities for patients suffering from end stage renal disease (ESRD). Here, we present a newly designed bioengineered renal tubule capable of active uremic toxin secretion through the concerted action of essential renal transporters, viz. organic anion transporter-1 (OAT1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance protein-4 (MRP4). Three-dimensional cell monolayer formation of human conditionally immortalized proximal tubule epithelial cells (ciPTEC) on biofunctionalized hollow fibers with maintained barrier function was demonstrated. Using a tailor made flow system, the secretory clearance of human serum albumin-bound uremic toxins, indoxyl sulfate and kynurenic acid, as well as albumin reabsorption across the renal tubule was confirmed. These functional bioengineered renal tubules are promising entities in renal replacement therapies and regenerative medicine, as well as in drug development programs. PMID:27242131

  4. Urinary excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 (apolipoprotein H) and other markers of tubular malfunction in "non-tubular" renal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, F. V.; Lapsley, M.; Sansom, P. A.; Cohen, S. L.

    1992-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1 assays can provide improved discrimination between chronic renal diseases which are primarily of tubular or glomerular origin. METHODS: Urinary beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, alpha 1-microglobulin, beta 2-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosa-minidase and albumin were measured in 51 patients with primary glomerular disease, 23 with obstructive nephropathy, and 15 with polycystic kidney disease, and expressed per mmol of creatinine. Plasma beta 2-glycoprotein-1 was assayed in 52 patients and plasma creatinine in all 89. The findings were compared between the diagnostic groups and with previously published data relating to primary tubular disorders. RESULTS: All 31 patients with plasma creatinine greater than 200 mumol/l excreted increased amounts of beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin, and 29 had increased N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase; the quantities were generally similar to those found in comparable patients with primary tubular pathology. Among 58 with plasma creatinine concentrations under 200 mumol/l, increases in beta 2-glycoprotein-1, retinol-binding protein, and alpha 1-microglobulin excretion were less common and much smaller, especially in those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. The ratios of the excretion of albumin to the other proteins provided the clearest discrimination between the patients with glomerular or tubular malfunction, but an area of overlap was present which embraced those with obstructive nephropathy and polycystic disease. CONCLUSIONS: Increased excretion of beta 2-glycoprotein-1 due to a raised plasma concentration or diminution of tubular reabsorption, or both, is common in all the forms of renal disease investigated, and both plasma creatinine and urinary albumin must be taken into account when interpreting results. Ratios of urinary albumin: beta 2-glycoprotein-1 greater than 1000 are highly suggestive

  5. Effect of monofluoroacetate on renal H+ excretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Simonnet, H; Gauthier, C; Pellet, M V

    1979-05-01

    In order to investigate the effect of monofluoroacetate (MFA) on renal H+ excretion, anesthetized rats under mannitol diuresis were given intraperitoneally MFA and some of the acido-basic status parameters were determined. Urinary pH and pCO2 did not change after MFA administration, while urinary flow rate increased. MFA induced a decrease in H+ net excretion and in ammonia excretion. Titratable acidity did not change significantly within the experiment.

  6. Modeling single cell antibody excretion on a biosensor.

    PubMed

    Stojanović, Ivan; Baumgartner, Wolfgang; van der Velden, Thomas J G; Terstappen, Leon W M M; Schasfoort, Richard B M

    2016-07-01

    We simulated, using Comsol Multiphysics, the excretion of antibodies by single hybridoma cells and their subsequent binding on a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) sensor. The purpose was to confirm that SPRi is suitable to accurately quantify antibody (anti-EpCAM) excretion. The model showed that antibody loss by diffusion away from the sensor was less than 1%. Unexpectedly, more than 99% of the excreted antibodies were captured on the sensor. These data prove the remarkable phenomenon that the SPRi output of cellular antibody excretion and its subsequent binding, performed under the conditions described here, is directly usable for quantification of single cell antibody production rates. PMID:27040182

  7. Modeling single cell antibody excretion on a biosensor.

    PubMed

    Stojanović, Ivan; Baumgartner, Wolfgang; van der Velden, Thomas J G; Terstappen, Leon W M M; Schasfoort, Richard B M

    2016-07-01

    We simulated, using Comsol Multiphysics, the excretion of antibodies by single hybridoma cells and their subsequent binding on a surface plasmon resonance imaging (SPRi) sensor. The purpose was to confirm that SPRi is suitable to accurately quantify antibody (anti-EpCAM) excretion. The model showed that antibody loss by diffusion away from the sensor was less than 1%. Unexpectedly, more than 99% of the excreted antibodies were captured on the sensor. These data prove the remarkable phenomenon that the SPRi output of cellular antibody excretion and its subsequent binding, performed under the conditions described here, is directly usable for quantification of single cell antibody production rates.

  8. Bioactivity of albumins bound to silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mariam, Jessy; Sivakami, S; Kothari, D C; Dongre, P M

    2014-06-01

    The last decade has witnessed a tremendous rise in the proposed applications of nanomaterials in the field of medicine due to their very attractive physiochemical properties and novel actions such as the ability to reach previously inaccessible targets such as brain. However biological activity of functional molecules bound to nanoparticles and its physiological consequences is still unclear and hence this area requires immediate attention. The functional properties of Human Serum Albumin (HSA) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) bound to silver nanoparticles (~60 nm) have been studied under physiological environment. Esterase activity, binding of drugs (warfarin and ibuprofen), antioxidant activity and copper binding by albumins was evaluated. The catalytic efficiencies of HSA and BSA diminished upon binding to silver nanoparticles. Perturbation in binding of warfarin and ibuprofen, loss of free sulphydryls, antioxidant activity and enhancement of copper binding were observed in albumins bound to nanoparticles. These alterations in functional activity of nanoparticle bound albumins which will have important consequences should be taken into consideration while using nanoparticles for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

  9. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-04

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride-HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure.

  10. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride–HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 104 M−1, at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 104 M−1, at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 104 M−1, at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure. PMID:26742031

  11. Binding of Sulpiride to Seric Albumins.

    PubMed

    da Silva Fragoso, Viviane Muniz; de Morais Coura, Carla Patrícia; Hoppe, Luanda Yanaan; Soares, Marília Amável Gomes; Silva, Dilson; Cortez, Celia Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction of sulpiride with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) through the fluorescence quenching technique. As sulpiride molecules emit fluorescence, we have developed a simple mathematical model to discriminate the quencher fluorescence from the albumin fluorescence in the solution where they interact. Sulpiride is an antipsychotic used in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. We selectively excited the fluorescence of tryptophan residues with 290 nm wavelength and observed the quenching by titrating HSA and BSA solutions with sulpiride. Stern-Volmer graphs were plotted and quenching constants were estimated. Results showed that sulpiride form complexes with both albumins. Estimated association constants for the interaction sulpiride-HSA were 2.20 (±0.08) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C, and 5.46 (±0.20) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. Those for the interaction sulpiride-BSA are 0.44 (±0.01) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 37 °C and 2.17 (±0.04) × 10⁴ M(-1), at 25 °C. The quenching intensity of BSA, which contains two tryptophan residues in the peptide chain, was found to be higher than that of HSA, what suggests that the primary binding site for sulpiride in albumin should be located next to the sub domain IB of the protein structure. PMID:26742031

  12. Repression of the albumin gene in Novikoff hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Capetanaki, Y.G.; Flytzanis, C.N.; Alonso, A.

    1982-03-01

    Novikoff hepatoma cells have lost their capacity to synthesize albumin. As a first approach to study the mechanisms underlying this event, in vitro translation in a reticulocyte system was performed using total polyadenylated mRNA from rat liver and Novikoff hepatoma cells. Immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translation products with albumin-specific antibody revealed a total lack of albumin synthesis in Novikoff hepatoma, suggesting the absence of functional albumin mRNA in these cells. Titration experiments using as probe albumin cDNA cloned in pBR322 plasmid demonstrated the absence of albumin-specific sequences in both polysomal and nuclear polyadenylated and total RNA from Novikoff cells. This albumin recombinant plasmid was obtained by screening a rat liver cDNA library with albumin (/sup 32/P)cDNA reverse transcribed from immuno-precipitated mRNA. The presence of an albumin-specific gene insert was documented with translation assays as well as by restriction mapping. Repression of the albumin gene at the transcriptional level was further demonstrated by RNA blotting experiments using the cloned albumin cDNA probe. Genomic DNA blots using the cloned albumin cDNA as probe did not reveal any large-scale deletions, insertions, or rearrangements in the albumin gene, suggesting that the processes involved in the suppression of albumin mRNA synthesis do not involve extensive genomic rearrangements.

  13. Human podocytes perform polarized, caveolae-dependent albumin endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Dobrinskikh, Evgenia; Okamura, Kayo; Kopp, Jeffrey B; Doctor, R Brian; Blaine, Judith

    2014-05-01

    The renal glomerulus forms a selective filtration barrier that allows the passage of water, ions, and small solutes into the urinary space while restricting the passage of cells and macromolecules. The three layers of the glomerular filtration barrier include the vascular endothelium, glomerular basement membrane (GBM), and podocyte epithelium. Podocytes are capable of internalizing albumin and are hypothesized to clear proteins that traverse the GBM. The present study followed the fate of FITC-labeled albumin to establish the mechanisms of albumin endocytosis and processing by podocytes. Confocal imaging and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy of immortalized human podocytes showed FITC-albumin endocytosis occurred preferentially across the basal membrane. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis and caveolae-mediated endocytosis demonstrated that the majority of FITC-albumin entered podocytes through caveolae. Once internalized, FITC-albumin colocalized with EEA1 and LAMP1, endocytic markers, and with the neonatal Fc receptor, a marker for transcytosis. After preloading podocytes with FITC-albumin, the majority of loaded FITC-albumin was lost over the subsequent 60 min of incubation. A portion of the loss of albumin occurred via lysosomal degradation as pretreatment with leupeptin, a lysosomal protease inhibitor, partially inhibited the loss of FITC-albumin. Consistent with transcytosis of albumin, preloaded podocytes also progressively released FITC-albumin into the extracellular media. These studies confirm the ability of podocytes to endocytose albumin and provide mechanistic insight into cellular mechanisms and fates of albumin handling in podocytes.

  14. Pharmacokinetic modeling of the sinusoidal efflux of anionic ligands from the isolated perfused rat liver: the influence of albumin.

    PubMed

    Proost, J H; Nijssen, H M; Strating, C B; Meijer, D K; Groothuis, G M

    1993-08-01

    This study contains a pharmacokinetic analysis on the efflux of organic anions from the liver into the bloodstream (sinusoidal efflux) with specific reference to the influence of albumin. The net sinusoidal efflux rate of dibromosulfophthalein (DBSP) from preloaded livers, being the resultant of sinusoidal efflux and reuptake of ligand by hepatocytes downstream the sinusoid, can be strongly increased by the presence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), a protein having multiple binding sites for DBSP. We previously attributed this effect to a reduction of reuptake through extracellular binding of the organic anion to the protein, rather than to an intrinsic stimulatory effect on the actual membrane transport process from the cells. In the present study we tested this hypothesis using a pharmacokinetic multicompartment liver model. This model resembles the parallel tube model in that the liver is described by several compartments placed in series instead of a single well-stirred compartment and it takes into account rates of dissociation and association in binding to proteins in the sinusoidal space. The model parameters were fitted from the sinusoidal efflux and biliary excretion data from efflux experiments measuring the stimulatory effect of various concentrations of BSA. Equilibrium binding of DBSP to albumin as well as the dissociation rate constant (koff) were determined in vitro with rapid filtration techniques. The experimental data could not be fitted satisfactorily when using the experimentally obtained values of the protein association and dissociation rate constants (kon and koff). However, they could be simulated accurately assuming 16 times higher values for the association and dissociation rate constant compared to those determined in vitro. Time constants of the perfusate flow, liver (re)uptake, and protein association and dissociation indicate that binding equilibrium does not exist within the sinusoids and that, in particular at low protein

  15. Albumin extinction without methylation of its gene.

    PubMed

    Ott, M O; Sperling, L; Weiss, M C

    1984-03-01

    In earlier work we identified at the 5' end of the rat albumin gene an Msp I site whose undermethylation appears to be necessary but not sufficient for stable expression of the gene in rat hepatoma cells. Here, we ask whether the block to expression of albumin production, which occurs when rat hepatoma cells are hybridized with cells that do not produce the protein, could be the result of de novo methylation of this site. In two types of somatic hybrids, rat hepatoma-mouse L cell fibroblasts, and rat hepatoma-dedifferentiated variant rat hepatoma cells, extinction occurs and is maintained during the first 5-15 generations after fusion. During this time the Msp I site of the now inactive rat albumin gene remained unmethylated.

  16. Polymerized soluble venom--human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, R.; Suszko, I.M.; Grammer, L.C.

    1985-03-01

    Extensive previous studies have demonstrated that attempts to produce polymers of Hymenoptera venoms for human immunotherapy resulted in insoluble precipitates that could be injected with safety but with very limited immunogenicity in allergic patients. We now report soluble polymers prepared by conjugating bee venom with human serum albumin with glutaraldehyde. The bee venom-albumin polymer (BVAP) preparation was fractionated on Sephacryl S-300 to have a molecular weight range higher than catalase. /sup 125/I-labeled bee venom phospholipase A was almost completely incorporated into BVAP. Rabbit antibody responses to bee venom and bee venom phospholipase A were induced by BVAP. Human antisera against bee venom were absorbed by BVAP. No new antigenic determinants on BVAP were present as evidenced by absorption of antisera against BVAP by bee venom and albumin. BVAP has potential immunotherapeutic value in patients with anaphylactic sensitivity to bee venom.

  17. Preliminary crystallographic studies of four crystal forms of serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, D. C.; Chang, B.; Ho, J. X.; Keeling, K.; Krishnasami, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Several crystal forms of serum albumin suitable for three-dimensional structure determination have been grown. These forms include crystals of recombinant and wild-type human serum albumin, baboon serum albumin, and canine serum albumin. The intrinsic limits of X-ray diffraction for these crystals are in the range 0.28-0.22 nm. Two of the crystal forms produced from human and canine albumin include incorporated long-chain fatty acids. Molecular replacement experiments have been successfully conducted on each crystal form using the previously determined atomic coordinates of human serum albumin illustrating the conserved tertiary structure.

  18. Novel technique to retrieve the direct normal irradiance from SEVIRI images over the UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghedira, H.; Eissa, Y. A.

    2011-12-01

    horizontal irradiance (GHI), a rotating shadow band making it possible to measure the diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) and from both the measured GHI and DHI the DNI is obtained. Seven temperature and reflectance channels measured by SEVIRI instrument on board of Meteosat Satellite were used as inputs: R01 (0.635 μm); R02 (0.81 μm); R03 (1.64 μm); R04 (3.92 μm); T04 (3.92 μm); T09 (10.8 μm); T10 (12.0 μm). Satellite, solar and azimuth angles were used as additional inputs. δ derived from ground-based DNI measurements, was used as output. A total dataset of 8,344 DNI observations with corresponding satellite measurements were collected to train and validate the ANN. 80% of this data was used for training and the remaining 20% was kept to validate the final ANN. This data was collected over a period of 21 months between 2008 and 2010 in Al-Arad city, south east of the UAE. The preliminary results are promising. The validation set was used to assess the accuracy of the trained network. An RMSE of 15.9% was obtained in comparing the measured and simulated DNI values. We are in the process of compiling ground and satellite data for 3 additional stations to extend the training dataset. The use of the two water vapor channels of SEVIRI as additional inputs will be also evaluated.

  19. Soil Spatial Information and Production of Thematic Maps for the Northern Emirates, UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelfattah, M. A.; Pain, C. F.

    2012-04-01

    published. The results of the suitability evaluation indicated that the soils classified at the subgroup level of the USDA Soil Taxonomy as Haplocambids, Torripsamments, Torriorthents, and Haplocalcids with good deep drainage and low salinity are the preferred soils for irrigated agriculture. Other soils are generally considered unsuitable for irrigated agriculture due to high salinity (Aquisalids and Haplosalids), shallow depth to gypsum (Haplogypsids), extremely coarse textures (some skeletal soils and all fragmental soils), and soils associated with high dune fields. Soil properties that impact land use were evaluated. These include salinity of the upper soil layer (0 - 50 cm); texture including rock fragments on the surface, shallow water tables (shallower than 200 cm from the soil surface); and shallow hardpans (or bedrock). Potential construction and other material resources that were evaluated are gypsum, gravel, calcium carbonate, and sand. Of these, gypsum is the least common. Land degradation was also assessed and mapped based on criteria developed and adopted to meet the conditions of the study area. Evaluation of salinity in the first 50 cm of the soil profile was based on electrical conductivity. The resulting salinity map indicates that most of the soil classified as non-saline and consists of predominantly sandy soils with little or no accumulation of salts within the upper 50 cm. The highest levels of salinity are found along the coasts in the sabkha where soils are moderately saline, strongly saline or very strongly saline. The study concludes that the soils of the Northern Emirates, and indeed the rest of the UAE, are among the most challenging in the world with regards to their efficient and sustainable use. Keywords: Soil, spatial information, suitability, thematic, agriculture, Northern Emirates.

  20. INTESTINAL EXCRETION OF ENDOGENOUS ZINC IN GUATEMALAN SCHOOL CHILDREN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The intestine is the major route of excretion of endogenous zinc and has a key role in maintaining zinc homeostasis. Phytate has been reported to increase these losses. Objective: To determine the rate of excretion of endogenous zinc in school-aged children in a poor rural community for ...

  1. Biphasic changes in 3-methylhistidine excretion in humans after exercise.

    PubMed

    Dohm, G L; Israel, R G; Breedlove, R L; Williams, R T; Askew, E W

    1985-05-01

    We previously reported that 3-methylhistidine excretion was increased in human subjects after a strenuous bout of exercise. Because other investigators have not corroborated this finding, we undertook the present study to investigate the conditions that result in decreased and increased 3-methylhistidine excretion in human subjects after exercise. Four experiments were performed: a cross-sectional study comparing 3-methylhistidine excretion in endurance-trained subjects with untrained controls, a longitudinal study of 3-methylhistidine excretion by female basketball players before the start of the season and again during the competitive season, an experiment to determine changes in 3-methylhistidine excretion as a result of 2 h of exercise each day for 7 consecutive days, and a study to determine changes in 3-methylhistidine excretion during 4-h intervals after a strenuous exercise bout. The 3-methylhistidine-to-creatinine ratio was approximately 20% higher for trained than nontrained subjects. In three separate experiments a biphasic change of 3-methylhistidine excretion was observed in response to exercise with an immediate decrease in the 3-methylhistidine-to-creatinine ratio during exercise followed by a prolonged increase. The magnitudes of the negative and positive responses determine whether one observes an increase, no change, or a decrease in the total daily excretion of 3-methylhistidine.

  2. Urinary copper excretion and hepatic copper concentrations in liver disease.

    PubMed

    Frommer, D J

    1981-01-01

    Urinary copper excretion was found to be increased in patients with cholestasis, hepatitis and cirrhosis, but the penicillamine-induced increment was normal. Wilson's disease patients had increased copper excretion before and after penicillamine, especially in untreated cases. Hepatic copper concentrations correlated with urinary copper excretion in cholestasis and treated Wilson's disease, but not in hepatitis or cirrhosis. In treated Wilson's disease, measurement of urinary copper excretion should be valuable in estimating the degree of removal of copper from the body during therapy. Urinary copper clearances were raised in various liver conditions, maximally in untreated Wilson's disease. It is suggested that only part of the serum non-caeruloplasmin copper is available for excretion into urine.

  3. Trajectories of Serum Albumin Predict Survival of Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ping-Fang; Tsai, Chun-Chieh; Wu, Chia-Lin; Yang, Tse-Yen; Liou, Hung-Hsiang; Chen, Hung-Lin; Kor, Chew-Teng; Chang, Chia-Chu; Chang, Horng-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although initial serum albumin level is highly associated with overall and cardiovascular mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients, we consider that the dynamic change and trend of albumin after initiation of PD are also essential. We enrolled patients who received PD for more than 3 months from January 1999 to March 2014. We categorized these patients into 2 groups by the difference in serum albumin level (Δalbumin = difference between peak with initial albumin level = peak albumin level − initial albumin level) after PD. The patients with Δalbumin < 0.2 g/dL (median level) were considered as group A (n, number = 238) and those with Δalbumin ≥ 0.2 g/dL were considered as group B (n = 278). Further, we stratified these patients into quartiles: Q1 Δalbumin < −0.2 g/dL; Q2, −0.2 ≦∼ <0.2 g/dL; Q3, 0.2 ≦∼ <0.6 g/dL; and Q4, ≥0.6 g/dL. Regression analysis was performed to determine the correlation of initial albumin and Δalbumin. Group A patients presented with higher levels of serum albumin (3.71 ± 0.54 vs 3.04 ± 0.55 g/dL; P < 0.001) and hematocrit as well as better initial residual renal function. However, those in group A had lower serum albumin increment and downward-sloped trends after dialysis. In contrast, the albumin trend was upward sloped and the increment of albumin was remarkable in group B, despite the high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Overtime, group A patients had poorer survival and experienced more frequent and longer hospitalizations. Group Q1 patients with least albumin increment had worst survival. Group Q4 patients with lowest initial albumin also had poor survival. Age, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, BMI, initial albumin, and Δalbumin could affect patient outcomes independently. Regression analysis showed a better outcome can be obtained if the initial albumin level is at least above 3.15 g/dL. (Initial albumin level

  4. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin.

    PubMed

    Poór, Miklós; Lemli, Beáta; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Sali, Nikolett; Kőszegi, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor

    2015-12-01

    Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3) and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow's Site I). In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions.

  5. [Current role of albumin in critical care].

    PubMed

    Aguirre Puig, P; Orallo Morán, M A; Pereira Matalobos, D; Prieto Requeijo, P

    2014-11-01

    The use of colloids in fluid therapy has been, and still continues to be a controversial topic, particularly when referring to the critical patient. The choice of the fluid that needs to be administered depends on several factors, many of which are theoretical, and continue being an object of debate. The interest in the clinical use of the albumin has emerged again, immediately after recent publications in the search of the most suitable colloid. It is the most abundant protein in the plasma, being responsible for 80% of the oncotic pressure. It regulates the balance between the intra- and extra-vascular volumes. Recent multicenter studies question the supposed lack of safety that was previously assigned to it. Furthermore, in vitro studies demonstrate other important actions besides oncotic, for example neutralization of free radicals, and exogenous (drugs) and endogenous substances (bile pigments, cholesterol). Being aware of these secondary properties of albumin, and evaluating the pathophysiology of the critical patient (in particular, sepsis), to maintain plasma albumin levels within the normal range, could be of great importance. Based on the most recent publications, the aim of this review is to briefly analyze the pathophysiology of albumin, as well as to discuss its possible indications in the critical patient. PMID:24952825

  6. Interaction of Citrinin with Human Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Poór, Miklós; Lemli, Beáta; Bálint, Mónika; Hetényi, Csaba; Sali, Nikolett; Kőszegi, Tamás; Kunsági-Máté, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    Citrinin (CIT) is a mycotoxin produced by several Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus species. CIT occurs worldwide in different foods and drinks and causes health problems for humans and animals. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant plasma protein in human circulation. Albumin forms stable complexes with many drugs and xenobiotics; therefore, HSA commonly plays important role in the pharmacokinetics or toxicokinetics of numerous compounds. However, the interaction of CIT with HSA is poorly characterized yet. In this study, the complex formation of CIT with HSA was investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy and ultrafiltration techniques. For the deeper understanding of the interaction, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies were performed as well. Our results suggest that CIT forms stable complex with HSA (logK ~ 5.3) and its primary binding site is located in subdomain IIA (Sudlow’s Site I). In vitro cell experiments also recommend that CIT-HSA interaction may have biological relevance. Finally, the complex formations of CIT with bovine, porcine, and rat serum albumin were investigated, in order to test the potential species differences of CIT-albumin interactions. PMID:26633504

  7. Lymphatic albumin clearance from psoriatic skin

    SciTech Connect

    Staberg, B.; Klemp, P.; Aasted, M.; Worm, A.M.; Lund, P.

    1983-12-01

    In nine patients with untreated psoriasis vulgaris, human serum albumin labelled with /sup 125/I or /sup 131/I was injected intradermally in symmetrically located involved and uninvolved skin. The activity of the depots was followed by external detection, and the arrival of labelled albumin in plasma was monitored. In involved psoriatic skin the local mean half-time (T1/2) for tracer disappearance was 20.8 +/- 8.2 (S.D.) hr and in clinically normal skin, 29.1 +/- 9.6 (S.D.) hr. The difference was significant (p less than 0.002). Accordingly, the tracer from involved skin reached higher plasma levels than the tracer from uninvolved skin. However, under slight lymphatic stasis the appearance rate of radiolabelled albumin in plasma from both tissues was minimal during 1 to 2 hours after the injection, indicating that a local direct transvascular drainage of plasma albumin from the interstitium of diseased and normal skin was negligible. We conclude that the previously demonstrated increased extravasation of plasma proteins in involved psoriatic skin is compensated by an increased lymphatic drainage of plasma proteins, and not by an increased local transvascular return.

  8. Structural basis of transport of lysophospholipids by human serum albumin

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Shihui; Shi, Xiaoli; Yang, Feng; Chen, Liqing; Meehan, Edward J.; Bian, Chuanbing; Huang, Mingdong

    2010-10-08

    Lysophospholipids play important roles in cellular signal transduction and are implicated in many biological processes, including tumorigenesis, angiogenesis, immunity, atherosclerosis, arteriosclerosis, cancer and neuronal survival. The intracellular transport of lysophospholipids is through FA (fatty acid)-binding protein. Lysophospholipids are also found in the extracellular space. However, the transport mechanism of lysophospholipids in the extracellular space is unknown. HSA (human serum albumin) is the most abundant carrier protein in blood plasma and plays an important role in determining the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs. In the present study, LPE (lysophosphatidylethanolamine) was used as the ligand to analyse the interaction of lysophospholipids with HSA by fluorescence quenching and crystallography. Fluorescence measurement showed that LPE binds to HSA with a K{sub d} (dissociation constant) of 5.6 {micro}M. The presence of FA (myristate) decreases this binding affinity (K{sub d} of 12.9 {micro}M). Moreover, we determined the crystal structure of HSA in complex with both myristate and LPE and showed that LPE binds at Sudlow site I located in subdomain IIA. LPE occupies two of the three subsites in Sudlow site I, with the LPE acyl chain occupying the hydrophobic bottom of Sudlow site I and the polar head group located at Sudlow site I entrance region pointing to the solvent. This orientation of LPE in HSA suggests that HSA is capable of accommodating other lysophospholipids and phospholipids. The study provides structural information on HSA-lysophospholipid interaction and may facilitate our understanding of the transport and distribution of lysophospholipids.

  9. Drug Delivery Vehicles Based on Albumin-Polymer Conjugates.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yanyan; Stenzel, Martina

    2016-06-01

    Albumin has been a popular building block to create nanoparticles for drug delivery purposes. The performance of albumin as a drug carrier can be enhanced by combining protein with polymers, which allows the design of carriers to encompass a broader spectrum of drugs while features unique to synthetic polymers such as stimuli-responsiveness are introduced. Nanoparticles based on polymer-albumin hybrids can be divided into two classes: one that carries album as a bioactive surface coating and the other that uses albumin as biocompatible, although nonbioactive, building block. Nanoparticles with bioactive albumin surface coating can either be prepared by self-assembly of albumin-polymer conjugates or by postcoating of existing nanoparticles with albumin. Albumin has also been used as building block, either in its native or denatured form. Existing albumin nanoparticles are coated with polymers, which can influence the degradation of albumin or impact on the drug release. Finally, an alternative way of using albumin by denaturing the protein to generate a highly functional chain, which can be modified with polymer, has been presented. These albumin nanoparticles are designed to be extremely versatile so that they can deliver a wide variety of drugs, including traditional hydrophobic drugs, metal-based drugs and even therapeutic proteins and siRNA.

  10. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040 Albumin immunological test system. (a) Identification. An albumin immunological test system is a device that consists...

  11. (Na+ + K+)-ATPase Is a Target for Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/Protein Kinase B and Protein Kinase C Pathways Triggered by Albumin*

    PubMed Central

    Peruchetti, Diogo B.; Pinheiro, Ana Acacia S.; Landgraf, Sharon S.; Wengert, Mira; Takiya, Christina M.; Guggino, William B.; Caruso-Neves, Celso

    2011-01-01

    In recent decades, evidence has confirmed the crucial role of albumin in the progression of renal disease. However, the possible role of signaling pathways triggered by physiologic concentrations of albumin in the modulation of proximal tubule (PT) sodium reabsorption has not been considered. In the present work, we have shown that a physiologic concentration of albumin increases the expression of the α1 subunit of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase in LLC-PK1 cells leading to an increase in enzyme activity. This process involves the sequential activation of PI3K/protein kinase B and protein kinase C pathways promoting inhibition of protein kinase A. This integrative network is inhibited when albumin concentration is increased, similar to renal disease, leading to a decrease in the α1 subunit of (Na+ + K+)-ATPase expression. Together, the results indicate that variation in albumin concentration in PT cells has an important effect on PT sodium reabsorption and, consequently, on renal sodium excretion. PMID:22057272

  12. Albumin stimulates renal tubular inflammation through an HSP70-TLR4 axis in mice with early diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Jheng, Huei-Fen; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chuang, Yi-Lun; Shen, Yi-Ting; Tai, Ting-An; Chen, Wen-Chung; Chou, Chuan-Kai; Ho, Li-Chun; Tang, Ming-Jer; Lai, Kuei-Tai A; Sung, Junne-Ming; Tsai, Yau-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Increased urinary albumin excretion is not simply an aftermath of glomerular injury, but is also involved in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Whereas Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are incriminated in the renal inflammation of DN, whether and how albumin is involved in the TLR-related renal inflammatory response remains to be clarified. Here, we showed that both TLR2 and TLR4, one of their putative endogenous ligands [heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)] and nuclear factor-κB promoter activity were markedly elevated in the kidneys of diabetic mice. A deficiency of TLR4 but not of TLR2 alleviated albuminuria, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and inflammation induced by diabetes. The protection against renal injury in diabetic Tlr4(-/-) mice was associated with reduced tubular injuries and preserved cubilin levels, rather than amelioration of glomerular lesions. In vitro studies revealed that albumin, a stronger inducer than high glucose (HG), induced the release of HSP70 from proximal tubular cells. HSP70 blockade ameliorated albumin-induced inflammatory mediators. HSP70 triggered the production of inflammatory mediators in a TLR4-dependent manner. Moreover, HSP70 inhibition in vivo ameliorated diabetes-induced albuminuria, inflammatory response and tubular injury. Finally, we found that individuals with DN had higher levels of TLR4 and HSP70 in the dilated tubules than non-diabetic controls. Thus, activation of the HSP70-TLR4 axis, stimulated at least in part by albumin, in the tubular cell is a newly identified mechanism associated with induction of tubulointerstitial inflammation and aggravation of pre-existing microalbuminuria in the progression of DN.

  13. Albumin stimulates renal tubular inflammation through an HSP70-TLR4 axis in mice with early diabetic nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Jheng, Huei-Fen; Tsai, Pei-Jane; Chuang, Yi-Lun; Shen, Yi-Ting; Tai, Ting-An; Chen, Wen-Chung; Chou, Chuan-Kai; Ho, Li-Chun; Tang, Ming-Jer; Lai, Kuei-Tai A.; Sung, Junne-Ming; Tsai, Yau-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Increased urinary albumin excretion is not simply an aftermath of glomerular injury, but is also involved in the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Whereas Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are incriminated in the renal inflammation of DN, whether and how albumin is involved in the TLR-related renal inflammatory response remains to be clarified. Here, we showed that both TLR2 and TLR4, one of their putative endogenous ligands [heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)] and nuclear factor-κB promoter activity were markedly elevated in the kidneys of diabetic mice. A deficiency of TLR4 but not of TLR2 alleviated albuminuria, tubulointerstitial fibrosis and inflammation induced by diabetes. The protection against renal injury in diabetic Tlr4−/− mice was associated with reduced tubular injuries and preserved cubilin levels, rather than amelioration of glomerular lesions. In vitro studies revealed that albumin, a stronger inducer than high glucose (HG), induced the release of HSP70 from proximal tubular cells. HSP70 blockade ameliorated albumin-induced inflammatory mediators. HSP70 triggered the production of inflammatory mediators in a TLR4-dependent manner. Moreover, HSP70 inhibition in vivo ameliorated diabetes-induced albuminuria, inflammatory response and tubular injury. Finally, we found that individuals with DN had higher levels of TLR4 and HSP70 in the dilated tubules than non-diabetic controls. Thus, activation of the HSP70-TLR4 axis, stimulated at least in part by albumin, in the tubular cell is a newly identified mechanism associated with induction of tubulointerstitial inflammation and aggravation of pre-existing microalbuminuria in the progression of DN. PMID:26398934

  14. Excretion of biliary compounds during intrauterine life

    PubMed Central

    Macias, Rocio IR; Marin, Jose JG; Serrano, Maria A

    2009-01-01

    In adults, the hepatobiliary system, together with the kidney, constitute the main routes for the elimination of several endogenous and xenobiotic compounds into bile and urine, respectively. However, during intrauterine life the biliary route of excretion for cholephilic compounds, such as bile acids and biliary pigments, is very poor. Although very early in pregnancy the fetal liver produces bile acids, bilirubin and biliverdin, these compounds cannot be efficiently eliminated by the fetal hepatobiliary system, owing to the immaturity of the excretory machinery in the fetal liver. Therefore, the potentially harmful accumulation of cholephilic compounds in the fetus is prevented by their elimination across the placenta. Owing to the presence of detoxifying enzymes and specific transport systems at different locations of the placental barrier, such as the endothelial cells of chorionic vessels and trophoblast cells, this organ plays an important role in the hepatobiliary-like function during intrauterine life. The relevance of this excretory function in normal fetal physiology is evident in situations where high concentrations of biliary compounds are accumulated in the mother. This may result in oxidative stress and apoptosis, mainly in the placenta and fetal liver, which might affect normal fetal development and challenge the fate of the pregnancy. The present article reviews current knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the hepatobiliary function of the fetal-placental unit and the repercussions of several pathological conditions on this tandem. PMID:19230042

  15. Excretion of drugs in human breast milk

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, R.M.; Findlay, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The present report briefly discusses some of the morphological, physiological, and compositional aspects of animal and human breast milk and how these characteristics might be important for the accumulation of drugs and foreign compounds. In addition, a study is described confirming the presence of caffeine, codeine, morphine, phenacetin, acetaminophen, and salicylic acid in the breast milk of a lactating mother following oral administration of a combination analgesic containing aspirin, phenacetin, caffeine, and codeine. Although the study is limited to one subject, it has provided critically needed data on the rates of appearance in, and elimination of these drugs from, breast milk. A similar amount of information is presented on phenacetin, also a component of the analgesic mixture, which has not been previously reported to enter human milk. The distribution of these drugs between the slightly more acidic breast milk and the relatively neutral plasma is consistent with their weakly basic, acidic, or relatively neutral properties. In general, the study shows that codeine and morphine milk concentrations are higher than, salicylic acid milk levels are much lower than, and phenacetin, caffeine, and acetaminophen milk concentrations are relatively similar to their respective plasma levels. It is projected, from estimated steady-state milk concentrations of the drugs and their metabolites studied, that very low percentages of the therapeutic dosages (less than 0.7%) would be excreted in mother's milk, too low an amount to be clinically significant to the infant.

  16. Uptake of oleate from albumin solutions by rat liver. Failure to detect catalysis of the dissociation of oleate from albumin by an albumin receptor.

    PubMed Central

    Weisiger, R A; Ma, W L

    1987-01-01

    The hepatic removal of albumin-bound substances from plasma requires that they dissociate from albumin. Using indirect methods, we and others have proposed that dissociation may be catalyzed by interaction of albumin with the liver cell surface. This study looked for direct evidence of catalysis by comparing the rate of dissociation of oleate from albumin in vitro with the rate observed within the sinusoids of perfused rat liver. No evidence for catalysis was found. The rate of hepatic oleate removal from dilute albumin solutions did not exceed but instead closely paralleled the rate predicted from the in vitro dissociation rate constant (0.14s-1). These results suggest that under some conditions the liver can remove unbound material from the sinusoids faster than it can be replenished by dissociation from albumin, resulting in dissociation-limited removal. However, dissociation of oleate does not appear to be catalyzed by the liver. PMID:3031131

  17. [When should we give albumin in patients with cirrhosis?].

    PubMed

    Bochatay, L; Elkrief, L; Spahr, L

    2015-09-01

    The beneficial effects of the use of albumin, either alone or combines with other treat- ments, have been demonstrated in patients with various complications of cirrhosis. Therefore, albumin should be administred in patients with spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in association with antibiotics, and in association with terlipressin in patients with type 1 hepatorenal syndrome. Albumin use reduces the occurrence of paracentesis-related circulatory dysfunction, in patients with large ascites undergoing paracentesis. So far, the beneficial effect of albumin has not been demonstrated, neither for infections other than spontaneous bacterial peritonitis nor for hepatic encephalopathy. This article provides an overview of the data evaluating the effects of albumin in patients with cirrhosis.

  18. The UAE Rainfall Enhancement Assessment Program: Implications of Thermodynamic Profiles on the Development of Precipitation in Convective Clouds over the Oman Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breed, D.; Bruintjes, R.; Jensen, T.; Salazar, V.; Fowler, T.

    2005-12-01

    During the winter and summer seasons of 2001 and 2002, data were collected to assess the efficacy of cloud seeding to enhance precipitation in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The results of the feasibility study concluded: 1) that winter clouds in the UAE rarely produced conditions amenable to hygroscopic cloud seeding; 2) that summer convective clouds developed often enough, particularly over the Oman Mountains (e.g., the Hajar Mountains along the eastern UAE border and into Oman) to justify a randomized seeding experiment; 3) that collecting quantitative radar observations continues to be a complex but essential part of evaluating a cloud seeding experiment; 4) that successful flight operations would require solving several logistical issues; and 5) that several scientific questions would need to be studied in order to fully evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of hygroscopic cloud seeding, including cloud physical responses, radar-derived rainfall estimates as related to rainfall at the ground, and hydrological impacts. Based on these results, the UAE program proceeded through the design and implemention of a randomized hygroscopic cloud seeding experiment during the summer seasons to statistically quantify the potential for cloud seeding to enhance rainfall, specifically over the UAE and Oman Mountains, while collecting concurrent and separate physical measurements to support the statistical results and provide substantiation for the physical hypothesis. The randomized seeding experiment was carried out over the summers of 2003 and 2004, and a total of 134 cases were treated over the two summer seasons, of which 96 met the analysis criteria established in the experimental design of the program. The statistical evaluation of these cases yielded largely inconclusive results. Evidence will show that the thermodynamic profile had a large influence on storm characteristics and on precipitation development. This in turn provided a confounding factor in the conduct

  19. Fluorescent holograms with albumin-acrylamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ordóñez-Padilla, M. J.; Olivares-Pérez, A.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2014-02-01

    We describe fluorescent holograms were made with photosensitive films of albumin (protein) quail, used as modified matrices. Albumin is mixed with acrylamide and eosin Y. Therefore, prepare a photosensitive emulsion and solid hydrated with the ability to phase transmission holograms and volume (VPH). Eosin Y is a fluorescent agent that acts as a photo-sensitizing dye which stimulates the polymerization of acrylamide. To record the interference pattern produced by two waves superimposed on the modified matrix, we use a He-Cd laser. To reconstruct the diffraction pattern is observed with He- Ne laser, λ = 632.8nm, the material is self-developing properties. Measure the diffraction efficiency of the diffracted orders (η[-1, +1]) as a function of exposure energy. We work with various thicknesses and measure the variation of the refractive index using the coupled wave theory of Kogelnik, the holographic gratings meet Bragg condition.

  20. Albumin use is beneficial in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Faisal M; Marotta, Paul J

    2007-01-01

    There are several indications for the use of albumin in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and its role has existed in clinical practice for many decades. While the drug enjoys immense popularity, it yet attracts intensive debate amongst clinicians and pharmacologists alike. Regardless of its pharmacological properties, its clinical use in cirrhotic patients has its fair share of proponents and opponents. At present, in the setting of cirrhosis this debate centers around the treatment of spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, in patients with ascites treated with large volume paracentesis, and in those with hepato-renal syndrome. With the evolving evidence it has become imperative to shed old dogmas and address this issue in the light of evidence-based medicine. This article gives a representative view of albumin use in the above conditions across both sides of the clinical divide.

  1. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Human Serum Albumin. Contributes to many transport and regulatory processes and has multifunctional binding properties which range from various metals, to fatty acids, hormones, and a wide spectrum of therapeutic drugs. The most abundant protein of the circulatory system. It binds and transports an incredible variety of biological and pharmaceutical ligands throughout the blood stream. Principal Investigator on STS-26 was Larry DeLucas.

  2. (PCG) Protein Crystal Growth Horse Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Horse Serum Albumin crystals grown during the USML-1 (STS-50) mission's Protein Crystal Growth Glovebox Experiment. These crystals were grown using a vapor diffusion technique at 22 degrees C. The crystals were allowed to grow for nine days while in orbit. Crystals of 1.0 mm in length were produced. The most abundant blood serum protein, regulates blood pressure and transports ions, metabolites, and therapeutic drugs. Principal Investigator was Edward Meehan.

  3. An isotopic study of oxalate excretion in sheep.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, G H; Belling, G B

    1975-12-01

    Intravenously injected 14C labelled oxalate was rapidly removed from the blood stream via the kidney in 2 sheep, 75% being cleared within 8 h. Mean daily urinary oxalate excretions over 5 days were 21-2 and 27-5 mg and the derived plasma oxalate concentrations were 52-6 and 74-4 mug/100 ml, respectively. Oxalate was both filtered and secreted by the renal tubule with oxalate/inulin ratios varying from 1-11 to 1-57 in 6 normal sheep. A large increase in calcium excretion induced by calcium borogluconate infusion over 5 days was accompanied by a small but consistent increase in urinary oxalate excretion relative to calcium. Oxalate in blood was to be found mainly in the plasma, there being a small (8%) proporation within erythrocytes. This is lower than that reported for man, and yet in its excretion of oxalate via the kidney the sheep appears to closely resemble man and dog.

  4. Diet and urinary excretion of lignans in female subjects.

    PubMed

    Adlercreutz, H; Fotsis, T; Heikkinen, R; Dwyer, J T; Goldin, B R; Gorbach, S L; Lawson, A M; Setchell, K D

    1981-08-01

    Lignans, a class of compounds having a 2,3-dibenzylbutane skeleton, have recently been identified for the first time in humans and animals and evidence indicating their formation by intestinal microflora has previously been established in rats and humans. In the present report the influence of diet on the biosynthesis of this new group of compounds was investigated by comparing the urinary excretion of the principal lignan, trans-2,3-bis-(3-hydroxybenzyl) -butyrolactone (enterolactone, HBBL), in 12 omnivoric and 14 vegetarian women. Young vegetarian women were found to excrete significantly greater amounts of enterolactone than omnivores, while old vegetarians excreted comparable amounts to the omnivore group. A statistically significant (P less than 0.01-0.001) correlation was found between the amount of fibre in the diet and the urinary enterolactone excretion.

  5. The role of albumin in nutritional support.

    PubMed

    Mobarhan, S

    1988-12-01

    Hypoalbuminemia is considered one of the hallmarks of protein-calorie malnutrition and chronic liver disease. Recently, serum albumin has also been proposed as a critical predictor of the response to nutritional support and tolerance to enteral feeding in critically ill patients. Albumin is essential for maintenance of plasma colloidal osmotic pressure, prevention of edema, and transport of certain drugs and nutrients. Experimental studies have shown that rapid plasma expansion and reduced plasma protein concentration and osmotic pressure induce a net secretion of sodium and water into the small intestinal lumen. However, the effects of chronic hypoalbuminemia per se on intestinal absorption, independent of malnutrition, have not been fully studied. It is documented that both chronic illness and malnutrition may profoundly affect intestinal anatomical structure and function, inducing some degree of malabsorption. In the last few years, some have advocated albumin infusion to improve clinical response to patients with hypoalbuminemia receiving parenteral nutritional support or to reduce intestinal intolerance and diarrhea in patients receiving enteral tube feeding. A review of the literature shows that both clinical and experimental data to support these suggestions are scarce and further investigations are needed. Hypoalbuminemia is one of many parameters of malnutrition, and it is unlikely that correction of a single parameter for a short time would lead to major clinical benefits. PMID:3147998

  6. Serum albumin complexation of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Wiktor; Porebski, Grzegorz; Obtułowicz, Krystyna; Roterman, Irena

    2009-06-01

    One possible origin of the type I hypersensitivity reaction is reaction of drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolites being complexed with human serum albumin. Albumin, being transporting molecule abundant in blood plasma is able to bind large array of ligands varying from small single carbon particles to long hydrophobic tailed lipidic acids (e.g. myristic acid). This non specificity is possible because of multi domain scaffold and large flexibility of inter-domain loops, which results in serious reorientation of domains. Hypothesis that acetylsalicylic acid metabolites may play indirect role in activation of allergic reaction has been tested. Binding of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites in intra-domain space causes significant increase of liability of domains IIIA and IIIB. One of metabolites, salicyluric acid, once is bound causes distortion and partial unfolding of helices in domains IA, IIB and IIIB. Changed are both directions and amplitude of relative motions as well as intra-domain distances. In result albumin is able to cross-link of adjacent IgE receptors which subsequently starts allergic reaction.

  7. Serum albumin complexation of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Jurkowski, Wiktor; Porebski, Grzegorz; Obtułowicz, Krystyna; Roterman, Irena

    2009-06-01

    One possible origin of the type I hypersensitivity reaction is reaction of drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid and its metabolites being complexed with human serum albumin. Albumin, being transporting molecule abundant in blood plasma is able to bind large array of ligands varying from small single carbon particles to long hydrophobic tailed lipidic acids (e.g. myristic acid). This non specificity is possible because of multi domain scaffold and large flexibility of inter-domain loops, which results in serious reorientation of domains. Hypothesis that acetylsalicylic acid metabolites may play indirect role in activation of allergic reaction has been tested. Binding of acetylsalicylic acid metabolites in intra-domain space causes significant increase of liability of domains IIIA and IIIB. One of metabolites, salicyluric acid, once is bound causes distortion and partial unfolding of helices in domains IA, IIB and IIIB. Changed are both directions and amplitude of relative motions as well as intra-domain distances. In result albumin is able to cross-link of adjacent IgE receptors which subsequently starts allergic reaction. PMID:19689242

  8. [Albumin and artificial colloids for massive bleeding].

    PubMed

    Iijima, Takehiko

    2011-01-01

    Rapid and massive bleeding has to be counteracted by efficient volume restoration against rapid loss of intravascular volume. There are two phases of volume management for massive bleeding, uncontrolled phase and controlled phase. During initial uncontrolled phase, rapid infusion of crystalloid with RCC (red cell concentrate) is the first choice of volume management to prevent shock and profound decline of hemoglobin level. After shifting to the next controlled phase, artificial colloids and RCC become the next choice for efficient volume restoration. Although albumin has not been proven to improve prognosis in clinical studies, anti-inflammatory effect could be expected. Albumin infusion may be followed in this phase, and also albumin concentrate may be beneficial to reduce subsequent tissue edema due to massive infusion of crystalloid and artificial colloid. A new generation of hydroxyethyl starch is a promising blood substitute, designed with minimum side effect. Although renal damage especially in septic patient and coagulation disorder are theoretically suspected, beneficial effect as volume expansion overwhelms these stochastic side effects. Since the side effect depends on the dose and how much it remains in the body, a purposeful use during volume expansion phase should be recommended.

  9. Ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels is facilitated by ciliary beating.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, J; Himmerkus, N; Holland, N; Sartoris, F J; Bleich, M; Tresguerres, M

    2016-08-01

    The excretion of nitrogenous waste products in the form of ammonia (NH3) and ammonium (NH4 (+)) is a fundamental process in aquatic organisms. For mytilid bivalves, little is known about the mechanisms and sites of excretion. This study investigated the localization and the mechanisms of ammonia excretion in mytilid mussels. An Rh protein was found to be abundantly expressed in the apical cell membrane of the plicate organ, which was previously described as a solely respiratory organ. The Rh protein was also expressed in the gill, although at significantly lower concentrations, but was not detectable in mussel kidney. Furthermore, NH3/NH4 (+) was not enriched in the urine, suggesting that kidneys are not involved in active NH3/NH4 (+) excretion. Exposure to elevated seawater pH of 8.5 transiently reduced NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates, but they returned to control values following 24 h acclimation. These mussels had increased abundance of V-type H(+)-ATPase in the apical membranes of plicate organ cells; however, NH3/NH4 (+) excretion rates were not affected by the V-type H(+)-ATPase specific inhibitor concanamycin A (100 nmol l(-1)). In contrast, inhibition of ciliary beating with dopamine and increased seawater viscosity significantly reduced NH3 excretion rates under control pH (8.0). These results suggest that NH3/NH4 (+) excretion in mytilid mussels takes place by passive NH3 diffusion across respiratory epithelia via the Rh protein, facilitated by the water current produced for filter feeding, which prevents accumulation of NH3 in the boundary layer. This mechanism would be energy efficient for sessile organisms, as they already generate water currents for filter feeding. PMID:27489216

  10. Species differences in biliary excretion of benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Weyand, E.H.; Bevan, D.R.

    1986-05-01

    Biliary excretion of benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was investigated in rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs following intratracheal administration. (/sup 3/H)-B(a)P, in amounts of approximately 150 ng or 350 ..mu..g, was instilled into lungs and amounts of radioactivity excreted in bile were monitored for six hrs following administration. Differences in biliary excretion of (/sup 3/H)-B(a)P and/or metabolites among species were observed at low doses but not at high doses. Six hours after instillation of a low dose of B(a)P, 70, 54, and 62% of the dose was excreted in bile of rats, hamsters, and guinea pigs, respectively. Upon administration of the higher dose of B(a)P, approximately 50% of the dose was excreted in bile in six hrs by all species. Thus, rats and guinea pigs exhibit differences in biliary excretion of low and high doses of B(a)P whereas hamsters do not. Profiles of phase II metabolites in rats and hamsters were similar at both low and high doses, with the majority of metabolites being glucuronides and thioether conjugates. However, differences in relative amounts of these conjugates were observed between the two doses, with a shift towards a greater proportion of glucuronides at the higher dose. Metabolites in bile from guinea pigs were primarily thioether conjugates, which accounted for 88% of metabolites at the low dose and 95% at the high dose.

  11. Kinetic analysis of biliary lipid excretion in man and dog.

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, C I; Trotman, B W; Soloway, R D

    1976-01-01

    To understand better the mechanisms involved in biliary lipid excretion and to evaluate their role in cholesterol gallstone formation, the rates of biliary excretion of bile salts, cholesterol, and phospholipids were measured in two species, man and dog. Seven cholecystectomized patients with balloon-occludable reinfusion T-tubes were studied during intact and interrupted enterohepatic circulation and four cholecystectomized dogs were studied during interrupted enterohepatic circulation. In man and dog both cholesterol and phospholipid outputs were hyperbolically related to bile salt output by the equation y = x/(a + bx). The output curves intersected the origin and showed an initial rapid rise, followed by a slower increase to a maximum, suggesting a rate-limited mechanism. The shape of the curves permitted calculation of the theoretical maximal outputs and the rates of rise to those outputs. Comparison of these values showed that in both man and dog phospholipid output was greater than cholesterol output and that cholesterol and phospholipid were excreted at different rates. These studies (a) indicate that cholesterol, phospholipids, and bile salts are not excreted in a fixed relationship and (b) demonstrate the usefulness of the derived theoretical maximal lipid output, and the rate of rise of lipid excretion to a maximum, in evaluating the kinetics of biliary lipid excretion. PMID:943421

  12. Ammonia excretion in the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea.

    PubMed

    Weihrauch, Dirk; Chan, Ainsely C; Meyer, Heiko; Döring, Carmen; Sourial, Mary; O'Donnell, Michael J

    2012-09-15

    In aquatic invertebrates, metabolic nitrogenous waste is excreted predominately as ammonia. Very little is known, however, of the underlying mechanisms of ammonia excretion, particularly in freshwater species. Our results indicate that in the non-parasitic freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea, ammonia excretion depends on acidification of the apical unstirred layer of the body surface and consequent ammonia trapping. Buffering of the environment to a pH of 7 or higher decreased the excretion rate. Inhibitor experiments suggested further that the excretion mechanism involves the participation of the V-type H(+)-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase and possibly also the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. Alkalinization (pH 8.5, 2 days) of the environment led to a 1.9-fold increase in body ammonia levels and to a downregulation of V-ATPase (subunit A) and Rh-protein mRNA. Further, a 2 day exposure to non-lethal ammonia concentrations (1 mmol l(-1)) caused a doubling of body ammonia levels and led to an increase in Rh-protein and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (α-subunit) mRNA expression levels. In situ hybridization studies indicated a strong mRNA expression of the Rh-protein in the epidermal epithelium. The ammonia excretion mechanism proposed for S. mediterranea reveals striking similarities to the current model suggested to function in the gills of freshwater fish.

  13. Coordinacy of lysosomal enzyme excretion in human urine.

    PubMed Central

    Paigen, K; Peterson, J

    1978-01-01

    Assay conditions have been developed for the determination of urinary beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, alpha-galactosidase, and beta-hexosaminidase using fluorometric substrates. The assay conditions for beta-glucuronidase overcome interference by both low and high molecular weight inhibitors, a problem that has confused earlier studies of enzyme excretion. The four lysosomal enzymes are excreted corrdinately: although their absolute levels (in units per milligram of creatinine) vary during the day and from one day to the next, the ratio of one enzyme to another remains relatively constant. The lack of correlation betweem plasma and urine enzyme levels, together with the high molecular weights of these enzymes, suggests that the urinary enzymes are not derived by glomerular filtration. The lack of coordinacy with lactate dehydrogenase suggests they are not derived from exfoliated cells. by analogy with experimental animals, they may be derived from lysosomes extruded into the lumen of the proximal tubule by epithelial cells. There is considerable variation among a population of 125 healthy adult subjects for total enzyme excretion. Both total enzyme excretion and coordinacy ratios are log-normally distributed, suggesting that they are the resultants of many factors, each of which has a relative, or proportional, effect on enzyme excretion. About one-half the population variation resides in a process common to the excretion of all four enzymes (possibly the lysosome extrusion pathway), and about one-half resides in factors affecting each enzyme independently. PMID:25285

  14. Seasonal and geographical variation of Linke turbidity factor and its effect on global horizontal irradiance estimation: UAE case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eissa, Y. A.; Ghedira, H.

    2011-12-01

    In a clear-sky condition, solar radiation travelling through the Earth's atmosphere encounters atmospheric attenuation caused by several factors. Scattering of solar radiation is mainly caused by air molecules, water vapor, water droplets and dust. On the other hand, the absorption of solar radiation is usually related to the presence of O3, water vapor and CO2 layers in the upper atmosphere. Linke turbidity factor (TL) is commonly used to model the attenuation of solar radiation in the atmosphere. TL is the key parameter used in the Heliosat model, which is developed to estimate the global horizontal irradiance (GHI) at the surface of the earth. TL is calculated by the following equation: T_L=δ/δ_R where δ is the optical thickness of the whole atmosphere, and δR is the optical thickness of the Rayleigh atmosphere, i.e. the clear and dry atmosphere. The problem with TL is its dependence on the air mass (m). Therefore, TL is normalized to an air mass of 2 in order to reduce the daily variance. In this study, the monthly TL(m=2) is computed over 7 ground-based stations available in the UAE (figure 1). Spatial and temporal analysis was performed to assess the seasonal and the geographical distribution of TL over the UAE. The computed TL(m=2) values are then applied in the Heliosat model to compare between the measured and modeled GHI values. The model treats the atmospheric and cloud transmittances separately. First, clear-sky direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffused horizontal irradiance (DHI) values are computed using TL(m=2), solar zenith angle, air mass, sun-earth distance correction, solar constant and the Rayleigh optical depth, from that the clear-sky GHI is determined. Next, the cloud index is derived from the HRV channel available from the SEVIRI instrument, and from that the cloud transmission is computed. The product of the cloud transmission and the clear-sky GHI produces the modeled GHI. The comparison between TL calculated over the seven stations

  15. A Comparison of the Nutritional Status of Adolescents from Selected Schools of South India and UAE: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Haboubi, Ghalib J; Shaikh, Rizwana B

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To assess the nutritional status of adolescents of Indian origin living in India and the United Arab Emirates to see how variable the prevalence is of stunting and wasting among adolescents of the same ethnic background living in different socio-economic and demographic environments. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey. Setting: Schools in South India and the United Arab Emirates. Participants: A total of 2459 adolescent boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 16 years old. Results and Discussion: Anthropometric measurements from 2459 adolescents between the ages of 10-16 years old, 1200 from India and 1259 from UAE, were collected. The subjects were divided into six age groups with 1-year intervals. Adolescents falling below the age and gender-specific 5th percentile and 3rd percentile of the WHO recommended standards were defined as having thinness and stunting accordingly. Regardless of gender, the rate of stunting was higher in Indian adolescents from India (25.5-51%) when compared with Indian adolescents in UAE (3.1-21%). Thinness was also more in those in India (42-75.4%). When compared with adolescents living in the UAE (4.5-14.4%). The study was done in two groups having a common ethnicity but living in different socio-economic environments. With the results of this study, we can say that improved economic conditions favor better expression of genetic potential for physical growth. PMID:19966955

  16. Urinary protein excretion profile: A contribution for subclinical renal damage identification among environmental heavy metals exposure in Southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garlipp, C. R.; Bottini, P. V.; de Capitan, E. M.; Pinho, M. C.; Panzan, A. D. N.; Sakuma, A. M. A.; Paoliello, M. B.

    2003-05-01

    In Southeast Brazil. Ribeira Valley region has been a major public health concern due to he environmental heavy metals contamination indexes of vegetation, rocks and aquifers, caused by locai mining in the past. Human contamination low levels of heavy rnetals doesn't cause acute intoxication but ni chronic exposure, renal damage may occur with progressive tubuJointerstitial changes evolvil1g to glomemlar 1esiol1, ln this stndy we invesligated the relationship between thc profile of utillan, excreted proteins (glomerular or lubular origin) of arsenic and mercury and blood lead concentration in chiJdren and adults from highly e) qJosed regions of the Ribeira Valley. The subjects were classieed as GROUP 1 (GI; higher environmental risk n=333) and GROUP 2 (G2; lower risk of contamination. n=104). In order to determine the urinary excretion of total protein, albumin (MA, glomerular marker) and alpha i microglobulin (AIM, tubular marker) and the blood lead concentrations. random wine and blood samples were obtaiiied. Plasmatic lead levels were assessed by atomic absorption spectrometty with graphite fumace. Totai protein concentration (PROT) was assessed on a biochemical analyzer ,progallol red method). MA and AIM were determined by nephelometric method. Croup 1 showcd a higher frequency of altered urinary excretion of PROT (GI=3.4%; G2=1.0%), MA (Gl=9.0%; G2=5.1%) and AIM (Gt=7.5%, G2=3.8%), without significant differences between both groups. Elevated arscnic levels were more prevaient among subjects from Group 1 (2.8.8%) and demonstrated a significant corrolation with abiiormal iirinarv excretion of ilbumin and alpha-l-micrglobulin (p=0.019).Leadaand mercury levels showed no difference among the groups and no correlation will MAa and/or M. Oti-c dala suggests that abnormal itrinary protein excretion is relatively frequent in this population independently of the plasmatic or urinaryl heavy metal levels. The early detection of possible renal damage become necessary for

  17. Associations between Urinary Excretion of Cadmium and Proteins in a Nonsmoking Population: Renal Toxicity or Normal Physiology?

    PubMed Central

    Sallsten, Gerd; Lundh, Thomas; Barregard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background: Associations between cadmium (Cd) and kidney function have been reported even at low levels of exposure in the general population. Recently, the causality of these associations has been questioned. Objectives: We examined associations between urinary Cd (U-Cd; a biomarker of exposure) and urinary proteins that are used as biomarkers of kidney effects, based on repeated short-term sampling in healthy subjects. Methods: Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected on 2 separate days at six fixed times from 30 healthy nonsmoking men and women (median age 39 years). We analyzed the samples (N = 354) for Cd (i.e., U-Cd) and two proteins used as kidney function biomarkers: urinary albumin (U-Alb) and alpha-1-microglobulin (U-A1M). Concentrations were adjusted for creatinine concentration or for specific gravity, and excretion rates (mass per hour) were calculated. Possible associations were assessed within each individual participant, and mean correlations and regressions were evaluated. Results: We found clear positive mean associations within individuals between the excretion of U-Cd [mean, 0.11 µg/g creatinine (range, 0.01–0.52 µg/g creatinine)] and both U-Alb and U-A1M. The associations were stronger for excretion rates and concentrations adjusted for specific gravity than for concentrations adjusted for creatinine. We also found significant positive associations of urinary flow with excretion of U-Cd, U-Alb, and U-A1M. Conclusions: Associations between short-term changes in U-Cd and markers of kidney function within individual nonsmoking study participants are unlikely to reflect effects of Cd toxicity. A more likely explanation is that these associations result from normal variation in renal function, including changes in urinary flow, that influence the urinary excretion of both Cd and proteins in the same direction. These effects of normal variability may result in overestimation of the adverse effects of Cd on kidney function at low-level Cd

  18. Urinary chromium excretion, diurnal changes, and relationship to creatinine excretion in healthy and sick individuals of different ages.

    PubMed

    Gürson, C T; Saner, G

    1978-07-01

    Since urine is the main excretory pathway for chromium, this study was conducted to compare in normal individuals the daily urinary chromium excretion with a 4 hr sample, to investigate diurnal fluctuations of urinary chromium and age-dependent relationship between urinary chromium and creatinine excretion. The results can be summarized as 1) there was no significant difference between the observed 24 hr chromium excretion and 24 hr excretion calculated from the one 4 hr samples, 2) a diurnal variation was observed when urinary excretion was expressed as chromium per minute, but no time-related variation could be established when chromium/creatinine (Cr/Cre) ratios in samples from three different periods of the same day were compared, although a significant positive correlation existed between urinary chromium and creatinine concentration, 3) the Cr/Cre ratio was found to be age-dependent, 4) in malnourished children the Cr/Cre ratio was very high and significantly different from that of normal infants, 5) This ratio for the eight diabetics was found to be significantly higher when compared with normal adults. On the basis of these results, it is suggested that morning 4 hr urinary chromium reflects the daily chromium excretion and that the Cr/Cre ratio of single urine samples obtained during this period is a reliable criterion in the evaluation of chromium nutrition of individuals in different conditions, provided that the influence of age is taken into consideration.

  19. Hepatic metabolism of colloidal gold-low-density lipoprotein complexes in the rat: evidence for bulk excretion of lysosomal contents into bile

    SciTech Connect

    Renaud, G.; Hamilton, R.L.; Havel, R.J.

    1989-03-01

    Rats were treated with 17 alpha-ethinyl estradiol to induce high levels of low-density lipoprotein receptors in hepatocytes. When these rats were given intravenous injections of low-density lipoprotein-colloidal gold complexes, most of the gold (labeled with /sup 195/Au) appeared to be taken up by Kupffer cells, as were complexes of colloidal gold with albumin or polyvinylpyrrolidone. However, when these rats were also administered gadolinium chloride, which blocks Kupffer cell activity, most of the low-density lipoprotein-gold (but not gold complexed with albumin or polyvinylpyrrolidone) was taken up into hepatocytes by receptor-mediated endocytosis and concentrated in peribiliary lysosomes, as determined by electron microscopy. Colloidal gold taken up as a complex with low-density lipoprotein was excreted into the feces via the common bile duct at a maximal rate of about 5% daily, 4 to 12 days after injection. Thereafter, the rate of gold excretion fell off until reaching a plateau after 3 weeks. At this late time, most of the colloidal gold was shown by electron microscopy to be in Kupffer cells, whereas earlier (6 days after injection) it was contained mainly in older hepatocytic lysosomes, identified by lipofuscin granules. It is concluded that, in rats, hepatocytic lysosomes empty most of their contents into bile every week or two, apparently by exocytosis.

  20. [Trans-intestinal cholesterol excretion (TICE): a new route for cholesterol excretion].

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Claire; Moreau, François; Cariou, Bertrand; Le May, Cédric

    2014-10-01

    The small intestine plays a crucial role in dietary and biliary cholesterol absorption, as well as its lymphatic secretion as chylomicrons (lipoprotein exogenous way). Recently, a new metabolic pathway called TICE (trans-intestinal excretion of cholesterol) that plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism has emerged. TICE is an inducible way, complementary to the hepatobiliary pathway, allowing the elimination of the plasma cholesterol directly into the intestine lumen through the enterocytes. This pathway is poorly characterized but several molecular actors of TICE have been recently identified. Although it is a matter of debate, two independent studies suggest that TICE is involved in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway. Thus, TICE is an innovative drug target to reduce -cardiovascular diseases.

  1. Mechanisms of albumin uptake by proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, N

    2001-01-01

    The likely role of albumin in the induction tubulo-interstitial injury in proteinuria has stimulated considerable interest in the entry of albumin into the proximal tubule and its subsequent uptake by proximal tubular cells. Currently, there is considerable controversy over the degree of glomerular permeability to albumin. After filtration, however, albumin binds to megalin and cubulin, two giant receptors in the apical membrane of proximal tubular cells. Albumin is subsequently re-absorbed by proximal tubular cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis, a process subject to complex regulation. The interaction of albumin with proximal tubule cells also leads to the generation of intracellular signals. The understanding of these pathways may provide important insights into the pathogenesis of renal scarring in proteinuria. PMID:11158855

  2. Albumin Metabolism in Rabbits and Rats with Transplanted Tumours

    PubMed Central

    Wraight, E. P.

    1971-01-01

    Albumin distributions and turnover rates have been studied using 131I labelled tracer material in rabbits with Vx2 carcinoma and rats bearing SP7 fibrosarcoma in comparison with control animals. Albumin concentrations were reduced in the tumour bearing animals but plasma volumes increased as the tumours developed. Relative increases were seen in the extravascular distribution of albumin, due partly to albumin pooling in and around the tumours and possibly also to general increases in capillary permeability. In the rats there was a considerable increase in the catabolic rate of albumin which was not related to urinary protein loss. The tumour bearing rabbits showed evidence both of increased catabolism and of decreased synthesis and the combination of the two effects resulted in a greater lowering of albumin concentration than was seen in the rats. Possible mechanisms for these findings and their significance in human malignant disease are discussed. PMID:5115834

  3. Quantitative urinary protein excretion in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    McMorrow, R G; Galla, J H; Luke, R G

    1982-01-01

    The diagnostic value of the measurement of quantitative proteinuria in patients with a creatinine clearance of less than 10 ml/min was determined in patients seen in a single center over a 5-year period. All 126 patients in whom a definitive renal diagnosis was possible were included. Patients with glomerular disease excreted 6.1 +/- 0.6 g/day and patients with interstitial disease 1.5 +/- 0.3 g/day (p less than 0.001). In individual patients with end-stage renal disease, however, measurement of urinary protein excretion excluded (with 95% confidence levels) patients with interstitial diseases only when greater than 2.9 g/day. To examine the natural history of proteinuria in progressive renal disease, urinary protein, absolute and factored for glomerular filtration rate (GFR; creatinine clearance), was determined at 10 ml/min decrements in GFR for patients with membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis, idiopathic membranous glomerulonephritis and focal glomerulosclerosis. Quantitative urinary protein excretion was relatively constant as GFR fell but did fall significantly at less than 10 ml/min but only to 4.8-7.0 g/day at even that level. Urinary protein excretion/GFR increased as GFR fell, particularly at end stage where a highly significant four-fold rise was seen; an increase also occurred in patients with primary interstitial disease. Similar data were obtained for 34 randomly selected patients after at least 1 year of chronic hemodialysis. Although a significant decline in absolute urinary protein excretion occurred during the year of dialysis to levels not different between glomerular and interstitial disease, urinary protein excretion/unit GFR remained elevated. Increased urinary protein excretion/unit GFR may result from a functional adaptation of remaining nephrons in response to declining renal mass.

  4. Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion and CKD Progression.

    PubMed

    He, Jiang; Mills, Katherine T; Appel, Lawrence J; Yang, Wei; Chen, Jing; Lee, Belinda T; Rosas, Sylvia E; Porter, Anna; Makos, Gail; Weir, Matthew R; Hamm, L Lee; Kusek, John W

    2016-04-01

    CKD is a major risk factor for ESRD, cardiovascular disease, and premature death. Whether dietary sodium and potassium intake affect CKD progression remains unclear. We prospectively studied the association of urinary sodium and potassium excretion with CKD progression and all-cause mortality among 3939 patients with CKD in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study. Urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured using three 24-hour urine specimens, and CKD progression was defined as incident ESRD or halving of eGFR. During follow-up, 939 CKD progression events and 540 deaths occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (<116.8 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for the highest quartile of urinary sodium excretion (≥194.6 mmol/24 h) were 1.54 (1.23 to 1.92) for CKD progression, 1.45 (1.08 to 1.95) for all-cause mortality, and 1.43 (1.18 to 1.73) for the composite outcome of CKD progression and all-cause mortality after adjusting for multiple covariates, including baseline eGFR. Additionally, compared with the lowest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (<39.4 mmol/24 h), hazard ratios for the highest quartile of urinary potassium excretion (≥67.1 mmol/24 h) were 1.59 (1.25 to 2.03) for CKD progression, 0.98 (0.71 to 1.35) for all-cause mortality, and 1.42 (1.15 to 1.74) for the composite outcome. These data indicate that high urinary sodium and potassium excretion are associated with increased risk of CKD progression. Clinical trials are warranted to test the effect of sodium and potassium reduction on CKD progression.

  5. Homeostatic control of manganese excretion in the neonatal rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ballatori, N.; Miles, E.; Clarkson, T.W.

    1987-05-01

    Previous studies in neonatal and suckling animals showed that immature animals have a greatly diminished capacity to excrete manganese and therefore were considered to be unable to regulate tissue manganese concentrations. In contrast, the present studies indicate that suckling rats have the capacity to excrete excess manganese at rates nearly comparable to those of adults. Eight- to 10-day-old rats given a tracer dose of /sup 54/MnCl/sub 2/ (essentially carrier free), either via gavage or by intraperitoneal injection showed little elimination of the /sup 54/Mn until the 18-19th day of life, when there was an abrupt increase in the rate of the metal's excretion. However, when manganese was given in doses of 1 and 10 mg/kg, the young animals excreted from 30-70% of the dose in only 4 days, at which time a new rate of excretion was achieved. This enhanced rate of excretion remained constant until the 18-19th day of life, when it was again accelerated. Biliary excretion of manganese, the primary route for the elimination of the metal, was only 30-60% lower in 14-day-old rats compared with adults at doses ranging from tracer to 10 mg /sup 54/Mn/kg. For both the 14-day-old and adult rats, an apparent biliary transport maximum was reached at a dose of 10 mg Mn/kg. These studies indicate that the excretory pathways for manganese are well developed in the neonatal rat. The avid retention of tracer quantities of manganese by the neonate may be a consequence of the scarcity of this essential trace metal in its diet.

  6. Manure nutrient excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, K F; Wilkerson, V A; Casper, D P; Mertens, D R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate feces, urine, and N excretion by Jersey and Holstein cows. Sixteen multiparous cows (n=8 per breed) were fed 2 experimental rations at calving in a switchback experimental design. Diets were 50% forage and based on corn meal (control) or whole cottonseed. Half the cows in each breed started on the control diet and half started on the whole cottonseed diet. Cows were switched to the other diet at 60 d in milk and switched back to their original diet at 165 d in milk. Pairs of cows were moved into open-circuit respiration chambers on d 49, 154, and 271 of lactation for 7-d measurement periods. While in the chambers, total collection of feed refusals, milk, recovered hair, feces, and urine was conducted. No effect of the interaction of diet and breed was observed for measures of nutrient digestibility and manure excretion. Total daily manure excretion was lower in Jersey cows than in Holstein cows, with reductions generally proportional to changes in feed intake. Jersey cows consumed 29% less feed and excreted 33% less wet feces and 28% less urine than Holstein cows. Intake, fecal, and urinary N were reduced by 29, 33, and 24%, respectively, in Jersey cows compared with Holstein cows. Equations from American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers underpredicted observed values for all manure measures evaluated (urine, manure solids, N, wet manure), and breed bias was observed in equations predicting excretion of urine, N, and wet manure. Although these equations include animal and dietary factors, intercepts of regression of observed values on predicted values differed between Holsteins and Jerseys for those 3 measures. No breed bias was observed in the prediction of manure solids excretion, however, making that equation equally appropriate for Jerseys and Holsteins. The effect of breed on manure and nutrient excretion has significant nutrient management implications.

  7. Biliary excretion of lecithin and cholesterol in the dog

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Henry O.; King, Katherine K.

    1972-01-01

    The biliary excretion rates of bile acid, lecithin, and cholesterol were measured in unanesthetized dogs after interruption of enterohepatic circulation and during infusions of sodium taurocholate, sodium glycocholate, sodium dehydrocholate, SC2644 (a bicyclic organic acid with high choleretic potency), and secretin. Both lecithin output and cholesterol output were directly related to bile acid excretion rate. The curves describing these relationships were concave downward. Molar concentration ratios of lecithin-to-bile acid declined gradually from approximately 0.4 to 0.2 as bile acid output increased from approximately 1 to 70 μmoles/min. Cholesterol-to-lecithin molar ratios were highest (0.05-0.15) at very low rates of bile acid excretion, but descended rapidly to a plateau (0.03-0.04) which was constant over the entire range of bile acid excretion rates from 10 to 70 μmoles/min. Similar lipid excretion patterns were observed during glycocholate infusion, but secretin-induced choleresis and dehydrocholate-induced choleresis were unaccompanied by any increments in lecithin or cholesterol excretion and SC2644 (which caused a marked increase in canalicular bile production as measured by erythritol clearance) caused a depression of lipid excretion. The data are consistent with the view that lecithin moves passively from cell membranes to intracanalicular micelles, that transport of cholesterol is coupled to lecithin transport, and that there is also a small amount of independent passive transport of cholesterol from membranes to micelles. A model developed on these assumptions has been shown to behave in a fashion consistent with the entire range of these observations. PMID:5024035

  8. Contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, R. P.; Goodman, H. O.; Assimos, D. G.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The amount of oxalate excreted in urine has a significant impact on calcium oxalate supersaturation and stone formation. Dietary oxalate is believed to make only a minor (10 to 20%) contribution to the amount of oxalate excreted in urine, but the validity of the experimental observations that support this conclusion can be questioned. An understanding of the actual contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion is important, as it is potentially modifiable. METHODS: We varied the amount of dietary oxalate consumed by a group of adult individuals using formula diets and controlled, solid-food diets with a known oxalate content, determined by a recently developed analytical procedure. Controlled solid-food diets were consumed containing 10, 50, and 250 mg of oxalate/2500 kcal, as well as formula diets containing 0 and 180 mg oxalate/2500 kcal. Changes in the content of oxalate and other ions were assessed in 24-hour urine collections. RESULTS: Urinary oxalate excretion increased as dietary oxalate intake increased. With oxalate-containing diets, the mean contribution of dietary oxalate to urinary oxalate excretion ranged from 24.4 +/- 15.5% on the 10 mg/2500 kcal/day diet to 41.5 +/- 9.1% on the 250 mg/2500 kcal/day diet, much higher than previously estimated. When the calcium content of a diet containing 250 mg of oxalate was reduced from 1002 mg to 391 mg, urinary oxalate excretion increased by a mean of 28.2 +/- 4.8%, and the mean dietary contribution increased to 52.6 +/- 8.6%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that dietary oxalate makes a much greater contribution to urinary oxalate excretion than previously recognized, that dietary calcium influences the bioavailability of ingested oxalate, and that the absorption of dietary oxalate may be an important factor in calcium oxalate stone formation.

  9. Experimental investigation of the serum albumin fascia microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzoverya, M. E.; Shcherbak, Yu. P.; Shishpor, I. V.

    2012-09-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigation of biological liquids are reported. Structural effects observed in fascias are considered with account of the molecular features of albumin and the concept of supramolecular organization of polymers. It is revealed that the morphology of human serum albumin fascias depends on the concentration and quality of the solvent. It is shown that the water-salt fascias of albumin are more structured than water solutions with the same concentration.

  10. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J A; Cistola, D P

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by 13C NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted [1-13C]oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles (vesicles or albumin with oleic acid) and acceptor particles (fatty acid-free albumin or vesicles), the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with greater than or equal to 80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was greater than or equal to 90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin; at pH 5.4, less than or equal to 10% of the oleic acid was bound to albumin and greater than 90% was associated with vesicles. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The 13C NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data. PMID:3455761

  11. Transfer of Oleic Acid between Albumin and Phospholipid Vesicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamilton, James A.; Cistola, David P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by 13C NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted [1-13C]oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles (vesicles or albumin with oleic acid) and acceptor particles (fatty acid-free albumin or vesicles), the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with >= 80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was >= 90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin; at pH 5.4, <= 10% of the oleic acid was bound to albumin and >90% was associated with vesicles. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The 13C NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  12. Albumin-bound bilirubin in subchoroidal fluid.

    PubMed

    Lam, W K; Lee, P F; Ray, S; Feman, S; van Heuven, W A

    1979-01-01

    The most unique property of subchoroidal fluid was found to be the high bilirubin level. One distinct yellow band in the same position as albumin was observed when it was subjected to electrophoresis on agarose film. The yellow compound was very soluble in chloroform. Its identity to bilirubin was confirmed by its absorption maximum at 445 nm, and a positive reaction with Ehrlich's diazo reagent. Subretinal fluid and liquid vitreous often had a yellowish appearance after ocular hemorrhage. However, their bilirubin level was not elevated above that of serum. Our data indicated that the degradation of RBCs may be an important causative factor of persistant detachment. PMID:758891

  13. Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo

    2016-03-01

    Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.

  14. Reabsorption kinetics of albumin from pleural space of dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Miniati, M.; Parker, J.C.; Pistolesi, M.; Cartledge, J.T.; Martin, D.J.; Giuntini, C.; Taylor, A.E.

    1988-08-01

    The reabsorption of albumin from the pleural space was measured in eight dogs receiving 0.5 ml intrapleural injection of /sup 131/I-labeled albumin and a simultaneous intravenous injection of /sup 125/I-labeled albumin. Plasma curves for both tracers were obtained over 24 h. The /sup 125/I-albumin curve served as input function of albumin for interstitial spaces, including pleura, whereas the /sup 131/I-albumin curve represented the output function from pleural space. The frequency function of albumin transit times from pleural space to plasma was obtained by deconvolution of input-output plasma curves. Plasma recovery of /sup 131/I-albumin was complete by 24 h, and the mean transit time from pleura to plasma averaged 7.95 +/- 1.57 (SD) h. Albumin reabsorption occurred mainly via lymphatics as indicated by experiments in 16 additional dogs in which their right lymph ducts or thoracic ducts were ligated before intrapleural injection. A pleural lymph flow of 0.020 +/- 0.003 (SD) ml.kg-1.h-1 was estimated, which is balanced by a comparable filtration of fluid into the pleural space. This suggests that, under physiological conditions, the subpleural lymphatics represent an important control mechanism of pleural liquid pressure.

  15. Effects of serum-isolated vs synthetic bilirubin-albumin complexes on dye-binding methods for estimating serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Ihara, H; Nakamura, H; Aoki, Y; Aoki, T; Yoshida, M

    1991-07-01

    Bush and Reed reported (Clin Chem 1987;33:821-3) that the reaction of albumin with bromcresol purple but not with bromcresol green underestimated the concentration of albumin in synthetically obtained bilirubin-albumin (Bd) by 29%. Their unproven assumption was that chemically synthesized Bd behaved in a manner indistinguishable from the natural Bd in icteric serum. Here we verify that Bd, whether synthetically obtained or isolated from serum, causes an underestimation of albumin in the bromcresol purple but not in the bromcresol green method. The molar ratio of Bd from either source to underestimated albumin approximates 1.0, suggesting that one molecule of Bd would react equivalently to a molecule of albumin in the bromcresol purple method. This underestimation might falsely suggest hypoalbuminemia in patients with increased serum Bd. PMID:1855300

  16. Short communication: Evaluation of nitrogen excretion equations from cattle.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A C B; Reed, K F; Kebreab, E

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen excretion in dairy manure is a precursor for N2O and NH3 formation in livestock housing, manure storage facilities, and after manure is applied to land. Nitrous oxide is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions, and reducing N output from dairy production facilities can reduce the amount of anthropogenic N2O entering the atmosphere. The objective of the study was to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of extant prediction models for N excretion in feces and urine using extensive literature data. A total of 45 N excretion equations were evaluated for lactating cows, heifers, and nonlactating cows and steers. These equations were evaluated with 215 treatment means from 69 published studies collected over 20 yr from 1995 to 2015. Two evaluation methods were used: the root mean square prediction error and the concordance correlation coefficient. Equations constructed using a more rigorous development process fared better than older extant equations. Equations for heifers and nonlactating cows had greater error of prediction compared with equations used for lactating cows. This could be due to limited amount of data available for construction and evaluation of the equations. Urinary N equations had greater prediction errors than other forms of excretion, possibly due to high variability in urinary N excretion and challenges in urine collection. Fecal N equations had low error bias and reached an acceptable level of precision and accuracy. PMID:27320670

  17. Renal melatonin excretion in sheep is enhanced by water diuresis.

    PubMed

    Valtonen, M; Laitinen, J T; Eriksson, L

    1993-09-01

    Diurnal variation in blood melatonin levels and renal melatonin excretion was monitored in five ewes by blood sampling and quantitative urine collection at 2-h intervals. A typical secretory pattern of melatonin was seen both in blood and urine levels and in the renal excretion of melatonin. Serum melatonin levels increased from daytime values of approximately 200 pmol/l to a mean of 800 pmol/l during darkness. Urine flow rate and urine osmolality did not show any clear diurnal rhythm. To examine whether urine flow rate affects renal melatonin excretion at night, urine was collected in three consecutive 30-min fractions, and blood was sampled in the middle of each urine collection period when the sheep were in normal water balance or after hydration. Hydration increased urine flow rate over sixfold and decreased urine osmolality well below plasma osmolality. Glomerular filtration rate, measured as creatinine clearance, did not change. Serum melatonin concentrations did not differ between hydrated and non-hydrated sheep. However, urinary melatonin excretion was 1.1 +/- 0.3 (S.E.M.) pmol/min at midnight in normal water balance, and significantly higher (2.6 +/- 0.4 pmol/min) in the hydrated state. In this study, the validity of urinary melatonin determinations as an indicator of pineal function was confirmed in normal water balance. In addition, our results suggest that a high tubular fluid load during diuresis increases urinary melatonin excretion because of decreased tubular reabsorption.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Changes in parasite transmission stage excretion after pheasant release.

    PubMed

    Villanúa, D; Acevedo, P; Höfle, U; Rodríguez, O; Gortázar, C

    2006-09-01

    The production of parasite transmission stages was investigated in the faeces of 77 farm-bred ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). Coccidian oocysts (Eimeria sp.), and nematode eggs (Heterakis sp., and Capillaria-like eggs) were recovered before and after release but all birds were treated prior to release. Treatment with fenbendazole significantly reduced the abundance of transmission-stage excretion for all parasites, and reduced the prevalence in the case of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. Nonetheless, a significant increase in the excretion abundance for all parasites and in the prevalence of Eimeria sp. and Heterakis sp. was found after release. Eggs of Ascaridia sp. were found only after releasing, suggesting infection ocurred in the wild. A negative relationship was found between the pheasant body condition and Heterakis excretion abundance and a higher abundance of Capillaria sp. eggs in female birds. No significant relationship was found between parasite excretion abundance and pheasant survival. Despite this, results suggest that an increase in the excretion of parasite transmission stages follows the release of captive pheasants into the wild. This can in part explain restocking failures, but also means that autochtonous free-living birds may become exposed to new and potentially harmful pathogens. To avoid these risks it is proposed that improved prophylactic measures should be taken.

  19. Urine excretion strategy for stem cell-generated embryonic kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Yokote, Shinya; Matsunari, Hitomi; Iwai, Satomi; Yamanaka, Shuichiro; Uchikura, Ayuko; Fujimoto, Eisuke; Matsumoto, Kei; Nagashima, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yokoo, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    There have been several recent attempts to generate, de novo, a functional whole kidney from stem cells using the organogenic niche or blastocyst complementation methods. However, none of these attempts succeeded in constructing a urinary excretion pathway for the stem cell-generated embryonic kidney. First, we transplanted metanephroi from cloned pig fetuses into gilts; the metanephroi grew to about 3 cm and produced urine, although hydronephrosis eventually was observed because of the lack of an excretion pathway. Second, we demonstrated the construction of urine excretion pathways in rats. Rat metanephroi or metanephroi with bladders (developed from cloacas) were transplanted into host rats. Histopathologic analysis showed that tubular lumina dilation and interstitial fibrosis were reduced in kidneys developed from cloacal transplants compared with metanephroi transplantation. Then we connected the host animal’s ureter to the cloacal-developed bladder, a technique we called the “stepwise peristaltic ureter” (SWPU) system. The application of the SWPU system avoided hydronephrosis and permitted the cloacas to differentiate well, with cloacal urine being excreted persistently through the recipient ureter. Finally, we demonstrated a viable preclinical application of the SWPU system in cloned pigs. The SWPU system also inhibited hydronephrosis in the pig study. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that the SWPU system may resolve two important problems in the generation of kidneys from stem cells: construction of a urine excretion pathway and continued growth of the newly generated kidney. PMID:26392557

  20. Internal dosimetry of plutonium using the late urinary excretion.

    PubMed

    Sharma, R C; Abani, M C

    2000-10-01

    An attempt has been made to standardize the methodology of internal dose computation from the late urinary excretion data. The methodology was selected keeping in mind the most recent ICRP publications and the results of internal dosimetry intercomparison studies reported in literature. The key element of this methodology is the PC-based computational software LUDEP 2.05, which implements the new model of the human respiratory tract. Late urinary excretion data of three male subjects involved in accidental intakes of plutonium aerosols more than 25 years ago were interpreted in terms of intakes and internal doses with the aid of the standardized methodology. An important implication of this work is that late urinary excretion data of the occupational workers of any plutonium handling facility could be used to show the compliance with the life-time dose limit.

  1. Urinary excretion of methaqualone-N-oxide in man.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, C N; Wilson, K; Burnett, D

    1976-02-01

    1. Oral administration of therapeutic doses (250 mg) of methaqualone (Melsed) to adult human subjects gives rise to the urinary excretion of methaqualone-N-oxide. This metabolite has been identified by chromatography and mass spectrometry and quantitatively determined by reduction with titanium trichloride to methaqualone which was then determined by g.l.c. 2. The N-oxide accounts for 5-9% of the dose in 24 h. 3. 2-Nitrobenzo-o-toluidide, a possible oxidation product of methaqualone-N-oxide, has not been detected. 4. The urinary excretion of unchanged methaqualone is less than 0-3% of the dose. The ease with which methaqualone-N-oxide is thermally converted to methaqualone casts doubts on the previously published figures for the urinary excretion of methaqualone.

  2. Urinary excretion pattern of methaqualone metabolites in man.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, O; Danielsson, B

    1977-01-01

    A method based on selected ion monitoring for determination of five monohydroxy metabolites of methaqualone in urine has been worked out. By means of this method the time course of metabolite excretion was studied in three healthy volunteers receiving an oral therapeutic dose of methaqualone. In all subjects the main monohydroxy metabolite was conjugated 4'-hydroxymethaqualone, but the relative importance of the five metabolites showed intersubject variation. Metabolite excretion was still going on, when urine sampling was discontinued after 70 hr. Only small amounts (less than 1% of the dose during 70 hr) of unmetabolized methaqualone were excreted. On the other hand, it was confirmed that methaqualone-N1-oxide is an important metabolite. The presence of a hydroxy methoxy metabolite of methaqualone, very probably 4'-hydroxy-5'-methoxymethaqualone, as a minor metabolite was established by comparison with authentic, synthetic material. 8-Hydroxymethaqualone and 2-nitrobenz-o-toluidide, reported by other groups, could not be detected.

  3. Quantitation of phosphorus excretion in sheep by compartmental analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, K.M.; Boston, R.C.; Leaver, D.D.

    1987-04-01

    The control of phosphorus excretion in sheep has been examined by constructing a kinetic model that contains a mechanistic set of connections between blood and gastrointestinal tract. The model was developed using experimental data from chaff-fed sheep and gives an accurate description of the absorption and excretion of /sup 32/P phosphorus in feces and urine of the ruminating sheep. These results indicated the main control site for phosphorus excretion in the ruminating sheep was the gastrointestinal tract, whereas for the non-ruminating sheep fed the liquid diet, control was exerted by the kidney. A critical factor in the induction of adaptation of phosphorus reabsorption by the kidney was the reduction in salivation, and since this response occurred independently of marked changes in the delivery of phosphorus to the kidney, a humoral factor may be involved in this communication between salivary gland and kidney.

  4. Binding and hydrolysis of soman by human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Nachon, Florian; Froment, Marie-Thérèse; Verdier, Laurent; Debouzy, Jean-Claude; Brasme, Bernardo; Gillon, Emilie; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Lockridge, Oksana; Masson, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    Human plasma and fatty acid free human albumin were incubated with soman at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C. Four methods were used to monitor the reaction of albumin with soman: progressive inhibition of the aryl acylamidase activity of albumin, the release of fluoride ion from soman, 31P NMR, and mass spectrometry. Inhibition (phosphonylation) was slow with a bimolecular rate constant of 15 +/- 3 M(-1) min (-1). MALDI-TOF and tandem mass spectrometry of the soman-albumin adduct showed that albumin was phosphonylated on tyrosine 411. No secondary dealkylation of the adduct (aging) occurred. Covalent docking simulations and 31P NMR experiments showed that albumin has no enantiomeric preference for the four stereoisomers of soman. Spontaneous reactivation at pH 8.0 and 25 degrees C, measured as regaining of aryl acylamidase activity and decrease of covalent adduct (pinacolyl methylphosphonylated albumin) by NMR, occurred at a rate of 0.0044 h (-1), indicating that the adduct is quite stable ( t1/2 = 6.5 days). At pH 7.4 and 22 degrees C, the covalent soman-albumin adduct, measured by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, was more stable ( t1/2 = 20 days). Though the concentration of albumin in plasma is very high (about 0.6 mM), its reactivity with soman (phosphonylation and phosphotriesterase activity) is too slow to play a major role in detoxification of the highly toxic organophosphorus compound soman. Increasing the bimolecular rate constant of albumin for organophosphates is a protein engineering challenge that could lead to a new class of bioscavengers to be used against poisoning by nerve agents. Soman-albumin adducts detected by mass spectrometry could be useful for the diagnosis of soman exposure. PMID:18163544

  5. Intrarenal distribution of inorganic mercury and albumin after coadministration

    SciTech Connect

    Zalups, R.K. ); Barfuss, D.W. )

    1993-01-01

    The renal disposition and the intrarenal distribution of albumin and mercury were studied simultaneously in rats co-injected with a 0.5-[mu]mol/kg dose of albumin and a 0.25-[mu]mol/kg dose of inorganic mercury at 2, 5, 30, and 180 min after injection. These studies were carried out to test the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms involved in the renal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury is cotransport with albumin. By the end of the first 2 min after injection, the ratio of inorganic mercury to albumin in the renal cortex and outer strip of the outer medulla was approximately 2.6 and 1.6, respectively. Both the cortex and outer stripe contain segments of the proximal tubule, and it is these segments that have been shown to be principally involved in the renal tubular uptake of both albumin and inorganic mercury. The ration increased slightly in these two zones after 5 and 20 min after injection. These data demonstrate that there is a relatively close relationship in the renal content of inorganic mercury and albumin. However, the ratios are significantly greater than the ratio of inorganic mercury of albumin in the injection solution, which was 0.5. After 180 min following co-injection, the ratio increased to about 38 in the cortex and 15 in the outer stripe. This increase in the ratio is probably related to the metabolism of albumin. Based on the ratios of inorganic mercury to albumin in the renal cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla, it appears that some proximal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury occurs by mechanisms other than endocytotic cotransport of inorganic mercury with albumin. However, since the ratios were small during the early times after injection, cotransport of inorganic mercury with albumin cannot be excluded as one of the mechanisms involved in the proximal tubular uptake of inorganic mercury. 32 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Dynamics of renal electrolyte excretion in growing mice.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Katharina; Ripper, Maria; Tegtmeier, Ines; Humberg, Evelyn; Sterner, Christina; Reichold, Markus; Warth, Richard; Bandulik, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Genetically modified mice represent important models for elucidating renal pathophysiology, but gene deletions frequently cause severe failure to thrive. In such cases, the analysis of the phenotype is often limited to the first weeks of life when renal excretory function undergoes dramatic physiological changes. Here, we investigated the postnatal dynamics of urinary ion excretion in mice. The profiles of urinary electrolyte excretion of mice were examined from birth until after weaning using an automated ion chromatography system. Postnatally, mice grew about 0.4 g/day, except during two phases with slower weight gain: (i) directly after birth during adaptation to extrauterine conditions (P0-P2) and (ii) during the weaning period (P15-P21), when nutrition changed from mother's milk to solid chow and water. During the first 3 days after birth, remarkable changes in urinary Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and phosphate concentrations occurred, whereas K(+) and Cl(-) concentrations hardly changed. From days 4-14 after birth, Na(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+), K(+), and Cl(-) concentrations remained relatively stable at low levels. Urinary concentrations of creatinine, NH4(+), phosphate, and sulfate constantly increased from birth until after weaning. Profiles of salt excretion in KCNJ10(-/-) mice exemplified the relevance of age-dependent analysis of urinary excretion. In conclusion, the most critical phases for analysis of renal ion excretion during the first weeks of life are directly after birth and during the weaning period. The age dependence of urinary excretion varies for the different ions. This should be taken into consideration when the renal phenotype of mice is investigated during the first weeks of life. PMID:24296675

  7. Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing and Forcing Efficiencies at Surface from the shortwave Irradiance Measurements in Abu Dhabi, UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beegum S, N.; Ben Romdhane, H.; Ghedira, H.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are known to affect the radiation balance of the Earth-Atmospheric system directly by scattering and absorbing the solar and terrestrial radiation, and indirectly by affecting the lifetime and albedo of the clouds. Continuous and simultaneous measurements of short wave global irradiance in combination with synchronous spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements (from 340 nm to 1640 nm in 8 channels), for a period of 1 year from June 2012 to May 2013, were used for the determination of the surface direct aerosol radiative forcing and forcing efficiencies under cloud free conditions in Abu Dhabi (24.42°N, 54.61o E, 7m MSL), a coastal location in United Arab Emirates (UAE) in the Arabian Peninsula. The Rotating Shadow band Pyranometer (RSP, LI-COR) was used for the irradiance measurements (in the spectral region 400-1100 nm), whereas the AOD measurements were carried out using CIMEL Sunphotometer (CE 318-2, under AERONET program). The differential method, which is neither sensitive to calibration uncertainties nor model assumptions, has been employed for estimating forcing efficiencies from the changes in the measured fluxes. The forcing efficiency, which quantifies the net change in irradiance per unit change in AOD, is an appropriate parameter for the characterization of the aerosol radiative effects even if the microphysical and optical properties of the aerosols are not completely understood. The corresponding forcing values were estimated from the forcing efficiencies. The estimated radiative forcing and forcing efficiencies exhibited strong monthly variations. The forcing efficiencies (absolute magnitudes) were highest during March, and showed continuous decrease thereafter to reach the lowest value during September. In contrast, the forcing followed a slightly different pattern of variability, with the highest solar dimming during April ( -60 W m-2) and the minimum during February ( -20 W m-2). The results indicate that the aerosol

  8. Investigation of bovine serum albumin glycation by THz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkasova, Olga P.; Nazarov, Maxim M.; Shkurinov, Alexander P.

    2016-04-01

    Protein glycation is accelerated under hyperglycemic conditions resulting to loss in the structure and biological functions of proteins. The transmission THz spectroscopy has been used for measuring of bovine serum albumin glycation dynamics. It was found that amplitude of albumin THz absorption depends on type of sugars and incubation time.

  9. Albumin Is Recycled from the Primary Urine by Tubular Transcytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tenten, Verena; Menzel, Sylvia; Kunter, Uta; Sicking, Eva-Maria; van Roeyen, Claudia R. C.; Sanden, Silja K.; Kaldenbach, Michaela; Boor, Peter; Fuss, Astrid; Uhlig, Sandra; Lanzmich, Regina; Willemsen, Brigith; Dijkman, Henry; Grepl, Martin; Wild, Klemens; Kriz, Wilhelm; Smeets, Bart; Floege, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    Under physiologic conditions, significant amounts of plasma protein pass the renal filter and are reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, but it is not clear whether the endocytosed protein, particularly albumin, is degraded in lysosomes or returned to the circulatory system intact. To resolve this question, a transgenic mouse with podocyte-specific expression of doxycycline-inducible tagged murine albumin was developed. To assess potential glomerular backfiltration, two types of albumin with different charges were expressed. On administration of doxycycline, podocytes expressed either of the two types of transgenic albumin, which were secreted into the primary filtrate and reabsorbed by proximal tubular cells, resulting in serum accumulation. Renal transplantation experiments confirmed that extrarenal transcription of transgenic albumin was unlikely to account for these results. Genetic deletion of the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), which rescues albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, abolished transcytosis of both types of transgenic albumin and IgG in proximal tubular cells. In summary, we provide evidence of a transcytosis within the kidney tubular system that protects albumin and IgG from lysosomal degradation, allowing these proteins to be recycled intact. PMID:23970123

  10. Facile cell patterning on an albumin-coated surface.

    PubMed

    Yamazoe, Hironori; Uemura, Toshimasa; Tanabe, Toshizumi

    2008-08-19

    Fabrication of micropatterned surfaces to organize and control cell adhesion and proliferation is an indispensable technique for cell-based technologies. Although several successful strategies for creating cellular micropatterns on substrates have been demonstrated, a complex multistep process and requirements for special and expensive equipment or materials limit their prevalence as a general experimental tool. To circumvent these problems, we describe here a novel facile fabrication method for a micropatterned surface for cell patterning by utilizing the UV-induced conversion of the cell adhesive property of albumin, which is the most abundant protein in blood plasma. An albumin-coated surface was prepared by cross-linking albumin with ethylene glycol diglycidyl ether and subsequent casting of the cross-linked albumin solution on the cell culture dish. While cells did not attach to the albumin surface prepared in this way, UV exposure renders the surface cell-adhesive. Thus, surface micropatterning was achieved simply by exposing the albumin-coated surface to UV light through a mask with the desired pattern. Mouse fibroblast L929 cells were inoculated on the patterned albumin substrates, and cells attached and spread in a highly selective manner according to the UV-irradiated pattern. Although detailed investigation of the molecular-level mechanism concerning the change in cell adhesiveness of the albumin-coated surface is required, the present results would give a novel facile method for the fabrication of cell micropatterned surfaces. PMID:18627191

  11. Interaction of coffee compounds with serum albumins. Part II: Diterpenes.

    PubMed

    Guercia, Elena; Forzato, Cristina; Navarini, Luciano; Berti, Federico

    2016-05-15

    Cafestol and 16-O-methylcafestol are diterpenes present in coffee, but whilst cafestol is found in both Coffea canephora and Coffea arabica, 16-O-methylcafestol (16-OMC) was reported to be specific of only C. canephora. The interactions of such compounds, with serum albumins, have been studied. Three albumins have been considered, namely human serum albumin (HSA), fatty acid free HSA (ffHSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA). The proteins interact with the diterpenes at the interface between Sudlow site I and the fatty acid binding site 6 in a very peculiar way, leading to a significant change in the secondary structure. The diterpenes do not displace reference binding drugs of site 2, but rather they enhance the affinity of the site for the drugs. They, therefore, may alter the pharmacokinetic profile of albumin - bound drugs.

  12. Albumin Naskapi variant in North American Indians and Eti Turks.

    PubMed

    Franklin, S G; Wolf, S I; Ozdemir, Y; Yüregir, G T; Isbir, T; Blumberg, B S

    1980-09-01

    Both conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a new type of electrophoretic screening procedure indicate that the polymorphic albumin variants Naskapi, found chiefly in the Naskapi Indians of Quebec, and Mersin, found in the Eti Turks of southeastern Turkey, are molecularly identical or very similar and that the amino acid substitution site in these variants is located between residues 330 and 446. This discovery is consistent with a genetic relationship between the Eti Turks and American Indians. We also report a new variant found in the Eti Turks, albumin Adana, which migrates similarly to albumin B on conventional gels but which our new system shows to differ from the common albumin A and albumin B by a substitution between residues 549 and 585.

  13. Ghrelin binding to serum albumin and its biological impact.

    PubMed

    Lufrano, Daniela; Trejo, Sebastián A; Llovera, Ramiro E; Salgueiro, Mariano; Fernandez, Gimena; Martínez Damonte, Valentina; González Flecha, F Luis; Raingo, Jesica; Ermácora, Mario R; Perelló, Mario

    2016-11-15

    Ghrelin is an octanoylated peptide hormone that plays a key role in the regulation of the body weight and glucose homeostasis. In plasma, ghrelin circulates bound to larger proteins whose identities are partially established. Here, we used size exclusion chromatography, mass spectrometry and isothermal titration microcalorimetry to show that ghrelin interacts with serum albumin. Furthermore, we found that such interaction displays an estimated dissociation constant (KD) in the micromolar range and involves albumin fatty-acid binding sites as well as the octanoyl moiety of ghrelin. Notably, albumin-ghrelin interaction reduces the spontaneous deacylation of the hormone. Both in vitro experiments-assessing ghrelin ability to inhibit calcium channels-and in vivo studies-evaluating ghrelin orexigenic effects-indicate that the binding to albumin affects the bioactivity of the hormone. In conclusion, our results suggest that ghrelin binds to serum albumin and that this interaction impacts on the biological activity of the hormone. PMID:27431015

  14. Differential detection of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii in fecal samples by nested PCR in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).

    PubMed

    ElBakri, Ali; Samie, Amidou; Ezzedine, Sinda; Odeh, Raed Abu

    2013-06-01

    Amoebiasis is one of the most important infectious diseases afflicting mainly tropical and subtropical countries. This study was carried out in the Sharjah Emirate, UAE in order to accurately detect and differentiate Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and E. moshkovskii in fecal samples collected from the Sharjah municipality public health clinic by ELISA and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). One hundred and twenty specimens were examined and the PCR was positive for E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii (collectively referred to as Entamoeba complex) in 19.2% (23 out of 120). Of those, 10% (12/120) were mono - infection with E. histolytica; 2.5% (3/120) with E. dispar; and 2.5% (3/120) E. moshkovskii. The nested PCR also detected mixed infections by both E. histolytica and E. dispar in 3.3% (4/120) and E. dispar and E. moshkovskii in 0.8% (1/120). The TechLab ELISA kit failed to detect E. histolytica in any of the E. histolytica PCR positive samples. Overall, the percentage of E. histolytica including those found in mixed infections was 13.3% (16/120). Compared to nested PCR, microscopy was found to have an overall sensitivity of 52.2% and a specificity of 75.2% for detection of Entamoeba complex. The present study indicates that E. histolytica is present in the UAE with an average incidence rate of 13.3%. However, larger studies need to be conducted in order to confirm these findings. We propose the use of PCR in both the routine diagnosis of amoebiasis and epidemiological survey in the UAE.

  15. Visualizing Trimming Dependence of Biodistribution and Kinetics with Homo- and Heterogeneous N-Glycoclusters on Fluorescent Albumin.

    PubMed

    Ogura, Akihiro; Tahara, Tsuyoshi; Nozaki, Satoshi; Morimoto, Koji; Kizuka, Yasuhiko; Kitazume, Shinobu; Hara, Mitsuko; Kojima, Soichi; Onoe, Hirotaka; Kurbangalieva, Almira; Taniguchi, Naoyuki; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Tanaka, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    A series of N-glycans, each sequentially trimmed from biantennary sialoglycans, were homo- or heterogeneously clustered efficiently on fluorescent albumin using a method that combined strain-promoted alkyne-azide cyclization and 6π-azaelectrocyclization. Noninvasive in vivo kinetics and dissection analysis revealed, for the first time, a glycan-dependent shift from urinary to gall bladder excretion mediated by sequential trimming of non-reducing end sialic acids. N-glycoalbumins that were trimmed further, in particular, GlcNAc- and hybrid biantennary-terminated congeners, were selectively taken up by sinusoidal endothelial and stellate cells in the liver, which are critical for diagnosis and treatment of liver fibrillation. Our glycocluster strategy can not only reveal the previously unexplored extracellular functions of N-glycan trimming, but will be classified as the newly emerging glycoprobes for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:26902314

  16. Aztreonam biliary excretion in bile duct ligated jaundiced rats.

    PubMed

    Rulli, F; Muzi, M; Zanella, E; Cipriani, P; Magni, A; Giordano, A; Filadoro, F

    1991-04-01

    An experimental study was undertaken to assess aztreonam biliary concentrations in bile duct ligated jaundiced rats. The study proved that aztreonam biliary concentrations are sufficient to inhibit Gram-negative bacteria within the first and the second hour after antibiotic administration. The experimental model suggests that clinical conditions such as lithiasis or neoplasms of the biliary tree should not totally inhibit the antibiotic excretion.

  17. Predicting nitrogen excretion in commercial grazing system dairy farms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving nitrogen (N) management on dairy farms is best facilitated through management of dairy cow feed N intakes (NI), due to strong associations between NI, feed N use efficiencies (NUE, proportion of NI secreted as milk N) and manure N excretion (Nex). Milk urea N (MUN) has also been used as an...

  18. Excretion of intracorporeal cadmium with S-benzoylthiamin monophosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, J.; Kaneda, Y.

    1995-05-01

    Examination was made of the excretion of intracorporeal methylmercury into body hair by the administration of thiamin tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide (TTFD) which caused significant increase in mercury content in human mustache. The thiamin derivative, S-benzoylthiamin monophosphate (BTMP) failed to have such effect. The mechanism of mercury excretion is thus based on the side chain structure of TTFD, mercaptan. At the start of the 20th century in Japan, many multiparae were found to have itai-itai disease, the main symptom of which is general pain. The cause of this disease was considered cadmium deposition on the bone from sourced such as soil and river water which contaminated rice and cereals. The previous system for mercury was applied based on cadmium content variation in human mustache. Although TTFD worked well in the mercury excretion system, the usual dosage of TTFD administered orally did not cause significant increase in cadmium in the mustache. BTMP appeared to exert effect by generating thiol-type thiamin. Experiments in vitro should be conducted to demonstrate the chelating effects of thiol-type thiamin. It is quite important to find evidence for cadmium excretion from human body. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. INFLUENCE OF DIETARY ARSENIC ON URINARY ARSENIC METABOLITE EXCRETION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Influence of Dietary Arsenic on Urinary Arsenic Metabolite Excretion

    Cara L. Carty, M.S., Edward E. Hudgens, B.Sc., Rebecca L. Calderon, Ph.D., M.S.P.H., Richard Kwok, M.S.P.H., Epidemiology and Biomarkers Branch/HSD, NHEERL/US EPA; David J. Thomas, Ph.D., Pharmacokinetics...

  20. Renal Regulation of Acid-Base Balance: Ammonia Excretion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, George A.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment which demonstrates changes in ammonia excretion and urine pH that occur in response to metabolic acidosis (induced by ammonium chloride ingestion) or metabolic alkalosis (produced by sodium bicarbonate ingestion). List of materials needed and background information are included. Typical results are provided and discussed.…

  1. Urinary Calcium Excretion After Immobilization and Spinal Fusion in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Millard, F. J. C.; Nassim, J. R.; Woollen, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    The effect of prolonged immobilization and spinal fusion on the urinary calcium excretion of adolescents is described. Some patients developed severe hypercalcuria, but there was considerable individual variation. No significant difference was found between the sexes nor between patients with scoliosis due to muscle weakness and idiopathic scoliosis. PMID:5427856

  2. Increased leukotriene E4 excretion in systemic mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Joseph H

    2010-06-01

    Cysteinyl leukotrienes such as LTE(4) are produced by mast cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and macrophages. LTE(4) levels have not been reported in systemic mastocytosis, a disorder with a large increase in mast cell numbers. Urinary LTE(4) from patients referred for symptoms potentially due to mast cell degranulation or systemic mastocytosis was measured by a commercial cysteinyl leukotriene enzyme immunoassay kit. The diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis was established using current World Health Organization criteria. Compared with a control group of patients with various potential mast cell-related symptoms (e.g., "spells"), patients with systemic mastocytosis had a significant (P=.01) increase in urinary LTE(4) excretion, whether expressed as LTE(4) ng/g creatinine or as LTE(4) ng/24h. There was a moderate correlation of LTE(4) ng/24h with excretion of N-methyl histamine and serum tryptase but not with urinary 11beta-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (11beta-PGF(2alpha)) excretion. LTE(4) excretion is increased in patients with systemic mastocytosis and potentially contributes to clinical symptoms.

  3. The relationship between serum albumin levels and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recordings in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Ahbap, Elbis; Sakaci, Tamer; Kara, Ekrem; Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Koc, Yener; Basturk, Taner; Sevinc, Mustafa; Akgol, Cuneyt; Kayalar, Arzu O.; Ucar, Zuhal A.; Bayraktar, Feyza; Unsal, Abdulkadir

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum albumin levels and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (24-h ABPM) recordings in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients. METHODS: A total of 354 patients (mean [SD] age: 55.5 [14.3] years, 50% females) with essential hypertension and 24-h ABPM recordings were included. Patient 24-h nighttime and daytime ABPM values, systolic and diastolic dipping status and average nocturnal dipping were recorded. The correlations between serum albumin levels and nocturnal systolic and diastolic dipping were evaluated, and correlates of average nocturnal systolic dipping were determined via a linear regression model. RESULTS: Overall, 73.2% of patients were determined to be non-dippers. The mean (SD) levels of serum albumin (4.2 [0.3] g/dL vs. 4.4 [0.4] g/dL, p<0.001) and the average nocturnal systolic (15.2 [4.8] mmHg vs. 0.3 [6.6] mmHg, p<0.001) and diastolic dipping (4.2 [8.6] mmHgvs. 18.9 [7.0] mmHg, p<0.001) were significantly lower in non-dippers than in dippers. A significant positive correlation was noted between serum albumin levels and both systolic (r=0.297, p<0.001) and diastolic dipping (r=0.265, p<0.001). The linear regression analysis revealed that for each one-unit increase in serum albumin, the average nocturnal dip in systolic BP increased by 0.17 mmHg (p=0.033). CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate an association between serum albumin levels and the deterioration of circadian BP rhythm among essential hypertensive patients along with the identification of a non-dipper pattern in more than two-thirds of patients. Our findings emphasize the importance of serum albumin levels, rather than urinary albumin excretion, as an independent predictor of nocturnal systolic dipping, at least in non-diabetic essential hypertensive patients with moderate proteinuria. PMID:27276394

  4. Study of the cross-reaction between rabbit anti-bovine serum albumin antibodies and equine serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Rangel, H.

    1965-01-01

    Cross-reactions between bovine serum albumin and equine serum albumin were studied using heterologous soluble complexes and specifically purified cross-reacting antibody. Experiments with soluble complexes showed that homologous antigen can displace heterologous antigen specifically bound to antibody but heterologous antigen cannot displace homologous antigen. On gel precipitation tests a specific precipitation resulted when heterologous soluble complex reacted with homologous antigen. By using equine serum albumin conjugated to polyaminopolystyrene the cross-reacting antibodies from anti-bovine serum albumin imune sera could be isolated. These are divalent 7S, γ-globulin antibodies. A figure of cross-reaction was obtained when these purified antibodies were tested by double diffusion in agar with bovine and equine serum albumins. The results obtained both with soluble complexes and with purified antibody support the view that cross-reacting antibody is more avid for the homologous than for the heterologous antigen. ImagesFIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5 PMID:14245318

  5. Effect of diethyl ether on the biliary excretion of acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Watkins, J B; Siegers, C P; Klaassen, C D

    1984-10-01

    The biliary and renal excretion of acetaminophen and its metabolites over 8 hr was determined in rats exposed to diethyl ether by inhalation for 1 hr. Additional rats were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg ip) while control animals were conscious throughout the experiment (surgery was performed under hexobarbital narcosis: 150 mg/kg ip; 30-min duration). The concentration of UDP-glucuronic acid was decreased 80% in livers from ether-anesthetized rats but was not reduced in urethane-treated animals when compared to that in control rats. The concentration of reduced glutathione was not affected by either urethane or diethyl ether. Basal bile flow was not altered by the anesthetic agents. Bile flow rate after acetaminophen injection (100 mg/kg iv) was increased slightly over basal levels for 2 hr in hexobarbital-treated control rats, was unaltered in urethane-anesthetized animals, and was decreased throughout the 8-hr experiment in rats exposed to diethyl ether for 1 hr. In control and urethane-anesthetized animals, approximately 30-35% of the total acetaminophen dose (100 mg/kg iv) was excreted into bile in 8 hr, while only 16% was excreted in rats anesthetized with diethyl ether. Urinary elimination (60-70% of the dose) was not altered by exposure to ether. Separation of metabolites by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography showed that ether decreased the biliary elimination of unchanged acetaminophen and its glucuronide, sulfate, and glutathione conjugates by 47, 40, 49, and 73%, respectively, as compared to control rats. Excretion of unchanged acetaminophen and the glutathione conjugate into bile was depressed in urethane-anesthetized animals by 45 and 66%, respectively, whereas elimination of the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates was increased by 27 and 50%, respectively. These results indicate that biliary excretion is influenced by the anesthetic agent and that diethyl ether depresses conjugation with sulfate and glutathione as well as glucuronic

  6. Elevated urinary excretion of aluminium and iron in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Exley, Christopher; Mamutse, Godwin; Korchazhkina, Olga; Pye, Eleanor; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Polwart, Anthony; Hawkins, Clive

    2006-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, immune-mediated, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system of as yet unknown aetiology. A consensus of opinion has suggested that the disorder is the result of an interplay between environmental factors and susceptibility genes. We have used a battery of analytical techniques to determine if the urinary excretion of i) markers of oxidative damage; ii) iron and iii) the environmental toxin aluminium and its antagonist, silicon, are altered in relapsing-remitting (RRMS) and secondary progressive MS (SPMS). Urinary concentrations of oxidative biomarkers, MDA and TBARS, were not found to be useful indicators of inflammatory disease in MS. However, urinary concentrations of another potential marker for inflammation and oxidative stress, iron, were significantly increased in SPMS (P<0.01) and insignificantly increased in RRMS (P>0.05). Urinary concentrations of aluminium were also significantly increased in RRMS (P<0.001) and SPMS (P <0.05) such that the levels of aluminium excretion in the former were similar to those observed in individuals undergoing metal chelation therapy. The excretion of silicon was lower in MS and significantly so in SPMS (P<0.05). Increased excretion of iron in urine supported a role for iron dysmetabolism in MS. Levels of urinary aluminium excretion similar to those seen in aluminium intoxication suggested that aluminium may be a hitherto unrecognized environmental factor associated with the aetiology of MS. If aluminium is involved in MS then an increased dietary intake of its natural antagonist, silicon, might be a therapeutic option.

  7. Increased Renal Solute Excretion in Rats Following Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, Charles E.; Moore, A. L.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Following space flight a diuresis, due to an increase in free water clearance, has been suggested in humans. To assess the effects of space flight on renal function, rats were flown in space for 14 days. Rats were divided into three groups; vivarium controls (V;n=6; housed 2/shoe box cage), flight controls (FC;n=6; group housed in a flight cage), and flight animals (F;n=6). Upon landing all animals were placed into individual metabolic cages. Urine was collected daily for 7 days and every other day for 14 days. Urine output was increased (p less than 0.05; ANOVA) following flight for 3 days. On postflight day 1, flow rates were, V=6.8 plus or minus 0.9, FC=8.711.8 and F=16.6 plus or minus 2.7 microliter/min. Excretion rates of Na+ and K+ were increased, resulting in an increased osmotic excretion rate (V=7.9 plus or minus 0.9, FC=6.1 plus or minus 0.7 and F=13.5 plus or minus 0.7 uOsm/min). Creatinine excretion rate was increased over the first two postflight days. In the absence of changes in plasma creatinine, Na+, or K+ (samples obtained immediately post flight from similar rats compared to Day 14), GFR was increased following space flight. The increased excretion of solute was thus the result of increased delivery and decreased reabsorption. Osmotic clearance was increased (V=28, FC=27 and F=51 microliter/min), while free water clearance was decreased post flight (V=-21,FC=-18 and F=-34 microliter/min). In rats, the postflight diuresis is the result of an increase in solute (osmotic) excretion with an accompanying reduction in free water clearance.

  8. Impairment of renal sodium excretion in tropical residents - phenomenological analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arthur, S. K.; Aryee, P. A.; Amuasi, J.; Hesse, I. F. A.; Affram, R. K.

    There is evidence of impaired renal sodium excretion in salt-sensitive African Blacks. A decreased rate of renal sodium chloride (NaCl) excretion, low plasma renin activity and a tendency to elevated blood pressure are the hallmarks of salt sensitivity. Recent evidence indicates that increased proximal and distal tubular fluid reabsorption in some tropical residents may explain the impaired sodium excretion in these people. In this study of a cohort population, we speculated that subjects selected from that population might be salt-sensitive. We therefore measured the sodium balance in 10 normotensive male subjects over 10 consecutive days, after they had ingested a normal or a high amount of sodium, as NaCl (salt) in their diet. We quantified their renal sodium excretion rate by phenomenological analysis of their sodium balance data. We also measured plasma renin activity for 7 consecutive days in a separate group of 6 male and 4 female subjects in order to assess the state of their renin/angiotensin system. We selected all our subjects from a cohort population of 269 subjects randomly selected from a community known to have a high prevalence of primary hypertension. Our data on two separate groups of subjects from the same cohort population revealed delayed renal sodium excretion with t1/2 of about 5 days, compared to published data for normal individuals with t1/2 of less than 24 h. Also, plasma renin activity levels were low. Hence, our subjects are salt-sensitive. Quantification of their renal impairment is important for various reasons: it heightens one's appreciation of the problem of salt retention in African Blacks who are salt-sensitive and it also underlines the importance of the need for further research into the benefits of dietary salt restriction for reducing cardiovascular mortality in African populations, as has been done in some Western countries.

  9. Nephroprotective Potential of Human Albumin Infusion: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Wiedermann, Christian J; Joannidis, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Albumin infusion improves renal function in cirrhosis; however, mechanisms are incompletely understood. In clinical practice, human albumin is used in various intensive care unit indications to deal with a wide range of problems, from volume replacement in hypovolemic shock, or sepsis, to treatment of ascites in patients with liver cirrhosis. Against the background of the results of recent studies on the use of human albumin in septic patients, the importance of the natural colloid in these critically ill patients is being redefined. In addition to the hemodynamic effects of administration of human albumin impacting on sympathetic tone, attention is being paid to other effects in which its pharmacodynamics is associated with the physiological importance of endogenous albumin. The morbidity and mortality data discussed in this paper support the importance of both the hemodynamic and the pharmacological effects of the administration of human albumin in various indications. The contribution that human albumin could make towards the maintenance of renal function in the course and treatment of severe sepsis and cirrhosis of the liver is the subject of this narrative review. PMID:26136776

  10. Albumin grafting on biomaterial surfaces using gamma-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kamath, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Surface modification has been used extensively in various fields to introduce desirable surface properties without affecting the bulk properties of the material. In the area of biomaterials, the approach of surface modification offers an effective alternative to the synthesis of new biomaterials. The specific objective of this study was to modify different biomaterial surfaces by albumin grafting to improve their blood compatibility. The modified surfaces were characterized for surface-induced platelet activation and thrombus formation. This behavior was correlated with the conditions used for grafting. In particular, albumin was functionalized to introduce pendant double bonds into the molecule. The functionalized albumin was covalently attached to various surfaces, such as dimethyldichlorosilane-coated glass, polypropylene, polycarbonate, poly(vinyl chloride), and polyethylene by gamma-irradiation. Platelet adhesion and activation on these surfaces was examined using video microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The extent of grafting was found to be dependent on the albumin concentration used for adsorption and the gamma-irradiation time. Release of the grafted albumin during exposure to blood was minimal. The albumin-grafted fibers maintained their thromboresistant properties even after storage at elevated temperatures for prolonged time periods. Finally, the approach was used to graft albumin on the PLEXUS Adult Hollow Fiber Oxygenators (Shiley). The blood compatibility of the grafted oxygenators improved significantly when compared to controls.

  11. Transport of nitrated albumin across continuous vascular endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Predescu, Dan; Predescu, Sanda; Malik, Asrar B.

    2002-01-01

    Because modification of plasma albumin on tyrosine residues generates nitrated albumin (NOA) that may function as a mechanism of nitrogen monoxide clearance from microcirculation, we investigated biochemicaly and morphologically the cell surface binding and the transendothelial transport of NOA. An electron microscopic study was carried out with mouse lungs and hearts perfused in situ with NOA and NOA-Au complexes. The results indicate that NOA-Au can bind to the endothelial cell surface, and its binding can be blocked by albumin plus nitrotyrosine (NO-tyrosine) or abolished by excess NOA. We detected NOA-Au into perivascular spaces as early as 30 sec after the beginning of its perfusion. NOA, unlike native albumin, leaves the vascular lumina via both endothelial caveolae and open junctions. By cross-linking and ligand blotting analysis, we showed that NOA interacted with the same albumin binding proteins of 16–18, 30–32, 60, and 74 kDa as native albumin. ELISA performed on tissue homogenates obtained from the same specimens showed that NOA transport was 2- to 4-fold greater than native albumin. The augmented transendothelial transport of NOA reflects its transcytosis as well as its exit from the microcirculation via open junctions. The increased transport of NOA may serve as an important mechanism that protects a vascular bed against the damaging effects of nitrogen monoxide and peroxynitrite. PMID:12370442

  12. Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

  13. Transfer of oleic acid between albumin and phospholipid vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, J.A.; Cistola, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    The net transfer of oleic acid between egg phosphatidylcholine unilamellar vesicles and bovine serum albumin has been monitored by TC NMR spectroscopy and 90% isotopically substituted (1- TC)oleic acid. The carboxyl chemical shifts of oleic acid bound to albumin were different from those for oleic acid in phospholipid vesicles. Therefore, in mixtures of donor particles, the equilibrium distribution of oleic acid was determined from chemical shift and peak intensity data without separation of donor and acceptor particles. In a system containing equal masses of albumin and phospholipid and a stoichiometry of 4-5 mol of oleic acid per mol of albumin, the oleic acid distribution was pH dependent, with greater than or equal to80% of the oleic acid associated with albumin at pH 7.4; association was greater than or equal to90% at pH 8.0. Decreasing the pH below 7.4 markedly decreased the proportion of fatty acid bound to albumin. The distribution was reversible with pH and was independent of whether vesicles or albumin acted as a donor. These data suggest that pH may strongly influence the partitioning of fatty acid between cellular membranes and albumin. The TC NMR method is also advantageous because it provides information about the structural environments of oleic acid bound to albumin or phospholipid, the ionization state of oleic acid in each environment, and the structural integrity of the vesicles. In addition, minimum and maximum limits for the exchange rates of oleic acid among different environments were obtained from the NMR data.

  14. A contemporary look at the sedimentary system of the coastal sabkha of Abu Dhabi (UAE): Primary deposition vs. early diagenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Andreas; Wang, Jiayi; Court, Wesley; Lokier, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    More than half a century ago, the Abu Dhabi coastline was subject to intensive research efforts by institutions from all over the world. This activity was mostly related to the onset of oil exploration in the region and the hypothesis that the modern Abu Dhabi Sabkha provides a direct analogue to the ancient deposits of the hydrocarbon-bearing Arab Formation. While research initially concentrated on a characterisation of the bulk depositional system, focus has recently shifted to answer more specific questions such as the role of microbial mats in the formation of dolomite. Through this shift to a smaller scale, the remainder of the sabkha, including its microbial mats, was neglected and little further activity was undertaken to characterise the coastal sabkha using modern, state-of-the-art, research tools and methods. This paper will not attempt to reinvent the wheel with respect to the work of the early researchers; we will instead present an updated model of the sedimentary system of the coastal sabkha of Abu Dhabi. This model will focus on establishing the relationship and controlling factors between primary deposits of the carbonate ramp system and secondary early diagenetic precipitates. Initial results show that primary deposits of the UAE's carbonate ramp are equivalent to carbonate mudstones, packstones, grainstones, and occasional rudstones with a packstone matrix, that form above a Holocene to Recent hardground. These deposits occur mostly in a subtidal to lower intertidal setting, landward of which they are gradually being covered by a green cyanobacterial layer that binds the primarily unconsolidated sediment. Further landward, in the middle and upper intertidal zones, these cyanobacterial layers grade into more complex microbial mat layers of potentially highly diverse bacterial and algal faunal composition. Microbial mat layers in the upper intertidal and the lower supratidal zones are increasingly interspersed with gypsum crystals and white

  15. Atomic structure and chemistry of human serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    He, Xiao M.; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been determined crystallographically to a resolution of 2.8 A. It comprises three homologous domains that assemble to form a heart-shaped molecule. Each domain is a product of two subdomains that possess common structural motifs. The principal regions of ligand binding to human serum albumin are located in hydrophobic cavities in subdomains IIA and ILIA, which exhibit similar chemistry. The structure explains numerous physical phenomena and should provide insight into future pharmacokinetic and genetically engineered therapeutic applications of serum albumin.

  16. Spot urinary albumin-creatinine ratio predicts left ventricular hypertrophy in young hypertensive African-American men.

    PubMed

    Post, W S; Blumenthal, R S; Weiss, J L; Levine, D M; Thiemann, D R; Gerstenblith, G; Hill, M N

    2000-11-01

    Hypertensive patients with target organ damage are at increased cardiovascular risk, and should be treated most aggressively. The association between urinary albumin excretion and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in prior studies is inconsistent, and has not been described using a single, random spot urine specimen. Therefore, we evaluated the association between the urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) and left ventricular (LV) mass and also tested the hypothesis that a simple random, single-void urine ACR would identify high risk young, hypertensive, African-American men. We measured echocardiographic LV mass and a random spot urinary ACR in 109 untreated, hypertensive, young, inner city, African-American men. The mean age was 41 +/- 6 years and the mean blood pressure (BP) was 157 +/- 19/107 +/- 13 mm Hg. Microalbuminuria (ACR 30 to 300 mg/g) was present in 22% of subjects. The ACR is higher in the men with LVH than in the men without LVH (P < .05). Increased ACR is a predictor of increased LV mass index (P < .003) using multiple linear regression. An ACR >30 mg/g has a sensitivity of 33% and a specificity of 82% for the diagnosis of echocardiographic LVH. In conclusion, elevated random spot ACR is a marker of increased LV mass, independent of BP, in young urban African-American men with hypertension, and may help to determine the aggressiveness of antihypertensive therapy in this high-risk group.

  17. Prediction and evaluation of urine and urinary nitrogen and mineral excretion from dairy cattle.

    PubMed

    Nennich, T D; Harrison, J H; VanWieringen, L M; St-Pierre, N R; Kincaid, R L; Wattiaux, M A; Davidson, D L; Block, E

    2006-01-01

    Urine excretion is a substantial factor in the amount of manure that needs to be managed, and urinary N can contribute to ammonia volatilization. Development and validation of prediction equations focusing on dietary factors to decrease urine and urinary nutrient excretion will provide information for managing urine and feces separately or for other future technologies. The objective of this study was to develop equations for prediction of urine excretion and excretion of urinary N, Na, and K and to evaluate both new and previously published prediction equations for estimation of urine and urinary nutrient excretion from lactating dairy cows. Data sets from metabolism studies conducted at Washington State University were compiled and evaluated for excretion of minerals. Urine excretion averaged 24.1 kg/d and urinary nitrogen excretion ranged from 63 to 499 g/d in the calibration data set. Regression equations were developed to predict urine excretion, urinary N excretion, and urinary Na and K excretion. Predictors used in the regression equations included milk yield, body weight, dietary crude protein percentage, milk urea nitrogen, and nutrient intakes. Previously published prediction equations were evaluated using data sets from Washington State University and the University of Wisconsin. Mean and linear biases were evaluated by determining the regression of residuals on predicted values. Evaluation and validation of prediction equations are important to develop equations that will more accurately estimate urine and urinary nitrogen excretion from lactating dairy cows.

  18. In vivo albumin labeling and lymphatic imaging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Lang, Lixin; Huang, Peng; Wang, Zhe; Jacobson, Orit; Kiesewetter, Dale O; Ali, Iqbal U; Teng, Gaojun; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to accurately and easily locate sentinel lymph nodes (LNs) with noninvasive imaging methods would assist in tumor staging and patient management. For this purpose, we developed a lymphatic imaging agent by mixing fluorine-18 aluminum fluoride-labeled NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid)-conjugated truncated Evans blue ((18)F-AlF-NEB) and Evans blue (EB) dye. After local injection, both (18)F-AlF-NEB and EB form complexes with endogenous albumin in the interstitial fluid and allow for visualizing the lymphatic system. Positron emission tomography (PET) and/or optical imaging of LNs was performed in three different animal models including a hind limb inflammation model, an orthotropic breast cancer model, and a metastatic breast cancer model. In all three models, the LNs can be distinguished clearly by the apparent blue color and strong fluorescence signal from EB as well as a high-intensity PET signal from (18)F-AlF-NEB. The lymphatic vessels between the LNs can also be optically visualized. The easy preparation, excellent PET and optical imaging quality, and biosafety suggest that this combination of (18)F-AlF-NEB and EB has great potential for clinical application to map sentinel LNs and provide intraoperative guidance. PMID:25535368

  19. In vivo albumin labeling and lymphatic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Lang, Lixin; Huang, Peng; Wang, Zhe; Jacobson, Orit; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Ali, Iqbal U.; Teng, Gaojun; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2015-01-01

    The ability to accurately and easily locate sentinel lymph nodes (LNs) with noninvasive imaging methods would assist in tumor staging and patient management. For this purpose, we developed a lymphatic imaging agent by mixing fluorine-18 aluminum fluoride-labeled NOTA (1,4,7-triazacyclononane-N,N',N''-triacetic acid)-conjugated truncated Evans blue (18F-AlF-NEB) and Evans blue (EB) dye. After local injection, both 18F-AlF-NEB and EB form complexes with endogenous albumin in the interstitial fluid and allow for visualizing the lymphatic system. Positron emission tomography (PET) and/or optical imaging of LNs was performed in three different animal models including a hind limb inflammation model, an orthotropic breast cancer model, and a metastatic breast cancer model. In all three models, the LNs can be distinguished clearly by the apparent blue color and strong fluorescence signal from EB as well as a high-intensity PET signal from 18F-AlF-NEB. The lymphatic vessels between the LNs can also be optically visualized. The easy preparation, excellent PET and optical imaging quality, and biosafety suggest that this combination of 18F-AlF-NEB and EB has great potential for clinical application to map sentinel LNs and provide intraoperative guidance. PMID:25535368

  20. Salivary excretion of rabies virus by healthy vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Setien, A; Loza-Rubio, E; Salas-Rojas, M; Brisseau, N; Cliquet, F; Pastoret, P P; Rojas-Dotor, S; Tesoro, E; Kretschmer, R

    2005-06-01

    Salivary excretion of rabies virus was evaluated in 14 adult vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) intramuscularly injected with a large dose (10(6) MICLD50) of vampire rabies virus variant CASS88. Saliva samples were obtained from surviving bats every other day for 30 days, then weekly for 2 months, and finally 1 and 2 years later. Rabies virus was isolated in murine neuroblastoma cells and in randomly selected cases by PCR. Rabies virus was not detected in the saliva of any of the 11 animals that succumbed (somewhat early) to rabies challenge, nor in the control bats. In contrast, virus was detected early, and only once (days 6, 6 and 21) in each of the three animals that survived rabies challenge and remained healthy for at least 2 years after challenge. At that time even vigorous dexamethasone and cyclosporine administration failed to provoke further viral excretion.

  1. Krill excretion boosts microbial activity in the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Arístegui, Javier; Duarte, Carlos M; Reche, Isabel; Gómez-Pinchetti, Juan L

    2014-01-01

    Antarctic krill are known to release large amounts of inorganic and organic nutrients to the water column. Here we test the role of krill excretion of dissolved products in stimulating heterotrophic bacteria on the basis of three experiments where ammonium and organic excretory products released by krill were added to bacterial assemblages, free of grazers. Our results demonstrate that the addition of krill excretion products (but not of ammonium alone), at levels expected in krill swarms, greatly stimulates bacteria resulting in an order-of-magnitude increase in growth and production. Furthermore, they suggest that bacterial growth rate in the Southern Ocean is suppressed well below their potential by resource limitation. Enhanced bacterial activity in the presence of krill, which are major sources of DOC in the Southern Ocean, would further increase recycling processes associated with krill activity, resulting in highly efficient krill-bacterial recycling that should be conducive to stimulating periods of high primary productivity in the Southern Ocean.

  2. Salivary excretion of rabies virus by healthy vampire bats.

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar-Setien, A.; Loza-Rubio, E.; Salas-Rojas, M.; Brisseau, N.; Cliquet, F.; Pastoret, P. P.; Rojas-Dotor, S.; Tesoro, E.; Kretschmer, R.

    2005-01-01

    Salivary excretion of rabies virus was evaluated in 14 adult vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) intramuscularly injected with a large dose (10(6) MICLD50) of vampire rabies virus variant CASS88. Saliva samples were obtained from surviving bats every other day for 30 days, then weekly for 2 months, and finally 1 and 2 years later. Rabies virus was isolated in murine neuroblastoma cells and in randomly selected cases by PCR. Rabies virus was not detected in the saliva of any of the 11 animals that succumbed (somewhat early) to rabies challenge, nor in the control bats. In contrast, virus was detected early, and only once (days 6, 6 and 21) in each of the three animals that survived rabies challenge and remained healthy for at least 2 years after challenge. At that time even vigorous dexamethasone and cyclosporine administration failed to provoke further viral excretion. PMID:15966107

  3. Uric acid excretion predicts increased aggression in urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Elevated levels of uric acid have been linked with impulsive and disinhibited behavior in clinical and community populations of adults, but no studies have examined uric acid in relation to adolescent aggression. This study examined the prospective role of uric acid in aggressive behavior among urban, low income adolescents, and whether this relationship varies by gender. A total of 84 adolescents (M age 13.36years; 50% male; 95% African American) self-reported on their physical aggression at baseline and 1.5years later. At baseline, the youth also completed a 12-h (overnight) urine collection at home which was used to measure uric acid excretion. After adjusting for baseline aggression and age, greater uric acid excretion predicted more frequent aggressive behavior at follow up, with no significant gender differences. The results suggest that lowering uric acid levels may help reduce youth aggression. PMID:27180134

  4. Excretion and metabolism of nikethamide in the horse.

    PubMed Central

    Delbeke, F. T.; Debackere, M.

    1976-01-01

    It is well known that nikethamide (N,N-diethylnicotinamide, CoramineR) is metabolized very rapidly to nicotinamide. Hence, there is difficulty in proving that nikethamide has been used as a doping substance because nicotinamide is a normal physiological metabolite in the organism as well as a vitamin preparation. However, an intermediate metabolite (N-ethylnicotinamide) was found by us in the urine of horses treated with CoramineR. This was characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, and synthesized and identified as being N-ethylnicotinamide. The excretion and metabolism of nikethamide after intramuscular injection in the horse was followed using quantitative gas chromatography of urine extracts over a period of several hours and the results of these experiments are reported. Changes in urinary pH had no significant effect upon either the metabolism or rate of excretion of the drug. PMID:11864

  5. Proteomic analysis of Taenia solium metacestode excretion-secretion proteins.

    PubMed

    Victor, Bjorn; Kanobana, Kirezi; Gabriël, Sarah; Polman, Katja; Deckers, Nynke; Dorny, Pierre; Deelder, André M; Palmblad, Magnus

    2012-06-01

    The metacestode larval stage of Taenia solium is the causal agent of a zoonotic disease called cysticercosis. The disease has an important impact on pork trade (due to porcine cysticercosis) and public health (due to human neurocysticercosis). In order to improve the current diagnostic tools and to get a better understanding of the interaction between T. solium metacestodes and their host, there is a need for more information about the proteins that are released by the parasite. In this study, we used protein sequences from different helminths, 1DE, reversed-phase LC, and MS/MS to analyze the excretion-secretion proteins produced by T. solium metacestodes from infected pigs. This is the first report of the T. solium metacestode excretion-secretion proteome. We report 76 proteins including 27 already described T. solium proteins, 17 host proteins and 32 proteins likely to be of T. solium origin, but identified using sequences from other helminths.

  6. Salivary excretion of rabies virus by healthy vampire bats.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Setien, A; Loza-Rubio, E; Salas-Rojas, M; Brisseau, N; Cliquet, F; Pastoret, P P; Rojas-Dotor, S; Tesoro, E; Kretschmer, R

    2005-06-01

    Salivary excretion of rabies virus was evaluated in 14 adult vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) intramuscularly injected with a large dose (10(6) MICLD50) of vampire rabies virus variant CASS88. Saliva samples were obtained from surviving bats every other day for 30 days, then weekly for 2 months, and finally 1 and 2 years later. Rabies virus was isolated in murine neuroblastoma cells and in randomly selected cases by PCR. Rabies virus was not detected in the saliva of any of the 11 animals that succumbed (somewhat early) to rabies challenge, nor in the control bats. In contrast, virus was detected early, and only once (days 6, 6 and 21) in each of the three animals that survived rabies challenge and remained healthy for at least 2 years after challenge. At that time even vigorous dexamethasone and cyclosporine administration failed to provoke further viral excretion. PMID:15966107

  7. Efficient production of ectoine using ectoine-excreting strain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling-hua; Lang, Ya-jun; Nagata, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    Halophilic bacteria strain Halomonas salina DSM 5928 was found to excrete ectoine, suggesting its potential in the development of a new method of ectoine production. We performed HPLC and LC-MS analyses that showed that Halomonas salina DSM 5928 excreted ectoine under constant extracellular osmolarity. Medium adopting monosodium glutamate as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen was beneficial for ectoine synthesis. The total concentration of ectoine was not affected by NaCl concentration in the range 0.5-2 mol l(-1). The total concentration of ectoine and productivity in a 10-l fermentor with 0.5 mol l(-1) NaCl were 6.9 g l(-1) and 7.9 g l(-1) d(-1), respectively. These findings show that Halomonas salina DSM 5928 efficiently produces ectoine at relatively low NaCl concentration. This research also indicates the potential application of free or immobilized cells for continuous culture to produce ectoine.

  8. Metabolism and excretion of [14C] verruculogen in a sheep.

    PubMed

    Perera, K P; Mantle, P G; Penny, R H

    1982-05-01

    [14C] Verruculogen (75 micrograms/kg) was given intravenously to a sheep under barbiturate anaesthesia to prevent the severe tremor and convulsions which would otherwise have occurred. Two hours later 28 per cent of the tremorgenic mycotoxin was detected in the liver, bile and small intestine. Approximately 0.5 per cent was excreted in the urine. Trace amounts of radiolabel were detected in the cortex and corpus striatum of the brain. Verruculogen was metabolised by the liver and converted completely to four more polar products, including two isomeric forms of desoxy-verruculogen and the weakly tremorgenic mycotoxin TR-2. The principal and most polar metabolite excreted is probably an isomer of TR-2. PMID:7100651

  9. III. Quantitative aspects of phosphorus excretion in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Bravo, David; Sauvant, Daniel; Bogaert, Catherine; Meschy, François

    2003-01-01

    Ruminant phosphorus excretion and metabolism were studied through a database. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is the main pathway of phosphorus excretion and averages 0.85 of total faecal phosphorus. The remaining 0.15 is unabsorbed dietary phosphorus. Faecal endogenous phosphorus is mainly unabsorbed phosphorus, with saliva being the major source, and is correlated to factors influencing saliva secretion (DM intake, physical dietary characteristics and dietary phosphorus content). Another source of faecal endogenous phosphorus is rumen microbial phosphorus that escaped solubilisation during post-rumen digestion. All factors stimulating microbial growth would increase phosphorus uptake by the rumen microbes and consequently the faecal endogenous phosphorus. Understanding the determinants of faecal endogenous phosphorus flow will help to precise the determination of net phosphorus requirements for maintenance. The role of plasma phosphorus in urinary phosphorus loss is discussed.

  10. Molecular interactions between albumin and proximal tubular cells.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, N J

    1998-01-01

    In glomerular diseases the filtration of excess proteins into the proximal tubule, together with their subsequent reabsorption may represent an important pathological mechanism underlying progressive renal scarring. The most prominent protein in glomerular filtrate, albumin, is reabsorbed by receptor-mediated endocytosis by proximal tubular cells. It binds both to scavenger-type receptors and to megalin in the proximal tubule. Some of these receptors appear to be shared with other cell types, particularly endothelial cells. The endocytic uptake of albumin is subjected to complex hormonal and enzymatic regulation. In addition to being reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, albumin may act as a signalling molecule in these cells, and may induce the expression of numerous pro-inflammatory genes. Modulation of the interaction of albumin with proximal tubular cells may eventually prove to be of therapeutic importance in the treatment of renal diseases. PMID:9807019

  11. 99M-technetium labeled macroaggregated human serum albumin pharmaceutical

    DOEpatents

    Winchell, Harry S.; Barak, Morton; Van Fleet, III, Parmer

    1977-05-17

    A reagent comprising macroaggregated human serum albumin having dispersed therein particles of stannous tin and a method for instantly making a labeled pharmaceutical therefrom, are disclosed. The labeled pharmaceutical is utilized in organ imaging.

  12. Study on Serum Albumin in Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sufrin, S; Nessa, A; Islam, M T; Das, R K; Rahman, M H

    2015-07-01

    Various hormones can cause marked changes in pregnant woman's appearance. Decreased level of serum albumin occurs in third trimester of pregnancy, which may be associated with increased maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. So, this study was carried out to evaluate and assess the level of serum albumin in third trimester of pregnancy. This cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh. This study enrolled 100 pregnant women of third trimester of pregnancy and 100 aged matched non-pregnant women from Mymensingh district. In this study serum albumin level in study group were 33.41 ± 4.62gm/l and in control group were 37.09 ± 4.21 gm/l, which was statistically decreased. The lower level of serum albumin in third trimester of pregnancy is the major concern of development of physiological edema during pregnancy and may be associated with pre-eclampsia.

  13. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other body fluids. Measurement of albumin aids in the diagnosis of kidney and intestinal diseases. (b) Classification. Class II (special controls). The device is exempt from the premarket notification procedures...

  14. Development of FET-type albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis.

    PubMed

    Park, Keun-Yong; Sohn, Young-Soo; Kim, Chang-Kyu; Kim, Hong-Seok; Bae, Young-Seuk; Choi, Sie-Young

    2008-07-15

    An albumin biosensor based on a potentiometric measurement using Biofield-effect-transistor (BioFET) has been designed and fabricated, and its characteristics were investigated. The BioFET was fabricated using semiconductor integrated circuit (IC) technology. The gate surface of the BioFET was chemically modified by newly developed self-assembled monolayer (SAM) synthesized by a thiazole benzo crown ether ethylamine (TBCEA)-thioctic acid to immobilize anti-albumin. SAM formation, antibody immobilization, and antigen-antibody interaction were verified using surface plasmon resonance (SPR). The output voltage changes of the BioFET with respect to various albumin concentrations were obtained. Quasi-reference electrode (QRE) and reference FET (ReFET) has been integrated with the BioFET, and its output characteristic was investigated. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the BioFET as the albumin sensor for diagnosing nephritis.

  15. Palmitate uptake by hepatocyte monolayers. Effect of albumin binding.

    PubMed Central

    Fleischer, A B; Shurmantine, W O; Luxon, B A; Forker, E L

    1986-01-01

    The uptake of 14C-palmitate by rat liver cell monolayers is depressed by binding of the fatty acid to albumin. When the uptake flux is divided by the concentration of free palmitate in the bathing medium, however, the resulting clearance is approximately 14 times greater in the presence of albumin than in its absence. These findings are not accounted for by the different diffusion rates of free and bound palmitate across an unstirred fluid layer, nor attributable to nonequilibrium binding. Instead we argue that the most plausible explanation is accelerated dissociation of albumin-palmitate complexes mediated by the cell surface--an interpretation that also explains the uptake kinetics of other albumin-bound organic anions by perfused rat liver. Images PMID:3949983

  16. [Body mass and excretion of phosphorus in aqueous invertebrates].

    PubMed

    Golubkov, S M

    2014-01-01

    Empirical materials on the dependence of the intensity of mineral phosphorus excretion (Ex) on the body mass (W) in invertebrates are summarized. The parameters of the average dependence of Ex on Win animals at 20 degrees C are determined. The main factors that influence the parameters ofthis dependence are discussed. It is shown that the decrease of Ex with an increase of Win animals is, as a rule, more significant compared with the decrease in the intensity of metabolism.

  17. Factors affecting urinary excretion of testosterone metabolites conjugated with cysteine.

    PubMed

    Fabregat, Andreu; Marcos, Josep; Segura, Jordi; Ventura, Rosa; Pozo, Oscar J

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of the athlete steroidal passport in doping control analysis aims to detect intra-individual changes in the steroid profile related to the abuse of anabolic steroids. In this context, the study of intrinsic variations associated with each marker is of utmost importance. In the present work, the influence of several factors in the excretion of the recently reported testosterone metabolites conjugated with cysteine (Δ(1) -AED; 1,4-androstadien-3,17-dione, Δ(6) -AED; 4,6-androstadien-3,17-dione, Δ(6) -T; 4,6-androstadien-17β-ol-3-one, and Δ(15) -AD; 15-androsten-3,17-dione) is evaluated for the first time. Degradation experiments at 37 °C proved that, although the cysteinyl moiety is released, the variation for urinary Δ(1) -AED/Δ(6) -AED, Δ(1) -AED/Δ(6) -T ratios is less than 30%. Moreover, freeze/thaw cycle testing resulted in RSDs values below 15% for all the analytes. Regarding infradian variability, moderate variations (below 40%) were observed. Additionally, notable alterations in the excretion of these compounds have been observed in the earliest stages of pregnancy. UGT2B17 polymorphism, responsible for the low T/E ratio found in some population, does not influence the excretion of cysteinyl compounds whereas the intake of exogenous substances (alcohol or 5α-reductase inhibitors) dramatically affects their excretion. The urinary concentrations of Δ(1) -AED, Δ(6) -AED, and Δ(15) -AD decreased (<50 %) after the ethanol intake, whereas after the administration of dutasteride, an important increase was observed for the concentrations of Δ(6) -AED, Δ(6) -T and Δ(15) -AD. Overall, the presented data describes the stability of the urinary cysteinyl steroids under the influence of many factors, proving their potential as suitable parameters to be included in the steroidal module of the athlete's biological passport. PMID:25917157

  18. Factors affecting urinary excretion of testosterone metabolites conjugated with cysteine.

    PubMed

    Fabregat, Andreu; Marcos, Josep; Segura, Jordi; Ventura, Rosa; Pozo, Oscar J

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of the athlete steroidal passport in doping control analysis aims to detect intra-individual changes in the steroid profile related to the abuse of anabolic steroids. In this context, the study of intrinsic variations associated with each marker is of utmost importance. In the present work, the influence of several factors in the excretion of the recently reported testosterone metabolites conjugated with cysteine (Δ(1) -AED; 1,4-androstadien-3,17-dione, Δ(6) -AED; 4,6-androstadien-3,17-dione, Δ(6) -T; 4,6-androstadien-17β-ol-3-one, and Δ(15) -AD; 15-androsten-3,17-dione) is evaluated for the first time. Degradation experiments at 37 °C proved that, although the cysteinyl moiety is released, the variation for urinary Δ(1) -AED/Δ(6) -AED, Δ(1) -AED/Δ(6) -T ratios is less than 30%. Moreover, freeze/thaw cycle testing resulted in RSDs values below 15% for all the analytes. Regarding infradian variability, moderate variations (below 40%) were observed. Additionally, notable alterations in the excretion of these compounds have been observed in the earliest stages of pregnancy. UGT2B17 polymorphism, responsible for the low T/E ratio found in some population, does not influence the excretion of cysteinyl compounds whereas the intake of exogenous substances (alcohol or 5α-reductase inhibitors) dramatically affects their excretion. The urinary concentrations of Δ(1) -AED, Δ(6) -AED, and Δ(15) -AD decreased (<50 %) after the ethanol intake, whereas after the administration of dutasteride, an important increase was observed for the concentrations of Δ(6) -AED, Δ(6) -T and Δ(15) -AD. Overall, the presented data describes the stability of the urinary cysteinyl steroids under the influence of many factors, proving their potential as suitable parameters to be included in the steroidal module of the athlete's biological passport.

  19. ABCG2 dysfunction increases serum uric acid by decreased intestinal urate excretion.

    PubMed

    Takada, Tappei; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Murakami, Keizo; Yamanashi, Yoshihide; Kasuga, Hiroshi; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2), also known as breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), is identified as a high-capacity urate exporter and its dysfunction has an association with serum uric acid (SUA) levels and gout/hyperuricemia risk. However, pathophysiologically important pathway(s) responsible for the ABCG2-mediated urate excretion were unknown. In this study, we investigated how ABCG2 dysfunction affected the urate excretion pathways. First, we revealed that mouse Abcg2 mediates urate transport using the membrane vesicle system. The export process by mouse Abcg2 was ATP-dependent and not saturable under the physiological concentration of urate. Then, we characterized the excretion of urate into urine, bile, and intestinal lumen using in vivo mouse model. SUA of Abcg2-knockout mice was significantly higher than that of control mice. Under this condition, the renal urate excretion was increased in Abcg2-knockout mice, whereas the urate excretion from the intestine was decreased to less than a half. Biliary urate excretion showed no significant difference regardless of Abcg2 genotype. From these results, we estimated the relative contribution of each pathway to total urate excretion; in wild-type mice, the renal excretion pathway contributes approximately two-thirds, the intestinal excretion pathway contributes one-third of the total urate excretion, and the urate excretion into bile is minor. Decreased intestinal excretion could account for the increased SUA of Abcg2-knockout mice. Thus, ABCG2 is suggested to have an important role in extra-renal urate excretion, especially in intestinal excretion. Accordingly, increased SUA in patients with ABCG2 dysfunction could be explained by the decreased excretion of urate from the intestine.

  20. Albumin leakage in online hemodiafiltration, more convective transport, more losses?

    PubMed

    Vega, Almudena; Quiroga, Borja; Abad, Soraya; Aragoncillo, Inés; Arroyo, David; Panizo, Nayara; López-Gómez, Juan M

    2015-06-01

    Online hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) has now demonstrated some benefits in reducing mortality. It seems that rising convective volumes improve the outcomes, but the risks of it, such as albumin leakage, are not well defined yet. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the albumin leakage using two different filters with 20 and 30 L of post-dilution OL-HDF. In this cross-sectional study, 20 prevalent patients receiving post-dilution OL-HDL were included. We analyzed two dialyzers: FX1000, FMC and Polyflux 210H, Gambro. During four consecutive dialysis sessions, monitors were programmed using control-volume to obtain 20 or 30 L with both dialyzers. We collected albumin samples of the effluent at 5, 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and performed area under the curve (AUC) determinations for evaluating the losses. Mean patient age was 60 ± 9 years, and 70% were men. Albumin leakage was significant higher with Polyflux 210H when compared to FX 1000 FMC. A convective volume of 30 L produced greater albumin leakage than 20 L with both filters, though only with the FX 1000 FMC was it significant (minimum albumin leakage during first hour with FX 1000 FMC 20 L: 79.2 [0.0-175.7] mg; 30 liters: 403.3 [63.5-960.7] mg; with PF 210 Gambro 20 L: 869.1 [420.0-3214.7] mg; 30 L: 1841.7 [443.8-3417.5] mg). During OL-HDF, convective transport causes albumin leakage at least during the first hour. The albumin concentration in the effluent differs according to the type of filter used and the convective volume.

  1. An inhibitor to erythrocyte agglutination in bovine albumin preparations.

    PubMed

    Gunson, H H; Phillips, P K

    1975-01-01

    Three out of 28 commercial preparations of bovine serum albumin have been encountered which have an inhibitory effect on the assay of anti-Rh-o(D) using the Technicon AutoAnalyser. The inhibitory property, which can also be demonstrated by standard manual serological techniques, appears to be directed towards the second stage of the agglutination reaction. An automated screening procedure for bovine serum albumin preparations and some properties of the inhibitor are described.

  2. Urinary excretion of morphine and biosynthetic precursors in mice

    PubMed Central

    Grobe, Nadja; Lamshöft, Marc; Orth, Robert G.; Dräger, Birgit; Kutchan, Toni M.; Zenk, Meinhart H.; Spiteller, Michael

    2010-01-01

    It has been firmly established that humans excrete a small but steady amount of the isoquinoline alkaloid morphine in their urine. It is unclear whether it is of dietary or endogenous origin. There is no doubt that a simple isoquinoline alkaloid, tetrahydropapaveroline (THP), is found in human and rodent brain as well as in human urine. This suggests a potential biogenetic relationship between both alkaloids. Unlabeled THP or [1,3,4-D3]-THP was injected intraperitoneally into mice and the urine was analyzed. This potential precursor was extensively metabolized (96%). Among the metabolites found was the phenol-coupled product salutaridine, the known morphine precursor in the opium poppy plant. Synthetic [7D]-salutaridinol, the biosynthetic reduction product of salutaridine, injected intraperitoneally into live animals led to the formation of [7D]-thebaine, which was excreted in urine. [N-CD3]-thebaine was also administered and yielded [N-CD3]-morphine and the congeners [N-CD3]-codeine and [N-CD3]-oripavine in urine. These results show for the first time that live animals have the biosynthetic capability to convert a normal constituent of rodents, THP, to morphine. Morphine and its precursors are normally not found in tissues or organs, presumably due to metabolic breakdown. Hence, only that portion of the isoquinoline alkaloids excreted in urine unmetabolized can be detected. Analysis of urine by high resolution-mass spectrometry proved to be a powerful method for tracking endogenous morphine and its biosynthetic precursors. PMID:20421505

  3. Urinary excretion of morphine and biosynthetic precursors in mice.

    PubMed

    Grobe, Nadja; Lamshöft, Marc; Orth, Robert G; Dräger, Birgit; Kutchan, Toni M; Zenk, Meinhart H; Spiteller, Michael

    2010-05-01

    It has been firmly established that humans excrete a small but steady amount of the isoquinoline alkaloid morphine in their urine. It is unclear whether it is of dietary or endogenous origin. There is no doubt that a simple isoquinoline alkaloid, tetrahydropapaveroline (THP), is found in human and rodent brain as well as in human urine. This suggests a potential biogenetic relationship between both alkaloids. Unlabeled THP or [1,3,4-D(3)]-THP was injected intraperitoneally into mice and the urine was analyzed. This potential precursor was extensively metabolized (96%). Among the metabolites found was the phenol-coupled product salutaridine, the known morphine precursor in the opium poppy plant. Synthetic [7D]-salutaridinol, the biosynthetic reduction product of salutaridine, injected intraperitoneally into live animals led to the formation of [7D]-thebaine, which was excreted in urine. [N-CD(3)]-thebaine was also administered and yielded [N-CD(3)]-morphine and the congeners [N-CD(3)]-codeine and [N-CD(3)]-oripavine in urine. These results show for the first time that live animals have the biosynthetic capability to convert a normal constituent of rodents, THP, to morphine. Morphine and its precursors are normally not found in tissues or organs, presumably due to metabolic breakdown. Hence, only that portion of the isoquinoline alkaloids excreted in urine unmetabolized can be detected. Analysis of urine by high resolution-mass spectrometry proved to be a powerful method for tracking endogenous morphine and its biosynthetic precursors.

  4. Urinary Kallikrein Excretion in Essential and Mineralocorticoid Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Holland, O. Bryan; Chud, James M.; Braunstein, Helen

    1980-01-01

    Urinary kallikrein excretion has been reported to be decreased in patients with essential hypertension and elevated in patients with primary aldosteronism as a reflection of mineralocorticoid activity. Low renin essential hypertension (LREH) has been postulated to result from excess production of an unknown mineralocorticoid(s). Urinary kallikrein excretion was compared in outpatients with essential hypertension, mineralocorticoid hypertension (primary aldosteronism and 17α-hydroxylase deficiency), and in normal subjects of the same race. No significant difference in urinary kallikrein excretion of patients with LREH vs. normal renin essential hypertension (NREH) was found for either black (4.1±0.4 vs. 4.8±0.5 esterase units (EU)/24 h, mean±SE, for 27 LREH and 38 NREH, respectively) or white patients (12.2±2.3 vs. 11.7±1.4 EU/24 h for 13 LREH and 25 NREH, respectively). Urinary kallikrein was decreased in black vs. white hypertensive patients and normal subjects. However, in patients with normal renal function (creatinine clearance ≥80 ml/min) urinary kallikrein was not significantly decreased in either black hypertensive vs. black normal subjects (4.3±0.3 vs. 5.4±0.6 EU/24 h) or in white hypertensive vs. white normal subjects (11.9±1.2 vs. 8.4±0.9 EU/24 h). In contrast, hypertensive patients with mild renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance of 41.8±78.5 ml/min) had reduced (P < 0.05) urinary kallikrein (3.3 EU/24 h with creatinine clearance of 63.6±2.0 for 24 black patients and 4.2±0.7 EU/24 h with creatinine clearance of 67.0±3.5 for 6 white patients). These results suggest that a reduction in urinary kallikrein excretion rate is an early accompaniment of hypertensive renal injury. Urinary kallikrein excretion in response to a 6-d 10-meq sodium diet and a 3-d Florinef (0.5 mg b.i.d.) administration was compared in hypertensive patients with normal renal function vs. race and age-matched normal subjects. Stimulation of urinary kallikrein

  5. Isolation and characterization of serum albumin from Camelus dromedarius

    PubMed Central

    MALIK, AJAMALUDDIN; AL-SENAIDY, ABDULRAHMAN; SKRZYPCZAK-JANKUN, EWA; JANKUN, JERZY

    2013-01-01

    Serum albumin constitutes 35–50 mg/ml of plasma proteins and performs various physiological activities including the regulation of osmotic pressure on blood, maintaining buffering of the blood pH, carrying different fatty acids and other small molecules, such as bilirubin, hormones, drugs and metal ions, as well as participating in immunological responses. Serum albumin is an extensively used protein in biotechnological and pharmaceutical industries. The camel (Camelus dromedarius) is well tailored to successfully survive in extremely hot and dry climates. Plasma osmolality in the camel increases during water-deprived conditions. In such circumstances serum albumin is crucial in the regulation of blood pressure. The study of biochemical, biophysical and immunological aspects of camel serum albumin (CSA) are likely to provide molecular insights into camel physiology and may render it an alternative to human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) in all cases. However, these proteins are currently not available or cannot be utilized due to a variety of considerations. In this study, 12 mg of highly pure CSA was obtained from 1 ml plasma. Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining of SDS-PAGE yielded one band and RP-HPLC results revealed a single sharp peak, indicating homogenous preparation of the CSA. The charge/mass ratio and surface hydrophobicity of the CSA was similar to that of BSA. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified protein confirmed the identity of CSA. PMID:24137219

  6. Efficient delivery of therapeutic agents by using targeted albumin nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kouchakzadeh, Hasan; Safavi, Maryam Sadat; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Albumin nanoparticles are one of the most important drug carriers for the delivery of therapeutic drugs, especially for the treatment of malignancies. This potential is due to their high binding capacity for both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and the possibility of surface modification. Accumulation of albumin-bound drugs in the tumor interstitium occurs by the enhanced permeability and retention effect, which is also facilitated by the 60-kDa glycoprotein transcytosis pathway and binding to secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine located in the tumor extracellular matrix. In addition, specific ligands such as monoclonal antibodies, folic acid, transferrin, and peptides can be conjugated to the surface of albumin nanoparticles to actively target the drug to its site of action. The albumin-bound paclitaxel, Abraxane, is one of the several therapeutic nanocarriers that have been approved for clinical use. By the development of Abraxane that demonstrates a higher response rate and improved tolerability and therapeutic efficiency in comparison with solvent-based formulation, and with consideration of its commercial success, albumin is attracting the interest of many biotechnological and pharmaceutical companies. This chapter explores the current targeted and nontargeted albumin-based nanoparticles that are in various stages of development for the delivery of therapeutic agents in order to enhance the efficacy of cancer treatment.

  7. Surface molecularly imprinted magnetic microspheres for the recognition of albumin.

    PubMed

    Kartal, Fatma; Denizli, Adil

    2014-08-01

    A new approach, combining metal coordination with the molecular imprinting technique, was developed to prepare affinity materials. Magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres in monosize form were used for specific recognition toward the target protein. The magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres were prepared by dispersion polymerization in the presence of magnetite nanopowder. Surface imprinted magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres based on metal coordination were prepared and used for the selective recognition of human serum albumin. Iminodiacetic acid was used as the metal coordinating agent and human serum albumin was anchored by Cu(2+) ions on the surface of magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres by metal coordination. The magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres were coated with a polymer formed by condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate and 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. The human serum albumin imprinted magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and particle size analysis. The maximum adsorption capacity of human serum albumin imprinted magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres was 37.7 mg/g polymer at pH 6.0. The selectivity experiments of human serum albumin imprinted magnetic poly(glycidyl methacrylate) microspheres prepared with different concentrations in the presence of lysozyme, bovine serum albumin and cytochrome C were performed in order to determine the relative selectivity coefficients.

  8. Capillary electrophoresis of seed 2S albumins from Lupinus species.

    PubMed

    Salmanowicz, B P

    2000-10-13

    Two modes of capillary electrophoresis (CE)--free-solution capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and sodium dodecyl sulfate capillary electrophoresis (SDS-CE) using a non-gel sieving matrix--have been developed for comparative analysis of low-molecular-mass 2S albumin isoforms from lupins. The albumin fraction and 2S albumins were separated in uncoated fused-silica capillary by CZE with 0.02 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.3, containing the sodium salt of phytic acid. The use of phytic acid (0.025 M) as buffer modifier and ion-pairing agent improved migration reproducibility, peak shape and separation efficiency. The reduced 2S albumins were separated by SDS-CE using a high concentration (0.3-0.5 M) mixture of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane and borate buffers in uncoated fused-silica capillary. Of the various polymers used as non-gel sieving matrix, SDS-CE with a 10% dextran solution was found to be suitable for separation of 2S albumin polypeptides with molecular masses of 4,000-7,000 and 8,000-11,000. The addition of glycerol or ethylene glycol to the SDS separating buffer improved the resolution of polypeptides. The examined Lupinus species showed species-specific CZE and SDS-CE migration profiles of the 2S albumins.

  9. The Relationship between Albumin-Binding Capacity of Recombinant Polypeptide and Changes in the Structure of Albumin-Binding Domain.

    PubMed

    Bormotova, E A; Gupalova, T V

    2015-07-01

    Many bacteria express surface proteins interacting with human serum albumin (HSA). One of these proteins, PAB from anaerobic bacteria, contains an albumin-binding domain consisting of 45 amino acid residues known as GA domain. GA domains are also found in G proteins isolated from human streptococcal strains (groups C and G) and of albumin-binding protein isolated from group G streptococcal strains of animal origin. The GA domain is a left-handed three-helix bundle structure in which amino acid residues of the second and third helixes are involved in albumin binding. We studied the relationship between HSA-binding activity of the recombinant polypeptide isolated from group G streptococcus of animal origin and structure of the GA domain is studied. Structural changes in GA domain significantly attenuated HAS-binding capacity of the recombinant polypeptide. Hence, affinity HSA-binding polypeptide depends on stability of GA domain structure.

  10. Effect of low-protein diets and single sex on production performance, plasma metabolites, digestibility, and nitrogen excretion in 1- to 48-day-old broilers.

    PubMed

    Hernández, F; López, M; Martínez, S; Megías, M D; Catalá, P; Madrid, J

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of low-CP diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids, according to an ideal amino acid ratio, on the performance, plasma metabolites, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and water intake in male and female chickens from 1 to 48 d of age using a 4-phase feeding program: prestarter (1-7 d), starter (8-21 d), grower (22-35 d), and finisher (36-48 d). Three experimental diets were formulated for each phase: a control diet with a CP level of 24.5, 23.0, 21.5, and 20.5%, respectively, and medium- and low-CP diets containing 1.5 and 3% less than that of the control, respectively, but the same ME and digestible lysine levels. In experiment 1, in males, the reduction in dietary protein content by 3% increased the feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05) in the starter, grower, and finisher phases, and plasma albumin levels were reduced (P < 0.05) during the prestarter, starter, and finisher phases. In females, the same effect on plasma album levels was observed (P < 0.05) only in the starter phase. Sex affected plasma albumin levels during the prestarter, starter, and finisher phases, being higher in females. In experiment 2, the reduction in dietary protein content linearly decreased water consumption in both sexes (P < 0.05). The reduction of dietary protein by 1.5 or 3% reduced nitrogen excretion to the environment by 9.5 and 17% in males and by 11.8 and 14.6% in females, respectively. In summary, the low-CP 4-phase feeding reduced water intake and nitrogen excretion with an adverse effect on the feed conversion ratio in males but not in females. So, single-sex rearing could be used to reduce the environmental impact of chicken farms.

  11. Albumin Dialysis for Liver Failure: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tsipotis, Evangelos; Shuja, Asim; Jaber, Bertrand L

    2015-09-01

    Albumin dialysis is the best-studied extracorporeal nonbiologic liver support system as a bridge or destination therapy for patients with liver failure awaiting liver transplantation or recovery of liver function. We performed a systematic review to examine the efficacy and safety of 3 albumin dialysis systems (molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS], fractionated plasma separation, adsorption and hemodialysis [Prometheus system], and single-pass albumin dialysis) in randomized trials for supportive treatment of liver failure. PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane's Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched. Two authors independently screened citations and extracted data on patient characteristics, quality of reports, efficacy, and safety end points. Ten trials (7 of MARS and 3 of Prometheus) were identified (620 patients). By meta-analysis, albumin dialysis achieved a net decrease in serum total bilirubin level relative to standard medical therapy of 8.0 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.6 to -5.4) but not in serum ammonia or bile acids. Albumin dialysis achieved an improvement in hepatic encephalopathy relative to standard medical therapy with a risk ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.16-2.08) but had no effect survival with a risk ratio of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.84-1.07). Because of inconsistency in the reporting of adverse events, the safety analysis was limited but did not demonstrate major safety concerns. Use of albumin dialysis as supportive treatment for liver failure is successful at removing albumin-bound molecules, such as bilirubin and at improving hepatic encephalopathy. Additional experience is required to guide its optimal use and address safety concerns.

  12. Serum Albumin Levels and Economic Status in Japanese Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Ota, Asami; Kondo, Naoki; Murayama, Nobuko; Tanabe, Naohito; Shobugawa, Yugo; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Background Low serum albumin levels are associated with aging and medical conditions such as cancer, liver dysfunction, inflammation, and malnutrition and might be an independent predictor of long-term mortality in healthy older populations. We tested the hypothesis that economic status is associated with serum albumin levels and explained by nutritional and health status in Japanese older adults. Design We performed a cross-sectional analysis using data from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation study (JAGES). The study participants were 6528 functionally independent residents (3189 men and 3339 women) aged ≥65 years living in four municipalities in Aichi prefecture. We used household income as an indicator of economic status. Multiple linear regression was used to compare serum albumin levels in relation to household income, which was classified as low, middle, and high. Additionally, mediation by nutritional and health-related factors was analyzed in multivariable models. Results With the middle-income group as reference, participants with low incomes had a significantly lower serum albumin level, even after adjustment for sex, age, residential area, education, marital status, and household structure. The estimated mean difference was −0.17 g/L (95% confidence interval, −0.33 to −0.01 g/L). The relation between serum albumin level and low income became statistically insignificant when “body mass index”, “consumption of meat or fish”, “self-rated health”, “presence of medical conditions”, “hyperlipidemia”, or “respiratory disease “was included in the model. Conclusion Serum albumin levels were lower in Japanese older adults with low economic status. The decrease in albumin levels appears to be mediated by nutrition and health-related factors with low household incomes. Future studies are needed to reveal the existence of other pathways. PMID:27276092

  13. Albumin Dialysis for Liver Failure: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tsipotis, Evangelos; Shuja, Asim; Jaber, Bertrand L

    2015-09-01

    Albumin dialysis is the best-studied extracorporeal nonbiologic liver support system as a bridge or destination therapy for patients with liver failure awaiting liver transplantation or recovery of liver function. We performed a systematic review to examine the efficacy and safety of 3 albumin dialysis systems (molecular adsorbent recirculating system [MARS], fractionated plasma separation, adsorption and hemodialysis [Prometheus system], and single-pass albumin dialysis) in randomized trials for supportive treatment of liver failure. PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE, Cochrane's Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were searched. Two authors independently screened citations and extracted data on patient characteristics, quality of reports, efficacy, and safety end points. Ten trials (7 of MARS and 3 of Prometheus) were identified (620 patients). By meta-analysis, albumin dialysis achieved a net decrease in serum total bilirubin level relative to standard medical therapy of 8.0 mg/dL (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.6 to -5.4) but not in serum ammonia or bile acids. Albumin dialysis achieved an improvement in hepatic encephalopathy relative to standard medical therapy with a risk ratio of 1.55 (95% CI, 1.16-2.08) but had no effect survival with a risk ratio of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.84-1.07). Because of inconsistency in the reporting of adverse events, the safety analysis was limited but did not demonstrate major safety concerns. Use of albumin dialysis as supportive treatment for liver failure is successful at removing albumin-bound molecules, such as bilirubin and at improving hepatic encephalopathy. Additional experience is required to guide its optimal use and address safety concerns. PMID:26311600

  14. Decabromodiphenyl ether in the rat: absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.

    PubMed

    Morck, Anna; Hakk, Heldur; Orn, Ulrika; Klasson Wehler, Eva

    2003-07-01

    Among the group of polybrominated diphenyl ethers used as flame-retardants, the fully brominated diphenyl ether, decabromodiphenyl ether (decaBDE), is the most commonly used. Despite the large usage of decaBDE, neither the metabolic pathways nor the absorption have been addressed, and there are very few studies on its toxicology. In this work, it is shown that after a single oral dose of 14C-labeled decaBDE to rats, at least 10% of the decaBDE dose is absorbed. The major excretion route in conventional rats is via feces that contained 90% of the decaBDE dose. The excretion in bile was close to 10% of the dose and represented mainly metabolites. It cannot be excluded that greater than 10% of the oral dose had been absorbed since 65% of the radioactivity excreted in feces was metabolites. The highest concentrations on a lipid weight basis were found in plasma and blood-rich tissues, and the adipose tissue had the lowest concentration of decaBDE. After derivatization of a phenolic fraction, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses indicated that metabolites with five to seven bromine atoms had formed, and they possessed a guaiacol structure (a hydroxy and a methoxy group) in one of the rings. In addition, traces of nonabrominated diphenyl ethers and monohydroxylated metabolites were found by GC/MS. Metabolites, characterized by their chemical properties, were interpreted to be covalently bound to macromolecules, either proteins or lipids. In addition, water solubility was suggested. The metabolic pathway was indicated to include a reactive intermediate. PMID:12814967

  15. Urine Creatinine Excretion and Clinical Outcomes in CKD

    PubMed Central

    Di Micco, Lucia; Quinn, Robert Ross; Ronksley, Paul Everett; Bellizzi, Vincenzo; Lewin, Adriane Marlene; Cianciaruso, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Twenty-four–hour urine creatinine excretion is a reliable approximation of muscle mass. Whether changes in urine creatinine predict clinical outcomes in persons with CKD is unknown. This work studied the relationship between urine creatinine and patient and renal survival in people with CKD not requiring renal replacement therapy. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This longitudinal cohort study included incident stages 3–5 CKD patients referred to the renal clinic at the University Federico II in Naples between January of 1995 and December of 2005. Clinical data and urine creatinine were updated at each visit. Main outcomes were all-cause mortality and kidney failure requiring dialysis. Results This study enrolled 525 individuals and followed them for a median of 6 years (range of 4 months to 15 years). Urine creatinine excretion declined by 16 mg/d per year (95% confidence interval, 14 to 19) in participants with CKD stages 3a, 3b, and 4, and it remained stable in participants with stage 5 CKD. Per each 20 mg/d decline in urine creatinine, mortality increased by 3% (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.05), and the risk of initiating dialysis increased by 2% (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 1.03). These associations were independent of body mass index and GFR. Conclusions In persons with CKD stages 3 and 4, urine creatinine declines at a rate of 16 mg/d per year. Lower urine creatinine excretion predicts greater risk of kidney failure and patient mortality. PMID:24158796

  16. Iron excretion in iron dextran-overloaded mice

    PubMed Central

    Musumeci, Marco; Maccari, Sonia; Massimi, Alessia; Stati, Tonino; Sestili, Paola; Corritore, Elisa; Pastorelli, Augusto; Stacchini, Paolo; Marano, Giuseppe; Catalano, Liviana

    2014-01-01

    Background Iron homeostasis in humans is tightly regulated by mechanisms aimed to conserve iron for reutilisation, with a negligible role played by excretory mechanisms. In a previous study we found that mice have an astonishing ability to tolerate very high doses of parenterally administered iron dextran. Whether this ability is linked to the existence of an excretory pathway remains to be ascertained. Materials and methods Iron overload was generated by intraperitoneal injections of iron dextran (1 g/kg) administered once a week for 8 weeks in two different mouse strains (C57bl/6 and B6D2F1). Urinary and faecal iron excretion was assessed by inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry, whereas cardiac and liver architecture was evaluated by echocardiography and histological methods. For both strains, 24-hour faeces and urine samples were collected and iron concentration was determined on days 0, 1 and 2 after iron administration. Results In iron-overloaded C57bl/6 mice, the faecal iron concentration increased by 218% and 157% on days 1 and 2, respectively (p<0.01). The iron excreted represented a loss of 14% of total iron administered. Similar but smaller changes was also found in B6D2F1 mice. Conversely, we found no significant changes in the concentration of iron in the urine in either of the strains of mice. In both strains, histological examination showed accumulation of iron in the liver and heart which tended to decrease over time. Conclusions This study indicates that mice have a mechanism for removal of excess body iron and provides insights into the possible mechanisms of excretion. PMID:24960657

  17. Chlordecone impaired biliary excretion: In vivo and in vitro correlates

    SciTech Connect

    Rochelle, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The focus of this research was to investigate mechanisms of impaired biliary excretion localized to the bile canaliculus. Two modes of chlordecone (CD) action were investigated: (1) direct effects on organic anion transport at the bile canaliculus; and/or (2) general membrane perturbation, indirectly affecting anion transport proteins. Bile canaliculi-enriched fractions (BCEF) were isolated from rat livers in order to characterize effects of CD on this domain of the plasma membranes. CD inhibited the initial rate leading to a peak Na{sup +}-stimulated ({sup 3}H)L-glutamate uptake in BCEF CD inhibition of the initial or Na{sup +}-gradient driven phase of ({sup 3}H)L-glutamate uptake suggested that CD was affecting maintenance of the Na{sup +}-gradient by the BCEF membrane vesicles. In vivo PG anion excretion was inhibited as well as in vitro ({sup 3}H)L-glutamate transport at 24 hr following in vivo CD treatment of rats. Seventy-two hr following CD treatment, rats recovered to control PG excretion levels. PG excretory performance was regained in 72 hr pretreated rats despite an increase in liver CD concentration. Liver CD concentrations in 24 hr pretreated rats were approximately 50% of the concentrations in 72 hr pretreated rats. At low CD concentrations, there was no evidence of general membrane perturbation in terms of immobilization of the lipid electron spin resonance probe, 16-doxyl stearate, in BCEF. Mobility of 16-doxyl stearate in BCEF was reduced at in vitro CD concentrations of 0.20 {mu}mol/mg protein or greater. CD did reduce hepatobiliary permeability to ({sup 14}C)mannitol in 24 and 72 hr pretreated rats; perhaps restricting movement through membrane aqueous pores.

  18. Enantioselective renal excretion of albendazole metabolites in patients with neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Lanchote, V L; Takayanagui, O M; Mateus, F H

    2004-10-01

    The present study investigates the urinary excretion of the enantiomers of (+)- and (-)-albendazole sulfoxide (ASOX) and albendazole sulfone (ASON) in 12 patients with neurocysticercosis treated with albendazole for 8 days (7.5 mg/kg/12 h). Serial blood samples (0-12 h) and urine (three periods of 8 h) were collected after administration of the last dose of albendazole. Plasma and urine (+)-ASOX, (-)-ASOX, and ASON metabolites were determined by HPLC using a chiral phase column (Chiralpak AD) with fluorescence detection. The pharmacokinetic parameters (P < 0.05) for (+)-ASOX, (-)-ASOX, and ASON metabolites are reported as means (95% CI); amount excreted (Ae) = 3.19 (1.53-4.85) vs. 0.72 (0.41-1.04) vs. 0.08 (0.03-0.13) mg; plasma concentration-time area under the curve, AUC(0-24) = 3.56 (0.93-6.18) vs. 0.60 (0.12-1.08) vs. 0.38 (0.20-0.55) microg x h/ml, and renal clearance Cl(R) = 1.20 (0.66-1.73) vs. 2.72 (0.39-5.05) vs. 0.25 (0.13-0.37) l/h. Sulfone formation capacity, expressed as the Ae ratio ASON/ASOX + ASON, was 2.21 (1.43-2.99). These data point to enantioselectivity in the renal excretion of ASOX as a complementary mechanism to the metabolism responsible for the plasma accumulation of (+)-ASOX. The results also suggest that the metabolite ASON is partially eliminated as a reaction product of the subsequent metabolism.

  19. Episodic ventilation lowers the efficiency of pulmonary CO2 excretion.

    PubMed

    Malte, Christian Lind; Malte, Hans; Wang, Tobias

    2013-11-01

    The ventilation pattern of many ectothermic vertebrates, as well as hibernating and diving endotherms, is episodic where breaths are clustered in bouts interspersed among apneas of varying duration. Using mechanically ventilated, anesthetized freshwater turtles (Trachemys scripta), a species that normally exhibits this episodic ventilation pattern, we investigated whether episodic ventilation affects pulmonary gas exchange compared with evenly spaced breaths. In two separate series of experiments (a noninvasive and an invasive), ventilation pattern was switched from a steady state, with evenly spaced breaths, to episodic ventilation while maintaining overall minute ventilation (30 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1)). On switching to an episodic ventilation pattern of 10 clustered breaths, mean CO2 excretion rate was reduced by 6 ± 5% (noninvasive protocol) or 20 ± 8% (invasive protocol) in the first ventilation pattern cycle, along with a reduction in the respiratory exchange ratio. O2 uptake was either not affected or increased in the first ventilation pattern cycle, while neither heart rate nor overall pulmonary blood flow was significantly affected by the ventilation patterns. The results confirm that, for a given minute ventilation, episodic ventilation is intrinsically less efficient for CO2 excretion, thereby indicating an increase in the total bodily CO2 store in the protocol. Despite the apparent CO2 retention, mean arterial Pco2 only increased 1 Torr during the episodic ventilation pattern, which was concomitant with a possible reduction of respiratory quotient. This would indicate a shift in metabolism such that less CO2 is produced when the efficiency of excretion is reduced. PMID:23970538

  20. [Immunohistochemical study on the mechanism of excretion of methamphetamine].

    PubMed

    Kajitani, A; Kaiho, M; Mori, A; Okada, Y; Mukaida, M; Ishiyama, I

    1989-06-01

    Many methods of analysis are available to the forensic toxicologist for determining the amount of methamphetamine within human tissues, but few have the potential of histochemistry for enabling the precise site of excretion of methamphetamine to be defined. We have established a method for the demonstration of methamphetamine by immunohistochemistry, and applied this method for showing morphologically the disposition of methamphetamine. The following cells in the tissues of methamphetamine-intoxicated mice gave a strong positive reaction of the localization, which was thought to be the histological evidence of excretion of this drug: epithelial cells of the distal part of the renal tubule and of the collecting tubule, transitional epithelial cells of the bladder, liver parenchymal cells, epithelial cells of the striated duct of the salivary gland, parietal cells of the gastric gland, part of epithelial cells of the distal portion of the large intestine, secretory cells and part of epithelial cells of the ductal portion of the sweat gland, alveolar cells of the mammary gland, secretory cells of the sebaceous gland and hair medulla and cortex. These results indicated passive diffusion of methamphetamine across membranes of the cells of the distal tubule and collecting tubule of the kidney, of the bladder and of the striated duct of the salivary gland. In the parietal cells of the gastric gland, part of epithelial cells of the distal portion of the large intestine and secretory cells of the sweat gland, methamphetamine was thought to be stored and subsequently released. In the mammary gland, methamphetamine was found to be combined with casein and excreted by exocytosis. Accumulation of methamphetamine in the hair was supposed to be chiefly due to the penetration of this drug derived from tissue fluid and sebum.

  1. Value of estimating methylamalonic acid excretion in anaemia.

    PubMed

    Green, A E; Pegrum, G D

    1968-09-01

    A rapid technique suitable for routine pathology laboratories has been used to estimate methylmalonic acid excretion in a 24-hour urine collection following a 10g. valine load. Levels above 40 mg./24 hours were found only in patients with vitamin B(12) deficiency. Patients with pernicious anaemia treated more than 24 hours before urine collection and patients with other types of anaemia had methylmalonic acid levels below 25 mg./24 hours.This method of demonstrating vitamin B(12) deficiency can be applied rapidly in debilitated patients so that specific treatment can be instituted within 36 hours of admission.

  2. Radiation dosimetry from breast milk excretion of radioiodine and pertechnetate

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, W.R.; Di Simone, R.N.; Keen, R.L.

    1986-10-01

    Measurements were made of the activity in samples of breast milk obtained from a patient with postpartum thyroiditis following administration of (/sup 123/I)sodium iodide and subsequently (99mTc)pertechnetate 24 hr later. Both /sup 123/I and 99mTc were found to be excreted exponentially with an effective half-life of 5.8 hr and 2.8 hr, respectively. Less than 10% of the activity was incorporated into breast-milk protein. After administration of (/sup 123/I)sodium iodide breast feeding should be discontinued for 24-36 hr to reduce the absorbed dose to the child's thyroid.

  3. [The effect of aldosterone A on renal potassium excretion].

    PubMed

    Winther, Signe Abitz; Egfjord, Martin

    2011-01-10

    Recent studies have shown expression of the following regulatory WNK kinases in the kidney: the full-length WNK1 (L-WNK1), the shorter kidney specific WNK1 transcript (KS-WNK1), formed by alternative splicing, and WNK4. Aldosterone activates expression of KS-WNK1 and inhibits WNK4 via SGK1 - both leading to stimulation of ENaC and activation of ROMK, and increased potassium excretion. Thus, further characterization of the WNK system may lead to elucidation of the dual anti-natriuretic and kaliuretic effects of aldosterone, in situations where only activation of one of these effects is needed. PMID:21219845

  4. Quantitative estimation of urinary protein excretion by refractometry.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S; Visweswaran, K; Sobha, A; Sarasa, G; Nampoory, M R

    1992-09-01

    Quantitative estimation of proteinuria done by the refractometric method was compared with that done by the sulphosalycilic acid method and biuret method in 102 urine samples. The analysis of results by students' t test showed no statistically significant difference between the three methods. It is concluded that quantitative estimation of urinary protein excretion by refractometric method is a simple cheap and reliable method and can be performed easily in the outpatient clinic. The instrument is quite handy and can be carried in the pocket.

  5. Testosterone urinary excretion rate increases during hypergravity in male monkeys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strollo, F.; Barger, L.; Fuller, C.

    2000-01-01

    Real and simulated microgravity impairs T secretion both in animals and in the human. To verify whether hypergravity might enhance T secretion as a consequence of an opposite mechanical effect, 6 male monkeys were centrifuged at 2 G for 3 weeks after a 1 G stabilization period lasting 3 weeks and then taken back to 1 G for 1 week and urine were collected daily for T excretion measurement. Significantly higher level were observed during the initial 2 G phase as compared to pre- and post centrifugation periods and the trend was the same during the remaining 2 G period. This may reflect changes in testicular perfusion rather than endocrine adaptation per se.

  6. Quantification of osmotic water transport in vivo using fluorescent albumin.

    PubMed

    Morelle, Johann; Sow, Amadou; Vertommen, Didier; Jamar, François; Rippe, Bengt; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-10-15

    Osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane is applied during peritoneal dialysis to remove the excess water accumulated in patients with end-stage renal disease. The discovery of aquaporin water channels and the generation of transgenic animals have stressed the need for novel and accurate methods to unravel molecular mechanisms of water permeability in vivo. Here, we describe the use of fluorescently labeled albumin as a reliable indicator of osmotic water transport across the peritoneal membrane in a well-established mouse model of peritoneal dialysis. After detailed evaluation of intraperitoneal tracer mass kinetics, the technique was validated against direct volumetry, considered as the gold standard. The pH-insensitive dye Alexa Fluor 555-albumin was applied to quantify osmotic water transport across the mouse peritoneal membrane resulting from modulating dialysate osmolality and genetic silencing of the water channel aquaporin-1 (AQP1). Quantification of osmotic water transport using Alexa Fluor 555-albumin closely correlated with direct volumetry and with estimations based on radioiodinated ((125)I) serum albumin (RISA). The low intraperitoneal pressure probably accounts for the negligible disappearance of the tracer from the peritoneal cavity in this model. Taken together, these data demonstrate the appropriateness of pH-insensitive Alexa Fluor 555-albumin as a practical and reliable intraperitoneal volume tracer to quantify osmotic water transport in vivo.

  7. Albumin-based nanocomposite spheres for advanced drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Misak, Heath E; Asmatulu, Ramazan; Gopu, Janani S; Man, Ka-Poh; Zacharias, Nora M; Wooley, Paul H; Yang, Shang-You

    2014-01-01

    A novel drug delivery system incorporating human serum albumin, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, magnetite nanoparticles, and therapeutic agent(s) was developed for potential application in the treatment of diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and skin cancer. An oil-in-oil emulsion/solvent evaporation (O/OSE) method was modified to produce a drug delivery system with a diameter of 0.5–2 μm. The diameter was mainly controlled by adjusting the viscosity of albumin in the discontinuous phase of the O/OSE method. The drug-release study showed that the release of drug and albumin was mostly dependent on the albumin content of the drug delivery system, which is very similar to the drug occlusion-mesopore model. Cytotoxicity tests indicated that increasing the albumin content in the drug delivery system increased cell viability, possibly due to the improved biocompatibility of the system. Overall, these studies show that the proposed system could be a viable option as a drug delivery system in the treatment of many illnesses, such as rheumatoid arthritis, and skin and breast cancers. PMID:24106002

  8. Regional differences in pleural lymphatic albumin concentration in sheep

    SciTech Connect

    Albertine, K.H.; Schultz, E.L.; Wiener-Kronish, J.P.; Staub, N.C.

    1987-01-01

    We used quantitative reflectance autoradiography to compare the concentration of albumin in visceral pleural lymphatics at the cranial and caudal ends of the sheep's lung in the vertical (60 degrees head-up) and horizontal (supine) positions. Twelve to fourteen hours after injecting 125I-albumin intravenously we placed four anesthetized sheep in the vertical position to establish a microvascular hydrostatic pressure gradient along the vertical height of the lung. We placed two anesthetized sheep in the horizontal position. Four hours later, we fixed the left lung and removed visceral pleural tissue blocks from the cranial and caudal ends, separated by a 15-cm distance, along the costovertebral margin. We measured the silver grain density in the pleural lymphatic autoradiograms by dark-field reflectance microspectrophotometry. In the vertical position, the lymph albumin concentration at the cranial end (top) of the lung averaged 2.5 +/- 0.4 g/dl compared with the caudal end (bottom), which averaged 1.8 +/- 0.3 g/dl. The difference (42% greater at the top than the bottom) is significant (P less than 0.05). The computed gradient in perimicrovascular interstitial albumin osmotic pressure was 0.26 +/- 0.13 cmH2O/cm lung height. There were no differences between the cranial and caudal lymphatic groups in the two horizontal sheep. We conclude that in the sheep lung there is a gradient in perimicrovascular albumin concentration due to the vertical gradient in microvascular hydrostatic pressure.

  9. Albumin microvascular leakage in brains with diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Ryuji; Chiba, Yoichi; Nakagawa, Toshitaka; Nishi, Nozomu; Murakami, Ryuta; Matsumoto, Koichi; Kawauchi, Machi; Yamamoto, Tetsuji; Ueno, Masaki

    2016-09-01

    Their aim was to examine whether microvascular leakage of endogenous albumin, a representative marker for blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage, was induced in the periventricular area of diabetic db/db mice because periventricular white matter hyperintensity formation in magnetic resonance images was accelerating in elderly patients with diabetes mellitus. Using light and electron microscopes, and semi-quantitative analysis techniques, immunoreactivity of endogenous albumin, indicating vascular permeability, was examined in the periventricular area and spinal cord of db/db mice and db/+m control mice. Greater immunoreactivity of albumin was observed in the vessel wall of the periventricular area of db/db mice than in controls. Additionally, weak immunoreactivity was observed in the spinal cord of both db/db mice and controls. The number of gold particles, indicating immunoreactivity of albumin, in the perivascular area of db/db mice was significantly higher than that of control mice, but there was no significant difference in the number of particles in the spinal cord between db/db mice and controls. These findings suggest that albumin microvascular leakage, or BBB breakdown, is induced in the periventricular area of diabetic mice. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:833-837, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27333535

  10. Scaffold materials from glycosylated and PEGylated bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; David, Allan E; Choi, Young-Suk; Wu, Yonnie; Buschle-Diller, Gisela

    2015-09-01

    Bovine serum albumin has been PEGylated and glycosylated to create mimetic materials for the extracellular matrix (ECM) with potential tissue engineering applications. Different surfaces for cell adhesion were achieved by crosslinking the initial albumin product and forming either a coating or a sponge-like three-dimensional morphology to mimic the mesh structure of natural ECM. The biocompatibility of the albumin matrix with mammalian cells was evaluated using cell culture assays with NIH 3T3 cells. The results indicated that glycoprotein composition and specific morphology of the assembly can improve the cell growth environment. These ECM mimetic structures might eventually be considered to serve as alternatives for the more expensive collagen and elastin based ECM substances currently in use in tissue engineering. PMID:25691091

  11. PRODUCTION OF UNIFORMLY SIZED SERUM ALBUMIN AND DEXTROSE MICROBUBBLES

    PubMed Central

    Borrelli, Michael J.; O’Brien, William D.; Bernock, Laura J.; Williams, Heather R.; Hamilton, Eric; Wu, Jonah; Oelze, Michael L.; Culp, William C.

    2011-01-01

    Uniformly-sized preparations with average microbubble (MB) diameters from 1 µm to 7 µm were produced reliably by sonicating decafluorobutane-saturated solutions of serum albumin and dextrose. Detailed protocols for producing and size-separating the MBs are presented, along with the effects that changing each production parameter (serum albumin concentration, sonication power, sonication time, etc.) had on MB size distribution and acoustic stability. These protocols can be used to produce MBs for experimental applications or serve as templates for developing new protocols that yield MBs with physical and acoustic properties better suited to specific applications. Size stability and ultrasonic performance quality control tests were developed to assure that successive MB preparations perform identically and to distinguish the physical and acoustic properties of identically sized MBs produced with different serum albumin-dextrose formulations and sonication parameters. MBs can be stored at 5°C for protracted periods (2 weeks to one year depending on formulation). PMID:21689961

  12. Unraveling the Interaction between FcRn and Albumin: Opportunities for Design of Albumin-Based Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Sand, Kine Marita Knudsen; Bern, Malin; Nilsen, Jeannette; Noordzij, Hanna Theodora; Sandlie, Inger; Andersen, Jan Terje

    2015-01-01

    The neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) was first found to be responsible for transporting antibodies of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) class from the mother to the fetus or neonate as well as for protecting IgG from intracellular catabolism. However, it has now become apparent that the same receptor also binds albumin and plays a fundamental role in homeostatic regulation of both IgG and albumin, as FcRn is expressed in many different cell types and organs at diverse body sites. Thus, to gain a complete understanding of the biological function of each ligand, and also their distribution in the body, an in-depth characterization of how FcRn binds and regulates the transport of both ligands is necessary. Importantly, such knowledge is also relevant when developing new drugs, as IgG and albumin are increasingly utilized in therapy. This review discusses our current structural and biological understanding of the relationship between FcRn and its ligands, with a particular focus on albumin and design of albumin-based therapeutics. PMID:25674083

  13. Rapid Hepatobiliary Excretion of Micelle-Encapsulated/Radiolabeled Upconverting Nanoparticles as an Integrated Form

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyo Jung; Nam, Sang Hwan; Im, Hyung-Jun; Park, Ji-yong; Lee, Ji Youn; Yoo, Byeongjun; Lee, Yun-Sang; Jeong, Jae Min; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Who Kim, Ji; Lee, Jae Sung; Jang, In-Jin; Cho, Joo-Youn; Hwang, Do Won; Suh, Yung Doug; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    In the field of nanomedicine, long term accumulation of nanoparticles (NPs) in the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) such as liver is the major hurdle in clinical translation. On the other hand, NPs could be excreted via hepatobiliary excretion pathway without overt tissue toxicity. Therefore, it is critical to develop NPs that show favorable excretion property. Herein, we demonstrated that micelle encapsulated 64Cu-labeled upconverting nanoparticles (micelle encapsulated 64Cu-NOTA-UCNPs) showed substantial hepatobiliary excretion by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) and also upconversion luminescence imaging (ULI). Ex vivo biodistribution study reinforced the imaging results by showing clearance of 84% of initial hepatic uptake in 72 hours. Hepatobiliary excretion of the UCNPs was also verified by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) examination. Micelle encapsulated 64Cu-NOTA-UCNPs could be an optimal bimodal imaging agent owing to quantifiability of 64Cu, ability of in vivo/ex vivo ULI and good hepatobiliary excretion property. PMID:26494465

  14. The significance of nitrate in the nitrogenous excretion of carcinus maenas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spaargaren, D. H.

    Total inorganic-N and NH 4+-N were measured in blood and external media of shore crabs, Carcinus maenas (L.), exposed to various salinities at low (4°C) and high (20°C) temperatures. Total inorganic-N and NH 4+-N were both excreted in larger amounts at lower salinities and at the higher temperature. Nitrate excretion is highest in brackish water and decreases in both higher and lower salinities. Nitrate excretion (0.11-0.72 μmol -1·h -1) was of the same order of magnitude as NH 4 + excretion, but in brackish water NO 3 - excretion predominated, whereas at lower salinities NH 4 + excretion predominated. NO 3 - formation may serve in the detoxification of NH 4 + and the maintenance of electroneutrality. Blood NO 3 - concentrations, like blood NH 4 + concentrations, are strongly stabilized, independent of either temperature or salinity.

  15. [Basic mechanisms: absorption and excretion of cholesterol and other sterols].

    PubMed

    Cofan Pujol, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol is of vital importance for vertebrate cell membrane structure and function. It is obvious that adequate regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is essential. Hypercholesterolemia promotes atherosclerosis and thereby represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The liver has been considered the major site of control in maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. The liver facilitates clearance of (very) low density lipoprotein particles and cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants, synthesizes cholesterol, synthesizes and secretes (nascent) high density lipoprotein particles, secretes cholesterol and bile salts to bile, and is involved in reverse cholesterol transport. In recent years, however, the importance of the intestine in many aspects of cholesterol physiology is increasingly recognized. It has become apparent that direct secretion of cholesterol from the blood compartment into the intestine, or transintestinal cholesterol excretion, plays a major role in disposal of cholesterol via the feces. This review will discuss current knowledge on the physiology of cholesterol homeostasis, with emphasis on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and fecal excretion, and therapeutic options for hypercholesterolemia. PMID:24461630

  16. Effect of chloroquine on the urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Ilo, Cajetan E; Ezejiofor, Ndidi A; Agbakoba, Nneka; Brown, Sinye A; Maduagwuna, Chinonye A; Agbasi, Patrick U; Orisakwe, Orish E; Orisakweph, Orish E

    2008-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is an inexpensive antibacterial, whereas chloroquine is an inexpensive antimalarial. The coadministration of chloroquine and ciprofloxacin is easily encountered because both drugs are commonly prescribed to patients in the tropics. Five healthy male volunteers aged 19 to 31 years who were not taking any of the prescribed medications and who had no sensitivity to either ciprofloxacin or chloroquine each received 500 mg ciprofloxacin orally with 250 mL of water, and after a 2-week washout period, 500 mg ciprofloxacin plus 600 mg chloroquine was administered orally with 250 mL of water after providing informed consent. A urine sample (7 mL) was collected just before taking the drug at 8:00 AM representing 0 hour and continued afterward at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours the next day. The samples were stored at -20 degrees C until analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations by diffusion through agar technique were used for the assay of urine ciprofloxacin. The rate of ciprofloxacin excretion and cumulative urine ciprofloxacin were significantly increased. The coadministration of chloroquine increased the cumulative urinary concentration and excretion rate of ciprofloxacin.

  17. Effect of chloroquine on the urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin.

    PubMed

    Ilo, Cajetan E; Ezejiofor, Ndidi A; Agbakoba, Nneka; Brown, Sinye A; Maduagwuna, Chinonye A; Agbasi, Patrick U; Orisakwe, Orish E; Orisakweph, Orish E

    2008-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin is an inexpensive antibacterial, whereas chloroquine is an inexpensive antimalarial. The coadministration of chloroquine and ciprofloxacin is easily encountered because both drugs are commonly prescribed to patients in the tropics. Five healthy male volunteers aged 19 to 31 years who were not taking any of the prescribed medications and who had no sensitivity to either ciprofloxacin or chloroquine each received 500 mg ciprofloxacin orally with 250 mL of water, and after a 2-week washout period, 500 mg ciprofloxacin plus 600 mg chloroquine was administered orally with 250 mL of water after providing informed consent. A urine sample (7 mL) was collected just before taking the drug at 8:00 AM representing 0 hour and continued afterward at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours the next day. The samples were stored at -20 degrees C until analyzed. The minimum inhibitory concentrations by diffusion through agar technique were used for the assay of urine ciprofloxacin. The rate of ciprofloxacin excretion and cumulative urine ciprofloxacin were significantly increased. The coadministration of chloroquine increased the cumulative urinary concentration and excretion rate of ciprofloxacin. PMID:18806516

  18. Retention and excretion of 95Zr-95Nb in humans.

    PubMed

    Thind, K S

    1995-12-01

    This note describes the retention and excretion of 95Zr-95Nb in humans based on a recent CANDU experience and a literature survey of reported cases. Two data bases, QUEST and INIS were used for the survey. Three reported cases were discovered: two for occupational exposures and one for public exposure from nuclear weapons fallout. Human lung retention from these three cases, plus whole body retention and some limited fecal excretion data from a recently occurred exposure at a CANDU station, were reviewed and tested against predictions based on ICRP Publication 30 model. Based on the fits of this model to the reported data it seems that the three occupational exposures exhibit class Y behavior while the public exposure exhibits class W behavior. For only one case is the chemical compound known with certainty: ZrO2. Zirconium oxides are currently classified as class W in ICRP Publications 30 and 54. This work confirms a suggestion that oxides of zirconium be classified as class Y and should be taken into account by the ICRP in its future publications.

  19. Enhancement of anammox by the excretion of diel vertical migrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Daniele; Babbin, Andrew R.; Galbraith, Eric D.

    2014-11-01

    Measurements show that anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite (anammox) is a major pathway of fixed nitrogen removal in the anoxic zones of the open ocean. Anammox requires a source of ammonium, which under anoxic conditions could be supplied by the breakdown of sinking organic matter via heterotrophic denitrification. However, at many locations where anammox is measured, denitrification rates are small or undetectable. Alternative sources of ammonium have been proposed to explain this paradox, for example through dissimilatory reduction of nitrate to ammonium and transport from anoxic sediments. However, the relevance of these sources in open-ocean anoxic zones is debated. Here, we bring to attention an additional source of ammonium, namely, the daytime excretion by zooplankton and micronekton migrating from the surface to anoxic waters. We use a synthesis of acoustic data to show that, where anoxic waters occur within the water column, most migrators spend the daytime within them. Although migrators export only a small fraction of primary production from the surface, they focus excretion within a confined depth range of anoxic water where particle input is small. Using a simple biogeochemical model, we suggest that, at those depths, the source of ammonium from organisms undergoing diel vertical migrations could exceed the release from particle remineralization, enhancing in situ anammox rates. The contribution of this previously overlooked process, and the numerous uncertainties surrounding it, call for further efforts to evaluate the role of animals in oxygen minimum zone biogeochemistry.

  20. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na+/K+-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:27043552

  1. Urinary oxalate and glycolate excretion and plasma oxalate concentration.

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, T M; Kasidas, G P; Murdoch, I; Rose, G A

    1991-01-01

    The diagnosis of primary hyperoxaluria in young children is hampered by the lack of a reliable reference range for urinary oxalate excretion, especially in infants. We present data on urinary oxalate and glycolate excretion in 137 normal children, on the plasma oxalate concentration in 33 normal children and 53 with chronic renal failure, and on amniotic fluid oxalate concentration in 63 uncomplicated pregnancies. The urinary oxalate:creatinine molar ratios were log normally distributed: mean (range) values were less than 1 year 0.061 (0.015-0.26), 1-5 years 0.036 (0.011-0.12), 5-12 years 0.030 (0.0059-0.15), and greater than 12 years 0.013 (0.0021-0.083). Geometric mean (range) plasma oxalate concentration in the normal children was 1.53 (0.78-3.02) mumols/l and was independent of age. The mean (SD) plasma oxalate: creatinine molar ratio in these normal children and 50 with chronic renal failure was 0.033 (0.013), and was independent of age and renal function. Mean (SD) amniotic fluid oxalate concentration was 19.0 (4.3) mumols/l. PMID:2031609

  2. [Basic mechanisms: absorption and excretion of cholesterol and other sterols].

    PubMed

    Cofan Pujol, Montserrat

    2014-01-01

    Cholesterol is of vital importance for vertebrate cell membrane structure and function. It is obvious that adequate regulation of cholesterol homeostasis is essential. Hypercholesterolemia promotes atherosclerosis and thereby represents a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The liver has been considered the major site of control in maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis. The liver facilitates clearance of (very) low density lipoprotein particles and cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants, synthesizes cholesterol, synthesizes and secretes (nascent) high density lipoprotein particles, secretes cholesterol and bile salts to bile, and is involved in reverse cholesterol transport. In recent years, however, the importance of the intestine in many aspects of cholesterol physiology is increasingly recognized. It has become apparent that direct secretion of cholesterol from the blood compartment into the intestine, or transintestinal cholesterol excretion, plays a major role in disposal of cholesterol via the feces. This review will discuss current knowledge on the physiology of cholesterol homeostasis, with emphasis on cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and fecal excretion, and therapeutic options for hypercholesterolemia.

  3. High Salt Diet Affects Renal Sodium Excretion and ERRα Expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan; Wang, Yang; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Mu, Jian-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Kidneys regulate the balance of water and sodium and therefore are related to blood pressure. It is unclear whether estrogen-related receptor α (ERRα), an orphan nuclear receptor and transcription factor highly expressed in kidneys, affects the reabsorption of water and sodium. The aim of this study was to determine whether changes in the expressions of ERRα, Na⁺/K⁺-ATPase and epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) proteins affected the reabsorption of water and sodium in kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) rats. SS.13BN rats, 98% homologous to the DS rats, were used as a normotensive control group. The 24 h urinary sodium excretion of the DS and SS.13BN rats increased after the 6-week high salt diet intervention, while sodium excretion was increased in DS rats with daidzein (agonist of ERRα) treatment. ERRα expression was decreased, while β- and γ-ENaC mRNA expressions were increased upon high sodium diet treatment in the DS rats. In the chromatin immunoprecipitation (CHIP) assay, positive PCR signals were obtained in samples treated with anti-ERRα antibody. The transcriptional activity of ERRα was decreased upon high salt diet intervention. ERRα reduced the expressions of β- and γ-ENaC by binding to the ENaC promoter, thereby increased Na+ reabsorption. Therefore, ERRα might be one of the factors causing salt-sensitive hypertension. PMID:27043552

  4. Metabolism and Excretion of Trichloroethylene after Inhalation by Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bartoníček, V.

    1962-01-01

    Eight volunteers were exposed to trichloroethylene vapour (1,042 μg./l.) for five hours; 51 to 64% of the inhaled trichloroethylene was retained. The concentration of trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid in the urine was studied daily for a three-week period; on the third day both metabolites were determined in faeces, sweat, and saliva. The concentration of trichloroacetic acid in plasma and red blood cells was studied on alternate days. Of the trichloroethylene retained, 38·0 to 49·7% was excreted in the urine as trichloroethanol and 27·4 to 35·7% as trichloroacetic acid. Of both metabolites 8·4% was excreted in the faeces. Sweat collected on the third day of the experiment contained 0·10 to 1·92 mg./100 ml. trichloroethanol and 0·15 to 0·35 mg./100 ml. trichloroacetic acid. In saliva the concentrations were 0·09 to 0·32 mg./100 ml. trichloroethanol and 0·10 to 0·15 mg./100 ml. trichloroacetic acid. The value of the expression trichloroethanol/trichloroacetic acid calculated in the urine within 22 days was within the range 1·15 to 1·81. PMID:13865497

  5. Statin-sensitive endocytosis of albumin by glomerular podocytes.

    PubMed

    Eyre, Jeanette; Ioannou, Kyriakos; Grubb, Blair D; Saleem, Moin A; Mathieson, Peter W; Brunskill, Nigel J; Christensen, Erik I; Topham, Peter S

    2007-02-01

    Glomerular podocytes are critical regulators of glomerular permeability via the slit diaphragm and may play a role in cleaning the glomerular filter. Whether podocytes are able to endocytose proteins is uncertain. We studied protein endocytosis in conditionally immortalized mouse and human podocytes using FITC-albumin by direct quantitative assay and by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy in mouse podocytes. Furthermore, in vivo uptake was studied in human, rat, and mouse podocytes. Both mouse and human podocytes displayed specific one-site binding for FITC-albumin with K(d) of 0.91 or 0.44 mg/ml and B(max) of 3.15 or 0.81 microg/mg cell protein, respectively. In addition, they showed avid endocytosis of FITC-albumin with K(m) of 9.48 or 4.5 mg/ml and V(max) of 474.3 or 97.4 microg.mg cell protein(-1).h(-1), respectively. Immunoglobulin and transferrin were inefficient competitors of this process, indicating some specificity for albumin. Accumulation of endocytosed albumin could be demonstrated in intracellular vesicles by fluorescence confocal microscopy and electron microscopy. Endocytosis was sensitive to pretreatment with simvastatin. In vivo accumulation of albumin was found in all three species but was most pronounced in the rat. We conclude that podocytes are able to endocytose protein in a statin-sensitive manner. This function is likely to be highly significant in health and disease. In addition, protein endocytosis by podocytes may represent a useful, measurable phenotypic characteristic against which potentially injurious or beneficial interventions can be assessed. PMID:17032937

  6. Engineering Bispecificity into a Single Albumin-Binding Domain

    PubMed Central

    Nilvebrant, Johan; Alm, Tove; Hober, Sophia; Löfblom, John

    2011-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies as well as non-immunoglobulin based bispecific affinity proteins are considered to have a very high potential in future biotherapeutic applications. In this study, we report on a novel approach for generation of extremely small bispecific proteins comprised of only a single structural domain. Binding to tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was engineered into an albumin-binding domain while still retaining the original affinity for albumin, resulting in a bispecific protein composed of merely 46 amino acids. By diversification of the non albumin-binding side of the three-helix bundle domain, followed by display of the resulting library on phage particles, bispecific single-domain proteins were isolated using selections with TNF-α as target. Moreover, based on the obtained sequences from the phage selection, a second-generation library was designed in order to further increase the affinity of the bispecific candidates. Staphylococcal surface display was employed for the affinity maturation, enabling efficient isolation of improved binders as well as multiparameter-based sortings with both TNF-α and albumin as targets in the same selection cycle. Isolated variants were sequenced and the binding to albumin and TNF-α was analyzed. This analysis revealed an affinity for TNF-α below 5 nM for the strongest binders. From the multiparameter sorting that simultaneously targeted TNF-α and albumin, several bispecific candidates were isolated with high affinity to both antigens, suggesting that cell display in combination with fluorescence activated cell sorting is a suitable technology for engineering of bispecificity. To our knowledge, the new binders represent the smallest engineered bispecific proteins reported so far. Possibilities and challenges as well as potential future applications of this novel strategy are discussed. PMID:21991353

  7. Preparation and Characterization of 125I Labeled Bovine Serum Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Ashwitha Rai, K. S.; Jyothi; Rasmi, R. R.; Sarnaik, Jayula; Kadwad, V. B.; Shenoy, K. B.; Somashekarappa, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin is a model protein, which has been conventionally used as protein standard and in many areas of biochemistry, pharmacology and medicine. Radioiodination procedure for bovine serum albumin employing chloramine-T as an oxidant with slight modification was evaluated critically to establish the optimal conditions for the preparation of radiolabeled tracer (125I-BSA) with required specific activity without impairing the immune reactivity and biological activity. Optimized radioiodination procedure involving 10 µg of chloramine-T along with 20 µg of sodium metabisulphite with 60 seconds incubation at 2° yielded 125I-BSA with high integrity. PMID:25767326

  8. Liver function tests and urinary albumin in house painters with previous heavy exposure to organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, I; Nise, G; Hedenborg, G; Högberg, M; Vesterberg, O

    1994-05-01

    The serum activities or concentrations of aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), albumin, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), bilirubin (BIL), cholic acid (CHOL), chenodeoxycholic acid (CHENO), and transferrin with isoelectric point 5.7, and the urinary excretion of albumin were determined among male current or former house painters (n = 135) and house carpenters (n = 71) who had worked in their trades for at least 10 years before 1970. Workers who showed a value above the 90th percentile among the carpenters in at least one of the tests ASAT, ALAT, GGT, BIL, CHOL, or CHENO were regarded as showing "possible signs of liver dysfunction". Each participant's lifetime solvent exposure was evaluated by interview. The painters were divided into categories with low, intermediate, and heavy cumulative exposure during life (LTSE) or during the most exposed year (MEYSE). All participants stated none or slight recent exposure. The prevalence of possible signs of liver dysfunction increased with solvent exposure category according to LTSE as well as MEYSE with a numerically higher risk estimate in the heavy exposure category for MEYSE than for LTSE. ALP activity increased with exposure category according to both exposure estimates. This increase seemed to be due to an interaction between exposure to solvents and current or previous long term intake of medicines potentially toxic to the liver. None of these results was affected by whether or not the subjects had been exposed to solvents during the year before the investigation. The exposure to solvents was not significantly related to any other outcome variable. It is concluded that long term heavy exposure to solvents may elicit changes in conventional liver function tests indicative of a mild chronic effect on the liver. The findings also suggest that heavy solvent exposure during short time periods is a more likely cause of the findings than lifetime cumulative

  9. Influence of curcumin on cyclosporin-induced reduction of biliary bilirubin and cholesterol excretion and on biliary excretion of cyclosporin and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Deters, M; Siegers, C; Hänsel, W; Schneider, K P; Hennighausen, G

    2000-06-01

    We investigated the ability of curcumin, which can be extracted from different Curcuma species, to prevent cyclosporin-induced reduction of biliary bilirubin and cholesterol excretion, and its influence on biliary excretion of cyclosporin (CS) and its metabolites in the bile fistula model in rats. I.v. injection of curcumin (25 and 50 mg/kg) after 30 min increased dose-dependently basal bile flow (30 microliters/kg/min) up to 200%, biliary bilirubin excretion (3000 pmol/kg/min) up to 150%, and biliary cholesterol excretion (22 nmol/kg/min) up to 113%. CS (30 mg/kg) reduced bile flow to 66% and biliary excretion of bilirubin and of cholesterol to 33% of the basal value 30 min after i.v. injection. I.v. administration of curcumin (25 and 50 mg/kg) 30 min after CS increased bile flow dose dependently again to 130% for 1 hour and biliary excretion of cholesterol and of bilirubin to 100% of the basal value for 30 and 150 min, respectively. Injection of curcumin 15 min before CS prevented the CS-induced drop of bile flow at 50 mg/kg and reduction of biliary bilirubin excretion already at 25 mg/kg until the end of the experiment (180 min). The CS-induced reduction of biliary cholesterol excretion, however, was not prevented by curcumin. Finally, the biliary excretions of CS (1200 ng/kg/min) and its metabolites (1200 ng/kg/min) were slightly reduced by curcumin at a dose of 50 mg/kg (to 83% of the initial values). The clinical importance of these controversial effects remains to be shown.

  10. Effect of glycation of albumin on its renal clearance in normal and diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Layton, G.J.; Jerums, G.

    1988-03-01

    Two independent techniques have been used to study the renal clearances of nonenzymatically glycated albumin and nonglycated albumin in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, 16 to 24 weeks after the onset of diabetes. In the first technique, serum and urinary endogenous glycated and nonglycated albumin were separated using m-aminophenylboronate affinity chromatography and subsequently quantified by radioimmunoassay. Endogenous glycated albumin was cleared approximately twofold faster than nonglycated albumin in normal and diabetic rats. However, no difference was observed in the glycated albumin/nonglycated albumin clearance ratios (Cga/Calb) in normal and diabetic rats, respectively (2.18 +/- 0.39 vs 1.83 +/- 0.22, P greater than 0.05). The second technique measured the renal clearance of injected 125I-labelled glycated albumin and 125I-labelled albumin. The endogenous results were supported by the finding that 125I-labelled glycated albumin was cleared more rapidly than 125I-labelled albumin in normal (P less than 0.01) and diabetic (P less than 0.05) rats. The Cga/Calb ratio calculated for the radiolabelled albumins was 1.4 and 2.0 in normal and diabetic rats, respectively. This evidence suggests that nonenzymatic glycation of albumin increases its renal clearance to a similar degree in normal and diabetic rats.

  11. Neuronal uptake of serum albumin is associated with neuron damage during the development of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zanhua; Liu, Jinjie; Wang, Suping; Liu, Sibo; Zhao, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that brain blood barrier dysfunction following the onset of seizures may lead to serum albumin extravasation into the brain. However, the effect of albumin extravasation on the development of epilepsy is yet to be fully elucidated. Previous studies have predominantly focused on the effect of albumin absorption by astrocytes; however, the present study investigated the effects of neuronal uptake of albumin in vitro and in kainic acid-induced Sprague-Dawley rat models of temporal lobe epilepsy. In the present study, electroencephalogram recordings were conducted to record seizure onset, Nissl and Evans blue staining were used to detect neuronal damage and albumin extravasation, respectively, and double immunofluorescence was used to explore neuronal absorption of albumin. Cell counting was also conducted in vitro to determine whether albumin contributes to neuronal death. The results of the present study indicated that extravasated serum albumin was absorbed by neurons, and the neurons that had absorbed albumin died and were dissolved 28 days after seizure onset in vivo. Furthermore, significant neuronal death was detected after albumin absorption in vitro in a dose- and time-dependent manner. These results suggested that albumin may be absorbed by neurons following the onset of seizures. Furthermore, the results indicated that neuronal albumin uptake may be associated with neuronal damage and death in epileptic seizures. Therefore, attenuating albumin extravasation following epileptic seizures may reduce brain damage and slow the development of epilepsy. PMID:27446263

  12. 2S Albumin Storage Proteins: What Makes them Food Allergens?

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, F. Javier; Clemente, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    2S albumin storage proteins are becoming of increasing interest in nutritional and clinical studies as they have been reported as major food allergens in seeds of many mono- and di-cotyledonous plants. This review describes the main biochemical, structural and functional properties of these proteins thought to play a role in determining their potential allergenicity. 2S albumins are considered to sensitize directly via the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The high stability of their intrinsic protein structure, dominated by a well-conserved skeleton of cysteine residues, to the harsh conditions present in the GIT suggests that these proteins are able to cross the gut mucosal barrier to sensitize the mucosal immune system and/or elicit an allergic response. The flexible and solvent-exposed hypervariable region of these proteins is immunodominant and has the ability to bind IgE from allergic patients´ sera. Several linear IgE-binding epitopes of 2S albumins spanning this region have been described to play a major role in allergenicity; the role of conformational epitopes of these proteins in food allergy is far from being understood and need to be investigated. Finally, the interaction of these proteins with other components of the food matrix might influence the absorption rates of immunologically reactive 2S albumins but also in their immune response. PMID:18949071

  13. Spontaneous formation of small sized albumin/acacia coacervate particles.

    PubMed

    Burgess, D J; Singh, O N

    1993-07-01

    Microgel coacervate particles form spontaneously on mixing aqueous solutions of oppositely charged albumin and acacia, under specific conditions of pH, ionic strength, and polyion concentration, close to but not at the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield. The mean particle diameter of these coacervate particles is approximately 6 microns when suspended in aqueous media, as determined by HIAC/Royco particle analysis. The geometric standard deviation of the particles falls in the range 1.2-1.9 microns. The particle size was not dependent on the method of emulsification of the coacervate in the equilibrium phase, or on the stirring speed applied during the manufacturing process. The microgel particles were stable on storage, for periods up to forty-six days, without the addition of a chemical cross-linking agent, or the application of heat. Stability was measured with respect to the change in particle size of samples stored at different temperatures. The non-cross-linked microcapsules were also shown to be stable on pH change, to pH values outside the coacervation pH range. At the optimum conditions for maximum coacervate yield the albumin/acacia system formed a very viscous coacervate phase, which was unsuitable for microcapsule preparation. The rheological properties of albumin/acacia and gelatin/acacia complex coacervates optimized for maximum coacervate yield were compared. The albumin/acacia coacervate was shown to be three orders of magnitude more viscous than the gelatin/acacia system.

  14. Separation of Albumin, Ceruloplasmin, and Transferrin from Human Plasma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Grady; Frieden, Earl

    1982-01-01

    Procedures are provided for separating the principal metalloproteins (albumin, ceruloplasmin, and transferrin) from plasma using column chromatographic techniques. The experiment can be completed in two separate three-hour laboratory periods during which column chromatography is illustrated and the effect of pH on charge and affinity of a protein…

  15. Decreased albumin mRNA in immunodeficient wasted' mice

    SciTech Connect

    Libertin, C.R.; Buczek, N.; Weaver, P.; Mobarhan, S.; Woloschak, G.E. Argonne National Lab., IL )

    1991-03-15

    Mice bearing the autosomal recessive gene wst (wst/wst) develop a wasting syndrome' that leads to death by 28-32 days of age. These mice have faulty repair of damage induced by ionizing radiation, immunodeficiency at secretory sites, and neurologic abnormalities. In addition to a progressively more apparent wasted phenotype, wst/wst mice show other features of failure to thrive and malnutrition. Daily body weights of the animals revealed a loss in weight between 25 and 30 days of age, a time during which normal littermates were progressively and rapidly gaining weight. Albumin mRNA levels were measured by dilution dot blot hybridizations of liver-derived RNA preparations from wasted mice, littermates, and parental controls. In all wasted mice, albumin mRNA levels were reduced 5 to 10 fold compared to controls. Northern blots revealed that the albumin mRNA present in wasted mice was normal in length though reduced in amount. These results suggest there may be a relationship between low albumin synthesis and the wasting syndrome of the wst/wst mouse.

  16. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  19. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  20. 21 CFR 862.1035 - Albumin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Albumin test system. 862.1035 Section 862.1035 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  1. Evidence of transcellular albumin transport after hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Childs, Ed W; Udobi, Kahdi F; Hunter, Felicia A; Dhevan, Vijian

    2005-06-01

    Hemorrhagic shock-induced ischemia-reperfusion injury is characterized by an increase in microvascular permeability. This increase in permeability is thought to occur mainly via passive transport through interendothelial cell junctions. However, recent data have suggested that a transcellular (caveolae) transport mechanism(s) may also play a role after shock. The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of caveolae transport after hemorrhagic shock. After a control period, blood was withdrawn to reduce the mean arterial pressure to 40 mmHg for 1 h in urethane-anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Mesenteric postcapillary venules in a transilluminated segment of small intestine were examined to determine changes in permeability. Rats received an intravenous injection of fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine albumin during the control period. The fluorescent light intensity emitted from the fluorescein isothiocyanate-bovine albumin was recorded with digital microscopy within the lumen of the microvasculature and was compared with the intensity of light in the extravascular space. The images were downloaded to a computerized image analysis program that quantitates changes in light intensity. This change in light intensity represents albumin extravasation. Our results demonstrated a marked increase in albumin leak after hemorrhagic shock that was significantly attenuated with two different inhibitors of transcellular transport, N-ethylmaleimide and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin. These data suggest that caveolae transport plays a significant role in microvascular permeability after hemorrhagic shock. PMID:15897811

  2. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040 Section 866.5040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040...

  3. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040 Section 866.5040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040...

  4. 21 CFR 866.5040 - Albumin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Albumin immunological test system. 866.5040 Section 866.5040 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems § 866.5040...

  5. Impact of albumin on drug delivery--new applications on the horizon.

    PubMed

    Elsadek, Bakheet; Kratz, Felix

    2012-01-10

    Over the past decades, albumin has emerged as a versatile carrier for therapeutic and diagnostic agents, primarily for diagnosing and treating diabetes, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis and infectious diseases. Market approved products include fatty acid derivatives of human insulin or the glucagon-like-1 peptide (Levemir(®) and Victoza(®)) for treating diabetes, the taxol albumin nanoparticle Abraxane(®) for treating metastatic breast cancer which is also under clinical investigation in further tumor indications, and (99m)Tc-aggregated albumin (Nanocoll(®) and Albures(®)) for diagnosing cancer and rheumatoid arthritis as well as for lymphoscintigraphy. In addition, an increasing number of albumin-based or albumin-binding drugs are in clinical trials such as antibody fusion proteins (MM-111) for treating HER2/neu positive breast cancer (phase I), a camelid albumin-binding nanobody anti-HSA-anti-TNF-α (ATN-103) in phase II studies for treating rheumatoid arthritis, an antidiabetic Exendin-4 analog bound to recombinant human albumin (phase I/II), a fluorescein-labeled albumin conjugate (AFL)-human serum albumin for visualizing the malignant borders of brain tumors for improved surgical resection, and finally an albumin-binding prodrug of doxorubicin (INNO-206) entering phase II studies against sarcoma and gastric cancer. In the preclinical setting, novel approaches include attaching peptides with high-affinity for albumin to antibody fragments, the exploitation of albumin-binding gadolinium contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging, and physical or covalent attachment of antiviral, antibacterial, and anticancer drugs to albumin that are permanently or transiently attached to human serum albumin (HSA) or act as albumin-binding prodrugs. This review gives an overview of the expanding field of preclinical and clinical drug applications and developments that use albumin as a protein carrier to improve the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug or to target the drug

  6. I-131 rose bengal excretion test is not dead

    SciTech Connect

    Antico, V.F.; Denhartog, P.; Ash, J.M.; Gilday, D.L.; Houle, S.

    1985-03-01

    One hundred and thirty I-131 Rose Bengal Excretion Studies (RBI) were performed on 84 patients over nine years. In 90% (56/60) of cases with biliary atresia, the 72-hour RBI was less than or equal to 7%. In only 12.5% (3/24) of cases with neonatal hepatitis was the 72-hour RBI less than or equal to 7%. The accuracy of the test was 91% with a specificity of 88%. Thirty patients later were studied following a Kasai procedure. The RBI test reliably predicted the patency of the anastomosis. The authors conclude that the 72-hour RBI is a reliable test in the diagnosis of biliary atresia and in the documentation of biliary patency following surgery, provided adequate care is taken in stool collection and measurement.

  7. Excretion of artifactual endogenous digitalis-like factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.A.

    1986-07-01

    Radioimmunoassays have been used to detect digoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DLF) in the plasma and urine of hypertensive patients and rats with deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. DLF, partially purified from DOCA-HS urine by antidigoxin antibody immunoaffinity chromatography, was found to have a molecular weight <2000. When DOCA-HS rats were switched to the low-sodium chow, DLF excretion dropped precipitously. No measurable DLF was detected in the plasma of rats eating either chow. However, >95% of the urinary DLF could be attributed to a contaminant in the standard laboratory chow. These data document the importance of excluding nonspecific compounds and exogenous sources of DLF when sensitive radioligand and biologic assays are used to detect endogenous inhibitors of the sodium pump.

  8. Serum protein adsorption and excretion pathways of metal nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Vinluan, Rodrigo D; Zheng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    While the synthesis of metal nanoparticles (NPs) with fascinating optical and electronic properties have progressed dramatically and their potential biomedical applications were also well demonstrated in the past decade, translation of metal NPs into the clinical practice still remains a challenge due to their severe accumulation in the body. Herein, we give a brief review on size-dependent material properties of metal NPs and their potential biomedical applications, followed by a summary of how structural parameters such as size, shape and charge influence their interactions with serum protein adsorption, cellular uptake and excretion pathways. Finally, the future challenges in minimizing serum protein adsorption and expediting clinical translation of metal NPs were also discussed. PMID:26377047

  9. Urinary excretion of parabens in pregnant Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Shirai, Sayaka; Suzuki, Yayoi; Yoshinaga, Jun; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Mizumoto, Yoshifumi

    2013-01-01

    Urinary excretion of free and total (free plus conjugated) forms of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl parabens (MP, EP, PP and BP, respectively) and their metabolite p-hydroxybenzoic acid were measured for 111 pregnant Japanese women. Frequent detection of parabens and their metabolite indicated that exposure takes place daily for pregnant Japanese women. The estrogenic potency of PP was 20 times higher than those of the other 3 parabens for the present subjects when both abundance in the urine and the relative estrogenic activity of each compound was considered. Detection of free parabens suggested dermal exposure, probably from their inclusion in personal care products. No statistical association was found between the anogenital index (birth weight-adjusted AGD) of male offspring and the concentrations of any parabens in the urine of the mothers suggesting that the parabens were not apparently estrogenically active at the exposure level of the present subjects.

  10. Alkali absorption and citrate excretion in calcium nephrolithiasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakhaee, K.; Williams, R. H.; Oh, M. S.; Padalino, P.; Adams-Huet, B.; Whitson, P.; Pak, C. Y.

    1993-01-01

    The role of net gastrointestinal (GI) alkali absorption in the development of hypocitraturia was investigated. The net GI absorption of alkali was estimated from the difference between simple urinary cations (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) and anions (Cl and P). In 131 normal subjects, the 24 h urinary citrate was positively correlated with the net GI absorption of alkali (r = 0.49, p < 0.001). In 11 patients with distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA), urinary citrate excretion was subnormal relative to net GI alkali absorption, with data from most patients residing outside the 95% confidence ellipse described for normal subjects. However, the normal relationship between urinary citrate and net absorbed alkali was maintained in 11 patients with chronic diarrheal syndrome (CDS) and in 124 stone-forming patients devoid of RTA or CDS, half of whom had "idiopathic" hypocitraturia. The 18 stone-forming patients without RTA or CDS received potassium citrate (30-60 mEq/day). Both urinary citrate and net GI alkali absorption increased, yielding a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.62, p < 0.0001), with the slope indistinguishable from that of normal subjects. Thus, urinary citrate was normally dependent on the net GI absorption of alkali. This dependence was less marked in RTA, confirming the renal origin of hypocitraturia. However, the normal dependence was maintained in CDS and in idiopathic hypocitraturia, suggesting that reduced citrate excretion was largely dietary in origin as a result of low net alkali absorption (from a probable relative deficiency of vegetables and fruits or a relative excess of animal proteins).

  11. Fecal Calprotectin Excretion in Preterm Infants during the Neonatal Period

    PubMed Central

    Rougé, Carole; Butel, Marie-José; Piloquet, Hugues; Ferraris, Laurent; Legrand, Arnaud; Vodovar, Michel; Voyer, Marcel; de la Cochetière, Marie-France; Darmaun, Dominique; Rozé, Jean-Christophe

    2010-01-01

    Background Fecal calprotectin has been proposed as a non-invasive marker of intestinal inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease in adults and children. Fecal calprotectin levels have been reported to be much higher in both healthy full-term and preterm infants than in children and adults. Objective To determine the time course of fecal calprotectin (f-calprotectin) excretion in preterm infants from birth until hospital discharge and to identify factors influencing f-calprotectin levels in the first weeks of life, including bacterial establishment in the gut. Methodology F-calprotectin was determined using an ELISA assay in 147 samples obtained prospectively from 47 preterm infants (gestational age, and birth-weight interquartiles 27–29 weeks, and 880–1320 g, respectively) at birth, and at 2-week intervals until hospital discharge. Principal Findings Although median f-calprotectin excretion was 138 µg/g, a wide range of inter- and intra-individual variation in f-calprotectin values (from day 3 to day 78) was observed (86% and 67%, respectively). In multivariate regression analysis, f-calprotectin correlated negatively with ante and per natal antibiotic treatment (p = 0.001), and correlated positively with the volume of enteral feeding (mL/kg/d) (p = 0.009), the need to interrupt enteral feeding (p = 0.001), and prominent gastrointestinal colonization by Clostridium sp (p = 0.019) and Staphylococcus sp (p = 0.047). Conclusion During the first weeks of life, the high f-calprotectin values observed in preterm infants could be linked to the gut bacterial establishment. PMID:20552029

  12. Increased Salivary Nitrite and Nitrate Excretion in Rats with Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodi, Somayeh; Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Shahsavari, Fatemeh; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Grayesh-Nejad, Siyavash; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2015-11-01

    Increased nitric oxide (NO) formation is mechanistically linked to pathophysiology of the extrahepatic complications of cirrhosis. NO is formed by either enzymatic or non-enzymatic pathways. Enzymatic production is catalyzed by NO synthase (NOS) while entero-salivary circulation of nitrate and nitrite is linked to non-enzymatic formation of NO under acidic pH in the stomach. There is no data on salivary excretion of nitrate and nitrite in cirrhosis. This study was aimed to investigate salivary levels of nitrate and nitrite in a rat model of biliary cirrhosis. Cirrhosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Four weeks after the operation, submandibular ducts of anesthetized BDL and control rats were cannulated with polyethylene microtube for saliva collection. Assessment of pH, nitrite and nitrate levels was performed in our research. We also investigated NOS expression by real time RT-PCR to estimate eNOS, nNOS and iNOS mRNA levels in the submandibular glands. Salivary pH was significantly lower in BDL rats in comparison to control animals. We also observed a statistically significant increase in salivary levels of nitrite as well as nitrate in BDL rats while there was no elevation in the mRNA expression of nNOS, eNOS, and iNOS in submandibular glands of cirrhotic groups. This indicates that an increased salivary level of nitrite/nitrate is less likely to be linked to increased enzymatic production of NO in the salivary epithelium. It appears that nitrate/nitrite can be transported from the blood stream by submandibular glands and excreted into saliva as entero-salivary circulation, and this mechanism may have been exaggerated during cirrhosis. PMID:26786986

  13. Stereoselectivity of biliary excretion of 2-arylpropionates in rats.

    PubMed

    Menzel, S; Beck, W S; Brune, K; Geisslinger, G

    1993-01-01

    To examine the stereoselectivity of biliary excretion, the optically pure enanatiomers of ketoprofen (KT), ibuprofen (IBU), and flurbiprofen (FLU) were intravenously administered to normal and bile duct-cannulated rats at 10 mg/kg. The recovery of total KT in bile was significantly higher after administration of (S)-KT than after (R)-KT [90.1 +/- 3.5% vs 68.8 +/- 8.2%, n = 3, P < 0.05]. In normal rats the terminal half-life of (R)-KT was significantly shorter than that of (S)-KT after administration of (R)-KT (2.2 +/- 0.6 h vs 14.3 +/- 4.9 h, n = 3, P < 0.05). The terminal half-life of both enantiomers was significantly shorter in rats with continuous bile drainage as compared to normal rats. No significant differences in pharmacokinetic parameters could be found between both enantiomers in bile duct-cannulated animals. The total amount of IBU in bile was slightly higher after administration of (S)-IBU than after (R)-IBU administration. The percentage of (R)-IBU after (R)-IBU administration, however, was very low [(R)-IBU: 1.5 +/- 0.9%, (S)-IBU: 23.4 +/- 5.8%]. In normal rats the clearance of (R)-IBU was significantly higher as compared to (S)-IBU. Differences in pharmacokinetic parameters between normal and bile duct-cannulated rats were not statistically significant due to high interindividual variability. The total recovery of FLU, which was excreted in bile to a lower extent than either KT or IBU, also tended to be greater after S-enantiomer administration. Only small amounts of (S)-FLU could be recovered in bile after (R)-FLU administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Relationship between endogenous 3-methylhistidine excretion and body composition.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Mendez, J; Buskirk, E R; Cohn, S H

    1981-03-01

    Fourteen healthy men (aged 20-30 yr) consumed two isocaloric, isonitrogenous diets in the sequence of a 4-day meat diet (MD) followed by a 7-day meal-free diet (MFD). Urinary 3-methylhistidine (3MH) excretion during the MD (513 +/- 21 mumol . day-1, mean +/- SE) was significantly higher (P less than 0.01) than day 3 of the MFD (230 +/- 10 mumol . day-1), after which the mean daily 3MH output was constant with a mean coefficient of variation of 4.5%. There was no change in fat-free body mass (FFBM) determined by densitometry at the start (62.3 +/- 1.8 kg) and the end (62.2 +/- 1.9 kg) of the 11-day dietary period. Mean muscle mass (MM) calculated from measurements of total-body potassium and nitrogen was 23.4 +/- 1.3 kg. Endogenous 3MH excretion was related more closely to MM (r = 0.91, P less than 0.001) than to FFBM measured by densitometry (r = 0.81, P less than 0.001). Only a low correlation coefficient (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05) was observed between 3MH and the nonmuscle component of FFBM. Urinary creatinine output also was correlated significantly with 3MH (r = 0.87; P less than 0.001) and MM (r = 0.79; P less than 0.01). It is concluded that because endogenous 3MH is significantly related to MM in man, it can be used as a marker to study in vivo total-body muscle protein degradation provided that the necessary dietary restrictions are observed.

  15. Targeting naproxen coupled to human serum albumin to nonparenchymal cells reduces endotoxin-induced mortality in rats with biliary cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, C; Meijer, D K; Lebbe, C; Sägesser, H; Melgert, B N; Poelstra, K; Reichen, J

    1997-12-01

    Endotoxin is thought to play a major role in cirrhotic liver disease. Cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors were shown to be partially protective against endotoxin but cannot be used in cirrhotic patients because of renal side-effects. We argued that administration of naproxen (NAP) linked to human serum albumin (HSA), which results in specific delivery of NAP to endothelial cells (EC) and Kupffer cells (KC) and exhibited hepatoprotective effects against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in vitro, could protect cirrhotic rats from LPS toxicity while preserving renal function. The studies were performed in rats rendered cirrhotic by bile duct ligation (BDL); animals received LPS (Escherichia coli, 800 microg/kg) intravenously. Five groups were studied: LPS alone, rats pretreated with a conventional dose of NAP (50 mg/kg), NAP-HSA (22 mg/kg), NAP equimolar to NAP-HSA (1.5 mg/kg), or the HSA carrier. LPS induced significant mortality (55%); this was not affected by equimolar NAP (57%) but accentuated by conventional NAP (88%). In contrast, NAP-HSA provided significant protection (9%; P < .05). After conventional NAP treatment, significant renal toxicity was observed as evidenced by a marked reduction in sodium excretion (LPS vs. NAP-HSA vs. NAP [50 mg/kg] 33 +/- 22 vs. 50 +/- 39 vs. 4 +/- 3 micromol/h; P < .05). Renal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) excretion was reduced by NAP in all groups, but most markedly at the conventional dosage (LPS vs. NAP-HSA vs. NAP [50 mg/kg] 132 +/- 115 vs. 39 +/- 19 vs. 9 +/- 8 ng/mL; P < .05). Successful targeting was evidenced by a significant hepatic enrichment of NAP in the NAP-HSA group compared with the equimolar untargeted group (30.16 +/- 9.33 vs. 1.13 +/- 1.95 nmol/g liver). Thus, targeting NAP to EC/KC results in improved survival, higher efficacy, and sparing of renal function in cirrhotic rats.

  16. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Ahmet F.; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~ 5 minutes per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5–10 μg/mL (which is more than 3 times lower than clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23995895

  17. Albumin testing in urine using a smart-phone.

    PubMed

    Coskun, Ahmet F; Nagi, Richie; Sadeghi, Kayvon; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-11-01

    We demonstrate a digital sensing platform, termed Albumin Tester, running on a smart-phone that images and automatically analyses fluorescent assays confined within disposable test tubes for sensitive and specific detection of albumin in urine. This light-weight and compact Albumin Tester attachment, weighing approximately 148 grams, is mechanically installed on the existing camera unit of a smart-phone, where test and control tubes are inserted from the side and are excited by a battery powered laser diode. This excitation beam, after probing the sample of interest located within the test tube, interacts with the control tube, and the resulting fluorescent emission is collected perpendicular to the direction of the excitation, where the cellphone camera captures the images of the fluorescent tubes through the use of an external plastic lens that is inserted between the sample and the camera lens. The acquired fluorescent images of the sample and control tubes are digitally processed within one second through an Android application running on the same cellphone for quantification of albumin concentration in the urine specimen of interest. Using a simple sample preparation approach which takes ~5 min per test (including the incubation time), we experimentally confirmed the detection limit of our sensing platform as 5-10 μg mL(-1) (which is more than 3 times lower than the clinically accepted normal range) in buffer as well as urine samples. This automated albumin testing tool running on a smart-phone could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney disease or for monitoring of chronic patients, especially those suffering from diabetes, hypertension, and/or cardiovascular diseases. PMID:23995895

  18. Chromatographic and traditional albumin isotherms on cellulose: a model for wound protein adsorption on modified cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Albumin is the most abundant protein found in healing wounds. Traditional and chromatogrpahic protein isotherms of albumin binding on modified cotton fibers are useful in understanding albumin binding to cellulose wound dressings. An important consideration in the design of cellulosic wound dressin...

  19. Role of bovine serum albumin in the nutrition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Lynn, M; Wilson, A R; Solotorovsky, M

    1979-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin promotes the growth of small inocula of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in media containing unesterified fatty acids. Albumin binds fatty acids present in concentrations toxic for the organisms. In the present study, additional roles of albumin were investigated. When present in a basal medium, fatty acid-free albumin could be utilized by M. tuberculosis as a sole source of carbon. Since albumin could not substitute for the amino acids in basal medium as a nitrogen source, it was concluded that the protein component in albumin was not utilized as a nutrient by the organisms. An ether extract of fatty acid-free albumin supported a small but significant amount of growth. Analysis of the lipids in fatty acid-free albumin by gas chromatography revealed the presence of 686 microgram of fatty acid per g of albumin. Although a small amount of growth occurred when a lipid extract of albumin was present in the medium, growth stimulation was dependent in major part on the presence of undenatured albumin in the medium. Lipids, when bound to albumin, can serve as a nontoxic source of carbon and energy. PMID:120697

  20. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1645 - Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test... Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1645 Urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A urinary protein or albumin (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to...

  4. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices (KAP) Relating to Dietary Supplements Among Health Sciences and Non-Health Sciences Students in One of The Universities of United Arab Emirates (UAE)

    PubMed Central

    Basil, Mohammed; Bondarev, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The use of Dietary Supplements (DS) has increased substantially in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in recent years, despite the fact that the efficacy and safety of these supplements are not proven yet. In addition, the practices of supplement users in the UAE remain undocumented. Aim To determine the usage of DS in health sciences and non-health sciences students; and to determine their knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) regarding these supplements. Materials and Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among university students. Based on the Raosoft online calculator, it was anticipated that the sample of 383 students would enable us to achieve the study objectives. Students were recruited from Ajman University of Science and Technology and identified by the academic staff through students’ records. All students who were registered at Ajman University of Science and Technology – including medical (i.e. dental, pharmacy and health sciences) and non-medical colleges (i.e. engineering, business administration, law, information technology, mass communications and humanities) – were invited to participate, after obtaining the approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC), (during the period of January-February 2015). This study used quantitative method approach. Therefore, data were analysed quantitatively using SPSS version 22.0. Results More than one-third of participants (39%) were found to consume DS. The most common reasons for consuming supplements were to maintain good health (58,21%) and ensure adequate nutrition (43,15%). Almost two-thirds of participants (65%) perceived that the best way to obtain nutrients is through food and DS together (49%), or DS alone (16%). Therefore, there was a relatively high amount of DS intake among participants in this study. With regard to medical and non-medical students’ use of DS, there were no significant differences in the use (p=0.139). However, other

  5. Multidrug resistance p-glycoprotein 2 is essential for the biliary excretion of indocyanine green.

    PubMed

    Huang, L; Vore, M

    2001-05-01

    Multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein 2 (Mdr2) is a phospholipid translocator in the canalicular membrane that is essential for the formation of biliary phospholipid vesicles and mixed lipid/bile salt micelles. Incorporation into biliary vesicles and micelles is thought to contribute to the hepatobiliary excretion of certain hydrophobic organic anions, such as indocyanine green (ICG). The present studies characterized the biliary excretion of two hydrophobic organic anions, ICG and estradiol-17beta(beta-D-glucuronide) (E(2)17G), in the single-pass isolated perfused liver and the biliary excretion of glutathione (GSH) in vivo in wild-type and Mdr2-/- female mice. The biliary excretion of ICG (0.4 micromol) was reduced by 90%, while the biliary excretion of total GSH was decreased by 65% in Mdr2-/- mice relative to wild-type mice. In contrast, the biliary excretion of E(2)17G (0.1 micromol) was increased by 30% in Mdr2-/- mice. These data indicate that the absence of Mdr2 differentially influences the biliary excretion of these organic anions and suggest that phospholipid vesicles and mixed micelles in bile are essential for the biliary excretion of ICG.

  6. Urinary excretion of arsenicals following daily intake of various seafoods during a two weeks intervention.

    PubMed

    Molin, M; Ulven, S M; Dahl, L; Goessler, W; Fliegel, D; Holck, M; Sloth, J J; Oshaug, A; Alexander, J; Meltzer, H M; Ydersbond, T A

    2014-04-01

    The excretion pattern of arsenic (As) species after seafood intake varies widely depending on species ingested and individual handling. We have previously reported the 72 h urinary excretion of arsenicals following a single dose of seafood. Here, we report the excretion patterns in the same 37 subjects following 15 days daily consumption of either 150 g cod, salmon, blue mussels or potato (control), followed by a 72 h period with a low-As diet. In all seafood groups, total As (tAs) in plasma and urinary excretion of tAs, arsenobetaine (AB) and dimethylarsinate (DMA) increased significantly after the intervention. Confirming the single dose study AB and DMA excreted were apparently endogenously formed from other arsenicals ingested. Total tAs excretion was 1386, 763 and 303 μg in the cod, blue mussel and salmon groups, respectively; about twice the amounts after the single dose study indicating accumulation of arsenicals. In the cod group, rapid excretion after the single dose was associated with lower total As in blood and less accumulation after two weeks with seafood indicating lower accumulation. In the blue mussels group only, inorganic As (iAs) excretion increased significantly, whilst methylarsonate (MA) strongly increased, indicating a possible toxicological concern of repeated mussel consumption. PMID:24468672

  7. Renal excretion in coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) after acute exposure to 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunn, J.B.; Allen, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    COHO SALMON (ONCORHYNCHUS KISUTCH) EXPOSED TO AN ACUTE, SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATION OF 3-TRIFLUOROMETHLY 1-4 NITROPHENOL (TFM) EXHIBITED AN INCREASED OUTPUT OF URINE WHEN COMPARED WITH CONTROLS, BUT THE URINARY EXCRETION OF NA, K, CA, MG AND C1 WAS NOT AFFECTED. ABOUT 35 TIMES MORE CONJUGATED TFM THAN FREE TFM WAS EXCRETED DURING THE 24-HOUR STUDY PERIOD.

  8. Biological monitoring of dichloropropene: Air concentrations, urinary metabolite, and renal enzyme excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Osterloh, J.D.; Wang, R.; Schneider, F.; Maddy, K. )

    1989-07-01

    Fifteen applicators of dichloropropene (DCP) were studied for personal air exposure to DCP, excretion of the metabolite of DCP (3CNAC), and excretion of the renal tubular enzyme, N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAG). Each was studied for four 6-8 h consecutive intervals following baseline determinations of 3CNAC and NAG excretion. In accord with pilot data, 24-h urinary excretion of 3CNAC (mg) correlated well with exposure product for DCP (min exposed.mg/m{sup 3}), r = 0.854, p less than .001. A more precise correlation of the air exposure product with urinary excretion of 3CNAC was discerned by using the morning urine after the previous day of exposure (micrograms/mg of creatinine), r = 0.914, p less than .001. Four workers had clinically elevated activity of NAG (greater than 4 mU/mg creatinine) in any of their urine collections after baseline. Nine workers showed greater than 25% increases in NAG excretion when compared to baseline. Dichloropropene air exposure products of greater than 700 mg.min/m{sup 3} or excretion of greater than 1.5 mg 3CNAC/d distinguished abnormally high daily excretion of NAG. These data demonstrate a firm positive relationship between air exposure and internal exposure, and a possible subclinical nephrotoxic effect in DCP workers.

  9. Excretion of pyridinium crosslinks correlates with disease activity and appendicular bone loss in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Gough, A K; Peel, N F; Eastell, R; Holder, R L; Lilley, J; Emery, P

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To establish if urinary excretion rates of the collagen crosslinks pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline, which are known to be elevated in established rheumatoid arthritis (RA), are useful markers of bone loss in this disease. METHODS--Eight hour urine collections on all patients and 52 controls were performed, and the rates of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline excretion were measured. Bone mineral density (BMD), by dual energy x-ray absorption, and full laboratory and clinical assessments were performed. RESULTS--The rates of excretion of pyridinoline and deoxypyridinoline were significantly increased in patients compared with controls (p < 0.001). Pyridinoline excretion was associated with increased disease activity (ESR/CRP) but not disability (HAQ score/Functional Grade), and correlated with BMD loss at the femoral neck (p < 0.01). CONCLUSION--The excretion of collagen crosslinks may be useful as markers of bone and cartilage turnover in patients with RA. PMID:8311548

  10. Renal type a intercalated cells contain albumin in organelles with aldosterone-regulated abundance.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Thomas Buus; Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Szymiczek, Agata; Damkier, Helle Hasager; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1), late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D) or recycling endosomes (Rab11). Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells.

  11. Renal Type A Intercalated Cells Contain Albumin in Organelles with Aldosterone-Regulated Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Thomas Buus; Cheema, Muhammad Umar; Szymiczek, Agata; Damkier, Helle Hasager; Praetorius, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Albumin has been identified in preparations of renal distal tubules and collecting ducts by mass spectrometry. This study aimed to establish whether albumin was a contaminant in those studies or actually present in the tubular cells, and if so, identify the albumin containing cells and commence exploration of the origin of the intracellular albumin. In addition to the expected proximal tubular albumin immunoreactivity, albumin was localized to mouse renal type-A intercalated cells and cells in the interstitium by three anti-albumin antibodies. Albumin did not colocalize with markers for early endosomes (EEA1), late endosomes/lysosomes (cathepsin D) or recycling endosomes (Rab11). Immuno-gold electron microscopy confirmed the presence of albumin-containing large spherical membrane associated bodies in the basal parts of intercalated cells. Message for albumin was detected in mouse renal cortex as well as in a wide variety of other tissues by RT-PCR, but was absent from isolated connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts. Wild type I MDCK cells showed robust uptake of fluorescein-albumin from the basolateral side but not from the apical side when grown on permeable support. Only a subset of cells with low peanut agglutinin binding took up albumin. Albumin-aldosterone conjugates were also internalized from the basolateral side by MDCK cells. Aldosterone administration for 24 and 48 hours decreased albumin abundance in connecting tubules and cortical collecting ducts from mouse kidneys. We suggest that albumin is produced within the renal interstitium and taken up from the basolateral side by type-A intercalated cells by clathrin and dynamin independent pathways and speculate that the protein might act as a carrier of less water-soluble substances across the renal interstitium from the capillaries to the tubular cells. PMID:25874770

  12. Vanillin restrains non-enzymatic glycation and aggregation of albumin by chemical chaperone like function.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Saraswathi, N T

    2016-06-01

    Vanillin a major component of vanilla bean extract is commonly used a natural flavoring agent. Glycation is known to induce aggregation and fibrillation of globular proteins such as albumin, hemoglobin. Here we report the inhibitory potential of vanillin toward early and advanced glycation modification and amyloid like aggregation of albumin based on the determination of both early and advanced glycation and conformational changes in albumin using circular dichroism. Inhibition of aggregation and fibrillation of albumin was determined based on amyloid specific dyes i.e., Congo red and Thioflavin T and microscopic imaging. It was evident that vanillin restrains glycation of albumin and exhibits protective effect toward its native conformation. PMID:26893056

  13. Vanillin restrains non-enzymatic glycation and aggregation of albumin by chemical chaperone like function.

    PubMed

    Awasthi, Saurabh; Saraswathi, N T

    2016-06-01

    Vanillin a major component of vanilla bean extract is commonly used a natural flavoring agent. Glycation is known to induce aggregation and fibrillation of globular proteins such as albumin, hemoglobin. Here we report the inhibitory potential of vanillin toward early and advanced glycation modification and amyloid like aggregation of albumin based on the determination of both early and advanced glycation and conformational changes in albumin using circular dichroism. Inhibition of aggregation and fibrillation of albumin was determined based on amyloid specific dyes i.e., Congo red and Thioflavin T and microscopic imaging. It was evident that vanillin restrains glycation of albumin and exhibits protective effect toward its native conformation.

  14. Buoyancy-Activated Cell Sorting Using Targeted Biotinylated Albumin Microbubbles

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Yu-Ren; Wang, Yu-Hsin; Lee, Chia-Ying; Li, Pai-Chi

    2015-01-01

    Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including florescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs) conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs). Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4°C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs), which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44+) and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44–), which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44+ is a commonly used cancer-stem-cell biomarker, our targeted

  15. Bioconjugation of Serum Albumin to a Maleimide-appended Porphyrin/Cyclodextrin Supramolecular Complex as an Artificial Oxygen Carrier in the Bloodstream.

    PubMed

    Kitagishi, Hiroaki; Kawasaki, Hiroki; Kano, Koji

    2015-08-01

    HemoCD is an inclusion complex of per-O-methylated β-cyclodextrin dimer and an iron(II) porphyrin, which forms a stable O2 complex in water. Therefore, hemoCD has the potential for use as a synthetic O2 carrier in mammalian blood. In this study, a hemoCD derivative having a maleimide group (Mal-hemoCD) was conjugated to a Cys residue of serum albumin via a Michael addition reaction in order to increase the circulation time of the O2 carrier. The O2 -binding affinities (P1/2 [Torr]) and half-lives (t1/2 [h]) of the O2 adducts at pH 7.4 and 25 °C were determined to be 9 Torr and 23 h for Mal-hemoCD, and 10 Torr and 14 h for albumin-conjugated hemoCD (Alb-hemoCD). Our pharmacokinetic study revealed that renal excretion of Alb-hemoCD was effectively suppressed and that half of injected Alb-hemoCD remained in blood at 3 h after injection. It is noteworthy that Mal-hemoCD also had a long circulation time because of the bioconjugation reaction that occurred during circulation in the bloodstream. PMID:26053595

  16. Prevalence of High Blood Pressure, Heart Disease, Thalassemia, Sickle-Cell Anemia, and Iron-Deficiency Anemia among the UAE Adolescent Population

    PubMed Central

    Barakat-Haddad, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of high blood pressure, heart disease, and medical diagnoses in relation to blood disorders, among 6,329 adolescent students (age 15 to 18 years) who reside in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Findings indicated that the overall prevalence of high blood pressure and heart disease was 1.8% and 1.3%, respectively. Overall, the prevalence for thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia was 0.9%, 1.6%, and 5%, respectively. Bivariate analysis revealed statistically significant differences in the prevalence of high blood pressure among the local and expatriate adolescent population in the Emirate of Sharjah. Similarly, statistically significant differences in the prevalence of iron-deficiency anemia were observed among the local and expatriate population in Abu Dhabi city, the western region of Abu Dhabi, and Al-Ain. Multivariate analysis revealed the following significant predictors of high blood pressure: residing in proximity to industry, nonconventional substance abuse, and age when smoking or exposure to smoking began. Ethnicity was a significant predictor of heart disease, thalassemia, sickle-cell anemia, and iron-deficiency anemia. In addition, predictors of thalassemia included gender (female) and participating in physical activity. Participants diagnosed with sickle-cell anemia and iron-deficiency anemia were more likely to experience different physical activities. PMID:23606864

  17. Impact of lateral force-resisting system and design/construction practices on seismic performance and cost of tall buildings in Dubai, UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlHamaydeh, Mohammad; Galal, Khaled; Yehia, Sherif

    2013-09-01

    The local design and construction practices in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), together with Dubai's unique rate of development, warrant special attention to the selection of Lateral Force-Resisting Systems (LFRS). This research proposes four different feasible solutions for the selection of the LFRS for tall buildings and quantifies the impact of these selections on seismic performance and cost. The systems considered are: Steel Special Moment-Resisting Frame (SMRF), Concrete SMRF, Steel Dual System (SMRF with Special Steel Plates Shear Wall, SPSW), and Concrete Dual System (SMRF with Special Concrete Shear Wall, SCSW). The LFRS selection is driven by seismic setup as well as the adopted design and construction practices in Dubai. It is found that the concrete design alternatives are consistently less expensive than their steel counterparts. The steel dual system is expected to have the least damage based on its relatively lesser interstory drifts. However, this preferred performance comes at a higher initial construction cost. Conversely, the steel SMRF system is expected to have the most damage and associated repair cost due to its excessive flexibility. The two concrete alternatives are expected to have relatively moderate damage and repair costs in addition to their lesser initial construction cost.

  18. Evaluation of handling and reuse approaches for the waste generated from MEA-based CO2 capture with the consideration of regulations in the UAE.

    PubMed

    Nurrokhmah, Laila; Mezher, Toufic; Abu-Zahra, Mohammad R M

    2013-01-01

    A waste slip-stream is generated from the reclaiming process of monoethanolamine (MEA) based Post-Combustion Capture (PCC). It mainly consists of MEA itself, ammonium, heat-stable salts (HSS), carbamate polymers, and water. In this study, the waste quantity and nature are characterized for Fluor's Econamine FGSM coal-fired CO2 capture base case. Waste management options, including reuse, recycling, treatment, and disposal, are investigated due to the need for a more environmentally sound handling. Regulations, economic potential, and associated costs are also evaluated. The technical, economic, and regulation assessment suggests waste reuse for NOx scrubbing. Moreover, a high thermal condition is deemed as an effective technique for waste destruction, leading to considerations of waste recycling into a coal burner or incineration. As a means of treatment, three secondary-biological processes covering Complete-Mix Activated Sludge (CMAS), oxidation ditch, and trickling filter are designed to meet the wastewater standards in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). From the economic point of view, the value of waste as a NOx scrubbing agent is 6,561,600-7,348,992 USD/year. The secondary-biological treatment cost is 0.017-0.02 USD/ton of CO2, while the cost of an on-site incinerator is 0.031 USD/ton of CO2 captured. In conclusion, secondary biological treatment is found to be the most economical option.

  19. Uptake and metabolism of polymerized albumin by rat liver. Role of the scavenger receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, T.L.; Roll, F.J.; Jones, A.L.; Weisiger, R.A.

    1988-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus binds avidly to albumin polymers, which in turn may mediate viral attachment to liver cells. This hypothesis is critically dependent on prior results obtained using glutaraldehyde-polymerized human serum albumin as a model for naturally occurring albumin species. We used the perfused rat liver to characterize the uptake, cellular distribution, and metabolism of glutaraldehyde-polymerized human albumin. /sup 125/I-glutaraldehyde-polymerized human albumin was efficiently removed from the perfusate by the liver (29% extraction). However, few autoradiographic grains were located over hepatic parenchymal cells (6%). Instead, most glutaraldehyde-polymerized human albumin appeared to be removed by endothelial (59%) or Kupffer (31%) cells. Hepatic uptake was strongly inhibited by formaldehyde-treated monomeric albumin, a known ligand of the endothelial scavenger receptor for chemically modified proteins. After uptake, most glutaraldehyde-polymerized human albumin was rapidly degraded and released into the perfusate (74% within 60 min). This process was blocked by chloroquine and leupeptin, suggesting that it involves lysosomal acid hydrolases. We conclude that glutaraldehyde-polymerized albumin is efficiently cleared and degraded by the endothelial scavenger pathway. Glutaraldehyde-polymerized albumin therefore appears to be a poor model for predicting the hepatic handling of naturally occurring albumin species bound to hepatitis B virions. Even if viral particles were to follow this pathway, few would enter parenchymal hepatocytes.

  20. Comparison of albumin receptors expressed on bovine and human group G streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Raeder, R; Otten, R A; Boyle, M D

    1991-01-01

    The albumin receptor expressed by bovine group G streptococci was extracted and affinity purified. The protein was characterized for species reactivity, and monospecific antibodies were prepared to the purified receptor. The bovine group G albumin receptor was compared functionally, antigenically, and for DNA homology with the albumin-binding protein expressed by human group G streptococci. In agreement with previous reports, the albumin-binding activity of human strains was mediated by a unique domain of the type III immunoglobulin G-Fc-binding molecule, protein G. The albumin receptor expressed by bovine group G strains was found to lack any immunoglobulin G-binding potential but displayed a wider profile of species albumin reactivity than protein G. Both albumin receptors could inhibit the binding of the other to immobilized human serum albumin, and each displayed similar binding properties. Antigenic comparison of the two albumin receptors demonstrated a low level of cross-reactivity; however comparison at the DNA level, using an oligonucleotide probe specific for the albumin-binding region of protein G, demonstrated that the two albumin receptors expressed by human and bovine group G streptococcal strains do not display significant homology. Images PMID:1846128

  1. Excretion of the dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor linagliptin in rats is primarily by biliary excretion and P-gp-mediated efflux.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Holger; Runge, Frank; Held, Heinz-Dieter

    2012-04-11

    Linagliptin is a selective, competitive dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, recently approved in the USA, Japan and Europe for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It has non-linear pharmacokinetics and, unlike other DPP-4 inhibitors, a largely non-renal excretion route. It was hypothesised that P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated intestinal transport could influence linagliptin bioavailability, and might contribute to its elimination. Two studies evaluated the role of P-gp-mediated transport in the bioavailability and intestinal secretion of linagliptin in rats. In the bioavailability study, male Wistar rats received single oral doses of linagliptin, 1 or 15 mg/kg, plus either the P-gp inhibitor, zosuquidar trihydrochloride, or vehicle. For the intestinal secretion study, rats underwent bile duct cannulation, and urine, faeces, and bile were collected. At the end of the study, gut content was sampled. Inhibition of intestinal P-gp increased the bioavailability of orally administered linagliptin, indicating that this transport system plays a role in limiting the uptake of linagliptin from the intestine. This effect was dependent on linagliptin dose, and could play a role in its non-linear pharmacokinetics after oral dosing. Systemically available linagliptin was mainly excreted unchanged via bile (49% of i.v. dose), but some (12%) was also excreted directly into the gut independently of biliary excretion. Thus, direct excretion of linagliptin into the gut may be an alternative excretion route in the presence of liver and renal impairment. The primarily non-renal route of excretion is likely to be of benefit to patients with type 2 diabetes, who have a high prevalence of renal insufficiency.

  2. Renal excretion of intravenously infused amoxycillin and ampicillin.

    PubMed Central

    Sjövall, J; Westerlund, D; Alván, G

    1985-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether concentration-dependent renal clearance of ampicillin and amoxycillin occurs. The drugs were given as single 20 min i.v. infusions in doses ranging from 1.9 to 2.8 g to nine healthy volunteers using a cross-over design. Plasma and urinary concentrations were determined by a selective liquid chromatographic method using frequent sampling up to 10 and 30 h respectively after termination of the infusion. The renal clearance of the drugs was independent of the plasma concentration. The mean (s.d.) renal clearances of ampicillin and amoxycillin were 167 (24) and 157 (20) ml min-1 1.73 m-2 respectively. The net secretion was about 50% of the total renal clearance of both drugs. The plasma concentration and urinary excretion rate versus time curves indicated a polyexponential decline, which could be described by both a biexponential and a triexponential equation. The former proved to be more reliable, especially in the calculation of micro rate constants. There was a tendency to more sustained plasma concentrations after amoxycillin, also illustrated by a significantly lower mean (s.d.) plasma clearance of this drug, viz. 185 (30) ml min-1 1.73 m-2, as compared to ampicillin, 210 (24) ml min-1 1.73 m-2 (P less than 0.04). There were no major differences in the disposition rate constants and the distribution volumes of ampicillin and amoxycillin. The mean (s.d.) plasma half-life was 1.7 (0.3) h for both drugs. The urinary excretion rate indicated a slower terminal disposition rate however, with ampicillin and amoxycillin half-lives of 3.4 (2.0) and 3.9 (1.2) h respectively. The longer half-life in the terminal phase may be due to increased tubular reabsorption at low urinary concentrations. It was not possible to determine in this study whether the half-life was affected by changes in clearance or volume of distribution. The urinary solubility of the drugs was dependent on pH. This could explain the massive macroscopic

  3. Serum albumin analysis for type II diabetes detection using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jinyong; Cao, Gang; Lin, Juqiang; Liu, Nenrong; Liao, Fadian; Ruan, Qiuyong; Wu, Shanshan; Huang, Zufang; Li, Ling; Chen, Rong

    2014-09-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy combined with membrane electrophoresis (ME) was firstly employed to detect albumin variation in type II diabetic development. Albumin was first purified from human serum by ME and then mixed with silver nanoparticles to perform SERS spectral analysis. SERS spectra were obtained from blood albumin samples of 20 diabetic patients and 19 healthy volunteers. Subtle but discernible changes in the acquired mean spectra of the two groups were observed. Tentative assignment of albumin SERS bands indicated specific structural changes of albumin molecule with diabetic development. Meanwhile, PCA-LDA diagnostic algorithms were employed to classify the two kinds of albumin SERS spectra, yielding the diagnostic sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 94.7%. The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that the EM-SERS method in combination with multivariate statistical analysis has great potential for the label-free detection of albumin variation for improving type II diabetes screening.

  4. Insulin Is Required to Maintain Albumin Expression by Inhibiting Forkhead Box O1 Protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Lu, Mingjian; Monks, Bobby R; Birnbaum, Morris J

    2016-01-29

    Diabetes is accompanied by dysregulation of glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. In recent years, much effort has been spent on understanding how insulin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, whereas the effect of insulin on protein metabolism has received less attention. In diabetes, hepatic production of serum albumin decreases, and it has been long established that insulin positively controls albumin gene expression. In this study, we used a genetic approach in mice to identify the mechanism by which insulin regulates albumin gene transcription. Albumin expression was decreased significantly in livers with insulin signaling disrupted by ablation of the insulin receptor or Akt. Concomitant deletion of Forkhead Box O1 (Foxo1) in these livers rescued the decreased albumin secretion. Furthermore, activation of Foxo1 in the liver is sufficient to suppress albumin expression. These results suggest that Foxo1 acts as a repressor of albumin expression.

  5. Insulin Is Required to Maintain Albumin Expression by Inhibiting Forkhead Box O1 Protein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qing; Lu, Mingjian; Monks, Bobby R; Birnbaum, Morris J

    2016-01-29

    Diabetes is accompanied by dysregulation of glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism. In recent years, much effort has been spent on understanding how insulin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, whereas the effect of insulin on protein metabolism has received less attention. In diabetes, hepatic production of serum albumin decreases, and it has been long established that insulin positively controls albumin gene expression. In this study, we used a genetic approach in mice to identify the mechanism by which insulin regulates albumin gene transcription. Albumin expression was decreased significantly in livers with insulin signaling disrupted by ablation of the insulin receptor or Akt. Concomitant deletion of Forkhead Box O1 (Foxo1) in these livers rescued the decreased albumin secretion. Furthermore, activation of Foxo1 in the liver is sufficient to suppress albumin expression. These results suggest that Foxo1 acts as a repressor of albumin expression. PMID:26668316

  6. Curcumin-incorporated albumin nanoparticles and its tumor image

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Guangming; Pan, Qinqin; Wang, Kaikai; Wu, Rongchun; Sun, Yong; Lu, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Albumin is an ideal carrier for hydrophobic drugs. This paper reports a facile route to develop human serum albumin (HSA)-curcumin (CCM) nanoparticles, in which β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) acted as an inducer and CCM acted as a bridge. Fluorescence quenching and conformational changes in HSA-CCM nanoparticles occurred during assembly. Disulfide bonds and hydrophobic interactions may play a key role in assembly. HSA-CCM nanoparticles were about 130 nm in size, and the solubility of CCM increased by more than 500 times. The HSA-CCM nanoparticles could accumulate at the cytoplasm of tumor cells and target the tumor tissues. Therefore, HSA nanoparticles fabricated by β-ME denaturation are promising nanocarriers for hydrophobic substances from chemotherapy drugs to imaging probes.

  7. Tamoxifen and curcumin binding to serum albumin. Spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Maliszewska, M.; Pożycka, J.; Równicka-Zubik, J.; Góra, A.; Sułkowska, A.

    2013-07-01

    Tamoxifen (TMX) is widely used for the breast cancer treatment and is known as chemopreventive agent. Curcumin (CUR) is natural phenolic compound with broad spectrum of biological activity e.g. anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiviral, antifungal and chemopreventive. Combination of tamoxifen and curcumin could be more effective with lower toxicity than each agent alone in use for the treatment or chemoprevention of breast cancer. Binding of drugs to serum albumin is an important factor, which determines toxicity and therapeutic dosage of the drugs. When two drugs are administered together the competition between them for the binding site on albumin can result in a decrease in bound fraction and an increase in the concentration of free biologically active fraction of drug.

  8. Novel lipid hybrid albumin nanoparticle greatly lowered toxicity of pirarubicin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Xuanmiao; Li, Mei; Wu, Wenqi; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Ling; Gong, Tao

    2013-10-01

    Pirarubicin (THP) is an effective anthracycline for the treatment of solid tumor. However, its potential side effects are prominent and clinical use is restricted. We aimed to develop a novel pirarubicin-oleic acid complex albumin nanoparticle (THP-OA-AN) in order to reduce the toxicity of THP. Oleic acid, human serum albumin (HSA), and egg yolk lecithin E80 was used to prepare THP-OA-AN. Prepared THP-OA-AN was characterized and animal experiments were conducted to assess its tumor suppression effect, distribution, and toxicity. Comparison between THP and THP-OA-AN showed that, with retained antitumor efficiency, the toxicity of THP-OA-AN is significantly reduced regarding bone marrow suppression, cardiotoxicity, renal toxicity, and gastrointestinal toxicity. This study developed a safe and effective formulation of THP, which has greater potential for clinic use in the tumor therapy.

  9. Raman microspectroscopy of nanodiamond-induced structural changes in albumin.

    PubMed

    Svetlakova, Anastasiya S; Brandt, Nikolay N; Priezzhev, Alexander V; Chikishev, Andrey Yu

    2015-04-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising agents for theranostic applications due to reported low toxicity and high biocompatibility, which is still being extensively tested on cellular, tissue, and organism levels. It is presumed that for experimental and future clinical applications, NDs will be administered into the organism via the blood circulation system. In this regard, the interaction of NDs with blood components needs to be thoroughly studied. We studied the interaction of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) with albumin, one of the major proteins of blood plasma. After 2-h long in vitro incubation in an aqueous solution of the protein, 100-nm cNDs were dried and the dry samples were studied with the aid of Raman microspectroscopy. The spectroscopic data indicate significant conformational changes that can be due to cND–protein interaction. A possible decrease in the functional activity of albumin related to the conformational changes must be taken into account in the in vivo applications. PMID:25901656

  10. Iodide and albumin kinetics in normal canine wrists and knees

    SciTech Connect

    Simkin, P.A.; Benedict, R.S. )

    1990-01-01

    The clearance rates of free iodide and of radioiodinated serum albumin were measured in the knee and wrist joints of 9 normal adult dogs. Iodide clearance from the knee was 3 times greater than that from the wrist. In contrast, radioiodinated serum albumin clearance from the knee was only slightly greater than that from the wrist. Interpreted as respective indices of effective synovial plasma flow and lymphatic drainage, these values indicate that the filtration fraction is normally greater in microvessels of the wrist than in those of the knee. These findings complement the results of companion studies of Starling forces that indicate a higher pressure microvascular bed in the wrist than in the knee.

  11. Recent Topics in Chemical and Clinical Research on Glycated Albumin

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Yuki; Matsumoto, Hideyuki

    2015-01-01

    The measuring method for glycated albumin (GA) has been developed as a new glycemic control marker since the beginning of the 21st century. Since GA has an advantage in reflecting glycemic status over a shorter period than hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), much research and many reviews have been reported. However, so far there have been few reports on glycation sites based on the tertiary structure of human serum albumin (HSA) and the comparison of glycation rates between GA and HbA1c in detail. The present review discusses how the glycation sites of lysine residues in HSA are modified with glucose, whereas the glycation sites of lysine residues are located inside of HSA as well as the direct comparison of glycation rates between GA and HbA1c using human blood. Moreover, the most recent clinical researches on GA are described. PMID:25614014

  12. Recent advancements in erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin as delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Peipei; Wang, Ruju; Wang, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems have been applied to enhance the efficacy of therapeutics and to alleviate negative effects through the controlled delivery of targeting and releasing agents. However, few drug carriers can achieve high targeting efficacy, even when targeting modalities and surface markers are introduced. Immunological problems have also limited their wide applications. Biological drug delivery systems, such as erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin, have been extensively investigated because of their unique properties. In this review, erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin are described as efficient drug delivery systems. Their properties, applications, advantages, and limitations in disease treatment are explained. This review confirms that these systems can be used to facilitate a specific, biocompatible, and smart drug delivery. PMID:27274282

  13. Raman microspectroscopy of nanodiamond-induced structural changes in albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svetlakova, Anastasiya S.; Brandt, Nikolay N.; Priezzhev, Alexander V.; Chikishev, Andrey Yu.

    2015-04-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising agents for theranostic applications due to reported low toxicity and high biocompatibility, which is still being extensively tested on cellular, tissue, and organism levels. It is presumed that for experimental and future clinical applications, NDs will be administered into the organism via the blood circulation system. In this regard, the interaction of NDs with blood components needs to be thoroughly studied. We studied the interaction of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) with albumin, one of the major proteins of blood plasma. After 2-h long in vitro incubation in an aqueous solution of the protein, 100-nm cNDs were dried and the dry samples were studied with the aid of Raman microspectroscopy. The spectroscopic data indicate significant conformational changes that can be due to cND-protein interaction. A possible decrease in the functional activity of albumin related to the conformational changes must be taken into account in the in vivo applications.

  14. Recent advancements in erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin as delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peipei; Wang, Ruju; Wang, Xiaohui; Ouyang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    In the past few years, nanomaterial-based drug delivery systems have been applied to enhance the efficacy of therapeutics and to alleviate negative effects through the controlled delivery of targeting and releasing agents. However, few drug carriers can achieve high targeting efficacy, even when targeting modalities and surface markers are introduced. Immunological problems have also limited their wide applications. Biological drug delivery systems, such as erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin, have been extensively investigated because of their unique properties. In this review, erythrocytes, platelets, and albumin are described as efficient drug delivery systems. Their properties, applications, advantages, and limitations in disease treatment are explained. This review confirms that these systems can be used to facilitate a specific, biocompatible, and smart drug delivery.

  15. Expression of albumin in nonhepatic tissues and its synthesis by the bovine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Shamay, A; Homans, R; Fuerman, Y; Levin, I; Barash, H; Silanikove, N; Mabjeesh, S J

    2005-02-01

    Albumin is a well-characterized product of the liver. In the present study, objectives were to determine if the albumin gene is also expressed in various nonhepatic tissues in the bovine; whether mammary gland epithelial cells synthesize albumin; and how its synthesis is affected by bovine mastitis. Albumin expression was monitored using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Tissues examined were: liver, mammary gland, tongue, intestine, lymph gland, testicle, ovary, and uterus. All tissues except the ovary expressed the albumin gene, albeit less so than the liver. The highest level of expression (other than liver) was found in the lymph nodes but expression was also found in the mammary gland. Incubation of mammary gland explants with the labeled amino acid L-[(35)S] methionine resulted in formation of labeled immunoprecipitable albumin, newly synthesized in the explant. Immunoprecipitable albumin in the medium verified that newly synthesized albumin was also secreted into the medium. This shows that the gland itself is a source of milk albumin. Albumin mRNA expression was approximately 4 times higher in mammary gland tissue from 6 mastitic cows compared with expression in mammary tissue from 6 healthy glands. Further, secretion of albumin was increased 3.5-fold from explants of mastitic mammary glands compared with secretion from explants of healthy mammary glands. Addition of lipopolysaccharide increased the synthesis and secretion of albumin in mammary gland cells in a dose-dependent manner. Exposure to lipopolysaccharide accelerated albumin synthesis in a time-dependent manner up to 48 h. These results lead us to suggest that the secretion of albumin by the mammary gland is part of the innate nonspecific defense system. PMID:15653522

  16. Absorptive-mediated endocytosis of cationized albumin and a beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide by isolated brain capillaries. Model system of blood-brain barrier transport

    SciTech Connect

    Kumagai, A.K.; Eisenberg, J.B.; Pardridge, W.M.

    1987-11-05

    Cationized albumin (pI greater than 8), unlike native albumin (pI approximately 4), enters cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rapidly from blood. This suggests that a specific uptake mechanism for cationized albumin may exist at the brain capillary wall, i.e. the blood-brain barrier. Isolated bovine brain capillaries rapidly bound cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin and approximately 70% of the bound radioactivity was resistant to mild acid wash, which is assumed to represent internalized peptide. Binding was saturable and a Scatchard plot gave a maximal binding capacity (Ro) = 5.5 +/- 0.7 micrograms/mgp (79 +/- 10 pmol/mgp), and a half-saturation constant (KD) = 55 +/- 8 micrograms/ml (0.8 +/- 0.1 microM). The binding of cationized (/sup 3/H)albumin (pI = 8.5-9) was inhibited by protamine, protamine sulfate, and polylysine (molecular weight = 70,000) with a Ki of approximately 3 micrograms/ml for all three proteins. The use of cationized albumin in directed delivery of peptides through the blood-brain barrier was examined by coupling (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin to unlabeled cationized albumin (pI = 8.5-9) using the bifunctional reagent, N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)proprionate. The (/sup 3/H)beta-endorphin-cationized albumin chimeric peptide was rapidly bound and endocytosed by isolated bovine brain capillaries, and this was inhibited by unlabeled cationized albumin but not by unconjugated beta-endorphin or native bovine albumin. Cationized albumin provides a new tool for studying absorptive-mediated endocytosis at the brain capillary and may also provide a vehicle for directed drug delivery through the blood-brain barrier.

  17. Asymmetric ( UC)albumin transport across bullfrog alveolar epithelium

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.J.; LeBon, T.R.; Shinbane, J.S.; Crandall, E.D.

    1985-10-01

    Bullfrog lungs were prepared as planar sheets and bathed with Ringer solution in Ussing chambers. In the presence of a constant electrical gradient (20, 0, or -20 mV) across the tissue, UC-labeled bovine serum albumin or inulin was instilled into the upstream reservoir and the rate of appearance of the tracer in the downstream reservoir was monitored. Two lungs from the same animal were used to determine any directional difference in tracer fluxes. An apparent permeability coefficient was estimated from a relationship between normalized downstream radioactivities and time. Results showed that the apparent permeability of albumin in the alveolar to pleural direction across the alveolar epithelial barrier is 2.3 X 10(-7) cm/s, significantly greater (P less than 0.0005) than that in the pleural to alveolar direction (5.3 X 10(-8) cm/s) when the tissue was short circuited. Permeability of inulin, on the other hand, did not show any directional dependence and averaged 3.1 X 10(-8) cm/s in both directions. There was no effect on radiotracer fluxes permeabilities of different electrical gradients across the tissue. Gel electrophoretograms and corresponding radiochromatograms suggest that the large and asymmetric isotope fluxes are not primarily due to digestion or degradation of labeled molecules. Inulin appears to traverse the alveolar epithelial barrier by simple diffusion through hydrated paracellular pathways. On the other hand, ( UC)albumin crosses the alveolar epithelium more rapidly than would be expected by simple diffusion. These asymmetric and large tracer fluxes suggest that a specialized mechanism is present in alveolar epithelium that may be capable of helping to remove albumin from the alveolar space.

  18. Binding of several benzodiazepines to bovine serum albumin: Fluorescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machicote, Roberta G.; Pacheco, María E.; Bruzzone, Liliana

    2010-10-01

    The interactions of lorazepam, oxazepam and bromazepam with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by fluorescence spectrometry. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants and corresponding thermodynamic parameters Δ H, Δ G and Δ S were calculated. The binding constants and the number of binding sites were also investigated. The distances between the donor (BSA) and the acceptors (benzodiazepines) were obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer and conformational changes of BSA were observed from synchronous fluorescence spectra.

  19. Albumin fiber scaffolds for engineering functional cardiac tissues.

    PubMed

    Fleischer, Sharon; Shapira, Assaf; Regev, Omri; Nseir, Nora; Zussman, Eyal; Dvir, Tal

    2014-06-01

    In recent years attempts to engineer contracting cardiac patches were focused on recapitulation of the myocardium extracellular microenvironment. We report here on our work, where for the first time, a three-dimensional cardiac patch was fabricated from albumin fibers. We hypothesized that since albumin fibers' mechanical properties resemble those of cardiac tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) and their biochemical character enables their use as protein carriers, they can support the assembly of cardiac tissues capable of generating strong contraction forces. Here, we have fabricated aligned and randomly oriented electrospun albumin fibers and investigated their structure, mechanical properties, and chemical nature. Our measurements showed that the scaffolds have improved elasticity as compared to synthetic electrospun PCL fibers, and that they are capable of adsorbing serum proteins, such as laminin leading to strong cell-matrix interactions. Moreover, due to the functional groups on their backbone, the fibers can be chemically modified with essential biomolecules. When seeded with rat neonatal cardiac cells the engineered scaffolds induced the assembly of aligned cardiac tissues with high aspect ratio cardiomyocytes and massive actinin striation. Compared to synthetic fibrous scaffolds, cardiac cells cultured within aligned or randomly oriented scaffolds formed functional tissues, exhibiting significantly improved function already on Day 3, including higher beating rate (P = 0.0002 and P < 0.0001, respectively), and higher contraction amplitude (P = 0.009 and P = 0.003, respectively). Collectively, our results suggest that albumin electrospun scaffolds can play a key role in contributing to the ex vivo formation of a contracting cardiac muscle tissue.

  20. Lower Plasma Creatinine and Urine Albumin in Individuals at Increased Risk of Type 2 Diabetes with Factor V Leiden Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Fritsche, Andreas; Machicao, Fausto; Nawroth, Peter P.; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Isermann, Berend

    2014-01-01

    The factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation is the most frequent genetic cause of venous thrombosis in Caucasians. However, protective effects have been suggested to balance the disadvantages. We have recently observed protective effects of FVL mutation on experimental diabetic nephropathy in mice as well as an association with reduced albuminuria in two human cohorts of diabetic patients. In the present study we aimed to reevaluate these findings in an independent, larger cohort of 1905 Caucasians at risk of developing type 2 diabetes and extend possible associations to earlier disease stages of nephropathy. Carriers of FVL mutation had a significantly lower urine albumin excretion (P = 0.03) and tended to have lower plasma creatinine concentrations (P = 0.07). The difference in plasma creatinine concentrations was significant after adjustment for the influencing factors: age, gender, and lean body mass (P = 0.048). These observations at a very early “disease” stage are an important extension of previous findings and suggest that modification of glomerular dysfunction by FVL mutation is relevant during very early stages of diabetic nephropathy. This makes the underlying mechanism an interesting therapeutic target and raises the question whether FVL mutation may also exert protective effects in other glomerulopathies. PMID:24729885

  1. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of procyanidins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Yijun; Li, Daxiang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Li, Junsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-03-01

    Procyanidins (PAs) are polyphenols in plant food that have many health benefits, including cancer prevention, cardiovascular protection and diabetes prevention. PAs have been known to have low oral bioavailability. In this review, we summarize the published results on the ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) of PAs in vivo and in vitro. After oral administration, in the stomach the decomposition of PAs is highly dependent on the pH value of gastric juice, which is also affected by food intake. In the small intestine, PA polymers and oligomers with DP > 4 are not directly absorbed in vivo, but minor PA monomers and dimers could be detected in the plasma. Methylated and glucuronidated PA dimers and monomers are the main metabolites of PAs in plasma. In the colon, PAs are catabolized by colonic microflora into a series of low molecular weight phenolic acids, such as phenyl valerolactone, phenylacetic acids and phenylpropionic acids. We reviewed the degradation of PAs in gastric digestion, the absorption of PAs in the small intestine and the metabolic pathway of PAs by colonic microflora. To clearly explain the in vivo pharmacokinetics of PAs, a systematic comparative analysis on previously published data on PAs was conducted. PMID:26814915

  2. Absorption and excretion of organic compounds of copper by sheep.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, O M; Ford, E J

    1983-10-01

    When sheep are injected subcutaneously with copper calcium edetate or copper oxyquinoline sulphonate there is a rapid increase in the concentration of copper in whole blood, serum and urine within the first 24 h. When sheep are injected with copper methionate the concentration of copper in whole blood and serum rises slowly over a period of about 10 days and there is no detectable increase in urinary copper. After the injection of each of the three compounds, there was a steady increase in the caeruloplasmin activity in serum over a period of 10 to 20 days, followed by a slow fall to pre-injection activity by 40 days. There was a marked increase in the beta-globulin fraction of serum 9 days after the injection of copper methionate but not after the other 2 compounds and the amounts of 2 copper containing proteins in liver were greater 60 days after the injection of copper methionate than after the injection of the other two compounds. The copper content of the 3 organic compounds is absorbed and excreted at different rates by sheep. The amounts of copper-containing protein produced in the liver also differ according to the organic component of the compound injected. The results suggest that the lower toxicity of copper injected as methionate compared with that injected as copper calcium edetate or copper oxyquinoline sulphonate is due to the slower absorption and transport of the copper to the liver and kidney.

  3. Net acid excretion during first week of life.

    PubMed

    Chan, L L; Balfe, J W; Exeni, R; Cifuentes, R F; Bryan, M H; Atkinson, S A

    1981-03-01

    Metabolic acidosis occurs frequently in newborns. Net acid excretion (NAE) in 34 preterm and 12 term infants was measured during the first week of life. Twenty preterm infants received breast milk or formula; the remaining infants received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) -- synthetic amino acids or casein hydrolysate solution. NAE for breast milk vs formula fed infants was 5.4 +/- 0.4 and 7.8 +/- 0.6 muEq/min/m2 (mean +/- SEM). The corresponding values for the two TPN solutions in preterm infants were significantly higher at 12.5 +/- 1.4 and 19.4 +/- 3.5 muEq/min/m2. Term infants produced even greater amount of net acid, 20.6 +/- 2.9 and 35 +/- 3.7 muEq/min/m2 respectively for the two TPN solutions. Milk fed infants are less prone to acidosis because of base generated from milk consumption. Due to its inherent acidogenic effect, TPN solutions induce acidosis more readily. Infants receiving TPN are therefore required to generate a higher NAE rate to maintain acid-base homeostasis compared to milk fed infants.

  4. Excretion of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy Infectivity in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Gregori, Luisa; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Alexeeva, Irina; Budka, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    The route of transmission of most naturally acquired transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) infections remains speculative. To investigate urine as a potential source of TSE exposure, we used a sensitive method for detection and quantitation of TSE infectivity. Pooled urine collected from 22 hamsters showing clinical signs of 263K scrapie contained 3.8 ± 0.9 infectious doses/mL of infectivity. Titration of homogenates of kidneys and urinary bladders from the same animals gave concentrations 20,000-fold greater. Histologic and immunohistochemical examination of these same tissues showed no indications of inflammatory or other pathologic changes except for occasional deposits of disease-associated prion protein in kidneys. Although the source of TSE infectivity in urine remains unresolved, these results establish that TSE infectivity is excreted in urine and may thereby play a role in the horizontal transmission of natural TSEs. The results also indicate potential risk for TSE transmission from human urine–derived hormones and other medicines. PMID:18760007

  5. Reduction of urinary uric acid excretion in patients with proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Zou, Huiqing; Xiang, Mingfeng; Ye, Xinming; Xiong, Yuanzhen; Xie, Baogang; Shao, Jianghua

    2015-12-01

    Serum uric acid (UA) concentration is positively associated with proteinuria. However, the relationship between proteinuria and urinary metabolites of purine metabolism remains unknown. This study developed a hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC)-based HPLC method with ultraviolet detection (UV) to quantify creatinine (Cr), UA, xanthine, and hypoxanthine in human urine simultaneously. The urinary concentrations of UA and Cr obtained by our method are consistent with those measured by an autoanalyzer. The HPLC-HILIC-UV method was validated as selective and robust with simple sample preparation for measuring UA, xanthine, hypoxanthine and Cr, which is suitable for large clinical studies. The UA/Cr ratios in random urine samples were 5.5 times lower in proteinuria patients (0.077±0.008) than in healthy individuals (0.424±0.037). Moreover, the UA/hypoxanthine ratio in proteinuria patients was approximately 10 times lower than that in healthy individuals. Our findings revealed a reduced urinary UA excretion, which is one of the factors leading to increased serum UA in proteinuria patients.

  6. Assessment of urinary iodine excretion among normal Kuwaiti adults.

    PubMed

    Al-Yatama, Fatma I; Al-Bader, Maie D; Al-Mazidi, Zaidan M; Ali, Ameena; Al-Omair, Ali S; Al-Jehma, Nasser A; Mohammed, Fawziah

    2009-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the status of iodine intake among the Kuwaiti population and its effect on thyroid function. The study group was comprised of 139 females and 86 males with a mean age of 33 and 35 years, respectively. Urinary iodine excretion (UIE) and serum free T4 (FT4), thyrotropin hormone (TSH), antiperoxidase antibodies (anti- TPOAb), and antithyroglobulin antibodies (anti-TGAb) were determined. Median UIE was 148 μg/L (within the recommended level by the World Health Organization [WHO]). However, UIE levels of <100 and <50 μg/L were detected in both male and female groups, respectively. Serum levels of TSH and FT4 were normal for all except one of the participants who suffered from hyperthyroidism, possibly as a result of elevated iodine intake, which was reflected in an increased UIE of 590 μg/L. Elevated anti-TPOAb >75 IU/mL and anti-TGAb >150 IU/mL were detected in 15% and 34% of subjects; only 10% of them had elevated levels of both anti-TPOAb and anti-TGAb. Thus, based on the WHO recommendations, the iodine intake for the Kuwaiti population is adequate. However, it is recommended that a national study be conducted by the appropriate authority in order to eliminate any artifacts which may have appeared in this study.

  7. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of procyanidins.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Wang, Yijun; Li, Daxiang; Ho, Chi-Tang; Li, Junsong; Wan, Xiaochun

    2016-03-01

    Procyanidins (PAs) are polyphenols in plant food that have many health benefits, including cancer prevention, cardiovascular protection and diabetes prevention. PAs have been known to have low oral bioavailability. In this review, we summarize the published results on the ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) of PAs in vivo and in vitro. After oral administration, in the stomach the decomposition of PAs is highly dependent on the pH value of gastric juice, which is also affected by food intake. In the small intestine, PA polymers and oligomers with DP > 4 are not directly absorbed in vivo, but minor PA monomers and dimers could be detected in the plasma. Methylated and glucuronidated PA dimers and monomers are the main metabolites of PAs in plasma. In the colon, PAs are catabolized by colonic microflora into a series of low molecular weight phenolic acids, such as phenyl valerolactone, phenylacetic acids and phenylpropionic acids. We reviewed the degradation of PAs in gastric digestion, the absorption of PAs in the small intestine and the metabolic pathway of PAs by colonic microflora. To clearly explain the in vivo pharmacokinetics of PAs, a systematic comparative analysis on previously published data on PAs was conducted.

  8. Variation of ²¹⁰Po daily urinary excretion for male subjects at environmental level.

    PubMed

    Hölgye, Z; Hýža, M; Mihalík, J; Rulík, P; Škrkal, J

    2015-05-01

    (210)Po was determined in 24-h urine of seven healthy males from Prague, Czech Republic, for ten consecutive days. The results show that for each volunteer, the urinary excretion of (210)Po changed only little from day to day in the studied time period. For two volunteers, the difference in the daily excreted (210)Po activity for two consecutive days was not significant, given the 95% confidence interval (two sigma) of the activity measurements. The same is valid for the excretion data of the other volunteers, except for some days where the differences were slightly higher. The range of daily urinary excretion of (210)Po of each volunteer in the studied time period was quite narrow. Among the volunteers, the maximum daily urinary excretion value of (210)Po was at most about a factor of 2.5 higher than the lowest excretion value. An attempt to explain the observed small inter-individual variability of (210)Po excretion in daily urine is made.

  9. Variation of ²¹⁰Po daily urinary excretion for male subjects at environmental level.

    PubMed

    Hölgye, Z; Hýža, M; Mihalík, J; Rulík, P; Škrkal, J

    2015-05-01

    (210)Po was determined in 24-h urine of seven healthy males from Prague, Czech Republic, for ten consecutive days. The results show that for each volunteer, the urinary excretion of (210)Po changed only little from day to day in the studied time period. For two volunteers, the difference in the daily excreted (210)Po activity for two consecutive days was not significant, given the 95% confidence interval (two sigma) of the activity measurements. The same is valid for the excretion data of the other volunteers, except for some days where the differences were slightly higher. The range of daily urinary excretion of (210)Po of each volunteer in the studied time period was quite narrow. Among the volunteers, the maximum daily urinary excretion value of (210)Po was at most about a factor of 2.5 higher than the lowest excretion value. An attempt to explain the observed small inter-individual variability of (210)Po excretion in daily urine is made. PMID:25712002

  10. Excretion of laccase by sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) cells. Effects of a copper deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bligny, R; Gaillard, J; Douce, R

    1986-07-15

    Copper-deprived sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells do not excrete molecules of active laccase in their culture medium. In the range of 2-100 micrograms of copper initially present per litre of nutrient solution, the total laccase activity measured in the cell suspensions at the end of the exponential phase of growth was closely proportional to the amount of added copper. However, copper-deprived cells excreted the laccase apoprotein (laccase without copper) at the same rate as copper-supplied cells excreted the active, copper-containing, laccase. When the culture medium was initially supplied with limiting amounts of copper, the active laccase was excreted until all copper molecules were metabolized. Thereafter, the laccase apoprotein was excreted. Consequently, at the end of the exponential phase of growth, the cell supernatants contained a mixture of apoprotein and copper-containing laccase. After purification and concentration, this mixture of copper-containing laccase (blue) and laccase apoprotein (slightly yellow) showed a yellow-green colour. Under copper-limiting culture conditions an equivalent decrease of Type 1, Type 2 and Type 3 Cu2+ was observed. Addition of copper to copper-deficient enzyme solutions does not result in a recovery of the enzyme activity. However, when added to copper-deficient sycamore-cell suspensions, copper induced a recovery of the excretion of active enzyme, at a normal rate, within about 10 h. The first molecules of active laccase were excreted after 3-4 h.

  11. Superior serum half life of albumin tagged TNF ligands

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Nicole; Schneider, Britta; Pfizenmaier, Klaus; Wajant, Harald

    2010-06-11

    Due to their immune stimulating and apoptosis inducing properties, ligands of the TNF family attract increasing interest as therapeutic proteins. A general limitation of in vivo applications of recombinant soluble TNF ligands is their notoriously rapid clearance from circulation. To improve the serum half life of the TNF family members TNF, TWEAK and TRAIL, we genetically fused soluble variants of these molecules to human serum albumin (HSA). The serum albumin-TNF ligand fusion proteins were found to be of similar bioactivity as the corresponding HSA-less counterparts. Upon intravenous injection (i.v.), serum half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins, as determined by ELISA, was around 15 h as compared to approximately 1 h for all of the recombinant control TNF ligands without HSA domain. Moreover, serum samples collected 6 or 24 h after i.v. injection still contained high TNF ligand bioactivity, demonstrating that there is only limited degradation/inactivation of circulating HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins in vivo. In a xenotransplantation model, significantly less of the HSA-TRAIL fusion protein compared to the respective control TRAIL protein was required to achieve inhibition of tumor growth indicating that the increased half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins translates into better therapeutic action in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that genetic fusion to serum albumin is a powerful and generally applicable mean to improve bioavailability and in vivo activity of TNF ligands.

  12. Drug binding in sera deficient in lipoproteins, albumin or orosomucoid.

    PubMed Central

    Pike, E; Kierulf, P; Skuterud, B; Bredesen, J E; Lunde, P K

    1983-01-01

    The relative role of lipoproteins, albumin and orosomucoid in the serum binding variation of various drugs was examined by separate removal of these proteins. Lipoproteins were removed from serum by ultracentrifugation, albumin by affinity chromatography and orosomucoid by immunoprecipitation. Removal of the lipoproteins did not affect the serum binding of the acidic (phenytoin) and neutral (digitoxin) drugs tested, nor the basic drugs disopyramide, quinidine or propranolol. A reduction in binding of amitryptyline, nortriptyline, doxepin and desmethyldoxepin was observed. Removal of albumin did, with some exception for nortriptyline, not affect the serum binding of the basic drugs tested. A pronounced reduction in the binding of phenytoin and digitoxin was observed. Removal of orosomucoid did not affect the binding of the acidic and neutral drugs tested. A reduction in the binding of all the basic drugs tested was observed, especially for disopyramide whose binding almost disappeared. Quinidine, propranolol, phenytoin and digitoxin all bound to isolated lipoproteins, but the removal of lipoproteins had no effect on the total serum binding for these drugs. Hence, the use of deficient sera provides valuable information as to the quantitative role of the various proteins in drug binding, whereas studies using purified proteins are often necessary to examine the mechanisms of the drug protein interactions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:6626414

  13. Pru du 2S albumin or Pru du vicilin?

    PubMed

    Garino, Cristiano; De Paolis, Angelo; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2015-06-01

    A short partial sequence of 28 amino acids is all the information we have so far about the putative allergen 2S albumin from almond. The aim of this work was to analyze this information using mainly bioinformatics tools, in order to verify its rightness. Based on the results reported in the paper describing this allergen from almond, we analyzed the original data of amino acids sequencing through available software. The degree of homology of the almond 12kDa protein with any other known 2S albumin appears to be much lower than the one reported in the paper that firstly described it. In a publicly available cDNA library we discovered an expressed sequence tag which translation generates a protein that perfectly matches both of the sequencing outputs described in the same paper. A further analysis indicated that the latter protein seems to belong to the vicilin superfamily rather than to the prolamin one. The fact that also vicilins are seed storage proteins known to be highly allergenic would explain the IgE reactivity originally observed. Based on our observations we suggest that the IgE reactive 12kDa protein from almond currently known as Pru du 2S albumin is in reality the cleaved N-terminal region of a 7S vicilin like protein.

  14. Effect of tribology processes on adsorption of albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yu; Yang, Hongjuan; Wang, Linghe; Su, Yanjing; Qiao, Lijie

    2016-03-01

    As soon as artificial joint replacements are implanted into patients, the adsorption of proteins can occur. Joint implants operate in a protein-rich and relatively corrosive environment under tribological contact. The contacted area acted as an anodic part and the rest of the surface was more cathodic. Therefore, the adsorption of proteins is different in and outside the wear track. Adsorbed proteins would denature during rubbing and a tribofilm could form. The tribofilm can lubricate the surface and act as a barrier to corrosion damage. However, to observe the adsorption of proteins in situ has always been a challenge. Scanning Kelvin probe force microscope (SKPFM) was used to study the adsorption of albumin on the surface of CoCrMo alloy under simulated tribology movement. Fluorescence microscopy (FM) was employed to reveal the protein molecules in the wear scar. It was found that albumin molecules can decrease the surface potential and accelerate the corrosion process. In the wear track, albumin denatured and changed the surface potential as time progressed.

  15. [Detection of autoantibodies to polymerized human serum albumin].

    PubMed

    Manns, M; Müller, M; Meyer zum Büschenfelde, K H

    1984-11-01

    Binding activity of antibodies against polymerized human serum albumin (pHSA) was measured in the serum of 348 patients with various hepatic and non-hepatic diseases and in the serum of 108 control persons. The methods used were passive hemagglutination (PH) with antigen loaded human erythrocytes and radial immunodiffusion (ID). In the PH-method only HBsAg-positive sera reacted. Blocking experiments with pHSA, polymerized bovine serum albumin (pBSA) and monomeric human serum albumin (mHSA) showed, that the PH-method measures HBsAG associated receptors for pHSA. In HBeAG-positive cases titers were significantly higher than in anti-HBe-positive sera. Using the ID-method it could be shown, that 40% of sera of patients with liver diseases (n = 272), 37% of patients with LED (n = 27), 72% of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (n = 32), 6% of patients with glomerulonephritis (n = 17) and 2% of normal persons (n = 108) reacted. These sera reacted in the immunodiffusion assay with pHSA and pBSA but not with mHSA. Autoantibodies against non species specific determinants of pHSA which are not specific for liver diseases and possibly due to disturbed immunoregulation can be demonstrated by immunodiffusion. They may possibly be modulators of the pHSA mediated binding of hepatitis B-virus to hepatocytes.

  16. Albumin extravasation rates in tissues of anesthetized and unanesthetized rats

    SciTech Connect

    Renkin, E.M.; Joyner, W.L.; Gustafson-Sgro, M.; Plopper, G.; Sibley, L.

    1989-05-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled with /sup 131/I was injected intravenously in chronically prepared, unanesthetized rats and into pentobarbital-anesthetized rats that had received 2 ml 5% BSA to help sustain plasma volume. Initial uptake rates (clearances) in skin, skeletal muscles, diaphragm, and heart (left ventricle) were measured over 1 h. BSA labeled with /sup 125/I was injected terminally to correct for intravascular /sup 131/I-BSA. Observed clearances were in the following order in both groups of animals: heart much greater than diaphragm approximately equal to skin greater than resting skeletal muscles. Differences between unanesthetized and anesthetized animals were small and inconsistently directed. Our results suggest that the lower albumin clearances reported in the literature for anesthetized rats are not the result of their immobility or any direct effect of anesthesia on albumin transport in these tissues. The lower transport rates appear to result indirectly from changes produced by anesthesia and/or surgery in controllable parameters such as plasma volume and intravascular protein mass.

  17. The effect of ethanol on the urinary excretion and differential metabolism of folate compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Eisenga, B.H.

    1989-01-01

    In rats chronically fed ethanol and folate-containing diets for 12 weeks, urinary folate excretion was increased. However, no significant tissue depletion was noted unless rats were fed folate deficient diets. In rats fed folate-deficient diets urinary folate excretion was dramatically decreased at two weeks, when tissue folate stores were replete. After 16 weeks of diet treatment, the urinary excretion of an intraperitoneal dose of {sup 3}H-PteGlu was not altered in folate-deficient rats. Although acute ethanol administration (oral or intravenous) increased endogenous folate excretion that of {sup 3}H-PteGlu was not significantly altered, nor was the fractional excretion of {sup 3}H-label. To clarify this effect, the metabolism of {sup 3}H-PteGlu was studied. HPLC analysis of urine showed extensive metabolism of {sup 3}H-PteGlu to other folate substrates. Oral ethanol-treatment increased the fractional excretion of endogenous 5-CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}PteGlu with no increase in urinary excretion or fractional excretion of other {sup 3}H-labeled derivatives. After infusion of tritium labeled 5-CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}PteGlu, ethanol treatment increased the fractional excretion of endogenous and {sup 3}H-5-CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}PteGlu, but not that of other folates. There was rapid uptake of {sup 3}H-label by the kidney with only 10% of the urinary {sup 3}H-label as {sup 3}H-5-CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}PteGlu.

  18. Depletion of hepatic uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid decreases the biliary excretion of drugs.

    PubMed

    Gregus, Z; Watkins, J B; Thompson, T N; Klaassen, C D

    1983-05-01

    Hepatic levels of uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid (UDPGA) in rats decreased substantially (greater than 80%) 40 min after galactosamine (GAL) (600 mg/kg i.p.) or after 1 hr of diethyl ether (DE) narcosis. Biliary excretion of several cholephils requiring glucuronidation before excretion was reduced by GAL 76, 62, 92, 90 and 97% for bilirubin, diethylstilbestrol, iopanoic acid, phenolphthalein and valproic acid, respectively. GAL treatment caused delayed plasma clearances of the parent compounds and reductions in plasma concentrations and biliary excretions of glucuronide conjugates. The degree of this reduction was related to the maximal excretion rate of the individual compounds. For phenolphthalein glucuronide and phenol-3,6-dibromphthalein disulfonate, which do not undergo conjugation, GAL had no effect on their biliary excretion. DE-induced UDPGA depletion had no effect on phenolphthalein glucuronide excretion but reduced that of phenol-3,6-dibromphthalein disulfonate 25%. DE did not affect the plasma elimination or biliary secretion of phenolphthalein. Of the other cholephils requiring conjugation, DE reduced the excretion of bilirubin, diethylstilbestrol, iopanoic acid and valproic acid by 41, 29, 76 and 28%, respectively. DE decreased the plasma elimination of the parent compounds and the appearance of the conjugates in both plasma and bile. Reduction of glucuronide excretion into bile was less pronounced at higher doses of the cholephilic anions. Neither treatment reduced in vitro hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity toward these substrates or substantially altered extrahepatic UDPGA concentrations. Thus, both GAL and DE decreased UDPGA to similar concentrations, but the biliary excretion of compounds requiring glucuronidation before secretion was depressed to a greater extent by GAL.

  19. Cumulative Systolic BP and Changes in Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratios in Nondiabetic Participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Zemaitis, Paul; Liu, Kiang; Jacobs, David R.; Cushman, Mary; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Shoham, David; Palmas, Walter; Cooper, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Cumulative exposure to elevated systolic BP (cumSBP) may affect progression of urine albumin excretion in the absence of diabetes. The objective of this study was to examine the association between cumSBP exposure and progression of spot urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) in a multi-ethnic cohort of adults without diabetes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The analysis included 3789 participants without severely increased urine albumin excretion or diabetes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a cohort of 6814 adults aged 45–84 years. UACR was measured at baseline and approximately 1.6, 3.1, and 9.4 years after the baseline examination. cumSBP was calculated as the summed average systolic BP (SBP; mmHg) between two consecutive examinations multiplied by the time between the two examinations (mmHg×year) and categorized as ≤1128 (SBP<120 mmHg), 1129–1222 (SBP≥120–129 mmHg), 1223–1316 (SBP≥130–130 mmHg), and >1316 (SBP≥140 mmHg). Baseline UACR was categorized as normal, mildly increased, or moderately increased, and definite progression of UACR was defined as a persistently higher UACR category at subsequent examinations. No UACR progression was defined as remaining in the same UACR category across all examinations or regressing. Results In fully adjusted models, compared with cumSBP≤1128 mmHg, cumSBP 1223–1316 and >1316 mmHg was associated with a 85% and 130% significantly higher odds of definite UACR progression (95% confidence interval, 24% to 178% and 56% to 243%, respectively) versus no UACR progression. Every 100-mmHg higher level of cumSBP was associated with a 1.23-fold higher odds of definite UACR progression (95% confidence interval, 1.13 to 1.34) versus no UACR progression. Conclusion Exposure to higher cumSBP was associated with increased UACR progression among adults without diabetes. PMID:25200476

  20. Infant botulism with prolonged faecal excretion of botulinum neurotoxin and Clostridium botulinum for 7 months.

    PubMed

    Derman, Y; Korkeala, H; Salo, E; Lönnqvist, T; Saxen, H; Lindström, M

    2014-02-01

    In Finland in April 2010, a 3-month old baby was diagnosed with type A infant botulism. He excreted botulinum neurotoxin and/or Clostridium botulinum in his faeces until November 2010. Five months of excretion was after clinical recovery and discharge from hospital. C. botulinum isolates recovered from the household dust in the patient's home were genetically identical to those found in the infant's stool samples. Long-term faecal excretion of C. botulinum may pose a possible health risk for the parents and others in close contact with the infant.

  1. Cellular Specificity of the Blood–CSF Barrier for Albumin Transfer across the Choroid Plexus Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Liddelow, Shane A.; Dzięgielewska, Katarzyna M.; Møllgård, Kjeld; Whish, Sophie C.; Noor, Natassya M.; Wheaton, Benjamin J.; Gehwolf, Renate; Wagner, Andrea; Traweger, Andreas; Bauer, Hannelore; Bauer, Hans-Christian; Saunders, Norman R.

    2014-01-01

    To maintain the precise internal milieu of the mammalian central nervous system, well-controlled transfer of molecules from periphery into brain is required. Recently the soluble and cell-surface albumin-binding glycoprotein SPARC (secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine) has been implicated in albumin transport into developing brain, however the exact mechanism remains unknown. We postulate that SPARC is a docking site for albumin, mediating its uptake and transfer by choroid plexus epithelial cells from blood into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We used in vivo physiological measurements of transfer of endogenous (mouse) and exogenous (human) albumins, in situ Proximity Ligation Assay (in situ PLA), and qRT-PCR experiments to examine the cellular mechanism mediating protein transfer across the blood–CSF interface. We report that at all developmental stages mouse albumin and SPARC gave positive signals with in situ PLAs in plasma, CSF and within individual plexus cells suggesting a possible molecular interaction. In contrast, in situ PLA experiments in brain sections from mice injected with human albumin showed positive signals for human albumin in the vascular compartment that were only rarely identifiable within choroid plexus cells and only at older ages. Concentrations of both endogenous mouse albumin and exogenous (intraperitoneally injected) human albumin were estimated in plasma and CSF and expressed as CSF/plasma concentration ratios. Human albumin was not transferred through the mouse blood–CSF barrier to the same extent as endogenous mouse albumin, confirming results from in situ PLA. During postnatal development Sparc gene expression was higher in early postnatal ages than in the adult and changed in response to altered levels of albumin in blood plasma in a differential and developmentally regulated manner. Here we propose a possible cellular route and mechanism by which albumin is transferred from blood into CSF across a sub-population of

  2. Felinine excretion in domestic cat breeds: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Hagen-Plantinga, E A; Bosch, G; Hendriks, W H

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine possible differences in felinine excretion between domesticated cat breeds. For this purpose, urine was collected from a total of 83 privately owned entire male cats from eight different breeds in the Netherlands during the period of November 2010 till November 2011. In the collected samples, free felinine and creatinine concentrations were measured. Free felinine concentrations were expressed relative to the urinary creatinine concentration to compensate for possible variations in renal output. The mean (±SD) felinine:creatinine (Fel:Cr) ratio as measured over all cats was 0.702 (±0.265). Both the Abyssinian and Sphynx breeds showed the highest Fel:Cr ratio (0.878 ± 0.162 and 0.878 ± 0.341 respectively) which significantly differed from the ratios of the British Shorthairs (0.584 ± 0.220), Birmans (0.614 ± 0.266), Norwegian Forest cats (0.566 ± 0.296) and Siberian cats (0.627 ± 0.124). The Fel:Cr ratios of the Persians (0.792 ± 0.284) and Ragdolls (0.673 ± 0.256) showed no statistical difference with either of the other breeds. A significant proportion of the observed variation between the different feline breeds could be explained by hair growth, as both hair growth and felinine production compete for available cysteine. Shorthaired and hairless cat breeds generally showed a higher Fel:Cr ratio compared to longhaired cat breeds, with the exception of Persian cats. Further research is warranted to more closely study the effect of hair growth on felinine production. PMID:23819478

  3. Urinary excretion of 1-pyrenol in automotive repair workers.

    PubMed

    Granella, M; Clonfero, E

    1993-01-01

    The urinary excretion of a pyrene metabolite was evaluated in 65 automotive repair workers whose skin was exposed to used mineral oils, and in 41 controls. Pyrene contents were determined in oily material taken from cloths used to clean various types of engines (n = 8) and were found to vary (mean +/- SD) from 2.8 +/- 0.4 ppm for dirty matter obtained from diesel truck engines to 9.3 +/- 8.2 ppm for that from petrol car engines. Tobacco smoking and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-rich diets were considered as confounding factors. At both the beginning and the end of the working week, the values of urinary 1-pyrenol were slightly higher in exposed subjects (0.178 +/- 0.150 and 0.194 +/- 0.135 mumol/mol creatinine on Monday and Friday, respectively) than in controls (0.124 +/- 0.090 mumol/mol creatinine) (Mann-Whitney test, z = 2.741, P < 0.01). The urinary 1-pyrenol values were higher in both smoking and non-smoking subjects than in controls. The highest values were found in urinary samples of smokers exposed to used mineral oils (0.259 +/- 0.201 mumol/mol creatinine). In non-smoking workers (n = 40), post-shift 1-pyrenol values were 0.154 +/- 0.105 mumol/mol creatinine, as against 0.083 +/- 0.042 mumol/mol creatinine for the 19 non-smoking controls (Mann-Whitney test, z = 2.765, P < 0.01). In automobile repair workers, urinary 1-pyrenol values before the beginning of the weekly workshift did not differ substantially from those measured at the end of the week, not being related to the subjective degree of dirty skin as stated by workers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8144234

  4. Absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of isoflavonoids after soy intake.

    PubMed

    Franke, Adrian A; Lai, Jennifer F; Halm, Brunhild M

    2014-10-01

    Soy is the major source of dietary exposure to isoflavonoids (IFLs). Accumulating evidence supports a role for soy and IFLs in the protection against many chronic diseases including cancer. After soy intake we found a biphasic IFL appearance pattern in plasma as well as in urine that we suggest to be due to IFL absorption in the small intestine (ca. 10%) during the first 2h after intake and IFL absorption in the large intestine (ca. 90%) 4-6 h after intake. While each IFL disappears from the circulation at different times excellent correlations between urinary and circulating IFL values were discovered and algorithms to convert urinary excretion values into circulating levels were established. We suggest the term 'apparent bioavailability' when using urinary data to describe IFL exposure. The IFL bioavailability was found to be influenced by gut bacteria, oral antibiotic treatment (OABX), and an individual's age and health status. While daidzein (DE) and genistein start to be absorbed minutes after intake, equol (EQ) appears in plasma only after a minimum of 8h following soy intake owing to the required transit time of DE to the colon where the conversion of DE to EQ takes place by intestinal microbiota. We have also shown that the apparent IFL bioavailability is higher in children than adults, higher in healthy versus non-healthy individuals, and decreased in children but increased in adults during OABX. Finally, we propose to use a urinary EQ/DE ratio of 0.018 with a DE threshold to identify EQ producers. With this cutoff definition we observed that EQ production is inconsistent over time in 5-30% of both premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

  5. Biliary excretion of foreign compounds. Benzene and its derivatives in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Abou-El-Makarem, M. M.; Millburn, P.; Smith, R. L.; Williams, R. T.

    1967-01-01

    1. The extent of the excretion in the bile of the rat of benzene and 21 of its simple derivatives was studied. 2. Some 16 compounds of molecular weight less than 200, and including neutral molecules (benzene and toluene), aromatic acids, aromatic amines and phenols, were injected in solution intraperitoneally into biliary-cannulated rats. Metabolites in the bile were identified and estimated. The extent of biliary excretion of these compounds was low, i.e. 0–10% of the dose in 24hr., and most appeared in the bile mainly as conjugates. 3. The biliary excretion of six conjugates of molecular weight less than 300, including three glycine conjugates, one sulphate conjugate, one glucuronic acid conjugate and two acetyl derivatives, was low (less than 3% of the dose). 4. It is concluded that simple benzene derivatives of molecular weight less than about 300 are poorly excreted in rat bile. PMID:16742555

  6. Specific IgA Enhances the Transcytosis and Excretion of Hepatitis A Virus

    PubMed Central

    Counihan, Natalie A.; Anderson, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) replicates in the liver, and is excreted from the body in feces. However, the mechanisms of HAV transport from hepatocytes to the gastrointestinal tract are poorly understood, mainly due to lack of suitable in vitro models. Here, we use a polarized hepatic cell line and in vivo models to demonstrate vectorial transport of HAV from hepatocytes into bile via the apical cell membrane. Although this transport is specific for HAV, the rate of fecal excretion in inefficient, accounting for less than 1% of input virus from the bloodstream per hour. However, we also found that the rate of HAV excretion was enhanced in the presence of HAV-specific IgA. Using mice lacking the polymeric IgA receptor (pIgR−/−), we show that a proportion of HAV:IgA complexes are transported via the pIgR demonstrating a role for specific antibody in pathogen excretion. PMID:26911447

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL FOOTPRINT OF PHARMACEUTICALS - THE SIGNIFICANCE OF FACTORS BEYOND DIRECT EXCRETION TO SEWERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The combined excretion of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) via urine and feces is considered the primary route by which APIs from human pharmaceuticals enter the environment. Disposal of unwanted, leftover medications by flushing into sewers has been considered a secondar...

  8. Evidence that auxin-induced growth of soybean hypocotyls involves proton excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Rayle, D.L.; Cleland, R.E.

    1980-09-01

    The role of H/sup +/ excretion in auxin-induced growth of soybean hypocotyl tissues has been investigated, using tissues whose cuticle was rendered permeable to protons or buffers by scarification (scrubbing). Indoleacetic acid induces both elongation and H/sup +/ excretion after a lag of 10 to 12 minutes. Cycloheximide inhibits growth and causes the tissues to remove protons from the medium. Neutral buffers (pH 7.0) inhibit auxin-induced growth of scrubbed but not intact sections; the inhibition increases as the buffers strength is increased. Both live and frozen-thawed sections, in the absence of auxin, extend in response to exogenously supplied protons. Fusicoccin induces both elongation and H/sup +/ excretion at rates greater than does auxin. These results indicate that H/sup +/ excretion is involved in the initiation of auxin-induced elongation in soybean hypocotyl tissue.

  9. Action of steroids on H+ and NH+4 excretion in the toad urinary bladder.

    PubMed

    Frazier, L W; Zachariah, N Y

    1979-09-14

    This study was done to determine if steroid compounds will stimulate the urinary bladder of the toad to increase its capacity to acidify the urine and excrete NH+4. Aldosterone, 17 beta-estradiol, dexamethasone, pregnenolone, and cholesterol were tested on the bladder. All compounds tested were found to stimulate the rate of acidification by the bladder, above that of a paired control hemibladder. In contrast, only the steroids aldosterone and 17 beta-estradiol were found to stimulate NH+4 excretion in the bladder. Cycloheximide was found to block the action of aldosterone on the NH+4 excretion, but did not have a significant effect on the stimulation of acidification by aldosterone. We conclude that steroids stimulate H+ and NH+4 excretion in the toad urinary bladder. In addition, the NH+4 excretory system seems to be more specific to this effect than is the H+ excretory system. PMID:113550

  10. Grazing and excretion by zooplankton in the Peru upwelling system during April 1977

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagg, M.; Cowles, T.; Whitledge, T.; Smith, S.; Howe, S.; Judkins, D.

    1980-01-01

    Rates of ingestion and excretion by adult females of the copepods Calanus chilensis, Eucalanus inermis, and Centropages brachiatus were measured in natural seawater during a cruise in the Peru upwelling system during April 1977. Simultaneously, zooplankton samples were collected for later determination of the abundance and distribution of these and other species. For these three organisms, feeding, and excretion rates of individuals are combined with information on the animal concentrations to estimate the grazing stress on the phytoplankton at each station, and to estimate the excretory nitrogen produced at each station. Comparison of grazing stresses with measured rates of primary production indicates that these large copepods were harvesting less than 5% of the daily phytoplankton production. Comparison of the nitrogen excretion rates with the amounts of excreted nitrogen in the water column indicates that less than 3% of the ambient excretory nitrogen was produced daily by these copepods. The importance of the abundant small zooplankton in the system is suggested.

  11. Interactions among lead, cadmium, and arsenic in relation to porphyrin excretion patterns.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, B A; Mahaffey, K R

    1978-01-01

    This paper reviews the effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) on the mitrochondrion with emphasis on alteration of mitochondrial heme biosynthetic pathway. The information was used to examine results of a Pb x Cd x As interaction study which employed urinary porphyrin excretion patterns as one assessment criterion. Data from the study showed that dietary Pb produced increased urinary excretion of aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and coproporphyrin. Dietary exposure to organic or inorganic As caused increased excretion of uroporphyrin and to a lesser extent coproporphyrin, while dietary Cd caused no significant changes in urinary levels of any of the porphyrins measured. The combination of Pb plus As produced an additive effect on coproporphyrin excretion but not that of either ALA or uroporphyrin. These data are discussed in relation to utilization of urinary porphyrins for assessing toxicity and elemental interactions. PMID:720307

  12. Interindividual differences in circadian patterns of catecholamine excretion, body temperature, performance, and subjective arousal.

    PubMed

    Akerstedt, T; Fröberg, J E

    1976-12-01

    Interindividual differences in circadian rhythms of urinary catecholamine excretion, performance, self-ratings of arousal and oral temperature were studied in 80 subjects divided into three groups--morning-active, evening-active, and intermediate. Catecholamine excretion, body temperature, and self-ratings of arousal exhibited pronounced circadian variations. Morning-active subjects exceeded other groups in the 24 h level of adrenaline excretion but crest phases did not differ, occurring close to 13.00 h. No differences between groups were found for noradrenaline excretion. Crest phases occurred close to noon. Self-rated alertness exhibited a significantly earlier (14.12 h) crest phase for morning-active than for evening-active subjects (16.09 h). The performance did not differ between groups.

  13. Influence of frequent and long-term consumption of legume seeds on excretion of intestinal gases.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, A U; Fleming, S E

    1984-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of long-term and frequent consumption of legume seeds on the excretion of fermentation gases. This was done by comparing gas excretion for one group (B) of individuals that habitually consumed legumes to that of another group (NB) of individuals that only infrequently consumed legumes. Gas excretion was measured during one diet period (control) when they consumed their normal diets and during one diet period (bean) when they consumed 100 g (dry weight), daily, of red kidney beans. Twelve men participated in this study on an outpatient basis and received each diet for 23 days. We found that there was neither short-term (no difference throughout the 23 days) nor long-term (NB and B groups were equivalent) adaptation in the quantity of gas that was excreted. However, both groups subjectively expressed greater tolerance and less physical discomfort as the bean-consuming period continued. PMID:6430062

  14. Medical experiments on persons with special needs, a comparative study of Islamic jurisprudence vs. Arab laws: UAE law as case study.

    PubMed

    Hammad, Hamza Abed Al-Karim

    2014-01-01

    This article is a comparative study of medical experiments on persons with special needs in Islamic jurisprudence and Arab laws; United Arab Emirates (UAE) law as case study. The current study adopts a comparative analytical and descriptive approach. The conclusion of this study points out that the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Special Needs, ratified by a number of Arab States, including the United Arab Emirates, approves conducting medical experiments on persons with special needs, subject to their free consent. As a result of ratifying this Convention, a number of special laws were enacted to be enforced in the United Arab Emirates. On the other hand, this issue is controversial from an Islamic jurisprudence point of view. One group of jurisprudents permits conducting these experimentations if they are designed to treat the person involved, and prohibits such experimentations for scientific advancement. Other jurisprudents permit conducting medical experimentations on persons with special needs, whether the purpose of such experimentations is treatment of the disabled or achieving scientific advancement. The opinion of this group is consistent with the International Convention and the Arab laws in this respect. However, neither the Convention nor the Arab laws regulate this matter by specific and comprehensive conditions, as addressed by some contemporary scholars. It is recommended that the Convention and the Arab laws adopt these conditions. Additionally, the Convention does not state whether the experimentations may be conducted for the interest of the person with disability or for the purpose of scientific advancement. The text of the Convention is unclear and therefore requires further illumination.

  15. The Triassic-Jurassic Boundary Event at the Paleo-Equator: Evidence for Global Change from Carbonate Sedimentology and Chemostratigraphy, Ras Al Khaimah, UAE.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Suwaidi, A. H.; Steuber, T.; Suarez, M. B.; Ge, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Triassic­-Jurassic (T-J) transition was a time of significant environmental perturbation typically associated with CAMP volcanism and is considered to be one of the six major extinction events in Earth's history. This event was associated with large perturbations of the global carbon cycle, as recorded in the isotopic composition of marine carbonate and bulk organic carbon. This has been elsewhere associated with widespread ocean acidification and a major disruption in marine carbonate production in neritic and pelagic environments. A carbon-isotope record from a paleo-equatorial carbonate platform exposed in Ras Al Khaimah, United Arab Emirates (UAE), shows continuous shallow-water carbonate sedimentation across the Triassic­-Jurassic boundary, in contrast with other boundary sections from higher latitudes, where carbonate sedimentation is typically discontinuous. δ13C shows a 4‰ negative excursion in both bulk organic carbon and carbonate carbon followed by a positive excursion. The boundary in Ras Al Khaimah, is placed at the base of a thick oolite unit overlying limestones with abundant and diverse Rhaetian reefal biota. Deposition of fossiliferous limestones in this location persisted into the uppermost Rhaetian and through the initial negative carbon-isotope excursion. While characteristic late Triassic biota with originally aragonitic mineralogy disappears at the boundary, aragonite persists as the inferred original mineralogy of the earliest Jurassic ooids and occasional skeletal bioclasts. The evidence presented herein suggest equatorial seawater of Tethys appears to have remained aragonite-supersaturated across the boundary and extinction event in contrast to higher latitude depositional sequences raising questions about how widespread ocean acidification was and in what conditions it may be favoured.

  16. AATSR Single View Satellite Aerosol Retrievals Over the Persian Gulf During the 2004 United Arabic Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoemaker, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    During the months of August and September 2004 the United Arabic Emirates Unified Aerosol Experiment (UAE2) mission took place in the marine and desert region of the United Arabic Emirates. One of the primary goals of the mission was to evaluate and improve scientific based satellite aerosol and ocean retrieval products. Important aspect was the calibration and validation of remote sensing systems in order to gain more insight in space-based retrievals over this part of the region. This paper contributes to part of the space-based mission objectives and governs the retrieval of atmospheric aerosol properties over water through data from the AATSR instrument on board the European ENVISAT satellite. At TNO Defence, Security and Safety the retrieval of aerosol properties from AATSR is performed by means of the dual view algorithm for application over land and the single view algorithm for application over ocean. Both algorithms have been merged into a fast and efficient algorithm that allows for near real-time processing and which is suitable for semi-operational use. Data from retrievals over water have been compared with ground-truth measurements from the AERONET sun photometers present for the three water sites in the Persian Gulf during the campaign. The properties retrieved are a) aerosol optical depth for the visible wavelengths of AATSR and b) the Ångström wavelength coefficient α as an indicator for the size distribution. Different aerosol types have been pre-modeled by means of AERONET phase function information, and saved as look-up tables for the retrieval procedure. By comparing the satellite retrieved information with the ground-truth data for each of the modeled aerosol type more insight in the retrieval procedure and in the aerosol make-up in this region is obtained.

  17. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    PubMed

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values <0.040). Similar inverse associations were observed for paraxanthine and theophylline. Adjusted night-time systolic blood pressure in the first (lowest), second, third, and fourth (highest) quartile of paraxanthine urinary excretions were 110.3, 107.3, 107.3, and 105.1 mm Hg, respectively (P trend <0.05). No associations of urinary excretions with diastolic blood pressure were generally found, and theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure. PMID:25489060

  18. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    PubMed

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values <0.040). Similar inverse associations were observed for paraxanthine and theophylline. Adjusted night-time systolic blood pressure in the first (lowest), second, third, and fourth (highest) quartile of paraxanthine urinary excretions were 110.3, 107.3, 107.3, and 105.1 mm Hg, respectively (P trend <0.05). No associations of urinary excretions with diastolic blood pressure were generally found, and theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure.

  19. K+ Excretion: The Other Purpose for Puddling Behavior in Japanese Papilio Butterflies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the purpose of butterfly puddling, we measured the amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ that were absorbed or excreted during puddling by male Japanese Papilio butterflies through a urine test. All of the butterflies that sipped water with a Na+ concentration of 13 mM absorbed Na+ and excreted K+, although certain butterflies that sipped solutions with high concentrations of Na+ excreted Na+. According to the Na+ concentrations observed in naturally occurring water sources, water with a Na+ concentration of up to 10 mM appears to be optimal for the health of male Japanese Papilio butterflies. The molar ratio of K+ to Na+ observed in leaves was 43.94 and that observed in flower nectars was 10.93. The Na+ amount in 100 g of host plant leaves ranged from 2.11 to 16.40 mg, and the amount in 100 g of flower nectar ranged from 1.24 to 108.21 mg. Differences in host plants did not explain the differences in the frequency of puddling observed for different Japanese Papilio species. The amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the meconium of both male and female butterflies were also measured, and both males and females excreted more K+ than the other three ions. Thus, the fluid that was excreted by butterflies at emergence also had a role in the excretion of the excessive K+ in their bodies. The quantities of Na+ and K+ observed in butterfly eggs were approximately 0.50 μg and 4.15 μg, respectively; thus, female butterflies required more K+ than male butterflies. Therefore, female butterflies did not puddle to excrete K+. In conclusion, the purpose of puddling for male Papilio butterflies is not only to absorb Na+ to correct deficiencies but also to excrete excessive K+. PMID:25955856

  20. The effects of unsaturated dietary fats on absorption, excretion, synthesis, and distribution of cholesterol in man

    PubMed Central

    Grundy, Scott M.; Ahrens, E. H.

    1970-01-01

    Cholesterol balance studies were carried out in 11 patients with various types of hyperlipoproteinemia to determine the mechanism by which unsaturated fats lower plasma cholesterol. Unsaturated fats produced no increase in fecal endogenous neutral steroids in 10 of 11 patients and no decrease in absorption of exogenous cholesterol in 5 patients who received cholesterol in the diet. In 8 of 11 patients no changes occurred in excretion of bile acids during the period on unsaturated fat when plasma cholesterol was declining. However, in 3 of 11 patients small but significant increases in bile acid excretion were found during this transitional period; in 2 others increases also occurred after plasma cholesterol had become constant at lower levels on unsaturated fat. Since the majority of patients showed no change in cholesterol or bile acid excretions during the transitional period, we propose that when excretion changes did occur they were probably not the cause of the plasma cholesterol change. Furthermore, turnover data and specific activity curves suggested that cholesterol synthesis was not influenced by exchange of dietary fats. Thus, excluding changes in excretion and synthesis, we conclude that it is most likely that unsaturated fats cause plasma cholesterol to be redistributed into tissue pools. We have also examined the possibility that cholesterol which is redistributed into tissues could be secondarily excreted as neutral steroids or bile acids. In at least 5 of 11 patients excretion patterns were consistent with this explanation. However, we cannot rule out that excretion changes may have been due to alterations in transit time, to changes in bacterial flora, or to transitory changes in absorption or synthesis of cholesterol or bile acids. Our conclusion that unsaturated fats cause a redistribution of cholesterol between plasma and tissue pools points to the necessity in future to explore where cholesterol is stored, to what extent stored cholesterol can

  1. K+ excretion: the other purpose for puddling behavior in Japanese Papilio butterflies.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takashi A; Ito, Tetsuo; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Yokohari, Fumio; Niihara, Kinuko

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the purpose of butterfly puddling, we measured the amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ that were absorbed or excreted during puddling by male Japanese Papilio butterflies through a urine test. All of the butterflies that sipped water with a Na+ concentration of 13 mM absorbed Na+ and excreted K+, although certain butterflies that sipped solutions with high concentrations of Na+ excreted Na+. According to the Na+ concentrations observed in naturally occurring water sources, water with a Na+ concentration of up to 10 mM appears to be optimal for the health of male Japanese Papilio butterflies. The molar ratio of K+ to Na+ observed in leaves was 43.94 and that observed in flower nectars was 10.93. The Na+ amount in 100 g of host plant leaves ranged from 2.11 to 16.40 mg, and the amount in 100 g of flower nectar ranged from 1.24 to 108.21 mg. Differences in host plants did not explain the differences in the frequency of puddling observed for different Japanese Papilio species. The amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the meconium of both male and female butterflies were also measured, and both males and females excreted more K+ than the other three ions. Thus, the fluid that was excreted by butterflies at emergence also had a role in the excretion of the excessive K+ in their bodies. The quantities of Na+ and K+ observed in butterfly eggs were approximately 0.50 μg and 4.15 μg, respectively; thus, female butterflies required more K+ than male butterflies. Therefore, female butterflies did not puddle to excrete K+. In conclusion, the purpose of puddling for male Papilio butterflies is not only to absorb Na+ to correct deficiencies but also to excrete excessive K+.

  2. Behavioral and Perceived Stressor Effects on Urinary Catecholamine Excretion in Adult Samoans

    PubMed Central

    Bergey, Meredith R.; Steele, Matthew S.; Bereiter, David A.; Viali, Satupaitea; McGarvey, Stephen T.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The effects of perceptions and behaviors related to culturally-patterned socioeconomic obligations on catecholamine excretion rates were studied in a cross-sectional sample of Samoan adults. Methods 378 participants, ages 29-62 years, from 9 villages throughout Samoa, provided timed overnight urine specimens, and self-reported perceptions and behaviors associated with contributions to one's family, aiga, and chief, matai, and communal gift exchanges, fa'alavelave. Urinary norepinephrine and epinephrine excretion rates were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Age (≤40 vs. >40 years) and gender-specific regression models were estimated to detect associations with catecholamine excretion. Results Young women who contribute more to their matai, who consider fa'alavelave to be a financial strain, and who view their contribution to their matai to be ‘just right’, had significantly higher residence-adjusted norepinephrine excretion. Young women who contribute more to their matai, who consider fa'alavelave to be a financial strain, and who consider their contribution to their aiga not to be a burden, had higher epinephrine excretion. Older men who contribute more to their aiga and who perceive their contribution to their aiga to be ‘just right’ had increased residence-adjusted epinephrine excretion. Conclusions Individual-level perceptions and behaviors related to traditional socioeconomic obligations are a significant correlate of increased overnight catecholamine excretion rates. Higher excretion rates may be attributed to psychosocial stress arousal associated with a discordance between personal desires for upward social mobility, and family and community-based socioeconomic obligations. Changes in patterns of individual-level psychosocial stress arousal may contribute to cardiovascular disease risk in modernizing Samoans. PMID:21793091

  3. K+ excretion: the other purpose for puddling behavior in Japanese Papilio butterflies.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Takashi A; Ito, Tetsuo; Hagiya, Hiroshi; Hata, Tamako; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Yokohari, Fumio; Niihara, Kinuko

    2015-01-01

    To elucidate the purpose of butterfly puddling, we measured the amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ that were absorbed or excreted during puddling by male Japanese Papilio butterflies through a urine test. All of the butterflies that sipped water with a Na+ concentration of 13 mM absorbed Na+ and excreted K+, although certain butterflies that sipped solutions with high concentrations of Na+ excreted Na+. According to the Na+ concentrations observed in naturally occurring water sources, water with a Na+ concentration of up to 10 mM appears to be optimal for the health of male Japanese Papilio butterflies. The molar ratio of K+ to Na+ observed in leaves was 43.94 and that observed in flower nectars was 10.93. The Na+ amount in 100 g of host plant leaves ranged from 2.11 to 16.40 mg, and the amount in 100 g of flower nectar ranged from 1.24 to 108.21 mg. Differences in host plants did not explain the differences in the frequency of puddling observed for different Japanese Papilio species. The amounts of Na+, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ in the meconium of both male and female butterflies were also measured, and both males and females excreted more K+ than the other three ions. Thus, the fluid that was excreted by butterflies at emergence also had a role in the excretion of the excessive K+ in their bodies. The quantities of Na+ and K+ observed in butterfly eggs were approximately 0.50 μg and 4.15 μg, respectively; thus, female butterflies required more K+ than male butterflies. Therefore, female butterflies did not puddle to excrete K+. In conclusion, the purpose of puddling for male Papilio butterflies is not only to absorb Na+ to correct deficiencies but also to excrete excessive K+. PMID:25955856

  4. Drug elimination function of rat small intestine: metabolism and intraluminal excretion.

    PubMed

    Yasuhara, M; Kurosaki, Y; Kimura, T; Sezaki, H

    1984-10-15

    The metabolic and excretory function of the small intestine was investigated after oral and intravenous administration of drugs having an aromatic amino group to rats. After administration of drugs into the intestinal loop at the initial concentration of 0.1 mM, significant excretion of their N-acetylated forms into the lumen was observed. The amount of N-acetyl forms excreted in the lumen were 39.3 +/- 3.5, 63.5 +/- 20.9 and 18.0 +/- 13.8% of disappeared drugs from the lumen for p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), p-aminosalicylic acid and sulfanilic acid, respectively. The excretion of p-acetamidobenzoic acid (Ac-PABA) after the absorption of PABA was reduced by the coadministration with salicylic acid, benzoic acid and 2,4-dinitrophenol. Salicylic acid noncompetitively inhibited the acetylation of PABA by the intestinal N-acetyltransferase. A good correlation was found between the intestinal N-acetyltransferase activities for drugs and the intraluminal excretion of N-acetyl derivatives after intestinal absorption of drugs. These results indicate that a drug having a higher susceptibility to intestinal N-acetyltransferase would undergo a greater excretion into the lumen in its N-acetyl form after intestinal absorption. After intravenous administration of PABA at a dose of 100 mumole/kg, 4.02 +/- 0.51% of dose was excreted in the lumen as Ac-PABA in 30 min. On the other hand, a significantly smaller fraction (2.72 +/- 0.68% of dose) was excreted in the lumen after intravenous injection of 100 mumole/kg of Ac-PABA. The larger excretion of Ac-PABA after administration of PABA indicates the contribution of intestinal metabolism on the transfer of PABA not only after oral, but also after intravenous administration.

  5. Amino acid substitutions in inherited albumin variants from Amerindian and Japanese populations

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Isobe, T.; Putnam, F.W.; Fujita, M.; Satoh, C.; Neel, J.V.

    1987-11-01

    The authors report an effort to determine the basis for the altered migration of seven inherited albumin variants detected by one-dimensional electrophoresis in population surveys involving tribal Amerindians and Japanese children. An amino acid substitution has thus far been determined for four of the variants. The randomness in the albumin polypeptide of these and the other sixteen independently ascertained amino acid substitutions of albumin and proalbumin thus far established was analyzed; the clustering of eight of these at two positions in the six-amino acid propeptide sequence seems noteworthy. By comparison with other proteins studied by electrophoresis, albumin exhibits average variability. It is a paradox that individuals who, for genetic reasons, lack albumin exhibit no obvious ill effects; yet, electrophoretic variants of albumin are no more numerous than are variants of proteins, the absence of which results in severe disease.

  6. Characterization of anticancer, DNase and antifungal activity of pumpkin 2S albumin.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Prabhat Pratap Singh; Nikhil, Kumar; Singh, Anamika; Selvakumar, Purushotham; Roy, Partha; Sharma, Ashwani Kumar

    2014-06-13

    The plant 2S albumins exhibit a spectrum of biotechnologically exploitable functions. Among them, pumpkin 2S albumin has been shown to possess RNase and cell-free translational inhibitory activities. The present study investigated the anticancer, DNase and antifungal activities of pumpkin 2S albumin. The protein exhibited a strong anticancer activity toward breast cancer (MCF-7), ovarian teratocarcinoma (PA-1), prostate cancer (PC-3 and DU-145) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines. Acridine orange staining and DNA fragmentation studies indicated that cytotoxic effect of pumpkin 2S albumin is mediated through induction of apoptosis. Pumpkin 2S albumin showed DNase activity against both supercoiled and linear DNA and exerted antifungal activity against Fusarium oxysporum. Secondary structure analysis by CD showed that protein is highly stable up to 90°C and retains its alpha helical structure. These results demonstrated that pumpkin 2S albumin is a multifunctional protein with host of potential biotechnology applications.

  7. Excretion rates of 210Po and 210Pb in Prague inhabitants.

    PubMed

    Hölgye, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    Excretion rates of (210)Po and (210)Pb in the urine were investigated in 40 healthy inhabitants of Prague (22 males, 18 females, age: 23-70 y, non-smokers). In 20 inhabitants the excretion rates of (210)Po and (210)Pb in faeces were also studied. The mean urinary excretion rates of (210)Po and (210)Pb were 4.1 and 6.0 mBq d(-1), respectively. It was demonstrated, statistically, that the urinary excretion rates of (210)Po and (210)Pb are higher in men than those in women. The highest excretion rates of (210)Po and (210)Pb found in the participants were 10.8 and 16.6 mBq d(-1), respectively. The mean activity ratio of (210)Po/(210)Pb in the urine was 0.73. The mean excretion rates of (210)Po and (210)Pb in faeces were 56.5 and 54.6 mBq d(-1). The mean activity ratio of (210)Po/(210)Pb in faeces was 1.0.

  8. Oxalobacter sp. reduces urinary oxalate excretion by promoting enteric oxalate secretion.

    PubMed

    Hatch, M; Cornelius, J; Allison, M; Sidhu, H; Peck, A; Freel, R W

    2006-02-01

    The primary goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that Oxalobacter colonization alters colonic oxalate transport thereby reducing urinary oxalate excretion. In addition, we examined the effects of intraluminal calcium on Oxalobacter colonization and tested the hypothesis that endogenously derived colonic oxalate could be degraded by lyophilized Oxalobacter enzymes targeted to this segment of the alimentary tract. Oxalate fluxes were measured across short-circuited, in vitro preparations of proximal and distal colon removed from Sprague-Dawley rats and placed in Ussing chambers. For these studies, rats were colonized with Oxalobacter either artificially or naturally, and urinary oxalate, creatinine and calcium excretions were determined. Colonized rats placed on various dietary treatment regimens were used to evaluate the impact of calcium on Oxalobacter colonization and whether exogenous or endogenous oxalate influenced colonization. Hyperoxaluric rats with some degree of renal insufficiency were also used to determine the effects of administering encapsulated Oxalobacter lysate on colonic oxalate transport and urinary oxalate excretion. We conclude that in addition to its intraluminal oxalate-degrading capacity, Oxalobacter interacts physiologically with colonic mucosa by inducing enteric oxalate secretion/excretion leading to reduced urinary excretion. Whether Oxalobacter, or products of Oxalobacter, can therapeutically reduce urinary oxalate excretion and influence stone disease warrants further investigation in long-term studies in various patient populations. PMID:16518326

  9. Skin contamination, airborne concentrations, and urinary metabolite excretion of propoxur during harvesting of flowers in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, R; van Maarleveld, K; Ravensberg, L; Meuling, W; de Kort, W; van Hemmen, J J

    1993-11-01

    In eight greenhouses used for carnation culture, workers engaged in harvesting (n = 16), were monitored for dermal and respiratory exposure and urinary excretion of propoxur. Dermal exposure of hands and forearms was estimated from dislodgable foliar residue, using a transfer factor (a measure of transfer of pesticides from leaves to the skin) and the total number of working hours. Total estimated dermal and respiratory exposure during harvesting ranged from 0.2 to 46 mg and from 3 to 278 micrograms, respectively. To study the relationship between external and internal exposure to propoxur, respiratory and dermal exposure levels were compared with the total amount of 2-isopropoxyphenol (IPP), the major metabolite of propoxur, excreted in urine in 24 hr. The Pearson correlation coefficient between dermal exposure and the total amount of excreted IPP was 0.95. A correlation coefficient of 0.84 was found between respiratory exposure and the amount of IPP excreted. The latter association was probably caused by the covariation of respiratory and dermal exposure levels (r = 0.85). Assuming negligible oral absorption, calculations indicated that dermal exposure could account for > 80% of the amount of excreted IPP. On the basis of the amount of IPP excreted, there was no reason to suspect increased health risks for workers from exposure to propoxur during harvesting.

  10. Creatinine adjustment of spot urine samples and 24 h excretion of iodine, selenium, perchlorate, and thiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Ohira, Shin-ichi; Kirk, Andrea B; Dyke, Jason V; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2008-12-15

    Creatinine (CR) adjustment is widely used for the estimation of urinary 24 h excretion from spot urine samples. We have compared CR-adjusted values for urinary iodine, selenium, perchlorate, and thiocyanate to measured 24 h excretion. The urine samples were collected from a cohort of 14 breastfeeding mothers with both spot samples and 24 h collection, 52 24 h and spot sample pairs where the 24 h CR value fell within the "normal" adult female CR excretion range of 0.6-1.6 g/day were considered for this analysis. In addition, a nonlactating female and a male subject provided all micturitions for 1 and 5 days, respectively. Creatinine was analyzed with a Jáffe reaction-based automated analyzer. Iodine and selenium were determined with induction coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Perchlorate and thiocyanate were measured with ion chromatography (IC)-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Creatinine-adjusted values were poor substitutes of the actual 24 h excretion values (average deviation +/-69, 78, 105, and 104% for iodine, selenium, perchlorate, and thiocyanate, respectively.). Over a 5 day period, the 24 h iodine excretion predicted based on creatinine adjustment of spot samples for the same individual deviated between -83.5 to +101% from the actual measured value, the minimum absolute error being 2.5%. Creatinine adjustment for estimation of 24 h excretion from spot samples was not effective for iodine, selenium, perchlorate, or thiocyanate.

  11. Daily variations in urinary excretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone in idiopathic isosexual precocity.

    PubMed

    Penny, R; Olambiwonnu, N O; Frasier, S D

    1977-01-01

    The 24-hour urinary excretion of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was determined for 30 days in an 8.3-year-old girl with isosexual precocity and for 25 days in a normal 11.9-year-old girl. The pattern of daily variation in urinary LH and FSH excretion observed in the girl with sexual precocity was similar to that of the normal menstrual cycle. The LH and FSH midcycle peaks were 132.5 IU/24 hours and 26.3 IU/24 hours, respectively. Excluding the midcycle peak, the daily excretion of LH was 28.4 +/- 9.3 (SD) IU/24 hours, and the excretion of FSH was 8.9 +/- 1.9 (SD) IU/24 hours, values comparable to those of normal adult females. In contrast, the daily excretion of LH in the normal 11.9-year-old girl was 6.9 +/- 1.1 (SD) IU/24 hours and FSH excretion was 3.9 +/- 0.9 (SD) IU/24 hours. No LH or FSH surge was observed. The data are consistent with early maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in idiopathic isosexual precocity.

  12. Urea and Ammonia Metabolism and the Control of Renal Nitrogen Excretion.

    PubMed

    Weiner, I David; Mitch, William E; Sands, Jeff M

    2015-08-01

    Renal nitrogen metabolism primarily involves urea and ammonia metabolism, and is essential to normal health. Urea is the largest circulating pool of nitrogen, excluding nitrogen in circulating proteins, and its production changes in parallel to the degradation of dietary and endogenous proteins. In addition to serving as a way to excrete nitrogen, urea transport, mediated through specific urea transport proteins, mediates a central role in the urine concentrating mechanism. Renal ammonia excretion, although often considered only in the context of acid-base homeostasis, accounts for approximately 10% of total renal nitrogen excretion under basal conditions, but can increase substantially in a variety of clinical conditions. Because renal ammonia metabolism requires intrarenal ammoniagenesis from glutamine, changes in factors regulating renal ammonia metabolism can have important effects on glutamine in addition to nitrogen balance. This review covers aspects of protein metabolism and the control of the two major molecules involved in renal nitrogen excretion: urea and ammonia. Both urea and ammonia transport can be altered by glucocorticoids and hypokalemia, two conditions that also affect protein metabolism. Clinical conditions associated with altered urine concentrating ability or water homeostasis can result in changes in urea excretion and urea transporters. Clinical conditions associated with altered ammonia excretion can have important effects on nitrogen balance.

  13. Correlation of urinary nickel excretion with observed 'total' and inhalable aerosol exposures of nickel refinery workers.

    PubMed

    Werner, M A; Thomassen, Y; Hetland, S; Norseth, T; Berge, S R; Vincent, J H

    1999-12-01

    An investigation of the relationship between observed nickel aerosol exposures and urinary nickel excretion was undertaken at a Scandinavian nickel refinery. The goal of the study was to assess the impact of nickel aerosol speciation, the use of particle size-selective sampling instrumentation and adjustment of urinary levels for creatinine excretion on the usefulness of urinary nickel excretion as a marker for exposure. Urinary nickel measurements and paired 'total' and inhalable aerosol exposure measurements were collected each day for one week from refinery workers in four process areas. The mean observed urinary nickel concentration was 12 micrograms L-1 (11 micrograms of Ni per g of creatinine). The strongest relationships between urinary excretion and aerosol exposure were found when urinary nickel levels were adjusted for creatinine excretion and when exposure to only soluble forms of nickel aerosol was considered. No significant difference was observed between measures of 'total' and inhalable aerosol in the ability to predict urinary excretion patterns. In the light of these results, it is recommended that consideration be given to the chemical species distribution of nickel aerosol in the use of urinary nickel measurements as a screening tool for cancer risk in occupationally-exposed populations. PMID:11529189

  14. Diel variation in ammonia excretion, glutamine levels, and hydration status in two species of terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jonathan C; Peña-Peralta, Mariasol

    2005-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods (suborder Oniscidea) excrete most nitrogen diurnally as volatile ammonia, and ammonia-loaded animals accumulate nonessential amino acids, which may constitute the major nocturnal nitrogen pool. This study explored the relationship between ammonia excretion, glutamine storage/mobilization, and water balance, in two sympatric species Ligidium lapetum (section Diplocheta), a hygric species; and Armadillidium vulgare (Section Crinocheta), a xeric species capable of water-vapor absorption (WVA). Ammonia excretion (12-h), tissue glutamine levels, and water contents were measured following field collection of animals at dusk and dawn. In both species, diurnal ammonia excretion exceeded nocturnal excretion four- to fivefold while glutamine levels increased four- to sevenfold during the night. Most glutamine was accumulated in the somatic tissues ("body wall"). While data support the role of glutamine in nocturnal nitrogen storage, potential nitrogen mobilization from glutamine breakdown (162 micromol g(-1) in A. vulgare) exceeds measured ammonia excretion (2.5 micromol g(-1)) over 60-fold. This may serve to generate the high hemolymph ammonia concentrations (and high P(NH3)) seen during volatilization. The energetic cost of ammonia volatilization is discussed in the light of these findings. Mean water contents were similar at dusk and dawn in both species, indicating that diel cycles of water depletion and replenishment were not occurring. PMID:15578188

  15. Hyperuricemia in acute gastroenteritis is caused by decreased urate excretion via ABCG2

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Hirotaka; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Ooyama, Keiko; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Takada, Tappei; Nakashima, Akio; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Higashino, Toshihide; Wakai, Kenji; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Hokari, Ryota; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Inui, Ayano; Fujimori, Shin; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the physiological and pathophysiological roles of intestinal urate excretion via ABCG2 in humans, we genotyped ABCG2 dysfunctional common variants, Q126X (rs72552713) and Q141K (rs2231142), in end-stage renal disease (hemodialysis) and acute gastroenteritis patients, respectively. ABCG2 dysfunction markedly increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels in 106 hemodialysis patients (P = 1.1 × 10−4), which demonstrated the physiological role of ABCG2 for intestinal urate excretion because their urate excretion almost depends on intestinal excretion via ABCG2. Also, ABCG2 dysfunction significantly elevated SUA in 67 acute gastroenteritis patients (P = 6.3 × 10−3) regardless of the degree of dehydration, which demonstrated the pathophysiological role of ABCG2 in acute gastroenteritis. These findings for the first time show ABCG2-mediated intestinal urate excretion in humans, and indicates the physiological and pathophysiological importance of intestinal epithelium as an excretion pathway besides an absorption pathway. Furthermore, increased SUA could be a useful marker not only for dehydration but also epithelial impairment of intestine. PMID:27571712

  16. Twenty-four hour urinary excretion of vitamins, minerals and nitrogen by Eskimos.

    PubMed

    Ellestad-Sayed, J; Hildes, J A; Schaefer, O; Lobban, M C

    1975-12-01

    In 1971-1972, urines were collected over 24 hours from ambulatory Iglooligmiut who ranged in age from 6 to 76 years. Collections were made every 3-4 months over a calendar year. The mean of each individual's two to four collections was used as the best estimate of that person's average daily excretion for nitrogen, thiamin, riboflavin, N'-methylnicotinamide, calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium. The excretion of the three B vitamins by all age groups was high when compared with interpretive standards. Urea nitrogen comprised 80-90% of total nitrogen excreted by all age groups. Twenty-four-hour mineral excretions did not differ with age and sex group except that adult men excreted significantly more phosphorus. Urinary urea nitrogen and phosphorus were linearly related, suggesting that they have a common source; namely, meat. Winter was generally the season of lowest excretion of the nutrients assayed. Since these nutrients are available from imported foods, particularly during the winter, it would appear that even in the winter the Iglooligmiut are more dependent on hunting and fishing for sources of these nutrients than on the well-stocked commercial grocery outlets. PMID:803002

  17. Reliability of Urinary Excretion Rate Adjustment in Measurements of Hippuric Acid in Urine

    PubMed Central

    Nicolli, Annamaria; Chiara, Federica; Gambalunga, Alberto; Carrieri, Mariella; Bartolucci, Giovanni Battista; Trevisan, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The urinary excretion rate is calculated based on short-term, defined time sample collections with a known sample mass, and this measurement can be used to remove the variability in urine concentrations due to urine dilution. Adjustment to the urinary excretion rate of hippuric acid was evaluated in 31 healthy volunteers (14 males and 17 females). Urine was collected as short-term or spot samples and tested for specific gravity, creatinine and hippuric acid. Hippuric acid values were unadjusted or adjusted to measurements of specific gravity, creatinine or urinary excretion rate. Hippuric acid levels were partially independent of urinary volume and urinary flow rate, in contrast to specific gravity and creatinine, which were both highly dependent on the hippuric acid level. Accordingly, hippuric acid was independent on urinary specific gravity and creatinine excretion. Unadjusted and adjusted values for specific gravity or creatinine were generally closely correlated, especially in spot samples. Values adjusted to the urinary excretion rate appeared well correlated to those unadjusted and adjusted to specific gravity or creatinine values. Thus, adjustment of crude hippuric acid values to the urinary excretion rate is a valid procedure but is difficult to apply in the field of occupational medicine and does not improve the information derived from values determined in spot urine samples, either unadjusted or adjusted to specific gravity and creatinine. PMID:25019265

  18. Diel variation in ammonia excretion, glutamine levels, and hydration status in two species of terrestrial isopods.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jonathan C; Peña-Peralta, Mariasol

    2005-01-01

    Terrestrial isopods (suborder Oniscidea) excrete most nitrogen diurnally as volatile ammonia, and ammonia-loaded animals accumulate nonessential amino acids, which may constitute the major nocturnal nitrogen pool. This study explored the relationship between ammonia excretion, glutamine storage/mobilization, and water balance, in two sympatric species Ligidium lapetum (section Diplocheta), a hygric species; and Armadillidium vulgare (Section Crinocheta), a xeric species capable of water-vapor absorption (WVA). Ammonia excretion (12-h), tissue glutamine levels, and water contents were measured following field collection of animals at dusk and dawn. In both species, diurnal ammonia excretion exceeded nocturnal excretion four- to fivefold while glutamine levels increased four- to sevenfold during the night. Most glutamine was accumulated in the somatic tissues ("body wall"). While data support the role of glutamine in nocturnal nitrogen storage, potential nitrogen mobilization from glutamine breakdown (162 micromol g(-1) in A. vulgare) exceeds measured ammonia excretion (2.5 micromol g(-1)) over 60-fold. This may serve to generate the high hemolymph ammonia concentrations (and high P(NH3)) seen during volatilization. The energetic cost of ammonia volatilization is discussed in the light of these findings. Mean water contents were similar at dusk and dawn in both species, indicating that diel cycles of water depletion and replenishment were not occurring.

  19. RELEASE OF INTROGENOUS SUBSTANCES BY BREWER'S YEAST. 3. SHOCK EXCRETION OF AMINO ACIDS.

    PubMed

    LEWIS, M J; PHAFF, H J

    1964-06-01

    Lewis, M. J. (University of California, Davis), and H. J. Phaff. Release of nitrogenous substances by brewers' yeast. III. Shock excretion of amino acids. J. Bacteriol. 87:1389-1396. 1964.-When Saccharomyces carlsbergensis (two strains) and S. cerevisiae (one strain) were grown in static culture and the harvested, washed cells were suspended in a solution of glucose, amino acids were suddenly released and then rapidly reabsorbed in a space of about 2 hr. The phenomenon of amino acid release, which was termed shock excretion, varied in intensity with the strain of yeast and was shown to be dependent on the size of the pool of free amino acids within the cells. Shock excretion was independent of osmotic pressure of the suspending medium, but required the presence of a fermentable sugar. d-Galactose and maltose caused shock excretion only when yeast was previously adapted to these sugars. Limiting glucose concentrations prevented reabsorption of amino acids, and a further decrease in glucose concentration also limited excretion. Shock excretion was strikingly reduced when the temperature of the suspending medium was lowered.

  20. Hyperuricemia in acute gastroenteritis is caused by decreased urate excretion via ABCG2.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hirotaka; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Ooyama, Keiko; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Takada, Tappei; Nakashima, Akio; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Higashino, Toshihide; Wakai, Kenji; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Hokari, Ryota; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Inui, Ayano; Fujimori, Shin; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the physiological and pathophysiological roles of intestinal urate excretion via ABCG2 in humans, we genotyped ABCG2 dysfunctional common variants, Q126X (rs72552713) and Q141K (rs2231142), in end-stage renal disease (hemodialysis) and acute gastroenteritis patients, respectively. ABCG2 dysfunction markedly increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels in 106 hemodialysis patients (P = 1.1 × 10(-4)), which demonstrated the physiological role of ABCG2 for intestinal urate excretion because their urate excretion almost depends on intestinal excretion via ABCG2. Also, ABCG2 dysfunction significantly elevated SUA in 67 acute gastroenteritis patients (P = 6.3 × 10(-3)) regardless of the degree of dehydration, which demonstrated the pathophysiological role of ABCG2 in acute gastroenteritis. These findings for the first time show ABCG2-mediated intestinal urate excretion in humans, and indicates the physiological and pathophysiological importance of intestinal epithelium as an excretion pathway besides an absorption pathway. Furthermore, increased SUA could be a useful marker not only for dehydration but also epithelial impairment of intestine. PMID:27571712

  1. Urinary excretion of bile acid glucosides and glucuronides in extrahepatic cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Wietholtz, H; Marschall, H U; Reuschenbach, R; Matern, H; Matern, S

    1991-04-01

    Recently the formation of bile acid glucosides has been described as a novel conjugation mechanism in vitro and in vivo. In 10 patients with extrahepatic cholestasis caused by carcinoma of the head of the pancreas we investigated excretion rates and profiles of urinary bile acid glucosides. Urinary bile acid glucosides and, for comparison, bile acid glucuronides were extracted and characterized according to established methods. In controls total urinary bile acid glucoside excretion was 0.22 +/- 0.03 mumol/24 hr (mean +/- S.E.M.)-in the range of bile acid glucuronide excretion (0.41 +/- 0.06 mumol/24 hr; mean +/- S.E.M.). A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-characterized trihydroxy bile acid glucoside of still-unknown hydroxyl positions accounted for 65% of total urinary bile acid glucosides. In extrahepatic cholestasis total urinary bile acid glucoside excretion was 0.52 +/- 0.13 mumol/24 hr (mean +/- SEM), yet significantly lower than bile acid glucuronide excretion (1.53 +/- 0.13 mumol/24 hr; mean +/- SEM; p less than 0.001). In cholestasis the primary bile acid derivatives cholic and chenodeoxycholic acid glucosides amounted to 90%, whereas the trihydroxy bile acid glucoside had decreased to 5% of total bile acid glucoside excretion, indicating its alteration during enterohepatic circulation. The data establish the composition and quantity of urinary bile acid glucosides in healthy controls and cholestasis and constitute a quantitative comparison with another glycosidic conjugation reaction, bile acid glucuronidation.

  2. Controlled exercise effects on chromium excretion of trained and untrained runners consuming a constant diet

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.A.; Bryden, N.A.; Polansky, M.M.; Deuster, P.A.

    1986-03-05

    To determine if degree of training effects urinary Cr losses, Cr excretion of 8 adult trained and 5 untrained runners was determined on rest days and following exercise at 90% of maximal oxygen uptake on a treadmill to exhaustion with 30 second exercise and 30 second rest periods. Subjects were fed a constant daily diet containing 9 ..mu..g of Cr per 1000 calories to minimize changes due to diet. Maximal oxygen consumption of the trained runners was in the good or above range based upon their age and that of the untrained runners was average or below. While consuming the control diet, basal urinary Cr excretion of subjects who exercise regularly was significantly lower than that of the sedentary control subjects, 0.09 +/- 0.01 and 0.21 +/- 0.03 ..mu..g/day (mean +/- SEM), respectively. Daily urinary Cr excretion of trained subjects was significantly higher on the day of a single exercise bout at 90% of maximal oxygen consumption compared to nonexercise days, 0.12 +/- 0.02 and 0.09 +/- 0.01 ..mu..g/day, respectively. Urinary Cr excretion of 5 untrained subjects was not altered following controlled exercise. These data demonstrate that basal urinary Cr excretion and excretion in response to exercise are related to maximal oxygen consumption and therefore degree of fitness.

  3. Importance of albumin in cross-reactivity among cat, dog and horse allergens.

    PubMed

    Cabañas, R; López-Serrano, M C; Carreira, J; Ventas, P; Polo, F; Caballero, M T; Contreras, J; Barranco, P; Moreno-Ancillo, A

    2000-01-01

    Different allergenic proteins have been involved in cross-reactivity among animals. Albumins seem to be cross-sensitizing allergenic components. The aim of this study was to assess the importance of albumin as a cross-reactive allergen in patients sensitized to cat, dog and horse. One hundred and seventeen patients sensitized to cat were tested for IgE reactivity using skin prick tests and RAST assays with cat, dog and horse hair/dander extracts and their purified albumin extracts. RAST-inhibition studies were carried out to assess cross-reactivity among cat, dog and horse and among their purified albumins. It was found that 22% of patients exhibited specific IgE to cat albumin; 41% of patients sensitized to cat were also sensitized to dog and horse. Out of these patients, 21% had IgE to three albumins and 17% to two. Reciprocal inhibitions were observed among cat, dog and horse albumins and also among cat, dog and horse hair/dander extracts, using in the latter experiment sera from patients not sensitized to albumins. IgE binding to horse extract was inhibited 30% by its homologous albumin and IgE binding to cat and dog extracts in almost 15% by their respective albumins. It was concluded that albumins from these three animals share some epitopes that account for the cross-reactivity observed in around one-third of patients sensitized to cat, dog and horse. Nevertheless, more than 50% of specific IgE that cross-reacts among these three animals is directed to allergens other than albumin. PMID:10879993

  4. Recognition of oxidized albumin and thyroid antigens by psoriasis autoantibodies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shobaili, Hani A.; Ahmed, Ahmed A.; Rasheed, Zafar

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the role of reactive-oxygen-species (ROS) induced epitopes on human-serum-albumin (HSA) and thyroid antigens in psoriasis autoimmunity. Methods: This study was performed in the College of Medicine, Qassim University, Buraidah, Saudi Arabia between May 2014 and February 2015. The study was designed to explore the role of ROS-induced epitopes in psoriasis autoimmunity. Singlet-oxygen (or ROS)-induced epitopes on protein (ROS-epitopes-albumin) was characterized by in-vitro and in-vivo. Thyroid antigens were prepared from rabbit thyroid, and thyroglobulin was isolated from thyroid extract. Immunocross-reactions of protein-A purified anti-ROS-epitopes-HSA-immunoglobulin G (IgGs) with thyroid antigen, thyroglobulin, and their oxidized forms were determined. Binding characteristics of autoantibodies in chronic plaque psoriasis patients (n=26) against ROS-epitopes-HSA and also with native and oxidized thyroid antigens were screened, and the results were compared with age-matched controls (n=22). Results: The anti-ROS-epitopes-HSA-IgGs showed cross-reactions with thyroid antigen, thyroglobulin and with their oxidized forms. High degree of specific binding by psoriasis IgGs to ROS-epitopes-HSA, ROS-thyroid antigen and ROS-thyroglobulin was observed. Immunoglobulin G from normal-human-controls showed negligible binding with all tested antigens. Moreover, sera from psoriasis patients had higher levels of carbonyl contents compared with control sera. Conclusion: Structural alterations in albumin, thyroid antigens by ROS, generate unique neo-epitopes that might be one of the factors for the induction of autoantibodies in psoriasis. PMID:26620982

  5. Analysis of Aged Human Serum Albumin Affinity for Doxazosin.

    PubMed

    Chudzik, Mariola; Równicka-Zubik, Joanna; Pożycka, Jadwiga; Pawelczak, Bartosz; Sulkowska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Structural changes of human serum albumin (HSA) caused by old age and coexisting diseases result in differences in the binding of doxazosin (DOX). DOX is a postsynaptic α1- adrenoreceptor antagonist used for treatment of hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia. In elderly people suffering from various renal or hepatic diseases the significant portion of N-form of human serum albumin (normal) is converted to A-form (aged). The differences in binding of doxazosin to N- and Aform of albumin are an important factor, which may determines therapeutic dosage and toxicity of the test drug. To indicate these differences, the technique of fluorescence spectroscopy was used. The association constant (Ka) obtained from fluorescence quenching demonstrated that doxazosin has higher affinity for AHSA than for HSA. In order to describe the cooperativity in binding process, the values of the Hill's coefficient has been analysed. For DOX-HSA system (λex 295 nm) Hill's coefficient is close to 1 and it indicates that there is a single class of binding sites. For DOX-HSA (λex 275 nm) and DOX-AHSA (λex 275 nm and λex 295 nm) systems we observed positive cooperativity (nH>1). A greater red shift of fluorescence emission maximum of AHSA than HSA in the presence of DOX was observed. This suggests that the binding of DOX to AHSA was accompanied by a stronger increase in polarity around the fluorophores in comparison to HSA. The binding interaction between DOX and HSA has been also studied by molecular docking simulation.

  6. Ocular Albumin Fluorophotometric Quantitation of Endotoxin-Induced Vascular Permeability

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, Scott W.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Guss, Robert B.; Egbert, Peter R.

    1982-01-01

    Bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) is known to alter systemic vascular permeability, but this effect is difficult to monitor and quantitate in vivo. The ocular vessels of the rabbit are particularly sensitive to LPS. Using a slit lamp equipped with a fluorophotometer, we have adapted a method to quantitate endotoxin-induced ocular vascular permeability by measuring the accumulation of fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated albumin into the anterior chamber of the eye. After intravenous administration of Salmonella typhimurim LPS, the anterior chamber fluorescence and blood fluorescence were measured at intervals of 15 min and 1 h, respectively, over 4 h. In controls, maximal fluorescence in the anterior chamber was 3.1 ± 0.8% of blood fluorescence. Doses of LPS as low as 0.25 μg/kg produced an ocular/serum fluorescence ratio of 17.6 ± 4.9. A dose of 2.5 μg of LPS per kg tended to produce a higher ratio (68.0 ± 7.1) than a larger dose of 50 μg/kg (30.5 ± 16.6). Permeability changes began within 30 min after LPS, and the rate of dye accumulation varied over time, with maximal leakage usually occurring 90 min after LPS, but occasionally occurring much later. Repeated doses produced tolerance. By conjugating albumin to rhodamine and utilizing a second filter with the slit lamp to measure accumulation of this dye, we demonstrated the persistence of marked permeability during a period when intraocular fluorescein isothiocyanate and albumin levels were relatively constant. This methodology indicates that extremely low doses of LPS induce ocular permeability changes and that neither the time course nor the dose response of this effect is linear. Ocular fluorophotometry is a sensitive, noninvasive technique to study the dynamics and pharmacology of LPS-induced permeability changes. PMID:6806194

  7. Sequences Of Amino Acids For Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Sequences of amino acids defined for use in making polypeptides one-third to one-sixth as large as parent human serum albumin molecule. Smaller, chemically stable peptides have diverse applications including service as artificial human serum and as active components of biosensors and chromatographic matrices. In applications involving production of artificial sera from new sequences, little or no concern about viral contaminants. Smaller genetically engineered polypeptides more easily expressed and produced in large quantities, making commercial isolation and production more feasible and profitable.

  8. Three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel C.; He, Xiao-Min; Munson, Sibyl H.; Twigg, Pamela D.; Gernert, Kim M.; Broom, M. Beth; Miller, Teresa Y.

    1989-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of human serum albumin has been solved at 6.0 A resolution by the method of multiple isomorphous replacement. Crystals were grown from solutions of polyethylene glycol in the infrequently observed space group P42(1)2 and diffracted X-rays to lattice d-spacings of less than 2.9 A. The electron density maps are of high quality and revealed the structure as a predominantly alpha-helical globin protein in which the course of the polypeptide can be traced. The binding loci of several organic compounds have been determined.

  9. Highly sensitive bovine serum albumin biosensor based on liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Vikash; Kumar, Ajay; Ganguly, Prasun; Biradar, A. M.

    2014-01-01

    A highly sensitive liquid crystal (LC) based bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein biosensor is designed. A uniform homeotropic alignment of nematic LC was observed in BSA free substrate which changed into homogeneous in presence of BSA. The change in the LC orientation is found to depend strongly on BSA concentration. This change in the LC alignment is attributed to the modification in the surface conditions which is verified by contact angle measurements. We have detected an ultra low concentration (0.5 μg/ml) of BSA. The present study demonstrates the utilization of LC in the realization of high sensitivity biosensors.

  10. Conformational Transitions and Glycation of Serum Albumin in Patients with Minimal-Change Glomerulopathy

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sae Yong; Lee, Eun Young; Yang, Jong Oh; Kim, Tae Yeong; Kim, Eun Hee; Cheong, Mi Young; Kim, Soo Hyun; Cheong, Chae Joon

    2004-01-01

    Background There has been a lack of study on the structural changes of serum albumin in patients with minimal change disease (MCD). To determine whether glycation and/or conformational transitions of albumin are involved in the pathogenesis of albuminuria, nine patients with MCD were enrolled in a prospective follow-up study for comparison of these parameters in serum albumin during the remission and relapse of nephrotic syndrome. Methods Circular dichroism measurements were made with purified albumin. Ellipticities at each wavelength were transformed to mean residue ellipticity. Monosaccharide composition was analyzed by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. Results There was no difference in the proportions of α-helix, β-conformation, and β-turn of albumin between the sera of control patients and those with nephrotic syndrome. However, the proportion of the random configuration was slightly higher in the plasma albumin of patients in relapse than in those in remission. The proportion of the random configuration was lower in the albumin of the serum than in the urine of patients with nephrotic syndrome, but there was no difference in the proportions of α-helix, β-conformation, and β-turn of albumin between their plasma and urine. Conclusion Our results suggest that conformational changes in albumin are involved in albuminuria in patients with MCD. PMID:15481604

  11. Albumins and their processing machinery are hijacked for cyclic peptides in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Mylne, Joshua S; Colgrave, Michelle L; Daly, Norelle L; Chanson, Aurelie H; Elliott, Alysha G; McCallum, Emily J; Jones, Alun; Craik, David J

    2011-05-01

    The cyclic peptide sunflower trypsin inhibitor 1 (SFTI-1) blocks trypsin and is a promising drug lead and protein engineering scaffold. We show that SFTI-1 and the newfound SFT-L1 are buried within PawS1 and PawS2, precursors for seed storage protein albumins. Proalbumins are matured by asparaginyl endopeptidase, which we show is required to liberate both ends of SFTI-1 as well as to mature PawS1 albumin. Thus, these peptides emerge from within an albumin precursor by the action of albumin's own processing enzyme.

  12. Influence of Millimeter Electromagnetic Waves on Fluorescence of Water-Saline Solutions of Human Serum Albumin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardevanyan, P. O.; Antonyan, A. P.; Shahinyan, M. A.; Mikaelyan, M. S.

    2016-07-01

    The effect of electromagnetic waves of the millimeter region on the conformation and fluorescence characteristics of human serum albumin was studied. It is shown that the irradiation of the albumin solution leads to an increase of the fluorescence intensity depending on the duration of irradiation. At an irradiation frequency of 48 GHz the fluorescence intensity of albumin hardly changes at all, while at 41.8 and 51.8 GHz it increases. It is also shown that when the irradiation frequency is 51.8 GHz, the intensity of the albumin solution fluorescence increases with increase of the irradiation time.

  13. Albumin dialysis in artificial liver support systems: open-loop or closed-loop dialysis mode?

    PubMed

    Pei, Yingying; Sun, Yize; Sun, Sijie; Gao, Dayong; Ding, Weiping

    2015-01-01

    In artificial liver support systems, the open-loop albumin dialysis mode (OLM) is usually used to remove protein-bound toxins from the blood of patients with liver failure. However, there is still interest in the closed-loop albumin dialysis mode (CLM) because this mode may enable not only the regeneration and reuse of albumin but also the miniaturization of artificial liver systems. In this article, we compared the two modes under a fixed amount of albumin in dialysate experimentally and theoretically. The results show that according to the detoxification efficiency in the 3 hour dialysis for removing albumin-bound bilirubin, CLM is better than OLM. The usage efficiency of albumin in CLM is also higher. Moreover, the advantage of CLM is more significant when the concentration of bilirubin in blood is lower. Under a given amount of albumin in dialysate, if the concentration of bilirubin in blood is high, one may further increase the performance of CLM by means of increasing the flow rate of the albumin dialysate or using the highly concentrated albumin dialysate.

  14. Albumin has no role in the uptake of copper by human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    McArdle, H.J.; Guthrie, J.R.; Ackland, M.L.; Danks, D.M.

    1987-10-01

    The mechanism of copper uptake by cells has been the subject of controversy for some time. This paper examines the possibility of a role for albumin in the uptake of copper by fibroblasts. Although the cells could accumulate copper from a copper-albumin complex, there was no evidence for either copper-albumin or albumin receptors on the cell surface. The possibility of a surface exchange mechanism for copper was examined. While copper uptake showed saturation with increasing concentrations of labelled copper-albumin, adding unlabelled copper to the incubation medium did not inhibit uptake. Adding albumin or histidine to the copper-albumin complex resulted in an inhibition of copper uptake. The results can only be explained by the cell taking up free copper from the incubation medium, with the albumin then releasing its copper to maintain the equilibrium between free and bound metal. Since, in vivo there is essentially no free copper in serum, it is concluded that albumin is most unlikely to play a role in the uptake of copper by fibroblasts.

  15. A retrospective analysis of 25% human serum albumin supplementation in hypoalbuminemic dogs with septic peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, Farrah B.; Read, Robyn L.; Powell, Lisa L.

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the influence of 25% human serum albumin (HSA) supplementation on serum albumin level, total protein (TP), colloid osmotic pressure (COP), hospital stay, and survival in dogs with septic peritonitis. Records of 39 dogs with septic peritonitis were evaluated. In the HSA group, initial and post-transfusion TP, albumin, COP, and HSA dose were recorded. In the non-supplemented group, repeated values of TP, albumin, and COP were recorded over their hospitalization. Eighteen dogs survived (53.8% mortality). Repeat albumin values were higher in survivors (mean 23.9 g/L) and elevated repeat albumin values were associated with HSA supplementation. Repeat albumin and TP were higher in the HSA supplemented group (mean 24 g/L and 51.9 g/L, respectively) and their COP increased by 5.8 mmHg. Length of hospitalization was not affected. Twenty-five percent HSA increases albumin, TP, and COP in canine patients with septic peritonitis. Higher postoperative albumin levels are associated with survival. PMID:26028681

  16. Automated continuous flow determination of urine albumin by competition with dye-detergent binding.

    PubMed

    Lever, M; Walmsley, T A

    1978-02-15

    A continuous flow automated method for urine albumin was developed based on the ability of albumin to displace bromophenol blue from a bromophenol blue detergent complex. The method is almost specific for albumin, giving a slight response with an alpha-globulin fraction from serum. Results agreed closely with rocket electrophoresis albumin estimates on urine samples, but significantly less closely with "total urine protein" estimates by an acid protein precipitation, followed by biuret colour reaction, procedure. This method is being used to replace the indefinite "total protein" test for most routine purposes.

  17. Association of Urinary Calcium Excretion with Serum Calcium and Vitamin D Levels

    PubMed Central

    Rathod, Anita; Bonny, Olivier; Guessous, Idris; Suter, Paolo M.; Conen, David; Erne, Paul; Binet, Isabelle; Gabutti, Luca; Gallino, Augusto; Muggli, Franco; Hayoz, Daniel; Péchère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Paccaud, Fred

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Population-based data on urinary calcium excretion are scarce. The association of serum calcium and circulating levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D2 or D3] with urinary calcium excretion in men and women from a population-based study was explored. Design, settings, participants, & measurements Multivariable linear regression was used to explore factors associated with square root–transformed 24-hour urinary calcium excretion (milligrams per 24 hours) taken as the dependent variable with a focus on month-specific vitamin D tertiles and serum calcium in the Swiss Survey on Salt Study. Results In total, 624 men and 669 women were studied with mean ages of 49.2 and 47.0 years, respectively (age range=15–95 years). Mean urinary calcium excretion was higher in men than in women (183.05 versus 144.60 mg/24 h; P<0.001). In adjusted models, the association (95% confidence interval) of square root urinary calcium excretion with protein–corrected serum calcium was 1.78 (95% confidence interval, 1.21 to 2.34) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in women and 0.59 (95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 1.29) mg/24 h per milligram per deciliter in men. Men in the third 25(OH)D3 tertile had higher square root urinary calcium excretion than men in the first tertile (0.99; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 1.63 mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter), and the corresponding association was 0.32 (95% confidence interval, −0.22 to 0.85) mg/24 h per nanogram per milliliter in women. These sex differences were more marked under conditions of high urinary sodium or urea excretions. Conclusions There was a positive association of serum calcium with urinary calcium excretion in women but not men. Vitamin 25(OH)D3 was associated with urinary calcium excretion in men but not women. These results suggest important sex differences in the hormonal and dietary control of urinary calcium excretion. PMID:25518946

  18. Geographical and temporal differences in the urinary excretion of inorganic arsenic: a Belgian population study.

    PubMed Central

    Buchet, J P; Staessen, J; Roels, H; Lauwerys, R; Fagard, R

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This Belgian study assessed the geographical and temporal differences in the exposure of the population to inorganic arsenic, a known carcinogen. METHODS: In the CadmiBel study (1985-9) the 24 h urinary arsenic excretion was measured, as an index of recent exposure, in industrialised cities (Liège: n = 664, Charleroi: n = 291), in a rural control area (Hechtel-Eksel: n = 397), and in rural districts in which the population had possibly been exposed through the drinking water or the emissions of nonferrous smelters (Wezel: n = 93, Lommel: n = 111, and Pelt: n = 133). In the PheeCad study, in 1991-5, the rural areas (n = 609) were re-examined together with an urban control area (Leuven: n = 152). RESULTS: The CadmiBel results showed that after adjustment for sex, age, and body mass index, the 24 h arsenic excretion was on average low in Liège (91 nmol), Charleroi (155 nmol), Hechtel-Eksel (144 nmol), and Wezel (158 nmol), whereas the highest excretions were found in Lommel (570 nmol) and Pelt (373 nmol). During the PheeCad study, the mean 24 h arsenic excretion in the rural areas ranged from 81 to 111 nmol. This was lower than six years earlier and similar to the excretion in the control town (108 nmol). Longitudinal studies in 529 people living in the rural areas confirmed that their 24 h arsenic excretion had decreased (P < 0.001) from 222 to 100 nmol. As well as the drinking water, industry was likely to be a source of the increased exposure in Lommel and Pelt in 1985-9, because at that time the urinary arsenic excretion did not follow the regional differences in the arsenic content of the drinking water, because the fall in the arsenic excretion over time coincided with the implementation by industry of stricter environmental regulations, because in individual subjects the urinary arsenic excretion was inversely correlated with the distance to the nearest smelter, and because an increased arsenic excretion was only found downwind from the main

  19. Renal electrolyte excretion and renin release during calcium and parathormone infusions in conscious rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Peart, W S; Roddis, S A; Unwin, R J

    1986-01-01

    Following a random block experimental design in each case, three repeated measurement studies were carried out in three different groups of conscious rabbits, to investigate the renal effects of increasing doses of intravenous calcium chloride (CaCl2) and bovine parathyroid hormone (PTH). In the first study, each rabbit received either CaCl2 (0.15, 0.3, 0.5 or 1.0 mg kg-1 min-1) or vehicle alone (control) for 160 min. In the second study, rabbits were given either PTH (0.15 microgram kg-1 min-1), CaCl2 (1.0 mg kg-1 min-1), PTH plus CaCl2 (0.15 microgram kg-1 min-1 and 1.0 mg kg-1 min-1, respectively) or vehicle alone; PTH was infused for just over 60 min. In the third study, a much smaller dose (0.05 mg kg-1 min-1) of CaCl2 was infused for 100 min. CaCl2 infusion produced a striking fall in fractional excretion of sodium of at least 50% (P less than 0.01), but this was not dose related, being almost maximal at the smaller doses infused. Although this effect was evident in the absence of any changes in total plasma calcium concentration at the lower doses of CaCl2, renal calcium excretion was increased between 2- and 20-fold (P less than 0.01) at all doses infused. Fractional excretion of chloride doubled at the two higher doses of CaCl2 (P less than 0.01), but potassium excretion was unchanged. There were no consistent alterations in mean arterial blood pressure, effective renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate or plasma renin activity (PRA); total plasma calcium concentration was consistently elevated only during infusion of the high dose by just under 1 mmol l-1. PTH infusion had no measured effect on fractional excretion of sodium or renal calcium excretion, but doubled fractional potassium excretion (P less than 0.05). Heart rate and PRA increased (P less than 0.01 and less than 0.05, respectively), the latter by 50%, but systemic pressure and renal haemodynamics were not significantly affected. By contrast, PTH infused with CaCl2 produced a 4-fold rise

  20. Absorption, metabolism and excretion of flavanones from single portions of orange fruit and juice and effects of anthropometric variables and contraceptive pill use on flavanone excretion

    PubMed Central

    Brett, Gary M.; Hollands, Wendy; Needs, Paul W.; Teucher, Birgit; Dainty, Jack R.; Davis, Barry D.; Brodbelt, Jennifer S.; Kroon, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    Oranges are rich sources of flavonoids that are bioactive and may protect against age-related diseases. The absorption of orange flavanones may be affected by factors such as processing and subject anthropometric variables, and the bioactivity of the absorbed phytochemicals depends on how they are metabolised during absorption. In a randomised cross-over study, twenty subjects consumed a single portion of orange fruit (150 g) or juice (300 g) that contained the flavanones narirutin and hesperidin, and an additional 109 subjects across a broad age range (18–80 years) consumed the juice. Flavanone metabolites were measured in regularly collected samples of plasma and urine. After consumption of fruit or juice, flavanone conjugates, but not the aglycones, were detected in plasma and urine. The flavanone conjugates were shown to include the 7- and 4′-O-monoglucuronides of naringenin, the 7- and 3′-O-monoglucuronides of hesperetin, two hesperetin diglucuronides and a hesperetin sulfo-glucuronide, but no aglycones or rutinosides. Analysis of the plasma pharmacokinetic and urinary excretion data on a dose-adjusted basis indicated no difference in absorption or excretion of either flavanone between the fruit and juice matrices. In the extended urinary excretion dataset the individual variation was very large (range 0–59 % urinary yield). There was a small but significant (P<0·05) decrease in the excretion of hesperetin (but not naringenin) with increasing age (P<0·05), but the effects of sex, BMI and contraceptive pill use were shown not to be associated with the variation in flavanone excretion. PMID:18710603