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Sample records for albumin-to-creatinine ratio acr

  1. Comparison of Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (ACR) Between ACR Strip Test and Quantitative Test in Prediabetes and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seon; Kim, Suyoung; Cho, Han-Ik

    2017-01-01

    Background Albuminuria is generally known as a sensitive marker of renal and cardiovascular dysfunction. It can be used to help predict the occurrence of nephropathy and cardiovascular disorders in diabetes. Individuals with prediabetes have a tendency to develop macrovascular and microvascular pathology, resulting in an increased risk of retinopathy, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic renal diseases. We evaluated the clinical value of a strip test for measuring the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) in prediabetes and diabetes. Methods Spot urine samples were obtained from 226 prediabetic and 275 diabetic subjects during regular health checkups. Urinary ACR was measured by using strip and laboratory quantitative tests. Results The positive rates of albuminuria measured by using the ACR strip test were 15.5% (microalbuminuria, 14.6%; macroalbuminuria, 0.9%) and 30.5% (microalbuminuria, 25.1%; macroalbuminuria, 5.5%) in prediabetes and diabetes, respectively. In the prediabetic population, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and overall accuracy of the ACR strip method were 92.0%, 94.0%, 65.7%, 99.0%, and 93.8%, respectively; the corresponding values in the diabetic population were 80.0%, 91.6%, 81.0%, 91.1%, and 88.0%, respectively. The median [interquartile range] ACR values in the strip tests for measurement ranges of <30, 30-300, and >300 mg/g were 9.4 [6.3-15.4], 46.9 [26.5-87.7], and 368.8 [296.2-575.2] mg/g, respectively, using the laboratory method. Conclusions The ACR strip test showed high sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value, suggesting that the test can be used to screen for albuminuria in cases of prediabetes and diabetes. PMID:27834062

  2. Urine albumin to creatinine ratio: A marker of early endothelial dysfunction in youth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) is a useful predictor of cardiovascular (CV) events in adults. Its relationship to vascular function in children is not clear. We investigated whether UACR was related to insulin resistance and endothelial function, a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis...

  3. Glomerular Filtration Rate and Urine Albumin to Creatinine Ratio Associated With Hearing Impairment Among Korean Adults With Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Yunji; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, June; Lee, Joo Kyung; Roh, Yong-Kyun; Nam, Hyo-Yun; Nam, Ga-Eun; Kim, Dong-Won; Lee, Seung-Hyun; Lee, Chung-Woo; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Yong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) with hearing impairment among diabetic adults in Korea. The study was based on data from Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011 to 2012. Participants were 1206 diabetic adults, aged over 19 years, who completed audiometric testing supervised by nationally certified clinicians. Hearing impairment was defined in three grades: no hearing impairment (pure-tone average 0–25 dB), slight hearing impairment (26–40 dB), and disabling hearing impairment (>40 dB) in the better ear at frequencies 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 kHz. Using logistic regression, risk of hearing impairment was assessed after having controlled for confounding factors. Higher levels of ACR and lower levels of eGFR correlated with an increase in percentage of disabling hearing impairment both unilaterally and bilaterally (P < 0.001). Controlling for possible confounding covariates, odds ratios for hearing impairment showed tendency to increase in higher ACR groups (P for trend = 0.029). Similar pattern was examined between eGFR and hearing impairment (P for trend = 0.006). Odds ratios were 1.981 (1.146, 3.424) for ACR Q4 and 2.773 (1.286, 5.983) for eGFR < 60 mL/min. Fall in eGFR and rise in ACR correlated with severity of hearing impairment. The association existed independently of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), smoking, drinking, exercise, new onset of diabetes, education, income, mental stress, noise exposure, and metabolic syndrome. PMID:27124027

  4. Association between Urine Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio within the Normal Range and Incident Hypertension in Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Dhananjay; Kang, Dae Ryong; Koh, Sang-Baek; Kim, Jang-Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There have been few studies on gender difference in the impact of a urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) within the normal range on the risk of hypertension. We evaluated whether the association between the UACR below the microalbuminuria range and the incident risk of hypertension is different between men and women. Materials and Methods A total of 1173 individuals (442 men and 731 women) aged 40 to 70 years without hypertension was examined at baseline (2005–2008) and followed (2008–2011). We defined the UACR as the amount of albumin (mg/dL) divided by creatinine (g/dL) in randomly voided urine. The subjects were classified according to UACR tertile. Results During an average of 2.6 years of follow-up, 57 men (12.9%) and 66 women (9.0%) developed hypertension. In multivariable-adjusted models, the odds ratio for new-onset hypertension comparing the highest and lowest tertiles of UACR was 1.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85–3.94] in men and 2.69 (95% CI 1.27–5.73) in women. In stratified analyses by menopausal status, higher tertiles of UACR were associated with an increased risk of incident hypertension in postmenopausal women. Conclusion Higher normal UACR levels were associated with an increased risk of incident hypertension in women. The UACR could have a clinical role in predicting the development of hypertension. PMID:27593874

  5. The relationship of nitric oxide synthesis capacity, oxidative stress, and albumin-to-creatinine ratio in black and white men: the SABPA study.

    PubMed

    Mels, Catharina M C; Huisman, Hugo W; Smith, Wayne; Schutte, Rudolph; Schwedhelm, Edzard; Atzler, Dorothee; Böger, Rainer H; Ware, Lisa J; Schutte, Aletta E

    2016-02-01

    Inadequate substrate availability and increased nitric oxide synthase inhibitor levels attenuate nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, whereas increased vascular oxidative stress may lead to inactivation of NO. We compared markers of NO synthesis capacity and oxidative stress in a bi-ethnic male population. Inter-relationships of ambulatory blood pressure and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio with NO synthesis capacity and oxidative stress markers were investigated. NO synthesis capacity markers (L-arginine, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA)) and oxidative stress markers (serum peroxides, total glutathione, glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase) were measured. Black men displayed higher blood pressure and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (all p < 0.001), while NO synthesis capacity was more favorable (higher L-arginine and lower ADMA (p ≤ 0.003)). Antioxidant enzyme activities were similar except for the redox status markers (GR activity and GR/GPx ratio), which were upregulated in black men (p < 0.001). In black men, ADMA was inversely related to GPx activity (R (2) = 0.15; β = -0.20; p = 0.050) and GPx/SOD ratio (R (2) = 0.24; β = -0.37; p < 0.001), but none of these markers related to blood pressure or albumin-to-creatinine ratio. In white men, albumin-to-creatinine ratio was positively associated with ADMA (R (2) = 0.18; β = 0.39; p < 0.001) while ADMA was inversely related to GR activity (R (2) = 0.26; β = -0.29; p = 0.002) and GR/GPx ratio (R (2) = 0.25; β = -0.28; p = 0.003). Black men with elevated blood pressure and albumin-to-creatinine ratio displayed a favorable NO synthesis capacity. This may be counteracted by increased inactivation of NO, although it was not linked to vascular or renal phenotypes. In white men, reduced NO synthesis capacity may lower NO bio-availability, thereby influencing the albumin-to-creatinine

  6. Disability of Hearing Impairment Is Positively Associated With Urine Albumin/Creatinine Ratio in Korean Adults: The 2011–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Soo; Lee, Dong-Hee; Chae, Hiun Suk; Lee, Tae-Kyu; Sohn, Tae Seo; Jeong, Seong Cheol; Kim, Hee Yeon; Lee, Jae-Im; Song, Jae Yen; Yeo, Chang Dong; Lee, Young Bok; Ahn, Hyo-Suk; Hong, Mihee; Han, Kyungdo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to determine whether chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with hearing thresholds in the nationwide, large-scaled Korean population. Methods. This study analyzed the data of 9,798 subjects of 19 years and older (4,387 males and 5,411 females). Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was measured from first-voided spot urine samples. The air-conduction hearing threshold was measured at 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6 kHz and pure tone audiogram (PTA) average was calculated as the four-frequency average of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz. Results. Urine ACR was significantly correlated with the PTA average of better ear in both genders, especially at 3 and 6 kHz in males and at 1, 3, 4, and 6 kHz in females. After adjusting, urine ACR also increased the risk of hearing loss in female, especially if urine ACR was 30 mg/g and more (odds ratio, 1.636–2.229. This study showed that the degree of hearing loss was significantly different according to categories of urine ACR in both genders. Hearing loss without disability was found less but that with bilateral hearing disability was found more as urine ACR increased. In generally, prevalence of hearing loss with disability was higher in males than females. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that urine ACR was significantly correlated with the PTA average of better ear in Korean adults of both genders. This study suggests that clinicians should carefully monitor the hearing level for subjects with elevated urine ACR, even though high urine ACR within the normal range. PMID:27416740

  7. Praise Acres Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Carolyn

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author presents the "Praise Acres Project," which was initiated from a letter written by a local resident. The resident wrote about an idea to develop a wetlands and outdoor lab facility on his property for students. Thus, a plan was conceived that would not only benefit the owner, but also enhance high school science…

  8. Molecular cloning and characterization of acrA and acrE genes of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Ma, D; Cook, D N; Alberti, M; Pon, N G; Nikaido, H; Hearst, J E

    1993-01-01

    The DNA fragment containing the acrA locus of the Escherichia coli chromosome has been cloned by using a complementation test. The nucleotide sequence indicates the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs). Sequence analysis suggests that the first ORF encodes a 397-residue lipoprotein with a 24-amino-acid signal peptide at its N terminus. One inactive allele of acrA from strain N43 was shown to contain an IS2 element inserted into this ORF. Therefore, this ORF was designated acrA. The second downstream ORF is predicted to encode a transmembrane protein of 1,049 amino acids and is named acrE. Genes acrA and acrE are probably located on the same operon, and both of their products are likely to affect drug susceptibilities observed in wild-type cells. The cellular localizations of these polypeptides have been analyzed by making acrA::TnphoA and acrE::TnphoA fusion proteins. Interestingly, AcrA and AcrE share 65 and 77% amino acid identity with two other E. coli polypeptides, EnvC and EnvD, respectively. Drug susceptibilities in one acrA mutant (N43) and one envCD mutant (PM61) have been determined and compared. Finally, the possible functions of these proteins are discussed. Images PMID:8407802

  9. How Big Is an Acre?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustin, Byron D.; Brandes, Donald

    1984-01-01

    Many students do not have the slightest idea of how much land is in an acre. A diagram of the official playing field for American football is used to illustrate the approximate size of an acre of land. (RM)

  10. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Roth, Christopher J; Angevine, Peter D; Aulino, Joseph M; Berger, Kevin L; Choudhri, Asim F; Fries, Ian Blair; Holly, Langston T; Kendi, Ayse Tuba Karaqulle; Kessler, Marcus M; Kirsch, Claudia F; Luttrull, Michael D; Mechtler, Laszlo L; O'Toole, John E; Sharma, Aseem; Shetty, Vilaas S; West, O Clark; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Bykowski, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Patients presenting with myelopathic symptoms may have a number of causative intradural and extradural etiologies, including disc degenerative diseases, spinal masses, infectious or inflammatory processes, vascular compromise, and vertebral fracture. Patients may present acutely or insidiously and may progress toward long-term paralysis if not treated promptly and effectively. Noncontrast CT is the most appropriate first examination in acute trauma cases to diagnose vertebral fracture as the cause of acute myelopathy. In most nontraumatic cases, MRI is the modality of choice to evaluate the location, severity, and causative etiology of spinal cord myelopathy, and predicts which patients may benefit from surgery. Myelopathy from spinal stenosis and spinal osteoarthritis is best confirmed without MRI intravenous contrast. Many other myelopathic conditions are more easily visualized after contrast administration. Imaging performed should be limited to the appropriate spinal levels, based on history, physical examination, and clinical judgment. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals, and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  11. ACR appropriateness criteria jaundice.

    PubMed

    Lalani, Tasneem; Couto, Corey A; Rosen, Max P; Baker, Mark E; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Fidler, Jeff L; Greene, Frederick L; Hindman, Nicole M; Katz, Douglas S; Kaur, Harmeet; Miller, Frank H; Qayyum, Aliya; Small, William C; Sudakoff, Gary S; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yarmish, Gail M; Yee, Judy

    2013-06-01

    A fundamental consideration in the workup of a jaundiced patient is the pretest probability of mechanical obstruction. Ultrasound is the first-line modality to exclude biliary tract obstruction. When mechanical obstruction is present, additional imaging with CT or MRI can clarify etiology, define level of obstruction, stage disease, and guide intervention. When mechanical obstruction is absent, additional imaging can evaluate liver parenchyma for fat and iron deposition and help direct biopsy in cases where underlying parenchymal disease or mass is found. Imaging techniques are reviewed for the following clinical scenarios: (1) the patient with painful jaundice, (2) the patient with painless jaundice, and (3) the patient with a nonmechanical cause for jaundice. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  12. 78 FR 2694 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Cancellation of the January 18, 2013, ACRS Subcommittee Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee meeting on...

  13. Utilization Management and ACR Select.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The ACR, published as ACR Select, provides an industry standard for imaging and through its experience with Appropriateness Criteria, is positioned to respond quickly to changing market demands. It has added hundreds of clinically relevant indications to ensure that even common scenarios have coverage. ACR Select is inclusive of numerous other credible content sources and actively receives vetted criteria from other medical specialty societies. ACR Select is well established in the market and available for integration into multiple physician access points. It also has support for the provisions and requirements of PL113-93. Healthcare providers have adopted ACR Select within their physician access points to deliver higher quality imaging services and understand the impact that imaging has on the overall care cycle. This better positions these providers to participate in risk-based contracts based on the value that appropriate imaging delivers. With the passage of PAMA, Congress has set a powerful precedent that has created the opportunity for every healthcare payer to transform the way imaging utilization is managed. Physicians will be required to consult Appropriateness Criteria delivered through CDS when placing orders for HTDI exams for Medicaid patients, and this can easily extend across the entire payer mix. PAMA has passed into public law (PLI113-93) and represents an opportunity for healthcare providers to develop risk based payment models across all imaging services, regardless of the payer of the claim or care setting.

  14. Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webster, Nathan A. S.; Pownceby, Mark I.; Madsen, Ian C.; Studer, Andrew J.; Manuel, James R.; Kimpton, Justin A.

    2014-12-01

    Effects of basicity, B (CaO:SiO2 ratio) on the thermal range, concentration, and formation mechanisms of silico-ferrite of calcium and aluminum (SFCA) and SFCA-I iron ore sinter bonding phases have been investigated using an in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction-based methodology with subsequent Rietveld refinement-based quantitative phase analysis. SFCA and SFCA-I phases are the key bonding materials in iron ore sinter, and improved understanding of the effects of processing parameters such as basicity on their formation and decomposition may assist in improving efficiency of industrial iron ore sintering operations. Increasing basicity significantly increased the thermal range of SFCA-I, from 1363 K to 1533 K (1090 °C to 1260 °C) for a mixture with B = 2.48, to ~1339 K to 1535 K (1066 °C to 1262 °C) for a mixture with B = 3.96, and to ~1323 K to 1593 K (1050 °C to 1320 °C) at B = 4.94. Increasing basicity also increased the amount of SFCA-I formed, from 18 wt pct for the mixture with B = 2.48 to 25 wt pct for the B = 4.94 mixture. Higher basicity of the starting sinter mixture will, therefore, increase the amount of SFCA-I, considered to be more desirable of the two phases. Basicity did not appear to significantly influence the formation mechanism of SFCA-I. It did, however, affect the formation mechanism of SFCA, with the decomposition of SFCA-I coinciding with the formation of a significant amount of additional SFCA in the B = 2.48 and 3.96 mixtures but only a minor amount in the highest basicity mixture. In situ neutron diffraction enabled characterization of the behavior of magnetite after melting of SFCA produced a magnetite plus melt phase assemblage.

  15. 77 FR 47680 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittees on Reliability...

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    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittees on Reliability and PRA and Fukushima; Revision to Notice of Meetings The (ACRS) Subcommittee on Fukushima...

  16. 77 FR 24745 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal...

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    2012-04-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena will hold...

  17. 76 FR 18585 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

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    2011-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water...

  18. 78 FR 66968 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

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    2013-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor...

  19. 76 FR 11524 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

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    2011-03-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactors (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water...

  20. 78 FR 79019 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

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    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  1. 77 FR 74698 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

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    2012-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  2. 78 FR 56756 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

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    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  3. 76 FR 24540 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

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    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office Nuclear Regulatory Commission Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor...

  4. 75 FR 55365 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Joint Subcommittee

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    2010-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Joint Subcommittee The ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulics Phenomena; Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); and Materials,...

  5. 76 FR 55717 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

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    2011-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and PRA will hold a...

  6. 78 FR 34677 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the Acrs Subcommittee on Materials...

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    2013-06-10

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the Acrs Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels... pellet-cladding interaction during anticipated operational occurrences for Pressurized Water...

  7. 77 FR 76089 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

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    2012-12-26

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR... Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  8. 78 FR 3474 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

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    2013-01-16

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels... Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  9. 78 FR 29159 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

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    2013-05-17

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels.... Cayetano Santos, Chief, Technical Support Branch, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING...

  10. 78 FR 79020 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2013-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  11. 75 FR 16874 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2010-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  12. 76 FR 61119 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  13. 75 FR 58447 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials...

  14. 78 FR 66967 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommitte on Radiation...

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    2013-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommitte on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  15. 76 FR 27101 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2011-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  16. 76 FR 55717 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2011-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  17. 76 FR 55716 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2011-09-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  18. 77 FR 56240 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  19. 78 FR 17944 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

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    2013-03-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  20. 76 FR 36160 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  1. 77 FR 68161 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  2. 76 FR 34779 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  3. 77 FR 38099 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  4. 75 FR 4881 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and...

  5. 77 FR 45700 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will... addressing the Fukushima Near Term Task Force (NTTF) Recommendation 1: Enhanced Regulatory Framework....

  6. 77 FR 64147 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 31, 2012, Room...

  7. 77 FR 68161 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on December 5, 2012, Room T-2B3... requested in the March 2012 10 CFR 50.54(f) letters to address Fukushima Near-Term Task Force Report, Task...

  8. 77 FR 74697 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on January 18, 2013, Room...

  9. 77 FR 68161 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on December 4, 2012, Room...

  10. 78 FR 27442 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 23, Room T-2B1,...

  11. 77 FR 59676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on October 3, 2012, Room...

  12. 77 FR 28637 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22- 23, 2012, Room...

  13. 78 FR 17945 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on April 10, 2013, Room T-2B1... requested in the March 2012 10 CFR 50.54(f) letters to address Fukushima Near-Term Task Force Report Task...

  14. 77 FR 45699 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 148 (Wednesday, August 1, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 45699] [FR Doc No: 2012-18757] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

  15. 76 FR 27103 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 26, 2011, Room T-2B1... Subcommittee will review recent events at the Fukushima site in Japan. The Subcommittee will hear...

  16. 78 FR 65008 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on November 5, 2013, Room...

  17. 78 FR 50457 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 4, 2013, Room...

  18. 78 FR 51752 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 18, 2013, Room...

  19. 77 FR 52371 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on September 5, 2012, Room...

  20. 77 FR 31676 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on June 20, 2012, Room...

  1. 76 FR 44377 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on August 16, 2011, Room T-2B1... events at the Fukushima Dai-Ichi reactor site in Japan. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by...

  2. 76 FR 34778 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on June 23, 2011, Room T-2B1... Subcommittee will review recent events at the Fukushima site in Japan. The Subcommittee will hear...

  3. 77 FR 28903 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Fukushima will hold a meeting on May 22, 2012, Room...

  4. 75 FR 30077 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ESBWR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ESBWR The ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) will hold a meeting on June...

  5. 75 FR 32229 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) will hold a meeting on June 23-24, 2010, Room...

  6. 75 FR 57536 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) will hold a meeting on October 20, 2010, Room...

  7. 75 FR 66803 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR will hold a meeting...

  8. 76 FR 68793 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... No: 2011-28737] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) will hold a meeting on November 30,...

  9. 76 FR 34778 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels... room. Dated: June 7, 2011 Cayetano Santos, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch A, Advisory Committee...

  10. 78 FR 31987 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels..., Technical Support Branch, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  11. 78 FR 37595 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR.... Kathy Weaver, Acting Chief, Technical Support Branch, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards....

  12. 76 FR 27102 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) will hold a meeting on May 26, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  13. 76 FR 5218 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor... inconvenience. Dated: January 24, 2011. Antonio Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee...

  14. 76 FR 34276 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR..., Chief, Reactor Safety Branch A, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  15. 77 FR 59678 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR... Branch, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  16. 76 FR 55718 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels will hold a meeting... (RES) initiative on quantitatively ensuring ``extremely low (XLPR) probability of rupture'' for...

  17. 76 FR 62866 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR) will hold a meeting on October 21, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville...

  18. 76 FR 72451 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ...-72452] [FR Doc No: 2011-30238] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels will hold a meeting on December 15,...

  19. 76 FR 16016 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy And Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor...: March 15, 2011. Cayetano Santos, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch A, Advisory Committee on...

  20. 75 FR 58449 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels will hold a meeting... inconvenience. Dated: September 17, 2010. Antonio Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee...

  1. 78 FR 20959 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) will hold a meeting.... Antonio Dias, Technical Advisor, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  2. 75 FR 27841 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Doc No: 2010-11820] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on May 18, 2010, Room T-2B1, 11545...

  3. 78 FR 70597 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Doc No: 2013-28328] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on December 3, 2013, Room...

  4. 77 FR 31044 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2012-12611] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on June 5, 2012, Room...

  5. 75 FR 82093 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Doc No: 2010-32822] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on January 11, 2011, Room...

  6. 75 FR 82092 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-29

    ... Doc No: 2010-32810] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on January 12, 2011, Room...

  7. 75 FR 27840 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Doc No: 2010-11823] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on May 18, 2010, Room T-2B1, 11545...

  8. 76 FR 44964 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-18954] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on August 17, 2011, Room...

  9. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Crohn Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, David H; Carucci, Laura R; Baker, Mark E; Cash, Brooks D; Dillman, Jonathan R; Feig, Barry W; Fowler, Kathryn J; Gage, Kenneth L; Noto, Richard B; Smith, Martin P; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yee, Judy; Lalani, Tasneem

    2015-10-01

    Crohn disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder involving the gastrointestinal tract, characterized by episodic flares and times of remission. Underlying structural damage occurs progressively, with recurrent bouts of inflammation. The diagnosis and management of this disease process is dependent on several clinical, laboratory, imaging, endoscopic, and histologic factors. In recent years, with the maturation of CT enterography, and MR enterography, imaging has played an increasingly important role in relation to Crohn Disease. In addition to these specialized examination modalities, ultrasound and routine CT have potential uses. Fluoroscopy, radiography, and nuclear medicine may be less beneficial depending on the clinical scenario. The imaging modality best suited to evaluating this disease may change, depending on the target population, severity of presentation, and specific clinical situation. This document presents seven clinical scenarios (variants) in both the adult and pediatric populations and rates the appropriateness of the available imaging options. They are summarized in a consolidated table, and the underlying rationale and supporting literature are presented in the accompanying narrative. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  10. ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, C; Xie, S; Klein, SA; McCoy, R; Comstock, JM; Delanoë, J; Deng, M; Dunn, M; Hogan, RJ; Jensen, MP; Mace, GG; McFarlane, SA; O’Connor, EJ; Protat, A; Shupe, MD; Turner, D; Wang, Z

    2011-09-12

    This document describes a new Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) data set, the ARM Cloud Retrieval Ensemble Data Set (ACRED), which is created by assembling nine existing ground-based cloud retrievals of ARM measurements from different cloud retrieval algorithms. The current version of ACRED includes an hourly average of nine ground-based retrievals with vertical resolution of 45 m for 512 layers. The techniques used for the nine cloud retrievals are briefly described in this document. This document also outlines the ACRED data availability, variables, and the nine retrieval products. Technical details about the generation of ACRED, such as the methods used for time average and vertical re-grid, are also provided.

  11. ACR Appropriateness Criteria on Resectable Rectal Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, W. Warren; Konski, Andre A.; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Poggi, Matthew M.; Regine, William F.; Cosman, Bard C.; Saltz, Leonard; Johnstone, Peter A.S.

    2008-04-01

    The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria on Resectable Rectal Cancer was updated by the Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology-Rectal/Anal Cancer, based on a literature review completed in 2007.

  12. 7 CFR 760.632 - Payment acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... acreage of a crop produced on land that is not eligible for crop insurance or NAP. (h) For any crop acreage for which crop insurance or NAP coverage is canceled, those acres will no longer be considered...

  13. 7 CFR 760.632 - Payment acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... acreage of a crop produced on land that is not eligible for crop insurance or NAP. (h) For any crop acreage for which crop insurance or NAP coverage is canceled, those acres will no longer be considered...

  14. 7 CFR 760.632 - Payment acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... acreage of a crop produced on land that is not eligible for crop insurance or NAP. (h) For any crop acreage for which crop insurance or NAP coverage is canceled, those acres will no longer be considered...

  15. 7 CFR 760.632 - Payment acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... acreage of a crop produced on land that is not eligible for crop insurance or NAP. (h) For any crop acreage for which crop insurance or NAP coverage is canceled, those acres will no longer be considered...

  16. 7 CFR 760.632 - Payment acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... acreage of a crop produced on land that is not eligible for crop insurance or NAP. (h) For any crop acreage for which crop insurance or NAP coverage is canceled, those acres will no longer be considered...

  17. The Automated Conflict Resolution System (ACRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Ted; Musliner, Andrew; Wampler, David

    1993-01-01

    The Automated Conflict Resolution System (ACRS) is a mission-current scheduling aid that predicts periods of mutual interference when two or more orbiting spacecraft are scheduled to communicate with the same Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) at the same time. The mutual interference predicted has the potential to degrade or prevent communications. Thus the ACRS system is a useful tool for aiding in the scheduling of Space Network (SN) communications.

  18. 78 FR 79019 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ..., Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels... materials and metallurgy. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by and hold discussions with the...

  19. 77 FR 45699 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Economic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 148 (Wednesday, August 1, 2012)] [Notices] [Pages 45699-45700] [FR Doc No: 2012-18759] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactors (ESBWR); Notice of...

  20. The Expanding Significance of One Acre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Daniel R., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A management class assignment requires students to study the history and complexity of one acre of land. The intent is to develop connections between the natural environment and human acts of management, focusing on the concept of privilege. (Contains 15 references.) (SK)

  1. 75 FR 57536 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Hydraulic Phenomena The ACRS Subcommittee on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena will hold a meeting on October 18... 5 p.m. The Subcommittee will review the thermal-hydraulic research activities in the Office...

  2. 76 FR 11525 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville, Maryland. The entire...

  3. 76 FR 22934 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-25

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on May 11, 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville...

  4. 76 FR 18586 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on April 20, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville...

  5. 76 FR 71609 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-18

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on December 14, 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville...

  6. 76 FR 32240 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Instrumentation and Control Systems; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems (DI&C) will hold a meeting on June 7, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  7. 7 CFR 1412.44 - Notification of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of base acres. 1412.44 Section 1412.44... through 2012 § 1412.44 Notification of base acres. The operator and owners of record of a farm will be notified in writing of the number of base acres eligible for enrollment in a contract, unless such...

  8. 7 CFR 1412.44 - Notification of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of base acres. 1412.44 Section 1412.44... through 2012 § 1412.44 Notification of base acres. The operator and owners of record of a farm will be notified in writing of the number of base acres eligible for enrollment in a contract, unless such...

  9. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Election of base acres. 1412.21 Section 1412.21... CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Establishment of Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.21 Election of base acres. (a) Subject to adjustments in...

  10. 7 CFR 1412.44 - Notification of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Notification of base acres. 1412.44 Section 1412.44... Through 2012 § 1412.44 Notification of base acres. The operator and owners of record of a farm will be notified in writing of the number of base acres eligible for enrollment in a contract, unless such...

  11. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Election of base acres. 1412.21 Section 1412.21... CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Establishment of Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.21 Election of base acres. (a) Subject to adjustments in...

  12. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Election of base acres. 1412.21 Section 1412.21... CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Establishment of Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.21 Election of base acres. (a) Subject to adjustments in...

  13. 7 CFR 1412.44 - Notification of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notification of base acres. 1412.44 Section 1412.44... through 2012 § 1412.44 Notification of base acres. The operator and owners of record of a farm will be notified in writing of the number of base acres eligible for enrollment in a contract, unless such...

  14. 7 CFR 1412.44 - Notification of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Notification of base acres. 1412.44 Section 1412.44... Through 2012 § 1412.44 Notification of base acres. The operator and owners of record of a farm will be notified in writing of the number of base acres eligible for enrollment in a contract, unless such...

  15. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Election of base acres. 1412.21 Section 1412.21... CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Establishment of Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.21 Election of base acres. (a) Subject to adjustments in...

  16. 7 CFR 1412.21 - Election of base acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Election of base acres. 1412.21 Section 1412.21... CROP REVENUE ELECTION PROGRAM FOR THE 2008 AND SUBSEQUENT CROP YEARS Establishment of Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.21 Election of base acres. (a) Subject to adjustments in...

  17. 75 FR 51501 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures The ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures will hold a meeting on September 8, 2010, at... conduct of the meeting, persons planning to attend should check with these references if such...

  18. 75 FR 67783 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-03

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures The ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures will hold a meeting on December 1, 2010, in Room... conduct of the meeting, persons planning to attend should check with these references if such...

  19. 77 FR 4838 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR) will hold a meeting on...

  20. 77 FR 74696 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP-1000...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on AP-1000; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on AP-1000 will hold a meeting on January 18, 2013, Room...

  1. 76 FR 44964 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... No: 2011-18952] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S. EPR) will hold a meeting on August 18, 2011, Room...

  2. 77 FR 61791 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On US-APWR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On US-APWR; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR will hold a meeting on October 18- 19, 2012, Room T... review Chapter 4, ``Reactor,'' of the Safety Evaluation Reports associated with the US-APWR...

  3. 77 FR 73497 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR will hold a meeting on January 15, 2013, Room T-2B3... Reports are associated with the design certification of the US-APWR. The Subcommittee will...

  4. 77 FR 56240 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR will hold a meeting on September 20, 2012, Room...

  5. 78 FR 47802 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR will hold a meeting on September 17-18, 2013, Room T... Chapter 6, ``Engineered Safety Features,'' of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) associated with the...

  6. 78 FR 59076 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR will hold a meeting on October 1, 2013, Room T-2B1... the US-APWR design. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by and hold discussions...

  7. 78 FR 20959 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR The ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR will hold a meeting on April 25- 26, 2013, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville..., ``Instrumentation and Control,'' of the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) associated with the US-APWR...

  8. 78 FR 68867 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR will hold a meeting on November 20-21, 2013, Room T... the Safety Evaluation Report (SER) associated with the US-APWR design certification and the...

  9. 78 FR 17945 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on April 9... based licensing framework for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The Subcommittee will...

  10. 75 FR 58448 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Future Plant Designs The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on October 21, 2010, at 11545... Subcommittee will review current Design Acceptance Criteria associated with Digital Instrumentation and...

  11. 76 FR 5220 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on February 9, 2011, at...

  12. 76 FR 64123 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on November...

  13. 77 FR 74698 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on January 17... Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) fuel and source term research and development of risk-informed...

  14. 76 FR 16016 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs The ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs will hold a meeting on April 5, 2011, at...

  15. 78 FR 50457 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C will hold a briefing on September 19, 2013, Room T... identification of digital system failure modes and use of hazard analysis methods for digital safety systems....

  16. 75 FR 30077 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee On Digital I&C Systems The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Control (DI&C) Systems will hold a meeting on... Digital Instrumentation and Control (DI&C) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA). Topics will include...

  17. 77 FR 67688 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C will hold a meeting on November 16, 2012, Room...

  18. 76 FR 7882 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C Systems The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation & Control (DI&C) Systems will hold a meeting...

  19. 75 FR 51499 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital I&C Systems The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Controls (I&C) Systems will hold a meeting on...--8:30 a.m. until 12 p.m. The Subcommittee will review Digital I&C Interim Staff Guidance on...

  20. Constructability -- from Qinshan to the ACR

    SciTech Connect

    Elgohary, Medhat; Fairclough, Neville; Ricciuti, Rick

    2003-09-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has recognized the importance of constructability for many years, and it is applying its principals to CANDU projects with increasing success. The CANDU 6 Nuclear Power Plant has been constructed eleven times in the last 25 years. However, the last two units completed on the Qinshan project in China have employed some very innovative construction methods that have not been used on the previous units. In order to make nuclear power generation more competitive, shorter construction schedules and reduced project cost and risks are essential objectives. The application of constructability principles is a major contributor to achieving these objectives. The success of Qinshan has increased the confidence in the new construction methods, which are being implemented on the ACR (Advanced CANDU Reactor) successfully. An ACR construction strategy that utilizes advanced construction techniques has been developed by AECL. The strategy includes paralleling of activities by using extensive modularization and the vertical installation of equipment and modules into the reactor building using a VHL (Very Heavy Lift) crane. This strategy allows short schedules to be met with a minimum risk to the project.

  1. 76 FR 34276 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS), Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-13

    ... with Inventory and Certification of digital systems, operating experience for digital systems, and... Instrumentation and Control Systems; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems (DI&C) will hold a meeting on June 22, 2011, Room T-2B3, 11545 Rockville Pike,...

  2. 76 FR 55717 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... and Probabilistic Risk Assessment The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a meeting on September 20, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike, Rockville... Modifying the Risk-Informed Regulatory Guidance for New Reactors. The Subcommittee will hear...

  3. 77 FR 60480 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Instrumentation and Control Systems; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems (DI&C) will hold a meeting on October 30, 2012, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike... and discuss the Design Specific Review Standard (DSRS) for Instrumentation and Control of the...

  4. 76 FR 52715 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-23

    ... Instrumentation and Control Systems; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation and Control Systems (DI&C) will hold a meeting on September 7, 2011, Room T-2B1, 11545 Rockville Pike... Diversity on Defense-In-Depth in Digital Computer-Based I&C Systems,'' and other related activities...

  5. 75 FR 61781 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... and PRA The ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) will hold a... statement on Safety Culture. The Subcommittee will hear presentations by and hold discussions with...: September 30, 2010. Antonio Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor...

  6. MO-AB-207-04: ACR Update in Mammography

    SciTech Connect

    Berns, E.

    2015-06-15

    A goal of an imaging accreditation program is to ensure adequate image quality, verify appropriate staff qualifications, and to assure patient and personnel safety. Currently, more than 35,000 facilities in 10 modalities have been accredited by the American College of Radiology (ACR), making the ACR program one of the most prolific accreditation options in the U.S. In addition, ACR is one of the accepted accreditations required by some state laws, CMS/MIPPA insurance and others. Familiarity with the ACR accreditation process is therefore essential to clinical diagnostic medical physicists. Maintaining sufficient knowledge of the ACR program must include keeping up-to-date as the various modality requirements are refined to better serve the goals of the program and to accommodate newer technologies and practices. This session consists of presentations from authorities in four ACR accreditation modality programs, including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, and mammography. Each speaker will discuss the general components of the modality program and address any recent changes to the requirements. Learning Objectives: To understand the requirements of the ACR MR Accreditation program. The discussion will include accreditation of whole-body general purpose magnets, dedicated extremity systems well as breast MRI accreditation. Anticipated updates to the ACR MRI Quality Control Manual will also be reviewed. To understand the requirements of the ACR CT accreditation program, including updates to the QC manual as well as updates through the FAQ process. To understand the requirements of the ACR nuclear medicine accreditation program, and the role of the physicist in annual equipment surveys and the set up and supervision of the routine QC program. To understand the current ACR MAP Accreditation requirement and present the concepts and structure of the forthcoming ACR Digital Mammography QC Manual and Program.

  7. MO-AB-207-01: ACR Update in CT

    SciTech Connect

    McNitt-Gray, M.

    2015-06-15

    A goal of an imaging accreditation program is to ensure adequate image quality, verify appropriate staff qualifications, and to assure patient and personnel safety. Currently, more than 35,000 facilities in 10 modalities have been accredited by the American College of Radiology (ACR), making the ACR program one of the most prolific accreditation options in the U.S. In addition, ACR is one of the accepted accreditations required by some state laws, CMS/MIPPA insurance and others. Familiarity with the ACR accreditation process is therefore essential to clinical diagnostic medical physicists. Maintaining sufficient knowledge of the ACR program must include keeping up-to-date as the various modality requirements are refined to better serve the goals of the program and to accommodate newer technologies and practices. This session consists of presentations from authorities in four ACR accreditation modality programs, including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, and mammography. Each speaker will discuss the general components of the modality program and address any recent changes to the requirements. Learning Objectives: To understand the requirements of the ACR MR Accreditation program. The discussion will include accreditation of whole-body general purpose magnets, dedicated extremity systems well as breast MRI accreditation. Anticipated updates to the ACR MRI Quality Control Manual will also be reviewed. To understand the requirements of the ACR CT accreditation program, including updates to the QC manual as well as updates through the FAQ process. To understand the requirements of the ACR nuclear medicine accreditation program, and the role of the physicist in annual equipment surveys and the set up and supervision of the routine QC program. To understand the current ACR MAP Accreditation requirement and present the concepts and structure of the forthcoming ACR Digital Mammography QC Manual and Program.

  8. MO-AB-207-02: ACR Update in MR

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R.

    2015-06-15

    A goal of an imaging accreditation program is to ensure adequate image quality, verify appropriate staff qualifications, and to assure patient and personnel safety. Currently, more than 35,000 facilities in 10 modalities have been accredited by the American College of Radiology (ACR), making the ACR program one of the most prolific accreditation options in the U.S. In addition, ACR is one of the accepted accreditations required by some state laws, CMS/MIPPA insurance and others. Familiarity with the ACR accreditation process is therefore essential to clinical diagnostic medical physicists. Maintaining sufficient knowledge of the ACR program must include keeping up-to-date as the various modality requirements are refined to better serve the goals of the program and to accommodate newer technologies and practices. This session consists of presentations from authorities in four ACR accreditation modality programs, including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, and mammography. Each speaker will discuss the general components of the modality program and address any recent changes to the requirements. Learning Objectives: To understand the requirements of the ACR MR Accreditation program. The discussion will include accreditation of whole-body general purpose magnets, dedicated extremity systems well as breast MRI accreditation. Anticipated updates to the ACR MRI Quality Control Manual will also be reviewed. To understand the requirements of the ACR CT accreditation program, including updates to the QC manual as well as updates through the FAQ process. To understand the requirements of the ACR nuclear medicine accreditation program, and the role of the physicist in annual equipment surveys and the set up and supervision of the routine QC program. To understand the current ACR MAP Accreditation requirement and present the concepts and structure of the forthcoming ACR Digital Mammography QC Manual and Program.

  9. Involvement of the AcrAB-TolC Efflux Pump in the Resistance, Fitness, and Virulence of Enterobacter cloacae

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Astrid; Poza, Margarita; Fernández, Ana; del Carmen Fernández, Maria; Mallo, Susana; Merino, María; Rumbo-Feal, Soraya; Cabral, María P.

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug efflux pumps have emerged as important mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens. In order to cause infection, pathogenic bacteria require mechanisms to avoid the effects of host-produced compounds, and express efflux pumps may accomplish this task. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the inactivation of AcrAB-TolC on antimicrobial resistance, fitness, and virulence in Enterobacter cloacae, an opportunistic pathogen usually involved in nosocomial infections. Two different clinical isolates of E. cloacae were used, EcDC64 (multidrug resistance overexpressing the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump) and Jc194 (basal AcrAB-TolC expression). The acrA and tolC genes were deleted in strains EcDC64 and Jc194 to produce, respectively, EcΔacrA and EcΔtolC and JcΔacrA and JcΔtolC knockout (KO) derivatives. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed with all isolates, and we discovered that these mechanisms are involved in the resistance of E. cloacae to several antibiotics. Competition experiments were also performed with wild-type and isogenic KO strains. The competition index (CI), defined as the mutant/wild-type ratio, revealed that the acrA and tolC genes both affect the fitness of E. cloacae, as fitness was clearly reduced in the acrA and tolC KO strains. The median CI values obtained in vitro and in vivo were, respectively, 0.42 and 0.3 for EcDC64/EcΔacrA, 0.24 and 0.38 for EcDC64/EcΔtolC, 0.15 and 0.11 for Jc194/JcΔacrA, and 0.38 and 0.39 for Jc194/JcΔtolC. Use of an intraperitoneal mouse model of systemic infection revealed reduced virulence in both E. cloacae clinical strains when either the acrA or tolC gene was inactivated. In conclusion, the structural components of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump appear to play a role in antibiotic resistance as well as environmental adaptation and host virulence in clinical isolates of E. cloacae. PMID:22290971

  10. Involvement of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump in the resistance, fitness, and virulence of Enterobacter cloacae.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Astrid; Poza, Margarita; Fernández, Ana; Fernández, Maria del Carmen; Mallo, Susana; Merino, María; Rumbo-Feal, Soraya; Cabral, María P; Bou, Germán

    2012-04-01

    Multidrug efflux pumps have emerged as important mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens. In order to cause infection, pathogenic bacteria require mechanisms to avoid the effects of host-produced compounds, and express efflux pumps may accomplish this task. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the inactivation of AcrAB-TolC on antimicrobial resistance, fitness, and virulence in Enterobacter cloacae, an opportunistic pathogen usually involved in nosocomial infections. Two different clinical isolates of E. cloacae were used, EcDC64 (multidrug resistance overexpressing the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump) and Jc194 (basal AcrAB-TolC expression). The acrA and tolC genes were deleted in strains EcDC64 and Jc194 to produce, respectively, EcΔacrA and EcΔtolC and JcΔacrA and JcΔtolC knockout (KO) derivatives. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed with all isolates, and we discovered that these mechanisms are involved in the resistance of E. cloacae to several antibiotics. Competition experiments were also performed with wild-type and isogenic KO strains. The competition index (CI), defined as the mutant/wild-type ratio, revealed that the acrA and tolC genes both affect the fitness of E. cloacae, as fitness was clearly reduced in the acrA and tolC KO strains. The median CI values obtained in vitro and in vivo were, respectively, 0.42 and 0.3 for EcDC64/EcΔacrA, 0.24 and 0.38 for EcDC64/EcΔtolC, 0.15 and 0.11 for Jc194/JcΔacrA, and 0.38 and 0.39 for Jc194/JcΔtolC. Use of an intraperitoneal mouse model of systemic infection revealed reduced virulence in both E. cloacae clinical strains when either the acrA or tolC gene was inactivated. In conclusion, the structural components of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump appear to play a role in antibiotic resistance as well as environmental adaptation and host virulence in clinical isolates of E. cloacae.

  11. ACR Appropriateness Criteria colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Yee, Judy; Kim, David H; Rosen, Max P; Lalani, Tasneem; Carucci, Laura R; Cash, Brooks D; Feig, Barry W; Fowler, Kathryn J; Katz, Douglas S; Smith, Martin P; Yaghmai, Vahid

    2014-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Most colorectal cancers can be prevented by detecting and removing the precursor adenomatous polyp. Individual risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer will influence the particular choice of screening tool. CT colonography (CTC) is the primary imaging test for colorectal cancer screening in average-risk individuals, whereas the double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) is now considered to be a test that may be appropriate, particularly in settings where CTC is unavailable. Single-contrast barium enema has a lower performance profile and is indicated for screening only when CTC and DCBE are not available. CTC is also the preferred test for colon evaluation following an incomplete colonoscopy. Imaging tests including CTC and DCBE are not indicated for colorectal cancer screening in high-risk patients with polyposis syndromes or inflammatory bowel disease. This paper presents the updated colorectal cancer imaging test ratings and is the result of evidence-based consensus by the ACR Appropriateness Criteria Expert Panel on Gastrointestinal Imaging. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  12. Proliferation Resistance Evaluation of ACR-1000 Fuel with Minor Actinides

    SciTech Connect

    Gray S. Chang

    2008-09-01

    The Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program is to significantly advance the science and technology of nuclear energy systems and to enhance the spent fuel proliferation resistance. It consists of both innovative nuclear reactors and innovative research in separation and transmutation. The merits of nuclear energy are high-density energy, with low environmental impacts (i.e. almost zero greenhouse gas emission). Planned efforts involve near-term and intermediate-term improvements in fuel utilization and recycling in current light water reactors (LWRs) as well as the longer-term development of new nuclear energy systems that offer much improved fuel utilization and proliferation resistance, along with continued advances in operational safety. For future advanced nuclear systems, minor actinides (MA) are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. MAs can play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. In this work, an Advanced CANDU Reactor (ACR) fuel unit lattice cell model with 43 UO2 fuel rods will be used to investigate the effectiveness of a Minor Actinide Reduction Approach (MARA) for enhancing proliferation resistance and improving the fuel cycle performance. The main MARA objective is to increase the 238Pu / Pu isotope ratio by using the transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel and thereby increase the proliferation resistance even for a very low fuel burnup. As a result, MARA is a very effective approach to enhance the proliferation resistance for the on power refueling ACR system nuclear fuel. The MA transmutation characteristics at different MA loadings were compared and their impact on neutronics

  13. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Right Upper Quadrant Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yarmish, Gail M.; Smith, Martin P.; Rosen, Max P.; Baker, Mark E.; Blake, Michael A.; Cash, Brooks D.; Hindman, Nicole M.; Kamel, Ihab R.; Kaur, Harmeet; Nelson, Rendon C.; Piorkowski, Robert J.; Qayyum, Aliya; Tulchinsky, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Acute right upper quadrant pain is a common presenting symptom in patients with acute cholecystitis. When acute cholecystitis is suspected in patients with right upper quadrant pain, in most clinical scenarios, the initial imaging modality of choice is ultrasound. Although cholescintigraphy has been shown to have slightly higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis, ultrasound is preferred as the initial study for a variety of reasons, including greater availability, shorter examination time, lack of ionizing radiation, morphologic evaluation, confirmation of the presence or absence of gallstones, evaluation of bile ducts, and identification or exclusion of alternative diagnoses. CT or MRI may be helpful in equivocal cases and may identify complications of acute cholecystitis. When ultrasound findings are inconclusive, MRI is the preferred imaging test in pregnant patients who present with right upper quadrant pain. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment. PMID:24485592

  14. ACR appropriateness criteria right upper quadrant pain.

    PubMed

    Yarmish, Gail M; Smith, Martin P; Rosen, Max P; Baker, Mark E; Blake, Michael A; Cash, Brooks D; Hindman, Nicole M; Kamel, Ihab R; Kaur, Harmeet; Nelson, Rendon C; Piorkowski, Robert J; Qayyum, Aliya; Tulchinsky, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Acute right upper quadrant pain is a common presenting symptom in patients with acute cholecystitis. When acute cholecystitis is suspected in patients with right upper quadrant pain, in most clinical scenarios, the initial imaging modality of choice is ultrasound. Although cholescintigraphy has been shown to have slightly higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis, ultrasound is preferred as the initial study for a variety of reasons, including greater availability, shorter examination time, lack of ionizing radiation, morphologic evaluation, confirmation of the presence or absence of gallstones, evaluation of bile ducts, and identification or exclusion of alternative diagnoses. CT or MRI may be helpful in equivocal cases and may identify complications of acute cholecystitis. When ultrasound findings are inconclusive, MRI is the preferred imaging test in pregnant patients who present with right upper quadrant pain. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  15. 7 CFR 1412.23 - Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. 1412.23... Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.23 Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. (a... of production flexibility contract acres or base acres protected by a Conservation Reserve...

  16. 7 CFR 1412.23 - Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. 1412.23... Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.23 Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. (a... of production flexibility contract acres or base acres protected by a Conservation Reserve...

  17. 7 CFR 1412.23 - Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. 1412.23... Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.23 Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. (a... of production flexibility contract acres or base acres protected by a Conservation Reserve...

  18. 7 CFR 1412.23 - Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. 1412.23... Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.23 Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. (a... of production flexibility contract acres or base acres protected by a Conservation Reserve...

  19. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  20. 76 FR 61118 - Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor...

  1. 130. Julian Price Memorial Park. Fortyseven acre Julian Price Lake ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    130. Julian Price Memorial Park. Forty-seven acre Julian Price Lake created by an impoundment. Looking west. - Blue Ridge Parkway, Between Shenandoah National Park & Great Smoky Mountains, Asheville, Buncombe County, NC

  2. 75 FR 66401 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ... Pressurized-Water Reactor (US-APWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on US-APWR will hold a meeting on... Evaluation report (SER) associated with the US-APWR design certification. The Subcommittee will...

  3. 7 CFR 1412.23 - Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. 1412.23... Base Acres for a Farm for Covered Commodities § 1412.23 Base acres and Conservation Reserve Program. (a... year, adjust the base acres for covered commodities and peanuts with respect to the farm by the...

  4. 24 CFR 1710.9 - Twenty acre lots.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Twenty acre lots. 1710.9 Section 1710.9 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  5. ACR testing of a dedicated head SPECT unit.

    PubMed

    Sensakovic, William F; Hough, Matthew C; Kimbley, Elizabeth A

    2014-07-08

    Physics testing necessary for program accreditation is rigorously defined by the ACR. This testing is easily applied to most conventional SPECT systems based on gamma camera technology. The inSPira HD is a dedicated head SPECT system based on a rotating dual clamshell design that acquires data in a dual-spiral geometry. The unique geometry and configuration force alterations of the standard ACR physics testing protocol. Various tests, such as intrinsic planar uniformity and/or resolution, do not apply. The Data Spectrum Deluxe Phantom used for conventional SPECT testing cannot fit in the inSPira HD scanner bore, making (currently) unapproved use of the Small Deluxe SPECT Phantom necessary. Matrix size, collimator type, scanning time, reconstruction method, and attenuation correction were all varied from the typically prescribed ACR instructions. Visible spheres, sphere contrast, visible rod groups, uniformity, and root mean square (RMS) noise were measured. The acquired SPECT images surpassed the minimum ACR requirements for both spatial resolution (9.5 mm spheres resolved) and contrast (6.4 mm rod groups resolved). Sphere contrast was generally high. Integral uniformity was 4% and RMS noise was 1.7%. Noise appeared more correlated than in images from a conventional SPECT scanner. Attenuation-corrected images produced from direct CT scanning of the phantom and a manufacturer supplied model of the phantom demonstrated negligible differences.

  6. "Forty Acres and a Mule" as a Pedagogical Motif

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burch, Kerry

    2008-01-01

    This essay revisits an iconic yet now languishing phrase in United States political culture--"Forty Acres and a Mule"--to clarify the meaning of freedom and to assess the contemporary meaning of its betrayal by the U.S. government immediately after the Civil War. Among the few citizens for whom the phrase still retains a semblance of…

  7. ACR Electrical Systems. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Mark

    This document contains a teacher's guide and student guide for a high school-level competency-based course in air conditioning and refrigeration (ACR) equipment electrical systems. Presented in the teacher's guide are the following: explanation of the instructional units' use; competency profile for recording students' performance of the tasks in…

  8. AcrB, AcrD, and MdtABC multidrug efflux systems are involved in enterobactin export in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Horiyama, Tsukasa; Nishino, Kunihiko

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli produces the iron-chelating compound enterobactin to enable growth under iron-limiting conditions. After biosynthesis, enterobactin is released from the cell. However, the enterobactin export system is not fully understood. Previous studies have suggested that the outer membrane channel TolC is involved in enterobactin export. There are several multidrug efflux transporters belonging to resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) family that require interaction with TolC to function. Therefore, several RND transporters may be responsible for enterobactin export. In this study, we investigated whether RND transporters are involved in enterobactin export using deletion mutants of multidrug transporters in E. coli. Single deletions of acrB, acrD, mdtABC, acrEF, or mdtEF did not affect the ability of E. coli to excrete enterobactin, whereas deletion of tolC did affect enterobactin export. We found that multiple deletion of acrB, acrD, and mdtABC resulted in a significant decrease in enterobactin export and that plasmids carrying the acrAB, acrD, or mdtABC genes restored the decrease in enterobactin export exhibited by the ΔacrB acrD mdtABC mutant. These results indicate that AcrB, AcrD, and MdtABC are required for the secretion of enterobactin.

  9. ACR white paper: New practice models--hospital employment of radiologists: a report from the ACR Future Trends Committee.

    PubMed

    Medverd, Jonathan R; Muroff, Lawrence R; Brant-Zawadzki, Michael N; Lexa, Frank J; Levin, David C

    2012-11-01

    In response to the current era of rapid evolution of health care delivery and financing, radiologists are increasingly considering, as well as confronting, new practice models. Hospital employment is one such opportunity. Within this report to the ACR membership, the potential advantages and risks for radiologists considering hospital employment are examined.

  10. 78 FR 70597 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ..., Rockville, Maryland. The meeting will be open to public attendance with the exception of a portion that may... that are open to the public. Detailed procedures for the conduct of and participation in ACRS meetings...-25-13; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  11. 76 FR 68793 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... [Federal Register Volume 76, Number 215 (Monday, November 7, 2011)] [Notices] [Page 68793] [FR Doc... participation in ACRS meetings were published in the Federal Register on October 17, 2011 (76 FR 64127-64128... Assistant, Reactor Safety Branch, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. [FR Doc. 2011-28738 Filed...

  12. 78 FR 2694 - Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and... Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  13. A novel packing arrangement of AcrB in the lipid bilayer membrane.

    PubMed

    Ly, K; Bartho, J D; Eicher, T; Pos, K M; Mitra, A K

    2014-12-20

    The central component AcrB of the Escherichia coli drug efflux complex AcrA-AcrB-TolC has been extensively investigated by X-ray crystallography of detergent-protein 3-D crystals. In these crystals, AcrB packs as trimers - the functional unit. We visualized the AcrB-AcrB interaction in its native environment by examining E. coli lipid reconstituted 2-D crystals, which were overwhelmingly formed by asymmetric trimers stabilized by strongly-interacting monomers from adjacent trimers. Most interestingly, we observed lattices formed by an arrangement of AcrB monomers distinct from that in traditional trimers. This hitherto unobserved packing, might play a role in the biogenesis of trimeric AcrB.

  14. The Acre vertebrate fauna: Age, diversity, and geography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzuol, Mario Alberto

    2006-07-01

    The vertebrate faunal assemblage associated with the Neogene deposits in the Acre region (southwestern Amazonia) is secured as Late Miocene on the basis of a correlation with the 'Mesopotamian' faunal assemblage from the Paraná region of Argentina and Uruguay. Both assemblages occur in the time span of the Huayquerian South American Land Mammal Age (SALMA). The Acre, 'Mesopotamian' (Argentina and Uruguay), and Urumaco (Venezuela) assemblages are considered faunistically correlated and contemporaneous on the basis of their shared amniote taxa. The Laventan assemblage from Colombia has important faunistic affinities with the previous three but is older. A paleogeographic scenario is proposed to explain the long-distance correlation among those assemblages. On the basis of data from geology, field observations, fauna, and palynology, the validity of the Ucayali unconformity as a time marker along all of western Amazonia is rejected.

  15. ACR appropriateness criteria radiologic management of infected fluid collections.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Jonathan M; Al-Refaie, Waddah B; Cash, Brooks D; Gaba, Ron C; Gervais, Debra A; Gipson, Matthew G; Kolbeck, Kenneth J; Kouri, Brian E; Marshalleck, Francis E; Nair, Ajit V; Ray, Charles E; Hohenwalter, Eric J

    2015-08-01

    The best management of infected fluid collections depends on a careful assessment of clinical and anatomic factors as well as an up-to-date review of the published literature, to be able to select from a host of multidisciplinary treatment options. This article reviews conservative, radiologic, endoscopic, and surgical options and their best application to infected fluid collections as determined by the ACR Appropriateness Criteria Expert Panel on Interventional Radiology. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals, and the application, by the panel, of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  16. 7 CFR 1412.79 - Executed ACRE contract not in conformity with regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Executed ACRE contract not in conformity with... Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) Program § 1412.79 Executed ACRE contract not in conformity with... conformity with the provisions of this part, the provisions of this part will prevail....

  17. 75 FR 4882 - Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on EPR; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on EPR; Notice of Meeting The ACRS U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (EPR) Subcommittee will hold a meeting on February 18-19... inconvenience. Dated: January 25, 2010. Antonio F. Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee...

  18. 10 CFR 52.87 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.87 Section 52.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the ACRS. The...

  19. 78 FR 8202 - Meeting of the Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels; Notice of Meeting The Joint ACRS Subcommittees on Thermal Hydraulic Phenomena and Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels will hold a meeting...

  20. 10 CFR 52.87 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.87 Section 52.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the ACRS. The...

  1. 76 FR 57082 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels Revision to September 21, 2011, ACRS Meeting; Federal Register Notice The Federal Register Notice for the ACRS Subcommittee Meeting on Materials, Metallurgy and Reactor Fuels is...

  2. 76 FR 76442 - Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee On Reactor Safeguards Meeting of The ACRS Subcommittee on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels Revision to December 15, 2011, ACRS Meeting Federal Register Notice The Federal Register Notice for the ACRS Subcommittee Meeting on Materials, Metallurgy & Reactor Fuels scheduled to be held...

  3. 7 CFR 1412.79 - Executed ACRE contract not in conformity with regulations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Executed ACRE contract not in conformity with... Average Crop Revenue Election (ACRE) Program § 1412.79 Executed ACRE contract not in conformity with... conformity with the provisions of this part, the provisions of this part will prevail....

  4. 76 FR 9835 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Digital Instrumentation & Control (DI&C); Revision to February 23, 2011, ACRS Meeting Federal Register Notice The Federal Register Notice for the ACRS Subcommittee Meeting on Digital Instrumentation & Control (DI&C) scheduled...

  5. DETERMINANTS OF VARIABILITY IN ACUTE TO CHRONIC TOXICITY RATIOS IN AQUATIC INVERTEBRATES AND FISH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variability in acute to chronic ratios (ACRs; LC50/chronic value) has been a continuing interest in aquatic toxicology because of the reliance on ACRs to estimate chronic toxicity for chemicals and species with known acute toxicity but limited or no information on sublethal toxic...

  6. Overexpression and purification of the three components of the Enterobacter aerogenes AcrA-AcrB-TolC multidrug efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Masi, Muriel; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Pradel, Elizabeth

    2003-03-25

    The tripartite AcrA-AcrB-TolC system is the major efflux pump of the nosocomial pathogen Enterobacter aerogenes. AcrA is a trimeric periplasmic lipoprotein anchored in the inner membrane, AcrB is an inner membrane transporter and TolC is a trimeric outer membrane channel. In order to reconstitute the AcrA-AcrB-TolC system of E. aerogenes in artificial membranes, we overexpressed and purified the three proteins. The E. aerogenes acrA, acrB and tolC open reading frames were individually inserted in the expression vector pET24a(+), in frame with a sequence coding a C-terminal hexahistidine tag to allow purification by INAC (Immobilized Nickel Affinity Chromatography). The mature AcrA-6His was overproduced in a soluble form in the cytoplasm of Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). AcrA-6His was purified under native conditions in two steps using INAC and gel permeation chromatography. We obtained about 25 mg of 97% pure AcrA-6His per liter of culture. AcrB-6His was solubilized from the membrane fraction of E. coli C43(DE3) in 300 mM NaCl, 5% Triton X-100 and purified in one step by INAC. The AcrB-6His enriched fraction was eluted with 100 mM imidazole. The final yield was 1-2 mg of 95% pure AcrB-6His per liter of culture. The membrane fraction of E. coli BL21(DE3)pLysS containing TolC-6His was first treated with 2% Triton X-100, 30 mM MgCl(2) to solubilize the inner membrane proteins. After ultracentrifugation, the pellet was treated with 5% Triton X-100, 5 mM EDTA to solubilize the outer membrane proteins. Approximately 5 mg of 95% pure TolC-6His trimers per liter of culture was purified by INAC.

  7. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Clinically Suspected Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Michael; Ahmed, Osmanuddin; Chandra, Ankur; Gage, Kenneth L; Gerhard-Herman, Marie D; Ginsburg, Michael; Gornik, Heather L; Johnson, Pamela T; Oliva, Isabel B; Ptak, Thomas; Steigner, Michael L; Strax, Richard; Rybicki, Frank J; Dill, Karin E

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are often included in the differential diagnosis of common clinical presentations, including hypoxemia, hemoptysis, brain abscesses, and paradoxical stroke, as well as affecting 30% to 50% of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT). Various imaging studies are used in the diagnostic and screening settings, which have been reviewed by the ACR Appropriateness Criteria Vascular Imaging Panel. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation screening in patients with HHT is commonly performed with transthoracic echocardiographic bubble study, followed by CT for positive cases. Although transthoracic echocardiographic bubble studies and radionuclide perfusion detect right-to-left shunts, they do not provide all of the information needed for treatment planning and may remain positive after embolization. Pulmonary angiography is appropriate for preintervention planning but not as an initial test. MR angiography has a potential role in younger patients with HHT who may require lifelong surveillance, despite lower spatial resolution compared with CT. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every three years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  8. Substrate-dependent dynamics of the multidrug efflux transporter AcrB of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kentaro; Tamai, Rei; Yamazaki, Megumi; Inaba, Takehiko; Sowa, Yoshiyuki; Kawagishi, Ikuro

    2016-02-26

    The resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type xenobiotic efflux system plays a major role in the multidrug resistance of gram-negative bacteria. The only constitutively expressed RND system of Escherichia coli consists of the inner membrane transporter AcrB, the membrane fusion protein AcrA, and the outer membrane channel TolC. The latter two components are shared with another RND-type transporter AcrD, whose expression is induced by environmental stimuli. Here, we demonstrate how RND-type ternary complexes, which span two membranes and the cell wall, form in vivo. Total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy revealed that most fluorescent foci formed by AcrB fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) were stationary in the presence of TolC but showed lateral displacements when tolC was deleted. The fraction of stationary AcrB-GFP foci decreased with increasing levels of AcrD. We propose that the AcrB-containing complex becomes unstable upon the induction of AcrD, which presumably replaces AcrB, a process we call "transporter exchange." This instability is suppressed by AcrB-specific substrates, suggesting that the ternary complex is stabilised when it is in action. These results suggest that the assembly of the RND-type efflux system is dynamically regulated in response to external stimuli, shedding new light on the adaptive antibiotic resistance of bacteria.

  9. MO-AB-207-00: ACR Update in MR, CT, Nuclear Medicine, and Mammography

    SciTech Connect

    2015-06-15

    A goal of an imaging accreditation program is to ensure adequate image quality, verify appropriate staff qualifications, and to assure patient and personnel safety. Currently, more than 35,000 facilities in 10 modalities have been accredited by the American College of Radiology (ACR), making the ACR program one of the most prolific accreditation options in the U.S. In addition, ACR is one of the accepted accreditations required by some state laws, CMS/MIPPA insurance and others. Familiarity with the ACR accreditation process is therefore essential to clinical diagnostic medical physicists. Maintaining sufficient knowledge of the ACR program must include keeping up-to-date as the various modality requirements are refined to better serve the goals of the program and to accommodate newer technologies and practices. This session consists of presentations from authorities in four ACR accreditation modality programs, including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, and mammography. Each speaker will discuss the general components of the modality program and address any recent changes to the requirements. Learning Objectives: To understand the requirements of the ACR MR Accreditation program. The discussion will include accreditation of whole-body general purpose magnets, dedicated extremity systems well as breast MRI accreditation. Anticipated updates to the ACR MRI Quality Control Manual will also be reviewed. To understand the requirements of the ACR CT accreditation program, including updates to the QC manual as well as updates through the FAQ process. To understand the requirements of the ACR nuclear medicine accreditation program, and the role of the physicist in annual equipment surveys and the set up and supervision of the routine QC program. To understand the current ACR MAP Accreditation requirement and present the concepts and structure of the forthcoming ACR Digital Mammography QC Manual and Program.

  10. TU-A-18C-01: ACR Accreditation Updates in CT, Ultrasound, Mammography and MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Price, R; Berns, E; Hangiandreou, N; McNitt-Gray, M

    2014-06-15

    A goal of an imaging accreditation program is to ensure adequate image quality, verify appropriate staff qualifications, and to assure patient and personnel safety. Currently, more than 35,000 facilities in 10 modalities have been accredited by the American College of Radiology (ACR), making the ACR program one of the most prolific accreditation options in the U.S. In addition, the ACR is one of the accepted accreditations required by some state laws, CMS/MIPPA insurance and others. Familiarity with the ACR accreditation process is therefore essential to clinical diagnostic medical physicists. Maintaining sufficient knowledge of the ACR program must include keeping up-to-date as the various modality requirements are refined to better serve the goals of the program and to accommodate newer technologies and practices. This session consists of presentations from authorities in four ACR accreditation modality programs, including magnetic resonance imaging, mammography, ultrasound, and computed tomography. Each speaker will discuss the general components of the modality program and address any recent changes to the requirements. Learning Objectives: To understand the requirements of the ACR MR accreditation program. The discussion will include accreditation of whole-body general purpose magnets, dedicated extremity systems well as breast MRI accreditation. Anticipated updates to the ACR MRI Quality Control Manual will also be reviewed. To understand the current ACR MAP Accreditation requirement and present the concepts and structure of the forthcoming ACR Digital Mammography QC Manual and Program. To understand the new requirements of the ACR ultrasound accreditation program, and roles the physicist can play in annual equipment surveys and setting up and supervising the routine QC program. To understand the requirements of the ACR CT accreditation program, including updates to the QC manual as well as updates through the FAQ process.

  11. MO-AB-207-03: ACR Update in Nuclear Medicine

    SciTech Connect

    Harkness, B.

    2015-06-15

    A goal of an imaging accreditation program is to ensure adequate image quality, verify appropriate staff qualifications, and to assure patient and personnel safety. Currently, more than 35,000 facilities in 10 modalities have been accredited by the American College of Radiology (ACR), making the ACR program one of the most prolific accreditation options in the U.S. In addition, ACR is one of the accepted accreditations required by some state laws, CMS/MIPPA insurance and others. Familiarity with the ACR accreditation process is therefore essential to clinical diagnostic medical physicists. Maintaining sufficient knowledge of the ACR program must include keeping up-to-date as the various modality requirements are refined to better serve the goals of the program and to accommodate newer technologies and practices. This session consists of presentations from authorities in four ACR accreditation modality programs, including magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, nuclear medicine, and mammography. Each speaker will discuss the general components of the modality program and address any recent changes to the requirements. Learning Objectives: To understand the requirements of the ACR MR Accreditation program. The discussion will include accreditation of whole-body general purpose magnets, dedicated extremity systems well as breast MRI accreditation. Anticipated updates to the ACR MRI Quality Control Manual will also be reviewed. To understand the requirements of the ACR CT accreditation program, including updates to the QC manual as well as updates through the FAQ process. To understand the requirements of the ACR nuclear medicine accreditation program, and the role of the physicist in annual equipment surveys and the set up and supervision of the routine QC program. To understand the current ACR MAP Accreditation requirement and present the concepts and structure of the forthcoming ACR Digital Mammography QC Manual and Program.

  12. Albuminuria changes are associated with subsequent risk of end-stage renal disease and mortality.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Grams, Morgan E; Sang, Yingying; Ärnlöv, Johan; Gasparini, Alessandro; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Qureshi, Abdul R; Evans, Marie; Barany, Peter; Lindholm, Bengt; Ballew, Shoshana H; Levey, Andrew S; Gansevoort, Ron T; Elinder, Carl G; Coresh, Josef

    2017-01-01

    Current guidelines for chronic kidney disease (CKD) recommend using albuminuria as well as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) to stage CKD. However, CKD progression is solely defined by change in eGFR with little regard to the risk implications of change in albuminuria. This is an observational study from the Stockholm CREAtinine Measurements (SCREAM) project, a health care utilization cohort from Stockholm, Sweden, with laboratory measures from 2006-2011 and follow-up through December 2012. Included were 31,732 individuals with two or more ambulatory urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) tests. We assessed the association between change in ACR during a baseline period of 1, 2, or 3 years and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death. Using a 2-year baseline period, there were 378 ESRD events and 1712 deaths during a median of 3 years of follow-up. Compared to stable ACR, a 4-fold increase in ACR was associated with a 3.08-times (95% confidence interval 2.59 to 3.67) higher risk of ESRD while a 4-fold decrease in ACR was associated with a 0.34-times (0.26 to 0.45) lower risk of ESRD. Similar associations were found in people with and without diabetes mellitus, with and without hypertension, and also when adjusted for the change in eGFR during the same period. The association between change in ACR and mortality was weaker: ACR increase was associated with mortality, but the relationship was largely flat for ACR decline. Results were consistent for 1-, 2-, and 3-year ACR changes. Thus, changes in albuminuria are strongly and consistently associated with the risk of ESRD and death.

  13. 10 CFR 52.53 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.53 Section 52.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  14. 10 CFR 52.165 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.165 Section 52.165 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  15. 10 CFR 52.165 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.165 Section 52.165 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  16. 75 FR 10840 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR); Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR will hold a meeting on March 18... 3, 2010. Antonio F. Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor...

  17. 75 FR 7632 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Subcommittee on Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR) The ACRS Subcommittee on ABWR will hold a meeting on March 2, 2010, at 11545...: February 12, 2010. Antonio F. Dias, Chief Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor...

  18. 10 CFR 52.23 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.23 Section 52.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application for an early...

  19. 10 CFR 52.23 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.23 Section 52.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application for an early...

  20. 10 CFR 52.141 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.141 Section 52.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  1. 10 CFR 52.141 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.141 Section 52.141 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  2. 75 FR 13611 - Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and PRA; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability... would result in major inconvenience. Dated: March 15, 2010. Antonio F. Dias, Chief, Reactor Safety Branch B, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  3. 10 CFR 52.53 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.53 Section 52.53 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS... Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). The Commission shall refer a copy of the application to the...

  4. 75 FR 47621 - Final Environmental Impact Statement for the North Fork Rancheria's Proposed 305-Acre Trust...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-06

    ...-Acre Trust Acquisition and Hotel/Casino Project, Madera County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs... develop a hotel, casino, parking facilities, and supporting infrastructure. The proposed 305-acre site... Proposed Project includes the development of an approximately 472,000 square foot hotel and casino...

  5. 75 FR 38564 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Subcommittee on Plant Operations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the Subcommittee on Plant Operations and Fire Protection The ACRS Subcommittee on Plant Operations and Fire Protection will hold a...

  6. 76 FR 80410 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... Doc No: 2011-32907] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on Radiation Protection and Nuclear Materials will hold a meeting on January 18, 2012, Room...

  7. Effectiveness of urban stormwater control measures in a 100-acre test site

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kansas City, Missouri chose a test area (100 acres) and a control area (80 acres) to test the effectiveness of urban stormwater control (SCM) deployment in conjunction with the USEPA, University of Alabama, University of Missouri-Kansas City and TetraTech. Both the test and cont...

  8. Kidney outcomes three years after bariatric surgery in severely obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nehus, Edward J; Khoury, Jane C; Inge, Thomas H; Xiao, Nianzhou; Jenkins, Todd M; Moxey-Mims, Marva M; Mitsnefes, Mark M

    2017-02-01

    A significant number of severely obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery have evidence of early kidney damage. To determine if kidney injury is reversible following bariatric surgery, we investigated renal outcomes in the Teen-Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery cohort, a prospective multicenter study of 242 severely obese adolescents undergoing bariatric surgery. Primary outcomes of urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were evaluated preoperatively and up to 3 years following bariatric surgery. At surgery, mean age of participants was 17 years and median body mass index (BMI) was 51 kg/m(2). In those with decreased kidney function at baseline (eGFR under 90 mL/min/1.73m(2)), mean eGFR significantly improved from 76 to 102 mL/min/1.73m(2) at three-year follow-up. Similarly, participants with albuminuria (albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 30 mg/g and more) at baseline demonstrated significant improvement following surgery: geometric mean of ACR was 74 mg/g at baseline and decreased to 17 mg/g at three years. Those with normal renal function and no albuminuria at baseline remained stable throughout the study period. Among individuals with a BMI of 40 kg/m(2) and more at follow-up, increased BMI was associated with significantly lower eGFR, while no association was observed in those with a BMI under 40 kg/m(2). In adjusted analysis, eGFR increased by 3.9 mL/min/1.73m(2) for each 10-unit loss of BMI. Early kidney abnormalities improved following bariatric surgery in adolescents with evidence of preoperative kidney disease. Thus, kidney disease should be considered as a selection criteria for bariatric surgery in severely obese adolescents who fail conventional weight management.

  9. ACR11 is an Activator of Plastid-Type Glutamine Synthetase GS2 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Osanai, Takashi; Kuwahara, Ayuko; Otsuki, Hitomi; Saito, Kazuki; Yokota Hirai, Masami

    2017-03-06

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is an important enzyme for nitrogen assimilation, and GS2, encoded by GLN2, is the only plastid-type GS in Arabidopsis thaliana. A co-expression analysis suggested that the expression level of the gene encoding a uridylyltransferase-like protein, ACR11, is strongly correlated with GLN2 expression levels. Here we showed that the recombinant ACR11 protein increased GS2 activity in vitro by reducing the Km values of its substrate glutamine. A T-DNA insertion mutant of ACR11 exhibited a reduced GS activity under low nitrate conditions and reduced glutamine levels. Biochemical analyses revealed that ACR11 and GS2 interacted both in vitro and in vivo. These data demonstrate that ACR11 is an activator of GS2, giving it a mechanistic role in the nitrogen assimilation of A. thaliana.

  10. Crystal structure of AcrB in complex with a single transmembrane subunit reveals another twist.

    PubMed

    Törnroth-Horsefield, Susanna; Gourdon, Pontus; Horsefield, Rob; Brive, Lars; Yamamoto, Natsuko; Mori, Hirotada; Snijder, Arjan; Neutze, Richard

    2007-12-01

    Bacterial drug resistance is a serious concern for human health. Multidrug efflux pumps export a broad variety of substrates out of the cell and thereby convey resistance to the host. In Escherichia coli, the AcrB:AcrA:TolC efflux complex forms a principal transporter for which structures of the individual component proteins have been determined in isolation. Here, we present the X-ray structure of AcrB in complex with a single transmembrane protein, assigned by mass spectrometry as YajC. A specific rotation of the periplasmic porter domain of AcrB is also revealed, consistent with the hypothesized "twist-to-open" mechanism for TolC activation. Growth experiments with yajc-deleted E. coli reveal a modest increase in the organism's susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics, but this effect could not conclusively be attributed to the loss of interactions between YajC and AcrB.

  11. ACR appropriateness criteria acute hip pain-suspected fracture.

    PubMed

    Ward, Robert J; Weissman, Barbara N; Kransdorf, Mark J; Adler, Ronald; Appel, Marc; Bancroft, Laura W; Bernard, Stephanie A; Bruno, Michael A; Fries, Ian Blair; Morrison, William B; Mosher, Timothy J; Roberts, Catherine C; Scharf, Stephen C; Tuite, Michael J; Zoga, Adam C

    2014-02-01

    Substantial cost, morbidity, and mortality are associated with acute proximal femoral fracture and may be reduced through an optimized diagnostic imaging workup. Radiography represents the primary diagnostic test of choice for the evaluation of acute hip pain. In middle aged and elderly patients with negative radiographs, the evidence indicates MRI to be the next diagnostic imaging study to exclude a proximal femoral fracture. CT, because of its relative decreased sensitivity, is only indicated in patients with MRI contraindications. Bone densitometry (DXA) should be obtained in patients with fragility fractures. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  12. [The prevalence of tuberculosis in the state of Acre].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Analdemyra da Costa; Sanchez, Myllianne da Silva; Moreira, Suzianny da Silva; Lopes, Creso Machado

    2004-01-01

    It is a descriptive study with the aim of studying the prevalence of tuberculosis in the State of Acre from 1995 to 2001. The data were collected from the forms of the Program for Tuberculosis Control of the Health and Sanitation Office. The data show that the incidence has been maintaining an average of 343.7 new cases a year. The pulmonary type was the most prevalent one, accounting for 90.0%. Among the age groups, the 20-49 age range, with 1347 (56.0%) and the 60 and over-60 age range, with 412 (17.0%), stand out. From 1998 to 2001 the male sex was the most attacked one by the disease, when the year 2000 accounted for 58.2% of the cases. The average of the cure rate was 71.0% and abandonment of treatment was 14.8% in 2001 and 32.3% in 1995. The smallest percentage of death occurred in 1995 (1.0%) and the largest one in 1997 (7.0%). Five cases were notified for the occurrence of coinfection between TB/AIDS and HIV/TB. The program's population coverage was within 90% every year. From the 22 cities, 6 (27.3%) still do not have any action for controlling the disease.

  13. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Assessment of Fetal Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Lynn; Khati, Nadia J; Deshmukh, Sandeep P; Dudiak, Kika M; Harisinghani, Mukesh G; Henrichsen, Tara L; Meyer, Benjamin J; Nyberg, David A; Poder, Liina; Shipp, Thomas D; Zelop, Carolyn M; Glanc, Phyllis

    2016-12-01

    Although there is limited evidence that antepartum testing decreases the risk for fetal death in low-risk pregnancies, women with high-risk factors for stillbirth should undergo antenatal fetal surveillance. The strongest evidence supporting antepartum testing pertains to pregnancies complicated by intrauterine fetal growth restriction secondary to uteroplacental insufficiency. The main ultrasound-based modalities to determine fetal health are the biophysical profile, modified biophysical profile, and duplex Doppler velocimetry. In patients at risk for cardiovascular compromise, fetal echocardiography may also be indicated to ensure fetal well-being. Although no single antenatal test has been shown to be superior, all have high negative predictive values. Weekly or twice-weekly fetal testing has become the standard practice in high-risk pregnancies. The timing for the initiation of assessments of fetal well-being should be tailored on the basis of the risk for stillbirth and the likelihood of survival with intervention. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

  14. [Microalbuminuria and urinary albumin excretion in clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Tagle, Rodrigo; González, Fernando; Acevedo, Mónica

    2012-06-01

    Microalbuminuria is a new tool in the management of patients with diabetes mellitus or hypertension. Microalbuminuria is an easily measured biomarker in a urine sample. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio in first morning urine sample correlates with 24 hours urinary albumin excretion, but it is easier to obtain, and can identify hypertensive or diabetic patients with high risk for cardiovascular events. Therapeutic interventions such as renin angiotensin system blockade have demonstrated their usefulness in reducing urinary albumin excretion in clinical studies. It would be advisable to incorporate urinary albumin to creatinine ratio to the routine clinical monitoring of patients with cardiovascular risk, such as those with hypertension and diabetes mellitus.

  15. Pseudoatomic Structure of the Tripartite Multidrug Efflux Pump AcrAB-TolC Reveals the Intermeshing Cogwheel-like Interaction between AcrA and TolC.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeongseop; Kim, Jin-Sik; Song, Saemee; Shigematsu, Hideki; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Hyun, Jaekyung; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2016-02-02

    The resistance-nodulation-division type tripartite pump AcrAB-TolC and its homologs are responsible for multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria by expelling a wide variety of toxic substrates. The three essential components, AcrA, AcrB, and TolC, must function in concert with each respective binding partner within the complex. In this study, we report an 8.2-Å resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) 3D reconstruction of the complex that consists of an AcrAB fusion protein and a chimeric TolC protein. The pseudoatomic structure derived from the cryo-EM reconstruction clearly demonstrates a model only compatible with the adaptor bridging mechanism, wherein the funnel-like AcrA hexamer forms an intermeshing cogwheel-like interaction with the α-barrel tip region of TolC. These observations provide a structural milestone for understanding multidrug resistance in pathogenic Gram-negative bacteria, and may also lead to the design of new antibacterial drugs.

  16. Acute to chronic ratios in aquatic toxicity--variation across trophic levels and relationship with chemical structure.

    PubMed

    Ahlers, Jan; Riedhammer, Caroline; Vogliano, Michaela; Ebert, Ralf-Uwe; Kühne, Ralph; Schüürmann, Gerrit

    2006-11-01

    For fish, daphnids, and algae, acute to chronic ratios (ACRs) have been determined from experimental data regarding new and existing chemicals. Only test results in accord with the European Union Technical Guidance Document (TGD) and validated by authorities were considered. Whereas the median ACRs of 10.5 (fish), 7.0 (daphnids), and 5.4 (algae) are well below the ACR safety factor of 100 as implied by the TGD, individual ACRs vary considerably and go up to 4400. The results suggest that a safety factor of 100 is not protective for all chemicals and trophic levels. Neither a correlation between ACR and baseline toxicity as modeled through the logarithmic octanol-water partition coefficient nor an ACR correlation across trophic levels exists. Narcosis is associated with a preference for a low ACR; nevertheless, low ACRs are frequently obtained for nonnarcotics. Analysis of chemical structures led to the derivation of structural alerts to identify compounds with a significantly increased potential for a high ACR, which may prove to be useful in setting test priorities. At present, however, life-cycle tests are the only way to conservatively predict long-term toxicity.

  17. ACR Appropriateness Criteria Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Patel, Nandini D; Broderick, Daniel F; Burns, Judah; Deshmukh, Tejaswini K; Fries, Ian Blair; Harvey, H Benjamin; Holly, Langston; Hunt, Christopher H; Jagadeesan, Bharathi D; Kennedy, Tabassum A; O'Toole, John E; Perlmutter, Joel S; Policeni, Bruno; Rosenow, Joshua M; Schroeder, Jason W; Whitehead, Matthew T; Cornelius, Rebecca S; Corey, Amanda S

    2016-09-01

    Most patients presenting with uncomplicated acute low back pain (LBP) and/or radiculopathy do not require imaging. Imaging is considered in those patients who have had up to 6 weeks of medical management and physical therapy that resulted in little or no improvement in their back pain. It is also considered for those patients presenting with red flags raising suspicion for serious underlying conditions, such as cauda equina syndrome, malignancy, fracture, and infection. Many imaging modalities are available to clinicians and radiologists for evaluating LBP. Application of these modalities depends largely on the working diagnosis, the urgency of the clinical problem, and comorbidities of the patient. When there is concern for fracture of the lumbar spine, multidetector CT is recommended. Those deemed to be interventional candidates, with LBP lasting for > 6 weeks having completed conservative management with persistent radiculopathic symptoms, may seek MRI. Patients with severe or progressive neurologic deficit on presentation and red flags should be evaluated with MRI. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.

  18. ACR Appropriateness Criteria pretreatment staging of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Dewhurst, Catherine; Rosen, Max P; Blake, Michael A; Baker, Mark E; Cash, Brooks D; Fidler, Jeff L; Greene, Frederick L; Hindman, Nicole M; Jones, Bronwyn; Katz, Douglas S; Lalani, Tasneem; Miller, Frank H; Small, William C; Sudakoff, Gary S; Tulchinsky, Mark; Yaghmai, Vahid; Yee, Judy

    2012-11-01

    Because virtually all patients with colonic cancer will undergo some form of surgical therapy, the role of preoperative imaging is directed at determining the presence or absence of synchronous carcinomas or adenomas and local or distant metastases. In contrast, preoperative staging for rectal carcinoma has significant therapeutic implications and will direct the use of radiation therapy, surgical excision, or chemotherapy. CT of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis is recommended for the initial evaluation for the preoperative assessment of patients with colorectal carcinoma. Although the overall accuracy of CT varies directly with the stage of colorectal carcinoma, CT can accurately assess the presence of metastatic disease. MRI using endorectal coils can accurately assess the depth of bowel wall penetration of rectal carcinomas. Phased-array coils provide additional information about lymph node involvement. Adding diffusion-weighted imaging to conventional MRI yields better diagnostic accuracy than conventional MRI alone. Transrectal ultrasound can distinguish layers within the rectal wall and provides accurate assessment of the depth of tumor penetration and perirectal spread, and PET and PET/CT have been shown to alter therapy in almost one-third of patients with advanced primary rectal cancer. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  19. Overexpression of the Multidrug Efflux Operon acrEF by Insertional Activation with IS1 or IS10 Elements in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT204 acrB Mutants Selected with Fluoroquinolones

    PubMed Central

    Olliver, Anne; Vallé, Michel; Chaslus-Dancla, Elisabeth; Cloeckaert, Axel

    2005-01-01

    High-level fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT204 has been previously shown to be essentially due to both multiple target gene mutations and active efflux by the AcrAB-TolC efflux system. In this study we show that in intermediatly resistant acrB-inactivated serovar Typhimurium DT204 mutants, high-level resistance to FQs can be restored on in vitro selection with FQs. In each FQ- resistant mutant selected from serovar Typhimurium DT204 acrB mutant strains, an insertion sequence (IS1 or IS10) was found integrated upstream of the acrEF operon, coding for AcrEF, an efflux pump highly homologous to AcrAB. In one of the strains, transposition of IS1 caused partial deletion of acrS, the putative local repressor gene of the acrEF operon. Sequence analysis showed that both IS1 and IS10 elements contain putative promoter sequences that might alter the expression of adjacent acrEF genes. Indeed, reverse transcription-PCR experiments showed an 8- to 10-fold increase in expression of acrF in these insertional mutants, relative to their respective parental strain, which correlated well with the resistance levels observed to FQs and other unrelated drugs. It is noteworthy that AcrEF did not contribute to the intrinsic drug resistance of serovar Typhimurium, since acrF deletion in wild-type strains did not result in any increase in drug susceptibility. Moreover, deletion of acrS did not cause any acrF overexpression or any decrease in drug susceptibility, suggesting that acrEF overexpression is mediated solely by the IS1 and IS10 promoter sequences and not by inactivity of AcrS. Southern blot experiments showed that the number of chromosomal IS1 and IS10 elements in the serovar Typhimurium DT204 genome was about 5 and 15 respectively. None were detected in epidemic serovar Typhimurium DT104 strains or in the serovar Typhimurium reference strain LT2. Carrying IS1 and/or IS10 elements in their chromosome may thus be a selective

  20. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 1): Salem Acres Site, Salem, MA, March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    This decision document represents the selected remedial action for the Salem Acres Site in Salem, Massachusetts. The remedial action for the Salem Acres Site, as described in this ROD, addresses the principal threats to the human health and the environment posed by exposure of humans to contaminated soils from the Salem Acres Site. This remedy addresses all principal threats to human health and the environment posed by the sources of contamination at the Site resulting from dermal absorption and incidental ingestion of contaminants in surficial soils.

  1. 77 FR 74697 - Meeting of the ACRS, Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-17

    ... COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS) Meeting of the ACRS, Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor; Notice of Meeting The ACRS Subcommittee on U.S. Evolutionary Power Reactor (U.S..., 2012. Antonio Dias, Technical Advisor, Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards. BILLING CODE 7590-01-P...

  2. ACR 2016 Open-Microphone Session: ACR Membership 3.0-Moving From Member Volume to Value.

    PubMed

    Stern, Eric; Metter, Darlene; Everett, Catherine; Flug, Jonathan; Friedberg, Eric; Kotsenas, Amy; Nathan, Jennifer; Herrington, William

    2017-04-02

    This report of the 2016 ACR Council Open Microphone session reviews the discussion around interests and concerns of council members and state chapter leaders as to the perceived and real value of their ACR membership, and how the ACR might further enhance membership value and meaningful engagement with members.

  3. Developing acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios for lead, cadmium, and zinc using rainbow trout, a mayfly, and a midge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mebane, C.A.; Hennessy, D.P.; Dillon, F.S.

    2008-01-01

    In order to estimate acute-to-chronic toxicity ratios (ACRs) relevant to a coldwater stream community, we exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in 96-h acute and 60+ day early-life stage (ELS) exposures. We also tested the acute and sublethal responses of a mayfly (Baetis tricaudatus) and a midge (Chironomus dilutus, formerly C. tentans) with Pb. We examine the statistical interpretation of test endpoints and the acute-to-chronic ratio concept. Increasing the number of control replicates by 2 to 3x decreased the minimum detectable differences by almost half. Pb ACR estimates mostly increased with increasing acute resistance of the organisms (rainbow trout ACRs ACR estimates by up to a factor of four. When calculated using the geometric means of the no- and lowest-observed effect concentrations, ACRs with rainbow trout and Cd were 0.6 and 0.95; Zn about 1.0; and for Pb 3.3 and 11. The comparable Pb ACRs for the mayfly and Chironomus were 5.2 and 51 respectively. Our rainbow trout ACRs with Pb were about 5-20x lower than earlier reports with salmonids. We suggest discounting previous ACR results that used larger and older fish in their acute tests. ?? 2007 GovernmentEmployee: U.S. Geological Survey.

  4. 43 CFR 2524.7 - Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries Within a Reclamation Project § 2524.7 Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres....

  5. 43 CFR 2524.7 - Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries Within a Reclamation Project § 2524.7 Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres....

  6. 43 CFR 2524.7 - Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries Within a Reclamation Project § 2524.7 Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres....

  7. 43 CFR 2524.7 - Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) DESERT-LAND ENTRIES Desert-Land Entries Within a Reclamation Project § 2524.7 Disposal of lands in excess of 160 acres....

  8. Dunbar Asphalt to Clean up 29-Acre Portion of Sharon Steel Superfund Site, Hermitage, Pa.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    PHILADELPHIA (Sept. 14, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency today announced a proposed settlement the government has reached with Dunbar Asphalt Products, Inc., to clean up a 29-acre portion of the Sharon Steel Corporation Superfund Site

  9. Association of Serum Adropin Concentrations with Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Adropin is a newly identified regulatory protein encoded by the Enho gene and is critically involved in energy homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. This study aims to determine the correlation of serum adropin concentrations with diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods. This study consisted of 245 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and 81 healthy subjects. Then T2DM patients were divided into normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria subgroups based on urine albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR). Results. T2DM patients showed significantly lower serum adropin concentrations than those in the controls. T2DM patients with macroalbuminuria had significantly decreased serum adropin concentrations compared with the other three groups. In addition, T2DM patients with microalbuminuria showed lower serum adropin concentrations than those in patients with normoalbuminuria. Logistic regression analysis showed that serum adropin was correlated with decreased risk of developing T2DM and DN. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that serum adropin was negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI), blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and ACR and positively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. Furthermore, multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI and ACR were negatively correlated with serum adropin levels. Conclusion. Serum adropin concentrations are negatively associated with renal function. Adropin may be implicated in the pathogenesis of DN development. PMID:27546995

  10. Using the ACR CT accreditation phantom for routine image quality assurance on both CT and CBCT imaging systems in a radiotherapy environment.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Maritza A; Soisson, Emilie T; Davis, Stephen D; Parker, William

    2014-07-08

    Image-guided radiation therapy using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is becoming routine practice in modern radiation therapy. The purpose of this work was to develop an imaging QA program for CT and CBCT units in our department, based on the American College of Radiology (ACR) CT accreditation phantom. The phantom has four testing modules, permitting one to test CT number accuracy, slice width, low contrast resolution, image uniformity, in-plane distance accuracy, and high-contrast resolution reproducibly with suggested window/levels for image analysis. Additional tests for contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and noise were added using the polyethylene and acrylic plugs. Baseline values were obtained from CT simulator images acquired on a Phillips Brilliance Big Bore CT simulator and CBCT images acquired on three Varian CBCTs for the imaging protocols most used clinically. Images were then acquired quarterly over a period of two years. Images were exported via DICOM and analyzed manually using OsiriX. Baseline values were used to ensure that image quality remained consistent quarterly, and baselines were reset at any major maintenance or recalibration. Analysis of CT simulator images showed that image quality was within ACR guidelines for all tested scanning protocols. All three CBCT systems were unable to distinguish the low-contrast resolution plugs and had the same high-contrast resolution over all imaging protocols. Analysis of CBCT results over time determined a range of values that could be used to establish quantitative tolerance levels for image quality deterioration. While appropriate for the helical CT, the ACR phantom and guidelines could be modified to be more useful in evaluating CBCT systems. In addition, the observed values for the CT simulator were well within ACR tolerances.

  11. Receptor-like kinase ACR4 restricts formative cell divisions in the Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    De Smet, Ive; Vassileva, Valya; De Rybel, Bert; Levesque, Mitchell P; Grunewald, Wim; Van Damme, Daniël; Van Noorden, Giel; Naudts, Mirande; Van Isterdael, Gert; De Clercq, Rebecca; Wang, Jean Y; Meuli, Nicholas; Vanneste, Steffen; Friml, Jirí; Hilson, Pierre; Jürgens, Gerd; Ingram, Gwyneth C; Inzé, Dirk; Benfey, Philip N; Beeckman, Tom

    2008-10-24

    During the development of multicellular organisms, organogenesis and pattern formation depend on formative divisions to specify and maintain pools of stem cells. In higher plants, these activities are essential to shape the final root architecture because the functioning of root apical meristems and the de novo formation of lateral roots entirely rely on it. We used transcript profiling on sorted pericycle cells undergoing lateral root initiation to identify the receptor-like kinase ACR4 of Arabidopsis as a key factor both in promoting formative cell divisions in the pericycle and in constraining the number of these divisions once organogenesis has been started. In the root tip meristem, ACR4 shows a similar action by controlling cell proliferation activity in the columella cell lineage. Thus, ACR4 function reveals a common mechanism of formative cell division control in the main root tip meristem and during lateral root initiation.

  12. 10 CFR 52.87 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.87 Section 52.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.87 Referral to the Advisory Committee...

  13. 10 CFR 52.165 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.165 Section 52.165 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.165 Referral to the...

  14. 10 CFR 52.165 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.165 Section 52.165 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.165 Referral to the...

  15. 10 CFR 52.23 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.23 Section 52.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.23 Referral to the Advisory...

  16. 10 CFR 52.87 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.87 Section 52.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.87 Referral to the Advisory Committee...

  17. 10 CFR 52.165 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.165 Section 52.165 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.165 Referral to the...

  18. 10 CFR 52.87 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.87 Section 52.87 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.87 Referral to the Advisory Committee...

  19. 10 CFR 52.23 - Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Referral to the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS). 52.23 Section 52.23 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.23 Referral to the Advisory...

  20. Biofilm formation ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium acrAB mutants.

    PubMed

    Schlisselberg, Dov B; Kler, Edna; Kisluk, Guy; Shachar, Dina; Yaron, Sima

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies offer contradictory findings about the role of multidrug efflux pumps in bacterial biofilm development. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of the AcrAB efflux pump in biofilm formation by investigating the ability of AcrB and AcrAB null mutants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to produce biofilms. Three models were used to compare the ability of S. Typhimurium wild-type and its mutants to form biofilms: formation of biofilm on polystyrene surfaces; production of biofilm (mat model) on the air/liquid interface; and expression of curli and cellulose on Congo red-supplemented agar plates. All three investigated genotypes formed biofilms with similar characteristics. However, upon exposure to chloramphenicol, formation of biofilms on solid surfaces as well as the production of curli were either reduced or were delayed more significantly in both mutants, whilst there was no visible effect on pellicle formation. It can be concluded that when no selective pressure is applied, S. Typhimurium is able to produce biofilms even when the AcrAB efflux pumps are inactivated, implying that the use of efflux pump inhibitors to prevent biofilm formation is not a general solution and that combined treatments might be more efficient. Other factors that affect the ability to produce biofilms depending on efflux pump activity are yet to be identified.

  1. 42 CFR 417.594 - Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Computation of adjusted community rate (ACR). 417.594 Section 417.594 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS,...

  2. Transport of lipophilic carboxylates is mediated by transmembrane helix 2 in multidrug transporter AcrB

    PubMed Central

    Oswald, Christine; Tam, Heng-Keat; Pos, Klaas M.

    2016-01-01

    The deployment of multidrug efflux pumps is a powerful defence mechanism for Gram-negative bacterial cells when exposed to antimicrobial agents. The major multidrug efflux transport system in Escherichia coli, AcrAB–TolC, is a tripartite system using the proton-motive force as an energy source. The polyspecific substrate-binding module AcrB uses various pathways to sequester drugs from the periplasm and outer leaflet of the inner membrane. Here we report the asymmetric AcrB structure in complex with fusidic acid at a resolution of 2.5 Å and mutational analysis of the putative fusidic acid binding site at the transmembrane domain. A groove shaped by the interface between transmembrane helix 1 (TM1) and TM2 specifically binds fusidic acid and other lipophilic carboxylated drugs. We propose that these bound drugs are actively displaced by an upward movement of TM2 towards the AcrB periplasmic porter domain in response to protonation events in the transmembrane domain. PMID:27982032

  3. Escherichia coli mar and acrAB mutants display no tolerance to simple alcohols.

    PubMed

    Ankarloo, Jonas; Wikman, Susanne; Nicholls, Ian A

    2010-03-31

    The inducible Mar phenotype of Escherichia coli is associated with increased tolerance to multiple hydrophobic antibiotics as well as some highly hydrophobic organic solvents such as cyclohexane, mediated mainly through the AcrAB/TolC efflux system. The influence of water miscible alcohols ethanol and 1-propanol on a Mar constitutive mutant and a mar deletion mutant of E. coli K-12, as well as the corresponding strains carrying the additional acrAB deletion, was investigated. In contrast to hydrophobic solvents, all strains were killed in exponential phase by 1-propanol and ethanol at rates comparable to the parent strain. Thus, the Mar phenotype does not protect E. coli from killing by these more polar solvents. Surprisingly, AcrAB does not contribute to an increased alcohol tolerance. In addition, sodium salicylate, at concentrations known to induce the mar operon, was unable to increase 1-propanol or ethanol tolerance. Rather, the toxicity of both solvents was increased in the presence of sodium salicylate. Collectively, the results imply that the resilience of E. coli to water miscible alcohols, in contrast to more hydrophobic solvents, does not depend upon the AcrAB/TolC efflux system, and suggests a lower limit for substrate molecular size and functionality. Implications for the application of microbiological systems in environments containing high contents of water miscible organic solvents, e.g., phage display screening, are discussed.

  4. Implementation of the ACR dose index registry at a large academic institution: early experience.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Tracy J; Robinson, Jeffrey D; Kanal, Kalpana M

    2013-04-01

    A rising conciousness within both the medical community and in the public has been created by the current levels of radiation exposure from increased use of computed tomography. The concern has prompted the need for more data collection and analysis of hospital and imaging center exam doses. This has spurred the American College of Radiology (ACR) to develop the Dose Index Registry (DIR), which will allow participating insitutions to compare the radiation dose from their CT exams to aggregate national CT dose data based on exam type and body part. We outline the steps involved in the process of enrolling in the DIR, the technical requirements, the challenges we encountered, and our solutions to those challenges. A sample of the quaterly report released by the ACR is presented and discussed. Enrolling in the ACR dose registry is a team effort with participation from IT, a site physicist, and a site radiologist. Participation in this registry is a great starting point to initiate a QA process for monitoring CT dose if none has been established at an institution. The ACR has developed an excellent platform for gathering, analyzing, and reporting CT dose data. Even so, each insititutions will have its own unique issues in joining the project.

  5. Mouse Models of Diabetes, Obesity and Related Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Glastras, Sarah J.; Chen, Hui; Teh, Rachel; McGrath, Rachel T.; Chen, Jason; Pollock, Carol A.; Wong, Muh Geot; Saad, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Multiple rodent models have been used to study diabetic kidney disease (DKD). The purpose of the present study was to compare models of diabetes and obesity-induced metabolic syndrome and determine differences in renal outcomes. C57BL/6 male mice were fed either normal chow or high fat diet (HFD). At postnatal week 8, chow-fed mice were randomly assigned to low-dose streptozotocin (STZ, 55 mg/kg/day, five consecutive days) or vehicle control, whereas HFD-fed mice were given either one high-dose of STZ (100 mg/kg) or vehicle control. Intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests were performed at Week 14, 20 and 30. Urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) and serum creatinine were measured, and renal structure was assessed using Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining at Week 32. Results showed that chow-fed mice exposed to five doses of STZ resembled type 1 diabetes mellitus with a lean phenotype, hyperglycaemia, microalbuminuria and increased serum creatinine levels. Their kidneys demonstrated moderate tubular injury with evidence of tubular dilatation and glycogenated nuclear inclusion bodies. HFD-fed mice resembled metabolic syndrome as they were obese with dyslipidaemia, insulin resistance, and significantly impaired glucose tolerance. One dose STZ, in addition to HFD, did not worsen metabolic features (including fasting glucose, non esterified fatty acid, and triglyceride levels). There were significant increases in urinary ACR and serum creatinine levels, and renal structural changes were predominantly related to interstitial vacuolation and tubular dilatation in HFD-fed mice. PMID:27579698

  6. Ficolin B in Diabetic Kidney Disease in a Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Charlotte Berg; Østergaard, Jakob Appel; Axelgaard, Esben; Nielsen, Gitte Krogh; Endo, Yuichi; Thiel, Steffen; Hansen, Troels Krarup

    2015-01-01

    Background. The innate immune system may have adverse effects in diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The complement system seems to play a key role through erroneous complement activation via hyperglycaemia-induced neoepitopes. Recently mannan-binding lectin (MBL) was shown to worsen diabetic kidney changes. We hypothesize that mouse ficolin B exerts detrimental effects in the diabetic kidney as seen for MBL. Methods. We induced diabetes with streptozotocin in female wild-type mice and ficolin B knockout mice and included two similar nondiabetic groups. Renal hypertrophy and excretion of urinary albumin and creatinine were quantified to assess diabetic kidney damage. Results. In the wild-type groups, the kidney weighed 24% more in the diabetic mice compared to the controls. The diabetes-induced increase in kidney weight was 29% in the ficolin B knockout mice, that is, equal to wild-type animals (two-way ANOVA, P = 0.60). In the wild-type mice the albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) was 32.5 mg/g higher in the diabetic mice compared to the controls. The difference was 62.5 mg/g in the ficolin B knockout mice, but this was not significantly different from the wild-type animals (two-way ANOVA, P = 0.21). Conclusions. In conclusion, the diabetes-induced effects on kidney weight and ACR were not modified by the presence or absence of ficolin B. PMID:26339138

  7. Body Mass Index (BMI) Is Associated with Microalbuminuria in Chinese Hypertensive Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Yu; Chen, Youming; Li, Yongqiang; Shao, Xiaofei; Liang, Yan; Li, Bin; Holthöfer, Harry; Zhang, Guanjing; Zou, Hequn

    2015-01-01

    There is no general consensus on possible factors associated with microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients nor any reported study about this issue in Chinese patients. To examine this issues, 944 hypertensive patients were enrolled in a study based on a cross-sectional survey conducted in Southern China. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify the factors related with the presence of microalbuminuria and urinary excretion of albumin. The prevalence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive and non-diabetic hypertensive patients were 17.16% and 15.25%, respectively. Body mass index (BMI), but not waist circumference (WC), were independently associated with microalbuminuria and the values of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) based on multiple regression analyses, even after excluding diabetic patients and patients taking inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system from the analyses. Furthermore, patients with obesity (BMI ≥28) had higher levels of ACR, compared with those with normal weight (BMI <24 kg/m2) and overweight (24 kg/m2≤ BMI < 28). In conclusion, BMI, as a modifiable factor, is closely associated with microalbuminuria among Chinese hypertensive patients, which may provide a basis for future development of intervention approaches for these patients. PMID:25674785

  8. Forest Fires in Southwestern Amazonia During 2005: Extent and Distribution in Eastern Acre State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, I.; Moulard, E. M.; Nakamura, J.; Schroeder, W.; Maldonado, M.; Vasconcelos, S. S.; Selhorst, D.

    2007-05-01

    The extended drought in western Amazonia during 2005 provided the conditions for wild fires that spread in old- growth rain forests and cleared areas of the contiguous areas of Madre de Dios, Peru, Acre, Brazil, and Pando, Bolivia, collectively known as the MAP Region. The greatest extent of the wild fires occurred in eastern Acre State with 60,000 km2 of diverse land uses that range from intensely occupied colonization areas, large cattle ranches, extractive and biological reserves and indigenous areas. At the request of the Public Ministry of Acre and other government agencies we analyzed Landsat 5 and CBERS 2 imagery for forests with canopies affected by fires, using visual interpretation and manual digitalization of polygons. Accuracy assessment was done with 180 aerial photos. The total area of forest with canopies affected by fires was 267,000 ha, roughly five times recent annual deforestation rates for Acre State. Omission and commission errors were 28% and 2%, respectively. Burn scars in non-forest areas were determined using ASTER and CBERS 2 imagery via supervised classification. Total open area with burn scars was 203,000 ha. The total of open area and forests affected by fires exceeded 470,000 ha due to three factors: (1) some images used did not include the last weeks of burning; (2) ground fires in forests that did not affect the canopy and therefore were not detected; and (3) concern of the interpreters to avoid commission errors. Of the twelve municipalities of eastern Acre, most affected were Acrelandia, Placido de Castro, Epitaciolandia with >31%, >19% and >17% of the municipality affected, respectively). The largest impact, >114,000 ha, occurred in the Rio Branco Municipality. Similar patterns of burning occurred in Pando and in Madre de Dios. The environmental, social and economic disaster that these fires produced may be a harbinger of future impacts in southwestern Amazonia if current climate predictions prove to be correct.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Astrographic Catalog Reference Stars (ACRS) (Corbin+ 1991)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbin, T. E.; Urban, S. E.; Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1995-11-01

    The ACRS is an all-sky catalog of positions and proper motions that is based on the AGK3 in the north and on the newly completed second Cape Photographic Catalogue (CPC2, de Vegt et al. 1989) in the south. The astrometric data are on the system of the International Reference Stars (IRS, catalog ), compiled on B1950.0 FK4 and then transformed to J2000.0 FK5. The ACRS contains 320,111 stars, the mean positions for which were derived from a total of 1,643,783 individual input positions. The catalog is divided into two parts. Part 1 contains stars having better observational histories and, therefore, more reliable positions and proper motions, while the stars in Part 2 have poor histories and consist mostly of objects for which only two catalog positions in one or both coordinates were available for computing proper motions. For Part 1, which consists of 78 percent of the catalog, the mean errors of the proper motions in right ascension and declination are 0.47 and 0.46 seconds of arc/century (4.7 and 4.6 mas/yr), respectively. It is intended that, as more observations are accumulated for stars in Part 2, they will be migrated to Part 1. The catalog was compiled at the U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C., for purposes of performing new reductions of the Astrographic Catalogue plates. Additional details about the construction of the ACRS may be found in Corbin and Urban (1989). The data included are catalog part, ACRS number, equatorial coordinates (equinox, equator, epoch B1950.0 and J2000.0), proper motions (B1950.0 and J2000.0), original epochs, weights for right ascension and declination, and reference data such as DM numbers (BD, CD, CPD), AGK3 and CPC2 designations, and an IAU recommended ACRS identifier (based on coordinates). (2 data files).

  10. Comparison of Irrigation Water Use Estimates Calculated from Remotely Sensed Irrigated Acres and State Reported Irrigated Acres in the Lake Altus Drainage Basin, Oklahoma and Texas, 2000 Growing Season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Masoner, J.R.; Mladinich, C.S.; Konduris, A.M.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2003-01-01

    Increased demand for water in the Lake Altus drainage basin requires more accurate estimates of water use for irrigation. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, is investigating new techniques to improve water-use estimates for irrigation purposes in the Lake Altus drainage basin. Empirical estimates of reference evapotranspiration, crop evapotranspiration, and crop irrigation water requirements for nine major crops were calculated from September 1999 to October 2000 using a solar radiation-based evapotranspiration model. Estimates of irrigation water use were calculated using remotely sensed irrigated crop acres derived from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery and were compared with irrigation water-use estimates calculated from irrigated crop acres reported by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and the Texas Water Development Board for the 2000 growing season. The techniques presented will help manage water resources in the Lake Altus drainage basin and may be transferable to other areas with similar water management needs. Irrigation water use calculated from the remotely sensed irrigated acres was estimated at 154,920 acre-feet; whereas, irrigation water use calculated from state reported irrigated crop acres was 196,026 acre-feet, a 23 percent difference. The greatest difference in irrigation water use was in Carson County, Texas. Irrigation water use for Carson County, Texas, calculated from the remotely sensed irrigated acres was 58,555 acrefeet; whereas, irrigation water use calculated from state reported irrigated acres was 138,180 acre-feet, an 81 percent difference. The second greatest difference in irrigation water use occurred in Beckham County, Oklahoma. Differences between the two irrigation water use estimates are due to the differences of irrigated crop acres derived from the mapping process and those reported by the Oklahoma Water Resources Board and Texas Water Development Board.

  11. 76 FR 13437 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Reliability and PRA...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-11

    ...; Revision to March 24, 2010, ACRS Meeting Federal Register Notice The Federal Register Notice for the ACRS Subcommittee Meeting on Reliability and Probabilistic Risk Assessment scheduled to be held on March 24, 2011... Wednesday, March 2, 2011, . Further information regarding this meeting can be obtained by contacting...

  12. ZipperCream-CG and WhiteAcre-DG: Two Newly-released, Cream-type Southernpea Cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to incorporate genes conditioning a persistent green seed phenotype into Zipper Cream and White Acre type backgrounds were completed with the official release of the new southernpea cultivars ZipperCream-CG and WhiteAcre-DG on 29 January 2008. ZipperCream-CG is a high yielding, large-seeded...

  13. Impact of generational differences on the future of radiology: proceedings of the 11th annual ACR Forum.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, Arun; Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Ellenbogen, Paul H; Patti, John A; Hillman, Bruce J

    2012-02-01

    The 2011 ACR Forum focused on the impact of generational differences on the future of radiology, seeking to inform ACR leadership and members on how best to address the influence of the new integrated workforce on the specialty of radiology and on individual practices.

  14. Classification of Kidney Transplant Recipients Using a Combination of Estimated GFR and Albuminuria Reflects Risk

    PubMed Central

    White, Christine A.; Akbari, Ayub; Talreja, Hari; Lalani, Neha; Knoll, Greg A.

    2016-01-01

    Background The 2012 Kidney Dialysis Initiative Global Outcomes chronic kidney disease (CKD) classification scheme subdivides stage 3 CKD and incorporates the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the novel scheme provides graded risk in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Methods Prevalent KTRs with available laboratory data were included. The primary outcome was a composite of doubling of serum creatinine, graft failure, or death. Patients were stratified using the CKD-Epidemiolgic Collaboration equation, and ACR and the event rate per 1000 patient-years in each CKD category were calculated. Results There were 269 KTRs with a mean follow-up of 4.5 ± 2.0 years. There was a graded increase in outcomes with increasing ACR and decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). For the primary outcome, the event rate was 15.3 (95% confidence interval, 4.2-39.2) per 1000 patient-years for those with an eGFR greater than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and an ACR less than 30 mg/g, whereas it was 375 (95% confidence interval, 193.8-655.1) for those with an eGFR less than 30 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and an ACR greater than 300 mg/g. Conclusions The novel Kidney Dialysis Initiative Global Outcomes classification scheme provides graded risk for important clinical events in KTRs. This information can be used to identify high-risk patients and to tailor follow-up and management strategies aimed at improving outcomes. PMID:27819037

  15. Reviving Antibiotics: Efflux Pump Inhibitors That Interact with AcrA, a Membrane Fusion Protein of the AcrAB-TolC Multidrug Efflux Pump

    SciTech Connect

    Abdali, Narges; Parks, Jerry M.; Haynes, Keith M.; Chaney, Julie L.; Green, Adam T.; Wolloscheck, David; Walker, John K.; Rybenkov, Valentin V.; Baudry, Jerome; Smith, Jeremy C.; Zgurskaya, Helen I.

    2016-10-21

    Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to human welfare. Inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps (EPIs) are promising alternative therapeutics that could revive activities of antibiotics and reduce bacterial virulence. Identification of new druggable sites for inhibition is critical for developing effective EPIs, especially in light of constantly emerging resistance. We describe new EPIs that interact with and possibly inhibit the function of periplasmic membrane fusion proteins, critical components of efflux pumps that are responsible for the activation of the transporter and the recruitment of the outer-membrane channel. The discovered EPIs bind to AcrA, a component of the prototypical AcrAB-TolC pump, change its structure in vivo, inhibit efflux of fluorescent probes and potentiate the activities of antibiotics in Escherichia coli cells. These findings expand the chemical and mechanistic diversity of EPIs, suggest the mechanism for regulation of the efflux pump assembly and activity, and provide a promising path for reviving the activities of antibiotics in resistant bacteria.

  16. Reviving Antibiotics: Efflux Pump Inhibitors That Interact with AcrA, a Membrane Fusion Protein of the AcrAB-TolC Multidrug Efflux Pump

    DOE PAGES

    Abdali, Narges; Parks, Jerry M.; Haynes, Keith M.; ...

    2016-10-21

    Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to human welfare. Inhibitors of multidrug efflux pumps (EPIs) are promising alternative therapeutics that could revive activities of antibiotics and reduce bacterial virulence. Identification of new druggable sites for inhibition is critical for developing effective EPIs, especially in light of constantly emerging resistance. We describe new EPIs that interact with and possibly inhibit the function of periplasmic membrane fusion proteins, critical components of efflux pumps that are responsible for the activation of the transporter and the recruitment of the outer-membrane channel. The discovered EPIs bind to AcrA, a component of the prototypical AcrAB-TolC pump,more » change its structure in vivo, inhibit efflux of fluorescent probes and potentiate the activities of antibiotics in Escherichia coli cells. These findings expand the chemical and mechanistic diversity of EPIs, suggest the mechanism for regulation of the efflux pump assembly and activity, and provide a promising path for reviving the activities of antibiotics in resistant bacteria.« less

  17. Expression of the AcrAB Components of the AcrAB-TolC Multidrug Efflux Pump of Yersinia enterocolitica Is Subject to Dual Regulation by OmpR.

    PubMed

    Raczkowska, Adrianna; Trzos, Joanna; Lewandowska, Olga; Nieckarz, Marta; Brzostek, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    OmpR is a transcriptional regulator implicated in the control of various cellular processes and functions in Enterobacteriaceae. This study was undertaken to identify genes comprising the OmpR regulon in the human gastrointestinal pathogen Yersinia enterocolitica. Derivatives of an ompR-negative strain with random transposon insertions creating transcriptional fusions with the reporter gene lacZ were isolated. These were supplied with the wild-type ompR allele in trans and then screened for OmpR-dependent changes in β-galactosidase activity. Using this strategy, five insertions in genes/operons positively regulated by OmpR and two insertions in genes negatively regulated by this protein were identified. Genetic analysis of one of these fusion strains revealed that the gene acrR, encoding transcriptional repressor AcrR is negatively regulated by OmpR. Differential analysis of membrane proteins by SDS-PAGE followed by mass spectrometry identified the protein AcrB, a component of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump, as being positively regulated by OmpR. Analysis of the activity of the acrR and acrAB promoters using gfp fusions confirmed their OmpR-dependent repression and activation, respectively. The identification of putative OmpR-binding sites and electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed that this regulator binds specifically to both promoter regions with different affinity. Examination of the activity of the acrR and acrAB promoters after the exposure of cells to different chemicals showed that bile salts can act as an OmpR-independent inducer. Taken together, our findings suggest that OmpR positively controls the expression of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump involved in the adaptive response of Y. enterocolitica O:9 to different chemical stressors, thus conferring an advantage in particular ecological niches.

  18. Impaired Renal Function Further Increases Odds of 6-Year Coronary Artery Calcification Progression in Adults With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Maahs, David M.; Jalal, Diana; Chonchol, Michel; Johnson, Richard J.; Rewers, Marian; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) independently predict coronary artery calcification (CAC) progression, and to determine how eGFR changes over 6 years in adults with type 1 diabetes compared with nondiabetic adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The Coronary Artery Calcification in Type 1 Diabetes study participants (n = 1,066) with complete data for eGFR assessment at baseline and 6 years were included. Three Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations (serum creatinine, cystatin C, and both) were used to estimate eGFR. The association of baseline ACR and eGFR with CAC progression was analyzed using multiple logistic regression. RESULTS Increasing categorical baseline ACR (<10, 10–30, and >30 µg/mg) predicted CAC progression in participants with type 1 diabetes (odds ratio [OR], 2.15; 95% CI, 1.50–3.09; 7.19 [3.90–13.26]; and 18.09 [8.48–38.62]), respectively, compared with nondiabetic subjects. Baseline eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 also predicted CAC progression (OR, 5–7, compared with nondiabetic participants). ORs for CAC progression were higher in women than in men when using the cystatin C–based Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equations. Participants with type 1 diabetes had greater eGFR decreases over 6 years than nondiabetic participants using cystatin C–based equations. CONCLUSIONS Although increasing ACR or decreasing eGFR predicts CAC progression, coronary atherosclerosis progresses faster in people with type 1 diabetes even in the absence of diabetic kidney disease. These findings emphasize the interaction between kidney disease and cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes and highlight the public health importance of lowering cardiorenal risk in people with type 1 diabetes. PMID:23835686

  19. The Challenges from Extreme Climate Events for Sustainable Development in Amazonia: the Acre State Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. D. N. M.

    2015-12-01

    In the past ten years Acre State, located in Brazil´s southwestern Amazonia, has confronted sequential and severe extreme events in the form of droughts and floods. In particular, the droughts and forest fires of 2005 and 2010, the 2012 flood within Acre, the 2014 flood of the Madeira River which isolated Acre for two months from southern Brazil, and the most severe flooding throughout the state in 2015 shook the resilience of Acrean society. The accumulated costs of these events since 2005 have exceeded 300 million dollars. For the last 17 years, successive state administrations have been implementing a socio-environmental model of development that strives to link sustainable economic production with environmental conservation, particularly for small communities. In this context, extreme climate events have interfered significantly with this model, increasing the risks of failure. The impacts caused by these events on development in the state have been exacerbated by: a) limitations in monitoring; b) extreme events outside of Acre territory (Madeira River Flood) affecting transportation systems; c) absence of reliable information for decision-making; and d) bureaucratic and judicial impediments. Our experience in these events have led to the following needs for scientific input to reduce the risk of disasters: 1) better monitoring and forecasting of deforestation, fires, and hydro-meteorological variables; 2) ways to increase risk perception in communities; 3) approaches to involve more effectively local and regional populations in the response to disasters; 4) more accurate measurements of the economic and social damages caused by these disasters. We must improve adaptation to and mitigation of current and future extreme climate events and implement a robust civil defense, adequate to these new challenges.

  20. Improving olefin tolerance and production in E. coli using native and evolved AcrB.

    PubMed

    Mingardon, Florence; Clement, Camille; Hirano, Kathleen; Nhan, Melissa; Luning, Eric G; Chanal, Angelique; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2015-05-01

    Microorganisms can be engineered for the production of chemicals utilized in the polymer industry. However many such target compounds inhibit microbial growth and might correspondingly limit production levels. Here, we focus on compounds that are precursors to bioplastics, specifically styrene and representative alpha-olefins; 1-hexene, 1-octene, and 1-nonene. We evaluated the role of the Escherichia coli efflux pump, AcrAB-TolC, in enhancing tolerance towards these olefin compounds. AcrAB-TolC is involved in the tolerance towards all four compounds in E. coli. Both styrene and 1-hexene are highly toxic to E. coli. Styrene is a model plastics precursor with an established route for production in E. coli (McKenna and Nielsen, 2011). Though our data indicates that AcrAB-TolC is important for its optimal production, we observed a strong negative selection against the production of styrene in E. coli. Thus we used 1-hexene as a model compound to implement a directed evolution strategy to further improve the tolerance phenotype towards this alpha-olefin. We focused on optimization of AcrB, the inner membrane domain known to be responsible for substrate binding, and found several mutations (A279T, Q584R, F617L, L822P, F927S, and F1033Y) that resulted in improved tolerance. Several of these mutations could also be combined in a synergistic manner. Our study shows efflux pumps to be an important mechanism in host engineering for olefins, and one that can be further improved using strategies such as directed evolution, to increase tolerance and potentially production.

  1. Improving olefin tolerance and production in E. coli using native and evolved AcrB

    DOE PAGES

    Mingardon, Florence; Clement, Camille; Hirano, Kathleen; ...

    2015-01-20

    Microorganisms can be engineered for the production of chemicals utilized in the polymer industry. However many such target compounds inhibit microbial growth and might correspondingly limit production levels. Here, we focus on compounds that are precursors to bioplastics, specifically styrene and representative alpha-olefins; 1-hexene, 1-octene, and 1-nonene. We evaluated the role of the Escherichia coli efflux pump, AcrAB-TolC, in enhancing tolerance towards these olefin compounds. AcrAB-TolC is involved in the tolerance towards all four compounds in E. coli. Both styrene and 1-hexene are highly toxic to E. coli. Styrene is a model plastics precursor with an established route for productionmore » in E. coli (McKenna and Nielsen, 2011). Though our data indicates that AcrAB-TolC is important for its optimal production, we observed a strong negative selection against the production of styrene in E. coli. Thus we used 1-hexene as a model compound to implement a directed evolution strategy to further improve the tolerance phenotype towards this alpha-olefin. We focused on optimization of AcrB, the inner membrane domain known to be responsible for substrate binding, and found several mutations (A279T, Q584R, F617L, L822P, F927S, and F1033Y) that resulted in improved tolerance. Several of these mutations could also be combined in a synergistic manner. Our study shows efflux pumps to be an important mechanism in host engineering for olefins, and one that can be further improved using strategies such as directed evolution, to increase tolerance and potentially production.« less

  2. Using the ACR/NEMA standard with TCP/IP and Ethernet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chimiak, William J.; Williams, Rodney C.

    1991-07-01

    There is a need for a consolidated picture archival and communications system (PACS) in hospitals. At the Bowman Gray School of Medicine of Wake Forest University (BGSM), the authors are enhancing the ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol using UNIX sockets and TCP/IP to greatly improve connectivity. Initially, nuclear medicine studies using gamma cameras are to be sent to PACS. The ACR/NEMA Version 2 protocol provides the functionality of the upper three layers of the open system interconnection (OSI) model in this implementation. The images, imaging equipment information, and patient information are then sent in ACR/NEMA format to a software socket. From there it is handed to the TCP/IP protocol, which provides the transport and network service. TCP/IP, in turn, uses the services of IEEE 802.3 (Ethernet) to complete the connectivity. The advantage of this implementation is threefold: (1) Only one I/O port is consumed by numerous nuclear medicine cameras, instead of a physical port for each camera. (2) Standard protocols are used which maximize interoperability with ACR/NEMA compliant PACSs. (3) The use of sockets allows a migration path to the transport and networking services of OSIs TP4 and connectionless network service as well as the high-performance protocol being considered by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) and the International Standards Organization (ISO) -- the Xpress Transfer Protocol (XTP). The use of sockets also gives access to ANSI's Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) as well as other high-speed network standards.

  3. Regulation of the AcrAB multidrug efflux pump in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in response to indole and paraquat.

    PubMed

    Nikaido, Eiji; Shirosaka, Ikue; Yamaguchi, Akihito; Nishino, Kunihiko

    2011-03-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has at least nine multidrug efflux pumps. Among these, AcrAB is constitutively expressed and is the most efficient, playing a role in both drug resistance and virulence. The acrAB locus is induced by indole, Escherichia coli-conditioned medium, and bile salts. This induction is dependent on RamA through the binding sequence in the upstream region of acrA that binds RamA. In the present study, we made a detailed investigation of the ramA and acrAB induction mechanisms in Salmonella in response to indole, a biological oxidant for bacteria. We found that acrAB and ramA induction in response to indole is dependent on RamR. However, the cysteine residues of RamR do not play a role in the induction of ramA in response to indole, and the oxidative effect of indole is therefore not related to ramA induction via RamR. Furthermore, we showed that paraquat, a superoxide generator, induces acrAB but not ramA. We further discovered that the mechanism of acrAB induction in response to paraquat is dependent on SoxS. The data indicate that there are at least two independent induction pathways for acrAB in response to extracellular signals such as indole and paraquat. We propose that Salmonella utilizes these regulators for acrAB induction in response to extracellular signals in order to adapt itself to environmental conditions.

  4. Multidrug binding properties of the AcrB efflux pump characterized by molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    Vargiu, Attilio V.; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, to which multidrug efflux pumps such as the AcrB transporter makes a major contribution, is becoming a major public health problem. Unfortunately only a few compounds have been cocrystallized with AcrB, and thus computational approaches are essential in elucidating the interaction between diverse ligands and the pump protein. We used molecular dynamics simulation to examine the binding of nine substrates, two inhibitors, and two nonsubstrates to the distal binding pocket of AcrB, identified earlier by X-ray crystallography. This approach gave us more realistic views of the binding than the previously used docking approach, as the explicit water molecules contributed to the process and the flexible binding site was often seen to undergo large structural changes. We analyzed the interaction in detail in terms of the binding energy, hydrophobic surface-matching, and the residues involved in the process. We found that all substrates tested bound to the pocket, whereas the binding to this site was not preferred for the nonsubstrates. Interestingly, both inhibitors [Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide and 1-(1-naphtylmethyl)-piperazine] tended to move out of the pocket at least partially, getting into contact with a glycine-rich loop that separates the distal pocket from the more proximal region of the protein and is thought to control the access of substrates to the distal pocket. PMID:23175790

  5. Discos de acresção em sistemas Be-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes de Oliveira, R.; Janot-Pacheco, E.

    2003-08-01

    Alguns fenômenos de outbursts em Be-X sugerem a existência, mesmo que temporária, de um disco de acresção quando da passagem do objeto compacto pelo periastro orbital. Neste trabalho avaliamos a possibilidade de formação do disco de acresção em sistemas Be+estrela de neutrons e Be+anã branca, e a influência da excentricidade orbital na ocorrência deste fenômeno. Utilizamos a expressão analítica para o momento angular específico da matéria constituinte de um meio em expansão lenta, como é o caso do disco circunstelar das estrelas Be, proposta por Wang(1981), sob a condição básica de que o raio de circularização deva ser maior do que o raio de Alfvén. Concluímos que existe um limite para o período orbital do sistema acima do qual não é possível a formação do disco de acresção, e que este valor aumenta para sistemas com excentricidade orbital maior.

  6. Statistical thermodynamics for functionally rotating mechanism of the multidrug efflux transporter AcrB.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Hirokazu; Oshima, Hiraku; Yasuda, Satoshi; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2015-02-26

    AcrB, a homotrimer, is the pivotal part of a multidrug efflux pump. A "functionally rotating" picture has been proposed for the drug transport by AcrB, but its mechanism remains unresolved. Here, we investigate the energetics of the whole functional rotation cycle using our theoretical methods. We find that the packing efficiency of AcrB is ununiform, and this ununiformity plays imperative roles primarily through the solvent-entropy effect. When a proton binds to or dissociates from a protomer, the packing properties of this protomer and its two interfaces are perturbed overall in the direction that the solvent translational entropy is lowered. The packing properties of the other two protomers are then reorganized with the recovery or maintenance of closely packed interfaces, so that the solvent-entropy loss can be compensated. The functional structural change by an isolated protomer would cause a seriously large free-energy increase. By forming a trimer, any free-energy increase caused by a protomer is always canceled out by the free-energy decrease brought by the other two protomers via the mechanism mentioned above. The functional structural rotation is thus accomplished using the free-energy decrease arising from the transfer of only a single proton per cycle. The similarities to F1-ATPase are also discussed.

  7. 75 FR 20398 - The ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures will hold a meeting on May 5, 2010, in Room T...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (ACRS); Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures The ACRS Subcommittee on Planning and Procedures will hold a meeting on May 5, 2010, in Room...

  8. SU-E-I-81: Assessment of CT Radiation Dose and Image Quality for An Automated Tube Potential Selection Algorithm Using Adult Anthropomorphic and ACR Phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y; Wang, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics (GE) automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of an adult anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, Auto mA (180 to 380 mA), noise index (NI) = 14, adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) of 20%, 0.8s rotation time. Image quality was evaluated by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: The CNR for the adult male was found to decrease from CNR = 0.912 ± 0.045 for the baseline protocol without kVa to a CNR = 0.756 ± 0.049 with kVa activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.903 ± 0.023. The difference in the central liver dose with and without kVa was found to be 0.07%. Conclusion: Dose reduction was insignificant in the adult phantom. As determined by NPS analysis, ASiR of 40% produced images with similar noise texture to the baseline protocol. However, the CNR at ASiR of 40% with kVa fails to meet the current ACR CNR passing requirement of 1.0.

  9. Bikeability and methodological issues using the active commuting route environment scale (ACRES) in a metropolitan setting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Route environments can positively influence people's active commuting and thereby contribute to public health. The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was developed to study active commuters' perceptions of their route environments. However, bicycle commuters represent a small portion of the population in many cities and thus are difficult to study using population-based material. Therefore, the aim of this study is to expand the state of knowledge concerning the criterion-related validity of the ACRES and the representativity using an advertisement-recruited sample. Furthermore, by comparing commuting route environment profiles of inner urban and suburban areas, we provide a novel basis for understanding the relationship between environment and bikeability. Methods Bicycle commuters from Greater Stockholm, Sweden, advertisement- (n = 1379) and street-recruited (n = 93), responded to the ACRES. Traffic planning and environmental experts from the Municipality of Stockholm (n = 24) responded to a modified version of the ACRES. The criterion-related validity assessments were based on whether or not differences between the inner urban and the suburban route environments, as indicated by the experts and by four existing objective measurements, were reflected by differences in perceptions of these environments. Comparisons of ratings between advertisement- and street-recruited participants were used for the assessments of representativity. Finally, ratings of inner urban and suburban route environments were used to evaluate commuting route environment profiles. Results Differences in ratings of the inner urban and suburban route environments by the advertisement-recruited participants were in accord with the existing objective measurements and corresponded reasonably well with those of the experts. Overall, there was a reasonably good correspondence between the advertisement- and street-recruited participants' ratings. Distinct differences in

  10. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits:Interim CQA Report

    SciTech Connect

    The Delphi Groupe, Inc., and J. A. Cesare and Associates, Inc.

    2011-06-20

    This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. This Interim Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report is for the 92-Acre Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division (WMD) Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada for the period of January 20, 2011 to May 12, 2011. Construction was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) under the Approval of Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, on January 6, 2011, pursuant to Subpart XII.8a of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The project is located in Area 5 of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), formerly known as the Nevada Test Site, located in southern Nevada, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, in Nye County. The project site, in Area 5, is located in a topographically closed basin approximately 14 additional miles north of Mercury Nevada, in the north-central part of Frenchman Flat. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location

  11. Radiology in 2022: challenges and opportunities in the coming decade-proceedings of the 12th Annual ACR Forum.

    PubMed

    Krishnaraj, Arun; Weinreb, Jeffrey C; Ellenbogen, Paul H; Patti, John A; Hillman, Bruce J

    2013-01-01

    The 2012 ACR Forum focused on the anticipated challenges and opportunities facing radiology in the next 10 years, centered on the themes of health care reform, future payment models, research and innovation, patient-centered radiology, and information management. The recommendations generated from the forum seek to inform ACR leadership on the best strategies to pursue to ensure the continued success of the profession in the coming decade.

  12. Molecular Mechanism of MBX2319 Inhibition of Escherichia coli AcrB Multidrug Efflux Pump and Comparison with Other Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Vargiu, Attilio V.; Ruggerone, Paolo; Opperman, Timothy J.; Nguyen, Son T.

    2014-01-01

    Efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation division (RND) superfamily, such as AcrB, make a major contribution to multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. The development of inhibitors of the RND pumps would improve the efficacy of current and next-generation antibiotics. To date, however, only one inhibitor has been cocrystallized with AcrB. Thus, in silico structure-based analysis is essential for elucidating the interaction between other inhibitors and the efflux pumps. In this work, we used computer docking and molecular dynamics simulations to study the interaction between AcrB and the compound MBX2319, a novel pyranopyridine efflux pump inhibitor with potent activity against RND efflux pumps of Enterobacteriaceae species, as well as other known inhibitors (D13-9001, 1-[1-naphthylmethyl]-piperazine, and phenylalanylarginine-β-naphthylamide) and the binding of doxorubicin to the efflux-defective F610A variant of AcrB. We also analyzed the binding of a substrate, minocycline, for comparison. Our results show that MBX2319 binds very tightly to the lower part of the distal pocket in the B protomer of AcrB, strongly interacting with the phenylalanines lining the hydrophobic trap, where the hydrophobic portion of D13-9001 was found to bind by X-ray crystallography. Additionally, MBX2319 binds to AcrB in a manner that is similar to the way in which doxorubicin binds to the F610A variant of AcrB. In contrast, 1-(1-naphthylmethyl)-piperazine and phenylalanylarginine-β-naphthylamide appear to bind to somewhat different areas of the distal pocket in the B protomer of AcrB than does MBX2319. However, all inhibitors (except D13-9001) appear to distort the structure of the distal pocket, impairing the proper binding of substrates. PMID:25114133

  13. PP2A-3 interacts with ACR4 and regulates formative cell division in the Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    Yue, Kun; Sandal, Priyanka; Williams, Elisabeth L; Murphy, Evan; Stes, Elisabeth; Nikonorova, Natalia; Ramakrishna, Priya; Czyzewicz, Nathan; Montero-Morales, Laura; Kumpf, Robert; Lin, Zhefeng; van de Cotte, Brigitte; Iqbal, Mudassar; Van Bel, Michiel; Van De Slijke, Eveline; Meyer, Matthew R; Gadeyne, Astrid; Zipfel, Cyril; De Jaeger, Geert; Van Montagu, Marc; Van Damme, Daniël; Gevaert, Kris; Rao, A Gururaj; Beeckman, Tom; De Smet, Ive

    2016-02-02

    In plants, the generation of new cell types and tissues depends on coordinated and oriented formative cell divisions. The plasma membrane-localized receptor kinase ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY 4 (ACR4) is part of a mechanism controlling formative cell divisions in the Arabidopsis root. Despite its important role in plant development, very little is known about the molecular mechanism with which ACR4 is affiliated and its network of interactions. Here, we used various complementary proteomic approaches to identify ACR4-interacting protein candidates that are likely regulators of formative cell divisions and that could pave the way to unraveling the molecular basis behind ACR4-mediated signaling. We identified PROTEIN PHOSPHATASE 2A-3 (PP2A-3), a catalytic subunit of PP2A holoenzymes, as a previously unidentified regulator of formative cell divisions and as one of the first described substrates of ACR4. Our in vitro data argue for the existence of a tight posttranslational regulation in the associated biochemical network through reciprocal regulation between ACR4 and PP2A-3 at the phosphorylation level.

  14. Ratios between acute aquatic toxicity and effects on population growth rates in relation to toxicant mode of action

    SciTech Connect

    Roex, E.W.M.; Gestel, C.A.M. Van; Wezel, A.P. Van; Straalen, N.M. Van

    2000-03-01

    Environmental risk assessment of chemicals is mostly based on the results of standardized toxicity tests. To obtain environmental quality criteria, extrapolation factors are used that depend on the amount and quality of available data. These extrapolation factors do not, however, take into account the mode of action of the compound tested or the life history of the test organism. In this study, the authors analyzed the variability in acute-to-chronic ratios (ACRs) for various chemicals in relation to their mode of action. Chemicals were classified as nonpolar narcotics, polar narcotics, specifically acting compounds, and heavy metals. As an acute endpoint, the LC50 was used; as a chronic endpoint, the lowest test concentration at which the natural rate of population increase (r) is affected, or LOEC(r), was used. Data were derived from the on-line literature. Nonpolar narcotic chemicals demonstrate the smallest variation in ACRs, and acute tests can be used to derive chronic endpoints for this class. For the other classes, the variation in ACRs is larger. Fish species especially show a relatively large ACR. For heavy metals, differences in the mode of action may play an important role in explaining differences in ACRs. For the other three classes, however, it is less reliable to predict chronic toxicity using the results of acute tests. In general, differences in species sensitivity rather than in mode of action for the chemical seem to determine differences in ACRs.

  15. Characterization of AcrD, a Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division-type multidrug efflux pump from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multidrug efflux pumps are membrane translocases that have the ability to extrude a variety of structurally unrelated compounds from the cell. AcrD, a resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) transporter, was shown to be involved in efflux of highly hydrophilic aminoglycosides and a limited number of amphiphilic compounds in E. coli. Here, a homologue of AcrD in the plant pathogen and causal agent of fire blight disease Erwinia amylovora was identified. Results The substrate specificity of AcrD was studied by overexpression of the corresponding gene from a high-copy plasmid in E. amylovora Ea1189-3, which is hypersensitive to many drugs due to a deficiency of the major multidrug pump AcrB. AcrD mediated resistance to several amphiphilic compounds including clotrimazole and luteolin, two compounds hitherto not described as substrates of AcrD in enterobacteria. However, AcrD was not able to expel aminoglycosides. An acrD mutant exhibited full virulence on apple rootstock and immature pear fruits. RT-PCR analysis revealed an induction of acrD expression in infected apple tissue but not on pear fruits. Moreover, a direct binding of BaeR, the response regulator of the two-component regulatory system BaeSR, to the acrD promoter was observed as has already been shown in other enterobacteria. Conclusions AcrD from E. amylovora is involved in resistance to a limited number of amphiphilic compounds, but in contrast to AcrD of E. coli, it is not involved in resistance to aminoglycosides. The expression of acrD was up-regulated by addition of the substrates deoxycholate, naringenin, tetracycline and zinc. AcrD appears to be regulated by the BaeSR two-component system, an envelope stress signal transduction pathway. PMID:24443882

  16. Description of Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Acre State, Brazilian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Arley Faria José; Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi sp. n. is described as a new species of sand fly from the genus Trichophoromyia Barretto. This description is supported with illustrations and photographs that detail the morphological characteristics of male specimens collected in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, Brazilian Amazon. This species is similar to Trichophoromyia auraensis (Mangabeira), but the two species can be easily differentiated by the distribution of setae on their parameres, and by the presence of a dorsal lobe in the parameres of the new species. PMID:26487825

  17. Description of Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi, a new phlebotomine species (Diptera, Psychodidae) from Acre State, Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Arley Faria José; Teles, Carolina Bioni Garcia; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha; Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa

    2015-01-01

    Trichophoromyia ruifreitasi sp. n. is described as a new species of sand fly from the genus Trichophoromyia Barretto. This description is supported with illustrations and photographs that detail the morphological characteristics of male specimens collected in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, Brazilian Amazon. This species is similar to Trichophoromyia auraensis (Mangabeira), but the two species can be easily differentiated by the distribution of setae on their parameres, and by the presence of a dorsal lobe in the parameres of the new species.

  18. Beyond Antimicrobial Resistance: Evidence for a Distinct Role of the AcrD Efflux Pump in Salmonella Biology

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Michelle M. C.; La Ragione, Roberto M.; Newcombe, Jane; Dwyer, Daniel J.; Ivens, Alasdair

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT For over 20 years, bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps have been studied because of their impact on resistance to antimicrobials. However, critical questions remain, including why produce efflux pumps under non-antimicrobial treatment conditions, and why have multiple pumps if their only purpose is antimicrobial efflux? Salmonella spp. possess five efflux pump families, including the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux pumps. Notably, the RND efflux pump AcrD has a unique substrate profile, distinct from other Salmonella efflux pumps. Here we show that inactivation of acrD results in a profoundly altered transcriptome and modulation of pathways integral to Salmonella biology. The most significant transcriptome changes were central metabolism related, with additional changes observed in pathogenicity, environmental sensing, and stress response pathway expression. The extent of tricarboxylic acid cycle and fumarate metabolism expression changes led us to hypothesize that acrD inactivation may result in motility defects due to perturbation of metabolite concentrations, such as fumarate, for which a role in motility has been established. Despite minimal detectable changes in flagellar gene expression, we found that an acrD mutant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolate was significantly impaired for swarming motility, which was restored by addition of fumarate. The acrD mutant outcompeted the wild type in fitness experiments. The results of these diverse experiments provide strong evidence that the AcrD efflux pump is not simply a redundant system providing response resilience, but also has distinct physiological functions. Together, these data indicate that the AcrD efflux pump has a significant and previously underappreciated impact on bacterial biology, despite only minor perturbations of antibiotic resistance profiles. PMID:27879336

  19. Beyond Antimicrobial Resistance: Evidence for a Distinct Role of the AcrD Efflux Pump in Salmonella Biology.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Michelle M C; Blair, Jessica M A; La Ragione, Roberto M; Newcombe, Jane; Dwyer, Daniel J; Ivens, Alasdair; Piddock, Laura J V

    2016-11-22

    For over 20 years, bacterial multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps have been studied because of their impact on resistance to antimicrobials. However, critical questions remain, including why produce efflux pumps under non-antimicrobial treatment conditions, and why have multiple pumps if their only purpose is antimicrobial efflux? Salmonella spp. possess five efflux pump families, including the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux pumps. Notably, the RND efflux pump AcrD has a unique substrate profile, distinct from other Salmonella efflux pumps. Here we show that inactivation of acrD results in a profoundly altered transcriptome and modulation of pathways integral to Salmonella biology. The most significant transcriptome changes were central metabolism related, with additional changes observed in pathogenicity, environmental sensing, and stress response pathway expression. The extent of tricarboxylic acid cycle and fumarate metabolism expression changes led us to hypothesize that acrD inactivation may result in motility defects due to perturbation of metabolite concentrations, such as fumarate, for which a role in motility has been established. Despite minimal detectable changes in flagellar gene expression, we found that an acrD mutant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolate was significantly impaired for swarming motility, which was restored by addition of fumarate. The acrD mutant outcompeted the wild type in fitness experiments. The results of these diverse experiments provide strong evidence that the AcrD efflux pump is not simply a redundant system providing response resilience, but also has distinct physiological functions. Together, these data indicate that the AcrD efflux pump has a significant and previously underappreciated impact on bacterial biology, despite only minor perturbations of antibiotic resistance profiles.

  20. [Motorcycle accidents in the municipality of Rio Branco in the State of Acre: characterization and trends].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Greiciane da Silva; Schor, Néia

    2013-03-01

    The scope of this paper is to assess traffic accidents involving motorcycles, the victims involved and the increase in the fleet compared with other vehicles in Rio Branco, State of Acre. It is an epidemiological, descriptive and transversal study of accidents between 2005 and 2008 recorded by the Acre State Highway Department. There were 3,582 motorcycle accidents and 3,768 victims in the period. The motorcycle fleet increased by 72.8%, with involvement in accidents increasing by 42.2%, while accidents involving other vehicles only increased by 9.2%. As regards victims, there is a predominance of men, with rates of 561.1, with the age groups of between 20 and 29 and 30 and 39 being the highest, with 755.4 and 542.2, respectively. With reference to accident characteristics, the highest number of accidents - 32.4% - occurred in the afternoon, followed by the morning with 29.2% and the evening with 28.9%. 18.3% occurred on Saturdays and 15.7% on Sundays. Collisions were the commonest kind of accident, with 3,036 (84.8%) occurrences. The conclusion drawn is that it is essential to stage ongoing preventive programs and ensure greater integration among the institutions involved, with planning and campaigns to reverse the current situation.

  1. Optimization of nonribosomal peptides production by a psychrotrophic fungus: Trichoderma velutinum ACR-P1.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Richa; Singh, Varun P; Singh, Deepika; Yusuf, Farnaz; Kumar, Anil; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Chaubey, Asha

    2016-11-01

    Trichoderma is an anamorphic filamentous fungal genus with immense potential for production of small valuable secondary metabolites with indispensable biological activities. Microbial dynamics of a psychrotrophic strain Trichoderma velutinum ACR-P1, isolated from unexplored niches of the Shiwalik region, bestowed with rich biodiversity of microflora, was investigated for production of nonribosomal peptides (NRPs) by metabolite profiling by intact-cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) employing matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometer. Being the first report on NRPs production by T. velutinum, studies on optimization of growth conditions by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for production of NRPs by ACR-P1 was carried out strategically. Multifold enhancement in the yield of NRPs belonging to subfamily SF4 with medium chain of amino acid residues having m/z 1437.9, 1453.9, and 1452.0 at pH 5.9 at 20 °C and of subfamily SF1 with long-chain amino acid residues having m/z 1770.2, 1784.2, 1800.1, 1802.1, and 1815.1 was achieved at pH 7.0 at 25 °C. Complexities of natural mixtures were thus considerably reduced under respective optimized culture conditions accelerating the production of novel microbial natural products by saving time and resources.

  2. Simulated microgravity affects ciprofloxacin susceptibility and expression of acrAB-tolC genes in E. coli ATCC25922

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Zheng, Yanhua; Si, Shaoyan; Shi, Yuhua; Huang, Yuling; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan; Cui, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    As a representative fluoroquinolone antibacterial, ciprofloxacin is frequently used to treat infections caused by bacteria such as E. coli. It is much meaningful to explore ciprofloxacin susceptibility and investigate a possible mechanism of drug susceptibility changes in E. coli ATCC25922 exposed to the environmental stress of simulated microgravity. The subculture of E. coli lasted for 7 days under simulated microgravity conditions (SMG) and normal microgravity (NG) conditions. On the 8th day, the cultures were divided into three groups: (1) NG group (continuous NG cultures); (2) SMG group (continuous SMG cultures); (3) SMCNG group (simulated microgravity change into normal gravity cultures). Ciprofloxacin (a final concentration of 0.125 μg/ml) sensitivity and expression of acrAB-tolC genes were detected in E. coli cells. The count and percentage of viable cells in the SMG cultures bacteria exposed to ciprofloxacin were higher than that in NG cultures and reduced to the levels of NG group when they were subcultivated from SMG to NG. The expressions of efflux pump genes (acrA, acrB and tolC) were upregulated in SMG culture and downregulated to the levels of NG group when they were subcultivated from SMG to NG. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and expression of acrAB-tolC genes in E. coli could be reversibly affected by SMG conditions. Over expression of efflux pump genes acrAB-tolC perhaps played an important role in decreased CIP susceptibility under SMG. PMID:26339360

  3. Simulated microgravity affects ciprofloxacin susceptibility and expression of acrAB-tolC genes in E. coli ATCC25922.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bingxin; Li, Chenglin; Zheng, Yanhua; Si, Shaoyan; Shi, Yuhua; Huang, Yuling; Zhang, Jianzhong; Cui, Yan; Cui, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    As a representative fluoroquinolone antibacterial, ciprofloxacin is frequently used to treat infections caused by bacteria such as E. coli. It is much meaningful to explore ciprofloxacin susceptibility and investigate a possible mechanism of drug susceptibility changes in E. coli ATCC25922 exposed to the environmental stress of simulated microgravity. The subculture of E. coli lasted for 7 days under simulated microgravity conditions (SMG) and normal microgravity (NG) conditions. On the 8th day, the cultures were divided into three groups: (1) NG group (continuous NG cultures); (2) SMG group (continuous SMG cultures); (3) SMCNG group (simulated microgravity change into normal gravity cultures). Ciprofloxacin (a final concentration of 0.125 μg/ml) sensitivity and expression of acrAB-tolC genes were detected in E. coli cells. The count and percentage of viable cells in the SMG cultures bacteria exposed to ciprofloxacin were higher than that in NG cultures and reduced to the levels of NG group when they were subcultivated from SMG to NG. The expressions of efflux pump genes (acrA, acrB and tolC) were upregulated in SMG culture and downregulated to the levels of NG group when they were subcultivated from SMG to NG. Susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and expression of acrAB-tolC genes in E. coli could be reversibly affected by SMG conditions. Over expression of efflux pump genes acrAB-tolC perhaps played an important role in decreased CIP susceptibility under SMG.

  4. The advantages of PD1 activating chimeric receptor (PD1-ACR) engineered lymphocytes for PDL1(+) cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaolong; Li, Qingguo; Zhu, Yongqiang; Zheng, Donghui; Dai, Jingjing; Ni, Wenxuan; Wei, Jia; Xue, Yubao; Chen, Ke; Hou, Wei; Zhang, Chao; Feng, Xiaojun; Liang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Tumors exploit immunoregulatory checkpoints to attenuate T cell responses as a means of circumventing immunologic rejection. By activating the inhibitory costimulatory pathway of Programmed Death 1 (PD1)/PDL1 which provides tumor cells an escape mechanism from immune surveillance, Programmed Death Ligand1 (PDL1)(+) tumors hamper activated tumor-specific T cell functions and render them functionally exhausted. To overcome the inhibitory costimulatory effects of PDL1 on the adoptively transferred T cells, we sought to convert PD1 to a T cell costimulatory receptor by exchanging its transmembrane and cytoplasmic tail with CD28 and 4-1BB signaling domains (PD1-CD28-4-1BB, PD1-ACR), anticipating the genetically modified effector T lymphocytes expressing PD1-ACR would exhibit enhanced functional attributes. And the results showed that PD1-ACR expressed T cells retained the ability to bind PDL1, resulting in T cell activation as evidenced by the elevated activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/protein kinase B (Akt), the augmentation of cytokine secretion and the increased proliferative capacity. Moreover, when systemically administered in the mouse model of glioblastoma metastases, PD1-ACR T cells localized at the area of U87 invasive tumor, which results in suppressed tumor growth and enhanced survival of mice with established U87 glioblastoma. Together, these data demonstrated that PD1-ACR has a high potential to serve as a novel strategy to overcome PDL1 mediated immunosuppression of T cells for cancer therapy.

  5. Changes in kidney function among Nicaraguan sugarcane workers

    PubMed Central

    Laws, Rebecca L; Brooks, Daniel R; Amador, Juan José; Weiner, Daniel E; Kaufman, James S; Ramírez-Rubio, Oriana; Riefkohl, Alejandro; Scammell, Madeleine K; López-Pilarte, Damaris; Sánchez, José Marcel; Parikh, Chirag R; McClean, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is an epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown etiology in Central American workers. Objectives: To investigate changes and job-specific differences in kidney function over a 6-month sugarcane harvest season, explore the potential role of hydration, and measure proteinuria. Methods: We recruited 284 Nicaraguan sugarcane workers performing seven distinct tasks. We measured urine albumin and serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Results: eGFR varied by job and decreased during the harvest in seed cutters (−8.6 ml/min/1.73 m2), irrigators (−7.4 ml/min/1.73 m2), and cane cutters (−5.0 ml/min/1.73 m2), as compared to factory workers. The number of years employed at the company was negatively associated with eGFR. Fewer than 5% of workers had albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) >30 mg/g. Conclusions: The decline in kidney function during the harvest and the differences by job category and employment duration provide evidence that one or more risk factors of CKD are occupational. PMID:25631575

  6. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin levels predict cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury better than albuminuria or urinary cystatin C levels.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hugo You-Hsien; Lee, Su-Chu; Lin, Sheng-Fung; Hsiao, Hui-Hua; Liu, Yi-Chang; Yang, Wen-Chi; Hwang, Daw-Yang; Hung, Chi-Chih; Chen, Hung-Chun; Guh, Jinn-Yuh

    2013-06-01

    Cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major concern among clinicians in prescribing cisplatin-based chemotherapy. This study evaluated and compared the ability of urinary biomarkers, including urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), cystatin C, and the urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) to predict cisplatin-induced AKI. Thirty-three cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy were prospectively studied, including 10 (30%) who developed AKI (the study group). Changes of urinary biomarkers were compared at 4 hours, 8 hours, and 12 hours, and 1 day, 2 days, 3 days, and 4 days after cisplatin intravenous infusions (75mg/m(2)) versus the baseline. There was a significant increase in urinary NGAL levels from 12 hours to 4 days (p<0.05) compared to baseline after cisplatin infusion in the AKI group. The magnitude of these changes over time differed significantly by group (p<0.001). The area under the receiver operating curve describing the relationship between urinary NGAL levels and AKI within 12 hours was 0.865 (95% confidence interval=0.691-1.000). Urinary NGAL levels independently predicted AKI 12 hours after cisplatin (p=0.045) after adjustments for age, gender, body mass index, baseline serum creatinine, and urinary total protein. Urinary NGAL levels may be an early biomarker of AKI in patients receiving cisplatin-based treatment.

  7. Greater efficacy of atorvastatin versus a non-statin lipid-lowering agent against renal injury: potential role as a histone deacetylase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ravi Shankar; Chaudhary, Dharmendra Kumar; Mohan, Aradhana; Kumar, Praveen; Chaturvedi, Chandra Prakash; Ecelbarger, Carolyn M.; Godbole, Madan M.; Tiwari, Swasti

    2016-01-01

    Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors have been shown to improve diabetic nephropathy. However, whether they provide protection via Histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibition is not clear. We conducted a comparative evaluation of Atorvastatin (AT) versus the non-statin cholesterol-lowering drug, Ezetimibe (EZT) on severity of diabetic nephropathy. Streptozotocin-treated male Wistar rats were fed a cholesterol-supplemented diet and gavaged daily with vehicle, AT or EZT. Control rats received normal diet and gavaged vehicle (n = 8–9/group). Diabetes increased blood glucose, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), kidney pathology and HDAC activity, and reduced renal E-cadherin levels. Both AT and EZT reduced circulating cholesterol, attenuated renal pathology, and did not lower blood glucose. However, AT was significantly more effective than EZT at reducing kidney pathology and HDAC activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed a significantly higher association of acetylated H3 and H4 with the E-cadherin promoter in kidneys from AT-, relative to EZT- or vehicle-treated rats. Moreover, we demonstrated a direct effect of AT, but not EZT, on HDAC-inhibition and, H3 and H4- acetylation in primary glomerular mesangial cells. Overall, both AT and EZT attenuated diabetic nephropathy; however, AT exhibited greater efficacy despite a similar reduction in circulating cholesterol. HDAC-inhibition may underlie greater efficacy of statins in attenuating kidney injury. PMID:27901066

  8. Markers of coagulation activation and acute kidney injury in patients after hematopoietic cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Hingorani, Sangeeta R; Seidel, Kristy; Pao, Emily; Lawler, Rick; McDonald, George B.

    2015-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common after hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). The etiology of AKI is unknown because biopsies are rarely performed. The pathophysiology of injury is inferred from clinical data. Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is often invoked as the cause of renal injury. Patients > 2 years undergoing their first HCT at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC) participated in this study. We prospectively measured plasma markers of coagulation activation, (PAI-1 and tPA) and fibrinolyis (D-dimer) weekly in 149 patients during the first 100 days post-transplant. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine associations between these markers and AKI (doubling of baseline serum creatinine). Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine associations between day 100 urinary albumin to creatinine ratios (ACR) and these markers. Thirty one percent of patients developed AKI. Though elevations in these markers occurred frequently, neither PAI-1 nor tPA were associated with development of AKI. D-dimer was associated with a slightly increased risk of AKI (RR=1.76; p-value 0.04). None of these markers were associated with micro- or macroalbuminuria at day 100. The lack of an association with AKI suggests that endothelial injury in the form of TMA is not a common cause of AKI early after transplant. PMID:25665045

  9. A reconnaissance of hydrogeologic conditions in Lehigh Acres and adjacent areas of Lee County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boggess, Durward Hoye; Missimer, T.M.

    1975-01-01

    Lehigh Acres, a residential community with a population of about 13,500 and comprising an area of about 94 square miles (243 square kilometres) in the eastern part of Lee County, has been under development since 1954. Prior to development the area was poorly drained. By 1974, more than 150 miles (241 kilometres) of drainageways had been constructed to drain the area. The water-bearing formations underlying Lehigh Acres include the water-table, sandstone, lower Hawthorn, and Suwannee aquifers. The water-table aquifer is usually not more than 30 feet (9 metres) thick; it contains water of relatively good quality, except for iron and color. Water levels in this aquifer probably have been affected by construction of drainage canals. The sandstone aquifer, used extensively throughout the area as a source of water supply usually contains water of good quality although the water is hard and in places may contain concentrations of dissolved solids and iron which exceed the recommended limits of the U.S. Public Health Service and the State of Florida for drinking water. The lower Hawthorn and Suwannee aquifers, usually encountered at depths between 440 and 850 feet (135 and 262 metres), contains water with relatively high concentrations of sodium, sulfate, chloride, and dissolved solids. Three streams, the Orange River, Hickey Creek, and Bedman Creek and the canals connected to them, provide drainage of the area. Except for the Orange River, where the water is of good chemical quality, little is known of the water quality. Similarly, little information is available on stream discharge except for the Orange River where the average annual discharge was 41.1 cubic feet per second (11.6 cubic metres per second) between 1935-46. Most lakes and ponds in Lehigh Acres are hydraulically connected to the water-table aquifer such that factors which affect one also affect the other. Theoretical drawdown curves indicate that the drainage canals may affect ground-water levels to a

  10. SU-E-I-89: Assessment of CT Radiation Dose and Image Quality for An Automated Tube Potential Selection Algorithm Using Pediatric Anthropomorphic and ACR Phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y; Wang, W

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, 80 mA, 0.7s rotation time. Image quality was assessed by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: For the baseline protocol, CNR was found to decrease from 0.460 ± 0.182 to 0.420 ± 0.057 when kVa was activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.620 ± 0.040. The liver dose decreased by 30% with kVa activation. Conclusion: Application of kVa reduces the liver dose up to 30%. However, reduction in image quality for abdominal scans occurs when using the automated tube voltage selection feature at the baseline protocol. As demonstrated by the CNR and NPS analysis, the texture and magnitude of the noise in reconstructed images at ASiR 40% was found to be the same as our baseline images. We have demonstrated that 30% dose reduction is possible when using 40% ASiR with kVa in pediatric patients.

  11. Circulating Angiopoietin-2 and Its Soluble Receptor Tie-2 Concentrations Are Related to Renal Function in Two Population-Based Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Hennings, Anna; Hannemann, Anke; Rettig, Rainer; Dörr, Marcus; Nauck, Matthias; Völzke, Henry; Lerch, Markus M.; Lieb, Wolfgang; Friedrich, Nele

    2016-01-01

    Background An intact angiopoietin/Tie-2 ligand receptor system is indispensable for life. High circulating angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) concentrations are strongly associated with kidney disease involving the progressive loss of glomerular filtration. The aim of our study was to investigate the associations between renal function and serum Ang-2 or serum Tie-2 concentrations in the general population. Methods Data of 3081 and 4088 subjects from two population-based studies, the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) and SHIP-Trend, were used. Renal function was assessed by serum creatinine, cystatin C concentration, creatinine-based estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR(crea)], cystatin C-based eGFR [eGFR(cys)] and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR). Analyses of variance and linear regression models were calculated. Results In both cohorts, strong positive associations between serum cystatin C concentrations and serum Ang-2 or Tie-2 concentrations as well as inverse associations between eGFR(cys) and serum Ang-2 or Tie-2 concentrations were found. These relations were also present in a subpopulation without hypertension or diabetes mellitus type 2. Furthermore, we detected weak U-shaped associations between serum creatinine concentrations or eGFR(crea) and serum Ang-2 concentrations. With respect to uACR a strong positive association with serum Ang-2 concentrations was revealed. Conclusion Serum Ang-2 concentrations are strongly associated with sensitive parameters of renal impairment like serum cystatin C, uACR and eGFR(cys). These findings persisted even after exclusion of subjects with hypertension or diabetes mellitus type 2, conditions that predispose to chronic renal disease and are associated with increased Ang-2 concentrations. Interestingly, we did not detect the same strong relations between serum creatinine and eGFR(crea) with serum Ang-2 concentration. Additionally, significant association of serum Tie-2 concentrations with cystatin C and e

  12. Isolation and Characterization of Mayaro Virus from a Human in Acre, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Terzian, Ana Carolina B.; Auguste, Albert J.; Vedovello, Danila; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Sperança, Márcia A.; Suzuki, Rodrigo B.; Juncansen, Camila; Araújo, João P.; Weaver, Scott C.; Nogueira, Maurício L.

    2015-01-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is widely distributed throughout South America and is the etiologic agent of Mayaro fever, an acute febrile illness often presenting with arthralgic manifestations. The true incidence of MAYV infection is likely grossly underestimated because the symptomatic presentation is very similar to that of dengue fever and other acute febrile tropical diseases. We report the complete genome sequence of a MAYV isolate detected from an Acrelândia patient presenting with fever, chills, and sweating, but with no arthralgia. Results show that this isolate belongs to genotype D and is closely related to Bolivian strains. Our results suggest that the Acre/Mayaro strain is closely related to the progenitor of these Bolivian strains that were isolated between 2002 and 2006. PMID:25510721

  13. Isolation and characterization of Mayaro virus from a human in Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Terzian, Ana Carolina B; Auguste, Albert J; Vedovello, Danila; Ferreira, Marcelo U; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Sperança, Márcia A; Suzuki, Rodrigo B; Juncansen, Camila; Araújo, João P; Weaver, Scott C; Nogueira, Maurício L

    2015-02-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is widely distributed throughout South America and is the etiologic agent of Mayaro fever, an acute febrile illness often presenting with arthralgic manifestations. The true incidence of MAYV infection is likely grossly underestimated because the symptomatic presentation is very similar to that of dengue fever and other acute febrile tropical diseases. We report the complete genome sequence of a MAYV isolate detected from an Acrelândia patient presenting with fever, chills, and sweating, but with no arthralgia. Results show that this isolate belongs to genotype D and is closely related to Bolivian strains. Our results suggest that the Acre/Mayaro strain is closely related to the progenitor of these Bolivian strains that were isolated between 2002 and 2006.

  14. ACR-ASNR Practice Parameter for Brain PET/CT Imaging Dementia.

    PubMed

    Frey, Kirk A; Lodge, Martin A; Meltzer, Carolyn Cidis; Peller, Patrick J; Wong, Terence Z; Hess, Christopher P; Petrella, Jeffrey R; Sair, Haris I; Subramaniam, Rathan M

    2016-02-01

    This practice parameter is for both FDG and amyloid brain PET or PET/computed tomography (CT) for patients with cognitive decline, and has been developed collaboratively by the American College of Radiology (ACR) and the American Society for Neuroradiology (ASNR). It is estimated that the number of people with dementia, 36.5 million worldwide in 2010, will increase to 65.7 million in 2030 and to 115 million in 2050. Four primary neurodegenerative etiologies of dementia have been defined: Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Alzheimer disease is the most common form of dementia, accounting for approximately 60%-80% of all cases. Indications for FDG and amyloid brain PET and qualifications for personnel are discussed in this practice parameter.

  15. Magnetically induced phonon splitting in ACr2O4 spinels from first principles

    DOE PAGES

    Wysocki, Aleksander L.; Birol, Turan

    2016-04-22

    We study the magnetically-induced phonon splitting in cubic ACr2O4 (A=Mg, Zn, Cd) spinels from first principles and demonstrate that the sign of the splitting, which is experimentally observed to be opposite in CdCr2O4 compared to ZnCr2O4 and MgCr2O4, is determined solely by the particular magnetic ordering pattern observed in these compounds. We further show that this interaction between magnetism and phonon frequencies can be fully described by the previously proposed spin-phonon coupling model [C. J. Fennie and K. M. Rabe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 205505 (2006)] that includes only the nearest neighbor exchange. In conclusion, using this model with materialsmore » specific parameters calculated from first principles, we provide additional insights into the physics of spin-phonon coupling in this intriguing family of compounds.« less

  16. Reversal of the Drug Binding Pocket Defects of the AcrB Multidrug Efflux Pump Protein of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Soparkar, Ketaki; Kinana, Alfred D.; Weeks, Jon W.; Morrison, Keith D.; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The AcrB protein of Escherichia coli, together with TolC and AcrA, forms a contiguous envelope conduit for the capture and extrusion of diverse antibiotics and cellular metabolites. In this study, we sought to expand our knowledge of AcrB by conducting genetic and functional analyses. We began with an AcrB mutant bearing an F610A substitution in the drug binding pocket and obtained second-site substitutions that overcame the antibiotic hypersusceptibility phenotype conferred by the F610A mutation. Five of the seven unique single amino acid substitutions—Y49S, V127A, V127G, D153E, and G288C—mapped in the periplasmic porter domain of AcrB, with the D153E and G288C mutations mapping near and at the distal drug binding pocket, respectively. The other two substitutions—F453C and L486W—were mapped to transmembrane (TM) helices 5 and 6, respectively. The nitrocefin efflux kinetics data suggested that all periplasmic suppressors significantly restored nitrocefin binding affinity impaired by the F610A mutation. Surprisingly, despite increasing MICs of tested antibiotics and the efflux of N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine, the TM suppressors did not improve the nitrocefin efflux kinetics. These data suggest that the periplasmic substitutions act by influencing drug binding affinities for the distal binding pocket, whereas the TM substitutions may indirectly affect the conformational dynamics of the drug binding domain. IMPORTANCE The AcrB protein and its homologues confer multidrug resistance in many important human bacterial pathogens. A greater understanding of how these efflux pump proteins function will lead to the development of effective inhibitors against them. The research presented in this paper investigates drug binding pocket mutants of AcrB through the isolation and characterization of intragenic suppressor mutations that overcome the drug susceptibility phenotype of mutations affecting the drug binding pocket. The data reveal a remarkable structure

  17. Classification Criteria for Systemic Sclerosis: An ACR-EULAR Collaborative Initiative

    PubMed Central

    van den Hoogen, Frank; Khanna, Dinesh; Fransen, Jaap; Johnson, Sindhu R.; Baron, Murray; Tyndall, Alan; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Naden, Raymond; Riemekasten, Gabriela; Carreira, Patricia; Gabrielli, Armando; Distler, Oliver; van Laar, Jacob M; Valentini, Gabriele; Denton, Christopher P; Kowal-Bielecka, Otylia; Inanc, Murat; Allanore, Yannick; Walker, Ulrich A; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Vonk, Madelon; Czirjak, Laszlo; Herrick, Ariane; Sierakowski, Stanislav; Veale, Douglas; Chung, Lorinda; Clements, Phillip; Fessler, Barry J; Furst, Dan; Guiducci, Serena; Hsu, Vivian; Mayes, Maureen; Medsger, Thomas A; Merkel, Peter; Silver, Richard; Steen, Virginia; Varga, John; Collier, David; Csuka, Mary Ell; Jimenez, Sergio; Kahaleh, Bashar; Seibold, James R; Simms, Robert; Pope, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Background The 1980 classification criteria for systemic sclerosis (SSc) lack sensitivity in early SSc and limited cutaneous SSc. A joint ACR-EULAR committee was established to develop new classification criteria for SSc. Methods Using consensus methods, 23 candidate items were arranged in a multi-criteria additive point system with a threshold to classify cases as SSc. The classification system was reduced by clustering items, and simplifying weights. The system was tested by: a) determining specificity and sensitivity in SSc cases and controls with scleroderma-like disorders; b) validating against the combined view of a group of experts on a set of cases with or without SSc. Results Skin thickening of the fingers extending proximal to the MCPs is sufficient to be classified as SSc, if that is not present, seven additive items apply with varying weights for each: skin thickening of the fingers, finger tip lesions, telangiectasia, abnormal nailfold capillaries, interstitial lung disease or pulmonary arterial hypertension, Raynaud's phenomenon, and SSc-related autoantibodies. Sensitivity and specificity in the validation sample were 0.91 and 0.92 for the new classification criteria and 0.75 and 0.72 for the 1980 ARA classification criteria. All selected cases were classified in accordance with consensus-based expert opinion. All cases classified as SSc by the 1980 ARA criteria were classified with the new criteria, and several additional cases were now considered to be SSc. Conclusion The ACR-EULAR classification criteria for SSc performed better than the 1980 ARA Criteria for SSc and should allow for more patients to be classified correctly as SSc. PMID:24122180

  18. 75 FR 61227 - Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant Designs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ..., General Electric--Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH), and their contractors, pursuant to 5 U.S.C. 552b(c)(4... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards Meeting of the ACRS Subcommittee on Future Plant...

  19. From the Lab Bench: Do you manage pastures for maximum gain per animal or gain per acre?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An article was written to discuss managing cattle pastures to maximize either weight gain or milk output per acre or per animal. There is no or little change in output per animal over a certain range of light stocking rates that allows pasture growth to be greater than forage intake, and increasing...

  20. Effects of artificial-recharge experiments at Ship Creek alluvial fan on water levels at Spring Acres Subdivision, Anchorage, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyer, William; Patrick, Leslie

    1980-01-01

    The effect of the artificial recharge experiments on water levels at Spring Acres subdivision, Anchorage, Alaska, was evaluated using two digital models constructed to simulate groundwater movement and water-level rises induced by the artificial recharge. The models predicted that the artificial recharge would have caused water levels in the aquifer immediately underlying Spring Acres subdivision to rise 0.2 foot from May 20 to August 7, 1975. The models also predicted a total rise in groundwater levels of 1.1 feet at this location from July 16, 1973 to August 7, 1975, as a result of the artificial-recharge experiments. Water-level data collected from auger holes in March 1975 by a consulting firm for the contractor indicated a depth to water of 6-7 feet below land surface at Spring Acres subdivision at this time. Water levels measured in and near Spring Acres subdivision several years before and after the 1973-75 artificial-recharge experiments showed seasonal rises of 2 to 12.4 feet. A depth to water below land surface of 2.6 feet was measured 600 feet from the subdivision in 1971 and in the subdivision in 1977. Average measured depth to water in the area was 7.0 feet from early 1976 to September 1979. (USGS)

  1. ‘WhiteAcre-DG’, a Small-seeded, Cream-type Southernpea with an Enhanced Persistent Green Seed Phenotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA has released a high yielding, small-seeded, cream-type southernpea cultivar that has a persistent green seed phenotype conditioned by both the green cotyledon gene (gc) and the green testa gene (gt). The new cultivar, named ‘WhiteAcre-DG’, can be harvested at the dry-pod stage of maturity ...

  2. Design of New Antibacterial Enhancers Based on AcrB’s Structure and the Evaluation of Their Antibacterial Enhancement Activity

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Qin, Rongxin; Pan, Xichun; Ouyang, Qin; Liu, Tianyu; Zhai, Zhaoxia; Chen, Yingchun; Li, Bin; Zhou, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Previously, artesunate (AS) and dihydroartemisinine 7 (DHA7) were found to have antibacterial enhancement activity against Escherichia coli via inhibition of the efflux pump AcrB. However, they were only effective against E. coli standard strains. This study aimed to develop effective antibacterial enhancers based on the previous work. Our results demonstrate that 86 new antibacterial enhancers were designed via 3D-SAR and molecular docking. Among them, DHA27 had the best antibacterial enhancement activity. It could potentiate the antibacterial effects of ampicillin against not only E. coli standard strain but also clinical strains, and of β-lactam antibiotics, not non-β-lactamantibiotics. DHA27 could increase the accumulation of daunomycin and nile red within E. coli ATCC 35218, but did not increase the bacterial membrane permeability. DHA27 reduced acrB’s mRNA expression of E. coli ATCC 35218 in a dose-dependent manner, and its antibacterial enhancement activity is related to the degree of acrB mRNA expression in E. coli clinical strains. The polypeptides from AcrB were obtained via molecular docking assay; the pre-incubated polypeptides could inhibit the activity of DHA27. Importantly, DHA27 had no cytotoxicity on cell proliferation. In conclusion, among newly designed antibacterial enhancers, DHA27 had favorable physical and pharmacological properties with no significant cytotoxicity at effective concentrations, and might serve as a potential efflux pump inhibitor in the future. PMID:27869748

  3. Seasonal Variations in CO2 Fluxes in Fluvial Systems in Southstern of Amazonia (acre, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, E.; Krusche, A. V.; Salimon, C. I.; Victoria, R. L.; Sawakuchi, H.

    2012-12-01

    Our main objective was to measure the CO2 fluxes in 5 (five) rivers and 2 (two) streams in the Purus Basin. These rivers and streams have different size, water chemical characteristics and type soil, despite all are classified as white-water rivers. We toke measures of pH, electrical conductivity, pCO2, DOC and DIC concentrations and CO2 fluxes in two seasonal periods: Wet Season (dez2010-abr2011 and dez2011-abr2012) and Dry Season (jul2011-set2011). Water samples were taken to DOC (filtered with quartz filters and preserved with hydrochloric acid), DIC (filtered with cellulose acetate filters and preserved with thymol) and δ13C of DIC. These water samples were sent to CENA/USP to be analyzed. EC and pH measurements were made with portable meters. Partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) was measure with an equilibrator and CO2 fluxes with a floating chamber. Precipitation, water stage and discharge data was obtained by UFAC climatological station and ANA (National Water Agency). Statistical analysis were made using R Program. DOC and DIC concentrations presented significant differences between the periods. In the wet season were observed the highest values to DOC concentrations in all rivers and streams. In the rivers, these concentrations varied between 7.09±3.10 (Acre River) and 9.32±2.31 mg.L-1 (Rôla River). In the dry season, the values observed were 3.15±1.11 (Acre River) and 7.96±0.11 (Caeté River). In the streams, these concentrations also higher in the wet season, with 1.68±0.32 mg.L-1 in the Floresta stream and 3.22±1.08 mg.L-1 in the Escondido stream. To DIC concentrations, this pattern was inverted, with higher concentrations observed in the dry season. Iaco River presented the higher concentration (50.8±4.7 mg.L-1) and Acre River the lower concentration (11.30±2.77 mg.L-1). Despite the DIC concentrations were higher in the dry season, the pCO2 and CO2 fluxes values were higher in the wet season. In the rivers, the pCO2 values varied between 4,189±1

  4. Bioinjection Performance Review for the Building 100 Area and 4.5 Acre Site at the Pinellas County, Florida, Site

    SciTech Connect

    Survochak, Scott; Daniel, Joe

    2016-05-01

    This document provides a summary of a review of the performance of bioinjection activities at the Building 100 Area and the 4.5 Acre Site at the Pinellas County, Florida, Site since 2010, determines how best to optimize future injection events, and identifies the approach for the bioinjection event in 2016 at (1) the 4.5 Acre Site and (2) the Essentra property at the Building 100 Area. Because this document describes the next bioinjection event at the 4.5 Acre Site, it also serves as an addendum to the Interim Remedial Action Plan for Emulsified Edible Oil Injection at the 4.5 Acre Site (DOE 2013). In addition, this document revises the injection layout and injection intervals for the Essentra property that were originally described in the Interim Corrective Measure Work Plan for Source and Plume Treatment at the Building 100 Area (DOE 2014), and is a de facto update of that document. Bioinjection consists of injection of emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) and the microorganism Dehalococcoides mccartyi (DHM; formerly known as Dehalococcoides ethenogenes) into the subsurface to enhance biodegradation of trichloroethene (TCE), dichloroethene (DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC). VC is the only contaminant that exceeds its maximum contaminant level (10 micrograms per liter onsite and 1 microgram per liter onsite) on the 4.5 Acre Site and the Essentra property. Bioinjection was conducted at the 4.5 Acre Site in 2010 and 2013. Approximately 49,900 gallons of EVO and DHM were injected at 95 injection points in February 2010, and approximately 22,900 gallons of EVO and DHM were injected at 46 injection points in July 2013. The injection locations are shown on Figure 1. The goal of bioinjection at the 4.5 Acre Site is to decrease contaminant concentrations to maximum contaminant levels along the west and southwest property boundaries (to meet risk–based corrective action requirements) and to minimize the extent of the contaminant plume in the interior of the site. Bioinjection was

  5. Worldwide Diversity and Occurrence of Arsenite Transporter acr3(2) Suggests an Important and Overlooked Pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailloux, B. J.; Wagner, P.; Foster, R.; Stolz, J. F.; Scholz, M.; Wovkulich, K.; Freyer, G. A.

    2009-12-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element that occurs naturally in the environment. Microorganisms have detoxification pathways that involve the expulsion of arsenite from the cytoplasm. The genes encoding these processes, including acr3(2), have been well studied in laboratory. However, comparatively less is known of detoxification genes in the environment. Here we report on the environmental diversity of acr3(2), an arsenite transporter gene, in 15 samples from a variety of habitats, including 2 marine samples from near the Amazon River plume, 2 sediment samples from California Soda Lakes (Mono and Searle), 8 groundwater samples from Bangladesh, 1 sediment sample from Union Lake, NJ, and 2 microcosm experiments using sediment from the Vineland Chemical Co Superfund site, NJ amended with acetate and arsenate. These sites were chosen to represent a variety arsenic impacted environments. Aqueous concentrations of arsenic ranged from below 13 nM to 5.6 mM (1 ppb to 422 ppm). Fifteen clone libraries were generated, and the 304 unique sequences clustered with or near Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria , Euryarchaeota (Archaea),Acidobacteria, Thermatogae (Archaea), Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Thus, the acr3(2) gene appears to be highly conserved worldwide and across the domains of Archaea and Bacteria. Comparison of clone libraries, however, indicated that individual sites had distinct communities. Rarefraction analysis and CHAO1 estimation of species richness showed that even with 1406 available acr sequences from JGI and this study, the known diversity of the gene is not saturated. These results suggests that the acr3(2) gene and detoxification in general may be more important than previously thought in environmental arsenic cycling and mobilization.

  6. The Ascaris suum nicotinic receptor, ACR-16, as a drug target: Four novel negative allosteric modulators from virtual screening

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fudan; Robertson, Alan P.; Abongwa, Melanie; Yu, Edward W.; Martin, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections in humans and livestock cause significant debility, reduced productivity and economic losses globally. There are a limited number of effective anthelmintic drugs available for treating helminths infections, and their frequent use has led to the development of resistance in many parasite species. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic drugs for treating these parasites. We have chosen the ACR-16 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Ascaris suum (Asu-ACR-16), as a drug target and have developed three-dimensional models of this transmembrane protein receptor to facilitate the search for new bioactive compounds. Using the human α7 nAChR chimeras and Torpedo marmorata nAChR for homology modeling, we defined orthosteric and allosteric binding sites on the Asu-ACR-16 receptor for virtual screening. We identified four ligands that bind to sites on Asu-ACR-16 and tested their activity using electrophysiological recording from Asu-ACR-16 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The four ligands were acetylcholine inhibitors (SB-277011-A, IC50, 3.12 ± 1.29 μM; (+)-butaclamol Cl, IC50, 9.85 ± 2.37 μM; fmoc-1, IC50, 10.00 ± 1.38 μM; fmoc-2, IC50, 16.67 ± 1.95 μM) that behaved like negative allosteric modulators. Our work illustrates a structure-based in silico screening method for seeking anthelmintic hits, which can then be tested electrophysiologically for further characterization. PMID:27054065

  7. The Ascaris suum nicotinic receptor, ACR-16, as a drug target: Four novel negative allosteric modulators from virtual screening.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fudan; Robertson, Alan P; Abongwa, Melanie; Yu, Edward W; Martin, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections in humans and livestock cause significant debility, reduced productivity and economic losses globally. There are a limited number of effective anthelmintic drugs available for treating helminths infections, and their frequent use has led to the development of resistance in many parasite species. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic drugs for treating these parasites. We have chosen the ACR-16 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Ascaris suum (Asu-ACR-16), as a drug target and have developed three-dimensional models of this transmembrane protein receptor to facilitate the search for new bioactive compounds. Using the human α7 nAChR chimeras and Torpedo marmorata nAChR for homology modeling, we defined orthosteric and allosteric binding sites on the Asu-ACR-16 receptor for virtual screening. We identified four ligands that bind to sites on Asu-ACR-16 and tested their activity using electrophysiological recording from Asu-ACR-16 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The four ligands were acetylcholine inhibitors (SB-277011-A, IC50, 3.12 ± 1.29 μM; (+)-butaclamol Cl, IC50, 9.85 ± 2.37 μM; fmoc-1, IC50, 10.00 ± 1.38 μM; fmoc-2, IC50, 16.67 ± 1.95 μM) that behaved like negative allosteric modulators. Our work illustrates a structure-based in silico screening method for seeking anthelmintic hits, which can then be tested electrophysiologically for further characterization.

  8. Drug uptake pathways of multidrug transporter AcrB studied by molecular simulations and site-directed mutagenesis experiments.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin-Qiu; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Murakami, Satoshi; Takada, Shoji

    2013-05-22

    Multidrug resistance has been a critical issue in current chemotherapy. In Escherichia coli , a major efflux pump responsible for the multidrug resistance contains a transporter AcrB. Crystallographic studies and mutational assays of AcrB provided much of structural and overall functional insights, which led to the functionally rotating mechanism. However, the drug uptake pathways are somewhat controversial because at least two possible pathways, the vestibule and the cleft paths, were suggested. Here, combining molecular simulations and site-directed mutagenesis experiments, we addressed the uptake mechanism finding that the drug uptake pathways can be significantly different depending on the properties of drugs. First, in the computational free energy analysis of drug movements along AcrB tunnels, we found a ligand-dependent drug uptake mechanism. With the same molecular sizes, drugs that are both strongly hydrophobic and lipophilic were preferentially taken in via the vestibule path, while other drugs favored the cleft path. Second, direct simulations realized totally about 3500 events of drug uptake by AcrB for a broad range of drug property. These simulations confirmed the ligand-dependent drug uptake and further suggested that a smaller drug favors the vestibule path, while a larger one is taken in via the cleft path. Moreover, the direct simulations identified an alternative uptake path which is not visible in the crystal structure. Third, site-directed mutagenesis of AcrB in E. coli verified that mutations of residues located along the newly identified path significantly reduced the efflux efficiency, supporting its relevance in in vivo function.

  9. 43 CFR 2806.23 - How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers? 2806.23 Section 2806.23 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Rents Linear Rights-Of-Way § 2806.23 How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre...

  10. 43 CFR 2806.23 - How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers? 2806.23 Section 2806.23 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Rents Linear Rights-Of-Way § 2806.23 How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre...

  11. 43 CFR 2806.23 - How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers? 2806.23 Section 2806.23 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Rents Linear Rights-Of-Way § 2806.23 How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre...

  12. 43 CFR 2806.23 - How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers? 2806.23 Section 2806.23 Public Lands: Interior... RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) RIGHTS-OF-WAY UNDER THE FEDERAL LAND POLICY MANAGEMENT ACT Rents Linear Rights-Of-Way § 2806.23 How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre...

  13. Quality assurance for diffusion tensor imaging using an ACR phantom: Comparative analysis with 6, 15, and 32 directions at 1.5T and 3.0T MRI systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Young; Lee, Do-Wan; Jung, Jin-Young; Song, Kyu-Ho; Choe, Bo-Young

    2014-07-01

    Although diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used for the quantitative analyses of the integrity of white matter in the brain in clinical and research fields, quality assurance (QA) for DTI has not been fully established. Thus, we suggest a QA guideline for DTI using the American College of Radiology (ACR) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) head phantom. In this study, the geometric accuracy, slice-position accuracy, image intensity uniformity, percent signalghosting, low-contrast object detectability, image distortion, fractional anisotropy (FA), and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured and evaluated in 1.5T and 3.0T MRI scanners equipped with an 8-channel SENSE head coil. The standard axial spin echo (SE) T1-weighted MR images and DTI with 6, 15 and 32 directions were obtained. Concerning geometric accuracy, image twisting in the three directions was observed due to the inhomogeneity of echo planar imaging (EPI). Image intensity uniformity was significantly lower for DTI than for the standard SE T1-weighted MR images. Percent signal ghosting was higher for images from 3.0T MRI than for images from 1.5T MRI. Low-contrast object detectability was visually identified and measured at a low contrasttonoise ratio (CNR) and a low signaltonoise ratio (SNR). Image distortion changed remarkably to the phaseencoding direction. The present study using the ACR MRI phantom suggests a QA method for DTI with high reproducibility and easy accessibility.

  14. The Golden Ratio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Hartley

    2004-01-01

    The Golden Ratio is sometimes called the "Golden Section" or the "Divine Proportion", in which three points: A, B, and C, divide a line in this proportion if AC/AB = AB/BC. "Donald in Mathmagicland" includes a section about the Golden Ratio and the ratios within a five-pointed star or pentagram. This article presents two computing exercises that…

  15. Comparison of urine dipstick and albumin:creatinine ratio for chronic kidney disease screening: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji In; Baek, Hyunjeong; Kim, Bo Ra

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is usually diagnosed using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) or kidney damage markers. The urine dipstick test is a widely used screening tool for albuminuria, a CKD marker. Although the urine albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) has advantages over the dipstick test in sensitivity and quantification of levels, the two methods have not been compared in the general population. A total of 20,759 adults with urinalysis data in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2014 were examined. CKD risk categories were created using a combination of eGFR and albuminuria. Albuminuria was defined using an ACR cutoff of 30 mg/g or 300 mg/g and a urine dipstick cutoff of trace or 1+. The EQ-5D index was used for the health outcome. Prevalence estimates of ACR ≥30 mg/g and >300 mg/g vs dipstick ≥trace and ≥1+ in adults aged ≥20 years were 7.2% and 0.9% vs 9.1% and 1.2%, respectively. For ACR ≥30 mg/g detection, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive/negative predictive values of dipstick ≥trace were 43.6%, 93.6%, 34.6%, and 95.5%, respectively. When risk categories created based on dipstick cutoffs were compared with those based on ACR cutoffs, 10.4% of the total population was reclassified to different risk categories, with only 3.9% reclassified to the same CKD category. Akaike information criterion values were lower, and non-fatal disease burdens of CKD were larger, in models predicting EQ-5D index using ACR-based categories compared to those using dipstick-based categories, even after adjusting for confounders. In conclusion, the urine dipstick test had poor sensitivity and high false-discovery rates for ACR ≥30 mg/g detection, and classified a large number of individuals into different CKD risk categories compared with ACR-based categories. Therefore, ACR assessments in CKD screening appear beneficial for a more accurate prediction of worse quality of life. PMID:28151999

  16. Magnetoelasticity in ACr2O4 spinel oxides (A= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, V.; Bordács, S.; Varjas, D.; Penc, K.; Abouelsayed, A.; Kuntscher, C. A.; Ohgushi, K.; Tokura, Y.; Kézsmárki, I.

    2013-02-01

    Dynamical properties of the lattice structure were studied by optical spectroscopy in ACr2O4 chromium spinel oxide magnetic semiconductors over a broad temperature region of T=10-335 K. The systematic change of the A-site ions (A= Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) showed that the occupancy of 3d orbitals on the A site has strong impact on the lattice dynamics. For compounds with orbital degeneracy (FeCr2O4, NiCr2O4, and CuCr2O4), clear splitting of infrared-active phonon modes and/or activation of silent vibrational modes have been observed upon the Jahn-Teller transition and at the onset of the subsequent long-range magnetic order. Although MnCr2O4 and CoCr2O4 show multiferroic and magnetoelectric character, no considerable magnetoelasticity was found in spinel compounds without orbital degeneracy as they closely preserve the high-temperature cubic spinel structure even in their magnetic ground state. Aside from lattice vibrations, intra-atomic 3d-3d transitions of the A2+ ions were also investigated to determine the crystal field and Racah parameters and the strength of the spin-orbit coupling.

  17. [Prevalence of sexual dysfunction in primigravidae in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Lima, Adriani Castro de; Dotto, Leila Maria Geromel; Mamede, Marli Villela

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction prior to and during the first pregnancy. This was a cross-sectional study using postpartum interviews with 778 primigravidae who were married or in stable unions and had given birth at the two maternity hospitals in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil, from February 1st to July 31st, 2010. Median age was 20 years, 45% were adolescents, 19% had completed elementary school, 30% had paid jobs, and 86.5% had used public healthcare services (SUS) for childbirth. Prevalence of sexual dysfunction was 23.9% prior to pregnancy and 67.7% during pregnancy. Decreased libido was present in 20.2% prior to pregnancy and 51% during pregnancy. Decreased vaginal lubrication occurred in 29.1% during pregnancy. Dyspareunia was present in 1.2% prior to pregnancy and 14.4% during pregnancy. Some 3.3% reported sexual dissatisfaction prior to pregnancy, as compared to 10.8% during pregnancy. Women with more schooling showed higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction during (as compared to before) their first pregnancy.

  18. ACR appropriateness criteria(®) nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Farzan; Smith, Richard V; Yom, Sue S; Beitler, Jonathan J; Busse, Paul M; Cooper, Jay S; Hanna, Ehab Y; Jones, Christopher U; Koyfman, Shlomo A; Quon, Harry; Ridge, John A; Saba, Nabil F; Worden, Francis; Yao, Min; Salama, Joseph K

    2017-03-01

    The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Here, we present the Appropriateness Criteria for cancers arising in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (maxillary, sphenoid, and ethmoid sinuses). This includes clinical presentation, prognostic factors, principles of management, and treatment outcomes. Controversies regarding management of cervical lymph nodes are discussed. Rare and unusual nasal cavity cancers, such as esthesioneuroblastoma and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas, are included. © 2016 American College of Radiology. Head Neck, 2016 © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 407-418, 2017.

  19. Exploring Bikeability in a Suburban Metropolitan Area Using the Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES)

    PubMed Central

    Wahlgren, Lina; Schantz, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Commuting by bicycle could contribute to public health, and route environments may influence this behaviour. Therefore, the aim of this study is to assess the potential associations between appraisals of the overall route environment as hindering or stimulating for bicycle commuting, with both perceptions of commuting route environmental factors in a suburban area and background factors. Methods: The Active Commuting Route Environment Scale (ACRES) was used for the assessment of bicycle commuters’ perceptions and appraisals of their route environments in the suburban parts of Greater Stockholm, Sweden. A simultaneous multiple regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between the outcome variable whether the overall route environment hinders or stimulates bicycle commuting and environmental factors (e.g., exhaust fumes, speeds of motor vehicles, greenery), as well as background factors (sex, age, education, income) as predictor variables. Results and Conclusions: The results indicate that in suburban areas, the factors aesthetics, greenery and bicycle paths seem to be, independently of each other, stimulating factors for bicycle commuting. On the other hand, flows of motor vehicles, noise, and low “directness” of the route seem to be hindering factors. A comparison of these results with those obtained from an inner urban area points to the importance of studying different types of built-up areas separately. PMID:25153462

  20. Actionable findings and the role of IT support: report of the ACR Actionable Reporting Work Group.

    PubMed

    Larson, Paul A; Berland, Lincoln L; Griffith, Brent; Kahn, Charles E; Liebscher, Lawrence A

    2014-06-01

    The ACR formed the Actionable Reporting Work Group to address the potential role of IT in the communication of imaging findings, especially in cases that require nonroutine communication because of the urgency of the findings or their unexpected nature. These findings that require special communication with referring clinicians are classified as "actionable findings." The work group defines 3 categories of actionable findings that require, respectively, communication and clinical decision within minutes (category 1), hours (category 2), or days (category 3). Although the work group does not believe that there can be definitive lists of such findings, it developed lists in each category that would apply in most general hospital settings. For each category, the work group discusses ways in which IT can assist interpreting radiologists in successfully communicating to the relevant clinicians to ensure optimal patient care. IT systems can also help document the communication and facilitate auditing of the documentation. The work group recommends that vendors develop platforms that can be customized on the basis of local preferences and needs. Whatever system is used, it should be highly reliable and fit seamlessly into radiologists' workflow.

  1. Kidney Function and Cerebral Blood Flow: The Rotterdam Study.

    PubMed

    Sedaghat, Sanaz; Vernooij, Meike W; Loehrer, Elizabeth; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Hofman, Albert; van der Lugt, Aad; Franco, Oscar H; Dehghan, Abbas; Ikram, M Arfan

    2016-03-01

    CKD is linked with various brain disorders. Whereas brain integrity is dependent on cerebral perfusion, the association between kidney function and cerebral blood flow has yet to be determined. This study was performed in the framework of the population-based Rotterdam Study and included 2645 participants with mean age of 56.6 years (45% men). We used eGFR and albumin-to-creatinine ratio to assess kidney function and performed phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging of basilar and carotid arteries to measure cerebral blood flow. Participants had an average (SD) eGFR of 86.3 (13.4) ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and a median (interquartile range) albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 3.4 (2.2-6.1) mg/g. In age- and sex-adjusted models, a higher albumin-to-creatinine ratio was associated with lower cerebral blood flow level (difference in cerebral blood flow [milliliters per minute per 100 ml] per doubling of the albumin-to-creatinine ratio, -0.31; 95% confidence interval, -0.58 to -0.03). The association was not present after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (P=0.10). Each 1 SD lower eGFR was associated with 0.42 ml/min per 100 ml lower cerebral blood flow (95% confidence interval, 0.01 to 0.83) adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Thus, in this population-based study, we observed that lower eGFR is independently associated with lower cerebral blood flow.

  2. Meta-Analysis of the Effect of Dietary Sodium Restriction with or without Concomitant Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System–Inhibiting Treatment on Albuminuria

    PubMed Central

    D’Elia, Lanfranco; Rossi, Giovanni; Schiano di Cola, Michele; Savino, Ivana; Galletti, Ferruccio

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Urinary albumin excretion and/or albumin to creatinine ratio are associated with CKD and higher risk of cardiovascular events. Several studies investigated the effect of reduced dietary sodium intake on urinary albumin excretion and/or albumin to creatinine ratio in adult patient populations, but the majority was inconclusive because of insufficient statistical power. A meta-analysis of the randomized, controlled trials available could overcome this problem and lead to more definitive conclusions. Design, setting, participants, & measurements A systematic search of the online databases available (from 1996 to October of 2014) was conducted of randomized, controlled trials that expressed urinary albumin excretion or albumin to creatinine ratio as the difference between the effects of two different sodium intake regimens. For each study, the mean difference and 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random effect model. Heterogeneity, publication bias, subgroup, and meta-regression analyses were performed. Results Eleven studies met the predefined inclusion criteria and provided 23 cohorts with 516 participants and 1–6 weeks of follow-up time. In the pooled analysis, an average reduction in sodium intake of 92 mmol/d was associated with a 32.1% (95% confidence interval, −44.3 to −18.8) reduction in urinary albumin excretion. The effect of sodium restriction was higher in the cohorts including patients on concomitant renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system–blocking therapy, in the studies with intervention lasting at least 2 weeks, and among participants with evidence of kidney damage. A greater reduction of urinary albumin excretion was associated with a higher decrease in BP during the intervention. The analysis of changes in albumin to creatinine ratio provided similar results. Conclusions This meta-analysis indicates that sodium intake reduction markedly reduces albumin excretion, more so during concomitant renin

  3. Direct interaction of multidrug efflux transporter AcrB and outer membrane channel TolC detected via site-directed disulfide cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Norihisa; Murakami, Satoshi; Oyama, Yoshiaki; Ishiguro, Masaji; Yamaguchi, Akihito

    2005-08-23

    The AcrAB-TolC system exports a wide variety of drugs and toxic compounds, and confers intrinsic drug tolerance on Escherichia coli. The crystal structures suggested that AcrB and TolC directly dock with each other. However, biochemical and biophysical evidence of their interaction has been contradictory until recently. In this study, we examine the interaction sites by means of in vivo disulfide cross-linking between cysteine residues introduced by site-directed mutagenesis at the tops of the vertical hairpins of AcrB and the bottoms of the coiled coils of polyhistidine-tagged TolC molecules, which are structurally predicted docking sites. The AcrB-TolC complex formed through disulfide cross-linking was detected when a specific pair of mutants was coexpressed in E. coli. Our observations suggested that the AcrB-TolC complex may be formed through a two-step mechanism via transient tip-to-tip interaction of AcrB and TolC. The cross-linking was not affected by AcrA, the substrate, or a putative proton coupling site mutation.

  4. Role of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump in determining susceptibility of Haemophilus influenzae to the novel peptide deformylase inhibitor LBM415.

    PubMed

    Dean, Charles R; Narayan, Shubha; Daigle, Denis M; Dzink-Fox, JoAnn L; Puyang, Xiaoling; Bracken, Kathryn R; Dean, Karl E; Weidmann, Beat; Yuan, Zhengyu; Jain, Rakesh; Ryder, Neil S

    2005-08-01

    Haemophilus influenzae isolates vary widely in their susceptibilities to the peptide deformylase inhibitor LBM415 (MIC range, 0.06 to 32 microg/ml); however, on average, they are less susceptible than gram-positive organisms, such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Insertional inactivation of the H. influenzae acrB or tolC gene in strain NB65044 (Rd strain KW20) increased susceptibility to LBM415, confirming a role for the AcrAB-TolC pump in determining resistance. Consistent with this, sequencing of a PCR fragment generated with primers flanking the acrRA region from an LBM415-hypersusceptible H. influenzae clinical isolate revealed a genetic deletion of acrA. Inactivation of acrB or tolC in several clinical isolates with atypically reduced susceptibility to LBM415 (MIC of 16 microg/ml or greater) significantly increased susceptibility, confirming that the pump is also a determinant of decreased susceptibility in these clinical isolates. Examination of acrR, encoding the putative repressor of pump gene expression, from several of these strains revealed mutations introducing frameshifts, stop codons, and amino acid changes relative to the published sequence, suggesting that loss of pump repression leads to decreased susceptibility. Supporting this, NB65044 acrR mutants selected by exposure to LBM415 at 8 microg/ml had susceptibilities to LBM415 and other pump substrates comparable to the least sensitive clinical isolates and showed increased expression of pump genes.

  5. Bidirectional ACR-NEMA interface between the VA's DHCP integrated imaging system and the Siemens-Loral PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmak, Peter M.; Dayhoff, Ruth E.

    1994-05-01

    At the Baltimore VA Medical Center, the DHCP Integrated Imaging System and a commercial Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) work in concert to provide a wide- range of departmental and hospital-wide imaging capabilities. An interface between the DHCP and the Siemens-Loral PACS systems enables patient text and image data to be passed between the two systems. The interface uses ACR-NEMA 2.0 Standard messages extended with shadow groups based on draft ACR-NEMA 3.0 prototypes. A Novell file server, accessible to both systems via Ethernet, is used to communicate all the messages. Patient identification information, orders, ADT, procedure status, changes, patient reports, and images are sent between the two systems across the interface. The systems together provide an extensive set of imaging capabilities for both the specialist and the general practitioner.

  6. Switch-Loop Flexibility Affects Transport of Large Drugs by the Promiscuous AcrB Multidrug Efflux Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Hi-jea; Müller, Reinke T.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug efflux transporters recognize a variety of structurally unrelated compounds for which the molecular basis is poorly understood. For the resistance nodulation and cell division (RND) inner membrane component AcrB of the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux system from Escherichia coli, drug binding occurs at the access and deep binding pockets. These two binding areas are separated by an 11-amino-acid-residue-containing switch loop whose conformational flexibility is speculated to be essential for drug binding and transport. A G616N substitution in the switch loop has a distinct and local effect on the orientation of the loop and on the ability to transport larger drugs. Here, we report a distinct phenotypical pattern of drug recognition and transport for the G616N variant, indicating that drug substrates with minimal projection areas of >70 Å2 are less well transported than other substrates. PMID:24914123

  7. 3D structure of AcrB: the archetypal multidrug efflux transporter of Escherichia coli likely captures substrates from periplasm.

    PubMed

    Elkins, Christopher A; Nikaido, Hiroshi

    2003-02-01

    Recent advances in structural biology have extended our understanding of the multiple drug efflux complex, AcrAB-TolC, of Escherichia coli. This tripartite complex and its homologs are the major mechanisms that give most Gram-negative bacteria their characteristic intrinsic resistance to a variety of lipophilic drugs, dyes, and detergents. Most recently, the structure of the transporter AcrB was elucidated at high resolution [Nature 419(2002)587]. It is a particularly significant achievement since integral membrane proteins are notoriously elusive structures for crystallography. The striking features of this trimeric pump, such as the presence of potential substrate-binding sites in the periplasmic domain and the possibility of direct interaction with the end of TolC tunnel, refine our understanding of the mode of action of this tripartite efflux transport complex.

  8. The terrestrial and marine observations enabling historical reanalyses: the ACRE Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allan, Rob; Brohan, Philip

    2010-05-01

    Weather observations and reanalysis are perfect partners: the observations make the reanalysis possible, and the reanalysis makes optimal use of the observations in producing the comprehensive picture of the atmosphere required by both climate scientists and a host of other users. The new generation of surface-input-only reanalyses (20th Century Reanalysis Project: 1891-2006, 20th Century Reanalysis Project: 1871-2008, Surface Input Reanalysis for Climate Applications [SIRCA]: 1850-2011 and Chemical and Surface Input Reanalysis for Climate Applications [CSIRCA]: 1800-2016) therefore present both a challenge and an opportunity to observations specialists: they require an unprecedented increase in the available datasets of surface barometric pressure, sea surface temperature and sea-ice; but offer a chance to synthesise terrestrial and marine observations into a much more detailed picture of climate variability and change. The international Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth (ACRE) initiative is supporting this work, both undertaking and facilitating the global recovery, imaging, digitizing, quality control and archiving of daily to sub-daily global historical terrestrial and marine surface weather observations. In this presentation, we provide an overview of the international historical terrestrial and marine data activities required to produce the quality and quantity of weather data needed in order to undertake viable historical surface-input-only historical reanalyses, ultimately extending back over the last 200 or so years. This endeavor has only been made possible because of ACRE's efforts to agglomerate a combination of the results of ongoing international data recovery initiatives, some as existing data rescue projects, and other new initiatives focusing on particular regions or countries around the world. Numerous elements and interactions are involved in such a vast enterprise, with careful consideration required in working with

  9. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic characterization of LmACR2, an arsenate/antimonate reductase from Leishmania major

    SciTech Connect

    Bisacchi, Davide; Zhou, Yao; Rosen, Barry P.; Mukhopadhyay, Rita; Bordo, Domenico

    2006-10-01

    LmACR2 from L. major is the first rhodanese-like enzyme directly involved in the reduction of arsenate and antimonate to be crystallized. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.99 Å resolution using synchrotron X-rays. Arsenic is present in the biosphere owing either to the presence of pesticides and herbicides used in agricultural and industrial activities or to leaching from geological formations. The health effects of prolonged exposure to arsenic can be devastating and may lead to various forms of cancer. Antimony(V), which is chemically very similar to arsenic, is used instead in the treatment of leishmaniasis, an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania sp.; the reduction of pentavalent antimony contained in the drug Pentostam to the active trivalent form arises from the presence in the Leishmania genome of a gene, LmACR2, coding for the protein LmACR2 (14.5 kDa, 127 amino acids) that displays weak but significant sequence similarity to the catalytic domain of Cdc25 phosphatase and to rhodanese enzymes. For structural characterization, LmACR2 was overexpressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized in a trigonal space group (P321 or P3{sub 1}21/P3{sub 2}21). The protein crystallized in two distinct trigonal crystal forms, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 111.0, c = 86.1 Å and a = b = 111.0, c = 175.6 Å, respectively. At a synchrotron beamline, the diffraction pattern extended to a resolution limit of 1.99 Å.

  10. Improving olefin tolerance and production in E. coli using native and evolved AcrB

    SciTech Connect

    Mingardon, Florence; Clement, Camille; Hirano, Kathleen; Nhan, Melissa; Luning, Eric G.; Chanal, Angelique; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila

    2015-01-20

    Microorganisms can be engineered for the production of chemicals utilized in the polymer industry. However many such target compounds inhibit microbial growth and might correspondingly limit production levels. Here, we focus on compounds that are precursors to bioplastics, specifically styrene and representative alpha-olefins; 1-hexene, 1-octene, and 1-nonene. We evaluated the role of the Escherichia coli efflux pump, AcrAB-TolC, in enhancing tolerance towards these olefin compounds. AcrAB-TolC is involved in the tolerance towards all four compounds in E. coli. Both styrene and 1-hexene are highly toxic to E. coli. Styrene is a model plastics precursor with an established route for production in E. coli (McKenna and Nielsen, 2011). Though our data indicates that AcrAB-TolC is important for its optimal production, we observed a strong negative selection against the production of styrene in E. coli. Thus we used 1-hexene as a model compound to implement a directed evolution strategy to further improve the tolerance phenotype towards this alpha-olefin. We focused on optimization of AcrB, the inner membrane domain known to be responsible for substrate binding, and found several mutations (A279T, Q584R, F617L, L822P, F927S, and F1033Y) that resulted in improved tolerance. Several of these mutations could also be combined in a synergistic manner. Our study shows efflux pumps to be an important mechanism in host engineering for olefins, and one that can be further improved using strategies such as directed evolution, to increase tolerance and potentially production.

  11. Role of Aspergillus niger acrA in Arsenic Resistance and Its Use as the Basis for an Arsenic Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Se-In; Gravelat, Fabrice N.; Al Abdallah, Qusai; Lee, Mark J.; Gibbs, Bernard F.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater sources is a major issue worldwide, since exposure to high levels of arsenic has been linked to a variety of health problems. Effective methods of detection are thus greatly needed as preventive measures. In an effort to develop a fungal biosensor for arsenic, we first identified seven putative arsenic metabolism and transport genes in Aspergillus niger, a widely used industrial organism that is generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Among the genes tested for RNA expression in response to arsenate, acrA, encoding a putative plasma membrane arsenite efflux pump, displayed an over 200-fold increase in gene expression in response to arsenate. We characterized the function of this A. niger protein in arsenic efflux by gene knockout and confirmed that AcrA was located at the cell membrane using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fusion construct. Based on our observations, we developed a putative biosensor strain containing a construct of the native promoter of acrA fused with egfp. We analyzed the fluorescence of this biosensor strain in the presence of arsenic using confocal microscopy and spectrofluorimetry. The biosensor strain reliably detected both arsenite and arsenate in the range of 1.8 to 180 μg/liter, which encompasses the threshold concentrations for drinking water set by the World Health Organization (10 and 50 μg/liter). PMID:22467499

  12. Role of Aspergillus niger acrA in arsenic resistance and its use as the basis for an arsenic biosensor.

    PubMed

    Choe, Se-In; Gravelat, Fabrice N; Al Abdallah, Qusai; Lee, Mark J; Gibbs, Bernard F; Sheppard, Donald C

    2012-06-01

    Arsenic contamination of groundwater sources is a major issue worldwide, since exposure to high levels of arsenic has been linked to a variety of health problems. Effective methods of detection are thus greatly needed as preventive measures. In an effort to develop a fungal biosensor for arsenic, we first identified seven putative arsenic metabolism and transport genes in Aspergillus niger, a widely used industrial organism that is generally regarded as safe (GRAS). Among the genes tested for RNA expression in response to arsenate, acrA, encoding a putative plasma membrane arsenite efflux pump, displayed an over 200-fold increase in gene expression in response to arsenate. We characterized the function of this A. niger protein in arsenic efflux by gene knockout and confirmed that AcrA was located at the cell membrane using an enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) fusion construct. Based on our observations, we developed a putative biosensor strain containing a construct of the native promoter of acrA fused with egfp. We analyzed the fluorescence of this biosensor strain in the presence of arsenic using confocal microscopy and spectrofluorimetry. The biosensor strain reliably detected both arsenite and arsenate in the range of 1.8 to 180 μg/liter, which encompasses the threshold concentrations for drinking water set by the World Health Organization (10 and 50 μg/liter).

  13. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of fostamatinib efficacy on ACR20 to support dose selection in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

    PubMed

    Maringwa, John; Kågedal, Matts; Hamrén, Ulrika Wählby; Martin, Paul; Cox, Eugène; Hamrén, Bengt

    2015-03-01

    R788 (fostamatinib) is an oral prodrug that is rapidly converted into a relatively selective spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK) inhibitor R406, evaluated for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This analysis aimed at developing a pharmacodynamic model for efficacy using pooled ACR20 data from two phase II studies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (TASKi1 and TASKi2), describing the effect of fostamatinib as a function of fostamatinib exposure (dose, R406 plasma concentration) and other explanatory variables. The exposure-response relationship of fostamatinib was implemented into a continuous time Markov model describing the time course of transition probabilities between the three possible states of ACR20 non-responder, responder, and dropout at each visit. The probability of transition to the ACR20 response state was linearly (at the rate constant level) related to average R406 plasma concentrations and the onset of this drug effect was fast. Further, increases of fostamatinib dose resulted in increased dropout and subsequent loss of efficacy. This analysis provided an increased understanding of the exposure-response relationship, and provided support for fostamatinib 100 mg BID an appropriate dose regimen for further clinical evaluation.

  14. Hydrologic effects of annually diverting 131,000 acre-feet of water from Dillon Reservoir, central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alley, William M.; Bauer, D.P.; Veenhuis, J.E.; Brennan, Robert

    1979-01-01

    Because of the increased demands for water in eastern Colorado, principally in the urbanizing Denver metropolitan area, increased diversions of water from Dillon Reservoir are planned. Estimates of end-of-month storage in Dillon Reservoir, assuming the reservoir was in place and 131,000 acre-feet of water were diverted from the reservoir each year, were reconstructed by mass balance for the 1931-77 water years. Based on the analysis, the annual maximum end-of-month drawdown below the elevation at full storage would have averaged 54 feet. The maximum end-of-month drawdown below the elevation at full storage would have been 171 feet. The mean-annual discharge-weighted dissolved-solids concentrations in the Colorado River near Glenwood Springs and Cameo, Colo., and Cisco, Utah, for the 1942-77 water years, were computed assuming an annual diversion of 131,000 acre-feet of water from Dillon Reservoir. The average increases in the dissolved-solids concentrations with the 131 ,000-acre-foot diversion were 15 to 16 milligrams per liter at the three sites. (Woodard-USGS)

  15. The ACR20 and defining a threshold for response in rheumatic diseases: too much of a good thing.

    PubMed

    Felson, David T; LaValley, Michael P

    2014-01-03

    In the past 20 years great progress has been made in the development of multidimensional outcome measures (such as the Disease Activity Score and ACR20) to evaluate treatments in rheumatoid arthritis, a process disseminated throughout rheumatic diseases. These outcome measures have standardized the assessment of outcomes in trials, making it possible to evaluate and compare the efficacy of treatments. The methodologic advances have included the selection of pre-existing outcome measures that detected change in a sensitive fashion (in rheumatoid arthritis, this was the Core Set Measures). These measures were then combined into a single multidimensional outcome measure and such outcome measures have been widely adopted in trials and endorsed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and regulatory agencies. The secular improvement in treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis has been facilitated in part by these major methodologic advancements. The one element of this effort that has not optimized measurement of outcomes nor made it easier to detect the effect of treatments is the dichotomization of continuous measures of response, creating responders and non-responder definitions (for example, ACR20 responders; EULAR good responders). Dichotomizing response sacrifices statistical power and eliminates variability in response. Future methodologic work will need to focus on improving multidimensional outcome measurement without arbitrarily characterizing some patients as responders while labeling others as non-responders.

  16. Increased urine semaphorin-3A is associated with renal damage in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease: a nested case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Ganesan; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Leoncini, Giovanna; Garneri, Debora; Pontremoli, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Background Semaphorins are guidance proteins implicated in several processes such as angiogenesis, organogenesis, cell migration, and cytokine release. Experimental studies showed that semaphorin-3a (SEMA3A) administration induces transient massive proteinuria, podocyte foot process effacement and endothelial cell damage in healthy animals. While SEMA3A signaling has been demonstrated to be mechanistically involved in experimental diabetic glomerulopathy and in acute kidney injury, to date its role in human chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been investigated. Methods To test the hypothesis that SEMA3A may play a role in human CKD, we performed a cross-sectional, nested, case–control study on 151 matched hypertensive patients with and without CKD. SEMA3A was quantified in the urine (USEMA) by ELISA. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) by the CKD-EPI formula and albuminuria was measured as albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). Results USEMA levels were positively correlated with urine ACR (p = 0.001) and serum creatinine (p < 0.001). USEMA was higher in patients with both components of renal damage as compared to those with only one and those with normal renal function (p < 0.007 and <0.001, respectively). The presence of increased USEMA levels (i.e. top quartile) entailed a fourfold higher risk of combined renal damage (p < 0.001) and an almost twofold higher risk of macroalbuminuria (p = 0.005) or of reduced eGFR, even adjusting for confounding factors (p = 0.002). Conclusions USEMA is independently associated with CKD in both diabetic and non diabetic hypertensive patients. Further studies may help clarify the mechanisms underlying this association and possibly the pathogenic changes leading to the development of CKD. PMID:24756974

  17. Microvascular Outcomes after Metabolic Surgery (MOMS) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and class I obesity: rationale and design for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Ricardo Vitor; Pereira, Tiago Veiga; Aboud, Cristina Mamédio; Caravatto, Pedro Paulo de Paris; Petry, Tarissa Beatrice Zanata; Correa, José Luis Lopes; Schiavon, Carlos Aurélio; Correa, Mariangela; Pompílio, Carlos Eduardo; Pechy, Fernando Nogueira Quirino; le Roux, Carel

    2017-01-01

    Introduction There are several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that have already shown that metabolic/bariatric surgery achieves short-term and long-term glycaemic control while there are no level 1A of evidence data regarding the effects of surgery on the microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Purpose The aim of this trial is to investigate the long-term efficacy and safety of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) plus the best medical treatment (BMT) versus the BMT alone to improve microvascular outcomes in patients with T2DM with a body mass index (BMI) of 30–34.9 kg/m2. Methods and analysis This study design includes a unicentric randomised unblinded controlled trial. 100 patients (BMI from 30 to 34.9 kg/m2) will be randomly allocated to receive either RYGB plus BMT or BMT alone. The primary outcome is the change in the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) captured as the proportion of patients who achieved nephropathy remission (uACR<30 mg/g of albumin/mg of creatinine) in an isolated urine sample over 12, 24 and 60 months. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the local Institutional Review Board. This study represents the first RCT comparing RYGB plus BMT versus BMT alone for patients with T2DM with a BMI below 35 kg/m2. Trial registration number NCT01821508; Pre-results. PMID:28077412

  18. Offer/Acceptance Ratio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Mimi

    1997-01-01

    Explores how human resource professionals, with above average offer/acceptance ratios, streamline their recruitment efforts. Profiles company strategies with internships, internal promotion, cooperative education programs, and how to get candidates to accept offers. Also discusses how to use the offer/acceptance ratio as a measure of program…

  19. Comparison of carcass yields and meat quality between Baicheng-You chickens and Arbor Acres broilers.

    PubMed

    Sarsenbek, A; Wang, T; Zhao, J K; Jiang, W

    2013-10-01

    This study examined carcass yields and meat quality traits between Baicheng-You (BCY) chickens and Arbor Acres (AA) broilers. Thirty birds for each strain were selected and slaughtered at market ages of 49 d for AA broilers and 120 d for BCY. The results showed that BCY chickens had lower dressing (2.99%), semi-evisceration (5.10%), breast muscle (5.80%), and abdominal fat (1.55%) than those for AA broilers (P < 0.05). However, the leg muscle (%) of BCY chickens was greater (3.14%) than that of AA broilers (P < 0.05). The meat pH45min and pH24h value variations of these 2 breeds were within the normal range (5.53-6.70). The meat color density (optical density, OD) of thigh muscle was darker than breast muscles in both strains (P < 0.05). The cooking loss (%) of breast and thigh muscles of BCY chickens (18.81 and 20.20%, respectively) was also significantly lower (P < 0.05) than that of same muscles of AA broilers (26.41 and 27.33%, respectively). The shear force of breast meat in both breeds was lower (P < 0.05) than that of their thigh meat. The moisture of breast muscle of BCY chickens (72.93%) was lower (P < 0.05) than breast muscles of AA broilers (74.43%). The CP content of breast muscles was greater (P < 0.05) than its thigh muscles of same strain, but it had no significant (P > 0.05) difference of CP content in the same muscles of the 2 strains. The intramuscular fat (IMF) content was greater (P < 0.05) in thigh muscles of BCY chickens (6.80%) than those of AA broilers (4.28%), and inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) content was greater (P < 0.05) in breast and thigh muscles of BCY chickens (IMP: 3.79 and 1.47 mg/g) than same muscles in AA broilers (1.42 and 0.47 mg/g). In this study, muscle from 120-d-old BCY chickens was judged to have better quality traits with regard to cooking loss, drip loss, contents of IMF, and IMP compared with meat from 42-d-old AA broilers. At the same time, greater carcass yields, greater thigh pH24, and lower IMF content were

  20. High Aspect Ratio Wrinkles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Cheng; Crosby, Alfred

    2015-03-01

    Buckling-induced surface undulations are widely found in living creatures, for instance, gut villi and the surface of flower petal cells. These undulations provide unique functionalities with their extremely high aspect ratios. For the synthetic systems, sinusoidal wrinkles that are induced by buckling a thin film attached on a soft substrate have been proposed to many applications. However, the impact of the synthetic wrinkles have been restricted by limited aspect ratios, ranging from 0 to 0.35. Within this range, wrinkle aspect ratio is known to increase with increasing compressive strain until a critical strain is reached, at which point wrinkles transition to localizations, such as folds or period doublings. Inspired by the living creatures, we propose that wrinkles can be stabilized in high aspect ratio by manipulating the strain energy in the substrate. We experimentally demonstrate this idea by forming a secondary crosslinking network in the wrinkled surface and successfully achieve aspect ratio as large as 0.8. This work not only provides insights for the mechanism of high aspect ratio structures seen in living creatures, but also demonstrates significant promise for future wrinkle-based applications.

  1. The AcrAB-TolC pump is involved in macrolide resistance but not in telithromycin efflux in Enterobacter aerogenes and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chollet, Renaud; Chevalier, Jacqueline; Bryskier, André; Pagès, Jean-Marie

    2004-09-01

    The role of the AcrAB-TolC pump in macrolide and ketolide susceptibility in Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes was studied. Efflux pump inhibitor restored erythromycin, clarithromycin, and telithromycin susceptibilities to multidrug-resistant isolates. No modification of telithromycin accumulation was detected in E. aerogenes acrAB or tolC derivatives compared to that in the parental strain. Two independent efflux pumps, inhibited by phenylalanine arginine beta-naphthylamide, expel macrolides and telithromycin in E. aerogenes.

  2. 43 CFR 2885.20 - How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers? 2885.20 Section 2885.20 Public Lands: Interior... and TUPs § 2885.20 How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre...

  3. 43 CFR 2885.20 - How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers? 2885.20 Section 2885.20 Public Lands: Interior... and TUPs § 2885.20 How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre...

  4. 43 CFR 2885.20 - How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers? 2885.20 Section 2885.20 Public Lands: Interior... and TUPs § 2885.20 How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre...

  5. 43 CFR 2885.20 - How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre Rent Schedule covers? 2885.20 Section 2885.20 Public Lands: Interior... and TUPs § 2885.20 How will the BLM calculate my rent for linear rights-of-way the Per Acre...

  6. Loop-to-helix transition in the structure of multidrug regulator AcrR at the entrance of the drug-binding cavity

    SciTech Connect

    Manjasetty, Babu A.; Halavaty, Andrei S.; Luan, Chi-Hao; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Mulligan, Rory; Kwon, Keehwan; Anderson, Wayne F.; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Multidrug transcription regulator AcrR from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium str. LT2 belongs to the tetracycline repressor family, one of the largest groups of bacterial transcription factors. The crystal structure of dimeric AcrR was determined and refined to 1.56 Å resolution. The tertiary and quaternary structures of AcrR are similar to those of its homologs. The multidrug binding site was identified based on structural alignment with homologous proteins and has a di(hydroxyethyl)ether molecule bound. Residues from helices a4 and a7 shape the entry into this binding site. The structure of AcrR reveals that the extended helical conformation of helix a4 is stabilized by the hydrogen bond between Glu67 (helix a4) and Gln130 (helix a7). Based on the structural comparison with the closest homolog structure, the Escherichia coli AcrR, we propose that this hydrogen bond is responsible for control of the loop-to-helix transition within helix a4. This local conformational switch of helix a4 may be a key step in accessing the multidrug binding site and securing ligands at the binding site. Solution smallmolecule binding studies suggest that AcrR binds ligands with their core chemical structure resembling the tetracyclic ring of cholesterol.

  7. A fluorescent microplate assay quantifies bacterial efflux and demonstrates two distinct compound binding sites in AcrB.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Ramkumar; Ferrari, Annette; Rijnbrand, R; Erwin, Alice L

    2015-04-01

    A direct assay of efflux by Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC and related multidrug pumps would have great value in discovery of new Gram-negative antibiotics. The current understanding of how efflux is affected by the chemical structure and physical properties of molecules is extremely limited, derived from antibacterial data for compounds that inhibit growth of wild-type E. coli. We adapted a previously described fluorescent efflux assay to a 96-well microplate format that measured the ability of test compounds to compete for efflux with Nile Red (an environment-sensitive fluor), independent of antibacterial activity. We show that Nile Red and the lipid-sensitive probe DiBAC4-(3) [bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)-trimethine oxonol] can quantify efflux competition in E. coli. We extend the previous findings that the tetracyclines compete with Nile Red and show that DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides. The extent of the competition shows a modest correlation with the effect of the acrB deletion on MICs within the compound sets for both dyes. Crystallographic studies identified at least two substrate binding sites in AcrB, the proximal and distal pockets. High-molecular-mass substrates bound the proximal pocket, while low-mass substrates occupied the distal pocket. As DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides but not with Nile Red, we propose that DiBAC4-(3) binds the proximal pocket and Nile Red likely binds the distal site. In conclusion, competition with fluorescent probes can be used to study the efflux process for diverse chemical structures and may provide information as to the site of binding and, in some cases, enable rank-ordering a series of related compounds by efflux.

  8. A Fluorescent Microplate Assay Quantifies Bacterial Efflux and Demonstrates Two Distinct Compound Binding Sites in AcrB

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Annette; Rijnbrand, R.; Erwin, Alice L.

    2015-01-01

    A direct assay of efflux by Escherichia coli AcrAB-TolC and related multidrug pumps would have great value in discovery of new Gram-negative antibiotics. The current understanding of how efflux is affected by the chemical structure and physical properties of molecules is extremely limited, derived from antibacterial data for compounds that inhibit growth of wild-type E. coli. We adapted a previously described fluorescent efflux assay to a 96-well microplate format that measured the ability of test compounds to compete for efflux with Nile Red (an environment-sensitive fluor), independent of antibacterial activity. We show that Nile Red and the lipid-sensitive probe DiBAC4-(3) [bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)-trimethine oxonol] can quantify efflux competition in E. coli. We extend the previous findings that the tetracyclines compete with Nile Red and show that DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides. The extent of the competition shows a modest correlation with the effect of the acrB deletion on MICs within the compound sets for both dyes. Crystallographic studies identified at least two substrate binding sites in AcrB, the proximal and distal pockets. High-molecular-mass substrates bound the proximal pocket, while low-mass substrates occupied the distal pocket. As DiBAC4-(3) competes with macrolides but not with Nile Red, we propose that DiBAC4-(3) binds the proximal pocket and Nile Red likely binds the distal site. In conclusion, competition with fluorescent probes can be used to study the efflux process for diverse chemical structures and may provide information as to the site of binding and, in some cases, enable rank-ordering a series of related compounds by efflux. PMID:25645845

  9. Urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, an early marker of diabetic kidney disease, might reflect glucose excursion in patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Ra; Lee, Yong-ho; Lee, Sang-Guk; Kang, Eun Seok; Cha, Bong-Soo; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Lee, Byung-Wan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recently, several renal tubular damage markers have gained considerable attention because of their clinical implications as sensitive and specific biomarkers for early stage diabetic kidney disease. However, little is known about the demographic and glucometabolic factors affecting levels of urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), a marker of proximal tubular damage, in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical relevance of urinary NAG with regard to demographic and glucometabolic parameters, as well as nephropathic parameters, by comparing the glomerulopathic marker of albuminuria. In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we enrolled a total of 592 patients with either prediabetes (N = 29) or T2DM (N = 563). Glucometabolic parameters (glucose, hemoglobin A1c, glycated albumin [GA], insulin, C-peptide, homeostasis model assessment [HOMA] of insulin resistance, HOMA-β, postprandial C-peptide-to-glucose ratio [PCGR], and urinary glucose-to-creatinine ratio) and nephropathic parameters (urinary NAG, albumin-to-creatinine ratio [ACR], and estimated glomerular filtration rate) were measured. The levels of urinary NAG showed moderate positive correlation with the levels of urinary ACR in T2DM (r = 0.46). In correlation analysis, urinary NAG was more strongly correlated with body mass index (BMI) (r = −0.22; P < 0.001 vs. r = −0.02; P = 0.74), plasma stimulated glucose (r = 0.25; P < 0.001 vs. r = 0.08; P = 0.10), GA (r = 0.20; P < 0.001 vs. r = 0.13; P = 0.01), PCGR (r = −0.17; P = 0.001 vs. r = −0.09; P = 0.11), and HOMA-β (r = −0.10; P = 0.05 vs. r = −0.02; P = 0.79) than urinary ACR. In multiple regression analysis, age, lower BMI, stimulated glucose, GA, and urinary ACR predicted increased urinary NAG. In conclusion, increase in urinary NAG may be related to glycemic parameters reflecting glucose fluctuation and decreased insulin secretory capacity in patients with T2DM. Further

  10. Ratio imaging instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Kenneth; Maxfield, Frederick R

    2003-01-01

    Using ratio imaging to obtain quantitative information from microscope images is a powerful tool that has been used successfully in numerous studies. Although ratio imaging reduces the effects of many parameters that can interfere with accurate measurements, it is not a panacea. In designing a ratio imaging experiment, all of the potential problems discussed in this chapter must be considered. Undoubtedly, other problems that were not discussed can also interfere with accurate and meaningful measurements. Many of the problems discussed here were observed in the authors' laboratories. In our experience there are no standard routines or methods that can foresee every problem before it has been encountered. Good experimental design can minimize problems, but the investigator must continue to be alert. Progress in instrumentation continues to overcome some of the difficulties encountered in ratio imaging. CCD cameras with 12- to 14-bit pixel depth are being used more frequently, and several confocal microscope manufacturers are now also using 12-bit digitization. The dramatic increase in the use of confocal microscopes over the past decade is now causing microscope manufacturers to more critically evaluate the effect of axial chromatic aberration in objectives, and recent designs to minimize this problem are being implemented. Other developments such as the use of AOTFs to attenuate laser lines extend the applicability of ratio imaging. Ratio imaging is clearly applicable to a wide range of cell biological problems beyond its widespread use for measuring ion concentrations. Imaginative but careful use of this technique should continue to provide novel insights into the properties of cells.

  11. TU-F-CAMPUS-I-04: Head-Only Asymmetric Gradient System Evaluation: ACR Image Quality and Acoustic Noise

    SciTech Connect

    Weavers, P; Shu, Y; Tao, S; Bernstein, M; Lee, S; Piel, J; Foo, T; Mathieu, J-B

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A high-performance head-only magnetic resonance imaging gradient system with an acquisition volume of 26 cm employing an asymmetric design for the transverse coils has been developed. It is able to reach a magnitude of 85 mT/m at a slew rate of 700 T/m/s, but operated at 80 mT/m and 500 T/m/s for this test. A challenge resulting from this asymmetric design is that the gradient nonlinearly exhibits both odd- and even-ordered terms, and as the full imaging field of view is often used, the nonlinearity is pronounced. The purpose of this work is to show the system can produce clinically useful images after an on-site gradient nonlinearity calibration and correction, and show that acoustic noise levels fall within non-significant risk (NSR) limits for standard clinical pulse sequences. Methods: The head-only gradient system was inserted into a standard 3T wide-bore scanner without acoustic damping. The ACR phantom was scanned in an 8-channel receive-only head coil and the standard American College of Radiology (ACR) MRI quality control (QC) test was performed. Acoustic noise levels were measured for several standard pulse sequences. Results: Images acquired with the head-only gradient system passed all ACR MR image quality tests; Both even and odd-order gradient distortion correction terms were required for the asymmetric gradients to pass. Acoustic noise measurements were within FDA NSR guidelines of 99 dBA (with assumed 20 dBA hearing protection) A-weighted and 140 dB for peak for all but one sequence. Note the gradient system was installed without any shroud or acoustic batting. We expect final system integration to greatly reduce noise experienced by the patient. Conclusion: A high-performance head-only asymmetric gradient system operating at 80 mT/m and 500 T/m/s conforms to FDA acoustic noise limits in all but one case, and passes all the ACR MR image quality control tests. This work was supported in part by the NIH grant 5R01EB010065.

  12. Digit ratio in birds.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Michael P; Thorpe, Patrick A; Brown, Barbara M; Sian, Katie

    2008-12-01

    The Homeobox (Hox) genes direct the development of tetrapod digits. The expression of Hox genes may be influenced by endogenous sex steroids during development. Manning (Digit ratio. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2002) predicted that the ratio between the lengths of digits 2 (2D) and 4 (4D) should be sexually dimorphic because prenatal exposure to estrogens and androgens positively influence the lengths of 2D and 4D, respectively. We measured digits and other morphological traits of birds from three orders (Passeriformes, house sparrow, Passer domesticus; tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor; Pscittaciformes, budgerigar, Melopsittacus undulates; Galliformes, chicken, Gallus domesticus) to test this prediction. None were sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D and there were no associations between 2D:4D and other sexually dimorphic traits. When we pooled data from all four species after we averaged right and left side digits from each individual and z-transformed the resulting digit ratios, we found that males had significantly larger 2D:4D than did females. Tetrapods appear to be sexually dimorphic for 2D:4D with 2D:4D larger in males as in some birds and reptiles and 2D:4D smaller in males as in some mammals. The differences between the reptile and mammal lineages in the directionality of 2D:4D may be related to the differences between them in chromosomal sex determination. We suggest that (a) natural selection for a perching foot in the first birds may have overridden the effects of hormones on the development of digit ratio in this group of vertebrates and (b) caution be used in making inferences about prenatal exposure to hormones and digit ratio in birds.

  13. Regulation of marA, soxS, rob, acrAB and micF in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Hartog, Efrat; Ben-Shalom, Lior; Shachar, Dina; Matthews, Karl R; Yaron, Sima

    2008-12-01

    Importance of the overexpression of AcrAB efflux pumps in the low-level resistance of pathogens to antimicrobials requires a better understanding of the AcrAB regulation. The goal of the present research was to study the transcription of acrAB, as well as the genes that play a role in its regulation in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. We monitored the transcription of these genes during growth at 30 degrees C and 37 degrees C, and thoroughly studied the effect of salicylate, paraquat and decanoate. The strengths of the promoters' activities were ordered from strong to weak as micF > rob > acrAB > soxS, marRAB. At both temperatures, marRAB was mainly upregulated by salicylate and decanoate, soxS by paraquat and acrAB and micF by all three compounds. rob was always downregulated. Transcription rates of all promoters were at the greatest level at the beginning of the stationary phase and, except for soxS, levels of transcription and induction were greater at 37 degrees C. Results show that despite the promoters' similar activity and the sequence homology between Escherichia coli and S. typhimurium, regulation of the investigated genes of both strains differed in the response to temperature. This difference was found to be dependent on the promoters' sequence, as the marRAB and acrAB promoters maintained their original dependence on temperature when they were analyzed in the other strain. Hence, it is most likely that the nutrient-limited environment at 37 degrees C in the human body will lead to increased transcription of marA, acrAB and micF in Salmonella, enhancing the resistance properties of the bacteria.

  14. Use of SLICC criteria in a large, diverse lupus registry enables SLE classification of a subset of ACR-designated subjects with incomplete lupus

    PubMed Central

    Aberle, Teresa; Bourn, Rebecka L; Chen, Hua; Roberts, Virginia C; Guthridge, Joel M; Bean, Krista; Robertson, Julie M; Sivils, Kathy L; Rasmussen, Astrid; Liles, Meghan; Merrill, Joan T; Harley, John B; Olsen, Nancy J; Karp, David R; James, Judith A

    2017-01-01

    Objective SLE is traditionally classified using the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria. The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) recently validated an alternative system. This study examined large cohorts of subjects with SLE and incomplete lupus erythematosus (ILE) to compare the impact of ACR and SLICC criteria. Methods Medical records of subjects in the Lupus Family Registry and Repository were reviewed for documentation of 1997 ACR classification criteria, SLICC classification criteria and medication usage. Autoantibodies were assessed by indirect immunofluorescence (ANA, antidouble-stranded DNA), precipitin (Sm) and ELISA (anticardiolipin). Other relevant autoantibodies were detected by precipitin and with a bead-based multiplex assay. Results Of 3575 subjects classified with SLE under at least one system, 3312 (92.6%) were classified as SLE by both systems (SLEboth), 85 only by ACR criteria (SLEACR-only) and 178 only by SLICC criteria (SLESLICC-only). Of 440 subjects meeting 3 ACR criteria, 33.9% (149/440) were SLESLICC-only, while 66.1% (n=291, designated ILE) did not meet the SLICC classification criteria. Under the SLICC system, the complement criterion and the individual autoantibody criteria enabled SLE classification of SLESLICC-only subjects, while SLEACR-only subjects failed to meet SLICC classification due to the combined acute/subacute cutaneous criterion. The SLICC criteria classified more African-American subjects by the leucopenia/lymphopenia criterion than did ACR criteria. Compared with SLEACR-only subjects, SLESLICC-only subjects exhibited similar numbers of affected organ systems, rates of major organ system involvement (∼30%: pulmonary, cardiovascular, renal, neurological) and medication history. Conclusions The SLICC criteria classify more subjects with SLE than ACR criteria; however, individuals with incomplete lupus still exist under SLICC criteria. Subjects who gain SLE classification through SLICC

  15. Software development for ACR-approved phantom-based nuclear medicine tomographic image quality control with cross-platform compatibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Jungsu S.; Choi, Jae Min; Nam, Ki Pyo; Chae, Sun Young; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Kim, Jae Seung

    2015-07-01

    Quality control and quality assurance (QC/QA) have been two of the most important issues in modern nuclear medicine (NM) imaging for both clinical practices and academic research. Whereas quantitative QC analysis software is common to modern positron emission tomography (PET) scanners, the QC of gamma cameras and/or single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanners has not been sufficiently addressed. Although a thorough standard operating process (SOP) for mechanical and software maintenance may help the QC/QA of a gamma camera and SPECT-computed tomography (CT), no previous study has addressed a unified platform or process to decipher or analyze SPECT phantom images acquired from various scanners thus far. In addition, a few approaches have established cross-platform software to enable the technologists and physicists to assess the variety of SPECT scanners from different manufacturers. To resolve these issues, we have developed Interactive Data Language (IDL)-based in-house software for crossplatform (in terms of not only operating systems (OS) but also manufacturers) analyses of the QC data on an ACR SPECT phantom, which is essential for assessing and assuring the tomographical image quality of SPECT. We applied our devised software to our routine quarterly QC of ACR SPECT phantom images acquired from a number of platforms (OS/manufacturers). Based on our experience, we suggest that our devised software can offer a unified platform that allows images acquired from various types of scanners to be analyzed with great precision and accuracy.

  16. Characterization Report for the 92-Acre Area of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Bechtel Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office manages two low-level Radioactive Waste Management Sites at the Nevada Test Site. The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. This report summarizes characterization and monitoring work pertinent to the 92-Acre Area in the southeast part of the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Sites. The decades of characterization and assessment work at the Area 5 RWMS indicate that the access controls, waste operation practices, site design, final cover design, site setting, and arid natural environment contribute to a containment system that meets regulatory requirements and performance objectives for the short- and long-term protection of the environment and public. The available characterization and Performance Assessment information is adequate to support design of the final cover and development of closure plans. No further characterization is warranted to demonstrate regulatory compliance. U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is proceeding with the development of closure plans for the six closure units of the 92-Acre Area.

  17. Morphological and molecular characteristics do not confirm popular classification of the Brazil nut tree in Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sujii, P S; Fernandes, E T M B; Azevedo, V C R; Ciampi, A Y; Martins, K; de O Wadt, L H

    2013-09-27

    In the State of Acre, the Brazil nut tree, Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae), is classified by the local population into two types according to morphological characteristics, including color and quality of wood, shape of the trunk and crown, and fruit production. We examined the reliability of this classification by comparing morphological and molecular data of four populations of Brazil nut trees from Vale do Rio Acre in the Brazilian Amazon. For the morphological analysis, we evaluated qualitative and quantitative information of the trees, fruits, and seeds. The molecular analysis was performed using RAPD and ISSR markers, with cluster analysis. Significant differences were found between the two types of Brazil nut trees for the characters diameter at breast height, fruit yield, fruit size, and number of seeds per fruit. Despite the significant correlation between the morphological characteristics and the popular classification, we observed all possible combinations of morphological characteristics in both types of Brazil nut trees. In some individuals, the classification did not correspond to any of the characteristics. The results obtained with molecular markers showed that the two locally classified types of Brazil nut trees did not differ genetically, indicating that there is no consistent separation between them.

  18. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AMERICAN CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE TRI‑BORDER AREA OF ASSIS BRASIL, ACRE STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    TELES, Carolina Bioni Garcia; MEDEIROS, Jansen Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Ana Paula de Azevedo; de FREITAS, Luís Antônio Rodrigues; KATSURAGAWA, Tony Hiroshi; CANTANHÊDE, Lilian Motta; FERREIRA, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; CAMARG, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study, Leishmaniaspecies were identified by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The epidemiology of patients suspected of having American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the municipality of Assis Brasil, Acre State, located in the Brazil/Peru/Bolivia triborder was also investigated. By PCR, the DNA of Leishmaniawas detected in 100% of the cases (37 samples) and a PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) of the hsp 70gene identified the species in 32 samples: Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (65.6%) , L. (V.) shawi (28.1%) , L. (V.) guyanensis (3.1%) and mixed infection L. (V.) guyanensis and L. (Leishmania) amazonensis (3.1%)This is the first report of L. (V.) shawiand L. (L.) amazonensis in Acre. The two predominant species were found in patients living in urban and rural areas. Most cases were found in males living in rural areas for at least three years and involved in rural work. This suggests, in most cases, a possible transmission of the disease from a rural/forest source, although some patients had not engaged in activities associated with permanence in forestall areas, which indicate a possible sandflies adaptation to the periurban setting. PMID:26422160

  19. Correlation of 24-Hour Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability to Renal Function Parameters in Hypertensive Patients. The Effect of Smoking.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Charalampos I; Karpanou, Eva A; Markou, Maria I; Grassos, Charalampos A; Vyssoulis, Gregory P

    2015-12-01

    Intrarenal hemodynamics depend on blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and smoking. Although BP levels have been associated with kidney function, the effect of HR levels, BP, and HR variability on renal function are less well clarified. This cross-sectional study sought to determine the association of 24-hour BP and HR variability with kidney function in hypertensive patients, stratified by smoking. The study comprised 9600 nondiabetic, never-treated hypertensive individuals without evident renal impairment examined from 1985 to 2014 (aged 53.3±13.4 years, 55.3% males). The 24-hour systolic BP (SBP) and HR variability were estimated via their coefficient of variation (CV =standard deviation×100/mean value) derived from ambulatory recording. The CV SBP-to-CV HR ratio (CV R) was used as a marker of the interplay between 24-hour SBP and HR variability. Renal function was estimated via 24-hour urine creatinine clearance (CrCl), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), and 24-hour urine α1 -microglobulin. After adjustment for age, sex, and smoking, CV SBP was found to be weakly correlated to eGFR (r=-0.017, P=.1) and somewhat more strongly to CrCl, ACR, and α1 -microglobulin (r=-0.032, 0.072, and 0.065; P=.002, <.001 and <.001, respectively). CV HR was much better related to renal function, with stronger adjusted correlations to CrCl, eGFR, ACR, and α1 -microglobulin (r=0.185, 0.134, -0.306, -0.247; all P<.001, respectively). CV R also showed equally good adjusted correlations (r=-0.175, -0.125, 0.336, 0.262; all P<.001, respectively). Most adjusted correlations for CV HR and CV R were even better in smokers (r=0.213, 0.158, -0.332, -0.272 and -0.183, -0.118, 0.351, 0.275, respectively; all P<.001). CV HR and CV R emerge as better related to kidney function than CV SBP, especially in smokers. The correlation of CV HR and CV SBP to renal function is inverse to each other. ACR and α1 -microglobulin are better related to

  20. Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes Genetic Score and Risk of Decreased Renal Function and Albuminuria: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Bi, Yufang; Huang, Ya; Xie, Lan; Hao, Mingli; Zhao, Zhiyun; Xu, Yu; Lu, Jieli; Chen, Yuhong; Sun, Yimin; Qi, Lu; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang

    2016-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a risk factor for dysregulation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and albuminuria. However, whether the association is causal remains unestablished. Research Design and Methods We performed a Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis in 11,502 participants aged 40 and above, from a well-defined community in Shanghai during 2011–2013, to explore the causal association between T2D and decreased estimated GFR (eGFR) and increased urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR). We genotyped 34 established T2D common variants in East Asians, and created a T2D-genetic risk score (GRS). We defined decreased eGFR as eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73 m2 and increased uACR as uACR ≥ 30 mg/g. We used the T2D_GRS as the instrumental variable (IV) to quantify the causal effect of T2D on decreased eGFR and increased uACR. Results Each 1-standard deviation (SD, 3.90 points) increment in T2D_GRS was associated with decreased eGFR: odds ratio (OR) = 1.18 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01, 1.30). In the MR analysis, we demonstrated a causal relationship between genetically determined T2D and decreased eGFR (OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.15, 1.88, P = 0.0003). When grouping the genetic loci according to their relations with either insulin secretion (IS) or insulin resistance (IR), we found both IS_GRS and IR_GRS were significantly related to decreased eGFR (both P < 0.02). In addition, T2D_GRS and IS_GRS were significantly associated with Log-uACR (both P = 0.04). Conclusion Our results provide novel evidence for a causal association between T2D and decreased eGFR by using MR approach in a Chinese population. PMID:27211558

  1. Multi-ratio transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Polak, J.C.

    1987-07-14

    A preselected multi-ratio power transmission is described comprising: input means for transmitting drive forces; output means; first, second and third friction clutch means each selectively engageable with the input means for accepting drive forces. First input gear means drivingly connects with the first friction clutch means; second input gear means drivingly connects with the second friction clutch means; third input gear means drivingly connects with the third clutch means; first output gear means drivingly connects with the first input gear means; second output gear means drivingly connects with the first and second input gear means; third output means drivingly connects between the third input gear means and the output means; and one double-acting synchronizer clutch for selectively engaging the first output gear means with the output means and alternately the second output gear means with the output means. The first friction clutch means and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch cooperates during engagement to establish two forward drive ratios between the input and output means. The second friction clutch means and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch cooperates during engagement to establish two other forward drive ratios between the input and output means. The third friction clutch means is engageable to provide another forward drive ratio between the input means and the output means; and the one double-acting synchronizer clutch is relieved of transmitting drive forces during the engagement of the third friction clutch means and being manipulable for alternate connection with either the first output gear or the second output gear while the third friction clutch means is engaged.

  2. Effect of Transcriptional Activators SoxS, RobA, and RamA on Expression of Multidrug Efflux Pump AcrAB-TolC in Enterobacter cloacae

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Astrid; Poza, Margarita; Aranda, Jesús; Latasa, Cristina; Medrano, Francisco Javier; Tomás, María; Romero, Antonio; Lasa, Iñigo

    2012-01-01

    Control of membrane permeability is a key step in regulating the intracellular concentration of antibiotics. Efflux pumps confer innate resistance to a wide range of toxic compounds such as antibiotics, dyes, detergents, and disinfectants in members of the Enterobacteriaceae. The AcrAB-TolC efflux pump is involved in multidrug resistance in Enterobacter cloacae. However, the underlying mechanism that regulates the system in this microorganism remains unknown. In Escherichia coli, the transcription of acrAB is upregulated under global stress conditions by proteins such as MarA, SoxS, and Rob. In the present study, two clinical isolates of E. cloacae, EcDC64 (a multidrug-resistant strain overexpressing the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump) and Jc194 (a strain with a basal AcrAB-TolC expression level), were used to determine whether similar global stress responses operate in E. cloacae and also to establish the molecular mechanisms underlying this response. A decrease in susceptibility to erythromycin, tetracycline, telithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and chloramphenicol was observed in clinical isolate Jc194 and, to a lesser extent in EcDC64, in the presence of salicylate, decanoate, tetracycline, and paraquat. Increased expression of the acrAB promoter in the presence of the above-described conditions was observed by flow cytometry and reverse transcription-PCR, by using a reporter fusion protein (green fluorescent protein). The expression level of the AcrAB promoter decreased in E. cloacae EcDC64 derivates deficient in SoxS, RobA, and RamA. Accordingly, the expression level of the AcrAB promoter was higher in E. cloacae Jc194 strains overproducing SoxS, RobA, and RamA. Overall, the data showed that SoxS, RobA, and RamA regulators were associated with the upregulation of acrAB, thus conferring antimicrobial resistance as well as a stress response in E. cloacae. In summary, the regulatory proteins SoxS, RobA, and RamA were cloned and sequenced for the first time in this species. The

  3. Chloride conducting light activated channel GtACR2 can produce both cessation of firing and generation of action potentials in cortical neurons in response to light.

    PubMed

    Malyshev, A Y; Roshchin, M V; Smirnova, G R; Dolgikh, D A; Balaban, P M; Ostrovsky, M A

    2017-02-15

    Optogenetics is a powerful technique in neuroscience that provided a great success in studying the brain functions during the last decade. Progress of optogenetics crucially depends on development of new molecular tools. Light-activated cation-conducting channelrhodopsin2 was widely used for excitation of cells since the emergence of optogenetics. In 2015 a family of natural light activated chloride channels GtACR was identified which appeared to be a very promising tool for using in optogenetics experiments as a cell silencer. Here we examined properties of GtACR2 channel expressed in the rat layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons by means of in utero electroporation. We have found that despite strong inhibition the light stimulation of GtACR2-positive neurons can surprisingly lead to generation of action potentials, presumably initiated in the axonal terminals. Thus, when using the GtACR2 in optogenetics experiments, its ability to induce action potentials should be taken into account. Our results also open an interesting possibility of using the GtACR2 both as cell silencer and cell activator in the same experiment varying the pattern of light stimulation.

  4. Direct interaction with ACR11 is necessary for post-transcriptional control of GLU1-encoded ferredoxin-dependent glutamate synthase in leaves

    PubMed Central

    Takabayashi, Atsushi; Niwata, Akihiro; Tanaka, Ayumi

    2016-01-01

    Because it plays an essential role in nitrogen (N) assimilation and photorespiration, the glutamine synthetase (GS)/glutamate synthase (GOGAT) system is widely accepted as occupying a central position in leaf N metabolism. However, the regulation of GOGAT at the post-transcriptional level is poorly understood. Here, we show that ACR11, an ACT (acronym for aspartate kinase, chorismate mutase, and TyrA) domain-containing family protein, interacts with Glu1-encoded ferredoxin (Fd)-GOGAT in Arabidopsis chloroplasts. In addition, Arabidopsis acr11 mutants have lost the capability to control Fd-GOGAT levels in response to light/dark diurnal cycles, nitrogen inputs, and changes in photorespiratory activity. Considering that ACR11 has putative glutamine-binding domains, our results indicate that ACR11 is necessary for post-transcriptional control of leaf Glu1-encoded Fd-GOGAT. This regulation takes place through direct interaction of ACR11 and Fd-GOGAT, possibly in an allosteric manner. PMID:27411448

  5. (S)-5-ethynyl-anabasine, a novel compound, is a more potent agonist than other nicotine alkaloids on the nematode Asu-ACR-16 receptor.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fudan; Du, Xiangwei; Chou, Tsung-Han; Robertson, Alan P; Yu, Edward W; VanVeller, Brett; Martin, Richard J

    2017-04-01

    Nematode parasites infect ∼2 billion people world-wide. Infections are treated and prevented by anthelmintic drugs, some of which act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). There is an unmet need for novel therapeutic agents because of concerns about the development of resistance. We have selected Asu-ACR-16 from a significant nematode parasite genus, Ascaris suum, as a pharmaceutical target and nicotine as our basic moiety (EC50 6.21 ± 0.56 μM, Imax 82.39 ± 2.52%) to facilitate the development of more effective anthelmintics. We expressed Asu-ACR-16 in Xenopus oocytes and used two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology to determine agonist concentration-current-response relationships and determine the potencies (EC50s) of the agonists. Here, we describe the synthesis of a novel agonist, (S)-5-ethynyl-anabasine, and show that it is more potent (EC50 0.14 ± 0.01 μM) than other nicotine alkaloids on Asu-ACR-16. Agonists acting on ACR-16 receptors have the potential to circumvent drug resistance to anthelmintics, like levamisole, that do not act on the ACR-16 receptors.

  6. Evaluation of a series of 2-napthamide derivatives as inhibitors of the drug efflux pump AcrB for the reversal of antimicrobial resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yinhu; Mowla, Rumana; Guo, Liwei; Ogunniyi, Abiodun D; Rahman, Taufiq; De Barros Lopes, Miguel A; Ma, Shutao; Venter, Henrietta

    2017-02-15

    Drug efflux pumps confer multidrug resistance to dangerous pathogens which makes these pumps important drug targets. We have synthesised a novel series of compounds based on a 2-naphthamide pharmacore aimed at inhibiting the efflux pumps from Gram-negative bacteria. The archeatypical transporter AcrB from Escherichia coli was used as model efflux pump as AcrB is widely conserved throughout Gram-negative organisms. The compounds were tested for their antibacterial action, ability to potentiate the action of antibiotics and for their ability to inhibit Nile Red efflux by AcrB. None of the compounds were antimicrobial against E. coli wild type cells. Most of the compounds were able to inhibit Nile Red efflux indicating that they are substrates of the AcrB efflux pump. Three compounds were able to synergise with antibiotics and reverse resistance in the resistant phenotype. Compound A3, 4-(isopentyloxy)-2-naphthamide, reduced the MICs of erythromycin and chloramphenicol to the MIC levels of the drug sensitive strain that lacks an efflux pump. A3 had no effect on the MIC of the non-substrate rifampicin indicating that this compound acts specifically through the AcrB efflux pump. A3 also does not act through non-specific mechanisms such as outer membrane or inner membrane permeabilisation and is not cytotoxic against mammalian cell lines. Therefore, we have designed and synthesised a novel chemical compound with great potential to further optimisation as inhibitor of drug efflux pumps.

  7. Orthostatic hypotension is associated with incident chronic kidney disease: The Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities Study

    PubMed Central

    Franceschini, Nora; Rose, Kathryn.M.; Astor, Brad C.; Couper, David; Vupputuri, Suma

    2011-01-01

    Background Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with increased rates of cardiovascular disease and mortality, particularly among middle-aged persons. However, little is known about the association of OH with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Methods and Results Postural changes in blood pressure (BP) were estimated using the difference between the average of multiple supine and standing BP measurements. OH was defined as a decrease in systolic BP ≥ 20 mm Hg, or a decrease in diastolic BP ≥ 10 mm Hg upon standing. Incident CKD was defined as an increase in serum creatinine ≥ 0.4 mg/dL at the 3- or 9-year follow-up visits, or a hospitalization (discharge) or death due to CKD. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR, mg/g) was obtained at visit 4 and used to define albuminuria (ACR≥ 30 mg/g). The association between OH and incident CKD and between OH and categories of albuminuria were modeled using adjusted Cox proportional hazard models and logistic regression, respectively. Among 12,593 individuals, 1,019 developed CKD (3.9 cases/1,000 person-years) over a mean of 16 years. A significantly increased risk of CKD was observed among individuals with OH compared to those without OH after adjustment (hazard ratio 1.67, 95% confidence interval, 1.36, 2.06). OH was associated with increased risk of albuminuria (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.21, 2.29). Conclusions These findings suggest that OH increases the risk of CKD in middle-aged persons. PMID:21060003

  8. The effect of food on the acute toxicity of silver nitrate to four freshwater test species and acute-to-chronic ratios.

    PubMed

    Naddy, Rami B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Bell, Russell A; Kramer, James R; Wu, Kuen B; Paquin, Paul R

    2011-11-01

    Acute silver toxicity studies were conducted with and without food for four common freshwater test species: Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow-FHM), and Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout-RBT) in order to generate acute-to-chronic ratios (ACR). The studies were conducted similarly (i.e., static-renewal or flow-through) to chronic/early-life stage studies that were previously performed in this laboratory. The acute toxicity (EC/LC50 values) of silver without food ranged from 0.57 μg dissolved Ag/l for C.dubia to 9.15 μg dissolved Ag/l for RBT. The presence of food resulted in an increase in EC/LC50 values from 1.25× for RBT to 22.4× for C. dubia. Invertebrate food type was also shown to effect acute silver toxicity. Food did not affect EC/LC50s or ACRs as greatly in fish studies as in invertebrate studies. ACRs for both invertebrate species were <1.0 when using acute studies without food but were 1.22 and 1.33 when using acute studies with food. ACRs for FHMs ranged from 4.06 to 7.19, while RBT ACRs ranged from 28.6 to 35.8 depending on whether food was present in acute studies. The data generated from this research program should be useful in re-determining a final ACR for silver in freshwater as well as in risk assessments.

  9. Strengthening Adaptation to Extreme Climate Events in Southwestern Amazonia: an Example from the Trinational Acre River Basin in the Madre de Dios/Peru - Acre/Brazil - Pando/Bolivia (MAP) Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, I. F.

    2015-12-01

    Southwestern Amazonia, where Bolivia, Brazil and Peru meet, faces numerous challenges to the sustainable utilization of land and water resources as the region experiences rapid population and economic growth, expanding agriculture, transportation and energy sectors, along with frequent flooding and droughts. It is also predicted to be one of the most susceptible areas for climate change in the coming decade. The Acre River Basin, one of the few trinational basins in Amazonia, lies at the center of the Madre de Dios Region (Peru), Acre State (Brazil) and Pando Department (Bolivia) or MAP Region. It covers approximately 7,500 km2 and its inhabitants range from indigenous groups avoiding contact with industrial society to more than 60,000 dwellers of a binational urban center. The basin incorporates most the challenges facing the region and this paper discusses steps underway to address the basin's vulnerability to climate-related threats. A trinational group of professionals used GIS databases and local knowledge to classify these threats and possible societal responses. To prioritize threats and to propose responses, this group adapted a method proposed by the Queensland Climate Change Centre of Excellence of Australia to develop climate risk matrices for assessing impacts, adaptation, risk and vulnerability. The three priority climate variables were prolonged and more frequent droughts, more intense flooding, and more days with temperatures > 35oC. The final matrix proposed two areas of concentration - 1) Reduce the vulnerability of communities to hydro-meteorological extreme events and 2) Protect and restore ecosystems that maintain critical water-related resources with actions in public policy, capacity-building, and immediate activities. These results are being incorporated into the Amazon Project of the Global Environment Fund of the United Nations Environment Program, administered by the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization (ACTO).

  10. Properties of AdeABC and AdeIJK Efflux Systems of Acinetobacter baumannii Compared with Those of the AcrAB-TolC System of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Etsuko

    2014-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii contains RND-family efflux systems AdeABC and AdeIJK, which pump out a wide range of antimicrobial compounds, as judged from the MIC changes occurring upon deletion of the responsible genes. However, these studies may miss changes because of the high backgrounds generated by the remaining pumps and by β-lactamases, and it is unclear how the activities of these pumps compare quantitatively with those of the well-studied AcrAB-TolC system of Escherichia coli. We expressed adeABC and adeIJK of A. baumannii, as well as E. coli acrAB, in an E. coli host from which acrAB was deleted. The A. baumannii pumps were functional in E. coli, and the MIC changes that were observed largely confirmed the substrate range already reported, with important differences. Thus, the AdeABC system pumped out all β-lactams, an activity that was often missed in deletion studies. When the expression level of the pump genes was adjusted to a similar level for a comparison with AcrAB-TolC, we found that both A. baumannii efflux systems pumped out a wide range of compounds, but AdeABC was less effective than AcrAB-TolC in the extrusion of lipophilic β-lactams, novobiocin, and ethidium bromide, although it was more effective at tetracycline efflux. AdeIJK was remarkably more effective than a similar level of AcrAB-TolC in the efflux of β-lactams, novobiocin, and ethidium bromide, although it was less so in the efflux of erythromycin. These results thus allow us to compare these efflux systems on a quantitative basis, if we can assume that the heterologous systems are fully functional in the E. coli host. PMID:25246403

  11. Fluoroquinolone and multidrug resistance phenotypes associated with the overexpression of AcrAB and an orthologue of MarA in Yersinia enterocolitica.

    PubMed

    Fàbrega, Anna; Roca, Ignasi; Vila, Jordi

    2010-11-01

    Quinolone resistance among clinical isolates is of increasing importance. This phenotype particularly affects the nalidixic acid resistance levels and is also increasing among Yersinia enterocolitica strains. This study investigated the quinolone resistance mechanisms acquired in vitro by a Y. enterocolitica clinical isolate exposed to increasing concentrations of ciprofloxacin in a multi-step selection process. The fluoroquinolone-susceptible clinical isolate, Y.83-wt, the fluoroquinolone-resistant mutant, Y.83-64, and intermediate mutants were analysed by QRDR sequencing and MIC determination. Four different QRDRs (quinolone resistance-determining regions) mutations were characterised in Y.83-64: one in gyrA, one in gyrB, and two in parC. A significant increase in the MICs of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, nalidixic acid, and other unrelated antibiotics was detected in Y.83-64. Furthermore, the bacterial growth rate was assessed for strains Y.83-wt and Y.83-64. The analysis reported no significant differences between both strains. Cell envelope protein approach revealed an overexpression of both AcrA and AcrB proteins in Y.83-64. RT-PCR analyses were also carried out as was sequencing of known AcrAB regulators in Yersinia. The RT-PCR analysis showed an increased transcriptional level of a marA orthologue, marA(Ye), in Y.83-64. The sequencing results reported no change in the acrR gene or in the promoter sequence of the acrAB operon when comparing Y.83-wt with Y.83-64. One differential mutation was detected within the marA(Ye) promoter in Y.83-64. Thus, the fluoroquinolone resistance phenotype acquired by Y.83-64 relies on the acquisition of 4 QRDR mutations in addition to the overexpression of AcrAB, which is likely triggered by increased expression levels of marA(Ye).

  12. Cloning, Nucleotide Sequencing, and Analysis of the AcrAB-TolC Efflux Pump of Enterobacter cloacae and Determination of Its Involvement in Antibiotic Resistance in a Clinical Isolate▿

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Astrid; Canle, Delia; Latasa, Cristina; Poza, Margarita; Beceiro, Alejandro; del Mar Tomás, María; Fernández, Ana; Mallo, Susana; Pérez, Sonia; Molina, Francisca; Villanueva, Rosa; Lasa, Iñigo; Bou, Germán

    2007-01-01

    Enterobacter cloacae is an emerging clinical pathogen that may be responsible for nosocomial infections. Management of these infections is often difficult, owing to the high frequency of strains that are resistant to disinfectants and antimicrobial agents in the clinical setting. Multidrug efflux pumps, especially those belonging to the resistance-nodulation-division family, play a major role as a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance in gram-negative pathogens. In the present study, we cloned and sequenced the genes encoding an AcrAcB-TolC-like efflux pump from an E. cloacae clinical isolate (isolate EcDC64) showing a broad antibiotic resistance profile. Sequence analysis showed that the acrR, acrA, acrB, and tolC genes encode proteins that display 79.8%, 84%, 88%, and 82% amino acid identities with the respective homologues of Enterobacter aerogenes and are arranged in a similar pattern. Deletion of the acrA gene to yield an AcrA-deficient EcDC64 mutant (EcΔacrA) showed the involvement of AcrAB-TolC in multidrug resistance in E. cloacae. However, experiments with an efflux pump inhibitor suggested that additional efflux systems also play a role in antibiotic resistance. Investigation of several unrelated isolates of E. cloacae by PCR analysis revealed that the AcrAB system is apparently ubiquitous in this species. PMID:17638702

  13. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, R.D.

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  14. Peak power ratio generator

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Robert D.

    1985-01-01

    A peak power ratio generator is described for measuring, in combination with a conventional power meter, the peak power level of extremely narrow pulses in the gigahertz radio frequency bands. The present invention in a preferred embodiment utilizes a tunnel diode and a back diode combination in a detector circuit as the only high speed elements. The high speed tunnel diode provides a bistable signal and serves as a memory device of the input pulses for the remaining, slower components. A hybrid digital and analog loop maintains the peak power level of a reference channel at a known amount. Thus, by measuring the average power levels of the reference signal and the source signal, the peak power level of the source signal can be determined.

  15. A fonte ionizante do disco de acreção no núcleo de NGC1097

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, R. N.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.

    2003-08-01

    Observações em raios-X revelam o "coração" dos núcleos ativos de galáxias, pois esse tipo de radiação provém das suas regiões mais internas, próximas ao buraco negro central. Neste trabalho apresentamos observações em raios-X da região central da galáxia NGC1097, que hospeda um buraco negro supermassivo e um disco de acreção cuja emissão vem sendo observada há dez anos através da linha de emissão Ha larga (10000 km/s) e de duplo pico. As observações em raios-X - que foram obtidas com o Telescópio Chandra - foram combinadas com observações no ultravioleta obtidas com o Telescópio Espacial Hubble e são usadas para estudar as características da fonte central que ioniza o disco de acreção. A distribuição espectral de energia é comparada com a predita por modelos, em particular o de uma estrutura "ADAF" ("advection dominated accretion flow") na parte interna do disco. Tal estrutura produz um espectro de emissão de linhas estreitas tipo LINER, como observado em NGC1097 e em rádio-galáxias que apresentam linhas de Balmer largas de duplo pico. Apresentamos também uma comparação entre outros LINERs com linhas de emissão largas de duplo pico, disponíveis na literatura ou nos arquivos do Chandra e do Telescópio Espacial Hubble e discutimos as correspondentes implicações para modelos da fonte central.

  16. High-Ratio Gear Train

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefever, A. E.

    1982-01-01

    Proposed arrangement of two connected planetary differentials results in gear ratio many times that obtainable in conventional series gear assembly of comparable size. Ratios of several thousand would present no special problems. Selection of many different ratios is available with substantially similar gear diameters. Very high gear ratios would be obtained from small mechanism.

  17. Albuminuria is an independent risk factor of T4 elevation in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xin; Pan, Binbin; Li, Wenwen; Zou, Yonghua; Hua, Xi; Huang, Wenjuan; Wan, Xin; Cao, Changchun

    2017-01-01

    This study was to explore the association between thyroid dysfunction and albuminuria. 581 cases with chronic kidney disease (CKD) were included in this study. The clinical characteristics consisted of sex, age, serum creatinine, urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), thyroid function were recorded. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated by CKD-EPI four-level race equation. Prevalence of different thyroid diseases was calculated by chi-square test. Levels of thyroid hormone were compared among different albuminuria groups by Kruskal-Wallis test. Spearman’s correlation was used to assess the association between albuminuria and thyroid hormone. Our study showed that total T4 and free T4 were significantly different among ACR < 30 mg/g, 30–300 mg/g and >300 mg/g (P < 0.001 and =0.007, respectively). Positive correlation between T4 (total T4 and free T4) and albuminuria was evaluated by correlation analysis (P = 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Albuminuria was an independent influence factor of T4 after adjustment for age, sex, serum creatinine, albumin, hs-CRP, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, medication use for diabetes mellitus, eGFR, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, hypertension, and medication use for hypercholesterinemia. In conclusion, T4 was positively correlated with albuminuria, and it was completely not consistent with our anticipation. Further study is needed to elucidate the causation association between albuminuria and T4. PMID:28117377

  18. Use of a water effect ratio to develop an estuarine copper site-specific standard

    SciTech Connect

    Brosnan, T.

    1995-12-31

    Development of a copper site-specific standard in New York Harbor involved several steps: (1) EPA`s Indicator Species Procedure was used to develop a Water Effect Ratio (WER), which produces a biologically-based adjustment to the existing criteria. Samples from seven stations were collected during high and low river-flow conditions in 1992--93. Toxicity testing included embryo-larval development tests on two bivalves, an urchin, and a shrimp. A red algae was used for a sexual reproduction test. This testing yielded WER`s of 1.33 2.1 7, with an average of 1.49. When multiplied by the existing EPA criteria of 2.9 ug/L (total recoverable), this yielded a preliminary acute site specific standard of 4.3 ug/L (total recoverable); (2) Further analysis of these data, combined with a literature search of similar data, resulted in a recalculation of the original national acute criteria value, from 2.9 ug/L (total recoverable) to 5.3 ug/L (dissolved). Multiplying the WER by the recalculated national criteria yielded a final acute site, specific criteria of 7.9 ug/L (dissolved); (3) Finally, EPA`s original criteria indicated that achieving the acute criterion would be protective of chronic effects (i.e. the acute:chronic ratio (ACR) was 2). However, EPA, recently decided that an ACR of 2 was no longer valid, and decided to use the freshwater ACR of 2.8. This resulted in a recalculation of the national chronic criteria to 3.75 ug/L (dissolved). Combined with the WER of 1.49, this yielded a final chronic site specific standard of 5.6 ug/L. The new standard eliminated ambient violations in most of the harbor, and removed the need for wasteload allocations at 12 of NYC`s 14 sewage treatment plants.

  19. Rural Survival. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the American Council on Rural Special Education (ACRES) (23rd, Salt Lake City, Utah, March 20-22, 2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menlove, Ronda, Ed.

    The American Council on Rural Special Education (ACRES) conference is the only national conference devoted entirely to rural special education issues; sessions encompass theoretical discussion, current research findings, and promising practices based on sound evidence. This proceedings contains 47 conference papers and poster presentations.…

  20. Notice of Release of WhiteAcre-DG, a Small-seeded, Cream-type Southernpea with an Enhanced Persistent Green Seed Phenotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA has developed a high yielding, small-seeded, cream-type southernpea cultivar that has a persistent green seed phenotype conditioned by both the green cotyledon gene (gc) and the green testa gene (gt). The new cultivar, named WhiteAcre-DG, can be harvested at the dry-pod stage of maturity w...

  1. ‘ZipperCream-CG’ and ‘WhiteAcre-DG’: Two New Cream-type Southernpea Cultivars with Persistent Green Seed Phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to incorporate genes conditioning a persistent green seed phenotype into ‘Zipper Cream’ and ‘White Acre’ type backgrounds were completed with the official release of the new southernpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) cultivars ZipperCream-CG and WhiteAcre-DG on 29 January 2008. ‘ZipperCream...

  2. Functional analysis of Vibrio vulnificus RND efflux pumps homologous to Vibrio cholerae VexAB and VexCD, and to Escherichia coli AcrAB.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seunghwa; Yeom, Ji-Hyun; Seo, Sojin; Lee, Minho; Kim, Sarang; Bae, Jeehyeon; Lee, Kangseok; Hwang, Jihwan

    2015-04-01

    Resistance-nodulation-division (RND) efflux pumps are associated with multidrug resistance in many gram-negative pathogens. The genome of Vibrio vulnificus encodes 11 putative RND pumps homologous to those of Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli. In this study, we analyzed three putative RND efflux pumps, showing homology to V. cholerae VexAB and VexCD and to E. coli AcrAB, for their functional roles in multidrug resistance of V. vulnificus. Deletion of the vexAB homolog resulted in increased susceptibility of V. vulnificus to bile acid, acriflavine, ethidium bromide, and erythromycin, whereas deletion of acrAB homologs rendered V. vulnificus more susceptible to acriflavine only. Deletion of vexCD had no effect on susceptibility of V. vulnificus to these chemicals. Upon exposure to these antibacterial chemicals, expression of tolCV1 and tolCV2, which are putative outer membrane factors of RND efflux pumps, was induced, whereas expression levels of vexAB, vexCD, and acrAB homologs were not significantly changed. Our results show that the V. vulnificus homologs of VexAB largely contributed to in vitro antimicrobial resistance with a broad substrate specificity that was partially redundant with the AcrAB pump homologs.

  3. 75 FR 55313 - Record of Decision (ROD) for Conversion of the 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment (3rd ACR) to a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... conversion, the 3rd ACR will provide the Army with a force structure that has the flexibility to respond... Infantry BCTs and Heavy Armor BCTs augmented with the protection and versatility of an additional SBCT. The... socioeconomic impacts that would be associated with the stationing of the different types of Army BCTs...

  4. Closure Report for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-21

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of the 92-Acre Area, which includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' This CR provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that the closure objectives were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996 [as amended March 2010]). Closure activities began in January 2011 and were completed in January 2012. Closure activities were conducted according to Revision 1 of the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) for the 92-Acre Area and CAU 111 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2010). The following closure activities were performed: (1) Construct an engineered evapotranspiration cover over the boreholes, trenches, and pits in the 92-Acre Area; (2) Install use restriction (UR) warning signs, concrete monuments, and subsidence survey monuments; and (3) Establish vegetation on the covers. UR documentation is included as Appendix C of this report. The post-closure plan is presented in detail in Revision 1 of the CADD/CAP for the 92-Acre Area and CAU 111, and the requirements are summarized in Section 5.2 of this document. When the next request for modification of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit NEV HW0101 is submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), the requirements for post-closure monitoring of the 92-Acre Area will be included. NNSA/NSO requests the following: (1) A Notice of Completion from NDEP to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 111; and (2) The transfer of CAU 111 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO.

  5. Prevention of egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis after oral vaccination of laying hens with Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC mutants.

    PubMed

    Kilroy, Sofie; Raspoet, Ruth; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Van Immerseel, Filip

    2016-08-12

    Vaccination of laying hens has been successfully used to reduce egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis, decreasing human salmonellosis cases worldwide. Currently used vaccines for layers are either inactivated vaccines or live attenuated strains produced by mutagenesis. Targeted gene deletion mutants hold promise for future vaccines, because specific bacterial functions can be removed that may improve safety and allow differentiation from field strains. In this study, the efficacy of Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC strains in laying hens as live vaccines was evaluated. The mutants are deficient in either the membrane channel TolC (ΔtolC) or the multi-drug efflux systems acrAB, acrEF and mdtABC (ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC). These strains have a decreased ability for gut and tissue colonization and are unable to survive in egg white, the latter preventing transmission of the vaccine strains to humans. Two groups of 30 laying hens were orally inoculated at day 1, 6 weeks and 16 weeks of age with 10(8) cfu of either vaccine strain, while a third group was left unvaccinated. At 24 weeks of age, the birds were intravenously challenged with 5 × 10(7) cfu Salmonella Enteritidis PT4 S1400/94. The vaccine strains were not shed or detected in the gut, internal organs or eggs, 2 weeks after the third vaccination. The strains significantly protected against gut and internal organ colonization, and completely prevented egg contamination by Salmonella Enteritidis under the conditions of this study. This indicates that Salmonella Enteritidis ΔtolC and ΔacrABacrEFmdtABC strains might be valuable strains for vaccination of layers against Salmonella Enteritidis.

  6. A zinc-binding citrus protein metallothionein can act as a plant defense factor by controlling host-selective ACR-toxin production.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Tatano, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Yoko; Ohtani, Kouhei; Fukumoto, Takeshi; Gomi, Kenji; Tada, Yasuomi; Ichimura, Kazuya; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2013-01-01

    Metallothionein is a small cysteine-rich protein known to have a metal-binding function. We isolated three different lengths of rough lemon cDNAs encoding a metallothionein (RlemMT1, RlemMT2 and RlemMT3), and only RlemMT1-recombinant protein had zinc-binding activity. Appropriate concentration of zinc is an essential micronutrient for living organisms, while excess zinc is toxic. Zinc also stimulates the production of host-selective ACR-toxin for citrus leaf spot pathogen of Alternaria alternata rough lemon pathotype. Trapping of zinc by RlemMT1-recombinant protein or by a zinc-scavenging agent in the culture medium caused suppression of ACR-toxin production by the fungus. Since ACR-toxin is the disease determinant for A. alternata rough lemon pathotype, addition of RlemMT1 to the inoculum suspension led to a significant decrease in symptoms on rough lemon leaves as a result of reduced ACR-toxin production from the zinc trap around infection sites. RlemMT1-overexpression mutant of A. alternata rough lemon pathotype also produced less ACR-toxin and reduced virulence on rough lemon. This suppression was caused by an interruption of zinc absorption by cells from the trapping of the mineral by RlemMT1 and an excess supplement of ZnSO(4) restored toxin production and pathogenicity. Based on these results, we propose that zinc adsorbents including metallothionein likely can act as a plant defense factor by controlling toxin biosynthesis via inhibition of zinc absorption by the pathogen.

  7. Ratio estimation in SIMS analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogliore, R. C.; Huss, G. R.; Nagashima, K.

    2011-09-01

    The determination of an isotope ratio by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) traditionally involves averaging a number of ratios collected over the course of a measurement. We show that this method leads to an additive positive bias in the expectation value of the estimated ratio that is approximately equal to the true ratio divided by the counts of the denominator isotope of an individual ratio. This bias does not decrease as the number of ratios used in the average increases. By summing all counts in the numerator isotope, then dividing by the sum of counts in the denominator isotope, the estimated ratio is less biased: the bias is approximately equal to the ratio divided by the summed counts of the denominator isotope over the entire measurement. We propose a third ratio estimator (Beale's estimator) that can be used when the bias from the summed counts is unacceptably large for the hypothesis being tested. We derive expressions for the variance of these ratio estimators as well as the conditions under which they are normally distributed. Finally, we investigate a SIMS dataset showing the effects of ratio bias, and discuss proper ratio estimation for SIMS analysis.

  8. ACR Appropriateness Criteria® external-beam radiation therapy treatment planning for clinically localized prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, May; Mahmoud, Omar; Merrick, Gregory; Hsu, I-Chow Joe; Arterbery, V Elayne; Ciezki, Jay P; Frank, Steven J; Mohler, James Lloyd; Moran, Brian J; Rosenthal, Seth A; Rossi, Carl J; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2012-04-01

    Image-based radiation treatment planning and localization have contributed to better targeting of the prostate and sparing of normal tissues. Guidelines are needed to address radiation dose delivery, including patient setup and immobilization, target volume definition, treatment planning, treatment delivery methods, and target localization. Guidelines for external-beam radiation treatment planning have been updated and are presented here. The use of appropriate doses, simulation techniques, and verification of field setup are essential for the accurate delivery of radiation therapy. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  9. Side Effects of Chloroquine and Primaquine and Symptom Reduction in Malaria Endemic Area (Mâncio Lima, Acre, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Cássio Braga e; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Cayotopa, Athaid David Escalante; Klein, Wagner Werner; Schlosser, Andreus Roberto; da Silva, Aline Ferreira; de Souza, Mardelson Nery; Andrade, Breno Wilson Benevides; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Pinto, Wagner de Jesus; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2015-01-01

    Side effects of antimalarial drug can overlap with malaria symptoms. We evaluated 50 patients with vivax malaria in Mâncio Lima, Acre, treated with chloroquine and primaquine. Patients were evaluated for the presence of 21 symptoms before and after treatment and for reported side effects of these drugs after treatment was started. The most frequent symptoms before medication were headache, fever, chills, sweating, arthralgia, back pain, and weakness, which were present in between 40% and 76% of respondents. The treatment reduced the occurrence of these symptoms and reduced the lack of appetite, but gastrointestinal symptoms and choluria increased in frequency. There were no reports of pale stools before medication, but 12% reported the occurrence of this symptom after treatment started. Other symptoms such as blurred vision (54%), pruritus (22%), paresthesia (6%), insomnia (46%), and “stings” into the skin (22%) were reported after chloroquine was taken. The antimalarial drugs used to treat P. vivax malaria reduce much of the systemic and algic symptoms but cause mainly gastrointestinal side effects that may lead to lack of adherence to drug treatment. It is important to guide the patient for the appearance and the transience of such side effects in order to avoid abandoning treatment. PMID:26357512

  10. Argyrogrammana Strand (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) from Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil, with the description of four new species.

    PubMed

    Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2015-10-08

    The species of Argyrogrammana Strand, 1932 collected at the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil (PNSD) are listed and detailed with behavioral notes. In total, 17 species were recorded, including 13 new records for Brazil (marked with an asterisk): A. alstonii (Smart, 1979)*, A. nurtia ludibunda Brévignon & Gallard, 1995*, A. pulchra (Talbot, 1929)*, A. bonita Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. amalfreda (Staudinger, [1877])*, A. physis phyton (Stichel, 1911), A. halli Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. celata Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. gallardi Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. aparamilla Hall & Willmott, 1995*, A. praestigiosa (Stichel, 1929), A. johannismarci Brévignon, 1995*, A. brevignoni Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. rameli (Stichel, 1930), A. willmotti Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.*, A. iracyi P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2007 and A. saulensis tunari Gallard, 2008, comb. nov.*. Four new species are described, two from "amalfreda complex": A. halli Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov. and A. gallardi Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.; one from "trochilia complex": A. brevignoni Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov.; and one from "stilbe complex": A. willmotti Dolibaina & Dias, sp. nov. Argyrogrammana iracyi saulensis Gallard, 2008 is recognized as a valid species, A. saulensis saulensis, stat. nov., and a new combination is proposed to A. saulensis tunari Gallard, 2008, comb. nov. The females of A. iracyi P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2007 and A. saulensis tunari are recognized and figured for the first time. The taxonomy of the species found at the PNSD is discussed and adults are figured, including illustrations of the genitalia.

  11. Population dynamics, structure and behavior of Anopheles darlingi in a rural settlement in the Amazon rainforest of Acre, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Anopheles darlingi is the major vector of malaria in South America, and its behavior and distribution has epidemiological importance to biomedical research. In Brazil, An. darlingi is found in the northern area of the Amazon basin, where 99.5% of the disease is reported. Methods The study area, known as Ramal do Granada, is a rural settlement inside the Amazon basin in the state of Acre. Population variations and density have been analysed by species behaviour, and molecular analysis has been measured by ND4 mitochondrial gene sequencing. Results The results show higher density in collections near a recent settlement, suggesting that a high level of colonization decreases the vector presence. The biting activity showed higher activity at twilight and major numbers of mosquitos in the remaining hours of the night in months of high density. From a sample of 110 individual mosquitoes, 18 different haplotypes were presented with a diversity index of 0.895, which is higher than that found in other Anopheles studies. Conclusions An. darlingi depends on forested regions for their larval and adult survival. In months with higher population density, the presence of mosquitoes persisted in the second part of the night, increasing the vector capacity of the species. Despite the intra-population variation in the transition to rainy season, the seasonal distribution of haplotypes shows no change in the structure population of An. darlingi. PMID:21702964

  12. [Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables by university students in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil: prevalence and associated factors].

    PubMed

    Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Dalamaria, Tatiane; Souza, Orivaldo Florencio de

    2012-07-01

    This cross-sectional study with university students examined the prevalence of regular consumption of fruits and vegetables and associated factors among students at a Federal university in Rio Branco, Acre State, Brazil. 863 undergraduates were interviewed in 2010. Overall prevalence of regular consumption of fruits and vegetables was 14.8%. Factors associated with regular consumption of fruits and vegetables were: socioeconomic classes A and B (PR = 1.70; 95%CI: 1.10-2.62), living with a partner (PR = 1.53; 95%CI: 1.02-2.29), regular physical activity (PR = 1.69; 95%CI: 1.11-2.56), and consumption of fast food twice a week or less (PR = 1.49; 95%CI: 1.04-2.13). A minority of the students met the recommendation to consume fruits and vegetables 5 or more days a week. Regular fruit and vegetable consumption was associated with socioeconomic status and healthy habits such as physical exercise and low consumption of fast food.

  13. The role of bone scintigraphy in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis according to the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji Young; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Han, Minkyung; Choi, Yun Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to investigate the role of bone scintigraphy (BS) in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) as a supplement to the 2010 American College of Rheumatology (ACR)/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria. A total of 156 patients who underwent BS with screening laboratory to confirm RA were enrolled. We divided them into two groups according to the presence of arthritis upon the first physical examination, and evaluated the diagnostic validity of BS as an independent (BS only) or assistant diagnostic tool using the 2010 criteria (BS-assisted). Seventy-five patients had active arthritis (Group I), while the remaining 81 patients did not (Group II). Among them, 56 patients in group I and 5 patients in group II were finally classified as RA. In the group I patients who were eligible for application of the 2010 criteria, the sensitivity of the BS only and BS-assisted diagnosis was not superior to that of the 2010 criteria. However, BS-assisted diagnosis showed high positive prediction values in group I patients with 2010 criteria score < 6 and group II patients. Therefore, BS is still helpful to detect RA even after the introduction of the 2010 criteria, especially among patients who do not satisfy the 2010 criteria as well as those who are ineligible for the 2010 criteria due to dubitable arthritis at clinical presentation.

  14. Geology, geochronology, and potential volcanic hazards in the Lava Ridge-Hells Half Acre area, eastern Snake River Plain, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuntz, Mel A.; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1979-01-01

    The evaluation of volcanic hazards for the proposed Safety Test Reactor Facility (STF) at the Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANLW) site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Idaho, involves an analysis of the geology of the Lava Ridge-Hells Half Acre area and of K-At age determinations on lava flows in cored drill holes. The ANLW site at INEL lies in a shallow topographic depression bounded on the east and south by volcanic rift zones that are the locus of past shield-type basalt volcanism and by rhyolite domes erupted along the ring fracture of an inferred rhyolite caldera. The K-At age data indicate that the ANLW site has been flooded by basalt lava flows at irregular intervals from perhaps a few thousand years to as much as 300,000-400,000 years, with an average recurrence interval between flows of approximately 80,000-100,000 years. At least five major lava flows have covered the ANLW site within the past 500,000 years.

  15. Influence of random urine albumin-creatinine ratio of pregnant women with hypertension during the gestation period on perinatal outcome.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qian; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Ronghui; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Jingying; Wang, Lijuan; Guo, Yuanying

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the random urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) of pregnant women with hypertension during the gestation period on perinatal outcome. A total of 6,758 pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension and proteinuria were randomly selected between September, 2009 and June, 2015 for the study. Kidney function, blood pressure, history of gravidity and parity, embryo number and the birth weight of the participants was determined. Logistic regression and paired data correlation analyses were carried out with kidney function, blood pressure, history of gravidity and parity, embryo number, birth weight, maternal age, labor presentation and other risk factors as the independent variables and the newborn APGAR score as the dependent variable. The results showed that random urine ACR was increased and negatively correlated with the APGAR score (OR=-0.095, P=0.017). In conclusion, the increased random urine ACR can influence the postpartum outcome. Early intervention of women of childbearing age in early pregnancy or before pregnancy can minimize the adverse complications of infants and mothers such as pregnancy hypertension syndrome, and improve the outcome of the pregnancy.

  16. Influence of random urine albumin-creatinine ratio of pregnant women with hypertension during the gestation period on perinatal outcome

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qian; Wang, Hongmei; Liu, Ronghui; Jiang, Ling; Liu, Jingying; Wang, Lijuan; Guo, Yuanying

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the random urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) of pregnant women with hypertension during the gestation period on perinatal outcome. A total of 6,758 pregnant women with pregnancy-induced hypertension and proteinuria were randomly selected between September, 2009 and June, 2015 for the study. Kidney function, blood pressure, history of gravidity and parity, embryo number and the birth weight of the participants was determined. Logistic regression and paired data correlation analyses were carried out with kidney function, blood pressure, history of gravidity and parity, embryo number, birth weight, maternal age, labor presentation and other risk factors as the independent variables and the newborn APGAR score as the dependent variable. The results showed that random urine ACR was increased and negatively correlated with the APGAR score (OR=−0.095, P=0.017). In conclusion, the increased random urine ACR can influence the postpartum outcome. Early intervention of women of childbearing age in early pregnancy or before pregnancy can minimize the adverse complications of infants and mothers such as pregnancy hypertension syndrome, and improve the outcome of the pregnancy. PMID:27703509

  17. Expression of the marA, soxS, acrB and ramA genes related to the AcrAB/TolC efflux pump in Salmonella enterica strains with and without quinolone resistance-determining regions gyrA gene mutations.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Rafaela Gomes; Galiana, Antonio; Cremades, Rosa; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Magnani, Marciane; Tognim, Maria Cristina Bronharo; Oliveira, Tereza C R M; Royo, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have been conducted in recent years to elucidate the structure, function and significance of AcrB, MarA, SoxS and RamA in Salmonella enterica. In this study, the relative quantification of acrB, soxS, marA and ramA genes expression was evaluated in 14 strains of S. enterica, with or without accompanying mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of the gyrA gene, that were exposed to ciprofloxacin during the exponential growth phase. The presence of ciprofloxacin during the log phase of bacterial growth activated the genes marA, soxS, ramA and acrB in all S. enterica strains analyzed in this study. The highest expression levels for acrB were observed in strains with gyrA mutation, and marA showed the highest expression in the strains without mutation. Considering only the strains with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration values<0.125 μg/mL (sensitive to ciprofloxacin), the most expressed gene in the strains both with and without mutations was acrB. In the strains with ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration values ≥ 0.125 μg/mL (low susceptibility), with and without mutations in gyrA, the most expressed gene was marA. In this study, we observed that strains resistant to nalidixic acid may express genes associated with the efflux pump and the expression of the AcrAB-TolC pump genes seems to occur independently of mutations in gyrA.

  18. Lidar ratio and depolarization ratio for cirrus clouds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Nai; Chiang, Chih-Wei; Nee, Jan-Bai

    2002-10-20

    We report on studies of the lidar and the depolarization ratios for cirrus clouds. The optical depth and effective lidar ratio are derived from the transmission of clouds, which is determined by comparing the backscattering signals at the cloud base and cloud top. The lidar signals were fitted to a background atmospheric density profile outside the cloud region to warrant the linear response of the return signals with the scattering media. An average lidar ratio, 29 +/- 12 sr, has been found for all clouds measured in 1999 and 2000. The height and temperature dependences ofthe lidar ratio, the optical depth, and the depolarization ratio were investigated and compared with results of LITE and PROBE. Cirrus clouds detected near the tropopause are usually optically thin and mostly subvisual. Clouds with the largest optical depths were found near 12 km with a temperature of approximately -55 degrees C. The multiple-scattering effect is considered for clouds with high optical depths, and this effect lowers the lidar ratios compared with a single-scattering condition. Lidar ratios are in the 20-40 range for clouds at heights of 12.5-15 km and are smaller than approximately 30 in height above 15 km. Clouds are usually optically thin for temperatures below approximately -65 degrees C, and in this region the optical depth tends to decrease with height. The depolarization ratio is found to increase with a height at 11-15 km and smaller than 0.3 above 16 km. The variation in the depolarization ratio with the lidar ratio was also reported. The lidar and depolarization ratios were discussed in terms of the types of hexagonal ice crystals.

  19. Neither Proteinuria Nor Albuminuria Is Associated With Endothelial Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Patients Without Diabetes or Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Changyu; Mather, Kieren J.; Agarwal, Rajiv; Dubé, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    It is unknown whether systemic endothelial dysfunction underlies the association between nephropathy and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Spot urine protein to creatinine ratio, spot urine albumin to creatinine ratio, creatinine clearance, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery were evaluated in 123 study participants infected with HIV (58 receiving antiretroviral therapy [ART] and 65 not receiving ART) with no history of diabetes or hypertension. None of the renal markers, modeled as either continuous or categorical variables, correlated with FMD. Contrary to expectations, endothelial dysfunction may not be the link between nephropathy and CVD in HIV. PMID:22013226

  20. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; Sam Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-23

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature-male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton's local mate competition (LMC) and Clark's local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC &LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  1. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-01-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research. PMID:28009000

  2. Sex Ratio Elasticity Influences the Selection of Sex Ratio Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaqiang; Wang, Ruiwu; Li, Yaotang; (Sam) Ma, Zhanshan

    2016-12-01

    There are three sex ratio strategies (SRS) in nature—male-biased sex ratio, female-biased sex ratio and, equal sex ratio. It was R. A. Fisher who first explained why most species in nature display a sex ratio of ½. Consequent SRS theories such as Hamilton’s local mate competition (LMC) and Clark’s local resource competition (LRC) separately explained the observed deviations from the seemingly universal 1:1 ratio. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is not yet a unified theory that accounts for the mechanisms of the three SRS. Here, we introduce the price elasticity theory in economics to define sex ratio elasticity (SRE), and present an analytical model that derives three SRSs based on the following assumption: simultaneously existing competitions for both resources A and resources B influence the level of SRE in both sexes differently. Consequently, it is the difference (between two sexes) in the level of their sex ratio elasticity that leads to three different SRS. Our analytical results demonstrate that the elasticity-based model not only reveals a highly plausible mechanism that explains the evolution of SRS in nature, but also offers a novel framework for unifying two major classical theories (i.e., LMC & LRC) in the field of SRS research.

  3. Software For Computing Image Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yates, Gigi L.

    1993-01-01

    RATIO_TOOL is interactive computer program for viewing and analyzing large sets of multispectral image data created by imaging spectrometer. Uses ratios between intensities in different spectral bands in order to spot significant areas of interest within multispectral image. Each image band viewed iteratively, or selected image band of set of data requested and displayed. When image ratios computed, result displayed as grayscale image. Written in C Language.

  4. Computer simulations suggest direct and stable tip to tip interaction between the outer membrane channel TolC and the isolated docking domain of the multidrug RND efflux transporter AcrB.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Thomas H; Raunest, Martin; Fischer, Nadine; Reith, Dirk; Kandt, Christian

    2016-07-01

    One way by which bacteria achieve antibiotics resistance is preventing drug access to its target molecule for example through an overproduction of multi-drug efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation division (RND) protein super family of which AcrAB-TolC in Escherichia coli is a prominent example. Although representing one of the best studied efflux systems, the question of how AcrB and TolC interact is still unclear as the available experimental data suggest that either both proteins interact in a tip to tip manner or do not interact at all but are instead connected by a hexamer of AcrA molecules. Addressing the question of TolC-AcrB interaction, we performed a series of 100 ns - 1 µs-molecular dynamics simulations of membrane-embedded TolC in presence of the isolated AcrB docking domain (AcrB(DD)). In 5/6 simulations we observe direct TolC-AcrB(DD) interaction that is only stable on the simulated time scale when both proteins engage in a tip to tip manner. At the same time we find TolC opening and closing freely on extracellular side while remaining closed at the inner periplasmic bottleneck region, suggesting that either the simulated time is too short or additional components are required to unlock TolC.

  5. Electronic band structure and exchange coupling constants in ACr2X4 spinels ( A=Zn , Cd, Hg; X=O , S, Se)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaresko, A. N.

    2008-03-01

    We present the results of band structure calculations for ACr2X4 ( A=Zn , Cd, Hg and X=O , S, Se) spinels. Effective exchange coupling constants between Cr spins are determined by fitting the energy of spin spirals to a classical Heisenberg model. The calculations reproduce the change of the sign of the dominant nearest-neighbor exchange interaction J1 from antiferromagnetic in oxides to ferromagnetic in sulfides and selenides. It is verified that the ferromagnetic contribution to J1 is due to indirect hopping between Crt2g and eg states via Xp states. Antiferromagnetic coupling between third Cr neighbors is found to be important in all the ACr2X4 spinels studied, whereas other interactions are much weaker. The results are compared to predictions based on the Goodenough-Kanamori rules of superexchange.

  6. A comparison of black smoker hydrothermal plume behavior at Monolith Vent and at Clam Acres Vent Field: Dependence on source configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, Karen G.; Rona, Peter A.; Jackson, Darrell; Jones, Christopher; Silver, Deborah; Mitsuzawa, Kyohiko

    Quantitative visualization of acoustic images is used to compare the properties and behavior of high temperature hydrothermal plumes at two sites with different source configurations, increasing our understanding of how plume behavior reflects source configuration. Acoustic imaging experiments were conducted at the Clam Acres area of the Southwest Vent Field, 21°N East Pacific Rise and at Monolith Vent, North Cleft segment, Juan de Fuca Ridge. At Clam Acres, black smokers discharge from two adjacent chimneys which act as point sources, whereas multiple vents at Monolith Vent define a distributed elliptical source. Both plumes exhibit consistent dilution patterns, reasonable fits to the expected power law increase in centerline dilution with height, and simple bending of plume centerlines in response to ambient currents. Our data suggest that point source vents are associated with ordered plume structure, normal entrainment rates, and initial expansion of isosurfaces while distributed source vents are associated with disorganized plume structure, variable entrainment rates, and initial contraction of isosurfaces.

  7. Synthetic interaction between the TipN polarity factor and an AcrAB-family efflux pump implicates cell polarity in bacterial drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Kirkpatrick, Clare L; Viollier, Patrick H

    2014-05-22

    Quinolone antibiotics are clinically important drugs that target bacterial DNA replication and chromosome segregation. Although the AcrAB-family efflux pumps generally protect bacteria from such drugs, the physiological role of these efflux systems and their interplay with other cellular events are poorly explored. Here, we report an intricate relationship between antibiotic resistance and cell polarity in the model bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. We show that a polarity landmark protein, TipN, identified by virtue of its ability to direct flagellum placement to the new cell pole, protects cells from toxic misregulation of an AcrAB efflux pump through a cis-encoded nalidixic acid-responsive transcriptional repressor. Alongside the importance of polarity in promoting the inheritance and activity of virulence functions including motility, we can now ascribe to it an additional role in drug resistance that is distinct from classical efflux mechanisms.

  8. Prevalence odds ratio versus prevalence ratio: choice comes with consequences.

    PubMed

    Tamhane, Ashutosh R; Westfall, Andrew O; Burkholder, Greer A; Cutter, Gary R

    2016-12-30

    Odds ratio, risk ratio, and prevalence ratio are some of the measures of association which are often reported in research studies quantifying the relationship between an independent variable and the outcome of interest. There has been much debate on the issue of which measure is appropriate to report depending on the study design. However, the literature on selecting a particular category of the outcome to be modeled and/or change in reference group for categorical independent variables and the effect on statistical significance, although known, is scantly discussed nor published with examples. In this article, we provide an example of a cross-sectional study wherein prevalence ratio was chosen over (Prevalence) odds ratio and demonstrate the analytic implications of the choice of category to be modeled and choice of reference level for independent variables. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Air/fuel ratio controller

    SciTech Connect

    Schechter, M.M.; Simko, A.O.

    1980-12-23

    An internal combustion engine has a fuel injection pump and an air/fuel ratio controller. The controller has a lever that is connected to the pump lever. An aneroid moves the controller lever as a function of changes in intake manifold vacuum to maintain a constant air/fuel ratio to the mixture charge. A fuel enrichment linkage is provided that modifies the movement of the fuel flow control lever by the aneroid in response to changes in manifold gas temperature levels and exhaust gas recirculation to maintain the constant air/fuel ratio. A manual override is provided to obtain a richer air/fuel ratio for maximum acceleration.

  10. Towards Tailored Patient's Management Approach: Integrating the Modified 2010 ACR Criteria for Fibromyalgia in Multidimensional Patient Reported Outcome Measures Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    El Miedany, Yasser; El Gaafary, Maha; Youssef, Sally; Ahmed, Ihab

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change of a patient self-reported questionnaire combining the Widespread Pain Index and the Symptom Severity Score as well as construct outcome measures and comorbidities assessment in fibromyalgia patients. Methods. The PROMs-FM was conceptualized based on frameworks used by the WHO Quality of Life tool and the PROMIS. Initially, cognitive interviews were conducted to identify item pool of questions. Item selection and reduction were achieved based on patients as well as an interdisciplinary group of specialists. Rasch and internal consistency reliability analyses were implemented. The questionnaire included the modified ACR criteria main items (Symptom Severity Score and Widespread Pain Index), in addition to assessment of functional disability, quality of life (QoL), review of the systems, and comorbidities. Every patient completed HAQ and EQ-5D questionnaires. Results. A total of 146 fibromyalgia patients completed the questionnaire. The PROMs-FM questionnaire was reliable as demonstrated by a high standardized alpha (0.886-0.982). Content construct assessment of the functional disability and QoL revealed significant correlation (p < 0.01) with both HAQ and EQ-5D. Changes in functional disability and QoL showed significant (p < 0.01) variation with diseases activity status in response to therapy. There was higher prevalence of autonomic symptoms, CVS risk, sexual dysfunction, and falling. Conclusions. The developed PROMs-FM questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for assessment of fibromyalgia patients. A phased treatment regimen depending on the severity of FMS as well as preferences and comorbidities of the patient is the best approach to tailored patient management.

  11. Towards Tailored Patient's Management Approach: Integrating the Modified 2010 ACR Criteria for Fibromyalgia in Multidimensional Patient Reported Outcome Measures Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    El Miedany, Yasser; El Gaafary, Maha; Youssef, Sally; Ahmed, Ihab

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To assess the validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change of a patient self-reported questionnaire combining the Widespread Pain Index and the Symptom Severity Score as well as construct outcome measures and comorbidities assessment in fibromyalgia patients. Methods. The PROMs-FM was conceptualized based on frameworks used by the WHO Quality of Life tool and the PROMIS. Initially, cognitive interviews were conducted to identify item pool of questions. Item selection and reduction were achieved based on patients as well as an interdisciplinary group of specialists. Rasch and internal consistency reliability analyses were implemented. The questionnaire included the modified ACR criteria main items (Symptom Severity Score and Widespread Pain Index), in addition to assessment of functional disability, quality of life (QoL), review of the systems, and comorbidities. Every patient completed HAQ and EQ-5D questionnaires. Results. A total of 146 fibromyalgia patients completed the questionnaire. The PROMs-FM questionnaire was reliable as demonstrated by a high standardized alpha (0.886–0.982). Content construct assessment of the functional disability and QoL revealed significant correlation (p < 0.01) with both HAQ and EQ-5D. Changes in functional disability and QoL showed significant (p < 0.01) variation with diseases activity status in response to therapy. There was higher prevalence of autonomic symptoms, CVS risk, sexual dysfunction, and falling. Conclusions. The developed PROMs-FM questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument for assessment of fibromyalgia patients. A phased treatment regimen depending on the severity of FMS as well as preferences and comorbidities of the patient is the best approach to tailored patient management. PMID:27190648

  12. SU-E-I-17: Evaluation of Commercially Available Extension Plates for the ACR CT Accreditation Phantom

    SciTech Connect

    Greene-Donnelly, K; Ogden, K

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the impact of commercially available extension plates on Hounsfield Unit (HU) values in the ACR CT accreditation phantom (Model 464, Gammex Inc., Middleton, Wi). The extension plates are intended to improve water HU values in scanners where the traditional solution involves scanning the phantom with an adjacent water or CTDI phantom. Methods: The Model 464 phantom was scanned on 9 different CT scanners at 8 separate sites representing 16 and 64 slice MDCT technology from four CT manufacturers. The phantom was scanned with and without the extension plates (Gammex 464 EXTPLT-KIT) in helical and axial modes. A water phantom was also scanned to verify water HU calibration. Technique was 120 kV tube potential, 350 mAs, and 210 mm display field of view. Slice thickness and reconstruction algorithm were based on site clinical protocols. The widest available beam collimation was used. Regions of interest were drawn on the HU test objects in Module 1 of the phantom and mean values recorded. Results: For all axial mode scans, water HU values were within limits with or without the extension plates. For two scanners (both Lightspeed VCT, GE Medical Systems, Waukesha WI), axial mode bone HU values were above the specified range both with and without the extension plates though they were closer to the specified range with the plates installed. In helical scan mode, two scanners (both GE Lightspeed VCT) had water HU values above the specified range without the plates installed. With the plates installed, the water HU values were within range for all scanners in all scan modes. Conclusion: Using the plates, the Lightspeed VCT scanners passed the water HU test when scanning in helical mode. The benefit of the extension plates was evident in helical mode scanning with GE scanners using a nominal 4 cm beam. Disclosure: The extension plates evaluated in this work were provided free of charge to the authors. The authors have no other financial interest in Gammex

  13. Evidence of a Substrate-Discriminating Entrance Channel in the Lower Porter Domain of the Multidrug Resistance Efflux Pump AcrB

    PubMed Central

    Vavra, Martina; Kern, Winfried V.

    2016-01-01

    Efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division (RND) transporter family, such as AcrB of Escherichia coli, play an important role in the development of multidrug resistance, but the molecular basis for their substrate promiscuity is not yet completely understood. From a collection of highly clarithromycin-resistant AcrB periplasmic domain mutants derived from in vitro random mutagenesis, we identified variants with an unusually altered drug resistance pattern characterized by increased susceptibility to many drugs of lower molecular weight, including fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines, and oxazolidinones, but unchanged or increased resistance to drugs of higher molecular weight, including macrolides. Sequencing of 14 such “divergent resistance” phenotype mutants and 15 control mutants showed that this unusual phenotype was associated with mutations at residues I38 and I671 predominantly to phenylalanine and threonine, respectively, both conferring a similar susceptibility pattern. Reconstructed I38F and I671T single mutants as well as an engineered I38F I671T double mutant with proved efflux competence revealed an equivalent phenotype with enhanced or unchanged resistance to many large AcrB substrates but increased susceptibility to several lower-molecular-weight drugs known to bind within the distal binding pocket. The two isoleucines located in close vicinity to each other in the lower porter domain of AcrB beneath the bottom of the proximal binding pocket may be part of a preferential small-drug entrance pathway that is compromised by the mutations. This finding supports recent indications of distinct entrance channels used by compounds with different physicochemical properties, of which molecular size appears to play a prominent role. PMID:27161641

  14. DNA-Launched Alphavirus Replicons Encoding a Fusion of Mycobacterial Antigens Acr and Ag85B Are Immunogenic and Protective in a Murine Model of TB Infection.

    PubMed

    Dalmia, Neha; Klimstra, William B; Mason, Carol; Ramsay, Alistair J

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for effective prophylactic measures against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, particularly given the highly variable efficacy of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). Most studies indicate that cell-mediated immune responses involving both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are necessary for effective immunity against Mtb. Genetic vaccination induces humoral and cellular immune responses, including CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, against a variety of bacterial, viral, parasitic and tumor antigens, and this strategy may therefore hold promise for the development of more effective TB vaccines. Novel formulations and delivery strategies to improve the immunogenicity of DNA-based vaccines have recently been evaluated, and have shown varying degrees of success. In the present study, we evaluated DNA-launched Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons (Vrep) encoding a novel fusion of the mycobacterial antigens α-crystallin (Acr) and antigen 85B (Ag85B), termed Vrep-Acr/Ag85B, for their immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine model of pulmonary TB. Vrep-Acr/Ag85B generated antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses that persisted for at least 10 wk post-immunization. Interestingly, parenterally administered Vrep-Acr/Ag85B also induced T cell responses in the lung tissues, the primary site of infection, and inhibited bacterial growth in both the lungs and spleens following aerosol challenge with Mtb. DNA-launched Vrep may, therefore, represent an effective approach to the development of gene-based vaccines against TB, particularly as components of heterologous prime-boost strategies or as BCG boosters.

  15. Evaluation of Doses and Image Quality in Mammography with Screen-Film, CR, and DR Detectors – Application of the ACR Phantom

    PubMed Central

    Ślusarczyk-Kacprzyk, Wioletta; Skrzyński, Witold; Fabiszewska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Different methods of image quality evaluation are routinely used for analogue and digital mammography systems in Poland. In the present study, image quality for several screen-film (SF), computed radiography (CR), and fully digital (DR) mammography systems was compared directly with the use of the ACR mammography accreditation phantom. Material/Methods Image quality and mean glandular doses were measured and compared for 47 mammography systems in the Mazovia Voivodeship in Poland, including 26 SF systems, 12 CR systems, and 9 DR systems. The mean glandular dose for the breast simulated by 4.5 cm of PMMA was calculated with methods described in the “European guidelines for quality assurance in breast cancer screening and diagnosis”. Visibility of the structures in the image (fibers, microcalcifications, and masses) was evaluated with the mammographic accreditation ACR phantom. Results Image quality for DR systems was significantly higher than for SF and CR systems. Several SF systems failed to pass the image quality tests because of artifacts. The doses were within acceptable limits for all of the systems, but the doses for the CR systems were significantly higher than for the SF and DR systems. Conclusions The best image quality, at a reasonably low dose, was observed for the DR systems. The CR systems are capable of obtaining the same image quality as the SF systems, but only at a significantly higher dose. The ACR phantom can be routinely used to evaluate image quality for all types of mammographic systems. PMID:27617048

  16. Evapotranspiration Cover for the 92-Acre Area Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Area 5 Waste Management Division, Nevada National Security Site, Final CQA Report

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Management; The Delphi Groupe, Inc.; J. A. Cesare and Associates, Inc.

    2012-01-31

    The report is the Final Construction Quality Assurance (CQA) Report for the 92-Acrew Evapotranspiration Cover, Area 5 Waste Management Division Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, for the period of January 20, 2011, to January 31, 2012 The Area 5 RWMS uses engineered shallow-land burial cells to dispose of packaged waste. The 92-Acre Area encompasses the southern portion of the Area 5 RWMS, which has been designated for the first final closure operations. This area contains 13 Greater Confinement Disposal (GCD) boreholes, 16 narrow trenches, and 9 broader pits. With the exception of two active pits (P03 and P06), all trenches and pits in the 92-Acre Area had operational covers approximately 2.4 meters thick, at a minimum, in most areas when this project began. The units within the 92-Acre Area are grouped into the following six informal categories based on physical location, waste types and regulatory requirements: (1) Pit 3 Mixed Waste Disposal Unit (MWDU); (2) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111; (3) CAU 207; (4) Low-level waste disposal units; (5) Asbestiform low-level waste disposal units; and (6) One transuranic (TRU) waste trench.

  17. There is a baby in the bath water: AcrB contamination is a major problem in membrane-protein crystallization.

    PubMed

    Veesler, David; Blangy, Stéphanie; Cambillau, Christian; Sciara, Giuliano

    2008-10-01

    In the course of a crystallographic study of the Methanosarcina mazei CorA transporter, the membrane protein was obtained with at least 95% purity and was submitted to crystallization trials. Small crystals (<100 microm) were grown that diffracted to 3.42 A resolution and belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 145.74, c = 514.0 A. After molecular-replacement attempts using available CorA structures as search models failed to yield a solution, it was discovered that the crystals consisted of an Escherichia coli contaminating protein, acriflavine resistance protein B (AcrB), that was present at less than 5% in the protein preparations. AcrB contamination is a major problem when expressing membrane proteins in E. coli since it binds naturally to immobilized metal-ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) resins. Here, the structure is compared with previously deposited AcrB structures and strategies are proposed to avoid this contamination.

  18. Conceptual design studies of a V/STOL civil lift fan transport including effect of size and fan pressure ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual design studies of V/STOL Lift Fan Commercial short-haul transport aircraft for the 1980-85 time period were studied to determine their technical and economic feasibility. The remote lift fan configurations with a variation in fan pressure ratio from 1.2 to 1.5 were investigated. Also studied were variation in stage length from 200 nautical miles to 800 nautical miles and cruise Mach numbers of 0.75 and 0.85. These results indicate a four engine configuration was feasible. The 95 PNdb noise footprint would be approximately 45 acres and the DOC's would be about 60% greater than conventional transports.

  19. Interleukin-18 and NGAL in assessment of ESWL treatment safety in children with urolithiasis

    PubMed Central

    Jobs, Katarzyna; Straż-Żebrowska, Ewa; Placzyńska, Małgorzata; Zdanowski, Robert; Lewicki, Sławomir; Jung, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Urolithiasis is recurrent chronic disease and a complex nephro-urological problem. Currently it is diagnosed in very young children, even infants in the first quarter of life. Until recently the main method of treatment for stones, which for various reasons did not pass spontaneously, was open surgery. At present, the main method replacing open surgery is extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Usefulness of common known indicators of the renal function to assess the safety of ESWL procedure is evaluated and verified. The basic markers are serum creatinine, cystatin C, urea, glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria assessment. Unfortunately all these methods show little sensitivity in the case of acute injury processes. There are efforts to use new biomarkers of renal tubular activity, which include among others interleukin 18 (IL-18) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL). The aim of the study was to assess the safety of ESWL by means of albumin to creatinine ratio, serum cystatin C levels and concentration of two new markers: IL -18 and NGAL. Albumin to creatinine ratio (p = 0.28) and serum cystatin C (p = 0.63) collected before and 48 hours after ESWL did not show statistically significant differences. Similarly, both new markers (IL -18 and NGAL) showed no significant differences (urine IL -18 p = 0.31; serum NGAL p = 0.11; urine NGAL p = 0.29). In conclusion, serum cystatin C tests, urine albumin to creatinine ratio and new early markers of renal tubular injury confirmed the safety of the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) and show that the procedure does not cause any episode of acute renal injury. PMID:26155152

  20. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, John F.

    1989-01-01

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor.

  1. High ratio recirculating gas compressor

    DOEpatents

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1989-08-22

    A high ratio positive displacement recirculating rotary compressor is disclosed. The compressor includes an integral heat exchanger and recirculation conduits for returning cooled, high pressure discharge gas to the compressor housing to reducing heating of the compressor and enable higher pressure ratios to be sustained. The compressor features a recirculation system which results in continuous and uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas to the compressor with no direct leakage to either the discharge port or the intake port of the compressor, resulting in a capability of higher sustained pressure ratios without overheating of the compressor. 10 figs.

  2. WE-D-207-03: CT Protocols for Screening and the ACR Designated Lung Screening Program

    SciTech Connect

    McNitt-Gray, M.

    2015-06-15

    implementing Lung Cancer Screening protocols for CT, including utilizing resources such as the AAPM Protocols and the ACR Designated Lung Screening Center program. UCLA Department of Radiology has an Institutional research agreement with Siemens Healthcare; Dr. McNitt-Gray has been a recipient of Research Support from Siemens Healthcare in the past. Dr. Aberle has been a Member of Advisory Boards for the LUNGevity Foundation (2011-present) and Siemens Medical Solutions. (2013)

  3. Comparison of the morphology of alkali–silica gel formed in limestones in concrete affected by the so-called alkali–carbonate reaction (ACR) and alkali–silica reaction (ASR)

    SciTech Connect

    Grattan-Bellew, P.E.; Chan, Gordon

    2013-05-15

    The morphology of alkali–silica gel formed in dolomitic limestone affected by the so-called alkali–carbonate reaction (ACR) is compared to that formed in a siliceous limestone affected by alkali–silica reaction (ASR). The particle of dolomitic limestone was extracted from the experimental sidewalk in Kingston, Ontario, Canada that was badly cracked due to ACR. The siliceous limestone particle was extracted from a core taken from a highway structure in Quebec, affected by ASR. Both cores exhibited marked reaction rims around limestone particles. The aggregate particles were polished and given a light gold coating in preparation for examination in a scanning electron microscope. The gel in the ACR aggregate formed stringers between the calcite crystals in the matrix of the rock, whereas gel in ASR concrete formed a thick layer on top of the calcite crystals, that are of the same size as in the ACR aggregate.

  4. Association of Kidney Function and Early Kidney Injury With Incident Hypertension in HIV-Infected Women.

    PubMed

    Ascher, Simon B; Scherzer, Rebecca; Peralta, Carmen A; Tien, Phyllis C; Grunfeld, Carl; Estrella, Michelle M; Abraham, Alison; Gustafson, Deborah R; Nowicki, Marek; Sharma, Anjali; Cohen, Mardge H; Butch, Anthony W; Young, Mary A; Bennett, Michael R; Shlipak, Michael G

    2017-02-01

    Subclinical kidney disease is associated with developing hypertension in the general population, but data are lacking among HIV-infected people. We examined associations of kidney function and injury with incident hypertension in 823 HIV-infected and 267 HIV-uninfected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multicenter, prospective cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected women in the United States. Baseline kidney biomarkers included estimated glomerular filtration rate using cystatin C, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and 7 urine biomarkers of tubular injury: α-1-microglobulin, interleukin-18, kidney injury molecule-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, liver fatty acid-binding protein, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, and α1-acid-glycoprotein. We used multivariable Poisson regression to evaluate associations of kidney biomarkers with incident hypertension, defined as 2 consecutive visits of antihypertensive medication use. During a median follow-up of 9.6 years, 288 HIV-infected women (35%) developed hypertension. Among the HIV-infected women, higher urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was independently associated with incident hypertension (relative risk =1.13 per urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio doubling, 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.20), as was lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (relative risk =1.10 per 10 mL/min/1.73 m(2) lower estimated glomerular filtration rate; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.17). No tubular injury and dysfunction biomarkers were independently associated with incident hypertension in HIV-infected women. In contrast, among the HIV-uninfected women, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was not associated with incident hypertension, whereas higher urine interleukin-18, α1-acid-glycoprotein, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase levels were significantly associated with incident hypertension. These findings suggest that early glomerular injury and kidney dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension in

  5. Pressure Ratio to Thermal Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro; Wang, Winston

    2012-01-01

    A pressure ratio to thermal environments (PRatTlE.pl) program is a Perl language code that estimates heating at requested body point locations by scaling the heating at a reference location times a pressure ratio factor. The pressure ratio factor is the ratio of the local pressure at the reference point and the requested point from CFD (computational fluid dynamics) solutions. This innovation provides pressure ratio-based thermal environments in an automated and traceable method. Previously, the pressure ratio methodology was implemented via a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and macro scripts. PRatTlE is able to calculate heating environments for 150 body points in less than two minutes. PRatTlE is coded in Perl programming language, is command-line-driven, and has been successfully executed on both the HP and Linux platforms. It supports multiple concurrent runs. PRatTlE contains error trapping and input file format verification, which allows clear visibility into the input data structure and intermediate calculations.

  6. Continually variable transmission having fixed ratio and variable ratio mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Moan, R.D

    1989-06-06

    This patent describes a transmission for producing a stepless, continually variable range of ratios of the speed of its output to its input comprising: a fluid coupling having an impeller adapted for connection to a power source and a turbine hydrodynamically connected to the impeller; as planetary gearset having a ring gear, a sun gear, a first set of planet pinions meshing with the sun gear, a second set of planet pinions meshing with the first set of pinions and with the ring gear, and a pinion carrier on which the first and second sets of pinions are rotatably supported; first drive means drivable connecting the turbine and the sun gear for producing a variable speed ratio therebetween having a range between an underdrive ratio and an overdrive ratio; second drive means drivably connecting the impeller and the ring gear for producing a fixed speed ratio therebetween; a first clutch means for drivably connecting and disconnecting the ring gear and the second drive means; and a second clutch means for drivably connecting and disconnecting the first drive means and the pinion carrier.

  7. Total alkaloids of Sophorea alopecuroides-induced down-regulation of AcrAB-TolC efflux pump reverses susceptibility to ciprofloxacin in clinical multidrug resistant Escherichia coli isolates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuezhang; Jia, Fang; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2012-11-01

    In this report, total alkaloids extracted from the seeds of Sophorea alopecuroides (TASA) was evaluated against clinical Escherichia coli isolates resistant to four tested antibiotics, ampicillin (AM), amikacin (AN), cefotaxime (CTX) and ciprofloxacin (CIP). The TASA showed an antibacterial activity against the multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates. In combination with TASA, synergistic effects on the tested antibiotics against the MRD isolates were observed. Similarly, the isolates pretreated with a lower dose of TASA yielded increased and stable susceptibilities to CIP by 16-32-fold determined by a microbroth dilution checkerboard method. Moreover, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis revealed a constitutive overexpression of the AcrAB-TolC pump system in the tested MDR isolates. The pretreatment of MDR isolates with TASA resulted in a statistically down-regulated expression of acrA and acrB genes, and an up-regulated expression of acrR gene (p < 0.05). But the expression of tolC gene was not significantly altered (p > 0.05). These results suggested that the TASA-induced reversal resistance to CIP might be partially through a mechanism of inhibition of the AcrAB-TolC pump activity in these isolates, implying that the TASA can be used as a potential natural source to develop efflux pump inhibitors (EPI) against AcrAB-TolC pump mediated MDR in E. coli isolates.

  8. Three ways in, one way out: water dynamics in the trans-membrane domains of the inner membrane translocase AcrB.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Nadine; Kandt, Christian

    2011-10-01

    Powered by proton-motive force, the inner membrane translocase AcrB is the engine of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump in Escherichia coli. As proton conduction in proteins occurs along hydrogen-bonded networks of polar residues and water molecules, knowledge of the protein-internal water distribution and water-interacting residues allows drawing conclusions to possible pathways of proton conduction. Here, we report a series of 6× 50 ns independent molecular dynamics simulations of asymmetric AcrB embedded in a phospholipid/water environment. Simulating each monomer in its proposed protonation state, we calculated for each trans-membrane domain the average water distribution, identified residues interacting with these waters and quantified each residue's frequency of water hydrogen bond contact. Combining this information we find three possible routes of proton transfer connecting a continuously hydrated region of known key residues in the TMD interior to bulk water by one cytoplasmic and up to three periplasm water channels in monomer B and A. We find that water access of the trans-membrane domains is regulated by four groups of residues in a combination of side chain re-orientations and shifts of trans-membrane helices. Our findings support a proton release event via Arg971 during the C intermediate or in the transition to A, and proton uptake occurring in the A or B state or during a so far unknown intermediate in between B and C where cytoplasmic water access is still possible. Our simulations suggest experimentally testable hypotheses, which have not been investigated so far.

  9. Technical Note: Compact three-tesla magnetic resonance imager with high-performance gradients passes ACR image quality and acoustic noise tests

    PubMed Central

    Weavers, Paul T.; Shu, Yunhong; Tao, Shengzhen; Huston, John; Lee, Seung-Kyun; Graziani, Dominic; Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste; Trzasko, Joshua D.; Foo, Thomas K.-F.; Bernstein, Matt A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: A compact, three-tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system has been developed. It features a 37 cm patient aperture, allowing the use of commercial receiver coils. Its design allows simultaneously for gradient amplitudes of 85 millitesla per meter (mT/m) sustained and 700 tesla per meter per second (T/m/s) slew rates. The size of the gradient system allows for these simultaneous performance targets to be achieved with little or no peripheral nerve stimulation, but also raises a concern about the geometric distortion as much of the imaging will be done near the system’s maximum 26 cm field-of-view. Additionally, the fast switching capability raises acoustic noise concerns. This work evaluates the system for both the American College of Radiology’s (ACR) MRI image quality protocol and the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) nonsignificant risk (NSR) acoustic noise limits for MR. Passing these two tests is critical for clinical acceptance. Methods: In this work, the gradient system was operated at the maximum amplitude and slew rate of 80 mT/m and 500 T/m/s, respectively. The geometric distortion correction was accomplished by iteratively determining up to the tenth order spherical harmonic coefficients using a fiducial phantom and position-tracking software, with seventh order correction utilized in the ACR test. Acoustic noise was measured with several standard clinical pulse sequences. Results: The system passes all the ACR image quality tests. The acoustic noise as measured when the gradient coil was inserted into a whole-body MRI system conforms to the FDA NSR limits. Conclusions: The compact system simultaneously allows for high gradient amplitude and high slew rate. Geometric distortion concerns have been mitigated by extending the spherical harmonic correction to higher orders. Acoustic noise is within the FDA limits. PMID:26936710

  10. Minimum age of the Neoproterozoic Seven Hundred Acre Island Formation and the tectonic setting of the Islesboro Formation, Islesboro block, Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stewart, D.B.; Tucker, R.D.; Ayuso, R.A.; Lux, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Two platformal stratigraphic sequences occur on Islesboro, Penobscot Bay, Maine. The older Seven Hundred Acre Island Formation is at least 200 m thick, its base is not exposed, and it makes up fault-bounded blocks of siliceous colour-banded dolomitic marble, muscovite-rich quartzite, coarse-grained splendent muscovite-garnet-staurolite-andalusite schist, and calcareous metapelite, with minor garnet amphibolite and amphibolite. It was initially metamorphosed to lower amphibolite facies and was later to lower greenschist facies. The lower amphibolite facies metamorphism is Neoproterozoic (670 to 650 Ma) as inferred from the 40Ar/39Ar high temperature release spectra of hornblende separates. A U-Pb zircon age of 646.7 ?? 2.7 Ma obtained for a pegmatite that intruded deformed rocks is taken to be the minimum age of the Formation. The platformal Islesboro Formation probably unconformably overlies the Seven Hundred Acre Island Formation. It is primarily turbiditic pelite with many beds of quartzite, impure dolomitic marble, some conglomerate, and a few feldsparrich volcaniclastic beds and is thought to be either Neoproterozoic or Cambrian. It was metamorphosed only to lower greenschist facies, possibly in the same event that retrograded the Seven Hundred Acre Island Formation. Geochemical interpretations of minor and trace element analyses of six amphibolite and four schist samples from the Seven Hundred Acre Island Formation show that the protoliths of the amphibolite samples were intermediate between tholeiitic and within-plate type basaltic flows or dikes that intruded attenuated continental crust, or were eroded from these basalts. Four amphibolite and three schist samples analyzed for Pb isotopes were found to be enriched in radiogenic Pb. The Pb isotopic compositions are similar to those in peri-Gondwanan basement rocks from Atlantic Canada. The peri-Gondwanan Islesboro block was placed against the peri-Gondwanan Middle and Late Cambrian Ellsworth terrane on the

  11. Selection of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (mar) mutants of Escherichia coli by using the disinfectant pine oil: roles of the mar and acrAB loci.

    PubMed Central

    Moken, M C; McMurry, L M; Levy, S B

    1997-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli selected for resistance to the disinfectant pine oil or to a household product containing pine oil also showed resistance to multiple antibiotics (tetracycline, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and nalidixic acid) and overexpressed the marA gene. Likewise, antibiotic-selected Mar mutants, which also overexpress marA, were resistant to pine oil. Deletion of the mar or acrAB locus, the latter encoding a multidrug efflux pump positively regulated in part by MarA, increased the susceptibility of wild-type and mutant strains to pine oil. PMID:9420057

  12. Exercise-induced albuminuria vs circadian variations in blood pressure in type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tadida Meli, Isabelle Hota; Tankeu, Aurel T; Dehayem, Mesmin Y; Chelo, David; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigated the relationship between exercise-induced ambulatory blood pressure measurement (ABPM) abnormalities in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) adolescents. METHODS We conducted a case-control at the National Obesity Center of the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon. We compared 24 h ABPM and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) at rest and after a standardized treadmill exercise between 20 Cameroonian T1DM patients and 20 matched controls. T1DM adolescents were aged 12-18 years, with diabetes for at least one year, without proteinuria, with normal office blood pressure (BP) and renal function according to the general reference population. Non-diabetic controls were adolescents of general population matched for sex, age and BMI. RESULTS Mean duration of diabetes was 4.2 ± 2.8 years. The mean 24 h systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were respectively 116 ± 9 mmHg in the diabetic group vs 111 ± 8 mmHg in the non-diabetic (P = 0.06), and 69 ± 7 mm Hg vs 66 ± 5 mm Hg (P = 0.19). There was no difference in the diurnal pattern of BP in diabetes patients and non-diabetic controls (SBP: 118 ± 10 mmHg vs 114 ± 10 mmHg, P = 0.11; DBP: 71 ± 7 mmHg vs 68 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.22). Nighttime BP was higher in the diabetic group with respect to SBP (112 ± 11 mmHg vs 106 ± 7 mmHg, P = 0.06) and to the mean arterial pressure (MAP) (89 ± 9 mmHg vs 81 ± 6 mmHg, P = 0.06). ACR at rest was similar in both groups (5.5 mg/g vs 5.5 mg/g, P = 0.74), but significantly higher in diabetes patients after exercise (10.5 mg/g vs 5.5 mg/g, P = 0.03). SBP was higher in patients having exercise-induced albuminuria (116 ± 10 mmHg vs 108 ± 10 mmHg, P = 0.09). CONCLUSION Exercise-induced albuminuria could be useful for early diagnosis of kidney damage in adolescents with T1DM. PMID:28265345

  13. Family physician and endocrinologist coordination as the basis for diabetes care in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Alejandra; Runkle, Isabelle; Matía, Pilar; de Miguel, Maria P; Garrido, Sofia; Cervera, Emilio; Fernandez, Maria D; Torres, Pilar; Lillo, Tomas; Martin, Patricia; Cabrerizo, Lucio; de la Torre, Nuria Garcia; Calle, Jose R; Ibarra, Jose; Charro, Aniceto L; Calle-Pascual, Alfonso L

    2008-01-01

    Background To estimate the proportion of diabetic patients (DPts) with peripheral vascular disease treated at a primary health care site after an endocrinologist-based intervention, who meet ATP III and Steno targets of metabolic control, as well as to compare the outcome with the results of the patients treated by endocrinologists. Methods A controlled, prospective over 30-months period study was conducted in area 7 of Madrid. One hundred twenty six eligible diabetic patients diagnosed as having peripheral vascular disease between January 2003 and June 2004 were included in the study. After a treatment period of three months by the Diabetes team at St Carlos Hospital, 63 patients were randomly assigned to continue their follow up by diabetes team (Group A) and other 63 to be treated by the family physicians (FP) at primary care level with continuous diabetes team coordination (Group B). 57 DPts from Group A and 59 from Group B, completed the 30 months follow-up period. At baseline both groups were similar in age, weight, time from diagnosis and metabolic control. The main outcomes of this study were the proportion of patients meeting ATP III and Steno goals for HbA1c (%), Cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure, albumine-to-creatinine excretion ratio (ACR), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), anti-aggregation treatment and smoking status. Results At the end of the follow up, no differences were found between the groups. More than 37% of diabetic patients assigned to be treated by FP achieved a HbA1c < 6.5%, more than 50% a ACR < 30 mg/g, and more than 80% reached low risk values for cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, diastolic blood pressure and were anti-aggregated, and 12% remained smokers. In contrast, less than 45% achieved a systolic blood pressure < 130 mm Hg, less than 12% had a BMI < 25 Kg.m-2 (versus 23% in group A; p < 0.05) and 49%/30% (men/women) had a waist circumference of low risk

  14. Urinary Markers of Kidney Injury and Kidney Function Decline in HIV-Infected Women

    PubMed Central

    Shlipak, Michael G.; Scherzer, Rebecca; Abraham, Alison; Tien, Phyllis C.; Grunfeld, Carl; Peralta, Carmen A.; Devarajan, Prasad; Bennett, Michael; Butch, Anthony W.; Anastos, Kathryn; Cohen, Mardge H.; Nowicki, Marek; Sharma, Anjali; Young, Mary A.; Sarnak, Mark J.; Parikh, Chirag R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective HIV-infected persons have substantially higher risk of kidney failure than persons without HIV, but serum creatinine levels are insensitive for detecting declining kidney function. We hypothesized that urine markers of kidney injury would be associated with declining kidney function among HIV-infected women. Methods In the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), we measured concentrations of albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), interleukin-18 (IL-18), kidney injury marker-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) from stored urine among 908 HIV-infected and 289 uninfected participants. Primary analyses used cystatin C based estimated glomerular filtration rate (CKD-EPI eGFRcys) as the outcome, measured at baseline and two follow-up visits over eight years; secondary analyses used creatinine (CKD-EPI eGFRcr). Each urine biomarker was categorized into tertiles, and kidney decline was modeled with both continuous and dichotomized outcomes. Results Compared with the lowest tertiles, the highest tertiles of ACR (−0.15ml/min/1.73m2, p<0.0001), IL-18 (−0.09ml/min/1.73m2, p<0.0001) and KIM-1 (−0.06ml/min/1.73m2, p<0.001) were independently associated with faster eGFRcys decline after multivariate adjustment including all three biomarkers among HIV-infected women. Among these biomarkers, only IL-18 was associated with each dichotomized eGFRcys outcome: ≥3% (Relative Risk 1.40; 95%CI 1.04-1.89); ≥5% (1.88; 1.30-2.71); and ≥10% (2.16; 1.20-3.88) for the highest versus lowest tertile. In alternative models using eGFRcr, the high tertile of KIM-1 had independent associations with 5% (1.71; 1.25-2.33) and 10% (1.78; 1.07-2.96) decline, and the high IL-18 tertile with 10% decline (1.97; 1.00-3.87). Conclusions Among HIV-infected women in the WIHS cohort, novel urine markers of kidney injury detect risk for subsequent declines in kidney function. PMID:23023103

  15. A Ratio Explanation for Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riss, Pam Helfers

    1993-01-01

    Describes hands-on physical anthropology activities for teaching students about evolution. Using evidence found in hominid skulls, students conduct investigations that involve calculating ratios. Eight full-page photographs of skulls from the program Stones and Bones are included. (PR)

  16. Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants’ performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit ratio. It has been reported that the digit ratio is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit ratios, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit ratios, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence. PMID:27039893

  17. Resistance-nodulation-division efflux pump acrAB is modulated by florfenicol and contributes to drug resistance in the fish pathogen Piscirickettsia salmonis.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Rodrigo; Oliver, Cristian; Valdivia, Sharin; Valenzuela, Karla; Haro, Ronie E; Sánchez, Patricio; Olavarría, Víctor H; Valenzuela, Paulina; Avendaño-Herrera, Rubén; Romero, Alex; Cárcamo, Juan G; Figueroa, Jaime E; Yáñez, Alejandro J

    2016-06-01

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is a fastidious intracellular pathogen responsible for high mortality rates in farmed salmonids, with serious economic consequences for the Chilean aquaculture industry. Oxytetracycline and florfenicol are the most frequently used antibiotics against P. salmonis, but routine use could contribute to drug resistance. This study identified differentiated florfenicol susceptibilities in two P. salmonis strains, LF-89 and AUSTRAL-005. The less susceptible isolate, AUSTRAL-005, also showed a high ethidium bromide efflux rate, indicating a higher activity of general efflux pump genes than LF-89. The P. salmonis genome presented resistance nodulation division (RND) family members, a family containing typical multidrug resistance-related efflux pumps in Gram-negative bacteria. Additionally, efflux pump acrAB genes were overexpressed in AUSTRAL-005 following exposure to the tolerated maximal concentration of florfenicol, in contrast to LF-89. These results indicate that tolerated maximum concentrations of florfenicol can modulate RND gene expression and increase efflux pump activity. We propose that the acrAB efflux pump is essential for P. salmonis survival at critical florfenicol concentrations and for the generation of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains.

  18. Estimating diversity via frequency ratios.

    PubMed

    Willis, Amy; Bunge, John

    2015-12-01

    We wish to estimate the total number of classes in a population based on sample counts, especially in the presence of high latent diversity. Drawing on probability theory that characterizes distributions on the integers by ratios of consecutive probabilities, we construct a nonlinear regression model for the ratios of consecutive frequency counts. This allows us to predict the unobserved count and hence estimate the total diversity. We believe that this is the first approach to depart from the classical mixed Poisson model in this problem. Our method is geometrically intuitive and yields good fits to data with reasonable standard errors. It is especially well-suited to analyzing high diversity datasets derived from next-generation sequencing in microbial ecology. We demonstrate the method's performance in this context and via simulation, and we present a dataset for which our method outperforms all competitors.

  19. Models of ratio schedule performance.

    PubMed

    Bizo, L A; Killeen, P R

    1997-07-01

    Predictions of P. R. Killeen's (1994) mathematical principles of reinforcement were tested for responding on ratio reinforcement schedules. The type of response key, the number of sessions per condition, and first vs. second half of a session had negligible effects on responding. Longer reinforcer durations and larger grain types engendered more responding, affecting primarily the parameter alpha (specific activation). Key pecking was faster than treadle pressing, affecting primarily the parameter delta (response time). Longer intertrial intervals led to higher overall response rates and shorter postreinforcement pauses and higher running rates, and ruled out some competing explanations. The treadle data required a distinction between the energetic requirements and rate-limiting properties of extended responses. The theory was extended to predict pause durations and run rates on ratio schedules.

  20. Strange Baryon to Meson Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuautle, Eleazar; Ayala, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    We present a model to compute baryon and meson transverse momentum distributions, and their ratios, in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. The model allows to compute the probability to form colorless bound states of either two or three quarks as functions of the evolving density during the collision. The qualitative differences of the baryon to meson ratio for different collision energies and for different particle species can be associated to the different density dependent probabilities and to the combinatorial factors which in turn depend on whether the quarks forming the bound states are heavy or light. We compare to experimental data and show that we obtain a good description up to intermediate values of pt.

  1. Sex ratios in bumble bees

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, A. F. G.

    1997-01-01

    The median proportion of investment in females among 11 populations of seven bumble bee (Bombus) species was 0.32 (range 0.07 to 0.64). By contrast, two species of workerless social parasites in the related genus Psithyrus had female-biased sex allocation, the reasons for which remain unclear. Male-biased sex allocation in Bombus contradicts the predictions of Trivers and Hare's sex ratio model for the social Hymenoptera, which are that the population sex investment ratio should be 0.5 (1:1) under queen control and 0.75 (3:1 females:males) under worker control (assuming single, once-mated, outbred queens and non-reproductive workers). Male bias in Bombus does not appear to be either an artefact, or purely the result of symbiotic sex ratio distorters. According to modifications of the Trivers–Hare model, the level of worker male-production in Bombus is insufficient to account for observed levels of male bias. There is also no evidence that male bias arises from either local resource competition (related females compete for resources) or local mate enhancement (related males cooperate in securing mates). Bulmer presented models predicting sexual selection for protandry (males are produced before females) in annual social Hymenoptera and, as a consequence (given some parameter values), male-biased sex allocation. Bumble bees fit the assumptions of Bulmer's models and are protandrous. These models therefore represent the best current explanation for the bees' male-biased sex investment ratios. This conclusion suggests that the relative timing of the production of the sexes strongly influences sex allocation in the social Hymenoptera.

  2. Segregation Ratios in Alport's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    MacNeill, Elizabeth; Shaw, Richard F.

    1973-01-01

    Pooled data of 35 pedigrees for Alport's syndrome were analysed. Affected to normal ratios among the offspring of heterozgyous fathers and mothers were tabulated. Offspring of heterozygous mothers were tabulated separately where the mother showed symptoms of the disease and where she was asymptomatic. Three current theories on the inheritance of Alport's syndrome are considered and discussed. Each theory fails to account fully for the known facts. A non-chromosomal agent has not yet been excluded for this intriguing disease. PMID:4697851

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-07-31

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NTS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative analysis of the

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for the 92-Acre Area and Corrective Action Unit 111: Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-11-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the 92-Acre Area, the southeast quadrant of the Radioactive Waste Management Site, located in Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The 92-Acre Area includes Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 111, 'Area 5 WMD Retired Mixed Waste Pits.' Data Quality Objectives (DQOs) were developed for the 92-Acre Area, which includes CAU 111. The result of the DQO process was that the 92-Acre Area is sufficiently characterized to provide the input data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives (CAAs) without the collection of additional data. The DQOs are included as Appendix A of this document. This CADD/CAP identifies and provides the rationale for the recommended CAA for the 92-Acre Area, provides the plan for implementing the CAA, and details the post-closure plan. When approved, this CADD/CAP will supersede the existing Pit 3 (P03) Closure Plan, which was developed in accordance with Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 265, 'Interim Status Standards for Owners and Operators of Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities.' This document will also serve as the Closure Plan and the Post-Closure Plan, which are required by 40 CFR 265, for the 92-Acre Area. After closure activities are complete, a request for the modification of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Permit that governs waste management activities at the NNSS will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to incorporate the requirements for post-closure monitoring. Four CAAs, ranging from No Further Action to Clean Closure, were evaluated for the 92-Acre Area. The CAAs were evaluated on technical merit focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, safety, and cost. Based on the evaluation of the data used to develop the conceptual site model; a review of past, current, and future operations at the site; and the detailed and comparative

  5. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low

  6. Using Ratio Analysis to Evaluate Financial Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    The ways in which ratio analysis can help in long-range planning, budgeting, and asset management to strengthen financial performance and help avoid financial difficulties are explained. Types of ratios considered include balance sheet ratios, net operating ratios, and contribution and demand ratios. (MSE)

  7. Low conversion ratio fuel studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M. A.

    2006-02-28

    Recent studies on TRU disposition in fast reactors indicated viable reactor performance for a sodium cooled low conversion ratio reactor design. Additional studies have been initiated to refine the earlier work and consider the feasibility of alternate fuel forms such as nitride and oxide fuel (rather than metal fuel). These alternate fuel forms may have significant impacts upon the burner design and the safety behavior. The work performed thus far has focused on compiling the necessary fuel form property information and refinement of the physics models. For this limited project, the burner design and performance using nitride fuel will be assessed.

  8. New directions in hydro-climatic histories: observational data recovery, proxy records and the atmospheric circulation reconstructions over the earth (ACRE) initiative in Southeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Fiona; Allan, Rob; Switzer, Adam D.; Chan, Johnny C. L.; Wasson, Robert James; D'Arrigo, Rosanne; Gartner, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The value of historic observational weather data for reconstructing long-term climate patterns and the detailed analysis of extreme weather events has long been recognized (Le Roy Ladurie, 1972; Lamb, 1977). In some regions however, observational data has not been kept regularly over time, or its preservation and archiving has not been considered a priority by governmental agencies. This has been a particular problem in Southeast Asia where there has been no systematic country-by-country method of keeping or preserving such data, the keeping of data only reaches back a few decades, or where instability has threatened the survival of historic records. As a result, past observational data are fragmentary, scattered, or even absent altogether. The further we go back in time, the more obvious the gaps. Observational data can be complimented however by historical documentary or proxy records of extreme events such as floods, droughts and other climatic anomalies. This review article highlights recent initiatives in sourcing, recovering, and preserving historical weather data and the potential for integrating the same with proxy (and other) records. In so doing, it focuses on regional initiatives for data research and recovery - particularly the work of the international Atmospheric Circulation Reconstructions over the Earth's (ACRE) Southeast Asian regional arm (ACRE SEA) - and the latter's role in bringing together disparate, but interrelated, projects working within this region. The overarching goal of the ACRE SEA initiative is to connect regional efforts and to build capacity within Southeast Asian institutions, agencies and National Meteorological and Hydrological Services (NMHS) to improve and extend historical instrumental, documentary and proxy databases of Southeast Asian hydroclimate, in order to contribute to the generation of high-quality, high-resolution historical hydroclimatic reconstructions (reanalyses) and, to build linkages with humanities researchers

  9. Forecasting the Effect of the Change in Timing of the ABR Diagnostic Radiology Examinations: Results of the ACR Survey of Practice Leaders.

    PubMed

    Bluth, Edward I; Muroff, Lawrence R; Cernigliaro, Joseph G; Moore, Arl V; Smith, Geoffrey G; Flug, Jonathan; DeStigter, Kristen K; Allen, Bibb; Thorwarth, William T; Roberts, Anne C

    2015-05-01

    The results of a survey sent to practice leaders in the ACR Practice of Radiology Environment Database show that the majority of responding groups will continue to hire recently trained residents and fellows even though they have been unable to take the final ABR diagnostic radiology certifying examination. However, a significant minority of private practice groups will not hire these individuals. The majority of private practices expect the timing change for the ABR certifying examinations to affect their groups' function. In contrast, the majority of academic medical school practices expect little or no impact. Residents and fellows should not expect work time off or protected time to study for the certifying examination or for their maintenance of certification examinations in the future.

  10. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American College of Radiology (ACR) practice guideline for the transperineal permanent brachytherapy of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, Seth A; Bittner, Nathan H J; Beyer, David C; Demanes, D Jeffrey; Goldsmith, Brian J; Horwitz, Eric M; Ibbott, Geoffrey S; Lee, W Robert; Nag, Subir; Suh, W Warren; Potters, Louis

    2011-02-01

    Transperineal permanent prostate brachytherapy is a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with organ-confined prostate cancer. Careful adherence to established brachytherapy standards has been shown to improve the likelihood of procedural success and reduce the incidence of treatment-related morbidity. A collaborative effort of the American College of Radiology (ACR) and American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has produced a practice guideline for permanent prostate brachytherapy. The guideline defines the qualifications and responsibilities of all the involved personnel, including the radiation oncologist, physicist and dosimetrist. Factors with respect to patient selection and appropriate use of supplemental treatment modalities such as external beam radiation and androgen suppression therapy are discussed. Logistics with respect to the brachytherapy implant procedure, the importance of dosimetric parameters, and attention to radiation safety procedures and documentation are presented. Adherence to these practice guidelines can be part of ensuring quality and safety in a successful prostate brachytherapy program.

  11. A method for estimating peak and time of peak streamflow from excess rainfall for 10- to 640-acre watersheds in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Cleveland, Theodore G.; Roussel, Meghan C.

    2011-01-01

    Estimates of peak and time of peak streamflow for small watersheds (less than about 640 acres) in a suburban to urban, low-slope setting are needed for drainage design that is cost-effective and risk-mitigated. During 2007-10, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Harris County Flood Control District and the Texas Department of Transportation, developed a method to estimate peak and time of peak streamflow from excess rainfall for 10- to 640-acre watersheds in the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area. To develop the method, 24 watersheds in the study area with drainage areas less than about 3.5 square miles (2,240 acres) and with concomitant rainfall and runoff data were selected. The method is based on conjunctive analysis of rainfall and runoff data in the context of the unit hydrograph method and the rational method. For the unit hydrograph analysis, a gamma distribution model of unit hydrograph shape (a gamma unit hydrograph) was chosen and parameters estimated through matching of modeled peak and time of peak streamflow to observed values on a storm-by-storm basis. Watershed mean or watershed-specific values of peak and time to peak ("time to peak" is a parameter of the gamma unit hydrograph and is distinct from "time of peak") of the gamma unit hydrograph were computed. Two regression equations to estimate peak and time to peak of the gamma unit hydrograph that are based on watershed characteristics of drainage area and basin-development factor (BDF) were developed. For the rational method analysis, a lag time (time-R), volumetric runoff coefficient, and runoff coefficient were computed on a storm-by-storm basis. Watershed-specific values of these three metrics were computed. A regression equation to estimate time-R based on drainage area and BDF was developed. Overall arithmetic means of volumetric runoff coefficient (0.41 dimensionless) and runoff coefficient (0.25 dimensionless) for the 24 watersheds were used to express the rational

  12. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American College of Radiology (ACR) Practice Guideline for the Transperineal Permanent Brachytherapy of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Seth A.; Bittner, Nathan H.J.; Demanes, D. Jeffrey; Goldsmith, Brian J.; Horwitz, Eric M.; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Lee, W. Robert; Nag, Subir; Suh, W. Warren; Potters, Louis

    2011-02-01

    Transperineal permanent prostate brachytherapy is a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with organ-confined prostate cancer. Careful adherence to established brachytherapy standards has been shown to improve the likelihood of procedural success and reduce the incidence of treatment-related morbidity. A collaborative effort of the American College of Radiology (ACR) and American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has produced a practice guideline for permanent prostate brachytherapy. The guideline defines the qualifications and responsibilities of all the involved personnel, including the radiation oncologist, physicist and dosimetrist. Factors with respect to patient selection and appropriate use of supplemental treatment modalities such as external beam radiation and androgen suppression therapy are discussed. Logistics with respect to the brachtherapy implant procedure, the importance of dosimetric parameters, and attention to radiation safety procedures and documentation are presented. Adherence to these practice guidelines can be part of ensuring quality and safety in a successful prostate brachytherapy program.

  13. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American College of Radiology (ACR) Practice Guideline for the Performance of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, Beth A.; Demanes, D. Jeffrey; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.; Hayes, John K.; Hsu, I-Chow J.; Morris, David E.; Rabinovitch, Rachel A.; Tward, Jonathan D.; Rosenthal, Seth A.

    2011-03-01

    High-Dose-Rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with a variety of different malignancies. Careful adherence to established standards has been shown to improve the likelihood of procedural success and reduce the incidence of treatment-related morbidity. A collaborative effort of the American College of Radiology (ACR) and American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has produced a practice guideline for HDR brachytherapy. The guideline defines the qualifications and responsibilities of all the involved personnel, including the radiation oncologist, physicist and dosimetrists. Review of the leading indications for HDR brachytherapy in the management of gynecologic, thoracic, gastrointestinal, breast, urologic, head and neck, and soft tissue tumors is presented. Logistics with respect to the brachytherapy implant procedures and attention to radiation safety procedures and documentation are presented. Adherence to these practice guidelines can be part of ensuring quality and safety in a successful HDR brachytherapy program.

  14. Mesene Doubleday (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae) from Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil, with taxonomic notes and the description of a new species.

    PubMed

    Dolibaina, Diego Rodrigo; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Siewert, Ricardo Russo; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik; Casagrande, Mirna Martins

    2016-10-17

    The species of Mesene Doubleday, 1847 collected at the Parque Nacional da Serra do Divisor, Acre, Brazil (PNSD) are listed and supplemented by taxonomic and behavioral notes. In total, 30 specimens were collected, representing seven species including one new: M. monostigma monostigma (Erichson, [1849]), M. nepticula stigmosa Stichel, 1910, M. eupteryx Bates, 1868 stat. rest., M. paraena Bates, 1868, M. epaphus pyrrha Bates, 1868, M. leucophrys Bates, 1868, and M. gracielae sp. nov. The following notes on the taxonomy of Mesene are proposed: M. eupteryx Bates, 1868 stat. rest. is recognized as a valid species, M. epaphus sertata Stichel, 1910 syn. nov. is a new synonym of M. epaphus pyrrha Bates, 1868, and M. lecointrei P. Jauffret & J. Jauffret, 2008 syn. nov. is a new synonym of M. philonis Hewitson, 1874. Mesene margaretta (White, 1843), M. philonis and M. nola are recognized as closely related. Species encountered at the PNSD are illustrated, including the genitalia of males and females, when available.

  15. Variable ratio regenerative braking device

    DOEpatents

    Hoppie, Lyle O.

    1981-12-15

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

  16. Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

    2013-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

  17. Factors Contributing to Discordance between the 2011 ACR/EULAR Criteria and Physician Clinical Judgment for the Identification of Remission in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Remission is a primary end point of in clinical practice and trials of treatments for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The 2011 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) remission criteria were developed to provide a consensus definition of remission. This study aimed to assess the concordance between the new remission criteria and the physician’s clinical judgment of remission and also to identify factors that affect the discordance between these two approaches. A total of 3,209 patients with RA were included from the KORean Observational Study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) database. The frequency of remission was evaluated based on each approach. The agreement between the results was estimated by Cohen’s kappa (κ). Patients with remission according to the 2011 ACR/EULAR criteria (i.e. the Boolean criteria) and/or physician judgment (n = 855) were divided into three groups: concordant remission, the Boolean criteria only, and physician judgment only. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors responsible for the assignment of patients with remission to one of the discordant groups rather than the concordant group. The remission rates using the Boolean criteria and physician judgment were 10.5% and 19.9%, respectively. The agreement between two approaches for remission was low (κ = 0.226) and the concordant remission rate was only 5.5% (n = 177). Pain affected classification in both discordant groups, whereas fatigue was associated with remission only by physician clinical judgment. The Boolean criteria were more stringent than clinical judgment. Patient subjective symptoms such as pain and fatigue were associated with discordance between the two approaches. PMID:27822928

  18. Testing for albuminuria in 2014.

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Philip A

    2014-10-01

    Routine quantification of urinary albumin levels is recommended for all Canadians with diabetes, yet many controversies remain when interpreting these tests. Elevated levels of albuminuria have traditionally been labeled as either microalbuminuria, representing 30 to 300 mg of albuminuria per day (a range not reliably picked up by conventional urine dipsticks), or as overt nephropathy, representing more than 300 mg per day and usually identifiable by dipstick. The random urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio is a convenient test that can predict reliably the total daily protein excretion. The 30 mg per day upper limit of normal was selected to be a threshold far above the normal albumin excretion seen in healthy people. However, recent studies have shown that elevations of albumin excretion below the microalbuminuria threshold are associated with increased cardiorenal risk, suggesting that the 30 mg per day level may be set too high. Recently, the Canadian Diabetes Association Clinical Practice Guidelines changed the threshold for abnormal urine albumin-to-creatinine ratios to be 2.0 mg/mmol for both men and women. As a result, more women will be identified as having abnormal levels of albuminuria. However, these women will be correctly identified as having increased cardiorenal risk. It is important to note that people with diabetes who have abnormal levels of albuminuria are among patients at the highest risk for cardiorenal disease. These risks can be reduced by using the strategies outlined in the guidelines put forth by the Canadian Diabetes Association.

  19. Isokinetic Hamstrings: Quadriceps Ratios in Intercollegiate Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.; Mahaffey, Brian L.

    2001-01-01

    Compared the differences in the concentric hamstrings to quadriceps (H:Q) ratio among athletes in different sports at three velocities. Measurement of H:Q ratio of both knees among male and female college athletes indicated that the H:Q ratio increased as velocity increased. No differences existed for the H:Q ratio for sport or side of body. (SM)

  20. Estimation of chronic kidney disease incidence from prevalence and mortality data in American Indians with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Robert G.; Brinks, Ralph

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to estimate chronic kidney disease (CKD) incidence rates from prevalence and mortality data, and compare the estimates with observed (true) incidence rates in a well-characterized population with diabetes. Pima Indians aged 20 years and older with type 2 diabetes were followed from 1982 through 2007. CKD was defined by estimated GFR (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.72 m2 or albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) ≥30 mg/g. True CKD incidence and mortality rates were computed for the whole study period, and prevalence for the intervals 1982–1994 and 1995–2007. Estimated age-sex stratified CKD incidence rates were computed using illness-death models of the observed prevalences, and of the whole-period mortality rate ratio of CKD to non-CKD persons. Among 1201 participants, 616 incident events of CKD occurred during a median follow-up of 5.6 years. Observed CKD prevalence was 56.9% (95%CI 53.7–60.0) and 48.0% (95%CI 45.2–50.8) in women; 54.0% (95%CI 49.9–58.1) and 49.6% (95%CI 46.0–53.3) in men, across the two periods. Mortality rate was 2.5 (95%CI 1.9–3.3) times as high in women with CKD and 1.6 (95%CI 1.3–2.1) times as high in men with CKD, compared to women or men without CKD. In women, estimated CKD incidence increased linearly from 25.6 (95%CI 4.2–53.0) to 128.6 (95%CI 77.1–196.6) with each 5-year age group up to 69 years, and to 99.8 (95%CI 38.7–204.7) at age ≥70. In men, estimated CKD incidence increased form 28.5 (95%CI 3.8–71.2) at age 20–24 years to 118.7 (95%CI 23.6–336.7) at age ≥70. Age-sex-stratified estimated incidence reflected the magnitude and directional trend of the true incidence and were similar to the true incidence rates (p>0.05 for difference) except for age 20–24 in women (p = 0.008) and age 25–29 in men (p = 0.002). In conclusion, the estimated and observed incidence rates of CKD agree well over 25 years of observation in this well characterized population with type 2 diabetes. PMID:28166298

  1. Current Metabolic Status Affects Urinary Liver-Type Fatty-Acid Binding Protein in Normoalbuminuric Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Hitomi; Nakashima, Mina; Takaki, Akifusa; Yukawa, Chiduko; Matsumoto, Suzuko; Omoto, Takashi; Shinozaki, Masahiro; Nishio, Shinya; Abe, Mariko; Antoku, Shinichi; Mifune, Mizuo; Togane, Michiko

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to study the association between urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), a biomarker of tubulointerstitial injury, and the clinical characteristics of normoalbuminuric and albuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes in order to detect the factors affecting urinary L-FABP. Methods Urinary L-FABP levels were measured in 788 patients with type 2 diabetes and again in 666 patients at 6 months after the initial measurement. The association between the urinary L-FABP level and the clinical parameters was investigated in a retrospective cross-sectional study and a subsequent observation. Results The HbA1c (odds ratio (OR): 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11 - 1.79; P < 0.01), systolic blood pressure (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01 - 1.05; P < 0.01) levels and estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96 - 1.00; P = 0.01) were significantly associated with the high levels of urinary L-FABP (> 8.4 μg/gCr) in normoalbuminuric patients. However, a logistic regression analysis revealed that use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors (OR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.16 - 4.89; P = 0.02), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 1.00 - 1.01; P < 0.01) and serum HDL-cholesterol concentration (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.11 - 0.89; P = 0.03) were significantly associated in albuminuric patients. In the follow-up observation, the change in urinary L-FABP was found to be significantly (P < 0.01) influenced by the change in the HbA1c level in both the normoalbuminuric and albuminuric patients. Conclusions High urinary L-FABP is associated with part of the current metabolic abnormalities, including high levels of HbA1c and systolic blood pressure among normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes. PMID:28270898

  2. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine α1 -Microglobulin as a Marker of Hypertension-Induced Renal Impairment and Its Response on Different Blood Pressure-Lowering Drugs.

    PubMed

    Liakos, Charalampos I; Vyssoulis, Gregory P; Markou, Maria I; Kafkas, Nikolaos V; Toutouzas, Konstantinos P; Tousoulis, Dimitrios

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of urine α1 -microglobulin as a marker of hypertension-induced renal damage compared with estimated glomerular filtration rate, (eGFR), urine albumin, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). Its response on different blood pressure (BP)-lowering drugs was also studied. Sixty never-treated hypertensive patients (65.0% men, 46.9 years, BP 141.4/94.0 mm Hg) were randomized to an irbesartan (an angiotensin receptor blocker [ARB]) or a diltiazem (a nondihydropyridine calcium channel blocker [CCB])-based regimen. Patients with diabetes or established cardiovascular, renal, or liver disease were excluded. Blood samples and 24-hour urine were analyzed at baseline and 6 months after pharmaceutical BP normalization. Serum creatinine was measured and eGFR was calculated. Urine albumin, creatinine, and α1 -microglobulin were measured and ACR was calculated. Minor changes (P=not significant [NS]) in eGFR were noted during follow-up in both groups (from 111.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2) to 108.4 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the ARB group and from 111.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) to 114.0 mL/min/1.73 m(2) in the CCB group). Twenty-four-hour urine indices were all significantly improved (P<.01) in the ARB group (albumin from 19.4 mg/L to 8.2 mg/L, ACR from 21.5 mg/g to 10.0 mg/g, α1 -microglobulin from 5.06 mg/L to 3.64 mg/L) but not (P=NS) in the CCB group (albumin from 15.6 mg/L to 13.9 mg/L, ACR from 17.6 mg/g to 17.1 mg/g, α1 -microglobulin from 4.94 mg/L to 4.79 mg/L). These differences between groups remained significant (P<.05) after adjusting for office heart rate and BP. α1 -Microglobulin was significantly correlated (P<.05) with albumin and ACR both at baseline (r=0.283 and 0.299, respectively) and at the end of follow-up (r=0.432 and 0.465, respectively) but not (P=NS) with eGFR. It was also significantly related (P<.05) to cardiovascular risk scores (Framingham and HeartScore) both at baseline (r=0.264 and 0.436, respectively) and at the

  3. School-Family Partnership for Coexistence (SFPC) in the City of Acre: Promoting Arab and Jewish Parents' Role as Facilitators of Children's Literacy Development and as Agents of Coexistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelniker, Tamar; Hertz-Lazarowitz, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    A two-year (1998-2000) School-Family Partnership for Coexistence (SFPC) programme was implemented in Acre, a mixed Jewish-Arab city in Israel, to promote parents' role as facilitators of their children literacy development and to empower parents to advance coexistence and inter-group relations. The SFPC program was part of a five-year (1995-2000)…

  4. Condições físicas do disco de acréscimo da nova-anã V4140 SGR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, B.; Baptista, R.

    2003-08-01

    Discos de acréscimo são aparatos cósmicos que permitem que matéria seja eficientemente acrescida sobre uma fonte compacta pela remoção de momento angular via tensões viscosas enquanto transforma a energia potencial gravitacional em calor e, posteriormente, em radiação. Sistemas binários semi-ligados, como Variáveis Cataclísmicas (VCs) não-magnéticas, são talvez os melhores ambientes encontrados para o estudo da física desses discos de acréscimo. O desenvolvimento de técnicas de imageamento indireto, como o mapeamento por eclipses (MME) e a tomografia Doppler, permitiu avanços importantes na compreensão da física dos processos de acréscimo desses sistemas. V4140 Sagitarii é uma VC eclipsante de curto período orbital (~ 90 min) que não havia sido classificada como nova-anã ou polar. Neste trabalho apresentamos a análise do mapeamento por eclipse feito com dados de fotometria CCD nas bandas B, V e R de V4140 Sgr realizada no LNA. O objeto foi observado no declínio de erupção em julho de 1992 e em erupção em julho de 2001, isso indicou a classificação do sistema como uma nova-anã. A análise, feita sobre os mapas já apresentados em trabalho anterior, apresenta (i) diagrama cor-cor, que indica uma emissão opticamente espessa nas partes internas do disco em quiescência (R < RL1); (ii) diagrama cor-magnitude, usado para inferir uma distância de 600 +/- 10 pc ao sistema; (iii) a distribuição radial de temperatura observada que concorda com a lei de disco espesso em estado estacionário TµR-3/4, com temperaturas em torno de 10000 K e 3000 K ns partes internas e externas do disco em quiescência, respectivamente; (iv) a evolução da distribuição de temperatura no declínio de erupção; (v) estimativa da transferência de massa de 109.9+/-0.1 M¤/ano em quiescência, similar àquelas observadas em novas-like. O sistema é comparado à outras novas-anãs (e.g. OY Car e Z Cha) em quiescência e erupção, mostrando-se tratar um

  5. [Characterization of gene expression associated with both the AcrAB/TolC system and the membrane permeability, in Salmonella spp isolates with and without gyrA mutation].

    PubMed

    Galiana, Antonio; Sánchez-Guillén, Laura; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Cremades, Rosa; Santibañez, Migue; Ferrari, Rafaela; Ruiz-García, Montserrat; López, Pilar; Royo, Gloria

    2014-12-01

    Introduction. The marA, soxS, ramA, acrB and ompF genes have been studied in order to characterize mechanisms of AcrAB-TolC active efflux pumps and membrane permeability alterations that reduce fluoroquinolones susceptibility in Salmonella spp. Methods. Mutations in marA, soxS, ramA, acrB and ompF genes were detected, as well as their expression levels in presence and absence of ciprofloxacin, calculating the level of change between them by qPCR. Data were analysed by using SPSS 19.0. Results. No mutations in these genes were found, but both AcrAB-TolC regulatory genes and structural acrB gene expression were affected by ciprofloxacin in both mutant strains and wild type bacterial strains (WT). The activation of the marA gene in presence of drug was higher in WT strains (level of change 0.823) than in mutants strains (level of change 0.158; p=0.049). In gyrA mutants, a reduction in ompF gene expression in presence of ciprofloxacin was found (level of change -0.949 p=0.017). Conclusion. The reduction of fluoroquinolones susceptibility in Salmonella spp is a complex process, in which several different bacterial mechanisms are involved. This study has found a high difference in the degree of participation among studied mechanisms, between bacterial strains with and without gyrA mutation. Whereas WT strains activated efflux pumps especially through marA gene, mutants supressed ompF gene expression related to porins.

  6. Promoter deletions of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-encoding genes (blaKPC -2) and efflux pump (AcrAB) on β-lactam susceptibility in KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Seecoomar, Gomattie D; Marmol, Brenda C; Kwon, Dong H

    2013-11-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-encoding genes containing promoter-deletions (bla(KPC-2a), bla(KPC-2b), and bla(KPC-2c) have disseminated in Enterobacteriaceae. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to β-lactams in clinical KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae range from susceptible to high-level resistant, resulting in diagnostic problems. To better understand the variability in β-lactam MICs among KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae, three isoforms of bla(KPC-2) gene were used to transform Escherichia coli W4573 and its deletion mutant of an efflux pump (AcrAB) to examine the effects on β-lactam susceptibility. MICs to β-lactams in E. coli W4573 and its acrAB mutant strain increased 1- to 500-fold (MIC from 0.125 to 64 μg mL(-1) of aztreonam) in the bla(KPC-2a), bla(KPC-2b), and bla(KPC-2c) transformants compared with the cloning vector alone. However, transformants of the acrAB mutant strain remained susceptible to all β-lactams tested except for aztreonam and carbenicillin. Levels of the three promoters' length and carbapenemase activities in the transformants harboring the bla(KPC-2a), bla(KPC-2b), and bla(KPC-2c) were correlated to the levels of β-lactam MICs in both E. coli W4573 and its mutant of an efflux pump (AcrAB). Overall, these results suggest that promoter-deletions of bla(KPC-2) gene and AcrAB may be associated with the variability in β-lactam MICs in KPC-producing Enterobacteriaceae.

  7. Effects of Dietary Alpha-lipoic Acid and Acetyl-L-carnitine on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Arbor Acres Broilers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Jia, Ru; Ji, Cheng; Ma, Qiugang; Huang, Jin; Yin, Haicheng; Liu, Laiting

    2014-07-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality in Arbor Acres broilers. A total of 486 1-d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allocated to 9 dietary treatments, 9 treatments were group A (0 mg/kg LA and 0 mg/kg ALC), group B (50 mg/kg LA and 0 mg/kg ALC), group C (100 mg/kg LA and 0 mg/kg ALC), group D (0 mg/kg LA and 50 mg/kg ALC), group E (50 mg/kg LA and 50 mg/kg ALC), group F (100 mg/kg LA and 50 mg/kg ALC), group G (0 mg/kg LA and 100 mg/kg ALC), group H (50 mg/kg LA and 100 mg/kg ALC), group I (100 mg/kg LA and 100 mg/kg ALC). Birds were slaughtered at 42 days old. Average daily gain (ADG), average feed intake (AFI), feed conversion rate (FCR), eviscerated rate, breast muscle percentage, thigh muscle percentage, abdominal fat percentage, liver weight, muscle color (L* value, a* value, b* value), pH values at 45 min and 24 h postmortem were measured. Results showed that there existed an interaction between LA and ALC in growth performance of broilers, carcass traits and meat quality. The overall result is that high level of LA and ALC led to lower AFI, ADG (p<0.01), lower abdominal fat percentage, liver weight (p<0.01), lower L* value, a* value, and b* value of breast muscle, L* value of thigh muscle (p<0.05), and higher FCR (p<0.01), eviscerated rate (p<0.01), breast muscle percentage, thigh muscle percentage (p<0.05), a* value, pH 45 min and pH 24 h of thigh muscle (p<0.01). These results suggested that dietary LA and ALC contributed to the improvement of meat quality in broilers.

  8. A Librarian's Primer on Financial Ratios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerbel, Sandra Sandor

    1982-01-01

    Explains in simple terms the nature and function of a number of basic types of business and industrial financial ratios. An annotated list of five basic sources for ratios is included and a reference list and bibliography are attached. (JL)

  9. Evolutionarily stable sex ratios and mutation load.

    PubMed

    Hough, Josh; Immler, Simone; Barrett, Spencer C H; Otto, Sarah P

    2013-07-01

    Frequency-dependent selection should drive dioecious populations toward a 1:1 sex ratio, but biased sex ratios are widespread, especially among plants with sex chromosomes. Here, we develop population genetic models to investigate the relationships between evolutionarily stable sex ratios, haploid selection, and deleterious mutation load. We confirm that when haploid selection acts only on the relative fitness of X- and Y-bearing pollen and the sex ratio is controlled by the maternal genotype, seed sex ratios evolve toward 1:1. When we also consider haploid selection acting on deleterious mutations, however, we find that biased sex ratios can be stably maintained, reflecting a balance between the advantages of purging deleterious mutations via haploid selection, and the disadvantages of haploid selection on the sex ratio. Our results provide a plausible evolutionary explanation for biased sex ratios in dioecious plants, given the extensive gene expression that occurs across plant genomes at the haploid stage.

  10. Variable mixture ratio performance through nitrogen augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beichel, R.; Obrien, C. J.; Bair, E. K.

    1988-01-01

    High/variable mixture ratio O2/H2 candidate engine cycles are examined for earth-to-orbit vehicle application. Engine performance and power balance information are presented for the candidate cycles relative to chamber pressure, bulk density, and mixture ratio. Included in the cycle screening are concepts where a third fluid (liquid nitrogen) is used to achieve a variable mixture ratio over the trajectory from liftoff to earth orbit. The third fluid cycles offer a very low risk, fully reusable, low operation cost alternative to high/variable mixture ratio bipropellant cycles. Variable mixture ratio engines with extendible nozzle are slightly lower performing than a single mixture ratio engine (MR = 7:1) with extendible nozzle. Dual expander engines (MR = 7:1) have slightly better performance than the single mixture ratio engine. Dual fuel dual expander engines offer a 16 percent improvement over the single mixture ratio engine.

  11. Spray Gun With Constant Mixing Ratio

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, William G.

    1987-01-01

    Conceptual mechanism mounted in handle of spray gun maintains constant ratio between volumetric flow rates in two channels leading to spray head. With mechanism, possible to keep flow ratio near 1:1 (or another desired ratio) over range of temperatures, orifice or channel sizes, or clogging conditions.

  12. Management Ratios 1. For Colleges & Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minter, John, Ed.

    Ratios that enable colleges and universities to select other institutions for comparison are presented. The ratios and underlying data also enable colleges to rank order institutions and to calculate means, quartiles, and ranges for these groups. The data are based on FY 1983 U.S. Department of Education Statistics. The ratios summarize the…

  13. 7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Qualification ratios. 400.162 Section 400.162...; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.162 Qualification ratios. The sixteen qualification ratios include: (a) Eleven National Association of Insurance Commissioner's (NAIC's)...

  14. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 516.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of...

  15. 12 CFR 167.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 167.8 Section 167.8 Banks and... § 167.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a Federal savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 116.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of...

  16. 7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Qualification ratios. 400.162 Section 400.162...; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.162 Qualification ratios. The sixteen qualification ratios include: (a) Eleven National Association of Insurance Commissioner's (NAIC's)...

  17. 12 CFR 390.467 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 390.467 Section 390.467 Banks... REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Capital § 390.467 Leverage ratio. (a) The... defined in this subpart, shall consist of a ratio of core capital to adjusted total assets of 3...

  18. 7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Qualification ratios. 400.162 Section 400.162...; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.162 Qualification ratios. The sixteen qualification ratios include: (a) Eleven National Association of Insurance Commissioner's (NAIC's)...

  19. 12 CFR 390.467 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 390.467 Section 390.467 Banks... REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Capital § 390.467 Leverage ratio. (a) The... defined in this subpart, shall consist of a ratio of core capital to adjusted total assets of 3...

  20. 7 CFR 400.162 - Qualification ratios.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Qualification ratios. 400.162 Section 400.162...; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.162 Qualification ratios. The sixteen qualification ratios include: (a) Eleven National Association of Insurance Commissioner's (NAIC's)...

  1. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 516.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of...

  2. 12 CFR 390.467 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 390.467 Section 390.467 Banks... REGULATIONS TRANSFERRED FROM THE OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION Capital § 390.467 Leverage ratio. (a) The... defined in this subpart, shall consist of a ratio of core capital to adjusted total assets of 3...

  3. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 516.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of...

  4. 12 CFR 167.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 167.8 Section 167.8 Banks and... § 167.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a Federal savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 116.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of...

  5. 12 CFR 167.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Leverage ratio. 167.8 Section 167.8 Banks and... § 167.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a Federal savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 116.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of...

  6. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Leverage ratio. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 516.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of...

  7. 12 CFR 567.8 - Leverage ratio.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Leverage ratio. 567.8 Section 567.8 Banks and... § 567.8 Leverage ratio. (a) The minimum leverage capital requirement for a savings association assigned a composite rating of 1, as defined in § 516.3 of this chapter, shall consist of a ratio of...

  8. Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Measures of Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Renal Function in Adolescents: NHANES 2003-2008

    PubMed Central

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Chen, Yu; Trachtman, Howard; Trasande, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Objective Recent evidence has suggested that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may contribute to cardiometabolic and kidney dysfunction by increasing oxidative stress, but little is known about impacts in childhood. Study design We performed cross-sectional analyses of 660 adolescents aged 12–19 years in the 2003–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), using levels of 10 monohydroxylated urinary PAH metabolites as our exposure. Our primary outcomes of interest were biomarkers of oxidative stress and renal function, including estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR), insulin resistance, and serum uric acid, gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results We observed statistically significant associations between PAH metabolites and levels of serum GGT, CRP, uric acid and eGFR. Each 100% increase in 2-hydroxyphenanthrene was related to a 3.36% increase in uric acid (95% CI: 0.338–6.372; p=0.032), a 3.86% increase in GGT (95% CI: 1.361–6.362; p=0.005) and a 16.78% increase in CRP (95% CI: 1.848–31.689; p=0.029). Each 100% increase in 4-hydroxyphenanthrene was associated with a 6.18% increase in GGT (95% CI: 4.064–8.301; p<0.001) and a 13.66% increase in CRP (95% CI: 2.764– 24.564; p=0.017) Each 100% increase in 9-hydroxyfluorene was associated with a 2.58% increase in GGT (95% CI: 0.389–4776; p=0.024). Each 100% increase in 3-hydroxyphenanthrene was associated with a 2.66% decrease in eGFR (95% CI: -4.979–-0.331; p=0.028). Conclusions Urinary PAH metabolites were associated with serum uric acid, GGT and CRP, suggesting possible impacts on cardiometabolic and kidney function in adolescents. Prospective work is needed to investigate the potential long-term health consequences of these findings. PMID:26610293

  9. Alterations of urinary metabolite profile in model diabetic nephropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Stec, Donald F.; Wang, Suwan; Stothers, Cody; Avance, Josh; Denson, Deon; Harris, Raymond; Voziyan, Paul

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy was employed to study urinary metabolite profile in diabetic mouse models. • Mouse urinary metabolome showed major changes that are also found in human diabetic nephropathy. • These models can be new tools to study urinary biomarkers that are relevant to human disease. - Abstract: Countering the diabetes pandemic and consequent complications, such as nephropathy, will require better understanding of disease mechanisms and development of new diagnostic methods. Animal models can be versatile tools in studies of diabetic renal disease when model pathology is relevant to human diabetic nephropathy (DN). Diabetic models using endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) knock-out mice develop major renal lesions characteristic of human disease. However, it is unknown whether they can also reproduce changes in urinary metabolites found in human DN. We employed Type 1 and Type 2 diabetic mouse models of DN, i.e. STZ-eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS and eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS db/db, with the goal of determining changes in urinary metabolite profile using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Six urinary metabolites with significantly lower levels in diabetic compared to control mice have been identified. Specifically, major changes were found in metabolites from tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and aromatic amino acid catabolism including 3-indoxyl sulfate, cis-aconitate, 2-oxoisocaproate, N-phenyl-acetylglycine, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetate, and hippurate. Levels of 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and hippuric acid showed the strongest reverse correlation to albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), which is an indicator of renal damage. Importantly, similar changes in urinary hydroxyphenyl acetate and hippurate were previously reported in human renal disease. We demonstrated that STZ-eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS and eNOS{sup −/−} C57BLKS db/db mouse models can recapitulate changes in urinary metabolome found in human DN and therefore can be

  10. Band gap engineering and optical response of the ACr2S4 (A=Fe, Co) normal spinels using PBE+U and TB-mBJ potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Saurabh; Saini, Sapan Mohan

    2017-03-01

    The electronic and optical properties of the ACr2S4 (A=Fe, Co) normal spinels have been studied by use of the full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) method based on density functional theory (DFT). The calculations were performed by two methods, namely, PBE+U and TB-mBJ, with the addition of spin-orbit coupling in both the schemes. The lattice constant and internal parameter of unit cell were optimized. Band structure obtained are analysed based on Density of States (DOS). We found that more pronounced splitting of A-d and Cr-d states in TB-mBJ scheme is responsible for the larger band gaps. The octahedral field surrounding Cr-atoms splits the Cr-d levels into t2g and eg states with some mixing between the two states. The calculated values of spin magnetic moment per formula unit are consistent with earlier report. Optical properties are calculated along the directions of lattice constants to analyze their anisotropic nature based on energy level transitions. We also studied the refractive index, n (ω), and the extinction coefficient, k (ω), by PBE+U and TB-mBJ scheme.

  11. EnviroAtlas - Acres of USDA Farm Service Agency Conservation Reserve Program land by 12-Digit HUC for the Conterminous United States.

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EnviroAtlas dataset shows the acres of land enrolled in the US Department of Agriculture (USDA)'s Conservation Reserve Program (CRP). The CRP is administered by the Farm Service Agency; farmers in the program receive annual payments and establishment cost share to remove environmentally sensitive land from crop production and instead plant perennial species that provide environmental benefits. This dataset was produced by the USDA to support research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas. EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas) allows the user to interact with a web-based, easy-to-use, mapping application to view and analyze multiple ecosystem services for the contiguous United States. The dataset is available as downloadable data (https://edg.epa.gov/data/Public/ORD/EnviroAtlas) or as an EnviroAtlas map service. Additional descriptive information about each attribute in this dataset can be found in its associated EnviroAtlas Fact Sheet (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas/enviroatlas-fact-sheets).

  12. Using experience with bidirectional HL7-ACR-NEMA interfaces between the federal government HIS/RIS and commercial PACS to plan for DICOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmak, Peter M.; Norton, Gary S.; Dayhoff, Ruth E.

    1995-05-01

    The Department of Veterans Affairs has developed a bidirectional HL7 - ACR-NEMA V 2.0 interface for connecting existing federal government hospital/radiology information systems (HIS/RIS) to commercial picture archive and communication systems (PACS). The interface has been in use since October 1993 at the Baltimore VAMC between the VA's HIS/RIS (DHCP) and a commercial PACS, and handles both text and image transfer. The text-only portion of the interface has been ported to work with a second vendor's PACS, and to work with the Department of Defense HIS/RIS (CHCS). Currently the interface is in production at two VA and three DoD sites. The common benefit experienced at all these sites is that passing patient, order, and report information directly from the HIS/RIS to the PACS greatly improves the flow of work in the Radiology Department. Image transfer to the DHCP Imaging System at the Baltimore VAMC demonstrated the advantage of providing `reference quality' (1K X 1K X 8-bit) radiology images to treating clinicians throughout the hospital. Experience has shown that the gateway must handle transactions between the HIS/RIS and the PACS quickly in order to keep up with the volume, and must provide an audit trail for system diagnostic purposes. Work is underway to construct a HL7 - DICOM gateway built upon the operational experience gathered from the existing interface.

  13. Spectral ratio method for measuring emissivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1992-01-01

    The spectral ratio method is based on the concept that although the spectral radiances are very sensitive to small changes in temperature the ratios are not. Only an approximate estimate of temperature is required thus, for example, we can determine the emissivity ratio to an accuracy of 1% with a temperature estimate that is only accurate to 12.5 K. Selecting the maximum value of the channel brightness temperatures is an unbiased estimate. Laboratory and field spectral data are easily converted into spectral ratio plots. The ratio method is limited by system signal:noise and spectral band-width. The images can appear quite noisy because ratios enhance high frequencies and may require spatial filtering. Atmospheric effects tend to rescale the ratios and require using an atmospheric model or a calibration site. ?? 1992.

  14. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Keith Edward; Moser, William Elliott; Roozenboom, Stephan Donald; Knox, Kevin Jay

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  15. Breast cancer screening with imaging: recommendations from the Society of Breast Imaging and the ACR on the use of mammography, breast MRI, breast ultrasound, and other technologies for the detection of clinically occult breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carol H; Dershaw, D David; Kopans, Daniel; Evans, Phil; Monsees, Barbara; Monticciolo, Debra; Brenner, R James; Bassett, Lawrence; Berg, Wendie; Feig, Stephen; Hendrick, Edward; Mendelson, Ellen; D'Orsi, Carl; Sickles, Edward; Burhenne, Linda Warren

    2010-01-01

    Screening for breast cancer with mammography has been shown to decrease mortality from breast cancer, and mammography is the mainstay of screening for clinically occult disease. Mammography, however, has well-recognized limitations, and recently, other imaging including ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging have been used as adjunctive screening tools, mainly for women who may be at increased risk for the development of breast cancer. The Society of Breast Imaging and the Breast Imaging Commission of the ACR are issuing these recommendations to provide guidance to patients and clinicians on the use of imaging to screen for breast cancer. Wherever possible, the recommendations are based on available evidence. Where evidence is lacking, the recommendations are based on consensus opinions of the fellows and executive committee of the Society of Breast Imaging and the members of the Breast Imaging Commission of the ACR.

  16. Effect of particle aspect ratio in magnetorheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morillas, Jose R.; Carreón-González, Elizabeth; de Vicente, Juan

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the influence of the aspect ratio of the dispersed particles in magnetorheology. Two systems are studied: conventional magnetorheological fluids prepared by dispersion of nickel nanowires, and inverse ferrofluids prepared by dispersion of glass fibers in a ferrofluid. In both cases the apparent yield stress is found to increase with aspect ratio in contradiction to available models in the literature. Experimental observations demonstrate that the particle volume fraction within the aggregates initially increases with increasing the aspect ratio of the dispersed particles. When the aspect ratio is further raised, a gel-like percolating structure forms inhibiting the formation of elongated clusters in the field direction.

  17. Force dynamics in fixed-ratio schedules.

    PubMed

    Pinkston, Jonathan W; McBee, Lindsey N

    2014-03-01

    Fixed-ratio schedules are widely used in behavioral research. Although fixed-ratio schedules often conjure up relationships to work and effort, little is known about effort-related measures in these schedules. Early research had shown that force and effort of operant behavior vary systematically during the execution of ratio schedules, and the goal of the present study was to revisit early research on force dynamics in fixed-ratio schedules. Four rats earned sucrose by pressing an isometric force transducer. Presses produced sucrose after ten or twenty responses. In general, the force of responses increased then decreased systematically across the ratio. The possibility that decreases in force during ratio execution was due to a trade-off with the differential reinforcement of short inter-response times (IRT) was investigated in an additional condition where sucrose was made available according to a tandem fixed-ratio 19 inter-response (IRT)> t schedule. The tandem IRT requirement did not eliminate decreasing trends in force across the ratio; unexpectedly, the tandem requirement did eliminate increases in force early in the ratio, which may reflect sequence-level organization operating in the control of force dynamics.

  18. GOLD ACRES BIOLOGICAL HEAP DETOXIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many active mine sites, mines in closure stage and some abandoned mines are and have utilized cyanidation to remove and recover precious metals. Discharges from these sites normally contain significant amounts of metal cyanide complexes and concentrations of thiocyanate, soluble...

  19. Aquecimento alfvênico viscoso-resistivo em discos de acresção ao redor de estrelas T Tauri clássicas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, W. M.; Vasconcelos, M. J.

    2003-08-01

    Com a crescente disponibilidade de dados observacionais sobre estrelas T Tauri, a busca por modelos mais precisos vem se tornando cada vez maior. Estes modelos devem explicar, entre outras coisas, o mecanismo dissipativo responsável pelo transporte de momento angular no disco de acresção que acredita-se, circunda estas estrelas. O mecanismo mais viável, do ponto de vista teórico, é uma instabilidade MHD conhecida como "instabilidade magnetorotacional ou Balbus-Hawley" (IBH). Esta instabilidade veio mostrar que o campo magnético desempenha um papel importante na evolução destes objetos mas requer, no entanto, um acoplamento mínimo entre o gás e o campo magnético no disco que não é atingido para os valores de temperatura obtidos do modelo padrão. Contudo, alguns mecanismos de aquecimento para o disco precisam ser examinados. Neste trabalho, propomos a dissipação de ondas Alfvén como uma fonte de aquecimento para o disco. Se o gás apresentar uma condutividade elétrica finita e viscosidade, teremos um tipo de amortecimento para as ondas denominado amortecimento viscoso-resistivo que será aqui considerado. Este mecanismo é aplicado ao modelo de disco em camadas. Calculam-se as taxas de aquecimento Alfvênico, a temperatura efetiva do disco bem como as taxas de ionização decorrentes deste aquecimento e do aquecimento gerado pela absorção de raios cósmicos. Comparações com os dados observacionais de Kitamura et. al. (2001) são efetuadas, ressaltando-se os pontos comuns entre suas observações e nossos dados teóricos.

  20. Reference values of cadmium, arsenic and manganese in blood and factors associated with exposure levels among adult population of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Fujimoto, Denys; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the distribution and factors influencing blood levels of Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), and Manganese (Mn), and to determine their reference values in a sample of blood donors residing in Rio Branco, capital city of Acre State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from all blood donors attending the Central Hemotherapic Unit in Rio Branco between 2010 and 2011. Among these, 1183 donors (98.9%) answered to a questionnaire on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Blood metal concentrations were determined by atomic spectrometry. Association between Cd, As and Mn levels and donors' characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Reference values were estimated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile of metal levels. References values were 0.87 μg L(-1) for Cd, 9.87 μg L(-1) for As, and 29.32 μg L(-1) for Mn. Reference values of Cd and As in smokers were 2.66 and 10.86 μg L(-1), respectively. Factors contributing to increase Cd levels were smoking, ethnicity (non-white), and lower education, whereas drinking tea and non-bottled water were associated with lower Cd. Lower levels of As were associated with higher household income, living near industrial facilities, working in a glass factory, a compost plant or in metal mining activities. Risk factors for Mn exposure were not identified. In general, blood Cd concentrations were in the range of exposure levels reported for other people from the general population, whereas levels of As and Mn were higher than in other non-occupationally exposed populations elsewhere.