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Sample records for albumin-creatinine ratio acr

  1. Residual small artery impairment in hypertensive patients with normal albumin-creatinine ratio.

    PubMed

    Eftekhari, Ashkan; Wiggers, Signe Nielsen; Mathiassen, Ole Norling; Christensen, Kent Lodberg

    2016-06-01

    Objectives Previous studies have suggested that urine albumin excretion (UAE) mirrors generalized vascular damage; however, it is unclear to which degree UAE mirrors small artery impairment. Design We enrolled 67 patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension (EH) during stable antihypertensive therapy. F-Rmin, ACR on three non-consecutive morning urine samples, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABPM) were measured. Results ACR was low (0.39 and 0.30-0.60), but abnormal small artery structure defined as F-Rmin > mean + 2 standard deviations of normotensive value (1.99 + 1 mmHg min/(ml/100 ml)) was present in 45% (n = 30). The mean F-Rmin was 2.89 ± 0.09 mmHg min/(ml/100 ml). ACR correlated significantly to PWV (r(2 )=( )0.11; p < 0.05) and pulse pressure (r(2 )=( )0.15; p < 0.001), but not F-Rmin and (r(2 )=( )0.05, p = 0.07). Conclusions Abnormal microvascular structure was present even in EH patients with low UAE. ACR correlated to arterial stiffness and not to small artery structure; therefore, UEA did not reflect microvascular damage in this population. ACR and F-Rmin thus reflect two distinct types of subclinical organ damage in hypertension. PMID:26856990

  2. Urinary Albumin-Creatinine Ratio, Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate, and All-Cause Mortality Among US Adults With Obstructive Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Earl S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Elevated urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) predict all-cause mortality, but whether these markers of kidney damage and function do so in adults with obstructive lung function (OLF) is unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between UACR and eGFR and all-cause mortality in adults with OLF. METHODS Data of 5,711 US adults aged 40 to 79 years, including 1,390 adults with any OLF who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III (1988–1994), were analyzed. Mortality follow-up was conducted through 2006. RESULTS During the median follow-up of 13.7 years, 650 adults with OLF died. After maximal adjustment, mean levels of UACR were higher in adults with moderate-severe OLF (7.5 mg/g; 95% CI, 6.7–8.5) than in adults with normal pulmonary function (6.2 mg/g; 95% CI, 5.8–6.6) (P = .003) and mild OLF (6.2 mg/g; 95% CI, 5.5–6.9) (P = .014). Adjusted mean levels of eGFR were lower in adults with moderate-severe OLF (87.6 mL/min/1.73 m2; < 95% CI, 86.0–89.1) than in adults with normal lung function (89.6 mL/min/1.73 m2; < 95% CI, 88.9–90.3) (P = .015). Among adults with OLF, hazard ratios for all-cause mortality increased as levels of UACR, modeled as categorical or continuous variables, increased (maximally adjusted hazard ratio for quintile 5 vs 1: 2.23; 95% CI, 1.56–3.18). eGFR, modeled as a continuous variable but not as quintiles, was significantly associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS UACR and eGFR, in continuous form, were associated with all-cause mortality among US adults with OLF. PMID:25079336

  3. Disability of Hearing Impairment Is Positively Associated With Urine Albumin/Creatinine Ratio in Korean Adults: The 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Soo; Lee, Dong-Hee; Chae, Hiun Suk; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Sohn, Tae Seo; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Kim, Hee Yeon; Lee, Jae-Im; Song, Jae Yen; Yeo, Chang Dong; Lee, Young Bok; Ahn, Hyo-Suk; Hong, Mihee; Han, Kyungdo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with hearing thresholds in the nationwide, large-scaled Korean population. Methods. This study analyzed the data of 9,798 subjects of 19 years and older (4,387 males and 5,411 females). Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured from first-voided spot urine samples. The air-conduction hearing threshold was measured at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz and pure tone audiogram (PTA) average was calculated as the four-frequency average of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz. Results. Urine ACR was significantly correlated with the PTA average of better ear in both genders, especially at 3 and 6 kHz in males and at 1, 3, 4, and 6 kHz in females. After adjusting, urine ACR also increased the risk of hearing loss in female, especially if urine ACR was 30 mg/g and more (odds ratio, 1.636–2.229. This study showed that the degree of hearing loss was significantly different according to categories of urine ACR in both genders. Hearing loss without disability was found less but that with bilateral hearing disability was found more as urine ACR increased. In generally, prevalence of hearing loss with disability was higher in males than females. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that urine ACR was significantly correlated with the PTA average of better ear in Korean adults of both genders. This study suggests that clinicians should carefully monitor the hearing level for subjects with elevated urine ACR, even though high urine ACR within the normal range. PMID:27416740

  4. Urine Albumin and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio

    MedlinePlus

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  5. Levels of Serum 25(OH)VD3, HIF-1α, VEGF, vWf, and IGF-1 and Their Correlation in Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Different Urine Albumin Creatinine Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Ying; Lv, Chuan; Yuan, Qin; Wang, Qiuyue

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate changes in serum 25(OH)VD3, HIF-1α, VEGF, vWf, IGF-1, and their correlation in type 2 diabetes patients at different stages of diabetic kidney disease (DKD). Methods. 502 type 2 diabetes patients were divided into three groups: Normoalbuminuric group (201 patients), Microalbuminuric group (171 patients), and Macroalbuminuric group (130 patients). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)VD3] was measured by chemiluminescence. Serum hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), von Willebrand factor (vWf), and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We detected the aforementioned serum factors in all cases and 224 control subjects. Results. Serum HIF-1α, VEGF, vWf, and IGF-1 in type 2 diabetes patients were significantly higher than those in the control group and increased with the increase of Ln(ACR), respectively (P < 0.001). Serum 25(OH)VD3 was significantly lower in type 2 diabetes patients and decreased with the increase of Ln(ACR) (P < 0.001). Ln(ACR) was positively correlated with duration, HbA1c, Scr, BUN, TC, LDL, TG, UA, HIF-1α, VEGF, IGF-1, vWf, and Fg and negatively correlated with 25(OH)VD3 and eGFR. Conclusion. Serum HIF-1α, VEGF, vWf, and IGF-1 may be involved in DKD process through inflammation, angiogenesis, and endothelial injury. Serum 25(OH)VD3 may have protective effects on DKD partly by inhibiting inflammation, abnormal angiogenesis, and vascular endothelial dysfunction. PMID:27069929

  6. Praise Acres Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the "Praise Acres Project," which was initiated from a letter written by a local resident. The resident wrote about an idea to develop a wetlands and outdoor lab facility on his property for students. Thus, a plan was conceived that would not only benefit the owner, but also enhance high school science…

  7. ACR process for ethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.L.; Kamm, G.R.

    1983-01-01

    Describes how the advanced cracking reactor process, which is ready for a logical commercial application, offers total liquids feedstock flexibility from light naphthenes through vacuum gas oils in the same production unit. Several processes are presently being developed which are aimed at maintaining olefin selectivity when cracking the heaviest feeds. Addresses the problems posed by such heavy feedstocks. The following trends favor the ACR process in the 1980s: natural gas price decontrol; limited natural gas reserves; few new domestic LPG-based ethylene plants will be built; an economic recovery will create the need for more ethylene capacity; modest increases in ''real'' crude oil prices; plentiful supplies of vacuum gas oil at prices making it an attractive ethylene feedstock; and increasing supplies of light naphtha at prices making it an attractive ethylene feedstock as well. Predicts that these factors will swing the preferred feedstocks for ethylene manufacture back to crude oil distillates before the end of the decade. Argues that in this environment, the ACR process can deliver the lowest cost ethylene in the industry. ACR has full-range feedstock flexibility, high selectivity to ethylene, and less sensitivity to feedstock costs and co-product credits.

  8. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christopher J; Angevine, Peter D; Aulino, Joseph M; Berger, Kevin L; Choudhri, Asim F; Fries, Ian Blair; Holly, Langston T; Kendi, Ayse Tuba Karaqulle; Kessler, Marcus M; Kirsch, Claudia F; Luttrull, Michael D; Mechtler, Laszlo L; O'Toole, John E; Sharma, Aseem; Shetty, Vilaas S; West, O Clark; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Bykowski, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with myelopathic symptoms may have a number of causative intradural and extradural etiologies, including disc degenerative diseases, spinal masses, infectious or inflammatory processes, vascular compromise, and vertebral fracture. Patients may present acutely or insidiously and may progress toward long-term paralysis if not treated promptly and effectively. Noncontrast CT is the most appropriate first examination in acute trauma cases to diagnose vertebral fracture as the cause of acute myelopathy. In most nontraumatic cases, MRI is the modality of choice to evaluate the location, severity, and causative etiology of spinal cord myelopathy, and predicts which patients may benefit from surgery. Myelopathy from spinal stenosis and spinal osteoarthritis is best confirmed without MRI intravenous contrast. Many other myelopathic conditions are more easily visualized after contrast administration. Imaging performed should be limited to the appropriate spinal levels, based on history, physical examination, and clinical judgment. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals, and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:26653797

  9. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  10. AcrS/EnvR Represses Expression of the acrAB Multidrug Efflux Genes in Escherichia coli▿

    PubMed Central

    Hirakawa, Hidetada; Takumi-Kobayashi, Asuka; Theisen, Ulrike; Hirata, Takahiro; Nishino, Kunihiko; Yamaguchi, Akihito

    2008-01-01

    The acrS regulatory gene is located upstream of the acrEF multidrug efflux system genes. However, the roles of AcrS in regulation of drug efflux pumps have not been clearly understood. Here we show that AcrS represses other multidrug efflux genes, acrAB, which encode a major efflux system in Escherichia coli. PMID:18567659

  11. 78 FR 79020 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  12. 78 FR 70597 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  13. 78 FR 70598 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  14. 75 FR 57536 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR The ACRS... Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  15. 76 FR 32240 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... ACRS meetings ] were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation...

  16. 76 FR 52715 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation...

  17. 77 FR 60480 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation...

  18. 78 FR 17944 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  19. 75 FR 27841 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials...

  20. 76 FR 36160 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  1. 76 FR 27101 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  2. 75 FR 27840 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268-58269... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials...

  3. 78 FR 20959 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) will hold a...

  4. 78 FR 37595 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor...

  5. 76 FR 34276 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor...

  6. 78 FR 24441 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Evolutionary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S....

  7. 77 FR 45699 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on August 14, 2012, Room...

  8. 78 FR 51752 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 18, 2013, Room...

  9. 77 FR 28903 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22, 2012, Room...

  10. 77 FR 59676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 3, 2012, Room...

  11. 78 FR 2694 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... the Federal Register on Monday, December 17, 2012, (77 FR 74697-74698). Information regarding this... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Cancellation of the January 18, 2013, ACRS Subcommittee Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee meeting on...

  12. 77 FR 74697 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on January 18, 2013, Room...

  13. 77 FR 28637 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22- 23, 2012, Room...

  14. 77 FR 45700 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on August 15, 2012, Room...

  15. 76 FR 55717 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and PRA will hold a meeting... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038-65039)....

  16. 78 FR 79019 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on November 8, 2013 (78 FR 67205-67206..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  17. 75 FR 66803 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR will hold a meeting on... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039)....

  18. 76 FR 11524 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Boiling Water Reactors (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactors... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-...

  19. 75 FR 30077 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ESBWR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ESBWR The... Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  20. 75 FR 82093 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant License Renewal; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Plant License Renewal will hold a meeting on January 12, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville...

  1. 75 FR 25303 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory Policies and Practices The ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory Policies and Practices will hold a meeting on May 19, 2010, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville...

  2. 78 FR 20958 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory Policies and Practices The ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory Policies and Practices will hold a meeting on April 23, 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545...

  3. 77 FR 5063 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127- 64128). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal-Hydraulics Phenomena; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal-Hydraulics Phenomena will hold...

  4. 75 FR 82092 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  5. 77 FR 56240 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ..., (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  6. 77 FR 31044 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ..., (76 FR 64127-64128). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  7. 76 FR 34779 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on June...

  8. 76 FR 55717 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on...

  9. 77 FR 68161 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on December...

  10. 75 FR 16874 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 52829-52830). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  11. 75 FR 82093 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  12. 76 FR 44964 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  13. 77 FR 38099 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  14. 75 FR 58447 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials...

  15. 78 FR 66967 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommitte on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ..., 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommitte on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  16. 75 FR 4881 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 52829-52830). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  17. 76 FR 55716 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on...

  18. 76 FR 61119 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  19. 76 FR 5218 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038- 65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water...

  20. 77 FR 76089 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor...

  1. 76 FR 27102 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified...

  2. 77 FR 59678 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor...

  3. 75 FR 52999 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On ESBWR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On ESBWR The ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) will hold a meeting on September 23-24, 2010, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville...

  4. 76 FR 44377 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... events at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi reactor site in Japan. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by and... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on...

  5. 78 FR 65008 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Evolutionary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012 (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S....

  6. 75 FR 57536 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268- 58269). Detailed meeting... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Regulatory Policies and Practices The ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory Policies and Practices will hold a meeting...

  7. 78 FR 27442 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 23, Room T-2B1,...

  8. 78 FR 17945 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on April 10, 2013, Room...

  9. 77 FR 31676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on June 20, 2012, Room...

  10. 77 FR 68161 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Register on October 18, 2012 (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on December 4, 2012, Room...

  11. 78 FR 50457 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 4, 2013, Room...

  12. 78 FR 65008 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on November 5, 2013, Room...

  13. 77 FR 64147 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011 (76 FR 64126- 64127). Detailed meeting agendas and... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 31, 2012, Room...

  14. 77 FR 68161 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on December 5, 2012, Room...

  15. 77 FR 52371 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 5, 2012, Room...

  16. 78 FR 51752 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory..., September 16, 2013--8:30 a.m. Until 5 p.m. The Subcommittee will review the State-of-the-Art Reactor... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147)....

  17. 77 FR 33004 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127... White Flint North building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD. After registering with security,...

  18. 78 FR 12800 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant License... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... White Flint North building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD. After registering with security,...

  19. 75 FR 58448 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268- 58269... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability... Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  20. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, David H; Carucci, Laura R; Baker, Mark E; Cash, Brooks D; Dillman, Jonathan R; Feig, Barry W; Fowler, Kathryn J; Gage, Kenneth L; Noto, Richard B; Smith, Martin P; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yee, Judy; Lalani, Tasneem

    2015-10-01

    Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder involving the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by episodic flares and times of remission. Underlying structural damage occurs progressively, with recurrent bouts of inflammation. The diagnosis and management of this disease process is dependent on several clinical, laboratory, imaging, endoscopic, and histologic factors. In recent years, with the maturation of CT enterography, and MR enterography, imaging has played an increasingly important role in relation to Crohn Disease. In addition to these specialized examination modalities, ultrasound and routine CT have potential uses. Fluoroscopy, radiography, and nuclear medicine may be less beneficial depending on the clinical scenario. The imaging modality best suited to evaluating this disease may change, depending on the target population, severity of presentation, and specific clinical situation. This document presents seven clinical scenarios (variants) in both the adult and pediatric populations and rates the appropriateness of the available imaging options. They are summarized in a consolidated table, and the underlying rationale and supporting literature are presented in the accompanying narrative. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:26435118

  1. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Head Trauma.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Vilaas S; Reis, Martin N; Aulino, Joseph M; Berger, Kevin L; Broder, Joshua; Choudhri, Asim F; Kendi, A Tuba; Kessler, Marcus M; Kirsch, Claudia F; Luttrull, Michael D; Mechtler, Laszlo L; Prall, J Adair; Raksin, Patricia B; Roth, Christopher J; Sharma, Aseem; West, O Clark; Wintermark, Max; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Bykowski, Julie

    2016-06-01

    Neuroimaging plays an important role in the management of head trauma. Several guidelines have been published for identifying which patients can avoid neuroimaging. Noncontrast head CT is the most appropriate initial examination in patients with minor or mild acute closed head injury who require neuroimaging as well as patients with moderate to severe acute closed head injury. In short-term follow-up neuroimaging of acute traumatic brain injury, CT and MRI may have complementary roles. In subacute to chronic traumatic brain injury, MRI is the most appropriate initial examination, though CT may have a complementary role in select circumstances. Advanced neuroimaging techniques are areas of active research but are not considered routine clinical practice at this time. In suspected intracranial vascular injury, CT angiography or venography or MR angiography or venography is the most appropriate imaging study. In suspected posttraumatic cerebrospinal fluid leak, high-resolution noncontrast skull base CT is the most appropriate initial imaging study to identify the source, with cisternography reserved for problem solving. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:27262056

  2. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  3. The Automated Conflict Resolution System (ACRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Ted; Musliner, Andrew; Wampler, David

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Conflict Resolution System (ACRS) is a mission-current scheduling aid that predicts periods of mutual interference when two or more orbiting spacecraft are scheduled to communicate with the same Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) at the same time. The mutual interference predicted has the potential to degrade or prevent communications. Thus the ACRS system is a useful tool for aiding in the scheduling of Space Network (SN) communications.

  4. 78 FR 79019 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels... materials and metallurgy. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by and hold discussions with the...

  5. 76 FR 22934 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on May 11, 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038- 65039)....

  6. 76 FR 71609 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on December 14, 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127-...

  7. 76 FR 55717 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on September 20, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-...

  8. 78 FR 2695 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... Operations and Fire Protection; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Plant Operations and Fire... onsite emergency response capabilities such as Emergency Operating Procedures (EOPs), Severe...

  9. 75 FR 61781 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... representatives of the NRC staff, the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI), and other interested persons regarding this... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability... October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available...

  10. 75 FR 71154 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... would result in a major inconvenience. Dated: November 15, 2010. Antonio Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability... were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038- 65039). Detailed...

  11. 76 FR 27103 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Subcommittee will review recent events at the Fukushima site in Japan. The Subcommittee will hear presentations... were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on...

  12. 76 FR 34778 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... Subcommittee will review recent events at the Fukushima site in Japan. The Subcommittee will hear presentations..., (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on...

  13. 78 FR 27442 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant License... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Rockville, MD. After registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (Telephone 240-888-9835)...

  14. 78 FR 27443 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability... were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting... Flint North building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD. After registering with security,...

  15. 77 FR 36582 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127-64128). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Rockville, MD. After registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (240-888-9835) to...

  16. 77 FR 18873 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory... Subcommittee will review the Draft NUREG Report on the State- of-the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA... were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127-64128). Detailed...

  17. 76 FR 63329 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant License... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Rockville, MD. After registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (240-888-9835) to...

  18. 78 FR 59074 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Rockville, MD. After registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (Telephone 240-888-9835)...

  19. 78 FR 31988 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant... Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD. After registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown...

  20. 75 FR 58447 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant License... Branch A, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  1. 75 FR 52556 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ..., (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory..., 2010. Cayetano Santos, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch A, Advisory Committee on Reactor...

  2. 75 FR 51499 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C Systems The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) Systems will hold a meeting...

  3. 75 FR 51501 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures The ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures will hold a meeting on September 8, 2010,...

  4. The Expanding Significance of One Acre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Daniel R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A management class assignment requires students to study the history and complexity of one acre of land. The intent is to develop connections between the natural environment and human acts of management, focusing on the concept of privilege. (Contains 15 references.) (SK)

  5. 7 CFR 760.632 - Payment acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Payment acres. 760.632 Section 760.632 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... considered the same as a planting of an initial crop in tropical regions as defined in part 1437, subpart...

  6. 7 CFR 760.632 - Payment acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Payment acres. 760.632 Section 760.632 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... considered the same as a planting of an initial crop in tropical regions as defined in part 1437, subpart...

  7. 77 FR 68160 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... develop a revision to the Station Blackout Rule. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by and hold... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147)....

  8. 77 FR 64563 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-22

    ... efforts to develop a revision to the Station Blackout Rule. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR...

  9. 77 FR 59677 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127... p.m. The Subcommittee will review and discuss SECY-12-0110, ``Consideration of Economic...

  10. 77 FR 47680 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittees on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... published in the Federal Register on Wednesday, August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45698-45699). Further information... and PRA and Fukushima; Revision to Notice of Meetings The (ACRS) Subcommittee on Fukushima...

  11. 78 FR 29159 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  12. 76 FR 55718 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels will hold a...

  13. 76 FR 72451 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127- 64128). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  14. 78 FR 56756 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  15. 76 FR 34778 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ..., (75 FR 65038- 65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  16. 77 FR 74698 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  17. 78 FR 34677 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the Acrs Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ... Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  18. 78 FR 31987 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  19. 75 FR 58449 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels will hold a...

  20. 78 FR 3474 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-16

    ... October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  1. 76 FR 16016 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Metallurgy And Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy and...

  2. 75 FR 65036 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-21

    ... protection program transition to National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Standard 805. The Subcommittee... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR...

  3. 76 FR 16458 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR will hold a meeting on April... Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts...

  4. 77 FR 64148 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Reactors,'' Revision 2 and RG 1.79.1, ``Initial Test Program of Emergency Core Cooling Systems for Boiling... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127-64128)....

  5. 76 FR 18585 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038- 65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available...

  6. 75 FR 16203 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Power...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ....'' This supplement extends the GEH/GNF computational methods to include GNF-2 fuel design. The... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR...

  7. 77 FR 24745 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... Hydraulic Phenomena; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena will hold...

  8. 75 FR 51499 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268- 58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... Hydraulics Phenomena The ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal Hydraulics Phenomena will hold a meeting on September...

  9. 76 FR 44378 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Regulatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed... for Nuclear Power Plants''; NUREG/CR-4461, Revision 2, ``Tornado Climatology of the Contiguous...

  10. Radiology practice models: the 2008 ACR Forum.

    PubMed

    Gunderman, Richard B; Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Van Moore, Arl; Hillman, Bruce J; Neiman, Harvey L; Thrall, James H

    2008-09-01

    The 2008 ACR Forum brought together a diverse group of participants from clinical radiology, radiology leadership and practice management, managed care, economics, law, and entrepreneurship in Washington, DC, in January 2008 to discuss current models of radiology practice and anticipate new ones. It addressed what forces shape the practice of radiology, how these forces are changing, and how radiology practices can most effectively respond to them in the future. PMID:18755435

  11. 7 CFR 1412.44 - Notification of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of base acres. 1412.44 Section 1412.44... through 2012 § 1412.44 Notification of base acres. The operator and owners of record of a farm will be notified in writing of the number of base acres eligible for enrollment in a contract, unless such...

  12. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Election of base acres. 1412.21 Section 1412.21... CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Establishment of Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.21 Election of base acres. (a) Subject to adjustments in...

  13. 76 FR 44964 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039.... Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor...

  14. 76 FR 5220 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039... Designs The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on February 9, 2011, at...

  15. 76 FR 16016 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed... Designs The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on April 5, 2011, at...

  16. 78 FR 50457 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... identification of digital system failure modes and use of hazard analysis methods for digital safety systems. The... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

  17. 75 FR 16203 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on EPR; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on EPR; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on the U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) will hold a meeting on April 20-21, 2010, at 11545 Rockville Pike, T2-...

  18. 76 FR 7882 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C Systems The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation & Control (DI&C) Systems will hold a meeting on February 23, 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545...

  19. 75 FR 67783 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures The ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures will hold a meeting on December 1, 2010, in Room... conduct of the meeting, persons planning to attend should check with these references if such...

  20. 76 FR 23630 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ..., Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR...

  1. 75 FR 82094 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR) will hold a meeting on January...

  2. 76 FR 16458 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. EPR will hold a meeting on April 5, 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545...

  3. 76 FR 27102 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Advanced Pressurized Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Advanced Pressurized Power Reactor... follows: Friday, May 27, 2011--8:30 a.m. Until 5 p.m. The Subcommittee will review Chapter 5,...

  4. 78 FR 12800 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-25

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (240-888-9835) to be escorted to the meeting room....

  5. 78 FR 31987 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146-64147... security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (240-888-9835) to be escorted to the meeting room. Dated: May...

  6. 77 FR 67688 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C... Instrumentation and Control of the Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) mPower reactor. The Subcommittee will hear presentations... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR...

  7. 77 FR 10784 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Advanced Pressurized Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Advanced Pressurized Power Reactor... were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127-64128). Detailed...

  8. 77 FR 36581 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Advanced Pressurized Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Advanced Pressurized Power Reactor... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127-64128). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available...

  9. 77 FR 36583 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127... security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (240-888-9835) to be escorted to the meeting room. Dated: June...

  10. 77 FR 33003 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C... for reviewing the mPower reactor. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by and hold discussions... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127)....

  11. 75 FR 74103 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038- 65039... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000; Notice... exception of portions that may be closed to protect unclassified safeguards information, pursuant to 5...

  12. 75 FR 55366 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning And...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning And... Branch A, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  13. 75 FR 81318 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000; Notice... Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  14. Comparison of methods to identify significant proteinuria in pregnancy in the outpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Kyle, P M; Fielder, J N; Pullar, B; Horwood, L J; Moore, M P

    2008-03-01

    The efficacy of the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) measurement in detection of significant proteinuria when performed in a high-risk antenatal clinic was compared with automated dipstick, protein/creatinine ratio (PCR), and 24-hour urine protein measurements. Both the ACR (DCA 2000) and PCR were strongly predictive for the presence or absence of significant proteinuria, with positive likelihood ratios (LRs) of 27.4 and 31.6 and negative LRs of 0.0 and 0.1, respectively. Both the ACR (DCA 2000) and PCR are effective tests for both identifying and excluding significant proteinuria in the outpatient setting. The ACR (DCA 2000) has the advantage of providing an immediate result. PMID:18201282

  15. 76 FR 11525 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire meeting... published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038- 65039). Detailed meeting agendas...

  16. 76 FR 18586 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on April 20, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike... published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas...

  17. 75 FR 66803 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Evolutionary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... ACRS meetings were ] published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268- 58269... with the NRC staff, AREVA, UniStar, and other interested persons. The Subcommittee will gather... rescheduling would result in a major inconvenience. Dated: October 21, 2010. Antonio F. Dias, Chief,...

  18. 75 FR 55365 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ..., (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web... Operations and Fire Protection The ACRS Subcommittee on Plant Operations and Fire Protection will hold a..., October 6, 2010--8:30 a.m. until 12 p.m. The subcommittee will discuss the construction, inspection,...

  19. 76 FR 38212 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and... Operations and Fire Protection; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Plant Operations and Fire... Region II to discuss the construction inspection program at the Vogtle site and discuss other items...

  20. 75 FR 44818 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ESBWR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-29

    ... Racks,'' NEDC- 33374P, ``Safety Analysis Report for Fuel Storage Racks Criticality Analysis for ESBWR... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed... Subcommittee will discuss Chapters 2, 10, 12, 14, 15, 16, 18, 20, and 21 of the final Safety Evaluation...

  1. 76 FR 62866 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ..., (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web... Simplified Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) will hold a meeting on October 21, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville...

  2. 76 FR 68793 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127-64128). Detailed meeting agendas and... Simplified Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) will hold a meeting on November 30, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville...

  3. 77 FR 45699 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed... and/or written comments should notify the Designated Federal Official (DFO), Christopher Brown (Telephone 301-415-7111 or Email: Christopher.Brown@nrc.gov ) five days prior to the meeting, if possible,...

  4. 75 FR 28824 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on APWR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    .... Detailed procedures for the conduct of and participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  5. 75 FR 57536 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and... Hydraulic Phenomena The ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena will hold a meeting on October 18... 5 p.m. The Subcommittee will review the thermal-hydraulic research activities in the Office...

  6. ACR appropriateness criteria on metastatic bone disease.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Catherine C; Daffner, Richard H; Weissman, Barbara N; Bancroft, Laura; Bennett, D Lee; Blebea, Judy S; Bruno, Michael A; Fries, Ian Blair; Germano, Isabelle M; Holly, Langston; Jacobson, Jon A; Luchs, Jonathan S; Morrison, William B; Olson, Jeffrey J; Payne, William K; Resnik, Charles S; Schweitzer, Mark E; Seeger, Leanne L; Taljanovic, Mihra; Wise, James N; Lutz, Stephen T

    2010-06-01

    Appropriate imaging modalities for screening, staging, and surveillance of patients with suspected and documented metastatic disease to bone include (99m)Tc bone scanning, MRI, CT, radiography, and 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose-PET. Clinical scenarios reviewed include asymptomatic stage 1 breast carcinoma, symptomatic stage 2 breast carcinoma, abnormal bone scan results with breast carcinoma, pathologic fracture with known metastatic breast carcinoma, asymptomatic well-differentiated and poorly differentiated prostate carcinoma, vertebral fracture with history of malignancy, non-small-cell lung carcinoma staging, symptomatic multiple myeloma, osteosarcoma staging and surveillance, and suspected bone metastasis in a pregnant patient. No single imaging modality is consistently best for the assessment of metastatic bone disease across all tumor types and clinical situations. In some cases, no imaging is indicated. The recommendations contained herein are the result of evidence-based consensus by the ACR Appropriateness Criteria((R)) Expert Panel on Musculoskeletal Radiology. PMID:20522392

  7. Licensing the ACR in the USA - A Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Snell, Victor; Langman, Vince; Ion, Robert; Reid, Calvin

    2004-07-01

    The ACR-700 (ACR) is an evolutionary reactor design, which incorporates the inherent safety features of the Candu products, as well as the successful operating experience of the current Candu 6 reactors. The improvements to the ACR from Candu 6 result in significant reductions in capital and operating costs as well as enhanced safety. AECL Technologies (AECLT, a wholly owned US subsidiary of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited) is the proponent for the ongoing pre-application review of the ACR with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the United States. This pre-application review will be completed shortly and will support an application to the USNRC for Standard Design Certification (SDC). AECL Technologies' overall objective for the pre-application review of the ACR is to obtain an understanding of the scope, cost, and the schedule to obtain a Standard Design Certification for the ACR. The pre-application review will address licensing issues associated with the Candu reactor technologies in ACR that depart from the light water reactor, pressure-vessel based regulatory framework in the USA. Therefore, during the course of the ACR pre-application review, major USNRC issues with the ACR design will be identified early and the scope of the work required to address these concerns, along with associated completion schedules, will be formulated and ultimately agreed upon with the USNRC. AECLT has been informed by the NRC staff that the results of their pre-application review will be documented in a Safety Assessment Report (SAR), which will state whether there are any major impediments to licensing the ACR in the United States. In particular, the SAR should provide confirmation of the licensing criteria applicable to the ACR, provide an assessment of the completeness of AECL's Research and Development (R and D) programs that exist or are planned in support of the ACR, provide an assessment of the suitability for purpose of the computer codes used in the safety

  8. High-speed ACR/NEMA interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reijns, Gerard L.; Santilli, D.; Schellingerhout, G.; Jochem, A. J.; Ottes, Fenno P.; van Aken, I. W.

    1990-08-01

    The design and implementation of a standard high speed ACR-NEMA communications interface is described. The upper layers e.g. the Presentation layer, Session layer and part of the Transport/Network layer have been implemented in software. In order to reach the speed requirement of 8M byte/sec. the lower layers e.g. part of the Transport/Network layer and Data Link layer have been implemented in hardware. We have developed and built an interface for an IBM personal computer P5/2 model 50, working under the operating system OS/2. The PS/2, model 50 has been equipped with a fast micro-channel bus, which enables a large throughput. The operating systern OS/2 has a multitasking capability, which enables concurrent programming. In order to minimize the delays, we used this multitasking facility to create a number of parallel operating "threads". The Transport/Network layer functions have been implemented using a receive thread, two send threads and a device driver with three hardware registers. The time to transfer a packet by DMA, to initiate the DMA logic and to execute the required Kernal functions have each been measured and figures are shown. The Data Link layer provides for storage of two packets in two separate random access memories (RAM's). These two RAM's enable a pipelined operation, which minimizes the delay in the Data Link layer.

  9. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Breast Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Mainiero, Martha B; Lourenco, Ana; Mahoney, Mary C; Newell, Mary S; Bailey, Lisa; Barke, Lora D; D'Orsi, Carl; Harvey, Jennifer A; Hayes, Mary K; Huynh, Phan Tuong; Jokich, Peter M; Lee, Su-Ju; Lehman, Constance D; Mankoff, David A; Nepute, Joshua A; Patel, Samir B; Reynolds, Handel E; Sutherland, M Linda; Haffty, Bruce G

    2013-01-01

    Mammography is the recommended method for breast cancer screening of women in the general population. However, mammography alone does not perform as well as mammography plus supplemental screening in high-risk women. Therefore, supplemental screening with MRI or ultrasound is recommended in selected high-risk populations. Screening breast MRI is recommended in women at high risk for breast cancer on the basis of family history or genetic predisposition. Ultrasound is an option for those high-risk women who cannot undergo MRI. Recent literature also supports the use of breast MRI in some women of intermediate risk, and ultrasound may be an option for intermediate-risk women with dense breasts. There is insufficient evidence to support the use of other imaging modalities, such as thermography, breast-specific gamma imaging, positron emission mammography, and optical imaging, for breast cancer screening. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review includes an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:23290667

  10. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Renal Cell Carcinoma Staging.

    PubMed

    Vikram, Raghunandan; Beland, Michael D; Blaufox, M Donald; Moreno, Courtney Coursey; Gore, John L; Harvin, Howard J; Heilbrun, Marta E; Liauw, Stanley L; Nguyen, Paul L; Nikolaidis, Paul; Preminger, Glenn M; Purysko, Andrei S; Raman, Steven S; Taffel, Myles T; Wang, Zhen J; Weinfeld, Robert M; Remer, Erick M; Lockhart, Mark E

    2016-05-01

    Renal cell carcinoma accounts for 2%-3% of all visceral malignancies. Preoperative imaging can provide important staging and anatomic information to guide treatment decisions. Size of the primary tumor and degree of local invasion, such as involvement of perinephric fat or renal sinus fat, and tumor thrombus in renal veins and inferior vena cava are important detriments to local staging of primary tumor. Both kidneys are assessed for presence of other synchronous lesions. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and application by the panel of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:27016804

  11. Proliferation Resistance Evaluation of ACR-1000 Fuel with Minor Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang

    2008-09-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is to significantly advance the science and technology of nuclear energy systems and to enhance the spent fuel proliferation resistance. It consists of both innovative nuclear reactors and innovative research in separation and transmutation. The merits of nuclear energy are high-density energy, with low environmental impacts (i.e. almost zero greenhouse gas emission). Planned efforts involve near-term and intermediate-term improvements in fuel utilization and recycling in current light water reactors (LWRs) as well as the longer-term development of new nuclear energy systems that offer much improved fuel utilization and proliferation resistance, along with continued advances in operational safety. For future advanced nuclear systems, minor actinides (MA) are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. MAs can play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. In this work, an Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) fuel unit lattice cell model with 43 UO2 fuel rods will be used to investigate the effectiveness of a Minor Actinide Reduction Approach (MARA) for enhancing proliferation resistance and improving the fuel cycle performance. The main MARA objective is to increase the 238Pu / Pu isotope ratio by using the transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel and thereby increase the proliferation resistance even for a very low fuel burnup. As a result, MARA is a very effective approach to enhance the proliferation resistance for the on power refueling ACR system nuclear fuel. The MA transmutation characteristics at different MA loadings were compared and their impact on neutronics

  12. 77 FR 36017 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ...; Cancellation of the June 19, 2012 ACRS Subcommittee Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee meeting on Digital I&C scheduled for June 19, 2012 has been cancelled. The notice of this meeting was previously published in the Federal Register on Monday, June 4, 2012, (77 FR 33003-33004). Information regarding this meeting can...

  13. 75 FR 58448 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269... Designs The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on October 21, 2010, at 11545... Subcommittee will review current Design Acceptance Criteria associated with Digital Instrumentation and...

  14. 76 FR 78951 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127- 64128). Information regarding topics to be discussed, changes to the... with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (Telephone (240) 888- 9835) to be escorted to...

  15. 76 FR 64123 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and... Register on October 21, 2010 (75 FR 65038-65039). Information regarding topics to be discussed, changes to... with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (240-888-9835) to be escorted to the meeting room....

  16. 77 FR 68160 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and..., (77 FR 64146- 64147). Information regarding changes to the agenda, whether the meeting has been... registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (240-888-9835) to be escorted to the meeting...

  17. 76 FR 64123 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant..., (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on the NRC Web..., MD. After registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (Telephone 240-888-9835) to...

  18. 78 FR 59076 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR... were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting... Flint North building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD. After registering with security,...

  19. 77 FR 59677 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and..., (76 FR 64126- 64127). Information regarding changes to the agenda, whether the meeting has been... registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (240-888-9835) to be escorted to the meeting...

  20. 77 FR 36582 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant License...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant License... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126- 64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on..., Rockville, MD. After registering with security, please contact Mr. Theron Brown (Telephone 240-888-9835)...

  1. 75 FR 57537 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000 The...: September 15, 2010. Antonio Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor...

  2. 76 FR 44377 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). ] Detailed meeting... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000..., Technical Support Branch, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  3. 75 FR 52556 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). ] Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000 The... a portion that may be closed to protect unclassified safeguards information or information that...

  4. 7 CFR 1412.23 - Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. 1412.23... Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.23 Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. (a... of production flexibility contract acres or base acres protected by a Conservation Reserve...

  5. 7 CFR 1412.23 - Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. 1412.23... Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.23 Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. (a... of production flexibility contract acres or base acres protected by a Conservation Reserve...

  6. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Osteonecrosis of the Hip.

    PubMed

    Murphey, Mark D; Roberts, Catherine C; Bencardino, Jenny T; Appel, Marc; Arnold, Erin; Chang, Eric Y; Dempsey, Molly E; Fox, Michael G; Fries, Ian Blair; Greenspan, Bennett S; Hochman, Mary G; Jacobson, Jon A; Mintz, Douglas N; Newman, Joel S; Rosenberg, Zehava S; Rubin, David A; Small, Kirstin M; Weissman, Barbara N

    2016-02-01

    Osteonecrosis of the hip (Legg-Calvé-Perthes) is a common disease, with 10,000-20,000 symptomatic cases annually in the United States. The disorder affects both adults and children and is most frequently associated with trauma and corticosteroid usage. The initial imaging evaluation of suspected hip osteonecrosis is done using radiography. MRI is the most sensitive and specific imaging modality for diagnosis of osteonecrosis of the hip. The clinical significance of hip osteonecrosis is dependent on its potential for articular collapse. The likelihood of articular collapse is significantly increased with involvement of greater than 30%-50% of the femoral head area, which is optimally evaluated by MRI, often in the sagittal plane. Contrast-enhanced MRI may be needed to detect early osteonecrosis of the hip in pediatric patients, revealing hypoperfusion. In patients with a contraindication for MRI, use of either CT or bone scintigraphy with SPECT (single-photon emission CT) are alternative radiologic methods of assessment. Imaging helps guide treatment, which may include core decompression, osteotomy, and ultimately, need for joint replacement. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:26846390

  7. 130. Julian Price Memorial Park. Fortyseven acre Julian Price Lake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. Julian Price Memorial Park. Forty-seven acre Julian Price Lake created by an impoundment. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  8. 6. View northeast of Ten Acre Lot with Joseph Fry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. View northeast of Ten Acre Lot with Joseph Fry Farm complex (center) and Beehive House (right)in the background - Joseph Fry Farm Landscape, 2153 South County Trail Road (U.S. Route 2), East Greenwich, Kent County, RI

  9. 75 FR 61781 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed... obtained from the website cited above or by contacting the identified DFO. Moreover, in view of...

  10. 76 FR 4739 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are.... Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. EPR will hold a...

  11. 76 FR 22935 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting.... Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor...

  12. 76 FR 11525 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on.... Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. EPR will hold a...

  13. 77 FR 4838 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64127- 64128). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on.... Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary...

  14. 76 FR 67232 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... October 17, 2011, (76 FR 64126-64127). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on.... Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor...

  15. Development and validation of a simple lupus severity index using ACR criteria for classification of SLE

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Ghalib A; Brown, Michael A; Kelly, Jennifer A; Thanou, Aikaterini; James, Judith A; Montgomery, Courtney G

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop a simple systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) severity index that requires knowledge of only American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria and subcriteria. Methods This study used demographic, mortality and medical records data of 1915 patients with lupus from the Lupus Family Registry and Repository. The data were randomly split (2:1 ratio) into independent training and validation sets. A logistic regression with ridge penalty was used to model the probability of being prescribed major immunosuppressive drugs—a surrogate indicator of lupus severity. ACR criteria and subcriteria were used as predictor variables in this model, and the resulting regression coefficient estimates obtained from the training data were used as item weightings to construct the severity index. Results The resulting index was tested on the independent validation dataset and was found to have high predictive accuracy for immunosuppressive use and early mortality. The index was also found to be strongly correlated with a previously existing severity score for lupus. In addition, demographic factors known to influence lupus severity (eg, age of onset, gender and ethnicity) all showed robust associations with our severity index that were consistent with observed clinical trends. Conclusions This new index can be easily computed using ACR criteria, which may be among the most readily available data elements from patient medical records. This tool may be useful in lupus research, especially large dataset analyses to stratify patients by disease severity, an important prognostic indicator in SLE. PMID:27026812

  16. ACRS elections can minimize taxes on oil and gas income

    SciTech Connect

    Bandy, D.

    1983-06-01

    The Accelerated Cost Recovery System (ACRS) is composed of elections which make either increases or decreases on oil and gas income possible. Current taxes can be elected to be reduced, but future taxes will be increased as a result of that decision. The various decisions that can be made on ACRS elections and the impact they will make on taxes are discussed, using an after-tax rate of return and showing the before- and after-tax returns when possible. Pertinent areas of discussion include full investment credit vs. full basis; equipment trade-in considerations; factors to be considered in the disposition of real estate; and the impact of alternative minimum tax on ACRS elections. 3 tables.

  17. 24 CFR 1710.9 - Twenty acre lots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Twenty acre lots. 1710.9 Section 1710.9 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  18. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) No later than April 1, 2009, owners on a farm may establish base acres for pulse crops. (1) Subject... pulse crops are equal to the sum of the following: (i) The 4-year average of the acreage planted or prevented planted to the pulse crops during each of the 1998 through 2001 crop years for harvest,...

  19. "Forty Acres and a Mule" as a Pedagogical Motif

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    This essay revisits an iconic yet now languishing phrase in United States political culture--"Forty Acres and a Mule"--to clarify the meaning of freedom and to assess the contemporary meaning of its betrayal by the U.S. government immediately after the Civil War. Among the few citizens for whom the phrase still retains a semblance of…

  20. ACR Electrical Systems. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark

    This document contains a teacher's guide and student guide for a high school-level competency-based course in air conditioning and refrigeration (ACR) equipment electrical systems. Presented in the teacher's guide are the following: explanation of the instructional units' use; competency profile for recording students' performance of the tasks in…

  1. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) No later than April 1, 2009, owners on a farm may establish base acres for pulse crops. (1) Subject... Administrator. (c) Subject to paragraph (d) of this section, the total acreage of a pulse crop on the farm...) of this section results in a negative number, the pulse crop acreage on the farm for that crop...

  2. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) No later than April 1, 2009, owners on a farm may establish base acres for pulse crops. (1) Subject... Administrator. (c) Subject to paragraph (d) of this section, the total acreage of a pulse crop on the farm...) of this section results in a negative number, the pulse crop acreage on the farm for that crop...

  3. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) No later than April 1, 2009, owners on a farm may establish base acres for pulse crops. (1) Subject... Administrator. (c) Subject to paragraph (d) of this section, the total acreage of a pulse crop on the farm...) of this section results in a negative number, the pulse crop acreage on the farm for that crop...

  4. MedlinePlus: Creatinine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidney Diseases Resources Creatinine (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Creatinine - blood Also in Spanish Creatinine - urine Also ... and Albumin/ Creatinine Ratio (American Association for Clinical Chemistry) Urine Protein and Urine Protein to Creatinine Ratio ( ...

  5. Assessment of Low-Contrast Resolution for the ACR CT Accreditation Program: What is the Impact of Iterative Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    Kofler, James M.; Yu, Lifeng; Leng, Shuai; Zhang, Yi; Li, Zhoubo; Carter, Rickey E.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) thresholds with visual assessment of low-contrast resolution (LCR) in filtered-backprojection (FBP) and iteratively-reconstructed (IR) CT images. Methods ACR CT accreditation phantom LCR images were acquired at CTDIvol levels of 8, 12, and 16 mGy using two scanner models and reconstructed using one FBP and two IR kernels. Acquisitions were repeated 100 times. Three board-certified medical physicists blindly reviewed the LCR-section images. Pass-percentage rates (PPRs) using previous and current ACR CT accreditation criteria were compared. Results Observer PPRs for FBP images were <32%. For IR images, 5/18 settings/dose/model configurations had PPRs >32% (maximum 76.3%). For CNR evaluation of FBP images, PPRs for 15 configurations were >70%. For IR images, all PPRs were ≥96%. Conclusions The CNR threshold used by the ACR CT accreditation program yields higher PPRs than visual assessment of LCR, potentially resulting in lower quality images passing the ACR CNR criteria. PMID:25853774

  6. 75 FR 28823 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-24

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268- 58269). Detailed... oral statements and/or written comments should notify the Designated Federal Official (DFO), Peter Wen (Telephone 301-415-2832 or E-mail ( Peter.Wen@nrc.gov ) five days prior to the meeting, if possible, so...

  7. 75 FR 1831 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed ACRS meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available... prior to the meeting, if possible, so that appropriate arrangements can be made. Thirty-five hard copies... compact disk containing each presentation at least 30 minutes before the meeting. Electronic...

  8. 75 FR 66401 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP1000...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ...; Revision to October 21, 2010, ACRS Meeting Federal Register Notice The Federal Register Notice for the..., October 21, 2010, . All other items remain the same as previously published. Further information regarding...- 6279, E-mail: Weidong.Wang@nrc.gov between 7:30 a.m. and 5:15 p.m. (ET)). Dated: October 21,...

  9. 78 FR 8202 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... and/or written comments should notify the Designated Federal Official (DFO), Girija Shukla...

  10. 76 FR 62867 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... procedures for the conduct of and participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  11. 78 FR 2694 - Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ..., (77 FR 64146-64147). Information regarding changes to the agenda, whether the meeting has been... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and... Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  12. 76 FR 57082 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels Revision to September 21, 2011, ACRS Meeting; Federal Register Notice The Federal Register Notice for the ACRS Subcommittee Meeting on Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels is...

  13. 76 FR 9835 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Instrumentation & Control (DI&C); Revision to February 23, 2011, ACRS Meeting Federal Register Notice The Federal Register Notice for the ACRS Subcommittee Meeting on Digital Instrumentation & Control (DI&C) scheduled...

  14. Two chip ACR-NEMA datalink/physical layer implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJarnette, Wayne T.

    1990-08-01

    A high performance ACR-NEMA computer interface board for the IBM PC/AT bus will be described. The interface board (AT/NSIF) implements the transport/network thru physical layers of the R-NEW standard. The interface board also supplies a session layer mapping function. The session layer mapping function, the transport/network layer protocol and the datalink layer protocol are implented via an on board microprocessor and resident firmware. The interface board makes use of a pair of gate arrays to implement the datalink frame checksum calculation and the physical layer protocol. The two gate array datalink/physical layer implementation will be described. One gate array interfaces the ACR-NEMA EIA-485 transceivers to high speed buffer memory. This gate array, the Datalink/Physical Layer Pipeline Processor (DLPP), is responsible for the ACR-NEMA physical layer word transfer protocol as well as the physical layer parity calculation. The DLPP also handles the datalink layer checksum calculation in real time. The second gate array, the Datalink/Physical Layer Controller (DLC), contains control and status registers for controlling and monitoring the DLPP. The PLC is also responsible for managing the CR-NEM physical layer interface arbitration. Performance measurements for the Datalink/Physical Layer Pipeline Processor will be detailed. AT/PASIF board level point to point communication performance measurements will be described.

  15. 10 CFR 52.87 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.87 Section 52.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the ACRS. The...

  16. 76 FR 40406 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Plant Operations and Fire Protection; Revision to an ACRS Subcommittee Meeting Federal Register Notice The Federal Register Notice for the ACRS Subcommittee Meeting...

  17. DETERMINANTS OF VARIABILITY IN ACUTE TO CHRONIC TOXICITY RATIOS IN AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variability in acute to chronic ratios (ACRs; LC50/chronic value) has been a continuing interest in aquatic toxicology because of the reliance on ACRs to estimate chronic toxicity for chemicals and species with known acute toxicity but limited or no information on sublethal toxic...

  18. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Clinically Suspected Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Michael; Ahmed, Osmanuddin; Chandra, Ankur; Gage, Kenneth L; Gerhard-Herman, Marie D; Ginsburg, Michael; Gornik, Heather L; Johnson, Pamela T; Oliva, Isabel B; Ptak, Thomas; Steigner, Michael L; Strax, Richard; Rybicki, Frank J; Dill, Karin E

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are often included in the differential diagnosis of common clinical presentations, including hypoxemia, hemoptysis, brain abscesses, and paradoxical stroke, as well as affecting 30% to 50% of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Various imaging studies are used in the diagnostic and screening settings, which have been reviewed by the ACR Appropriateness Criteria Vascular Imaging Panel. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation screening in patients with HHT is commonly performed with transthoracic echocardiographic bubble study, followed by CT for positive cases. Although transthoracic echocardiographic bubble studies and radionuclide perfusion detect right-to-left shunts, they do not provide all of the information needed for treatment planning and may remain positive after embolization. Pulmonary angiography is appropriate for preintervention planning but not as an initial test. MR angiography has a potential role in younger patients with HHT who may require lifelong surveillance, despite lower spatial resolution compared with CT. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:27209598

  19. Substrate-dependent dynamics of the multidrug efflux transporter AcrB of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kentaro; Tamai, Rei; Yamazaki, Megumi; Inaba, Takehiko; Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Kawagishi, Ikuro

    2016-01-01

    The resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type xenobiotic efflux system plays a major role in the multidrug resistance of gram-negative bacteria. The only constitutively expressed RND system of Escherichia coli consists of the inner membrane transporter AcrB, the membrane fusion protein AcrA, and the outer membrane channel TolC. The latter two components are shared with another RND-type transporter AcrD, whose expression is induced by environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate how RND-type ternary complexes, which span two membranes and the cell wall, form in vivo. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy revealed that most fluorescent foci formed by AcrB fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) were stationary in the presence of TolC but showed lateral displacements when tolC was deleted. The fraction of stationary AcrB-GFP foci decreased with increasing levels of AcrD. We propose that the AcrB-containing complex becomes unstable upon the induction of AcrD, which presumably replaces AcrB, a process we call "transporter exchange." This instability is suppressed by AcrB-specific substrates, suggesting that the ternary complex is stabilised when it is in action. These results suggest that the assembly of the RND-type efflux system is dynamically regulated in response to external stimuli, shedding new light on the adaptive antibiotic resistance of bacteria. PMID:26916090

  20. Substrate-dependent dynamics of the multidrug efflux transporter AcrB of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kentaro; Tamai, Rei; Yamazaki, Megumi; Inaba, Takehiko; Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Kawagishi, Ikuro

    2016-01-01

    The resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type xenobiotic efflux system plays a major role in the multidrug resistance of gram-negative bacteria. The only constitutively expressed RND system of Escherichia coli consists of the inner membrane transporter AcrB, the membrane fusion protein AcrA, and the outer membrane channel TolC. The latter two components are shared with another RND-type transporter AcrD, whose expression is induced by environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate how RND-type ternary complexes, which span two membranes and the cell wall, form in vivo. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy revealed that most fluorescent foci formed by AcrB fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) were stationary in the presence of TolC but showed lateral displacements when tolC was deleted. The fraction of stationary AcrB-GFP foci decreased with increasing levels of AcrD. We propose that the AcrB-containing complex becomes unstable upon the induction of AcrD, which presumably replaces AcrB, a process we call “transporter exchange.” This instability is suppressed by AcrB-specific substrates, suggesting that the ternary complex is stabilised when it is in action. These results suggest that the assembly of the RND-type efflux system is dynamically regulated in response to external stimuli, shedding new light on the adaptive antibiotic resistance of bacteria. PMID:26916090

  1. Nontraditional Cardiovascular Biomarkers and Estimation of Cardiovascular Risk in Predialysis Chronic Kidney Disease Patients and Their Correlations With Carotid Intima Media Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Sathi, Satyanand; Mahapatra, Himanshu; Sunder, Sham; Jayaraman, Rajesh; Sharma, Neera; Verma, Himanshu; Krishnamoorthy, Venkataramanan; Gupta, Anurag; Kanchi, Prabhu; Daksh, Sunil; Pursnani, Lalit; Shadab, Faisal; Singh, Manveer

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular biomarkers such as N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), hs-CRP (high sensitivity C-reactive protein), and albuminuria predict underlying heart disease in the general population as well as CKD patients. Objectives: We aimed to study the association of NT-proBNP, cTnT, hs-CRP, and spot urine albumin creatinine ratio with carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) for cardiovascular risk estimation in predialysis CKD (chronic kidney disease) patients. Patients and Methods: This cross-sectional study included a total of 120 adult predialysis CKD patients. Forty patients were allocated in each predialysis CKD group of stages 3, 4, and 5. Serum cTnT and hs-CRP, plasma NT-proBNP, and single spot urine albumin creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured. Ultrasonographic examination of carotid artery was done with 7.5 MHz linear probe in B mode ultrasonography and carotid intima media thickness was measured. Results: Mean values ± standard deviation of plasma NT-proBNP (pg/mL), serum hs-CRP (mg/L), spot urine ACR (mg/g of creatinine), and CIMT (mm) were 585.68 ± 514.84, 5.96 ± 2.52, 719.37 ± 411.36, and 0.78 ± 0.15, respectively in predialysis CKD patients (n = 120). Serum cTnT level was high in 40% of predialysis CKD patients. Among cardiovascular biomarkers, plasma NT-proBNP had maximum strength of correlation (Spearman Rho correlation coefficient; r = 0.575 and P < 0.0001) with the carotid intima media thickness followed by serum cTnT (Spearman Rho correlation coefficient; r = 0.419 and P < 0.0001), spot urine albumin creatinine ratio (Spearman Rho correlation coefficient; r = 0.322 and P < 0.0001), and serum hs-CRP (Spearman Rho correlation coefficient; r = 0.246 and P = 0.007). Conclusions: Nontraditional cardiovascular biomarkers such as plasma NT-proBNP, serum cTnT, serum hs-CRP, and spot urine ACR significantly correlate with CIMT. These biomarkers can estimate the cardiovascular risk in a predialysis

  2. TU-A-18C-01: ACR Accreditation Updates in CT, Ultrasound, Mammography and MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R; Berns, E; Hangiandreou, N; McNitt-Gray, M

    2014-06-15

    A goal of an imaging accreditation program is to ensure adequate image quality, verify appropriate staff qualifications, and to assure patient and personnel safety. Currently, more than 35,000 facilities in 10 modalities have been accredited by the American College of Radiology (ACR), making the ACR program one of the most prolific accreditation options in the U.S. In addition, the ACR is one of the accepted accreditations required by some state laws, CMS/MIPPA insurance and others. Familiarity with the ACR accreditation process is therefore essential to clinical diagnostic medical physicists. Maintaining sufficient knowledge of the ACR program must include keeping up-to-date as the various modality requirements are refined to better serve the goals of the program and to accommodate newer technologies and practices. This session consists of presentations from authorities in four ACR accreditation modality programs, including magnetic resonance imaging, mammography, ultrasound, and computed tomography. Each speaker will discuss the general components of the modality program and address any recent changes to the requirements. Learning Objectives: To understand the requirements of the ACR MR accreditation program. The discussion will include accreditation of whole-body general purpose magnets, dedicated extremity systems well as breast MRI accreditation. Anticipated updates to the ACR MRI Quality Control Manual will also be reviewed. To understand the current ACR MAP Accreditation requirement and present the concepts and structure of the forthcoming ACR Digital Mammography QC Manual and Program. To understand the new requirements of the ACR ultrasound accreditation program, and roles the physicist can play in annual equipment surveys and setting up and supervising the routine QC program. To understand the requirements of the ACR CT accreditation program, including updates to the QC manual as well as updates through the FAQ process.

  3. Small Break LOCA Analysis of ACR-700 NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Limin Zheng; Sen Shen; Wright, David

    2006-07-01

    A small break loss of coolant accident (SB-LOCA) analysis to assess a preliminary conceptual design of the ACR-700 PHWR nuclear power plant (NPP) developed by AECL has been performed with CATHENA MOD 3.5d, a PHWR system thermal-hydraulic analysis code. The limiting break size has been found by performing a sensitivity study for three different break locations [i.e. reactor inlet header (RIH), HTS pump suction (PS) pipe and reactor outlet head (ROH)] under the limiting case (i.e. SB-LOCA with subsequent loss of class IV power with all safety systems available). The analysis results indicate that the SB-LOCA acceptance criteria are satisfied. (authors)

  4. The ACR BI-RADS® Experience: Learning From History

    PubMed Central

    Burnside, Elizabeth S.; Sickles, Edward A.; Bassett, Lawrence W.; Rubin, Daniel L.; Lee, Carol H.; Ikeda, Debra M.; Mendelson, Ellen B.; Wilcox, Pamela A.; Butler, Priscilla F.; D’Orsi, Carl J.

    2011-01-01

    The Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System® (BI-RADS®) initiative, instituted by the ACR, was begun in the late 1980s to address a lack of standardization and uniformity in mammography practice reporting. An important component of the BI-RADS initiative is the lexicon, a dictionary of descriptors of specific imaging features. The BI-RADS lexicon has always been data driven, using descriptors that previously had been shown in the literature to be predictive of benign and malignant disease. Once established, the BI-RADS lexicon provided new opportunities for quality assurance, communication, research, and improved patient care. The history of this lexicon illustrates a series of challenges and instructive successes that provide a valuable guide for other groups that aspire to develop similar lexicons in the future. PMID:19945040

  5. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Acute Trauma to the Foot.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Laura W; Kransdorf, Mark J; Adler, Ronald; Appel, Marc; Beaman, Francesca D; Bernard, Stephanie A; Bruno, Michael A; Dempsey, Molly E; Fries, Ian B; Khoury, Viviane; Khurana, Bharti; Mosher, Timothy J; Roberts, Catherine C; Tuite, Michael J; Ward, Robert J; Zoga, Adam C; Weissman, Barbara N

    2015-06-01

    This ACR Appropriateness Criteria article offers imaging triage guidance for several variants of patients presenting with acute foot trauma. Patients meeting inclusion criteria for the Ottawa Rules should undergo a 3-view radiographic series. Diabetic patients with peripheral neuropathy should undergo radiography, even though they do not meet the Ottawa Rules inclusion criteria. Patients with suspected midfoot and/or Lisfranc injury should undergo 3-view radiographs with weight bearing on at least the anterior-posterior view. Patients with suspected Lisfranc injury and normal radiographs should be considered for MRI and CT on a case-by-case basis. MRI or ultrasound could confirm cases of suspected acute tendon rupture. Radiography is the initial imaging modality for suspected plantar plate injury after metatarsal-phalangeal joint injury. Weight-bearing anterior-posterior, lateral, and sesamoid axial views may detect proximal migration of the hallux sesamoids. Ultrasound or MRI can directly evaluate the capsuloligamentous complex, specifically the plantar plate. Radiography can detect radiopaque penetrating foreign bodies, and ultrasound can be helpful in detecting those that are nonradiopaque. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures, by the panel. In instances in which evidence is lacking or is not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging and treatment. PMID:25935824

  6. The active commuting route environment scale (ACRES): development and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Route environments can be a potentially important factor in influencing people's behaviours in relation to active commuting. To better understand these possible relationships, assessments of route environments are needed. We therefore developed a scale; the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES), for the assessment of bicyclists' and pedestrians' perceptions of their commuting route environments. Here we will report on the development and the results of validity and reliability assessments thereof. Methods Active commuters (n = 54) were recruited when they bicycled in Stockholm, Sweden. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm were assembled to form an expert panel (n = 24). The active commuters responded to the scale on two occasions, and the expert panel responded to it once. To test criterion-related validity, differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban environments of Greater Stockholm were compared between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, four items were compared with existing objective measures. Test-retest reproducibility was assessed with three types of analysis: order effect, typical error and intraclass correlation. Results There was a concordance in sizes and directions of differences in ratings of inner urban and suburban environments between the experts and the commuters. Furthermore, both groups' ratings were in line with existing objectively measured differences between the two environmental settings. Order effects between test and retest were observed in 6 of 36 items. The typical errors ranged from 0.93 to 2.54, and the intraclass correlation coefficients ranged from 'moderate' (0.42) to 'almost perfect' (0.87). Conclusions The ACRES was characterized by considerable criterion-related validity and reasonable test-retest reproducibility. PMID:20609250

  7. Substrate path in the AcrB multidrug efflux pump of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Fasahath; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    A major tripartite multidrug efflux pump of Escherichia coli, AcrAB-TolC, confers resistance to a wide variety of compounds. The drug molecule is captured by AcrB probably from the periplasm or the periplasm/inner membrane interface, and is passed through AcrB and then TolC to the medium. Currently there exist numerous crystallographic and mutation data concerning the regions of AcrB and its homologs that may interact with substrates. Starting with these data, we devised fluorescence assays in whole cells to determine the entire substrate path through AcrB. We tested 48 residues in AcrB along the predicted substrate path and 25 gave positive results, based on the covalent labeling of cysteine residues by a lipophilic dye-maleimide and the blocking of Nile Red efflux by covalent labeling with bulky maleimide reagents. These residues are all located in the periplasmic domain, in regions we designate as the lower part of the large external cleft, the cleft itself, the crystallographically defined binding pocket, and the gate between the pocket and the funnel. Our observations suggest that the substrate is captured in the lower cleft region of AcrB, then transported through the binding pocket, the gate, and finally to the AcrB funnel that connects AcrB to TolC. PMID:20804453

  8. Effectiveness of urban stormwater control measures in a 100-acre test site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kansas City, Missouri chose a test area (100 acres) and a control area (80 acres) to test the effectiveness of urban stormwater control (SCM) deployment in conjunction with the USEPA, University of Alabama, University of Missouri-Kansas City and TetraTech. Both the test and cont...

  9. 42 CFR 417.594 - Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR). 417... community rate (ACR). (a) Basic rule. Each HMO or CMP must compute its basic rate as follows: (1) Compute an... must compute its initial rate using either of the following systems: (i) A community rating system...

  10. 42 CFR 417.594 - Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR). 417... community rate (ACR). (a) Basic rule. Each HMO or CMP must compute its basic rate as follows: (1) Compute an... must compute its initial rate using either of the following systems: (i) A community rating system...

  11. 42 CFR 417.594 - Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR). 417... adjusted community rate (ACR). (a) Basic rule. Each HMO or CMP must compute its basic rate as follows: (1... community rating system as defined in § 417.104(b); or (ii) A system, approved by CMS, under which the...

  12. 42 CFR 417.594 - Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR). 417... adjusted community rate (ACR). (a) Basic rule. Each HMO or CMP must compute its basic rate as follows: (1... community rating system as defined in § 417.104(b); or (ii) A system, approved by CMS, under which the...

  13. 42 CFR 417.594 - Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR). 417... adjusted community rate (ACR). (a) Basic rule. Each HMO or CMP must compute its basic rate as follows: (1... community rating system as defined in § 417.104(b); or (ii) A system, approved by CMS, under which the...

  14. 10 CFR 52.53 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.53 Section 52.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  15. 10 CFR 52.23 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.23 Section 52.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application for an early...

  16. 10 CFR 52.141 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.141 Section 52.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  17. 10 CFR 52.141 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.141 Section 52.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  18. 10 CFR 52.53 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.53 Section 52.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  19. 10 CFR 52.23 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.23 Section 52.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application for an early...

  20. 10 CFR 52.53 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.53 Section 52.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  1. 10 CFR 52.53 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.53 Section 52.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  2. 10 CFR 52.141 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.141 Section 52.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  3. 75 FR 7632 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) The ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR will hold a meeting on March 2, 2010, at...

  4. 10 CFR 52.53 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.53 Section 52.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  5. 10 CFR 52.141 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.141 Section 52.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  6. 10 CFR 52.165 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.165 Section 52.165 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  7. 10 CFR 52.141 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.141 Section 52.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  8. 75 FR 13611 - Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and PRA; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability... would result in major inconvenience. Dated: March 15, 2010. Antonio F. Dias, Chief, Reactor...

  9. 75 FR 10840 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... October 14, 2009, (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR will hold a meeting on March...

  10. 75 FR 7634 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    .... Dated: February 12, 2010. Antonio F. Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR...

  11. 75 FR 1830 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    .... Dated: January 7, 2010. Antonio Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Planning and Procedures Subcommittee Meeting... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009, (74 FR...

  12. 76 FR 76442 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy... Notice for the ACRS Subcommittee Meeting on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels scheduled to be held...

  13. 78 FR 8202 - Meeting of the Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147... Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels will hold a meeting...

  14. ACR CT Accreditation Program and the Lung Cancer Screening Program Designation.

    PubMed

    Kazerooni, Ella A; Armstrong, Mark R; Amorosa, Judith K; Hernandez, Dina; Liebscher, Lawrence A; Nath, Hrudaya; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Stern, Eric J; Wilcox, Pamela A

    2016-02-01

    The ACR recognizes that low-dose CT for lung cancer screening has the potential to significantly reduce mortality from lung cancer in the appropriate high-risk population. The ACR supports the recommendations of the US Preventive Services Task Force and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network for screening patients. To be effective, lung cancer screening should be performed at sites providing high-quality low-dose CT examinations overseen and interpreted by qualified physicians using a structured reporting and management system. The ACR has developed a set of tools necessary for radiologists to take the lead on the front lines of lung cancer screening. The ACR Lung Cancer Screening Center designation is built upon the ACR CT accreditation program and requires use of Lung-RADS or a similar structured reporting and management system. This designation provides patients and referring providers with the assurance that they will receive high-quality screening with appropriate follow-up care. PMID:26846533

  15. Is it time for a dedicated pediatric MRI ACR accreditation program?

    PubMed

    Serai, Suraj D; Jones, Blaise V; Podberesky, Daniel J; Coley, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Participation in ACR accreditation programs has become an essential practice for adult and pediatric imaging centers across the country. The responsibility for these ACR programs is vested in the Commission on Quality and Safety, 1 of 7 operational commissions in the ACR. The MRI Accreditation Program evaluates the qualifications of personnel, quality control programs, MR safety policies, and image quality specific to MRI. Currently, the ACR MRI Accreditation Program is designed primarily to evaluate adult MRI practices, which are in many ways not applicable to pediatric applications and facilities. In this article, the authors describe the difficulties faced during the ACR MRI Accreditation Program at a dedicated children's hospital and offer suggested changes for the process. PMID:23245436

  16. In vitro drug sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum in Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Kremsner, P. G.; Zotter, G. M.; Feldmeier, H.; Graninger, W.; Kollaritsch, M.; Wiedermann, G.; Rocha, R. M.; Wernsdorfer, W. H.

    1989-01-01

    In Acre, the westernmost state of Brazil in the Amazon region, the sensitivity of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine, amodiaquine, mefloquine, quinine and sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine was determined in vitro by the Rieckmann microtechnique. The study was performed between January and June 1987; the in vitro parasite responses to all antimalarial drugs were determined according to the recommendations of WHO. Of 83 isolates of P. falciparum, all were sensitive to mefloquine and of 87 isolates of P. falciparum, 84 (97%) were sensitive to quinine. The EC50 for mefloquine was 0.27 mumol/l and for quinine 4.60 mumol/l. In contrast, 65 of 89 (73%) and 70 of 83 (84%) isolates were resistant to amodiaquine and chloroquine, respectively; 11 isolates even grew at 6.4 mumol chloroquine/l. The EC50 for amodiaquine was 0.34 mumol/l and for chloroquine 0.73 mumol/l. Sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine resistance was seen in 23 of 25 (92%) cases. These data clearly indicate that in the western part of the Amazon region the 4-aminoquinolines, as well as sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, can no longer be recommended for the treatment of P. falciparum infections. PMID:2670298

  17. [Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of snakebites in Rio Branco, Acre].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Edna; Queiroz-Andrade, Marcony; Lira-da-Silva, Rejâne Maria; Tavares-Neto, José

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the clinical epidemiological profile of the snake bites attended at the reference hospital of Acre. One hundred-forty four patients were studied prospectively, from January to December 2002. One hundred-thirteen (78.5%) cases were classified as accidents by venomous snakes. The genera Bothrops, Lachesis and Micrurus were responsible, respectively, for 75.7%, 2.1% e 0.7% cases. The accidents predominated in males (78.5%), rural workers (51.4%) and between 10 and 29 years old (43.8%). The distribution according to the severity of poisoning by genera Bothrops was: moderate (48.6%), mild (31.2%) or severe (20.2%). Two cases of Bothrops accident did not receive serum therapy. However, the antivenom was administered in twenty-three patients without envenoming. In conclusion, the results obtained were different of the observed by another authors with respect to the severity of accidents and suitable treatment. PMID:15717089

  18. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Radiologic Management of Hepatic Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Kouri, Brian E; Abrams, Ross A; Al-Refaie, Waddah B; Azad, Nilofer; Farrell, James; Gaba, Ron C; Gervais, Debra A; Gipson, Matthew G; Kolbeck, Kenneth J; Marshalleck, Francis E; Pinchot, Jason W; Small, William; Ray, Charles E; Hohenwalter, Eric J

    2016-03-01

    Management of primary and secondary hepatic malignancy is a complex problem. Achieving optimal care for this challenging population often requires the involvement of multiple medical and surgical disciplines. Because of the wide variety of potential therapies, treatment protocols for various malignancies continue to evolve. Consequently, development of appropriate therapeutic algorithms necessitates consideration of medical options, such as systemic chemotherapy; surgical options, such as resection or transplantation; and loco-regional therapies, such as thermal ablation and transarterial embolization techniques. This article provides a review of treatment strategies for the three most common subtypes of hepatic malignancy treated with loco-regional therapies: hepatocellular carcinoma, neuroendocrine metastases, and colorectal metastases. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:26944037

  19. Pseudoatomic Structure of the Tripartite Multidrug Efflux Pump AcrAB-TolC Reveals the Intermeshing Cogwheel-like Interaction between AcrA and TolC.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeongseop; Kim, Jin-Sik; Song, Saemee; Shigematsu, Hideki; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hyun, Jaekyung; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2016-02-01

    The resistance-nodulation-division type tripartite pump AcrAB-TolC and its homologs are responsible for multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria by expelling a wide variety of toxic substrates. The three essential components, AcrA, AcrB, and TolC, must function in concert with each respective binding partner within the complex. In this study, we report an 8.2-Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) 3D reconstruction of the complex that consists of an AcrAB fusion protein and a chimeric TolC protein. The pseudoatomic structure derived from the cryo-EM reconstruction clearly demonstrates a model only compatible with the adaptor bridging mechanism, wherein the funnel-like AcrA hexamer forms an intermeshing cogwheel-like interaction with the α-barrel tip region of TolC. These observations provide a structural milestone for understanding multidrug resistance in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, and may also lead to the design of new antibacterial drugs. PMID:26777412

  20. Update of ACR guidelines for osteoarthritis: role of the coxibs.

    PubMed

    Schnitzer, Thomas J

    2002-04-01

    The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) recently provided an update to the guidelines published in 1995 on the management of osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee and hip. Members of the Ad Hoc Committee on OA Guidelines followed an evidence-based medicine approach to revise the guidelines by reviewing an extensive literature search of the Cochrane and Medline databases and published abstracts, and discussing evidence with expert rheumatologists. The goal of the guidelines is to provide recommendations to control patients' OA pain, improve function and health-related quality of life, and avoid therapeutic toxicity. As in the original guidelines, nonpharmacologic interventions involving patient education and physical measures are recommended following initial diagnosis of OA. The pharmacologic algorithm was updated to include currently available therapeutic agents. Acetaminophen remains first-line therapy because of its cost, efficacy, and safety profiles. Cyclooxygenase-2-selective inhibitors (coxibs) have been included as an alternative to nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in patients at risk for upper gastrointestinal adverse events. Tramadol is an available alternative for patients who have a contraindication to coxibs or nonselective NSAIDs or for those who have not responded to previous oral therapy. Intra-articular injections or topical therapy may be used as monotherapy, or as an adjunct to oral analgesia. Surgical treatment of OA remains a last resort for patients who have failed to respond to nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment approaches, and have progressive limitation in their activities of daily living. Several therapies for the prevention or treatment of OA are currently under investigation, including nutritional supplements, such as glucosamine and chondroitin, disease-modifying OA drugs, and devices, such as acupuncture and electromagnetic therapy. It is anticipated that the guidelines for the management of OA will

  1. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nandini D; Broderick, Daniel F; Burns, Judah; Deshmukh, Tejaswini K; Fries, Ian Blair; Harvey, H Benjamin; Holly, Langston; Hunt, Christopher H; Jagadeesan, Bharathi D; Kennedy, Tabassum A; O'Toole, John E; Perlmutter, Joel S; Policeni, Bruno; Rosenow, Joshua M; Schroeder, Jason W; Whitehead, Matthew T; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Corey, Amanda S

    2016-09-01

    Most patients presenting with uncomplicated acute low back pain (LBP) and/or radiculopathy do not require imaging. Imaging is considered in those patients who have had up to 6 weeks of medical management and physical therapy that resulted in little or no improvement in their back pain. It is also considered for those patients presenting with red flags raising suspicion for serious underlying conditions, such as cauda equina syndrome, malignancy, fracture, and infection. Many imaging modalities are available to clinicians and radiologists for evaluating LBP. Application of these modalities depends largely on the working diagnosis, the urgency of the clinical problem, and comorbidities of the patient. When there is concern for fracture of the lumbar spine, multidetector CT is recommended. Those deemed to be interventional candidates, with LBP lasting for > 6 weeks having completed conservative management with persistent radiculopathic symptoms, may seek MRI. Patients with severe or progressive neurologic deficit on presentation and red flags should be evaluated with MRI. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:27496288

  2. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs ACR estimates by up to a factor of four. When calculated using the geometric means of the no- and lowest-observed effect concentrations, ACRs with rainbow trout and Cd were 0.6 and 0.95; Zn about 1.0; and for Pb 3.3 and 11. The comparable Pb ACRs for the mayfly and Chironomus were 5.2 and 51 respectively. Our rainbow trout ACRs with Pb were about 5-20x lower than earlier reports with salmonids. We suggest discounting previous ACR results that used larger and older fish in their acute tests. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Geological Survey.

  3. 75 FR 38564 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Subcommittee on Plant Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and... and Fire Protection The ACRS Subcommittee on Plant Operations and Fire Protection will hold a...

  4. 43 CFR 2524.7 - Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries Within a Reclamation Project § 2524.7 Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres....

  5. 43 CFR 2524.7 - Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries Within a Reclamation Project § 2524.7 Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres....

  6. 43 CFR 2524.7 - Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries Within a Reclamation Project § 2524.7 Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres....

  7. 43 CFR 2524.7 - Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries Within a Reclamation Project § 2524.7 Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres....

  8. 75 FR 7634 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the Subcommittee on Power Uprates...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268-58269). Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available on... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the Subcommittee on Power Uprates... Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  9. Association between ACR1 gene product expression and cardiomyopathy in children

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Niu, Ling; He, Xiuhua; Xue, Ying; Ling, Nan; Wang, Zhenzhou; An, Xinjiang

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyopathy is a heterogeneous heart disease. Although morbidity of pediatric cardiomyopathy has been on the increase, effective treatments have not been identified. The aim of the study was to examine the expression of ACR1 gene products in association with cardiomyopathy in children. In total, 73 patients and 76 healthy subjects were enrolled in the study, from April, 2013 to April, 2015. The relative expression of ACR1 mRNA and protein were quantified in all cases, using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), ELISA and western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was used to stain cardiac tissue samples to reveal differences between the patients and the control group. The results showed that the level of ACR1 mRNA by RT-qPCR was not different between the two study groups. However, ELISA and western blot analysis showed a significant difference, with patients expressing lower levels of ACR1. Additionally, immunohistochemistry revealed the levels of ACR1 were reduced in patients as the time course of disease increased. Thus, there is an association between the inhibition of ACR1 expression and the development of the disease. These findings are useful in the elucidation of the pathogenesis of pediatric cardiomyopathy, a severe disease with few effective treatment options available. PMID:27588091

  10. Substrate binding accelerates the conformational transitions and substrate dissociation in multidrug efflux transporter AcrB

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Beibei; Weng, Jingwei; Wang, Wenning

    2015-01-01

    The tripartite efflux pump assembly AcrAB-TolC is the major multidrug resistance transporter in E. coli. The inner membrane transporter AcrB is a homotrimer, energized by the proton movement down the transmembrane electrochemical gradient. The asymmetric crystal structures of AcrB with three monomers in distinct conformational states [access (A), binding (B) and extrusion (E)] support a functional rotating mechanism, in which each monomer of AcrB cycles among the three states in a concerted way. However, the relationship between the conformational changes during functional rotation and drug translocation has not been totally understood. Here, we explored the conformational changes of the AcrB homotrimer during the ABE to BEA transition in different substrate-binding states using targeted MD simulations. It was found that the dissociation of substrate from the distal binding pocket of B monomer is closely related to the concerted conformational changes in the translocation pathway, especially the side chain reorientation of Phe628 and Tyr327. A second substrate binding at the proximal binding pocket of A monomer evidently accelerates the conformational transitions as well as substrate dissociation in B monomer. The acceleration effect of the multi-substrate binding mode provides a molecular explanation for the positive cooperativity observed in the kinetic studies of substrate efflux and deepens our understanding of the functional rotating mechanism of AcrB. PMID:25918513

  11. Increased expression of the multidrug efflux genes acrAB occurs during slow growth of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rand, Jonathan D; Danby, Simon G; Greenway, David L A; England, Reg R

    2002-01-22

    Intrinsic antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli is elicited by the gene products of the multidrug efflux acrAB-tolC operon. In this paper, we have shown that acrAB is regulated as a function of the growth rate of E. coli during growth in batch and chemostat culture. In chemostat culture, expression of acrAB is inversely related to growth rate irrespective of the limiting nutrient. The level of expression of acrAB is greater under glucose limitation compared with either iron or nitrogen limitation. Increase in expression of acrAB confers a greater resistance to ciprofloxacin, and the implications for a clinical situation are discussed. Slow growth rate regulation of acrAB transcription does not require the presence of the stationary-phase sigma factor. A putative gearbox consensus sequence was identified at the -10 region of the acrAB promoter. PMID:11886757

  12. Using the ACR CT accreditation phantom for routine image quality assurance on both CT and CBCT imaging systems in a radiotherapy environment.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Maritza A; Soisson, Emilie T; Davis, Stephen D; Parker, William

    2014-01-01

    Image-guided radiation therapy using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is becoming routine practice in modern radiation therapy. The purpose of this work was to develop an imaging QA program for CT and CBCT units in our department, based on the American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation phantom. The phantom has four testing modules, permitting one to test CT number accuracy, slice width, low contrast resolution, image uniformity, in-plane distance accuracy, and high-contrast resolution reproducibly with suggested window/levels for image analysis. Additional tests for contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and noise were added using the polyethylene and acrylic plugs. Baseline values were obtained from CT simulator images acquired on a Phillips Brilliance Big Bore CT simulator and CBCT images acquired on three Varian CBCTs for the imaging protocols most used clinically. Images were then acquired quarterly over a period of two years. Images were exported via DICOM and analyzed manually using OsiriX. Baseline values were used to ensure that image quality remained consistent quarterly, and baselines were reset at any major maintenance or recalibration. Analysis of CT simulator images showed that image quality was within ACR guidelines for all tested scanning protocols. All three CBCT systems were unable to distinguish the low-contrast resolution plugs and had the same high-contrast resolution over all imaging protocols. Analysis of CBCT results over time determined a range of values that could be used to establish quantitative tolerance levels for image quality deterioration. While appropriate for the helical CT, the ACR phantom and guidelines could be modified to be more useful in evaluating CBCT systems. In addition, the observed values for the CT simulator were well within ACR tolerances. PMID:25207412

  13. Applicability of ACR breast dosimetry methodology to a digital mammography system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomon, John J.; Johnson, Thomas E.; Swenson, Kristin N.; Schauer, David A.

    2006-03-15

    Determination of mean glandular dose (MGD) to breast tissue is an essential aspect of mammography equipment evaluations and exposure controls. The American College of Radiology (ACR) Quality Control Manual outlines the procedure for MGD determination in screen-film mammography based upon conversions of entrance skin exposures (ESEs) measured with an ionization chamber (IC). The development of digital mammography has increased with the demand for improved object resolution and tissue contrast. This change in image receptor from screen-film to a solid-state detector has led to questions about the applicability of the ACR MGD methodology to digital mammography. This research has validated the applicability of the ACR MGD methodology to digital mammography in the GE digital mammography system Senographe 2000D[reg]. MGD was determined using light output measurements from thermoluminescent dosimeters (MGD{sub TL}), exposure measurements from an IC (MGD{sub IC}) and conversion factors from the ACR Mammography Quality Control Manual. MGD{sub TL} and MGD{sub IC} data indicate that there is a statistically significant difference between the two measurements with the Senographe 2000D[reg]. However, the applicability of the ACR's methodology was validated by calculating MGD at various depths in a 50/50 breast phantom. Additionally, the results of backscatter measurements from the image receptors of both mammography modalities indicate there is a difference (all P values <0.001) in the radiation backscattered from each image receptor.

  14. Levels of albuminuria and risk of developing macroalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes: historical cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chida, Shoma; Fujita, Yoshikuni; Ogawa, Akifumi; Hayashi, Akinori; Ichikawa, Raishi; Kamata, Yuji; Takeuchi, Akihiro; Takano, Koji; Shichiri, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Although increased urinary albumin excretion may increase the risk of adverse renal outcomes in patients with diabetes, it remains unclear whether microalbuminuria is associated with a higher incidence of macroalbuminuria in the absence of non-diabetic kidney events that frequently develop during the long-term course of type 2 diabetes. This historical cohort study included patients with type 2 diabetes, spot urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) <300 mg/gCr and normal serum creatinine concentrations treated between August 1988 and April 2015. Patients with any evidence suggesting non-diabetic kidney diseases at baseline were excluded. Over a median follow-up of 50 months, 70 of the 1760 included patients developed macroalbuminuria. Twenty-one of these patients were diagnosed with non-diabetic renal events. The five-year cumulative incidence of macroalbuminuria in patients with ACRs of 0–7.5 mg/gCr, 7.5–30 mg/gCr, 30–150 mg/gCr, and 150–300 mg/gCr were 0%, 0.53%, 3.5%, and 36.0%, respectively, with significant differences between each pair of ACR categories. In type 2 diabetes, higher urinary ACR, even within a level of normoalbuminuria, was associated with a greater incidence of macroalbuminuria when non-diabetic renal events were excluded. These results conflict with findings suggesting that microalbuminuria is a poor indicator for the progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:27210499

  15. Levels of albuminuria and risk of developing macroalbuminuria in type 2 diabetes: historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chida, Shoma; Fujita, Yoshikuni; Ogawa, Akifumi; Hayashi, Akinori; Ichikawa, Raishi; Kamata, Yuji; Takeuchi, Akihiro; Takano, Koji; Shichiri, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    Although increased urinary albumin excretion may increase the risk of adverse renal outcomes in patients with diabetes, it remains unclear whether microalbuminuria is associated with a higher incidence of macroalbuminuria in the absence of non-diabetic kidney events that frequently develop during the long-term course of type 2 diabetes. This historical cohort study included patients with type 2 diabetes, spot urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) <300 mg/gCr and normal serum creatinine concentrations treated between August 1988 and April 2015. Patients with any evidence suggesting non-diabetic kidney diseases at baseline were excluded. Over a median follow-up of 50 months, 70 of the 1760 included patients developed macroalbuminuria. Twenty-one of these patients were diagnosed with non-diabetic renal events. The five-year cumulative incidence of macroalbuminuria in patients with ACRs of 0-7.5 mg/gCr, 7.5-30 mg/gCr, 30-150 mg/gCr, and 150-300 mg/gCr were 0%, 0.53%, 3.5%, and 36.0%, respectively, with significant differences between each pair of ACR categories. In type 2 diabetes, higher urinary ACR, even within a level of normoalbuminuria, was associated with a greater incidence of macroalbuminuria when non-diabetic renal events were excluded. These results conflict with findings suggesting that microalbuminuria is a poor indicator for the progression of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:27210499

  16. Structures of Gate Loop Variants of the AcrB Drug Efflux Pump Bound by Erythromycin Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Ababou, Abdessamad; Koronakis, Vassilis

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria such as E. coli use tripartite efflux pumps such as AcrAB-TolC to expel antibiotics and noxious compounds. A key feature of the inner membrane transporter component, AcrB, is a short stretch of residues known as the gate/switch loop that divides the proximal and distal substrate binding pockets. Amino acid substitutions of the gate loop are known to decrease antibiotic resistance conferred by AcrB. Here we present two new AcrB gate loop variants, the first stripped of its bulky side chains, and a second in which the gate loop is removed entirely. By determining the crystal structures of the variant AcrB proteins in the presence and absence of erythromycin and assessing their ability to confer erythromycin tolerance, we demonstrate that the gate loop is important for AcrB export activity but is not required for erythromycin binding. PMID:27403665

  17. Furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural tolerance in Escherichia coli ΔacrR regulatory mutants.

    PubMed

    Luhe, Annette Lin; Lim, Chan Yuen; Gerken, Henri; Wu, Jinchuan; Zhao, Hua

    2015-01-01

    The presence of the highly toxic furfural and hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in the hydrolysate of lignocellulosic biomass prompted the investigation of the Escherichia coli ΔacrR regulatory mutant for higher tolerance to these compounds, to facilitate the production of biofuels and biochemicals, and further biocatalytic conversions. In comparison with the parental strain, the regulatory mutant with the upregulated efflux pump AcrAB-TolC produced moderately better growth and higher tolerance to concentrations of furfural and HMF between 1 and 2 g L(-1) . PMID:24716991

  18. 7 CFR 1412.23 - Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. 1412.23 Section 1412.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DIRECT AND COUNTER-CYCLICAL PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE...

  19. 7 CFR 1412.23 - Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. 1412.23 Section 1412.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DIRECT AND COUNTER-CYCLICAL PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE...

  20. 7 CFR 1412.23 - Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. 1412.23 Section 1412.23 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DIRECT AND COUNTER-CYCLICAL PROGRAM AND AVERAGE CROP REVENUE...

  1. SUBSURFACE DESIGN SUPPORT LOW THERMAL LOAD REPOSITORY (25 MTU/ACRE)

    SciTech Connect

    T.M. Lahnalampi

    1999-05-14

    The objective of this document is to present a comparison between the Viability Assessment Design Layout and a 25 MTU/acre conceptual repository design. The scope of this analysis is comparing the linear dimensions and the quantities of the major design elements, for example, emplacement drifts, perimeter mains, exhaust mains, performance confirmation drifts, connecting ramps and vertical development.

  2. 76 FR 80410 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Requirements for Shipment and Receipt of Radioactive Material.'' The Subcommittee will hear presentations by... and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on January 18, 2012, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville,...

  3. Putting the Pieces Together: Using Jane Smiley's "A Thousand Acres" in Sociology of Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kelley J.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the use of fiction to teach undergraduate students about sociological theories and concepts. Discusses how "A Thousand Acres" (Jane Smiley) was used in a sociology of families course. Includes descriptions of the plot and themes in the book and the group work and paper assigned in conjunction with Smiley's novel. (CMK)

  4. Incest, Incorporation, and "King Lear" in Jane Smiley's "A Thousand Acres."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Marina

    1998-01-01

    Suggests that Jane Smiley's "A Thousand Acres" is a faithful and a "profoundly subversive" revision of Shakespeare's "King Lear." Argues that the terms in which the novel have been most frequently praised, no less than the case made for banning it, raise important questions about the relationship between the novel's secret and the source of…

  5. 75 FR 47621 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the North Fork Rancheria's Proposed 305-Acre Trust...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ... proposed action in the Federal Register on October 27, 2004 (69 FR 62721). The BIA held a public scoping... Availability for the Draft EIS (DEIS) was published in the Federal Register on February 15, 2008 (73 FR 8898...-Acre Trust Acquisition and Hotel/Casino Project, Madera County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...

  6. 43 CFR 3216.19 - May I transfer record title interest for less than 640 acres?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false May I transfer record title interest for less than 640 acres? 3216.19 Section 3216.19 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Transfers § 3216.19 May I transfer record title interest for less than 640...

  7. 43 CFR 3216.19 - May I transfer record title interest for less than 640 acres?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May I transfer record title interest for less than 640 acres? 3216.19 Section 3216.19 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Transfers § 3216.19 May I transfer record title interest for less than 640...

  8. 43 CFR 3216.19 - May I transfer record title interest for less than 640 acres?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May I transfer record title interest for less than 640 acres? 3216.19 Section 3216.19 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Transfers § 3216.19 May I transfer record title interest for less than 640...

  9. 43 CFR 3216.19 - May I transfer record title interest for less than 640 acres?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May I transfer record title interest for less than 640 acres? 3216.19 Section 3216.19 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public...) GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE LEASING Transfers § 3216.19 May I transfer record title interest for less than 640...

  10. 75 FR 7633 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the Subcommittee on Plant Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ...: February 12, 2010. Antonio F. Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the Subcommittee on Plant Operations... October 14, 2009 (74 FR 58268-58269). ] Detailed meeting agendas and meeting transcripts are available...

  11. Biofilm formation ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium acrAB mutants.

    PubMed

    Schlisselberg, Dov B; Kler, Edna; Kisluk, Guy; Shachar, Dina; Yaron, Sima

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies offer contradictory findings about the role of multidrug efflux pumps in bacterial biofilm development. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the AcrAB efflux pump in biofilm formation by investigating the ability of AcrB and AcrAB null mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to produce biofilms. Three models were used to compare the ability of S. Typhimurium wild-type and its mutants to form biofilms: formation of biofilm on polystyrene surfaces; production of biofilm (mat model) on the air/liquid interface; and expression of curli and cellulose on Congo red-supplemented agar plates. All three investigated genotypes formed biofilms with similar characteristics. However, upon exposure to chloramphenicol, formation of biofilms on solid surfaces as well as the production of curli were either reduced or were delayed more significantly in both mutants, whilst there was no visible effect on pellicle formation. It can be concluded that when no selective pressure is applied, S. Typhimurium is able to produce biofilms even when the AcrAB efflux pumps are inactivated, implying that the use of efflux pump inhibitors to prevent biofilm formation is not a general solution and that combined treatments might be more efficient. Other factors that affect the ability to produce biofilms depending on efflux pump activity are yet to be identified. PMID:26260191

  12. 7 CFR 1412.41 - Direct and counter-cyclical program contract or ACRE program contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Provisions for Covered Commodities and Peanuts 2008 through 2012 § 1412.41 Direct and counter-cyclical... respect to fiscal years 2010 through 2012 payments, CCC will annually allow offers for a DCP or ACRE... 2012 fiscal year contracts. (ii) Except as may otherwise be provided in statute for 2008, enrollment...

  13. 7 CFR 1412.41 - Direct and counter-cyclical program contract or ACRE program contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Provisions for Covered Commodities and Peanuts 2008 Through 2012 § 1412.41 Direct and counter-cyclical... respect to fiscal years 2010 through 2012 payments, CCC will annually allow offers for a DCP or ACRE... 2012 fiscal year contracts. (ii) Except as may otherwise be provided in statute for 2008, enrollment...

  14. 76 FR 61118 - Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 21, 2010, (75 FR 65038-65039). Detailed meeting agendas and... Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR... Flint North building, 11555 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD. After registering with security,...

  15. 10 CFR 52.165 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.165 Section 52.165 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.165 Referral to the...

  16. 10 CFR 52.165 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.165 Section 52.165 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.165 Referral to the...

  17. 10 CFR 52.165 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.165 Section 52.165 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.165 Referral to the...

  18. 10 CFR 52.87 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.87 Section 52.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.87 Referral to the Advisory Committee...

  19. 10 CFR 52.87 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.87 Section 52.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.87 Referral to the Advisory Committee...

  20. 10 CFR 52.23 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.23 Section 52.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.23 Referral to the Advisory...

  1. 10 CFR 52.87 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.87 Section 52.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.87 Referral to the Advisory Committee...

  2. 10 CFR 52.165 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.165 Section 52.165 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.165 Referral to the...

  3. 10 CFR 52.23 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.23 Section 52.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.23 Referral to the Advisory...

  4. 10 CFR 52.23 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.23 Section 52.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.23 Referral to the Advisory...

  5. 10 CFR 52.87 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.87 Section 52.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.87 Referral to the Advisory Committee...

  6. Experimental evolution and gene knockout studies reveal AcrA-mediated isobutanol tolerance in Ralstonia eutropha.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Amanda C; Gai, Claudia S; Lu, Jingnan; Sinskey, Anthony J; Brigham, Christopher J

    2016-07-01

    Isobutanol (IBT) has attracted much attention from researchers as a next generation drop-in biofuel. Ralstonia eutropha is a gram-negative bacterium which naturally produces polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), and has been reported to produce IBT after metabolic engineering. Similar to other microbes, R. eutropha experiences toxicity from branched-chain alcohols and is unable to grow in the presence of IBT concentrations higher than 0.5% (v v(-1)). Such low tolerance greatly limits the ability of R. eutropha to grow and produce IBT. In order to study toxicity to the cells, IBT-tolerant strains were developed by experimental evolution, revealing that two genes, previously described as being related to IBT tolerance in Escherichia coli (acrA and acrA6), also presented mutations in R. eutropha evolved strains. The effect on the physiology of the cells of in-frame deletions of each of these genes was assessed in wild type and engineered IBT-producing strains in an attempt to reproduce a tolerant phenotype. The mutant strains' ability to tolerate, consume, and produce IBT were also analyzed. Although deletions of acrA6 and acrA did not significantly improve R. eutropha growth in the presence of IBT, these deletions improved cell survival in the presence of high concentrations of IBT in the extracellular milieu. Moreover, an in-frame acrA deletion in an engineered IBT-producing R. eutropha enhanced the strain's ability to produce IBT, which could potentially be associated with enhanced survival at high IBT concentrations. PMID:26811221

  7. Forest Fires in Southwestern Amazonia During 2005: Extent and Distribution in Eastern Acre State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, I.; Moulard, E. M.; Nakamura, J.; Schroeder, W.; Maldonado, M.; Vasconcelos, S. S.; Selhorst, D.

    2007-05-01

    The extended drought in western Amazonia during 2005 provided the conditions for wild fires that spread in old- growth rain forests and cleared areas of the contiguous areas of Madre de Dios, Peru, Acre, Brazil, and Pando, Bolivia, collectively known as the MAP Region. The greatest extent of the wild fires occurred in eastern Acre State with 60,000 km2 of diverse land uses that range from intensely occupied colonization areas, large cattle ranches, extractive and biological reserves and indigenous areas. At the request of the Public Ministry of Acre and other government agencies we analyzed Landsat 5 and CBERS 2 imagery for forests with canopies affected by fires, using visual interpretation and manual digitalization of polygons. Accuracy assessment was done with 180 aerial photos. The total area of forest with canopies affected by fires was 267,000 ha, roughly five times recent annual deforestation rates for Acre State. Omission and commission errors were 28% and 2%, respectively. Burn scars in non-forest areas were determined using ASTER and CBERS 2 imagery via supervised classification. Total open area with burn scars was 203,000 ha. The total of open area and forests affected by fires exceeded 470,000 ha due to three factors: (1) some images used did not include the last weeks of burning; (2) ground fires in forests that did not affect the canopy and therefore were not detected; and (3) concern of the interpreters to avoid commission errors. Of the twelve municipalities of eastern Acre, most affected were Acrelandia, Placido de Castro, Epitaciolandia with >31%, >19% and >17% of the municipality affected, respectively). The largest impact, >114,000 ha, occurred in the Rio Branco Municipality. Similar patterns of burning occurred in Pando and in Madre de Dios. The environmental, social and economic disaster that these fires produced may be a harbinger of future impacts in southwestern Amazonia if current climate predictions prove to be correct.

  8. Comparison of Irrigation Water Use Estimates Calculated from Remotely Sensed Irrigated Acres and State Reported Irrigated Acres in the Lake Altus Drainage Basin, Oklahoma and Texas, 2000 Growing Season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, J.R.; Mladinich, C.S.; Konduris, A.M.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2003-01-01

    Increased demand for water in the Lake Altus drainage basin requires more accurate estimates of water use for irrigation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, is investigating new techniques to improve water-use estimates for irrigation purposes in the Lake Altus drainage basin. Empirical estimates of reference evapotranspiration, crop evapotranspiration, and crop irrigation water requirements for nine major crops were calculated from September 1999 to October 2000 using a solar radiation-based evapotranspiration model. Estimates of irrigation water use were calculated using remotely sensed irrigated crop acres derived from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery and were compared with irrigation water-use estimates calculated from irrigated crop acres reported by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and the Texas Water Development Board for the 2000 growing season. The techniques presented will help manage water resources in the Lake Altus drainage basin and may be transferable to other areas with similar water management needs. Irrigation water use calculated from the remotely sensed irrigated acres was estimated at 154,920 acre-feet; whereas, irrigation water use calculated from state reported irrigated crop acres was 196,026 acre-feet, a 23 percent difference. The greatest difference in irrigation water use was in Carson County, Texas. Irrigation water use for Carson County, Texas, calculated from the remotely sensed irrigated acres was 58,555 acrefeet; whereas, irrigation water use calculated from state reported irrigated acres was 138,180 acre-feet, an 81 percent difference. The second greatest difference in irrigation water use occurred in Beckham County, Oklahoma. Differences between the two irrigation water use estimates are due to the differences of irrigated crop acres derived from the mapping process and those reported by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and Texas Water Development Board.

  9. Impact of generational differences on the future of radiology: proceedings of the 11th annual ACR Forum.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, Arun; Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Ellenbogen, Paul H; Patti, John A; Hillman, Bruce J

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 ACR Forum focused on the impact of generational differences on the future of radiology, seeking to inform ACR leadership and members on how best to address the influence of the new integrated workforce on the specialty of radiology and on individual practices. PMID:22305696

  10. 77 FR 9707 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal-Hydraulics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal-Hydraulics... for the ACRS Subcommittee meeting on Thermal-Hydraulics Phenomena scheduled to be held on February...

  11. Striking association between urinary cadmium level and albuminuria among Torres Strait Islander people with diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Haswell-Elkins, Melissa Satarug, Soisungwan; O'Rourke, Peter; Moore, Michael; Ng, Jack; McGrath, Victor; Walmby, Maria

    2008-03-15

    Objectives: Indigenous people of the Torres Strait (Australia) have greater potential for cadmium exposure and renal damage than other Australians due to high cadmium in some traditional seafood and a high prevalence of Type 2 diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and obesity. This study explored associations between albuminuria and an index of cadmium exposure (urinary cadmium excretion) in the presence and absence of Type 2 diabetes. Research design and methods: Two population-based, cross-sectional studies were undertaken in the Torres Strait to obtain data on body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, chronic disease, smoking, urinary cadmium, and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Results: Age- and BMI-adjusted urinary cadmium levels were significantly higher (p<0.01) among people with diabetes and albuminuria (n=22, geometric mean (GM) 1.91 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine) compared to those with diabetes and normal ACR (n=21, GM 0.74 {mu}g Cd/g creatinine). Urinary cadmium was also strongly associated (p<0.001) with ACR among people with diabetes in regression models and remained significant after controlling for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, and hypertension (or continuous systolic and diastolic measurements). Conclusions: While the study has methodological limitations and the nature of the association is unclear, the striking dose-dependent links between markers of cadmium exposure and of Type 2 diabetic nephropathy highlight the need for further definitive research on the health effects of cadmium in the presence of diabetes.

  12. Empiricism or rationalism: how should we measure proteinuria?

    PubMed

    Methven, Shona; MacGregor, Mark S

    2013-07-01

    Proteinuria is the cardinal sign of renal disease, therefore accurate identification of clinically significant proteinuria is essential to the diagnosis and management of kidney disease. Spot samples are now widely used, namely protein: creatinine ratio (uPCR) and albumin: creatinine ratio (uACR). In this article we review the evidence comparing uPCR and uACR including clinical, laboratory and financial arguments. uPCR has a superior performance to uACR to predict 24-hour total proteinuria, the measurement on which the evidence for interventions in chronic kidney disease is based. Furthermore a retrospective study comparing uPCR and uACR as predictors of renal outcome found comparable performance to predict all-cause mortality, commencement of renal replacement therapy and doubling of serum creatinine. Only uPCR takes account of non-albumin proteinuria which has been shown to have prognostic significance. uACR was been thought to be superior at low levels (where there is less 'noise' from physiological urinary proteins), but uPCR has recently been shown to perform well at levels equivalent to <0.5 g/day (and even within the reference range) as a predictor of outcomes. uACR is measured using an immunoassay that may be technically superior, but is not without shortcomings (such as antigen excess) and is 2-10 times more expensive than uPCR. The theories explaining the superiority of albumin are appealing. However, the available comparative data do not seem to support the theory. We cannot explain the disparity, but in science, if the data do not fit the existing theory, then maybe it's time for a new theory. PMID:23787260

  13. Expression of the AcrAB Components of the AcrAB-TolC Multidrug Efflux Pump of Yersinia enterocolitica Is Subject to Dual Regulation by OmpR

    PubMed Central

    Raczkowska, Adrianna; Trzos, Joanna; Lewandowska, Olga; Nieckarz, Marta; Brzostek, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    OmpR is a transcriptional regulator implicated in the control of various cellular processes and functions in Enterobacteriaceae. This study was undertaken to identify genes comprising the OmpR regulon in the human gastrointestinal pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. Derivatives of an ompR-negative strain with random transposon insertions creating transcriptional fusions with the reporter gene lacZ were isolated. These were supplied with the wild-type ompR allele in trans and then screened for OmpR-dependent changes in β-galactosidase activity. Using this strategy, five insertions in genes/operons positively regulated by OmpR and two insertions in genes negatively regulated by this protein were identified. Genetic analysis of one of these fusion strains revealed that the gene acrR, encoding transcriptional repressor AcrR is negatively regulated by OmpR. Differential analysis of membrane proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry identified the protein AcrB, a component of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump, as being positively regulated by OmpR. Analysis of the activity of the acrR and acrAB promoters using gfp fusions confirmed their OmpR-dependent repression and activation, respectively. The identification of putative OmpR-binding sites and electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that this regulator binds specifically to both promoter regions with different affinity. Examination of the activity of the acrR and acrAB promoters after the exposure of cells to different chemicals showed that bile salts can act as an OmpR-independent inducer. Taken together, our findings suggest that OmpR positively controls the expression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump involved in the adaptive response of Y. enterocolitica O:9 to different chemical stressors, thus conferring an advantage in particular ecological niches. PMID:25893523

  14. Expression of the AcrAB Components of the AcrAB-TolC Multidrug Efflux Pump of Yersinia enterocolitica Is Subject to Dual Regulation by OmpR.

    PubMed

    Raczkowska, Adrianna; Trzos, Joanna; Lewandowska, Olga; Nieckarz, Marta; Brzostek, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    OmpR is a transcriptional regulator implicated in the control of various cellular processes and functions in Enterobacteriaceae. This study was undertaken to identify genes comprising the OmpR regulon in the human gastrointestinal pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. Derivatives of an ompR-negative strain with random transposon insertions creating transcriptional fusions with the reporter gene lacZ were isolated. These were supplied with the wild-type ompR allele in trans and then screened for OmpR-dependent changes in β-galactosidase activity. Using this strategy, five insertions in genes/operons positively regulated by OmpR and two insertions in genes negatively regulated by this protein were identified. Genetic analysis of one of these fusion strains revealed that the gene acrR, encoding transcriptional repressor AcrR is negatively regulated by OmpR. Differential analysis of membrane proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry identified the protein AcrB, a component of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump, as being positively regulated by OmpR. Analysis of the activity of the acrR and acrAB promoters using gfp fusions confirmed their OmpR-dependent repression and activation, respectively. The identification of putative OmpR-binding sites and electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that this regulator binds specifically to both promoter regions with different affinity. Examination of the activity of the acrR and acrAB promoters after the exposure of cells to different chemicals showed that bile salts can act as an OmpR-independent inducer. Taken together, our findings suggest that OmpR positively controls the expression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump involved in the adaptive response of Y. enterocolitica O:9 to different chemical stressors, thus conferring an advantage in particular ecological niches. PMID:25893523

  15. ACR white paper on teleradiology practice: a report from the Task Force on Teleradiology Practice.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ezequiel; Breslau, Jonathan; Barr, Robert M; Liebscher, Lawrence A; Bohl, Michael; Hoffman, Thomas; Boland, Giles W L; Sherry, Cynthia; Kim, Woojin; Shah, Samir S; Tilkin, Mike

    2013-08-01

    Teleradiology services are now embedded into the workflow of many radiology practices in the United States, driven largely by an expanding corporate model of services. This has brought opportunities and challenges to both providers and recipients of teleradiology services and has heightened the need to create best-practice guidelines for teleradiology to ensure patient primacy. To this end, the ACR Task Force on Teleradiology Practice has created this white paper to update the prior ACR communication on teleradiology and discuss the current and possible future state of teleradiology in the United States. This white paper proposes comprehensive best-practice guidelines for the practice of teleradiology, with recommendations offered regarding future actions. PMID:23684535

  16. [Cancer mortality trends in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, 1980-2006].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Juliano de Pádua; Koifman, Sérgio; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge

    2011-06-01

    Time trends in cancer incidence and mortality in the Western Amazon remain unknown. This study explored age-standardized cancer mortality rates according to anatomical site in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, by constructing linear regression time trend models. Cancer mortality showed an increasing but inconstant trend in men and stability in women. At the end of the time series, the highest cancer rates among women were for the cervix, lung, liver and intrahepatic biliary tract, stomach, and breast. Among men, the highest rates were for cancer of the lung, prostate, liver and intra-hepatic biliary tract, stomach, and esophagus. The study showed an increasing mortality time trend for cancer of the prostate, breast, and lung and declining mortality rates for cervical cancer in women, lung cancer in men, and stomach cancer in both sexes. The high mortality rate from liver cancer merits attention, considering the high hepatitis B and C infection rates in the State of Acre. PMID:21710013

  17. The future of imaging screening: proceedings of the Fourth Annual ACR FORUM.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Bruce J; Amis, E Stephen; Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Neiman, Harvey L

    2005-01-01

    The FORUM is an ACR planning activity focused on a specific topic deemed to be of long-range importance to the college. A select panel of multidisciplinary experts met in 2004 to consider the ramifications of imaging screening from diverse perspectives. Considerations included the nature of screening for disease, its technological issues, and biases associated with the perceived success of screening; potential technologies and target diseases; business and economics; insurance coverage; ethics and the law; how imaging screening could be paired with nonimaging screening; and how the lay public perceives screening. The FORUM participants considered how imaging screening might develop over the next 5 to 10 years and made recommendations to the ACR on actions it might take to benefit both the specialty and patients. PMID:17411759

  18. Using the ACR/NEMA standard with TCP/IP and Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimiak, William J.; Williams, Rodney C.

    1991-07-01

    There is a need for a consolidated picture archival and communications system (PACS) in hospitals. At the Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University (BGSM), the authors are enhancing the ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol using UNIX sockets and TCP/IP to greatly improve connectivity. Initially, nuclear medicine studies using gamma cameras are to be sent to PACS. The ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol provides the functionality of the upper three layers of the open system interconnection (OSI) model in this implementation. The images, imaging equipment information, and patient information are then sent in ACR/NEMA format to a software socket. From there it is handed to the TCP/IP protocol, which provides the transport and network service. TCP/IP, in turn, uses the services of IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) to complete the connectivity. The advantage of this implementation is threefold: (1) Only one I/O port is consumed by numerous nuclear medicine cameras, instead of a physical port for each camera. (2) Standard protocols are used which maximize interoperability with ACR/NEMA compliant PACSs. (3) The use of sockets allows a migration path to the transport and networking services of OSIs TP4 and connectionless network service as well as the high-performance protocol being considered by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standards Organization (ISO) -- the Xpress Transfer Protocol (XTP). The use of sockets also gives access to ANSI's Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) as well as other high-speed network standards.

  19. The Challenges from Extreme Climate Events for Sustainable Development in Amazonia: the Acre State Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. D. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past ten years Acre State, located in Brazil´s southwestern Amazonia, has confronted sequential and severe extreme events in the form of droughts and floods. In particular, the droughts and forest fires of 2005 and 2010, the 2012 flood within Acre, the 2014 flood of the Madeira River which isolated Acre for two months from southern Brazil, and the most severe flooding throughout the state in 2015 shook the resilience of Acrean society. The accumulated costs of these events since 2005 have exceeded 300 million dollars. For the last 17 years, successive state administrations have been implementing a socio-environmental model of development that strives to link sustainable economic production with environmental conservation, particularly for small communities. In this context, extreme climate events have interfered significantly with this model, increasing the risks of failure. The impacts caused by these events on development in the state have been exacerbated by: a) limitations in monitoring; b) extreme events outside of Acre territory (Madeira River Flood) affecting transportation systems; c) absence of reliable information for decision-making; and d) bureaucratic and judicial impediments. Our experience in these events have led to the following needs for scientific input to reduce the risk of disasters: 1) better monitoring and forecasting of deforestation, fires, and hydro-meteorological variables; 2) ways to increase risk perception in communities; 3) approaches to involve more effectively local and regional populations in the response to disasters; 4) more accurate measurements of the economic and social damages caused by these disasters. We must improve adaptation to and mitigation of current and future extreme climate events and implement a robust civil defense, adequate to these new challenges.

  20. Improving olefin tolerance and production in E. coli using native and evolved AcrB

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mingardon, Florence; Clement, Camille; Hirano, Kathleen; Nhan, Melissa; Luning, Eric G.; Chanal, Angelique; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2015-01-20

    Microorganisms can be engineered for the production of chemicals utilized in the polymer industry. However many such target compounds inhibit microbial growth and might correspondingly limit production levels. Here, we focus on compounds that are precursors to bioplastics, specifically styrene and representative alpha-olefins; 1-hexene, 1-octene, and 1-nonene. We evaluated the role of the Escherichia coli efflux pump, AcrAB-TolC, in enhancing tolerance towards these olefin compounds. AcrAB-TolC is involved in the tolerance towards all four compounds in E. coli. Both styrene and 1-hexene are highly toxic to E. coli. Styrene is a model plastics precursor with an established route for productionmore » in E. coli (McKenna and Nielsen, 2011). Though our data indicates that AcrAB-TolC is important for its optimal production, we observed a strong negative selection against the production of styrene in E. coli. Thus we used 1-hexene as a model compound to implement a directed evolution strategy to further improve the tolerance phenotype towards this alpha-olefin. We focused on optimization of AcrB, the inner membrane domain known to be responsible for substrate binding, and found several mutations (A279T, Q584R, F617L, L822P, F927S, and F1033Y) that resulted in improved tolerance. Several of these mutations could also be combined in a synergistic manner. Our study shows efflux pumps to be an important mechanism in host engineering for olefins, and one that can be further improved using strategies such as directed evolution, to increase tolerance and potentially production.« less

  1. Regulation of the AcrAB multidrug efflux pump in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in response to indole and paraquat.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Eiji; Shirosaka, Ikue; Yamaguchi, Akihito; Nishino, Kunihiko

    2011-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has at least nine multidrug efflux pumps. Among these, AcrAB is constitutively expressed and is the most efficient, playing a role in both drug resistance and virulence. The acrAB locus is induced by indole, Escherichia coli-conditioned medium, and bile salts. This induction is dependent on RamA through the binding sequence in the upstream region of acrA that binds RamA. In the present study, we made a detailed investigation of the ramA and acrAB induction mechanisms in Salmonella in response to indole, a biological oxidant for bacteria. We found that acrAB and ramA induction in response to indole is dependent on RamR. However, the cysteine residues of RamR do not play a role in the induction of ramA in response to indole, and the oxidative effect of indole is therefore not related to ramA induction via RamR. Furthermore, we showed that paraquat, a superoxide generator, induces acrAB but not ramA. We further discovered that the mechanism of acrAB induction in response to paraquat is dependent on SoxS. The data indicate that there are at least two independent induction pathways for acrAB in response to extracellular signals such as indole and paraquat. We propose that Salmonella utilizes these regulators for acrAB induction in response to extracellular signals in order to adapt itself to environmental conditions. PMID:21148208

  2. Molecular basis for inhibition of AcrB multidrug efflux pump by novel and powerful pyranopyridine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Sjuts, Hanno; Vargiu, Attilio V; Kwasny, Steven M; Nguyen, Son T; Kim, Hong-Suk; Ding, Xiaoyuan; Ornik, Alina R; Ruggerone, Paolo; Bowlin, Terry L; Nikaido, Hiroshi; Pos, Klaas M; Opperman, Timothy J

    2016-03-29

    TheEscherichia coliAcrAB-TolC efflux pump is the archetype of the resistance nodulation cell division (RND) exporters from Gram-negative bacteria. Overexpression of RND-type efflux pumps is a major factor in multidrug resistance (MDR), which makes these pumps important antibacterial drug discovery targets. We have recently developed novel pyranopyridine-based inhibitors of AcrB, which are orders of magnitude more powerful than the previously known inhibitors. However, further development of such inhibitors has been hindered by the lack of structural information for rational drug design. Although only the soluble, periplasmic part of AcrB binds and exports the ligands, the presence of the membrane-embedded domain in AcrB and its polyspecific binding behavior have made cocrystallization with drugs challenging. To overcome this obstacle, we have engineered and produced a soluble version of AcrB [AcrB periplasmic domain (AcrBper)], which is highly congruent in structure with the periplasmic part of the full-length protein, and is capable of binding substrates and potent inhibitors. Here, we describe the molecular basis for pyranopyridine-based inhibition of AcrB using a combination of cellular, X-ray crystallographic, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations studies. The pyranopyridines bind within a phenylalanine-rich cage that branches from the deep binding pocket of AcrB, where they form extensive hydrophobic interactions. Moreover, the increasing potency of improved inhibitors correlates with the formation of a delicate protein- and water-mediated hydrogen bond network. These detailed insights provide a molecular platform for the development of novel combinational therapies using efflux pump inhibitors for combating multidrug resistant Gram-negative pathogens. PMID:26976576

  3. Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

  4. SU-E-I-81: Assessment of CT Radiation Dose and Image Quality for An Automated Tube Potential Selection Algorithm Using Adult Anthropomorphic and ACR Phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y; Wang, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics (GE) automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of an adult anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, Auto mA (180 to 380 mA), noise index (NI) = 14, adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) of 20%, 0.8s rotation time. Image quality was evaluated by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: The CNR for the adult male was found to decrease from CNR = 0.912 ± 0.045 for the baseline protocol without kVa to a CNR = 0.756 ± 0.049 with kVa activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.903 ± 0.023. The difference in the central liver dose with and without kVa was found to be 0.07%. Conclusion: Dose reduction was insignificant in the adult phantom. As determined by NPS analysis, ASiR of 40% produced images with similar noise texture to the baseline protocol. However, the CNR at ASiR of 40% with kVa fails to meet the current ACR CNR passing requirement of 1.0.

  5. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits:Interim CQA Report

    SciTech Connect

    The Delphi Groupe, Inc., and J. A. Cesare and Associates, Inc.

    2011-06-20

    This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. Construction was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) under the Approval of Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, on January 6, 2011, pursuant to Subpart XII.8a of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The project is located in Area 5 of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site, located in southern Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. The project site, in Area 5, is located in a topographically closed basin approximately 14 additional miles north of Mercury Nevada, in the north-central part of Frenchman Flat. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location

  6. 77 FR 74697 - Meeting of the ACRS, Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 18, 2012, (77 FR 64146- 64147). Detailed meeting agendas and.... Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor...

  7. Molecular Mechanism of MBX2319 Inhibition of Escherichia coli AcrB Multidrug Efflux Pump and Comparison with Other Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Vargiu, Attilio V.; Ruggerone, Paolo; Opperman, Timothy J.; Nguyen, Son T.

    2014-01-01

    Efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation division (RND) superfamily, such as AcrB, make a major contribution to multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. The development of inhibitors of the RND pumps would improve the efficacy of current and next-generation antibiotics. To date, however, only one inhibitor has been cocrystallized with AcrB. Thus, in silico structure-based analysis is essential for elucidating the interaction between other inhibitors and the efflux pumps. In this work, we used computer docking and molecular dynamics simulations to study the interaction between AcrB and the compound MBX2319, a novel pyranopyridine efflux pump inhibitor with potent activity against RND efflux pumps of Enterobacteriaceae species, as well as other known inhibitors (D13-9001, 1-[1-naphthylmethyl]-piperazine, and phenylalanylarginine-β-naphthylamide) and the binding of doxorubicin to the efflux-defective F610A variant of AcrB. We also analyzed the binding of a substrate, minocycline, for comparison. Our results show that MBX2319 binds very tightly to the lower part of the distal pocket in the B protomer of AcrB, strongly interacting with the phenylalanines lining the hydrophobic trap, where the hydrophobic portion of D13-9001 was found to bind by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, MBX2319 binds to AcrB in a manner that is similar to the way in which doxorubicin binds to the F610A variant of AcrB. In contrast, 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine and phenylalanylarginine-β-naphthylamide appear to bind to somewhat different areas of the distal pocket in the B protomer of AcrB than does MBX2319. However, all inhibitors (except D13-9001) appear to distort the structure of the distal pocket, impairing the proper binding of substrates. PMID:25114133

  8. PP2A-3 interacts with ACR4 and regulates formative cell division in the Arabidopsis root

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Kun; Sandal, Priyanka; Williams, Elisabeth L.; Murphy, Evan; Stes, Elisabeth; Nikonorova, Natalia; Ramakrishna, Priya; Czyzewicz, Nathan; Montero-Morales, Laura; Kumpf, Robert; Lin, Zhefeng; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Iqbal, Mudassar; Van Bel, Michiel; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Meyer, Matthew R.; Gadeyne, Astrid; Zipfel, Cyril; De Jaeger, Geert; Van Montagu, Marc; Van Damme, Daniël; Gevaert, Kris; Rao, A. Gururaj; Beeckman, Tom; De Smet, Ive

    2016-01-01

    In plants, the generation of new cell types and tissues depends on coordinated and oriented formative cell divisions. The plasma membrane-localized receptor kinase ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY 4 (ACR4) is part of a mechanism controlling formative cell divisions in the Arabidopsis root. Despite its important role in plant development, very little is known about the molecular mechanism with which ACR4 is affiliated and its network of interactions. Here, we used various complementary proteomic approaches to identify ACR4-interacting protein candidates that are likely regulators of formative cell divisions and that could pave the way to unraveling the molecular basis behind ACR4-mediated signaling. We identified PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A-3 (PP2A-3), a catalytic subunit of PP2A holoenzymes, as a previously unidentified regulator of formative cell divisions and as one of the first described substrates of ACR4. Our in vitro data argue for the existence of a tight posttranslational regulation in the associated biochemical network through reciprocal regulation between ACR4 and PP2A-3 at the phosphorylation level. PMID:26792519

  9. PP2A-3 interacts with ACR4 and regulates formative cell division in the Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kun; Sandal, Priyanka; Williams, Elisabeth L; Murphy, Evan; Stes, Elisabeth; Nikonorova, Natalia; Ramakrishna, Priya; Czyzewicz, Nathan; Montero-Morales, Laura; Kumpf, Robert; Lin, Zhefeng; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Iqbal, Mudassar; Van Bel, Michiel; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Meyer, Matthew R; Gadeyne, Astrid; Zipfel, Cyril; De Jaeger, Geert; Van Montagu, Marc; Van Damme, Daniël; Gevaert, Kris; Rao, A Gururaj; Beeckman, Tom; De Smet, Ive

    2016-02-01

    In plants, the generation of new cell types and tissues depends on coordinated and oriented formative cell divisions. The plasma membrane-localized receptor kinase ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY 4 (ACR4) is part of a mechanism controlling formative cell divisions in the Arabidopsis root. Despite its important role in plant development, very little is known about the molecular mechanism with which ACR4 is affiliated and its network of interactions. Here, we used various complementary proteomic approaches to identify ACR4-interacting protein candidates that are likely regulators of formative cell divisions and that could pave the way to unraveling the molecular basis behind ACR4-mediated signaling. We identified PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A-3 (PP2A-3), a catalytic subunit of PP2A holoenzymes, as a previously unidentified regulator of formative cell divisions and as one of the first described substrates of ACR4. Our in vitro data argue for the existence of a tight posttranslational regulation in the associated biochemical network through reciprocal regulation between ACR4 and PP2A-3 at the phosphorylation level. PMID:26792519

  10. Isotopic Ratio, Isotonic Ratio, Isobaric Ratio and Shannon Information Uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chun-Wang; Wei, Hui-Ling

    2014-11-01

    The isoscaling and the isobaric yield ratio difference (IBD) probes, both of which are constructed by yield ratio of fragment, provide cancelation of parameters. The information entropy theory is introduced to explain the physical meaning of the isoscaling and IBD probes. The similarity between the isoscaling and IBD results is found, i.e., the information uncertainty determined by the IBD method equals to β - α determined by the isoscaling (α (β) is the parameter fitted from the isotopic (isotonic) yield ratio).

  11. Ratios between acute aquatic toxicity and effects on population growth rates in relation to toxicant mode of action

    SciTech Connect

    Roex, E.W.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. Van; Wezel, A.P. Van; Straalen, N.M. Van

    2000-03-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is mostly based on the results of standardized toxicity tests. To obtain environmental quality criteria, extrapolation factors are used that depend on the amount and quality of available data. These extrapolation factors do not, however, take into account the mode of action of the compound tested or the life history of the test organism. In this study, the authors analyzed the variability in acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) for various chemicals in relation to their mode of action. Chemicals were classified as nonpolar narcotics, polar narcotics, specifically acting compounds, and heavy metals. As an acute endpoint, the LC50 was used; as a chronic endpoint, the lowest test concentration at which the natural rate of population increase (r) is affected, or LOEC(r), was used. Data were derived from the on-line literature. Nonpolar narcotic chemicals demonstrate the smallest variation in ACRs, and acute tests can be used to derive chronic endpoints for this class. For the other classes, the variation in ACRs is larger. Fish species especially show a relatively large ACR. For heavy metals, differences in the mode of action may play an important role in explaining differences in ACRs. For the other three classes, however, it is less reliable to predict chronic toxicity using the results of acute tests. In general, differences in species sensitivity rather than in mode of action for the chemical seem to determine differences in ACRs.

  12. Correlation between AcrB trimer association affinity and efflux activity.

    PubMed

    Ye, Cui; Wang, Zhaoshuai; Lu, Wei; Zhong, Meng; Chai, Qian; Wei, Yinan

    2014-06-17

    The majority of membrane proteins function as oligomers. However, it remains largely unclear how the oligomer stability of protein complexes correlates with their function. Understanding the relationship between oligomer stability and activity is essential to protein research and to virtually all cellular processes that depend on the function of protein complexes. Proteins make lasting or transient interactions as they perform their functions. Obligate oligomeric proteins exist and function exclusively at a specific oligomeric state. Although oligomerization is clearly critical for such proteins to function, a direct correlation between oligomer affinity and biological activity has not yet been reported. Here, we used an obligate trimeric membrane transporter protein, AcrB, as a model to investigate the correlation between its relative trimer affinity and efflux activity. AcrB is a component of the major multidrug efflux system in Escherichia coli. We created six AcrB constructs with mutations at the transmembrane intersubunit interface, and we determined their activities using both a drug susceptibility assay and an ethidium bromide accumulation assay. The relative trimer affinities of these mutants in detergent micelles were obtained using blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A correlation between the relative trimer affinity and substrate efflux activity was observed, in which a threshold trimer stability was required to maintain efflux activity. The trimer affinity of the wild-type protein was approximately 3 kcal/mol more stable than the threshold value. Once the threshold was reached, an additional increase of stability in the range observed had no observable effect on protein activity. PMID:24854514

  13. Structure of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump

    PubMed Central

    Du, Dijun; Wang, Zhao; James, Nathan R.; Voss, Jarrod E.; Klimont, Ewa; Ohene-Agyei, Thelma; Venter, Henrietta; Chiu, Wah; Luisi, Ben F.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of numerous bacterial species to tolerate antibiotics and other toxic compounds arises in part from the activity of energy-dependent transporters. In Gram-negative bacteria, many of these transporters form multicomponent ‘pumps’ that span both inner and outer membranes and are driven energetically by a primary or secondary transporter component1-7. A model system for such a pump is the acridine resistance complex of Escherichia coli1. This pump assembly comprises the outer-membrane channel TolC, the secondary transporter AcrB located in the inner membrane, and the periplasmic AcrA, which bridges these two integral membrane proteins. The AcrAB-TolC efflux pump is able to vectorially transport a diverse array of compounds with little chemical similarity, and accordingly confers resistance to a broad spectrum of antibiotics. Homologous complexes are found in many Gram-negative species, including pathogens of animals and plants. Crystal structures are available for the individual pump components2-7 and these have provided insights into substrate recognition, energy coupling and the transduction of conformational changes associated with the transport process. How the subunits are organised in the pump, their stoichiometry and the details of their interactions are not known and are under debate. In this manuscript, we present the pseudoatomic structure of a complete multidrug efflux pump in complex with a modulatory protein partner8. The model defines the quaternary organization of the pump, identifies key domain interactions, and suggests a cooperative process for channel assembly and opening. These findings illuminate the basis for drug resistance in numerous pathogenic bacterial species. PMID:24747401

  14. Characterization of a Novel Pyranopyridine Inhibitor of the AcrAB Efflux Pump of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kwasny, Steven M.; Kim, Hong-Suk; Nguyen, Son T.; Houseweart, Chad; D'Souza, Sanjay; Walker, Graham C.; Peet, Norton P.; Nikaido, Hiroshi; Bowlin, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    Members of the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family of efflux pumps, such as AcrAB-TolC of Escherichia coli, play major roles in multidrug resistance (MDR) in Gram-negative bacteria. A strategy for combating MDR is to develop efflux pump inhibitors (EPIs) for use in combination with an antibacterial agent. Here, we describe MBX2319, a novel pyranopyridine EPI with potent activity against RND efflux pumps of the Enterobacteriaceae. MBX2319 decreased the MICs of ciprofloxacin (CIP), levofloxacin, and piperacillin versus E. coli AB1157 by 2-, 4-, and 8-fold, respectively, but did not exhibit antibacterial activity alone and was not active against AcrAB-TolC-deficient strains. MBX2319 (3.13 μM) in combination with 0.016 μg/ml CIP (minimally bactericidal) decreased the viability (CFU/ml) of E. coli AB1157 by 10,000-fold after 4 h of exposure, in comparison with 0.016 μg/ml CIP alone. In contrast, phenyl-arginine-β-naphthylamide (PAβN), a known EPI, did not increase the bactericidal activity of 0.016 μg/ml CIP at concentrations as high as 100 μM. MBX2319 increased intracellular accumulation of the fluorescent dye Hoechst 33342 in wild-type but not AcrAB-TolC-deficient strains and did not perturb the transmembrane proton gradient. MBX2319 was broadly active against Enterobacteriaceae species and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MBX2319 is a potent EPI with possible utility as an adjunctive therapeutic agent for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-negative pathogens. PMID:24247144

  15. Structure of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Du, Dijun; Wang, Zhao; James, Nathan R; Voss, Jarrod E; Klimont, Ewa; Ohene-Agyei, Thelma; Venter, Henrietta; Chiu, Wah; Luisi, Ben F

    2014-05-22

    The capacity of numerous bacterial species to tolerate antibiotics and other toxic compounds arises in part from the activity of energy-dependent transporters. In Gram-negative bacteria, many of these transporters form multicomponent 'pumps' that span both inner and outer membranes and are driven energetically by a primary or secondary transporter component. A model system for such a pump is the acridine resistance complex of Escherichia coli. This pump assembly comprises the outer-membrane channel TolC, the secondary transporter AcrB located in the inner membrane, and the periplasmic AcrA, which bridges these two integral membrane proteins. The AcrAB-TolC efflux pump is able to transport vectorially a diverse array of compounds with little chemical similarity, thus conferring resistance to a broad spectrum of antibiotics. Homologous complexes are found in many Gram-negative species, including in animal and plant pathogens. Crystal structures are available for the individual components of the pump and have provided insights into substrate recognition, energy coupling and the transduction of conformational changes associated with the transport process. However, how the subunits are organized in the pump, their stoichiometry and the details of their interactions are not known. Here we present the pseudo-atomic structure of a complete multidrug efflux pump in complex with a modulatory protein partner from E. coli. The model defines the quaternary organization of the pump, identifies key domain interactions, and suggests a cooperative process for channel assembly and opening. These findings illuminate the basis for drug resistance in numerous pathogenic bacterial species. PMID:24747401

  16. Description of Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Acre State, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Arley Faria José; Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi sp. n. is described as a new species of sand fly from the genus Trichophoromyia Barretto. This description is supported with illustrations and photographs that detail the morphological characteristics of male specimens collected in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, Brazilian Amazon. This species is similar to Trichophoromyia auraensis (Mangabeira), but the two species can be easily differentiated by the distribution of setae on their parameres, and by the presence of a dorsal lobe in the parameres of the new species. PMID:26487825

  17. Comparison of European (ESR) and American (ACR) white papers on teleradiology: patient primacy is paramount.

    PubMed

    Ranschaert, Erik R; Boland, Giles W; Duerinckx, Andre J; Barneveld Binkhuysen, Frits H

    2015-02-01

    The ACR and European Society of Radiology white papers on teleradiology propose best practice guidelines for teleradiology, with each body focusing on its respective local situation, market, and legal regulations. The organizations have common viewpoints, the most important being patient primacy, maintenance of quality, and the "supplementary" position of teleradiology to local services. The major differences between the white papers are related mainly to the market situation, the use of teleradiology, teleradiologist credentialing and certification, the principles of "international" teleradiology, and the need to obtain "informed consent" from patients. The authors describe these similarities and differences by highlighting the background and context of teleradiology in Europe and the United States. PMID:25652303

  18. Characterization of AcrD, a Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division-type multidrug efflux pump from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multidrug efflux pumps are membrane translocases that have the ability to extrude a variety of structurally unrelated compounds from the cell. AcrD, a resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) transporter, was shown to be involved in efflux of highly hydrophilic aminoglycosides and a limited number of amphiphilic compounds in E. coli. Here, a homologue of AcrD in the plant pathogen and causal agent of fire blight disease Erwinia amylovora was identified. Results The substrate specificity of AcrD was studied by overexpression of the corresponding gene from a high-copy plasmid in E. amylovora Ea1189-3, which is hypersensitive to many drugs due to a deficiency of the major multidrug pump AcrB. AcrD mediated resistance to several amphiphilic compounds including clotrimazole and luteolin, two compounds hitherto not described as substrates of AcrD in enterobacteria. However, AcrD was not able to expel aminoglycosides. An acrD mutant exhibited full virulence on apple rootstock and immature pear fruits. RT-PCR analysis revealed an induction of acrD expression in infected apple tissue but not on pear fruits. Moreover, a direct binding of BaeR, the response regulator of the two-component regulatory system BaeSR, to the acrD promoter was observed as has already been shown in other enterobacteria. Conclusions AcrD from E. amylovora is involved in resistance to a limited number of amphiphilic compounds, but in contrast to AcrD of E. coli, it is not involved in resistance to aminoglycosides. The expression of acrD was up-regulated by addition of the substrates deoxycholate, naringenin, tetracycline and zinc. AcrD appears to be regulated by the BaeSR two-component system, an envelope stress signal transduction pathway. PMID:24443882

  19. Kidney Function, Albuminuria, and All-Cause Mortality in the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) Study

    PubMed Central

    Warnock, David G.; Muntner, Paul; McCullough, Peter A.; Zhang, Xiao; McClure, Leslie A.; Zakai, Neil; Cushman, Mary; Newsome, Britt B.; Kewalramani, Reshma; Steffes, Michael W.; Howard, George; McClellan, William M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and albuminuria are associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality. Study Design Prospective observational cohort study Setting and Participants 17,393 participants (mean age, 64.3 ± 9.6 years) in the REGARDS (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke) Study. Predictor Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR). Outcome All-cause mortality (710 deaths); median duration of follow-up: 3.6 years. Measurements and Analysis Categories of eGFR (90– <120, 60–<90, 45–<60, 30–<45, and 15–<30 mL/min/1.73 m2) and urinary ACR (<10 mg/g or normal, 10–<30 mg/g or high normal, 30–300 mg/g or high, and >300 mg/g or very high). Cox’s proportional hazards models were adjusted for demographic factors, cardiovascular covariates, and hemoglobin. Results The background all-cause mortality rate for participants with normal ACR, eGFR of 90–<120 mL/min/1.73 m2 and no CHD was 4.3 deaths/1,000 person-years. Higher ACR was associated with an increased multivariable adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality within each eGFR category. Reduced eGFR was associated with higher adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality for participants with high normal (P value = 0.01) and high (P value <0.001) ACR values, but not for those with normal or very high ACR values. Limitations Only one laboratory assessment for serum creatinine and ACR was available Conclusions Increased albuminuria was an independent risk factor for all-cause mortality. Reduced eGFR was associated with increased mortality risk among those with high normal and high ACR. The mortality rate was low in the normal ACR group and increased in the very high ACR group but did not vary with eGFR in these groups. PMID:20692752

  20. High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jiun-Haw; Zhu, Xinyu; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Kit Choi, Wing; Lin, Tien-Chun; Hsu, Sheng-Chih; Lin, Hoang-Yan; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2005-11-01

    A high ambient-contrast-ratio (A-CR) and large aperture-ratio display is conceptually demonstrated and experimentally validated by stacking a normally black reflective liquid crystal display (NB-RLCD) and an organic light-emitting device (OLED). Such a tandem device can be switched between the NB-RLCD mode and the OLED mode under bright and dark ambient light, respectively. The normally black characteristic of the RLCD also helps to boost the A-CR under OLED-mode operation. To obtain a better image quality in the RLCD mode, a bumpy and transmissive structure is used to eliminate the specular reflection and to increase the viewing angle performance that results in CR>2:1 over 55° viewing cone. Besides, such a structure can also increase the external quantum efficiency of the OLED by 49.4%. In our experiments, regardless of the ambient intensity the A-CR is kept higher than 100:1.

  1. The 2014 ACR annual meeting: a bird's eye view of autoimmunity in 2015.

    PubMed

    Selmi, Carlo; Cantarini, Luca; Kivity, Shaye; Dagaan, Amir; Shovman, Ora; Zandman-Goddard, Gisele; Perricone, Carlo; Amital, Howard; Toubi, Elias; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2015-07-01

    Our understanding of the mechanisms leading to rheumatic diseases is growing at unprecedented pace thanks to the worldwide network of clinical and translational researchers who gather at major scientific meetings to share their progresses. Further, these meetings allow the contamination of unrelated research areas and thus the spreading of ideas, hypotheses, and research tools. The annual meeting of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) serves this purpose by allowing thousands of rheumatologists, immunologists, health care professionals, and basic scientists to attend the same sessions and present their work. The 2014 ACR meeting was held in Boston, MA, and was attended by over 16,000 participants who had the opportunity to directly witness the presentation of over 3000 abstracts. As such is the case, a full attendance of all update opportunities was not feasible. To fill this gap we arbitrarily selected the abstracts the appeared most interesting in a few fields of interest and we herein discuss the presented data and their further implications. In particular, we were intrigued by research advances in biomarkers for rheumatic diseases, and by advances on Sjögren syndrome, neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus, fibromyalgia, and B cell mechanisms. While we are well aware of the numerous blind spots that are expected in this type of article, we submit that this is far from a comprehensive overview and refer to the abstract book for a more complete analysis of the presented abstracts. PMID:25801806

  2. Significance of Breast Lesion Descriptors in the ACR BI-RADS MRI Lexicon

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Garima; Su, Min-Ying; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Feig, Stephen A.; Chen, Jeon-Hor

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) has altered the clinical management for women with breast cancer. In March 2007, the American Cancer Society (ACS) issued a new guideline recommending annual MRI screening for high-risk women. This guideline is expected to substantially increase the number of women each year who receive breast MRI. The diagnosis of breast MRI involves the description of morphological and enhancement kinetics features. To standardize the communication language, the Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) MRI lexicon was developed by the American College of Radiology (ACR). In this article, we will review various appearances of breast lesions on MRI using the standardized terms of ACR BI-RADS MRI lexicon. The purpose is to familiarize all medical professionals with the breast MRI lexicon, since the use of this imaging modality is rapidly growing in the field of breast disease. Using this common language, a comprehensive analysis of both morphological and kinetic features used in image interpretation will help radiologists and other clinicians to communicate more clearly and consistently. This may in turn help physicians and patients to jointly select an appropriate management protocol for each patient’s clinical situation. PMID:19197974

  3. New platyrrhine monkeys from the Solimões Formation (late Miocene, Acre State, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Kay, Richard F; Cozzuol, Mario Alberto

    2006-06-01

    We report here a new fossil primate from the late Miocene of Brazil. The material consists of a lower first molar and a maxilla with P3-4. The fossils were collected in the Solimões Formation at the locality of Patos, upper Acre River, Acre State, Brazil. The locality is assigned to the Huayquerian South American Land Mammal Age based on faunal content (late Miocene; dated to between 9 and 6 Ma). The new material is the oldest known occurrence of fossil primates in Brazil and is recognized as a new genus and species, Solimoea acrensis. Solimoea is the oldest known member of the ateline subfamily, which includes the living genera Ateles, Lagothrix, and Brachyteles. By analogy with the molar structures and diets of extant platyrrhines, Solimoea primarily had a diet of fruit, perhaps similar to that of the spider monkey, Ateles. Two other primate teeth described previously from the same formation in Bolivia document the occurrence of alouattines and cebines. One of those specimens is a late Miocene representative of the middle Miocene Colombian genus Stirtonia. The other represents one of the largest known platyrrhine primates, for which is erected a new primate genus, Acrecebus fraileyi. PMID:16530809

  4. Demystifying "oxi" cocaine: Chemical profiling analysis of a "new Brazilian drug" from Acre State.

    PubMed

    da Silva Junior, Ronaldo C; Gomes, Cezar S; Goulart Júnior, Saulo S; Almeida, Fernanda V; Grobério, Tatiane S; Braga, Jez W B; Zacca, Jorge J; Vieira, Maurício L; Botelho, Elvio D; Maldaner, Adriano O

    2012-09-10

    Recent information from various sources suggests that a new illicit drug, called "oxi", is being spread across Brazil. It would be used in the smoked form and it would look like to crack cocaine: usually small yellowish or light brown stones. As fully released in the media, "oxi" would differ from crack cocaine in the sense that crack would contain carbonate or bicarbonate salts whereas "oxi" would include the addition of calcium oxide and kerosene (or gasoline). In this context, this work presents a chemical profiling comparative study between "oxi" street samples seized by the Civil Police of the State of Acre (CP/AC) and samples associated with both international and interstate drug trafficking seized by the Brazilian Federal Police in Acre (FP/AC). The outcome of this work assisted Brazilian authorities to stop inaccurate and alarmist releases on this issue. It may be of good use by the forensic community in order to better understand matters in their efforts to guide local law enforcement agencies in case such claims reach the international illicit market. PMID:22571827

  5. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  6. Associations between the number of natural teeth and renal dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Min; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between the number of natural teeth and measures of kidney dysfunction, such as urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) and estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) rate, using nationally representative data.The data used were from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with cross-sectional design, which was conducted between 2011 and 2012; the sample analyzed in this study consisted of a total of 10,388 respondents, each of whom was 19 years or older and had no missing outcome variables. The association between the number of natural teeth and kidney function was assessed by multiple logistic regression and model was adjusted for age, sex, waist conference, smoking, drinking, exercise, education, income, frequency of tooth brushing per day, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, urinary ACR, and eGFR.The mean age, body mass index, and waist circumference were significantly higher among those with lower kidney function (urinary ACR ≥30 mg/g and eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m). Urinary ACR and eGFR were associated with loss of natural teeth. As urinary ACR increased, the number of natural teeth decreased accordingly. Conversely, the number of natural teeth increased with an increase in eGFR.This study showed that the number of natural teeth is inversely associated with the presence of kidney disease. Severity of tooth loss may be considered an independent risk indicator for kidney disease among Koreans. More epidemiological studies are warranted to investigate the role of tooth loss in kidney disease, to confirm this relationship and to test possible underlying mechanisms. PMID:27559974

  7. Exercise excess pressure and exercise-induced albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Climie, Rachel E D; Srikanth, Velandai; Keith, Laura J; Davies, Justin E; Sharman, James E

    2015-05-01

    Exercise-induced albuminuria is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in response to maximal exercise, but the response to light-moderate exercise is unclear. Patients with T2DM have abnormal central hemodynamics and greater propensity for exercise hypertension. This study sought to determine the relationship between light-moderate exercise central hemodynamics (including aortic reservoir and excess pressure) and exercise-induced albuminuria. Thirty-nine T2DM (62 ± 9 yr; 49% male) and 39 nondiabetic controls (53 ± 9 yr; 51% male) were examined at rest and during 20 min of light-moderate cycle exercise (30 W; 50 revolutions/min). Albuminuria was assessed by the albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) at rest and 30 min postexercise. Hemodynamics recorded included brachial and central blood pressure (BP), aortic stiffness, augmented pressure (AP), aortic reservoir pressure, and excess pressure integral (Pexcess). There was no difference in ACR between groups before exercise (P > 0.05). Exercise induced a significant rise in ACR in T2DM but not controls (1.73 ± 1.43 vs. 0.53 ± 1.0 mg/mol, P = 0.002). All central hemodynamic variables were significantly higher during exercise in T2DM (i.e., Pexcess, systolic BP and AP; P < 0.01 all). In T2DM (but not controls), exercise Pexcess was associated with postexercise ACR (r = 0.51, P = 0.002), and this relationship was independent of age, sex, body mass index, heart rate, aortic stiffness, antihypertensive medication, and ambulatory daytime systolic BP (β = 0.003, P = 0.003). Light-moderate exercise induced a significant rise in ACR in T2DM, and this was independently associated with Pexcess, a potential marker of vascular dysfunction. These novel findings suggest that Pexcess could be important for appropriate renal function in T2DM. PMID:25724495

  8. Urinary Albumin Excretion and Vascular Function in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pieringer, Herwig; Brummaier, Tobias; Piringer, Bettina; Auer-Hackenberg, Lorenz; Hartl, Andreas; Puchner, Rudolf; Pohanka, Erich; Schmid, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with significant cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. Increased urinary albumin excretion is a marker of CV risk. There are only few data on urinary albumin excretion in RA patients. Aim of the present study was to investigate urinary albumin excretion in RA patients and analyze, whether there is an association between urinary albumin excretion and vascular function as measured by the augmentation index (AIx). In a total of 341 participants (215 with RA, 126 without RA) urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) was determined and the AIx was measured. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov-test was used to cluster patient groups whose distributions of ACR can be considered to be equal. A crude analysis showed a median ACR of 6.6 mg/g in the RA group and 5.7 mg/g in patients without RA (P > 0.05). In order to account for diabetes (DM) we formed 4 distinct patient groups. Group 1: RA-/DM- (n = 74); group 2: RA+/DM- (n = 195); group 3: RA-/DM+ (n = 52); group 4: RA+/DM+ (n = 20). Clustering of these groups revealed two distinct patient groups: those without RA and DM, and those with either RA or DM or both. The latter group showed statistically significant higher ACR (median 8.1 mg/g) as the former (median 4.5 mg/g). We found no significant correlation between AIx and ACR. Urinary albumin excretion in patients with RA or DM or both is higher than in subjects without RA and DM. This can be seen as a sign of vascular alteration and increased CV risk in these patients. PMID:26955238

  9. Simulated microgravity affects ciprofloxacin susceptibility and expression of acrAB-tolC genes in E. coli ATCC25922.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Zheng, Yanhua; Si, Shaoyan; Shi, Yuhua; Huang, Yuling; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan; Cui, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    As a representative fluoroquinolone antibacterial, ciprofloxacin is frequently used to treat infections caused by bacteria such as E. coli. It is much meaningful to explore ciprofloxacin susceptibility and investigate a possible mechanism of drug susceptibility changes in E. coli ATCC25922 exposed to the environmental stress of simulated microgravity. The subculture of E. coli lasted for 7 days under simulated microgravity conditions (SMG) and normal microgravity (NG) conditions. On the 8th day, the cultures were divided into three groups: (1) NG group (continuous NG cultures); (2) SMG group (continuous SMG cultures); (3) SMCNG group (simulated microgravity change into normal gravity cultures). Ciprofloxacin (a final concentration of 0.125 μg/ml) sensitivity and expression of acrAB-tolC genes were detected in E. coli cells. The count and percentage of viable cells in the SMG cultures bacteria exposed to ciprofloxacin were higher than that in NG cultures and reduced to the levels of NG group when they were subcultivated from SMG to NG. The expressions of efflux pump genes (acrA, acrB and tolC) were upregulated in SMG culture and downregulated to the levels of NG group when they were subcultivated from SMG to NG. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and expression of acrAB-tolC genes in E. coli could be reversibly affected by SMG conditions. Over expression of efflux pump genes acrAB-tolC perhaps played an important role in decreased CIP susceptibility under SMG. PMID:26339360

  10. Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the regulator AcrR from Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ming; Qiu, Xi; Su, Chih-Chia; Long, Feng; Gu, Ruoyu; McDermott, Gerry; Yu, Edward W.

    2006-11-01

    The transcriptional regulator AcrR from Escherichia coli has been cloned, overexpressed, purified and crystallized and X-ray diffraction data have been collected to a resolution of 2.5 Å. This paper describes the cloning, expression, purification and preliminary X-ray data analysis of the AcrR regulatory protein. The Escherichia coli AcrR is a member of the TetR family of transcriptional regulators. It regulates the expression of the AcrAB multidrug transporter. Recombinant AcrR with a 6×His tag at the C-terminus was expressed in E. coli and purified by metal-affinity chromatography. The protein was crystallized using hanging-drop vapor diffusion. X-ray diffraction data were collected from cryocooled crystals at a synchrotron light source. The best crystal diffracted to 2.5 Å. The space group was determined to be P3{sub 2}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 46.61, c = 166.16 Å.

  11. Simulated microgravity affects ciprofloxacin susceptibility and expression of acrAB-tolC genes in E. coli ATCC25922

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Zheng, Yanhua; Si, Shaoyan; Shi, Yuhua; Huang, Yuling; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan; Cui, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    As a representative fluoroquinolone antibacterial, ciprofloxacin is frequently used to treat infections caused by bacteria such as E. coli. It is much meaningful to explore ciprofloxacin susceptibility and investigate a possible mechanism of drug susceptibility changes in E. coli ATCC25922 exposed to the environmental stress of simulated microgravity. The subculture of E. coli lasted for 7 days under simulated microgravity conditions (SMG) and normal microgravity (NG) conditions. On the 8th day, the cultures were divided into three groups: (1) NG group (continuous NG cultures); (2) SMG group (continuous SMG cultures); (3) SMCNG group (simulated microgravity change into normal gravity cultures). Ciprofloxacin (a final concentration of 0.125 μg/ml) sensitivity and expression of acrAB-tolC genes were detected in E. coli cells. The count and percentage of viable cells in the SMG cultures bacteria exposed to ciprofloxacin were higher than that in NG cultures and reduced to the levels of NG group when they were subcultivated from SMG to NG. The expressions of efflux pump genes (acrA, acrB and tolC) were upregulated in SMG culture and downregulated to the levels of NG group when they were subcultivated from SMG to NG. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and expression of acrAB-tolC genes in E. coli could be reversibly affected by SMG conditions. Over expression of efflux pump genes acrAB-tolC perhaps played an important role in decreased CIP susceptibility under SMG. PMID:26339360

  12. The Features of the Synovium in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis According to the 2010 ACR/EULAR Classification Criteria

    PubMed Central

    van de Sande, Marleen G. H.; de Hair, Maria J. H.; Schuller, Yvonne; van de Sande, Gijs P. M.; Wijbrandts, Carla A.; Dinant, Huib J.; Gerlag, Danielle M.; Tak, Paul P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives It has been shown in early arthritis cohorts that the 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) enable an earlier diagnosis, perhaps at the cost of a somewhat more heterogeneous patient population. We describe the features of synovial inflammation in RA patients classified according to these new criteria. Methods At baseline, synovial tissue biopsy samples were obtained from disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD)-naïve early RA patients (clinical signs and symptoms <1 year). Synovial tissue was analyzed for cell infiltration, vascularity, and expression of adhesion molecules. Stained sections were evaluated by digital image analysis. Patients were classified according to the two different sets of classification criteria, autoantibody status, and outcome. Findings Synovial tissue of 69 RA patients according to 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria was analyzed: 56 patients who fulfilled the criteria for RA at baseline and 13 who were initially diagnosed as undifferentiated arthritis but fulfilled criteria for RA upon follow up. The synovium at baseline was infiltrated by plasma cells, macrophages, and T cells as well as other cells, and findings were comparable to those when patients were selected based on the 1987 ACR criteria for RA. There was no clear cut difference in the characteristics of the synovium between RA patients initially diagnosed as undifferentiated arthritis and those who already fulfilled classification criteria at baseline. Conclusion The features of synovial inflammation are similar when the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria are used compared to the 1987 ACR criteria. PMID:22574210

  13. A reconnaissance of hydrogeologic conditions in Lehigh Acres and adjacent areas of Lee County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boggess, Durward Hoye; Missimer, T.M.

    1975-01-01

    Lehigh Acres, a residential community with a population of about 13,500 and comprising an area of about 94 square miles (243 square kilometres) in the eastern part of Lee County, has been under development since 1954. Prior to development the area was poorly drained. By 1974, more than 150 miles (241 kilometres) of drainageways had been constructed to drain the area. The water-bearing formations underlying Lehigh Acres include the water-table, sandstone, lower Hawthorn, and Suwannee aquifers. The water-table aquifer is usually not more than 30 feet (9 metres) thick; it contains water of relatively good quality, except for iron and color. Water levels in this aquifer probably have been affected by construction of drainage canals. The sandstone aquifer, used extensively throughout the area as a source of water supply usually contains water of good quality although the water is hard and in places may contain concentrations of dissolved solids and iron which exceed the recommended limits of the U.S. Public Health Service and the State of Florida for drinking water. The lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers, usually encountered at depths between 440 and 850 feet (135 and 262 metres), contains water with relatively high concentrations of sodium, sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids. Three streams, the Orange River, Hickey Creek, and Bedman Creek and the canals connected to them, provide drainage of the area. Except for the Orange River, where the water is of good chemical quality, little is known of the water quality. Similarly, little information is available on stream discharge except for the Orange River where the average annual discharge was 41.1 cubic feet per second (11.6 cubic metres per second) between 1935-46. Most lakes and ponds in Lehigh Acres are hydraulically connected to the water-table aquifer such that factors which affect one also affect the other. Theoretical drawdown curves indicate that the drainage canals may affect ground-water levels to a

  14. SU-E-I-89: Assessment of CT Radiation Dose and Image Quality for An Automated Tube Potential Selection Algorithm Using Pediatric Anthropomorphic and ACR Phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y; Wang, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, 80 mA, 0.7s rotation time. Image quality was assessed by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: For the baseline protocol, CNR was found to decrease from 0.460 ± 0.182 to 0.420 ± 0.057 when kVa was activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.620 ± 0.040. The liver dose decreased by 30% with kVa activation. Conclusion: Application of kVa reduces the liver dose up to 30%. However, reduction in image quality for abdominal scans occurs when using the automated tube voltage selection feature at the baseline protocol. As demonstrated by the CNR and NPS analysis, the texture and magnitude of the noise in reconstructed images at ASiR 40% was found to be the same as our baseline images. We have demonstrated that 30% dose reduction is possible when using 40% ASiR with kVa in pediatric patients.

  15. In silico and in vivo studies of an Arabidopsis thaliana gene, ACR2, putatively involved in arsenic accumulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Noor; Rahman, Aminur; Moś, Maria; Warzecha, Tomasz; Algerin, Maria; Ghosh, Sibdas; Johnson-Brousseau, Sheila; Mandal, Abul

    2012-09-01

    Previously, our in silico analyses identified four candidate genes that might be involved in uptake and/or accumulation of arsenics in plants: arsenate reductase 2 (ACR2), phytochelatin synthase 1 (PCS1) and two multi-drug resistant proteins (MRP1 and MRP2) [Lund et al. (2010) J Biol Syst 18:223-224]. We also postulated that one of these four genes, ACR2, seems to play a central role in this process. To investigate further, we have constructed a 3D structure of the Arabidopsis thaliana ACR2 protein using the iterative implementation of the threading assembly refinement (I-TASSER) server. These analyses revealed that, for catalytic metabolism of arsenate, the arsenate binding-loop (AB-loop) and residues Phe-53, Phe-54, Cys-134, Cys-136, Cys-141, Cys-145, and Lys-135 are essential for reducing arsenate to arsenic intermediates (arsenylated enzyme-substrate intermediates) and arsenite in plants. Thus, functional predictions suggest that the ACR2 protein is involved in the conversion of arsenate to arsenite in plant cells. To validate the in silico results, we exposed a transfer-DNA (T-DNA)-tagged mutant of A. thaliana (mutation in the ACR2 gene) to various amounts of arsenic. Reverse transcriptase PCR revealed that the mutant exhibits significantly reduced expression of the ACR2 gene. Spectrophotometric analyses revealed that the amount of accumulated arsenic compounds in this mutant was approximately six times higher than that observed in control plants. The results obtained from in silico analyses are in complete agreement with those obtained in laboratory experiments. PMID:22562211

  16. Expressing ScACR3 in rice enhanced arsenite efflux and reduced arsenic accumulation in rice grains.

    PubMed

    Duan, Guilan; Kamiya, Takehiro; Ishikawa, Satoru; Arao, Tomohito; Fujiwara, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) accumulation in rice grain poses a serious health risk to populations with high rice consumption. Extrusion of arsenite [As(III)] by ScAcr3p is the major arsenic detoxification mechanism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, ScAcr3p homolog is absent in higher plants, including rice. In this study, ScACR3 was introduced into rice and expressed under the control of the Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. In the transgenic lines, As concentrations in shoots and roots were about 30% lower than in the wild type, while the As translocation factors were similar between transgenic lines and the wild type. The roots of transgenic plants exhibited significantly higher As efflux activities than those of the wild type. Within 24 h exposure to 10 μM arsenate [As(V)], roots of ScACR3-expressing plants extruded 80% of absorbed As(V) to the external solution as As(III), while roots of the wild type extruded 50% of absorbed As(V). Additionally, by exposing the As-containing rice plants to an As-lacking solution for 24 h, about 30% of the total As derived from pre-treatment was extruded to the external solution by ScACR3-expressing plants, while about 15% of As was extruded by wild-type plants. Importantly, ScACR3 expression significantly reduced As accumulation in rice straws and grains. When grown in flooded soil irrigated with As(III)-containing water, the As concentration in husk and brown rice of the transgenic lines was reduced by 30 and 20%, respectively, compared with the wild type. This study reports a potential strategy to reduce As accumulation in the food chain by expressing heterologous genes in crops. PMID:22107880

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Cape AC Zone Data Reduced to ACRS (Urban+ 1996)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, S. E.; Corbin, T. E.

    1995-10-01

    The U.S. Naval Observatory is in the process of making new reductions of the Astrographic Catalogue (AC) using a modern reference system, the ACRS, which represents the system of the FK5. The data from the Cape Zone, whose plates are centered between declinations -41 and -51 degrees (eq. 1900), have been analyzed for scale, rotation, tilt, coma, magnitude equation, radial distortion and distortions introduced by the use of reseaux in the Carte du Ciel program. The result is a positional catalog of over 544,000 stars on eq. J2000.0, epoch of observation. Additionally, all stars have been matched with the Tycho Input Catalog (revised); those numbers have been added for additional identification purposes. (2 data files).

  18. Sagebrush Rebellion. [Proposed transfer of 175 million acres of Federal lands to states

    SciTech Connect

    Shay, R.

    1980-01-01

    The Sagebrush Rebellion concerns a proposal to transfer 175 million acres of Federally-owned wildlands to state governments, an idea with political appeal for many an opportunity to replace decades of conservation and wilderness planning with development and speculation. The project is seen as a way to grab public lands for private profit, its supporters largely drawn from the group which will gain either financially or politically. The movement grew out of government efforts to cut back on overgrazing on public lands and alert the public to the environmental impacts of grazing policies. Although legislative efforts have not succeeded, the movement has hindered the Bureau of Land Management and has championed private interests to the point where use violations and efforts to discredit government management are flagrant. A concerted lobbying effort is called for to prevent a massive land transfer. (DCK)

  19. Isolation and Characterization of Mayaro Virus from a Human in Acre, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Terzian, Ana Carolina B.; Auguste, Albert J.; Vedovello, Danila; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Sperança, Márcia A.; Suzuki, Rodrigo B.; Juncansen, Camila; Araújo, João P.; Weaver, Scott C.; Nogueira, Maurício L.

    2015-01-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is widely distributed throughout South America and is the etiologic agent of Mayaro fever, an acute febrile illness often presenting with arthralgic manifestations. The true incidence of MAYV infection is likely grossly underestimated because the symptomatic presentation is very similar to that of dengue fever and other acute febrile tropical diseases. We report the complete genome sequence of a MAYV isolate detected from an Acrelândia patient presenting with fever, chills, and sweating, but with no arthralgia. Results show that this isolate belongs to genotype D and is closely related to Bolivian strains. Our results suggest that the Acre/Mayaro strain is closely related to the progenitor of these Bolivian strains that were isolated between 2002 and 2006. PMID:25510721

  20. Brain MRI in neuropsychiatric lupus: associations with the 1999 ACR case definitions.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hae Woong; Her, Minyoung; Bae, Jong Seok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Lee, Sung Won; Kim, Ho Kyun; Kim, Dongyook; Park, Nayoung; Chung, Won Tae; Lee, Sang Yeob; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Kim, In Joo

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE) and to investigate the association between MRI findings and neuropsychiatric manifestations in SLE. Brain MRIs with a diagnosis of SLE from 2002 to 2013 from three tertiary university hospitals were screened. All clinical manifestations evaluated by brain MRI were retrospectively reviewed. If the clinical manifestations were compatible with the 1999 NPSLE American College of Rheumatology (ACR) nomenclature and case definitions, the brain MRIs were assessed for the presence of white matter hyperintensities, gray matter hyperintensities, parenchymal defects, atrophy, enhancement, and abnormalities in diffusion-weighted images (DWI). The number, size, and location of each lesion were evaluated. The neuropsychiatric manifestation of each brain MRI was classified according to the 1999 ACR NPSLE case definitions. The associations between MRI findings and NPSLE manifestations were examined. In total, 219 brain MRIs with a diagnosis of SLE were screened, and 133 brain MRIs met the inclusion criteria for NPSLE. The most common MRI abnormality was white matter hyperintensities, which were observed in 76 MRIs (57.1 %). Gray matter hyperintensities were observed in 41 MRIs (30.8 %). Parenchymal defects were found in 31 MRIs (23.3 %), and atrophy was detected in 20 MRIs (15.0 %). Patients who had seizures were more associated with gray matter hyperintensities than patients with other neuropsychiatric manifestations. Patients with cerebrovascular disease were more associated with gray matter hyperintensity, parenchymal defects, and abnormal DWI than patients with other neuropsychiatric manifestations. In addition to white matter hyperintensities, which were previously known as SLE findings, we also noted the presence of gray matter hyperintensities, parenchymal defects, and abnormal DWI in a substantial portion of SLE

  1. Seasonal Variations in CO2 Fluxes in Fluvial Systems in Southstern of Amazonia (acre, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, E.; Krusche, A. V.; Salimon, C. I.; Victoria, R. L.; Sawakuchi, H.

    2012-12-01

    Our main objective was to measure the CO2 fluxes in 5 (five) rivers and 2 (two) streams in the Purus Basin. These rivers and streams have different size, water chemical characteristics and type soil, despite all are classified as white-water rivers. We toke measures of pH, electrical conductivity, pCO2, DOC and DIC concentrations and CO2 fluxes in two seasonal periods: Wet Season (dez2010-abr2011 and dez2011-abr2012) and Dry Season (jul2011-set2011). Water samples were taken to DOC (filtered with quartz filters and preserved with hydrochloric acid), DIC (filtered with cellulose acetate filters and preserved with thymol) and δ13C of DIC. These water samples were sent to CENA/USP to be analyzed. EC and pH measurements were made with portable meters. Partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) was measure with an equilibrator and CO2 fluxes with a floating chamber. Precipitation, water stage and discharge data was obtained by UFAC climatological station and ANA (National Water Agency). Statistical analysis were made using R Program. DOC and DIC concentrations presented significant differences between the periods. In the wet season were observed the highest values to DOC concentrations in all rivers and streams. In the rivers, these concentrations varied between 7.09±3.10 (Acre River) and 9.32±2.31 mg.L-1 (Rôla River). In the dry season, the values observed were 3.15±1.11 (Acre River) and 7.96±0.11 (Caeté River). In the streams, these concentrations also higher in the wet season, with 1.68±0.32 mg.L-1 in the Floresta stream and 3.22±1.08 mg.L-1 in the Escondido stream. To DIC concentrations, this pattern was inverted, with higher concentrations observed in the dry season. Iaco River presented the higher concentration (50.8±4.7 mg.L-1) and Acre River the lower concentration (11.30±2.77 mg.L-1). Despite the DIC concentrations were higher in the dry season, the pCO2 and CO2 fluxes values were higher in the wet season. In the rivers, the pCO2 values varied between 4,189±1

  2. Stepwise substrate translocation mechanism revealed by free energy calculations of doxorubicin in the multidrug transporter AcrB

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Zhicheng; Weng, Jingwei; Wang, Wenning

    2015-01-01

    AcrB is the inner membrane transporter of the tripartite multidrug efflux pump AcrAB-TolC in E. coli, which poses a major obstacle to the treatment of bacterial infections. X-ray structures have identified two types of substrate-binding pockets in the porter domains of AcrB trimer: the proximal binding pocket (PBP) and the distal binding pocket (DBP), and suggest a functional rotating mechanism in which each protomer cycles consecutively through three distinct conformational states (access, binding and extrusion). However, the details of substrate binding and translocation between the binding pockets remain elusive. In this work, we performed atomic simulations to obtain the free energy profile of the translocation of an antibiotic drug doxorubicin (DOX) inside AcrB. Our simulation indicates that DOX binds at the PBP and DBP with comparable affinities in the binding state protomer, and overcomes a 3 kcal/mol energy barrier to transit between them. Obvious conformational changes including closing of the PC1/PC2 cleft and shrinking of the DBP were observed upon DOX binding in the PBP, resulting in an intermediate state between the access and binding states. Taken together, the simulation results reveal a detailed stepwise substrate binding and translocation process in the framework of functional rotating mechanism. PMID:26365278

  3. 25 CFR 214.7 - Operation not permitted until lease approved; 160 acres maximum for single lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Operation not permitted until lease approved; 160 acres maximum for single lease. 214.7 Section 214.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS §...

  4. 25 CFR 214.7 - Operation not permitted until lease approved; 160 acres maximum for single lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operation not permitted until lease approved; 160 acres maximum for single lease. 214.7 Section 214.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS §...

  5. 25 CFR 214.7 - Operation not permitted until lease approved; 160 acres maximum for single lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Operation not permitted until lease approved; 160 acres maximum for single lease. 214.7 Section 214.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS §...

  6. 25 CFR 214.7 - Operation not permitted until lease approved; 160 acres maximum for single lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Operation not permitted until lease approved; 160 acres maximum for single lease. 214.7 Section 214.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS §...

  7. 25 CFR 214.7 - Operation not permitted until lease approved; 160 acres maximum for single lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Operation not permitted until lease approved; 160 acres maximum for single lease. 214.7 Section 214.7 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF OSAGE RESERVATION LANDS, OKLAHOMA, FOR MINING, EXCEPT OIL AND GAS §...

  8. 78 FR 71639 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Soboba Band of Luiseno Indians' Proposed 534-Acre...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... hotel/casino project to be located in Riverside County, California. This notice also announces that the... Tribe proposes to develop approximately 55 acres into a destination hotel/casino complex (Proposed... proposed hotel and casino complex would be generally located at the intersection of Soboba Road and...

  9. 75 FR 61227 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ..., General Electric--Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH), and their contractors, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552b(c)(4... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs..., 2010. Antonio F. Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor...

  10. 76 FR 13437 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and PRA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ....m. and 4:15 p.m. (ET). Dated: March 2, 2011. Yoira Diaz-Sanabria, Acting Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and...

  11. Effects of artificial-recharge experiments at Ship Creek alluvial fan on water levels at Spring Acres Subdivision, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, William; Patrick, Leslie

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the artificial recharge experiments on water levels at Spring Acres subdivision, Anchorage, Alaska, was evaluated using two digital models constructed to simulate groundwater movement and water-level rises induced by the artificial recharge. The models predicted that the artificial recharge would have caused water levels in the aquifer immediately underlying Spring Acres subdivision to rise 0.2 foot from May 20 to August 7, 1975. The models also predicted a total rise in groundwater levels of 1.1 feet at this location from July 16, 1973 to August 7, 1975, as a result of the artificial-recharge experiments. Water-level data collected from auger holes in March 1975 by a consulting firm for the contractor indicated a depth to water of 6-7 feet below land surface at Spring Acres subdivision at this time. Water levels measured in and near Spring Acres subdivision several years before and after the 1973-75 artificial-recharge experiments showed seasonal rises of 2 to 12.4 feet. A depth to water below land surface of 2.6 feet was measured 600 feet from the subdivision in 1971 and in the subdivision in 1977. Average measured depth to water in the area was 7.0 feet from early 1976 to September 1979. (USGS)

  12. Reduced kidney function is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Laukkanen, Jari A; Zaccardi, Francesco; Karppi, Jouni; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Kurl, Sudhir

    2016-08-01

    There is limited knowledge on the relationship between kidney function and incidence of atrial fibrillation. Thus, this prospective study was designed to evaluate whether various biomarkers of kidney function are associated to the risk of atrial fibrillation. The study population consisted of 1840 subjects (615 women and 1225 men) aged 61-82 years. Cystatin C- and creatinine-based estimation of glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcys and eGRFcreat , respectively) and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) were assessed to investigate their relationship with the risk of atrial fibrillation. During a median follow-up of 3.7 years, a total of 159 incident atrial fibrillation cases occurred. After adjustment for potential confounders, the risk of atrial fibrillation was increased (hazard ratio 2.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.56-4.81, P < 0.001) in subjects with reduced kidney function (eGFRcys , 15-59 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) ) compared to subjects with normal kidney function (≥90 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) ). Similar results were also found when comparing the respective groups of subjects defined by their eGRFcreat levels (hazard ratio 2.41, CI 1.09-5.30, P = 0.029). Consistently, subjects with ACR ≥300 mg/g had an increased risk of incident atrial fibrillation (hazard ratio 2.16, CI 1.35-2.82, P < 0.001) compared to those with ACR <30 mg/g. Reduced eGFR and albuminuria were associated with an increased risk of atrial fibrillation. PMID:26780558

  13. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  14. Toxicity in relation to mode of action for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: Acute-to-chronic ratios and quantitative structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Ristau, Kai; Akgül, Yeliz; Bartel, Anna Sophie; Fremming, Jana; Müller, Marie-Theres; Reiher, Luise; Stapela, Frederike; Splett, Jan-Paul; Spann, Nicole

    2015-10-01

    Acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) are of particular interest in chemical risk assessment. Previous studies focusing on the relationship between the size or variation of ACRs to substance classes and QSAR models were often based on data for standard test organisms, such as daphnids and fish. In the present study, acute and chronic toxicity tests were performed with the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans for a total of 11 chemicals covering 3 substance classes (nonpolar narcotics: 1-propanol, ethanol, methanol, 2-butoxyethanol; metals: copper, cadmium, zinc; and carbamates: methomyl, oxamyl, aldicarb, dioxacarb). The ACRs were variable, especially for the carbamates and metals, although there was a trend toward small and less variable ACRs for nonpolar narcotic substances. The octanol-water partition coefficient was a good predictor for explaining acute and chronic toxicity of nonpolar narcotic substances to C. elegans, but not for carbamates. Metal toxicity could be related to the covalent index χm2r. Overall, the results support earlier results from ACR and QSAR studies with standard freshwater test animals. As such C. elegans as a representative of small soil/sediment invertebrates would probably be protected by risk assessment strategies already in use. To increase the predictive power of ACRs and QSARs, further research should be expanded to other species and compounds and should also consider the target sites and toxicokinetics of chemicals. PMID:25994998

  15. The Ascaris suum nicotinic receptor, ACR-16, as a drug target: Four novel negative allosteric modulators from virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fudan; Robertson, Alan P.; Abongwa, Melanie; Yu, Edward W.; Martin, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections in humans and livestock cause significant debility, reduced productivity and economic losses globally. There are a limited number of effective anthelmintic drugs available for treating helminths infections, and their frequent use has led to the development of resistance in many parasite species. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic drugs for treating these parasites. We have chosen the ACR-16 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Ascaris suum (Asu-ACR-16), as a drug target and have developed three-dimensional models of this transmembrane protein receptor to facilitate the search for new bioactive compounds. Using the human α7 nAChR chimeras and Torpedo marmorata nAChR for homology modeling, we defined orthosteric and allosteric binding sites on the Asu-ACR-16 receptor for virtual screening. We identified four ligands that bind to sites on Asu-ACR-16 and tested their activity using electrophysiological recording from Asu-ACR-16 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The four ligands were acetylcholine inhibitors (SB-277011-A, IC50, 3.12 ± 1.29 μM; (+)-butaclamol Cl, IC50, 9.85 ± 2.37 μM; fmoc-1, IC50, 10.00 ± 1.38 μM; fmoc-2, IC50, 16.67 ± 1.95 μM) that behaved like negative allosteric modulators. Our work illustrates a structure-based in silico screening method for seeking anthelmintic hits, which can then be tested electrophysiologically for further characterization. PMID:27054065

  16. The Ascaris suum nicotinic receptor, ACR-16, as a drug target: Four novel negative allosteric modulators from virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fudan; Robertson, Alan P; Abongwa, Melanie; Yu, Edward W; Martin, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections in humans and livestock cause significant debility, reduced productivity and economic losses globally. There are a limited number of effective anthelmintic drugs available for treating helminths infections, and their frequent use has led to the development of resistance in many parasite species. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic drugs for treating these parasites. We have chosen the ACR-16 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Ascaris suum (Asu-ACR-16), as a drug target and have developed three-dimensional models of this transmembrane protein receptor to facilitate the search for new bioactive compounds. Using the human α7 nAChR chimeras and Torpedo marmorata nAChR for homology modeling, we defined orthosteric and allosteric binding sites on the Asu-ACR-16 receptor for virtual screening. We identified four ligands that bind to sites on Asu-ACR-16 and tested their activity using electrophysiological recording from Asu-ACR-16 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The four ligands were acetylcholine inhibitors (SB-277011-A, IC50, 3.12 ± 1.29 μM; (+)-butaclamol Cl, IC50, 9.85 ± 2.37 μM; fmoc-1, IC50, 10.00 ± 1.38 μM; fmoc-2, IC50, 16.67 ± 1.95 μM) that behaved like negative allosteric modulators. Our work illustrates a structure-based in silico screening method for seeking anthelmintic hits, which can then be tested electrophysiologically for further characterization. PMID:27054065

  17. The body composition and excretory burden of lean, obese, and severely obese individuals has implications for the assessment of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Fotheringham, James; Weatherley, Nicholas; Kawar, Bisher; Fogarty, Damian G; Ellam, Timothy

    2014-12-01

    Obesity could affect associations between creatinine generation, estimated body surface area, and excretory burden, with effects on chronic kidney disease assessment. We therefore examined the impact of obesity on the performances of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR), and excretory burden in 3611 participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort. Urine creatinine excretion significantly increased with body mass index (BMI) (34 and 31% greater at 40 kg/m(2) or more versus the normal of 18.5-25 kg/m(2)) in men and women, respectively, such that patients with a normal BMI and an ACR of 30 mg/g had the same 24-h albuminuria as severely obese patients with ACR 23 mg/g. The bias of eGFR (referenced to body surface area-indexed iothalamate (i-)GFR) had a U-shaped relationship to obesity in men but progressively increased in women. Nevertheless, obesity-associated body surface area increases were accompanied by a greater absolute (non-indexed) iGFR for a given eGFR, particularly in men. Two men with eGFRs of 45 ml/min per 1.73 m(2), height 1.76 m, and BMI 22 or 45 kg/m(2) had absolute iGFRs of 46 and 62 ml/min, respectively. The excretory burden, assessed as urine urea nitrogen and estimated dietary phosphorus, sodium, and potassium intakes, also increased in obesity. However, obese men had lower odds of anemia, hyperkalemia, and hyperphosphatemia. Thus, for a given ACR and eGFR, obese individuals have greater albuminuria, absolute GFR, and excretory burden. This has implications for chronic kidney disease management, screening, and research. PMID:24717300

  18. Association between Urinary Albumin Excretion and Intraocular Pressure in Type 2 Diabetic Patients without Renal Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jin A.; Han, Kyungdo; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the relationship between urinary albumin excretion and intraocular pressure (IOP) in type 2 diabetes patients without renal impairment. Methods We explored the effects of albuminuria on high IOP in 402 non-glaucomatous type 2 diabetes without renal impairment who participated in the 2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between log-transformed albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) tertiles and an IOP of ≥18 mmHg after adjusting for age, gender, hypertension, body mass index, triglycerides, area of residence, and education level. Results Subjects with a high IOP ≥18 mmHg were more likely to be current smokers (P = 0.038), heavy drinkers (P = 0.006), and to have high systolic blood pressure (P = 0.016), triglycerides (P = 0.008), and a higher log-transformed ACR (P = 0.022).In multivariate regression analysis, ACR tertile was associated with the prevalence of high IOP significantly (P = 0.022). The associations between ACR tertiles and high IOP were significant in overweight patients and those with abdominal obesity (P = 0.003 and 0.003, respectively). In contrast, there were no associations in the subgroup of patients who were not overweight and those without abdominal obesity (P = 0.291 and 0.561, respectively). Conclusions Urinary albumin excretion is associated with high IOP in the type 2 diabetes population without renal insufficiency. The effect of the albuminuria on IOP was evident in a subgroup of patients with components of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24788677

  19. Aortic stiffness and kidney disease in an elderly population

    PubMed Central

    Michener, Katherine H.; Mitchell, Gary F.; Noubary, Farzad; Huang, Naya; Harris, Tamara; Andresdottir, Margret B.; Palsson, Runolfur; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Levey, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in older people are not well understood. Aortic stiffness increases with age and results in transmission of increased pulsatility into the kidney microvasculature, potentially contributing to CKD in older populations. Methods We utilized data from the Age, Gene/Environment, Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study, a community-based prospective cohort study of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Iceland. Associations of carotid pulse pressure (CPP) and carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (CFPWV) with estimated glomerular filtration rate based on creatinine and cystatin C (eGFR) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) were assessed using linear regression, adjusting for demographics and CVD risk factors. Results 940 participants [mean (SD) age 75.8 (4.7) years, mean (SD) CFPWV 12.9 (4.2) m/s, mean (SD) CPP 69 (21) mm Hg, mean (SD) eGFR 68 (16) ml/min/1.73m2, and median (IQR) ACR 3 (2–6) mg/g) were studied. At CPP greater than 85 mmHg, higher CPP was associated with lower eGFR in unadjusted analyses but not after adjustment. CPP was significantly associated with higher ACR in fully adjusted models [β (95% CI)=0.14 (0.03, 0.24) ln mg/g per SD]. Higher CFPWV was associated with lower eGFR and higher ACR in unadjusted analyses but not after adjustment. Conclusion Greater aortic stiffness may be associated with modestly higher levels of albuminuria in the elderly. The association with lower eGFR may be confounded by age and CVD risk factors. PMID:26067356

  20. 75 FR 20398 - The ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures will hold a meeting on May 5, 2010, in Room T...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 14, 2010, (74 FR 58268- 58269... Procedures The ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures will hold a meeting on May 5, 2010, in Room T-2B1, at 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, MD. The entire meeting will be open to public attendance,...

  1. 75 FR 55313 - Record of Decision (ROD) for Conversion of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR) to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... Department of the Army Record of Decision (ROD) for Conversion of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR...: Notice of Availability (NOA). SUMMARY: The Department of the Army announces a ROD for conversion of the... conversion, the 3rd ACR will provide the Army with a force structure that has the flexibility to...

  2. Quality assurance for diffusion tensor imaging using an ACR phantom: Comparative analysis with 6, 15, and 32 directions at 1.5T and 3.0T MRI systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Young; Lee, Do-Wan; Jung, Jin-Young; Song, Kyu-Ho; Choe, Bo-Young

    2014-07-01

    Although diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used for the quantitative analyses of the integrity of white matter in the brain in clinical and research fields, quality assurance (QA) for DTI has not been fully established. Thus, we suggest a QA guideline for DTI using the American College of Radiology (ACR) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) head phantom. In this study, the geometric accuracy, slice-position accuracy, image intensity uniformity, percent signalghosting, low-contrast object detectability, image distortion, fractional anisotropy (FA), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured and evaluated in 1.5T and 3.0T MRI scanners equipped with an 8-channel SENSE head coil. The standard axial spin echo (SE) T1-weighted MR images and DTI with 6, 15 and 32 directions were obtained. Concerning geometric accuracy, image twisting in the three directions was observed due to the inhomogeneity of echo planar imaging (EPI). Image intensity uniformity was significantly lower for DTI than for the standard SE T1-weighted MR images. Percent signal ghosting was higher for images from 3.0T MRI than for images from 1.5T MRI. Low-contrast object detectability was visually identified and measured at a low contrasttonoise ratio (CNR) and a low signaltonoise ratio (SNR). Image distortion changed remarkably to the phaseencoding direction. The present study using the ACR MRI phantom suggests a QA method for DTI with high reproducibility and easy accessibility.

  3. ACR/NEMA Digital Image Interface Standard (An Illustrated Protocol Overview)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, G. Robert

    1985-09-01

    The American College of Radiologists (ACR) and the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) have sponsored a joint standards committee mandated to develop a universal interface standard for the transfer of radiology images among a variety of PACS imaging devicesl. The resulting standard interface conforms to the ISO/OSI standard reference model for network protocol layering. The standard interface specifies the lower layers of the reference model (Physical, Data Link, Transport and Session) and implies a requirement of the Network Layer should a requirement for a network exist. The message content has been considered and a flexible message and image format specified. The following Imaging Equipment modalities are supported by the standard interface... CT Computed Tomograpy DS Digital Subtraction NM Nuclear Medicine US Ultrasound MR Magnetic Resonance DR Digital Radiology The following data types are standardized over the transmission interface media.... IMAGE DATA DIGITIZED VOICE HEADER DATA RAW DATA TEXT REPORTS GRAPHICS OTHERS This paper consists of text supporting the illustrated protocol data flow. Each layer will be individually treated. Particular emphasis will be given to the Data Link layer (Frames) and the Transport layer (Packets). The discussion utilizes a finite state sequential machine model for the protocol layers.

  4. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Follow-Up of Malignant or Aggressive Musculoskeletal Tumors.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Catherine C; Kransdorf, Mark J; Beaman, Francesca D; Adler, Ronald S; Amini, Behrang; Appel, Marc; Bernard, Stephanie A; Fries, Ian Blair; Germano, Isabelle M; Greenspan, Bennett S; Holly, Langston T; Kubicky, Charlotte D; Shek-Man Lo, Simon; Mosher, Timothy J; Sloan, Andrew E; Tuite, Michael J; Walker, Eric A; Ward, Robert J; Wessell, Daniel E; Weissman, Barbara N

    2016-04-01

    Appropriate imaging modalities for the follow-up of malignant or aggressive musculoskeletal tumors include radiography, MRI, CT, (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose PET/CT, (99m)Tc bone scan, and ultrasound. Clinical scenarios reviewed include evaluation for metastatic disease to the lung in low- and high-risk patients, for osseous metastatic disease in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients, for local recurrence of osseous tumors with and without significant hardware present, and for local recurrence of soft tissue tumors. The timing for follow-up of pulmonary metastasis surveillance is also reviewed. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:26922595

  5. ACR appropriateness criteria asymptomatic patient at risk for coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Earls, James P; Woodard, Pamela K; Abbara, Suhny; Akers, Scott R; Araoz, Philip A; Cummings, Kristopher; Cury, Ricardo C; Dorbala, Sharmila; Hoffmann, Udo; Hsu, Joe Y; Jacobs, Jill E; Min, James K

    2014-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death for both men and women in the United States. Coronary artery disease has a long asymptomatic latent period and early targeted preventive measures can reduce mortality and morbidity. It is important to accurately classify individuals at elevated risk in order to identify those who might benefit from early intervention. Imaging advances have made it possible to detect subclinical coronary atherosclerosis. Coronary artery calcium score correlates closely with overall atherosclerotic burden and provides useful prognostic information for patient management. Our purpose is to discuss use of diagnostic imaging in asymptomatic patients at elevated risk for future cardiovascular events. The goal for these patients is to further refine targeted preventative efforts based on risk. The following imaging modalities are available for evaluating asymptomatic patients at elevated risk: radiography, fluoroscopy, multidetector CT, ultrasound, MRI, cardiac perfusion scintigraphy, echocardiography, and PET. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:24316232

  6. ACR Appropriateness Criteria chronic chest pain-low to intermediate probability of coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Pamela K; White, Richard D; Abbara, Suhny; Araoz, Philip A; Cury, Ricardo C; Dorbala, Sharmila; Earls, James P; Hoffmann, Udo; Hsu, Joe Y; Jacobs, Jill E; Javidan-Nejad, Cylen; Krishnamurthy, Rajesh; Mammen, Leena; Martin, Edward T; Ryan, Thomas; Shah, Amar B; Steiner, Robert M; Vogel-Claussen, Jens; White, Charles S

    2013-05-01

    Chronic chest pain can arise from a variety of etiologies. However, of those potential causes, the most life-threatening include cardiac disease. Chronic cardiac chest pain may be caused either by ischemia or atherosclerotic coronary artery disease or by other cardiac-related etiologies, such as pericardial disease. To consider in patients, especially those who are at low risk for coronary artery disease, are etiologies of chronic noncardiac chest pain. Noncardiac chest pain is most commonly related to gastroesophageal reflux disease or other esophageal diseases. Alternatively, it may be related to costochondritis, arthritic or degenerative diseases, old trauma, primary or metastatic tumors, or pleural disease. Rarely, noncardiac chest pain may be referred pain from organ systems below the diaphragm, such as the gallbladder. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:23542027

  7. Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES)

    PubMed Central

    Wahlgren, Lina; Schantz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery), as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income) as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately. PMID:25153462

  8. AcrA suppressor alterations reverse the drug hypersensitivity phenotype of a TolC mutant by inducing TolC aperture opening

    PubMed Central

    Weeks, Jon W.; Celaya-Kolb, Teresa; Pecora, Sara; Misra, Rajeev

    2010-01-01

    Summary In Escherichia coli, the TolC–AcrAB complex forms a major antibiotic efflux system with broad substrate specificity. During the complex assembly, the periplasmic helices and bottom turns of TolC are thought to interact with a hairpin helix of AcrA and hairpin loops of AcrB respectively. In the present study we show that a four-residue substitution in TolC’s turn 1, which connects outer helices 3 and 4 proximal to TolC’s periplasmic aperture, confers antibiotic hypersensitivity without affecting TolC-mediated phage or colicin infection. However, despite the null-like drug sensitivity phenotype, chemical cross-linking analysis revealed no apparent defects in the ability of the mutant TolC protein to physically interact with AcrA and AcrB. A role for TolC turn 1 residues in the functional assembly of the tripartite efflux pump complex was uncovered through isolating suppressor mutations of the mutant TolC protein that mapped within acrA and by utilizing a labile AcrA protein. The data showed that AcrA-mediated suppression of antibiotic sensitivity was achieved by dilating the TolC aperture/channel in an AcrB-dependent manner. The results underscore the importance of the periplasmic turn 1 of TolC in the functional assembly of the tripartite efflux complex and AcrA in transitioning TolC from its closed to open state. PMID:20132445

  9. Appendix E. Analysis of Chronic Toxicity Data and Acute Chronic Ratios (ACRs) in Support of Deriving Chronic HC5s: Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The analysis described in this appendix is one of several conducted in support of developing a common methodology for assessing chemical effects on aquatic animals for use by the USEPA Office of Pesticide Programs (OPP) and the Office of Water (OW). Other appendices describe met...

  10. Detecting isotopic ratio outliers

    SciTech Connect

    Bayne, C.K.; Smith, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    An alternative method is proposed for improving isotopic ratio estimates. This method mathematically models pulse-count data and uses iterative reweighted Poisson regression to estimate model parameters to calculate the isotopic ratios. This computer-oriented approach provides theoretically better methods than conventional techniques to establish error limits and to identify outliers. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. The terrestrial and marine observations enabling historical reanalyses: the ACRE Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Rob; Brohan, Philip

    2010-05-01

    Weather observations and reanalysis are perfect partners: the observations make the reanalysis possible, and the reanalysis makes optimal use of the observations in producing the comprehensive picture of the atmosphere required by both climate scientists and a host of other users. The new generation of surface-input-only reanalyses (20th Century Reanalysis Project: 1891-2006, 20th Century Reanalysis Project: 1871-2008, Surface Input Reanalysis for Climate Applications [SIRCA]: 1850-2011 and Chemical and Surface Input Reanalysis for Climate Applications [CSIRCA]: 1800-2016) therefore present both a challenge and an opportunity to observations specialists: they require an unprecedented increase in the available datasets of surface barometric pressure, sea surface temperature and sea-ice; but offer a chance to synthesise terrestrial and marine observations into a much more detailed picture of climate variability and change. The international Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE) initiative is supporting this work, both undertaking and facilitating the global recovery, imaging, digitizing, quality control and archiving of daily to sub-daily global historical terrestrial and marine surface weather observations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the international historical terrestrial and marine data activities required to produce the quality and quantity of weather data needed in order to undertake viable historical surface-input-only historical reanalyses, ultimately extending back over the last 200 or so years. This endeavor has only been made possible because of ACRE's efforts to agglomerate a combination of the results of ongoing international data recovery initiatives, some as existing data rescue projects, and other new initiatives focusing on particular regions or countries around the world. Numerous elements and interactions are involved in such a vast enterprise, with careful consideration required in working with

  12. Switch-Loop Flexibility Affects Transport of Large Drugs by the Promiscuous AcrB Multidrug Efflux Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Hi-jea; Müller, Reinke T.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug efflux transporters recognize a variety of structurally unrelated compounds for which the molecular basis is poorly understood. For the resistance nodulation and cell division (RND) inner membrane component AcrB of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux system from Escherichia coli, drug binding occurs at the access and deep binding pockets. These two binding areas are separated by an 11-amino-acid-residue-containing switch loop whose conformational flexibility is speculated to be essential for drug binding and transport. A G616N substitution in the switch loop has a distinct and local effect on the orientation of the loop and on the ability to transport larger drugs. Here, we report a distinct phenotypical pattern of drug recognition and transport for the G616N variant, indicating that drug substrates with minimal projection areas of >70 Å2 are less well transported than other substrates. PMID:24914123

  13. Analysis of the Second ASTM Round-Robin Program on Opening-Load Measurement using the adjusted compliance ratio technique

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, J.K.; Phillips, E.P.

    1999-07-01

    The results of the Second Round-Robin on Opening-Load Measurement established the basis for a recent addition to ASTM E 647--``Recommended Practice for Determination of Fatigue Crack Opening Load from Compliance''. The technique involves characterizing the deviation in linearity of a load-displacement curve and reporting, as a minimum, the opening load corresponding to a 2% slope offset. The opening load and associated {Delta}K{sub eff} values reported showed significant scatter although this scatter was reduced when the data were subjected to a rigorous accept/reject criterion. Refinements in the method of handling data with high noise have further reduced scatter compared with the original analysis. Since each participant provided digitized load-displacement curves, the data from 17 test samples (10 participants) were reanalyzed using the adjusted compliance ratio (ACR) technique to evaluate {Delta}K{sub eff}. A comparison between the two methods shows that the ACR technique gives a higher mean value of {Delta}K{sub eff} than does the ASTM procedure. The ACR technique also shows a stronger correlation with crack growth rate data than does the ASTM procedure, with a slope comparable to that of a typical fatigue crack growth rate test. However, the mean value of {Delta}K{sub eff} based on the ASTM procedure shows better agreement with high stress ratio closure free data than does the ACR technique. This seemingly contradictory result can be partially explained in terms of second-order effects not normally considered significant.

  14. Reducing Insecticide Use in Broad-Acre Grains Production: An Australian Study

    PubMed Central

    Macfadyen, Sarina; Hardie, Darryl C.; Fagan, Laura; Stefanova, Katia; Perry, Kym D.; DeGraaf, Helen E.; Holloway, Joanne; Spafford, Helen; Umina, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    Prophylactic use of broad-spectrum insecticides is a common feature of broad-acre grains production systems around the world. Efforts to reduce pesticide use in these systems have the potential to deliver environmental benefits to large areas of agricultural land. However, research and extension initiatives aimed at decoupling pest management decisions from the simple act of applying a cheap insecticide have languished. This places farmers in a vulnerable position of high reliance on a few products that may lose their efficacy due to pests developing resistance, or be lost from use due to regulatory changes. The first step towards developing Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies involves an increased efficiency of pesticide inputs. Especially challenging is an understanding of when and where an insecticide application can be withheld without risking yield loss. Here, we quantify the effect of different pest management strategies on the abundance of pest and beneficial arthropods, crop damage and yield, across five sites that span the diversity of contexts in which grains crops are grown in southern Australia. Our results show that while greater insecticide use did reduce the abundance of many pests, this was not coupled with higher yields. Feeding damage by arthropod pests was seen in plots with lower insecticide use but this did not translate into yield losses. For canola, we found that plots that used insecticide seed treatments were most likely to deliver a yield benefit; however other insecticides appear to be unnecessary and economically costly. When considering wheat, none of the insecticide inputs provided an economically justifiable yield gain. These results indicate that there are opportunities for Australian grain growers to reduce insecticide inputs without risking yield loss in some seasons. We see this as the critical first step towards developing IPM practices that will be widely adopted across intensive production systems. PMID:24586535

  15. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Acute Nonspecific Chest Pain-Low Probability of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Udo; Akers, Scott R; Brown, Richard K J; Cummings, Kristopher W; Cury, Ricardo C; Greenberg, S Bruce; Ho, Vincent B; Hsu, Joe Y; Min, James K; Panchal, Kalpesh K; Stillman, Arthur E; Woodard, Pamela K; Jacobs, Jill E

    2015-12-01

    Primary imaging options in patients at low risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) who present with undifferentiated chest pain and without signs of ischemia are functional testing with exercise or pharmacologic stress-based electrocardiography, echocardiography, or myocardial perfusion imaging to exclude myocardial ischemia after rule-out of myocardial infarction and early cardiac CT because of its high negative predictive value to exclude CAD. Although possible, is not conclusive whether triple-rule-out CT (CAD, pulmonary embolism, and aortic dissection) might improve the efficiency of patient management. More advanced noninvasive tests such as cardiac MRI and invasive imaging with transesophageal echocardiography or coronary angiography are rarely indicated. With increased likelihood of noncardiac causes, a number of diagnostic tests, among them ultrasound of the abdomen, MR angiography of the aorta with or without contrast, x-ray rib views, x-ray barium swallow, and upper gastrointestinal series, can also be appropriate. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. This recommendation is based on excellent evidence, including several randomized comparative effectiveness trials and blinded observational cohort studies. PMID:26653833

  16. Reducing insecticide use in broad-acre grains production: an Australian study.

    PubMed

    Macfadyen, Sarina; Hardie, Darryl C; Fagan, Laura; Stefanova, Katia; Perry, Kym D; DeGraaf, Helen E; Holloway, Joanne; Spafford, Helen; Umina, Paul A

    2014-01-01

    Prophylactic use of broad-spectrum insecticides is a common feature of broad-acre grains production systems around the world. Efforts to reduce pesticide use in these systems have the potential to deliver environmental benefits to large areas of agricultural land. However, research and extension initiatives aimed at decoupling pest management decisions from the simple act of applying a cheap insecticide have languished. This places farmers in a vulnerable position of high reliance on a few products that may lose their efficacy due to pests developing resistance, or be lost from use due to regulatory changes. The first step towards developing Integrated Pest Management (IPM) strategies involves an increased efficiency of pesticide inputs. Especially challenging is an understanding of when and where an insecticide application can be withheld without risking yield loss. Here, we quantify the effect of different pest management strategies on the abundance of pest and beneficial arthropods, crop damage and yield, across five sites that span the diversity of contexts in which grains crops are grown in southern Australia. Our results show that while greater insecticide use did reduce the abundance of many pests, this was not coupled with higher yields. Feeding damage by arthropod pests was seen in plots with lower insecticide use but this did not translate into yield losses. For canola, we found that plots that used insecticide seed treatments were most likely to deliver a yield benefit; however other insecticides appear to be unnecessary and economically costly. When considering wheat, none of the insecticide inputs provided an economically justifiable yield gain. These results indicate that there are opportunities for Australian grain growers to reduce insecticide inputs without risking yield loss in some seasons. We see this as the critical first step towards developing IPM practices that will be widely adopted across intensive production systems. PMID:24586535

  17. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of LmACR2, an arsenate/antimonate reductase from Leishmania major

    SciTech Connect

    Bisacchi, Davide; Zhou, Yao; Rosen, Barry P.; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Bordo, Domenico

    2006-10-01

    LmACR2 from L. major is the first rhodanese-like enzyme directly involved in the reduction of arsenate and antimonate to be crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.99 Å resolution using synchrotron X-rays. Arsenic is present in the biosphere owing either to the presence of pesticides and herbicides used in agricultural and industrial activities or to leaching from geological formations. The health effects of prolonged exposure to arsenic can be devastating and may lead to various forms of cancer. Antimony(V), which is chemically very similar to arsenic, is used instead in the treatment of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp.; the reduction of pentavalent antimony contained in the drug Pentostam to the active trivalent form arises from the presence in the Leishmania genome of a gene, LmACR2, coding for the protein LmACR2 (14.5 kDa, 127 amino acids) that displays weak but significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of Cdc25 phosphatase and to rhodanese enzymes. For structural characterization, LmACR2 was overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in a trigonal space group (P321 or P3{sub 1}21/P3{sub 2}21). The protein crystallized in two distinct trigonal crystal forms, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 111.0, c = 86.1 Å and a = b = 111.0, c = 175.6 Å, respectively. At a synchrotron beamline, the diffraction pattern extended to a resolution limit of 1.99 Å.

  18. Improving olefin tolerance and production in E. coli using native and evolved AcrB

    SciTech Connect

    Mingardon, Florence; Clement, Camille; Hirano, Kathleen; Nhan, Melissa; Luning, Eric G.; Chanal, Angelique; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2015-01-20

    Microorganisms can be engineered for the production of chemicals utilized in the polymer industry. However many such target compounds inhibit microbial growth and might correspondingly limit production levels. Here, we focus on compounds that are precursors to bioplastics, specifically styrene and representative alpha-olefins; 1-hexene, 1-octene, and 1-nonene. We evaluated the role of the Escherichia coli efflux pump, AcrAB-TolC, in enhancing tolerance towards these olefin compounds. AcrAB-TolC is involved in the tolerance towards all four compounds in E. coli. Both styrene and 1-hexene are highly toxic to E. coli. Styrene is a model plastics precursor with an established route for production in E. coli (McKenna and Nielsen, 2011). Though our data indicates that AcrAB-TolC is important for its optimal production, we observed a strong negative selection against the production of styrene in E. coli. Thus we used 1-hexene as a model compound to implement a directed evolution strategy to further improve the tolerance phenotype towards this alpha-olefin. We focused on optimization of AcrB, the inner membrane domain known to be responsible for substrate binding, and found several mutations (A279T, Q584R, F617L, L822P, F927S, and F1033Y) that resulted in improved tolerance. Several of these mutations could also be combined in a synergistic manner. Our study shows efflux pumps to be an important mechanism in host engineering for olefins, and one that can be further improved using strategies such as directed evolution, to increase tolerance and potentially production.

  19. Detection of the pandemic norovirus variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luciana Damascena; Rodrigues, Evandro Leite; de Lucena, Maria Silvia Sousa; de Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes; Oliveira, Darleise de Sousa; Soares, Luana Silva; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol

    2013-01-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. This study describes, for the first time in Brazil, the circulation of NoV GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 in faecal samples collected from children aged less than or equal to eight years in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil, during July-September 2012. PMID:24141954

  20. Detection of the pandemic norovirus variant GII.4 Sydney 2012 in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luciana Damascena da; Rodrigues, Evandro Leite; Lucena, Maria Silvia Sousa da; Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes de; Oliveira, Darleise de Sousa; Soares, Luana Silva; Mascarenhas, Joana D'Arc Pereira; Linhares, Alexandre da Costa; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol

    2013-12-01

    Noroviruses (NoVs) are important cause of gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Genotype GII.4 is responsible for the majority of outbreaks reported to date. This study describes, for the first time in Brazil, the circulation of NoV GII.4 variant Sydney 2012 in faecal samples collected from children aged less than or equal to eight years in Rio Branco, state of Acre, northern Brazil, during July-September 2012. PMID:24141954

  1. Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio Associated With Hearing Impairment Among Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yunji; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, June; Lee, Joo Kyung; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Nam, Ga-Eun; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Chung-Woo; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) with hearing impairment among diabetic adults in Korea. The study was based on data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2012. Participants were 1206 diabetic adults, aged over 19 years, who completed audiometric testing supervised by nationally certified clinicians. Hearing impairment was defined in three grades: no hearing impairment (pure-tone average 0–25 dB), slight hearing impairment (26–40 dB), and disabling hearing impairment (>40 dB) in the better ear at frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Using logistic regression, risk of hearing impairment was assessed after having controlled for confounding factors. Higher levels of ACR and lower levels of eGFR correlated with an increase in percentage of disabling hearing impairment both unilaterally and bilaterally (P < 0.001). Controlling for possible confounding covariates, odds ratios for hearing impairment showed tendency to increase in higher ACR groups (P for trend = 0.029). Similar pattern was examined between eGFR and hearing impairment (P for trend = 0.006). Odds ratios were 1.981 (1.146, 3.424) for ACR Q4 and 2.773 (1.286, 5.983) for eGFR < 60 mL/min. Fall in eGFR and rise in ACR correlated with severity of hearing impairment. The association existed independently of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, exercise, new onset of diabetes, education, income, mental stress, noise exposure, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:27124027

  2. Hydrologic effects of annually diverting 131,000 acre-feet of water from Dillon Reservoir, central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Bauer, D.P.; Veenhuis, J.E.; Brennan, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Because of the increased demands for water in eastern Colorado, principally in the urbanizing Denver metropolitan area, increased diversions of water from Dillon Reservoir are planned. Estimates of end-of-month storage in Dillon Reservoir, assuming the reservoir was in place and 131,000 acre-feet of water were diverted from the reservoir each year, were reconstructed by mass balance for the 1931-77 water years. Based on the analysis, the annual maximum end-of-month drawdown below the elevation at full storage would have averaged 54 feet. The maximum end-of-month drawdown below the elevation at full storage would have been 171 feet. The mean-annual discharge-weighted dissolved-solids concentrations in the Colorado River near Glenwood Springs and Cameo, Colo., and Cisco, Utah, for the 1942-77 water years, were computed assuming an annual diversion of 131,000 acre-feet of water from Dillon Reservoir. The average increases in the dissolved-solids concentrations with the 131 ,000-acre-foot diversion were 15 to 16 milligrams per liter at the three sites. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Coupling of remote alternating-access transport mechanisms for protons and substrates in the multidrug efflux pump AcrB

    PubMed Central

    Eicher, Thomas; Seeger, Markus A; Anselmi, Claudio; Zhou, Wenchang; Brandstätter, Lorenz; Verrey, François; Diederichs, Kay; Faraldo-Gómez, José D; Pos, Klaas M

    2014-01-01

    Membrane transporters of the RND superfamily confer multidrug resistance to pathogenic bacteria, and are essential for cholesterol metabolism and embryonic development in humans. We use high-resolution X-ray crystallography and computational methods to delineate the mechanism of the homotrimeric RND-type proton/drug antiporter AcrB, the active component of the major efflux system AcrAB-TolC in Escherichia coli, and one most complex and intriguing membrane transporters known to date. Analysis of wildtype AcrB and four functionally-inactive variants reveals an unprecedented mechanism that involves two remote alternating-access conformational cycles within each protomer, namely one for protons in the transmembrane region and another for drugs in the periplasmic domain, 50 Å apart. Each of these cycles entails two distinct types of collective motions of two structural repeats, coupled by flanking α-helices that project from the membrane. Moreover, we rationalize how the cross-talk among protomers across the trimerization interface might lead to a more kinetically efficient efflux system. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03145.001 PMID:25248080

  4. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of LmACR2, an arsenate/antimonate reductase from Leishmania major.

    PubMed

    Bisacchi, Davide; Zhou, Yao; Rosen, Barry P; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Bordo, Domenico

    2006-10-01

    Arsenic is present in the biosphere owing either to the presence of pesticides and herbicides used in agricultural and industrial activities or to leaching from geological formations. The health effects of prolonged exposure to arsenic can be devastating and may lead to various forms of cancer. Antimony(V), which is chemically very similar to arsenic, is used instead in the treatment of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp.; the reduction of pentavalent antimony contained in the drug Pentostam to the active trivalent form arises from the presence in the Leishmania genome of a gene, LmACR2, coding for the protein LmACR2 (14.5 kDa, 127 amino acids) that displays weak but significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of Cdc25 phosphatase and to rhodanese enzymes. For structural characterization, LmACR2 was overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in a trigonal space group (P321 or P3(1)21/P3(2)21). The protein crystallized in two distinct trigonal crystal forms, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 111.0, c = 86.1 A and a = b = 111.0, c = 175.6 A, respectively. At a synchrotron beamline, the diffraction pattern extended to a resolution limit of 1.99 A. PMID:17012788

  5. Deterrence and arrest ratios.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, Stephanie E; Piquero, Alex R

    2006-02-01

    In the limited research on the origins of sanction threat perceptions, researchers have focused on either the effects of actively engaging in crime or the effects of formal sanctioning but rarely on both (i.e., the arrest ratio or the number of arrests relative to the number of crimes committed). This article extends this line of research by using a sample of Colorado inmates and measures arrest ratios and sanction perceptions for eight different crime types. Analyses reveal that the offenders report both significant experiential and arrest ratio effects. Theoretical and policy implications, limitations, and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:16397123

  6. Simplifying Likelihood Ratios

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Steven

    2002-01-01

    Likelihood ratios are one of the best measures of diagnostic accuracy, although they are seldom used, because interpreting them requires a calculator to convert back and forth between “probability” and “odds” of disease. This article describes a simpler method of interpreting likelihood ratios, one that avoids calculators, nomograms, and conversions to “odds” of disease. Several examples illustrate how the clinician can use this method to refine diagnostic decisions at the bedside.

  7. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  8. Associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with mortality and renal failure by sex: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nitsch, Dorothea; Grams, Morgan; Sang, Yingying; Black, Corri; Cirillo, Massimo; Djurdjev, Ognjenka; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Jassal, Simerjot K; Kimm, Heejin; Kronenberg, Florian; Øien, Cecilia M; Levin, Adeera; Woodward, Mark; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess for the presence of a sex interaction in the associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and end stage renal disease. Design Random effects meta-analysis using pooled individual participant data. Setting 46 cohorts from Europe, North and South America, Asia, and Australasia. Participants 2 051 158 participants (54% women) from general population cohorts (n=1 861 052), high risk cohorts (n=151 494), and chronic kidney disease cohorts (n=38 612). Eligible cohorts (except chronic kidney disease cohorts) had at least 1000 participants, outcomes of either mortality or end stage renal disease of ≥50 events, and baseline measurements of estimated glomerular filtration rate according to the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation (mL/min/1.73 m2) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (mg/g). Results Risks of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were higher in men at all levels of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albumin-creatinine ratio. While higher risk was associated with lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albumin-creatinine ratio in both sexes, the slope of the risk relationship for all-cause mortality and for cardiovascular mortality were steeper in women than in men. Compared with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 95, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality at estimated glomerular filtration rate 45 was 1.32 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.61) in women and 1.22 (1.00 to 1.48) in men (Pinteraction<0.01). Compared with a urinary albumin-creatinine ratio of 5, the adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality at urinary albumin-creatinine ratio 30 was 1.69 (1.54 to 1.84) in women and 1.43 (1.31 to 1.57) in men (Pinteraction<0.01). Conversely, there was no evidence of a sex difference in associations of estimated glomerular filtration rate and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio with end stage renal

  9. Albuminuria after renal transplantation: maintenance with sirolimus/low-dose tacrolimus vs. mycophenolate mofetil/high-dose tacrolimus.

    PubMed

    Miles, Clifford D; Skorupa, Jill Y; Sandoz, John P; Rigley, Theodore H; Nielsen, Kathleen J; Stevens, R Brian

    2011-01-01

    Maintenance immunosuppression with sirolimus (SRL) in renal transplantation has been associated with proteinuria. We report long-term outcomes of kidney transplant recipients maintained on steroid-free regimens, either SRL with low-dose tacrolimus (SRL/L-Tac) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) with high-dose tacrolimus (MMF/H-Tac). We conducted a case-matched study of 50 patients receiving MMF/H-Tac, matched 1:2 with 100 patients maintained on SRL/L-Tac. All patients were induced with rabbit antithymocyte globulin followed by early steroid withdrawal. Comparisons were made of patient and graft survival, graft function, acute rejection, and albuminuria. There were no significant differences between the SRL/L-Tac and MMF/H-Tac groups for patient survival, graft survival, occurrence of acute rejection, or graft function. There was no difference in the proportion of patients with albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥300 μg/mg (19% vs. 20%), but more patients in the SRL group were receiving renin-angiotensin system blocking agents (72% vs. 53%, p = 0.04). Only flushing the donor kidney with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution (vs. UW solution) was predictive of albuminuria. Long-term outcomes are similar at our center for kidney transplant patients receiving either SRL/L-Tac or MMF/H-Tac. Although the occurrence of albuminuria was not different, significantly more SRL-treated patients were receiving antiproteinuric medications. PMID:21077952

  10. Fluorescence-based thermal shift data on multidrug regulator AcrR from Salmonella enterica subsp. entrica serovar Typhimurium str. LT2.

    PubMed

    Manjasetty, Babu A; Halavaty, Andrei S; Luan, Chi-Hao; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Mulligan, Rory; Kwon, Keehwan; Anderson, Wayne F; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    The fluorescence-based thermal shift (FTS) data presented here include Table S1 and Fig. S1, and are supplemental to our original research article describing detailed structural, FTS, and fluorescence polarization analyses of the Salmonella enterica subsp. entrica serovar Typhimurium str. LT2 multidrug transcriptional regulator AcrR (StAcrR) (doi:10.1016/j.jsb.2016.01.008) (Manjasetty et al., 2015 [1]). Table S1 contains chemical formulas, a Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) Registry Number (CAS no.), FTS rank (a ligand with the highest rank) has the largest difference in the melting temperature (ΔT m), and uses as drug molecules against various pathological conditions of sixteen small-molecule ligands that increase thermal stability of StAcrR. Thermal stability of human enolase 1, a negative control protein, was not affected in the presence of various concentrations of the top six StAcrR binders (Fig. S1). PMID:27054155

  11. Dietary Phthalates and Low-Grade Albuminuria in US Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Trasande, Leonardo; Sathyanarayana, Sheela

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background Low-grade albuminuria is an indicator of endothelial dysfunction and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A graded level of exposure to bisphenol A was recently identified to be associated with increased risk of low-grade albuminuria in children and adults. Because bisphenol A and phthalates coexist as dietary contaminants, this study investigated whether exposure to phthalates is also associated with low-grade albuminuria. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Data were examined from 667 children who participated in the 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and who had results for urinary phthalate metabolites and albumin excretion. Urinary albumin and creatinine concentrations were measured in a first morning specimen using a solid-phase fluorescent immunoassay and a Roche/Hitachi Modular P Chemistry Analyzer with an enzymatic method, respectively. Phthalate metabolites were analyzed in a separate spot urine sample from each participant, using high-performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectroscopy. Results For each (roughly) 3-fold increase in metabolites of di-2-ethylhexylphthalate (a high molecular weight phthalate commonly found in foods), a 0.55 mg/g increase in albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) was identified (P=0.02), whereas a 1.30-fold odds of a higher ACR quartile was also identified for each (roughly) 3-fold increase (P=0.02). Higher ACR was not identified in relationship to metabolites of lower molecular phthalates commonly found in lotions or shampoos, suggesting specificity. Conclusions Although reverse causation and unmeasured confounders represent alternative explanations, these findings, in conjunction with our earlier data on bisphenol A, indicate that a wide array of environmental toxins may adversely affect albuminuria and potentially increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. In view of the potential long-term health implications of ongoing exposure in

  12. Loop-to-helix transition in the structure of multidrug regulator AcrR at the entrance of the drug-binding cavity.

    PubMed

    Manjasetty, Babu A; Halavaty, Andrei S; Luan, Chi-Hao; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Mulligan, Rory; Kwon, Keehwan; Anderson, Wayne F; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Multidrug transcription regulator AcrR from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium str. LT2 belongs to the tetracycline repressor family, one of the largest groups of bacterial transcription factors. The crystal structure of dimeric AcrR was determined and refined to 1.56Å resolution. The tertiary and quaternary structures of AcrR are similar to those of its homologs. The multidrug binding site was identified based on structural alignment with homologous proteins and has a di(hydroxyethyl)ether molecule bound. Residues from helices α4 and α7 shape the entry into this binding site. The structure of AcrR reveals that the extended helical conformation of helix α4 is stabilized by the hydrogen bond between Glu67 (helix α4) and Gln130 (helix α7). Based on the structural comparison with the closest homolog structure, the Escherichia coli AcrR, we propose that this hydrogen bond is responsible for control of the loop-to-helix transition within helix α4. This local conformational switch of helix α4 may be a key step in accessing the multidrug binding site and securing ligands at the binding site. Solution small-molecule binding studies suggest that AcrR binds ligands with their core chemical structure resembling the tetracyclic ring of cholesterol. PMID:26796657

  13. A pharmacodynamic Markov mixed-effects model for determining the effect of exposure to certolizumab pegol on the ACR20 score in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, B D; Lovern, M R; Stockis, A; Sargentini-Maier, M L; Karlsson, M O; Friberg, L E

    2009-10-01

    The American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 20% preliminary definition of improvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (ACR20) is widely used in clinical trials to assess response to treatment. The objectives of this analysis were to develop an exposure-response model of ACR20 in subjects receiving treatment with certolizumab pegol and to predict clinical outcomes following various treatment schedules. At each visit, subjects were classified as being ACR20 responders or ACR20 nonresponders or as having dropped out. A Markov mixed-effects model was developed to investigate the effects of the drug on the transitions between the three defined states. Increasing certolizumab pegol exposure predicted an increasing probability of becoming a responder and remaining a responder, as well as a reduced probability of dropping out of treatment. Data from simulations of the ACR20 response rate support the use of dosing regimens of 400 mg at weeks 0, 2, and 4 followed by 200 mg every 2 weeks, or an alternative maintenance regimen of 400 mg every 4 weeks. PMID:19626001

  14. A Recipe for Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    Many learners still struggled to appreciate, and understand the difference between, the concepts of fractions and ratio. This is not just a UK phenomenon, which is demonstrated here by the use of a resource developed by the Wisconsin Centre for Education, in association with the Freudenthal Institute of the University of Utrecht, with a group of…

  15. A Fluorescent Microplate Assay Quantifies Bacterial Efflux and Demonstrates Two Distinct Compound Binding Sites in AcrB

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Annette; Rijnbrand, R.; Erwin, Alice L.

    2015-01-01

    A direct assay of efflux by Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC and related multidrug pumps would have great value in discovery of new Gram-negative antibiotics. The current understanding of how efflux is affected by the chemical structure and physical properties of molecules is extremely limited, derived from antibacterial data for compounds that inhibit growth of wild-type E. coli. We adapted a previously described fluorescent efflux assay to a 96-well microplate format that measured the ability of test compounds to compete for efflux with Nile Red (an environment-sensitive fluor), independent of antibacterial activity. We show that Nile Red and the lipid-sensitive probe DiBAC4-(3) [bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)-trimethine oxonol] can quantify efflux competition in E. coli. We extend the previous findings that the tetracyclines compete with Nile Red and show that DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides. The extent of the competition shows a modest correlation with the effect of the acrB deletion on MICs within the compound sets for both dyes. Crystallographic studies identified at least two substrate binding sites in AcrB, the proximal and distal pockets. High-molecular-mass substrates bound the proximal pocket, while low-mass substrates occupied the distal pocket. As DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides but not with Nile Red, we propose that DiBAC4-(3) binds the proximal pocket and Nile Red likely binds the distal site. In conclusion, competition with fluorescent probes can be used to study the efflux process for diverse chemical structures and may provide information as to the site of binding and, in some cases, enable rank-ordering a series of related compounds by efflux. PMID:25645845

  16. Assessment of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and Retinol-Binding Protein 4 (RBP4) in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Mahfouz, Mohamed H.; Assiri, Adel M.; Mukhtar, Mohammed H.

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes. The study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) as biomarkers for early detection of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. The current study was performed on 150 type 2 diabetic patients. These patients were classified into three equal groups according to their albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), including patients with normoalbuminuria (ACR <30 mg/g creatinine), patients with microalbuminuria (ACR = 30–300 mg/g creatinine), and patients with macroalbuminuria (ACR >300 mg/g creatinine). Fifty apparently healthy subjects matching the same age and socioeconomic status with diabetic subjects were selected as a control group. The plasma glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), lipid profile, urea, creatinine, cystatin C, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), NGAL, and RBP4 were measured in the studied groups. Significantly elevated NGAL and RBP4 levels were observed in micro- and macroalbuminuric diabetic groups when compared to the control and normoalbuminuric diabetic groups. NGAL and RBP4 were found to correlate positively with duration of diabetes, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, glucose, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, triacylglycerol, and ACR, but correlate inversely with GFR in DN groups. Receiver operating characteristic curves revealed that for early detection of DN, the best cutoff values to discriminate DN and diabetic without nephropathy groups were 91.5 ng/mL for NGAL with 87% sensitivity, 74% specificity, and area under the curve (AUC) = 0.881; 24.5 ng/mL for RBP4 with 84% sensitivity, 90% specificity, and AUC = 0.912; and 37.5 mg/g creatinine for ACR with 89% sensitivity, 72% specificity, and AUC = 0.819. RBP4 is more specific (90% specificity) than NGAL (74% specificity) and ACR (72% specificity). Therefore

  17. Intensive production of hybrid catfish-14 tons per acre in earthen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In spite of record high feed prices (averaging over $400/ton during the past five years) and a flood of cheap imports being dumped on the country, the U.S. farm-raised catfish industry has remained viable by increasing production intensity while decreasing FCRs (food conversion ratios). Two technica...

  18. Cationicity-enhanced analogues of the antimicrobial peptides, AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, from the venom of the scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, display potent growth modulation effects on human cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Du, Qiang; Hou, Xiaojuan; Ge, Lilin; Li, Renjie; Zhou, Mei; Wang, Hui; Wang, Lei; Wei, Minjie; Chen, Tianbao; Shaw, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The non disulphide-bridged peptides (NDBPs) of scorpion venoms are attracting increased interest due to their structural heterogeneity and broad spectrum of biological activities. Here, two novel peptides, named AcrAP1 and AcrAP2, have been identified in the lyophilised venom of the Arabian scorpion, Androctonus crassicauda, through "shotgun" molecular cloning of their biosynthetic precursor-encoding cDNAs. The respective mature peptides, predicted from these cloned cDNAs, were subsequently isolated from the same venom sample using reverse phase HPLC and their identities were confirmed by use of mass spectrometric techniques. Both were found to belong to a family of highly-conserved scorpion venom antimicrobial peptides - a finding confirmed through the biological investigation of synthetic replicates. Analogues of both peptides designed for enhanced cationicity, displayed enhanced potency and spectra of antimicrobial activity but, unlike the native peptides, these also displayed potent growth modulation effects on a range of human cancer cell lines. Thus natural peptide templates from venom peptidomes can provide the basis for rational analogue design to improve both biological potency and spectrum of action. The diversity of such templates from such natural sources undoubtedly provides the pharmaceutical industry with unique lead compounds for drug discovery. PMID:25332684

  19. Correlates and Longitudinal Renal and Cardiovascular Implications of FGF23 Levels in HIV-Positive Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Atta, Mohamed G.; Estrella, Michelle M.; Fine, Derek M.; Zook, Katie; Monroy Trujillo, Jose Manuel; Stein, James H.; Lucas, Gregory M.

    2016-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor23 (FGF23), an early marker of kidney dysfunction, is associated with cardiovascular death. Its role in HIV-positive individuals is unknown. We measured FGF23 in 100 HIV-negative and 191 HIV-positive nondiabetic adults with normal baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR). We measured GFR by iohexol annually, albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) every 6 months, as well as pulse wave velocity, carotid plaque, and carotid intima media thickness (IMT) at baseline and 2 years. Progressive albuminuria was defined as follow-up ACR ≥2-fold than baseline and ≥30 mg/g. Regression models assessed associations of FGF23 with baseline factors and longitudinal changes in disease markers. FGF23 levels were similar in HIV serostatus. Among HIV-positive persons, factors independently associated with higher baseline FGF23 levels included female (adjusted ratio of geometric means [95% CI],1.46 [1.21,1.76]), serum phosphorus (1.20 [1.03,1.40]), HCV (1.31 [1.10,1.56]) and non-suppressed HIV RNA (1.27 [1.01,1.76]). At baseline, FGF23 was not associated with GFR, albuminuria, carotid plaque, or carotid IMT in cross-sectionally adjusted analysis of HIV-positive individuals. However, higher baseline FGF23 was associated with progressive albuminuria (odds ratio1.48 [95% CI]:1.05,2.08) and a more rapid increase in IMT (13 μm/year, 95% CI,3,24). These findings suggest a role for FGF23 in HIV-positive populations in identifying patients at greater risk for cardiovascular and kidney disease. PMID:27176000

  20. Two host-induced Ralstonia solanacearum genes, acrA and dinF, encode multidrug efflux pumps and contribute to bacterial wilt virulence.

    PubMed

    Brown, Darby G; Swanson, Jill K; Allen, Caitilyn

    2007-05-01

    Multidrug efflux pumps (MDRs) are hypothesized to protect pathogenic bacteria from toxic host defense compounds. We created mutations in the Ralstonia solanacearum acrA and dinF genes, which encode putative MDRs in the broad-host-range plant pathogen. Both mutations reduced the ability of R. solanacearum to grow in the presence of various toxic compounds, including antibiotics, phytoalexins, and detergents. Both acrAB and dinF mutants were significantly less virulent on the tomato plant than the wild-type strain. Complementation restored near-wild-type levels of virulence to both mutants. Addition of either dinF or acrAB to Escherichia coli MDR mutants KAM3 and KAM32 restored the resistance of these strains to several toxins, demonstrating that the R. solanacearum genes can function heterologously to complement known MDR mutations. Toxic and DNA-damaging compounds induced expression of acrA and dinF, as did growth in both susceptible and resistant tomato plants. Carbon limitation also increased expression of acrA and dinF, while the stress-related sigma factor RpoS was required at a high cell density (>10(7) CFU/ml) to obtain wild-type levels of acrA expression both in minimal medium and in planta. The type III secretion system regulator HrpB negatively regulated dinF expression in culture at high cell densities. Together, these results show that acrAB and dinF encode MDRs in R. solanacearum and that they contribute to the overall aggressiveness of this phytopathogen, probably by protecting the bacterium from the toxic effects of host antimicrobial compounds. PMID:17337552

  1. A bidirectional ACR-NEMA interface between the VA's DHCP Integrated Imaging System and the Siemens-Loral PACS.

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmak, P. M.; Dayhoff, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    There is a wide range of requirements for digital hospital imaging systems. Radiology needs very high resolution black and white images. Other diagnostic disciplines need high resolution color imaging capabilities. Images need to be displayed in many locations throughout the hospital. Different imaging systems within a hospital need to cooperate in order to show the whole picture. At the Baltimore VA Medical Center, the DHCP Integrated Imaging System and a commercial Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) work in concert to provide a wide-range of departmental and hospital-wide imaging capabilities. An interface between the DHCP and the Siemens-Loral PACS systems enables patient text and image data to be passed between the two systems. The interface uses ACR-NEMA 2.0 Standard messages extended with shadow groups based on draft ACR-NEMA 3.0 prototypes. A Novell file server, accessible to both systems via Ethernet, is used to communicate all the messages. Patient identification information, orders, ADT, procedure status, changes, patient reports, and images are sent between the two systems across the interface. The systems together provide an extensive set of imaging capabilities for both the specialist and the general practitioner. PMID:1482906

  2. Morphological and molecular characteristics do not confirm popular classification of the Brazil nut tree in Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sujii, P S; Fernandes, E T M B; Azevedo, V C R; Ciampi, A Y; Martins, K; de O Wadt, L H

    2013-01-01

    In the State of Acre, the Brazil nut tree, Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae), is classified by the local population into two types according to morphological characteristics, including color and quality of wood, shape of the trunk and crown, and fruit production. We examined the reliability of this classification by comparing morphological and molecular data of four populations of Brazil nut trees from Vale do Rio Acre in the Brazilian Amazon. For the morphological analysis, we evaluated qualitative and quantitative information of the trees, fruits, and seeds. The molecular analysis was performed using RAPD and ISSR markers, with cluster analysis. Significant differences were found between the two types of Brazil nut trees for the characters diameter at breast height, fruit yield, fruit size, and number of seeds per fruit. Despite the significant correlation between the morphological characteristics and the popular classification, we observed all possible combinations of morphological characteristics in both types of Brazil nut trees. In some individuals, the classification did not correspond to any of the characteristics. The results obtained with molecular markers showed that the two locally classified types of Brazil nut trees did not differ genetically, indicating that there is no consistent separation between them. PMID:24089091

  3. Characterization Report for the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. This report summarizes characterization and monitoring work pertinent to the 92-Acre Area in the southeast part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites. The decades of characterization and assessment work at the Area 5 RWMS indicate that the access controls, waste operation practices, site design, final cover design, site setting, and arid natural environment contribute to a containment system that meets regulatory requirements and performance objectives for the short- and long-term protection of the environment and public. The available characterization and Performance Assessment information is adequate to support design of the final cover and development of closure plans. No further characterization is warranted to demonstrate regulatory compliance. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is proceeding with the development of closure plans for the six closure units of the 92-Acre Area.

  4. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE TRI‑BORDER AREA OF ASSIS BRASIL, ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TELES, Carolina Bioni Garcia; MEDEIROS, Jansen Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Ana Paula de Azevedo; de FREITAS, Luís Antônio Rodrigues; KATSURAGAWA, Tony Hiroshi; CANTANHÊDE, Lilian Motta; FERREIRA, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; CAMARG, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study, Leishmaniaspecies were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The epidemiology of patients suspected of having American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, located in the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia triborder was also investigated. By PCR, the DNA of Leishmaniawas detected in 100% of the cases (37 samples) and a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp 70gene identified the species in 32 samples: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65.6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28.1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3.1%) and mixed infection L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (Leishmania) amazonensis (3.1%)This is the first report of L. (V.) shawiand L. (L.) amazonensis in Acre. The two predominant species were found in patients living in urban and rural areas. Most cases were found in males living in rural areas for at least three years and involved in rural work. This suggests, in most cases, a possible transmission of the disease from a rural/forest source, although some patients had not engaged in activities associated with permanence in forestall areas, which indicate a possible sandflies adaptation to the periurban setting. PMID:26422160

  5. Software development for ACR-approved phantom-based nuclear medicine tomographic image quality control with cross-platform compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jungsu S.; Choi, Jae Min; Nam, Ki Pyo; Chae, Sun Young; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Kim, Jae Seung

    2015-07-01

    Quality control and quality assurance (QC/QA) have been two of the most important issues in modern nuclear medicine (NM) imaging for both clinical practices and academic research. Whereas quantitative QC analysis software is common to modern positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, the QC of gamma cameras and/or single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners has not been sufficiently addressed. Although a thorough standard operating process (SOP) for mechanical and software maintenance may help the QC/QA of a gamma camera and SPECT-computed tomography (CT), no previous study has addressed a unified platform or process to decipher or analyze SPECT phantom images acquired from various scanners thus far. In addition, a few approaches have established cross-platform software to enable the technologists and physicists to assess the variety of SPECT scanners from different manufacturers. To resolve these issues, we have developed Interactive Data Language (IDL)-based in-house software for crossplatform (in terms of not only operating systems (OS) but also manufacturers) analyses of the QC data on an ACR SPECT phantom, which is essential for assessing and assuring the tomographical image quality of SPECT. We applied our devised software to our routine quarterly QC of ACR SPECT phantom images acquired from a number of platforms (OS/manufacturers). Based on our experience, we suggest that our devised software can offer a unified platform that allows images acquired from various types of scanners to be analyzed with great precision and accuracy.

  6. Direct interaction with ACR11 is necessary for post-transcriptional control of GLU1-encoded ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase in leaves.

    PubMed

    Takabayashi, Atsushi; Niwata, Akihiro; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2016-01-01

    Because it plays an essential role in nitrogen (N) assimilation and photorespiration, the glutamine synthetase (GS)/glutamate synthase (GOGAT) system is widely accepted as occupying a central position in leaf N metabolism. However, the regulation of GOGAT at the post-transcriptional level is poorly understood. Here, we show that ACR11, an ACT (acronym for aspartate kinase, chorismate mutase, and TyrA) domain-containing family protein, interacts with Glu1-encoded ferredoxin (Fd)-GOGAT in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. In addition, Arabidopsis acr11 mutants have lost the capability to control Fd-GOGAT levels in response to light/dark diurnal cycles, nitrogen inputs, and changes in photorespiratory activity. Considering that ACR11 has putative glutamine-binding domains, our results indicate that ACR11 is necessary for post-transcriptional control of leaf Glu1-encoded Fd-GOGAT. This regulation takes place through direct interaction of ACR11 and Fd-GOGAT, possibly in an allosteric manner. PMID:27411448

  7. Direct interaction with ACR11 is necessary for post-transcriptional control of GLU1-encoded ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase in leaves

    PubMed Central

    Takabayashi, Atsushi; Niwata, Akihiro; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2016-01-01

    Because it plays an essential role in nitrogen (N) assimilation and photorespiration, the glutamine synthetase (GS)/glutamate synthase (GOGAT) system is widely accepted as occupying a central position in leaf N metabolism. However, the regulation of GOGAT at the post-transcriptional level is poorly understood. Here, we show that ACR11, an ACT (acronym for aspartate kinase, chorismate mutase, and TyrA) domain-containing family protein, interacts with Glu1-encoded ferredoxin (Fd)-GOGAT in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. In addition, Arabidopsis acr11 mutants have lost the capability to control Fd-GOGAT levels in response to light/dark diurnal cycles, nitrogen inputs, and changes in photorespiratory activity. Considering that ACR11 has putative glutamine-binding domains, our results indicate that ACR11 is necessary for post-transcriptional control of leaf Glu1-encoded Fd-GOGAT. This regulation takes place through direct interaction of ACR11 and Fd-GOGAT, possibly in an allosteric manner. PMID:27411448

  8. Effects of stress reduction on cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes patients with early kidney disease - results of a randomized controlled trial (HEIDIS).

    PubMed

    Kopf, S; Oikonomou, D; Hartmann, M; Feier, F; Faude-Lang, V; Morcos, M; Häring, H-U; Herzog, W; Bierhaus, A; Humpert, P M; Nawroth, P P

    2014-06-01

    Current guidelines for the treatment of type 2 diabetes focus on pharmacological treatment of glucose and cardio-vascular risk factors. The aim of this prospective randomized controlled intervention study was to examine the effects of a psychosocial intervention on clinical endpoints and risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes and early diabetic kidney disease.110 patients were randomized to receive an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) training (n = 53) compared to standard care (n = 57). The study was carried out open-labelled and randomization was performed computer-generated in a 1:1 ratio. Primary outcome of the study was the change in urinary albumin excretion (albumin-creatinine-ratio, ACR); secondary outcomes were metabolic parameters, intima media thickness (IMT), psychosocial parameters and cardiovascular events.89 patients (42 in control group and 47 in intervention group) were analysed after 3 years of follow-up. After 1 year, the intervention group showed a reduction of ACR from 44 [16/80] to 39 [20/71] mg/g, while controls increased from 47 [16/120] to 59 [19/128] mg/g (p = 0.05). Parallel to the reduction of stress levels after 1 year, the intervention-group additionally showed reduced catecholamine levels (p < 0.05), improved 24 h-mean arterial (p < 0.05) and maximum systolic blood pressure (p < 0.01), as well as a reduction in IMT (p < 0.01). However, these effects were lost after 2 and 3 years of follow-up.This is the first study to show that a psychosocial intervention improves cardiovascular risk factors in high risk type 2 diabetes patients. Trial-Registration: NCT00263419 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00263419 TRIAL REGISTRATION: clinicaltrials.gov-Identifier: NCT00263419. PMID:24798861

  9. Effect of birth weight on adulthood renal function: A bias-adjusted meta-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Das, Sumon Kumar; Mannan, Munim; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Ahmed, Tahmeed; McIntyre, Harold David; Al Mamun, Abdullah

    2016-07-01

    While the association between low birth weight (LBW; <2500 g) and development of adult chronic renal disease (CKD) is inconsistently reported, less information is available regarding association of high birth weight (HBW; ≥4000 g) with CKD. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis on studies published before 30 September 2015 and report associations between birth weight and renal function. Blood (glomerular filtration rate (GFR)) and urine (microalbuminuria/albumin excreation rate (AER)/urinary albumin creatinine ratio (ACR)) parameters were used to define CKD. Three different effect size estimates were used (odds ratio, regression coefficient and mean difference). The odds of developing CKD in the life course among those born LBW was 1.77 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.20) times and 1.68 (1.27, 2.33) times, assessed by blood and urine parameters respectively. Higher risk was also observed among Asian and Australian populations (blood: OR 2.68; urine: OR 2.28), individuals aged ≤30 years (blood: OR 2.30; urine: OR 1.26), and ≥50 years (blood: OR 3.66; urine: OR 3.10), people with diabetes (blood: OR 2.51), and aborigines (urine: OR 2.32). There was no significant association between HBW and CKD. For every 1 kg increase in BW, the estimated GFR increased by 2.09 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (1.33-2.85), and it was negatively associated with LogACR (ß -0.07, 95% CI: -0.14, 0.00). LBW inborn had lower mean GFR -4.62 (-7.10, -2.14) compared with normal BW. Findings of this study suggest that LBW increased the risk of developing CKD, and HBW did not show any significant impact. PMID:26807855

  10. Directional gear ratio transmissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafever, A. E. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    Epicyclic gear transmissions which transmit output at a gear ratio dependent only upon the input's direction are considered. A transmission housing envelops two epicyclic gear assemblies, and has shafts extending from it. One shaft is attached to a sun gear within the first epicyclic gear assembly. Planet gears are held symmetrically about the sun gear by a planet gear carrier and are in mesh with both the sun gear and a ring gear. Two unidirectional clutches restrict rotation of the first planet gear carrier and ring gear to one direction. A connecting shaft drives a second sun gear at the same speed and direction as the first planet gear carrier while a connecting portion drives a second planet gear carrier at the same speed and direction as the first ring gear. The transmission's output is then transmitted by the second ring gear to the second shaft. Input is transmitted at a higher gear ratio and lower speed for all inputs in the first direction than in the opposite direction.

  11. Strengthening Adaptation to Extreme Climate Events in Southwestern Amazonia: an Example from the Trinational Acre River Basin in the Madre de Dios/Peru - Acre/Brazil - Pando/Bolivia (MAP) Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, I. F.

    2015-12-01

    Southwestern Amazonia, where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet, faces numerous challenges to the sustainable utilization of land and water resources as the region experiences rapid population and economic growth, expanding agriculture, transportation and energy sectors, along with frequent flooding and droughts. It is also predicted to be one of the most susceptible areas for climate change in the coming decade. The Acre River Basin, one of the few trinational basins in Amazonia, lies at the center of the Madre de Dios Region (Peru), Acre State (Brazil) and Pando Department (Bolivia) or MAP Region. It covers approximately 7,500 km2 and its inhabitants range from indigenous groups avoiding contact with industrial society to more than 60,000 dwellers of a binational urban center. The basin incorporates most the challenges facing the region and this paper discusses steps underway to address the basin's vulnerability to climate-related threats. A trinational group of professionals used GIS databases and local knowledge to classify these threats and possible societal responses. To prioritize threats and to propose responses, this group adapted a method proposed by the Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence of Australia to develop climate risk matrices for assessing impacts, adaptation, risk and vulnerability. The three priority climate variables were prolonged and more frequent droughts, more intense flooding, and more days with temperatures > 35oC. The final matrix proposed two areas of concentration - 1) Reduce the vulnerability of communities to hydro-meteorological extreme events and 2) Protect and restore ecosystems that maintain critical water-related resources with actions in public policy, capacity-building, and immediate activities. These results are being incorporated into the Amazon Project of the Global Environment Fund of the United Nations Environment Program, administered by the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO).

  12. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  13. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  14. The effect of food on the acute toxicity of silver nitrate to four freshwater test species and acute-to-chronic ratios.

    PubMed

    Naddy, Rami B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Bell, Russell A; Kramer, James R; Wu, Kuen B; Paquin, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that were previously performed in this laboratory. The acute toxicity (EC/LC50 values) of silver without food ranged from 0.57 μg dissolved Ag/l for C.dubia to 9.15 μg dissolved Ag/l for RBT. The presence of food resulted in an increase in EC/LC50 values from 1.25× for RBT to 22.4× for C. dubia. Invertebrate food type was also shown to effect acute silver toxicity. Food did not affect EC/LC50s or ACRs as greatly in fish studies as in invertebrate studies. ACRs for both invertebrate species were <1.0 when using acute studies without food but were 1.22 and 1.33 when using acute studies with food. ACRs for FHMs ranged from 4.06 to 7.19, while RBT ACRs ranged from 28.6 to 35.8 depending on whether food was present in acute studies. The data generated from this research program should be useful in re-determining a final ACR for silver in freshwater as well as in risk assessments. PMID:21779820

  15. CT head-scan dosimetry in an anthropomorphic phantom and associated measurement of ACR accreditation-phantom imaging metrics under clinically representative scan conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Brunner, Claudia C.; Stern, Stanley H.; Chakrabarti, Kish; Minniti, Ronaldo; Parry, Marie I.; Skopec, Marlene

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To measure radiation absorbed dose and its distribution in an anthropomorphic head phantom under clinically representative scan conditions in three widely used computed tomography (CT) scanners, and to relate those dose values to metrics such as high-contrast resolution, noise, and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in the American College of Radiology CT accreditation phantom.Methods: By inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLDs) in the head of an anthropomorphic phantom specially developed for CT dosimetry (University of Florida, Gainesville), we measured dose with three commonly used scanners (GE Discovery CT750 HD, Siemens Definition, Philips Brilliance 64) at two different clinical sites (Walter Reed National Military Medical Center, National Institutes of Health). The scanners were set to operate with the same data-acquisition and image-reconstruction protocols as used clinically for typical head scans, respective of the practices of each facility for each scanner. We also analyzed images of the ACR CT accreditation phantom with the corresponding protocols. While the Siemens Definition and the Philips Brilliance protocols utilized only conventional, filtered back-projection (FBP) image-reconstruction methods, the GE Discovery also employed its particular version of an adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) algorithm that can be blended in desired proportions with the FBP algorithm. We did an objective image-metrics analysis evaluating the modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS), and CNR for images reconstructed with FBP. For images reconstructed with ASIR, we only analyzed the CNR, since MTF and NPS results are expected to depend on the object for iterative reconstruction algorithms.Results: The OSLD measurements showed that the Siemens Definition and the Philips Brilliance scanners (located at two different clinical facilities) yield average absorbed doses in tissue of 42.6 and 43.1 m

  16. Properties of AdeABC and AdeIJK Efflux Systems of Acinetobacter baumannii Compared with Those of the AcrAB-TolC System of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Etsuko

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii contains RND-family efflux systems AdeABC and AdeIJK, which pump out a wide range of antimicrobial compounds, as judged from the MIC changes occurring upon deletion of the responsible genes. However, these studies may miss changes because of the high backgrounds generated by the remaining pumps and by β-lactamases, and it is unclear how the activities of these pumps compare quantitatively with those of the well-studied AcrAB-TolC system of Escherichia coli. We expressed adeABC and adeIJK of A. baumannii, as well as E. coli acrAB, in an E. coli host from which acrAB was deleted. The A. baumannii pumps were functional in E. coli, and the MIC changes that were observed largely confirmed the substrate range already reported, with important differences. Thus, the AdeABC system pumped out all β-lactams, an activity that was often missed in deletion studies. When the expression level of the pump genes was adjusted to a similar level for a comparison with AcrAB-TolC, we found that both A. baumannii efflux systems pumped out a wide range of compounds, but AdeABC was less effective than AcrAB-TolC in the extrusion of lipophilic β-lactams, novobiocin, and ethidium bromide, although it was more effective at tetracycline efflux. AdeIJK was remarkably more effective than a similar level of AcrAB-TolC in the efflux of β-lactams, novobiocin, and ethidium bromide, although it was less so in the efflux of erythromycin. These results thus allow us to compare these efflux systems on a quantitative basis, if we can assume that the heterologous systems are fully functional in the E. coli host. PMID:25246403

  17. Knocking Out ACR2 Does Not Affect Arsenic Redox Status in Arabidopsis thaliana: Implications for As Detoxification and Accumulation in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenju; Schat, Henk; Bliek, Mathijs; Chen, Yi; McGrath, Steve P.; George, Graham; Salt, David E.; Zhao, Fang-Jie

    2012-01-01

    Many plant species are able to reduce arsenate to arsenite efficiently, which is an important step allowing detoxification of As through either efflux of arsenite or complexation with thiol compounds. It has been suggested that this reduction is catalyzed by ACR2, a plant homologue of the yeast arsenate reductase ScACR2. Silencing of AtACR2 was reported to result in As hyperaccumulation in the shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana. However, no information of the in vivo As speciation has been reported. Here, we investigated the effect of AtACR2 knockout or overexpression on As speciation, arsenite efflux from roots and As accumulation in shoots. T-DNA insertion lines, overexpression lines and wild-type (WT) plants were exposed to different concentrations of arsenate for different periods, and As speciation in plants and arsenite efflux were determined using HPLC-ICP-MS. There were no significant differences in As speciation between different lines, with arsenite accounting for >90% of the total extractable As in both roots and shoots. Arsenite efflux to the external medium represented on average 77% of the arsenate taken up during 6 h exposure, but there were no significant differences between WT and mutants or overexpression lines. Accumulation of As in the shoots was also unaffected by AtACR2 knockout or overexpression. Additionally, after exposure to arsenate, the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strain with ScACR2 deleted showed similar As speciation as the WT with arsenite-thiol complexes being the predominant species. Our results suggest the existence of multiple pathways of arsenate reduction in plants and yeast. PMID:22879969

  18. A fonte ionizante do disco de acreção no núcleo de NGC1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. N.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    2003-08-01

    Observações em raios-X revelam o "coração" dos núcleos ativos de galáxias, pois esse tipo de radiação provém das suas regiões mais internas, próximas ao buraco negro central. Neste trabalho apresentamos observações em raios-X da região central da galáxia NGC1097, que hospeda um buraco negro supermassivo e um disco de acreção cuja emissão vem sendo observada há dez anos através da linha de emissão Ha larga (10000 km/s) e de duplo pico. As observações em raios-X - que foram obtidas com o Telescópio Chandra - foram combinadas com observações no ultravioleta obtidas com o Telescópio Espacial Hubble e são usadas para estudar as características da fonte central que ioniza o disco de acreção. A distribuição espectral de energia é comparada com a predita por modelos, em particular o de uma estrutura "ADAF" ("advection dominated accretion flow") na parte interna do disco. Tal estrutura produz um espectro de emissão de linhas estreitas tipo LINER, como observado em NGC1097 e em rádio-galáxias que apresentam linhas de Balmer largas de duplo pico. Apresentamos também uma comparação entre outros LINERs com linhas de emissão largas de duplo pico, disponíveis na literatura ou nos arquivos do Chandra e do Telescópio Espacial Hubble e discutimos as correspondentes implicações para modelos da fonte central.

  19. High ambient-contrast-ratio display using tandem reflective liquid crystal display and organic light-emitting device.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiun-Haw; Zhu, Xinyu; Lin, Yi-Hsin; Choi, Wing; Lin, Tien-Chun; Hsu, Sheng-Chih; Lin, Hoang-Yan; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2005-11-14

    A high ambient-contrast-ratio (A-CR) and large aperture-ratio display is conceptually demonstrated and experimentally validated by stacking a normally black reflective liquid crystal display (NB-RLCD) and an organic light-emitting device (OLED). Such a tandem device can be switched between the NB-RLCD mode and the OLED mode under bright and dark ambient light, respectively. The normally black characteristic of the RLCD also helps to boost the A-CR under OLED-mode operation. To obtain a better image quality in the RLCD mode, a bumpy and transmissive structure is used to eliminate the specular reflection and to increase the viewing angle performance that results in CR>2:1 over 55 degrees viewing cone. Besides, such a structure can also increase the external quantum efficiency of the OLED by 49.4%. In our experiments, regardless of the ambient intensity the A-CR is kept higher than 100:1. PMID:19503145

  20. Variable compression ratio control

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.A.

    1988-04-19

    In a four cycle engine that includes a crankshaft having a plural number of main shaft sections defining the crankshaft rotational axis and a plural number of crank arms defining orbital shaft sections, a plural number of combustion cylinders, a movable piston within each cylinder, each cylinder and its associated piston defining a combustion chamber, a connecting rod connecting each piston to an orbital shaft section of the crankshaft, and a plural number of stationary support walls spaced along the crankshaft axis for absorbing crankshaft forces: the improvement is described comprising means for adjustably supporting the crankshaft on the stationary walls such that the crankshaft rotational axis is adjustable along the piston-cylinder axis for the purpose of varying a resulting engine compression ratio; the adjustable support means comprising a circular cavity in each stationary wall. A circular disk swivably is seated in each cavity, each circular disk having a circular opening therethrough eccentric to the disk center. The crankshaft is arranged so that respective ones of its main shaft sections are located within respective ones of the circular openings; means for rotating each circular disk around its center so that the main shaft sections of the crankshaft are adjusted toward and away from the combustion chamber; a pinion gear on an output end of the crankshaft in axial alignment with and positioned beyond the respective ones of the main shaft sections, and a rotary output gear located about and engaged with teeth extending from the pinion gear.

  1. Polymorphisms in the Non-Muscle Myosin Heavy Chain Gene (MYH9) Are Associated with Lower Glomerular Filtration Rate in Mixed Ancestry Diabetic Subjects from South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Matsha, Tandi Edith; Masconi, Katya; Yako, Yandiswa Yolanda; Hassan, Mogamat Shafick; Macharia, Muiriri; Erasmus, Rajiv Timothy; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2012-01-01

    Objective Though single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the non-muscle myosin gene (MYH9) have been reported to explain most of the excess risk of nondiabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD), in African-Americans, some studies have also shown associations with diabetic end-stage renal disease. We investigated the association of MYH9 SNPs with renal traits in a mixed-ancestry South African population prone to diabetes. Research Design and Methods Three SNPs known to be associated with CKD (rs4821480, rs5756152 and rs12107) were genotyped using Taqman assay in 716 adults (198 with diabetes) from the Bellville-South community, Cape Town. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) and urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) assessed. Multivariable regressions were used to relate the SNPs with renal traits. Results Mean age was 53.6 years, with the expected differences observed in characteristics by diabetic status. Significant associations were found between rs575152 and serum creatinine, and eGFR in the total population, and in diabetic participants (all p≤0.003), but not in non-diabetics (all p≥0.16), with significant interactions by diabetes status (interaction-p≤0.009). The association with ACR was borderline in diabetic participants (p = 0.05) and non-significant in non-diabetics (p = 0.85), with significant interaction (interaction p = 0.02). rs12107 was associated with fasting-, 2-hour glucose and HbA1c in diabetic participants only (interaction-p≤0.003), but not with renal traits. Conclusion MYH9 SNPs were associated with renal traits only in diabetic participants in this population. Our findings and other studies suggest that MYH9 may have a broader genetic risk effect on kidney diseases. PMID:23285077

  2. Impact of supervised cardiac rehabilitation on urinary albumin excretion in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Sahika; Ueda, Yuka; Ise, Takayuki; Yagi, Shusuke; Iwase, Takashi; Nishikawa, Koji; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Soeki, Takeshi; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Katoh, Shinsuke; Akaike, Masashi; Yasui, Natsuo; Sata, Masataka

    2015-01-01

    Urinary albumin excretion is a predictor of cardiovascular death. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) with exercise training (ET) has been shown to improve exercise capacity and prognosis in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, it remains unclear whether CR reduces urinary albumin excretion in CVD patients. We performed a retrospective, observational study using data obtained from 98 male CVD patients without macroalbuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 30 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) who participated in CR with ET during hospitalization. Twenty-three patients continued supervised ET for 6 months (supervised group) and 75 patients quit supervised ET (non-supervised group). The supervised ET program consisted of 60 minutes of supervised sessions 1-3 times a week and 30-60 minutes of home exercise at least twice a week. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) was significantly decreased in the supervised group at 6 months after enrollment (43 ± 71 mg/g to 17 ± 20 mg/g creatinine, P < 0.05) but not in the non-supervised group. eGFR was unchanged in the supervised group but was significantly decreased in the non-supervised group (72 ± 18 mL/minute/1.73 m(2) to 67 ± 17 mL/minute/1.73 m(2), P < 0.001). The results of multiple regression analysis showed that only supervised ET was an independent contributor to ΔACR. CR with supervised ET decreased urinary albumin excretion without deterioration of renal function. These findings suggest that continuation of a supervised ET program is associated with reduction in the development of CVD and reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in CVD patients. PMID:25742947

  3. Attenuated brain-derived neurotrophic factor and hypertrophic remodelling: the SABPA study.

    PubMed

    Smith, A J; Malan, L; Uys, A S; Malan, N T; Harvey, B H; Ziemssen, T

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been linked to neurological pathologies, but its role in cardiometabolic disturbances is limited. We aimed to assess the association between serum BDNF levels and structural endothelial dysfunction (ED) as determined by cross-sectional wall area (CSWA) and albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) in black Africans. Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and ultrasound CSWA values were obtained from 82 males and 90 females. Fasting blood and 8 h overnight urine samples were collected to determine serum BDNF and cardiometabolic risk markers, that is, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), lipids, inflammation and ACR. BDNF median split × gender interaction effects for structural ED justified stratification of BDNF into low and high (⩽/>1.37 ng ml(-1)) gender groups. BDNF values (0.86-1.98 ng ml(-1)) were substantially lower than reference ranges (6.97-42.6 ng ml(-1)) in the African gender cohort, independent of age and body mass index. No relationship was revealed between BDNF and renal function and was opposed by an inverse relationship between BDNF and CSWA (r=-0.17; P=0.03) in the African cohort. Linear regression analyses revealed a positive relationship between systolic BP and structural remodelling in the total cohort and low-BDNF gender groups. In the high-BDNF females, HbA1C was associated with structural remodelling. Attenuated or possible downregulated BDNF levels were associated with hypertrophic remodelling, and may be a compensatory mechanism for the higher BP in Africans. In addition, metabolic risk and hypertrophic remodelling in women with high BDNF underpin different underlying mechanisms for impaired neurotrophin homeostasis in men and women. PMID:24898921

  4. [Clinical significance of proteinuria and renal function: findings from a population-based cohort, the Takahata study].

    PubMed

    Konta, Tsuneo

    2013-07-01

    Proteinuria/albuminuria and renal insufficiency are major components of chronic kidney disease (CKD), and are strongly associated with end-stage renal disease, cardiovascular events and premature death. To clarify the prevalence of these renal disorders and the association between renal disorders and mortality in the Japanese population, we conducted a community-based longitudinal study. This study included 3,445 registered Japanese subjects, with a 7-year follow-up. Proteinuria/albuminuria was evaluated using dipstick strips and the urinary protein/albumin creatinine ratio (PCR/ACR). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the equation for Japanese subjects. The prevalence of dipstick proteinuria, proteinuria (PCR > or = 0.15 g/gCr), albuminuria(ACR > or =30 mg/gCr) and renal insufficiency(estimated GFR< 60 ml/min/1.73m2) were 5%, 8%, 15% and 7%, respectively. The overlap between urinary abnormality and renal insufficiency was small. The prevalence of proteinuria/albuminuria increased along with the increase of blood pressure, 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, HbAlc and the number of components of metabolic syndrome. Kaplan Meier analysis showed that all-cause mortality was significantly increased along with the increase in urinary albumin excretion and the subjects with albuminuria showed a significantly higher mortality rate than those without albuminuria. Cox proportional hazard analysis after adjusting for possible confounders showed that albuminuria was an independent risk for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. In conclusion, proteinuria/albuminuria and renal insufficiency are prevalent and were independently associated with mortality in the Japanese general population. The detection of renal disorders at the earliest opportunity is important to prevent premature death. PMID:24205706

  5. Use of a water effect ratio to develop an estuarine copper site-specific standard

    SciTech Connect

    Brosnan, T.

    1995-12-31

    Development of a copper site-specific standard in New York Harbor involved several steps: (1) EPA`s Indicator Species Procedure was used to develop a Water Effect Ratio (WER), which produces a biologically-based adjustment to the existing criteria. Samples from seven stations were collected during high and low river-flow conditions in 1992--93. Toxicity testing included embryo-larval development tests on two bivalves, an urchin, and a shrimp. A red algae was used for a sexual reproduction test. This testing yielded WER`s of 1.33 2.1 7, with an average of 1.49. When multiplied by the existing EPA criteria of 2.9 ug/L (total recoverable), this yielded a preliminary acute site specific standard of 4.3 ug/L (total recoverable); (2) Further analysis of these data, combined with a literature search of similar data, resulted in a recalculation of the original national acute criteria value, from 2.9 ug/L (total recoverable) to 5.3 ug/L (dissolved). Multiplying the WER by the recalculated national criteria yielded a final acute site, specific criteria of 7.9 ug/L (dissolved); (3) Finally, EPA`s original criteria indicated that achieving the acute criterion would be protective of chronic effects (i.e. the acute:chronic ratio (ACR) was 2). However, EPA, recently decided that an ACR of 2 was no longer valid, and decided to use the freshwater ACR of 2.8. This resulted in a recalculation of the national chronic criteria to 3.75 ug/L (dissolved). Combined with the WER of 1.49, this yielded a final chronic site specific standard of 5.6 ug/L. The new standard eliminated ambient violations in most of the harbor, and removed the need for wasteload allocations at 12 of NYC`s 14 sewage treatment plants.

  6. ‘ZipperCream-CG’ and ‘WhiteAcre-DG’: Two New Cream-type Southernpea Cultivars with Persistent Green Seed Phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to incorporate genes conditioning a persistent green seed phenotype into ‘Zipper Cream’ and ‘White Acre’ type backgrounds were completed with the official release of the new southernpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) cultivars ZipperCream-CG and WhiteAcre-DG on 29 January 2008. ‘ZipperCream...

  7. ACR Appropriateness Criteria on Induction and Adjuvant Therapy for Stage N2 Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology-Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Gopal, Ramesh S.; Dubey, Sarita; Rosenzweig, Kenneth E.; Chang, Joe Yujiao; Decker, Roy; Gewanter, Richard M.; Kong Fengming; Lally, Brian E.; Langer, Corey J.; Lee, Hoon Ku; Movsas, Benjamin M.D.

    2010-11-15

    'The American College of Radiology seeks and encourages collaboration with other organizations on the development of the ACR Appropriateness Criteria through society representation on expert panels. Participation by representatives from collaborating societies on the expert panel does not necessarily imply society endorsement of the final document.'

  8. Rural Survival. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the American Council on Rural Special Education (ACRES) (23rd, Salt Lake City, Utah, March 20-22, 2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menlove, Ronda, Ed.

    The American Council on Rural Special Education (ACRES) conference is the only national conference devoted entirely to rural special education issues; sessions encompass theoretical discussion, current research findings, and promising practices based on sound evidence. This proceedings contains 47 conference papers and poster presentations.…

  9. Notice of Release of WhiteAcre-DG, a Small-seeded, Cream-type Southernpea with an Enhanced Persistent Green Seed Phenotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA has developed a high yielding, small-seeded, cream-type southernpea cultivar that has a persistent green seed phenotype conditioned by both the green cotyledon gene (gc) and the green testa gene (gt). The new cultivar, named WhiteAcre-DG, can be harvested at the dry-pod stage of maturity w...

  10. Ratio estimation in SIMS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogliore, R. C.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.

    2011-09-01

    The determination of an isotope ratio by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) traditionally involves averaging a number of ratios collected over the course of a measurement. We show that this method leads to an additive positive bias in the expectation value of the estimated ratio that is approximately equal to the true ratio divided by the counts of the denominator isotope of an individual ratio. This bias does not decrease as the number of ratios used in the average increases. By summing all counts in the numerator isotope, then dividing by the sum of counts in the denominator isotope, the estimated ratio is less biased: the bias is approximately equal to the ratio divided by the summed counts of the denominator isotope over the entire measurement. We propose a third ratio estimator (Beale's estimator) that can be used when the bias from the summed counts is unacceptably large for the hypothesis being tested. We derive expressions for the variance of these ratio estimators as well as the conditions under which they are normally distributed. Finally, we investigate a SIMS dataset showing the effects of ratio bias, and discuss proper ratio estimation for SIMS analysis.

  11. Prevention of egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis after oral vaccination of laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC mutants.

    PubMed

    Kilroy, Sofie; Raspoet, Ruth; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination of laying hens has been successfully used to reduce egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis, decreasing human salmonellosis cases worldwide. Currently used vaccines for layers are either inactivated vaccines or live attenuated strains produced by mutagenesis. Targeted gene deletion mutants hold promise for future vaccines, because specific bacterial functions can be removed that may improve safety and allow differentiation from field strains. In this study, the efficacy of Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC strains in laying hens as live vaccines was evaluated. The mutants are deficient in either the membrane channel TolC (ΔtolC) or the multi-drug efflux systems acrAB, acrEF and mdtABC (ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC). These strains have a decreased ability for gut and tissue colonization and are unable to survive in egg white, the latter preventing transmission of the vaccine strains to humans. Two groups of 30 laying hens were orally inoculated at day 1, 6 weeks and 16 weeks of age with 10(8) cfu of either vaccine strain, while a third group was left unvaccinated. At 24 weeks of age, the birds were intravenously challenged with 5 × 10(7) cfu Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 S1400/94. The vaccine strains were not shed or detected in the gut, internal organs or eggs, 2 weeks after the third vaccination. The strains significantly protected against gut and internal organ colonization, and completely prevented egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis under the conditions of this study. This indicates that Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC strains might be valuable strains for vaccination of layers against Salmonella Enteritidis. PMID:27519174

  12. Closure Report for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-21

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of the 92-Acre Area, which includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that the closure objectives were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996 [as amended March 2010]). Closure activities began in January 2011 and were completed in January 2012. Closure activities were conducted according to Revision 1 of the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for the 92-Acre Area and CAU 111 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2010). The following closure activities were performed: (1) Construct an engineered evapotranspiration cover over the boreholes, trenches, and pits in the 92-Acre Area; (2) Install use restriction (UR) warning signs, concrete monuments, and subsidence survey monuments; and (3) Establish vegetation on the covers. UR documentation is included as Appendix C of this report. The post-closure plan is presented in detail in Revision 1 of the CADD/CAP for the 92-Acre Area and CAU 111, and the requirements are summarized in Section 5.2 of this document. When the next request for modification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit NEV HW0101 is submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), the requirements for post-closure monitoring of the 92-Acre Area will be included. NNSA/NSO requests the following: (1) A Notice of Completion from NDEP to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 111; and (2) The transfer of CAU 111 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO.

  13. Performance of the new 2011 ACR/EULAR remission criteria with tocilizumab using the phase IIIb study TAMARA as an example and their comparison with traditional remission criteria

    PubMed Central

    Iking-Konert, Christof; Aringer, Martin; Wollenhaupt, Jürgen; Mosch, Thomas; Tuerk, Stefan; Feist, Eugen; Burmester, Gerd R

    2011-01-01

    Background Remission is the established goal in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. Although originally defined by a disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) <2.6, more stringent criteria may imply the absence of disease activity. The 2011 ACR/EULAR remission criteria provide the newest and most stringent definition of remission. Objectives To evaluate post hoc the remission by ACR/EULAR criteria and compare the criteria with the conventional DAS28 in TAMARA, an open-label phase IIIb tocilizumab (TCZ) trial including patients with active RA receiving inadequate disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) or tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) inhibitor treatment. Results 286 patients were enrolled, 99.7% of patients were receiving a conventional DMARD and 41.6% had TNFα inhibitor pretreatment. Baseline mean DAS28 of 6.0 ± 1.0 fell to 2.6 ± 1.5 at week 24. DAS28 <2.6 was achieved by 47.6% at week 24. Remission rates with the new ACR/EULAR Boolean-based criteria for clinical studies were 15.0% after 12 weeks and 20.3% after 24 weeks. Of note, 13.5% of patients with previous TNFα blocker inadequate response still achieved remission according to the new ACR/EULAR criteria after 24 weeks. Clinical Disease Activity Index and Simplified Disease Activity Index remission rates were 24.1% and 25.2%, respectively. Conclusions Under the definition of the new stringent 2011 ACR/EULAR remission criteria, patients with active RA despite DMARD treatment and even after inadequate response to TNFα inhibitors, receiving TCZ showed significant rates of remission. Similar remission rates were achieved, when clinical practice criteria, not inclusive of acute phase reactants, were used. PMID:21875873

  14. Differential microRNA Profiles Predict Diabetic Nephropathy Progression in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Hung-Yu; Chen, Chang-Yi; Chiu, Yen-Hui; Lin, Yi-Chun; Li, Wan-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major leading cause of kidney failure. Recent studies showed that serological microRNAs (miRs) could be utilized as biomarkers to identify disease pathogenesis; the DN-related miRs, however, remained to be explored. Methods: A prospective case-control study was conducted. The clinical significance of five potential miRs (miR-21, miR-29a, miR-29b, miR-29c and miR192) in type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) patients who have existing diabetic retinopathy with differential Albumin:Creatinine Ratio (ACR) and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) was performed using quantitative RT-PCR analysis. The subjects with diabetic retinopathy enrolled in Taipei City Hospital, Taiwan, were classified into groups of normal albuminuria (ACR<30mg/g; N=12); microalbuminuria (30mg/g<ACR<300mg/g; N=17) and overt proteinuria (ACR>300mg/g; N=21) as well as 18 low-eGFR (eGFR<60ml/min) and 32 high-eGFR (eGFR>60ml/min). The level of serum miRs was statistically correlated with age, Glucose AC, ACR, eGFR and DN progression. Results: The levels of miR-21, miR-29a and miR-192 were significantly enriched in the overt proteinuria group compared with microalbuminuria and/or overt proteinuria groups. It was shown that only miR-21 level was significantly up-regulated in low-eGFR group compared with high-eGFR patients. Interestingly, Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis demonstrated that DN progressors showed significantly greater levels of miR-21, miR-29a, miR-29b and miR-29c in comparison with non-progressors implying the clinical potential of DN associated miRs in monitoring and preventing disease advancement. Conclusion: Our findings showed that miR-21, miR-29a/b/c and miR-192 could reflect DN pathogenesis and serve as biomarkers during DN progression. PMID:27279796

  15. Ratios of internal conversion coefficients

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.; Ertugrul, M.; Nestor, C.W. . E-mail: CNestorjr@aol.com; Trzhaskovskaya, M.B.

    2006-03-15

    We present here a database of available experimental ratios of internal conversion coefficients for different atomic subshells measured with an accuracy of 10% or better for a number of elements in the range 26 {<=} Z {<=} 100. The experimental set involves 414 ratios for pure and 1096 ratios for mixed-multipolarity nuclear transitions in the transition energy range from 2 to 2300 keV. We give relevant theoretical ratios calculated in the framework of the Dirac-Fock method with and without regard for the hole in the atomic subshell after conversion. For comparison, the ratios obtained within the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater approximation are also presented. In cases where several ratios were measured for the same transition in a given isotope in which two multipolarities were involved, we present the mixing ratio {delta} {sup 2} obtained by a least squares fit.

  16. Argyrogrammana Strand (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) from Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil, with the description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2015-01-01

    The species of Argyrogrammana Strand, 1932 collected at the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil (PNSD) are listed and detailed with behavioral notes. In total, 17 species were recorded, including 13 new records for Brazil (marked with an asterisk): A. alstonii (Smart, 1979)*, A. nurtia ludibunda Brévignon & Gallard, 1995*, A. pulchra (Talbot, 1929)*, A. bonita Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. amalfreda (Staudinger, [1877])*, A. physis phyton (Stichel, 1911), A. halli Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. celata Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. gallardi Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. aparamilla Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. praestigiosa (Stichel, 1929), A. johannismarci Brévignon, 1995*, A. brevignoni Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. rameli (Stichel, 1930), A. willmotti Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. iracyi P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2007 and A. saulensis tunari Gallard, 2008, comb. nov.*. Four new species are described, two from "amalfreda complex": A. halli Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov. and A. gallardi Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.; one from "trochilia complex": A. brevignoni Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.; and one from "stilbe complex": A. willmotti Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov. Argyrogrammana iracyi saulensis Gallard, 2008 is recognized as a valid species, A. saulensis saulensis, stat. nov., and a new combination is proposed to A. saulensis tunari Gallard, 2008, comb. nov. The females of A. iracyi P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2007 and A. saulensis tunari are recognized and figured for the first time. The taxonomy of the species found at the PNSD is discussed and adults are figured, including illustrations of the genitalia. PMID:26624307

  17. Evaluation of transuranium isotopes inventory for Candu/ACR standard and SEU spent fuel and the possibility to transmute them

    SciTech Connect

    Ghizdeanu, Elena Nineta; Pavelescu, Alexandru; Balaceanu, Victoria

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The main disadvantage of nuclear energy is the quantity of long lived radioactive waste produced in a NPP. Transmutation could be one of the solutions to reduce it. Waste transmutation will require a suitable deployment of techniques for spent fuel reprocessing. At present, reprocessing is done by aqueous methods that are very efficient for Pu separation (up to 99.9%). For transmutation applications, new partitioning processes must be developed for minor actinides separation from the high level waste. Although these processes are still very much at the research stage, industrial scale-up will result in the deployment of new, more specific separation techniques for transmutation applications. Partitioning and Transmutation (P and T) techniques could contribute to reduce the radioactive inventory and its associated radio-toxicity. Scientists are looking for ways to drastically reduce both the mass and the radio-toxicity of the nuclear waste to be stored in a deep geological repository, and to reduce the time needed to reach the radioactivity level of the raw material originally used to produce energy. The first stage in the transmutation process is the isotopes inventory formed in the spent fuel. In this paper is made an intercomparison evaluation using WIMS 5B.12 and ORIGEN computer codes. Using these two codes, there is evaluated the isotopes released by a fuel standard from a Candu reactor. Moreover, there is simulated an inventory released by a Candu-SEU reactor and an ACR reactor. (authors)

  18. Side Effects of Chloroquine and Primaquine and Symptom Reduction in Malaria Endemic Area (Mâncio Lima, Acre, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Cássio Braga e; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Cayotopa, Athaid David Escalante; Klein, Wagner Werner; Schlosser, Andreus Roberto; da Silva, Aline Ferreira; de Souza, Mardelson Nery; Andrade, Breno Wilson Benevides; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Pinto, Wagner de Jesus; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Side effects of antimalarial drug can overlap with malaria symptoms. We evaluated 50 patients with vivax malaria in Mâncio Lima, Acre, treated with chloroquine and primaquine. Patients were evaluated for the presence of 21 symptoms before and after treatment and for reported side effects of these drugs after treatment was started. The most frequent symptoms before medication were headache, fever, chills, sweating, arthralgia, back pain, and weakness, which were present in between 40% and 76% of respondents. The treatment reduced the occurrence of these symptoms and reduced the lack of appetite, but gastrointestinal symptoms and choluria increased in frequency. There were no reports of pale stools before medication, but 12% reported the occurrence of this symptom after treatment started. Other symptoms such as blurred vision (54%), pruritus (22%), paresthesia (6%), insomnia (46%), and “stings” into the skin (22%) were reported after chloroquine was taken. The antimalarial drugs used to treat P. vivax malaria reduce much of the systemic and algic symptoms but cause mainly gastrointestinal side effects that may lead to lack of adherence to drug treatment. It is important to guide the patient for the appearance and the transience of such side effects in order to avoid abandoning treatment. PMID:26357512

  19. Thyroid Ultrasound Reporting Lexicon: White Paper of the ACR Thyroid Imaging, Reporting and Data System (TIRADS) Committee.

    PubMed

    Grant, Edward G; Tessler, Franklin N; Hoang, Jenny K; Langer, Jill E; Beland, Michael D; Berland, Lincoln L; Cronan, John J; Desser, Terry S; Frates, Mary C; Hamper, Ulrike M; Middleton, William D; Reading, Carl C; Scoutt, Leslie M; Stavros, A Thomas; Teefey, Sharlene A

    2015-12-01

    Ultrasound is the most commonly used imaging technique for the evaluation of thyroid nodules. Sonographic findings are often not specific, and definitive diagnosis is usually made through fine-needle aspiration biopsy or even surgery. In reviewing the literature, terms used to describe nodules are often poorly defined and inconsistently applied. Several authors have recently described a standardized risk stratification system called the Thyroid Imaging, Reporting and Data System (TIRADS), modeled on the BI-RADS system for breast imaging. However, most of these TIRADS classifications have come from individual institutions, and none has been widely adopted in the United States. Under the auspices of the ACR, a committee was organized to develop TIRADS. The eventual goal is to provide practitioners with evidence-based recommendations for the management of thyroid nodules on the basis of a set of well-defined sonographic features or terms that can be applied to every lesion. Terms were chosen on the basis of demonstration of consistency with regard to performance in the diagnosis of thyroid cancer or, conversely, classifying a nodule as benign and avoiding follow-up. The initial portion of this project was aimed at standardizing the diagnostic approach to thyroid nodules with regard to terminology through the development of a lexicon. This white paper describes the consensus process and the resultant lexicon. PMID:26419308

  20. Population dynamics, structure and behavior of Anopheles darlingi in a rural settlement in the Amazon rainforest of Acre, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anopheles darlingi is the major vector of malaria in South America, and its behavior and distribution has epidemiological importance to biomedical research. In Brazil, An. darlingi is found in the northern area of the Amazon basin, where 99.5% of the disease is reported. Methods The study area, known as Ramal do Granada, is a rural settlement inside the Amazon basin in the state of Acre. Population variations and density have been analysed by species behaviour, and molecular analysis has been measured by ND4 mitochondrial gene sequencing. Results The results show higher density in collections near a recent settlement, suggesting that a high level of colonization decreases the vector presence. The biting activity showed higher activity at twilight and major numbers of mosquitos in the remaining hours of the night in months of high density. From a sample of 110 individual mosquitoes, 18 different haplotypes were presented with a diversity index of 0.895, which is higher than that found in other Anopheles studies. Conclusions An. darlingi depends on forested regions for their larval and adult survival. In months with higher population density, the presence of mosquitoes persisted in the second part of the night, increasing the vector capacity of the species. Despite the intra-population variation in the transition to rainy season, the seasonal distribution of haplotypes shows no change in the structure population of An. darlingi. PMID:21702964

  1. Geology, geochronology, and potential volcanic hazards in the Lava Ridge-Hells Half Acre area, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of volcanic hazards for the proposed Safety Test Reactor Facility (STF) at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANLW) site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho, involves an analysis of the geology of the Lava Ridge-Hells Half Acre area and of K-At age determinations on lava flows in cored drill holes. The ANLW site at INEL lies in a shallow topographic depression bounded on the east and south by volcanic rift zones that are the locus of past shield-type basalt volcanism and by rhyolite domes erupted along the ring fracture of an inferred rhyolite caldera. The K-At age data indicate that the ANLW site has been flooded by basalt lava flows at irregular intervals from perhaps a few thousand years to as much as 300,000-400,000 years, with an average recurrence interval between flows of approximately 80,000-100,000 years. At least five major lava flows have covered the ANLW site within the past 500,000 years.

  2. Cancer incidence in the Western Amazon: population-based estimates in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, 2007-2009.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Juliano de Pádua; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Koifman, Sergio

    2012-11-01

    Cancer incidence rates vary widely in Brazil. The literature on the subject for the western Amazon region is scarce. This study aimed to determine cancer incidence in the population of Rio Branco, Acre State. A total of 718 new cases were recorded during the study period. Among men, the five leading cancer sites were prostate (ASR 75.1), stomach (ASR 23.0), lung (ASR 19.1), colon and rectum (ASR 9.5), and leukemia (ASR 6.9). Among women, they were breast (ASR 41.5), cervix (ASR 41.3), lung (ASR 11.8), colon and rectum (ASR 11.0), and stomach (ASR 7.7). These indicators reveal that Rio Branco has a cancer incidence pattern that overlaps with epidemiological cancer patterns observed in developed and developing regions. The results of the study point to the importance of implementing a population-based cancer registry - currently nonexistent in Rio Branco - as a factor to promote analysis of incident cases of the disease and monitoring of its evolution. PMID:23147954

  3. Lidar ratio and depolarization ratio for cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Nai; Chiang, Chih-Wei; Nee, Jan-Bai

    2002-10-20

    We report on studies of the lidar and the depolarization ratios for cirrus clouds. The optical depth and effective lidar ratio are derived from the transmission of clouds, which is determined by comparing the backscattering signals at the cloud base and cloud top. The lidar signals were fitted to a background atmospheric density profile outside the cloud region to warrant the linear response of the return signals with the scattering media. An average lidar ratio, 29 +/- 12 sr, has been found for all clouds measured in 1999 and 2000. The height and temperature dependences ofthe lidar ratio, the optical depth, and the depolarization ratio were investigated and compared with results of LITE and PROBE. Cirrus clouds detected near the tropopause are usually optically thin and mostly subvisual. Clouds with the largest optical depths were found near 12 km with a temperature of approximately -55 degrees C. The multiple-scattering effect is considered for clouds with high optical depths, and this effect lowers the lidar ratios compared with a single-scattering condition. Lidar ratios are in the 20-40 range for clouds at heights of 12.5-15 km and are smaller than approximately 30 in height above 15 km. Clouds are usually optically thin for temperatures below approximately -65 degrees C, and in this region the optical depth tends to decrease with height. The depolarization ratio is found to increase with a height at 11-15 km and smaller than 0.3 above 16 km. The variation in the depolarization ratio with the lidar ratio was also reported. The lidar and depolarization ratios were discussed in terms of the types of hexagonal ice crystals. PMID:12396200

  4. Selective involvement of ERK and JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases in early rheumatoid arthritis (1987 ACR criteria compared to 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria): a prospective study aimed at identification of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers as well as therapeutic targets

    PubMed Central

    de Launay, Daphne; van de Sande, Marleen GH; de Hair, Maria JH; Grabiec, Aleksander M; van de Sande, Gijs PM; Lehmann, K Aad; Wijbrandts, Carla A; van Baarsen, Lisa GM; Gerlag, Danielle M; Tak, Paul P; Reedquist, Kris A

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the expression and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in patients with early arthritis who are disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) naïve. Methods A total of 50 patients with early arthritis who were DMARD naïve (disease duration <1 year) were prospectively followed and diagnosed at baseline and after 2 years for undifferentiated arthritis (UA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and 2010 ACR/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria), or spondyloarthritis (SpA). Synovial biopsies obtained at baseline were examined for expression and phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by immunohistochemistry and digital analysis. Synovial tissue mRNA expression was measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR). Results ERK and JNK activation was enhanced at inclusion in patients meeting RA criteria compared to other diagnoses. JNK activation was enhanced in patients diagnosed as having UA at baseline who eventually fulfilled 1987 ACR RA criteria compared to those who remained UA, and in patients with RA fulfilling 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria at baseline. ERK and JNK activation was enhanced in patients with RA developing progressive joint destruction. JNK activation in UA predicted 1987 ACR RA classification criteria fulfilment (R2=0.59, p=0.02) after follow-up, and disease progression in early arthritis (R2=0.16, p<0.05). Enhanced JNK activation in patients with persistent disease was associated with altered synovial expression of extracellular matrix components and CD44. Conclusions JNK activation is elevated in RA before 1987 ACR RA classification criteria are met and predicts development of erosive disease in early arthritis, suggesting JNK may represent an attractive target in treating RA early in the disease process. PMID:21953337

  5. Air/fuel ratio controller

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1980-12-23

    An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

  6. The sex ratio at birth.

    PubMed

    Rubin, E

    1967-10-01

    Several aspects of the disparity in birth ratio of males over females are discussed including variations among different races, variations by order of birth, by age of the parent, and in multiple births. Avenues of statistical exploration are suggested in an attempt to indicate certain peculiarities in nature. The Negro population in the United States has a sex ratio of 102 males to 100 females as opposed to 105:100 for whites, a highly significant difference. Inferences from these statistics are suggested for study of the sex ratios of mixed unions. The group classified as Mulatto show a lower sex ratio and further analysis of this was suggested including examination of slave records. For the white population sex ratio declines from 106.2 to 102.9 between 1st order and 7th order births. This is highly significant. However, nonwhite determinations were more irregular. Data limitations on sex ratio by age of parent prevented conclusive results. Multiple births among whites show a decline from 105.3 for single live births to 103.2 for twins and 86.1 for all other plural deliveries. Among nonwhites these ratios are 102.3, 99.7, and 102.6 respectively. Further information should be developed using the multiple facts relating to the sex ratio at birth. PMID:12275623

  7. SU-E-I-17: Evaluation of Commercially Available Extension Plates for the ACR CT Accreditation Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Greene-Donnelly, K; Ogden, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of commercially available extension plates on Hounsfield Unit (HU) values in the ACR CT accreditation phantom (Model 464, Gammex Inc., Middleton, Wi). The extension plates are intended to improve water HU values in scanners where the traditional solution involves scanning the phantom with an adjacent water or CTDI phantom. Methods: The Model 464 phantom was scanned on 9 different CT scanners at 8 separate sites representing 16 and 64 slice MDCT technology from four CT manufacturers. The phantom was scanned with and without the extension plates (Gammex 464 EXTPLT-KIT) in helical and axial modes. A water phantom was also scanned to verify water HU calibration. Technique was 120 kV tube potential, 350 mAs, and 210 mm display field of view. Slice thickness and reconstruction algorithm were based on site clinical protocols. The widest available beam collimation was used. Regions of interest were drawn on the HU test objects in Module 1 of the phantom and mean values recorded. Results: For all axial mode scans, water HU values were within limits with or without the extension plates. For two scanners (both Lightspeed VCT, GE Medical Systems, Waukesha WI), axial mode bone HU values were above the specified range both with and without the extension plates though they were closer to the specified range with the plates installed. In helical scan mode, two scanners (both GE Lightspeed VCT) had water HU values above the specified range without the plates installed. With the plates installed, the water HU values were within range for all scanners in all scan modes. Conclusion: Using the plates, the Lightspeed VCT scanners passed the water HU test when scanning in helical mode. The benefit of the extension plates was evident in helical mode scanning with GE scanners using a nominal 4 cm beam. Disclosure: The extension plates evaluated in this work were provided free of charge to the authors. The authors have no other financial interest in Gammex

  8. Towards Tailored Patient's Management Approach: Integrating the Modified 2010 ACR Criteria for Fibromyalgia in Multidimensional Patient Reported Outcome Measures Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    El Miedany, Yasser; El Gaafary, Maha; Youssef, Sally; Ahmed, Ihab

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change of a patient self-reported questionnaire combining the Widespread Pain Index and the Symptom Severity Score as well as construct outcome measures and comorbidities assessment in fibromyalgia patients. Methods. The PROMs-FM was conceptualized based on frameworks used by the WHO Quality of Life tool and the PROMIS. Initially, cognitive interviews were conducted to identify item pool of questions. Item selection and reduction were achieved based on patients as well as an interdisciplinary group of specialists. Rasch and internal consistency reliability analyses were implemented. The questionnaire included the modified ACR criteria main items (Symptom Severity Score and Widespread Pain Index), in addition to assessment of functional disability, quality of life (QoL), review of the systems, and comorbidities. Every patient completed HAQ and EQ-5D questionnaires. Results. A total of 146 fibromyalgia patients completed the questionnaire. The PROMs-FM questionnaire was reliable as demonstrated by a high standardized alpha (0.886–0.982). Content construct assessment of the functional disability and QoL revealed significant correlation (p < 0.01) with both HAQ and EQ-5D. Changes in functional disability and QoL showed significant (p < 0.01) variation with diseases activity status in response to therapy. There was higher prevalence of autonomic symptoms, CVS risk, sexual dysfunction, and falling. Conclusions. The developed PROMs-FM questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for assessment of fibromyalgia patients. A phased treatment regimen depending on the severity of FMS as well as preferences and comorbidities of the patient is the best approach to tailored patient management. PMID:27190648

  9. Computer simulations suggest direct and stable tip to tip interaction between the outer membrane channel TolC and the isolated docking domain of the multidrug RND efflux transporter AcrB.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas H; Raunest, Martin; Fischer, Nadine; Reith, Dirk; Kandt, Christian

    2016-07-01

    One way by which bacteria achieve antibiotics resistance is preventing drug access to its target molecule for example through an overproduction of multi-drug efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation division (RND) protein super family of which AcrAB-TolC in Escherichia coli is a prominent example. Although representing one of the best studied efflux systems, the question of how AcrB and TolC interact is still unclear as the available experimental data suggest that either both proteins interact in a tip to tip manner or do not interact at all but are instead connected by a hexamer of AcrA molecules. Addressing the question of TolC-AcrB interaction, we performed a series of 100 ns - 1 µs-molecular dynamics simulations of membrane-embedded TolC in presence of the isolated AcrB docking domain (AcrB(DD)). In 5/6 simulations we observe direct TolC-AcrB(DD) interaction that is only stable on the simulated time scale when both proteins engage in a tip to tip manner. At the same time we find TolC opening and closing freely on extracellular side while remaining closed at the inner periplasmic bottleneck region, suggesting that either the simulated time is too short or additional components are required to unlock TolC. PMID:27045078

  10. Logging Activity in the Trinational Amazonian Region of Pando/Bolivia, Acre and Rond“nia/Brazil, and Madre de Dios/Peru: Analysis of Existing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza, E.; Brilhante, S. H.; Brown, I.; Peralta, R.; Rivero, S.; Melendez, N.

    2002-12-01

    Logging activity in the trinational southwestern Amazonia will grow in importance as a driver of regional land-use change as expanding road access facilitates both timber extraction and transport to international markets. Official data on current activity in this ~50 million ha region are limited and inconsistent with differences as much as twenty-fold between official estimates; nevertheless, they serve as guides for understanding the relative magnitude of logging activities. For 2000, an estimated 5 million m3 of timber were commercialized in Rondonia, 400,000 m3 in Acre, Brazil, and 200,000 m3 for the combined departments of Pando, Bolivia and Madre de Dios, Peru. About 70% of this timber originates from clear cutting done for pasture and agriculture activities, nearly a third from unregulated selective logging, and only 2% from managed selective logging. Eight timber species are preferentially extracted. The total area for timber concessions in Acre, Pando and Madre de Dios extends to about 4 million ha for a potential timber supply of 65 million m3. About 150,000 m3/yr of illegal timber is confiscated by federal and state agencies in Acre, Pando and Madre de Dios. Problems of enforcement in the region are due principally to the lack of trained personnel and little cooperation among agencies of the three countries. Proposed development plans indicate a 3- to >10-fold increase in logging activity in the Acre and Pando regions during the coming decade. More detailed studies are urgently needed to guide sustainable development of this resource in southwestern Amazonia.

  11. DNA-Launched Alphavirus Replicons Encoding a Fusion of Mycobacterial Antigens Acr and Ag85B Are Immunogenic and Protective in a Murine Model of TB Infection.

    PubMed

    Dalmia, Neha; Klimstra, William B; Mason, Carol; Ramsay, Alistair J

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for effective prophylactic measures against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, particularly given the highly variable efficacy of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). Most studies indicate that cell-mediated immune responses involving both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are necessary for effective immunity against Mtb. Genetic vaccination induces humoral and cellular immune responses, including CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, against a variety of bacterial, viral, parasitic and tumor antigens, and this strategy may therefore hold promise for the development of more effective TB vaccines. Novel formulations and delivery strategies to improve the immunogenicity of DNA-based vaccines have recently been evaluated, and have shown varying degrees of success. In the present study, we evaluated DNA-launched Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons (Vrep) encoding a novel fusion of the mycobacterial antigens α-crystallin (Acr) and antigen 85B (Ag85B), termed Vrep-Acr/Ag85B, for their immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine model of pulmonary TB. Vrep-Acr/Ag85B generated antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses that persisted for at least 10 wk post-immunization. Interestingly, parenterally administered Vrep-Acr/Ag85B also induced T cell responses in the lung tissues, the primary site of infection, and inhibited bacterial growth in both the lungs and spleens following aerosol challenge with Mtb. DNA-launched Vrep may, therefore, represent an effective approach to the development of gene-based vaccines against TB, particularly as components of heterologous prime-boost strategies or as BCG boosters. PMID:26317509

  12. Evidence of a Substrate-Discriminating Entrance Channel in the Lower Porter Domain of the Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pump AcrB.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Sabine; Vavra, Martina; Kern, Winfried V

    2016-07-01

    Efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division (RND) transporter family, such as AcrB of Escherichia coli, play an important role in the development of multidrug resistance, but the molecular basis for their substrate promiscuity is not yet completely understood. From a collection of highly clarithromycin-resistant AcrB periplasmic domain mutants derived from in vitro random mutagenesis, we identified variants with an unusually altered drug resistance pattern characterized by increased susceptibility to many drugs of lower molecular weight, including fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and oxazolidinones, but unchanged or increased resistance to drugs of higher molecular weight, including macrolides. Sequencing of 14 such "divergent resistance" phenotype mutants and 15 control mutants showed that this unusual phenotype was associated with mutations at residues I38 and I671 predominantly to phenylalanine and threonine, respectively, both conferring a similar susceptibility pattern. Reconstructed I38F and I671T single mutants as well as an engineered I38F I671T double mutant with proved efflux competence revealed an equivalent phenotype with enhanced or unchanged resistance to many large AcrB substrates but increased susceptibility to several lower-molecular-weight drugs known to bind within the distal binding pocket. The two isoleucines located in close vicinity to each other in the lower porter domain of AcrB beneath the bottom of the proximal binding pocket may be part of a preferential small-drug entrance pathway that is compromised by the mutations. This finding supports recent indications of distinct entrance channels used by compounds with different physicochemical properties, of which molecular size appears to play a prominent role. PMID:27161641

  13. Evaluation of Doses and Image Quality in Mammography with Screen-Film, CR, and DR Detectors – Application of the ACR Phantom

    PubMed Central

    Ślusarczyk-Kacprzyk, Wioletta; Skrzyński, Witold; Fabiszewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Different methods of image quality evaluation are routinely used for analogue and digital mammography systems in Poland. In the present study, image quality for several screen-film (SF), computed radiography (CR), and fully digital (DR) mammography systems was compared directly with the use of the ACR mammography accreditation phantom. Material/Methods Image quality and mean glandular doses were measured and compared for 47 mammography systems in the Mazovia Voivodeship in Poland, including 26 SF systems, 12 CR systems, and 9 DR systems. The mean glandular dose for the breast simulated by 4.5 cm of PMMA was calculated with methods described in the “European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis”. Visibility of the structures in the image (fibers, microcalcifications, and masses) was evaluated with the mammographic accreditation ACR phantom. Results Image quality for DR systems was significantly higher than for SF and CR systems. Several SF systems failed to pass the image quality tests because of artifacts. The doses were within acceptable limits for all of the systems, but the doses for the CR systems were significantly higher than for the SF and DR systems. Conclusions The best image quality, at a reasonably low dose, was observed for the DR systems. The CR systems are capable of obtaining the same image quality as the SF systems, but only at a significantly higher dose. The ACR phantom can be routinely used to evaluate image quality for all types of mammographic systems.

  14. Expression of homologous RND efflux pump genes is dependent upon AcrB expression: implications for efflux and virulence inhibitor design

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Jessica M. A.; Smith, Helen E.; Ricci, Vito; Lawler, Amelia J.; Thompson, Louisa J.; Piddock, Laura J. V.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Enterobacteriaceae have multiple efflux pumps that confer intrinsic resistance to antibiotics. AcrB mediates clinically relevant multidrug resistance and is required for virulence and biofilm formation, making it an attractive target for the design of inhibitors. The aim of this study was to assess the viability of single transporters as a target for efflux inhibition using Salmonella Typhimurium as the model pathogen. Methods The expression of resistance–nodulation–division (RND) efflux pump genes in response to the inactivation of single or multiple homologues was measured using real-time RT–PCR. Phenotypes of mutants were characterized by measuring antimicrobial susceptibility, dye accumulation and the ability to cause infection in vitro. Results The expression of all RND efflux pump genes was increased when single or multiple acr genes were inactivated, suggesting a feedback mechanism that activates the transcription of homologous efflux pump genes. When two or three acr genes were inactivated, the mutants had further reduced efflux, altered susceptibility to antimicrobials (including increased susceptibility to some, but conversely and counterintuitively, decreased susceptibility to some others) and were more attenuated in the tissue culture model than mutants lacking single pumps were. Conclusions These data indicate that it is critical to understand which pumps an inhibitor is active against and the effect of this on the expression of homologous systems. For some antimicrobials, an inhibitor with activity against multiple pumps will have a greater impact on susceptibility, but an unintended consequence of this may be decreased susceptibility to other drugs, such as aminoglycosides. PMID:25288678

  15. Enhancing tolerance to short-chain alcohols by engineering the Escherichia coli AcrB efflux pump to secrete the non-native substrate n-butanol.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Michael A; Boyarskiy, Sergey; Yamada, Masaki R; Kong, Niwen; Bauer, Stefan; Tullman-Ercek, Danielle

    2014-01-17

    The microbial conversion of sugars to fuels is a promising technology, but the byproducts of biomass pretreatment processes and the fuels themselves are often toxic at industrially relevant levels. One promising solution to these problems is to engineer efflux pumps to secrete fuels and inhibitory chemicals from the cell, increasing microbial tolerance and enabling higher fuel titer. Toward that end, we used a directed evolution strategy to generate variants of the Escherichia coli AcrB efflux pump that act on the non-native substrate n-butanol, enhancing growth rates of E. coli in the presence of this biofuel by up to 25%. Furthermore, these variants confer improved tolerance to isobutanol and straight-chain alcohols up to n-heptanol. Single amino acid changes in AcrB responsible for this phenotype were identified. We have also shown that both the chemical and genetic inactivation of pump activity eliminate the tolerance conferred by AcrB pump variants, supporting our assertion that the variants secrete the non-native substrates. This strategy can be applied to create an array of efflux pumps that modulate the intracellular concentrations of small molecules of interest to microbial fuel and chemical production. PMID:23991711

  16. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Area 5 Waste Management Division, Nevada National Security Site, Final CQA Report

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management; The Delphi Groupe, Inc.; J. A. Cesare and Associates, Inc.

    2012-01-31

    The report is the Final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report for the 92-Acrew Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, for the period of January 20, 2011, to January 31, 2012 The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location, waste types and regulatory requirements: (1) Pit 3 Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU); (2) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111; (3) CAU 207; (4) Low-level waste disposal units; (5) Asbestiform low-level waste disposal units; and (6) One transuranic (TRU) waste trench.

  17. Conceptual design studies of a V/STOL civil lift fan transport including effect of size and fan pressure ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of V/STOL Lift Fan Commercial short-haul transport aircraft for the 1980-85 time period were studied to determine their technical and economic feasibility. The remote lift fan configurations with a variation in fan pressure ratio from 1.2 to 1.5 were investigated. Also studied were variation in stage length from 200 nautical miles to 800 nautical miles and cruise Mach numbers of 0.75 and 0.85. These results indicate a four engine configuration was feasible. The 95 PNdb noise footprint would be approximately 45 acres and the DOC's would be about 60% greater than conventional transports.

  18. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1989-01-01

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

  19. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  20. Updated thinking on positivity ratios.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2013-12-01

    This article presents my response to the article by Brown, Sokal, and Friedman (2013), which critically examined Losada's conceptual and mathematical work (as presented in Losada, 1999; Losada & Heaphy, 2004; and Fredrickson & Losada; 2005) and concluded that mathematical claims for a critical tipping point positivity ratio are unfounded. In the present article, I draw recent empirical evidence together to support the continued value of computing and seeking to elevate positivity ratios. I also underscore the necessity of modeling nonlinear effects of positivity ratios and, more generally, the value of systems science approaches within affective science and positive psychology. Even when scrubbed of Losada's now-questioned mathematical modeling, ample evidence continues to support the conclusion that, within bounds, higher positivity ratios are predictive of flourishing mental health and other beneficial outcomes. PMID:23855895

  1. Arcjet Nozzle Area Ratio Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  2. [Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion ratio].

    PubMed

    Guenard, H

    1987-01-01

    The ratios of ventilatory (V) and perfusion (Q) flow rates in the lung are to a large extent responsible for the efficiency of gas exchange. In a simplified monocompartmental model of the lung, the arterial partial pressure of a given gas (Pa) is a function of several factors: the solubility of this gas in blood, its venous and inspired partial pressures and the V/Q ratio. In a multicompartemental model, the mean arterial partial pressure of the gas is a function of the individual values of Pa in each compartment as well as the distribution of V/Q ratios in the lung and the relationship between the concentration and the partial pressure of the gas. The heterogeneity of the distribution of V/Q results from those of both V and Q. Two factors are mainly responsible for this heterogeneity: the gravity and the morphometric characteristics of bronchi and vessels. V/Q ratios are partially controlled at least in low V/Q compartments since hypoxia in these compartments leads to pulmonary arteriolar vasoconstriction. However lungs V/Q ratios range from 0.1 to 10 with a mode around 1. Age, muscular exercise, posture, accelerations, anesthesia, O2 breathing, pulmonary pathology are factors which may alter the distribution of V/Q ratios. PMID:3332289

  3. Arcjet nozzle area ratio effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Francis M.; Sarmiento, Charles J.; Birkner, Bjorn W.; Kwasny, James

    1990-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted to determine the effect of nozzle area ratio on the operating characteristics and performance of a low power dc arcjet thruster. Conical thoriated tungsten nozzle inserts were tested in a modular laboratory arcjet thruster run on hydrogen/nitrogen mixtures simulating the decomposition products of hydrazine. The converging and diverging sides of the inserts had half angles of 30 and 20 degrees, respectively, similar to a flight type unit currently under development. The length of the diverging side was varied to change the area ratio. The nozzle inserts were run over a wide range of specific power. Current, voltage, mass flow rate, and thrust were monitored to provide accurate comparisons between tests. While small differences in performance were observed between the two nozzle inserts, it was determined that for each nozzle insert, arcjet performance improved with increasing nozzle area ratio to the highest area ratio tested and that the losses become very pronounced for area ratios below 50. These trends are somewhat different than those obtained in previous experimental and analytical studies of low Re number nozzles. It appears that arcjet performance can be enhanced via area ratio optimization.

  4. Pressure Ratio to Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro; Wang, Winston

    2012-01-01

    A pressure ratio to thermal environments (PRatTlE.pl) program is a Perl language code that estimates heating at requested body point locations by scaling the heating at a reference location times a pressure ratio factor. The pressure ratio factor is the ratio of the local pressure at the reference point and the requested point from CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solutions. This innovation provides pressure ratio-based thermal environments in an automated and traceable method. Previously, the pressure ratio methodology was implemented via a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and macro scripts. PRatTlE is able to calculate heating environments for 150 body points in less than two minutes. PRatTlE is coded in Perl programming language, is command-line-driven, and has been successfully executed on both the HP and Linux platforms. It supports multiple concurrent runs. PRatTlE contains error trapping and input file format verification, which allows clear visibility into the input data structure and intermediate calculations.

  5. Quantifying asymmetry: ratios and alternatives.

    PubMed

    Franks, Erin M; Cabo, Luis L

    2014-08-01

    Traditionally, the study of metric skeletal asymmetry has relied largely on univariate analyses, utilizing ratio transformations when the goal is comparing asymmetries in skeletal elements or populations of dissimilar dimensions. Under this approach, raw asymmetries are divided by a size marker, such as a bilateral average, in an attempt to produce size-free asymmetry indices. Henceforth, this will be referred to as "controlling for size" (see Smith: Curr Anthropol 46 (2005) 249-273). Ratios obtained in this manner often require further transformations to interpret the meaning and sources of asymmetry. This model frequently ignores the fundamental assumption of ratios: the relationship between the variables entered in the ratio must be isometric. Violations of this assumption can obscure existing asymmetries and render spurious results. In this study, we examined the performance of the classic indices in detecting and portraying the asymmetry patterns in four human appendicular bones and explored potential methodological alternatives. Examination of the ratio model revealed that it does not fulfill its intended goals in the bones examined, as the numerator and denominator are independent in all cases. The ratios also introduced strong biases in the comparisons between different elements and variables, generating spurious asymmetry patterns. Multivariate analyses strongly suggest that any transformation to control for overall size or variable range must be conducted before, rather than after, calculating the asymmetries. A combination of exploratory multivariate techniques, such as Principal Components Analysis, and confirmatory linear methods, such as regression and analysis of covariance, appear as a promising and powerful alternative to the use of ratios. PMID:24842694

  6. Comparison of the morphology of alkali–silica gel formed in limestones in concrete affected by the so-called alkali–carbonate reaction (ACR) and alkali–silica reaction (ASR)

    SciTech Connect

    Grattan-Bellew, P.E.; Chan, Gordon

    2013-05-15

    The morphology of alkali–silica gel formed in dolomitic limestone affected by the so-called alkali–carbonate reaction (ACR) is compared to that formed in a siliceous limestone affected by alkali–silica reaction (ASR). The particle of dolomitic limestone was extracted from the experimental sidewalk in Kingston, Ontario, Canada that was badly cracked due to ACR. The siliceous limestone particle was extracted from a core taken from a highway structure in Quebec, affected by ASR. Both cores exhibited marked reaction rims around limestone particles. The aggregate particles were polished and given a light gold coating in preparation for examination in a scanning electron microscope. The gel in the ACR aggregate formed stringers between the calcite crystals in the matrix of the rock, whereas gel in ASR concrete formed a thick layer on top of the calcite crystals, that are of the same size as in the ACR aggregate.

  7. Isotopic ratios in planetary atmospheres.

    PubMed

    de Bergh, C

    1995-03-01

    Recent progress on measurements of isotopic ratios in planetary or satellite atmospheres include measurements of the D/H ratio in the methane of Uranus, Neptune and Titan and in the water of Mars and Venus. Implications of these measurements on our understanding of the formation and evolution of the planets and satellite are discussed. Our current knowledge of the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotopic ratios in the atmospheres of these planets, as well as on Jupiter and Saturn, is also reviewed. We finally show what progress can be expected in the very near future due to some new ground-based instrumentation particularly well suited to such studies, and to forthcoming space missions. PMID:11539257

  8. Genomic and Metabolomic Profile Associated to Microalbuminuria

    PubMed Central

    Marrachelli, Vannina G.; Monleon, Daniel; Rentero, Pilar; Mansego, María L.; Morales, Jose Manuel; Galan, Inma; Segura, Remedios; Martinez, Fernando; Martin-Escudero, Juan Carlos; Briongos, Laisa; Marin, Pablo; Lliso, Gloria; Chaves, Felipe Javier; Redon, Josep

    2014-01-01

    To identify factors related with the risk to develop microalbuminuria using combined genomic and metabolomic values from a general population study. One thousand five hundred and two subjects, Caucasian, more than 18 years, representative of the general population, were included. Blood pressure measurement and albumin/creatinine ratio were measured in a urine sample. Using SNPlex, 1251 SNPs potentially associated to urinary albumin excretion (UAE) were analyzed. Serum metabolomic profile was assessed by 1H NMR spectra using a Brucker Advance DRX 600 spectrometer. From the total population, 1217 (mean age 54±19, 50.6% men, ACR>30 mg/g in 81 subjects) with high genotyping call rate were analysed. A characteristic metabolomic profile, which included products from mitochondrial and extra mitochondrial metabolism as well as branched amino acids and their derivative signals, were observed in microalbuminuric as compare to normoalbuminuric subjects. The comparison of the metabolomic profile between subjects with different UAE status for each of the genotypes associated to microalbuminuria revealed two SNPs, the rs10492025_TT of RPH3A gene and the rs4359_CC of ACE gene, with minimal or no statistically significant differences. Subjects with and without microalbuminuria, who shared the same genotype and metabolomic profile, differed in age. Microalbuminurics with the CC genotype of the rs4359 polymorphism and with the TT genotype of the rs10492025 polymorphism were seven years older and seventeen years younger, respectively as compared to the whole microalbuminuric subjects. With the same metabolomic environment, characteristic of subjects with microalbuminuria, the TT genotype of the rs10492025 polymorphism seems to increase and the CC genotype of the rs4359 polymorphism seems to reduce risk to develop microalbuminuria. PMID:24918908

  9. Early protective effect of mitofusion 2 overexpression in STZ-induced diabetic rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Tang, Wan Xin; Wu, Wei Hua; Zeng, Xiao Xi; Bo, Hong; Huang, Song Min

    2012-04-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a serious complication of diabetes with a poorly defined etiology and limited treatment options. Early intervention is key to preventing the progression of DN. Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) regulates mitochondrial morphology and signaling, and is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases. Furthermore, Mfn2 is also closely associated with the development of diabetes, but its functional roles in the diabetic kidney remain unknown. This study investigated the effect of Mfn2 at an early stage of DN. Mfn2 was overexpressed by adenovirus-mediated gene transfer in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Clinical parameters (proteinuria, albumin/creatinine ratio), pathological changes, ultra-microstructural changes in nephrons, expression of collagen IV and phosph-p38, ROS production, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis were evaluated and compared with diabetic rats expressing control levels of Mfn2. Endogenous Mfn2 expression decreased with time in DN. Compared to the blank transfection control group, overexpression of Mfn2 decreased kidney weight relative to body weight, reduced proteinuria and ACR, and improved pathological changes typical of the diabetic kidney, like enlargement of glomeruli, accumulation of ECM, and thickening of the basement membrane. In addition, Mfn2 overexpression inhibited activation of p38, and the accumulation of ROS; prevented mitochondrial dysfunction; and reduced the synthesis of collagen IV, but did not affect apoptosis of kidney cells. This study demonstrates that Mfn2 overexpression can attenuate pathological changes in the kidneys of diabetic rats. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanism of this protective function. Mfn2 might be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of early stage DN. PMID:22095488

  10. A Ratio Explanation for Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riss, Pam Helfers

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on physical anthropology activities for teaching students about evolution. Using evidence found in hominid skulls, students conduct investigations that involve calculating ratios. Eight full-page photographs of skulls from the program Stones and Bones are included. (PR)

  11. On the Road to Ratios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banziger, George; Wagner, Anne Marie; Watts, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    For the College of Mt. Saint Joseph (Ohio) to remain financially sound and to inform decisions about resources and academic programs, college leaders needed to understand instructional costs: costs per credit hour; how these vary by department, program; and meaningful ratios of revenues to costs. A system of differential analysis was developed to…

  12. Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit Ratio.

    PubMed

    Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants' performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit ratio. It has been reported that the digit ratio is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit ratios, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit ratios, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence. PMID:27039893

  13. Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants’ performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit ratio. It has been reported that the digit ratio is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit ratios, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit ratios, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence. PMID:27039893

  14. Three ways in, one way out: water dynamics in the trans-membrane domains of the inner membrane translocase AcrB.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Nadine; Kandt, Christian

    2011-10-01

    Powered by proton-motive force, the inner membrane translocase AcrB is the engine of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump in Escherichia coli. As proton conduction in proteins occurs along hydrogen-bonded networks of polar residues and water molecules, knowledge of the protein-internal water distribution and water-interacting residues allows drawing conclusions to possible pathways of proton conduction. Here, we report a series of 6× 50 ns independent molecular dynamics simulations of asymmetric AcrB embedded in a phospholipid/water environment. Simulating each monomer in its proposed protonation state, we calculated for each trans-membrane domain the average water distribution, identified residues interacting with these waters and quantified each residue's frequency of water hydrogen bond contact. Combining this information we find three possible routes of proton transfer connecting a continuously hydrated region of known key residues in the TMD interior to bulk water by one cytoplasmic and up to three periplasm water channels in monomer B and A. We find that water access of the trans-membrane domains is regulated by four groups of residues in a combination of side chain re-orientations and shifts of trans-membrane helices. Our findings support a proton release event via Arg971 during the C intermediate or in the transition to A, and proton uptake occurring in the A or B state or during a so far unknown intermediate in between B and C where cytoplasmic water access is still possible. Our simulations suggest experimentally testable hypotheses, which have not been investigated so far. PMID:21905112

  15. Does albuminuria predict renal risk and/or cardiovascular risk in obese type 2 diabetic patients?

    PubMed

    Bentata, Yassamine; Abouqal, Redouane

    2014-01-01

    Increased urinary albumin excretion (UAE) is a marker of renal and cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes (DT2). What about the obese patient with DT2? Does albuminuria predict the progression of renal disease and/or cardiovascular disease? The objective of this study is to determine the link between albuminuria, renal risk and cardiovascular risk in a cohort of obese DT2 patients. This is a prospective study begun in September 2006. It included DT2 patients presenting obesity defined by a body mass index (BMI)>30 Kg/m(2). Three groups of patients were defined: normo-albuminuria (Urinary Albumin Excretion UAE<30 mg/day or Albumin Creatinine Ratio ACR<30 mg/g), micro-albuminuria (UAE=30-300 mg/day or ACR=30-300 mg/g) and macro-albuminuria (UAE>300 mg/day or ACR>300 mg/g). Data on 144 obese DT2 patients were compiled: The mean age of our patients was 59 ± 9 years and the sex ratio 0.26. The incidence of ESRD was higher in the macro-albuminuria group than in the two other groups (26.5% vs. 1.2%, p<0.001). The incidence of cardiovascular events was 15.4%, 14.3% and 23.5% in the normo, micro and macro-albuminuria groups (p=0.48). A history of cardiovascular comorbidities was the main cardiovascular risk in multivariate analysis (0R=15.07; 95% CI=5.30-42.82; p<0.001) and the low admission GFR (0R=5.67; 95% CI=1.23-9.77; p=0.008) was the main factor for progression of kidney disease in multivariate analysis. Albuminuria may be a better marker of kidney disease progression than of cardiovascular risk in the obese DT2 patient, according to our results. However, to accurately demonstrate the link albuminuria - renal risk and albuminuria - cardiovascular risk in the obese DT2 patient, additional studies using very strict criteria of selection and judgment are needed. PMID:24551483

  16. Global Carbon Reservoir Oxidative Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, C. A.; Gallagher, M. E.; Hockaday, W. C.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration move carbon and oxygen between the atmosphere and the biosphere at a ratio that is characteristic of the biogeochemical processes involved. This ratio is called the oxidative ratio (OR) of photosynthesis and respiration, and is defined as the ratio of moles of O2 per moles of CO2. This O2/CO2 ratio is a characteristic of biosphere-atmosphere gas fluxes, much like the 13C signature of CO2 transferred between the biosphere and the atmosphere has a characteristic signature. OR values vary on a scale of 0 (CO2) to 2 (CH4), with most ecosystem values clustered between 0.9 and 1.2. Just as 13C can be measured for both carbon fluxes and carbon pools, OR can also be measured for fluxes and pools and can provide information about the processes involved in carbon and oxygen cycling. OR values also provide information about reservoir organic geochemistry because pool OR values are proportional to the oxidation state of carbon (Cox) in the reservoir. OR may prove to be a particularly valuable biogeochemical tracer because of its ability to couple information about ecosystem gas fluxes with ecosystem organic geochemistry. We have developed 3 methods to measure the OR of ecosystem carbon reservoirs and intercalibrated them to assure that they yield accurate, intercomparable data. Using these tools we have built a large enough database of biomass and soil OR values that it is now possible to consider the implications of global patterns in ecosystem OR values. Here we present a map of the natural range in ecosystem OR values and begin to consider its implications. One striking pattern is an apparent offset between soil and biospheric OR values: soil OR values are frequently higher than that of their source biomass. We discuss this trend in the context of soil organic geochemistry and gas fluxes.

  17. Selection of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (mar) mutants of Escherichia coli by using the disinfectant pine oil: roles of the mar and acrAB loci.

    PubMed Central

    Moken, M C; McMurry, L M; Levy, S B

    1997-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli selected for resistance to the disinfectant pine oil or to a household product containing pine oil also showed resistance to multiple antibiotics (tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and nalidixic acid) and overexpressed the marA gene. Likewise, antibiotic-selected Mar mutants, which also overexpress marA, were resistant to pine oil. Deletion of the mar or acrAB locus, the latter encoding a multidrug efflux pump positively regulated in part by MarA, increased the susceptibility of wild-type and mutant strains to pine oil. PMID:9420057

  18. Minimum age of the Neoproterozoic Seven Hundred Acre Island Formation and the tectonic setting of the Islesboro Formation, Islesboro block, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, D.B.; Tucker, R.D.; Ayuso, R.A.; Lux, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Two platformal stratigraphic sequences occur on Islesboro, Penobscot Bay, Maine. The older Seven Hundred Acre Island Formation is at least 200 m thick, its base is not exposed, and it makes up fault-bounded blocks of siliceous colour-banded dolomitic marble, muscovite-rich quartzite, coarse-grained splendent muscovite-garnet-staurolite-andalusite schist, and calcareous metapelite, with minor garnet amphibolite and amphibolite. It was initially metamorphosed to lower amphibolite facies and was later to lower greenschist facies. The lower amphibolite facies metamorphism is Neoproterozoic (670 to 650 Ma) as inferred from the 40Ar/39Ar high temperature release spectra of hornblende separates. A U-Pb zircon age of 646.7 ?? 2.7 Ma obtained for a pegmatite that intruded deformed rocks is taken to be the minimum age of the Formation. The platformal Islesboro Formation probably unconformably overlies the Seven Hundred Acre Island Formation. It is primarily turbiditic pelite with many beds of quartzite, impure dolomitic marble, some conglomerate, and a few feldsparrich volcaniclastic beds and is thought to be either Neoproterozoic or Cambrian. It was metamorphosed only to lower greenschist facies, possibly in the same event that retrograded the Seven Hundred Acre Island Formation. Geochemical interpretations of minor and trace element analyses of six amphibolite and four schist samples from the Seven Hundred Acre Island Formation show that the protoliths of the amphibolite samples were intermediate between tholeiitic and within-plate type basaltic flows or dikes that intruded attenuated continental crust, or were eroded from these basalts. Four amphibolite and three schist samples analyzed for Pb isotopes were found to be enriched in radiogenic Pb. The Pb isotopic compositions are similar to those in peri-Gondwanan basement rocks from Atlantic Canada. The peri-Gondwanan Islesboro block was placed against the peri-Gondwanan Middle and Late Cambrian Ellsworth terrane on the

  19. Sex ratios in bumble bees

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, A. F. G.

    1997-01-01

    The median proportion of investment in females among 11 populations of seven bumble bee (Bombus) species was 0.32 (range 0.07 to 0.64). By contrast, two species of workerless social parasites in the related genus Psithyrus had female-biased sex allocation, the reasons for which remain unclear. Male-biased sex allocation in Bombus contradicts the predictions of Trivers and Hare's sex ratio model for the social Hymenoptera, which are that the population sex investment ratio should be 0.5 (1:1) under queen control and 0.75 (3:1 females:males) under worker control (assuming single, once-mated, outbred queens and non-reproductive workers). Male bias in Bombus does not appear to be either an artefact, or purely the result of symbiotic sex ratio distorters. According to modifications of the Trivers–Hare model, the level of worker male-production in Bombus is insufficient to account for observed levels of male bias. There is also no evidence that male bias arises from either local resource competition (related females compete for resources) or local mate enhancement (related males cooperate in securing mates). Bulmer presented models predicting sexual selection for protandry (males are produced before females) in annual social Hymenoptera and, as a consequence (given some parameter values), male-biased sex allocation. Bumble bees fit the assumptions of Bulmer's models and are protandrous. These models therefore represent the best current explanation for the bees' male-biased sex investment ratios. This conclusion suggests that the relative timing of the production of the sexes strongly influences sex allocation in the social Hymenoptera.

  20. Geometry of operator cross ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Zelikin, M I

    2006-02-28

    The operator cross ratio, which is meaningful, in particular, for the infinite-dimensional Sato Grassmannian is defined and investigated. Its homological interpretation is presented. A matrix and operator analogue of the Schwartzian differential operator is introduced and its relation to linear Hamiltonian systems and Riccati's equation is established. The aim of these constructions is application to the KP-hierarchy (the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili hierarchy)